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Sample records for dietary phosphorus-responsive genes

  1. Dietary phosphorus-responsive genes in the intestine, pyloric ceca, and kidney of rainbow trout.

    PubMed

    Sugiura, Shozo H; Ferraris, Ronaldo P

    2004-09-01

    Identification of phosphorus (P)-responsive genes is important in diagnosing the adequacy of dietary P intake well before clinical symptoms arise. The mRNA abundance of selected genes was determined in the intestine, pyloric ceca, and kidney of rainbow trout fed low-P (LP) or sufficient-P (SP) diet for 2, 5, and 20 days. The LP-to-SP ratio (LP/SP) of mRNA abundance was used to evaluate the difference in gene expression between LP and SP fish, and to compare the response with bone and serum P, which are conventional indicators of P status. The LP/SP of intestinal, cecal, and renal type II sodium-phosphate cotransporter (NaPi-II) mRNA abundance changed from approximately 1-2 (day 2) to approximately 1.4-4 (day 5) and to approximately 2-10 (day 20). The LP/SP of renal NaPi-II, vitamin D 24-hydroxylase, and vitamin D receptor mRNA abundance correlated inversely with serum P on day 5 but not on day 2 and day 20. In another study, differentially expressed genes between LP and SP fish were examined by subtractive hybridization, confirmed by Northern blot, and evaluated by t-test and correlation with serum and bone P concentrations. About 30 genes were identified as dietary P responsive at day 20, including intestinal meprin and cysteinesulfinic acid decarboxylase, renal S100 calcium-binding protein and mitochondrial P(i) carrier, and cecal apolipoprotein E, somatomedin B-related protein, and NaPi-II. The LP/SP of mRNA abundance of renal mitochondrial P(i) carrier and intestinal cysteinesulfinic acid decarboxylase changed significantly by day 2, and intestinal meprin by day 5. Hence, these genes and NaPi-II are among the earliest steady-response genes capable of predicting P deficiency well before the onset of clinical deficiency.

  2. Combining suppressive subtractive hybridization and cDNA microarrays to identify dietary phosphorus-responsive genes of the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) kidney.

    PubMed

    Lake, Jennifer; Gravel, Catherine; Koko, Gabriel Koffi D; Robert, Claude; Vandenberg, Grant W

    2010-03-01

    Phosphorus (P)-responsive genes and how they regulate renal adaptation to phosphorous-deficient diets in animals, including fish, are not well understood. RNA abundance profiling using cDNA microarrays is an efficient approach to study nutrient-gene interactions and identify these dietary P-responsive genes. To test the hypothesis that dietary P-responsive genes are differentially expressed in fish fed varying P levels, rainbow trout were fed a practical high-P diet (R20: 0.96% P) or a low-P diet (R0: 0.38% P) for 7 weeks. The differentially-expressed genes between dietary groups were identified and compared from the kidney by combining suppressive subtractive hybridization (SSH) with cDNA microarray analysis. A number of genes were confirmed by real-time PCR, and correlated with plasma and bone P concentrations. Approximately 54 genes were identified as potential dietary P-responsive after 7 weeks on a diet deficient in P according to cDNA microarray analysis. Of 18 selected genes, 13 genes were confirmed to be P-responsive at 7 weeks by real-time PCR analysis, including: iNOS, cytochrome b, cytochrome c oxidase subunit II , alpha-globin I, beta-globin, ATP synthase, hyperosmotic protein 21, COL1A3, Nkef, NDPK, glucose phosphate isomerase 1, Na+/H+ exchange protein and GDP dissociation inhibitor 2. Many of these dietary P-responsive genes responded in a moderate way (R0/R20 ratio: <2-3 or >0.5) and in a transient manner to dietary P limitation. In summary, renal adaptation to dietary P deficiency in trout involves changes in the expression of several genes, suggesting a profile of metabolic stress, since many of these differentially-expressed candidates are associated with the cellular adaptative responses.

  3. Dietary Methanol Regulates Human Gene Activity

    PubMed Central

    Komarova, Tatiana V.; Sheshukova, Ekaterina V.; Kosorukov, Vyacheslav S.; Kiryanov, Gleb I.; Dorokhov, Yuri L.

    2014-01-01

    Methanol (MeOH) is considered to be a poison in humans because of the alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH)-mediated conversion of MeOH to formaldehyde (FA), which is toxic. Our recent genome-wide analysis of the mouse brain demonstrated that an increase in endogenous MeOH after ADH inhibition led to a significant increase in the plasma MeOH concentration and a modification of mRNA synthesis. These findings suggest endogenous MeOH involvement in homeostasis regulation by controlling mRNA levels. Here, we demonstrate directly that study volunteers displayed increasing concentrations of MeOH and FA in their blood plasma when consuming citrus pectin, ethanol and red wine. A microarray analysis of white blood cells (WBC) from volunteers after pectin intake showed various responses for 30 significantly differentially regulated mRNAs, most of which were somehow involved in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). There was also a decreased synthesis of hemoglobin mRNA, HBA and HBB, the presence of which in WBC RNA was not a result of red blood cells contamination because erythrocyte-specific marker genes were not significantly expressed. A qRT-PCR analysis of volunteer WBCs after pectin and red wine intake confirmed the complicated relationship between the plasma MeOH content and the mRNA accumulation of both genes that were previously identified, namely, GAPDH and SNX27, and genes revealed in this study, including MME, SORL1, DDIT4, HBA and HBB. We hypothesized that human plasma MeOH has an impact on the WBC mRNA levels of genes involved in cell signaling. PMID:25033451

  4. Gene regulation by dietary microRNAs1

    PubMed Central

    Zempleni, Janos; Baier, Scott R.; Howard, Katherine M.; Cui, Juan

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) silence genes through destabilizing mRNA or preventing translation of mRNA, thereby playing an essential role in gene silencing. Traditionally, miRNAs have been considered endogenous regulators of genes, i.e., miRNAs synthesized by an organism regulate the genes in that organism. Recently, that dogma has been challenged in studies suggesting that food-borne miRNAs are bioavailable and affect gene expression in mice and humans. While the evidence in support of this theory may be considered weak for miRNAs that originate in plants, there is compelling evidence to suggest that humans use bovine miRNAs in cow’s milk and avian miRNAs in chicken eggs for gene regulation. Importantly, evidence also suggests that mice fed a miRNA-depleted diet cannot compensate for dietary depletion by increased endogenous synthesis. Bioinformatics predictions implicate bovine miRNAs in the regulation of genes that play roles in human health and development. Current challenges in this area of research include that some miRNAs are unable to establish a cause-and-effect between miRNA depletion and disease in miRNA knockout mice, and sequence similarities and identities for bovine and human miRNAs render it difficult to distinguish between exogenous and endogenous miRNAs. Based on what is currently known about dietary miRNAs, the body of evidence appears to be sufficient to consider milk miRNA bioactive compounds in foods, and to increase research activities in this field. PMID:26222444

  5. Integration of metabolic and gene regulatory networks modulates the C. elegans dietary response.

    PubMed

    Watson, Emma; MacNeil, Lesley T; Arda, H Efsun; Zhu, Lihua Julie; Walhout, Albertha J M

    2013-03-28

    Expression profiles are tailored according to dietary input. However, the networks that control dietary responses remain largely uncharacterized. Here, we combine forward and reverse genetic screens to delineate a network of 184 genes that affect the C. elegans dietary response to Comamonas DA1877 bacteria. We find that perturbation of a mitochondrial network composed of enzymes involved in amino acid metabolism and the TCA cycle affects the dietary response. In humans, mutations in the corresponding genes cause inborn diseases of amino acid metabolism, most of which are treated by dietary intervention. We identify several transcription factors (TFs) that mediate the changes in gene expression upon metabolic network perturbations. Altogether, our findings unveil a transcriptional response system that is poised to sense dietary cues and metabolic imbalances, illustrating extensive communication between metabolic networks in the mitochondria and gene regulatory networks in the nucleus.

  6. EFFECTS OF DIETARY FOLATE ON ARSENIC-INDUCED GENE EXPRESSION IN MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Effects of Dietary Folate on Arsenic-induced Gene Expression in Mice

    Arsenic, a drinking water contaminant, is a known carcinogen. Human exposure to inorganic arsenic has been linked to tumors of skin, bladder, lung, and to a lesser extent, kidney and liver. Dietary fola...

  7. Dissecting the gene network of dietary restriction to identify evolutionarily conserved pathways and new functional genes.

    PubMed

    Wuttke, Daniel; Connor, Richard; Vora, Chintan; Craig, Thomas; Li, Yang; Wood, Shona; Vasieva, Olga; Shmookler Reis, Robert; Tang, Fusheng; de Magalhães, João Pedro

    2012-01-01

    Dietary restriction (DR), limiting nutrient intake from diet without causing malnutrition, delays the aging process and extends lifespan in multiple organisms. The conserved life-extending effect of DR suggests the involvement of fundamental mechanisms, although these remain a subject of debate. To help decipher the life-extending mechanisms of DR, we first compiled a list of genes that if genetically altered disrupt or prevent the life-extending effects of DR. We called these DR-essential genes and identified more than 100 in model organisms such as yeast, worms, flies, and mice. In order for other researchers to benefit from this first curated list of genes essential for DR, we established an online database called GenDR (http://genomics.senescence.info/diet/). To dissect the interactions of DR-essential genes and discover the underlying lifespan-extending mechanisms, we then used a variety of network and systems biology approaches to analyze the gene network of DR. We show that DR-essential genes are more conserved at the molecular level and have more molecular interactions than expected by chance. Furthermore, we employed a guilt-by-association method to predict novel DR-essential genes. In budding yeast, we predicted nine genes related to vacuolar functions; we show experimentally that mutations deleting eight of those genes prevent the life-extending effects of DR. Three of these mutants (OPT2, FRE6, and RCR2) had extended lifespan under ad libitum, indicating that the lack of further longevity under DR is not caused by a general compromise of fitness. These results demonstrate how network analyses of DR using GenDR can be used to make phenotypically relevant predictions. Moreover, gene-regulatory circuits reveal that the DR-induced transcriptional signature in yeast involves nutrient-sensing, stress responses and meiotic transcription factors. Finally, comparing the influence of gene expression changes during DR on the interactomes of multiple organisms led

  8. Dietary switch reveals fast coordinated gene expression changes in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Feifei; Tatar, Marc; Helfand, Stephen L.; Neretti, Nicola

    2014-01-01

    Dietary restriction (DR) reduces age-specific mortality and increases lifespan in many organisms. DR elicits a large number of physiological changes, however many are undoubtedly not related to longevity. Whole-genome gene expression studies have typically revealed hundreds to thousands of differentially expressed genes in response to DR, and a key open question is which subset of genes mediates longevity. Here we performed transcriptional profiling of fruit flies in a closely spaced time series immediately following a switch to the DR regime and identified four patterns of transcriptional dynamics. Most informatively we find 144 genes rapidly switched to the same level observed in the DR cohort and are hence strong candidates as proximal mediators of reduced mortality upon DR. This class was enriched for genes involved in carbohydrate and fatty acid metabolism. Folate biosynthesis was the only pathway enriched for gene up-regulated upon DR. Four among the down-regulated genes are involved in key regulatory steps within the pentose phosphate pathway, which has been previously associated with lifespan extension in Drosophila. Combined analysis of dietary switch with whole-genome time-course profiling can identify transcriptional responses that are closely associated with and perhaps causal to longevity assurance conferred by dietary restriction. PMID:24864304

  9. Dietary wheat germ oil influences gene expression in larvae and eggs of the oriental fruit fly

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Changes in animal nutrition, particularly essential dietary components, alter global gene expression patterns. Our goal is to identify molecular markers that serve as early indicators of the quality of insect culture media. Markers of deficient culture media will increase the efficiency of develop...

  10. Short-term dietary phosphate restriction up-regulates ileal fibroblast growth factor 15 gene expression in mice

    PubMed Central

    Nakahashi, Otoki; Yamamoto, Hironori; Tanaka, Sarasa; Kozai, Mina; Takei, Yuichiro; Masuda, Masashi; Kaneko, Ichiro; Taketani, Yutaka; Iwano, Masayuki; Miyamoto, Ken-ichi; Takeda, Eiji

    2014-01-01

    Members of the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 19 subfamily, including FGF23, FGF15/19, and FGF21, have a role as endocrine factors which influence the metabolism of inorganic phosphate (Pi) and vitamin D, bile acid, and energy. It has been reported that dietary Pi regulates circulating FGF23. In this study, the short-term effects of dietary Pi restriction on the expression of FGF19 subfamily members in mice were analyzed. An initial analysis confirmed plasma FGF23 levels positively correlated with the amount of dietary Pi. On the other hand, ileal Fgf15 gene expression, but not hepatic Fgf21 gene expression, was up-regulated by dietary Pi restriction. In addition, we observed the increase of plasma 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D [1,25(OH)2D] levels by dietary Pi restriction, and the up-regulation of ileal Fgf15 mRNA expression by 1,25(OH)2D3 and vitamin D receptor (VDR). Importantly, dietary Pi restriction-induced Fgf15 gene expression was prevented in VDR-knockout mice. Furthermore, diurnal variations of plasma triglyceride concentrations and hepatic mRNA expression of the bile acid synthesis enzyme Cyp7a1 as one of Fgf15 negative target genes was influenced by dietary Pi restriction. These results suggest that dietary Pi restriction up-regulates ileal Fgf15 gene expression through 1,25(OH)2D3 and VDR, and may affect hepatic bile acid homeostasis. PMID:24688219

  11. Variations in the WNK1 gene modulates the effect of dietary intake of sodium and potassium on blood pressure determination.

    PubMed

    Osada, Yuko; Miyauchi, Rie; Goda, Toshinao; Kasezawa, Nobuhiko; Horiike, Hiromi; Iida, Mariko; Sasaki, Satoshi; Yamakawa-Kobayashi, Kimiko

    2009-08-01

    WNK lysine-deficient protein kinase 1 (WNK1) is a member of the WNK family of serine/threonine kinases with no lysine (K), and these kinases have been implicated as important modulators of salt homeostasis in the kidney. It is well known that high dietary sodium and low dietary potassium have been implicated in the etiology of increased blood pressure. However, the blood pressure response to dietary sodium and potassium intake varies considerably among individuals. In this study, we have detected that the haplotypes of the WNK1 gene are associated with blood pressure variations in the general Japanese population. In addition, we investigated the interactions between the haplotypes of the WNK1 gene and dietary sodium and potassium intake for determining inter-individual variations in blood pressure. Our data support the hypothesis that part of the variation in blood pressure response to dietary sodium and potassium intake among individuals can be explained by variations in the WNK1 gene.

  12. Dietary regulation of rat intestinal cholecystokinin gene expression.

    PubMed Central

    Liddle, R A; Carter, J D; McDonald, A R

    1988-01-01

    Cholecystokinin (CCK) is a gastrointestinal hormone produced by discrete endocrine cells in the upper small intestine and released after ingestion of a meal. The present study was designed to determine if enhanced CCK secretion is associated with increases in intestinal CCK mRNA levels. Rats, prepared with indwelling intraduodenal cannulae, were first fed an elemental diet that did not stimulate CCK release. Next, as a means of stimulating CCK secretion, soybean trypsin inhibitor was perfused for up to 24 h. Trypsin inhibitor administration increased plasma CCK levels from 0.9 +/- 0.1 to approximately 5 pmol/liter. RNA was prepared from the proximal small intestine at various times after trypsin inhibitor perfusion and mRNA levels analyzed by hybridization with a CCK cDNA probe. After 12 and 24 h of trypsin inhibitor treatment there were three- and fourfold increases, respectively, in CCK mRNA levels. In comparison, there was no change in beta-actin mRNA levels. To determine if regulation of CCK mRNA was at the level of CCK gene transcription, labeled transcripts from nuclear run-on incubations were hybridized to immobilized CCK cDNA. In trypsin inhibitor-treated rats, a two- to threefold increase in transcriptional activity was observed, whereas beta-actin gene transcription levels were unaltered. These studies indicate that stimulation of CCK secretion is associated with an increase in intestinal CCK mRNA content resulting from an increase in CCK gene transcription. Images PMID:2454954

  13. Histopathologic Alterations Associated with Global Gene Expression Due to Chronic Dietary TCDD Exposure in Juvenile Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Qing; Spitsbergen, Jan M.; Cariou, Ronan; Huang, Chun-Yuan; Jiang, Nan; Goetz, Giles; Hutz, Reinhold J.; Tonellato, Peter J.; Carvan, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this project was to investigate the effects and possible developmental disease implication of chronic dietary TCDD exposure on global gene expression anchored to histopathologic analysis in juvenile zebrafish by functional genomic, histopathologic and analytic chemistry methods. Specifically, juvenile zebrafish were fed Biodiet starter with TCDD added at 0, 0.1, 1, 10 and 100 ppb, and fish were sampled following 0, 7, 14, 28 and 42 d after initiation of the exposure. TCDD accumulated in a dose- and time-dependent manner and 100 ppb TCDD caused TCDD accumulation in female (15.49 ppb) and male (18.04 ppb) fish at 28 d post exposure. Dietary TCDD caused multiple lesions in liver, kidney, intestine and ovary of zebrafish and functional dysregulation such as depletion of glycogen in liver, retrobulbar edema, degeneration of nasal neurosensory epithelium, underdevelopment of intestine, and diminution in the fraction of ovarian follicles containing vitellogenic oocytes. Importantly, lesions in nasal epithelium and evidence of endocrine disruption based on alternatively spliced vasa transcripts are two novel and significant results of this study. Microarray gene expression analysis comparing vehicle control to dietary TCDD revealed dysregulated genes involved in pathways associated with cardiac necrosis/cell death, cardiac fibrosis, renal necrosis/cell death and liver necrosis/cell death. These baseline toxicological effects provide evidence for the potential mechanisms of developmental dysfunctions induced by TCDD and vasa as a biomarker for ovarian developmental disruption. PMID:24988445

  14. Suppression of rat hepatic fatty acid synthase and S14 gene transcription by dietary polyunsaturated fat.

    PubMed

    Blake, W L; Clarke, S D

    1990-12-01

    The objective of this research was to determine whether dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids suppress hepatic fatty acid synthase (FAS) mRNA levels by altering FAS gene transcription. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were meal-fed for 10 d a high glucose diet supplemented with 20% digestible energy as menhaden oil or tripalmitin. The transcription rate for FAS was determined by nuclear run-on analysis in hepatic nuclei isolated from rats 2 h postmeal. The values for transcription rates of FAS and S14 (a putative lipogenic protein) in rats fed menhaden oil were only 6 and 21%, respectively, of the rates in rats fed the tripalmitin diet (p less than 0.02). Gene transcription for beta-actin and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase did not differ between treatments. The reduction in hepatic FAS mRNA levels caused by dietary polyunsaturated fats appears to be caused primarily by an inhibition of FAS transcription. The control of transcription by polyunsaturated fats appears not to be mediated by cAMP because the transcription rate for phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (whose gene is very sensitive to cAMP stimulation) was unaffected by the source of dietary fat.

  15. Effects of dietary soybean stachyose and phytic acid on gene expressions of serine proteases in Japanese flounder ( Paralichthys olivaceus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mi, Haifeng; Mai, Kangsen; Zhang, Wenbing; Wu, Chenglong; Cai, Yinghua

    2011-09-01

    Soybean stachyose (SBS) and phytic acid (PA) are anti-nutritional factors (ANF) which have deleterious effects on the growth and digestibility in fish. The present research studied the effects of dietary SBS and PA on the expression of three serine protease genes in the liver of Japanese flounder ( Paralichthys olivaceus). These genes are trypsinogen 1 (poTRY), elastase 1 (poEL) and chymotrypsinogen 1 (poCTRY). Eight artificial diets with graded levels of supplemented ANFs were formulated to 4 levels of SBS (0.00, 0.40, 0.80 and 1.50%), 4 levels of PA (0.00, 0.20, 0.40 and 0.80), respectively. Japanese flounder (initial weight 2.45 g ± 0.01 g) were fed with these diets for 10 weeks with three replications per treatment. At the end of 10 weeks, supplementation of 0.40% of dietary SBS or PA significantly increased the gene expression of poTRY and poCTRY ( P<0.05). The same level of dietary SBS significantly decreased the gene expression of poEL. In comparison with the control group (ANF-free), dietary PA (0.2% and 0.8%) significantly decreased the gene expression of poTRY, poCTRY and poEL ( P<0.05). However, excessive supplement of dietary SBS (1.5%) has no significant effects on these gene expressions ( P>0.05). These results suggested that dietary SBS and dietary PA could directly affect the serine protease genes at the transcriptional level in Japanese flounder, and these genes' expression was more sensitive to dietary PA than to SBS under the current experimental conditions.

  16. Effect of Dietary Fat on Gene Expression in Poultry, A Review.

    PubMed

    Navidshad, Bahman; Royan, M

    2016-01-01

    Traditionally, poultry farmers aimed to produce birds with high body weight and feed conversion ratio. However, in line with current developments, there are other traits that must be taken into account as well. These include producing poultry meat with lower body fat content and improving the nutritional quality of the poultry meat to appeal to consumer requirements. The interrelated importance of human diet and health status is an ancient subject. Human foods as a lifestyle factor is involved in the incidence of many types of diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases and cancer. Recent reports suggest that not only the quantity but also the composition of dietary fat is an important factor to prevent these metabolic diseases in human populations. It has been reported that some dietary fats are able to reduce lipid synthesis and increase fatty acid oxidation and diet-mediated thermogenesis. The outcome of this change is a superior animal product with lower fat content. There is evidence of dissimilar mechanisms of action of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids. Dietary fatty acids have various effects on cellular metabolism, and many of these effects are carried out through the alteration of gene expression. This review will focus on the control of body fat by gene expression in avians.

  17. Dietary Variation and Evolution of Gene Copy Number among Dog Breeds

    PubMed Central

    Reiter, Taylor; Jagoda, Evelyn; Capellini, Terence D.

    2016-01-01

    Prolonged human interactions and artificial selection have influenced the genotypic and phenotypic diversity among dog breeds. Because humans and dogs occupy diverse habitats, ecological contexts have likely contributed to breed-specific positive selection. Prior to the advent of modern dog-feeding practices, there was likely substantial variation in dietary landscapes among disparate dog breeds. As such, we investigated one type of genetic variant, copy number variation, in three metabolic genes: glucokinase regulatory protein (GCKR), phytanol-CoA 2-hydroxylase (PHYH), and pancreatic α-amylase 2B (AMY2B). These genes code for proteins that are responsible for metabolizing dietary products that originate from distinctly different food types: sugar, meat, and starch, respectively. After surveying copy number variation among dogs with diverse dietary histories, we found no correlation between diet and positive selection in either GCKR or PHYH. Although it has been previously demonstrated that dogs experienced a copy number increase in AMY2B relative to wolves during or after the dog domestication process, we demonstrate that positive selection continued to act on amylase copy number in dog breeds that consumed starch-rich diets in time periods after domestication. Furthermore, we found that introgression with wolves is not responsible for deterioration of positive selection on AMY2B among diverse dog breeds. Together, this supports the hypothesis that the amylase copy number expansion is found universally in dogs. PMID:26863414

  18. Impact of improving dietary amino acid balance for lactating sows on efficiency of dietary amino acid utilization and transcript abundance of genes encoding lysine transporters in mammary tissue.

    PubMed

    Huber, L; de Lange, C F M; Ernst, C W; Krogh, U; Trottier, N L

    2016-11-01

    Lactating multiparous Yorkshire sows ( = 64) were used in 2 experiments to test the hypothesis that reducing dietary CP intake and improving AA balance through crystalline AA (CAA) supplementation improves apparent dietary AA utilization efficiency for milk production and increases transcript abundance of genes encoding Lys transporter proteins in mammary tissue. In Exp. 1, 40 sows were assigned to 1 of 4 diets: 1) high CP (HCP; 16.0% CP, as-fed basis; analyzed concentration), 2) medium-high CP (MHCP; 15.7% CP), 3) medium-low CP (MLCP; 14.3% CP), and 4) low CP (LCP; 13.2% CP). The HCP diet was formulated using soybean meal and corn as the only Lys sources. The reduced-CP diets contained CAA to meet estimated requirements for essential AA that became progressively limiting with reduction in CP concentration, that is, Lys, Ile, Met + Cys, Thr, Trp, and Val. Dietary standardized ileal digestible (SID) Lys concentration was 80% of the estimated requirement. In Exp. 2, 24 sows were assigned to the HCP or LCP diets. In Exp. 1, blood samples were postprandially collected 15 h on d 3, 7, 14, and 18 of lactation and utilization efficiency of dietary AA for milk production was calculated during early (d 3 to 7) and peak (d 14 to 18) lactation. Efficiency values were estimated from daily SID AA intakes and milk AA yield, with corrections for maternal AA requirement for maintenance and AA contribution from body protein losses. In Exp. 2, mammary tissue was biopsied on d 4 and 14 of lactation to determine the mRNA abundance of genes encoding Lys transporter proteins. In peak lactation, Lys, Thr, Trp, and Val utilization efficiency increased with decreasing dietary CP (linear for Trp and Val, < 0.05; in sows fed the MHCP diet vs. sows fed the HCP diet for Lys and Thr, < 0.05). Total essential and nonessential 15-h postprandial serum AA concentrations increased with decreasing dietary CP (linear, = 0.09 and < 0.05, respectively), suggesting increased maternal body protein

  19. Associations between dietary patterns and gene expression profiles of healthy men and women: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Diet regulates gene expression profiles by several mechanisms. The objective of this study was to examine gene expression in relation with dietary patterns. Methods Two hundred and fifty four participants from the greater Quebec City metropolitan area were recruited. Two hundred and ten participants completed the study protocol. Dietary patterns were derived from a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) by factor analysis. For 30 participants (in fasting state), RNA was extracted from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and expression levels of 47,231 mRNA transcripts were assessed using the Illumina Human-6 v3 Expression BeadChips®. Microarray data was pre-processed with Flexarray software and analysed with Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA). Results Two dietary patterns were identified. The Prudent dietary pattern was characterised by high intakes of vegetables, fruits, whole grain products and low intakes of refined grain products and the Western dietary pattern, by high intakes of refined grain products, desserts, sweets and processed meats. When individuals with high scores for the Prudent dietary pattern where compared to individuals with low scores, 2,083 transcripts were differentially expressed in men, 1,136 transcripts in women and 59 transcripts were overlapping in men and women. For the Western dietary pattern, 1,021 transcripts were differentially expressed in men with high versus low scores, 1,163 transcripts in women and 23 transcripts were overlapping in men and women. IPA reveals that genes differentially expressed for both patterns were present in networks related to the immune and/or inflammatory response, cancer and cardiovascular diseases. Conclusion Gene expression profiles were different according to dietary patterns, which probably modulate the risk of chronic diseases. Trial Registration NCT: NCT01343342 PMID:23398686

  20. Dietary conjugated linoleic acid modify gene expression in liver, muscles, and fat tissues of finishing pigs.

    PubMed

    Tous, N; Theil, P K; Lauridsen, C; Lizardo, R; Vilà, B; Esteve-Garcia, E

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate underlying mechanisms of dietary conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on lipid metabolism in various tissues of pigs. Sixteen gilts (73 ± 3 kg) were fed a control (containing sunflower oil) or an experimental diet in which 4% of sunflower oil was replaced by CLA, and slaughtered at an average BW of 117 ± 4.9 kg. Transcription of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ), fatty acid synthase (FAS), sterol regulatory element binding protein (SREBP1), acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), lipoprotein lipase (LPL), delta-6-desaturase (D6D), and stearoyl CoA desaturase (SCD) were determined by real-time PCR in longissimus thoracis (LT) and semimembranosus (SM) muscles, LT subcutaneous and SM intermuscular fat, and in the liver. Fatty acid (FA) composition was analyzed using gas chromatography in these tissues, except for SM intermuscular fat. Dietary CLA increased PPARγ in LT muscle (P < 0.05), whereas CLA reduced PPARα transcription in all tissues studied (P < 0.05) with the exception of intermuscular fat. Transcription of genes related to FA synthesis was reduced by CLA in SM muscle and liver (SREBP1, both P < 0.1; ACC, P < 0.01 in SM; and FAS, P < 0.01 in liver), whereas CLA reduced (P < 0.05) LPL and D6D transcriptions in SM muscle and reduced (P < 0.05) SCD in liver but increased (P < 0.05) SCD in LT muscle and intermuscular fat. Saturated FA were increased in all studied tissues (P < 0.01), while monosaturated and polyunsaturated FA were reduced in a tissue-specific way by CLA. It was concluded that dietary CLA affected transcription of genes and fat metabolism in a tissue-specific manner.

  1. Dietary intake alters gene expression in colon tissue: possible underlying mechanism for the influence of diet on disease

    PubMed Central

    Pellatt, Andrew J.; Mullany, Lila E.; Wolff, Roger K.; Pellatt, Daniel F.

    2016-01-01

    Background Although the association between diet and disease is well documented, the biologic mechanisms involved have not been entirely elucidated. In this study, we evaluate how dietary intake influences gene expression to better understand the underlying mechanisms through which diet operates. Methods We used data from 144 individuals who had comprehensive dietary intake and gene expression data from RNAseq using normal colonic mucosa. Using the DESeq2 statistical package, we identified genes that showed statistically significant differences in expression between individuals in high-intake and low-intake categories for several dietary variables of interest adjusting for age and sex. We examined total calories, total fats, vegetable protein, animal protein, carbohydrates, trans-fatty acids, mutagen index, red meat, processed meat, whole grains, vegetables, fruits, fiber, folate, dairy products, calcium, and prudent and western dietary patterns. Results Using a false discovery rate of less than 0.1, meat-related foods were statistically associated with 68 dysregulated genes, calcium with three dysregulated genes, folate with four dysregulated genes, and nonmeat-related foods with 65 dysregulated genes. With a more stringent false discovery rate of less than 0.05, there were nine meat-related dysregulated genes and 23 nonmeat-related genes. Ingenuity pathway analysis identified three major networks among genes identified as dysregulated with respect to meat-related dietary variables and three networks among genes identified as dysregulated with respect to nonmeat-related variables. The top networks (Ingenuity Pathway Analysis network score >30) associated with meat-related genes were (i) cancer, organismal injury, and abnormalities, tumor morphology, and (ii) cellular function and maintenance, cellular movement, cell death, and survival. Among genes related to nonmeat consumption variables, the top networks were (i) hematological system development and function

  2. Dietary restriction protects against diethylnitrosamine-induced hepatocellular tumorigenesis by restoring the disturbed gene expression profile

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Ting; Sun, Wenjie; Zhang, Mohan; Ge, Juan; He, Yansu; Zhang, Jun; Zheng, Yifan; Yang, Wei; Shen, Han-ming; Yang, Jun; Zhu, Xinqiang; Yu, Peilin

    2017-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most lethal and prevalent malignancies, worse still, there are very limited therapeutic measures with poor clinical outcomes. Dietary restriction (DR) has been known to inhibit spontaneous and induced tumors in several species, but the mechanisms are little known. In the current study, by using a diethylnitrosamine (DEN)-induced HCC mice model, we found that DR significantly reduced the hepatic tumor number and size, delayed tumor development, suppressed proliferation and promoted apoptosis. Further transcriptome sequencing of liver tissues from the DEN and the DEN accompanied with DR (DEN+DR) mice showed that DEN induced profound changes in the gene expression profile, especially in cancer-related pathways while DR treatment reversed most of the disturbed gene expression induced by DEN. Finally, transcription factor enrichment analysis uncovered the transcription factor specificity protein 1 (SP1) probably functioned as the main regulator of gene changes, orchestrating the protective effects of DR on DEN induced HCC. Taken together, by the first comprehensive transcriptome analysis, we elucidate that DR protects aginst DEN-induced HCC by restoring the disturbed gene expression profile, which holds the promise to provide effective molecular targets for cancer therapies. PMID:28262799

  3. Effects of Radiation and Dietary Iron on Expression of Genes and Proteins Involved in Drug Metabolism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Faust, K. M.; Wotring, V. E.

    2014-01-01

    Liver function, especially the rate of metabolic enzyme activities, determines the concentration of circulating drugs and the duration of their efficacy. Most pharmaceuticals are metabolized by the liver, and clinically-used medication doses are given with normal liver function in mind. A drug overdose can result in the case of a liver that is damaged and removing pharmaceuticals from the circulation at a rate slower than normal. Alternatively, if liver function is elevated and removing drugs from the system more quickly than usual, it would be as if too little drug had been given for effective treatment. Because of the importance of the liver in drug metabolism, we want to understand any effects of spaceflight on the enzymes of the liver. Dietary factors and exposure to radiation are aspects of spaceflight that are potential oxidative stressors and both can be modeled in ground experiments. In this experiment, we examined the effects of high dietary iron and low dose gamma radiation (individually and combined) on the gene expression of enzymes involved in drug metabolism, redox homeostasis, and DNA repair. METHODS All procedures were approved by the JSC Animal Care and Use Committee. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 4 groups (n=8); control, high Fe diet (650 mg iron/kg), radiation (fractionated 3 Gy exposure from a Cs- 137 source) and combined high Fe diet + radiation exposure. Animals were euthanized 24h after the last treatment of radiation; livers were removed immediately and flash -frozen in liquid nitrogen. Expression of genes thought to be involved in redox homeostasis, drug metabolism and DNA damage repair was measured by RT-qPCR. Where possible, protein expression of the same genes was measured by western blotting. All data are expressed as % change in expression normalized to reference gene expression; comparisons were then made of each treatment group to the sham exposed/ normal diet control group. Data was considered significant at p< 0

  4. Dietary selenium intake increases exon-specific DNA methylation of p53 gene in rat liver and colon mucosa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The regulation of site-specific DNA methylation of tumor suppressor genes has been considered as a leading mechanism by which certain nutrients exert their anticancer property. Our previous studies suggest that dietary selenium (Se) may alter DNA methylation, and the purpose of this study was to inv...

  5. Dietary selenomethionine intake increases exon-specific DNA methylation of p53 gene in rat liver and colon mucosa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The regulation of site-specific DNA methylation of tumor suppressor genes has been considered as a leading mechanism by which certain nutrients exert their anticancer property. Our previous studies suggest that dietary selenium (Se) may alter DNA methylation, and the purpose of this study was to inv...

  6. APOA2, dietary fat and body mass index: replication of a gene-diet interaction in three independent populations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Nutrigenetics studies the role of genetic variation on interactions between diet and health aimed at providing more personalized dietary advice. However, replication has been very low and our aim was to study the interaction between a functional polymorphism of the APOA2 gene, food intak...

  7. Body weight and abdominal fat gene expression profile in response to a novel hydroxycitric acid-based dietary supplement.

    PubMed

    Roy, Sashwati; Rink, Cameron; Khanna, Savita; Phillips, Christina; Bagchi, Debasis; Bagchi, Manashi; Sen, Chandan K

    2004-01-01

    Obesity is a global public health problem, with about 315 million people worldwide estimated to fall into the WHO-defined obesity categories. Traditional herbal medicines may have some potential in managing obesity. Botanical dietary supplements often contain complex mixtures of phytochemicals that have additive or synergistic interactions. The dried fruit rind of Garcinia cambogia, also known as Malabar tamarind, is a unique source of (-)-hydroxycitric acid (HCA), which exhibits a distinct sour taste and has been safely used for centuries in Southeastern Asia to make meals more filling. Recently it has been demonstrated that HCA-SX or Super Citrimax, a novel derivative of HCA, is safe when taken orally and that HCA-SX is bioavailable in the human plasma as studied by GC-MS. Although HCA-SX has been observed to be conditionally effective in weight management in experimental animals as well as in humans, its mechanism of action remains to be understood. We sought to determine the effects of low-dose oral HCA-SX on the body weight and abdominal fat gene expression profile of Sprague-Dawley rats. We observed that at doses relevant for human consumption dietary HCA-SX significantly contained body weight growth. This response was associated with lowered abdominal fat leptin expression while plasma leptin levels remained unaffected. Repeated high-density microarray analysis of 9960 genes and ESTs present in the fat tissue identified a small set (approximately 1% of all genes screened) of specific genes sensitive to dietary HCA-SX. Other genes, including vital genes transcribing for mitochondrial/nuclear proteins and which are necessary for fundamental support of the tissue, were not affected by HCA-SX. Under the current experimental conditions, HCA-SX proved to be effective in restricting body weight gain in adult rats. Functional characterization of HCA-SX-sensitive genes revealed that upregulation of genes encoding serotonin receptors represent a distinct effect of

  8. Dietary cholesterol fails to stimulate the human cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase gene (CYP7A1) in transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Agellon, Luis B; Drover, Victor A B; Cheema, Sukhinder K; Gbaguidi, G Franck; Walsh, Annemarie

    2002-06-07

    Dietary cholesterol has been shown to have a stimulatory effect on the murine cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase gene (Cyp7a1), but its effect on human cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase gene (CYP7A1) expression in vivo is not known. A transgenic mouse strain harboring the human CYP7A1 gene and homozygous for the disrupted murine Cyp7a1 gene was created. Cholesterol feeding increased the expression of the endogenous modified Cyp7a1 allele but failed to stimulate the human CYP7A1 transgene. In transfected hepatoma cells, 25-hydroxycholesterol increased murine Cyp7a1 gene promoter activity, whereas the human CYP7A1 gene promoter was unresponsive. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays demonstrated the interaction of the liver X receptor alpha (LXRalpha): retinoid X receptor (RXR) heterodimer, a transcription factor complex that is activated by oxysterols, with the murine Cyp7a1 gene promoter, whereas no binding to the human CYP7A1 gene promoter was detected. The results demonstrate that the human CYP7A1 gene is not stimulated by dietary cholesterol in the intact animal, and this is attributable to the inability of the CYP7A1 gene promoter to interact with LXRalpha:RXR.

  9. Dietary protein intake affects expression of genes for lipid metabolism in porcine skeletal muscle in a genotype-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yingying; Li, Fengna; He, Lingyun; Tan, Bie; Deng, Jinping; Kong, Xiangfeng; Li, Yinghui; Geng, Meimei; Yin, Yulong; Wu, Guoyao

    2015-04-14

    Skeletal muscle is a major site for the oxidation of fatty acids (FA) in mammals, including humans. Using a swine model, we tested the hypothesis that dietary protein intake regulates the expression of key genes for lipid metabolism in skeletal muscle. A total of ninety-six barrows (forty-eight pure-bred Bama mini-pigs (fatty genotype) and forty-eight Landrace pigs (lean genotype)) were fed from 5 weeks of age to market weight. Pigs of fatty or lean genotype were randomly assigned to one of two dietary treatments (low- or adequate-protein diet), with twenty-four individually fed pigs per treatment. Our data showed that dietary protein levels affected the expression of genes involved in the anabolism and catabolism of lipids in the longissimus dorsi and biceps femoris muscles in a genotype-dependent manner. Specifically, Bama mini-pigs had more intramuscular fat, SFA and MUFA, as well as elevated mRNA expression levels of lipogenic genes, compared with Landrace pigs. In contrast, Bama mini-pigs had lower mRNA expression levels of lipolytic genes than Landrace pigs fed an adequate-protein diet in the growing phase. These data are consistent with higher white-fat deposition in Bama mini-pigs than in Landrace pigs. In conclusion, adequate provision of dietary protein (amino acids) plays an important role in regulating the expression of key lipogenic genes, and the growth of white adipose tissue, in a genotype- and tissue-specific manner. These findings have important implications for developing novel dietary strategies in pig production.

  10. The action of a dietary retinoid on gene expression and cancer induction in electron-irradiated rat skin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, Fredric J.; Chen, Shuaili; Xu, Guijuan; Wu, Feng; Tang, Moon-Shong

    2002-01-01

    Current models of radiation carcinogenesis generally assume that the DNA is damaged in a variety of ways by the radiation and that subsequent cell divisions contribute to the conversion of the damage to heritable mutations. Cancer may seem complex and intractable, but its complexity provides multiple opportunities for preventive interventions. Mitotic inhibitors are among the strongest cancer preventive agents, not only slowing the growth rate of preneoplasias but also increasing the fidelity of DNA repair processes. Ionizing radiation, including electrons, is a strong inducer of cancer in rat skin, and dietary retinoids have shown potent cancer preventive activity in the same system. A non-toxic dietary dose of retinyl acetate altered gene expression levels 24 hours after electron irradiation of rat skin. Of the 8740 genes on an Affymetrix rat expression array, the radiation significantly (5 fold or higher) altered 188, while the retinoid altered 231, including 16 radiation-altered genes that were reversely altered. While radiation strongly affected the expression of stress response, immune/inflammation and nucleic acid metabolism genes, the retinoid most strongly affected proliferation-related genes, including some significant reversals, such as, keratin 14, retinol binding protein, and calcium binding proteins. These results point to reversal of proliferation-relevant genes as a likely basis for the anti-radiogenic effects of dietary retinyl acetate.

  11. The potential of dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids to modulate eicosanoid synthesis and reproduction in Daphnia magna: a gene expression approach.

    PubMed

    Schlotz, Nina; Sørensen, Jesper Givskov; Martin-Creuzburg, Dominik

    2012-08-01

    Nutritional ecology of the aquatic model genus Daphnia has received much attention in past years in particular with regard to dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) which are crucial for growth and reproduction. Besides their significant role as membrane components, C20 PUFAs serve as precursors for eicosanoids, hormone-like mediators of reproduction, immunity and ion transport physiology. In the present study we investigate transcriptomic changes in Daphnia magna in response to different algal food organisms substantially differing in their PUFA composition using quantitative real-time PCR and relate them to concomitantly documented life history data. The selection of target genes includes representatives that have previously been shown to be responsive to the eicosanoid biosynthesis inhibitor ibuprofen. The beneficial effect of C20 PUFA-rich food on reproduction and population growth rates was accompanied by an increased vitellogenin (DmagVtg1) gene expression in D. magna. Additionally, genes involved in eicosanoid signaling were particularly influenced by dietary C20 PUFA availability. For example, the cyclooxygenase gene (Cox), coding for a central enzyme in the eicosanoid pathway, was highly responsive to the food treatments. Our results suggest that dietary PUFAs are fundamental in D. magna physiology as substrate for eicosanoid synthesis and that these eicosanoids are important for D. magna reproduction.

  12. Dietary Zinc Oxide Modulates Antioxidant Capacity, Small Intestine Development, and Jejunal Gene Expression in Weaned Piglets.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Cui; Lv, Hang; Chen, Zhuang; Wang, Li; Wu, Xiuju; Chen, Zhongjian; Zhang, Weina; Liang, Rui; Jiang, Zongyong

    2017-02-01

    The current study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary zinc oxide (ZnO) on the antioxidant capacity, small intestine development, and jejunal gene expression in weaned piglets. Ninety-six 21-day-old piglets were randomly assigned to three dietary treatments. Each treatment had eight replicates with four piglets per replicate. The piglets were fed either control diet (control) or control diet supplemented with in-feed antibiotics (300 mg/kg chlortetracycline and 60 mg/kg colistin sulfate) or pharmacological doses of ZnO (3000 mg/kg). The experiment lasted 4 weeks. Blood samples were collected at days 14 and 28, while intestinal samples were harvested at day 28 of the experiment. Dietary high doses of ZnO supplementation significantly increased the body weight (BW) at day 14 and average daily gain (ADG) of days 1 to 14 in weaned piglets, when compared to control group (P < 0.05). The incidence of diarrhea of piglets fed ZnO-supplemented diets, at either days 1 to 14, days 14 to 28, or the overall experimental period, was significantly decreased in comparison with those in other groups (P < 0.05). Supplementation with ZnO increased the villus height of the duodenum and ileum in weaned piglets and decreased the crypt depth of the duodenum, when compared to the other groups (P < 0.05). Dietary ZnO supplementation decreased the malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration at either day 14 or day 28, but increased total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD) at day 14, when compared to that in the control (P < 0.05). ZnO supplementation upregulated the messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1) and occludin in the jejunum mucosa of weaned piglets, compared to those in the control (P < 0.05). The pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-lβ (IL-1β) mRNA expression in the jejunum mucosa was downregulated in the ZnO-supplemented group, compared with the control (P < 0.05). Both in-feed antibiotics and ZnO supplementation decreased the m

  13. Gene expression and pathologic alterations in juvenile rainbow trout due to chronic dietary TCDD exposure.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qing; Rise, Matthew L; Spitsbergen, Jan M; Hori, Tiago S; Mieritz, Mark; Geis, Steven; McGraw, Joseph E; Goetz, Giles; Larson, Jeremy; Hutz, Reinhold J; Carvan, Michael J

    2013-09-15

    The goal of this project was to use functional genomic methods to identify molecular biomarkers as indicators of the impact of TCDD exposure in rainbow trout. Specifically, we investigated the effects of chronic dietary TCDD exposure on whole juvenile rainbow trout global gene expression associated with histopathological analysis. Juvenile rainbow trout were fed Biodiet starter with TCDD added at 0, 0.1, 1, 10 and 100 ppb (ngTCDD/g food), and fish were sampled from each group at 7, 14, 28 and 42 days after initiation of feeding. 100 ppb TCDD caused 100% mortality at 39 days. Fish fed with 100 ppb TCDD food had TCDD accumulation of 47.37 ppb (ngTCDD/g fish) in whole fish at 28 days. Histological analysis from TCDD-treated trout sampled from 28 and 42 days revealed that obvious lesions were found in skin, oropharynx, liver, gas bladder, intestine, pancreas, nose and kidney. In addition, TCDD caused anemia in peripheral blood, decreases in abdominal fat, increases of remodeling of fin rays, edema in pericardium and retrobulbar hemorrhage in the 100 ppb TCDD-treated rainbow trout compared to the control group at 28 days. Dose- and time-dependent global gene expression analyses were performed using the cGRASP 16,000 (16K) cDNA microarray. TCDD-responsive whole body transcripts identified in the microarray experiments have putative functions involved in various biological processes including growth, cell proliferation, metabolic process, and immune system processes. Nine microarray-identified genes were selected for QPCR validation. CYP1A3 and CYP1A1 were common up-regulated genes and HBB1 was a common down-regulated gene among each group based on microarray data, and their QPCR validations are consistent with microarray data for the 10 and 100 ppb TCDD treatment groups after 28 days exposure (p<0.05). In addition, in the 100 ppb group at 28 days, expression of complement component C3-1 and trypsin-1 precursor have a more than 10-fold induction from the microarray

  14. A Molecular-Level Landscape of Diet-Gut Microbiome Interactions: Toward Dietary Interventions Targeting Bacterial Genes

    PubMed Central

    Ni, Yueqiong; Li, Jun

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT As diet is considered the major regulator of the gut ecosystem, the overall objective of this work was to demonstrate that a detailed knowledge of the phytochemical composition of food could add to our understanding of observed changes in functionality and activity of the gut microbiota. We used metatranscriptomic data from a human dietary intervention study to develop a network that consists of >400 compounds present in the administered plant-based diet linked to 609 microbial targets in the gut. Approximately 20% of the targeted bacterial proteins showed significant changes in their gene expression levels, while functional and topology analyses revealed that proteins in metabolic networks with high centrality are the most “vulnerable” targets. This global view and the mechanistic understanding of the associations between microbial gene expression and dietary molecules could be regarded as a promising methodological approach for targeting specific bacterial proteins that impact human health. PMID:26507230

  15. Modulation of Cholesterol-Related Gene Expression by Dietary Fiber Fractions from Edible Mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Caz, Víctor; Gil-Ramírez, Alicia; Largo, Carlota; Tabernero, María; Santamaría, Mónica; Martín-Hernández, Roberto; Marín, Francisco R; Reglero, Guillermo; Soler-Rivas, Cristina

    2015-08-26

    Mushrooms are a source of dietary fiber (DF) with a cholesterol-lowering effect. However, their underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. The effect of DF-enriched fractions from three mushrooms species on cholesterol-related expression was studied in vitro. The Pleurotus ostreatus DF fraction (PDF) was used in mice models to assess its potential palliative or preventive effect against hypercholesterolemia. PDF induced a transcriptional response in Caco-2 cells, suggesting a possible cholesterol-lowering effect. In the palliative setting, PDF reduced hepatic triglyceride likely because Dgat1 was downregulated. However, cholesterol-related biochemical data showed no changes and no relation with the observed transcriptional modulation. In the preventive setting, PDF modulated cholesterol-related genes expression in a manner similar to that of simvastatin and ezetimibe in the liver, although no changes in plasma and liver biochemical data were induced. Therefore, PDF may be useful reducing hepatic triglyceride accumulation. Because it induced a molecular response similar to hypocholesterolemic drugs in liver, further dose-dependent studies should be carried out.

  16. Intestinal microbiota and immune related genes in sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus) response to dietary β-glucan supplementation

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Gang; Xu, Zhenjiang; Tian, Xiangli; Dong, Shuanglin; Peng, Mo

    2015-02-27

    β-glucan is a prebiotic well known for its beneficial outcomes on sea cucumber health through modifying the host intestinal microbiota. High-throughput sequencing techniques provide an opportunity for the identification and characterization of microbes. In this study, we investigated the intestinal microbial community composition, interaction among species, and intestinal immune genes in sea cucumber fed with diet supplemented with or without β-glucan supplementation. The results show that the intestinal dominant classes in the control group are Flavobacteriia, Gammaproteobacteria, and Alphaproteobacteria, whereas Alphaproteobacteria, Flavobacteriia, and Verrucomicrobiae are enriched in the β-glucan group. Dietary β-glucan supplementation promoted the proliferation of the family Rhodobacteraceae of the Alphaproteobacteria class and the family Verrucomicrobiaceae of the Verrucomicrobiae class and reduced the relative abundance of the family Flavobacteriaceae of Flavobacteria class. The ecological network analysis suggests that dietary β-glucan supplementation can alter the network interactions among different microbial functional groups by changing the microbial community composition and topological roles of the OTUs in the ecological network. Dietary β-glucan supplementation has a positive impact on immune responses of the intestine of sea cucumber by activating NF-κB signaling pathway, probably through modulating the balance of intestinal microbiota. - Highlights: • Dietary β-glucan supplementation increases the abundance of Rhodobacteraceae and Verrucomicrobiaceae in the intestine. • Dietary β-glucan supplementation changes the topological roles of OTUs in the ecological network. • Dietary β-glucan supplementation has a positive impact on the immune response of intestine of sea cucumber.

  17. Evidence for negative selection of gene variants that increase dependence on dietary choline in a Gambian cohort

    PubMed Central

    Silver, Matt J.; Corbin, Karen D.; Hellenthal, Garrett; da Costa, Kerry-Ann; Dominguez-Salas, Paula; Moore, Sophie E.; Owen, Jennifer; Prentice, Andrew M.; Hennig, Branwen J.; Zeisel, Steven H.

    2015-01-01

    Choline is an essential nutrient, and the amount needed in the diet is modulated by several factors. Given geographical differences in dietary choline intake and disparate frequencies of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in choline metabolism genes between ethnic groups, we tested the hypothesis that 3 SNPs that increase dependence on dietary choline would be under negative selection pressure in settings where choline intake is low: choline dehydrogenase (CHDH) rs12676, methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase 1 (MTHFD1) rs2236225, and phosphatidylethanolamine-N-methyltransferase (PEMT) rs12325817. Evidence of negative selection was assessed in 2 populations: one in The Gambia, West Africa, where there is historic evidence of a choline-poor diet, and the other in the United States, with a comparatively choline-rich diet. We used 2 independent methods, and confirmation of our hypothesis was sought via a comparison with SNP data from the Maasai, an East African population with a genetic background similar to that of Gambians but with a traditional diet that is higher in choline. Our results show that frequencies of SNPs known to increase dependence on dietary choline are significantly reduced in the low-choline setting of The Gambia. Our findings suggest that adequate intake levels of choline may have to be reevaluated in different ethnic groups and highlight a possible approach for identifying novel functional SNPs under the influence of dietary selective pressure.—Silver, M. J., Corbin, K. D., Hellenthal, G., da Costa, K.-A., Dominguez-Salas, P., Moore, S. E., Owen, J., Prentice, A. M., Hennig, B. J., Zeisel, S. H. Evidence for negative selection of gene variants that increase dependence on dietary choline in a Gambian cohort. PMID:25921832

  18. Interactions between beta-2 adrenoceptor gene variation, cardiovascular control and dietary sodium in healthy young adults.

    PubMed

    Eisenach, John H; Schroeder, Darrell R; Pavey, Emily S; Penheiter, Alan R; Knutson, Jean N; Turner, Stephen T; Joyner, Michael J

    2014-12-01

    Dietary sodium affects function of the beta-2 adrenoceptor (ADRB2). We tested the hypothesis that haplotype variation in the ADRB2 gene would influence the cardiovascular and regional vasodilator responses to sympathoexcitatory manoeuvres following low, normal and high sodium diets, and ADRB2-mediated forearm vasodilation in the high sodium condition. Seventy-one healthy young adults were grouped by double homozygous haplotypes: Arg16+Gln27 (n = 31), the rare Gly16+Gln27 (n = 10) and Gly16+Glu27 (n = 30). Using a randomized cross-over design, subjects were studied following 5 days of controlled low, normal and high sodium with 1 month or longer between diets (and low hormone phase of the menstrual cycle). All three visits utilized ECG and finger plethysmography for haemodynamic measures, and the high sodium visit included a brachial arterial catheter for forearm vasodilator responses to isoprenaline with plethysmography. Lymphocytes were sampled for ex vivo analysis of ADRB2 density and binding conformation. We found a main effect of haplotype on ADRB2 density (P = 0.03) with the Gly16+Glu27 haplotype having the greatest density (low, normal, high sodium: 12.9 ± 0.9, 13.5 ± 0.9 and 13.6 ± 0.8 fmol mg(-1) protein, respectively) and Arg16+Gln27 having the least (9.3 ± 0.6, 10.1 ± 0.5 and 10.3 ± 0.6  fmol mg(-1) protein, respectively), but there were no sodium or haplotype effects on receptor binding conformation. In the mental stress trial, there was a main effect of haplotype on cardiac output (P = 0.04), as Arg16+Gln27 had the lowest responses. Handgrip and forearm vasodilation yielded no haplotype differences, and no correlations were present for ADRB2 density and haemodynamics. Our findings support cell-based evidence that ADRB2 haplotype influences ADRB2 protein expression independent of dietary sodium, yet the haemodynamic consequences appear modest in healthy humans.

  19. Hepatic transcriptome analysis and identification of differentially expressed genes response to dietary oxidized fish oil in loach Misgurnus anguillicaudatus

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yin; Li, Yang; Liang, Xiao; Cao, Xiaojuan; Huang, Longfei; Yan, Jie; Wei, Yanxing; Gao, Jian

    2017-01-01

    RNA sequencing and short-read assembly were utilized to produce a transcriptome of livers from loaches (Misgurnus anguillicaudatus) fed with three different diets respectively containing fresh fish oil (FO group), medium oxidized fish oil (MO group) and high oxidized fish oil (HO group). A total of 60,663 unigenes were obtained in this study, with mean length 848.74 bp. 50,814, 49,584 and 49,814 unigenes were respectively obtained from FO, MO and HO groups. There were 2,343 differentially expressed genes between FO and MO, with 855 down- and 1,488 up-regulated genes in the MO group. 2,813 genes were differentially expressed between FO and HO, including 1,256 down- and 1,552 up-regulated genes in the HO group. 2,075 differentially expressed genes were found in the comparison of MO and HO, including 1,074 up- and 1,001 down-regulated genes in the MO group. Some differentially expressed genes, such as fatty acid transport protein (fatp), fatty acid binding protein (fabp), apolipoprotein (apo), peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-gamma (ppar-γ), acetyl-CoA synthetase (acs) and arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase (alox5), were involved in lipid metabolism, suggesting these genes in the loach were responsive to dietary oxidized fish oil. Results of transcriptome profilings here were validated using quantitative real time PCR in fourteen randomly selected unigenes. The present study provides insights into hepatic transcriptome profile of the loach, which is a valuable resource for studies of loach genomics. More importantly, this study identifies some important genes responsible for dietary oxidized fish oil, which will benefit researches of lipid metabolism in fish. PMID:28212448

  20. Hepatic transcriptome analysis and identification of differentially expressed genes response to dietary oxidized fish oil in loach Misgurnus anguillicaudatus.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yin; Li, Yang; Liang, Xiao; Cao, Xiaojuan; Huang, Longfei; Yan, Jie; Wei, Yanxing; Gao, Jian

    2017-01-01

    RNA sequencing and short-read assembly were utilized to produce a transcriptome of livers from loaches (Misgurnus anguillicaudatus) fed with three different diets respectively containing fresh fish oil (FO group), medium oxidized fish oil (MO group) and high oxidized fish oil (HO group). A total of 60,663 unigenes were obtained in this study, with mean length 848.74 bp. 50,814, 49,584 and 49,814 unigenes were respectively obtained from FO, MO and HO groups. There were 2,343 differentially expressed genes between FO and MO, with 855 down- and 1,488 up-regulated genes in the MO group. 2,813 genes were differentially expressed between FO and HO, including 1,256 down- and 1,552 up-regulated genes in the HO group. 2,075 differentially expressed genes were found in the comparison of MO and HO, including 1,074 up- and 1,001 down-regulated genes in the MO group. Some differentially expressed genes, such as fatty acid transport protein (fatp), fatty acid binding protein (fabp), apolipoprotein (apo), peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-gamma (ppar-γ), acetyl-CoA synthetase (acs) and arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase (alox5), were involved in lipid metabolism, suggesting these genes in the loach were responsive to dietary oxidized fish oil. Results of transcriptome profilings here were validated using quantitative real time PCR in fourteen randomly selected unigenes. The present study provides insights into hepatic transcriptome profile of the loach, which is a valuable resource for studies of loach genomics. More importantly, this study identifies some important genes responsible for dietary oxidized fish oil, which will benefit researches of lipid metabolism in fish.

  1. Dietary exposure of 17-alpha ethinylestradiol modulates physiological endpoints and gene signaling pathways in female largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides)

    PubMed Central

    Colli-Dula, Reyna-Cristina; Martyniuk, Christopher J.; Kroll, Kevin J.; Prucha, Melinda S.; Kozuch, Marianne; Barber, David S.; Denslow, Nancy D.

    2014-01-01

    17alpha-ethinylestradiol (EE2), used for birth control in humans, is a potent estrogen that is found in wastewater at low concentrations (ng/L). EE2 has the ability to interfere with the endocrine system of fish, affecting reproduction which can result in population level effects. The objective of this study was to determine if dietary exposure to EE2 would alter gene expression patterns and key pathways in the liver and ovary and whether these could be associated with reproductive endpoints in female largemouth bass during egg development. Female LMB received 70 ng EE2/g feed (feed administered at 1% of body weight) for 60 days. EE2 dietary exposure significantly reduced plasma vitellogenin concentrations by 70%. Hepatosomatic and gonadosomatic indices were also decreased with EE2 feeding by 38.5% and 40%, respectively. Transcriptomic profiling revealed that there were more changes in steady state mRNA levels in the liver compared to the ovary. Genes associated with reproduction were differentially expressed such as vitellogenin in the liver and aromatase in the gonad. In addition, a set of genes related with oxidative stress (e.g. glutathione reductase and glutathione peroxidase) were identified as altered in the liver and genes associated with the immune system (e.g. complement component 1, and macrophage-inducible C-type lectin) were altered in the gonad. In a follow-up study with 0.2 ng EE2/g feed for 60 days, similar phenotypic and gene expression changes were observed that support these findings with the higher concentrations. This study provides new insights into how dietary exposure to EE2 interferes with endocrine signaling pathways in female LMB during a critical period of reproductive oogenesis. PMID:25203422

  2. Dietary exposure of 17-alpha ethinylestradiol modulates physiological endpoints and gene signaling pathways in female largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides).

    PubMed

    Colli-Dula, Reyna-Cristina; Martyniuk, Christopher J; Kroll, Kevin J; Prucha, Melinda S; Kozuch, Marianne; Barber, David S; Denslow, Nancy D

    2014-11-01

    17Alpha-ethinylestradiol (EE2), used for birth control in humans, is a potent estrogen that is found in wastewater at low concentrations (ng/l). EE2 has the ability to interfere with the endocrine system of fish, affecting reproduction which can result in population level effects. The objective of this study was to determine if dietary exposure to EE2 would alter gene expression patterns and key pathways in the liver and ovary and whether these could be associated with reproductive endpoints in female largemouth bass during egg development. Female LMB received 70ng EE2/g feed (administered at 1% of body weight) for 60 days. EE2 dietary exposure significantly reduced plasma vitellogenin concentrations by 70%. Hepatosomatic and gonadosomatic indices were also decreased with EE2 feeding by 38.5% and 40%, respectively. Transcriptomic profiling revealed that there were more changes in steady state mRNA levels in the liver compared to the ovary. Genes associated with reproduction were differentially expressed, such as vitellogenin in the liver and aromatase in the gonad. In addition, a set of genes related with oxidative stress (e.g. glutathione reductase and glutathione peroxidase) were identified as altered in the liver and genes associated with the immune system (e.g. complement component 1, and macrophage-inducible C-type lectin) were altered in the gonad. In a follow-up study with 0.2ng EE2/g feed for 60 days, similar phenotypic and gene expression changes were observed that support these findings with the higher concentrations. This study provides new insights into how dietary exposure to EE2 interferes with endocrine signaling pathways in female LMB during a critical period of reproductive oogenesis.

  3. Effects of Dietary Fibers on Weight Gain, Carbohydrate Metabolism and Gastric Ghrelin Gene Expression in High Fat Diet Fed Mice

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhong Q.; Zuberi, Aamir; Zhang, Xian H.; Macgowan, Jacalyn; Qin, Jianhua; Ye, Xin; Son, Leslie; Wu, Qinglin; Lian, Kun; Cefalu, William T.

    2009-01-01

    Diets that are high in dietary fiber are reported to have substantial health benefits. We sought to compare the metabolic effects for three types of dietary fibers, i.e. sugar cane fiber (SCF), psyllium (PSY) and cellulose (CEL) on body weight, carbohydrate metabolism and stomach ghrelin gene expression in a high-fat diet fed mouse model. Thirty-six male mice (C57BL/6) were randomly divided into four groups that consumed high fat-diets or high fat diet containing 10% SCF, PSY, and CEL respectively. After baseline measurements were assessed for body weight, plasma insulin, glucose, leptin and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), animals were treated for 12 weeks. Parameters were re-evaluated at end of study. Whereas there was no difference at the baseline, body weight gains in the PSY and SCF groups were significantly lower than in CEL group at end of study, No difference in body weight was observed between the PSY and SCF animals. Body composition analysis demonstrated that fat mass in the SCF group was considerably lower than in the CEL and HFD groups. In addition, fasting plasma glucose and insulin and areas under curve of IPGTT were also significantly lower in the SCF and PSY groups than in the CEL and HFD groups. Moreover, fasting plasma concentrations of leptin were significantly lower and GLP-1 level was two-fold higher in the SCF and PSY mice than in the HFD and CEL mice. Ghrelin mRNA levels of stomach in SCF groups were significantly lower than in CEL and HFD groups as well. These results suggest differences in response to dietary fiber intake in this animal model as high fat diets incorporating dietary fibers such as SCF and PSY appeared to attenuate weight gain, enhance insulin sensitivity, and modulate leptin and GLP-1 secretion and gastric ghrelin gene expression. PMID:17998014

  4. Dietary sodium propionate affects mucosal immune parameters, growth and appetite related genes expression: Insights from zebrafish model.

    PubMed

    Hoseinifar, Seyed Hossein; Safari, Roghieh; Dadar, Maryam

    2017-03-01

    Propionate is a short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) that improves physiological and pathophysiological properties. However, there is limited information available about the effects of SCFAs on mucosal immune parameters as well as growth and appetite related genes expression. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of sodium propionate (SP) intake on the mucosal immune parameters, growth and appetite related genes expression using zebrafish (Danio rerio) as model organism. Zebrafish fed control or diet supplemented with different levels (0.5, 1 and 2%) of SP for 8weeks. At the end of feeding trial, the expression of the key genes related to growth and appetite (GH, IGF1, MYSTN and Ghrl) was evaluated. Also, mucosal immune parameters (Total Ig, lysozyme and protease activity) were studied in skin mucus of zebrafish. The results showed that dietary administration of SP significantly (P<0.05) up-regulated the expression of GH, IGF1 and down-regulated MYSTN gene. Also, feeding zebrafish with SP supplemented diet significantly increased appetite related gene expression (P<0.05) with a more pronounced effect in higher inclusion levels. Compared with control group, the expression of appetite related gene (Ghrl) was remarkably (P<0.05) higher in SP fed zebrafish. Also, elevated mucosal immune parameters was observed in zebrafish fed SP supplemented diet. The present results revealed beneficial effects of dietary SP on mucosal immune response and growth and appetite related genes expression. These results also highlighted the potential use of SP as additive in human diets.

  5. Dietary Restriction Mitigates Cocaine-Induced Alterations of Olfactory Bulb Cellular Plasticity and Gene Expression, and Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xiangru; Mughal, Mohamed R.; Hall, F. Scott; Perona, Maria T.G.; Pistell, Paul J.; Lathia, Justin D; Chigurupati, Srinivasulu; Becker, Kevin G; Ladenheim, Bruce; Niklason, Laura E; Uhl, George R.; Cadet, Jean Lud; Mattson, Mark P.

    2010-01-01

    Because the olfactory system plays a major role in food consumption, and because “food addiction” and associated morbidities have reached epidemic proportions, we tested the hypothesis that dietary energy restriction can modify adverse effects of cocaine on behavior and olfactory cellular and molecular plasticity. Mice maintained on an alternate day fasting (ADF) diet exhibited increased baseline locomotion and increased cocaine-sensitized locomotion during cocaine conditioning, despite no change in cocaine conditioned place preference, compared to mice fed ad libitum. Levels of dopamine and its metabolites in the olfactory bulb (OB) were suppressed in mice on the ADF diet compared to mice on the control diet, independent of acute or chronic cocaine treatment. The expression of several enzymes involved in dopamine metabolism including tyrosine hydroxylase, monoamine oxidases A and B (MAOA), and catechol-O-methyltransferase were significantly reduced in OBs of mice on the ADF diet. Both acute and chronic administration of cocaine suppressed the production of new OB cells, and this effect of cocaine was attenuated in mice on the ADF diet. Cocaine administration to mice on the control diet resulted in up-regulation of OB genes involved in mitochondrial energy metabolism, synaptic plasticity, cellular stress responses, and calcium- and cyclic AMP-mediated signaling, whereas multiple olfactory receptor genes were down-regulated by cocaine treatment. ADF abolished many of the effects of cocaine on OB gene expression. Our findings reveal that dietary energy intake modifies the neural substrates underlying some of the behavioral and physiological responses to repeated cocaine treatment, and also suggest novel roles for the olfactory system in addiction. The data further suggest that modification of dietary energy intake could provide a novel potential approach to addiction treatments. PMID:20456017

  6. Genetic perturbation of key central metabolic genes extends lifespan in Drosophila and affects response to dietary restriction

    PubMed Central

    Talbert, Matthew E.; Barnett, Brittany; Hoff, Robert; Amella, Maria; Kuczynski, Kate; Lavington, Erik; Koury, Spencer; Brud, Evgeny; Eanes, Walter F.

    2015-01-01

    There is a connection between nutrient inputs, energy-sensing pathways, lifespan variation and aging. Despite the role of metabolic enzymes in energy homeostasis and their metabolites as nutrient signals, little is known about how their gene expression impacts lifespan. In this report, we use P-element mutagenesis in Drosophila to study the effect on lifespan of reductions in expression of seven central metabolic enzymes, and contrast the effects on normal diet and dietary restriction. The major observation is that for five of seven genes, the reduction of gene expression extends lifespan on one or both diets. Two genes are involved in redox balance, and we observe that lower activity genotypes significantly extend lifespan. The hexokinases also show extension of lifespan with reduced gene activity. Since both affect the ATP/ADP ratio, this connects with the role of AMP-activated protein kinase as an energy sensor in regulating lifespan and mediating caloric restriction. These genes possess significant expression variation in natural populations, and our experimental genotypes span this level of natural activity variation. Our studies link the readout of energy state with the perturbation of the genes of central metabolism and demonstrate their effect on lifespan. PMID:26378219

  7. Mediterranean dietary pattern and VEGF +405 G/C gene polymorphisms in patients with metabolic syndrome: An aspect of gene-nutrient interaction

    PubMed Central

    Hajiluian, Ghazaleh; Abbasalizad Farhangi, Mahdieh; Jahangiry, Leila

    2017-01-01

    Aims To evaluate the relationship between Mediterranean dietary pattern, anthropometric and metabolic biomarkers and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) +405 G/C gene polymorphism in patient with metabolic syndrome (Mets). Materials and methods In this study 150 patients with Mets and 50 healthy subjects were enrolled. Dietary intakes were evaluated with a semi-quantitative food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and Mediterranean dietary quality index (Med-DQI) was assessed. Anthropometric assessments and blood pressure measurement were performed. Biochemical assays including fasting serum glucose (FSG), matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP-3), liver enzymes and lipid profiles were also assessed. Polymorphism of +405 G/C VEGF gene was determined utilizing polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragments length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method. Results Serum high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) was significantly lower and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC) concentrations and FSG were significantly higher in metabolic syndrome patients compared with control group (P < 0.05). Metabolic syndrome group with high consumption of “cholesterol” had significantly upper serum TG; also high consumption of “fish” and “vegetables-fruits” was associated with a significantly lower serum LDL concentrations. In metabolic syndrome patients with CC genotype, mean score of “saturated fatty acid” subgroup was significantly higher compared with other genotypes; whereas, in healthy individuals, mean score of “fruit-vegetable” subgroup in individuals of CC and GG genotype was significantly higher (P<0.05). Conclusion Our findings indicated a significant relationship between Mediterranean dietary quality index and both anthropometric and metabolic risk factors. We also indicated a higher “saturated fatty acid” intake in CC genotype among metabolic syndrome patients. PMID:28212431

  8. Intestinal microbiota and immune related genes in sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus) response to dietary β-glucan supplementation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Gang; Xu, Zhenjiang; Tian, Xiangli; Dong, Shuanglin; Peng, Mo

    2015-02-27

    β-glucan is a prebiotic well known for its beneficial outcomes on sea cucumber health through modifying the host intestinal microbiota. High-throughput sequencing techniques provide an opportunity for the identification and characterization of microbes. In this study, we investigated the intestinal microbial community composition, interaction among species, and intestinal immune genes in sea cucumber fed with diet supplemented with or without β-glucan supplementation. The results show that the intestinal dominant classes in the control group are Flavobacteriia, Gammaproteobacteria, and Alphaproteobacteria, whereas Alphaproteobacteria, Flavobacteriia, and Verrucomicrobiae are enriched in the β-glucan group. Dietary β-glucan supplementation promoted the proliferation of the family Rhodobacteraceae of the Alphaproteobacteria class and the family Verrucomicrobiaceae of the Verrucomicrobiae class and reduced the relative abundance of the family Flavobacteriaceae of Flavobacteria class. The ecological network analysis suggests that dietary β-glucan supplementation can alter the network interactions among different microbial functional groups by changing the microbial community composition and topological roles of the OTUs in the ecological network. Dietary β-glucan supplementation has a positive impact on immune responses of the intestine of sea cucumber by activating NF-κB signaling pathway, probably through modulating the balance of intestinal microbiota.

  9. Alteration of gene expression in mammary gland tissue of dairy cows in response to dietary unsaturated fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Mach, N; Jacobs, A A A; Kruijt, L; van Baal, J; Smits, M A

    2011-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of supplementing unprotected dietary unsaturated fatty acids (UFAs) from different plant oils on gene expression in the mammary gland of grazing dairy cows. A total of 28 Holstein-Friesian dairy cows in mid-lactation were blocked according to parity, days in milk, milk yield and fat percentage. The cows were then randomly assigned to four UFA sources based on rapeseed, soybean, linseed or a mixture of the three oils for 23 days, after which, all 28 cows were switched to a control diet for an additional 28 days. On the last day of both periods, mammary gland biopsies were taken to study genome-wide differences in gene expression on Affymetrix GeneChip® Bovine Genome Arrays (no. 900493) by ServiceXS (Leiden, The Netherlands). Supplementation with UFAs resulted in increased milk yield but decreased milk fat and protein percentages. Furthermore, the proportion of de novo fatty acids (FAs) in the milk was reduced, whereas that of long-chain FAs increased. Applying a statistical cut-off of false discovery rate of q-values <0.05 together with an absolute fold change of 1.3, a total of 972 genes were found to be significantly affected through UFA supplementation, indicating that large transcriptional adaptations occurred in the mammary gland when grazing dairy cows were supplemented with unprotected dietary UFA. Gene sets related to cell development and remodeling, apoptosis, nutrient metabolic process, as well as immune system response were predominantly downregulated during UFA supplementation. Such molecular knowledge on the physiology of the mammary gland might provide the basis for further functional research on dairy cows.

  10. High dietary fat exacerbates weight gain and obesity in female liver fatty acid binding protein gene-ablated mice.

    PubMed

    Atshaves, Barbara P; McIntosh, Avery L; Storey, Stephen M; Landrock, Kerstin K; Kier, Ann B; Schroeder, Friedhelm

    2010-02-01

    Since liver fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP) facilitates uptake/oxidation of long-chain fatty acids in cultured transfected cells and primary hepatocytes, loss of L-FABP was expected to exacerbate weight gain and/or obesity in response to high dietary fat. Male and female wild-type (WT) and L-FABP gene-ablated mice, pair-fed a defined isocaloric control or high fat diet for 12 weeks, consumed equal amounts of food by weight and kcal. Male WT mice gained weight faster than their female WT counterparts regardless of diet. L-FABP gene ablation enhanced weight gain more in female than male mice-an effect exacerbated by high fat diet. Dual emission X-ray absorptiometry revealed high-fat fed male and female WT mice gained mostly fat tissue mass (FTM). L-FABP gene ablation increased FTM in female, but not male, mice-an effect also exacerbated by high fat diet. Concomitantly, L-FABP gene ablation decreased serum beta-hydroxybutyrate in male and female mice fed the control diet and, even more so, on the high-fat diet. Thus, L-FABP gene ablation decreased fat oxidation and sensitized all mice to weight gain as whole body FTM and LTM-with the most gain observed in FTM of control vs high-fat fed female L-FABP null mice. Taken together, these results indicate loss of L-FABP exacerbates weight gain and/or obesity in response to high dietary fat.

  11. [Effect of dietary restriction during development on the level of expression of longevity-associated genes in Drosophila melanogaster].

    PubMed

    Vaĭserman, A M; Koliada, A K; Zabuga, O G

    2013-01-01

    It is well known that dietary restriction (DR) may substantially affect the life span (LS) of various model organisms including Drosophila melanogaster. In our recent studies, it has been revealed that the reduction of the content of main nutrients in larval medium may lead to an increase of flies' LS. Analysis of these data suggested that the most likely candidate for such long-term adaptive changes is insects' epigenome (i.e., persistent changes in the activity of genes that are not related to changes in the DNA structure). To examine whether the observed effects may be associated with long-term changes in the epigenetic regulation of genes associated with aging and longevity, in the present study we determined the level of expression of InR and Sir2 genes that are related to the effects of DR. In the larvae developed in DR conditions, the significant increase in the level of transcription of both these genes compared to the controls has been detected. The adult males have shown a significant increase in the level of expression of InR gene while no such changes were observed in females. The Sir2 gene expression level was not different from the control level in adults of both sexes. It has been suggested that larval nutritional stress may lead to the induction of adaptive epigenetic rearrangements and, therefore, it can extend the flies' longevity.

  12. Adiponectin Gene Variants Are Associated with Insulin Sensitivity in Response to Dietary Fat Consumption in Caucasian Men2

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Martínez, Pablo; López-Miranda, José; Cruz-Teno, Cristina; Delgado-Lista, Javier; Jiménez-Gómez, Yolanda; Fernández, Juan Marcelo; Gómez, Maria José; Marín, Carmen; Pérez-Jiménez, Francisco; Ordovás, José María

    2008-01-01

    Adiponectin (adipoQ) gene variants have been associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus and insulin resistance. Our aim was to examine whether the presence of several polymorphisms at the adipoQ gene locus (-11391 G > A, 11377 C > G, 45 T > G, and 276 G > T) influences the insulin sensitivity to dietary fat. Healthy volunteers (30 men and 29 women) consumed 3 diets for 4 wk each: an initial period during which all subjects consumed a SFA-rich diet (38% total fat, 20% SFA), followed by a carbohydrate-rich diet (CHO) (30% total fat, 55% carbohydrate) or a monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA)-rich diet (38% total fat, 22% MUFA) following a randomized, crossover design. After participants consumed each diet, we tested peripheral insulin sensitivity with the insulin suppression test and measured plasma adiponectin concentrations. C/C homozygous men for the -11377 C > G single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) had a significantly greater decrease in the steady-state plasma glucose concentrations when changing from the SFA-rich (8.95 ± 0.6 mmol/L) to the MUFA-rich (6.04 ± 0.31 mmol/L) and CHO-rich (6.35 ± 0.38 mmol/L) diets than did those carrying the minor G allele (SFA, 6.65 ± 0.4 mmol/L; MUFA, 6.45 ± 0.4 mmol/L; CHO, 5.83 ± 0.3 mmol/L) (P sex × gene × diet interaction = 0.016). These differences did not occur in female participants. Furthermore, C/C men had lower plasma adiponectin concentrations than did C/C women (P sex × gene interaction = 0.015), independently of the dietary fat consumed. None of the variables examined were significantly associated with -11426 A > G, 45T > G, or 276 G > T SNP. In conclusion, C/C homozygous men for the -11377 C > G SNP at adipoQ gene were significantly less insulin resistant after consumption of the MUFA- and CHO-rich diets compared with the SFA-rich diet. This information should help in the identification of vulnerable populations or persons who will benefit from more personalized and mechanism-based dietary recommendations. PMID

  13. Gene and noncoding RNA regulation underlying photoreceptor protection: microarray study of dietary antioxidant saffron and photobiomodulation in rat retina

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Yuan; Valter, Krisztina; Bisti, Silvia; Eells, Janis; Stone, Jonathan

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To identify the genes and noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) involved in the neuroprotective actions of a dietary antioxidant (saffron) and of photobiomodulation (PBM). Methods We used a previously published assay of photoreceptor damage, in which albino Sprague Dawley rats raised in dim cyclic illumination (12 h 5 lux, 12 h darkness) were challenged by 24 h exposure to bright (1,000 lux) light. Experimental groups were protected against light damage by pretreatment with dietary saffron (1 mg/kg/day for 21 days) or PBM (9 J/cm2 at the eye, daily for 5 days). RNA from one eye of four animals in each of the six experimental groups (control, light damage [LD], saffron, PBM, saffronLD, and PBMLD) was hybridized to Affymetrix rat genome ST arrays. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis of 14 selected genes was used to validate the microarray results. Results LD caused the regulation of 175 entities (genes and ncRNAs) beyond criterion levels (p<0.05 in comparison with controls, fold-change >2). PBM pretreatment reduced the expression of 126 of these 175 LD-regulated entities below criterion; saffron pretreatment reduced the expression of 53 entities (50 in common with PBM). In addition, PBM pretreatment regulated the expression of 67 entities not regulated by LD, while saffron pretreatment regulated 122 entities not regulated by LD (48 in common with PBM). PBM and saffron, given without LD, regulated genes and ncRNAs beyond criterion levels, but in lesser numbers than during their protective action. A high proportion of the entities regulated by LD (>90%) were known genes. By contrast, ncRNAs were prominent among the entities regulated by PBM and saffron in their neuroprotective roles (73% and 62%, respectively). Conclusions Given alone, saffron and (more prominently) PBM both regulated significant numbers of genes and ncRNAs. Given before retinal exposure to damaging light, thus while exerting their neuroprotective action, they regulated much larger numbers of entities

  14. Sex differences in body composition, fat storage, and gene expression profile in Caenorhabditis elegans in response to dietary restriction.

    PubMed

    Miersch, Claudia; Döring, Frank

    2013-07-02

    The metabolic and health-promoting effects of dietary restriction (DR) have been extensively studied in several species. The response to DR with respect to sex is essentially unknown. To address this question, we used the model organism Caenorhabditis elegans to analyze body composition and gene expression in males and hermaphrodites in response to DR. Unexpectedly, DR increased the fat-to-fat-free mass ratio and enlarged lipid droplets in both sexes to a similar extent. These effects were linked to a downregulation of the lipase-like 5 (lipl-5) gene in both sexes at two developmental stages. By contrast, the reductions in body size, protein content, and total RNA content in response to DR were more pronounced in hermaphrodites than in males. Functional enrichment analysis of gene expression data showed a DR-induced downregulation of several embryogenesis-associated genes concomitant with an ongoing expression of sperm-associated genes in hermaphrodites. In conclusion, DR increases fat stores in both sexes of C. elegans in the form of large and possibly lipolysis-resistant lipid droplets and markedly alters the reproductive program in hermaphrodites but not in males.

  15. Prolonged Dietary Selenium Deficiency or Excess Does Not Globally Affect Selenoprotein Gene Expression and/or Protein Production in Various Tissues of Pigs123

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yan; Zhao, Hua; Zhang, Qiaoshan; Tang, Jiayong; Li, Ke; Xia, Xin-Jie; Wang, Kang-Ning; Li, Kui; Lei, Xin Gen

    2012-01-01

    We previously determined the effects of dietary selenium (Se) deficiency or excess on mRNA abundance of 12 selenoprotein genes in pig tissues. In this study, we determined the effect of dietary Se on mRNA levels of the remaining porcine selenoprotein genes along with protein production of 4 selenoproteins (Gpx1, Sepp1, Selh, and Sels) and body glucose homeostasis. Weanling male pigs (n = 24) were fed a Se-deficient (<0.02 mg Se/kg), basal diet supplemented with 0, 0.3, or 3.0 mg Se/kg as Se-enriched yeast (Angel Yeast) for 16 wk. Although mRNA abundance of the 13 selenoproteins in 10 tissues responded to dietary Se in 3 patterns, there was no common regulation for any given gene across all tissues or for any given tissue across all genes. Dietary Se affected (P < 0.05) 2, 3, 3, 5, 6, 7, 7, and 8 selenoprotein genes in muscle, hypothalamus, liver, kidney, heart, spleen, thyroid, and pituitary, respectively. Protein abundance of Gpx1, Sepp1, Selh, and Sels in 6 tissues was regulated (P < 0.05) by dietary Se concentrations in 3 ways. Compared with those fed 0.3 mg Se/kg, pigs fed 3.0 mg Se/kg became hyperinsulinemic (P < 0.05) and had lower (P < 0.05) tissue levels of serine/threonine protein kinase. In conclusion, dietary Se exerted no global regulation of gene transcripts or protein levels of individual selenoproteins across porcine tissues. Pigs may be a good model for studying mechanisms related to the potential prodiabetic risk of high-Se intake in humans. PMID:22739382

  16. The stability and degradation of dietary DNA in the gastrointestinal tract of mammals: implications for horizontal gene transfer and the biosafety of GMOs.

    PubMed

    Rizzi, Aurora; Raddadi, Noura; Sorlini, Claudia; Nordgrd, Lise; Nielsen, Kaare Magne; Daffonchio, Daniele

    2012-01-01

    The fate of dietary DNA in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of animals has gained renewed interest after the commercial introduction of genetically modified organisms (GMO). Among the concerns regarding GM food, are the possible consequences of horizontal gene transfer (HGT) of recombinant dietary DNA to bacteria or animal cells. The exposure of the GIT to dietary DNA is related to the extent of food processing, food composition, and to the level of intake. Animal feeding studies have demonstrated that a minor amount of fragmented dietary DNA may resist the digestive process. Mammals have been shown to take up dietary DNA from the GIT, but stable integration and expression of internalized DNA has not been demonstrated. Despite the ability of several bacterial species to acquire external DNA by natural transformation, in vivo transfer of dietary DNA to bacteria in the intestine has not been detected in the few experimental studies conducted so far. However, major methodological limitations and knowledge gaps of the mechanistic aspects of HGT calls for methodological improvements and further studies to understand the fate of various types of dietary DNA in the GIT.

  17. Dietary Flavanols Modulate the Transcription of Genes Associated with Cardiovascular Pathology without Changes in Their DNA Methylation State

    PubMed Central

    Boby, Céline; Leroux, Christine; Declerck, Ken; Szarc vel Szic, Katarzyna; Heyninck, Karen; Laukens, Kris; Bizet, Martin; Defrance, Matthieu; Dedeurwaerder, Sarah; Calonne, Emilie; Fuks, Francois; Haegeman, Guy; Haenen, Guido R. M. M.; Bast, Aalt; Weseler, Antje R.

    2014-01-01

    Background In a recent intervention study, the daily supplementation with 200 mg monomeric and oligomeric flavanols (MOF) from grape seeds for 8 weeks revealed a vascular health benefit in male smokers. The objective of the present study was to determine the impact of MOF consumption on the gene expression profile of leukocytes and to assess changes in DNA methylation. Methodology/Principal Findings Gene expression profiles were determined using whole genome microarrays (Agilent) and DNA methylation was assessed using HumanMethylation450 BeadChips (Illumina). MOF significantly modulated the expression of 864 genes. The majority of the affected genes are involved in chemotaxis, cell adhesion, cell infiltration or cytoskeleton organisation, suggesting lower immune cell adhesion to endothelial cells. This was corroborated by in vitro experiments showing that MOF exposure of monocytes attenuates their adhesion to TNF-α-stimulated endothelial cells. Nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) reporter gene assays confirmed that MOF decrease the activity of NF-κB. Strong inter-individual variability in the leukocytes' DNA methylation was observed. As a consequence, on group level, changes due to MOF supplementation could not be found. Conclusion Our study revealed that an 8 week daily supplementation with 200 mg MOF modulates the expression of genes associated with cardiovascular disease pathways without major changes of their DNA methylation state. However, strong inter-individual variation in leukocyte DNA methylation may obscure the subtle epigenetic response to dietary flavanols. Despite the lack of significant changes in DNA methylation, the modulation of gene expression appears to contribute to the observed vascular health effect of MOF in humans. PMID:24763279

  18. Polymorphisms in Genes Involved in Fatty Acid β-Oxidation Interact with Dietary Fat Intakes to Modulate the Plasma TG Response to a Fish Oil Supplementation

    PubMed Central

    Bouchard-Mercier, Annie; Rudkowska, Iwona; Lemieux, Simone; Couture, Patrick; Vohl, Marie-Claude

    2014-01-01

    A large inter-individual variability in the plasma triglyceride (TG) response to an omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 PUFA) supplementation has been observed. The objective was to examine gene-diet interaction effects on the plasma TG response after a fish oil supplementation, between single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within genes involved in fatty acid β-oxidation and dietary fat intakes. Two hundred and eight (208) participants were recruited in the greater Quebec City area. The participants completed a six-week fish oil supplementation (5 g fish oil/day: 1.9–2.2 g EPA and 1.1 g DHA). Dietary fat intakes were measured using three-day food records. SNPs within RXRA, CPT1A, ACADVL, ACAA2, ABCD2, ACOX1 and ACAA1 genes were genotyped using TAQMAN methodology. Gene-diet interaction effects on the plasma TG response were observed for SNPs within RXRA (rs11185660, rs10881576 and rs12339187) and ACOX1 (rs17583163) genes. For rs11185660, fold changes in RXRA gene expression levels were different depending on SFA intakes for homozygotes T/T. Gene-diet interaction effects of SNPs within genes involved in fatty acid β-oxidation and dietary fat intakes may be important in understanding the inter-individual variability in plasma TG levels and in the plasma TG response to a fish oil supplementation. PMID:24647074

  19. Dietary intake alters behavioral recovery and gene expression profiles in the brain of juvenile rats that have experienced a concussion

    PubMed Central

    Mychasiuk, Richelle; Hehar, Harleen; Ma, Irene; Esser, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Concussion and mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) research has made minimal progress diagnosing who will suffer from lingering symptomology or generating effective treatment strategies. Research demonstrates that dietary intake affects many biological systems including brain and neurological health. This study determined if exposure to a high fat diet (HFD) or caloric restriction (CR) altered post-concussion susceptibility or resiliency using a rodent model of pediatric concussion. Rats were maintained on HFD, CR, or standard diet (STD) throughout life (including the prenatal period and weaning). At postnatal day 30, male and female rats experienced a concussion or a sham injury which was followed by 17 days of testing. Prefrontal cortex and hippocampus tissue was collected for molecular profiling. Gene expression changes in BDNF, CREB, DNMT1, FGF-2, IGF1, LEP, PGC-1α, SIRT1, Tau, and TERT were analyzed with respect to injury and diet. Analysis of telomere length (TL) using peripheral skin cells and brain tissue found that TL in skin significantly correlated with TL in brain tissue and TL was affected by dietary intake and injury status. With respect to mTBI outcomes, diet was correlated with recovery as animals on the HFD often displayed poorer performance than animals on the CR diet. Molecular analysis demonstrated that diet induced epigenetic changes that can be associated with differences in individual predisposition and resiliency to post-concussion syndrome. PMID:25698949

  20. Daily variations in dietary lysine content alter the expression of genes related to proteolysis in chicken pectoralis major muscle.

    PubMed

    Tesseraud, Sophie; Bouvarel, Isabelle; Collin, Anne; Audouin, Estelle; Crochet, Sabine; Seiliez, Iban; Leterrier, Christine

    2009-01-01

    Amino acids are known to be anabolic factors that affect protein metabolism, but the response of animals to daily amino acid changes is little understood. We aimed to test the effects of feeding birds with alternations of diets varying in lysine content on the expression of genes related to proteolysis in chicken muscle. Cyclic feeding programs with 2 diets, each given for 24 h during 48-h cycles, were carried out from 10 d of age. Three programs were used: 1) control treatment with continuous distribution of a complete diet containing standard medium lysine level (ML; 11.9 g/kg); 2) alternation of diets with high (HL) and low (LL) lysine levels; 3) alternation of ML and LL diets, where LL = 70%, ML = 100%, HL = 130% of standard lysine level. The Pectoralis major muscles were sampled after 2 wk of cyclic feeding. Measurements included the expression patterns of 6 genes involved in proteolysis, and mammalian target of rapamycin and Forkhead box-O transcription factor (FoxO) signaling. Cathepsin B, m-calpain, and E3 ubiquitin ligases Muscle Ring Finger-1 and Muscle Atrophy F box were significantly overexpressed in chickens transiently fed the LL diet, whereas the mRNA levels of 20S proteasome C2 subunit and ubiquitin remained unchanged. Modifications of E3 ubiquitin ligase expression can be partly explained by significant changes in FoxO phosphorylation with cyclic dietary treatments. Our results suggest timing-sensitive regulation of proteolysis in chicken muscle according to dietary treatment and a high metabolism capacity to compensate for changes in amino acid supply, which might be used for nutritional purposes.

  1. Dietary fatty acids affect mitochondrial phospholipid compositions and mitochondrial gene expression of rainbow trout liver at different ages.

    PubMed

    Almaida-Pagán, P F; De Santis, C; Rubio-Mejía, O L; Tocher, D R

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondria are among the first responders to various stressors that challenge the homeostasis of cells and organisms. Mitochondrial decay is generally associated with impairment in the organelle bioenergetics function and increased oxidative stress, and it appears that deterioration of mitochondrial inner membrane phospholipids (PL), particularly cardiolipin (CL), and accumulation of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations are among the main mechanisms involved in this process. In the present study, liver mitochondrial membrane PL compositions, lipid peroxidation, and mtDNA gene expression were analyzed in rainbow trout fed three diets with the same base formulation but with lipid supplied either by fish oil (FO), rapeseed oil (RO), or high DHA oil (DHA) during 6 weeks. Specifically, two feeding trials were performed using fish from the same population of two ages (1 and 3 years), and PL class compositions of liver mitochondria, fatty acid composition of individual PL classes, TBARS content, and mtDNA expression were determined. Dietary fatty acid composition strongly affected mitochondrial membrane composition from trout liver but observed changes did not fully reflect the diet, particularly when it contained high DHA. The changes were PL specific, CL being particularly resistant to changes in DHA. Some significant differences observed in expression of mtDNA with diet may suggest long-term dietary effects in mitochondrial gene expression which could affect electron transport chain function. All the changes were influenced by fish age, which could be related to the different growth rates observed between 1- and 3-year-old trout but that could also indicate age-related changes in the ability to maintain structural homeostasis of mitochondrial membranes.

  2. 5-lipoxygenase and 5-lipoxygenase-activating protein gene polymorphisms, dietary linoleic acid, and risk for breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun; John, Esther M; Ingles, Sue Ann

    2008-10-01

    The n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid 5-lipoxygenase pathway has been shown to play a role in the carcinogenesis of breast cancer. We conducted a population-based case-control study among Latina, African-American, and White women from the San Francisco Bay area to examine the association of the 5-lipoxygenase gene (ALOX5) and 5-lipoxygenase-activating protein gene (ALOX5AP) with breast cancer risk. Three ALOX5AP polymorphisms [poly(A) microsatellite, -4900 A>G (rs4076128), and -3472 A>G (rs4073259)] and three ALOX5 polymorphisms [Sp1-binding site (-GGGCGG-) variable number of tandem repeat polymorphism, -1279 G>T (rs6593482), and 760 G>A (rs2228065)] were genotyped in 802 cases and 888 controls. We did not find significant main effects of ALOX5 and ALOX5AP genotypes on breast cancer risk that were consistent across race or ethnicity; however, there was a significant interaction between the ALOX5AP -4900 A>G polymorphism and dietary linoleic acid intake (P=0.03). Among women consuming a diet high in linoleic acid (top quartile of intake, >17.4 g/d), carrying the AA genotype was associated with higher breast cancer risk (age- and race-adjusted odds ratio, 1.8; 95% confidence interval, 1.2-2.9) compared with carrying genotypes AG or GG. Among women consuming dietary fat and breast cancer should take into account genetic predisposition related to n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid metabolism.

  3. Dietary L-arginine supplementation differentially regulates expression of lipid-metabolic genes in porcine adipose tissue and skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Tan, Bie; Yin, Yulong; Liu, Zhiqiang; Tang, Wenjie; Xu, Haijun; Kong, Xiangfeng; Li, Xinguo; Yao, Kang; Gu, Wanting; Smith, Stephen B; Wu, Guoyao

    2011-05-01

    Obesity is a major health crisis worldwide and new treatments are needed to fight this epidemic. Using the swine model, we recently reported that dietary L-arginine (Arg) supplementation promotes muscle gain and reduces body-fat accretion. The present study tested the hypothesis that Arg regulates expression of key genes involved in lipid metabolism in skeletal muscle and white adipose tissue. Sixteen 110-day-old barrows were fed for 60 days a corn- and soybean-meal-based diet supplemented with 1.0% Arg or 2.05% L-alanine (isonitrogenous control). Blood samples, longissimus dorsi muscle and overlying subcutaneous adipose tissue were obtained from 170-day-old pigs for biochemical studies. Serum concentrations of leptin, alanine and glutamine were lower, but those for Arg and proline were higher in Arg-supplemented pigs than in control pigs. The percentage of oleic acid was higher but that of stearic acid and linoleic acid was lower in muscle of Arg-supplemented pigs, compared with control pigs. Dietary Arg supplementation increased mRNA levels for fatty acid synthase in muscle, while decreasing those for lipoprotein lipase, glucose transporter-4, and acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase-α in adipose tissue. Additionally, mRNA levels for hormone sensitive lipase were higher in adipose tissue of Arg-supplemented pigs compared with control pigs. These results indicate that Arg differentially regulates expression of fat-metabolic genes in skeletal muscle and white adipose tissue, therefore favoring lipogenesis in muscle but lipolysis in adipose tissue. Our novel findings provide a biochemical basis for explaining the beneficial effect of Arg in improving the metabolic profile in mammals (including obese humans).

  4. Novel gene-by-environment interactions: APOB and NPC1L1 variants affect the relationship between dietary and total plasma cholesterol[S

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Daniel S.; Burt, Amber A.; Ranchalis, Jane E.; Jarvik, Ella R.; Rosenthal, Elisabeth A.; Hatsukami, Thomas S.; Furlong, Clement E.; Jarvik, Gail P.

    2013-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in developed countries. Plasma cholesterol level is a key risk factor in CVD pathogenesis. Genetic and dietary variation both influence plasma cholesterol; however, little is known about dietary interactions with genetic variants influencing the absorption and transport of dietary cholesterol. We sought to determine whether gut expressed variants predicting plasma cholesterol differentially affected the relationship between dietary and plasma cholesterol levels in 1,128 subjects (772/356 in the discovery/replication cohorts, respectively). Four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within three genes (APOB, CETP, and NPC1L1) were significantly associated with plasma cholesterol in the discovery cohort. These were subsequently evaluated for gene-by-environment (GxE) interactions with dietary cholesterol for the prediction of plasma cholesterol, with significant findings tested for replication. Novel GxE interactions were identified and replicated for two variants: rs1042034, an APOB Ser4338Asn missense SNP and rs2072183 (in males only), a synonymous NPC1L1 SNP in linkage disequilibrium with SNPs 5′ of NPC1L1. This study identifies the presence of novel GxE and gender interactions implying that differential gut absorption is the basis for the variant associations with plasma cholesterol. These GxE interactions may account for part of the “missing heritability” not accounted for by genetic associations. PMID:23482652

  5. Increasing levels of dietary crystalline methionine affect plasma methionine profiles, ammonia excretion, and the expression of genes related to the hepatic intermediary metabolism in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Rolland, Marine; Skov, Peter V; Larsen, Bodil K; Holm, Jørgen; Gómez-Requeni, Pedro; Dalsgaard, Johanne

    2016-08-01

    Strictly carnivorous fish with high requirements for dietary protein, such as rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) are interesting models for studying the role of amino acids as key regulators of intermediary metabolism. Methionine is an essential amino acid for rainbow trout, and works as a signalling factor in different metabolic pathways. The study investigated the effect of increasing dietary methionine intake on the intermediary metabolism in the liver of juvenile rainbow trout. For this purpose, five diets were formulated with increasing methionine levels from 0.60 to 1.29% dry matter. The diets were fed in excess for six weeks before three sampling campaigns carried out successively to elucidate (i) the hepatic expression of selected genes involved in lipid, glucose and amino acid metabolism; (ii) the postprandial ammonia excretion; and (iii) the postprandial plasma methionine concentrations. The transcript levels of enzymes involved in lipid metabolism (fatty acid synthase, glucose 6 phosphate dehydrogenase and carnitine palmitoyl transferase 1 a), gluconeogenesis (fructose-1,6-biphosphatase) and amino acid catabolism (alanine amino transferase and glutamate dehydrogenase) were significantly affected by the increase in dietary methionine. Changes in gene expression reflected to some extent the decrease in ammonia excretion (P=0.022) and in the hepatosomatic index (HSI; P<0.001) when dietary methionine increased. Postprandial plasma methionine concentrations correlated positively with the dietary level (P<0.001) at the different sampling points. The study shows that the expression of several genes related to the hepatic intermediary metabolism in rainbow trout responded in a dose-dependent manner to increasing levels of dietary methionine.

  6. Dietary fish protein alters blood lipid concentrations and hepatic genes involved in cholesterol homeostasis in the rat model.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Anjali; Bettzieche, Anja; Hirche, Frank; Brandsch, Corinna; Stangl, Gabriele I; Eder, Klaus

    2006-10-01

    It is known that various dietary plant proteins are capable of influencing the lipid metabolism of human subjects and animals when compared with casein. Less, however, is known about the effects of fish protein on the cholesterol and triacylglycerol metabolism. Therefore, two experiments were conducted in which rats were fed diets containing 200 g of either fish protein, prepared from Alaska pollack fillets, or casein, which served as control, per kilogram, over 20 and 22 d, respectively. As parameters of lipid metabolism, the concentrations of cholesterol and triacylglycerols in the plasma and liver, the faecal excretion of bile acids and the hepatic expression of genes encoding proteins involved in lipid homeostasis were determined. In both experiments, rats fed fish protein had higher concentrations of cholesteryl esters in the liver, a lower concentration of cholesterol in the HDL fraction (rho > 1.063 kg/l) and lower plasma triacylglycerol concentrations than rats fed casein (P < 0.05). The gene expression analysis performed in experiment 2 showed that rats fed fish protein had higher relative mRNA concentrations of sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP)-2, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase, LDL receptor, apo AI, scavenger receptor B1 and lecithin-cholesterol-acyltransferase in their liver than did rats fed casein (P < 0.05). The faecal excretion of bile acids and the mRNA concentrations of cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase, SREBP-1c and corresponding target genes were not altered. These findings show that fish protein had multiple effects on plasma and liver lipids that were at least in part caused by an altered expression of the hepatic genes involved in lipid homeostasis.

  7. Maternal dietary betaine supplementation modifies hepatic expression of cholesterol metabolic genes via epigenetic mechanisms in newborn piglets.

    PubMed

    Cai, Demin; Jia, Yimin; Lu, Jingyu; Yuan, Mengjie; Sui, Shiyan; Song, Haogang; Zhao, Ruqian

    2014-11-14

    To elucidate the effects of maternal dietary betaine supplementation on hepatic expression of cholesterol metabolic genes in newborn piglets and the involved epigenetic mechanisms, we fed gestational sows with control or betaine-supplemented diets (3 g/kg) throughout pregnancy. Neonatal piglets born to betaine-supplemented sows had higher serum methionine concentration and hepatic content of betaine, which was associated with significantly up-regulated hepatic expression of glycine N-methyltransferase. Prenatal betaine exposure increased hepatic cholesterol content and modified the hepatic expression of cholesterol metabolic genes in neonatal piglets. Sterol regulatory element-binding protein 2 was down-regulated at both mRNA and protein levels, while 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA reductase (HMGCR) was down-regulated at the mRNA level, but up-regulated at the protein level, in betaine-exposed piglets. The transcriptional repression of HMGCR was associated with CpG island hypermethylation and higher repressive histone mark H3K27me3 (histone H3 lysine 27 trimethylation) on the promoter, whereas increased HMGCR protein content was associated with significantly decreased expression of miR-497. Furthermore, LDL receptor was significantly down-regulated at both mRNA and protein levels in the liver of betaine-exposed piglets, which was associated with promoter CpG hypermethylation. In addition, the expression of cholesterol-27α-hydroxylase (CYP27α1) was up-regulated at both mRNA and protein levels, while the expression of cholesterol-7α-hydroxylase (CYP7α1) was increased at the mRNA level, but unchanged at the protein level associated with increased expression of miR-181. These results indicate that maternal betaine supplementation increases hepatic cholesterol content in neonatal piglets through epigenetic regulations of cholesterol metabolic genes, which involve alterations in DNA and histone methylation and in the expression of microRNA targeting these genes.

  8. Dietary lutein modulates growth and survival genes in prostate cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Rafi, Mohamed M; Kanakasabai, Saravanan; Gokarn, Sarita V; Krueger, Eric G; Bright, John J

    2015-02-01

    Lutein is a carotenoid pigment present in fruits and vegetables that has anti-inflammatory and antitumor properties. In this study, we examined the effect of lutein on proliferation and survival-associated genes in prostate cancer (PC-3) cells. We found that in vitro culture of PC-3 cells with lutein induced mild decrease in proliferation that improved in combination treatment with peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) agonists and other chemotherapeutic agents. Flow cytometry analyses showed that lutein improved drug-induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in prostate cancer. Gene array and quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analyses showed that lutein altered the expression of growth and apoptosis-associated biomarker genes in PC-3 cells. These findings highlight that lutein modulates the expression of growth and survival-associated genes in prostate cancer cells.

  9. Coexisting role of fasting or feeding and dietary lipids in the control of gene expression of enzymes involved in the synthesis of saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Cruz, Maricela; Sánchez González, Raúl; Sánchez García, Apolos M; Lòpez-Alarcòn, Mardia

    2012-03-15

    In the liver, maintaining lipid homeostasis is regulated by physiological and exogenous factors. These lipids are synthesized by Fasn, elongases and desaturases. Interactions in an organism among these factors are quite complex and, to date, relatively little is known about them. The aim of this study was to evaluate the coexisting role of physiological (insulin, fasting and feeding) and exogenous (dietary lipids) factors in the control of gene expression of Fasn, elongases and desaturases via Srebf-1c in liver from rats. Gene expression of encoding enzymes for fatty acid synthesis and fatty acid composition was evaluated in liver from rats in fasting and feeding (at 30, 60, 90 and 120 min after feeding) when food intake (adequate or high-lipid diet) was synchronized to a restricted period of 7h. Fasn, Scd and Fads2 were induced during 120 min after initial feeding in both dietary groups. This induction may be activated in part by insulin via Srebf-1c. Also, we showed for the first time that Elovl7 may be regulated by insulin and dietary lipids. The failure to synthesize saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids is consistent with a downregulation of Fasn and Scd, respectively, by dietary lipids. A higher content of LC-PUFAs was observed due to a high expression of Elovl2 and Elovl5, although Fads2 was suppressed by dietary lipids. Therefore, elongases may have a mechanism that is Srebf-1c-independent. This study suggests that a high-lipid diet triggers, during 120 min after initial feeding, a tight coordination among de novo lipogenesis, elongation, and desaturation and may not always be regulated by Srebf-1c. Finally, upregulation by feeding (insulin) of Fasn, Scd, Fads2 and Srebf-1c is insufficient to compensate for the inhibitory effect of dietary lipids.

  10. Optimizing Dietary Restriction for Genetic Epistasis Analysis and Gene Discovery in C. elegans

    PubMed Central

    Mair, William; Panowski, Siler H.; Shaw, Reuben J.; Dillin, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    Dietary restriction (DR) increases mammalian lifespan and decreases susceptibility to many age-related diseases. Lifespan extension due to DR is conserved across a wide range of species. Recent research has focused upon genetically tractable model organisms such as C. elegans to uncover the genetic mechanisms that regulate the response to DR, in the hope that this information will provide insight into the mammalian response and yield potential therapeutic targets. However, no consensus exists as to the best protocol to apply DR to C. elegans and potential key regulators of DR are protocol-specific. Here we define a DR method that better fulfills criteria required for an invertebrate DR protocol to mirror mammalian studies. The food intake that maximizes longevity varies for different genotypes and informative epistasis analysis with another intervention is only achievable at this ‘optimal DR’ level. Importantly therefore, the degree of restriction imposed using our method can easily be adjusted to determine the genotype-specific optimum DR level. We used this protocol to test two previously identified master regulators of DR in the worm. In contrast to previous reports, we find that DR can robustly extend the lifespan of worms lacking the AMP-activated protein kinase catalytic subunit AAK2 or the histone deacetylase SIR-2.1, highlighting the importance of first optimizing DR to identify universal regulators of DR mediated longevity. PMID:19229346

  11. Dietary exposure of largemouth bass to OCPs changes expression of genes important for reproduction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garcia-Reyero, Natalia; Barber, D.S.; Gross, T.S.; Johnson, K.G.; Sepulveda, M.S.; Szabo, N.J.; Denslow, N.D.

    2006-01-01

    Dieldrin and p,p???-DDE are ubiquitous contaminants known to act as endocrine disruptors, causing impaired development and reproduction in fish and wildlife. In order to elucidate the mechanisms by which dieldrin and p,p???-DDE cause endocrine disruption in largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides), fish were exposed subchronically through the diet to both contaminants. Following 120 days of exposure, p,p???-DDE decreased estradiol in females, but increased 11-ketotestosterone in both sexes. Dieldrin on the other hand, decreased estradiol and 11-ketotestosterone in both sexes. Both pesticides also altered steady state mRNA expression levels of a set of genes chosen to represent three possible mechanisms of endocrine disruption: (1) direct interaction with soluble sex steroid receptors, (2) biosynthesis of endogenous sex hormones, and (3) metabolism of endogenous hormones. p,p???-DDE acted as a weak estrogen, increasing the expression of vitellogenin and estrogen receptor ?? in the liver. p,p???-DDE also altered the expression of genes involved in the synthesis of endogenous hormones as well as their metabolism. Dieldrin, on the other hand, only altered expression of vitellogenin and not estrogen receptor ??. Dieldrin also altered the expression of genes involved in hormone synthesis and metabolism, and it dramatically lowered plasma hormone levels. Both pesticides targeted expression of genes involved in all three modes of action, suggesting that they each have multiple modes of action. ?? 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Profile of select hepatic insulin signaling pathway genes in response to 2-aminoanthracene dietary ingestion.

    PubMed

    Mattis, N D; Jay, J W; Barnett, G W; Rosaldo, J J; Howerth, E W; Means, J C; Gato, W E

    2014-01-01

    Some genes that regulate various processes such as insulin signaling, glucose metabolism, fatty acid, and lipid biosynthesis were profiled. The objective of the current investigation is to examine the mRNA expression of some genes that mediate insulin signaling due to 2AA toxicity. 2AA is a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) that has been detected in broiled food and tobacco smoke. Twenty-four post-weaning 3-4-week-old F344 male rats were exposed to 0 mg/kg-diet, 50 mg/kg-diet, 75 mg/kg-diet, and 100 mg/kgdiet 2AA for 2 weeks and 4 weeks. The mRNA expression of AKT1, G6PC, GCK, GLUT4, INSR, IRS1, PP1R3C, PAMPK, SOCS 2, and SREBF1 was determined by qRTPCR followed by the quantification of G6PC and AMPK via ELISA. The results suggest that 2AA modulates these genes depending on the length of exposure. Up-regulation of AMPK and SOCS2 genes in animals treated with 100 mg/kg-diet and 50 mg/kg-diet, respectively, during 14 days of feeding was noted. G6PC expression was inhibited in the 2-week group while being dose-dependently increased in the 4-week group. Hepatic activity of G6PC was enhanced significantly in the livers of rats that ingested 2AA. It appears that 2AA intoxication leads to the activation of irs1 and akt1 genes in the liver. Quantified AMPK amounts increased significantly in the short-term treatment group. Dose-dependent rise of AMPK in animals treated to 2AA showed an increased production of hepatic AMPK in response to the toxicity of 2AA in order to maintain cellular homeostasis. In contrast, the reduction in AMPK concentration in treated animals within the 4-week set indicated an adaptive recovery.

  13. Dietary fermentable fiber upregulated immune related genes expression, increased innate immune response and resistance of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) against Aeromonas hydrophila.

    PubMed

    Yarahmadi, Peyman; Kolangi Miandare, Hamed; Farahmand, Hamid; Mirvaghefi, Alireza; Hoseinifar, Seyed Hossein

    2014-12-01

    This trial was carried out to investigate the effects of dietary administration of Vitacel(®), a commercial fermentable fiber, on immune related genes (Lysozyme, TNFα and HSP70) expression, innate immune response and resistance of rainbow trout against Aeromonas hydrophila. 120 healthy rainbow trout (81.65 ± 1.49 g) were distributed in six fiberglass tanks assigned to two treatments. The treatments were feeding rainbow trout with diets supplemented with 0 (control) or 10 g kg(-1) Vitacel(®) for 45 days. The results revealed that administration of fermentable fiber significantly (P < 0.05) upregulated lysozyme and TNFα gene expression. HSP70 gene expression was significantly lower in Vitacel(®) fed fish at the end of trial (P < 0.05). Furthermore dietary administrations of Vitacel(®) remarkably elevated rainbow trout innate immune parameters include serum lysozyme, ACH50, bactericidal activity and agglutination antibody titer (P < 0.05). Administration of 10 g kg(-1) Vitacel(®) significantly increased rainbow trout resistance against A. hydrophila (P < 0.05). The results of present study revealed that dietary Vitacel(®) can upregulates immune related genes expression and elevates innate immune response and disease resistance of rainbow trout.

  14. Dietary Assessment

    Cancer.gov

    The Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program's goals in Dietary Assessment are to increase the precision of dietary intake estimates by improving self-report of dietary intake and the analytic procedures for processing reported information.

  15. Dietary quercetin supplementation increases serum antioxidant capacity and alters hepatic gene expression profile in rats.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Liting; Wu, Jianquan; Yang, Jijun; Wei, Jingyu; Gao, Weina; Guo, Changjiang

    2011-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of quercetin on hepatic gene expression profile in rats. Twenty male Wistar rats were divided into the control group and the quercetin-treated group, in which a diet containing 0.5% quercetin was provided. After two weeks of feeding, serum and liver samples were collected. Biomarkers of oxidative stress, including serum ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) values and levels of ascorbic acid, vitamin E (VE), glutathione (GSH) and malondialdehyde (MDA) were measured. The hepatic gene expression profile was examined using a microarray technique. The results showed that serum FRAP value, levels of ascorbic acid and VE were increased significantly, whereas serum levels of GSH and MDA were not changed significantly after quercetin supplementation. The microarray analysis revealed that some hepatic genes involved in phase 2 reaction, metabolism of cholesterol and homocysteine, and energy production were expressed differentially in response to quercetin administration. These findings provide a molecular basis for the elucidation of the actions played by quercetin in vivo.

  16. Selenoprotein Gene Expression in Thyroid and Pituitary of Young Pigs Is Not Affected by Dietary Selenium Deficiency or Excess1–3

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Ji-Chang; Zhao, Hua; Li, Jun-Gang; Xia, Xin-Jie; Wang, Kang-Ning; Zhang, Ya-Jun; Liu, Yan; Zhao, Ying; Lei, Xin Gen

    2009-01-01

    Expression and function of selenoproteins in endocrine tissues remain unclear, largely due to limited sample availability. Pigs have a greater metabolic similarity and tissue size than rodents as a model of humans for that purpose. We conducted 2 experiments: 1) we cloned 5 novel porcine selenoprotein genes; and 2) we compared the effects of dietary selenium (Se) on mRNA levels of 12 selenoproteins, activities of 4 antioxidant enzymes, and Se concentrations in testis, thyroid, and pituitary with those in liver of pigs. In Experiment 1, porcine Gpx2, Sephs2, Sep15, Sepn1, and Sepp1 were cloned and demonstrated 84–94% of coding sequence homology to human genes. In Experiment 2, weanling male pigs (n = 30) were fed a Se-deficient (0.02 mg Se/kg) diet added with 0, 0.3, or 3.0 mg Se/kg as Se-enriched yeast for 8 wk. Although dietary Se resulted in dose-dependent increases (P < 0.05) in Se concentrations and GPX activities in all 4 tissues, it did not affect the mRNA levels of any selenoprotein gene in thyroid or pituitary. Testis mRNA levels of Txnrd1 and Sep15 were decreased (P < 0.05) by increasing dietary Se from 0.3 to 3.0 mg/kg. Comparatively, expressions of Gpx2, Gpx4, Dio3, and Sep15 were high in pituitary and Dio1, Sepp1, Sephs2, and Gpx1 were high in liver. In conclusion, the mRNA abundances of the 12 selenoprotein genes in thyroid and pituitary of young pigs were resistant to dietary Se deficiency or excess. PMID:19357213

  17. Effects of dietary zinc on gene expression of antioxidant enzymes and heat shock proteins in hepatopancreas of abalone Haliotis discus hannai.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chenglong; Zhang, Wenbing; Mai, Kangsen; Xu, Wei; Zhong, Xiaoli

    2011-06-01

    The expression patterns of different genes encoding antioxidant enzymes and heat shock proteins were investigated, in present study, by real-time quantitative PCR in the hepatopancreas of abalone Haliotis discus hannai fed with different levels of dietary zinc (6.69, 33.8, 710.6 and 3462.5 mg/kg) for 20 weeks. The antioxidant enzymes include Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase (Cu/Zn-SOD), Mn-superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD), catalase (CAT), mu-glutathione-s-transferase (mu-GST) and thioredoxin peroxidase (TPx). The results showed that the mRNA expression of these antioxidant enzymes increased and reached the maximum at the dietary zinc level of 33.8 mg/kg, and then dropped progressively. Expression levels of the heat shock proteins (HSP26, HSP70 and HSP90) firstly increased at 33.8 mg/kg dietary Zn level, and reached to the maximum at 710.6 mg/kg, then dropped at 3462.5 mg/kg (p<0.05). Excessive dietary Zn (710.6 and 3462.5 mg/kg) significantly increases the Zn content and significantly decreases the total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) in hepatopancreas (p<0.05). These findings showed that dietary Zn (33.8 mg/kg) could highly trigger the expression levels of antioxidant enzymes and heat shock proteins, but excessive dietary Zn (710.6 and 3462.5 mg/kg) induces a high oxidative stress in abalone.

  18. Antioxidative Dietary Compounds Modulate Gene Expression Associated with Apoptosis, DNA Repair, Inhibition of Cell Proliferation and Migration

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Likui; Gao, Shijuan; Jiang, Wei; Luo, Cheng; Xu, Maonian; Bohlin, Lars; Rosendahl, Markus; Huang, Wenlin

    2014-01-01

    Many dietary compounds are known to have health benefits owing to their antioxidative and anti-inflammatory properties. To determine the molecular mechanism of these food-derived compounds, we analyzed their effect on various genes related to cell apoptosis, DNA damage and repair, oxidation and inflammation using in vitro cell culture assays. This review further tests the hypothesis proposed previously that downstream products of COX-2 (cyclooxygenase-2) called electrophilic oxo-derivatives induce antioxidant responsive elements (ARE), which leads to cell proliferation under antioxidative conditions. Our findings support this hypothesis and show that cell proliferation was inhibited when COX-2 was down-regulated by polyphenols and polysaccharides. Flattened macrophage morphology was also observed following the induction of cytokine production by polysaccharides extracted from viili, a traditional Nordic fermented dairy product. Coix lacryma-jobi (coix) polysaccharides were found to reduce mitochondrial membrane potential and induce caspase-3- and 9-mediated apoptosis. In contrast, polyphenols from blueberries were involved in the ultraviolet-activated p53/Gadd45/MDM2 DNA repair system by restoring the cell membrane potential. Inhibition of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 by saponin extracts of ginsenoside (Ginsen) and Gynostemma and inhibition of S100A4 by coix polysaccharides inhibited cancer cell migration and invasion. These observations suggest that antioxidants and changes in cell membrane potential are the major driving forces that transfer signals through the cell membrane into the cytosol and nucleus, triggering gene expression, changes in cell proliferation and the induction of apoptosis or DNA repair. PMID:25226533

  19. Dietary conjugated linoleic acid affects blood parameters, liver morphology and expression of selected hepatic genes in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Koronowicz, A A; Banks, P; Szymczyk, B; Leszczyńska, T; Master, A; Piasna, E; Szczepański, W; Domagała, D; Kopeć, A; Piątkowska, E; Laidler, P

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this research were to investigate the effect of a conjugated linoleic acid (CLA)-enriched diet on Isa Brown laying hen health status and to provide a comprehensive analysis of changes in blood parameters, liver morphology and selected hepatic gene expression. Hens were allocated to the control and experimental group (diet enriched with 0.75% CLA) for a total period of 4 m. At the end of the experiment half of the hens from each group were slaughtered for analyses. The remaining hens were transferred to an organic farm for the next 5 m and fed on the diet without CLA supplementation. The CLA-enriched diet resulted in significant changes in blood and serum parameters; specifically, haematocrit (HCT), mean corpuscular volume (MCV) and white blood cells (WBC) count were decreased compared to the control. The total cholesterol (TC) was not significantly affected while the triacylglycerol's (TG) concentration was elevated. The activity of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) was significantly increased in the CLA-supplemented group, while aspartate aminotransferase (AST) showed an increasing tendency. Liver biopsies showed pathological changes classified as non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Additionally, the expression of hepatic genes involved in fatty acids synthesis (ME1, ACLY, ACC, FASN, SCD1), oxidation (CPT1α, PPARA), detoxification processes (Cytochrome P450, CYP, Flavin-containing monooxygenase, FMO3), oxidative stress (NOX4, XbP1) and inflammation (IL6, TNFα) were elevated. Cessation of CLA supplementation for 5 m of organic farming resulted in normalisation of blood and hepatic parameters to the levels observed in control hens. The results of this study indicate that dietary CLA triggers an integrated stress response in laying hens and activates mechanisms involved in liver detoxification.

  20. Vitamin D in a Northern Canadian First Nation Population: Dietary Intake, Serum Concentrations and Functional Gene Polymorphisms

    PubMed Central

    Larcombe, Linda; Mookherjee, Neeloffer; Slater, Joyce; Slivinski, Caroline; Singer, Matthew; Whaley, Chris; Denechezhe, Lizette; Matyas, Sara; Turner-Brannen, Emily; Nickerson, Peter; Orr, Pamela

    2012-01-01

    The wide spectrum of vitamin D activity has focused attention on its potential role in the elevated burden of disease in a northern Canadian First Nations (Dené) cohort. Vitamin D insufficiency, and gene polymorphisms in the vitamin D receptor (VDR) and vitamin D binding protein (VDBP) have been implicated in susceptibility to infectious and chronic diseases. The objectives of this study were to determine the contribution of vitamin D from food, and measure the serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25-OHD3) and VDBP in Dené participants. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with the dysregulation of the innate immune response were typed and counted. Potential correlations between the SNPs and serum concentrations of 25-OHD3 and VDBP were evaluated. Venous blood was collected in summer and winter over a one-year period and analyzed for 25-OHD3 and VDBP concentrations (N = 46). A questionnaire was administered to determine the amount of dietary vitamin D consumed. Sixty-one percent and 30% of the participants had 25-OHD3 serum concentrations <75 nmol/L in the winter and summer respectively. Mean vitamin D binding protein concentrations were within the normal range in the winter but below normal in the summer. VDBP and VDR gene polymorphisms affect the bioavailability and regulation of 25-OHD3. The Dené had a high frequency of the VDBP D432E-G allele (71%) and the Gc1 genotype (90%), associated with high concentrations of VDBP and a high binding affinity to 25-OHD3. The Dené had a high frequency of VDR Fok1-f allele (82%), which has been associated with a down-regulated Th1 immune response. VDBP and VDR polymorphisms, and low winter 25-OHD3 serum concentrations may be risk factors for infectious diseases and chronic conditions related to the dysregulation of the vitamin D pathway. PMID:23185470

  1. Dietary soy and meat proteins induce distinct physiological and gene expression changes in rats

    PubMed Central

    Song, Shangxin; Hooiveld, Guido J.; Li, Mengjie; Zhao, Fan; Zhang, Wei; Xu, Xinglian; Muller, Michael; Li, Chunbao; Zhou, Guanghong

    2016-01-01

    This study reports on a comprehensive comparison of the effects of soy and meat proteins given at the recommended level on physiological markers of metabolic syndrome and the hepatic transcriptome. Male rats were fed semi-synthetic diets for 1 wk that differed only regarding protein source, with casein serving as reference. Body weight gain and adipose tissue mass were significantly reduced by soy but not meat proteins. The insulin resistance index was improved by soy, and to a lesser extent by meat proteins. Liver triacylglycerol contents were reduced by both protein sources, which coincided with increased plasma triacylglycerol concentrations. Both soy and meat proteins changed plasma amino acid patterns. The expression of 1571 and 1369 genes were altered by soy and meat proteins respectively. Functional classification revealed that lipid, energy and amino acid metabolic pathways, as well as insulin signaling pathways were regulated differently by soy and meat proteins. Several transcriptional regulators, including NFE2L2, ATF4, Srebf1 and Rictor were identified as potential key upstream regulators. These results suggest that soy and meat proteins induce distinct physiological and gene expression responses in rats and provide novel evidence and suggestions for the health effects of different protein sources in human diets. PMID:26857845

  2. Dietary soy and meat proteins induce distinct physiological and gene expression changes in rats.

    PubMed

    Song, Shangxin; Hooiveld, Guido J; Li, Mengjie; Zhao, Fan; Zhang, Wei; Xu, Xinglian; Muller, Michael; Li, Chunbao; Zhou, Guanghong

    2016-02-09

    This study reports on a comprehensive comparison of the effects of soy and meat proteins given at the recommended level on physiological markers of metabolic syndrome and the hepatic transcriptome. Male rats were fed semi-synthetic diets for 1 wk that differed only regarding protein source, with casein serving as reference. Body weight gain and adipose tissue mass were significantly reduced by soy but not meat proteins. The insulin resistance index was improved by soy, and to a lesser extent by meat proteins. Liver triacylglycerol contents were reduced by both protein sources, which coincided with increased plasma triacylglycerol concentrations. Both soy and meat proteins changed plasma amino acid patterns. The expression of 1571 and 1369 genes were altered by soy and meat proteins respectively. Functional classification revealed that lipid, energy and amino acid metabolic pathways, as well as insulin signaling pathways were regulated differently by soy and meat proteins. Several transcriptional regulators, including NFE2L2, ATF4, Srebf1 and Rictor were identified as potential key upstream regulators. These results suggest that soy and meat proteins induce distinct physiological and gene expression responses in rats and provide novel evidence and suggestions for the health effects of different protein sources in human diets.

  3. Glucokinase regulatory protein (GCKR) gene polymorphism affects postprandial lipemic response in a dietary intervention study

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Haiqing; Pollin, Toni I.; Damcott, Coleen M.; McLenithan, John C.; Mitchell, Braxton D.; Shuldiner, Alan R.

    2010-01-01

    Postprandial triglyceridemia is an emerging risk factor for cardiovascular disease. However, most of the genes that influence postprandial triglyceridemia are not known. We evaluated whether a common nonsynonymous SNP rs1260326/P446L in the glucokinase regulatory protein (GCKR) gene influenced variation in the postprandial lipid response after a high-fat challenge in seven hundred and seventy participants in the Amish HAPI Heart Study who underwent an oral high-fat challenge and had blood samples taken in the fasting state and during the postprandial phase at 1, 2, 3, 4, and 6 hours. We found that the minor T allele at rs1260326 was associated with significantly higher fasting TG levels after adjusting for age, sex, and family structure (Pa = 0.06 for additive model, and Pr=0.0003 for recessive model). During the fat challenge, the T allele was associated with significantly higher maximum TG level (Pa = 0.006), incremental maximum TG level (Pa = 0.006), TG area under the curve (Pa = 0.02) and incremental TG area under the curve (Pa = 0.03). Our data indicate that the rs1260326 T allele of GCKR is associated with both higher fasting levels of TG as well as the postprandial TG response, which may result in higher atherogenic risk. PMID:19526250

  4. Broilers fed dietary vitamins harbor higher diversity of cecal bacteria and higher ratio of Clostridium, Faecalibacterium, and Lactobacillus than broilers with no dietary vitamins revealed by 16S rRNA gene clone libraries.

    PubMed

    Luo, Yu-heng; Peng, Huan-wei; Wright, André-Denis G; Bai, Shi-ping; Ding, Xue-mei; Zeng, Qiu-feng; Li, Hua; Zheng, Ping; Su, Zhuo-wei; Cui, Ren-yong; Zhang, Ke-ying

    2013-09-01

    Research on the interaction between dietary vitamins and intestinal bacteria is poorly understood. To investigate the effect of dietary vitamins on the cecal bacterial communities, 2 bacterial 16S rRNA gene clone libraries were constructed from pooled PCR products obtained from the cecal digesta of 28-d broilers fed diets with vitamins (V) at the NRC level or with no vitamins (NV). The results showed that BW gain and average feed intake of V broilers was significantly higher (P < 0.01) than NV broilers, whereas the feed/gain ratio was significantly lower (P < 0.01) in V broilers. A total of 188 and 185 clones were sequenced for the NV and V broilers, respectively. Sequence identity criterion of 98% was used to assign sequences to operational taxonomic units (OTU). Clones from the NV group broilers were assigned to 14 OTU, with 33% clones affiliated with the genus Clostridium, 19% affiliated with the genera Escherichia/Shigella, 14% affiliated with the genus Bacteroides, and the remaining clones (34%) affiliated with 5 other bacterial genera (Faecalibacterium, Parasporobacterium, Ruminococcus, Streptococcus, and Subdoligranulum). Clones from the V group broilers were assigned to 23 OTU, with 46% of the clones affiliated with the genus Clostridium, 11% affiliated with the genus Fecalibacterium, and the remaining clones (43%) affiliated with 8 other genera (Anaerofilum, Lactobacillus, Anaerotruncus, Oscillibacter, Alistipes, Gracilibacter, Acetivibrio, and Haloplasma). Three OTU assigned to Clostridium, Faecalibacterium, and Ruminoccus were shared between the 2 libraries. Shannon diversity index showed the V broilers exhibited significantly higher bacterial diversity (P = 0.05), and Libshuff analysis indicated that the community structure between the 2 groups was significantly different (P < 0.0001). These results suggest that lack of dietary vitamins can increase the ratio of facultative pathogenic bacteria and decrease the diversity of bacteria in the cecum of

  5. A dietary phytochemical alters caste-associated gene expression in honey bees

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Wenfu; Schuler, Mary A.; Berenbaum, May R.

    2015-01-01

    In the eusocial honey bee Apis mellifera, with reproductive queens and sterile workers, a female larva’s developmental fate depends on its diet; nurse bees feed queen-destined larvae exclusively royal jelly, a glandular secretion, but worker-destined larvae receive royal jelly for 3 days and subsequently jelly to which honey and beebread are added. RNA-Seq analysis demonstrated that p-coumaric acid, which is ubiquitous in honey and beebread, differentially regulates genes involved in caste determination. Rearing larvae in vitro on a royal jelly diet to which p-coumaric acid has been added produces adults with reduced ovary development. Thus, consuming royal jelly exclusively not only enriches the diet of queen-destined larvae but also may protect them from inhibitory effects of phytochemicals present in the honey and beebread fed to worker-destined larvae. PMID:26601244

  6. Impact of SCP-2/SCP-x gene ablation and dietary cholesterol on hepatic lipid accumulation

    PubMed Central

    Klipsic, Devon; Landrock, Danilo; Martin, Gregory G.; McIntosh, Avery L.; Landrock, Kerstin K.; Mackie, John T.; Schroeder, Friedhelm

    2015-01-01

    While a high-cholesterol diet induces hepatic steatosis, the role of intracellular sterol carrier protein-2/sterol carrier protein-x (SCP-2/SCP-x) proteins is unknown. We hypothesized that ablating SCP-2/SCP-x [double knockout (DKO)] would impact hepatic lipids (cholesterol and cholesteryl ester), especially in high-cholesterol-fed mice. DKO did not alter food consumption, and body weight (BW) gain decreased especially in females, concomitant with hepatic steatosis in females and less so in males. DKO-induced steatosis in control-fed wild-type (WT) mice was associated with 1) loss of SCP-2; 2) upregulation of liver fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP); 3) increased mRNA and/or protein levels of sterol regulatory element binding proteins (SREBP1 and SREBP2) as well as increased expression of target genes of cholesterol synthesis (Hmgcs1 and Hmgcr) and fatty acid synthesis (Acc1 and Fas); and 4) cholesteryl ester accumulation was also associated with increased acyl-CoA cholesterol acyltransferase-2 (ACAT2) in males. DKO exacerbated the high-cholesterol diet-induced hepatic cholesterol and glyceride accumulation, without further increasing SREBP1, SREBP2, or target genes. This exacerbation was associated both with loss of SCP-2 and concomitant downregulation of Ceh/Hsl, apolipoprotein B (ApoB), MTP, and/or L-FABP protein expression. DKO diminished the ability to secrete excess cholesterol into bile and oxidize cholesterol to bile acid for biliary excretion, especially in females. This suggested that SCP-2/SCP-x affects cholesterol transport to particular intracellular compartments, with ablation resulting in less to the endoplasmic reticulum for SREBP regulation, making more available for cholesteryl ester synthesis, for cholesteryl-ester storage in lipid droplets, and for bile salt synthesis and/or secretion. These alterations are significant findings, since they affect key processes in regulation of sterol metabolism. PMID:26113298

  7. Dietary rescue of altered metabolism gene reveals unexpected Drosophila mating cues[S

    PubMed Central

    Bousquet, François; Chauvel, Isabelle; Flaven-Pouchon, Justin; Farine, Jean-Pierre; Ferveur, Jean-François

    2016-01-01

    To develop and reproduce, animals need long-chain MUFAs and PUFAs. Although some unsaturated FAs (UFAs) can be synthesized by the organism, others must be provided by the diet. The gene, desat1, involved in Drosophila melanogaster UFA metabolism, is necessary for both larval development and for adult sex pheromone communication. We first characterized desat1 expression in larval tissues. Then, we found that larvae in which desat1 expression was knocked down throughout development died during the larval stages when raised on standard food. By contrast pure MUFAs or PUFAs, but not saturated FAs, added to the larval diet rescued animals to adulthood with the best effect being obtained with oleic acid (C18:1). Male and female mating behavior and fertility were affected very differently by preimaginal UFA-rich diet. Adult diet also strongly influenced several aspects of reproduction: flies raised on a C18:1-rich diet showed increased mating performance compared with flies raised on standard adult diet. Therefore, both larval and adult desat1 expression control sex-specific mating signals. A similar nutrigenetics approach may be useful in other metabolic mutants to uncover cryptic effects otherwise masked by severe developmental defects. PMID:26759364

  8. Dietary withdrawal of phytoestrogens resulted in higher gene expression of 3-beta-HSD and ARO but lower 5-alpha-R-1 in male rats.

    PubMed

    Andreoli, María F; Stoker, Cora; Rossetti, María F; Lazzarino, Gisela P; Luque, Enrique H; Ramos, Jorge G

    2016-09-01

    Removing dietary phytoestrogens causes obesity and diabetes in adult male rats. Based on the facts that hypothalamic food intake control is disrupted in phytoestrogen-deprived animals and that several steroids affect food intake, we hypothesized that phytoestrogen withdrawal alters the expression of hypothalamic steroidogenic enzymes. Male Wistar rats fed with a high-phytoestrogen diet from conception to adulthood were subjected to phytoestrogen withdrawal by feeding them a low-phytoestrogen diet or a high-phytoestrogen, high-fat diet. Withdrawal of dietary phytoestrogens increased 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and P450 aromatase gene expression and decreased those of 5α-reductase-1. This is a direct effect of the lack of dietary phytoestrogens and not a consequence of obesity, as it was not observed in high-fat-fed rats. Phytoestrogen withdrawal and high-fat diet intake reduced hypothalamic expression of estrogen receptor (ER)α correlated with low levels of ERα-O, ERα-OS, and ERα-OT transcripts. Variations in gene expression of steroidogenic enzymes may affect the content of neurosteroids. As neurosteroids are related to food intake control, the changes observed may be a novel mechanism in the regulation of energy balance in obese phytoestrogen-deprived animals. In rats, steroidogenesis and ER signaling appear to be altered by phytoestrogen withdrawal in the rat. The ubiquity of phytoestrogens in the diet and changing intakes or withdrawal suggest that aspects of human health could be affected based on the rat and warrant further research.

  9. Effect of ID ACE gene polymorphism on dietary composition and obesity-related anthropometric parameters in the Czech adult population.

    PubMed

    Bienertova-Vasku, Julie; Bienert, Petr; Sablikova, Lenka; Slovackova, Lenka; Forejt, Martin; Piskackova, Zlata; Kucerova, Lenka; Heczkova, Katerina; Brazdova, Zuzana; Vasku, Anna

    2009-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the possible associations between insertion/deletion (ID) polymorphism in angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) (dbSNP rs 4646994) with the food intake and body composition in the Czech non-obese, obese and extremely obese populations. A total of 453 various-weighted individuals were enrolled in the study and were according to their BMI assigned into following subgroups, such as obese (30 /=40) and non-obese (20 < BMI < 30) subjects. Both the obese cases and the non-obese controls underwent the identical subset of standardized examinations (BMI, % body fat, waist-to-hip ratio, skin fold thickness, native dietary composition examined by 7-day food records, etc.). No significant case-control differences in genotype distributions or allelic frequencies were observed. There were no differences in genotype frequencies between males and females either. The prevalence of obesity was significantly higher among subjects with the II genotype (42 %) when compared with those with DD (36%) and those with ID (37%) genotypes (P = 0.04). When compared with carbohydrate intake in the whole studied cohort, the odds ratios of carrying the DD allele in the morbidly obese cohort were 0.84 (95% CI 0.34, 2.10, P = 0.17), 0.27 (0.07, 0.98, P = 0.02), and 4.25 (1.44, 12.51, P = 0.005) in those individuals consuming <210, 210-260, and >260 g of carbohydrates/day, respectively. Based on our findings, the ID ACE polymorphism could represent a gene modulator of carbohydrate intake in morbidly obese Czech population; the strong significant effect of DD genotype was observed in the phenotypes of extreme obesity with the highest carbohydrate intake.

  10. Effects of dietary octacosanol supplementation on laying performance, egg quality, serum hormone levels, and expression of genes related to the reproductive axis in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Long, L; Wu, S G; Yuan, F; Zhang, H J; Wang, J; Qi, G H

    2016-09-24

    This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary octacosanol supplementation on laying performance, egg quality, serum hormone levels, and gene expression related to reproductive axis in laying hens to confirm the reproduction-promoting function of octacosanol. In total, 360 Hy-Line Brown (67-wk-old) laying hens were randomly assigned to one of three treatments with 0, 5, and 10 mg octacosanol (extracted from rice bran, purity >92%)/kg feed. The feeding trial lasted for 10 weeks. The results showed that the dietary addition of 5 and 10 mg/kg octacosanol improved feed efficiency by 4.9% and 3.4% (P < 0.01), increased the albumen height by 20.5% and 13.3% (P < 0.01), the Haugh unit score by 12.9% and 8.7% (P < 0.01), and the eggshell strength by 39.5% and 24.5% (P < 0.01), respectively, compared with the control diet. Dietary octacosanol addition significantly affected serum triiodothyronine, estradiol, follicle-stimulating hormone levels (P < 0.05), and progesterone and luteinizing hormone level (P < 0.01). Compared with the control, dietary addition of octacosanol at 5 mg/kg promoted the follicle-stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR) mRNA expression in different-sized follicles, and significantly increased the FSHR mRNA expression of granulosa cells from the F2 and F3 follicles (P < 0.05). Dietary supplementation with both 5 and 10 mg/kg octacosanol promoted the mRNA expression of luteinizing hormone receptor and prolactin receptor in different-sized follicles, and significantly up-regulated the expression levels in F1 granulosa cells (P < 0.05). The ovarian weight was significantly increased with the dietary addition of 5 mg/kg octacosanol (P < 0.05). The numbers of small yellow follicles and large white follicles were increased with the addition of dietary 5 and 10 mg/kg octacosanol (P < 0.01). This study provides evidence that octacosanol has the capacity to improve reproductive performance, indicating that it is a potentially effective

  11. Associations between HDL-cholesterol and polymorphisms in hepatic lipase and lipoprotein lipase genes are modified by dietary fat intake in African American and White adults.

    PubMed

    Nettleton, Jennifer A; Steffen, Lyn M; Ballantyne, Christie M; Boerwinkle, Eric; Folsom, Aaron R

    2007-10-01

    Polymorphisms in genes involved in HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) metabolism influence plasma HDL-C concentrations. We examined whether dietary fat intake modified relations between HDL-C and polymorphisms in hepatic lipase (LIPC-514C-->T), cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP TaqIB), and lipoprotein lipase (LPL S447X) genes. Diet (food frequency questionnaire), plasma lipids, and LIPC, CETP, and LPL genotypes were assessed in approximately 12,000 White and African American adults. In both races and all genotypes studied, minor allele homozygotes had highest HDL-C concentrations compared to the other genotypes (P<0.001). However, main effects were modified by usual dietary fat intake. In African Americans - women somewhat more strongly than men -LIPC TT homozygotes with fat intake >or=33.2% of energy had approximately 3-4 mg/dL higher HDL-C concentrations than CC and CT genotypes. In contrast, when fat intake was <33.2% of energy, TT homozygotes had HDL-C concentrations approximately 3.5mg/dL greater than those with the CC genotype but not different from those with the CT genotype (P(interaction)=0.013). In Whites, LPLGG homozygotes had greatest HDL-C at lower total, saturated, and monounsaturated fat intakes but lowest HDL-C at higher intakes of these fats (P(interaction)Dietary fat did not modify associations between CETP and HDL-C. In conclusion, these data show that plasma HDL-C differs according to LIPC, LPL, and CETP genotypes. In the case of LIPC and LPL, data suggest dietary fat modifies these relations.

  12. Effects of Dietary Restriction on the Expression of Lipid Metabolism and Growth Hormone Signaling Genes in the Longissimus dorsi Muscle of Korean Cattle Steers

    PubMed Central

    Kang, H. J.; Trang, N. H.; Baik, M.

    2015-01-01

    This study determined the effects of dietary restriction on growth and the expression of lipid metabolism and growth hormone signaling genes in the longissimus dorsi muscle (LM) of Korean cattle. Thirty-one Korean cattle steers (average age 10.5 months) were allocated to normal (N; n = 16) or dietary restriction (DR; n = 15) groups. The feeding trial consisted of two stages: for the 8-month growing period, the DR group was fed 80% of the food intake of the normal diet, and for the 6-month growth-finishing period, the DR group was fed a DR total mixed ration with 78.4% of the crude protein and 64% of the net energy for gain of the normal diet. The LM was biopsied 5 months (period 1 [P1] at 15.5 months of age) and 14 months (period 2 [P2] at 24.5 months of age) after the start of feeding. The mRNA levels were determined using real-time polymerase chain reaction. Body weight, daily feed intake, average daily gain, and feed efficiency were lower in the DR group compared with the normal group at both P1 and P2. At P1, the lipogenic fatty acid synthase (FASN) mRNA levels were lower (p<0.05) in the DR group compared with the normal group. The DR group tended (p = 0.06) to have higher of levels of growth hormone receptor (GHR) mRNA than the normal group. At P2, the DR group tended to have lower (p = 0.06) androgen receptor (AR) mRNA levels than the normal group. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that dietary restriction partially decreases the transcription of lipogenic FASN and growth hormone signaling AR genes, but increases transcription of the GHR gene. These changes in gene transcription might affect body fat accumulation and the growth of the animals. PMID:26104528

  13. Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress–Related Genes in Yellow Catfish Pelteobagrus fulvidraco: Molecular Characterization, Tissue Expression, and Expression Responses to Dietary Copper Deficiency and Excess

    PubMed Central

    Song, Yu-Feng; Luo, Zhi; Huang, Chao; Chen, Qi-Liang; Pan, Ya–Xiong; Xu, Yi-Huan

    2015-01-01

    Two endoplasmic reticulum (ER) molecular chaperones [glucose-regulated protein 78 (grp78) and calreticulin (crt)] and three ER stress sensors [PKR-like ER kinase (perk), inositol requiring enzyme (ire)-1α, and activating transcription factor (atf)-6α] cDNAs were first characterized from yellow catfish, Pelteobagrus fulvidraco. The predicted amino acid sequences for the yellow catfish grp78, crt, perk, ire-1α, and atf-6α revealed that the proteins contained all of the structural features that were characteristic of the five genes in other species, including the KDEL motif, signal peptide, sensor domain, and effector domain. mRNAs of the five genes mentioned above were expressed in various tissues, but their mRNA levels varied among tissues. Dietary Cu excess, but not Cu deficiency, activated the chaperones (grp78 and crt) and folding sensors in ER, and the UPR signaling pathways (i.e., perk–eif2α and the ire1–xbp1) in a tissue-specific manner. For the first time, our study cloned grp78, crt, perk, ire-1α, and atf-6α genes in yellow catfish and demonstrated their differential expression among tissues. Moreover, the present study also indicated differential regulation of these ER stress–related genes by dietary Cu deficiency and excess, which will be beneficial for us to evaluate effects of dietary Cu levels in fish at the molecular level, based on the upstream pathway of lipid metabolism (the ER) and thus provide novel insights regarding the nutrition of Cu in fish. PMID:26276384

  14. Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress-Related Genes in Yellow Catfish Pelteobagrus fulvidraco: Molecular Characterization, Tissue Expression, and Expression Responses to Dietary Copper Deficiency and Excess.

    PubMed

    Song, Yu-Feng; Luo, Zhi; Huang, Chao; Chen, Qi-Liang; Pan, Ya-Xiong; Xu, Yi-Huan

    2015-08-13

    Two endoplasmic reticulum (ER) molecular chaperones [glucose-regulated protein 78 (grp78) and calreticulin (crt)] and three ER stress sensors [PKR-like ER kinase (perk), inositol requiring enzyme (ire)-1α, and activating transcription factor (atf)-6α] cDNAs were first characterized from yellow catfish, Pelteobagrus fulvidraco. The predicted amino acid sequences for the yellow catfish grp78, crt, perk, ire-1α, and atf-6α revealed that the proteins contained all of the structural features that were characteristic of the five genes in other species, including the KDEL motif, signal peptide, sensor domain, and effector domain. mRNAs of the five genes mentioned above were expressed in various tissues, but their mRNA levels varied among tissues. Dietary Cu excess, but not Cu deficiency, activated the chaperones (grp78 and crt) and folding sensors in ER, and the UPR signaling pathways (i.e., perk-eif2α and the ire1-xbp1) in a tissue-specific manner. For the first time, our study cloned grp78, crt, perk, ire-1α, and atf-6α genes in yellow catfish and demonstrated their differential expression among tissues. Moreover, the present study also indicated differential regulation of these ER stress-related genes by dietary Cu deficiency and excess, which will be beneficial for us to evaluate effects of dietary Cu levels in fish at the molecular level, based on the upstream pathway of lipid metabolism (the ER) and thus provide novel insights regarding the nutrition of Cu in fish.

  15. Protection by dietary restriction in the YAC128 mouse model of Huntington’s disease: Relation to genes regulating histone acetylation and HTT

    PubMed Central

    Moreno, Cesar L.; Ehrlich, Michelle E.; Mobbs, Charles V.

    2015-01-01

    Huntington’s disease (HD) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease characterized by metabolic, cognitive, and motor deficits. HD is caused by an expanded CAG repeat in the first exon of the HTT gene, resulting in an expanded polyglutamine section. Dietary restriction (DR) increases lifespan and ameliorates age-related pathologies, including in a model of HD, but the mechanisms mediating these protective effects are unknown. We report metabolic and behavioral effects of DR in the full-length YAC128 HD mouse model, and associated transcriptional changes in hypothalamus and striatum. DR corrected many effects of the transgene including increased body weight, decreased blood glucose, and impaired motor function. These changes were associated with reduced striatal human (but not mouse) HTT expression, as well as alteration in gene expression regulating histone acetylation modifications, particularly Hdac2. Other mRNAs related to Huntington’s pathology in striatal tissue showed significant modulation by the transgene, dietary restriction or both. These results establish a protective role of DR in a transgenic model that contains the complete human HTT gene and for the first time suggest a role for DR in lowering HTT level, which correlates with severity of symptoms. PMID:26485309

  16. Dietary β-glucans differentially modulate immune and stress-related gene expression in lymphoid organs from healthy and Aeromonas hydrophila-infected rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Douxfils, Jessica; Fierro-Castro, Camino; Mandiki, S N M; Emile, Wakson; Tort, Lluis; Kestemont, Patrick

    2017-04-01

    Although β-glucans stimulating effects have already been demonstrated on the immune system of numerous animal species, available data remain relatively variable and more research should be done regarding the complexity of underlying mechanisms. In this context, the present study aimed to evaluate the stress and immune-related effects of dietary β-glucans (i.e. Macrogard(®)) by considering a number of influencing factors such as the dose (0, 0.1, 0.2 and 0.5% in food), feeding duration (15 versus 30 days), tissue (blood, kidney, spleen, gills) and infection status (healthy or infected). Blood parameters (lysozyme, ACH50 activities, leucocyte populations) and mRNA expression level of several immune- and stress-related genes (TFN-α1, IL-1β, IL10, COX-2, TGF-β, MC2R, HSP70) were measured. Our results suggest that spleen may be a highly responsive organ to dietary β-glucans both in healthy or infected fish, and that this organ may therefore significantly contribute to the immune reinforcement induced by such immunostimulatory diet. Our study further reveals that overdoses of β-glucans and/or prolonged medication can lead to a non-reactive physiological status and, consequently, to a poor immune response. All in all, the current data emphasizes the need for further extensive research in the field of dietary β-glucans as a preventive method for farmed fish protection.

  17. Genes and environment as predisposing factors in autoimmunity: acceleration of spontaneous thyroiditis by dietary iodide in NOD.H2(h4) mice.

    PubMed

    Kolypetri, Panayota; King, Justin; Larijani, Mani; Carayanniotis, George

    2015-01-01

    In the field of autoimmune thyroiditis, NOD.H2(h4) mice have attracted significant and increasing attention since they not only develop spontaneous disease but they present thyroiditis with accelerated incidence and severity if they ingest iodide through their drinking water. This animal model highlights the interplay between genetic and dietary factors in the triggering of autoimmune disease and offers new opportunities to study immunoregulatory parameters influenced by both genes and environment. Here, we review experimental findings with this mouse model of thyroiditis.

  18. Effect of Dietary Zinc Oxide on Morphological Characteristics, Mucin Composition and Gene Expression in the Colon of Weaned Piglets

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ping; Pieper, Robert; Rieger, Juliane; Vahjen, Wilfried; Davin, Roger; Plendl, Johanna; Meyer, Wilfried; Zentek, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    The trace element zinc is often used in the diet of weaned piglets, as high doses have resulted in positive effects on intestinal health. However, the majority of previous studies evaluated zinc supplementations for a short period only and focused on the small intestine. The hypothesis of the present study was that low, medium and high levels of dietary zinc (57, 164 and 2,425 mg Zn/kg from zinc oxide) would affect colonic morphology and innate host defense mechanisms across 4 weeks post-weaning. Histological examinations were conducted regarding the colonic morphology and neutral, acidic, sialylated and sulphated mucins. The mRNA expression levels of mucin (MUC) 1, 2, 13, 20, toll-like receptor (TLR) 2, 4, interleukin (IL)-1β, 8, 10, interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) were also measured. The colonic crypt area increased in an age-depending manner, and the greatest area was found with medium concentration of dietary zinc. With the high concentration of dietary zinc, the number of goblet cells containing mixed neutral-acidic mucins and total mucins increased. Sialomucin containing goblet cells increased age-dependently. The expression of MUC2 increased with age and reached the highest level at 47 days of age. The expression levels of TLR2 and 4 decreased with age. The mRNA expression of TLR4 and the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-8 were down-regulated with high dietary zinc treatment, while piglets fed with medium dietary zinc had the highest expression. It is concluded that dietary zinc level had a clear impact on colonic morphology, mucin profiles and immunological traits in piglets after weaning. Those changes might support local defense mechanisms and affect colonic physiology and contribute to the reported reduction of post-weaning diarrhea. PMID:24609095

  19. Dietary antioxidants at supranutritional doses modulate skeletal muscle heat shock protein and inflammatory gene expression in sheep exposed to heat stress.

    PubMed

    Chauhan, S S; Celi, P; Fahri, F T; Leury, B J; Dunshea, F R

    2014-11-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of chronic heat (thermal) stress and dietary antioxidant supplementation on the expression of heat shock proteins and inflammatory genes in the skeletal muscle of sheep. Twenty-four Merino × Poll Dorset crossbred ewes were allocated to either a control (10 IU vitamin E and 0.24 mg Se/kg DM) or high-antioxidant (VitE+Se; 100 IU vitamin E and 1.20 mg Se/kg DM) diet and were exposed to 2 thermal (temperature) treatments (thermoneutral [TN]: 18°C-21°C and 26%-30% relative humidity; heat stress [HS]: 28°C-40°C and 40%-50% relative humidity) for 1 wk. Physiological parameters were recorded daily, and muscle biopsies were conducted at the end of thermal treatments. Total RNA was extracted from muscle samples and reverse transcribed to cDNA for real-time PCR analysis. Respiration rates and rectal temperature were increased in response to HS (84.2 vs. 161 breaths per minute and 39.52°C vs. 40.06°C for TN and HS conditions, respectively; P < 0.001). There were interactions between dietary and thermal treatments, indicating that dietary antioxidant supplementation reduced respiration rate (P = 0.097) and rectal temperature (P = 0.086) of sheep during HS but not TN conditions. Skeletal muscle heat shock transcription factor 1 (HSF1) mRNA abundance was increased by HS (1.3-fold; P < 0.050) but was not changed (P = 0.77) by dietary antioxidant supplementation. The expression of skeletal muscle heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) mRNA was increased (P < 0.001) 3.5-fold by HS and tended (P = 0.08) to be increased by dietary antioxidant supplementation. Although there were no main effects of diet (P = 0.42) or HS (P = 0.47) on skeletal muscle HSP90 mRNA expression, there was an interaction (P = 0.040) such that HSP90 mRNA expression was increased (P = 0.010) in antioxidant-supplemented sheep under HS compared to TN conditions. Skeletal muscle nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) and tissue necrosis factor α (TNF-α) m

  20. Lipidomic evidence that lowering the typical dietary palmitate to oleate ratio in humans decreases the leukocyte production of proinflammatory cytokines and muscle expression of redox-sensitive genes.

    PubMed

    Kien, C Lawrence; Bunn, Janice Y; Fukagawa, Naomi K; Anathy, Vikas; Matthews, Dwight E; Crain, Karen I; Ebenstein, David B; Tarleton, Emily K; Pratley, Richard E; Poynter, Matthew E

    2015-12-01

    We recently reported that lowering the high, habitual palmitic acid (PA) intake in ovulating women improved insulin sensitivity and both inflammatory and oxidative stress. In vitro studies indicate that PA can activate both cell membrane toll-like receptor-4 and the intracellular nucleotide oligomerization domain-like receptor protein (NLRP3). To gain further insight into the relevance to human metabolic disease of dietary PA, we studied healthy, lean and obese adults enrolled in a randomized, crossover trial comparing 3-week, high-PA (HPA) and low-PA/high-oleic-acid (HOA) diets. After each diet, both hepatic and peripheral insulin sensitivities were measured, and we assessed cytokine concentrations in plasma and in supernatants derived from lipopolysaccharide-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) as well as proinflammatory gene expression in skeletal muscle. Insulin sensitivity was unaffected by diet. Plasma concentration of tumor necrosis factor-α was higher during the HPA diet. Lowering the habitually high PA intake by feeding the HOA diet resulted in lower secretion of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-18, IL-10, and tumor necrosis factor-α by PBMCs, as well as lower relative mRNA expression of cJun and NLRP3 in muscle. Principal components analysis of 156 total variables coupled to analysis of covariance indicated that the mechanistic pathway for the differential dietary effects on PBMCs involved changes in the PA/OA ratio of tissue lipids. Our results indicate that lowering the dietary and tissue lipid PA/OA ratio resulted in lower leukocyte production of proinflammatory cytokines and muscle expression of redox-sensitive genes, but the relevance to diabetes risk is uncertain.

  1. Molecular cloning and characterization of unfolded protein response genes from large yellow croaker (Larimichthys crocea) and their expression in response to dietary fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Liao, Kai; Yan, Jing; Li, Songlin; Wang, Tianjiao; Xu, Wei; Mai, Kangsen; Ai, Qinghui

    2017-01-01

    The unfolded protein response (UPR) is a mechanism to cope with perturbed endoplasmic reticulum (ER) functions or accumulation of unfolded protein in the ER in eukaryotic cells. Furthermore, the UPR also participates in a number of physiological and pathological processes, such as nutrient sensing, lipid synthesis, and inflammatory response. In this study, four UPR-related genes (GRP78/BiP, ATF6α, XBP1 and CHO) were isolated characterized from large yellow croaker (Larimichthys crocea), and their expression in response to dietary lipid sources (various fatty acids) such as fish oil (FO), palmic acid (PA), olive oil (OO), sunflower oil (SO), and perilla oil (PO), were examined following feeding. The results showed that the four UPR-related proteins contained highly conserved functional domains and had the closest phylogenetic relationships with other fishes. Additionally, these genes were ubiquitously expressed in large yellow croaker, as in zebrafish and medaka. Moreover, GRP78, ATF6α and spliced XBP1 (XBP1s) mRNA levels in the liver, not in adipose tissue, were significantly increased in the SO group compared to the other groups (P<0.05). These results indicated that dietary SO activated UPR, and the activation of UPR might provide a mechanism to improve ER function, but probably stimulated lipid synthesis and caused inflammatory response in the liver of large yellow croaker.

  2. Dietary Lactobacillus acidophilus modulated skin mucus protein profile, immune and appetite genes expression in gold fish (Carassius auratus gibelio).

    PubMed

    Hosseini, Marjan; Kolangi Miandare, Hamed; Hoseinifar, Seyed Hossein; Yarahmadi, Peyman

    2016-12-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of dietary Lactobacillus acidophilus on skin mucus protein pattern, immune and appetite related genes expression as well as growth performance in gold fish (Carassius auratus gibelio). Three hundred healthy gold fish (2.5 ± 0.05) juveniles were randomly distributed in 12 glass aquariums (400-L; 25 fish per aquaria) and fed experimental diets contain different levels of L. acidophilus (0, 1.5 × 10(8), 3 × 10(8) and 6 × 10(8)) for 8 weeks. SDS-PAGE analysis of skin mucus protein profile at the end of the feeding trial revealed differences in protein profile of probiotic fed fish and control group; even three new bands were observed in L. acidophilus treated groups. Furthermore, fish fed 6 × 10(8) CFU g(-1) supplemented diet showed up-regulation of both TNF-1α and TNF-2α gene expression (P < 0.05). Evaluation of appetite related gene expression showed down-regulation of ghrelin in probiotic fed fish compared those of control treatment (P < 0.05). However, administration of different levels of L. acidophilus had no significant effects on growth performance (P > 0.05). These results demonstrated that while no beneficial effects on growth performance, dietary L. acidophilus affects immune and appetite related genes expression as well as skin mucus protein profile.

  3. Gestational dietary betaine supplementation suppresses hepatic expression of lipogenic genes in neonatal piglets through epigenetic and glucocorticoid receptor-dependent mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Cai, Demin; Wang, Junjian; Jia, Yimin; Liu, Haoyu; Yuan, Mengjie; Dong, Haibo; Zhao, Ruqian

    2016-01-01

    Methyl donors play critical roles in nutritional programming through epigenetic regulation of gene expression. Here we fed gestational sows with control or betaine-supplemented diets (3g/kg) throughout the pregnancy to explore the effects of maternal methyl-donor nutrient on neonatal expression of hepatic lipogenic genes. Betaine-exposed piglets demonstrated significantly lower liver triglyceride content associated with down-regulated hepatic expression of lipogenic genes acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), fatty acid synthase (FAS), stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) and sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c. Moreover, s-adenosyl methionine to s-adenosyl homocysteine ratio was elevated in the liver of betaine-exposed piglets, which was accompanied by DNA hypermethylation on FAS and SCD gene promoters and more enriched repression histone mark H3K27me3 on SCD gene promoter. Furthermore, glucocorticoid receptor (GR) binding to SCD gene promoter was diminished along with reduced serum cortisol and liver GR protein content in betaine-exposed piglets. GR-mediated SCD gene regulation was confirmed in HepG2 cells in vitro. Dexamethasone (Dex) drastically increased the luciferase activity of porcine SCD promoter, while the deletion of GR response element on SCD promoter significantly attenuated Dex-mediated SCD transactivation. In addition, miR-let-7e, miR-1285 and miR-124a, which respectively target porcine SCD, ACC and GR, were significantly up-regulated in the liver of betaine-exposed piglets, being in accordance with decreased protein content of these three genes. Taken together, our results suggest that maternal dietary betaine supplementation during gestation attenuates hepatic lipogenesis in neonatal piglets via epigenetic and GR-mediated mechanisms.

  4. Replacement of dietary fish oil by vegetable oils affects humoral immunity and expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines genes in gilthead sea bream Sparus aurata.

    PubMed

    Montero, D; Mathlouthi, F; Tort, L; Afonso, J M; Torrecillas, S; Fernández-Vaquero, A; Negrin, D; Izquierdo, M S

    2010-12-01

    Commercial gilthead sea bream feeds are highly energetic, fish oil traditionally being the main lipid source. But the decreased fish oil production together with the increased prices of this oil encourages its substitution by vegetable oils, imposing new nutritional habits to aquaculture species. Partial replacement of fish oil by vegetable oils in diets for marine species allows good feed utilization and growth but may affect fish health, since imbalances in dietary fatty acids may alter fish immunological status. The effect of dietary oils on different aspects of fish immune system has been reported for some species, but very little is known about the effect of dietary oils on immune-related genes expression in fish. Thus, the objective of this study was to elucidate the role of dietary oils on the expression of two pro-inflammatory cytokines, Tumor Necrosis Factor-α (TNF-α) and Interleukine 1β (IL-1β) on intestine and head kidney after exposure to the bacterial pathogen Photobacterium damselae sp. piscicida. For that purpose, 5 iso-nitrogenous and iso-lipidic diets (45% crude protein, 22% crude lipid content) were formulated. Anchovy oil was the only lipid source used in the control diet (FO), but in the other diets, fish oil was totally (100%) or partially (70%) substituted by linseed (rich in n-3 fatty acids) or soybean (rich in n-6 fatty acids) (100L, 100S, 70L, 70S). Fish were fed experimental diets during 80 days and after this period were exposed to an experimental intestinal infection with the pathogen. Serum and tissue samples were obtained at pre-infection and after 1, 3 and 7 days of infection. RNA was extracted and cDNA was synthesized by reverse transcription from intestine and head kidney and the level expression of TNF-α and IL-1β were assayed by using quantitative real time PCR. The expression level of genes analysed was represented as relative value, using the comparative Ct method (2(-ΔΔCt)). Serum anti-bacterial activity was measured as

  5. Effect of dietary fish oil on fatty acid deposition and expression of cholesterol homeostasis controlling genes in the liver and plasma lipid profile: comparison of two animal models.

    PubMed

    Komprda, T; Rozíková, V; Zamazalová, N; Škultéty, O; Vícenová, M; Trčková, M; Faldyna, M

    2016-10-16

    The objective of the present study was to compare hepatic fatty acid deposition, plasma lipid level and expression of cholesterol homeostasis controlling genes in the liver of rats (Wistar Albino; n = 32) and pigs (Large White × Landrace; n = 32) randomly assigned into two groups of 16 animals each and fed 10 weeks the diet with either 2.5% of fish oil (F; source of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid, EPA+DHA) or 2.5% of palm oil (P; high content of saturated fatty acids; control). F-rats deposited in the liver three times less EPA, but 1.3 times more DHA than F-pigs (p < 0.05). Dietary fish oil relative to palm oil increased PPARα and SREBP-2 gene expression much strongly (p < 0.01) in the pig liver in comparison with the rat liver, but expression of Insig-1 and Hmgcr genes in the liver of the F-pigs relative to the expression of these genes in the liver of the P-pigs was substantially lower (p < 0.01 and p < 0.05 respectively) as compared to rats. When plasma lipid concentration in the F-animals was expressed as a ratio of the plasma concentration in the P-counterparts, dietary fish oil decreased HDL cholesterol less (p < 0.01), but LDL cholesterol and triacylglycerols more (p < 0.05 and p < 0.001 respectively) in rats than in pigs: more favourable effect of fish oil on rat plasma lipids in comparison with pigs can therefore be concluded. Concentration of total cholesterol and both its fractions in the rat plasma was negatively correlated (p < 0.01) with hepatic DHA, but also with unsaturated myristic and palmitic acid respectively. It has been concluded that regarding the similarity of the plasma lipid levels to humans, porcine model can be considered superior; however, using this model, dietary fish oil at the tested amount (2.5%) was not able to improve plasma lipid markers in comparison with saturated palm oil.

  6. Effects of dietary tannic acid on the growth, hepatic gene expression, and antioxidant enzyme activity in Brandt's voles (Microtus brandti).

    PubMed

    Ye, Man-Hong; Nan, Yan-Lei; Ding, Meng-Meng; Hu, Jun-Bang; Liu, Qian; Wei, Wan-Hong; Yang, Sheng-Mei

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the physiological and biochemical responses of Brandt's voles to the persistent presence of dietary tannic acid. The diet for animals in the experimental group was supplemented with 3% dietary tannic acid for 5weeks. The control group received a commercial lab chow. No significant differences were detected in body weight, organ (heart, kidney, and liver) weights, and organ parameters between animals from two groups. However, voles in the experimental group had significantly higher daily food intake, increased contents of proline and histidine in saliva and feces after protein hydrolysis, and elevated hepatic expression of transferrin than the control. Our results suggested the existence of adaptive strategies developed in Brandt's voles to overcome the adverse effects of dietary tannic acid. (1) Food consumption was increased to satisfy their nutritional demands. (2) The secretion of tannic-acid-binding salivary proteins was promoted. (3) The absorption of iron was enhanced. These alterations contributed to neutralize the negative effects of tannic acid and maintain body mass in animals supplemented with tannic acid. As the result of the consumption of tannic acid, hepatic expression of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase was significantly decreased, while the overall potential of the antioxidant system, characterized by increased hepatic enzymatic activities of catalase and glutathione peroxidase, was enhanced. Our results also implied the involvement of tannic acid in the regulation of lipid metabolism and oxidative stress in voles.

  7. Effects of elevated dietary iron on the gastrointestinal expression of Nramp genes and iron homeostasis in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Kwong, Raymond W M; Hamilton, Charmain D; Niyogi, Som

    2013-04-01

    Diet is the primary source of iron (Fe) for freshwater fish, and the absorption of Fe is believed to occur via the Nramp family of divalent metal transporters (also called DMT1). Presently, the homeostatic regulation of dietary Fe absorption in fish is poorly understood. This study examined the gastrointestinal mRNA expression of two Nramp isoforms, Nramp-β and Nramp-γ, in the freshwater rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), following exposure to elevated dietary Fe [1,256 mg Fe/kg food vs. 136 mg Fe/kg food (control)] for 14 days. The physiological performance, plasma Fe status and tissue-specific accumulation of Fe were also evaluated. In general, the mRNA expression level of Nramp was higher in the intestine relative to the stomach. Interestingly, fish fed on a high-Fe diet exhibited a significant induction in Nramp expression after 7 days, followed by a decrease to the level observed in control fish on day 14. The increase in Nramp expression correlated with the elevated gastrointestinal and plasma Fe concentrations. However, the hepatic Fe concentration remained unchanged during the entire exposure period, indicating strong homeostatic regulation of hepatic Fe level in fish. Fish appeared to handle increased systemic Fe level by elevating the plasma transferrin level, thereby enhancing the Fe-binding capacity in the plasma. Overall, our study provides new interesting insights into the homeostatic regulation of dietary Fe uptake and handling in freshwater fish.

  8. Dietary administration of β-1,3/1,6-glucan and probiotic strain Shewanella putrefaciens, single or combined, on gilthead seabream growth, immune responses and gene expression.

    PubMed

    Guzmán-Villanueva, Laura T; Tovar-Ramírez, Dariel; Gisbert, Enric; Cordero, Héctor; Guardiola, Francisco A; Cuesta, Alberto; Meseguer, José; Ascencio-Valle, Felipe; Esteban, Maria A

    2014-07-01

    It is widely known that β-glucans and probiotic bacteria are good immunostimulants for fish. In the present work we have evaluated the dietary effect of β-1,3/1,6-glucan (isolated from Laminarina digitata) and Pdp 11 (Shewanella putrefaciens, probiotic isolated from gilthead seabream skin), single or combined, on growth, humoural (seric level of total IgM antibodies and peroxidase and antiprotease activities) and cellular innate immune response (peroxidase and phagocytic activities of head-kidney leucocytes), as well as the expression of immune-related genes in gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata). Four treatment groups were established: control (non-supplemented diet), Pdp 11 (10(9) cfu g(-1)), β-1,3/1,6-glucan (0.1%) and β-1,3/1,6-glucan + Pdp 11 (0.1% and 10(9) cfu g(-1), respectively). Fish were sampled after 1, 2 and 4 weeks of feeding. Interestingly, all supplemented diets produced increments in the seabream growth rates, mainly the Pdp 11-suplemented diet. Overall, Pdp 11 dietary administration resulted in decreased serum IgM levels and peroxidase activity. However, the seric antiprotease activity was increased in fish fed with both supplements together. Furthermore, β-1,3/1,6-glucan and combined diet increased phagocytic activity after 2 or 4 weeks. At gene level, IL-1β and INFγ transcripts were always up-regulated in HK but only the interleukin reached significance after 4 weeks in the group fed with β-glucan. On the contrary, IgM gene expression tended to be down-regulated being significant after 1 week in seabream specimens fed with β-glucan or β-glucan plus Pdp 11. These results suggest that β-1,3/1,6-glucan and Pdp 11 modulate the immune response and stimulates growth of the gilthead seabream, one of the species with the highest rate of production in Mediterranean aquaculture.

  9. Effect of dietary arginine on growth, intestinal enzyme activities and gene expression in muscle, hepatopancreas and intestine of juvenile Jian carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Jian).

    PubMed

    Chen, Gangfu; Feng, Lin; Kuang, Shengyao; Liu, Yang; Jiang, Jun; Hu, Kai; Jiang, Weidan; Li, Shuhong; Tang, Ling; Zhou, Xiaoqiu

    2012-07-01

    The present study was conducted to test the hypothesis that dietary arginine promotes digestion and absorption capacity, and, thus, enhances fish growth. This improvement might be related to the target of rapamycin (TOR) and eIF4E-binding protein (4E-BP). A total of 1200 juvenile Jian carp, Cyprinus carpio var. Jian, with an average initial weight of 6.33 (SE 0.03) g, were fed with diets containing graded concentrations of arginine, namely, 9.8 (control), 12.7, 16.1, 18.5, 21.9 and 24.5 g arginine/kg diet for 9 weeks. An real-time quantitative PCR analysis was performed to determine the relative expression of TOR and 4E-BP in fish muscle, hepatopancreas and intestine. Dietary arginine increased (P < 0.05): (1) glutamate-oxaloacetate transaminase and glutamate-pyruvate transaminase activities in muscle and hepatopancreas; (2) intestine and hepatopancreas protein content, folds height, and trypsin, chymotrypsin, lipase, Na⁺/K⁺-ATPase, alkaline phosphatase, γ-glutamyl transpeptidase and creatine kinase activities in intestine; (3) Lactobacillus counts; (4) relative expression of TOR in the muscle, hepatopancreas and distal intestine (DI); (5) relative expression of 4E-BP in proximal intestine (PI) and mid-intestine (MI), as compared with the control group. In contrast, dietary arginine reduced (P < 0.05): (1) plasma ammonia content; (2) Aeromonas hydrophila and Escherichia coli counts; (3) relative expression of TOR in PI and MI; (4) relative expression of 4E-BP in the muscle, hepatopancreas and DI. The arginine requirement estimated by specific growth rate using quadratic regression analysis was found to be 18.0 g/kg diet. These results indicate that arginine improved fish growth, digestive and absorptive ability and regulated the expression of TOR and 4E-BP genes.

  10. Potential costs of bacterial infection on storage protein gene expression and reproduction in queenless Apis mellifera worker bees on distinct dietary regimes.

    PubMed

    Lourenço, Anete Pedro; Martins, Juliana Ramos; Guidugli-Lazzarini, Karina Rosa; Macedo, Liliane Maria Fróes; Bitondi, Márcia Maria Gentile; Simões, Zilá Luz Paulino

    2012-09-01

    Insects are able to combat infection by initiating an efficient immune response that involves synthesizing antimicrobial peptides and a range of other defense molecules. These responses may be costly to the organism, resulting in it exploiting endogenous resources to maintain homeostasis or support defense to the detriment of other physiological needs. We used queenless worker bees on distinct dietary regimes that may alter hemolymph protein storage and ovary activation to investigate the physiological costs of infection with Serratia marcescens. The expression of the genes encoding the storage proteins vitellogenin and hexamerin 70a, the vitellogenin receptor, and vasa (which has a putative role in reproduction), was impaired in the infected bees. This impairment was mainly evident in the bees fed beebread, which caused significantly higher expression of these genes than did royal jelly or syrup, and this was confirmed at the vitellogenin and hexamerin 70a protein levels. Beebread was also the only diet that promoted ovary activation in the queenless bees, but this activation was significantly impaired by the infection. The expression of the genes encoding the storage proteins apolipophorins-I and -III and the lipophorin receptor was not altered by infection regardless the diet provided to the bees. Similarly, the storage of apolipophorin-I in the hemolymph was only slightly impaired by the infection, independently of the supplied diet. Taken together these results indicate that, infection demands a physiological cost from the transcription of specific protein storage-related genes and from the reproductive capacity.

  11. Accumulation of copper in the kidney of pigs fed high dietary zinc is due to metallothionein expression with minor effects on genes involved in copper metabolism.

    PubMed

    Zetzsche, A; Schunter, N; Zentek, J; Pieper, R

    2016-05-01

    A study was conducted to determine the effect of high dietary zinc (Zn) oxide on trace element accumulation in various organs with special emphasis on the kidney. A total of 40 weaned piglets were allocated into two groups with 16 and 24 piglets each receiving a diet containing normal (NZn; 100mg Zn/kg) or high (HZn; 2,100mg Zn/kg) Zn concentration, respectively. After two weeks, eight piglets from each treatment were killed and organ samples were taken. Eight piglets from the remaining 16 pigs fed HZn diets were changed to NZn diets (CZn). All remaining piglets were killed after another two weeks for organ sampling. Trace element concentration was determined in the jejunum, liver, kidney, pancreas, bone (metacarpal IV), spleen, lung, thymus, tonsils and lymph nodes of jejunum, ileum and colon. Kidney mRNA expression of Zn transporter ZnT1 and ZIP4, genes involved in Cu metabolism (Ctr1, Atox1, SOD1, ATP7A, CCS, CP) and divalent metal ion transport (DMT1) and binding (MT-1a, MT-2b, MT-3) were determined. The Zn concentration in jejunum, liver, pancreas tissue and metacarpal IV was higher (P<0.05) in HZn group compared with NZn and CZn groups. Trace element concentration in organs of CZn pigs was similar to those fed NZn diets. Zn concentration in muscle, lung and lymphatic organs as thymus, tonsils, spleen and lymph nodes of jejunum, ileum and colon did not differ between the groups. Zn and Cu were positively correlated (R=0.67; P<0.05) in the kidney. No significant differences for Cu chaperones, Cu transporters and Cu-dependent factors were determined despite decreased expression of Atox1 after two weeks and increased Ctr1 expression over time in the HZn group. Expression of MT-1a, MT-2b and MT-3 were significantly higher in HZn fed pigs with most pronounced effects for MT-1a > MT-2b > MT-3. Gene expression of MTs in pigs fed CZn diets did not differ from pigs fed NZn diets. The data suggest that high dietary Zn feeding in pigs leads to Cu co-accumulation in the

  12. Dietary Fiber

    MedlinePlus

    Fiber is a substance in plants. Dietary fiber is the kind you eat. It's a type of carbohydrate. You may also see it listed on a food label as soluble ... types have important health benefits. Good sources of dietary fiber include Whole grains Nuts and seeds Fruit and ...

  13. Dietary wolfberry up-regulates carotenoid metabolic genes and enhances mitochondrial biogenesis in the retina of db/db diabetic mice

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Huifeng; Wark, Logan; Ji, Hua; Willard, Lloyd; Jaing, Yu; Han, Jing; He, Hui; Ortiz, Edlin; Zhang, Yunong; Medeiros, Denis M; Lin, Dingbo

    2013-01-01

    Scope Our aim was to investigate whether dietary wolfberry altered carotenoid metabolic gene expression and enhanced mitochondrial biogenesis in the retina of diabetic mice. Methods and Results Six-week-old male db/db and wild type mice were fed the control or wolfberry diets for 8 weeks. At study termination, liver and retinal tissues were collected for analysis by transmission electron microscopy, real-time PCR, immunoprecipitation, Western blot, and HPLC. Wolfberry elevated zeaxanthin and lutein levels in the liver and retinal tissues and stimulated expression of retinal scavenger receptor class B type I, glutathione S-transferase Pi 1, and β,β-carotene 9’,10’-oxygenase 2, and induced activation and nuclear enrichment of retinal AMP-activated protein kinase α2 (AMPKα2). Furthermore, wolfberry attenuated hypoxia and mitochondrial stress as demonstrated by declined expression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α, vascular endothelial growth factor, and heat shock protein 60. Wolfberry enhanced retinal mitochondrial biogenesis in diabetic retinas as demonstrated by reversed mitochondrial dispersion in the retinal pigment epithelium, increased mitochondrial copy number, elevated citrate synthase activity, and up-regulated expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ co-activator 1 α, nuclear respiratory factor 1, and mitochondrial transcription factor A. Conclusion Consumption of dietary wolfberry could be beneficial to retinoprotection through reversal of mitochondrial function in diabetic mice. PMID:23505020

  14. Dietary DHA reduces downstream endocannabinoid and inflammatory gene expression and epididymal fat mass while improving aspects of glucose use in muscle in C57BL/6J mice

    PubMed Central

    Kim, J; Carlson, M E; Kuchel, G A; Newman, J W; Watkins, B A

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Endocannabinoid system (ECS) overactivation is associated with increased adiposity and likely contributes to type 2 diabetes risk. Elevated tissue cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) and circulating endocannabinoids (ECs) derived from the n-6 polyunsaturated acid (PUFA) arachidonic acid (AA) occur in obese and diabetic patients. Here we investigate whether the n-3 PUFA docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in the diet can reduce ECS overactivation (that is, action of ligands, receptors and enzymes of EC synthesis and degradation) to influence glycemic control. This study targets the ECS tonal regulation of circulating glucose uptake by skeletal muscle as its primary end point. Design: Male C57BL/6J mice were fed a semipurified diet containing DHA or the control lipid. Serum, skeletal muscle, epididymal fat pads and liver were collected after 62 and 118 days of feeding. Metabolites, genes and gene products associated with the ECS, glucose uptake and metabolism and inflammatory status were measured. Results: Dietary DHA enrichment reduced epididymal fat pad mass and increased ECS-related genes, whereas it reduced downstream ECS activation markers, indicating that ECS activation was diminished. The mRNA of glucose-related genes and proteins elevated in mice fed the DHA diet with increases in DHA-derived and reductions in AA-derived EC and EC-like compounds. In addition, DHA feeding reduced plasma levels of various inflammatory cytokines, 5-lipoxygenase-dependent inflammatory mediators and the vasoconstrictive 20-HETE. Conclusions: This study provides evidence that DHA feeding altered ECS gene expression to reduce CB1 activation and reduce fat accretion. Furthermore, the DHA diet led to higher expression of genes associated with glucose use by muscle in mice, and reduced those associated with systemic inflammatory status. PMID:26219414

  15. Improvements in growth performance, bone mineral status and nutrient digestibility in pigs following the dietary inclusion of phytase are accompanied by modifications in intestinal nutrient transporter gene expression.

    PubMed

    Vigors, Stafford; Sweeney, Torres; O'Shea, Cormac J; Browne, John A; O'Doherty, John V

    2014-09-14

    Phytase (PHY) improves growth performance, nutrient digestibility and bone structure in pigs; however, little is known about its effects on intestinal nutrient transporter gene expression. In the present study, a 44 d experiment was carried out using forty-eight pigs (11·76 (sem 0·75) kg) assigned to one of three dietary treatment groups to measure growth performance, coefficient of apparent ileal digestibility (CAID), coefficient of apparent total tract nutrient digestibility (CATTD) and intestinal nutrient transporter gene expression. Dietary treatments during the experimental period were as follows: (1) a high-P (HP) diet containing 3·4 g/kg available P and 7·0 g/kg Ca; (2) a low-P (LP) diet containing 1·9 g/kg available P and 5·9 g/kg Ca; (3) a PHY diet containing LP diet ingredients+1000 phytase units (FTU)/kg of PHY. The PHY diet increased the average daily gain (P< 0·05) and final body weight (P< 0·01) and decreased the feed conversion ratio (P< 0·05) compared with the LP diet. Pigs fed the PHY diet had a higher CAID of gross energy compared with those fed the HP and LP diets (P< 0·001). Pigs fed the PHY diet had increased CAID of P (P< 0·01) and CATTD of Ca and P (P< 0·001) compared with those fed the LP diet. The PHY diet increased the gene expression of the peptide transporter 1 (PEPT1/SLC15A1) (P< 0·05) in the ileum compared with the LP diet. The LP diet decreased the gene expression of the sodium-glucose-linked transporter 1 (SGLT1/SLC5A1) and GLUT2/SLC2A2 (P< 0·05) and increased the expression of membrane Ca channel (TRPV6) and calbindin compared with the HP diet (P< 0·001). In conclusion, feeding a diet supplemented with PHY improves growth performance and nutrient digestibility as well as increases the gene expression of the peptide transporter PEPT1.

  16. Activation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase by dietary isoflavones: role of NO in Nrf2-mediated antioxidant gene expression.

    PubMed

    Mann, Giovanni E; Rowlands, David J; Li, Francois Y L; de Winter, Patricia; Siow, Richard C M

    2007-07-15

    The endothelium plays a key role in the maintenance of vascular homeostasis, and increased oxidative stress in vascular disease leads to reduced nitric oxide bioavailability and impaired endothelium-dependent relaxation of resistance vessels. Although epidemiological evidence suggests that diets containing high amounts of natural antioxidants afford protection against coronary heart disease (CHD), antioxidant supplementation trials have largely reported only marginal health benefits. There is controversy concerning the cardiovascular benefits of prolonged estrogen/progestin or soy isoflavone therapy for postmenopausal women and patients with an increased risk of CHD. Research on the potential health benefits of soy isoflavones and other polyphenols contained in red wine, green and black tea and dark chocolate developed rapidly during the 1990's, and recent clinical trials and studies in animal models and cultured endothelial cells provide important and novel insights into the mechanisms by which dietary polyphenols afford protection against oxidative stress. In this review, we highlight that NO and reactive oxygen radicals may mediate dietary polyphenol induced activation of Nrf2, which in turn triggers antioxidant response element (ARE) driven transcription of phase II detoxifying and antioxidant defense enzymes in vascular cells.

  17. Gene-dietary fat interaction, bone mineral density and bone speed of sound in Children: a twin study in China

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Tao; Liu, Huijuan; Zhao, Wei; Li, Ji; Wang, Youfa

    2015-01-01

    Scope Dietary fat correlates with bone mineral density (BMD). We tested the association between fat intake and BMD, and tested if fat intake modified the degree of genetic influence on BMD and bone speed of sound (SOS). Methods and results We included 622 twins aged 7–15 y from South China. Data on anthropometry, dietary intake, BMD, and SOS were collected. Quantitative genetic analyses of structural equation models were fit using the Mx statistical package. The within-pair intra-class correlations (ICC) for BMD in DZ twins were nearly half of that for MZ twins (ICC=0.39 vs 0.70). The heritability of BMD and SOS were 71% and 79%. Phenotypic correlation between fat intake and SOS was significant (r=−0.19, p=0.04). SOS was negatively correlated with fat intake in boys (r=−0.11, p=0.05), but not in girls. Full Cholesky decomposition models showed SOS has a strong genetic correlation with fat intake (rA =−0.88, 95% CI=−0.94, 0.01); the environmental correlation between fat intake and SOS was weak (rE =−0.04, 95% CI=−0.20, 0.13). Fat intake modified the additive genetic effects on BMD. Conclusion Genetic factors explained 71% and 79% of individual variance in BMD and SOS, respectively. Low fat intake counteracts genetic predisposition to low BMD. PMID:25546604

  18. Effect of dietary leucine on the growth parameters and expression of antioxidant, immune, and inflammatory genes in the head kidney of Labeo rohita fingerlings.

    PubMed

    Giri, Sib Sankar; Sen, Shib Sankar; Chi, Cheng; Kim, Hyoun Joong; Yun, Saekil; Park, Se Chang; Sukumaran, V

    2015-09-15

    The present investigation evaluated the effects of dietary leucine (Leu) on growth performance, head kidney antioxidant status, and gene expression in Labeo rohita juveniles. Fish were fed with six isonitrogenous diets containing graded levels of Leu at 0.75 (control), 1.7, 3.2, 4.6, 6.3, and 7.6 g Leu kg(-1) of feed for 8 weeks. Compared with the control group, appropriate Leu supplementation significantly enhanced the percent weight gain (PWG), feed intake (FI), and protein efficiency ratio (PER) (P<0.05) but decreased the plasma ammonia content (PAC) (P<0.05). Similarly, optimal Leu supplementation stimulated head kidney glutathione (GSH) content, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities as compared to the control group; however, a reverse trend was observed in malondialdehyde (MDA) content. Further, relative gene-expression levels of lysozyme, complement C3, β-microglobulin, immunoglobulin-M, SOD, GPx, nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), natural killer-cell enhancing factor β (NKEF-β), and toll-like receptor-22 (TLR22) in the head kidney were enhanced (P<0.05) at leucine levels of 4.6 g kg(-1) of feed. Conversely, the mRNA levels of tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), Kelch-like-ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1), and interleukin 1β (IL-1β) in head kidney were down-regulated by Leu supplementation. Collectively, our results revealed that appropriate Leu supplementation improved fish growth and antioxidant capacity, and regulated the mRNA levels of related signalling molecules in L. rohita juveniles. Based on the quadratic regression analysis of PWG, PER, and PAC, the optimum dietary leucine requirements of L. rohita juveniles were estimated to be 4.7, 4.5, and 4.8 g kg(-1) of feed.

  19. Sterol regulatory element binding protein-1 expression is suppressed by dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids. A mechanism for the coordinate suppression of lipogenic genes by polyunsaturated fats.

    PubMed

    Xu, J; Nakamura, M T; Cho, H P; Clarke, S D

    1999-08-13

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) coordinately suppress the transcription of a wide array of hepatic lipogenic genes including fatty acid synthase (FAS) and acetyl-CoA carboxylase. Interestingly, the over-expression of sterol regulatory element binding protein-1 (SREBP-1) induces the expression of all of the enzymes suppressed by PUFA. This observation led us to hypothesize that PUFA coordinately inhibit lipogenic gene transcription by suppressing the expression of SREBP-1. Our initial studies revealed that the SREBP-1 and FAS mRNA contents of HepG2 cells were reduced by 20:4(n-6) in a dose-dependent manner (i.e. EC(50) approximately 10 microM), whereas 18:1(n-9) had no effect. Similarly, supplementing a fat-free, high glucose diet with oils rich in (n-6) or (n-3) PUFA reduced the hepatic content of precursor and nuclear SREBP-1 60 and 85%, respectively; however, PUFA had no effect on the nuclear content of upstream stimulatory factor (USF)-1. The PUFA-dependent decrease in nuclear content of mature SREBP-1 was paralleled by a 70-90% suppression in FAS gene transcription. In contrast, dietary 18:1(n-9), i.e. triolein, had no inhibitory influence on the expression of SREBP-1 or FAS. The decrease in hepatic expression of SREBP-1 and FAS associated with PUFA ingestion was mimicked by supplementing the fat-free diet with the PPARalpha-activator, WY 14, 643. Interestingly, nuclear run-on assays revealed that changes in SREBP-1 mRNA abundance were not accompanied by changes in SREBP-1 gene transcription. These results support the concept that PUFA coordinately inhibit lipogenic gene transcription by suppressing the expression of SREBP-1 and that the PUFA regulation of SREBP-1 appears to occur at the post-transcriptional level.

  20. Age-related changes in cellular protection, purification, and inflammation-related gene expression: role of dietary phytonutrients.

    PubMed

    Mastaloudis, Angela; Wood, Steven M

    2012-07-01

    Oxidative injury and inflammation are intimately involved in the aging process and the development of age-related diseases. To date, most nutritional antiaging strategies have focused solely on the delivery of exogenous antioxidants to combat the negative effects of aging. A promising new strategy is to identify nutrients and phytochemicals that can directly target intrinsic cytoprotective mechanisms, including modulation of the expression of (1) genes involved in the detoxification of xenobiotics, (2) genes involved in the synthesis and regulation of intrinsic antioxidants and antioxidant enzymes, (3) genes involved in the regulation of inflammation, and (4) vitagenes. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of the age-related changes in gene expression related to oxidative stress, detoxification, and inflammatory processes, and to discuss natural compounds with the potential to oppose age-related changes in gene expression related to these processes, which therefore may be suitable for use in human antiaging research.

  1. Dietary control of chromatin

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Zhiguang; Cai, Ling; Tu, Benjamin P

    2015-01-01

    Organisms must be able to rapidly alter gene expression in response to changes in their nutrient environment. This review summarizes evidence that epigenetic modifications of chromatin depend on particular metabolites of intermediary metabolism, enabling the facile regulation of gene expression in tune with metabolic state. Nutritional or dietary control of chromatin is an often-overlooked, yet fundamental regulatory mechanism directly linked to human physiology. Nutrient-sensitive epigenetic marks are dynamic, suggesting rapid turnover, and may have functions beyond the regulation of gene transcription, including pH regulation and as carbon sources in cancer cells. PMID:26094239

  2. Dietary and genetic effects on age-related loss of gene silencing reveal epigenetic plasticity of chromatin repression during aging.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Nan; Du, Guyu; Tobias, Ethan; Wood, Jason G; Whitaker, Rachel; Neretti, Nicola; Helfand, Stephen L

    2013-11-01

    During aging, changes in chromatin state that alter gene transcription have been postulated to result in expression of genes that are normally silenced, leading to deleterious age-related effects on cellular physiology. Despite the prevalence of this hypothesis, it is primarily in yeast that loss of gene silencing with age has been well documented. We use a novel position effect variegation (PEV) reporter in Drosophila melanogaster to show that age-related loss of repressive heterochromatin is associated with loss of gene silencing in metazoans and is affected by Sir2, as it is in yeast. The life span-extending intervention, calorie restriction (CR), delays the age-related loss of gene silencing, indicating that loss of gene silencing is a component of normal aging. Diet switch experiments show that such flies undergo a rapid change in their level of gene silencing, demonstrating the epigenetic plasticity of chromatin during aging and highlighting the potential role of diet and metabolism in chromatin maintenance, Thus, diet and related interventions may be of therapeutic importance for age-related diseases, such as cancer.

  3. Dietary Chromium Restriction of Pregnant Mice Changes the Methylation Status of Hepatic Genes Involved with Insulin Signaling in Adult Male Offspring.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qian; Sun, Xiaofang; Xiao, Xinhua; Zheng, Jia; Li, Ming; Yu, Miao; Ping, Fan; Wang, Zhixin; Qi, Cuijuan; Wang, Tong; Wang, Xiaojing

    2017-01-01

    Maternal undernutrition is linked with an elevated risk of diabetes mellitus in offspring regardless of the postnatal dietary status. This is also found in maternal micro-nutrition deficiency, especial chromium which is a key glucose regulator. We investigated whether maternal chromium restriction contributes to the development of diabetes in offspring by affecting DNA methylation status in liver tissue. After being mated with control males, female weanling 8-week-old C57BL mice were fed a control diet (CON, 1.19 mg chromium/kg diet) or a low chromium diet (LC, 0.14 mg chromium/kg diet) during pregnancy and lactation. After weaning, some offspring were shifted to the other diet (CON-LC, or LC-CON), while others remained on the same diet (CON-CON, or LC-LC) for 29 weeks. Fasting blood glucose, serum insulin, and oral glucose tolerance test was performed to evaluate the glucose metabolism condition. Methylation differences in liver from the LC-CON group and CON-CON groups were studied by using a DNA methylation array. Bisulfite sequencing was carried out to validate the results of the methylation array. Maternal chromium limitation diet increased the body weight, blood glucose, and serum insulin levels. Even when switched to the control diet after weaning, the offspring also showed impaired glucose tolerance and insulin resistance. DNA methylation profiling of the offspring livers revealed 935 differentially methylated genes in livers of the maternal chromium restriction diet group. Pathway analysis identified the insulin signaling pathway was the main process affected by hypermethylated genes. Bisulfite sequencing confirmed that some genes in insulin signaling pathway were hypermethylated in livers of the LC-CON and LC-LC group. Accordingly, the expression of genes in insulin signaling pathway was downregulated. There findings suggest that maternal chromium restriction diet results in glucose intolerance in male offspring through alterations in DNA methylation which

  4. Dietary Chromium Restriction of Pregnant Mice Changes the Methylation Status of Hepatic Genes Involved with Insulin Signaling in Adult Male Offspring

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qian; Sun, Xiaofang; Xiao, Xinhua; Zheng, Jia; Li, Ming; Yu, Miao; Ping, Fan; Wang, Zhixin; Qi, Cuijuan; Wang, Tong; Wang, Xiaojing

    2017-01-01

    Maternal undernutrition is linked with an elevated risk of diabetes mellitus in offspring regardless of the postnatal dietary status. This is also found in maternal micro-nutrition deficiency, especial chromium which is a key glucose regulator. We investigated whether maternal chromium restriction contributes to the development of diabetes in offspring by affecting DNA methylation status in liver tissue. After being mated with control males, female weanling 8-week-old C57BL mice were fed a control diet (CON, 1.19 mg chromium/kg diet) or a low chromium diet (LC, 0.14 mg chromium/kg diet) during pregnancy and lactation. After weaning, some offspring were shifted to the other diet (CON-LC, or LC-CON), while others remained on the same diet (CON-CON, or LC-LC) for 29 weeks. Fasting blood glucose, serum insulin, and oral glucose tolerance test was performed to evaluate the glucose metabolism condition. Methylation differences in liver from the LC-CON group and CON-CON groups were studied by using a DNA methylation array. Bisulfite sequencing was carried out to validate the results of the methylation array. Maternal chromium limitation diet increased the body weight, blood glucose, and serum insulin levels. Even when switched to the control diet after weaning, the offspring also showed impaired glucose tolerance and insulin resistance. DNA methylation profiling of the offspring livers revealed 935 differentially methylated genes in livers of the maternal chromium restriction diet group. Pathway analysis identified the insulin signaling pathway was the main process affected by hypermethylated genes. Bisulfite sequencing confirmed that some genes in insulin signaling pathway were hypermethylated in livers of the LC-CON and LC-LC group. Accordingly, the expression of genes in insulin signaling pathway was downregulated. There findings suggest that maternal chromium restriction diet results in glucose intolerance in male offspring through alterations in DNA methylation which

  5. Effects of human food grade titanium dioxide nanoparticle dietary exposure on Drosophila melanogaster survival, fecundity, pupation and expression of antioxidant genes.

    PubMed

    Jovanović, Boris; Cvetković, Vladimir J; Mitrović, Tatjana Lj

    2016-02-01

    The fruitfly, Drosophila melanogaster was exposed to the human food grade of E171 titanium dioxide (TiO2). This is a special grade of TiO2 which is frequently omitted in nanotoxicology studies dealing with TiO2, yet it is the most relevant grade regarding oral exposure of humans. D. melanogaster larvae were exposed to 0.002 mg mL(-1), 0.02 mg mL(-1), 0.2 mg mL(-1), and 2 mg mL(-1) of TiO2 in feeding medium, and the survival, fecundity, pupation time, and expression of genes involved in oxidative stress response were monitored. TiO2 did not affect survival but significantly increased time to pupation (p < 0.001). Fecundity of D. melanogaster was unaffected by the treatment. Expression of the gene for catalase was markedly downregulated by the treatment, while the effect on the downregulation of superoxide dismutase 2 was less pronounced. After four days of dietary exposure TiO2 was present in a significant amount in larvae, but was not transferred to adults during metamorphosis. Two individuals with aberrant phenotype similar to previously described gold nanoparticles induced mutant phenotypes were detected in the group exposed to TiO2. In general, TiO2 showed little toxicity toward D. melanogaster at concentrations relevant to oral exposure of humans.

  6. Helicobacter pylori infection and low dietary iron alter behavior, induce iron deficiency anemia, and modulate hippocampal gene expression in female C57BL/6 mice.

    PubMed

    Burns, Monika; Amaya, Aldo; Bodi, Caroline; Ge, Zhongming; Bakthavatchalu, Vasudevan; Ennis, Kathleen; Wang, Timothy C; Georgieff, Michael; Fox, James G

    2017-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H.pylori), a bacterial pathogen, is a causative agent of gastritis and peptic ulcer disease and is a strong risk factor for development of gastric cancer. Environmental conditions, such as poor dietary iron resulting in iron deficiency anemia (IDA), enhance H.pylori virulence and increases risk for gastric cancer. IDA affects billions of people worldwide, and there is considerable overlap between regions of high IDA and high H.pylori prevalence. The primary aims of our study were to evaluate the effect of H.pylori infection on behavior, iron metabolism, red blood cell indices, and behavioral outcomes following comorbid H. pylori infection and dietary iron deficiency in a mouse model. C57BL/6 female mice (n = 40) were used; half were placed on a moderately iron deficient (ID) diet immediately post-weaning, and the other half were maintained on an iron replete (IR) diet. Half were dosed with H.pylori SS1 at 5 weeks of age, and the remaining mice were sham-dosed. There were 4 study groups: a control group (-Hp, IR diet) as well as 3 experimental groups (-Hp, ID diet; +Hp, IR diet; +Hp,ID diet). All mice were tested in an open field apparatus at 8 weeks postinfection. Independent of dietary iron status, H.pylori -infected mice performed fewer exploratory behaviors in the open field chamber than uninfected mice (p<0.001). Hippocampal gene expression of myelination markers and dopamine receptor 1 was significantly downregulated in mice on an ID diet (both p<0.05), independent of infection status. At 12 months postinfection, hematocrit (Hct) and hemoglobin (Hgb) concentration were significantly lower in +Hp, ID diet mice compared to all other study groups. H.pylori infection caused IDA in mice maintained on a marginal iron diet. The mouse model developed in this study is a useful model to study the neurologic, behavioral, and hematologic impact of the common human co-morbidity of H. pylori infection and IDA.

  7. Effects of dietary corn gluten meal on growth performance and protein metabolism in relation to IGF-I and TOR gene expression of juvenile cobia ( Rachycentron canadum)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Yiwen; Ai, Qinghui; Mai, Kangsen; Zhang, Wenbing; Xu, Wei; Zhang, Yanjiao; Liufu, Zhiguo

    2013-09-01

    A growth experiment was conducted on cobia ( Rachycentron canadum, initial weight 108.2 g ± 3.0 g) to investigate the effects of dietary corn gluten meal (CGM) levels on the fish growth, whole body composition and protein metabolism in relation to specific gene expression. Five isonitrogenous (crude protein 45%) and isoenergetic (gross energy 20 kJ g-1) practical diets were formulated by replacing 0% (the control), 17.5%, 35.0%, 52.5%, and 70.0% of fish meal (FM) protein with CGM protein. No significant differences were observed in the survival, feed intake (FI), specific growth rate (SGR), feed efficiency (FE) and protein productive value (PPV) among fish fed diets with 0%, 17.5%, 35.0%, and 52.5% of CGM protein. However, these indices were significantly lower in fish fed the diet with 70.0% of CGM protein than those in fish fed the control diet ( P < 0.05). The whole-body crude protein and lipid contents were significantly lower while the whole-body moisture content was significantly higher in fish fed the diet with 70.0% of CGM protein compared with the control group ( P < 0.05). When 70.0% of FM protein was replaced by CGM, plasma total protein and cholesterol contents were significantly lower than those in the control group ( P < 0.05). Fish fed the diet with 70.0% of CGM protein had significantly lower hepatic insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) expression levels than those in the control group ( P < 0.05). However, no significant differences were observed in hepatic target of rapamycin (TOR), dorsal muscle IGF-I and TOR expression levels among dietary treatments. Results of the present study indicated that 52.5% of FM protein could be replaced by CGM in the diets without significant influences on the growth, feed utilization and protein metabolism of juvenile cobia. The present results might be useful for developing cost effective and sustainable cobia dietary formulations.

  8. Helicobacter pylori infection and low dietary iron alter behavior, induce iron deficiency anemia, and modulate hippocampal gene expression in female C57BL/6 mice

    PubMed Central

    Burns, Monika; Amaya, Aldo; Bodi, Caroline; Ge, Zhongming; Bakthavatchalu, Vasudevan; Ennis, Kathleen; Wang, Timothy C.; Georgieff, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H.pylori), a bacterial pathogen, is a causative agent of gastritis and peptic ulcer disease and is a strong risk factor for development of gastric cancer. Environmental conditions, such as poor dietary iron resulting in iron deficiency anemia (IDA), enhance H.pylori virulence and increases risk for gastric cancer. IDA affects billions of people worldwide, and there is considerable overlap between regions of high IDA and high H.pylori prevalence. The primary aims of our study were to evaluate the effect of H.pylori infection on behavior, iron metabolism, red blood cell indices, and behavioral outcomes following comorbid H. pylori infection and dietary iron deficiency in a mouse model. C57BL/6 female mice (n = 40) were used; half were placed on a moderately iron deficient (ID) diet immediately post-weaning, and the other half were maintained on an iron replete (IR) diet. Half were dosed with H.pylori SS1 at 5 weeks of age, and the remaining mice were sham-dosed. There were 4 study groups: a control group (-Hp, IR diet) as well as 3 experimental groups (-Hp, ID diet; +Hp, IR diet; +Hp,ID diet). All mice were tested in an open field apparatus at 8 weeks postinfection. Independent of dietary iron status, H.pylori -infected mice performed fewer exploratory behaviors in the open field chamber than uninfected mice (p<0.001). Hippocampal gene expression of myelination markers and dopamine receptor 1 was significantly downregulated in mice on an ID diet (both p<0.05), independent of infection status. At 12 months postinfection, hematocrit (Hct) and hemoglobin (Hgb) concentration were significantly lower in +Hp, ID diet mice compared to all other study groups. H.pylori infection caused IDA in mice maintained on a marginal iron diet. The mouse model developed in this study is a useful model to study the neurologic, behavioral, and hematologic impact of the common human co-morbidity of H. pylori infection and IDA. PMID:28355210

  9. Impact of Food Components on in vitro Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide Secretion-A Potential Mechanism for Dietary Influence on Migraine.

    PubMed

    Slavin, Margaret; Bourguignon, Julia; Jackson, Kyle; Orciga, Michael-Angelo

    2016-07-01

    Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is a pivotal messenger in the inflammatory process in migraine. Limited evidence indicates that diet impacts circulating levels of CGRP, suggesting that certain elements in the diet may influence migraine outcomes. Interruption of calcium signaling, a mechanism which can trigger CGRP release, has been suggested as one potential route by which exogenous food substances may impact CGRP secretion. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of foods and a dietary supplement on two migraine-related mechanisms in vitro: CGRP secretion from neuroendocrine CA77 cells, and calcium uptake by differentiated PC12 cells. Ginger and grape pomace extracts were selected for their anecdotal connections to reducing or promoting migraine. S-petasin was selected as a suspected active constituent of butterbur extract, the migraine prophylactic dietary supplement. Results showed a statistically significant decrease in stimulated CGRP secretion from CA77 cells following treatment with ginger (0.2 mg dry ginger equivalent/mL) and two doses of grape pomace (0.25 and 1.0 mg dry pomace equivalent/mL) extracts. Relative to vehicle control, CGRP secretion decreased by 22%, 43%, and 87%, respectively. S-petasin at 1.0 μM also decreased CGRP secretion by 24%. Meanwhile, S-petasin and ginger extract showed inhibition of calcium influx, whereas grape pomace had no effect on calcium. These results suggest that grape pomace and ginger extracts, and S-petasin may have anti-inflammatory propensity by preventing CGRP release in migraine, although potentially by different mechanisms, which future studies may elucidate further.

  10. Impact of Food Components on in vitro Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide Secretion—A Potential Mechanism for Dietary Influence on Migraine

    PubMed Central

    Slavin, Margaret; Bourguignon, Julia; Jackson, Kyle; Orciga, Michael-Angelo

    2016-01-01

    Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is a pivotal messenger in the inflammatory process in migraine. Limited evidence indicates that diet impacts circulating levels of CGRP, suggesting that certain elements in the diet may influence migraine outcomes. Interruption of calcium signaling, a mechanism which can trigger CGRP release, has been suggested as one potential route by which exogenous food substances may impact CGRP secretion. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of foods and a dietary supplement on two migraine-related mechanisms in vitro: CGRP secretion from neuroendocrine CA77 cells, and calcium uptake by differentiated PC12 cells. Ginger and grape pomace extracts were selected for their anecdotal connections to reducing or promoting migraine. S-petasin was selected as a suspected active constituent of butterbur extract, the migraine prophylactic dietary supplement. Results showed a statistically significant decrease in stimulated CGRP secretion from CA77 cells following treatment with ginger (0.2 mg dry ginger equivalent/mL) and two doses of grape pomace (0.25 and 1.0 mg dry pomace equivalent/mL) extracts. Relative to vehicle control, CGRP secretion decreased by 22%, 43%, and 87%, respectively. S-petasin at 1.0 μM also decreased CGRP secretion by 24%. Meanwhile, S-petasin and ginger extract showed inhibition of calcium influx, whereas grape pomace had no effect on calcium. These results suggest that grape pomace and ginger extracts, and S-petasin may have anti-inflammatory propensity by preventing CGRP release in migraine, although potentially by different mechanisms, which future studies may elucidate further. PMID:27376323

  11. Dietary supplementation with polyunsaturated fatty acid during pregnancy modulates DNA methylation at IGF2/H19 imprinted genes and growth of infants

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ho-Sun; Barraza-Villarreal, Albino; Biessy, Carine; Duarte-Salles, Talita; Sly, Peter D.; Ramakrishnan, Usha; Rivera, Juan; Herceg, Zdenko

    2014-01-01

    Epigenetic regulation of imprinted genes is regarded as a highly plausible explanation for linking dietary exposures in early life with the onset of diseases during childhood and adulthood. We sought to test whether prenatal dietary supplementation with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) during pregnancy may modulate epigenetic states at birth. This study was based on a randomized intervention trial conducted in Mexican pregnant women supplemented daily with 400 mg of DHA or a placebo from gestation week 18–22 to parturition. We applied quantitative profiling of DNA methylation states at IGF2 promoter 3 (IGF2 P3), IGF2 differentially methylated region (DMR), and H19 DMR in cord blood mononuclear cells of the DHA-supplemented group (n = 131) and the control group (n = 130). In stratified analyses, DNA methylation levels in IGF2 P3 were significantly higher in the DHA group than the control group in preterm infants (P = 0.04). We also observed a positive association between DNA methylation levels and maternal body mass index; IGF2 DMR methylation was higher in the DHA group than the control group in infants of overweight mothers (P = 0.03). In addition, at H19 DMR, methylation levels were significantly lower in the DHA group than the control group in infants of normal weight mothers (P = 0.01). Finally, methylation levels at IGF2/H19 imprinted regions were associated with maternal BMI. These findings suggest that epigenetic mechanisms may be modulated by DHA, with potential impacts on child growth and development. PMID:25293351

  12. Maternal dietary protein affects transcriptional regulation of myostatin gene distinctively at weaning and finishing stages in skeletal muscle of Meishan pigs.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiujuan; Wang, Jinquan; Li, Runsheng; Yang, Xiaojing; Sun, Qinwei; Albrecht, Elke; Zhao, Ruqian

    2011-07-01

    Myostatin (MSTN) is suggested to mediate the effect of maternal nutrition on offspring phenotype, yet the mechanisms underlying such adaptive gene regulation is elusive. In this study, we determined the effects of maternal dietary protein on transcriptional regulation of MSTN in skeletal muscle of pig offspring. Fourteen Meishan sows were fed either low-protein (LP) or standard-protein (SP) diets throughout gestation and lactation. MSTN expression in the longissimus dorsi muscle was determined both at weaning and finishing stages. Myostatin mRNA abundance was downregulated at weaning, but upregulated at finishing in LP pigs, indicating stage-specific transcriptional regulation. At weaning, CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein beta (C/EBPβ) in muscle nuclear lysate was decreased in LP piglets, associated with diminished binding of C/EBPβ to all the 3 putative binding sites in MSTN promoter. None of the four histone modification marks investigated showed differences between SP and LP piglets. Among 12 microRNAs predicted to target MSTN, none was differently expressed. At finishing stage, C/EBPβ content remained unchanged, but the binding of C/EBPβ to two of the 3 putative binding sites increased in LP pigs. Histone H3 acetylation and histone H3 lysine 27 trimethylation on MSTN promoter were increased, while histone H3 lysine 9 monomethylation was decreased in LP pigs. Moreover, expression of ssc-miR-136 and ssc-miR-500 was significantly reduced. These results indicate that maternal dietary protein affects MSTN expression through distinct regulatory mechanisms at different stages. The immediate effect at weaning is mediated by C/EBPβ binding without epigenetic modifications, whereas the long-term effect at finishing stage involves both C/EBPβ binding and epigenetic regulations, including histone modification and microRNA expression.

  13. Regulation of tissue LC-PUFA contents, Δ6 fatty acyl desaturase (FADS2) gene expression and the methylation of the putative FADS2 gene promoter by different dietary fatty acid profiles in Japanese seabass (Lateolabrax japonicus).

    PubMed

    Xu, Houguo; Dong, Xiaojing; Ai, Qinghui; Mai, Kangsen; Xu, Wei; Zhang, Yanjiao; Zuo, Rantao

    2014-01-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the influences of different dietary fatty acid profiles on the tissue content and biosynthesis of LC-PUFA in a euryhaline species Japanese seabass reared in seawater. Six diets were prepared, each with a characteristic fatty acid: Diet PA: Palmitic acid (C16:0); Diet SA: Stearic acid (C18:0); Diet OA: Oleic acid (C18:1n-9); Diet LNA: α-linolenic acid (C18:3n-3); Diet N-3 LC-PUFA: n-3 LC-PUFA (DHA+EPA); Diet FO: the fish oil control. A 10-week feeding trial was conducted using juvenile fish (29.53 ± 0.86 g). The results showed that Japanese seabass had limited capacity to synthesize LC-PUFA and fish fed PA, SA, OA and LNA showed significantly lower tissue n-3 LC-PUFA contents compared to fish fed N-3 LC-PUFA and FO. The putative gene promoter and full-length cDNA of FADS2 was cloned and characterized. The protein sequence was confirmed to be homologous to FADS2s of marine teleosts and possessed all the characteristic features of microsomal fatty acid desaturases. The FADS2 transcript levels in liver of fish fed N-3 LC-PUFA and FO were significantly lower than those in fish fed other diets except LNA while Diet PA significantly up-regulated the FADS2 gene expression compared to Diet LNA, N-3 LC-PUFA and FO. Inversely, fish fed N-3 LC-PUFA and FO showed significantly higher promoter methylation rates of FADS2 gene compared to fish fed the LC-PUFA deficient diets. These results suggested that Japanese seabass had low LC-PUFA synthesis capacity and LC-PUFA deficient diets caused significantly reduced tissue n-3 LC-PUFA contents. The liver gene expression of FADS2 was up-regulated in groups enriched in C16:0, C18:0 and C18:1n-9 respectively but not in the group enriched in C18:3n-3 compared to groups with high n-3 LC-PUFA contents. The FADS2 gene expression regulated by dietary fatty acids was significantly negatively correlated with the methylation rate of putative FADS2 gene promoter.

  14. Dietary lysine affected the expression of genes related to lipid metabolism in skeletal muscle of finishing pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It has been reported that some amino acids can function as signaling molecules to regulate skeletal muscle growth in mammals. This study was conducted to identify those genes that may be regulated by amino acid lysine and responsible for muscle growth and meat quality of pigs. Nine crossbred barrows...

  15. Dietary phosphorus affects the growth of larval Manduca sexta.

    PubMed

    Perkins, Marc C; Woods, H Arthur; Harrison, Jon F; Elser, James J

    2004-03-01

    Although phosphorus has long been considered an important factor in the growth of diverse biota such as bacteria, algae, and zooplankton, insect nutrition has classically focused on dietary protein and energy content. However, research in elemental stoichiometry has suggested that primary producer biomass has similar N:P ratios in aquatic and terrestrial systems, and phosphorus-rich herbivores in freshwater systems frequently face phosphorus-limited nutritional conditions. Therefore, herbivorous insects should also be prone to phosphorus limitation. We tested this prediction by rearing Manduca sexta larvae on artificial and natural (Datura wrightii leaves) diets containing varying levels of phosphorus (approximately 0.20, 0.55, or 1.2% phosphorus by dry weight). For both artificial and natural diets, increased dietary phosphorus significantly increased growth rates and body phosphorus contents, and shortened the time to the final instar molt. Caterpillars did not consistently exhibit compensatory feeding for phosphorus on either type of diet. The growth and body phosphorus responses were not explicable by changes in amounts of potassium or calcium, which co-varied with phosphorus in the diets. Concentrations of phosphorus in D. wrightii leaves collected in the field varied over a range in which leaf phosphorus is predicted to affect M. sexta's growth rates. These results suggest that natural variation in dietary phosphorus is likely to affect the growth rate and population dynamics of M. sexta, and perhaps larval insects more generally.

  16. Physical and Flavor Characteristics, Fatty Acid Profile, Antioxidant Status and Nrf2-Dependent Antioxidant Enzyme Gene Expression Changes in Young Grass Carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) Fillets Fed Dietary Valine

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Wei-Dan; Liu, Yang; Wu, Pei; Jiang, Jun; Kuang, Sheng-Yao; Tang, Ling; Tang, Wu-Neng; Zhang, Yong-An; Zhou, Xiao-Qiu

    2017-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine the effects of dietary valine on the physical and flavor characteristics, fatty acid (FA) profile, antioxidant status and Nrf2-dependent antioxidant enzyme gene expression in the muscle of young grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) fed increasing levels of valine (4.3, 8.0, 10.6, 13.1, 16.9 and 19.1 g/kg) for 8 weeks. Compared with the control group, the group fed valine showed improved physical characteristics of fish fillets (increased relative shear force, hydroxyproline, protein and lipid levels and decreased cathepsin B and L activities, as well as cooking loss, were observed). Moreover, valine improved the flavor of young grass carp fillets by increasing the amino acid (AA) concentration in fish muscle (increased aspartic acid, threonine, glutamine, cystine, methionine, leucine, tyrosine, phenylalanine, lysine, histidine, arginine and valine concentrations were observed). Additionally, optimal valine supplementation increased the potential health benefits to humans by decreasing the saturated FA (C15:0 and C16:0) concentration and increasing the unsaturated FA (monounsaturated FAs (MUFAs), such as C16:1, C18:1c+t and C20:1, and polyunsaturated FAs (PUFAs), such as C18:3n-3, C20:2 and C22:6) concentration. In addition, the reduced glutathione (GSH) content and the activities of Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1), catalase (CAT) and Selenium-dependent glutathione peroxydase (Se-GPx) increased under valine supplementation (P < 0.05). Furthermore, the SOD1, CAT and Se-GPx mRNA levels increased with dietary valine levels, possibly due to the up-regulation of NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), target of rapamycin (TOR) and ribosomal protein S6 kinase 1 (S6K1) and the down-regulation of Kelch-like-ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1) in muscle (P < 0.05). In conclusion, valine improved the physical and flavor characteristics, FA profile, and antioxidant status and regulated the expression of the antioxidant enzyme genes Nrf2, Keap1, TOR

  17. Polymorphisms in genes involved in folate metabolism modify the association of dietary and circulating folate and vitamin B-6 with cervical neoplasia.

    PubMed

    Tomita, Luciana Y; D'Almeida, Vania; Villa, Luisa L; Franco, Eduardo L; Cardoso, Marly A

    2013-12-01

    High folate intake has been suggested as an important factor in cancer prevention; however, previous studies on the relation among folate intake, serum folate, and plasma homocysteine (hcy) are controversial. We conducted a hospital-based, case-control study in Brazil investigating associations between dietary and circulating vitamins B-6 and B-12 and folate, hcy, genotypes of folate-metabolizing enzyme methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR C677T, A1298C), 5-methyltetrahydrofolate-homocysteine methyltransferase (MTR A2756G), methionine synthase reductase (MTRR A66G), and reduced folate carrier (RFC1 G80A) and risk of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) grades 1 (CIN1), 2 (CIN2), and 3 (CIN3). The study was composed by 453 controls, 140 CIN1, 126 CIN2, and 231 CIN3. We investigated the joint effects of genetic variants of folate-related genes using genetic risk scores (GRSs) by summing the number of risk alleles for CIN1 and CIN2+ (CIN2 and CIN3 cases). The OR (95% CI) for CIN1 and CIN2+ per each risk allele were 1.29 (1.01, 1.65) and 1.22 (1.01, 1.46), respectively. An association between folate intake and CIN2+ was observed only after stratification according to GRS: crude OR (95% CI) for lower folate intake and GRS ≥ 4 was 1.67 (0.92, 3.04) (P-trend < 0.001) compared with higher folate intake (above the median) and GRS ≤ 3. The CIN2+ risk of lower serum vitamin B-6 and GRS ≥ 4 was 2.14 (0.92, 5.02) (P-trend = 0.05) and lower serum folate (below the median) and GRS ≥ 4 was 0.49 (0.20, 1.17) (P-trend = 0.05) after adjustment for confounding variables and human papillomavirus infection. Our data suggest that polymorphisms in genes related to folate metabolism modify the association of dietary and circulating folate and vitamin B-6 with cervical neoplasia.

  18. Dietary whey reduces energy intake and alters hypothalamic gene expression in obese phyto-oestrogen-deprived male rats.

    PubMed

    Andreoli, María F; Stoker, Cora; Lazzarino, Gisela P; Canesini, Guillermina; Luque, Enrique H; Ramos, Jorge G

    2016-09-01

    Removing dietary phyto-oestrogens in adult male rats causes obesity and diabetes. As whey proteins have been reported to reduce food intake and improve glucose homoeostasis, we investigated whether they could attenuate susceptibility to obesity and diabetes due to phyto-oestrogen deprivation. To this end, thirty male Wistar rats were fed a high-phyto-oestrogen (HP) or a phyto-oestrogen-free (PF) diet for 10 weeks; six rats from each group were killed. The remaining HP animals (six animals) continued receiving the HP diet for 6 weeks. The remaining PF rats (twelve rats) were divided in two groups: one was given the PF diet and the other a variation of the PF diet plus whey protein (PF-W). Body weight, food intake and adipose tissue weights were recorded. Hypothalamic mRNA expressions of orexigenic (neuropeptide Y, agouti-related protein (AgRP)) and anorexigenic (pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC), cocaine-amphetamine-related transcript (CART)) neuropeptides were quantified by real-time PCR. Serum glucose, insulin and total thyroxine (T4), thyroid-stimulating hormone, testosterone and oestradiol were assessed. After 10 weeks of PF diet, increased body weight, adiposity and energy intake, with up-regulation of AgRP and down-regulation of POMC', were observed. Longer treatment exacerbated these results, increased total T4 levels, reduced oestradiol levels and impaired glucose homoeostasis. PF-W reduced energy intake and increased POMC expression; however, body weight and adiposity remained unchanged. PF-W could not prevent the hormonal changes or the high circulating glucose levels induced by phyto-oestrogen deprivation, but reduced fasting insulin. These data demonstrate that, although 6 weeks of whey administration could not prevent obesity in phyto-oestrogen-deprived rats, the reduction in energy intake and circulating insulin could be beneficial with longer treatments.

  19. The effect of dietary arachidonic acid (ARA) on growth performance, fatty acid composition and expression of ARA metabolism-related genes in larval half-smooth tongue sole (Cynoglossus semilaevis).

    PubMed

    Yuan, Yuhui; Li, Songlin; Mai, Kangsen; Xu, Wei; Zhang, Yanjiao; Ai, Qinghui

    2015-05-28

    The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary arachidonic acid (ARA) on growth performance, fatty acid composition and ARA metabolism-related gene expression in larval half-smooth tongue sole (Cynoglossus semilaevis). Larvae (35 d after hatching, 54 (SEM 1) mg) were fed diets with graded concentrations of ARA (0.01, 0.39, 0.70, 1.07, 1.42 and 2.86 % dry weight) five times per d to apparent satiation for 30 d. Results showed that increased dietary ARA concentration caused a significant non-linear rise to a plateau in survival rate, final body weight and thermal growth coefficient, and the maximum values occurred with the 1.42 % ARA treatment. As dietary ARA increased to 1.07 or 1.42 %, activities of trypsin, leucine aminopeptidase and alkaline phosphatase levels increased, but they decreased with higher ARA concentrations. The fatty acid composition of tongue sole larvae was almost well correlated with their dietary fatty acid profiles, and the EPA content of the larvae decreased with increasing dietary ARA. Meanwhile, the partial sequences of COX-1a (cyclo-oxygenase-1a), COX-1b (cyclo-oxygenase-1b), COX-2 (cyclo-oxygenase-2), 5-LOX (5-lipoxygenase) and CYP2J6-like (cytochrome P450 2J6-like) were also obtained. Both COX-2 and 5-LOX mRNA expression levels significantly increased to a plateau in an 'L'-shaped manner as dietary ARA increased to 1.07 or 1.42 %, but no significant differences were found in the gene expression of COX-1a, COX-1b or CYP2J6-like. These results suggest that 1.07-1.42 % dietary ARA was beneficial to the growth performance of larval tongue sole, and the regulation of dietary ARA on the growth performance of larvae was probably involved in altering the mRNA expression of COX-2 and 5-LOX.

  20. The effects of dietary supplementation of methionine on genomic stability and p53 gene promoter methylation in rats.

    PubMed

    Amaral, Cátia Lira Do; Bueno, Rafaela de Barros E Lima; Burim, Regislaine Valéria; Queiroz, Regina Helena Costa; Bianchi, Maria de Lourdes Pires; Antunes, Lusânia Maria Greggi

    2011-05-18

    Methionine is a component of one-carbon metabolism and a precursor of S-adenosylmethionine (SAM), the methyl donor for DNA methylation. When methionine intake is high, an increase of S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) is expected. DNA methyltransferases convert SAM to S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH). A high intracellular SAH concentration could inhibit the activity of DNA methyltransferases. Therefore, high methionine ingestion could induce DNA damage and change the methylation pattern of tumor suppressor genes. This study investigated the genotoxicity of a methionine-supplemented diet. It also investigated the diet's effects on glutathione levels, SAM and SAH concentrations and the gene methylation pattern of p53. Wistar rats received either a methionine-supplemented diet (2% methionine) or a control diet (0.3% methionine) for six weeks. The methionine-supplemented diet was neither genotoxic nor antigenotoxic to kidney cells, as assessed by the comet assay. However, the methionine-supplemented diet restored the renal glutathione depletion induced by doxorubicin. This fact may be explained by the transsulfuration pathway, which converts methionine to glutathione in the kidney. Methionine supplementation increased the renal concentration of SAH without changing the SAM/SAH ratio. This unchanged profile was also observed for DNA methylation at the promoter region of the p53 gene. Further studies are necessary to elucidate this diet's effects on genomic stability and DNA methylation.

  1. Fat mass- and obesity-associated gene Fto affects the dietary response in mouse white adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Ronkainen, Justiina; Huusko, Tuija J; Soininen, Raija; Mondini, Eleonora; Cinti, Francesca; Mäkelä, Kari A; Kovalainen, Miia; Herzig, Karl-Heinz; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Sebert, Sylvain; Savolainen, Markku J; Salonurmi, Tuire

    2015-03-18

    Common variants of human fat mass- and obesity-associated gene Fto have been linked with higher body mass index, but the biological explanation for the link has remained obscure. Recent findings suggest that these variants affect the homeobox protein IRX3. Here we report that FTO has a role in white adipose tissue which modifies its response to high-fat feeding. Wild type and Fto-deficient mice were exposed to standard or high-fat diet for 16 weeks after which metabolism, behavior and white adipose tissue morphology were analyzed together with adipokine levels and relative expression of genes regulating white adipose tissue adipogenesis and Irx3. Our results indicate that Fto deficiency increases the expression of genes related to adipogenesis preventing adipocytes from becoming hypertrophic after high-fat diet. In addition, we report a novel finding of increased Irx3 expression in Fto-deficient mice after high-fat feeding indicating a complex link between FTO, IRX3 and fat metabolism.

  2. Differential gene expression associated with dietary methylmercury (MeHg) exposure in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Qing; Basu, Niladri; Goetz, Giles; Jiang, Nan; Hutz, Reinhold J.; Tonellato, Peter J.; Carvan, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify and evaluate conserved biomarkers that could be used in most species of teleost fish at most life-stages. We investigated the effects of sublethal methylmercury (MeHg) exposure on developing rainbow trout and zebrafish. Juvenile rainbow trout and young adult zebrafish were fed food with MeHg added at 0, 0.5, 5 and 50 ppm. Atomic absorption spectrometry was applied to measure whole body total Hg levels, and pathologic analysis was performed to identify MeHg-induced toxicity. Fish at six weeks were sampled from each group for microarray analysis using RNA from whole fish. MeHg-exposed trout and zebrafish did not show overt signs of toxicity or pathology, nor were significant differences seen in mortality, length, mass, or condition factor. The accumulation of MeHg in trout and zebrafish exhibited dose- and time-dependent patterns during six weeks, and zebrafish exhibited greater assimilation of total Hg than rainbow trout. The dysregulated genes in MeHg-treated fish have multiple functional annotations, such as iron ion homeostasis, glutathione transferase activity, regulation of muscle contraction, troponin I binding and calcium-dependent protein binding. Genes were selected as biomarker candidates based on their microarray data and their expression was evaluated by QPCR. Unfortunately, these genes are not good consistent biomarkers for both rainbow trout and zebrafish from QPCR evaluation using individual fish. Our conclusion is that biomarker analysis for aquatic toxicant assessment using fish needs to be based on tissue-, sex- and species-specific consideration. PMID:23529582

  3. Dietary choline modulates immune responses, and gene expressions of TOR and eIF4E-binding protein2 in immune organs of juvenile Jian carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Jian).

    PubMed

    Wu, Pei; Jiang, Jun; Liu, Yang; Hu, Kai; Jiang, Wei-Dan; Li, Shu-Hong; Feng, Lin; Zhou, Xiao-Qiu

    2013-09-01

    The present work evaluates the effects of various levels of dietary choline on immune parameters, immune-related gene expression and protection against Aeromonas hydrophila (AH) in juvenile Jian carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Jian). Fish were fed with six different experimental diets containing graded levels of choline at 165 (choline-deficient control), 310, 607, 896, 1167 and 1820 mg kg(-1) diet for 65 days. At the end of the feeding trail, Fish were challenged with AH and mortalities were recorded over 17 days. Dietary choline significantly enhanced spleen and head kidney weights, spleen index, red blood cell and white blood cell counts, and intestinal Lactobacillus counts of juvenile Jian carp; whereas, intestinal Escherichia coli and A. hydrophila counts decreased. Moreover, the post-challenge survival rate, leucocyte phagocytic capacity, serum lysozyme and acid phosphatase activities, hemagglutination titer, complement 3 and 4 contents, immunoglobulin M content, and anti-AH antibody titer were significantly enhanced by choline and the lowest in choline-deficient group, while serum total iron-binding capacity was the highest in choline-deficient group. The relative gene expressions of interleukin 10 in spleen and head kidney, target of rapamycin (TOR) in spleen and eIF4E-binding protein2 (4E-BP2) in head kidney significantly increased with increasing of dietary choline up to a certain point. However, the relative gene expressions of interleukin 1β, tumor necrosis factor α and transforming growth factor β2 in spleen and head kidney, TOR in head kidney and 4E-BP2 in spleen significantly decreased. In conclusion, dietary choline improved disease resistance, enhanced the immune function, and regulated immune-related gene expression of juvenile Jian carp.

  4. Dietary fiber.

    PubMed

    Madar, Z; Thorne, R

    1987-01-01

    Studies done on dietary fiber (DF) over the past five years are presented in this Review. The involvement of dietary fiber in the control of plasma glucose and lipid levels is now established. Two dietary fiber sources (soybean and fenugreek) were studied in our laboratory and are discussed herein. These sources were found to be potentially beneficial in the reduction of plasma glucose in non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus subjects. They are shown to be acceptable by human subjects and are easy to use either in a mixture of milk products and in cooking. The mechanism by which dietary fiber alters the nutrient absorption is also discussed. The effect of DF on gastric emptying, transit time, adsorption and glucose transport may contribute to reducing plasma glucose and lipid levels. DF was found to be effective in controlling blood glucose and lipid levels of pregnant diabetic women. Dietary fiber may also be potentially beneficial in the reduction of exogenous insulin requirements in these subjects. However, increased consumption of DF may cause adverse side effects; the binding capabilities of fiber may affect nutrient availability, particularly that of minerals and prolonged and high DF dosage supplementation must be regarded cautiously. This is particularly true when recommending such a diet for pregnant or lactating women, children or subjects with nutritional disorders. Physiological effects of DF appear to depend heavily on the source and composition of fiber. Using a combination of DF from a variety of sources may reduce the actual mass of fiber required to obtain the desired metabolic effects and will result in a more palatable diet. Previously observed problems, such as excess flatus, diarrhea and mineral malabsorption would also be minimized.

  5. Dietary methyl donors, methyl metabolizing enzymes, and epigenetic regulators: diet-gene interactions and promoter CpG island hypermethylation in colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    de Vogel, Stefan; Wouters, Kim A D; Gottschalk, Ralph W H; van Schooten, Frederik J; de Goeij, Anton F P M; de Bruïne, Adriaan P; Goldbohm, R Alexandra; van den Brandt, Piet A; van Engeland, Manon; Weijenberg, Matty P

    2011-01-01

    Dietary methyl donors might influence DNA methylation during carcinogenesis of colorectal cancer (CRC). Among 609 CRC cases and 1,663 subcohort members of the Netherlands Cohort Study on diet and cancer (n = 120,852), we estimated CRC risk according to methyl donor intake across genotypes of folate metabolizing enzymes and methyltransferases.Although diet-gene interactions were not statistically significant, methionine intake was inversely associated with CRC among subjects having both common rs2424913 and rs406193 DNMT3B C > T genotypes (highest versus lowest tertile: RR = 0.44; p (trend) = 0.05). Likewise, vitamin B2 was modestly inversely associated among individuals with the MTHFR c.665CC (rs1801133) genotype (RR = 0.66; p (trend) = 0.08), but with a significant reduced risk when ≤ 1 rare allele occurred in the combination of folate metabolizing enzymes MTHFR, MTRR and MTR (RR = 0.30; p (trend) = 0.005). Folate or vitamin B6 were neither inversely associated with CRC nor was methyl donor intake associated with the CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP).Despite the absence of heterogeneity across genotypes, might an effect of methyl donors on CRC be more pronounced among individuals carrying common variants of folate metabolizing enzymes or DNA methyltransferases. Combining genotypes may assist to reveal diet associations with CRC, possibly because rare variants of related genes may collectively affect specific metabolic pathways or enzymatic functions.

  6. Effects of different dietary conditions on the expression of trypsin- and chymotrypsin-like protease genes in the digestive system of the migratory locust, Locusta migratoria.

    PubMed

    Spit, Jornt; Zels, Sven; Dillen, Senne; Holtof, Michiel; Wynant, Niels; Vanden Broeck, Jozef

    2014-05-01

    While technological advancements have recently led to a steep increase in genomic and transcriptomic data, and large numbers of protease sequences are being discovered in diverse insect species, little information is available about the expression of digestive enzymes in Orthoptera. Here we describe the identification of Locusta migratoria serine protease transcripts (cDNAs) involved in digestion, which might serve as possible targets for pest control management. A total of 5 putative trypsin and 15 putative chymotrypsin gene sequences were characterized. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that these are distributed among 3 evolutionary conserved clusters. In addition, we have determined the relative gene expression levels of representative members in the gut under different feeding conditions. This study demonstrated that the transcript levels for all measured serine proteases were strongly reduced after starvation. On the other hand, larvae of L. migratoria displayed compensatory effects to the presence of Soybean Bowman Birk (SBBI) and Soybean Trypsin (SBTI) inhibitors in their diet by differential upregulation of multiple proteases. A rapid initial upregulation was observed for all tested serine protease transcripts, while only for members belonging to class I, the transcript levels remained elevated after prolonged exposure. In full agreement with these results, we also observed an increase in proteolytic activity in midgut secretions of locusts that were accustomed to the presence of protease inhibitors in their diet, while no change in sensitivity to these inhibitors was observed. Taken together, this paper is the first comprehensive study on dietary dependent transcript levels of proteolytic enzymes in Orthoptera. Our data suggest that compensatory response mechanisms to protease inhibitor ingestion may have appeared early in insect evolution.

  7. Effect of Inorganic Dietary Selenium Supplementation on Selenoprotein and Lipid Metabolism Gene Expression Patterns in Liver and Loin Muscle of Growing Lambs.

    PubMed

    Juszczuk-Kubiak, Edyta; Bujko, Kamila; Cymer, Monika; Wicińska, Krystyna; Gabryszuk, Mirosław; Pierzchała, Mariusz

    2016-08-01

    Effect of selenium (Se) supplementation on the selenoprotein and lipid metabolism gene expression patterns in ruminants, especially in lambs is not yet fully understood. The aim of study was to evaluate the effect of Se supplementation on the messenger RNA (mRNA) expression patterns of selected selenoproteins and genes related to lipid metabolism in growing lambs. The experiment was conducted on 48 Polish Merino lambs divided into two groups (n = 24): control (C)-lambs fed with a basal diet (BD) with no Se supplementation, and supplemented (S)-lambs fed with a BD, supplemented with 0.5 mg Se/kg as sodium selenate for 8 weeks. Expression of 12 selenoproteins and six genes related to lipid metabolism was analyzed in the liver and longissimus dorsi (LD) muscle of growing lambs by qPCR. Significant differences were found in the expression of GPX1, GPX2, SEPM, SEPW1, SEP15, SEPGS2, and TXNRD1 in the liver, and GPX1, SEPP1, SEPN1, SEPW1, SEP15, and MSRB1 in the LD muscle between S and C lambs. Se supplementation mainly upregulated SEPW1, SEP15 (P < 0.001; P < 0.01) mRNA expression in the liver, and GPX1, SEPP1, SEPN1, SEPW1 (P < 0.001; P < 0.01) in the muscle of S group. On the other hand, significant decrease in GPX2 (P < 0.01), SEPM (P < 0.001), and SEPHS2 (P < 0.01) mRNA expression levels were observed in the liver of S group of lambs. Se supplementation did not affect PON1, LXRα, and PPARα mRNA expression levels, but a significant increase in mRNA levels of APOE and LPL in the LD muscle (P < 0.05) as well as LPL (P < 0.05) in the liver were noticed in the group of Se supplemented lambs. Our study confirmed that, in lambs, similarly to other species, mRNA expression patterns of several selenoproteins highly depend on dietary Se levels, and their expression is ruled by hierarchical principles and tissue-specific mechanisms. Moreover, the study showed that changes Se intake leads to different levels of genes expression related

  8. Dietary phenylalanine-improved intestinal barrier health in young grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) is associated with increased immune status and regulated gene expression of cytokines, tight junction proteins, antioxidant enzymes and related signalling molecules.

    PubMed

    Feng, Lin; Li, Wen; Liu, Yang; Jiang, Wei-Dan; Kuang, Sheng-Yao; Jiang, Jun; Tang, Ling; Wu, Pei; Tang, Wu-Neng; Zhang, Yong-An; Zhou, Xiao-Qiu

    2015-08-01

    The present work evaluated the effects of dietary phenylalanine (Phe) on the intestinal immune response, tight junction proteins transcript abundance, and the gene expression of immune- and antioxidant-related signalling molecules in the intestine. In addition, the dietary Phe (and Phe + Tyr) requirement of young grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) was also estimated. Fish were fed fish meal-casein-gelatin based diets (302.3 g crude protein kg(-1)) containing 3.4 (basal diet), 6.1, 9.1, 11.5, 14.0 and 16.8 g Phe kg(-1) with a fixed amount of 10.7 g tyrosine kg(-1) for 8 weeks. The results showed that Phe deficiency or excess Phe reduced the lysozyme and acid phosphatase activities and complement C 3 content in the intestine (P < 0.05). Moreover, zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1), occludin and claudin c mRNA levels were highest in the fish fed the diet containing 11.5 g Phe kg(-1) (P < 0.05). However, claudin 12 and claudin b mRNA levels were not significantly affected by dietary Phe (P > 0.05). Gene expression of interleukin-10 (IL-10), transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), target of rapamycin (TOR) and inhibitor of nuclear factor κBα (IκBα) in proximal intestine (PI), mid intestine (MI) and distal intestine (DI) increased as dietary Phe increased up to 6.1, 9.1, 11.5 and 14.0 g kg(-1), respectively (P < 0.05). However, interleukin-8 (IL-8), tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and nuclear factor-κB p65 (NF-κB p65) mRNA levels showed opposite tendencies. In addition, the mRNA level of superoxide dismutase (SOD) was significantly lower in the intestinal tissue of the group fed a diet with Phe levels of 16.8 g kg(-1) than in those of other groups (P < 0.05). The expression of NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) gene was increased as dietary Phe increased up to 9.1 g kg(-1) (P < 0.05). In conclusion, Phe improved intestinal immune status, and regulated gene expression of cytokines, tight junction proteins, antioxidant enzymes, NF-κB p65, IκBα, TOR, and Nrf2 in the fish

  9. Dietary olive oil and menhaden oil mitigate induction of lipogenesis in hyperinsulinemic corpulent JCR:LA-cp rats: microarray analysis of lipid-related gene expression.

    PubMed

    Deng, Xiong; Elam, Marshall B; Wilcox, Henry G; Cagen, Lauren M; Park, Edwards A; Raghow, Rajendra; Patel, Divyen; Kumar, Poonam; Sheybani, Ali; Russell, James C

    2004-12-01

    In the corpulent James C. Russell corpulent (JCR:LA-cp) rat, hyperinsulinemia leads to induction of lipogenic enzymes via enhanced expression of sterol-regulatory-binding protein (SREBP)-1c. This results in increased hepatic lipid production and hypertriglyceridemia. Information regarding down-regulation of SREBP-1c and lipogenic enzymes by dietary fatty acids in this model is limited. We therefore assessed de novo hepatic lipogenesis and hepatic and plasma lipids in corpulent JCR rats fed diets enriched in olive oil or menhaden oil. Using microarray and Northern analysis, we determined the effect of these diets on expression of mRNA for lipogenic enzymes and other proteins related to lipid metabolism. In corpulent JCR:LA-cp rats, both the olive oil and menhaden oil diets reduced expression of SREBP-1c, with concomitant reductions in hepatic triglyceride content, lipogenesis, and expression of enzymes related to lipid synthesis. Unexpectedly, expression of many peroxisomal proliferator-activated receptor-dependent enzymes mediating fatty acid oxidation was increased in livers of corpulent JCR rats. The menhaden oil diet further increased expression of these enzymes. Induction of SREBP-1c by insulin is dependent on liver x receptor (LXR)alpha. Although hepatic expression of mRNA for LXR itself was not increased in corpulent rats, expression of Cyp7a1, an LXR-responsive gene, was increased, suggesting increased LXR activity. Expression of mRNA encoding fatty acid translocase and ATP-binding cassette subfamily DALD member 3 was also increased in livers of corpulent JCR rats, indicating a potential role for these fatty acid transporters in the pathogenesis of disordered lipid metabolism in obesity. This study clearly demonstrates that substitution of dietary polyunsaturated fatty acid for carbohydrate in the corpulent JCR:LA-cp rat reduces de novo lipogenesis, at least in part, by reducing hepatic expression of SREBP-1c and that strategies directed toward reducing

  10. Differential expression profiles of Streptococcus mutans ftf, gtf and vicR genes in the presence of dietary carbohydrates at early and late exponential growth phases.

    PubMed

    Shemesh, Moshe; Tam, Avshalom; Feldman, Mark; Steinberg, Doron

    2006-09-04

    Dental caries is one of the most common infectious diseases that affects humans. Streptococcus mutans, the main pathogenic bacterium associated with dental caries, produces a number of extracellular sucrose-metabolizing enzymes, such as glucosyltransferases (GTFB, GTFC and GTFD) and fructosyltransferase (FTF). The cooperative action of these enzymes is essential for sucrose-dependent cellular adhesion and biofilm formation. A global response regulator (vicR) plays important roles in S. mutans ftf and gtf expression in response to a variety of stimuli. A real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain-reaction was used to quantify the relative levels of ftf, gtfB, gtfC, gtfD and vicR transcription of S. mutans in the presence of various dietary carbohydrates: sucrose, D-glucose, D-fructose, D-glucitol (D-sorbitol), D-mannitol and xylitol. Ftf was highly expressed at late exponential phase in the presence of sorbitol and mannitol. GtfB was highly expressed in the presence of all the above carbohydrates except for xylitol at early exponential growth phase and glucose and fructose at late exponential growth phase. Similar to gtfB, the expression of gtfC was also induced with the presence of all the tested carbohydrates except for xylitol at early growth and glucose and fructose at late exponential phase. In addition, no effect of mannitol on gtfC expression at early exponential phase was observed. GtfD was less influenced compared to the gtfB and gtfC, demonstrating enhanced expression especially in the presence of sorbitol, glucose, mannitol and xylitol at early exponential phase and mannitol at late exponential phase. VicR expression was induced only at the presence of xylitol at late exponential phase, and a decrease in expression was recorded at early exponential phase. Our findings show that dietary carbohydrates have a major influence on the transcription of ftf, gtfB, gtfC and gtfD, but less on vicR. Sorbitol and mannitol, which are considered as noncariogenic

  11. Dietary assessment methods: dietary records.

    PubMed

    Ortega, Rosa M; Pérez-Rodrigo, Carmen; López-Sobaler, Ana M

    2015-02-26

    Dietary records or food diaries can be highlighted among dietary assessment methods of the current diet for their interest and validity. It is a prospective, open-ended survey method collecting data about the foods and beverages consumed over a previously specified period of time. Dietary records can be used to estimate current diet of individuals and population groups, as well as to identify groups at risk of inadequacy. It is a dietary assessment method interesting for its use in epidemiological or in clinical studies. High validity and precision has been reported for the method when used following adequate procedures and considering the sufficient number of days. Thus, dietary records are often considered as a reference method in validation studies. Nevertheless, the method is affected by error and has limitations due mainly to the tendency of subjects to report food consumption close to those socially desirable. Additional problems are related to the high burden posed on respondents. The method can also influence food behavior in respondents in order to simplify the registration of food intake and some subjects can experience difficulties in writing down the foods and beverages consumed or in describing the portion sizes. Increasing the number of days observed reduces the quality of completed diet records. It should also be considered the high cost of coding and processing information collected in diet records. One of the main advantages of the method is the registration of the foods and beverages as consumed, thus reducing the problem of food omissions due to memory failure. Weighted food records provide more precise estimates of consumed portions. New Technologies can be helpful to improve and ease collaboration of respondents, as well as precision of the estimates, although it would be desirable to evaluate the advantages and limitations in order to optimize the implementation.

  12. Dietary açai modulates ROS production by neutrophils and gene expression of liver antioxidant enzymes in rats

    PubMed Central

    Guerra, Joyce Ferreira da Costa; Magalhães, Cíntia Lopes de Brito; Costa, Daniela Caldeira; Silva, Marcelo Eustáquio; Pedrosa, Maria Lúcia

    2011-01-01

    Açai (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) has recently emerged as a promising source of natural antioxidants. Because increased oxidative stress and impaired antioxidant defense mechanisms are important factors in the development of diabetic complications and many health claims have been reported for açai, the present study was undertaken to evaluate the possible protective effects of açai on the production of reactive oxygen species by neutrophils and on the liver antioxidant defense system in control and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Diet supplementation with 2% açai was found to increase mRNA levels for gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase and glutathione peroxidase in liver tissue and to decrease reactive oxygen species production by neutrophils. Compared to control animals, diabetic rats exhibited lower levels of mRNA coding for Zn-superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase and higher levels of reactive oxygen species production by neutrophils, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances and carbonyl proteins in hepatic tissues. Although açai supplementation was not effective in restore gene expression of antioxidant enzymes in diabetic rats, it showed a protective effect, decreasing thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances levels and increasing reduced glutathione content in the liver. These findings suggest that açai can modulate reactive oxygen species production by neutrophils and that it has a significant favorable effect on the liver antioxidant defense system under fisiological conditions of oxidative stress and partially revert deleterious effects of diabetes in the liver. PMID:22128218

  13. Significance of Dietary Antioxidants for Health

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, Michael H.

    2012-01-01

    Since evidence became available that free radicals were involved in mechanisms for the development of major diseases, including cardiovascular disease and cancer, there has been considerable research into the properties of natural dietary antioxidants. However, it has become clear that dietary antioxidants can only have beneficial effects in vivo by radical scavenging or effects on redox potential if they are present in tissues or bodily fluids at sufficient concentrations. For many dietary components, absorption is limited or metabolism into derivatives reduces the antioxidant capacity. For many dietary phytochemicals, direct antioxidant effects may be less important for health than other effects including effects on cell signalling or gene expression in vivo. PMID:22312245

  14. Effect of Linseed Oil Dietary Supplementation on Fatty Acid Composition and Gene Expression in Adipose Tissue of Growing Goats

    PubMed Central

    Ebrahimi, M.; Rajion, M. A.; Goh, Y. M.; Sazili, A. Q.; Schonewille, J. T.

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effects of feeding oil palm frond silage based diets with added linseed oil (LO) containing high α-linolenic acid (C18:3n-3), namely, high LO (HLO), low LO (LLO), and without LO as the control group (CON) on the fatty acid (FA) composition of subcutaneous adipose tissue and the gene expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)α, PPAR-γ, and stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) in Boer goats. The proportion of C18:3n-3 in subcutaneous adipose tissue was increased (P < 0.01) by increasing the LO in the diet, suggesting that the FA from HLO might have escaped ruminal biohydrogenation. Animals fed HLO diets had lower proportions of C18:1 trans-11, C18:2n-6, CLA cis-9 trans-11, and C20:4n-6 and higher proportions of C18:3n-3, C22:5n-3, and C22:6n-3 in the subcutaneous adipose tissue than animals fed the CON diets, resulting in a decreased n-6:n-3 fatty acid ratio (FAR) in the tissue. In addition, feeding the HLO diet upregulated the expression of PPAR-γ (P < 0.05) but downregulated the expression of SCD (P < 0.05) in the adipose tissue. The results of the present study show that LO can be safely incorporated in the diets of goats to enrich goat meat with potential health beneficial FA (i.e., n-3 FA). PMID:23484090

  15. Pseudogenization of the umami taste receptor gene Tas1r1 in the giant panda coincided with its dietary switch to bamboo.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Huabin; Yang, Jian-Rong; Xu, Huailiang; Zhang, Jianzhi

    2010-12-01

    Although it belongs to the order Carnivora, the giant panda is a vegetarian with 99% of its diet being bamboo. The draft genome sequence of the giant panda shows that its umami taste receptor gene Tas1r1 is a pseudogene, prompting the proposal that the loss of the umami perception explains why the giant panda is herbivorous. To test this hypothesis, we sequenced all six exons of Tas1r1 in another individual of the giant panda and five other carnivores. We found that the open reading frame (ORF) of Tas1r1 is intact in all these carnivores except the giant panda. The rate ratio (ω) of nonsynonymous to synonymous substitutions in Tas1r1 is significantly higher for the giant panda lineage than for other carnivore lineages. Based on the ω change and the observed number of ORF-disrupting substitutions, we estimated that the functional constraint on the giant panda Tas1r1 was relaxed ∼ 4.2 Ma, with its 95% confidence interval between 1.3 and 10 Ma. Our estimate matches the approximate date of the giant panda's dietary switch inferred from fossil records. It is probable that the giant panda's decreased reliance on meat resulted in the dispensability of the umami taste, leading to Tas1r1 pseudogenization, which in turn reinforced its herbivorous life style because of the diminished attraction of returning to meat eating in the absence of Tas1r1. Nonetheless, additional factors are likely involved because herbivores such as cow and horse still retain an intact Tas1r1.

  16. Effects of different dietary lipid level on the growth, survival and immune-relating genes expression in Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Sheng-peng; Li, Jin-feng; Wu, Xiao-chun; Zhong, Wei-jing; Xian, Jian-an; Liao, Shao-an; Miao, Yu-tao; Wang, An-li

    2013-05-01

    Five feeding trials based on the isonitrogenous and isoenergetic experimental diets containing 34% protein, 6%, 8%, 10%, 12% or 14% lipid respectively in the circulating water culture system for both 30 and 60 days were conducted to investigate the effect of the dietary lipid level on the growth and immunity in white shirmp, Litopenaeus vannamei adults. The body weight and specific growth rate of white shrimp in different treatments indicated that shrimps fed the diet of 12% lipid level for 30d and 10% lipid level for 60d had the best developmental status. The ability of respiratory burst in hemocytes was improved as the increase of dietary lipid level. The transcripts of LGBP and pPO were sensitive to the dietary lipid in hemocyte and hepatopancreas respectively. The activities of CAT, GPx and AKP were increased to a certain extend according to dietary lipid level. Qualification of MDA showed the lowest level in the sample subjected to 12% lipid level diet, indicating an optimal utilization of the dietary lipid and an efficient clearance of MDA in vivo. These results suggested that dietary lipid level of 10-12% significantly tunes the growth and enhance the immune abilities mainly via ROS pathway of L. vannamei.

  17. Effect of dietary glutamine on growth performance, non-specific immunity, expression of cytokine genes, phosphorylation of target of rapamycin (TOR), and anti-oxidative system in spleen and head kidney of Jian carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Jian).

    PubMed

    Hu, Kai; Zhang, Jing-Xiu; Feng, Lin; Jiang, Wei-Dan; Wu, Pei; Liu, Yang; Jiang, Jun; Zhou, Xiao-Qiu

    2015-06-01

    This study was designed to investigate the effects of dietary glutamine on the growth performance, cytokines, target of rapamycin (TOR), and antioxidant-related parameters in the spleen and head kidney of juvenile Jian carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Jian). Fish were fed the basal (control) and glutamine-supplemented (12.0 g glutamine kg(-1) diet) diets for 6 weeks. Results indicated that the dietary glutamine supplementation improved the growth performance, spleen protein content, serum complement 3 content, and lysozyme activity in fish. In the spleen, glutamine down-regulated the expression of the interleukin 1 and interleukin 10 genes, and increased the level of phosphorylation of TOR protein. In the head kidney, glutamine down-regulated the tumor necrosis factor α and interleukin 10 gene expressions, phosphorylated and total TOR protein levels, while up-regulated the transforming growth factor β2 gene expression. Furthermore, the protein carbonyl content was decreased in the spleen of fish fed glutamine-supplemented diet; conversely, the anti-hydroxyl radical capacity and glutathione content in the spleen were increased by glutamine. However, diet supplemented with glutamine did not affect the lipid peroxidation, anti-superoxide anion capacity, and antioxidant enzyme activities in the spleen. Moreover, all of these antioxidant parameters in the head kidney were not affected by glutamine. Results from the present experiment showed the importance of dietary supplementation of glutamine in benefaction of the growth performance and several components of the innate immune system, and the deferential role in cytokine gene expression, TOR kinase activity, and antioxidant status between the spleen and head kidney of juvenile Jian carp.

  18. Effects of dietary administration of fenugreek seeds, alone or in combination with probiotics, on growth performance parameters, humoral immune response and gene expression of gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata L.).

    PubMed

    Bahi, A; Guardiola, F A; Messina, C; Mahdhi, A; Cerezuela, R; Santulli, A; Bakhrouf, A; Esteban, M A

    2017-01-01

    The use of immunostimulants is considered a promising preventive practice that may help to maintain animal welfare and a healthy environment, while increasing production and providing higher profits. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects on gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata L.) of the dietary administration of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graecum) seeds, alone or combined with one of the following probiotic strains: Bacillus licheniformis (TSB27), Lactobacillus plantarum or Bacillus subtilis (B46). Gilthead seabream were fed a control or one of the supplemented diets for 3 weeks. The effects of these supplemented diets on growth performance parameters and the humoral immune response (natural haemolytic complement, peroxidase, total IgM levels, proteases and antiproteases activities) were evaluated after 2 and 3 weeks of feeding. Simultaneously, the expression levels of some immune-relevant genes (igm, tcr-β, csfr1 and bd) were measured in the head-kidney. Interestingly, all probiotic supplemented diets increased seabream growth rates, especially the B. licheniformis supplemented diet. Generally, humoral immune parameters were enhanced by the dietary supplementation at the different time points measured. The results showed a significant increases in the immune parameters, principally in fish fed only fenugreek or fenugreek combined with B. subtilis. Furthermore, real time qPCR revealed that dietary supplementation significantly enhances the expression of immune-associated genes in the head-kidney, particularly igm gene expression. These results suggest that fenugreek alone or combined with one of the probiotic strains mentioned enhances the immune response of gilthead seabream, a species with one of the highest rates of production in marine aquaculture.

  19. Performance, serum biochemical responses, and gene expression of intestinal folate transporters of young and older laying hens in response to dietary folic acid supplementation and challenge with Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide.

    PubMed

    Jing, M; Munyaka, P M; Tactacan, G B; Rodriguez-Lecompte, J C; O, K; House, J D

    2014-01-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary folic acid (FA) supplementation on performance, serum biochemical indices, and mRNA abundance of intestinal folate transporters in young and older laying hens after acute lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge. Two experiments were conducted separately involving 48 Shaver White young laying hens (24 wk of age) in experiment 1 and 48 Shaver White older laying hens (58 wk of age) in experiment 2. Birds were fed 2 diets in a complete randomized design. The diets were wheat-soybean meal based, with or without supplemental 4 mg of FA/kg of diet. Birds were fed for 8 wk, during which time feed consumption and egg production were monitored. At the end of each feeding experiment, 6 hens from each dietary treatment were injected intravenously with 8 mg/kg of BW of either Escherichia coli LPS or sterile saline. Four hours after injection, blood and intestinal samples were collected for further analysis. Compared with the control, dietary FA supplementation increased egg weight and egg mass and decreased serum glucose levels in the young laying hens, and reduced serum uric acid in the older laying hens (P < 0.05). Relative to saline injection, plasma homocysteine, serum calcium, and phosphorus levels were found to be lower in both young and older laying hens after LPS challenge (P < 0.05). Other serum biochemical variables and the mRNA expression of 2 folate transport genes in the small and large intestine were differentially affected by LPS challenge, and some of those responses varied with the age of the birds. Additionally, interactions between diet and LPS challenge were specifically found in the older laying hens. In summary, in addition to improving production performance, there were effects of dietary FA supplementation and its interaction with LPS challenge on biochemical constituents, and age played a role in the development of responses to diet and bacterial LPS infections.

  20. Promoter methylation of E-cadherin, p16, and RAR-beta(2) genes in breast tumors and dietary intake of nutrients important in one-carbon metabolism

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aberrant DNA methylation plays a critical role in carcinogenesis, and the availability of dietary factors involved in 1-carbon metabolism may contribute to aberrant DNA methylation. We investigated the association of intake of folate, vitamins B(2), B(6), B(12), and methionine with promoter methylat...

  1. Dietary Restriction and Nutrient Balance in Aging

    PubMed Central

    Leitão-Correia, Fernanda

    2016-01-01

    Dietary regimens that favour reduced calorie intake delay aging and age-associated diseases. New evidences revealed that nutritional balance of dietary components without food restriction increases lifespan. Particular nutrients as several nitrogen sources, proteins, amino acid, and ammonium are implicated in life and healthspan regulation in different model organisms from yeast to mammals. Aging and dietary restriction interact through partially overlapping mechanisms in the activation of the conserved nutrient-signalling pathways, mainly the insulin/insulin-like growth factor (IIS) and the Target Of Rapamycin (TOR). The specific nutrients of dietary regimens, their balance, and how they interact with different genes and pathways are currently being uncovered. Taking into account that dietary regimes can largely influence overall human health and changes in risk factors such as cholesterol level and blood pressure, these new findings are of great importance to fully comprehend the interplay between diet and humans health. PMID:26682004

  2. Hormetic Dietary Phytochemicals

    PubMed Central

    Son, Tae Gen; Camandola, Simonetta; Mattson, Mark P.

    2008-01-01

    Compelling evidence from epidemiological studies suggest beneficial roles of dietary phytochemicals in protecting against chronic disorders such as cancer, and inflammatory and cardiovascular diseases. Emerging findings suggest that several dietary phytochemicals also benefit the nervous system and, when consumed regularly, may reduce the risk of disorders such as Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases. The evidence supporting health benefits of vegetables and fruits provide a rationale for identification of the specific phytochemicals responsible, and for investigation of their molecular and cellular mechanisms of action. One general mechanism of action of phytochemicals that is emerging from recent studies is that they activate adaptive cellular stress response pathways. From an evolutionary perspective, the noxious properties of such phytochemicals play an important role in dissuading insects and other pests from eating the plants. However at the relatively small doses ingested by humans that consume the plants, the phytochemicals are not toxic and instead induce mild cellular stress responses. This phenomenon has been widely observed in biology and medicine, and has been described as ‘preconditioning’ or ‘hormesis’. Hormetic pathways activated by phytochemicals may involve kinases and transcription factors that induce the expression of genes that encode antioxidant enzymes, protein chaperones, phase-2 enzymes, neurotrophic factors and other cytoprotective proteins. Specific examples of such pathways include the sirtuin – FOXO pathway, the NF-κB pathway and the Nrf-2 –ARE pathway. In this article we describe the hormesis hypothesis of phytochemical actions with a focus on the Nrf2/ARE signaling pathway as a prototypical example of a neuroprotective mechanism of action of specific dietary phytochemicals. PMID:18543123

  3. Dietary guidelines in singapore.

    PubMed

    Lee, Benjamin Lc

    2011-01-01

    The 2011 Dietary Guidelines were developed with the aim of providing guidance on what dietary strategies can best address increasing rates of obesity and non-communicable chronic disease in Singapore. This set of dietary guidelines was developed with a local expert committee based on a review of scientific literature and data on current dietary patterns from the 2010 National Nutrition Survey. Projected nutrient intakes from a diet adhering to the 2011 Dietary Guidelines were calculated using a local food composition database (FOCOS) and validated against nutrient recommendations. Acknowledging that dietary requirements differ between age groups, different sets of dietary guidelines have been developed and customised for different segments of the population. To date, Singapore has produced dietary guidelines for children and adolescents (focusing on establishing healthy lifelong eating patterns), adults (focusing on preventing obesity and reinforcing healthy eating patterns), and most recently, guidelines for older adults (>50 years of age) that address the issue of potential dietary insufficiency caused by age-related increases in nutrient requirements combined with a reduction in energy requirements. In Singapore, dietary guidelines have been used to inform and direct public policy and promote dietary patterns that meet nutrient requirements while reducing the risk of non-communicable chronic diseases. Examples of public policy include: national guidelines on food advertising and standards for food served in nursing homes; examples of public health promotion programmes include: the Healthier Choice Symbol Programme for packaged food products and programmes encouraging provision of healthier meals in hawker centres, restaurants, and school or workplace canteens.

  4. Dietary capsanthin, the main carotenoid in paprika (Capsicum annuum), alters plasma high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels and hepatic gene expression in rats.

    PubMed

    Aizawa, Koichi; Inakuma, Takahiro

    2009-12-01

    The effects of dietary capsanthin, the main carotenoid in paprika (Capsicum annuum), on lipid metabolism were examined. Young male Wistar rats were fed diets containing paprika powder, paprika organic solvent extract, residue of paprika extract, and purified capsanthin. Administration of purified capsanthin for 2 weeks resulted in a significant increase in plasma HDL-cholesterol (P < 0.05) without detectable differences in plasma total cholesterol and TAG concentrations. A statistically significant correlation (r 0.567; P < 0.001) was found between dietary capsanthin concentrations and plasma HDL-cholesterol concentrations. Animals receiving diets containing two different capsanthin concentrations exhibited dose-dependent increases in plasma HDL-cholesterol (r 0.597; P < 0.005). While capsanthin was absent in the liver of animals fed the basal diet, it increased markedly in capsanthin-fed animals (P < 0.001). Quantitative analyses of hepatic mRNA levels revealed that capsanthin administration resulted in up-regulation of mRNA for apoA5 and lecithin cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT), without significant differences in other mRNA levels related to HDL-cholesterol metabolism. These results suggest that capsanthin had an HDL-cholesterol-raising effect on plasma, and the potential to increase cholesterol efflux to HDL particles by increasing apoA5 levels and/or enhancement of LCAT activity.

  5. The effect of banana (Musa acuminata) peels hot-water extract on the immunity and resistance of giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii via dietary administration for a long term: Activity and gene transcription.

    PubMed

    Rattanavichai, Wutti; Chen, Ying-Nan; Chang, Chin-Chyuan; Cheng, Winton

    2015-10-01

    The non-specific immune parameters, disease resistance and immune genes expressions in Macrobrachium rosenbergii were evaluated at 120 days of post feeding the diets containing the extracts of banana, Musa acuminate, fruit's peel (banana peels extract, BPE) at 0, 1.0, 3.0 and 6.0 g kg(-1). Results showed that prawns fed with a diet containing BPE at the level of 1.0, 3.0 and 6.0 g kg(-1) for 120 days had a significantly higher survival rate (30.0%, 40.0% and 56.7%, respectively) than those fed with the control diet after challenge with Lactococcus garvieae for 144 h, and the respective relative survival percentages were 22.2%, 33.3%, and 51.9%, respectively. Dietary BPE supplementation at 3.0 and/or 6.0 g kg(-1) for 120 days showed a significant increase total haemocyte count (THC), granular cell (GC), superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, phenoloxidase (PO) activity, transglutaminase (TG) activity, and phagocytic activity and clearance efficiency to L. garvieae infection, and meanwhile, the significant decrease in haemolymph clotting times and respiratory bursts (RBs) per haemocyte of prawns were revealed. Furthermore, the mRNA expressions of prophenoloxidase (proPO), lipopolysaccharide and β-1,3-glucan binding protein (LGBP), peroxinectin (PE), transglutaminase (TG), and crustin (CT) were significantly increased. We therefore recommend that BPE can be used as an immunomodulator for prawns through dietary administration at 6.0 g kg(-1) for a long term (over 120 days) to modify immune responses and genes expression following the enhanced resistance against pathogens.

  6. Genetic analysis of colon tumors induced by a dietary carcinogen PhIP in CYP1A humanized mice: Identification of mutation of β-catenin/Ctnnb1 as the driver gene for the carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hong; Zhou, Hong; Liu, Anna; Guo, Xiangyi; Yang, Chung S

    2015-11-01

    Replacing mouse Cyp1a with human CYP1A enables the humanized CYP1A mice to mimic human metabolism of the dietary carcinogen, 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP), by N(2) -hydroxylation to a proximate carcinogen. Our previous study demonstrated that PhIP, combined with the dextrin sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis, induces colon carcinogenesis in hCYP1A mice. Here, we employed whole exome sequencing and found multiple gene mutations in PhIP/DSS-induced colon tumors. Mutations in the exon 3 of Ctnnb1/β-catenin, however, were the predominant events. We further sequenced the key fragments of Apc, Ctnnb1, and Kras, because mutations of these genes in the humans are commonly found as the drivers of colorectal cancer. Mutations on either codon 32 or 34 in the exon 3 of Ctnnb1 were found in 39 out of 42 tumors, but no mutation was found in either Apc or Kras. The sequence context of codons 32 and 34 suggests that PhIP targets +3G in a TGGA motif of Ctnnb1. Since mutations that activate Wnt signal is a major driving force for human colorectal cancers, we conclude that the mutated β-catenin is the driver in PhIP/DSS-induced colon carcinogenesis. This result suggests that the colon tumors in hCYP1A mice mimic human colorectal carcinogenesis not only in the dietary etiology involving PhIP, but also in the aberrant activation of the Wnt signaling pathway as the driving force.

  7. Cigarette smoking, dietary habits and genetic polymorphisms in GSTT1, GSTM1 and CYP1A1 metabolic genes: A case-control study in oncohematological diseases

    PubMed Central

    Cerliani, María Belén; Pavicic, Walter; Gili, Juan Antonio; Klein, Graciela; Saba, Silvia; Richard, Silvina

    2016-01-01

    AIM To analyze the association between oncohematological diseases and GSTT1/GSTM1/CYP1A1 polymorphisms, dietary habits and smoking, in an argentine hospital-based case-control study. METHODS This hospital-based case-control study involved 125 patients with oncohematological diseases and 310 control subjects. A questionnaire was used to obtain sociodemographic data and information about habits. Blood samples were collected, and DNA was extracted using salting out methods. Deletions in GSTT1 and GSTM1 (null genotypes) were addressed by PCR. CYP1A1 MspI polymorphism was detected by PCR-RFLP. Odds ratio (OR) and 95%CI were calculated to estimate the association between each variable studied and oncohematological disease. RESULTS Women showed lower risk of disease compared to men (OR 0.52, 95%CI: 0.34-0.82, P = 0.003). Higher levels of education (> 12 years) were significantly associated with an increased risk, compared to complete primary school or less (OR 3.68, 95%CI: 1.82-7.40, P < 0.001 adjusted for age and sex). With respect to tobacco, none of the smoking categories showed association with oncohematological diseases. Regarding dietary habits, consumption of grilled/barbecued meat 3 or more times per month showed significant association with an increased risk of disease (OR 1.72, 95%CI: 1.08-2.75, P = 0.02). Daily consumption of coffee also was associated with an increased risk (OR 1.77, 95%CI: 1.03-3.03, P = 0.03). Results for GSTT1, GSTM1 and CYP1A1 polymorphisms showed no significant association with oncohematological diseases. When analyzing the interaction between polymorphisms and tobacco smoking or dietary habits, no statistically significant associations that modify disease risk were found. CONCLUSION We reported an increased risk of oncohematological diseases associated with meat and coffee intake. We did not find significant associations between genetic polymorphisms and blood cancer. PMID:27777882

  8. Insulin-like growth factor pathway genes and blood concentrations, dietary protein and risk of prostate cancer in the NCI Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium (BPC3).

    PubMed

    Tsilidis, Konstantinos K; Travis, Ruth C; Appleby, Paul N; Allen, Naomi E; Lindström, Sara; Albanes, Demetrius; Ziegler, Regina G; McCullough, Marjorie L; Siddiq, Afshan; Barricarte, Aurelio; Berndt, Sonja I; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Chanock, Stephen J; Crawford, E David; Diver, W Ryan; Gapstur, Susan M; Giovannucci, Edward; Gu, Fangyi; Haiman, Christopher A; Hayes, Richard B; Hunter, David J; Johansson, Mattias; Kaaks, Rudolf; Kolonel, Laurence N; Kraft, Peter; Le Marchand, Loic; Overvad, Kim; Polidoro, Silvia; Riboli, Elio; Schumacher, Fredrick R; Stevens, Victoria L; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Virtamo, Jarmo; Willett, Walter C; Key, Timothy J

    2013-07-15

    It has been hypothesized that a high intake of dairy protein may increase prostate cancer risk by increasing the production of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1). Several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been weakly associated with circulating concentrations of IGF-1 and IGF binding protein 3 (IGFBP-3), but none of these SNPs was associated with risk of prostate cancer. We examined whether an association between 16 SNPs associated with circulating IGF-1 or IGFBP-3 concentrations and prostate cancer exists within subgroups defined by dietary protein intake in 5,253 cases and 4,963 controls of European ancestry within the NCI Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium (BPC3). The BPC3 includes nested case-control studies within large North-American and European cohorts. Per-allele odds ratios for prostate cancer for the SNPs were compared across tertiles of protein intake, which was expressed as the percentage of energy derived from total, animal, dairy or plant protein sources, using conditional logistic regression models. Total, animal, dairy and plant protein intakes were significantly positively associated with blood IGF-1 (p < 0.01), but not with IGFBP-3 concentrations (p > 0.10) or with risk of prostate cancer (p > 0.20). After adjusting for multiple testing, the SNP-prostate cancer associations did not differ by intakes of protein, although two interactions by intake of plant protein were of marginal statistical significance [SSTR5 (somatostatin receptor 5)-rs197056 (uncorrected p for interaction, 0.001); SSTR5-rs197057 (uncorrected p for interaction, 0.002)]. We found no strong evidence that the associations between 16 IGF pathway SNPs and prostate cancer differed by intakes of dietary protein.

  9. Insulin-like growth factor pathway genes and blood concentrations, dietary protein, and risk of prostate cancer in the NCI Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium (BPC3)

    PubMed Central

    Tsilidis, Konstantinos K; Travis, Ruth C; Appleby, Paul N; Allen, Naomi E; Lindström, Sara; Albanes, Demetrius; Ziegler, Regina G; McCullough, Marjorie L; Siddiq, Afshan; Barricarte, Aurelio; Berndt, Sonja I; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Chanock, Stephen J; Crawford, E David; Diver, W Ryan; Gapstur, Susan M; Giovannucci, Edward; Gu, Fangyi; Haiman, Christopher A; Hayes, Richard B; Hunter, David J; Johansson, Mattias; Kaaks, Rudolf; Kolonel, Laurence N; Kraft, Peter; Le Marchand, Loic; Overvad, Kim; Polidoro, Silvia; Riboli, Elio; Schumacher, Fredrick R; Stevens, Victoria L; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Virtamo, Jarmo; Willett, Walter C; Key, Timothy J

    2013-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that a high intake of dairy protein may increase prostate cancer risk by increasing the production of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1). Several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been weakly associated with circulating concentrations of IGF-1 and IGF binding protein 3 (IGFBP-3), but none of these SNPs was associated with risk of prostate cancer. We examined whether an association between 16 SNPs associated with circulating IGF-1 or IGFBP-3 concentrations and prostate cancer exists within subgroups defined by dietary protein intake in 5,253 cases and 4,963 controls of European ancestry within the NCI Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium (BPC3). The BPC3 includes nested case-control studies within large North-American and European cohorts. Per allele odds ratios for prostate cancer for the SNPs were compared across tertiles of protein intake, which was expressed as the percentage of energy derived from total, animal, dairy or plant protein sources, using conditional logistic regression models. Total, animal, dairy and plant protein intakes were significantly positively associated with blood IGF-1 (P<0.01), but not with IGFBP-3 concentrations (P>0.10) or with risk of prostate cancer (P>0.20). After adjusting for multiple testing, the SNP-prostate cancer associations did not differ by intakes of protein, although two interactions by intake of plant protein were of marginal statistical significance (SSTR5 (somatostatin receptor 5) -rs197056 [uncorrected P for interaction, 0.001]; SSTR5-rs197057 [uncorrected P for interaction, 0.002]). We found no strong evidence that the associations between 16 IGF pathway SNPs and prostate cancer differed by intakes of dietary protein. PMID:23341348

  10. CLOCK gene variation is associated with incidence of type-2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases in type-2 diabetic subjects: dietary modulation in the PREDIMED randomized trial

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background Circadian rhythms regulate key biological processes influencing metabolic pathways. Dysregulation is associated with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Circadian rhythms are generated by a transcriptional autoregulatory feedback loop involving core clock genes. CLOCK...

  11. Effects of dietary n-3 highly unsaturated fatty acids on growth, nonspecific immunity, expression of some immune related genes and disease resistance of large yellow croaker (Larmichthys crocea) following natural infestation of parasites (Cryptocaryon irritans).

    PubMed

    Zuo, Rantao; Ai, Qinghui; Mai, Kangsen; Xu, Wei; Wang, Jun; Xu, Houguo; Liufu, Zhiguo; Zhang, Yanjiao

    2012-02-01

    The study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary n-3 highly unsaturated fatty acid (n-3 HUFA) on growth, nonspecific immunity, expression of some immune related genes and disease resistance of juvenile large yellow croaker (Larmichthys crocea) following natural infestation of parasites (Cryptocaryon irritans). Six isoproteic and isolipidic diets were formulated with graded levels of n-3 HUFA ranging from 0.15% to 2.25% of the dry weight and the DHA/EPA was approximately fixed at 2.0. Each diet was randomly allocated to triplicate groups of fish in floating sea cages (1.0 × 1.0 × 1.5 m), and each cage was stocked with 60 fish (initial average weight 9.79 ± 0.6 g). Fish were fed twice daily (05:00 and 17:00) to apparent satiation for 58 days. Results showed that moderate n-3 HUFA level (0.98%) significantly enhanced growth compared with the control group (0.15% HUFA) (P < 0.05), while higher n-3 HUFA levels (1.37%, 1.79% and 2.25%) had detrimental effects on the growth though no significance was found (P > 0.05). Nitro blue tetrazolium (NBT) positive leucocytes percentage of head kidney and serum superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity increased with increasing n-3 HUFA from 0.15% to 0.60%, and decreased with further increase of n-3 HUFA from 0.60% to 2.25% (P < 0.05). Serum lysozyme activity increased significantly as n-3 HUFA increased from 0.15% to 1.37%, and then decreased with n-3 HUFA from 1.37% to 2.25% (P > 0.05). There were no significant differences in phagocytosis index (PI) of head kidney leucocytes among dietary treatments (P > 0.05). The hepatic mRNA expression of Toll-like receptor 22 (TLR22) and Myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) was significantly up-regulated in fish fed the diets with low or moderate levels, while in kidney this increment was only found at specific sampling time during the natural infestation of parasites. The 13 d cumulative mortality rate following natural infestation of parasites decreased

  12. Predisposition of cows to mastitis in non-infected mammary glands: effects of dietary-induced negative energy balance during mid-lactation on immune-related genes.

    PubMed

    Moyes, Kasey M; Drackley, James K; Morin, Dawn E; Rodriguez-Zas, Sandra L; Everts, Robin E; Lewin, Harris A; Loor, Juan J

    2011-03-01

    Cows experiencing severe postpartal negative energy balance (NEB) are at greater risk of developing mastitis than cows in positive energy balance (PEB). Our objectives were to compare mammary tissue gene expression profiles between lactating cows (n = 5/treatment) subjected to feed restriction to induce NEB and cows fed ad libitum to maintain PEB in order to identify genes involved in immune response and cellular metabolism that may predispose cows to an intramammary infection in non-infected mammary gland. The NEB cows were feed-restricted to 60% of calculated net energy for lactation requirements, and cows fed PEB cows were fed the same diet ad libitum. At 5 days after feed restriction, one rear mammary gland from all cows was biopsied for RNA extraction and transcript profiling using microarray and quantitative PCR. Energy balance (NEB vs. PEB) resulted in 278 differentially expressed genes (DEG). Among up-regulated DEG (n = 180), Ingenuity Pathway Analysis® identified lipid metabolism (8) and molecular transport (14) as some of the most enriched molecular functions. Genes down-regulated by NEB (98) were associated with cell growth and proliferation (21) and cell death (18). Results indicate that DEG due to NEB in mid-lactation were associated with numerous biological functions but we did not identify genes that could, a priori, be associated with risk of intramammary infection in non-infected mammary glands. Further studies with early postpartal cows are required.

  13. Dietary Supplements: What Is Safe?

    MedlinePlus

    ... and side effects of dietary supplements Dietary supplement advertising and promotion Talking with your doctor about dietary ... Statistics Center Volunteer Learning Center Follow Us Twitter Facebook Instagram Cancer Information, Answers, and Hope. Available Every ...

  14. Modulation of gene-expression profiles associated with sodium arsenite-induced cardiotoxicity by p-coumaric acid, a common dietary polyphenol.

    PubMed

    Prasanna, Nagalakshmi; Rasool, Mahaboobkhan

    2014-04-01

    In the present study, the purpose was to investigate the effect of p-coumaric acid on the mRNA-expression levels of inflammatory cytokines, transcription factor, MAP kinases, and apoptotic proteins by real time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction in the cardiac tissue of sodium arsenite exposed rats. Sodium arsenite administration (5 mg/kg/b.wt, once daily for 30 days) upregulated the mRNA-expression levels of inflammatory cytokines (interleukin-1 beta, interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and tumor growth factor-beta), transcription factor (NF-Kb-Rel A), protein kinases (Janus kinase and p38), caspase 3, and proapoptotic protein Bax in the cardiac tissue of rats, but the antiapoptotic protein Bcl-2 mRNA expression was found be downregulated. However, p-coumaric acid (75, 100 mg/kg/b. wt. oral) pretreatment daily before the sodium arsenite exposure protected the changes in the above mRNA-expression profiles observed in the cardiac tissues. In conclusion, this study confirmed that p-coumaric acid could be a promising dietary agent for protecting against the sodium arsenite-induced cardiotoxicity.

  15. Promoting Healthy Dietary Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Cheryl L.; Story, Mary; Lytle, Leslie A.

    This chapter reviews the research on promoting healthy dietary behaviors in all youth, not just those who exhibit problems such as obesity or eating disorders. The first section of this chapter presents a rationale for addressing healthy dietary behavior with children and adolescents, on the basis of the impact of these behaviors on short- and…

  16. Cross-omics gene and protein expression profiling in juvenile female mice highlights disruption of calcium and zinc signalling in the brain following dietary exposure to CB-153, BDE-47, HBCD or TCDD.

    PubMed

    Rasinger, J D; Carroll, T S; Lundebye, A K; Hogstrand, C

    2014-07-03

    The present study assessed if eating a diet of fish, spiked with persistent organic pollutants (POPs), affects gene and protein expression in the maturing mouse brain. Juvenile female Balb/c mice (22 days of age) were exposed for 28 days to fish-based diets spiked with the dioxin 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzodioxin (TCDD) or the non dioxin-like (NDL) chemicals hexabromocyclodocecane (HBCD), 2,2'4,4'-tetrabromodiphenylether (BDE-47) or 2,2'4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl (CB-153) at doses approximating their respective lowest observed adverse effect levels (LOAEL). It was found that all POPs elicited changes in neural gene and protein expression profiles. Bioinformatic analysis of gene expression data highlighted the importance of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) in dioxin toxicity and revealed that zinc regulation in the brain is targeted by TCDD through the AHR. Calcium homeostasis was affected by both TCDD and the NDL chemicals. In contrast to the transcriptomic analysis, the proteomics data did not allow for a clear distinction between DL and NDL responses in the juvenile brain but indicated that proteins associated with excitotoxicity were affected in all exposure groups. Integrated interpretation of data led to the conclusion that the dietary contaminants investigated in the present study breach the blood brain barrier (BBB) and accumulate in the juvenile brain where they may induce excitotoxic insults by dysregulation of the otherwise tightly controlled homeostasis of calcium and zinc. Overall, the findings of the present study highlight the need for further assessment of the risks associated with early life exposure to foodborne POPs.

  17. The effects of dietary Immunogen on innate immune response, immune related genes expression and disease resistance of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Yar Ahmadi, Peyman; Farahmand, Hamid; Kolangi Miandare, Hamed; Mirvaghefi, Alireza; Hoseinifar, Seyed Hossein

    2014-04-01

    This study investigates the effects of prebiotic Immunogen on lysozyme, TNFα and HSP70 gene expression in head kidney, humoral innate immune parameters and resistant to Aeromonas hydrophila of rainbow trout. 120 healthy rainbow trout (81.65 ± 1.49 g) were distributed in six fiberglass tanks assigned to two groups fed control or diet supplemented with 2 g kg(-1) Immunogen for 45 days. The results revealed that administration of Immunogen significantly (P < 0.05) up regulated lysozyme and TNFα gene expression. HSP70 gene expression was significantly (P < 0.05) lower in Immunogen fed fish at the end of trial. Humoral innate immune parameters (lysozyme activity, ACH50 and bactericidal activity) were significantly (P < 0.05) increased whether 15 or 45 days after feeding on Immunogen supplemented diet. However, significant (P < 0.05) increase in agglutination antibody titer observed just after 45 days feeding on Immunogen. Rainbow trout fed with 2 g kg(-1) Immunogen showed remarkably higher resistance against A. hydrophila (64.44% survival) compared to the control group (24.44% survival). These results confirm that Immunogen can up regulates immune related genes expression, stimulates immune response that per se enhances disease resistance in rainbow trout.

  18. Dietary exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ether 47 (BDE-47) inhibits development and alters thyroid hormone-related gene expression in the brain of Xenopus laevis tadpoles.

    PubMed

    Yost, Alexandra T; Thornton, Leah M; Venables, Barney J; Sellin Jeffries, Marlo K

    2016-12-01

    Few studies have investigated the thyroid-disrupting effects of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) across multiple levels of biological organization in anurans, despite their suitability for the screening of thyroid disruptors. Therefore, the present study evaluated the effects of 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47) on development, thyroid histology and thyroid hormone-related gene expression in Xenopus laevis exposed to 0 (control), 50 (low), 500 (medium) or 5000μg BDE-47/g food (high) for 21days. Only the high dose of BDE-47 hindered growth and development; however, thyroid hormone-associated gene expression was downregulated in the brains of tadpoles regardless of dose. These results show that BDE-47 disrupts thyroid hormone signaling at the molecular and whole-organism levels and suggest that gene expression in the brain is a more sensitive endpoint than metamorphosis. Furthermore, the altered gene expression patterns among BDE-47-exposed tadpoles provide insight into the mechanisms of PBDE-induced thyroid disruption and highlight the potential for PBDEs to act as neurodevelopmental toxicants.

  19. Modulation of DNA damage and alteration of gene expression during aflatoxicosis via dietary supplementation of Spirulina (Arthrospira) and Whey protein concentrate.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Aziza M; Abdel-Aziem, Sekena H; Abdel-Wahhab, Mosaad A

    2012-05-01

    Spirulina (SPN) and Whey protein (WPC) are being touted as functional foods with a number of health benefits. SPN is blue green algae while WPC is a protein complex derived from milk and both have strong antioxidant activity and provoke a free radical scavenging enzyme system. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antioxidant potentials of SPN and WPC to regulate the alteration of genes' expression and counteract oxidative stress in rats during aflatoxecosis. Eighty male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into eight groups, which included the control group, the group fed with aflatoxins (AFs)-contaminated diet (2.5 mg/kg diet) for 30 day, the group treated orally with WPC (300 mg/kg b.w.), the group treated orally with SPN (50 mg/kg b.w), the group treated orally with WPC plus SPN and the groups fed with AFs-contaminated diet and treated orally with WPC, SPN and/or WPC. Oxidative stress markers and gene expression were assayed in liver and testis and the damage of DNA was evaluated by DNA fragmentation and micronucleus tests. The results demonstrated that supplementation of SPN and/or WPC reduced the oxidative stress induced by AFs as indicated by decreased lipid peroxidation level, increased glutathione content and up-regulated PHGPx gene expression. Both agents succeed to inhibit DNA damage as indicated by the down-regulation of Fas gene expression, and decreased the percentage of DNA fragmentation and micronucleated erythrocytes. Moreover, WPC was found to be effective than SPN and the combined treatment was more effective than the single treatment. It could be concluded that both SPN and WPC induced a protective action and regulated the alteration of genes expression induced by AFs; however, the combined treatment may be useful than the single treatment.

  20. Tissue-specific expression and dietary regulation of chimeric mitochondrial 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A synthase/human growth hormone gene in transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Serra, D; Fillat, C; Matas, R; Bosch, F; Hegardt, F G

    1996-03-29

    We have studied the role of the mitochondrial 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA (HMG-CoA) synthase gene in regulating ketogenesis. The gene exhibits expression in various tissues and it is regulated in a tissue-specific manner. To investigate the underlying mechanisms of this expression, we linked a 1148-base-pair portion of the mitochondrial HMG-CoA synthase promoter to the human growth hormone (hGH) gene and analyzed the expression of the hGH reporter gene in transgenic mice. mRNA levels of hGH were observed in liver, testis, ovary, stomach, colon, cecum, brown adipose tissue, spleen, adrenal glands, and mammary glands from adult mice, and also in liver and stomach, duodenum, jejunum, brown adipose tissue, and heart of suckling mice. There was no expression either in kidney or in any other nonketogenic tissue. The comparison between these data and those of the endogenous mitochondrial HMG-CoA synthase gene suggests that the 1148 base pairs of the promoter contain the elements necessary for expression in liver and testis, but an enhancer is necessary for full expression in intestine of suckling animals and that a silencer prevents expression in stomach, brown adipose tissue, spleen, adrenal glands, and mammary glands in wild type adult mice. In starvation, transgenic mice showed higher expression in liver than did wild type. Both refeeding and insulin injection reduced the expression. Fat diets, composed in each case of different fatty acids, produced similar expression levels, respectively, to those found in wild type animals, suggesting that long-, medium-, and short-chain fatty acids may exert a positive influence on the transcription rate in this 1148-base-pair portion of the promoter. The ketogenic capacity of liver and the blood ketone body levels were equal in transgenic mice and in nontransgenic mice.

  1. Influence of dietary sesamin, a bioactive compound on fatty acids and expression of some lipid regulating genes in Baltic Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) juveniles.

    PubMed

    Trattner, S; Ruyter, B; Ostbye, T K; Kamal-Eldin, A; Moazzami, A; Pan, J; Gjoen, T; Brännäs, E; Zlabek, V; Pickova, J

    2011-01-01

    The effects of inclusion of sesamin / episesamin in Baltic Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) diets based on vegetable oils were studied. The study was designed as a dose response study with two control diets, one diet based on fish oil (FO) and one diet based on a mixture of linseed and sunflower oil (6:4 by vol.) (MO). As experimental diets three different levels of inclusion of sesamin / episesamin (hereafter named sesamin) to the MO based diet and one diet based on sesame oil and linseed oil (SesO) (1:1 by vol.) were used. The dietary oils were mirrored in the fatty acid profile of the white muscle. Sesamin significantly decreased the levels of 18:3n-3 in the white muscle phospholipid (PL) fraction of all groups fed sesamin, no significant differences were found in the triacylglycerol fraction (TAG). Slightly increased levels of docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3, DHA) in PL and TAG were found in some of the sesamin fed groups. Sesamin significantly affected the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha, scavenger receptor type B and hormone sensitive lipase, in agreement with previous studies on rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) hepatocytes published by our group. No significant effects on toxicological response measured as ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase activity was found. The total cytochrome P450 enzymes were significantly higher in MO 0.29 and SesO group. The amount of alpha- and gamma-tocopherols in liver and the amount of gamma-tocopherol in white muscle were significantly lower in fish fed the FO diet compared to the MO diet, but no difference after inclusion of sesamin was found in this study. Increased inclusion of sesamin increased the levels of sesamin and episesamin in the liver, but did not affect the amounts in white muscle.

  2. Dietary sunflower oil modulates milk fatty acid composition without major changes in adipose and mammary tissue fatty acid profile or related gene mRNA abundance in sheep.

    PubMed

    Castro-Carrera, T; Frutos, P; Leroux, C; Chilliard, Y; Hervás, G; Belenguer, A; Bernard, L; Toral, P G

    2015-04-01

    There are very few studies in ruminants characterizing mammary and adipose tissue (AT) expression of genes and gene networks for diets causing variations in milk fatty acid (FA) composition without altering milk fat secretion, and even less complementing this information with data on tissue FA profiles. This work was conducted in sheep in order to investigate the response of the mammary gland and the subcutaneous and perirenal AT, in terms of FA profile and mRNA abundance of genes involved in lipid metabolism, to a diet known to modify milk FA composition. Ten lactating Assaf ewes were randomly assigned to two treatments consisting of a total mixed ration based on alfalfa hay and a concentrate (60 : 40) supplemented with 0 (control diet) or 25 (SO diet) g of sunflower oil/kg of diet dry matter for 7 weeks. Milk composition, including FA profile, was analysed after 48 days on treatments. On day 49, the animals were euthanized and tissue samples were collected to analyse FA and mRNA abundance of 16 candidate genes. Feeding SO did not affect animal performance but modified milk FA composition. Major changes included decreases in the concentration of FA derived from de novo synthesis (e.g. 12:0, 14:0 and 16:0) and increases in that of long-chain FA (e.g. 18:0, c9-18:1, trans-18:1 isomers and c9,t11-CLA); however, they were not accompanied by significant variations in the mRNA abundance of the studied lipogenic genes (i.e. ACACA, FASN, LPL, CD36, FABP3, SCD1 and SCD5) and transcription factors (SREBF1 and PPARG), or in the constituent FA of mammary tissue. Regarding the FA composition of AT, the little influence of SO did not appear to be linked to changes in gene mRNA abundance (decreases of GPAM and SREBF1 in both tissues, and of PPARG in the subcutaneous depot). Similarly, the great variation between AT (higher contents of saturated FA and trans-18:1 isomers in the perirenal, and of cis-18:1, c9,t11-CLA and n-3 PUFA in the subcutaneous AT) could not be related to

  3. The Dietary Isoflavone Daidzein Reduces Expression of Pro-Inflammatory Genes through PPARα/γ and JNK Pathways in Adipocyte and Macrophage Co-Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Sakamoto, Yuri; Kanatsu, Junko; Toh, Mariko; Naka, Ayano; Kondo, Kazuo; Iida, Kaoruko

    2016-01-01

    Obesity-induced inflammation caused by adipocyte-macrophage interactions plays a critical role in developing insulin resistance, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) regulate inflammatory gene expression in these cells. Recently, the soy isoflavone daidzein was reported to act as a PPAR activator. We examined whether daidzein affected adipocyte-macrophage crosstalk via the regulation of PPARs. Co-cultures of 3T3-L1 adipocytes and RAW264 macrophages, or palmitate-stimulated RAW264 macrophages were treated with daidzein in the presence or absence of specific inhibitors for PPARs: GW6471 (a PPARα antagonist), and GW9662 (a PPARγ antagonist). Inflammatory gene expression was then determined. Daidzein significantly decreased chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (Ccl2, known in humans as monocyte chemo-attractant protein 1 (MCP1)) and interleukin 6 (Il6) mRNA levels induced by co-culture. In 3T3-L1 adipocytes, daidzein inversed the attenuation of adiponectin gene expression by co-culture, and these effects were inhibited by the PPAR-γ specific inhibitor. Daidzein also decreased Ccl2 and Il6 mRNA levels in RAW264 macrophages stimulated with palmitate or conditioned medium (CM) from hypertrophied 3T3-L1 adipocytes. This inhibitory effect on Il6 expression was abrogated by a PPAR-α inhibitor. Additionally, we examined the activation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) pathways and found that daidzein significantly inhibited palmitate-induced phosphorylation of JNK. Our data suggest that daidzein regulates pro-inflammatory gene expression by activating PPAR-α and -γ and inhibiting the JNK pathway in adipocyte and macrophage co-cultures. These effects might be favorable in improving adipose inflammation, thus, treatment of daidzein may be a therapeutic strategy for chronic inflammation in obese adipose tissue. PMID:26901838

  4. Molecular cloning and gene/protein expression of FAT/CD36 from grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) and the regulation of its expression by dietary energy.

    PubMed

    Tian, Juan; Liu, Wei; Gao, Weihua; Wu, Fan; Yu, Lijuan; Lu, Xing; Yang, Chang-Geng; Jiang, Ming; Wen, Hua

    2017-01-18

    Fatty acid translocase/cluster of differentiation 36 (FAT/CD36) functions as a membrane long-chain fatty acid transporter in various tissues in land animals. Not much is known about the CD36 molecule in teleost fish. Therefore, we studied CD36 in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella, ciCD36). The full-length complementary DNA sequence of ciCD36 was 1976 bp, with an ORF of 468 amino acids, which had high sequence similarity to the CD36 of common carp. The messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of ciCD36 was high in the intestine, heart, liver, visceral tissue, and brain, but absent in the kidney. The protein expression of ciCD36 was high in the brain, intestine, liver, heart, muscle, eye, visceral tissue, gonad, and gill, but not in the kidney. Four groups of grass carp (16 tanks) were fed three times daily to satiation with 17.2 kJ gross energy/g diet (control, CON), 19.4 kJ gross energy/g diet (more energy supplied by proteins, HP), 19.9 kJ gross energy/g diet (more energy supplied by fat, HF), and 19.1 kJ gross energy/g diet (more energy supplied by carbohydrate, HC) for 11 weeks, respectively. At the end of the feeding experiment, the fish were fasted for 48 h, and the brain, heart, intestine, and liver were sampled and designated as the 0-h samples. The fish were then fed a single meal of the above four diets, and these tissues were collected at 8- and 24-h intervals after refeeding to analyze ciCD36 mRNA and protein expression levels. The results showed that at the transcriptional and translational levels, ciCD36 expression was significantly affected by refeeding time and the different diets (P < 0.05), and the regulation of its transcription in different tissues varied. At the translational level, the protein expression levels decreased in the CON and HC groups, and increased in the HP and HF groups after refeeding. The results indicated that ciCD36 has a modulatory role in the adaptation to dietary high energy in grass carp. Translational regulation might

  5. Dietary RNAs: New Stories Regarding Oral Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jian; Hirschi, Kendal D.; Farmer, Lisa M.

    2015-01-01

    microRNAs (miRNAs), a class of small RNAs, are important regulators of various developmental processes in both plants and animals. Several years ago, a report showed the detection of diet-derived plant miRNAs in mammalian tissues and their regulation of mammalian genes, challenging the traditional functions of plant miRNAs. Subsequently, multiple efforts have attempted to replicate these findings, with the results arguing against the uptake of plant dietary miRNAs in healthy consumers. Moreover, several reports suggest the potential for “false positive” detection of plant miRNAs in human tissues. Meanwhile, some research continues to suggest both the presence and function of dietary miRNAs in mammalian tissues. Here we review the recent literature and discuss the strengths and weaknesses of emerging work that suggests the feasibility of dietary delivery of miRNAs. We also discuss future experimental approaches to address this controversial topic. PMID:25942490

  6. Dietary oils mediate cortisol kinetics and the hepatic mRNA expression profile of stress-responsive genes in gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) exposed to crowding stress. Implications on energy homeostasis and stress susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Sánchez, Jaume; Borrel, Míriam; Bermejo-Nogales, Azucena; Benedito-Palos, Laura; Saera-Vila, Alfonso; Calduch-Giner, Josep A; Kaushik, Sadasivam

    2013-06-01

    Juveniles of gilthead sea bream were fed with plant protein-based diets with fish oil (FO diet) or vegetable oils (66VO diet) as dietary lipid sources. No differences in growth performance were found between both groups, and fish with an average body mass of 65-70 g were crowded (90-100 kg/m(3)) to assess the stress response within the 72 h after the onset of stressor. The rise in plasma cortisol and glucose levels was higher in stressed fish of group 66VO (66VO-S) than in FO group (FO-S), but the former stressed group regained more quickly the cortisol resting values of the corresponding non-stressed diet group. The cell-tissue repair response represented by derlin-1, 75 kDa glucose-regulated protein and 170 kDa glucose-regulated protein was triggered at a lower level in 66VO-S than in FO-S fish. This occurred in concert with a long-lasting up-regulation of glucocorticoid receptors, antioxidant enzymes, enzyme subunits of the mitochondrial respiratory chain, and enzymes involved in tissue fatty acid uptake and β-oxidation. This gene expression pattern allows a metabolic phenotype that is prone to "high power" mitochondria, which would support the replacement of fish oil with vegetable oils when theoretical requirements in essential fatty acids for normal growth are met by diet.

  7. Acute Effects of Dietary Fat on Inflammatory Markers and Gene Expression in First-Degree Relatives of Type 2 Diabetes Patients

    PubMed Central

    Pietraszek, Anna; Gregersen, Søren; Hermansen, Kjeld

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Subjects with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and their relatives (REL) carry an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Low-grade inflammation, an independent risk factor for CVD, is modifiable by diet. Subjects with T2D show elevated postprandial inflammatory responses to fat-rich meals, while information on postprandial inflammation in REL is sparse. AIM: To clarify whether medium-chain saturated fatty acids (SFA) and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) have differential acute effects on low-grade inflammation in REL compared to controls (CON). METHODS: In randomized order, 17 REL and 17 CON ingested two fat-rich meals, with 72 energy percent from MUFA and 79 energy percent from mainly medium-chain SFA, respectively. Plasma high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), adiponectin, and leptin were measured at baseline, 15 min, 60 min, and 240 min postprandially. Muscle and adipose tissue biopsies were taken at baseline and 210 min after the test meal, and expression of selected genes was analyzed. RESULTS: Plasma IL-6 increased (p < 0.001) without difference between REL and CON and between the meals, whereas plasma adiponectin and plasma hs-CRP were unchanged during the 240 min observation period. Plasma leptin decreased slightly in response to medium-chain SFA in both groups, and to MUFA in REL. Several genes were differentially regulated in muscle and adipose tissue of REL and CON. CONCLUSIONS: MUFA and medium-chain SFA elicit similar postprandial circulating inflammatory responses in REL and CON. Medium-chain SFA seems more proinflammatory than MUFA, judged by the gene expression in muscle and adipose tissue of REL and CON. PMID:22580729

  8. Differential time-series expression of immune-related genes of Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei in response to dietary inclusion of beta-1,3-glucan.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu-Chi; Chang, Poh-Shing; Chen, Houng-Yung

    2008-01-01

    Time-series changes in transcript abundance of nine genes encoding important immune proteins in haemocytes or hepatopancreas of Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei fed daily in a 1-week feeding trial diets containing three levels (0%, 0.2% or 1%) of beta-1,3-glucan from Schizophyllum commune were quantified by real-time PCR. As a whole, the immune modulation elicited by beta-glucan is bimodal, one swift reaction of up- or down-regulation occurred within 24h and a delayed regulation was commenced as late as 3-7days. Haemocyanin, crustin, prophenoloxidase (proPO) and transglutaminase (TGase) did not respond to the glucan treatment. While penaeidin 3 (Litvan PEN3) was swiftly down-regulated (0-24h), lysozyme and cytosolic manganese superoxide dismutase (cMnSOD) were swiftly up-regulated (0-24h). In contrast, the two pattern recognition proteins (PRPs), beta-glucan binding protein-high density lipoprotein (BGBP-HDL) and lipopolysaccharide/beta-glucan binding protein (LGBP), showed a delayed up-regulation. Their expressions were not maximized until as late as 72h or 7days, respectively, which coincide with the initiation of reported immune enhancement (6-24days) of PO and SOD activity, phagocytosis and superoxide anion production in penaeid shrimp receiving glucan-containing diet. These immune responses could be the downstream effects of the two PRP gene up-regulation that predispose the shrimp to a state of high immune responsiveness. Increased dosage of beta-glucan from 2 to 10gkg(-1) diet did not affect the expressions of the genes, indicating the sufficiency of beta-glucan supplementation at 2gkg(-1) diet.

  9. Wild-type and IL10-null mice have differential colonic epithelial gene expression responses to dietary supplementation with synbiotic Bifidobacterium animalis subspecies lactis and inulin.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Shiu-Ming; Chan, Wan-Chun; Hu, Zihua

    2014-03-01

    Prebiotic plus probiotic (synbiotic) supplementations promote fermentation and have shown anti-inflammatory activity in colonic epithelium. However, in many instances, patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) have demonstrated adverse effects after prebiotic supplementation at a dose well tolerated by normal individuals. To test the hypothesis that the host inflammation affects the colonic epithelial response to increased fermentation, the gene expression of colonic epithelium was analyzed. In a 1-way experimental design to test the effect of supplements in wild-type mice using the standard diet formulated by the American Institute of Nutrition (AIN-93G) as the control diet, fermentable fiber inulin (5%) in the absence or presence of the probiotic Bifidobacterium animalis subspecies lactis (Bb12) (10(8) CFU/kg diet) showed limited effects on gene expression as determined by whole-genome microarray. Bb12 supplementation alone was known not to increase fermentation and here instead significantly upregulated genes in nucleic acid metabolic processes. The effects of the synbiotic diet were then determined in mice exposed to LPS-induced inflammation in a 2-way experimental design testing the effect of diet and LPS. The microarray and quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analyses on the wild-type mice revealed that LPS-induced changes in the colonic epithelium were 4- to 10-fold less in the synbiotic diet group compared with the control diet group. Unlike the wild-type mice, anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin 10 (IL10)-null mice (susceptible to IBD) given the synbiotic diet, compared with those given the control diet, had 3- to 40-fold increased expression of inflammation-related genes such as Cxcl1 (chemokine C-X-C motif ligand 1) and S100a9 (S100 calcium binding protein A9) in the absence and presence of LPS exposure. These contrasting intestinal epithelial responses to increased fermentation in wild-type and IL10-null mice are similar

  10. Effects of Dietary Selenium Against Lead Toxicity on mRNA Levels of 25 Selenoprotein Genes in the Cartilage Tissue of Broiler Chicken.

    PubMed

    Gao, H; Liu, C P; Song, S Q; Fu, J

    2016-07-01

    The interactions between the essential element selenium (Se) and the toxic element lead (Pb) have been reported extensively; however, little is known about the effect of Se on Pb toxicity and the expression pattern of selenoproteins in the cartilage of chicken. To investigate the effects of Se on Pb toxicity and the messenger RNA (mRNA) expressions of selenoproteins in cartilage tissue, an in vitro study was performed on 1-day-old broiler chickens (randomly allocated into four groups) with diet of different concentration of Se and Pb. After 90 days, the meniscus cartilage and sword cartilage tissue were examined for the mRNA levels of 25 selenoprotein genes. The results showed that Se and Pb influenced the expression of selenoprotein genes in the chicken cartilage tissue. In detail, Se could alleviate the downtrend of the expression of Gpx1, Gpx2, Gpx4, Txnrd2, Txnrd3, Dio1, Dio2, Seli, Selu, Sepx1, Selk, Selw, Selo, Selm, Sep15, Sepnn1, Sels, and Selt induced by Pb exposure in the meniscus cartilage. In the sword cartilage, Se alleviated the downtrend of the expression of Gpx2, Gpx3, Gpx4, Txnrd1, Txnrd2, Dio2, Dio3, Seli, Selh, SPS2, Sepx1, Selk, Selw, Selo, Selm, Sep15, Selpb, Sepn1, and Selt induced by Pb exposure. The present study provided some compensated data about the roles of Se against Pb toxicity in the regulation of selenoprotein expression.

  11. Dietary linseed oil in the maternal diet affects immunoglobulins, tissue fatty acid composition and expression of lipid metabolism-related genes in piglets.

    PubMed

    Chen, X L; Wang, N; Tian, M L; Wang, L; Liu, T; Zhang, X W; Shi, B M; Shan, A S

    2016-11-21

    This experiment investigated the effects of supplementing the maternal diet with linseed oil (LSO) and soya bean oil (SBO) on immunoglobulins, the fatty acid composition and hepatic expression of lipid metabolism-related genes in piglets. Multiparous sows (twenty-four per diet) were fed on diets containing a supplement of either SBO or LSO during last week of gestation and lactation. The results indicated that supplementation of maternal diet with LSO could improve the weaning weight of piglets and average daily gain (ADG) (p < 0.05). The concentration of immunoglobulin G (IgG) and immunoglobulin A (IgA) was enhanced in sow plasma, colostrum and milk by the addition of LSO (p < 0.05). In addition, the concentration of 18: 3n-3 fatty acids was higher in the milk of LSO sows. Meanwhile, maternal supplementation with LSO increased the levels of plasma IgG, IgA and the tissues n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) in piglets (p < 0.05). Correspondingly, the mRNA expression levels of hepatic ∆5-desaturase (D5D) and ∆6-desaturase (D6D) were higher, and fatty acid synthase (FAS) was lower in piglets from LSO-fed sows when compared with that in the SBO group. In conclusion, LSO supplementation of the maternal diet increases immunoglobulins, modifies the fatty acid composition and affects the gene of D5D and D6D expression of piglets.

  12. Effect of dietary supplementation of probiotics and palm fruits extracts on the antioxidant enzyme gene expression in the mucosae of gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata L.).

    PubMed

    Esteban, M A; Cordero, H; Martínez-Tomé, M; Jiménez-Monreal, A M; Bakhrouf, A; Mahdhi, A

    2014-08-01

    Antioxidant activity is particularly important, since oxidation is an unavoidable reaction in all living bodies. At present, natural antioxidants to be used on food as an alternative to synthetic ones are being sought. Gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata L.) specimens were fed for 4 weeks with diets enriched with bacterial probiotics (Shewanella putrefaciens Pdp11 and Bacillus sp), single or in combination with Tunisian dates palm fruit extracts. The expression of the main antioxidant enzyme genes (superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione reductase) in the mucosae (gut, skin and gill) was evaluated after 2 and 4 weeks. Previously, free radical scavenging and several antioxidant assays were developed to know the antioxidant properties present on the palm fruits extracts. The results demonstrated that experimental diets alter the expression of the studied antioxidant genes, primarily in the gill and skin. Furthermore, the tested probiotics and mainly, the aqueous date palm fruits extracts had significant antioxidant properties based on their protective effect against the levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species, especially when administering during 4 weeks. For this reason, probiotics and date palm fruit extracts may serve as good natural antioxidants and could potentially be considered as a functional food ingredient for fish in farms.

  13. FDA 101: Dietary Supplements

    MedlinePlus

    ... Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products For Consumers Home For Consumers ... Knowledge About Vitamins More in Consumer Updates Animal & Veterinary Children's Health Cosmetics Dietary Supplements Drugs Food Medical ...

  14. Dietary Fat and Cholesterol

    MedlinePlus

    ... Conditions Nutrition & Fitness Emotional Health Dietary Fat and Cholesterol Posted under Health Guides . Updated 7 March 2017. + ... saturated fat found in red meat. What is cholesterol? Cholesterol is a fatlike substance that’s found in ...

  15. Alternate dietary lifestyles.

    PubMed

    Krey, S H

    1982-09-01

    Various forms of vegetarian diets are discussed and evaluated for their nutritional adequacy. Health, philosophical, religious, ecological, and economic concerns are suggested as possible reasons for these alternate dietary lifestyles. Nutrients of specific concern ot the vegetarian are highlighted and suggestions given to help incorporate these in the diet, thereby avoiding marginal intakes. With judicious menu planning and careful thought to food selections, most vegetarian diets can supply excellent nutrition. Very restricted vegetarian diets or higher level macrobiotic diets may not be nutritionally complete, and individuals following these diets may benefit from special dietary counseling and dietary supplementation. Otherwise, these diets may place the adult as well as pregnant and lactating women, infants, and children at a nutritional risk. As vegetarian food habits are becoming more widespread, physicians and nutritionists must be knowledgeable about these alternate dietary lifestyles in order to counsel their patients appropriately, to understand the reasons for these eating habits, and to be supportive of the choice of diet.

  16. Dietary oleanolic acid mediates circadian clock gene expression in liver independently of diet and animal model but requires apolipoprotein A1.

    PubMed

    Gabás-Rivera, Clara; Martínez-Beamonte, Roberto; Ríos, José L; Navarro, María A; Surra, Joaquín C; Arnal, Carmen; Rodríguez-Yoldi, María J; Osada, Jesús

    2013-12-01

    Oleanolic acid is a triterpene widely distributed throughout the plant kingdom and present in virgin olive oil at a concentration of 57 mg/kg. To test the hypotheses that its long-term administration could modify hepatic gene expression in several animal models and that this could be influenced by the presence of APOA1-containing high-density lipoproteins (HDLs), diets including 0.01% oleanolic acid were provided to Apoe- and Apoa1-deficient mice and F344 rats. Hepatic transcriptome was analyzed in Apoe-deficient mice fed long-term semipurified Western diets differing in the oleanolic acid content. Gene expression changes, confirmed by reverse transcriptase quantitative polymerase chain reaction, were sought for their implication in hepatic steatosis. To establish the effect of oleanolic acid independently of diet and animal model, male rats were fed chow diet with or without oleanolic acid, and to test the influence of HDL, Apoa1-deficient mice consuming the latter diet were used. In Apoe-deficient mice, oleanolic acid intake increased hepatic area occupied by lipid droplets with no change in oxidative stress. Bmal1 and the other core component of the circadian clock, Clock, together with Elovl3, Tubb2a and Cldn1 expressions, were significantly increased, while Amy2a5, Usp2, Per3 and Thrsp were significantly decreased in mice receiving the compound. Bmal1 and Cldn1 expressions were positively associated with lipid droplets. Increased Clock and Bmal1 expressions were also observed in rats, but not in Apoa1-deficient mice. The core liver clock components Clock-Bmal1 are a target of oleanolic acid in two animal models independently of the diets provided, and this compound requires APOA1-HDL for its hepatic action.

  17. Dietary modifiers of carcinogenesis.

    PubMed Central

    Kohlmeier, L; Simonsen, N; Mottus, K

    1995-01-01

    Dietary components express a wide range of activities that can affect carcinogenesis. Naturally occurring substances in foods have been shown in laboratory experiments to serve as dietary antimutagens, either as bioantimutagens or as desmutagens. Dietary desmutagens may function as chemical inactivaters, enzymatic inducers, scavengers, or antioxidants. Dietary components may also act later in the carcinogenic process as tumor growth suppressors. Examples of dietary factors acting in each of these stages of carcinogenesis are presented, and potential anticarcinogens such as the carotenoids, tocopherols, phenolic compounds, glucosinolates, metal-binding proteins, phytoestrogens, and conjugated linoleic acid are discussed. Individual foods typically contain multiple potential anticarcinogens. Many of these substances can influence carcinogenesis through more than one mechanism. Some substances exhibit both anticarcinogenic and carcinogenic activity in vitro, depending on conditions. Epidemiologic research indicates that high fruit and vegetable consumption is associated with lower cancer risk. Little research has focused on the effects of single substances or single foods in man. Realization of the potential of foodborne substances to reduce the human burden of cancer will only be achieved with better measurement of dietary exposures and funding of multidisciplinary research in this area commensurate with its importance. PMID:8741780

  18. Regulation of vascular endothelial genes by dietary flavonoids: structure-expression relationship studies and the role of the transcription factor KLF-2.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Fernández, Leyre; Pons, Zara; Margalef, Maria; Arola-Arnal, Anna; Muguerza, Begoña

    2015-03-01

    Physiological concentrations (1 μM) of 15 flavonoids were evaluated in human umbilical vein endothelial cells in the presence of hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂) for their ability to affect endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and endothelin-1 (ET-1) expression in order to establish the structural basis of their bioactivity. Flavonoid effects on eNOS transcription factor Krüpple like factor-2 (KLF-2) expression were also evaluated. All studied flavonoids appeared to be effective compounds for counteracting the oxidative stress-induced effects on vascular gene expression, indicating that flavonoids are an excellent source of functional endothelial regulator products. Notably, the more effective flavonoids for KLF-2 up-regulation resulted in the highest values for eNOS expression, showing that the increment of eNOS expression would take place through KLF-2 induction. Structure-activity relationship studies showed that the combinations of substructures on flavonoid skeleton that regulate eNOS expression are made up of the following elements: glycosylation and hydroxylation of C-ring, double bond C2=C3 at C-ring, methoxylation and hydroxylation of B-ring, ketone group in C4 at C-ring and glycosylation in C7 of A-ring, while flavonoid features involved in the reduction of vasoconstrictor ET-1 expression are as follows: double bond C2=C3 at C-ring glycosylation in C7 of A-ring and ketone group in C4 of C-ring.

  19. Genetic susceptibility and dietary patterns in lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Ya-Yu; McGlynn, Katherine A; Hu, Ying; Cassidy, Anna B; Arnold, John; Engstrom, Paul F; Buetow, Kenneth H

    2003-09-01

    Cigarette smoking is the dominant risk factor for lung cancer, but only a minority of smokers ever develops tumors. Though genetic susceptibility is likely to explain some of the variability in risk, results from previous studies of genetic polymorphisms have been inconclusive. As diet may also affect the risk of lung cancer, it is possible that the degree of risk produced by smoking and genetic susceptibility varies, depending on diet. To assess this hypothesis, we conducted a case-control study to examine the effect of cigarette smoking, dietary patterns and variation in genes involved in phase II metabolism. A total of 254 individuals with lung cancer and 184 healthy controls were recruited for the study. To identify persons with similar dietary patterns, cluster analysis was performed using nutrient densities of four major dietary constituents: protein, carbohydrate, animal fat, and dietary fiber. Two groups of individuals were identified with distinct dietary patterns: (1) a group (n=241) with a high intake of animal fat and protein and a low intake of carbohydrates and dietary fiber (the 'unhealthy' pattern) and (2) a group (n=197) with a high intake of fiber and carbohydrate and a low intake of protein and animal fat (the 'healthy' pattern) [corrected]. On stratified analysis, several genotype/dietary pattern combinations were found to affect risk of lung cancer. Smokers who were not homozygous for the most common GSTP1 allele and had a healthy dietary pattern were at significantly lower risk than smokers who were homozygous for the GSTP1 common allele and who had an unhealthy dietary pattern (OR=0.16, 95%CI: 0.04-0.57). Among smokers who were GSTM1 null, persons with a healthy dietary pattern were at lower risk than persons with an unhealthy dietary pattern (OR: 0.46, 95%CI: 0.21-1.01). Among smokers with an unhealthy dietary patterns, persons with a His/His genotype in the exon 3 polymorphism of EPHX1 were at significantly lower risk that persons who were

  20. A preliminary study on T-786C endothelial nitric oxide synthase gene and renal hemodynamic and blood pressure responses to dietary sodium.

    PubMed

    Dengel, D R; Brown, M D; Ferrell, R E; Reynolds, T H; Supiano, M A

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the role of the T-786C endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) gene polymorphism on changes in renal hemodynamics and blood pressure due to Na(+) loading. Twenty-eight older (63+/-1 years), moderately obese (39+/-2 % fat) hypertensives had their glomerular filtration rate (GFR), renal plasma flow (RPF), blood pressure (BP) and plasma nitric oxide (NO(x)) levels determined after eight days of low (20 mEq) and high (200 mEq) Na(+) diets. The two Na(+) diets were separated by a 1-week washout period. Subjects were genotyped for the eNOS-786 site and were grouped on whether they were homozygous or heterozygous for the C allele (TC+CC, n=13) or only homozygous for the T allele (TT, n=15). The TC+CC genotype group had a significantly greater increase in diastolic (P=0.021) and mean arterial (P=0.018) BP and a significant decline in both RPF (P=0.007) and GFR (P=0.029) compared to the TT genotype group with Na(+) loading. Furthermore, Na(+) loading resulted in a significant (P=0.036) increase in plasma NO(x) in the TT, but not in the TC+CC genotype group as well as a trend (P=0.051) for an increase in urine NO(x) in TC+CC, but not in the TT genotype group. The increase in BP during Na(+) loading in older hypertensives was associated with the eNOS genotype and may be related to changes in renal hemodynamics due to changes in NO metabolism.

  1. Dietary effect of Sargassum wightii fucoidan to enhance growth, prophenoloxidase gene expression of Penaeus monodon and immune resistance to Vibrio parahaemolyticus.

    PubMed

    Sivagnanavelmurugan, Madasamy; Thaddaeus, Bergmans Jude; Palavesam, Arunachalam; Immanuel, Grasian

    2014-08-01

    The polysaccharide fucoidan from brown seaweed Sargassum wightii was extracted and it was incorporated with pellet diets at three concentrations (0.1, 0.2 & 0.3%). The fucoidan incorporated diets were fed to shrimp Penaeus monodon for 60 days and the growth performance was assessed. The weight gain and SGR of control group was 6.83 g and 9.72%, respectively, but the weight gain and SGR of various concentrations (0.1-0.3%) of fucoidan incorporated diets fed groups of shrimp was increased from 7.30 to 8.20 g and 9.83 to 10.03%, respectively. After 60 days of feeding experiment, the relative quantification of prophenoloxidase gene of experimental groups over control group was analysed by RT-PCR and it was ranged between 2.13 and 7.95 fold increase within 33.52-34.61 threshold cycles, respectively at 0.1-0.3% concentrations of fucoidan. After 60 days of feeding experiment, the P. monodon were challenged with shrimp pathogen Vibrio parahaemolyticus and the mortality percentage was recorded daily up to 21 days. The reduction in mortality percentage of experimental groups over control group was recorded from 44.56 to 72.79%, respectively in 0.1-0.3% of fucoidan incorporated diets fed groups. During challenge experiment, all the immunological parameters such as THC, prophenoloxidase activity, respiratory burst activity, superoxide dismutase activity, phagocytic activity, bactericidal activity and bacterial clearance ability of experimental groups were significantly (P < 0.05) increased than control group. The V. parahaemolyticus load was enumerated from the infected shrimp at every 10 days intervals during challenge experiment. In control group, the Vibrio load was increased in hepatopancreas and muscle tissues from 10th to 21st days of challenge test. But in the experimental groups, the Vibrio load in both the tissues decreased positively from 10th to 21st days of challenge duration. It is concluded that the S. wightii fucoidan had enhanced the innate immunity and

  2. Genes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Search Search MedlinePlus GO GO About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Customer Support Health Topics Drugs & Supplements Videos & Tools Español You Are Here: Home → Medical Encyclopedia → Genes URL of this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/ ...

  3. Dietary proteins and angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Medina, Miguel Ángel; Quesada, Ana R

    2014-01-17

    Both defective and persistent angiogenesis are linked to pathological situations in the adult. Compounds able to modulate angiogenesis have a potential value for the treatment of such pathologies. Several small molecules present in the diet have been shown to have modulatory effects on angiogenesis. This review presents the current state of knowledge on the potential modulatory roles of dietary proteins on angiogenesis. There is currently limited available information on the topic. Milk contains at least three proteins for which modulatory effects on angiogenesis have been previously demonstrated. On the other hand, there is some scarce information on the potential of dietary lectins, edible plant proteins and high protein diets to modulate angiogenesis.

  4. Hyperkalemia from Dietary Supplements

    PubMed Central

    Villgran, Vipin

    2016-01-01

    Hyperkalemia is a common electrolyte problem in patients with chronic kidney disease. It is typically caused by medications in patients with poor kidney function. Patients with comorbodities such as heart failure and diabetes are predisposed to electrolyte problems. Salt substitutes and dietary supplements are uncommon causes of hyperkalemia, but we propose that they are under-recognized and underdiagnosed causes in patients with chronic kidney disease. Our case report and literature review illustrates that a careful dietary history is essential in patients presenting with electrolyte disorders, especially hyperkalemia. PMID:27924248

  5. Beware of Fraudulent 'Dietary Supplements'

    MedlinePlus

    ... Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products For Consumers Home For Consumers ... Supplements Dietary Supplements More in Consumer Updates Animal & Veterinary Children's Health Cosmetics Dietary Supplements Drugs Food Medical ...

  6. Therapeutic role of dietary fibre.

    PubMed Central

    Hunt, R.; Fedorak, R.; Frohlich, J.; McLennan, C.; Pavilanis, A.

    1993-01-01

    The current status of dietary fibre and fibre supplements in health and disease is reported, and the components of dietary fibre and its respective mechanical and metabolic effects with emphasis on its therapeutic potential are reviewed. Practical management guidelines are provided to help physicians encourage patients identified as having fibre deficiency to increase dietary fibre intake to the recommended level. PMID:8388284

  7. Evolution of dietary antioxidants.

    PubMed

    Benzie, Iris F F

    2003-09-01

    Oxygen is vital for most organisms but, paradoxically, damages key biological sites. Oxygenic threat is met by antioxidants that evolved in parallel with our oxygenic atmosphere. Plants employ antioxidants to defend their structures against reactive oxygen species (ROS; oxidants) produced during photosynthesis. The human body is exposed to these same oxidants, and we have also evolved an effective antioxidant system. However, this is not infallible. ROS breach defences, oxidative damage ensues, accumulates with age, and causes a variety of pathological changes. Plant-based, antioxidant-rich foods traditionally formed the major part of the human diet, and plant-based dietary antioxidants are hypothesized to have an important role in maintaining human health. This hypothesis is logical in evolutionary terms, especially when we consider the relatively hypoxic environment in which humans may have evolved. In this paper, the human diet is discussed briefly in terms of its evolutionary development, different strategies of antioxidant defence are outlined, and evolution of dietary antioxidants is discussed from the perspectives of plant need and our current dietary requirements. Finally, possibilities in regard to dietary antioxidants, evolution, and human health are presented, and an evolutionary cost-benefit analysis is presented in relation to why we lost the ability to make ascorbic acid (vitamin C) although we retained an absolute requirement for it.

  8. Carbohydrate and dietary fiber

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Carbohydrate provides 50 to 60% of the calories consumed by the average American. Although relatively little carbohydrate is needed in the diet, carbohydrate spares protein and fat being metabolized for calories. The principal dietary carbohydrates are sugars and starches. Sugars (simple carbohydrat...

  9. Online Dietary Supplement Resources

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Internet is becoming an increasingly popular tool for finding nutrition-related information; therefore, nutrition professionals must know how to use it effectively. This article describes websites that dietitians and other health professionals can use to obtain reliable information on dietary s...

  10. Dietary Acculturation among Filipino Americans

    PubMed Central

    Vargas, Persephone; Jurado, Leo-Felix

    2015-01-01

    Acculturation, the subsequent changes that occur in one culture after continuous first hand contact with another culture, impacts the dietary habits and health risks of individuals. This study examines the acculturation, dietary habits and anthropometric measurements in a sample of 210 first generation Filipino American immigrants in New Jersey (NJ). Acculturation was measured using the Short Acculturation Scale for Filipino Americans (ASASFA). Dietary acculturation was measured using the Dietary Acculturation Questionnaire for Filipino Americans (DAQFA) and dietary intake was determined using the Block’s Brief Food Frequency Questionnaire (BFFQ). Anthropometric measurements were obtained including weight, height and waist circumference. Acculturation had a significant negative relationship with Filipino Dietary acculturation. Western dietary acculturation was significantly correlated with caloric intake (r(208) = 0.193, p < 0.01), percentage fat intake (r(208) = 0.154, p < 0.05), percentage carbohydrate intake (r(208) = −0.172, p < 0.05), Body Mass Index (BMI) (r(208) = 0.216, p < 0.01) and waist circumference (r(208) = 0.161, p < 0.01). There was no significant correlation between Filipino dietary acculturation, dietary intake and anthropometric measurements. The results showed that Filipino American immigrants have increased risks including increased BMI, waist circumference and increased fat intake. Over all, this research highlighted some dietary changes and their effects on dietary intake and health status. PMID:26703646

  11. Dietary Acculturation among Filipino Americans.

    PubMed

    Vargas, Persephone; Jurado, Leo-Felix

    2015-12-22

    Acculturation, the subsequent changes that occur in one culture after continuous first hand contact with another culture, impacts the dietary habits and health risks of individuals. This study examines the acculturation, dietary habits and anthropometric measurements in a sample of 210 first generation Filipino American immigrants in New Jersey (NJ). Acculturation was measured using the Short Acculturation Scale for Filipino Americans (ASASFA). Dietary acculturation was measured using the Dietary Acculturation Questionnaire for Filipino Americans (DAQFA) and dietary intake was determined using the Block's Brief Food Frequency Questionnaire (BFFQ). Anthropometric measurements were obtained including weight, height and waist circumference. Acculturation had a significant negative relationship with Filipino Dietary acculturation. Western dietary acculturation was significantly correlated with caloric intake (r(208) = 0.193, p < 0.01), percentage fat intake (r(208) = 0.154, p < 0.05), percentage carbohydrate intake (r(208) = -0.172, p < 0.05), Body Mass Index (BMI) (r(208) = 0.216, p < 0.01) and waist circumference (r(208) = 0.161, p < 0.01). There was no significant correlation between Filipino dietary acculturation, dietary intake and anthropometric measurements. The results showed that Filipino American immigrants have increased risks including increased BMI, waist circumference and increased fat intake. Over all, this research highlighted some dietary changes and their effects on dietary intake and health status.

  12. Natural Dietary Phytosterols.

    PubMed

    Racette, Susan B; Lin, Xiaobo; Ma, Lina; Ostlund, Richard E

    2015-01-01

    Most clinical phytosterol studies are performed by adding purified supplements to smaller phytosterol amounts present in the natural diet. However, natural dietary phytosterols themselves may also have important effects on cholesterol metabolism. Epidemiological work using food frequency questionnaires to estimate dietary intake suggest that extremes of normal consumption may be associated with 3-14% changes in LDL cholesterol. Standardized food databases do not have enough phytosterol values to allow calculation of phytosterol intake for individuals outside of specialized studies. Natural diets contain phytosterol amounts ranging from less than 60 mg/2000 kcal to over 500 mg/2000 kcal. Physiological studies in which whole body cholesterol metabolism is investigated show large effects of natural dietary phytosterols on cholesterol absorption efficiency, cholesterol biosynthesis and cholesterol excretion which exceed the magnitude of changes in LDL cholesterol. The dual effects of natural phytosterols on both LDL-C and whole body cholesterol metabolism need to be considered in relating them to potential protection from coronary heart disease risk.

  13. Dietary treatment of nephrolithiasis

    PubMed Central

    Nouvenne, Antonio; Meschi, Tiziana; Guerra, Angela; Allegri, Franca; Prati, Beatrice; Borghi, Loris

    2008-01-01

    The prevalence of idiopathic nephrolithiasis is increasing in rich countries. Dietary manipulation could contribute to the prevention of both its first appearance and the recurrence of the disease. The target of dietary treatment is to decrease the “urinary lithogenic risk factors” such as low urine volume, hypercalciuria, hyperoxaluria, hyperuricosuria, hyperphosphaturia, hypocitraturia, hypomagnesuria and excessively alkaline or acid urinary pH. Due to the lack of randomized controlled trials focused on this problem, there is not ample evidence to confidently recommend dietary changes. Despite this, numerous recent and past experiences support modification of diet as having a primary role in the prevention of nephrolithiasis. In particular, it is recommended to limit animal protein and salt intake, to consume milk and derivatives in amounts corresponding to calcium intake of about 1200 mg/day and to assume fiber (40 g/day), vegetables and fruit daily avoiding foods with high oxalate content. Furthermore, vitamin C intake not exceeding 1500 mg/day plays a protective role as well as avoiding vitamin B6 deficiency and abstaining, if possible, from vitamin D supplements. Lastly, it is recommended to drink enough water to bring the urinary volume up to at least 2 L/day and, as much as possible, to use fresh or frozen products rather than prepacked or precooked foods which are often too rich in sodium chloride. PMID:22460996

  14. Dietary methanol and autism.

    PubMed

    Walton, Ralph G; Monte, Woodrow C

    2015-10-01

    The authors sought to establish whether maternal dietary methanol during pregnancy was a factor in the etiology of autism spectrum disorders. A seven item questionnaire was given to women who had given birth to at least one child after 1984. The subjects were solicited from a large primary care practice and several internet sites and separated into two groups - mothers who had given birth to a child with autism and those who had not. Average weekly methanol consumption was calculated based on questionnaire responses. 550 questionnaires were completed by women who gave birth to a non-autistic child. On average these women consumed 66.71mg. of methanol weekly. 161 questionnaires were completed by women who had given birth to an autistic child. The average estimated weekly methanol consumption for this group was 142.31mg. Based on the results of the Wilcoxon rank sum-test, we see a significant difference between the reported methanol consumption rates of the two groups. This study suggests that women who have given birth to an autistic child are likely to have had higher intake of dietary sources of methanol than women who have not. Further investigation of a possible link of dietary methanol to autism is clearly warranted.

  15. Dietary delivery: A new avenue for microRNA therapeutics?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many people carefully monitor their food choices, adhering to the philosophy that you are what you eat. Recent research adds to a new wrinkle to that old adage, suggesting that dietary small RNAs (sRNAs) can control the gene expression of the consumer and may provide an effective, noninvasive, and i...

  16. Dietary Patterns: Challenges and Opportunities in Dietary Patterns Research

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In recent years, increasing numbers of researchers have used dietary patterns to characterize the population’s diet and to examine associations between diet and disease outcomes. Many methods, primarily data-driven and index-based approaches, are available for characterizing dietary patterns in a p...

  17. The role of dietary fat in adipose tissue metabolism.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Quintela, Alfredo; Churruca, Itziar; Portillo, Maria Puy

    2007-10-01

    Energy intake and expenditure tend on average to remain adjusted to each other in order to maintain a stable body weight, which is only likely to be sustained if the fuel mix oxidised is equivalent to the nutrient content of the diet. Whereas protein and carbohydrate degradation and oxidation are closely adjusted to their intakes, fat balance regulation is less precise and that fat is more likely to be stored than oxidised. It has been demonstrated that dietary fatty acids have an influence not only on the fatty acid composition of membrane phospholipids, thus modulating several metabolic processes that take place in the adipocyte, but also on the composition and the quantity of different fatty acids in adipose tissue. Moreover, dietary fatty acids also modulate eicosanoid presence, which have hormone-like activities in lipid metabolism regulation in adipose tissue. Until recently, the adipocyte has been considered to be no more than a passive tissue for storage of excess energy. However, there is now compelling evidence that adipocytes have a role as endocrine secretory cells. Some of the adipokines produced by adipose tissue, such as leptin and adiponectin, act on adipose tissue in an autocrine/paracrine manner to regulate adipocyte metabolism. Furthermore, dietary fatty acids may influence the expression of adipokines. The nutrients are among the most influential of the environmental factors that determine the way adipose tissue genes are expressed by functioning as regulators of gene transcription. Therefore, not only dietary fat amount but also dietary fat composition influence adipose tissue metabolism.

  18. National Children's Study Dietary Assessment Workshop

    Cancer.gov

    The National Children's Study dietary assessment workshop was an opportunity for experts in dietary assessment methodology to gather and discuss the current state of knowledge about methodologies used to assess dietary intake during pregnancy, lactation, infancy, childhood, and adolescence.

  19. The -675 4G/5G polymorphism at the Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) gene modulates plasma Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor 1 concentrations in response to dietary fat consumption.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Martínez, P; Adarraga-Cansino, M D; Fernández de la Puebla, R A; Blanco-Molina, A; Delgado-Lista, J; Marín, C; Ordovás, J M; López-Miranda, J; Pérez-Jiménez, F

    2008-04-01

    The objective of the study was to determine whether Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor Type 1 (PAI-1) -675 4G/5G polymorphism is associated with the response of functional plasma PAI-1 concentrations to changes in the amount and quality of dietary fat in healthy subjects. PAI-1 is the major inhibitor of fibrinolysis, and a lower level of fibrinolytic activity could be implicated in an increased risk of IHD. Fifty-nine healthy Spanish volunteers (ten 4G/4G homozygotes, twenty-eight heterozygotes 4G/5G and twenty-one 5G/5G homozygotes) consumed three diets for periods of 4 weeks each: a SFA-rich diet (38 % fat, 20 % SFA), followed by a carbohydrate-rich diet (30 % fat, 55 % carbohydrate) and a MUFA-rich diet (38 % fat, 22 % MUFA) according to a randomized crossover design. At the end of each dietary period plasma lipid and functional plasma PAI-1 concentrations were determined. Subjects carrying the 4G allele (4G/4G and 4G/5G) showed a significant decrease in PAI-1 concentrations after the MUFA diet, compared with the SFA-rich and carbohydrate-rich diets (genotype x diet interaction: P = 0.028). 5G/5G homozygotes had the lowest plasma PAI-1 concentrations compared with 4G/4G and 4G/5G subjects (genotype: P = 0.002), without any changes as a result of the amount and the quality of the dietary fat. In summary, no differences in plasma PAI-1 concentration response were found after changes in dietary fat intake in 5G/5G homozygotes, although these subjects displayed the lowest concentrations of PAI-1. On the other hand, carriers of the 4G allele are more likely to hyper-respond to the presence of MUFA in the diet because of a greater decrease in PAI-1 concentrations.

  20. Dietary therapies for epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Kossoff, Eric H; Wang, Huei-Shyong

    2013-01-01

    Since their introduction in 1921, high-fat, low-carbohydrate "ketogenic" diets have been used worldwide for refractory childhood epilepsy. Approximately half of the children have at least half their seizures reduced, including 15% who are seizure free. The mechanisms of action of dietary therapies are under active investigation and appear to involve mitochondria. Once perceived as a last resort, modifications to initiation and maintenance, as well as the widespread use of pre-made ketogenic formulas have allowed dietary treatment to be used earlier in the course of epilepsy. For infantile spasms (West syndrome) specifically, the ketogenic diet is successful about 50% of the time as a first-line treatment. New "alternative" diets such as the modified Atkins diet were created in 2003 and can be started more easily and are less restrictive. They may have particular value for countries in Asia. Side effects include constipation, dyslipidemia, growth slowing, acidosis, and kidney stones. Additionally, neurologists are studying ketogenic diets for conditions other than epilepsy, including Alzheimer's disease, autism, and brain tumors.

  1. Chapter 11: Dietary reference intakes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI) are a set of recommendations intended to provide guidance in evaluating nutrient intakes and planning meals on the basis of nutrient adequacy. In contrast to their predecessor, Recommended Dietary Allowances last published in 1989, the DRIs differ in two ways: th...

  2. Dietary sodium protects fish against copper-induced olfactory impairment.

    PubMed

    Azizishirazi, Ali; Dew, William A; Bougas, Berenice; Bernatchez, Louis; Pyle, Greg G

    2015-04-01

    Exposure to low concentrations of copper impairs olfaction in fish. To determine the transcriptional changes in the olfactory epithelium induced by copper exposure, wild yellow perch (Perca flavescens) were exposed to 20 μg/L of copper for 3 and 24h. A novel yellow perch microarray with 1000 candidate genes was used to measure differential gene transcription in the olfactory epithelium. While three hours of exposure to copper changed the transcription of only one gene, the transcriptions of 70 genes were changed after 24h of exposure to copper. Real-time PCR was utilized to determine the effect of exposure duration on two specific genes of interest, two sub-units of Na/K-ATPase. At 24 and 48 h, Na/K-ATPase transcription was down-regulated by copper at olfactory rosettes. As copper-induced impairment of Na/K-ATPase activity in gills can be ameliorated by increased dietary sodium, rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were used to determine if elevated dietary sodium was also protective against copper-induced olfactory impairment. Measurement of the olfactory response of rainbow trout using electro-olfactography demonstrated that sodium was protective of copper-induced olfactory dysfunction. This work demonstrates that the transcriptions of both subunits of Na/K-ATPase in the olfactory epithelium of fish are affected by Cu exposure, and that dietary Na protects against Cu-induced olfactory dysfunction.

  3. [Dietary changes in Mexico].

    PubMed

    Ramírez Mayans, J A; García Campos, M; Cervantes Bustamante, R; Mata Rivera, N; Zárate Mondragón, F; Mason Cordero, T; Villarreal Espinosa, A

    2003-06-01

    Although the Mexican population has traditionally been malnourished, the prevalence of obesity in children and adults has increased by almost 50 % in the last 10 years. Recent studies show substantial changes in the nutritional status of Mexicans, especially in the pediatric population. Among the factors associated with the development of obesity are overeating, sedentariness, and genetics. The apparent economic development in Mexico, as well as the influence of dietary patterns from other countries, have contributed to modifying lifestyle. Despite measures taken by the health system, iron- and zinc-deficiency anemia continue to be prevalent. The present review aims to describe the changes that have taken place in Mexico in the last few decades leading to a generation of short and obese children, as well as to determine the associated factors in order to promote healthier eating patterns among the Mexican population.

  4. Cancer Chemoprevention by Dietary Polyphenols: Promising Role for Epigenetics

    PubMed Central

    Link, Alexander; Balaguer, Francesc; Goel, Ajay

    2010-01-01

    Epigenetics refers to heritable changes that are not encoded in the DNA sequence itself, but play an important role in the control of gene expression. In mammals, epigenetic mechanisms include changes in DNA methylation, histone modifications and non-coding RNAs. Although epigenetic changes are heritable in somatic cells, these modifications are also potentially reversible, which makes them attractive and promising avenues for tailoring cancer preventive and therapeutic strategies. Burgeoning evidence in the last decade has provided unprecedented clues that diet and environmental factors directly influence epigenetic mechanisms in humans. Dietary polyphenols from green tea, turmeric, soybeans, broccoli and others have shown to possess multiple cell-regulatory activities within cancer cells. More recently, we have begun to understand that some of the dietary polyphenols may exert their chemopreventive effects in part by modulating various components of the epigenetic machinery in humans. In this article, we first discuss the contribution of diet and environmental factors on epigenetic alterations; subsequently, we provide a comprehensive review of literature on the role of various dietary polyphenols. In particular, we summarize the current knowledge on a large number of dietary agents and their effects on DNA methylation, histone modifications and regulation of expression of non-coding miRNAs in various in vitro and in vivo models. We emphasize how increased understanding of the chemopreventive effects of dietary polyphenols on specific epigenetic alterations may provide unique and yet unexplored novel and highly effective chemopreventive strategies for reducing the health burden of cancer and other diseases in humans. PMID:20599773

  5. Genetics of dietary habits and obesity - a twin study.

    PubMed

    Hasselbalch, Ann Louise

    2010-09-01

    Obesity has become a major health concern due to the increased risk of co-morbidities, resulting in decreased quality of life, stigmatization, reduced working ability and early death. This causes a great challenge for the health care systems and results in increased direct costs related to treatment of obesity and co-morbidities, as well as increased indirect costs related to reduced function and withdrawal from the labour market. Both between and within societies, large variation in the prevalence of overweight and obesity exists. This variation is caused by differences in environmental exposures as well as genetic differences between individuals, resulting in differentiated susceptibility to environmental exposures. The evidence for genetic influence on anthropometry has previously been established and has been estimated to be 60-70% based on twin studies. These inter-individual differences can, however, not explain the increase in obesity prevalence during the past 70 years. Environmental factors must therefore play an important role in the obesity epidemic. Habitual diet is one of many environmental factors that potentially contribute to the inter-individual differences in body fat mass, but only limited evidence for associations between habitual dietary intake and anthropometry exists. Differences in habitual dietary intake are also partly determined by differences in genes influencing smell and taste preferences. But, so far, only few studies have investigated genetic influences on dietary intake in adults and the interplay between diet, genes and obesity. The focus of the thesis was to investigate the genetic and environmental influence on habitual diet and obesity as well as the association between habitual diet and anthropometry. The thesis is based on structural equation modelling of twin data from the Danish Twin Registry with special focus on the GEMINAKAR twin study that was performed in 1997-2000. In this study, anthropometric traits of the twin pairs

  6. Evolutionary adaptations to dietary changes.

    PubMed

    Luca, F; Perry, G H; Di Rienzo, A

    2010-08-21

    Through cultural innovation and changes in habitat and ecology, there have been a number of major dietary shifts in human evolution, including meat eating, cooking, and those associated with plant and animal domestication. The identification of signatures of adaptations to such dietary changes in the genome of extant primates (including humans) may shed light not only on the evolutionary history of our species, but also on the mechanisms that underlie common metabolic diseases in modern human populations. In this review, we provide a brief overview of the major dietary shifts that occurred during hominin evolution, and we discuss the methods and approaches used to identify signals of natural selection in patterns of sequence variation. We then review the results of studies aimed at detecting the genetic loci that played a major role in dietary adaptations and conclude by outlining the potential of future studies in this area.

  7. Dietary polyphenols: Antioxidants or not?

    PubMed

    Croft, Kevin D

    2016-04-01

    Population studies have shown a strong association between dietary intake of polyphenols and reduced risk of cardiovascular disease. These associations have been confirmed to some extent by intervention studies which have shown improvements in vascular function and blood pressure with certain polyphenols or food extracts rich in polyphenols. The mechanisms involved in the bioactivity of dietary polyphenols is still under active investigation. It is unlikely that polyphenols act as antioxidants in vivo. Evidence suggests that dietary polyphenols or their metabolites act as signalling molecules and can increase nitric oxide bioavailability and induce protective enzymes. This review will outline some of the key issues in dietary polyphenol research that suggest mechanistic insights into the action of these bioactive compounds. There are a number of issues that remain to be resolved in bridging the gap between observational studies and intervention trials using food extracts or pure polyphenol compounds.

  8. Evolutionary Adaptations to Dietary Changes

    PubMed Central

    Luca, F.; Perry, G.H.; Di Rienzo, A.

    2014-01-01

    Through cultural innovation and changes in habitat and ecology, there have been a number of major dietary shifts in human evolution, including meat eating, cooking, and those associated with plant and animal domestication. The identification of signatures of adaptations to such dietary changes in the genome of extant primates (including humans) may shed light not only on the evolutionary history of our species, but also on the mechanisms that underlie common metabolic diseases in modern human populations. In this review, we provide a brief overview of the major dietary shifts that occurred during hominin evolution, and we discuss the methods and approaches used to identify signals of natural selection in patterns of sequence variation. We then review the results of studies aimed at detecting the genetic loci that played a major role in dietary adaptations and conclude by outlining the potential of future studies in this area. PMID:20420525

  9. INSIG2 variants, dietary patterns, and metabolic risk in Samoa

    PubMed Central

    Baylin, Ana; Deka, Ranjan; Tuitele, John; Viali, Satupaitea; Weeks, Daniel E.; McGarvey, Stephen T.

    2013-01-01

    Background/Objectives Association of insulin-induced gene 2 (INSIG2) variants with obesity has been confirmed in several but not all follow-up studies. Differences in environmental factors across populations may mask some genetic associations and therefore gene-environment interactions should be explored. We hypothesized that the association between dietary patterns and components of the metabolic syndrome could be modified by INSIG2 variants. Subjects/Methods We conducted a longitudinal study of adiposity and cardiovascular disease risk among 427 and 290 adults from Samoa and American Samoa (1990–95). Principal component analysis on food items from a validated FFQ was used to identify neo-traditional and modern dietary patterns. We explored gene-dietary pattern interactions with the INSIG2 variants rs9308762 and rs7566605. Results Results for American Samoans were mostly non-significant. In Samoa, the neo-traditional dietary pattern was associated with lower triglycerides, BMI, waist circumference, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and fasting glucose (all p-for-trend<0.05). The modern pattern was significantly associated with higher triglycerides, BMI, waist circumference, and lower HDL cholesterol (all p-for-trend<0.05). A significant interaction for triglycerides was found between the modern pattern and the rs9308762 polymorphism (p=0.04). Those from Samoa consuming the modern pattern have higher triglycerides if they are homozygous for the rs9308762 C allele. Conclusions The common INSIG2 rs9308762 variant was associated with poorer metabolic control and a greater sensitivity of trigylcerides to a modern dietary pattern. Environmental factors need to be taken into account when assessing genetic associations across and within populations. PMID:22968099

  10. 76 FR 55927 - Draft Guidance for Industry; Dietary Supplements: New Dietary Ingredient Notifications and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-09

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Guidance for Industry; Dietary Supplements: New...: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice; extension of comment period. SUMMARY: The Food and... notice entitled ``Draft Guidance for Industry; Dietary Supplements: New Dietary Ingredient...

  11. Dietary lipids and cancer.

    PubMed

    Granados, S; Quiles, J L; Gil, A; Ramírez-Tortosa, M C

    2006-05-01

    Cancer is one of the main causes of death in Western countries. Among the factors that contribute to the appearance of this disease, diet has a fundamental role, and specifically fats are the main component related to the increase in the incidence of cancerous diseases, particularly breast, colon-rectal, and prostate cancer. From dietary lipids, much attention has been given to the beneficial effects of fish oil, rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids n-3 serie, as well as of olive oil, rich in monounsaturated fatty acids--primarily oleic acid. On the contrary, a negative effect has been reported for polyunsaturated fatty acids n-6 serie and for saturated fatty acids. Nutrition constitutes an important aspect of the life of cancer patients. Currently, nutritional formulas are being designed with supplements of polyunsaturated n-3 fatty acids and other components such as arginine, RNA, lysine, etc., with the aim of ameliorating the effects of this pathology. The results demonstrate the lower morbility and therefore improved quality of life, a decline in mortality, and a reduction in related costs.

  12. Dietary supplements in weight reduction.

    PubMed

    Dwyer, Johanna T; Allison, David B; Coates, Paul M

    2005-05-01

    We summarize evidence on the role of dietary supplements in weight reduction, with particular attention to their safety and benefits. Dietary supplements are used for two purposes in weight reduction: (a) providing nutrients that may be inadequate in calorie-restricted diets and (b) for their potential benefits in stimulating weight loss. The goal in planning weight-reduction diets is that total intake from food and supplements should meet recommended dietary allowance/adequate intake levels without greatly exceeding them for all nutrients, except energy. If nutrient amounts from food sources in the reducing diet fall short, dietary supplements containing a single nutrient/element or a multivitamin-mineral combination may be helpful. On hypocaloric diets, the addition of dietary supplements providing nutrients at a level equal to or below recommended dietary allowance/adequate intake levels or 100% daily value, as stated in a supplement's facts box on the label, may help dieters to achieve nutrient adequacy and maintain electrolyte balance while avoiding the risk of excessive nutrient intakes. Many botanical and other types of dietary supplements are purported to be useful for stimulating or enhancing weight loss. Evidence of their efficacy in stimulating weight loss is inconclusive at present. Although there are few examples of safety concerns related to products that are legal and on the market for this purpose, there is also a paucity of evidence on safety for this intended use. Ephedra and ephedrine-containing supplements, with or without caffeine, have been singled out in recent alerts from the Food and Drug Administration because of safety concerns, and use of products containing these substances cannot be recommended. Dietitians should periodically check the Food and Drug Administration Web site ( www.cfsan.fda.gov ) for updates and warnings and alert patients/clients to safety concerns. Dietetics professionals should also consult authoritative sources for

  13. Dietary restriction: could it be considered as speed bump on tumor progression road?

    PubMed

    Cangemi, Antonina; Fanale, Daniele; Rinaldi, Gaetana; Bazan, Viviana; Galvano, Antonio; Perez, Alessandro; Barraco, Nadia; Massihnia, Daniela; Castiglia, Marta; Vieni, Salvatore; Bronte, Giuseppe; Mirisola, Mario; Russo, Antonio

    2016-06-01

    Dietary restrictions, including fasting (or long-term starvation), calorie restriction (CR), and short-term starvation (STS), are considered a strong rationale that may protect against various diseases, including age-related diseases and cancer. Among dietary approaches, STS, in which food is not consumed during designed fasting periods but is typically not restricted during designated feeding periods, seems to be more suitable, because other dietary regimens involving prolonged fasting periods could worsen the health conditions of cancer patients, being they already naturally prone to weight loss. Until now, the limited amount of available data does not point to a single gene, pathway, or molecular mechanism underlying the benefits to the different dietary approaches. It is well known that the healthy effect is mediated in part by the reduction of nutrient-related pathways. The calorie restriction and starvation (long- and short-term) also suppress the inflammatory response reducing the expression, for example, of IL-10 and TNF-α, mitigating pro-inflammatory gene expression and increasing anti-inflammatory gene expression. The dietary restriction may regulate both genes involved in cellular proliferation and factors associated to apoptosis in normal and cancer cells. Finally, dietary restriction is an important tool that may influence the response to chemotherapy in preclinical models. However, further data are needed to correlate dietary approaches with chemotherapeutic treatments in human models. The aim of this review is to discuss the effects of various dietary approaches on the cancer progression and therapy response, mainly in preclinical models, describing some signaling pathways involved in these processes.

  14. Dietary Factors and Cognitive Decline

    PubMed Central

    Smith, P.J.; Blumenthal, J.A.

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive decline is an increasingly important public health problem, with more than 100 million adults worldwide projected to develop dementia by 2050. Accordingly, there has been an increased interest in preventive strategies that diminish this risk. It has been recognized that lifestyle factors including dietary patterns, may be important in the prevention of cognitive decline and dementia in later life. Several dietary components have been examined, including antioxidants, fatty acids, and B vitamins. In addition, whole dietary eating plans, including the Mediterranean diet (MeDi), and the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet, with and without weight loss, have become areas of increasing interest. Although prospective epidemiological studies have observed that antioxidants, fatty acids, and B vitamins are associated with better cognitive functioning, randomized clinical trials have generally failed to confirm the value of any specific dietary component in improving neurocognition. Several randomized trials have examined the impact of changing ‘whole’ diets on cognitive outcomes. The MeDi and DASH diets offer promising preliminary results, but data are limited and more research in this area is needed. PMID:26900574

  15. Dietary Factors and Cognitive Decline.

    PubMed

    Smith, P J; Blumenthal, J A

    2016-03-01

    Cognitive decline is an increasingly important public health problem, with more than 100 million adults worldwide projected to develop dementia by 2050. Accordingly, there has been an increased interest in preventive strategies that diminish this risk. It has been recognized that lifestyle factors including dietary patterns, may be important in the prevention of cognitive decline and dementia in later life. Several dietary components have been examined, including antioxidants, fatty acids, and B vitamins. In addition, whole dietary eating plans, including the Mediterranean diet (MeDi), and the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet, with and without weight loss, have become areas of increasing interest. Although prospective epidemiological studies have observed that antioxidants, fatty acids, and B vitamins are associated with better cognitive functioning, randomized clinical trials have generally failed to confirm the value of any specific dietary component in improving neurocognition. Several randomized trials have examined the impact of changing 'whole' diets on cognitive outcomes. The MeDi and DASH diets offer promising preliminary results, but data are limited and more research in this area is needed.

  16. Cardiovascular benefits of dietary fiber.

    PubMed

    Satija, Ambika; Hu, Frank B

    2012-12-01

    The relationship between dietary fiber and risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) has been extensively studied. There is considerable epidemiological evidence indicating an inverse association between dietary fiber intake and CVD risk. The association has been found to be stronger for cereal fiber than for fruit or vegetable fiber, and several studies have also found increased whole grain consumption to be associated with CVD risk reduction. In light of this evidence, recent US dietary guidelines have endorsed increased consumption of fiber rich whole grains. Regular consumption of dietary fiber, particularly fiber from cereal sources, may improve CVD health through multiple mechanisms including lipid reduction, body weight regulation, improved glucose metabolism, blood pressure control, and reduction of chronic inflammation. Future research should focus on various food sources of fiber, including different types of whole grains, legumes, fruits, vegetables, and nuts, as well as resistant starch in relation to CVD risk and weight control; explore the biological mechanisms underlying the cardioprotective effect of fiber-rich diets; and study different ethnic groups and populations with varying sources of dietary fiber.

  17. Dietary Salt Intake and Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Over the past century, salt has been the subject of intense scientific research related to blood pressure elevation and cardiovascular mortalities. Moderate reduction of dietary salt intake is generally an effective measure to reduce blood pressure. However, recently some in the academic society and lay media dispute the benefits of salt restriction, pointing to inconsistent outcomes noted in some observational studies. A reduction in dietary salt from the current intake of 9-12 g/day to the recommended level of less than 5-6 g/day will have major beneficial effects on cardiovascular health along with major healthcare cost savings around the world. The World Health Organization (WHO) strongly recommended to reduce dietary salt intake as one of the top priority actions to tackle the global non-communicable disease crisis and has urged member nations to take action to reduce population wide dietary salt intake to decrease the number of deaths from hypertension, cardiovascular disease and stroke. However, some scientists still advocate the possibility of increased risk of CVD morbidity and mortality at extremes of low salt intake. Future research may inform the optimal sodium reduction strategies and intake targets for general populations. Until then, we have to continue to build consensus around the greatest benefits of salt reduction for CVD prevention, and dietary salt intake reduction strategies must remain at the top of the public health agenda. PMID:25061468

  18. Dietary phosphorus and kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Uribarri, Jaime

    2013-10-01

    High serum phosphate is linked to poor health outcome and mortality in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients before or after the initiation of dialysis. Therefore, maintenance of normal serum phosphate levels is a major concern in the clinical care of this population with dietary phosphorus restriction and/or use of oral phosphate binders considered to be the best corrective care. This review discusses (1) evidence for an association between serum phosphate levels and bone and cardiovascular disease (CVD) in CKD patients as well as progression of kidney disease itself; (2) the relationship between serum phosphate and dietary phosphorus intake; and (3) implications from these data for future research. Increasing our understanding of the relationship between altered phosphorus metabolism and disease in CKD patients may clarify the potential role of excess dietary phosphorus as a risk factor for disease in the general population.

  19. SHEDS-Dietary Technical Manual Appendices

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The appendices for the SHEDS-Dietary Technical Manual include a sample food diary, backgorund information on the water concentration data used in SHEDS-Dietary, a food list, food definitions and sample code.

  20. Dietary estrogens stimulate human breast cells to enter the cell cycle.

    PubMed Central

    Dees, C; Foster, J S; Ahamed, S; Wimalasena, J

    1997-01-01

    It has been suggested that dietary estrogens neutralize the effect of synthetic chemicals that mimic the effects of estrogen (i.e., xenoestrogens, environmental estrogens). Genistein, a dietary estrogen, inhibits the growth of breast cancer cells at high doses but additional studies have suggested that at low doses, genistein stimulates proliferation of breast cancer cells. Therefore, if dietary estrogens are estrogenic at low doses, one would predict that they stimulate estrogen-receptor positive breast cancer cells to enter the cell cycle. Genistein and the fungal toxin zearalenone were found to increase the activity of cyclin dependent kinase 2 (Cdk2) and cyclin D1 synthesis and stimulate the hyperphosphorylation of the retinoblastoma susceptibility gene product pRb105 in MCF-7 cells. The steroidal antiestrogen ICI 182,780 suppressed dietary estrogen-mediated activation of Cdk2. Dietary estrogens not only failed to suppress DDT-induced Cdk2 activity, but were found to slightly increase enzyme activity. Both zearalenone and genistein were found to stimulate the expression of a luciferase reporter gene under the control of an estrogen response element in MVLN cells. Our findings are consistent with a conclusion that dietary estrogens at low concentrations do not act as antiestrogens, but act like DDT and estradiol to stimulate human breast cancer cells to enter the cell cycle. Images Figure 2. Figure 3. A Figure 3. B Figure 4. Figure 5. PMID:9168007

  1. Six Tissue Transcriptomics Reveals Specific Immune Suppression in Spleen by Dietary Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids

    PubMed Central

    Gabrielsson, Britt G.; Peris, Eduard; Nookaew, Intawat; Grahnemo, Louise; Sandberg, Ann-Sofie; Wernstedt Asterholm, Ingrid; Jansson, John-Olov; Nielsen, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are suggested to modulate immune function, but the effects of dietary fatty acids composition on gene expression patterns in immune organs have not been fully characterized. In the current study we investigated how dietary fatty acids composition affects the total transcriptome profile, and especially, immune related genes in two immune organs, spleen (SPL) and bone marrow cells (BMC). Four tissues with metabolic function, skeletal muscle (SKM), white adipose tissue (WAT), brown adipose tissue (BAT), and liver (LIV), were investigated as a comparison. Following 8 weeks on low fat diet (LFD), high fat diet (HFD) rich in saturated fatty acids (HFD-S), or HFD rich in PUFA (HFD-P), tissue transcriptomics were analyzed by microarray and metabolic health assessed by fasting blood glucose level, HOMA-IR index, oral glucose tolerance test as well as quantification of crown-like structures in WAT. HFD-P corrected the metabolic phenotype induced by HFD-S. Interestingly, SKM and BMC were relatively inert to the diets, whereas the two adipose tissues (WAT and BAT) were mainly affected by HFD per se (both HFD-S and HFD-P). In particular, WAT gene expression was driven closer to that of the immune organs SPL and BMC by HFDs. The LIV exhibited different responses to both of the HFDs. Surprisingly, the spleen showed a major response to HFD-P (82 genes differed from LFD, mostly immune genes), while it was not affected at all by HFD-S (0 genes differed from LFD). In conclusion, the quantity and composition of dietary fatty acids affected the transcriptome in distinct manners in different organs. Remarkably, dietary PUFA, but not saturated fat, prompted a specific regulation of immune related genes in the spleen, opening the possibility that PUFA can regulate immune function by influencing gene expression in this organ. PMID:27166587

  2. Effects of dietary Bacillus cereus G19, B. cereus BC-01, and Paracoccus marcusii DB11 supplementation on the growth, immune response, and expression of immune-related genes in coelomocytes and intestine of the sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus Selenka).

    PubMed

    Yang, Gang; Tian, Xiangli; Dong, Shuanglin; Peng, Mo; Wang, Dongdong

    2015-08-01

    Probiotics have positive effects on the nutrient digestibility and absorption, immune responses, and growth of aquatic animals, including the sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus Selenka). A 60-day feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the effects of Bacillus cereus G19, B. cereus BC-01 and Paracoccus marcusii DB11 supplementation on the growth, immune response, and expression level of four immune-related genes (Aj-p105, Aj-p50, Aj-rel, and Aj-lys) in coelomocytes and the intestine of juvenile sea cucumbers. One group was fed the basal diet (control group), while three other groups were fed the basal diet supplemented with B. cereus G19 (G19 group), B. cereus BC-01 (BC group), or P. marcusii DB11 (PM group). The growth rate of sea cucumbers fed diets with probiotics supplementation was significantly higher than that of the control group (P < 0.05). Sea cucumbers in the G19 and PM groups had a significantly greater phagocytic activity of coelomocytes compared to the control group (P < 0.05), while those in the G19 and BC groups had a greater respiratory burst activity (P < 0.05). The alkaline phosphatase (AKP) activity of coelomocytes in sea cucumbers fed diets with probiotics supplementation was significantly higher than the control group (P < 0.05). Comparatively, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity of coelomocytes for sea cucumber in the PM group was significantly greater (P < 0.05). As for the immune-related genes, B. cereus G19 supplementation significantly increased the expression level of the Aj-rel gene in coelomocytes (P < 0.05), while B. cereus BC-01 supplementation significantly increased that of the Aj-p50 gene as compared to the control group (P < 0.05). In the intestine, the relative expression level of Aj-p105, Aj-p50, and Aj-lys genes in the PM group was significantly higher than that in the control group (P < 0.05). These results suggested that B. cereus G19 and B. cereus BC-01 supplementation could improve the growth performance and the immune

  3. Regulation of adiposity by dietary calcium.

    PubMed

    Zemel, M B; Shi, H; Greer, B; Dirienzo, D; Zemel, P C

    2000-06-01

    Recent data from this laboratory demonstrate that increasing adipocyte intracellular Ca(2+) results in a coordinated stimulation of lipogenesis and inhibition of lipolysis. We have also noted that increasing dietary calcium of obese patients for 1 year resulted in a 4.9 kg loss of body fat (P<0.01). Accordingly, we tested the possibility that calcitrophic hormones may act on adipocytes to increase Ca(2+) and lipid metabolism by measuring the effects of 1, 25-(OH)(2)-D in primary cultures of human adipocytes, and found significant, sustained increases in intracellular Ca(2+) and a corresponding marked inhibition of lipolysis (EC(50) approximately 50 pM; P<0.001), suggesting that dietary calcium could reduce adipocyte mass by suppressing 1,25-(OH)(2)-D. To test this hypothesis, we placed transgenic mice expressing the agouti gene specifically in adipocytes on a low (0.4%) Ca/high fat/high sucrose diet either unsupplemented or with 25 or 50% of the protein replaced by non-fat dry milk or supplemented to 1.2% Ca with CaCO(3) for 6 wk. Weight gain and fat pad mass were reduced by 26-39% by the three high calcium diets (P<0.001). The high calcium diets exerted a corresponding 51% inhibition of adipocyte fatty acid synthase expression and activity (P<0.002) and stimulation of lipolysis by 3. 4- to 5.2-fold (P<0.015). This concept of calcium modulation of adiposity was further evaluated epidemiologically in the NHANES III data set. After controlling for energy intake, relative risk of being in the highest quartile of body fat was set to 1.00 for the lowest quartile of Ca intake and was reduced to 0.75, 0.40, and 0.16 for the second, third, and fourth quartiles, respectively, of calcium intake for women (n=380;P<0.0009); a similar inverse relationship was also noted in men (n=7114; P<0.0006). Thus, increasing dietary calcium suppresses adipocyte intracellular Ca(2+) and thereby modulates energy metabolism and attenuates obesity risk.

  4. Potential of dietary nitrate in angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Rammos, Christos; Luedike, Peter; Hendgen-Cotta, Ulrike; Rassaf, Tienush

    2015-10-26

    Endothelial dysfunction with impaired bioavailability of nitric oxide (NO) is the hallmark in the development of cardiovascular disease. Endothelial dysfunction leads to atherosclerosis, characterized by chronic inflammation of the arterial wall and stepwise narrowing of the vessel lumen. Atherosclerosis causes deprivation of adequate tissue blood flow with compromised oxygen supply. To overcome this undersupply, remodeling of the vascular network is necessary to reconstitute and sustain tissue viability. This physiological response is often not sufficient and therapeutic angiogenesis remains an unmet medical need in critical limb ischemia or coronary artery disease. Feasible approaches to promote blood vessel formation are sparse. Administration of pro-angiogenic factors, gene therapy, or targeting of microRNAs has not yet entered the daily practice. Nitric oxide is an important mediator of angiogenesis that becomes limited under ischemic conditions and the maintenance of NO availability might constitute an attractive therapeutic target. Until recently it was unknown how the organism provides NO under ischemia. In recent years it could be demonstrated that NO can be formed independently of its enzymatic synthesis in the endothelium by reduction of inorganic nitrite under hypoxic conditions. Circulating nitrite derives from oxidation of NO or reduction of inorganic nitrate by commensal bacteria in the oral cavity. Intriguingly, nitrate is a common constituent of our everyday diet and particularly high concentrations are found in leafy green vegetables such as spinach, lettuce, or beetroot. Evidence suggests that dietary nitrate supplementation increases the regenerative capacity of ischemic tissue and that this effect may offer an attractive nutrition-based strategy to improve ischemia-induced revascularization. We here summarize and discuss the regenerative capacity of dietary nitrate on the vascular system.

  5. Dietary protein's and dietary acid load's influence on bone health.

    PubMed

    Remer, Thomas; Krupp, Danika; Shi, Lijie

    2014-01-01

    A variety of genetic, mechano-response-related, endocrine-metabolic, and nutritional determinants impact bone health. Among the nutritional influences, protein intake and dietary acid load are two of the factors most controversially discussed. Although in the past high protein intake was often assumed to exert a primarily detrimental impact on bone mass and skeletal health, the majority of recent studies indicates the opposite and suggests a bone-anabolic influence. Studies examining the influence of alkalizing diets or alkalizing supplement provision on skeletal outcomes are less consistent, which raises doubts about the role of acid-base status in bone health. The present review critically evaluates relevant key issues such as acid-base terminology, influencing factors of intestinal calcium absorption, calcium balance, the endocrine-metabolic milieu related to metabolic acidosis, and some methodological aspects of dietary exposure and bone outcome examinations. It becomes apparent that for an adequate identification and characterization of either dietary acid load's or protein's impact on bone, the combined assessment of both nutritional influences is necessary.

  6. Physiogenomic analysis of weight loss induced by dietary carbohydrate restriction

    PubMed Central

    Ruaño, Gualberto; Windemuth, Andreas; Kocherla, Mohan; Holford, Theodore; Fernandez, Maria Luz; Forsythe, Cassandra E; Wood, Richard J; Kraemer, William J; Volek, Jeff S

    2006-01-01

    Background Diets that restrict carbohydrate (CHO) have proven to be a successful dietary treatment of obesity for many people, but the degree of weight loss varies across individuals. The extent to which genetic factors associate with the magnitude of weight loss induced by CHO restriction is unknown. We examined associations among polymorphisms in candidate genes and weight loss in order to understand the physiological factors influencing body weight responses to CHO restriction. Methods We screened for genetic associations with weight loss in 86 healthy adults who were instructed to restrict CHO to a level that induced a small level of ketosis (CHO ~10% of total energy). A total of 27 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were selected from 15 candidate genes involved in fat digestion/metabolism, intracellular glucose metabolism, lipoprotein remodeling, and appetite regulation. Multiple linear regression was used to rank the SNPs according to probability of association, and the most significant associations were analyzed in greater detail. Results Mean weight loss was 6.4 kg. SNPs in the gastric lipase (LIPF), hepatic glycogen synthase (GYS2), cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) and galanin (GAL) genes were significantly associated with weight loss. Conclusion A strong association between weight loss induced by dietary CHO restriction and variability in genes regulating fat digestion, hepatic glucose metabolism, intravascular lipoprotein remodeling, and appetite were detected. These discoveries could provide clues to important physiologic adaptations underlying the body mass response to CHO restriction. PMID:16700901

  7. Cloning and tissue distribution of a fatty acyl Δ6-desaturase-like gene and effects of dietary lipid levels on its expression in the hepatopancreas of Chinese mitten crab (Eriocheir sinensis).

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhigang; Guo, Zihao; Ji, Lianyuan; Zeng, Qitao; Wang, Yao; Yang, Xiaozhen; Cheng, Yongxu

    2013-06-01

    Fatty acyl Δ6-desaturase is the rate-limiting enzyme in the biosynthetic pathway of highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFAs) in vertebrates. In this report, a fatty acyl Δ6-desaturase-like cDNA was cloned from the hepatopancreas of Eriocheir sinensis (Chinese mitten crab) and characterized by performing rapid-amplification of cDNA ends. The 2278-bp long full-length cDNA encodes a polypeptide with 442 amino acids. Gene expression analysis via real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction revealed that the fatty acyl Δ6-desaturase-like transcripts are widely distributed in various tissues, with high expression levels in the hepatopancreas and cranial ganglia. This study focuses on the nutritional regulation of genes involved in the HUFA biosynthetic pathway in Chinese mitten crab. A feeding trial was performed whereby crablets were fed for 238 d with four different diets: control diet without oil lipids (added with 3% basic lipid of the fundamental diets); fish oil diet (FO; added with 3% of the fundamental diets); soybean oil diet (SO; added with 3% of the fundamental diets); and FO/SO diet (1:1; added with 3% of the fundamental diets). The hepatopancreas of crabs sampled at 168 d and 238 d to determine the effects on fatty acyl Δ6-desaturase-like mRNA expression. The results show that the expression of fatty acyl Δ6-desaturase-like is higher in the hepatopancreas of crabs fed with SO diet than those fed with FO diet. Furthermore, gene expression increased by 2.45-fold in the hepatopancreas of crabs fed with SO after 238 d than those fed after 168 d but remained steady for those fed with FO after 238 d.

  8. Dietary Patterns Differently Associate with Inflammation and Gut Microbiota in Overweight and Obese Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Cotillard, Aurelie; Habi-Rachedi, Fatiha; Brazeilles, Rémi; Gougis, Sophie; Gausserès, Nicolas; Cani, Patrice D.; Fellahi, Soraya; Bastard, Jean-Philippe; Kennedy, Sean P.; Doré, Joel; Ehrlich, Stanislav Dusko; Zucker, Jean-Daniel; Rizkalla, Salwa W.; Clément, Karine

    2014-01-01

    Background Associations between dietary patterns, metabolic and inflammatory markers and gut microbiota are yet to be elucidated. Objectives We aimed to characterize dietary patterns in overweight and obese subjects and evaluate the different dietary patterns in relation to metabolic and inflammatory variables as well as gut microbiota. Design Dietary patterns, plasma and adipose tissue markers, and gut microbiota were evaluated in a group of 45 overweight and obese subjects (6 men and 39 women). A group of 14 lean subjects were also evaluated as a reference group. Results Three clusters of dietary patterns were identified in overweight/obese subjects. Cluster 1 had the least healthy eating behavior (highest consumption of potatoes, confectionary and sugary drinks, and the lowest consumption of fruits that was associated also with low consumption of yogurt, and water). This dietary pattern was associated with the highest LDL cholesterol, plasma soluble CD14 (p = 0.01) a marker of systemic inflammation but the lowest accumulation of CD163+ macrophages with anti-inflammatory profile in adipose tissue (p = 0.05). Cluster 3 had the healthiest eating behavior (lower consumption of confectionary and sugary drinks, and highest consumption of fruits but also yogurts and soups). Subjects in this Cluster had the lowest inflammatory markers (sCD14) and the highest anti-inflammatory adipose tissue CD163+ macrophages. Dietary intakes, insulin sensitivity and some inflammatory markers (plasma IL6) in Cluster 3 were close to those of lean subjects. Cluster 2 was in-between clusters 1 and 3 in terms of healthfulness. The 7 gut microbiota groups measured by qPCR were similar across the clusters. However, the healthiest dietary cluster had the highest microbial gene richness, as evaluated by quantitative metagenomics. Conclusion A healthier dietary pattern was associated with lower inflammatory markers as well as greater gut microbiota richness in overweight and obese

  9. Association between dietary fat intake and insulin resistance in Chinese child twins.

    PubMed

    Huang, Tao; Beaty, Terri; Li, Ji; Liu, Huijuan; Zhao, Wei; Wang, Youfa

    2017-01-01

    Dietary fat intake is correlated with increased insulin resistance (IR). However, it is unknown whether gene-diet interaction modulates the association. This study estimated heritability of IR measures and the related genetic correlations with fat intake, and tested whether dietary fat intake modifies the genetic influence on type 2 diabetes (T2D)-related traits in Chinese child twins. We included 622 twins aged 7-15 years (n 311 pairs, 162 monozygotic (MZ), 149 dizygotic (DZ)) from south-eastern China. Dietary factors were measured using FFQ. Structural equation models were fit using Mx statistical package. The intra-class correlation coefficients for all traits related to T2D were higher for MZ twins than for DZ twins. Dietary fat and fasting serum insulin (additive genetic correlation (r A) 0·20; 95 % CI 0·08, 0·43), glucose (r A 0·12; 95 % CI 0·01, 0·40), homoeostasis model of assessment-insulin resistance (Homa-IR) (r A 0·22; 95 % CI 0·10, 0·50) and the quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (Quicki) (r A -0·22; 95 % CI -0·40, 0·04) showed strong genetic correlations. Heritabilities of dietary fat intake, fasting glucose and insulin were estimated to be 52, 70 and 70 %, respectively. More than 70 % of the phenotypic correlations between dietary fat and insulin, glucose, Homa-IR and the Quicki index appeared to be mediated by shared genetic influence. Dietary fat significantly modified additive genetic effects on these quantitative traits associated with T2D. Analysis of Chinese twins yielded high estimates of heritability of dietary fat intake and IR. Genetic factors appear to contribute to a high proportion of the variance for both insulin sensitivity and IR. Dietary fat intake modifies the genetic influence on blood levels of insulin and glucose, Homa-IR and the Quicki index.

  10. Toxin content and cytotoxicity of algal dietary supplements

    SciTech Connect

    Heussner, A.H.; Mazija, L.; Fastner, J.; Dietrich, D.R.

    2012-12-01

    Blue-green algae (Spirulina sp., Aphanizomenon flos-aquae) and Chlorella sp. are commercially distributed as organic algae dietary supplements. Cyanobacterial dietary products in particular have raised serious concerns, as they appeared to be contaminated with toxins e.g. microcystins (MCs) and consumers repeatedly reported adverse health effects following consumption of these products. The aim of this study was to determine the toxin contamination and the in vitro cytotoxicity of algae dietary supplement products marketed in Germany. In thirteen products consisting of Aph. flos-aquae, Spirulina and Chlorella or mixtures thereof, MCs, nodularins, saxitoxins, anatoxin-a and cylindrospermopsin were analyzed. Five products tested in an earlier market study were re-analyzed for comparison. Product samples were extracted and analyzed for cytotoxicity in A549 cells as well as for toxin levels by (1) phosphatase inhibition assay (PPIA), (2) Adda-ELISA and (3) LC–MS/MS. In addition, all samples were analyzed by PCR for the presence of the mcyE gene, a part of the microcystin and nodularin synthetase gene cluster. Only Aph. flos-aquae products were tested positive for MCs as well as the presence of mcyE. The contamination levels of the MC-positive samples were ≤ 1 μg MC-LR equivalents g{sup −1} dw. None of the other toxins were found in any of the products. However, extracts from all products were cytotoxic. In light of the findings, the distribution and commercial sale of Aph. flos-aquae products, whether pure or mixed formulations, for human consumption appear highly questionable. -- Highlights: ► Marketed algae dietary supplements were analyzed for toxins. ► Methods: Phosphatase inhibition assay (PPIA), Adda-ELISA, LC-MS/MS. ► Aph. flos-aquae products all tested positive for microcystins. ► Products tested negative for nodularins, saxitoxins, anatoxin-a, cylindrospermopsin. ► Extracts from all products were cytotoxic.

  11. Dietary fibre and colonic neoplasia.

    PubMed Central

    Freeman, H J

    1979-01-01

    Dietary plant fibre, or plantix, is thought to play a significant role in the pathogenesis of colon cancer in humans. It is a complex polymeric substance that has several distinct components resistant to hydrolysis by the digestive enzymes of humans. These components include cellulose, hemicelluloses, pectins, lignin, gums, mucilages and, in certain instances, algal polysaccharides. These polymers have different physicochemical properties, and recent evidence from experimental studies in animals treated with carcinogens suggests that some may exert protective effects in the intestine and others may enhance colon carcinogenesis. This review synthesizes information on the chemical composition, methods of analysis and physicochemical properties of dietary plant fibre and reviews available studies examining the role of fibre in colonic neoplasia in animals and humans. PMID:466603

  12. High dietary supplement intakes among Flemish preschoolers.

    PubMed

    Huybrechts, Inge; Maes, Lea; Vereecken, Carine; De Keyzer, Willem; De Bacquer, Dirk; De Backer, Guy; De Henauw, Stefaan

    2010-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of dietary supplement use among Flemish preschoolers and to investigate associations between dietary supplement use and socio-economic variables of the parents. Parentally reported 3-day estimated dietary records (n=696) were used to calculate mean daily nutrient intakes, using Software for Intake Distribution Estimation (Cside). Socio-demographic information and frequency of dietary supplement use were collected via parental questionnaires, including a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) (n=1847). The results from the FFQ revealed that more than 30% of the children used dietary supplements in the past month. Children of more highly educated parents and children of non-smokers were significantly more likely to use supplements than their counterparts. The types most frequently used were multi-vitamin/mineral supplements. Except for vitamin D, mean dietary intakes derived from foods alone was higher than the minimum recommendations for both supplement and non-supplement users. The youngest group of supplement users even exceeded the tolerable upper intake level for zinc (7 mg). However, for vitamin D, dietary supplements could help meet dietary recommendations for this micronutrient. In conclusion, the results indicated that dietary supplement use by healthy children who typically achieve their micronutrient requirements by foods alone could cause excessive intakes. Future studies should investigate potential harms and benefits of dietary supplementation use among preschoolers.

  13. Dietary patterns: biomarkers and chronic disease risk.

    PubMed

    Kant, Ashima K

    2010-04-01

    With increasing appreciation of the complexity of diets consumed by free-living individuals, there is interest in the assessment of the overall diet or dietary patterns in which multiple related dietary characteristics are considered as a single exposure. The 2 most frequently used methods to derive dietary patterns use (i) scores or indexes based on prevailing hypotheses about the role of dietary factors in disease prevention; and (ii) factors and clusters from exploration of available dietary data. A third method, a hybrid of the hypothesis-driven and data-driven methods, attempts to predict food combinations related to nutrients or biomarkers with hypothesized associations with particular health outcomes. Dietary patterns derived from the first 2 approaches have been examined in relation to nutritional and disease biomarkers and various health outcomes, and generally show the desirable dietary pattern to be consistent with prevalent beliefs about what constitutes a healthful diet. Results from observational studies suggest that the healthful dietary patterns were associated with significant but modest risk reduction (15%-30%) for all-cause mortality and coronary heart disease. Findings for various cancers have been inconsistent. The available randomized controlled intervention trials with a long-term follow-up to examine dietary patterns in relation to health outcome have generally produced null findings. Novel findings with the potential to change existing beliefs about diet and health relationships are yet to emerge from the dietary patterns research. The field requires innovation in methods to derive dietary patterns, validation of prevalent methods, and assessment of the effect of dietary measurement error on dietary patterns.

  14. Dietary factors affecting polyphenol bioavailability.

    PubMed

    Bohn, Torsten

    2014-07-01

    While many epidemiological studies have associated the consumption of polyphenols within fruits and vegetables with a decreased risk of developing several chronic diseases, intervention studies have generally not confirmed these beneficial effects. The reasons for this discrepancy are not fully understood but include potential differences in dosing, interaction with the food matrix, and differences in polyphenol bioavailability. In addition to endogenous factors such as microbiota and digestive enzymes, the food matrix can also considerably affect bioaccessibility, uptake, and further metabolism of polyphenols. While dietary fiber (such as hemicellulose), divalent minerals, and viscous and protein-rich meals are likely to cause detrimental effects on polyphenol bioaccessibility, digestible carbohydrates, dietary lipids (especially for hydrophobic polyphenols, e.g., curcumin), and additional antioxidants may enhance polyphenol availability. Following epithelial uptake, polyphenols such as flavonoids may reduce phase II metabolism and excretion, enhancing polyphenol bioavailability. Furthermore, polyphenols may act synergistically due to their influence on efflux transporters such as p-glycoprotein. In order to understand polyphenol bioactivity, increased knowledge of the factors affecting polyphenol bioavailability, including dietary factors, is paramount.

  15. Saturated fats: what dietary intake?

    PubMed

    German, J Bruce; Dillard, Cora J

    2004-09-01

    Public health recommendations for the US population in 1977 were to reduce fat intake to as low as 30% of calories to lower the incidence of coronary artery disease. These recommendations resulted in a compositional shift in food materials throughout the agricultural industry, and the fractional content of fats was replaced principally with carbohydrates. Subsequently, high-carbohydrate diets were recognized as contributing to the lipoprotein pattern that characterizes atherogenic dyslipidemia and hypertriacylglycerolemia. The rising incidences of metabolic syndrome and obesity are becoming common themes in the literature. Current recommendations are to keep saturated fatty acid, trans fatty acid, and cholesterol intakes as low as possible while consuming a nutritionally adequate diet. In the face of such recommendations, the agricultural industry is shifting food composition toward lower proportions of all saturated fatty acids. To date, no lower safe limit of specific saturated fatty acid intakes has been identified. This review summarizes research findings and observations on the disparate functions of saturated fatty acids and seeks to bring a more quantitative balance to the debate on dietary saturated fat. Whether a finite quantity of specific dietary saturated fatty acids actually benefits health is not yet known. Because agricultural practices to reduce saturated fat will require a prolonged and concerted effort, and because the world is moving toward more individualized dietary recommendations, should the steps to decrease saturated fatty acids to as low as agriculturally possible not wait until evidence clearly indicates which amounts and types of saturated fatty acids are optimal?

  16. Dietary supplements for aquatic sports.

    PubMed

    Derave, Wim; Tipton, Kevin D

    2014-08-01

    Many athletes use dietary supplements, with use more prevalent among those competing at the highest level. Supplements are often self-prescribed, and their use is likely to be based on an inadequate understanding of the issues at stake. Supplementation with essential micronutrients may be useful when a diagnosed deficiency cannot be promptly and effectively corrected with food-based dietary solutions. When used in high doses, some supplements may do more harm than good: Iron supplementation, for example, is potentially harmful. There is good evidence from laboratory studies and some evidence from field studies to support health or performance benefits from appropriate use of a few supplements. The available evidence from studies of aquatic sports is small and is often contradictory. Evidence from elite performers is almost entirely absent, but some athletes may benefit from informed use of creatine, caffeine, and buffering agents. Poor quality assurance in some parts of the dietary supplements industry raises concerns about the safety of some products. Some do not contain the active ingredients listed on the label, and some contain toxic substances, including prescription drugs, that can cause health problems. Some supplements contain compounds that will cause an athlete to fail a doping test. Supplement quality assurance programs can reduce, but not entirely eliminate, this risk.

  17. [Isoflavone-containing dietary supplements].

    PubMed

    Lehmann, Leane; Soukup, Sebastian T; Gerhäuser, Clarissa; Vollmer, Günter; Kulling, Sabine E

    2017-03-01

    Isoflavones (IFs) from soy and other legumes have weak estrogenic properties. Isolated IFs are available as dietary supplements and advertised to alleviate symptoms of menopause. The present chapter provides an overview of the occurrence, the chemical structure of IFs and their metabolites, the market situation and reviews the current evidence on the efficacy and safety of IF-containing dietary supplements.The biological effectiveness of IFs is attributable to the activation of the estrogen receptor (ER). Studies on the influence of IFs on endogenous estrogen levels in women show inconsistent results. So far, the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) has rejected all submitted health claims for IFs due to insufficient scientific evidence for any of the postulated health effects. Based on the results of their recent risk assessment, the EFSA concluded that the available human studies did not support the hypothesis of adverse effects of isolated IFs on the human mammary gland, uterus or thyroid in healthy postmenopausal women. However, the assessment does not allow a general statement on the safety of IF-containing dietary supplements. Studies in animal models are often not comparable with the complex interactions in humans due to differences in the metabolism of IFs, in the developmental stage at time of consumption and in the temporarily restricted uptake of IFs during certain stages of life.

  18. Effects of dietary Lactobacillus plantarum in different treatments on growth performance and immune gene expression of white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei under normal condition and stress of acute low salinity.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xiaoting; Duan, Yafei; Dong, Hongbiao; Zhang, Jiasong

    2017-03-01

    A 45-day feeding trial followed by an acute stress test of low salinity was done to evaluate effects of Lactobacillus plantarum on growth performance and anti-stress capability of white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei). Shrimp were randomly allocated in 15 tanks (100 shrimp per tank) and divided into 5 treatments with 3 replicates. Triplicate tanks were fed with a control diet or diets containing different treatments of L. plantarum (fermentation supernatant (FS), live bacteria (LB), dead bacteria (DB) and cell-free extract (CE) of L. plantarum) as treatment groups. Growth performance including weight gain (WGR), feed conversion ratio (FCR) and specific growth rate (SGR) were determined after feeding 45 days. Anti-stress capacity was evaluated by determining the gene expression of ProPO, SOD and Lys in gut of shrimp at the end of feeding trial and again at 96 h post-stress test. Results indicated that supplementation of L. plantarum into diet had significantly improved growth performance of L. vannamei. On the other hand, L. plantarum supplementation had no significant effects on the gene expression of SOD and Lys in gut of shrimp cultured under normal condition for 45 days. Supplementation of L. plantarum had increased survivability of L. vannamei having higher survival rates compared to the control group. However, statistical analysis showed no significant difference between the control group and treatments. Compared with the control group, supplementation of L. plantarum significantly improved the resistance of L. vannamei against the stress of acute low salinity, as indicated by higher survival rate as well as higher transcript levels of ProPo, SOD and Lys gene. Our findings suggested that L. plantarum, especially cell-free extract of L. plantarum has improved the anti-stress capacity of L. vannamei and could serve as a potential feed additive that helps shrimp to overcome environmental stresses.

  19. Modulation of Tumorigenesis by Dietary Intervention Is Not Mediated by SIRT1 Catalytic Activity

    PubMed Central

    Clark-Knowles, Katherine V.; Dewar-Darch, Danielle; Jardine, Karen E.; McBurney, Michael W.

    2014-01-01

    The protein deacetylase SIRT1 is involved in the regulation of a large number of cellular processes that are thought to be required for cancer initiation and progression. Both SIRT1 activity and tumorigenesis can be influenced by dietary fat and polyphenolics. We set out to determine whether dietary modulations of tumorigenesis are mediated by SIRT1 catalytic functions. We introduced a mammary gland tumor-inducing transgene, MMTV-PyMT, into stocks of mice bearing a H355Y point mutation in the Sirt1 gene that abolishes SIRT1 catalytic activity. Tumor latency was reduced in animals fed a high fat diet but this effect was not dependent on SIRT1 activity. Resveratrol had little effect on tumor formation except in animals heterozygous for the mutant Sirt1 gene. We conclude that the effects of these dietary interventions on tumorigenesis are not mediated by modulation of SIRT1 catalytic activity. PMID:25380034

  20. Association between interleukin 6 -174 G/C promoter gene polymorphism and runners' responses to the dietary ingestion of antioxidant supplementation based on pequi (Caryocar brasiliense Camb.) oil: a before-after study

    PubMed Central

    Miranda-Vilela, Ana Luisa; Ribeiro, Ieler Ferreira; Grisolia, Cesar Koppe

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Exercise is a double-edged sword: when practiced in moderation, it increases the expression of antioxidant enzymes, but when practiced strenuously it causes oxidative stress and cell damage. In this context, polymorphisms in the interleukin (IL)-6 gene should be investigated better because they can influence performance, at least in exercise that generates oxidative stress and leads to muscular injuries with consequent inflammation. In this work, we investigated the influence of IL-6 –174 G/C polymorphism on tissue damage and inflammation markers, lipid peroxidation, hemogram and lipid profile of runners before and after ingestion of 400 mg of pequi oil in capsules supplied daily for 14 consecutive days. The IL-6 genotypes were associated with significant differences in lipid peroxidation, with the CC mutant having lower values. There were also significant differences among these genotypes in the response to supplementation with pequi oil, exercise-induced damage and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels. The best protection against damage was observed with the heterozygous genotype. Although the CC genotype showed an increase in CRP levels after supplementation, the lack of a positive correlation between triglycerides and high-sensitivity CRP in this mutant genotype after supplementation indicated a protective effect of pequi. These findings deserve further investigation, particularly with regard to the quantification of circulating IL-6 concentrations. PMID:27727360

  1. Are Dietary Restraint Scales Valid Measures of Acute Dietary Restriction? Unobtrusive Observational Data Suggest Not

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stice, Eric; Fisher, Melissa; Lowe, Michael R.

    2004-01-01

    The finding that dietary restraint scales predict onset of bulimic pathology has been interpreted as suggesting that dieting causes this eating disturbance, despite the dearth of evidence that these scales are valid measures of dietary restriction. The authors conducted 4 studies that tested whether dietary restraint scales were inversely…

  2. The Role of Bioactive Dietary Components in Modulating miRNA Expression in Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Gavrilas, Laura I.; Ionescu, Corina; Tudoran, Oana; Lisencu, Cosmin; Balacescu, Ovidiu; Miere, Doina

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is the third most common cancer in the world and considered to be one of the most diet-related types of cancer. Extensive research has been conducted but still the link between diet and colorectal cancer is complex. Recent studies have highlight microRNAs (miRNAs) as key players in cancer-related pathways in the context of dietary modulation. MicroRNAs are involved in most biological processes related to tumor development and progression; therefore, it is of great interest to understand the underlying mechanisms by which dietary patterns and components influence the expression of these powerful molecules in colorectal cancer. In this review, we discuss relevant dietary patterns in terms of miRNAs modulation in colorectal cancer, as well as bioactive dietary components able to modify gene expression through changes in miRNA expression. Furthermore, we emphasize on protective components such as resveratrol, curcumin, quercetin, α-mangostin, omega-3 fatty acids, vitamin D and dietary fiber, with a focus on the molecular mechanisms in the context of prevention and even treatment. In addition, several bioactive dietary components that have the ability to re-sensitize treatment resistant cells are described. PMID:27681738

  3. Dietary fibres as "prebiotics": implications for colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Lim, Chiara C; Ferguson, Lynnette R; Tannock, Gerald W

    2005-06-01

    A "prebiotic" is a nondigestible food ingredient whose beneficial effects on the host result from the selective stimulation of growth and/or activity of members of the bacterial community that inhabits the human bowel (the gut microbiota). Although much of the prebiotic literature focuses on nondigestible oligosaccharides, such as oligofructose, most dietary fibres that are fermentable carbohydrates could be considered as prebiotics. Early studies suggested that colonic bacteria were risk factors for colon cancer. However, altering the composition or metabolic activity of the bowel microbiota through the use of dietary fibre might be important in reducing the prevalence of colorectal cancer. Mechanisms for beneficial effects of prebiotics might include changing the activity of exogenous carcinogens through modulating metabolic activation and/or detoxification, or stimulating the production of the short-chain fatty acid, butyrate. However, modern analytical techniques suggest that an important consequence of a modified bacterial community could be a change in the expression not only of a range of different bacterial genes in bowel contents, but also in the bowel mucosa of the host. Analogous with observations with probiotics, the stimulation of cytokines and modification of immune responses could be important in producing beneficial effects. Compared with transitory effects of probiotics, the prebiotic action of fermentable carbohydrates potentially provide the opportunity for sustainable modulation of activity of the gut microbiota. However, their mechanisms of action in humans are speculative, and research aimed at providing an integrated view of the gut microbiota and dietary fibre nutrition of humans needs to be developed.

  4. Dietary conjugated linoleic acids increase intramuscular fat deposition and decrease subcutaneous fat deposition in Yellow Breed × Simmental cattle.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Haibo; Dong, Xianwen; Wang, Zhisheng; Zhou, Aiming; Peng, Quanhui; Zou, Huawei; Xue, Bai; Wang, Lizhi

    2016-04-01

    This study was conducted to estimate the effect of dietary conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) on intramuscular and subcutaneous fat deposition in Yellow Breed × Simmental cattle. The experiment was conducted for 60 days. The results showed that the average backfat thickness, (testicles + kidney + pelvic) fat percentage and subcutaneous fat percentage in dietary CLA were significantly lower than in the control group, while intramuscular the fat percentage was significantly higher. Compared to the control group, the Longissimus muscle enzyme activities of lipoprotein lipase (LPL), fatty acid synthase (FAS) and acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase (ACC) in dietary CLA and the subcutaneous fat enzyme activities of LPL, hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) and carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 (CPT-1) were significantly increased. Similarly, compared to the control group, the Longissimus muscle sterol regulatory element binding protein 1 (SREBP-1), FAS, stearoyl-coenzyme A desaturase (SCD), ACC, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), heart fatty-acid binding protein (H-FABP) and LPL gene expression in dietary CLA were significant increased, as were the subcutaneous fat of PPARγ, H-FABP, LPL, CPT-1 and HSL in dietary CLA. These results indicated that dietary CLA increases IMF deposition mainly by the up-regulation of lipogenic gene expression, while decreasing subcutaneous fat deposition mainly by the up-regulation of lipolytic gene expression.

  5. Health effects of dietary phospholipids.

    PubMed

    Küllenberg, Daniela; Taylor, Lenka A; Schneider, Michael; Massing, Ulrich

    2012-01-05

    Beneficial effects of dietary phospholipids (PLs) have been mentioned since the early 1900's in relation to different illnesses and symptoms, e.g. coronary heart disease, inflammation or cancer. This article gives a summary of the most common therapeutic uses of dietary PLs to provide an overview of their approved and proposed benefits; and to identify further investigational needs.From the majority of the studies it became evident that dietary PLs have a positive impact in several diseases, apparently without severe side effects. Furthermore, they were shown to reduce side effects of some drugs. Both effects can partially be explained by the fact that PL are highly effective in delivering their fatty acid (FA) residues for incorporation into the membranes of cells involved in different diseases, e.g. immune or cancer cells. The altered membrane composition is assumed to have effects on the activity of membrane proteins (e.g. receptors) by affecting the microstructure of membranes and, therefore, the characteristics of the cellular membrane, e.g. of lipid rafts, or by influencing the biosynthesis of FA derived lipid second messengers. However, since the FAs originally bound to the applied PLs are increased in the cellular membrane after their consumption or supplementation, the FA composition of the PL and thus the type of PL is crucial for its effect. Here, we have reviewed the effects of PL from soy, egg yolk, milk and marine sources. Most studies have been performed in vitro or in animals and only limited evidence is available for the benefit of PL supplementation in humans. More research is needed to understand the impact of PL supplementation and confirm its health benefits.

  6. The importance of dietary carbohydrates.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Castillo, Claudia P; Hudson, Geoffrey J; Englyst, Hans N; Dewey, Peter; James, W Philip T

    2002-12-01

    Forty years ago carbohydrates (CHO) were regarded as a simple energy source whereas they are now recognized as important food components. The human diet contains a wide range of CHO, the vast majority of which are of plant origin. Modern techniques based on chemical classification of dietary CHO replaced the traditional "by difference" measurement. They provide a logical basis for grouping into categories of specific nutritional importance. The physiological effects of dietary CHO are highly dependent on the rate and extent of digestion and absorption in the small intestine and fermentation in the large intestine, interactions which promote human health. Current knowledge of the fate of dietary CHO means that the potentially undesirable properties of many modern foods could be altered by using processing techniques that yield foods with more intact plant cell wall structures. Such products would more closely resemble the foods in the pre-agriculture diet with respect to the rate of digestion and absorption of CHO in the small intestine. The potentially detrimental physiological consequences of eating sugars and starch that are rapidly digested and absorbed in the small intestine suggest that, as fibre, the form, as well as the amount of starch should be considered. Increasing consumer awareness of the relationship between diet and health has led to demands for more widespread nutrition labelling. The entry "carbohydrate" is required in most countries, and the value is usually obtained "by difference" and used in the calculation of energy content. However, the value provides no nutritional information per se. Food labels should provide values that aid consumers in selecting a healthy diet.

  7. Dietary effects on breast cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, R.G. )

    1991-07-20

    Professor Lee and colleagues show a significant effect of dietary red meat intake, no effect of fat, and a protective effect of soya protein on the risk of breast cancer in young women in Singapore. They do not ascribe the red-meat effect to fat in the meat, and offer no alternative explanation. Red meat contains the most readily absorbed form of dietary iron, and there is evidence that increased body iron stores raise cancer risk, perhaps by one or both of two possible mechanisms: (1) boosting the availability of an essential nutrient for cancer cells, and (2) increasing the production of oxygen radicals. In addition, there is some evidence from studies in animals for a role for iron in mammary-tumor induction. Thompson et al administered 1-methyl-1-nitrosourea to groups of rats receiving normal rat chow, a low-iron diet, or an iron-supplemented diet. The group receiving dietary iron supplementation had the greatest mammary-tumor burden, whereas that receiving an iron-restricted diet had fewer tumors than the group on the normal diet (although this latter effect may have resulted merely from reduced body weight in the rats on an iron-restricted diet). The protective effect of soya protein seen by Lee et al may also be related to iron metabolism. Soy beans are a source of phytate, a constituent of most cereals, nuts, and legumes, that avidly binds iron in such a way that it is incapable of catalyzing the production of oxygen radicals. The protective effect of soya protein may be shared by increased intakes of other plant products that are high in phytate but either not consumed in quantity in Singapore or not assessed in the questionnaire Lee et al administered.

  8. Dietary mineral supplies in Africa

    PubMed Central

    Joy, Edward J M; Ander, E Louise; Young, Scott D; Black, Colin R; Watts, Michael J; Chilimba, Allan D C; Chilima, Benson; Siyame, Edwin W P; Kalimbira, Alexander A; Hurst, Rachel; Fairweather-Tait, Susan J; Stein, Alexander J; Gibson, Rosalind S; White, Philip J; Broadley, Martin R

    2014-01-01

    Dietary micronutrient deficiencies (MNDs) are widespread, yet their prevalence can be difficult to assess. Here, we estimate MND risks due to inadequate intakes for seven minerals in Africa using food supply and composition data, and consider the potential of food-based and agricultural interventions. Food Balance Sheets (FBSs) for 46 countries were integrated with food composition data to estimate per capita supply of calcium (Ca), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), iodine (I), magnesium (Mg), selenium (Se) and zinc (Zn), and also phytate. Deficiency risks were quantified using an estimated average requirement (EAR) ‘cut-point’ approach. Deficiency risks are highest for Ca (54% of the population), followed by Zn (40%), Se (28%) and I (19%, after accounting for iodized salt consumption). The risk of Cu (1%) and Mg (<1%) deficiency are low. Deficiency risks are generally lower in the north and west of Africa. Multiple MND risks are high in many countries. The population-weighted mean phytate supply is 2770 mg capita−1 day−1. Deficiency risks for Fe are lower than expected (5%). However, ‘cut-point’ approaches for Fe are sensitive to assumptions regarding requirements; e.g. estimates of Fe deficiency risks are 43% under very low bioavailability scenarios consistent with high-phytate, low-animal protein diets. Fertilization and breeding strategies could greatly reduce certain MNDs. For example, meeting harvestplus breeding targets for Zn would reduce dietary Zn deficiency risk by 90% based on supply data. Dietary diversification or direct fortification is likely to be needed to address Ca deficiency risks. PMID:24524331

  9. Dietary bitter melon seed increases peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ gene expression in adipose tissue, down-regulates the nuclear factor-κB expression, and alleviates the symptoms associated with metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Gadang, Vidya; Gilbert, William; Hettiararchchy, Navam; Horax, Ronny; Katwa, Laxmansa; Devareddy, Latha

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the extent to which bitter melon seed (BMS) alleviates the symptoms associated with metabolic syndrome and elucidate the mechanism by which BMS exerts beneficial effects. Three-month-old female Zucker rats were assigned to following groups: lean control (L-Ctrl), obese control (O-Ctrl), and obese + BMS (O-BMS). The control groups were fed AIN-93M purified rodent diet, and the O-BMS group was fed AIN-93M diet modified to contain 3.0% (wt/wt) ground BMS for 100 days. After 100 days of treatment, BMS supplementation in the obese rats lowered the total serum cholesterol by 38% and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels by about 52% and increased the ratio of serum high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol to total cholesterol compared to the O-Ctrl group. The percentage of total liver lipids was about 32% lower and serum triglyceride levels were 71% higher in the O-BMS group compared to the O-Ctrl group. Serum glucose levels were significantly lowered partly because of the increase in the serum insulin levels in the BMS-based diet groups. BMS supplementation increased the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ) in the white adipose tissue of the obese rats significantly (P < .05) and down-regulated the expression of PPAR-γ, nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), and interferon-γ mRNA in heart tissue of the obese rats. The findings of this study suggest that BMS improves the serum and liver lipid profiles and serum glucose levels by modulating PPAR-γ gene expression. To our knowledge, this study for the first time shows that BMS exerts cardioprotective effects by down-regulating the NF-κB inflammatory pathway.

  10. Impact of dietary branched chain amino acids concentration on broiler chicks during aflatoxicosis.

    PubMed

    Chen, X; Zhang, Q; Applegate, T J

    2016-06-01

    A 20-day trial was conducted to determine the effects of dietary branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) on performance, nutrient digestibility, and gene expression of the mTOR pathway in broiler chicks when exposed to aflatoxin B1 (AFB1). The 6 dietary treatments were arranged in a 2 × 3 factorial with 3 BCAA concentrations (1.16, 1.94, and 2.73%) with or without 1.5 mg/kg AFB1 (1.77 mg/kg analyzed). Each diet was fed to 8 replicate cages (6 chicks per cage) from 6 to 20 d of age. Exposure to AFB1 significantly reduced gain:feed ratio and breast muscle weight (P < 0.05), and tended to decrease cumulative BW gain (P = 0.087), while increasing dietary BCAA improved all performance measures (P ≤ 0.0002), except relative breast muscle weight. Apparent ileal digestibility of N and 9 amino acids were increased by AFB1 (P ≤ 0.05), but were reduced by higher dietary BCAA (P ≤ 0.023). Jejunum histology was not affected by AFB1, while higher dietary BCAA tended to increase villus height (P = 0.08). Additionally, the gene expression of mTOR pathway (mTOR, 4EBP1, and S6K1) from liver and jejunum were not affected by dietary treatments, while muscle expression of S6K1 tended to be increased by AFB1 (P = 0.07). No significant interaction between AFB1 and dietary BCAA were observed for any measures in the current study. Results from this study suggested that feed AFB1 contamination can significantly reduce growth performance and breast muscle growth in broiler chicks at 20 d. Higher BCAA supply may have beneficial impact on bird performance, but this effect is independent of AFB1 exposure.

  11. [Dietary reference intakes of phosphorus].

    PubMed

    Uenishi, Kazuhiro

    2012-10-01

    Phosphorus (P) exists at the all organs and plays important physiological roles in the body. A wide range of food contains P, which is absorbed at a higher level (60-70%) and its insufficiency and deficiency are rarely found. P is used as food additives in many processed food, where risk of overconsumption could be an issue. P has less evidence in terms of nutrition. P has the adequate intake and the tolerable upper intake level, for risk reduction of health disorders associated with excess intake, at the Dietary Reference Intakes for Japanese (2010 edition).

  12. Dietary Fibers and Cardiometabolic Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Riccioni, Graziano; Sblendorio, Valeriana; Gemello, Eugenio; Di Bello, Barbara; Scotti, Luca; Cusenza, Salvatore; D’Orazio, Nicolantonio

    2012-01-01

    The high prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) is largely attributable to the contemporary lifestyle that is often sedentary and includes a diet high in saturated fats and sugars and low ingestion of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), fruit, vegetables, and fiber. Experimental data from both animals and humans suggest an association between increased dietary fiber (DF) intakes and improved plasma lipid profiles, including reduced low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) concentrations. These observations underline that the intake of DF may protect against heart disease and stroke. PMID:22408406

  13. Individualized Responses of Gut Microbiota to Dietary Intervention Modeled in Humanized Mice.

    PubMed

    Smits, Samuel A; Marcobal, Angela; Higginbottom, Steven; Sonnenburg, Justin L; Kashyap, Purna C

    2016-01-01

    Diet plays an important role in shaping the structure and function of the gut microbiota. The microbes and microbial products in turn can influence various aspects of host physiology. One promising route to affect host function and restore health is by altering the gut microbiome using dietary intervention. The individuality of the microbiome may pose a significant challenge, so we sought to determine how different microbiotas respond to the same dietary intervention in a controlled setting. We modeled gut microbiotas from three healthy donors in germfree mice and defined compositional and functional alteration following a change in dietary microbiota-accessible carbohydrates (MACs). The three gut communities exhibited responses that differed markedly in magnitude and in the composition of microbiota-derived metabolites. Adjustments in community membership did not correspond to the magnitude of changes in the microbial metabolites, highlighting potential challenges in predicting functional responses from compositional data and the need to assess multiple microbiota parameters following dietary interventions. IMPORTANCE Dietary modification has long been used empirically to modify symptoms in inflammatory bowel disease, irritable bowel syndrome, and a diverse group of diseases with gastrointestinal symptoms. There is both anecdotal and scientific evidence to suggest that individuals respond quite differently to similar dietary changes, and the highly individualized nature of the gut microbiota makes it a prime candidate for these differences. To overcome the typical confounding factors of human dietary interventions, here we employ ex-germfree mice colonized by microbiotas of three different humans to test how different microbiotas respond to a defined change in carbohydrate content of diet by measuring changes in microbiota composition and function using marker gene-based next-generation sequencing and metabolomics. Our findings suggest that the same diet has very

  14. Individualized Responses of Gut Microbiota to Dietary Intervention Modeled in Humanized Mice

    PubMed Central

    Smits, Samuel A.; Marcobal, Angela; Higginbottom, Steven

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Diet plays an important role in shaping the structure and function of the gut microbiota. The microbes and microbial products in turn can influence various aspects of host physiology. One promising route to affect host function and restore health is by altering the gut microbiome using dietary intervention. The individuality of the microbiome may pose a significant challenge, so we sought to determine how different microbiotas respond to the same dietary intervention in a controlled setting. We modeled gut microbiotas from three healthy donors in germfree mice and defined compositional and functional alteration following a change in dietary microbiota-accessible carbohydrates (MACs). The three gut communities exhibited responses that differed markedly in magnitude and in the composition of microbiota-derived metabolites. Adjustments in community membership did not correspond to the magnitude of changes in the microbial metabolites, highlighting potential challenges in predicting functional responses from compositional data and the need to assess multiple microbiota parameters following dietary interventions. IMPORTANCE Dietary modification has long been used empirically to modify symptoms in inflammatory bowel disease, irritable bowel syndrome, and a diverse group of diseases with gastrointestinal symptoms. There is both anecdotal and scientific evidence to suggest that individuals respond quite differently to similar dietary changes, and the highly individualized nature of the gut microbiota makes it a prime candidate for these differences. To overcome the typical confounding factors of human dietary interventions, here we employ ex-germfree mice colonized by microbiotas of three different humans to test how different microbiotas respond to a defined change in carbohydrate content of diet by measuring changes in microbiota composition and function using marker gene-based next-generation sequencing and metabolomics. Our findings suggest that the same diet

  15. RECENT ENHANCEMENTS TO THE DIETARY EXPOSURE POTENTIAL MODEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Presentation describes recent enhancements & new applications of the Dietary Exposure Potential Model (DEPM), a model developed to assist in design & interpretation of dietary exposure measurements. Model is an interactive system that provides dietary exposure estimates using dat...

  16. Usual Dietary Intakes: SAS Macros for the NCI Method

    Cancer.gov

    SAS macros are currently available to facilitate modeling of a single dietary component, whether consumed daily or episodically; ratios of two dietary components that are consumed nearly every day; multiple dietary components, whether consumed daily or episodically.

  17. Amorfrutins are potent antidiabetic dietary natural products.

    PubMed

    Weidner, Christopher; de Groot, Jens C; Prasad, Aman; Freiwald, Anja; Quedenau, Claudia; Kliem, Magdalena; Witzke, Annabell; Kodelja, Vitam; Han, Chung-Ting; Giegold, Sascha; Baumann, Matthias; Klebl, Bert; Siems, Karsten; Müller-Kuhrt, Lutz; Schürmann, Annette; Schüler, Rita; Pfeiffer, Andreas F H; Schroeder, Frank C; Büssow, Konrad; Sauer, Sascha

    2012-05-08

    Given worldwide increases in the incidence of obesity and type 2 diabetes, new strategies for preventing and treating metabolic diseases are needed. The nuclear receptor PPARγ (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma) plays a central role in lipid and glucose metabolism; however, current PPARγ-targeting drugs are characterized by undesirable side effects. Natural products from edible biomaterial provide a structurally diverse resource to alleviate complex disorders via tailored nutritional intervention. We identified a family of natural products, the amorfrutins, from edible parts of two legumes, Glycyrrhiza foetida and Amorpha fruticosa, as structurally new and powerful antidiabetics with unprecedented effects for a dietary molecule. Amorfrutins bind to and activate PPARγ, which results in selective gene expression and physiological profiles markedly different from activation by current synthetic PPARγ drugs. In diet-induced obese and db/db mice, amorfrutin treatment strongly improves insulin resistance and other metabolic and inflammatory parameters without concomitant increase of fat storage or other unwanted side effects such as hepatoxicity. These results show that selective PPARγ-activation by diet-derived ligands may constitute a promising approach to combat metabolic disease.

  18. Amorfrutins are potent antidiabetic dietary natural products

    PubMed Central

    Weidner, Christopher; de Groot, Jens C.; Prasad, Aman; Freiwald, Anja; Quedenau, Claudia; Kliem, Magdalena; Witzke, Annabell; Kodelja, Vitam; Han, Chung-Ting; Giegold, Sascha; Baumann, Matthias; Klebl, Bert; Siems, Karsten; Müller-Kuhrt, Lutz; Schürmann, Annette; Schüler, Rita; Pfeiffer, Andreas F. H.; Schroeder, Frank C.; Büssow, Konrad; Sauer, Sascha

    2012-01-01

    Given worldwide increases in the incidence of obesity and type 2 diabetes, new strategies for preventing and treating metabolic diseases are needed. The nuclear receptor PPARγ (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma) plays a central role in lipid and glucose metabolism; however, current PPARγ-targeting drugs are characterized by undesirable side effects. Natural products from edible biomaterial provide a structurally diverse resource to alleviate complex disorders via tailored nutritional intervention. We identified a family of natural products, the amorfrutins, from edible parts of two legumes, Glycyrrhiza foetida and Amorpha fruticosa, as structurally new and powerful antidiabetics with unprecedented effects for a dietary molecule. Amorfrutins bind to and activate PPARγ, which results in selective gene expression and physiological profiles markedly different from activation by current synthetic PPARγ drugs. In diet-induced obese and db/db mice, amorfrutin treatment strongly improves insulin resistance and other metabolic and inflammatory parameters without concomitant increase of fat storage or other unwanted side effects such as hepatoxicity. These results show that selective PPARγ-activation by diet-derived ligands may constitute a promising approach to combat metabolic disease. PMID:22509006

  19. Maternal dietary restriction alters offspring's sleep homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Noriyuki; Chikahisa, Sachiko; Nishi, Yuina; Harada, Saki; Iwaki, Yohei; Fujihara, Hiroaki; Kitaoka, Kazuyoshi; Shiuchi, Tetsuya; Séi, Hiroyoshi

    2013-01-01

    Nutritional state in the gestation period influences fetal growth and development. We hypothesized that undernutrition during gestation would affect offspring sleep architecture and/or homeostasis. Pregnant female mice were assigned to either control (fed ad libitum; AD) or 50% dietary restriction (DR) groups from gestation day 12 to parturition. After parturition, dams were fed AD chow. After weaning, the pups were also fed AD into adulthood. At adulthood (aged 8-9 weeks), we carried out sleep recordings. Although offspring mice displayed a significantly reduced body weight at birth, their weights recovered three days after birth. Enhancement of electroencephalogram (EEG) slow wave activity (SWA) during non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep was observed in the DR mice over a 24-hour period without changing the diurnal pattern or amounts of wake, NREM, or rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. In addition, DR mice also displayed an enhancement of EEG-SWA rebound after a 6-hour sleep deprivation and a higher threshold for waking in the face of external stimuli. DR adult offspring mice exhibited small but significant increases in the expression of hypothalamic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (Pparα) and brain-specific carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 (Cpt1c) mRNA, two genes involved in lipid metabolism. Undernutrition during pregnancy may influence sleep homeostasis, with offspring exhibiting greater sleep pressure.

  20. Disclosure of Genetic Information and Change in Dietary Intake: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, Daiva E.; El-Sohemy, Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Background Proponents of consumer genetic tests claim that the information can positively impact health behaviors and aid in chronic disease prevention. However, the effects of disclosing genetic information on dietary intake behavior are not clear. Methods A double-blinded, parallel group, 2∶1 online randomized controlled trial was conducted to determine the short- and long-term effects of disclosing nutrition-related genetic information for personalized nutrition on dietary intakes of caffeine, vitamin C, added sugars, and sodium. Participants were healthy men and women aged 20–35 years (n = 138). The intervention group (n = 92) received personalized DNA-based dietary advice for 12-months and the control group (n = 46) received general dietary recommendations with no genetic information for 12-months. Food frequency questionnaires were collected at baseline and 3- and 12-months after the intervention to assess dietary intakes. General linear models were used to compare changes in intakes between those receiving general dietary advice and those receiving DNA-based dietary advice. Results Compared to the control group, no significant changes to dietary intakes of the nutrients were observed at 3-months. At 12-months, participants in the intervention group who possessed a risk version of the ACE gene, and were advised to limit their sodium intake, significantly reduced their sodium intake (mg/day) compared to the control group (−287.3±114.1 vs. 129.8±118.2, p = 0.008). Those who had the non-risk version of ACE did not significantly change their sodium intake compared to the control group (12-months: −244.2±150.2, p = 0.11). Among those with the risk version of the ACE gene, the proportion who met the targeted recommendation of 1500 mg/day increased from 19% at baseline to 34% after 12 months (p = 0.06). Conclusions These findings demonstrate that disclosing genetic information for personalized nutrition results in greater changes

  1. Dietary Glycemic Index, Dietary Glycemic Load, Blood Lipids, and Coronary Heart Disease

    PubMed Central

    Denova-Gutiérrez, Edgar; Huitrón-Bravo, Gerardo; Talavera, Juan O.; Castañón, Susana; Gallegos-Carrillo, Katia; Flores, Yvonne; Salmerón, Jorge

    2010-01-01

    Objective. To examine the associations of dietary glycemic index (GI) and dietary glycemic load (GL) with blood lipid concentrations and coronary heart disease (CHD) in nondiabetic participants in the Health Worker Cohort Study (HWCS). Materials and Methods. A cross-sectional analysis was performed, using data from adults who participated in the HWCS baseline assessment. We collected information on participants' socio-demographic conditions, dietary patterns and physical activity via self-administered questionnaires. Dietary GI and dietary GL were measured using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Anthropometric and clinical measurements were assessed with standardized procedures. CHD risk was estimated according to the sex-specific Framingham prediction algorithms. Results. IIn the 5,830 individuals aged 20 to 70 who were evaluated, dietary GI and GL were significantly associated with HDL-C, LDL-C, LDL-C/HDL-C ratio, and triglycerides serum levels. Subjects with high dietary GI have a relative risk of 1.56 (CI 95%; 1.13–2.14), and those with high dietary GL have a relative risk of 2.64 (CI 95%; 1.15–6.58) of having an elevated CHD risk than those who had low dietary GI and GL. Conclusions. Our results suggest that high dietary GI and dietary GL could have an unfavorable effect on serum lipid levels, which are in turn associated with a higher CHD risk. PMID:20700407

  2. Dietary intake of Senegalese adults

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this work is to identify major food sources and dietary constituents of Senegalese adults. We conducted a cross-sectional study, using a single 24-hour dietary recall interview. Foods were classified into food groups based on similarities in nutrient content or use. Food groups included foods consumed individually, or as part of food mixtures such as stews, soups, or sandwiches. Median consumption (amount/day) of each food was determined and examined by relevant subgroups. Participants were 50 healthy Senegalese men, aged 20-62 years recruited at the Hôpital Général de Grand Yoff in Dakar, Senegal and from Sendou village, a rural area outside Dakar. A total of 90 foods and beverages were identified and classified into 11 groups. Sixty-five percent of foods identified could be classified as meats, grains, or fruits/vegetables. Fruits and vegetables comprised 42% (38/90) of all foods; meats 12% (11/90); and grains 11% (10/90). Sauces (6%, 5/90), sweets (4%, 4/90), and desserts (4%, 4/90) were also reported. The most common fruits/vegetables reported were potato, carrot, mango, and lettuce; commonly reported grains were bread and rice; and commonly reported meats were fish, beef, and ox. There were no differences in reported daily intake of each food by age, ethnicity, education, or residence. Most foods reported were traditional to the Senegalese diet, despite the increasing availability of Western foods in Senegal. PMID:20167099

  3. Dietary Amelioration of Helicobacter Infection

    PubMed Central

    Fahey, Jed W.; Stephenson, Katherine K.; Wallace, Alison J.

    2015-01-01

    We review herein the basis for using dietary components to treat and/or prevent Helicobacter pylori infection, with emphasis on: (a) work reported in the last decade, (b) dietary components for which there is mechanism-based plausibility, and (c) components for which clinical results on H. pylori amelioration are available. There is evidence that a diet-based treatment may reduce the levels and/or the virulence of H. pylori colonization without completely eradicating the organism in treated individuals. This concept was endorsed a decade ago by the participants in a small international consensus conference held in Honolulu, Hawaii, USA, and interest in such a diet-based approach has increased dramatically since then. This approach is attractive in terms of cost, treatment, tolerability and cultural acceptability. This review therefore highlights specific foods, food components, and food products, grouped as follows: bee products (e.g. honey and propolis), probiotics, dairy products, vegetables, fruits, oils, essential oils, and herbs, spices and other plants. A discussion of the small number of clinical studies that are available is supplemented by supportive in vitro and animal studies. This very large body of in vitro and pre-clinical evidence must now be followed up with rationally designed, unambiguous human trials. PMID:25799054

  4. Herbal and dietary supplement hepatotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Navarro, Victor J

    2009-11-01

    Herbal and dietary supplements (HDS) are commonly used in the United States and throughout the world. The Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act and public standards set through the U.S. Pharmacopeia provide regulatory framework for these products. These regulations help to ensure the safety of grandfathered and new HDS coming onto the market, and the opportunity to identify and take action against unsafe products that have been distributed. The clinical patterns of presentation and severity of HDS-associated hepatotoxicity can be highly variable, even for the same product. In addition, accurate causality assessment in cases of suspected HDS hepatotoxicity is confounded by infrequent ascertainment of product intake by healthcare providers, under-reporting of HDS use by patients, the ubiquity of HDS and the complexity of their components, and the possibility for product adulteration. Additional measures to prevent HDS-induced hepatotoxicity include greater consumer and provider awareness, increased spontaneous reporting, and reassessment of regulations regarding the manufacturing, distribution, and marketing of these products.

  5. Vietnam recommended dietary allowances 2007.

    PubMed

    Khan, Nguyen Cong; Hoan, Pham Van

    2008-01-01

    It has been well acknowledged that Vietnam is undergoing a nutrition transition. With a rapid change in the country's reform and economic growth, food supply at the macronutrient level has improved. Changes of the Vietnamese diet include significantly more foods of animal origin, and an increase of fat/oils, and ripe fruits. Consequently, nutritional problems in Vietnam now include not only malnutrition but also overweight/obesity, metabolic syndrome and other chronic diseases related to nutrition and lifestyles. The recognition of these shifts, which is also associated with morbidity and mortality, was a major factor in the need to review and update the Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA) for the Vietnamese population. This revised RDA established an important science-based tool for evaluation of nutrition adequacy, for teaching, and for scientific communications within Vietnam. It is expected that the 2007 Vietnam RDA and its conversion to food-based dietary guidelines will facilitate education to the public, as well as the policy implementation of programs for prevention of non-communicable chronic diseases and addressing the double burden of both under and over nutrition.

  6. 42 CFR 460.78 - Dietary services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... meals that meet the participant's daily nutritional and special dietary needs. Each meal must meet the... proper temperature. (2) The PACE organization must provide substitute foods or nutritional supplements that meet the daily nutritional and special dietary needs of any participant who has any of...

  7. Usability Test of an Interactive Dietary Recording

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chung, Louisa Ming Yan; Chung, Joanne Wai Yee; Wong, Thomas Kwok Shing

    2009-01-01

    Dietary intake methods are used to collect one's diet habit which is essential in nutrition assessment. Food diary, food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and 24-hour recalls are the most common dietary intake methods. However, they are not welcomed by most clients. Digital handheld devices are now readily available, and the cost of digital…

  8. Dietary Supplements and Sports Performance: Herbals

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Melvin

    2006-01-01

    This is the fourth in a series of six articles to discuss the major classes of dietary supplements (vitamins; minerals; amino acids; herbs or botanicals; metabolites, constituents/extracts, or combinations). The major focus is on efficacy of such dietary supplements to enhance exercise or sport performance. PMID:18500959

  9. 38 CFR 51.140 - Dietary services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Dietary services. 51.140 Section 51.140 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) PER DIEM FOR NURSING HOME CARE OF VETERANS IN STATE HOMES Standards § 51.140 Dietary services. The...

  10. 38 CFR 51.140 - Dietary services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Dietary services. 51.140 Section 51.140 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) PER DIEM FOR NURSING HOME CARE OF VETERANS IN STATE HOMES Standards § 51.140 Dietary services. The...

  11. 38 CFR 51.140 - Dietary services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Dietary services. 51.140 Section 51.140 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) PER DIEM FOR NURSING HOME CARE OF VETERANS IN STATE HOMES Standards § 51.140 Dietary services. The...

  12. 38 CFR 51.140 - Dietary services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Dietary services. 51.140 Section 51.140 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) PER DIEM FOR NURSING HOME CARE OF VETERANS IN STATE HOMES Standards § 51.140 Dietary services. The...

  13. 38 CFR 51.140 - Dietary services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dietary services. 51.140 Section 51.140 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) PER DIEM FOR NURSING HOME CARE OF VETERANS IN STATE HOMES Standards § 51.140 Dietary services. The...

  14. Dietary constituents as novel therapies for pain.

    PubMed

    Tall, Jill M; Raja, Srinivasa N

    2004-01-01

    The use of complementary and alternative medicine has dramatically increased in the United States. The effects of select dietary constituents in animal models and clinical pain states are reviewed. Specifically, the antinociceptive and analgesic properties of soybeans, sucrose, and tart cherries are discussed. The potential actions of dietary constituents as antiinflammatory and antioxidant agents are presented.

  15. USDA dietary supplement ingredient database, release 2

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Nutrient Data Laboratory (NDL),Beltsville Human Nutrition Research Center (BHNRC), Agricultural Research Service (ARS), USDA, in collaboration with the Office of Dietary Supplements, National Institutes of Health (ODS/NIH) and other federal agencies has developed a Dietary Supplement Ingredient ...

  16. Differences in adolescent dietary behaviors by SES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Little is known about how socioeconomic status (SES) affects dietary intake among adolescents. This study assessed whether dietary behaviors of 12- to 17-year-old adolescents differed by SES, using eligibility for free or reduced price (FRP) school meals as a measure of SES. After parental consent w...

  17. Maternal Dietary Patterns and Pregnancy Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xuyang; Zhao, Diqi; Mao, Xun; Xia, Yinyin; Baker, Philip N.; Zhang, Hua

    2016-01-01

    Maternal nutritional status during pregnancy will affect the outcomes for the mother and the baby. Many analyses of the relationship between diet and outcome are often based on a single or a few food items or nutrients. However, foods are not consumed in isolation and dietary patterns can be used to assess the whole diet consumed. The use of dietary pattern analysis to understand nutritional intake and pregnancy outcome is becoming more and more popular. Many published studies have showed the association between maternal dietary patterns and pregnancy outcome. This review examined articles about the relationship between maternal dietary patterns and pregnancy outcome. As a modifiable factor, dietary patterns may be more applicable to clinical and pregnant health interventions. PMID:27338455

  18. Dietary nitrates, nitrites, and cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Hord, Norman G

    2011-12-01

    Dietary nitrate (NO(3)), nitrite (NO(2)), and arginine can serve as sources for production of NO(x) (a diverse group of metabolites including nitric oxide, nitrosothiols, and nitroalkenes) via ultraviolet light exposure to skin, mammalian nitrate/nitrite reductases in tissues, and nitric oxide synthase enzymes, respectively. NO(x) are responsible for the hypotensive, antiplatelet, and cytoprotective effects of dietary nitrates and nitrites. Current regulatory limits on nitrate intakes, based on concerns regarding potential risk of carcinogenicity and methemoglobinemia, are exceeded by normal daily intakes of single foods, such as soya milk and spinach, as well as by some recommended dietary patterns such as the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension diet. This review includes a call for regulatory bodies to consider all available data on the beneficial physiologic roles of nitrate and nitrite in order to derive rational bases for dietary recommendations.

  19. Inter-individual differences in response to dietary intervention: Integrating omics platforms toward personalised dietary recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Lampe, Johanna W.; Navarro, Sandi L.; Hullar, Meredith A.J.; Shojaie, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Technologic advances now make it possible to collect large amounts of genetic, epigenetic, metabolomic, and gut microbiome data. These data have the potential to transform approaches toward nutrition counseling by allowing us to recognize and embrace the metabolic, physiologic and genetic differences among individuals. The ultimate goal is to be able to integrate these multi-dimensional data so as to characterize the health status and disease risk of an individual and to provide personalised recommendations to maximize health. To this end, accurate and predictive systems-based measures of health are needed that incorporate molecular signatures of genes, transcripts, proteins, metabolites, and microbes. Although we are making progress within each of these omics arenas, we have yet to integrate effectively multiple sources of biologic data so as to provide comprehensive phenotypic profiles. Observational studies have provided some insights into associative interactions between genetic or phenotypic variation and diet and their impact on health; however, few human experimental studies have addressed these relationships. Dietary interventions that test prescribed diets in well-characterized study populations and that monitor system-wide responses (ideally using several omics platforms) are needed to make correlation-causation connections and to characterize phenotypes under controlled conditions. Given the growth in our knowledge, there is the potential to develop personalised dietary recommendations. However, developing these recommendations assumes that an improved understanding of the phenotypic complexities of individuals and their responses to the complexities of their diets will lead to a sustainable, effective approach to promote health and prevent disease — therein lies our challenge. PMID:23388096

  20. Interactions between the dietary polyunsaturated fatty acid ratio and genetic factors determine susceptibility to pediatric Crohn's disease.

    PubMed

    Costea, Irina; Mack, David R; Lemaitre, Rozenn N; Israel, David; Marcil, Valerie; Ahmad, Ali; Amre, Devendra K

    2014-04-01

    Increased dietary ratios of ω6/ω3 polyunsaturated fatty acids have been implicated in the pathogenesis of Crohn's disease (CD), but epidemiologic data are limited. We investigated whether variants of genes that control polyunsaturated fatty acid metabolism (CYP4F3, FADS1, and FADS2), along with the dietary ratio of ω6/ω3, confers susceptibility to CD. Based on data from 182 children newly diagnosed with CD and 250 controls, we found that children who consumed a higher dietary ratio of ω6/ω3 were susceptible for CD if they were also carriers of specific variants of CYP4F3 and FADS2 genes. Our findings implicate diet-gene interactions in the pathogenesis of CD.

  1. Metabolic responses to dietary leucine restriction involve remodeling of adipose tissue and enhanced hepatic insulin signaling.

    PubMed

    Wanders, Desiree; Stone, Kirsten P; Dille, Kelly; Simon, Jacob; Pierse, Alicia; Gettys, Thomas W

    2015-01-01

    Dietary leucine was incrementally restricted to test whether limiting this essential amino acid (EAA) would fully reproduce the beneficial responses produced by dietary methionine restriction. Restricting leucine by 85% increased energy intake and expenditure within 5 to 7 days of its introduction and reduced overall accumulation of adipose tissue. Leucine restriction (LR) also improved glucose tolerance, increased hepatic release of fibroblast growth factor 21 into the blood stream, and enhanced insulin-dependent activation of Akt in liver. However, LR had no effect on hepatic lipid levels and failed to lower lipogenic gene expression in the liver. LR did affect remodeling of white and brown adipose tissues, increasing expression of both thermogenic and lipogenic genes. These findings illustrate that dietary LR reproduces many but not all of the physiological responses of methionine restriction. The primary differences occur in the liver, where methionine and LR cause opposite effects on tissue lipid levels and expression of lipogenic genes. Altogether, these findings suggest that the sensing systems which detect and respond to dietary restriction of EAAs act through mechanisms that both leucine and methionine are able to engage, and in the case of hepatic lipid metabolism, may be unique to specific EAAs such as methionine.

  2. METABOLIC RESPONSES TO DIETARY LEUCINE RESTRICTION INVOLVE REMODELING OF ADIPOSE TISSUE AND ENHANCED HEPATIC INSULIN SIGNALING

    PubMed Central

    Wanders, Desiree; Stone, Kirsten P.; Dille, Kelly; Simon, Jacob; Pierse, Alicia; Gettys, Thomas W.

    2015-01-01

    Dietary leucine was incrementally restricted to test whether limiting this essential amino acid (EAA) would fully reproduce the beneficial responses produced by dietary methionine restriction. Restricting leucine by 85% increased energy intake and expenditure within five to seven days of its introduction and reduced overall accumulation of adipose tissue. Leucine restriction (LR) also improved glucose tolerance, increased hepatic release of FGF21 into the blood stream, and enhanced insulin-dependent activation of Akt in liver. However, LR had no effect on hepatic lipid levels and failed to lower lipogenic gene expression in the liver. LR did affect remodeling of white and brown adipose tissue, increasing expression of both thermogenic and lipogenic genes. These findings illustrate that dietary LR reproduces many but not all of the physiological responses of methionine restriction. The primary differences occur in the liver, where methionine and leucine restriction cause opposite effects on tissue lipid levels and expression of lipogenic genes. Together these findings suggest that the sensing systems which detect and respond to dietary restriction of EAAs act through mechanisms that both leucine and methionine are able to engage, and in the case of hepatic lipid metabolism, may be unique to specific EAAs such as methionine. PMID:26643647

  3. Genetic background influences metabolic response to dietary phosphorus restriction.

    PubMed

    Hittmeier, Laura J; Grapes, Laura; Lensing, Renae L; Rothschild, Max F; Stahl, Chad H

    2006-06-01

    Dietary phosphorus (P) is essential to bone growth and turnover; however, little research has focused on the genetic mechanisms controlling P utilization. Understanding the interactions between genetics and dietary P that optimize bone integrity could provide novel interventions for osteoporosis. Thirty-six pigs from two sire lines known to differ in bone structure [heavier boned (HB) and lighter boned (LB)] were assigned to one of the three diets (P adequate, P repletion or P deficient). After 14 days, bone marrow and intact radial bones were collected. Differences between these lines in growth rate, bone integrity and gene expression within bone marrow were observed. In HB, but not LB, pigs, the P-deficient diet decreased weight gain (P<.01). For both lines, P deficiency caused a reduction in radial bone strength (P<.01), but HB P-deficient animals had greater (P<.10) bone integrity than P-deficient LB pigs. In HB, but not LB, pigs, dietary treatment affected the expression of CALCR (calcitonin receptor) (P<.05), VDR (vitamin D receptor) (P<.04) and IGFBP3 (insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3) (P<.06). There was also a trend of increased IL6 (interleukin-6), TFIIB (transcription initiation factor IIB) and SOX9 (sex determining region Y-box 9) expression with P deficiency in HB, but not LB, pigs. Both genetic backgrounds responded similarly to P deficiency with an increase in the expression of OXTR (oxytocin receptor) and IGF1 (insulin-like growth factor 1). Differences in growth rate, bone integrity and gene expression within the bone marrow suggest a difference in the homeorhetic control of P utilization between these genetic lines. Understanding these differences could lead to novel treatments for osteoporosis and aid in the development of tests for identifying those at risk for this disease.

  4. Genes and Gene Therapy

    MedlinePlus

    ... correctly, a child can have a genetic disorder. Gene therapy is an experimental technique that uses genes to ... or prevent disease. The most common form of gene therapy involves inserting a normal gene to replace an ...

  5. Role of dietary antioxidants in human metapneumovirus infection.

    PubMed

    Komaravelli, Narayana; Kelley, John P; Garofalo, Matteo P; Wu, Haotian; Casola, Antonella; Kolli, Deepthi

    2015-03-16

    Human metapneumovirus (hMPV) is a major cause of respiratory tract infections in children, elderly and immunocompromised hosts, for which no vaccine or treatment are currently available. Oxidative stress and inflammatory responses represent important pathogenic mechanism(s) of hMPV infection. Here, we explored the potential protective role of dietary antioxidants in hMPV infection. Treatment of airway epithelial cells with resveratrol and quercetin during hMPV infection significantly reduced cellular oxidative damage, inflammatory mediator secretion and viral replication, without affecting viral gene transcription and protein synthesis, indicating that inhibition of viral replication occurred at the level of viral assembly and/or release. Modulation of proinflammatory mediator expression occurred through the inhibition of transcription factor nuclear factor (NF)-κB and interferon regulatory factor (IRF)-3 binding to their cognate site of endogenous gene promoters. Our results indicate the use of dietary antioxidants as an effective treatment approach for modulating hMPV induced lung oxidative damage and inflammation.

  6. Dietary immunomodulatory factors in the development of immune tolerance.

    PubMed

    West, Christina E; D'Vaz, Nina; Prescott, Susan L

    2011-08-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that exposures during pregnancy and the early postnatal period can modify gene expression and disease propensity. Diet is a major environmental exposure, and dietary factors, including polyunsaturated fatty acids, probiotics, oligosaccharides, antioxidants, folate, and other vitamins, have effects on immune function. Some also have been implicated in reduced risk of allergy in observational studies. Intervention trials with polyunsaturated fatty acids, probiotics, and oligosaccharides suggest preliminary but as-of-yet-unconfirmed benefits. Food allergen avoidance during pregnancy, lactation, or infancy has provided no consistent evidence in allergy prevention and is no longer recommended. Rather, there is now a focus on food allergens in tolerance induction. Specific nutrients can induce changes in gene expression during early development and have been implicated in potentially heritable "epigenetic" changes in disease predisposition. Collectively, these observations emphasize that early exposures may modify tolerance development and that further research on these exposures should remain a priority.

  7. Life-span extension by dietary restriction is mediated by NLP-7 signaling and coelomocyte endocytosis in C. elegans

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sang-Kyu; Link, Christopher D.; Johnson, Thomas E.

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that the rate of aging can be modulated by diverse interventions. Dietary restriction is the most widely used intervention to promote longevity; however, the mechanisms underlying the effect of dietary restriction remain elusive. In a previous study, we identified two novel genes, nlp-7 and cup-4, required for normal longevity in Caenorhabditis elegans. nlp-7 is one of a set of neuropeptide-like protein genes; cup-4 encodes an ion-channel involved in endocytosis by coelomocytes. Here, we assess whether nlp-7 and cup-4 mediate longevity increases by dietary restriction. RNAi of nlp-7 or cup-4 significantly reduces the life span of the eat-2 mutant, a genetic model of dietary restriction, but has no effect on the life span of long-lived mutants resulting from reduced insulin/IGF-1 signaling or dysfunction of the mitochondrial electron transport chain. The life-span extension observed in wild-type N2 worms by dietary restriction using bacterial dilution is prevented significantly in nlp-7 and cup-4 mutants. RNAi knockdown of genes encoding candidate receptors of NLP-7 and genes involved in endocytosis by coelomocytes also specifically shorten the life span of the eat-2 mutant. We conclude that two novel pathways, NLP-7 signaling and endocytosis by coelomocytes, are required for life extension under dietary restriction in C. elegans.—Park, S.-K., Link, C. D., Johnson, T. E. Life-span extension by dietary restriction is mediated by NLP-7 signaling and coelomocyte endocytosis in C. elegans. PMID:19783783

  8. Low paternal dietary folate alters the mouse sperm epigenome and is associated with negative pregnancy outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Lambrot, R.; Xu, C.; Saint-Phar, S.; Chountalos, G.; Cohen, T.; Paquet, M.; Suderman, M.; Hallett, M.; Kimmins, S.

    2013-01-01

    Epidemiological studies suggest that a father’s diet can influence offspring health. A proposed mechanism for paternal transmission of environmental information is via the sperm epigenome. The epigenome includes heritable information such as DNA methylation. We hypothesize that the dietary supply of methyl donors will alter epigenetic reprogramming in sperm. Here we feed male mice either a folate-deficient or folate-sufficient diet throughout life. Paternal folate deficiency is associated with increased birth defects in the offspring, which include craniofacial and musculoskeletal malformations. Genome-wide DNA methylation analysis and the subsequent functional analysis identify differential methylation in sperm of genes implicated in development, chronic diseases such as cancer, diabetes, autism and schizophrenia. While >300 genes are differentially expressed in offspring placenta, only two correspond to genes with differential methylation in sperm. This model suggests epigenetic transmission may involve sperm histone H3 methylation or DNA methylation and that adequate paternal dietary folate is essential for offspring health. PMID:24326934

  9. Development of dietary pattern evaluation tool for adults and correlation with Dietary Quality Index

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yeo Do; Kim, Kyung Won; Choi, Kyung-Suk; Kim, Misung; Cho, Yeo Jin

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES As the prevalence of chronic diseases has risen, the need for straightforward diagnostic tools for monitoring nutrition status to improve nutrition counseling and disease prevention has likewise increased. This study developed an easily usable dietary behavior pattern diagnosis checklist and investigated its correlation with dietary quality index. SUBJECTS/METHODS A draft dietary pattern evaluation tool was generated by analyzing previous studies. The draft questionnaire comprised 61 questions for assessing dietary habits. A survey was administered to 320 adults (19 to 64 years old) using the dietary pattern evaluation tool and 24-hour-recall method between March and May of 2014 in Jeonbuk province and the metropolitan area. Principal component analysis with varimax rotation was performed to identify dietary behavior patterns. Nutritional analysis was conducted using CAN-Pro 4.0, and the Diet Quality Index-International (DQI-I) was calculated to assess dietary quality. The correlation between dietary pattern scores and DQI-I scores was also analyzed. RESULTS The factor analysis resulted in a total of 34 questions mapped to four main dietary behavior patterns: "high fat and calorie" pattern (12 questions), "overeating/binge" pattern (nine questions), "dietary impulse" pattern (eight questions), and "unbalanced food intake" pattern (five questions). The four dietary behavior patterns were negatively correlated with DQI-I adequacy and total scores (P < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS The dietary pattern evaluation tool developed in this study can be used to diagnose a client's dietary behavior problems and is available as a nutrition counseling tool in the field. PMID:27247727

  10. Dietary glycotoxins and infant formulas

    PubMed Central

    Kutlu, Tufan

    2016-01-01

    Advanced glycation end products constitute a complex group of compounds derived from the nonenzymatic glycation of proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids formed endogenously, but also from exogenous supplies such as tobacco smoking (glycotoxins). Accumulating evidence underlies the beneficial effect of the dietary restriction of glycotoxins in animal studies and also in patients with diabetic complications and metabolic diseases. Composition of infant formulas and their processing methods render an extraordinary favorable milieu for the formation of glycotoxins, and the content of glycotoxins in infant formula exceeds that of breast milk by hundred folds. Data from a limited number of short-term small studies in healthy infants do not provide direct evidence of acute negative health effects of glycotoxins in early infancy. However, the effects in sensitive groups on the state of future health in adulthood remain unclear. PMID:28123329

  11. Technology-assisted dietary assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Fengqing; Mariappan, Anand; Boushey, Carol J.; Kerr, Deb; Lutes, Kyle D.; Ebert, David S.; Delp, Edward J.

    2008-02-01

    Dietary intake provides valuable insights for mounting intervention programs for prevention of disease. With growing concern for adolescent obesity, the need to accurately measure diet becomes imperative. Assessment among adolescents is problematic as this group has irregular eating patterns and have less enthusiasm for recording food intake. Preliminary studies among adolescents suggest that innovative use of technology may improve the accuracy of diet information from young people. In this paper, we propose a novel food record method using a mobile device that will provide an accurate account of daily food and nutrient intake among adolescents. Our approach includes the use of image analysis tools for identification and quantification of food consumption. Images obtained before and after food is consumed can be used to estimate the diet of an individual. In this paper we describe our initial results and indicate the potential of the proposed system.

  12. Dietary modulation of avian coccidiosis.

    PubMed

    Allen, P C; Danforth, H D; Augustine, P C

    1998-07-01

    During the past several years, our laboratory has been investigating the anticoccidial activities of various natural products that have potential use as dietary supplements for coccidiosis control. Sources of fats containing high concentrations of n-3 fatty acids such as menhaden oil and flaxseed oil and flaxseed, when added to starter rations and fed to chicks from one day of age, effectively reduce lesions caused by the caecal parasite Eimeria tenella, but not lesions caused by Eimeria maxima. Our results are consistent with reports of effects of diets high in n-3 fatty acids on other protozoan parasites which suggest that the state of oxidative stress induced by these diets in the cells of both host and parasites is responsible for their parasitic actions. Artemisinin, a naturally occurring (Artemisia annua) endoperoxide and effective antimalarial significantly lowers lesions from E. tenella when given at low levels as a feed additive. The mechanism of its action is also considered to involve induction of oxidative stress. Diets supplemented with 8 p.p.m. gamma-tocopherol (abundant in flaxseeds) or with 1% of the spice tumeric, reduce mid-small intestinal lesion scores and improve weight gains during E. maxima infections. These compounds may exert their anticoccidial activity because they are effective antioxidants. Betaine, a choline analogue found in high concentrations in sugar beets, improves nutrient utilisation by animals under stress. When provided as a dietary supplement at a level of 0.15% it has enhanced the anticoccidial activity of the ionophore, salinomycin. Betaine may act as an osmoprotectant whereby it improves the integrity and function of the infected intestinal mucosa. In in vivo studies, betaine plus salinomycin significantly inhibit invasion of both E. tenella and E. acervulina. However, subsequent development of E. acervulina is inhibited more effectively with this combination treatment than development of E. tenella.

  13. Refeeding hypertension in dietary obesity

    SciTech Connect

    Ernsberger, P.; Nelson, D.O. )

    1988-01-01

    A novel model of nutritionally induced hypertension in the rat is described. Dietary obesity was produced by providing sweet milk in addition to regular chow, which elicited a 52% increase in caloric intake. Despite 54% greater body weight gain and 139% heavier retroperitoneal fat pads, 120 days of overfeeding failed to increase systolic pressure in the conscious state or mean arterial pressure under urethan anesthesia. In contrast, mild hypertension developed in intermittantly fasted obese animals. The first 4-day supplemented fast was initiated 4 wk after the introduction of sweet milk, when the animals were 47 g overweight relative to chow-fed controls. Thereafter, 4 days of starvation were alternated with 2 wk of refeeding for a total of 4 cycles. A rapid fall in systolic blood pressure accompanied the onset of supplemented fasting and was maintained thereafter. With refeeding, blood pressure rose precipitously, despite poststarvation anorexia. Blood pressure tended to rise slightly over the remainder of the realimentation period. After the 4th supplemented fast, hypertension was sustained during 30 days of refeeding. Cumulative caloric intake in starved-refed rats fell within 2% of that in chow-fed controls. Refeeding hypertension appeared to be due to increased sympathetic nervous activity, since (1) cardiac {beta}-adrenergic receptors were downregulated, as indicated by a 40% decrease in the maximum binding of ({sup 3}H)dihydroalpranolol; and (2) the decrease in heart rate as a result of {beta}-blockade was enhanced. Refeeding hypertension in the dietary obese rat may be a potential animal model for some forms of human obesity-related hypertension.

  14. Population groups in dietary transition

    PubMed Central

    Wändell, Per E.

    2013-01-01

    Background Little is known about the effects of dietary acculturation in minority groups in the Nordic countries, including immigrants from non-Western societies. Methods A search was performed in Medlin33e/PubMed and SweMed+ for articles published in 1990–2011. Results A total of 840 articles were identified, with a final 32 articles used to tabulate results which were included in the primary analysis. High rates of vitamin D deficiency (23 articles) were found in immigrants of non-Western origin; deficiency rates were very high among both pregnant and non-pregnant women, and also among children, with young children of immigrant parents showing 50 times higher risk for rickets when compared to children of indigenous parents. The risk of iron deficiency (two articles) was high among immigrant women, while the results were inconclusive regarding children. High rates of dental caries (seven articles) were found among pre-school and younger school children of immigrant origin, while the risk of caries was not as evident among older children. In a secondary analysis, including 48 articles (results not tabulated), overweight and obesity (14 articles) were seen in many immigrant groups, resulting in a high prevalence of diabetes (2 review articles from a total of 14 original articles) and incidence of coronary heart disease (CHD; seven articles). For hypertension (three articles), dyslipidemia (four articles), and dietary patterns among immigrants (10 articles), the results were contradictory. Conclusions Risk of vitamin D deficiency is alarmingly high in the Nordic countries among immigrants of non-Western origin, especially among women. Dental caries is high among immigrant children aged 0–7 years due to a higher intake of sugary products. Overweight and obesity, associated with a higher risk of diabetes and CHD, are prevalent in many immigrant groups and need further attention. PMID:24106456

  15. High levels of dietary phytosterols affect lipid metabolism and increase liver and plasma TAG in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.).

    PubMed

    Liland, Nina S; Espe, Marit; Rosenlund, Grethe; Waagbø, Rune; Hjelle, Jan I; Lie, Øyvind; Fontanillas, Ramon; Torstensen, Bente E

    2013-12-14

    Replacing dietary fishmeal (FM) and fish oil (FO) with plant ingredients in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) diets decreases dietary cholesterol and introduces phytosterols. The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of dietary sterol composition on cholesterol metabolism in Atlantic salmon. For this purpose, two dietary trials were performed, in which Atlantic salmon were fed either 100 % FM and FO (FM-FO) diet or one of the three diets with either high (80 %) or medium (40 %) plant protein (PP) and a high (70 %) or medium (35 %) vegetable oil (VO) blend (trial 1); or 70 % PP with either 100 % FO or 80 % of the FO replaced with olive, rapeseed or soyabean oil (trial 2). Replacing ≥ 70 % of FM with PP and ≥ 70 % of FO with either a VO blend or rapeseed oil increased plasma and liver TAG concentrations. These diets contained high levels of phytosterols and low levels of cholesterol. Fish fed low-cholesterol diets, but with less phytosterols, exhibited an increased expression of genes encoding proteins involved in cholesterol uptake and synthesis. The expression of these genes was, however, partially inhibited in rapeseed oil-fed fish possibly due to the high dietary and tissue phytosterol:cholesterol ratio. Atlantic salmon tissue and plasma cholesterol concentrations were maintained stable independent of the dietary sterol content.

  16. Dietary magnesium and urolithiasis in growing calves.

    PubMed

    Kallfelz, F A; Ahmed, A S; Wallace, R J; Sasangka, B H; Warner, R G

    1987-01-01

    The effect of high levels of dietary magnesium (1.4%) alone or in combination with elevated calcium (1.8%) or phosphorus (1.6%) on growth and health of male calves was evaluated during a nine week feeding trial after weaning. Twenty calves were randomly divided into 4 feeding groups consisting of controls, high magnesium, high magnesium and calcium or high magnesium and phosphorus. Elevated dietary minerals caused decreased feed intake and growth rate. Blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine levels were greatly elevated in calves fed high magnesium or magnesium and phosphorus and serum urea nitrogen was moderately elevated in calves fed high magnesium and calcium. These elevations suggested the occurrence of renal damage as a result of microcrystalline obstruction of renal tubules. Serum magnesium levels were three times normal in calves fed high magnesium or magnesium and phosphorus, but only twice normal in calves fed high magnesium and calcium. High dietary magnesium resulted in a significant depression in blood calcium level. This effect was somewhat overcome by additional dietary calcium Three calves fed the high magnesium diet and two calves fed the high magnesium and phosphorus diet developed urinary tract obstruction. The chemical composition of uroliths recovered from these calves was calcium apatite. Elevated dietary magnesium has been shown to be a cause of urolithiasis in growing male calves. Additional dietary calcium, but not phosphorus, appears to protect calves against urolithiasis induced by elevated dietary magnesium.

  17. Dietary Fat and Sports Nutrition: A Primer

    PubMed Central

    Lowery, Lonnie M.

    2004-01-01

    The general public’s view of macronutrients has undergone sweeping changes in recent years. Dietary fats are a key example. Since the anti-fat health education initiatives of the 1980s and early 1990s, certain dietary fats have been increasingly recognized as actually beneficial to health. Athletes, like the mainstream populace, are now getting the message that wise dietary fat (triacylglycerol) choices offer essential fatty acids, blood lipid management, maintained endocrine and immune function, inflammation control, metabolic effects and even potential body composition and performance benefits. Toward this end, many companies now sell specialty dietary fat supplements and recognized health authorities have begun recommending them to certain populations. This review will cover data regarding the physiology, dietary needs, food sources, and potential benefits and risks most relevant to athletes. Practical suggestions for incorporating healthy fats will be made. Both food-source and supplemental intakes will be addressed with interrelationships to health throughout. Key Points Nutrition education initiatives over recent years have sent contrasting messages on dietary fat to the public. Variations in chemical structure among triacylglycerols and their component fatty acids induce very different biological effects. Manipulating fat as a percentage of total kcal affects athletes. Athletes have special needs for which dietary fat may prove beneficial. PMID:24482588

  18. Are dietary bioactives ready for recommended intakes?

    PubMed

    Gaine, P Courtney; Balentine, Douglas A; Erdman, John W; Dwyer, Johanna T; Ellwood, Kathleen C; Hu, Frank B; Russell, Robert M

    2013-09-01

    Research has shown that numerous dietary bioactive components that are not considered essential may still be beneficial to health. The dietary reference intake (DRI) process has been applied to nonessential nutrients, such as fiber, yet the majority of bioactive components await a recommended intake. Despite a plethora of new research over the past several years on the health effects of bioactives, it is possible that the field may never reach a point where the current DRI framework is suitable for these food components. If bioactives are to move toward dietary guidance, they will likely require an alternative path to get there.

  19. Dietary plant sterols and cholesterol metabolism.

    PubMed

    Ellegård, Lars H; Andersson, Susan W; Normén, A Lena; Andersson, Henrik A

    2007-01-01

    Plant sterols, naturally occurring in foods of plant origin, reduce cholesterol absorption. Experimental studies show plant sterols to be an important part of the serum-cholesterol lowering effect of certain diets and dietary components. Epidemiological data show that individuals with higher intakes of plant sterols from their habitual diets have lower serum-cholesterol levels. To date, the role of naturally occurring plant sterols for lowering serum cholesterol has probably been underestimated. The consumption of dietary plant sterols should be a part of dietary advice to patients with hypercholesterolemia and the general public for the prevention and management of coronary heart disease.

  20. Quantitative determination of vinpocetine in dietary supplements

    PubMed Central

    French, John M. T.; King, Matthew D.

    2017-01-01

    Current United States regulatory policies allow for the addition of pharmacologically active substances in dietary supplements if derived from a botanical source. The inclusion of certain nootropic drugs, such as vinpocetine, in dietary supplements has recently come under scrutiny due to the lack of defined dosage parameters and yet unproven short- and long-term benefits and risks to human health. This study quantified the concentration of vinpocetine in several commercially available dietary supplements and found that a highly variable range of 0.6–5.1 mg/serving was present across the tested products, with most products providing no specification of vinpocetine concentrations. PMID:27319129

  1. Dietary Sodium Intake in Type 2 Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Provenzano, Laura Ferreira; Stark, Sue; Steenkiste, Ann; Piraino, Beth; Sevick, Mary Ann

    2014-07-01

    Patients with type 2 diabetes have an increased risk for cardiovascular and chronic kidney disease. Superimposed hypertension further increases the risk and is associated with increased dietary sodium intake. There are few data available on dietary sodium intake in type 2 diabetes. The aim of this study was to quantify dietary sodium intake in a cohort of self-referred patients with type 2 diabetes and to identify sociodemographic characteristics associated with it. Sodium intake in this cohort was far greater than current recommendations. Increased awareness of sodium intake in this population might lead to target interventions to reduce sodium intake and potentially improve long-term outcomes.

  2. Suprathreshold measures of taste perception in children - Association with dietary quality and body weight.

    PubMed

    Feeney, Emma L; O'Brien, Sinead A; Scannell, Amalia G M; Markey, Anne; Gibney, Eileen R

    2017-02-21

    Childhood obesity is an increasing problem in the Western world, and is affected by a multitude of interacting factors. Recent evidence suggests that taste perception may differ between obese and normal weight children. Evidence also suggests that perception of sweet and bitter taste is linked to differential food liking of various foods. To date, most studies have focused on single food items or food groups, rather than an overall view of dietary quality, and mainly on bitterness. Thus it is unclear whether taste perception is associated with dietary quality in children. Our objective was to examine the link between taste perception, dietary quality and body weight in Irish school children, in conjunction with other known influences of body weight. Taste perception was measured using the gLMS for bitter, salty and sweet stimuli. Detailed dietary intake data were collected from 525 children aged 7-13 via a 3-day diet history. Energy misreporters were identified and excluded from the dietary analyses, leaving n = 483 children. Dietary quality was assessed using Healthy Eating Index. Salivary DNA was collected and analyzed for variations in the bitter receptor gene TAS2R38. Sex differences were observed whereby intensity perception of sweetness was lower in the overweight/obese males, while no association was observed for sweet taste in the females. Despite the differences in weight status, taste perception was not associated with differences in overall dietary quality, measured via HEI score, in this cohort. Prospective cohort studies in children are necessary to better understand the association between taste intensity, food intake and weight over time.

  3. Dietary carbohydrate and lipid source affect cholesterol metabolism of European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) juveniles.

    PubMed

    Castro, Carolina; Corraze, Geneviève; Pérez-Jiménez, Amalia; Larroquet, Laurence; Cluzeaud, Marianne; Panserat, Stéphane; Oliva-Teles, Aires

    2015-10-28

    Plant feedstuffs (PF) are rich in carbohydrates, which may interact with lipid metabolism. Thus, when considering dietary replacement of fishery by-products with PF, knowledge is needed on how dietary lipid source (LS) and carbohydrates affect lipid metabolism and other metabolic pathways. For that purpose, a 73-d growth trial was performed with European sea bass juveniles (IBW 74 g) fed four diets differing in LS (fish oil (FO) or a blend of vegetable oils (VO)) and carbohydrate content (0 % (CH-) or 20 % (CH+) gelatinised starch). At the end of the trial no differences among diets were observed on growth and feed utilisation. Protein efficiency ratio was, however, higher in the CH+ groups. Muscle and liver fatty acid profiles reflected the dietary LS. Dietary carbohydrate promoted higher plasma cholesterol and phospholipids (PL), whole-body and hepatic (mainly 16 : 0) lipids and increased muscular and hepatic glycogen. Except for PL, which were higher in the FO groups, no major alterations between FO and VO groups were observed on plasma metabolites (glucose, TAG, cholesterol, PL), liver and muscle glycogen, and lipid and cholesterol contents. Activities of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and malic enzyme - lipogenesis-related enzymes - increased with carbohydrate intake. Hepatic expression of genes involved in cholesterol metabolism was up-regulated with carbohydrate (HMGCR and CYP3A27) and VO (HMGCR and CYP51A1) intake. No dietary regulation of long-chain PUFA biosynthesis at the transcriptional level was observed. Overall, very few interactions between dietary carbohydrates and LS were observed. However, important insights on the direct relation between dietary carbohydrate and the cholesterol biosynthetic pathway in European sea bass were demonstrated.

  4. Mondo/ChREBP-Mlx-regulated transcriptional network is essential for dietary sugar tolerance in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Havula, Essi; Teesalu, Mari; Hyötyläinen, Tuulia; Seppälä, Heini; Hasygar, Kiran; Auvinen, Petri; Orešič, Matej; Sandmann, Thomas; Hietakangas, Ville

    2013-04-01

    Sugars are important nutrients for many animals, but are also proposed to contribute to overnutrition-derived metabolic diseases in humans. Understanding the genetic factors governing dietary sugar tolerance therefore has profound biological and medical significance. Paralogous Mondo transcription factors ChREBP and MondoA, with their common binding partner Mlx, are key sensors of intracellular glucose flux in mammals. Here we report analysis of the in vivo function of Drosophila melanogaster Mlx and its binding partner Mondo (ChREBP) in respect to tolerance to dietary sugars. Larvae lacking mlx or having reduced mondo expression show strikingly reduced survival on a diet with moderate or high levels of sucrose, glucose, and fructose. mlx null mutants display widespread changes in lipid and phospholipid profiles, signs of amino acid catabolism, as well as strongly elevated circulating glucose levels. Systematic loss-of-function analysis of Mlx target genes reveals that circulating glucose levels and dietary sugar tolerance can be genetically uncoupled: Krüppel-like transcription factor Cabut and carbonyl detoxifying enzyme Aldehyde dehydrogenase type III are essential for dietary sugar tolerance, but display no influence on circulating glucose levels. On the other hand, Phosphofructokinase 2, a regulator of the glycolysis pathway, is needed for both dietary sugar tolerance and maintenance of circulating glucose homeostasis. Furthermore, we show evidence that fatty acid synthesis, which is a highly conserved Mondo-Mlx-regulated process, does not promote dietary sugar tolerance. In contrast, survival of larvae with reduced fatty acid synthase expression is sugar-dependent. Our data demonstrate that the transcriptional network regulated by Mondo-Mlx is a critical determinant of the healthful dietary spectrum allowing Drosophila to exploit sugar-rich nutrient sources.

  5. Genomic Microdiversity of Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum Underlying Differential Strain-Level Responses to Dietary Carbohydrate Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Guojun; Zhang, Chenhong; Wu, Huan; Wang, Ruirui; Shen, Jian; Wang, Linghua; Zhao, Yufeng; Pang, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Xiaojun; Zhao, Liping

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The genomic basis of the response to dietary intervention of human gut beneficial bacteria remains elusive, which hinders precise manipulation of the microbiota for human health. After receiving a dietary intervention enriched with nondigestible carbohydrates for 105 days, a genetically obese child with Prader-Willi syndrome lost 18.4% of his body weight and showed significant improvement in his bioclinical parameters. We obtained five isolates (C1, C15, C55, C62, and C95) of one of the most abundantly promoted beneficial species, Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum, from a postintervention fecal sample. Intriguingly, these five B. pseudocatenulatum strains showed differential responses during the dietary intervention. Two strains were largely unaffected, while the other three were promoted to different extents by the changes in dietary carbohydrate resources. The differential responses of these strains were consistent with their functional clustering based on the COGs (Clusters of Orthologous Groups), including those involved with the ABC-type sugar transport systems, suggesting that the strain-specific genomic variations may have contributed to the niche adaption. Particularly, B. pseudocatenulatum C15, which had the most diverse types and highest gene copy numbers of carbohydrate-active enzymes targeting plant polysaccharides, had the highest abundance after the dietary intervention. These studies show the importance of understanding genomic diversity of specific members of the gut microbiota if precise nutrition approaches are to be realized. PMID:28196965

  6. Contributions of the Interaction between Dietary Protein and Gut Microbiota to Intestinal Health.

    PubMed

    Ma, Ning; Tian, Yanan; Wu, Yi; Ma, Xi

    2017-02-16

    There is growing recognition that composition and metabolic activity of the gut microbiota can be modulated by the dietary proteins which in turn impact health. The amino acid composition and digestibility of proteins, which are influenced by its source and amount of intake, play a pivotal role in determining the microbiota. Reciprocally, it appears that the gut microbiota is also able to affect protein metabolism which give rise to the view that function between the microbiota and protein can proceed in both directions. In response to the alterations in dietary protein components, there are significant changes in the microbial metabolites including short chain fatty acids (SCFAs), ammonia, amines, gases such as hydrogen, sulfide and methane which are cytotoxins, genotoxins and carcinogens associated with development of colon cancer and inflammatory bowel diseases. A suitable ratio between protein and carbohydrate or even a low protein diet is recommended based on the evidence that excessive protein intake adversely affect health. Supplying high and undigested proteins will encourage pathogens and protein-fermenting bacteria to increase the risk of diseases. These changes of microbiota can affect gut barrier and immune system by regulating genes expression in relevant signaling pathways and by regulating the secretion of metabolites. The objective of this review is to assess the impact of dietary proteins on microbiota composition and activity in the gastro-intestinal tract. The attention should be give to the dietary strategies with judicious selection of source and supplementation of dietary protein to benefit gut health.

  7. Simple measures of dietary variety are associated with improved dietary quality.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Suzanne P; Foote, Janet A; Wilkens, Lynne R; Basiotis, P Peter; Carlson, Andrea; White, Kami K L; Yonemori, Kim M

    2006-03-01

    The objective of this study was to identify a measure of dietary variety that was associated with improved dietary quality and easily understood by consumers. Dietary quality was measured by nutrient adequacy and intakes of added sugars, saturated fat, cholesterol, and sodium. We developed four definitions of dietary variety: (a) a count of basic commodities consumed; (b) a count of food codes reported; (c) a count of five Food Guide Pyramid (FGP) food groups consumed; and (d) a count of 22 FGP subgroups consumed. The analysis sample included 4,964 men and 4,797 women aged 19 years and older who participated in the Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals 1994-96. For each day of dietary data, we examined associations of each type of dietary variety with several measures of dietary quality using Spearman's correlations and multivariate linear regression models. After adjusting for energy intake and the number of FGP food group servings, all types of dietary variety were positively associated with mean nutrient adequacy across 15 nutrients, but associations were strongest for commodity-based variety and for 22 FGP subgroup consumption variety. Likewise, all variety measures were inversely associated with intakes of added sugars and saturated fat, with commodity-based variety and 22 FGP subgroup variety the strongest. We conclude that variety measured using 22 FGP subgroups is preferable because it is a good predictor of dietary quality, is relatively simple to calculate, and is easy to explain to consumers.

  8. Dietary Screener in the 2009 CHIS: Validation

    Cancer.gov

    In the Eating at America's Table Study and the Observing Protein and Energy Nutrition Study, Risk Factors Branch staff assessed the validity of created aggregate variables from the 2009 CHIS Dietary Screener.

  9. 28 CFR 548.20 - Dietary practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT RELIGIOUS PROGRAMS Religious Beliefs and Practices of Committed Offenders § 548.20 Dietary practices. (a) The Bureau provides inmates requesting a religious diet reasonable and equitable opportunity to observe...

  10. 28 CFR 548.20 - Dietary practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT RELIGIOUS PROGRAMS Religious Beliefs and Practices of Committed Offenders § 548.20 Dietary practices. (a) The Bureau provides inmates requesting a religious diet reasonable and equitable opportunity to observe...

  11. CHILDREN'S DIETARY EXPOSURES TO CHEMICAL CONTAMINANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Food Quality Protection Act of 1996 requires EPA to more accurately assess children's aggregate exposures to environmental contaminants. Children have unstructured eating behaviors which cause excess exposures as a result of their activities. Determining total dietary intak...

  12. Introduction - NCS Dietary Assessment Literature Review

    Cancer.gov

    To assist in the planning of the National Children's Study, investigators at the NIH Office of Dietary Supplements, NCI and Johns Hopkins University contracted with Westat to conduct a comprehensive review of the scientific literature.

  13. Anthocyanin analyses of Vaccinium fruit dietary supplements

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vaccinium fruit ingredients within dietary supplements were identified by comparisons with anthocyanin analyses of known Vaccinium profiles (demonstration of anthocyanin fingerprinting). Available Vaccinium supplements were purchased and analyzed; their anthocyanin profiles (based on HPLC separation...

  14. Vitamin K: food composition and dietary intakes

    PubMed Central

    Booth, Sarah L.

    2012-01-01

    Vitamin K is present in the diet in the forms of phylloquinone and menaquinones. Phylloquinone, which is the major dietary source, is concentrated in leafy plants and is the vitamin K form best characterized in terms of food composition and dietary intakes. In contrast, menaquinones are the product of bacterial production or conversion from dietary phylloquinone. Food composition databases are limited for menaquinones and their presence in foods varies by region. Dietary intakes of all forms of vitamin K vary widely among age groups and population subgroups. Similarly, the utilization of vitamin K from different forms and food sources appear to vary, although our understanding of vitamin K is still rudimentary in light of new developments regarding the menaquinones. PMID:22489217

  15. Prebiotics, Fermentable Dietary Fiber, and Health Claims.

    PubMed

    Delcour, Jan A; Aman, Per; Courtin, Christophe M; Hamaker, Bruce R; Verbeke, Kristin

    2016-01-01

    Since the 1970s, the positive effects of dietary fiber on health have increasingly been recognized. The collective term "dietary fiber" groups structures that have different physiologic effects. Since 1995, some dietary fibers have been denoted as prebiotics, implying a beneficial physiologic effect related to increasing numbers or activity of the gastrointestinal microbiota. Given the complex composition of the microbiota, the demonstration of such beneficial effects is difficult. In contrast, an exploration of the metabolites of dietary fiber formed as a result of its fermentation in the colon offers better perspectives for providing mechanistic links between fiber intake and health benefits. Positive outcomes of such studies hold the promise that claims describing specific health benefits can be granted. This would help bridge the "fiber gap"-that is, the considerable difference between recommended and actual fiber intakes by the average consumer.

  16. Risk assessment of dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Boobis, Alan R

    2007-01-01

    Risk assessment of dietary supplements shares many of the requirements of that for other chemicals, although there are some important differences. Amongst these is the essential nature of some nutrients so that it may be necessary to balance the need to minimize toxicological risk with the need to avoid deficiency. There may also be limitations on experimental design, in that high doses may not be achievable for nutritional reasons and available human data on toxicological hazard is likely to be very limited. Prior to embarking on a risk assessment the problem needs to be formulated. This involves risk assessors, risk managers and relevant stakeholders. A key decision is whether a risk assessment is necessary and, if so, what is required of the assessment. This will shape the nature and output of the assessment. Risk assessment itself is a scientific process comprising four steps, hazard identification, hazard characterization, exposure assessment and risk characterization. Hazard identification involves determining the range of toxicological effects that might be caused by the substance, whilst hazard characterization establishes dose-response relationships, toxicological and species relevance of the findings and establishes health based guidance values. Exposure assessment involves predicting or measuring the level, pattern and duration of intake of the substance by exposed individuals. This may require dietary consumption data. Finally, risk characterization is the process whereby all of the prior information is integrated to reach conclusions in a form appropriate to the question posed. The nature of the output can take several different forms, and may be qualitative or quantitative. There are some cross-cutting issues in risk assessment, primarily on uncertainty and variability. The sources of uncertainty at each step of the risk assessment should be clearly identified and quantified to the extent possible. Variability requires that the risk assessment should

  17. Dietary Assessment in Food Environment Research

    PubMed Central

    Kirkpatrick, Sharon I.; Reedy, Jill; Butler, Eboneé N.; Dodd, Kevin W.; Subar, Amy F.; Thompson, Frances E.; McKinnon, Robin A.

    2015-01-01

    Context The existing evidence on food environments and diet is inconsistent, potentially due in part to heterogeneity in measures used to assess diet. The objective of this review, conducted in 2012–2013, was to examine measures of dietary intake utilized in food environment research. Evidence acquisition Included studies were published from January 2007 through June 2012 and assessed relationships between at least one food environment exposure and at least one dietary outcome. Fifty-one articles were identified using PubMed, Scopus, Web of Knowledge, and PsycINFO; references listed in the papers reviewed and relevant review articles; and the National Cancer Institute's Measures of the Food Environment website. The frequency of the use of dietary intake measures and assessment of specific dietary outcomes was examined, as were patterns of results among studies using different dietary measures. Evidence synthesis The majority of studies used brief instruments, such as screeners or one or two questions, to assess intake. Food frequency questionnaires were used in about a third of studies, one in ten used 24-hour recalls, and fewer than one in twenty used diaries. Little consideration of dietary measurement error was evident. Associations between the food environment and diet were more consistently in the expected direction in studies using less error-prone measures. Conclusions There is a tendency toward the use of brief dietary assessment instruments with low cost and burden rather than more detailed instruments that capture intake with less bias. Use of error-prone dietary measures may lead to spurious findings and reduced power to detect associations. PMID:24355678

  18. Dietary adequacy in Asian Indians with HIV.

    PubMed

    Wig, N; Bhatt, S P; Sakhuja, A; Srivastava, S; Agarwal, S

    2008-03-01

    Malnutrition is endemic in developing countries, which also bear the brunt of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) pandemic. HIV and its complications have a significant impact on nutritional status. Malnutrition and HIV have deleterious interactions. Dietary inadequacy is a major cause of malnutrition and few studies have been done to assess dietary adequacy in HIV-infected individuals and the factors affecting intake. Dietary intake of 71 consecutive patients was determined using 24-hour dietary recall, with the help of a questionnaire and a structured interview, and then compared with the recommended dietary allowances (RDA). The dietary intake of energy, total fat, fibre, vitamin C and iron were significantly less than the recommended RDA. There was no difference in protein intake. Only 5.7% of males and 16.7% of females reached the recommended energy allowance. The recommended protein allowance was reached by 43.4% males and 44.4% females and 41.5% males and 38.9% females consumed more than the upper limit of the recommended fat intake. Intake of major nutrients was also significantly less when compared to the national average intake. On bivariate analysis, the factors affecting these inadequacies were found to be annual per-capita income, dependency on another for livelihood, CD4 counts more than 200/cubic millimeter and absence of antiretroviral therapy. On multivariate analysis, only dependency on another was found to significantly influence energy intake. Dietary intake of many food constituents is significantly less in HIV patients than that recommended. Dietary counselling and efforts to improve food security are important in management of these patients.

  19. Dietary Fat, Eicosanoids and Breast Cancer Risk

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-10-01

    eicosanoid balance, and breast cancer risk in postmenopausal women. The study objectives are to: 1) evaluate the effects of total fat and omega -3 fatty acid ...Dietary fat, omega -3 fatty acids , eicosanoids, sex hormones 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: U 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 19a...Eicosanoids, and Breast Cancer Risk”, is a dietary intervention aimed at evaluating the effects of total fat intake and omega -3 fatty acids on breast

  20. Effect of the dietary inclusion of soybean components on the innate immune system in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Fuentes-Appelgren, Pamela; Opazo, Rafael; Barros, Luis; Feijoó, Carmen G; Urzúa, Victoria; Romero, Jaime

    2014-02-01

    Some components of plant-based meals, such as saponins and vegetal proteins, have been proposed as inducers of intestinal inflammation in some fish. However, the molecular and cellular bases for this phenomenon have not been reported. In this work, zebrafish were used as a model to evaluate the effects of individual soybean meal components, such as saponins and soy proteins. Zebrafish larvae fed a fish meal feed containing soy components were assessed according to low and high inclusion levels. The granulocytes associated with the digestive tract and the induction of genes related to the immune system were quantitated as markers of the effects of the dietary components. A significant increase in the number of granulocytes was observed after feeding fish diets containing high saponin or soy protein contents. These dietary components also induced the expression of genes related to the innate immune system, including myeloid-specific peroxidase, as well as the complement protein and cytokines. These results reveal the influence of dietary components on the stimulation of the immune system. These observations could be significant to understanding the contributions of saponin and soy protein to the onset of enteritis in aqua-cultured fish, and this knowledge may aid in defining the role of the innate immune system in other inflammatory diseases involving dietary components in mammals.

  1. Molecular and conventional responses of large rainbow trout to dietary phosphorus restriction.

    PubMed

    Sugiura, Shozo H; Kelsey, Kevin; Ferraris, Ronaldo P

    2007-05-01

    The dietary phosphorus (P) requirement for large fish is difficult to estimate because of insensitivities of known P status indicators. We examined dietary P requirement of large rainbow trout (mean body weight 278 g) using recently identified P-responsive genes (mRNA abundances) as well as conventional serum P and bone P. Fish were fed six diets (varied P contents), and the tissues of intestine, pyloric caeca (PC), kidney, serum and bone were collected at varying time intervals. Serum P responded clearly to dietary P by day 2, but the estimated P requirement based on this variable changed as feeding duration continued. Bone P did not respond clearly until week 7. Among P-responsive genes studied, Na/Pi cotransporter in PC (PC-NaPi) was the most sensitive, and responded in 2 days. Fish-to-fish (within treatment) variance was larger in mRNA than in serum P and bone P levels. Estimated dietary P requirements (%P in dry diet) were 0.45 (based on serum P), 0.45 (based on bone P), 0.36 (based on PC-NaPi), 0.33 (based on intestinal NaPi), 0.71 (based on renal NaPi), and 0.33 (based on mitochondrial Pi carrier). This study is the first to evaluate the potential of genomic approaches in determining nutrient requirements of fish.

  2. Merging dietary assessment with the adolescent lifestyle.

    PubMed

    Schap, T E; Zhu, F; Delp, E J; Boushey, C J

    2014-01-01

    The use of image-based dietary assessment methods shows promise for improving dietary self-report among children. The Technology Assisted Dietary Assessment (TADA) food record application is a self-administered food record specifically designed to address the burden and human error associated with conventional methods of dietary assessment. Users would take images of foods and beverages at all eating occasions using a mobile telephone or mobile device with an integrated camera [e.g. Apple iPhone, Apple iPod Touch (Apple Inc., Cupertino, CA, USA); Nexus One (Google, Mountain View, CA, USA)]. Once the images are taken, the images are transferred to a back-end server for automated analysis. The first step in this process is image analysis (i.e. segmentation, feature extraction and classification), which allows for automated food identification. Portion size estimation is also automated via segmentation and geometric shape template modeling. The results of the automated food identification and volume estimation can be indexed with the Food and Nutrient Database for Dietary Studies to provide a detailed diet analysis for use in epidemiological or intervention studies. Data collected during controlled feeding studies in a camp-like setting have allowed for formative evaluation and validation of the TADA food record application. This review summarises the system design and the evidence-based development of image-based methods for dietary assessment among children.

  3. A common variant near BDNF is associated with dietary calcium intake in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Dušátková, Lenka; Zamrazilová, Hana; Aldhoon-Hainerová, Irena; Sedláčková, Barbora; Včelák, Josef; Hlavatý, Petr; Bendlová, Běla; Kunešová, Marie; Hainer, Vojtěch

    2015-09-01

    Specific targets for most obesity candidate genes discovered by genomewide association studies remain unknown. Such genes are often highly expressed in the hypothalamus, indicating their role in energy homeostasis. We aimed to evaluate the associations of selected gene variants with adiposity and dietary traits. Anthropometric parameters, fat mass, dietary intake (total energy, fat, protein, carbohydrate, fiber, and calcium) and 10 gene variants (in/near TMEM18, SH2B1, KCTD15, PCSK1, BDNF, SEC16B, MC4R and FTO) were analyzed in 1953 Czech individuals aged 10.0 to 18.0 years (1035 nonoverweight and 918 overweight: body mass index [BMI] ≥90th percentile). Obesity risk alleles of TMEM18 rs7561317, SEC16B rs10913469, and FTO rs9939609 were related to increased body weight and BMI (P < .005). The FTO variant also showed a significant positive association with waist circumference and fat mass (P < .001). Overweight adolescents had a lower total energy intake (P < .001) but a higher percentage of fat (P = .009) and protein intake (P < .001) than the nonoverweight subjects. There was also a lower calcium intake in the overweight group (P < .001). An association with at least one component of dietary intake was found in 3 of 10 studied gene variants. The MC4R rs17782313 was associated negatively with protein (P = .012) and positively associated with fiber (P = .032) intakes. The obesity risk alleles of BDNF rs925946 and FTO rs9939609 were related to a lower calcium intake (P = .001 and .037). The effects of FTO and MC4R variants, however, disappeared after corrections for multiple testing. Our results suggest that the common BDNF variant may influence dietary calcium intake independent of BMI.

  4. Dietary characterization of terrestrial mammals

    PubMed Central

    Pineda-Munoz, Silvia; Alroy, John

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the feeding behaviour of the species that make up any ecosystem is essential for designing further research. Mammals have been studied intensively, but the criteria used for classifying their diets are far from being standardized. We built a database summarizing the dietary preferences of terrestrial mammals using published data regarding their stomach contents. We performed multivariate analyses in order to set up a standardized classification scheme. Ideally, food consumption percentages should be used instead of qualitative classifications. However, when highly detailed information is not available we propose classifying animals based on their main feeding resources. They should be classified as generalists when none of the feeding resources constitute over 50% of the diet. The term ‘omnivore’ should be avoided because it does not communicate all the complexity inherent to food choice. Moreover, the so-called omnivore diets actually involve several distinctive adaptations. Our dataset shows that terrestrial mammals are generally highly specialized and that some degree of food mixing may even be required for most species. PMID:25009067

  5. Cancer and Mediterranean dietary traditions.

    PubMed

    Trichopoulou, A; Lagiou, P; Kuper, H; Trichopoulos, D

    2000-09-01

    The incidence of cancer overall in Mediterranean countries is lower than in Scandinavian countries, the United Kingdom, and the United States. This is mostly accounted for by the lower incidence among Mediterranean countries of cancer of the large bowel, breast, endometrium, and prostate. These forms of cancer have been linked to dietary factors, particularly low consumption of vegetables and fruit, and to a certain extent, high consumption of meat. The traditional Mediterranean diet is characterized by high consumption of foods of plant origin, relatively low consumption of red meat, and high consumption of olive oil, which in several studies has been reported to be more beneficial against cancer than other forms of added lipids. By taking into account the established or presumed nutritional causation of major forms of cancer and the composition of the traditional Mediterranean diet, estimates can be derived concerning the fraction of cancer occurrence in highly developed Western countries that could be attributed to their diets in comparison with the healthy traditional Mediterranean diet. Although estimates can only be crude, it can be calculated that up to 25% of the incidence of colorectal cancer, approximately 15% of the incidence of breast cancer, and approximately 10% of the incidence of prostate, pancreas, and endometrial cancer could be prevented if the populations of highly developed Western countries could shift to the traditional healthy Mediterranean diet.

  6. Transcriptional response to dietary restriction in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Feifei; Gil, M. Pilar; Franklin, Michael; Ferreira, Jonathan; Tatar, Marc; Helfand, Stephen L.; Neretti, Nicola

    2014-01-01

    Dietary restriction (DR) extends lifespan in a wide variety of organisms. Although several genes and pathways associated with this longevity response have been identified, the specific mechanism through which DR extends lifespan is not fully understood. We have recently developed a novel methodology to screen for transcriptional changes in response to acutely imposed DR upon adult Drosophila melanogaster and identified groups of genes that switch their transcriptional patterns from a normal diet pattern to a restricted diet pattern, or ‘switching genes’. In this current report we extend our transcriptional data analysis with Gene Set Enrichment Analysis to generate a pathway-centered perspective. The pattern of temporal behavior in response to the diet switch is strikingly similar within and across pathways associated with mRNA processing and protein translation. Furthermore, most genes within these pathways display an initial spike in activity within 6 to 8 hours from the diet switch, followed by a coordinated, partial down-regulation after 24 hours. We propose this represents a stereotypical response to DR, which ultimately leads to a mild but widespread inhibition of transcriptional and translational activity. Inhibition of the protein synthesis pathway has been observed in DR in other studies and has been shown to extend lifespan in several model organisms. PMID:24819200

  7. DEVELOPMENT OF A DIETARY EXPOSURE POTENTIAL MODEL FOR EVALUATING DIETARY EXPOSURE TO CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Dietary Exposure Potential Model (DEPM) is a computer-based model developed for estimating dietary exposure to chemical residues in food. The DEPM is based on food consumption data from the 1987-1988 Nationwide Food Consumption Survey (NFCS) administered by the United States ...

  8. Dietary patterns and the association with dietary quality among Mongolian immigrants in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Park, Haeryun; Tserendejid, Zuunnast; Song, Kyung-Hee; Lee, Jounghee; Lee, Youngmi

    2015-04-01

    Mongolian immigration into South Korea has increased rapidly over the last decade. It is important to better understand dietary patterns of immigrants because these patterns are associated with health risk. This study aimed to characterize dietary patterns of Mongolian immigrants in South Korea. Dietary intakes of 500 Mongolian adults living in South Korea were assessed using the interviewer-administered 24-h dietary recall method. By cluster analysis, three dietary patterns were identified: "Mongolian" (26%), "Transitional" (43%) and "Korean" (31%). The "Korean" pattern had a favorable food intake profile, with higher intakes of healthy foods, while the other patterns had features of an unhealthy diet. There were significant differences between the dietary patterns that were related to risk for chronic diseases. Overall, subjects following the "Korean" dietary pattern showed high adherence to World Health Organization recommendations for preventing diet-related chronic diseases, whereas the "Mongolian" and "Transitional" patterns showed low compliance. The results suggest the need for education programs targeting Mongolian immigrants who retain traditional dietary habits, to enhance their healthy food choices.

  9. Effects of dietary factors on energy regulation: Consideration of multiple- versus single-dietary-factor models

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    While short-term studies demonstrate consistent effects of dietary protein, fiber, glycemic index and energy density on energy intake, long-term effectiveness trials typically indicate small or non-significant effects of these dietary factors on long-term weight change. In consequence, most lifestyl...

  10. Relationship between nutrition knowledge and dietary intake.

    PubMed

    Spronk, Inge; Kullen, Charina; Burdon, Catriona; O'Connor, Helen

    2014-05-28

    The present systematic review examined the relationship between nutrition knowledge and dietary intake in adults (mean age ≥ 18 years). Relevant databases were searched from the earliest record until November 2012. Search terms included: nutrition; diet or food knowledge and energy intake; feeding behaviour; diet; eating; nutrient or food intake or consumption. Included studies were original research articles that used instruments providing quantitative assessment of both nutrition knowledge and dietary intake and their statistical association. The initial search netted 1,193,393 potentially relevant articles, of which twenty-nine were eligible for inclusion. Most of them were conducted in community populations (n 22) with fewer (n 7) in athletic populations. Due to the heterogeneity of methods used to assess nutrition knowledge and dietary intake, a meta-analysis was not possible. The majority of the studies (65·5%: community 63·6%; athletic 71·4%) reported significant, positive, but weak (r< 0·5) associations between higher nutrition knowledge and dietary intake, most often a higher intake of fruit and vegetables. However, study quality ranged widely and participant representation from lower socio-economic status was limited, with most participants being tertiary educated and female. Well-designed studies using validated methodologies are needed to clarify the relationship between nutrition knowledge and dietary intake. Diet quality scores or indices that aim to evaluate compliance to dietary guidelines may be particularly valuable for assessing the relationship between nutrition knowledge and dietary intake. Nutrition knowledge is an integral component of health literacy and as low health literacy is associated with poor health outcomes, contemporary, high-quality research is needed to inform community nutrition education and public health policy.

  11. Larval dietary wheat germ oil influences age-specific protein expression in adults of the oriental fruit fly

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Changes in essential dietary components alter global gene expression patterns in animals. We reported on a proteomics study designed to identify molecular markers of deficiencies in culture media developed for the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis. In that study, we found significant changes i...

  12. Estrogen and the Dietary Phytoestrogen Resveratrol as Regulators of the Rho GTPase Rac in Breast Cancer Research

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-06-01

    mice [33, 45]. As shown in Fig. 1a, 0.5 or 5 lM treatment with res- veratrol , quercetin, or catechin alone did not decrease MDA-MB-435 cell...activities of res- veratrol [49]. This is the first time that elevation of death promoting genes have been implicated in vivo for a com- bination of dietary

  13. Effects of dietary plant-derived phytonutrients on the genome-wide profiles and coccidiosis resistance in the broiler chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary plant-derived phytonutrients, carvacrol, cinnamaldehyde and Capsicum oleoresin, on the translational regulation of genes associated with immunology, physiology and metabolism using high-throughput microarray analysis and in vivo d...

  14. Neonatal dietary cholesterol and alleles of cholesterol 7-alpha hydroxylase affect piglet cerebrum weight, cholesterol concentration, and behavior

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This experiment was designed to test the effect of polymorphism in the cholesterol 7-alpha hydroxylase (CYP7) gene locus, and dietary cholesterol (C) on cerebrum C in neonatal pigs fed sow's milk formulas. Thirty-six pigs (18 male and 18 female) genetically selected for high (HG), or low (LG) plasma...

  15. Activation of mammalian target of rapamycin signaling in skeletal muscle of neonatal chicks: effects of dietary leucine and age.

    PubMed

    Deng, Huiling; Zheng, Aijuan; Liu, Guohua; Chang, Wenhuan; Zhang, Shu; Cai, Huiyi

    2014-01-01

    The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway is necessary for cellular protein synthesis regulation. Leucine was reported to stimulate muscle protein synthesis in mammalian embryos and neonates, but in higher animals (chickens) the effect of dietary leucine on mTOR signaling is unknown. Thus, we investigated the effects of dietary leucine and age on mRNA expression and phosphorylation of mTOR as well as its downstream targets, ribosomal protein S6 kinase (S6K1) and eukaryotic initiation factor 4E binding protein 1 (4E-BP1) in chick pectoral muscles. One hundred eighty newly hatched male chicks were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 dietary leucine treatment groups (1.43, 1.73, and 2.03% leucine) for 14 d, respectively. Each treatment group consisted of 6 cages with 10 chicks each. On d 3, 7, and 14, plasma insulin and leucine were measured and target gene expression and phosphorylation was assessed. Dietary leucine influenced plasma leucine but not insulin, and plasma leucine and insulin declined with chick age. The mTOR, S6K1, and 4E-BP1 mRNA expression and phosphorylation within chick pectoral muscles were upregulated with increased dietary leucine but downregulated with increased chick age. Thus, high dietary leucine activates target of rapamycin signaling pathways in skeletal muscle of neonatal chicks to stimulate muscle protein synthesis, and this pathway is attenuated with aging.

  16. Dietary protein considerations to support active aging.

    PubMed

    Wall, Benjamin T; Cermak, Naomi M; van Loon, Luc J C

    2014-11-01

    Given our rapidly aging world-wide population, the loss of skeletal muscle mass with healthy aging (sarcopenia) represents an important societal and public health concern. Maintaining or adopting an active lifestyle alleviates age-related muscle loss to a certain extent. Over time, even small losses of muscle tissue can hinder the ability to maintain an active lifestyle and, as such, contribute to the development of frailty and metabolic disease. Considerable research focus has addressed the application of dietary protein supplementation to support exercise-induced gains in muscle mass in younger individuals. In contrast, the role of dietary protein in supporting the maintenance (or gain) of skeletal muscle mass in active older persons has received less attention. Older individuals display a blunted muscle protein synthetic response to dietary protein ingestion. However, this reduced anabolic response can largely be overcome when physical activity is performed in close temporal proximity to protein consumption. Moreover, recent evidence has helped elucidate the optimal type and amount of dietary protein that should be ingested by the older adult throughout the day in order to maximize the skeletal muscle adaptive response to physical activity. Evidence demonstrates that when these principles are adhered to, muscle maintenance or hypertrophy over prolonged periods can be further augmented in active older persons. The present review outlines the current understanding of the role that dietary protein occupies in the lifestyle of active older adults as a means to increase skeletal muscle mass, strength and function, and thus support healthier aging.

  17. Dietary Nitrate, Nitric Oxide, and Cardiovascular Health.

    PubMed

    Bondonno, Catherine P; Croft, Kevin D; Hodgson, Jonathan M

    2016-09-09

    Emerging evidence strongly suggests that dietary nitrate, derived in the diet primarily from vegetables, could contribute to cardiovascular health via effects on nitric oxide (NO) status. NO plays an essential role in cardiovascular health. It is produced via the classical L-arginine-NO-synthase pathway and the recently discovered enterosalivary nitrate-nitrite-NO pathway. The discovery of this alternate pathway has highlighted dietary nitrate as a candidate for the cardioprotective effect of a diet rich in fruit and vegetables. Clinical trials with dietary nitrate have observed improvements in blood pressure, endothelial function, ischemia-reperfusion injury, arterial stiffness, platelet function, and exercise performance with a concomitant augmentation of markers of NO status. While these results are indicative of cardiovascular benefits with dietary nitrate intake, there is still a lingering concern about nitrate in relation to methemoglobinemia, cancer, and cardiovascular disease. It is the purpose of this review to present an overview of NO and its critical role in cardiovascular health; to detail the observed vascular benefits of dietary nitrate intake through effects on NO status as well as to discuss the controversy surrounding the possible toxic effects of nitrate.

  18. Evolution of Digestive Enzymes and RNASE1 Provides Insights into Dietary Switch of Cetaceans

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhengfei; Xu, Shixia; Du, Kexing; Huang, Fang; Chen, Zhuo; Zhou, Kaiya; Ren, Wenhua; Yang, Guang

    2016-01-01

    Although cetaceans (whales, porpoises, and dolphins) have multi-chambered stomachs, feeding habits of modern cetaceans have dramatically changed from herbivorous to carnivorous. However, the genetic basis underlying this dietary switch remains unexplored. Here, we present the first systematic investigation of 10 digestive enzymes genes (i.e., CYP7A1, CTRC, LIPC, LIPF, PNLIP, PGC, PRSS1, SI, SLC5A1, and TMPRSS15) of representative cetaceans, and the evolutionary trajectory of RNASE1 in cetartiodactylans. Positive selections were detected with proteinases (i.e., CTRC, PRSS1, and TMPRSS15) and lipases (i.e., CYP7A1, LIPF, and PNLIP) suggesting that cetaceans have evolved an enhanced digestion capacity for proteins and lipids, the major nutritional components of their prey (fishes and invertebrates). In addition, it was found that RNASE1 gene duplicated after the cetartiodactylan speciation and two independent gene duplication events took place in Camelidae and Ruminantia. Positive selection was detected with RNASE1 of Camelidae and Bovidae, suggesting enhanced digestive efficiency in the ruminants. Remarkably, even though the ancestors of cetaceans were terrestrial artiodactyls that are herbivorous, modern cetaceans lost the pancreatic RNASE1 copy with digestive function, which is in accordance with the dietary change from herbivorous to carnivorous. In sum, this is the first study that provides new insights into the evolutionary mechanism of dietary switch in cetaceans. PMID:27651393

  19. Dietary Curcuma longa enhances resistance against Eimeria maxima and Eimeria tenella infections in chickens.

    PubMed

    Kim, Duk Kyung; Lillehoj, Hyun S; Lee, Sung Hyen; Jang, Seung I; Lillehoj, Erik P; Bravo, David

    2013-10-01

    The effects of dietary supplementation with an organic extract of Curcuma longa on systemic and local immune responses to experimental Eimeria maxima and Eimeria tenella infections were evaluated in commercial broiler chickens. Dietary supplementation with C. longa enhanced coccidiosis resistance as demonstrated by increased BW gains, reduced fecal oocyst shedding, and decreased gut lesions compared with infected birds fed a nonsupplemented control diet. The chickens fed C. longa-supplemented diet showed enhanced systemic humoral immunity, as assessed by greater levels of serum antibodies to an Eimeria microneme protein, MIC2, and enhanced cellular immunity, as measured by concanavalin A-induced spleen cell proliferation, compared with controls. At the intestinal level, genome-wide gene expression profiling by microarray hybridization identified 601 differentially expressed transcripts (287 upregulated, 314 downregulated) in gut lymphocytes of C. longa-fed chickens compared with nonsupplemented controls. Based on the known functions of the corresponding mammalian genes, the C. longa-induced intestinal transcriptome was mostly associated with genes mediating anti-inflammatory effects. Taken together, these results suggest that dietary C. longa could be used to attenuate Eimeria-induced, inflammation-mediated gut damage in commercial poultry production.

  20. Secrets of the lac operon. Glucose hysteresis as a mechanism in dietary restriction, aging and disease.

    PubMed

    Mobbs, Charles V; Mastaitis, Jason W; Zhang, Minhua; Isoda, Fumiko; Cheng, Hui; Yen, Kelvin

    2007-01-01

    Elevated blood glucose associated with diabetes produces progressive and apparently irreversible damage to many cell types. Conversely, reduction of glucose extends life span in yeast, and dietary restriction reduces blood glucose. Therefore it has been hypothesized that cumulative toxic effects of glucose drive at least some aspects of the aging process and, conversely, that protective effects of dietary restriction are mediated by a reduction in exposure to glucose. The mechanisms mediating cumulative toxic effects of glucose are suggested by two general principles of metabolic processes, illustrated by the lac operon but also observed with glucose-induced gene expression. First, metabolites induce the machinery of their own metabolism. Second, induction of gene expression by metabolites can entail a form of molecular memory called hysteresis. When applied to glucose-regulated gene expression, these two principles suggest a mechanism whereby repetitive exposure to postprandial excursions of glucose leads to an age-related increase in glycolytic capacity (and reduction in beta-oxidation of free fatty acids), which in turn leads to an increased generation of oxidative damage and a decreased capacity to respond to oxidative damage, independent of metabolic rate. According to this mechanism, dietary restriction increases life span and reduces pathology by reducing exposure to glucose and therefore delaying the development of glucose-induced glycolytic capacity.

  1. Short communication: Regulation of hepatic gluconeogenic enzymes by dietary glycerol in transition dairy cows.

    PubMed

    White, H M; Carvalho, E R; Koser, S L; Schmelz-Roberts, N S; Pezzanite, L M; Slabaugh, A C; Doane, P H; Donkin, S S

    2016-01-01

    Nutritional status and glucose precursors are known regulators of gluconeogenic gene expression. Glycerol can replace corn in diets fed to dairy cows and use of glycerol is linked to increased rumen propionate production. The effect of dietary glycerol on the regulation of gluconeogenic enzymes is unknown. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of glycerol on expression of pyruvate carboxylase (PC), cytosolic and mitochondrial phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK-C and PEPCK-M), and glucose-6-phosphatase. Twenty-six multiparous Holstein cows were fed either a control diet or a diet where high-moisture corn was replaced by glycerol from -28 through +56 d relative to calving (DRTC). Liver tissue was collected via percutaneous liver biopsy at -28, -14, +1, +14, +28, and +56 DRTC for RNA analysis. Expression of PC mRNA increased 6-fold at +1 and 4-fold at +14 DRTC relative to precalving levels. Dietary glycerol did not alter expression of PC mRNA expression. Expression of PEPCK-C increased 2.5-fold at +14 and 3-fold at +28 DRTC compared with +1 DRTC. Overall, dietary glycerol increased PEPCK-C expression compared with that of cows fed control diets. The ratio of PC to PEPCK-C was increased 6.3-fold at +1 DRTC compared with precalving and tended to be decreased in cows fed glycerol. We detected no effect of diet or DRTC on PEPCK-M or glucose-6-phosphatase mRNA, and there were no interactions of dietary treatment and DRTC for any transcript measured. Substituting corn with glycerol increased the expression of PEPCK-C mRNA during transition to lactation and suggests that dietary energy source alters hepatic expression. The observed increase in PEPCK-C expression with glycerol feeding may indicate regulation of hepatic gene expression by changes in rumen propionate production.

  2. Estimate of dietary phosphorus intake using 24-h urine collection.

    PubMed

    Morimoto, Yuuka; Sakuma, Masae; Ohta, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Akitsu; Matsushita, Asami; Umeda, Minako; Ishikawa, Makoto; Taketani, Yutaka; Takeda, Eiji; Arai, Hidekazu

    2014-07-01

    Increases in serum phosphorus levels and dietary phosphorus intake induces vascular calcification, arterial sclerosis and cardiovascular diseases. Limiting phosphorus intake is advisable, however, no assessment methods are capable of estimating dietary phosphorus intake. We hypothesized that urinary phosphorus excretion can be translated into estimation of dietary phosphorus intake, and we evaluated whether a 24-h urine collection method could estimate dietary phosphorus intake. Thirty two healthy subjects were recruited for this study. Subjects collected urine samples over 24 h and weighed dietary records. We calculated dietary protein intake and phosphorus intake from dietary records and urine collection, and investigated associations between the two methods in estimating protein and phosphorus intake. Significant positive correlations were observed between dietary records and UC for protein and phosphorus intake. The average intakes determined from dietary records were significantly higher than from urine collection for both protein and phosphorus. There was a significant positive correlation between both the phosphorus and protein difference in dietary records and urine collection. The phosphorus-protein ratio in urine collection was significantly higher than in dietary records. Our data indicated that the 24-h urine collection method can estimate the amount of dietary phosphorus intake, and the results were superior to estimation by weighed dietary record.

  3. Dietary modification of inflammation with lipids.

    PubMed

    Calder, Philip C

    2002-08-01

    The n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are found in high proportions in oily fish and fish oils. The n-3 PUFA are structurally and functionally distinct from the n-6 PUFA. Typically, human inflammatory cells contain high proportions of the n-6 PUFA arachidonic acid and low proportions of n-3 PUFA. The significance of this difference is that arachidonic acid is the precursor of 2-series prostaglandins and 4-series leukotrienes, which are highly-active mediators of inflammation. Feeding fish oil results in partial replacement of arachidonic acid in inflammatory cell membranes by EPA. This change leads to decreased production of arachidonic acid-derived mediators. This response alone is a potentially beneficial anti-inflammatory effect of n-3 PUFA. However, n-3 PUFA have a number of other effects which might occur downstream of altered eicosanoid production or might be independent of this activity. For example, animal and human studies have shown that dietary fish oil results in suppressed production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and can decrease adhesion molecule expression. These effects occur at the level of altered gene expression. This action might come about through antagonism of the effects of arachidonic acid-derived mediators or through more direct actions on the intracellular signalling pathways which lead to activation of transcription factors such as nuclear factor kappa B (NFB). Recent studies have shown that n-3 PUFA can down regulate the activity of the nuclear transcription factor NFB. Fish oil feeding has been shown to ameliorate the symptoms in some animal models of chronic inflammatory disease and to protect against the effects of endotoxin and similar inflammatory challenges. Clinical studies have reported that oral fish oil supplementation has beneficial effects in rheumatoid arthritis and among some patients with asthma, supporting the idea that the n-3 PUFA in fish oil are anti

  4. A structured vocabulary for indexing dietary supplements in databases in the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Food composition databases are critical to assess and plan dietary intakes. Dietary supplement databases are also needed because dietary supplements make significant contributions to total nutrient intakes. However, no uniform system exists for classifying dietary supplement products and indexing ...

  5. Personal Dietary Assessment Using Mobile Devices.

    PubMed

    Mariappan, Anand; Bosch, Marc; Zhu, Fengqing; Boushey, Carol J; Kerr, Deborah A; Ebert, David S; Delp, Edward J

    2009-01-01

    Dietary intake provides valuable insights for mounting intervention programs for prevention of disease. With growing concern for adolescent obesity, the need to accurately measure diet becomes imperative. Assessment among adolescents is problematic as this group has irregular eating patterns and have less enthusiasm for recording food intake. Preliminary studies among adolescents suggest that innovative use of technology may improve the accuracy of diet information from young people. In this paper we describe further development of a novel dietary assessment system using mobile devices. This system will generate an accurate account of daily food and nutrient intake among adolescents. The mobile computing device provides a unique vehicle for collecting dietary information that reduces burden on records that are obtained using more classical approaches. Images before and after foods are eaten can be used to estimate the amount of food consumed.

  6. Dietary lead intake of preschool children

    SciTech Connect

    Bander, L.K.; Morgan, K.J.; Zabik, M.E.

    1983-07-01

    A nationwide, seven-day food consumption survey of 371 preschool children between the ages of birth and five years indicated that a direct linear relationship existed between age and increased dietary lead intake from foods consumed. Daily dietary lead intake averaged 62 ..mu..g and ranged from 15 ..mu..g to 234 ..mu..g. The various levels of lead intake were attributed to frequency of consumption of food items, quantity of food consumed, and the lead content of particular food items. To account for variation in the quantity of food consumed by the various children, average lead intake per 500 kilocalories consumed and per 500 g of food consumed was calculated. When these standardization procedures were followed, an equalization in the average daily dietary lead intake values was observed among the various aged children.

  7. Protection of Dietary Polyphenols against Oral Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Yijian; Yao, Hua; Yao, Yanan; Yenwong Fai, Leonard; Zhang, Zhuo

    2013-01-01

    Oral cancer represents a health burden worldwide with approximate 275,000 new cases diagnosed annually. Its poor prognosis is due to local tumor invasion and frequent lymph node metastasis. Better understanding and development of novel treatments and chemo-preventive approaches for the preventive and therapeutic intervention of this type of cancer are necessary. Recent development of dietary polyphenols as cancer preventives and therapeutic agents is of great interest due to their antioxidant and anti-carcinogenic activities. Polyphenols may inhibit carcinogenesis in the stage of initiation, promotion, or progression. In particular, dietary polyphenols decrease incidence of carcinomas and exert protection against oral cancer by induction of cell death and inhibition of tumor growth, invasion, and metastasis. In this review, we discuss current progress of dietary polyphenols against oral cancers in vitro, in vivo, and at population levels. PMID:23771133

  8. Dietary fructose intolerance, fructan intolerance and FODMAPs.

    PubMed

    Fedewa, Amy; Rao, Satish S C

    2014-01-01

    Dietary intolerances to fructose, fructans and FODMAPs (fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides, and polyols) are common, yet poorly recognized and managed. Over the last decade, they have come to the forefront because of new knowledge on the mechanisms and treatment of these conditions. Patients with these problems often present with unexplained bloating, belching, distension, gas, abdominal pain, or diarrhea. Here, we have examined the most up-to-date research on these food-related intolerances, discussed controversies, and have provided some guidelines for the dietary management of these conditions. Breath testing for carbohydrate intolerance appears to be standardized and essential for the diagnosis and management of these conditions, especially in the Western population. While current research shows that the FODMAP diet may be effective in treating some patients with irritable bowel syndrome, additional research is needed to identify more foods items that are high in FODMAPs, and to assess the long-term efficacy and safety of dietary interventions.

  9. Dietary fiber and blood pressure control.

    PubMed

    Aleixandre, A; Miguel, M

    2016-04-01

    In the past few years, new strategies to control blood pressure levels are emerging by developing new bioactive components of foods. Fiber has been linked to the prevention of a number of cardiovascular diseases and disorders. β-Glucan, the main soluble fiber component in oat grains, was initially linked to a reduction in plasma cholesterol. Several studies have shown afterward that dietary fiber may also improve glycaemia, insulin resistance and weight loss. The effect of dietary fiber on arterial blood pressure has been the subject of far fewer studies than its effect on the above-mentioned variables, but research has already shown that fiber intake can decrease arterial blood pressure in hypertensive rats. Moreover, certain fibers can improve arterial blood pressure when administered to hypertensive and pre-hypertensive subjects. The present review summarizes all those studies which attempt to establish the antihypertensive effects of dietary fiber, as well as its effect on other cardiovascular risk factors.

  10. Dietary treatment of eosinophilic esophagitis in children.

    PubMed

    Kagalwalla, Amir F

    2014-01-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the esophagus that, in a genetically susceptible host, is triggered by a food antigen. Emerging evidence supports impaired epithelia barrier function as the key initial event in the development of EoE and other allergic diseases. Symptom resolution, histologic remission, and prevention of both disease and treatment-related complications are the goals of treatment. Successful dietary treatments include elemental and elimination diets, both empiric and allergy test directed. These treatments are dietary approaches to inducing clinical and histologic remission. Dietary therapy with an exclusive elemental diet offers the best response with a remission rate of more than 96%. Empiric elimination diets and allergy-directed diets offer similar response with remission induced in 3 of 4 subjects (75%). Cow's milk, wheat, egg and soy are the four common food antigens most likely to induce esophageal inflammation.

  11. Dietary sources of fiber intake in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Sardinha, Aline Nascimento; Canella, Daniela Silva; Martins, Ana Paula Bortoletto; Claro, Rafael Moreira; Levy, Renata Bertazzi

    2014-08-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the household availability of fibers in Brazil and to identify the dietary sources of this nutrient. Data from the 2008-2009 Household Budget Survey were used to estimate national household availability and density of fibers and also according to stratifications defined by income level, five regions and area (rural or urban). The contribution of the different food groups, classified by the nature, extent and purpose of processing, to total fibers available in Brazilian households was also determined. The mean density of per capita fibers was 7.6 g/1000 kcal. Higher availability and density of fibers was observed in households situated in rural areas and among low-income families. The main dietary sources of fiber were beans, bread, rice, fruit, vegetables and manioc flour. Fiber intake was found to be insufficient. Therefore, actions promoting a healthy diet are needed to improve the dietary quality of the Brazilian population.

  12. Personal dietary assessment using mobile devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mariappan, Anand; Bosch, Marc; Zhu, Fengqing; Boushey, Carol J.; Kerr, Deborah A.; Ebert, David S.; Delp, Edward J.

    2009-02-01

    Dietary intake provides valuable insights for mounting intervention programs for prevention of disease. With growing concern for adolescent obesity, the need to accurately measure diet becomes imperative. Assessment among adolescents is problematic as this group has irregular eating patterns and have less enthusiasm for recording food intake. Preliminary studies among adolescents suggest that innovative use of technology may improve the accuracy of diet information from young people. In this paper we describe further development of a novel dietary assessment system using mobile devices. This system will generate an accurate account of daily food and nutrient intake among adolescents. The mobile computing device provides a unique vehicle for collecting dietary information that reduces burden on records that are obtained using more classical approaches. Images before and after foods are eaten can be used to estimate the amount of food consumed.

  13. Dietary lead intake of preschool children.

    PubMed Central

    Bander, L K; Morgan, K J; Zabik, M E

    1983-01-01

    A nationwide, seven-day food consumption survey of 371 preschool children between the ages of birth and five years indicated that a direct linear relationship existed between age and increased dietary lead intake from foods consumed. Daily dietary lead intake averaged 62 micrograms and ranged from 15 micrograms to 234 micrograms. The various levels of lead intake were attributed to frequency of consumption of food items, quantity of food consumed, and the lead content of particular food items. To account for variation in the quantity of food consumed by the various children, average lead intake per 500 kilocalories consumed and per 500 g of food consumed was calculated. When these standardization procedures were followed, an equalization in the average daily dietary lead intake values was observed among the various aged children. PMID:6602559

  14. Dietary fructose intolerance, fructan intolerance and FODMAPs

    PubMed Central

    Fedewa, Amy; Rao, Satish S. C.

    2014-01-01

    Dietary intolerances to fructose, fructans and FODMAPs (Fermentable Oligosaccharides, Disaccharides, Monosaccharides And Polyols) are common, yet poorly recognized and managed. Over the last decade, they have come to the forefront because of new knowledge on the mechanisms and treatment of these conditions. Patients with these problems often present with unexplained bloating, belching, distension, gas, abdominal pain or diarrhea. Here, we have examined the most up-to-date research on these food-related intolerances, discussed controversies, and have provided some guidelines for the dietary management of these conditions. Breath testing for carbohydrate intolerance appears to be standardized and essential for the diagnosis and management of these conditions, especially in the Western population. While current research shows that the FODMAP diet may be effective in treating irritable bowel syndrome, additional research is needed to identify more foods items that are high in FODMAPs, and to assess the long-term efficacy and safety of dietary interventions. PMID:24357350

  15. Dietary restraint and cognitive performance in children.

    PubMed

    Brunstrom, Jeffrey M; Davison, Claire J; Mitchell, Gemma L

    2005-12-01

    Adults who attempt to restrict their dietary intake also tend to perform worse on a range of cognitive tasks. However, the extent to which this finding generalises to children has remained unclear. Following studies involving adults, we asked 44 girls (mean age = 10.1 years) to complete a simple reaction-time task and the Tower of London task. This group was selected from a local community school in the East Midlands (UK). Dietary restraint was measured using a version of the Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire that had been adapted for use by children. Our results indicate that children with high restraint scores have longer reaction times and they also tend to perform worse on the TOL task. Other aspects of our data also suggest the dietary restraint may be correlated negatively with a measure of academic ability. We discuss reasons why restraint and performance might be related causally and we conclude that this issue warrants further scrutiny.

  16. Does dietary learning occur outside awareness?

    PubMed

    Brunstrom, Jeffrey M

    2004-09-01

    Several forms of dietary learning have been identified in humans. These include flavor-flavor learning, flavor-postingestive learning (including flavor-caffeine learning), and learned satiety. Generally, learning is thought to occur in the absence of contingency (CS-US) or demand awareness. However, a review of the literature suggests that this conclusion may be premature because measures of awareness lack the rigor that is found in studies of other kinds of human learning. If associations do configure outside awareness then this should be regarded as a rare instance of automatic learning. Conversely, if awareness is important, then successful learning may be governed by an individual's beliefs and predilection to attend to stimulus relationships. For researchers of dietary learning this could be critical because it might explain why learning paradigms have a reputation for being unreliable. Since most food preferences are learned, asking questions about awareness can also tell us something fundamental about everyday dietary control.

  17. Proposed rule: current good manufacturing practice in manufacturing, packing, or holding dietary ingredients and dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Melethil, Srikumaran

    2006-03-27

    The Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act (DSHEA) was enacted in October 1994 to promote the health of Americans by ensuring easier access to safe dietary supplements. Many supplements such as vitamins, minerals, herbs and amino acids have been reported to be helpful in chronic conditions (i.e., heart disease, cancer and osteoporosis). Under DSHEA, dietary supplements can be marketed without prior FDA approval; the burden is on this agency to show that a marketed dietary supplement is unsafe. However, DSHEA retained the FDA's authority to issue regulations that require the manufacture of dietary supplements be in compliance with current good manufacturing practice (cGMP) standards, which are needed to ensure their quality. Several quality-related concerns of marketed dietary supplements that came to light since the passage of DSHEA prompted the FDA in 2003 to propose rules for cGMP for the manufacture, packaging and holding (storage) of dietary supplements. This review will present the highlights of these proposed rules, focusing on the legislative history of DSHEA, rationale for proposing cGMPs along with a general discussion of the specific requirements. Given the voluminous nature of the specific details, the reader is directed to the pertinent FDA publications for details. In this analysis, selected scientific and legal issues are also discussed to promote a better understanding and implications of these rules.

  18. Dietary fiber consumption and risk of stroke.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhizhong; Xu, Gelin; Liu, Dezhi; Zhu, Wusheng; Fan, Xinying; Liu, Xinfeng

    2013-02-01

    Observational studies suggest an association between dietary fiber consumption and risk of stroke, but the results are inconclusive. The authors conducted a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies to evaluate the relation between dietary fiber consumption and stroke risk and mortality. Relevant studies were identified by searching PubMed, Embase, and ISI Web of Science through February 2013. We included prospective studies that reported relative risks (RRs) with 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) for the association between dietary fiber consumption and stroke risk and mortality. Both fixed- and random-effects models were used to calculate the summary risk estimates. Eleven prospective studies involving 325,627 participants were included in the meta-analysis. The pooled RR of stroke for the highest compared with the lowest dietary fiber consumption was 0.83 (95 % CI 0.74, 0.93). In addition, the increment in dietary fiber consumption was associated with decreased stroke risk in a dose-response manner. Sensitivity analysis restricted to studies with control for conventional risk factors yielded similar results, and omission of any single study had little effect on the combined risk estimate. Moreover, there was a trend toward an inverse association between higher fiber consumption and stroke mortality (RR 0.85; 95 % CI 0.60, 1.20), although it is not significant. This meta-analysis indicated that dietary fiber consumption is inversely associated with stroke risk, and the effect is probably independent of conventional risk factors. Our results support recommendations for higher consumption of fiber-rich foods to prevent stroke.

  19. [Diet counseling through "Shoku-dietary Coaching"].

    PubMed

    Kageyama, Naoko

    2005-11-01

    "Shoku-dietary Coaching" is a skill under development by Kageyama, who applies "coaching," widely used in the business field, to diet counseling. This counseling aims at improving conventional "nutritional guidance-type diet counseling" and promoting self-motivation so that healthy clients eagerly improve their own health, and clients with obesity or lifestyle-related diseases can learn self-control. In Shoku-dietary Coaching, the basis for the differentiation between healthy and unhealthy conditions is not only the parameters measured by medical devices. In Shoku-dietary Coaching, attention is directed to clients' assessment of their own lifestyle, dietary goals they have, and actions they will take to achieve them. To increase the health level of clients, we are developing techniques to enhance their motivation by showing sympathy with and support for their dietary behavior and health awareness. In addition, we give guidance through both theory and the practice of such things as having three meals a day at regular hours, knowing the kinds and daily amounts of foods appropriate for each client, and clarifying the percentages of seasonings necessary for cooking. The habit of having meals at regular hours alleviates stress, promotes communication with people sitting at the same table, and increases the health level of both the client and the others. These are important elements in the theory of Shoku-dietary Coaching. Putting the above into practice should not be limited to clients, but should include the clinic staff so as to deepen their own understanding and communication. Enhanced communication reinforces team medical care in the clinic. Communication skills which involve respect for others, continuous motivation of individuals, and achievement of purposes that may even require a long time may be useful for all people.

  20. Anti-inflammatory Dietary Inflammatory Index scores are associated with healthier scores on other dietary indices

    PubMed Central

    Wirth, Michael D.; Hébert, James R.; Shivappa, Nitin; Hand, Gregory A.; Hurley, Thomas G.; Drenowatz, Clemens; McMahon, Daria; Shook, Robin P.; Blair, Steven N.

    2015-01-01

    Dietary components are important determinants of systemic inflammation; a risk factor for most chronic diseases. The Dietary Inflammatory Index (DII) was developed to assess dietary inflammatory potential. It was hypothesized that anti-inflammatory DII scores would be associated with ‘healthier’ scores on other dietary indices. The Energy Balance Study is an observational study focusing on energy intake and expenditure in young adults; only baseline data were used for this analysis (n=430). The DII, as well as the Healthy Eating Index-2010 (HEI-2010), the Alternative Healthy Eating Index (AHEI), and the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension Index (DASH) were calculated based on one to three 24-hour dietary recalls. General linear models were used to estimate least square means of the AHEI, HEI-2010, and DASH according to DII quartiles. Those with higher (i.e., more pro-inflammatory) DII scores were more likely to be males, have less than a completed college education, and be younger. Additionally, those with higher scores for cognitive restraint for eating or drive for thinness had lower (i.e., anti-inflammatory) DII scores. Linear regression analyses indicated that as the DII increased, the AHEI, HEI-2010, and DASH dietary indices decreased (i.e., became more unhealthy, all p<0.01). The DII is a novel tool that characterizes the inflammatory potential of diet and is grounded in the peer-reviewed literature on diet and inflammation. Findings from the Energy Balance Study indicate that the DII is associated with other dietary indices, but has the added advantage of specifically measuring dietary inflammatory potential, a risk factor for chronic disease. PMID:26923507

  1. Determinants of dietary supplement use--healthy individuals use dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Kofoed, Christina L F; Christensen, Jane; Dragsted, Lars O; Tjønneland, Anne; Roswall, Nina

    2015-06-28

    The prevalence of dietary supplement use varies largely among populations, and previous studies have indicated that it is high in the Danish population compared with other European countries. The diversity in supplement use across countries indicates that cultural and environmental factors could influence the use of dietary supplements. Only few studies investigating the use of dietary supplements have been conducted in the Danish population. The present cross-sectional study is based on 54,948 Danes, aged 50-64 years, who completed self-administrated questionnaires on diet, dietary supplements and lifestyle between 1993 and 1997. A health index including smoking, physical activity, alcohol and diet, and a metabolic risk index including waist circumference, urinary glucose and measured hypertension were constructed. Logistic regression was used to investigate these determinants in relation to the intake of dietary supplements. We found that 71 % of the participants were dietary supplement users; female sex, older age groups and higher educated participants were more likely to be users of any dietary supplements. One additional point in the health index was associated with 19, 16 and 9 % higher likelihood of being user of any, more common and less common supplements, respectively. In the metabolic risk index, one additional point was associated with 17 and 16 % lower likelihood of being user of any supplement and more common supplements, respectively. No significant association was found for less common supplement use. In conclusion, those with the healthiest lifestyle were more likely to use dietary supplements. Thus, lifestyle and dietary composition should be considered as confounders on supplement use and health outcomes.

  2. Anti-inflammatory Dietary Inflammatory Index scores are associated with healthier scores on other dietary indices.

    PubMed

    Wirth, Michael D; Hébert, James R; Shivappa, Nitin; Hand, Gregory A; Hurley, Thomas G; Drenowatz, Clemens; McMahon, Daria; Shook, Robin P; Blair, Steven N

    2016-03-01

    Dietary components are important determinants of systemic inflammation, a risk factor for most chronic diseases. The Dietary Inflammatory Index (DII) was developed to assess dietary inflammatory potential. It was hypothesized that anti-inflammatory DII scores would be associated with "healthier" scores on other dietary indices. The Energy Balance Study is an observational study focusing on energy intake and expenditure in young adults; only baseline data were used for this analysis (n=430). The DII, as well as the Healthy Eating Index-2010 (HEI-2010), the Alternative Healthy Eating Index (AHEI), and the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension Index (DASH) were calculated based on one to three 24-hour dietary recalls. General linear models were used to estimate least square means of the AHEI, HEI-2010, and DASH according to DII quartiles. Those with higher (ie, more proinflammatory) DII scores were more likely to be males, have less than a completed college education, and be younger. In addition, those with higher scores for cognitive restraint for eating or drive for thinness had lower (ie, anti-inflammatory) DII scores. Linear regression analyses indicated that as the DII increased, the AHEI, HEI-2010, and DASH dietary indices decreased (ie, became more unhealthy, all P<.01). The DII is a novel tool that characterizes the inflammatory potential of diet and is grounded in the peer-reviewed literature on diet and inflammation. Findings from the Energy Balance Study indicate that the DII is associated with other dietary indices, but has the added advantage of specifically measuring dietary inflammatory potential, a risk factor for chronic disease.

  3. Dietary shifts and implications for US agriculture.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, P

    1995-06-01

    Changes to healthier dietary patterns similar to those of traditional Mediterranean diets or those of the US government's dietary guidelines and food guide pyramid would require significant changes in American agricultural practices. The volume, mix, production, and marketing of agricultural commodities would need to be modified. Because differences between actual and recommended intakes for major food groups are quite large and affect a broad range of products, adjustments in supply and demand could overshadow past experience in dealing with such changes. New food and agriculture policies may well be needed to ease and accelerate agricultural adjustments, to improve nutritional characteristics of popular foods, and to promote desirable changes in consumers' food choices.

  4. Overcoming Consumer Inertia to Dietary Guidance12

    PubMed Central

    Webb, Densie; Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol

    2015-01-01

    Despite 35 y of dietary guidance, there has been no substantial shift in consumer compliance. Consumers report that they seek information on nutrition and healthy eating, but most are not paying attention to dietary recommendations. For guidance to be effective, it must be realistic. Even with increasingly detailed nutrition information and evidence that diet affects health outcomes, convenience and taste remain the strongest determinants of food choices. It is up to health educators to clear up confusion and give consumers control with nutrition messages that are realistic, positive, easy to understand, and actionable without an expectation that consumers will surrender foods they love. PMID:26178023

  5. Overcoming consumer inertia to dietary guidance.

    PubMed

    Webb, Densie; Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol

    2015-07-01

    Despite 35 y of dietary guidance, there has been no substantial shift in consumer compliance. Consumers report that they seek information on nutrition and healthy eating, but most are not paying attention to dietary recommendations. For guidance to be effective, it must be realistic. Even with increasingly detailed nutrition information and evidence that diet affects health outcomes, convenience and taste remain the strongest determinants of food choices. It is up to health educators to clear up confusion and give consumers control with nutrition messages that are realistic, positive, easy to understand, and actionable without an expectation that consumers will surrender foods they love.

  6. Dietary and viscosupplementation in ankle arthritis.

    PubMed

    Khosla, Shaun K; Baumhauer, Judith F

    2008-09-01

    Glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate are the most well-marketed dietary supplements directed toward managing symptoms associated with osteoarthritis. The presumption of their benefit in the ankle is based largely on promising results from their use in knee osteoarthritis. Likewise, viscosupplementation has proved to be efficacious in the management of osteoarthritis of the knee. Preliminary studies demonstrate a realization of this benefit in the ankle joint, but further research is required. So far, the literature has shown the dietary and viscosupplementation discussed in this article to be relatively safe for use.

  7. 21 CFR 101.36 - Nutrition labeling of dietary supplements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., total calories, calories from fat, total fat, saturated fat, trans fat, cholesterol, sodium, total..., saturated fat, cholesterol, total carbohydrate, dietary fiber, vitamin K, selenium, manganese, chromium... fat, saturated fat, cholesterol, sodium, potassium, total carbohydrate, and dietary fiber,...

  8. Dietary cholesterol and plasma lipoprotein profiles: Randomized controlled trials

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Early work suggested that dietary cholesterol increased plasma total cholesterol concentrations in humans. Given the relationship between elevated plasma cholesterol concentrations and cardiovascular disease risk, dietary guidelines have consistently recommended limiting food sources of cholesterol....

  9. DIETARY EXPOSURES OF YOUNG CHILDREN, PART 3: MODELLING

    EPA Science Inventory

    A deterministic model was used to model dietary exposure of young children. Parameters included pesticide residue on food before handling, surface pesticide loading, transfer efficiencies and children's activity patterns. Three components of dietary pesticide exposure were includ...

  10. Ontogenetic Differences in Dietary Fat Influence Microbiota Assembly in the Zebrafish Gut

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Sandi; Stephens, W. Zac; Burns, Adam R.; Stagaman, Keaton; David, Lawrence A.; Bohannan, Brendan J. M.; Guillemin, Karen

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Gut microbiota influence the development and physiology of their animal hosts, and these effects are determined in part by the composition of these microbial communities. Gut microbiota composition can be affected by introduction of microbes from the environment, changes in the gut habitat during development, and acute dietary alterations. However, little is known about the relationship between gut and environmental microbiotas or about how host development and dietary differences during development impact the assembly of gut microbiota. We sought to explore these relationships using zebrafish, an ideal model because they are constantly immersed in a defined environment and can be fed the same diet for their entire lives. We conducted a cross-sectional study in zebrafish raised on a high-fat, control, or low-fat diet and used bacterial 16S rRNA gene sequencing to survey microbial communities in the gut and external environment at different developmental ages. Gut and environmental microbiota compositions rapidly diverged following the initiation of feeding and became increasingly different as zebrafish grew under conditions of a constant diet. Different dietary fat levels were associated with distinct gut microbiota compositions at different ages. In addition to alterations in individual bacterial taxa, we identified putative assemblages of bacterial lineages that covaried in abundance as a function of age, diet, and location. These results reveal dynamic relationships between dietary fat levels and the microbial communities residing in the intestine and the surrounding environment during ontogenesis. PMID:26419876

  11. Dietary supplements and team-sport performance.

    PubMed

    Bishop, David

    2010-12-01

    A well designed diet is the foundation upon which optimal training and performance can be developed. However, as long as competitive sports have existed, athletes have attempted to improve their performance by ingesting a variety of substances. This practice has given rise to a multi-billion-dollar industry that aggressively markets its products as performance enhancing, often without objective, scientific evidence to support such claims. While a number of excellent reviews have evaluated the performance-enhancing effects of most dietary supplements, less attention has been paid to the performance-enhancing claims of dietary supplements in the context of team-sport performance. Dietary supplements that enhance some types of athletic performance may not necessarily enhance team-sport performance (and vice versa). Thus, the first aim of this review is to critically evaluate the ergogenic value of the most common dietary supplements used by team-sport athletes. The term dietary supplements will be used in this review and is defined as any product taken by the mouth, in addition to common foods, that has been proposed to have a performance-enhancing effect; this review will only discuss substances that are not currently banned by the World Anti-Doping Agency. Evidence is emerging to support the performance-enhancing claims of some, but not all, dietary supplements that have been proposed to improve team-sport-related performance. For example, there is good evidence that caffeine can improve single-sprint performance, while caffeine, creatine and sodium bicarbonate ingestion have all been demonstrated to improve multiple-sprint performance. The evidence is not so strong for the performance-enhancing benefits of β-alanine or colostrum. Current evidence does not support the ingestion of ribose, branched-chain amino acids or β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate, especially in well trained athletes. More research on the performance-enhancing effects of the dietary supplements

  12. AOAC SMPR 2014.007: Authentication of selected Vaccinium species (Anthocyanins) in dietary ingredients and dietary supplements

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This AOAC Standard Method Performance Requirements (SMPR) is for authentication of selected Vaccinium species in dietary ingredients and dietary supplements containing a single Vaccinium species using anthocyanin profiles. SMPRs describe the minimum recommended performance characteristics to be used...

  13. Prior Exercise Increases Subsequent Utilization of Dietary Fat.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Votruba, Susan B.; Atkinson, Richard L.; Hirvonen, Matt D.; Schoeller, Dale A.

    2002-01-01

    Investigated whether exercise would alter the partitioning of dietary fat between oxidation and storage. Seven women participated in rest, light exercise, and heavy exercise. Researchers calculated stationary cycle exercise sessions and dietary fat oxidation. Prior exercise had a positive effect on oxidation of dietary monosaturated fat but not…

  14. 21 CFR 119.1 - Dietary supplements containing ephedrine alkaloids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Dietary supplements containing ephedrine alkaloids... UNREASONABLE RISK § 119.1 Dietary supplements containing ephedrine alkaloids. Dietary supplements containing ephedrine alkaloids present an unreasonable risk of illness or injury under conditions of use recommended...

  15. 21 CFR 119.1 - Dietary supplements containing ephedrine alkaloids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dietary supplements containing ephedrine alkaloids... UNREASONABLE RISK § 119.1 Dietary supplements containing ephedrine alkaloids. Dietary supplements containing ephedrine alkaloids present an unreasonable risk of illness or injury under conditions of use recommended...

  16. 21 CFR 119.1 - Dietary supplements containing ephedrine alkaloids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Dietary supplements containing ephedrine alkaloids... UNREASONABLE RISK § 119.1 Dietary supplements containing ephedrine alkaloids. Dietary supplements containing ephedrine alkaloids present an unreasonable risk of illness or injury under conditions of use recommended...

  17. 21 CFR 119.1 - Dietary supplements containing ephedrine alkaloids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Dietary supplements containing ephedrine alkaloids... UNREASONABLE RISK § 119.1 Dietary supplements containing ephedrine alkaloids. Dietary supplements containing ephedrine alkaloids present an unreasonable risk of illness or injury under conditions of use recommended...

  18. 21 CFR 119.1 - Dietary supplements containing ephedrine alkaloids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Dietary supplements containing ephedrine alkaloids... UNREASONABLE RISK § 119.1 Dietary supplements containing ephedrine alkaloids. Dietary supplements containing ephedrine alkaloids present an unreasonable risk of illness or injury under conditions of use recommended...

  19. 9 CFR 381.124 - Dietary food claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Dietary food claims. 381.124 Section 381.124 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... Dietary food claims. If a product purports to be or is represented for any special dietary use by man,...

  20. 9 CFR 381.124 - Dietary food claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Dietary food claims. 381.124 Section 381.124 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... Dietary food claims. If a product purports to be or is represented for any special dietary use by man,...

  1. 9 CFR 381.124 - Dietary food claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Dietary food claims. 381.124 Section 381.124 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... Dietary food claims. If a product purports to be or is represented for any special dietary use by man,...

  2. 9 CFR 381.124 - Dietary food claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Dietary food claims. 381.124 Section 381.124 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... Dietary food claims. If a product purports to be or is represented for any special dietary use by man,...

  3. 9 CFR 381.124 - Dietary food claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Dietary food claims. 381.124 Section 381.124 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... Dietary food claims. If a product purports to be or is represented for any special dietary use by man,...

  4. Evaluating Nutrition Education Programming by Using a Dietary Screener

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schultz, Jennifer; Litchfield, Ruth

    2016-01-01

    Short dietary assessment instruments known as screeners have potential for use in evaluating nutrition education programming because detecting change in dietary intake can demonstrate movement toward program goals. Using screeners results in objective dietary intake data but involves less administrative time, training, and cost than other…

  5. 21 CFR 101.36 - Nutrition labeling of dietary supplements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Nutrition labeling of dietary supplements. 101.36... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FOOD LABELING Specific Nutrition Labeling Requirements and Guidelines § 101.36 Nutrition labeling of dietary supplements. (a) The label of a dietary supplement that...

  6. 21 CFR 101.36 - Nutrition labeling of dietary supplements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Nutrition labeling of dietary supplements. 101.36... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FOOD LABELING Specific Nutrition Labeling Requirements and Guidelines § 101.36 Nutrition labeling of dietary supplements. (a) The label of a dietary supplement that...

  7. 21 CFR 101.36 - Nutrition labeling of dietary supplements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Nutrition labeling of dietary supplements. 101.36... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FOOD LABELING Specific Nutrition Labeling Requirements and Guidelines § 101.36 Nutrition labeling of dietary supplements. (a) The label of a dietary supplement that...

  8. 21 CFR 101.36 - Nutrition labeling of dietary supplements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Nutrition labeling of dietary supplements. 101.36... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FOOD LABELING Specific Nutrition Labeling Requirements and Guidelines § 101.36 Nutrition labeling of dietary supplements. (a) The label of a dietary supplement that...

  9. ADHD Is Associated with a "Western" Dietary Pattern in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Amber L.; Robinson, Monique; Smith, Grant J.; Ambrosini, Gina L.; Piek, Jan P.; Oddy, Wendy H.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine the relationship between dietary patterns and ADHD in a population-based cohort of adolescents. Method: The Raine Study is a prospective study following 2,868 live births. At the 14-year follow-up, the authors collected detailed adolescent dietary data, allowing for the determination of major dietary patterns using factor…

  10. Association of dietary diversity score with anxiety in women.

    PubMed

    Poorrezaeian, Mina; Siassi, Fereydoun; Qorbani, Mostafa; Karimi, Javad; Koohdani, Fariba; Asayesh, Hamid; Sotoudeh, Gity

    2015-12-15

    Evidence suggests that diet plays an important role in the development of mental disorders, especially anxiety. Dietary diversity score is an indicator for assessing diet quality. However, its association with anxiety has not been investigated. The aim of this study was to examine the association of dietary diversity score with anxiety. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 360 women attending health centers in the south of Tehran in 2014. General information among others were collected. Weight, height and waist circumference were measured and body mass index (BMI) was calculated. Dietary intake and anxiety score were assessed using a 24-h dietary recall and Depression, Anxiety, Stress Scales (DASS) questionnaires, respectively. Dietary diversity score was computed according to the guidelines of FAO. About 35% of the participants were found to exhibit anxiety. The dietary diversity score in 12.5% of the subjects were between 1 and 3 (low dietary diversity score) but 87.5% scored between 4 and 7 (high dietary diversity score). The adjusted mean of anxiety score in subjects with high dietary diversity score was significantly lower than those with low dietary diversity score. Dietary diversity score was found to be inversely associated with anxiety. However, the causality between anxiety and dietary diversity could not be determined.

  11. Dietary protein-induced hepatic IGF-1 secretion mediated by PPARγ activation

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Xiaojuan; Wang, Songbo; Xu, Jingren; Zhuang, Lu; Xing, Kongping; Zhang, Mengyuan; Zhu, Xiaotong; Wang, Lina; Gao, Ping; Xi, Qianyun; Sun, Jiajie; Zhang, Yongliang; Li, Tiejun; Shu, Gang; Jiang, Qingyan

    2017-01-01

    Dietary protein or amino acid (AA) is a crucial nutritional factor to regulate hepatic insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) expression and secretion. However, the underlying intracellular mechanism by which dietary protein or AA induces IGF-1 expression remains unknown. We compared the IGF-1 gene expression and plasma IGF-1 level of pigs fed with normal crude protein (CP, 20%) and low-protein levels (LP, 14%). RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) was performed to detect transcript expression in the liver in response to dietary protein. The results showed that serum concentrations and mRNA levels of IGF-1 in the liver were higher in the CP group than in the LP group. RNA-seq analysis identified a total of 1319 differentially expressed transcripts (667 upregulated and 652 downregulated), among which the terms “oxidative phosphorylation”, “ribosome”, “gap junction”, “PPAR signaling pathway”, and “focal adhesion” were enriched. In addition, the porcine primary hepatocyte and HepG2 cell models also demonstrated that the mRNA and protein levels of IGF-1 and PPARγ increased with the increasing AA concentration in the culture. The PPARγ activator troglitazone increased IGF-1 gene expression and secretion in a dose dependent manner. Furthermore, inhibition of PPARγ effectively reversed the effects of the high AA concentration on the mRNA expression of IGF-1 and IGFBP-1 in HepG2 cells. Moreover, the protein levels of IGF-1 and PPARγ, as well as the phosphorylation of mTOR, significantly increased in HepG2 cells under high AA concentrations. mTOR phosphorylation can be decreased by the mTOR antagonist, rapamycin. The immunoprecipitation results also showed that high AA concentrations significantly increased the interaction of mTOR and PPARγ. In summary, PPARγ plays an important role in the regulation of IGF-1 secretion and gene expression in response to dietary protein. PMID:28257428

  12. Dietary protein-induced hepatic IGF-1 secretion mediated by PPARγ activation.

    PubMed

    Wan, Xiaojuan; Wang, Songbo; Xu, Jingren; Zhuang, Lu; Xing, Kongping; Zhang, Mengyuan; Zhu, Xiaotong; Wang, Lina; Gao, Ping; Xi, Qianyun; Sun, Jiajie; Zhang, Yongliang; Li, Tiejun; Shu, Gang; Jiang, Qingyan

    2017-01-01

    Dietary protein or amino acid (AA) is a crucial nutritional factor to regulate hepatic insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) expression and secretion. However, the underlying intracellular mechanism by which dietary protein or AA induces IGF-1 expression remains unknown. We compared the IGF-1 gene expression and plasma IGF-1 level of pigs fed with normal crude protein (CP, 20%) and low-protein levels (LP, 14%). RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) was performed to detect transcript expression in the liver in response to dietary protein. The results showed that serum concentrations and mRNA levels of IGF-1 in the liver were higher in the CP group than in the LP group. RNA-seq analysis identified a total of 1319 differentially expressed transcripts (667 upregulated and 652 downregulated), among which the terms "oxidative phosphorylation", "ribosome", "gap junction", "PPAR signaling pathway", and "focal adhesion" were enriched. In addition, the porcine primary hepatocyte and HepG2 cell models also demonstrated that the mRNA and protein levels of IGF-1 and PPARγ increased with the increasing AA concentration in the culture. The PPARγ activator troglitazone increased IGF-1 gene expression and secretion in a dose dependent manner. Furthermore, inhibition of PPARγ effectively reversed the effects of the high AA concentration on the mRNA expression of IGF-1 and IGFBP-1 in HepG2 cells. Moreover, the protein levels of IGF-1 and PPARγ, as well as the phosphorylation of mTOR, significantly increased in HepG2 cells under high AA concentrations. mTOR phosphorylation can be decreased by the mTOR antagonist, rapamycin. The immunoprecipitation results also showed that high AA concentrations significantly increased the interaction of mTOR and PPARγ. In summary, PPARγ plays an important role in the regulation of IGF-1 secretion and gene expression in response to dietary protein.

  13. Dietary fish oil positively regulates plasma leptin and adiponectin levels in sucrose-fed, insulin-resistant rats.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Andrea S; Lombardo, Yolanda B; Lacorte, Jean-Marc; Chicco, Adriana G; Rouault, Christine; Slama, Gérard; Rizkalla, Salwa W

    2005-08-01

    Insulin resistance and adiposity induced by a long-term sucrose-rich diet (SRD) in rats could be reversed by fish oil (FO). Regulation of plasma leptin and adiponectin levels, as well as their gene expression, by FO might be implicated in these findings. This study was designed to evaluate the long-term regulation of leptin and adiponectin by dietary FO in a dietary model of insulin resistance induced by long-term SRD in rats and to determine their impact on adiposity and insulin sensitivity. Rats were randomized to consume a control diet (CD; n = 25) or an SRD (n = 50) for 7 mo. Subsequently, the SRD-fed rats were randomized to consume SRD+FO or to continue on SRD for an additional 2 mo. Long-term SRD induced overweight and decreased both plasma leptin and adiponectin levels without change in gene expression. Dyslipidemia, adiposity, and insulin resistance accompanied these modifications. Shifting the source of fat to FO for 2 mo increased plasma levels of both adipokines, reversed insulin resistance and dyslipidemia, and improved adiposity. These results were not associated with modifications in gene expression. These results suggest that increasing both adipokines by dietary FO might play an essential role in the normalization of insulin resistance and adiposity in dietary-induced, insulin-resistant models.

  14. How parental dietary behavior and food parenting practices affect children's dietary behavior. Interacting sources of influence?

    PubMed

    Larsen, Junilla K; Hermans, Roel C J; Sleddens, Ester F C; Engels, Rutger C M E; Fisher, Jennifer O; Kremers, Stef P J

    2015-06-01

    Until now, the literatures on the effects of food parenting practices and parents' own dietary behavior on children's dietary behavior have largely been independent from one another. Integrating findings across these areas could provide insight on simultaneous and interacting influences on children's food intake. In this narrative review, we provide a conceptual model that bridges the gap between both literatures and consists of three main hypotheses. First, parental dietary behavior and food parenting practices are important interactive sources of influence on children's dietary behavior and Body Mass Index (BMI). Second, parental influences are importantly mediated by changes in the child's home food environment. Third, parenting context (i.e., parenting styles and differential parental treatment) moderates effects of food parenting practices, whereas child characteristics (i.e., temperament and appetitive traits) mainly moderate effects of the home food environment. Future studies testing (parts of) this conceptual model are needed to inform effective parent-child overweight preventive interventions.

  15. ESTIMATING EXCESS DIETARY EXPOSURES OF YOUNG CHILDREN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nine children in a daycare that routinely applied the pesticide, esfenvalerate, were studied to assess excess dietary exposures. Surface wipes, a standard food item of processed American cheese slice pressed on the surface and handled by the child, an accelerometer reading, and ...

  16. Pragmatic dietary advice for diabetes during Navratris

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Lovely; Khandelwal, Deepak; Singla, Rajiv; Gupta, Piyush; Kalra, Sanjay

    2017-01-01

    Navratri is one of the most common religious fasts observed among Hindus. A large number of people with diabetes follow Navratris fast irrespective of its health implications, often without proper education and medical advice. The quest for the scientific research on dietary advices for Hindu fasts including Navratris shows paucity of literature comparative to the dietary advices advocated during Ramadan. The eating and physical activity patterns during different fasts vary a lot depending up on social and cultural factors. Even eating pattern is not uniform among all persons following Navratris and is modified as per their region, local culture, and religious beliefs. Dietary advice during Navratris depends upon pattern of fasting, religious beliefs, and local sociocultural factors. In this review, efforts are made to provide pragmatic dietary advice for people with diabetes, modifications in the menus and cooking practices, and timings of the meals for successful blood glucose management during Navratris. This review will also help plan diet and physical activity advice for persons observing other fasts as well. PMID:28217524

  17. 38 CFR 52.140 - Dietary services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... meets the daily nutritional and special dietary needs of each participant. (a) Food and nutritional services. The program management provides and/or contracts with a food service entity and provides and/or contracts sufficient support personnel competent to carry out the functions of the food service. (1)...

  18. 38 CFR 52.140 - Dietary services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... meets the daily nutritional and special dietary needs of each participant. (a) Food and nutritional... provide nutritional guidance. (2) A qualified dietitian is one who is qualified based upon registration by...— (i) Conduct participant nutritional assessments and recommend nutritional intervention as...

  19. Dietary Habits of Greek Primary School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piperakis, S. M.; Papadimitriou, V.; Zafiropoulou, M.; Piperakis, A. S.; Zisis, P.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess Greek primary (1st to 6th grade) school children's dietary habits and the factors influencing them. Our results show that children know the value of different foods. The socio-economic status of father has no effect on the attitude of children towards choosing their diet, however, mothers' educational status…

  20. Dietary fructose and metabolic syndrome and diabetes.

    PubMed

    Bantle, John P

    2009-06-01

    Studies in both healthy and diabetic subjects demonstrated that fructose produced a smaller postprandial rise in plasma glucose and serum insulin than other common carbohydrates. Substitution of dietary fructose for other carbohydrates produced a 13% reduction in mean plasma glucose in a study of type 1 and type 2 diabetic subjects. However, there is concern that fructose may aggravate lipemia. In 1 study, day-long plasma triglycerides in healthy men were 32% greater while they consumed a high-fructose diet than while they consumed a high-glucose diet. There is also concern that fructose may be a factor contributing to the growing worldwide prevalence of obesity. Fructose stimulates insulin secretion less than does glucose and glucose-containing carbohydrates. Because insulin increases leptin release, lower circulating insulin and leptin after fructose ingestion might inhibit appetite less than consumption of other carbohydrates and lead to increased energy intake. However, there is no convincing experimental evidence that dietary fructose actually does increase energy intake. There is also no evidence that fructose accelerates protein glycation. High fructose intake has been associated with increased risk of gout in men and increased risk of kidney stones. Dietary fructose appears to have adverse effects on postprandial serum triglycerides, so adding fructose in large amounts to the diet is undesirable. Glucose may be a suitable replacement sugar. The fructose that occurs naturally in fruits and vegetables provides only a modest amount of dietary fructose and should not be of concern.

  1. Dietary fat composition and dementia risk.

    PubMed

    Morris, Martha Clare; Tangney, Christine C

    2014-09-01

    This is a qualitative review of the evidence linking dietary fat composition to the risk of developing dementia. The review considers laboratory and animal studies that identify underlying mechanisms as well as prospective epidemiologic studies linking biochemical or dietary fatty acids to cognitive decline or incident dementia. Several lines of evidence provide support for the hypothesis that high saturated or trans fatty acids increase the risk of dementia and high polyunsaturated or monounsaturated fatty acids decrease risk. Dietary fat composition is an important factor in blood-brain barrier function and the blood cholesterol profile. Cholesterol and blood-brain barrier function are involved in the neuropathology of Alzheimer's disease, and the primary genetic risk factor for Alzheimer's disease, apolipoprotein E-ε4, is involved in cholesterol transport. The epidemiologic literature is seemingly inconsistent on this topic, but many studies are difficult to interpret because of analytical techniques that ignored negative confounding by other fatty acids, which likely resulted in null findings. The studies that appropriately adjust for confounding by other fats support the dietary fat composition hypothesis.

  2. 42 CFR 460.78 - Dietary services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Dietary services. 460.78 Section 460.78 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY...

  3. 42 CFR 460.78 - Dietary services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Dietary services. 460.78 Section 460.78 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY...

  4. 42 CFR 460.78 - Dietary services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Dietary services. 460.78 Section 460.78 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY...

  5. Dietary Issues Inpatients Face With Being Vegetarian

    PubMed Central

    Potter-Dunlop, Julie A.; Tse, Alice M.

    2016-01-01

    This article reviews the literature from 1985 through 2010 on research related to the dietary issues vegetarian inpatients may encounter in the acute care setting. A thematic portrayal of vegetarianism in the context of the inpatient setting is described. Implications for future research and nursing practice are identified. PMID:22157507

  6. Assessing Vitamin D Levels in Dietary Supplements

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vitamin D is a nutrient of public health concern, particularly in the elderly, and is naturally present in some foods, added to others, and available as a dietary supplement. It is essential for bone growth and bone remodeling and recent research indicates it has other roles in human health, includi...

  7. Dietary restrictions, bone density, and bone quality.

    PubMed

    Huang, Tsang-hai; Ables, Gene P

    2016-01-01

    Caloric restriction (CR), protein restriction (PR), and specific amino acid restriction (e.g., methionine restriction (MR)) are different dietary interventions that have been confirmed with regard to their comprehensive benefits to metabolism and health. Based on bone densitometric measurements, weight loss induced by dietary restriction is known to be accompanied by reduced areal bone mineral density, bone mass, and/or bone size, and it is considered harmful to bone health. However, because of technological advancements in bone densitometric instruments (e.g., high-resolution X-ray tomography), dietary restrictions have been found to cause a reduction in bone mass/size rather than volumetric bone mineral density. Furthermore, when considering bone quality, bone health consists of diverse indices that cannot be fully represented by densitometric measurements alone. Indeed, there is evidence that moderate dietary restrictions do not impair intrinsic bone material properties, despite the reduction in whole-bone strength because of a smaller bone size. In the present review, we integrate research evidence from traditional densitometric measurements, metabolic status assays (e.g., energy metabolism, oxidative stresses, and inflammatory responses), and biomaterial analyses to provide revised conclusions regarding the effects of CR, PR, and MR on the skeleton.

  8. Digital food photography: Dietary surveillance and beyond

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The method used for creating a database of approximately 20,000 digital images of multiple portion sizes of foods linked to the USDA's Food and Nutrient Database for Dietary Studies (FNDDS) is presented. The creation of this database began in 2002, and its development has spanned 10 years. Initially...

  9. Dietary Supplement Use by Military Personnel

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-12-01

    release of the report on June 10th. A sponsor briefing was held on June 3rd at the Samueli Institute headquarters in Alexandria, V A. The...of Health) and Dr. Joan Walter (The Samueli Institute) presented a description of their respective institutions, their work related to dietary

  10. Dietary phosphorus, serum phosphorus, and cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Menon, Madhav C; Ix, Joachim H

    2013-10-01

    Recent epidemiologic studies have linked higher serum phosphorus concentrations to cardiovascular disease (CVD) events and mortality. This association has been identified in the general population and in those with chronic kidney disease (CKD). The risk of adverse outcomes appears to begin with phosphorus concentrations within the upper limit of the normal reference range. Multiple experimental studies have suggested pathogenetic mechanisms that involve direct and indirect effects of high phosphorus concentrations to explain these associations. Drawing from these observations, guideline-forming agencies have recommended that serum phosphorus concentrations be maintained within the normal reference range in patients with CKD and that dietary phosphorus restriction or use of intestinal phosphate binders should be considered to achieve this goal. However, outside the dialysis population, the links between dietary phosphorus intake and serum phosphorus concentrations, and dietary phosphorus intake and CVD events, are uncertain. With specific reference to the nondialysis populations, this review discusses the available data linking dietary phosphorus intake with serum phosphorus concentrations and CVD events.

  11. Dietary(sensory)variety and energy balance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The prevalence of overweight and obesity in US adults is currently 68%, compared with about 47% in the early 1970s. Many dietary factors have been proposed to contribute to the US obesity epidemic, including the percentage of energy intake from fat, carbohydrate and protein; glycemic index; fruit a...

  12. Cellular Targets of Dietary Polyphenol Resveratrol

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-03-01

    corresponding mRNA from skin fibroblasts derived from Alzheimer disease patients. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 88: 5852. 8. Sporn, M. B., and Suh, N. 2002......Dietary Polyphenol Resveratrol 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-04-1-0059 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S

  13. Physician-Patient Communication about Dietary Supplements

    PubMed Central

    Tarn, Derjung M.; Paterniti, Debora A.; Good, Jeffrey S.; Coulter, Ian D.; Galliher, James M.; Kravitz, Richard L.; Karlamangla, Arun; Wenger, Neil S.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Describe the content and frequency of provider-patient dietary supplement discussions during primary care office visits. Methods Inductive content analysis of 1477 transcribed audio-recorded office visits to 102 primary care providers was combined with patient and provider surveys. Encounters were collected in Los Angeles, California (2009–2010), geographically-diverse practice settings across the United States (2004–2005), and Sacramento, CA (1998–1999). Results Providers discussed 738 dietary supplements during encounters with 357 patients (24.2% of all encounters in the data). They mentioned: 1) reason for taking the supplement for 46.5% of dietary supplements; 2) how to take the supplement for 28.2%; 3) potential risks for 17.3%; 4) supplement effectiveness for 16.7%; and 5) supplement cost or affordability for 4.2%. Of these five topics, a mean of 1.13 (SD=1.2) topics were discussed for each supplement. More topics were reviewed for non-vitamin non-mineral supplements (mean 1.47 (SD=1.2)) than for vitamin/mineral supplements (mean 0.99 (SD=1.1); p<0.001). Conclusion While discussions about supplements are occurring, it is clear that more discussion might be needed to inform patient decisions about supplement use. Practice Implication Physicians could more frequently address topics that may influence patient dietary supplement use, such as the risks, effectiveness, and costs of supplements. PMID:23466249

  14. The role of dietary fat in obesity.

    PubMed

    Astrup, Arne

    2005-02-01

    Current scientific evidence indicates that dietary fat plays a role in weight loss and maintenance. Meta-analyses of intervention trials find that fat-reduced diets cause a 3-4-kg larger weight loss than normal-fat diets. A 10% reduction in dietary fat can cause a 4-5-kg weight loss in individuals with initial body mass index of 30 kg m (-2). Short-term trials show that nonfat dietary components are equally important. Sugar-sweetened beverages promote weight gain, and replacement of energy from fat by sugar-sweetened beverages is counterproductive in diets aimed at weight loss. Protein has been shown to be more satiating than carbohydrate, and fat-reduced diets with a high protein content (20-25% of energy) may increase weight loss significantly. There is little evidence that low-glycemic index foods facilitate weight control. Evidence linking certain fatty acids to body fatness is weak. Monounsaturated fatty acids may even be more fattening than polyunsaturated and saturated fats. No ad libitum dietary intervention study has shown that a normal-fat, high-monounsaturated fatty acid diet is comparable to a low-fat diet in preventing weight gain. Current evidence indicates that the best diet for prevention of weight gain, obesity, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease is low in fat and sugar-rich beverages and high in carbohydrates, fiber, grains, and protein.

  15. Evidence relating dietary sodium to cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Alderman, Michael H

    2006-06-01

    The expectation that dietary sodium intake might influence cardiovascular disease occurrence has been based upon its impact on blood pressure (BP). Solid experimental data confirms the ability of large (75-100 mmols/24 hours) changes in dietary sodium to reduce pressure by, on average, mid-low single digits. However, there is substantial inter-individual variation in BP response. In addition, sodium restriction generates other, sometimes undesirable effects, including increased insulin resistance, activation of the renin-angiotensin system, and increased sympathetic nerve activity. The health effects of salt restriction are, therefore, the sum of these recognized, and probably other unrecognized, intermediate effects. Ideally, salt restriction would be tested in a randomized clinical trial. In its absence, there are 9 observational studies linking baseline sodium intake, estimated by either 24 hour urine or dietary intake, to morbidity and mortality. The results have been inconsistent. The only study in hypertensive patients, there was an inverse relation of sodium to cardiovascular outcome. In a Japanese study, stroke incidence was increased among males with the highest salt intake. Two studies found a direct relation of sodium intake to cardiovascular mortality in an obese minority of the group studied. Taken together, these results suggest, not surprisingly given the genetic, behavioral, and environmental variety of humankind, that heterogeneity best describes the relation of sodium intake to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. In short, the available data provides no support for any universal recommendation of a particular level of dietary sodium.

  16. Dietary nutrients, additives, and fish health

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Disease outbreaks have become a major threat to the sustainability of the aquaculture industry, with antibiotics and chemicals historically used to treat animals ineffective or not allowed to be used today. In this book Dietary Nutrients, Additives, and Fish Health, the relationships between dietar...

  17. Foods, Nutrients, and Dietary Patterns: Interconnections and Implications for Dietary Guidelines.

    PubMed

    Tapsell, Linda C; Neale, Elizabeth P; Satija, Ambika; Hu, Frank B

    2016-05-01

    Dietary guidelines provide evidence-based statements on food choices to meet nutritional requirements and reduce the risk of prevailing chronic disease. They involve a substantial amount of research translation, and their implementation has important health consequences. Foods, however, are complex combinations of nutrients and other compounds that act synergistically within the food and across food combinations. In addition, the evidence base underpinning dietary guidelines accesses research that reflects different study designs, with inherent strengths and limitations. We propose a systematic approach for the review of evidence that begins with research on dietary patterns. This research will identify the combinations of foods that best protect, or appear deleterious to, health. Next, we suggest that evidence be sought from research that focuses on the effects of individual foods. Finally, nutrient-based research should be considered to explain the mechanisms by which these foods and dietary patterns exert their effects, take into account the effects of ingredients added to the food supply, and enable assessments of dietary sufficiency. The consideration of individual nutrients and food components (e.g., upper limits for saturated fat, added sugar, and sodium) provides important benchmarks for evaluating overall diet quality. The concepts of core and discretionary foods (nutrient-rich and nutrient-poor foods, respectively) enable distinctions between foods, and this has implications for the relation between food policy and food manufacturing. In summary, evidence supporting healthy dietary patterns provides the foundation for the development of dietary guidelines. Further reference to individual foods and nutrients follows from the foundation of healthy dietary patterns.

  18. Dietary proteins in obesity and in diabetes.

    PubMed

    Keller, Ulrich

    2011-03-01

    Dietary proteins influence body weight by affecting four targets for body weight regulation: satiety, thermogenesis, energy efficiency, and body composition. Protein ingestion results in higher ratings of satiety than equicaloric amounts of carbohydrates or fat. Their effect on satiety is mainly due to oxidation of amino acids fed in excess; this effect is higher with ingestion of specific "incomplete" proteins (vegetal) than with animal proteins. Diet-induced thermogenesis is higher for proteins than for other macronutrients. The increase in energy expenditure is caused by protein and urea synthesis and by gluconeogenesis. This effect is higher with animal proteins containing larger amounts of essential amino acids than with vegetable proteins. Specifically, diet-induced thermogenesis increases after protein ingestion by 20 - 30 %, but by only 5 - 10 % after carbohydrates and 0 - 5 % after ingestion of fat. Consumption of higher amounts of protein during dietary treatment of obesity resulted in greater weight loss than with lower amounts of protein in dietary studies lasting up to one year. During weight loss and decreased caloric intake, a relatively increased protein content of the diet maintained fat-free mass (i. e. muscle mass) and increased calcium balance, resulting in preservation of bone mineral content. This is of particular importance during weight loss after bariatric surgery because these patients are at risk for protein malnutrition. Adequate dietary protein intake in diabetes type 2 is of specific importance since proteins are relatively neutral with regard to glucose and lipid metabolism, and they preserve muscle and bone mass, which may be decreased in subjects with poorly controlled diabetes. Ingestion of dietary proteins in diabetes type 1 exerts a delayed postprandial increase in blood glucose levels due to protein-induced stimulation of pancreatic glucagon secretion. Higher than minimal amounts of protein in the diet needed for nitrogen

  19. Gonadal transcriptome alterations in response to dietary energy intake: sensing the reproductive environment.

    PubMed

    Martin, Bronwen; Pearson, Michele; Brenneman, Randall; Golden, Erin; Wood, William; Prabhu, Vinayakumar; Becker, Kevin G; Mattson, Mark P; Maudsley, Stuart

    2009-01-01

    Reproductive capacity and nutritional input are tightly linked and animals' specific responses to alterations in their physical environment and food availability are crucial to ensuring sustainability of that species. We have assessed how alterations in dietary energy intake (both reductions and excess), as well as in food availability, via intermittent fasting (IF), affect the gonadal transcriptome of both male and female rats. Starting at four months of age, male and female rats were subjected to a 20% or 40% caloric restriction (CR) dietary regime, every other day feeding (IF) or a high fat-high glucose (HFG) diet for six months. The transcriptional activity of the gonadal response to these variations in dietary energy intake was assessed at the individual gene level as well as at the parametric functional level. At the individual gene level, the females showed a higher degree of coherency in gonadal gene alterations to CR than the males. The gonadal transcriptional and hormonal response to IF was also significantly different between the male and female rats. The number of genes significantly regulated by IF in male animals was almost 5 times greater than in the females. These IF males also showed the highest testosterone to estrogen ratio in their plasma. Our data show that at the level of gonadal gene responses, the male rats on the IF regime adapt to their environment in a manner that is expected to increase the probability of eventual fertilization of females that the males predict are likely to be sub-fertile due to their perception of a food deficient environment.

  20. Effect of the types of dietary fats and non-dietary oils on bone metabolism.

    PubMed

    El-Sayed, Eman; Ibrahim, Khadiga

    2017-03-04

    Nutrients beyond calcium and vitamin D have a role on bone health, and in treatment and prevention of osteoporosis. Quality and quantity of dietary fat may have consequences on skeletal health. Diets with highly saturated fat content produce deleterious effects on bone mineralization in growing animals. Conversely, dietary n-3-long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids play an important role in bone metabolism and may help in prevention and treatment of bone disease. Some reports suggest a correlation between the dietary ratio of n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and bone formation. Specific dietary fatty acids were found to modulate prostanoid synthesis in bone tissue and improve bone formation in both animal and clinical trials. The skeletal benefits of dietary isoprenoids are extremely documented. Higher isoprenoids intake may relate to higher bone mineral density. Dietary supplements containing fish oil, individual polyunsaturated fatty acids, and isoprenoids could be used as adjuvant with bone medications in osteoportic conditions but their doses must be considered to avoid detrimental effect of over dosages.

  1. Dietary patterns, approaches, and multicultural perspective.

    PubMed

    Tucker, Katherine L

    2010-04-01

    Nutrition research has traditionally focused on single nutrients in relation to health. However, recent appreciation of the complex synergistic interactions among nutrients and other food constituents has led to a growing interest in total dietary patterns. Methods of measurement include summation of food or nutrient recommendations met, such as the United States Department of Agriculture Healthy Eating Index; data-driven approaches--principal components (PCA) and cluster analyses--which describe actual intake patterns in the population; and, most recently, reduced rank regression, which defines linear combinations of food intakes that maximally explain intermediate markers of disease. PCA, a form of factor analysis, derives linear combinations of foods based on their intercorrelations. Cluster analysis groups individuals into maximally differing eating patterns. These approaches have now been used in diverse populations with good reproducibility. In contrast, because it is based on associations with outcomes rather than on coherent behavioral patterns, reduced rank regression may be less reproducible, but more research is needed. However, it is likely to yield useful information for hypothesis generation. Together, the focus on dietary patterns has been fruitful in demonstrating the powerful protective associations of healthy or prudent dietary patterns, and the higher risk associations of Western or meat and refined grains patterns. The field, however, has not fully addressed the effects of diet in subpopulations, including ethnic minorities. Depending on food group coding, subdietary patterns may be obscured or artificially separated, leading to potentially misleading results. Further attention to the definition of the dietary patterns of different populations is critical to providing meaningful results. Still, dietary pattern research has great potential for use in nutrition policy, particularly as it demonstrates the importance of total diet in health

  2. Developing and implementing dietary guidelines in India.

    PubMed

    Krishnaswamy, Kamala

    2008-01-01

    Single nutrients are no solution to the problem of malnutrition. It is essential that food based dietary guidelines (FBDG) are developed and implemented to overcome the diet related diseases and promote health in the population. A multidisciplinary group was constituted to develop FBDGs in India. A manual with scientific details and an abridged version were prepared with 6 goals and 14 dietary guidelines covering all age groups to overcome the public health nutritional problems. The guidelines are based on dietary patterns and specific outcomes of health and disease. Dietary diversification has been suggested as the practical approach. Diets from locally available and culturally accepted foods in household measures have been suggested to ensure optimal health. For successful implementation of FBDGs, political/bureaucratic commitment are essential. It must become a tool in the developmental plans for food, nutrition, agriculture, rural, educational and biotechnology policies. Workshops and meetings were organized to sensitise the administrative set-up. The intersectoral nature of FBDG for implementation was highlighted. The department of women and child development, which is responsible for implementing the National Nutritional Policy, was recognized as nodal agency. Meetings were organised for secondary target audiences. The press was invited to participate in popularization of the FBDGs. Social marketing strategies were used to match the local dietary and cultural aspects. Interpersonal communication and professional societies were used for better dissemination. Industry and legislative bodies were requested to take active action in this regard. The FBDGs have to be implemented to achieve food and nutrition security and the Millennium Development Goals.

  3. Both Dietary Supplementation with Monosodium L-Glutamate and Fat Modify Circulating and Tissue Amino Acid Pools in Growing Pigs, but with Little Interactive Effect

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Zemeng; Zhou, Xiaoli; Wu, Fei; Yao, Kang; Kong, Xiangfeng; Li, Tiejun; Blachier, Francois; Yin, Yulong

    2014-01-01

    Background The Chinese population has undergone rapid transition to a high-fat diet. Furthermore, monosodium L-glutamate (MSG) is widely used as a daily food additive in China. Little information is available on the effects of oral MSG and dietary fat supplementation on the amino acid balance in tissues. The present study aimed to determine the effects of both dietary fat and MSG on amino acid metabolism in growing pigs, and to assess any possible interactions between these two nutrients. Methods and Results Four iso-nitrogenous and iso-caloric diets (basal diet, high fat diet, basal diet with 3% MSG and high fat diet with 3% MSG) were provided to growing pigs. The dietary supplementation with fat and MSG used alone and in combination were found to modify circulating and tissue amino acid pools in growing pigs. Both dietary fat and MSG modified the expression of gene related to amino acid transport in jejunum. Conclusions Both dietary fat and MSG clearly influenced amino acid content in tissues but in different ways. Both dietary fat and MSG enhance the absorption of amino acids in jejunum. However, there was little interaction between the effects of dietary fat and MSG. PMID:24465415

  4. Dietary Japanese millet protein ameliorates plasma levels of adiponectin, glucose, and lipids in type 2 diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Nishizawa, Naoyuki; Togawa, Tubasa; Park, Kyung-Ok; Sato, Daiki; Miyakoshi, Yo; Inagaki, Kazuya; Ohmori, Norimasa; Ito, Yoshiaki; Nagasawa, Takashi

    2009-02-01

    Millet is an important food crop in Asia and Africa, but the health benefits of dietary millet are little known. This study defined the effects of dietary Japanese millet on diabetic mice. Feeding of a high-fat diet containing Japanese millet protein concentrate (JMP, 20% protein) to type 2 diabetic mice for 3 weeks significantly increased plasma levels of adiponectin and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL cholesterol) and decreased the levels of glucose and triglyceride as compared to control. The starch fraction of Japanese millet had no effect on glucose or adiponectin levels, but the prolamin fraction beneficially modulated plasma glucose and insulin concentrations as well as adiponectin and tumor necrosis factor-alpha gene expression. Considering the physiological significance of adiponectin and HDL cholesterol levels in type 2 diabetes, insulin resistance, and cardiovascular disease, our findings imply that dietary JMP has the potential to ameliorate these diseases.

  5. Impact of epigenetic dietary compounds on transgenerational prevention of human diseases.

    PubMed

    Li, Yuanyuan; Saldanha, Sabita N; Tollefsbol, Trygve O

    2014-01-01

    The etiology of most human diseases involves complicated interactions of multiple environmental factors with individual genetic background which is initially generated early in human life, for example, during the processes of embryogenesis and fetal development in utero. Early embryogenesis includes a series of programming processes involving extremely accurate time-controlled gene activation/silencing expressions, and epigenetic control is believed to play a key role in regulating early embryonic development. Certain dietary components with properties in influencing epigenetic processes are believed to have preventive effects on many human diseases such as cancer. Evidence shows that in utero exposure to certain epigenetic diets may lead to reprogramming of primary epigenetic profiles such as DNA methylation and histone modifications on the key coding genes of the fetal genome, leading to different susceptibility to diseases later in life. In this review, we assess the current advances in dietary epigenetic intervention on transgenerational human disease control. Enhanced understanding of the important role of early life epigenetics control may lead to cost-effective translational chemopreventive potential by appropriate administration of prenatal and/or postnatal dietary supplements leading to early disease prevention.

  6. Effect of Dietary Restriction and Subsequent Re-Alimentation on the Transcriptional Profile of Bovine Skeletal Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Keogh, Kate; Kenny, David A.; Cormican, Paul; McCabe, Matthew S.; Kelly, Alan K.; Waters, Sinead M.

    2016-01-01

    Compensatory growth (CG), an accelerated growth phenomenon which occurs following a period of dietary restriction is exploited worldwide in animal production systems as a method to lower feed costs. However the molecular mechanisms regulated CG expression remain to be elucidated fully. This study aimed to uncover the underlying biology regulating CG in cattle, through an examination of skeletal muscle transcriptional profiles utilising next generation mRNA sequencing technology. Twenty Holstein Friesian bulls were fed either a restricted diet for 125 days, with a target growth rate of 0.6 kg/day (Period 1), following which they were allowed feed ad libitum for a further 55 days (Period 2) or fed ad libitum for the entirety of the trial. M. longissimus dorsi biopsies were harvested from all bulls on days 120 and 15 of periods 1 and 2 respectively and RNAseq analysis was performed. During re-alimentation in Period 2, previously restricted animals displayed CG, growing at 1.8 times the rate of the ad libitum control animals. Compensating animals were also more feed efficient during re-alimentation and compensated for 48% of their previous dietary restriction. 1,430 and 940 genes were identified as significantly differentially expressed (Benjamini Hochberg adjusted P < 0.1) in periods 1 and 2 respectively. Additionally, 2,237 genes were differentially expressed in animals undergoing CG relative to dietary restriction. Dietary restriction in Period 1 was associated with altered expression of genes involved in lipid metabolism and energy production. CG expression in Period 2 occurred in association with greater expression of genes involved in cellular function and organisation. This study highlights some of the molecular mechanisms regulating CG in cattle. Differentially expressed genes identified are potential candidate genes for the identification of biomarkers for CG and feed efficiency, which may be incorporated into future breeding programmes. PMID:26871690

  7. Effect of Dietary Restriction and Subsequent Re-Alimentation on the Transcriptional Profile of Bovine Skeletal Muscle.

    PubMed

    Keogh, Kate; Kenny, David A; Cormican, Paul; McCabe, Matthew S; Kelly, Alan K; Waters, Sinead M

    2016-01-01

    Compensatory growth (CG), an accelerated growth phenomenon which occurs following a period of dietary restriction is exploited worldwide in animal production systems as a method to lower feed costs. However the molecular mechanisms regulated CG expression remain to be elucidated fully. This study aimed to uncover the underlying biology regulating CG in cattle, through an examination of skeletal muscle transcriptional profiles utilising next generation mRNA sequencing technology. Twenty Holstein Friesian bulls were fed either a restricted diet for 125 days, with a target growth rate of 0.6 kg/day (Period 1), following which they were allowed feed ad libitum for a further 55 days (Period 2) or fed ad libitum for the entirety of the trial. M. longissimus dorsi biopsies were harvested from all bulls on days 120 and 15 of periods 1 and 2 respectively and RNAseq analysis was performed. During re-alimentation in Period 2, previously restricted animals displayed CG, growing at 1.8 times the rate of the ad libitum control animals. Compensating animals were also more feed efficient during re-alimentation and compensated for 48% of their previous dietary restriction. 1,430 and 940 genes were identified as significantly differentially expressed (Benjamini Hochberg adjusted P < 0.1) in periods 1 and 2 respectively. Additionally, 2,237 genes were differentially expressed in animals undergoing CG relative to dietary restriction. Dietary restriction in Period 1 was associated with altered expression of genes involved in lipid metabolism and energy production. CG expression in Period 2 occurred in association with greater expression of genes involved in cellular function and organisation. This study highlights some of the molecular mechanisms regulating CG in cattle. Differentially expressed genes identified are potential candidate genes for the identification of biomarkers for CG and feed efficiency, which may be incorporated into future breeding programmes.

  8. Dietary vitamin A supplementation ameliorates the effects of poly-aromatic hydrocarbons in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar).

    PubMed

    Berntssen, Marc H G; Ørnsrud, Robin; Rasinger, Josef; Søfteland, Liv; Lock, Erik-Jan; Kolås, Kjersti; Moren, Mari; Hylland, Ketil; Silva, Joana; Johansen, Johan; Lie, Kai

    2016-06-01

    Several studies have reported on the interaction between vitamin A (VA) and aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)-binding toxicants, including poly-aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). In aquaculture, the use of plant oils in novel aquafeeds can increase PAH levels while simultaneously lowering natural VA background levels, causing the need to supplement plant oil-based feeds with synthetic VA. To study dietary VA-PAH interactions, Atlantic salmon (initial weight 195±0.15g) were fed four identical plant-based diets that were supplemented with PAHs (100 and 10mgkg(-1) benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) and phenanthrene (Phe), respectively) or VA (retinyl acetate 8721IUkg(-1)) separately or combined for 2.5 months in a 2×2 factorial design, with triplicate net-pens per diet. Dietary PAH significantly reduced hepatic VA storage, and VA-enriched diets restored hepatic VA. There was a significant PAH-VA interaction effect on hepatic BaP, but not Phe, accumulation, with reduced hepatic BaP concentrations in fish fed VA+PAH compared to fish fed PAH alone. Concurrently, PAH and VA significantly interacted in their effects on CYP1A phase I biotransformation as observed from increased ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity, increased CYP1A protein concentration, and elevated transcription (cyp1a1 gene expression) in fish fed PAH+VA compared to PAH alone. Dietary VA supplementation alone had no significant effect on CYP1A phase I biotransformation. Metabolomic assessment showed that dietary VA caused a restoration of metabolic intermediates involved in energy metabolism that were affected by dietary PAH. Moreover, a PAH-induced growth inhibition was partially ameliorated by dietary VA supplementation. In conclusion, dietary VA interacted with PAH toxicity on the level of CYP1A-mediated detoxification, hepatic PAH accumulation, energy allocation, and growth.

  9. Does dietary fat influence insulin action?

    PubMed

    Storlien, L H; Kriketos, A D; Jenkins, A B; Baur, L A; Pan, D A; Tapsell, L C; Calvert, G D

    1997-09-20

    What is clear from the research thus far is that dietary fat intake does influence insulin action. However, whether the effect is good, bad, or indifferent is strongly related to the fatty acid profile of that dietary fat. The evidence has taken many forms, including in vitro evidence of differences in insulin binding and glucose transport in cells grown with different types of fat in the incubation medium, in vivo results in animals fed different fats, relationships demonstrated between the membrane structural lipid fatty acid profile and insulin resistance in humans, and finally epidemiological evidence linking particularly high saturated fat intake with hyperinsulinemia and increased risk of diabetes. This contrasts with the lack of relationship, or even possible protective effect, of polyunsaturated fats. In particular, habitual increased n-3 polyunsaturated dietary fat intake (as fish fats) would appear to be protective against the development of glucose intolerance. It is reassuring that the patterns of dietary fatty acids that appear beneficial for insulin action and energy balance are also the patterns that would seem appropriate in the fight against thrombosis and cardiovascular disease. Mechanisms, though, still need to be defined. However, there are strong indicators that defining the ways in which changes in the fatty acid profile of membrane structural lipids are achieved, and in turn influence relevant transport events, plus understanding the processes that control accumulation and availability of storage lipid in muscle may be fruitful avenues for future research. One of the problems of moving the knowledge gained from research at the cellular level through to the individual and on to populations is the need for more accommodating research designs. In vitro studies may provide in-depth insights into intricate mechanisms, but they do not give the "big picture" for practical recommendations. On the other hand, correlational studies tend to be fairly

  10. Dietary fat content and fiber type modulate hind gut microbial community and metabolic markers in the pig.

    PubMed

    Yan, Hui; Potu, Ramesh; Lu, Hang; Vezzoni de Almeida, Vivian; Stewart, Terry; Ragland, Darryl; Armstrong, Arthur; Adeola, Olayiwola; Nakatsu, Cindy H; Ajuwon, Kolapo M

    2013-01-01

    Obesity leads to changes in the gut microbial community which contribute to the metabolic dysregulation in obesity. Dietary fat and fiber affect the caloric density of foods. The impact of dietary fat content and fiber type on the microbial community in the hind gut is unknown. Effect of dietary fat level and fiber type on hindgut microbiota and volatile fatty acid (VFA) profiles was investigated. Expression of metabolic marker genes in the gut, adipose tissue and liver was determined. A 2 × 2 experiment was conducted in pigs fed at two dietary fat levels (5% or 17.5% swine grease) and two fiber types (4% inulin, fermentable fructo-oligosaccharide or 4% solka floc, non-fermentable cellulose). High fat diets (HFD) resulted in a higher (P<0.05) total body weight gain, feed efficiency and back fat accumulation than the low fat diet. Feeding of inulin, but not solka floc, attenuated (P<0.05) the HFD-induced higher body weight gain and fat mass accumulation. Inulin feeding tended to lead to higher total VFA production in the cecum and resulted in a higher (P<0.05) expression of acyl coA oxidase (ACO), a marker of peroxisomal β-oxidation. Inulin feeding also resulted in lower expression of sterol regulatory element binding protein 1c (SREBP-1c), a marker of lipid anabolism. Bacteria community structure characterized by DGGE analysis of PCR amplified 16S rRNA gene fragments showed that inulin feeding resulted in greater bacterial population richness than solka floc feeding. Cluster analysis of pairwise Dice similarity comparisons of the DGGE profiles showed grouping by fiber type but not the level of dietary fat. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) of PCR- DGGE profiles showed that inulin feeding negatively correlated with back fat thickness. This study suggests a strong interplay between dietary fat level and fiber type in determining susceptibility to obesity.

  11. Dietary factors and epigenetic regulation for prostate cancer prevention.

    PubMed

    Ho, Emily; Beaver, Laura M; Williams, David E; Dashwood, Roderick H

    2011-11-01

    The role of epigenetic alterations in various human chronic diseases has gained increasing attention and has resulted in a paradigm shift in our understanding of disease susceptibility. In the field of cancer research, e.g., genetic abnormalities/mutations historically were viewed as primary underlying causes; however, epigenetic mechanisms that alter gene expression without affecting DNA sequence are now recognized as being of equal or greater importance for oncogenesis. Methylation of DNA, modification of histones, and interfering microRNA (miRNA) collectively represent a cadre of epigenetic elements dysregulated in cancer. Targeting the epigenome with compounds that modulate DNA methylation, histone marks, and miRNA profiles represents an evolving strategy for cancer chemoprevention, and these approaches are starting to show promise in human clinical trials. Essential micronutrients such as folate, vitamin B-12, selenium, and zinc as well as the dietary phytochemicals sulforaphane, tea polyphenols, curcumin, and allyl sulfur compounds are among a growing list of agents that affect epigenetic events as novel mechanisms of chemoprevention. To illustrate these concepts, the current review highlights the interactions among nutrients, epigenetics, and prostate cancer susceptibility. In particular, we focus on epigenetic dysregulation and the impact of specific nutrients and food components on DNA methylation and histone modifications that can alter gene expression and influence prostate cancer progression.

  12. Dietary Mannan Oligosaccharides: Counteracting the Side Effects of Soybean Meal Oil Inclusion on European Sea Bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) Gut Health and Skin Mucosa Mucus Production?

    PubMed Central

    Torrecillas, Silvia; Montero, Daniel; Caballero, Maria José; Pittman, Karin A.; Custódio, Marco; Campo, Aurora; Sweetman, John; Izquierdo, Marisol

    2015-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to assess the effects of 4 g kg−1 dietary mannan oligosaccharides (MOS) inclusion in soybean oil (SBO)- and fish oil (FO)-based diets on the gut health and skin mucosa mucus production of European sea bass juveniles after 8 weeks of feeding. Dietary MOS, regardless of the oil source, promoted growth. The intestinal somatic index was not affected, however dietary SBO reduced the intestinal fold length, while dietary MOS increased it. The dietary oil source fed produced changes on the posterior intestine fatty acid profiles irrespective of MOS dietary supplementation. SBO down-regulated the gene expression of TCRβ, COX2, IL-1β, TNFα, IL-8, IL-6, IL-10, TGFβ, and Ig and up-regulated MHCII. MOS supplementation up-regulated the expression of MHCI, CD4, COX2, TNFα, and Ig when included in FO-based diets. However, there was a minor up-regulating effect on these genes when MOS was supplemented in the SBO-based diet. Both dietary oil sources and MOS affected mean mucous cell areas within the posterior gut, however the addition of MOS to a SBO diet increased the mucous cell size over the values shown in FO fed fish. Dietary SBO also trends to reduce mucous cell density in the anterior gut relative to FO, suggesting a lower overall mucosal secretion. There are no effects of dietary oil or MOS in the skin mucosal patterns. Complete replacement of FO by SBO, modified the gut fatty acid profile, altered posterior gut-associated immune system (GALT)-related gene expression and gut mucous cells patterns, induced shorter intestinal folds and tended to reduce European sea bass growth. However, when combined with MOS, the harmful effects of SBO appear to be partially balanced by moderating the down-regulation of certain GALT-related genes involved in the functioning of gut mucous barrier and increasing posterior gut mucous cell diffusion rates, thus helping to preserve immune homeostasis. This denotes the importance of a balanced

  13. Dietary gut microbial metabolites, short-chain fatty acids, and host metabolic regulation.

    PubMed

    Kasubuchi, Mayu; Hasegawa, Sae; Hiramatsu, Takero; Ichimura, Atsuhiko; Kimura, Ikuo

    2015-04-14

    During feeding, the gut microbiota contributes to the host energy acquisition and metabolic regulation thereby influencing the development of metabolic disorders such as obesity and diabetes. Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) such as acetate, butyrate, and propionate, which are produced by gut microbial fermentation of dietary fiber, are recognized as essential host energy sources and act as signal transduction molecules via G-protein coupled receptors (FFAR2, FFAR3, OLFR78, GPR109A) and as epigenetic regulators of gene expression by the inhibition of histone deacetylase (HDAC). Recent evidence suggests that dietary fiber and the gut microbial-derived SCFAs exert multiple beneficial effects on the host energy metabolism not only by improving the intestinal environment, but also by directly affecting various host peripheral tissues. In this review, we summarize the roles of gut microbial SCFAs in the host energy regulation and present an overview of the current understanding of its physiological functions.

  14. Involvement of dietary bioactive proteins and peptides in autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Siniscalco, Dario; Antonucci, Nicola

    2013-12-01

    Autism and autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are heterogeneous, severe neurodevelopmental pathologies. These enigmatic conditions have their origins in the interaction of multiple genes and environmental factors. Dysfunctions in social interactions and communication skills, restricted interests, repetitive and stereotypic verbal and non-verbal behaviours are the main core symptoms. Several biochemical processes are associated with ASDs: oxidative stress; endoplasmic reticulum stress; decreased methylation capacity; limited production of glutathione; mitochondrial dysfunction; intestinal impaired permeability and dysbiosis; increased toxic metal burden; immune dysregulation. Current available treatments for ASDs can be divided into behavioural, nutritional and medical approaches, although no defined standard approach exists. Dietary bioactive proteins and peptides show potential for application as health-promoting agents. Nowadays, increasing studies highlight a key role of bioactive proteins and peptides in ASDs. This review will focus on the state-of-the-art regarding the involvement of dietary bioactive proteins and peptides in ASDs. Identification of novel therapeutic targets for ASD management will be also discussed.

  15. Progress in developing analytical and label-based dietary supplement databases at the NIH Office of Dietary Supplements

    PubMed Central

    Dwyer, Johanna T.; Picciano, Mary Frances; Betz, Joseph M.; Fisher, Kenneth D.; Saldanha, Leila G.; Yetley, Elizabeth A.; Coates, Paul M.; Milner, John A.; Whitted, Jackie; Burt, Vicki; Radimer, Kathy; Wilger, Jaimie; Sharpless, Katherine E.; Holden, Joanne M.; Andrews, Karen; Roseland, Janet; Zhao, Cuiwei; Schweitzer, Amy; Harnly, James; Wolf, Wayne R.; Perry, Charles R.

    2013-01-01

    Although an estimated 50% of adults in the United States consume dietary supplements, analytically substantiated data on their bioactive constituents are sparse. Several programs funded by the Office of Dietary Supplements (ODS) at the National Institutes of Health enhance dietary supplement database development and help to better describe the quantitative and qualitative contributions of dietary supplements to total dietary intakes. ODS, in collaboration with the United States Department of Agriculture, is developing a Dietary Supplement Ingredient Database (DSID) verified by chemical analysis. The products chosen initially for analytical verification are adult multivitamin-mineral supplements (MVMs). These products are widely used, analytical methods are available for determining key constituents, and a certified reference material is in development. Also MVMs have no standard scientific, regulatory, or marketplace definitions and have widely varying compositions, characteristics, and bioavailability. Furthermore, the extent to which actual amounts of vitamins and minerals in a product deviate from label values is not known. Ultimately, DSID will prove useful to professionals in permitting more accurate estimation of the contribution of dietary supplements to total dietary intakes of nutrients and better evaluation of the role of dietary supplements in promoting health and well-being. ODS is also collaborating with the National Center for Health Statistics to enhance the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey dietary supplement label database. The newest ODS effort explores the feasibility and practicality of developing a database of all dietary supplement labels marketed in the US. This article describes these and supporting projects. PMID:25346570

  16. Progress in developing analytical and label-based dietary supplement databases at the NIH Office of Dietary Supplements.

    PubMed

    Dwyer, Johanna T; Picciano, Mary Frances; Betz, Joseph M; Fisher, Kenneth D; Saldanha, Leila G; Yetley, Elizabeth A; Coates, Paul M; Milner, John A; Whitted, Jackie; Burt, Vicki; Radimer, Kathy; Wilger, Jaimie; Sharpless, Katherine E; Holden, Joanne M; Andrews, Karen; Roseland, Janet; Zhao, Cuiwei; Schweitzer, Amy; Harnly, James; Wolf, Wayne R; Perry, Charles R

    2008-02-01

    Although an estimated 50% of adults in the United States consume dietary supplements, analytically substantiated data on their bioactive constituents are sparse. Several programs funded by the Office of Dietary Supplements (ODS) at the National Institutes of Health enhance dietary supplement database development and help to better describe the quantitative and qualitative contributions of dietary supplements to total dietary intakes. ODS, in collaboration with the United States Department of Agriculture, is developing a Dietary Supplement Ingredient Database (DSID) verified by chemical analysis. The products chosen initially for analytical verification are adult multivitamin-mineral supplements (MVMs). These products are widely used, analytical methods are available for determining key constituents, and a certified reference material is in development. Also MVMs have no standard scientific, regulatory, or marketplace definitions and have widely varying compositions, characteristics, and bioavailability. Furthermore, the extent to which actual amounts of vitamins and minerals in a product deviate from label values is not known. Ultimately, DSID will prove useful to professionals in permitting more accurate estimation of the contribution of dietary supplements to total dietary intakes of nutrients and better evaluation of the role of dietary supplements in promoting health and well-being. ODS is also collaborating with the National Center for Health Statistics to enhance the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey dietary supplement label database. The newest ODS effort explores the feasibility and practicality of developing a database of all dietary supplement labels marketed in the US. This article describes these and supporting projects.

  17. The Dietary Patterns Methods Project: synthesis of findings across cohorts and relevance to dietary guidance.

    PubMed

    Liese, Angela D; Krebs-Smith, Susan M; Subar, Amy F; George, Stephanie M; Harmon, Brook E; Neuhouser, Marian L; Boushey, Carol J; Schap, TusaRebecca E; Reedy, Jill

    2015-03-01

    The Dietary Patterns Methods Project (DPMP) was initiated in 2012 to strengthen research evidence on dietary indices, dietary patterns, and health for upcoming revisions of the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, given that the lack of consistent methodology has impeded development of consistent and reliable conclusions. DPMP investigators developed research questions and a standardized approach to index-based dietary analysis. This article presents a synthesis of findings across the cohorts. Standardized analyses were conducted in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study, the Multiethnic Cohort, and the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study (WHI-OS). Healthy Eating Index 2010, Alternative Healthy Eating Index 2010 (AHEI-2010), alternate Mediterranean Diet, and Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) scores were examined across cohorts for correlations between pairs of indices; concordant classifications into index score quintiles; associations with all-cause, cardiovascular disease (CVD), and cancer mortality with the use of Cox proportional hazards models; and dietary intake of foods and nutrients corresponding to index quintiles. Across all cohorts in women and men, there was a high degree of correlation and consistent classifications between index pairs. Higher diet quality (top quintile) was significantly and consistently associated with an 11-28% reduced risk of death due to all causes, CVD, and cancer compared with the lowest quintile, independent of known confounders. This was true for all diet index-mortality associations, with the exception of AHEI-2010 and cancer mortality in WHI-OS women. In all cohorts, survival benefit was greater with a higher-quality diet, and relatively small intake differences distinguished the index quintiles. The reductions in mortality risk started at relatively lower levels of diet quality. Higher scores on each of the indices, signifying higher diet quality, were associated with marked reductions in mortality. Thus

  18. Molecular mechanism of dietary phospholipid requirement of Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar, fry.

    PubMed

    Carmona-Antoñanzas, G; Taylor, J F; Martinez-Rubio, L; Tocher, D R

    2015-11-01

    The phospholipid (PL) requirement in fish is revealed by enhanced performance when larvae are provided PL-enriched diets. To elucidate the molecular mechanism underlying PL requirement in Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar, were fed a minimal PL diet and tissue samples from major lipid metabolic sites were dissected from fry and parr. In silico analysis and cloning techniques demonstrated that salmon possess a full set of enzymes for the endogenous production of PL. The gene expression data indicated that major PL biosynthetic genes of phosphatidylcholine (PtdCho), phosphatidylethanolamine (PtdEtn) and phosphatidylinositol (PtdIns) display lower expression in intestine during the early developmental stage (fry). This is consistent with the hypothesis that the intestine of salmon is immature at the early developmental stage with limited capacity for endogenous PL biosynthesis. The results also indicate that intact PtdCho, PtdEtn and PtdIns are required in the diet at this stage. PtdCho and sphingomyelin constitute the predominant PL in chylomicrons, involved in the transport of dietary lipids from the intestine to the rest of the body. As sphingomyelin can be produced from PtdCho in intestine of fry, our findings suggest that supplementation of dietary PtdCho alone during early developmental stages of Atlantic salmon would be sufficient to promote chylomicron formation. This would support efficient transport of dietary lipids, including PL precursors, from the intestine to the liver where biosynthesis of PtdEtn, PtdSer, and PtdIns is not compromised as in intestine facilitating efficient utilisation of dietary energy and the endogenous production of membrane PL for the rapidly growing and developing animal.

  19. Dietary milk fat globule membrane reduces the incidence of aberrant crypt foci in Fischer-344 rats.

    PubMed

    Snow, Dallin R; Jimenez-Flores, Rafael; Ward, Robert E; Cambell, Jesse; Young, Michael J; Nemere, Ilka; Hintze, Korry J

    2010-02-24

    Milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) is a biopolymer composed primarily of membrane proteins and lipids that surround the fat globules in milk. Although it is considered to have potential as a bioactive ingredient, few feeding studies have been conducted to measure its potential benefits. The aim of this investigation was to determine if dietary MFGM confers protection against colon carcinogenesis compared to diets containing corn oil (CO) or anhydrous milk fat (AMF). Male, weanling Fischer-344 rats were randomly assigned to one of three dietary treatments that differed only in the fat source: (1) AIN-76A diet, corn oil; (2) AIN-76A diet, AMF; and (3) AIN-76A diet, 50% MFGM, 50% AMF. Each diet contained 50 g/kg diet of fat. With the exception of the fat source, diets were formulated to be identical in macro and micro nutrient content. Animals were injected with 1,2-dimethylhydrazine once per week at weeks 3 and 4, and fed experimental diets for a total of 13 weeks. Over the course of the study dietary treatment did not affect food consumption, weight gain or body composition. After 13 weeks animals were sacrificed, colons were removed and aberrant crypt foci (ACF) were counted by microscopy. Rats fed the MFGM diet (n = 16) had significantly fewer ACF (20.9 +/- 5.7) compared to rats fed corn oil (n = 17) or AMF (n = 16) diets (31.3 +/- 9.5 and 29.8 +/- 11.4 respectively; P < 0.05). Gene expression analysis of colonic mucosa did not reveal differential expression of candidate colon cancer genes, and the sphingolipid profile of the colonic mucosa was not affected by diet. While there were notable and significant differences in plasma and red blood cell lipids, there was no relationship to the cancer protection. These results support previous findings that dietary sphingolipids are protective against colon carcinogenesis yet extend this finding to MFGM, a milk fat fraction available as a food ingredient.

  20. Insulin secretion and signaling in response to dietary restriction and subsequent re-alimentation in cattle.

    PubMed

    Keogh, Kate; Kenny, David A; Kelly, Alan K; Waters, Sinéad M

    2015-08-01

    The objectives of this study were to examine systemic insulin response to a glucose tolerance test (GTT) and transcript abundance of genes of the insulin signaling pathway in skeletal muscle, during both dietary restriction and re-alimentation-induced compensatory growth. Holstein Friesian bulls were blocked to one of two groups: 1) restricted feed allowance for 125 days (period 1) (RES, n = 15) followed by ad libitum feeding for 55 days (period 2) or 2) ad libitum access to feed throughout (periods 1 and 2) (ADLIB, n = 15). On days 90 and 36 of periods 1 and 2, respectively, a GTT was performed. M. longissimus dorsi biopsies were harvested from all bulls on days 120 and 15 of periods 1 and 2, respectively, and RNA-Seq analysis was performed. RES displayed a lower growth rate during period 1 (RES: 0.6 kg/day, ADLIB: 1.9 kg/day; P < 0.001), subsequently gaining more during re-alimentation (RES: 2.5 kg/day, ADLIB: 1.4 kg/day; P < 0.001). Systemic insulin response to glucose administration was lower in RES in period 1 (P < 0.001) with no difference observed during period 2. The insulin signaling pathway in M. longissimus dorsi was enriched (P < 0.05) in response to dietary restriction but not during re-alimentation (P > 0.05). Genes differentially expressed in the insulin signaling pathway suggested a greater sensitivity to insulin in skeletal muscle, with pleiotropic effects of insulin signaling interrupted during dietary restriction. Collectively, these results indicate increased sensitivity to glucose clearance and skeletal muscle insulin signaling during dietary restriction; however, no overall role for insulin was apparent in expressing compensatory growth.

  1. Differential responses of intestinal glucose transporter mRNA transcripts to levels of dietary sugars.

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, K; Hase, K; Takagi, T; Fujii, T; Taketani, Y; Minami, H; Oka, T; Nakabou, Y

    1993-10-01

    Dietary sugars are known to stimulate intestinal glucose transport activity, but the specific signals involved are unknown. The Na(+)-dependent glucose co-transporter (SGLT1), the liver-type facilitative glucose transporter (GLUT2) and the intestinal-type facilitative glucose transporter (GLUT5) are all expressed in rat jejunum [Miyamoto, Hase, Taketani, Minami, Oka, Nakabou and Hagihira (1991) Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 181, 1110-1117]. In the present study we have investigated the effects of dietary sugars on these glucose transporter genes. A high-glucose diet stimulated glucose transport activity and increased the levels of SGLT1 and GLUT2 mRNAs in rat jejunum. 3-O-Methylglucose, D-galactose, D-fructose, D-mannose and D-xylose can mimic the regulatory effect of glucose on the SGLT1 mRNA level in rat jejunum. However, only D-galactose and D-fructose increased the levels of GLUT2 mRNA. The GLUT5 mRNA level was increased significantly only by D-fructose. Our results suggest that the increase in intestinal transport activity in rats caused by dietary glucose is due to an increase in the levels of SGLT1 and GLUT2 mRNAs, and that these increases in mRNA may be caused by an enhancement of the transcriptional rate. Furthermore, for expression of the SGLT1 gene, the signal need not be a metabolizable or transportable substrate whereas, for expression of the GLUT2 gene, metabolism of the substrate in the liver may be necessary for signalling. Only D-fructose is an effective signal for expression of the GLUT5 gene.

  2. Dietary and enteral interventions for Crohn's disease.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Takayuki; Shimoyama, Takahiro; Kuriyama, Moeko

    2017-04-01

    It is now widely acknowledged that the intestinal bacterial flora together with genetic predisposing factors significantly contribute to the immunopathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) as reflected by mucosal immune dysregulation. Recently, there has been an increased interest in nutraceutical therapies, including probiotics, prebiotics and synbiotics. Other dietary interventions with low carbohydrate diet, omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and glutamine have been attempted to downregulate the gut inflammatory response and thereby alleviate gastrointestinal symptoms. Enteral nutrition has been widely used as induction and maintenance therapies in the management of Crohn's disease (CD). In this review, a critical assessment of the results of clinical trial outcomes and meta-analyses was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of dietary and enteral interventions for CD.

  3. Dietary factors and coronary heart disease*

    PubMed Central

    Masironi, R.

    1970-01-01

    Mortality data from arteriosclerotic and degenerative heart disease (AHD) and per capita consumption of total fat, saturated fat, sucrose, simple sugars, complex carbohydrates, and protein, and calorie intake for 37 countries were statistically evaluated to investigate possible relationships between dietary factors and incidence of AHD. On a geographical basis, consumption of total and saturated fats is strongly and positively correlated with the death rates, while consumption of complex carbohydrates is negatively correlated. No correlations were found with temporal changes in death rates or with differences within one country. These findings are discussed in the light of the works of many other investigators. It is concluded that the relation of diet to AHD is still controversial, and that the development and severity of the disease cannot be confidently attributed to any single dietary factor nor to blood cholesterol. The contributing effects of other factors, such as physical activity, mental stress, and affluence, are also discussed. PMID:5309508

  4. Dietary phosphorus requirement of channel catfish.

    PubMed

    Wilson, R P; Robinson, E H; Gatlin, D M; Poe, W E

    1982-06-01

    Two experiments were conducted to reevaluate the dietary phosphorus requirement of fingerling channel catfish. Basal diets containing either casein with supplemental inorganic phosphorus and 0.5% total calcium or egg albumin with supplemental inorganic phosphorus and 0.75% total calcium yielded similar requirement data. Eleven-week growth, feed efficiency, serum phosphorus, bone ash, bone calcium and bon phosphorus data indicate that 0.33% apparent available dietary phosphorus is adequate for maximum growth and bone mineralization. Based on these data and previous findings, we would suggest a value of 0.4% apparent available phosphorus be used in formulating catfish feeds. The apparent availability of phosphorus from soybean meal, as determined by the chromic oxide indicator method, was 29% for channel catfish.

  5. Lowering the dietary omega-6: omega-3 does not hinder nonalcoholic fatty-liver disease development in a murine model.

    PubMed

    Enos, Reilly T; Velázquez, Kandy T; McClellan, Jamie L; Cranford, Taryn L; Walla, Michael D; Murphy, E Angela

    2015-05-01

    It is hypothesized that a high dietary n-6:n-3 (eg, 10-20:1) is partly responsible for the rise in obesity and related health ailments. However, no tightly controlled studies using high-fat diets differing in the n-6:n-3 have tested this hypothesis. The aim of the study was to determine the role that the dietary n-6:n-3 plays in non-alcoholic fatty-liver disease (NAFLD) and colitis development. We hypothesized that reducing the dietary n-6:n-3 would hinder the development of NAFLD and colitis. Male C57BL/6 J mice were fed high-fat diets, differing in the n-6:n-3 (1:1, 5:1, 10:1, 20:1), for 20 weeks. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was used to analyze the hepatic phospholipid arachidonic acid (AA):eicosapentaenoic acid and AA:docosahexaenoic acid. Hepatic metabolism, inflammatory signaling, macrophage polarization, gene expression of inflammatory mediators, oxidative and endoplasmic reticulum stress, and oxidative capacity were assessed as well as colonic inflammatory signaling, and gene expression of inflammatory mediators and tight-junction proteins. Although reducing the dietary n-6:n-3 lowered the hepatic phospholipid AA:eicosapentaenoic acid and AA:docosahexaenoic acid in a dose-dependent manner and mildly influenced inflammatory signaling, it did not significantly attenuate NAFLD development. Furthermore, the onset of NAFLD was not paired to colitis development or changes in tight-junction protein gene expression. In conclusion, reducing the dietary n-6:n-3 did not attenuate NAFLD progression; nor is it likely that colitis, or gut permeability, plays a role in NAFLD initiation in this model.

  6. Discriminating between energetic content and dietary composition as an explanation for dietary restriction effects.

    PubMed

    Ellers, Jacintha; Ruhe, Bas; Visser, Bertanne

    2011-12-01

    A reduction in dietary calories has been shown to prolong life span in a wide variety of taxa, but there has been much debate about confounding factors such as nutritional composition of the diet, or reallocation of nutrients from reduced reproduction. To disentangle the contribution of these different mechanisms to extension of life span, we study the effect of caloric restriction on longevity and fecundity in two species of sugar-feeding parasitoid wasps. They have a simple diet that consists of carbohydrates only, and they do not resorb eggs, which rules out the proposed alternative explanations for beneficial effects of caloric restriction. Two caloric restriction treatments were applied: first, dietary dilution to investigate the effect of carbohydrate concentration in the diet; and second, intermittent feeding to examine the effect of feeding frequency on longevity and fecundity. Only the dietary dilution treatment showed an effect of caloric restriction with the highest longevity recorded at 80% sucrose (w/v). No effect of dietary regime was found on fecundity. We also measured the weight increase of the parasitoids after feeding to obtain an estimate of consumption. A constant quantity of the sugar solution was consumed in all dietary dilution treatments, hence caloric intake was proportional to sucrose concentrations. Although the present study does not disqualify the relevance of nutrient composition in other species, our data unequivocally demonstrate that caloric restriction alone is sufficient to extend life span and invalidate alternative explanations.

  7. Dietary fats and health: dietary recommendations in the context of scientific evidence.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, Glen D

    2013-05-01

    Although early studies showed that saturated fat diets with very low levels of PUFAs increase serum cholesterol, whereas other studies showed high serum cholesterol increased the risk of coronary artery disease (CAD), the evidence of dietary saturated fats increasing CAD or causing premature death was weak. Over the years, data revealed that dietary saturated fatty acids (SFAs) are not associated with CAD and other adverse health effects or at worst are weakly associated in some analyses when other contributing factors may be overlooked. Several recent analyses indicate that SFAs, particularly in dairy products and coconut oil, can improve health. The evidence of ω6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) promoting inflammation and augmenting many diseases continues to grow, whereas ω3 PUFAs seem to counter these adverse effects. The replacement of saturated fats in the diet with carbohydrates, especially sugars, has resulted in increased obesity and its associated health complications. Well-established mechanisms have been proposed for the adverse health effects of some alternative or replacement nutrients, such as simple carbohydrates and PUFAs. The focus on dietary manipulation of serum cholesterol may be moot in view of numerous other factors that increase the risk of heart disease. The adverse health effects that have been associated with saturated fats in the past are most likely due to factors other than SFAs, which are discussed here. This review calls for a rational reevaluation of existing dietary recommendations that focus on minimizing dietary SFAs, for which mechanisms for adverse health effects are lacking.

  8. Improved parental dietary quality is associated with children's dietary intake through the home environment

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, A. S.; Ghosh‐Dastidar, M. B.; Beckman, R.; Huang, C.; Wagner, L.; Dubowitz, T.

    2017-01-01

    Summary Background Improving access to supermarkets has been shown to improve some dietary outcomes, yet there is little evidence for such effects on children. Relatedly, there is a dearth of research assessing the impact of a structural change (i.e. supermarket in a former food desert) on the home environment and its relationship with children's diet. Objective Assess the relative impact of the home environment on children's diet after the introduction of a new supermarket in a food desert. Methods Among a randomly selected cohort of households living in a food desert, parental diet was assessed before and after the opening of a full‐service supermarket. The home environment and children's intake of fruits and vegetables was measured at one point – after the store's opening. Structural equation models were used to estimate the pathways between changes in parental dietary quality at follow‐up and children's dietary intake through the home environment. Results Parental dietary improvement after the supermarket opened was associated with having a better home environment (β = 0.45, p = 0.001) and with healthier children's dietary intake (β = 0.46, p < 0.001) through higher family nutrition and physical activity scores (β = 0.25, p = 0.02). Conclusions Policy solutions designed to improve diet among low‐resource communities should take into account the importance of the home environment. PMID:28392933

  9. Dietary Fats and Health: Dietary Recommendations in the Context of Scientific Evidence1

    PubMed Central

    Lawrence, Glen D.

    2013-01-01

    Although early studies showed that saturated fat diets with very low levels of PUFAs increase serum cholesterol, whereas other studies showed high serum cholesterol increased the risk of coronary artery disease (CAD), the evidence of dietary saturated fats increasing CAD or causing premature death was weak. Over the years, data revealed that dietary saturated fatty acids (SFAs) are not associated with CAD and other adverse health effects or at worst are weakly associated in some analyses when other contributing factors may be overlooked. Several recent analyses indicate that SFAs, particularly in dairy products and coconut oil, can improve health. The evidence of ω6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) promoting inflammation and augmenting many diseases continues to grow, whereas ω3 PUFAs seem to counter these adverse effects. The replacement of saturated fats in the diet with carbohydrates, especially sugars, has resulted in increased obesity and its associated health complications. Well-established mechanisms have been proposed for the adverse health effects of some alternative or replacement nutrients, such as simple carbohydrates and PUFAs. The focus on dietary manipulation of serum cholesterol may be moot in view of numerous other factors that increase the risk of heart disease. The adverse health effects that have been associated with saturated fats in the past are most likely due to factors other than SFAs, which are discussed here. This review calls for a rational reevaluation of existing dietary recommendations that focus on minimizing dietary SFAs, for which mechanisms for adverse health effects are lacking. PMID:23674795

  10. Dietary boron, brain function, and cognitive performance.

    PubMed Central

    Penland, J G

    1994-01-01

    Although the trace element boron has yet to be recognized as an essential nutrient for humans, recent data from animal and human studies suggest that boron may be important for mineral metabolism and membrane function. To investigate further the functional role of boron, brain electrophysiology and cognitive performance were assessed in response to dietary manipulation of boron (approximately 0.25 versus approximately 3.25 mg boron/2000 kcal/day) in three studies with healthy older men and women. Within-subject designs were used to assess functional responses in all studies. Spectral analysis of electroencephalographic data showed effects of dietary boron in two of the three studies. When the low boron intake was compared to the high intake, there was a significant (p < 0.05) increase in the proportion of low-frequency activity, and a decrease in the proportion of higher-frequency activity, an effect often observed in response to general malnutrition and heavy metal toxicity. Performance (e.g., response time) on various cognitive and psychomotor tasks also showed an effect of dietary boron. When contrasted with the high boron intake, low dietary boron resulted in significantly poorer performance (p < 0.05) on tasks emphasizing manual dexterity (studies II and III); eye-hand coordination (study II); attention (all studies); perception (study III); encoding and short-term memory (all studies); and long-term memory (study I). Collectively, the data from these three studies indicate that boron may play a role in human brain function and cognitive performance, and provide additional evidence that boron is an essential nutrient for humans. PMID:7889884

  11. Novel insights of dietary polyphenols and obesity

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shu; Moustaid-Moussa, Naima; Chen, Lixia; Mo, Huanbiao; Shastri, Anuradha; Su, Rui; Bapat, Priyanka; Kwun, InSook; Shen, Chwan-Li

    2013-01-01

    Prevalence of obesity has steadily increased over the past three decades both in the United States and worldwide. Recent studies have shown the role of dietary polyphenols in the prevention of obesity and obesity-related chronic diseases. Here we evaluated the impact of commonly consumed polyphenols, including green tea catechins and epigallocatechin gallates, resveratrol, and curcumin, on obesity and obesity-related-inflammation. Cellular studies demonstrated that these dietary polyphenols reduce viability of adipocytes and proliferation of preadipocytes, suppress adipocyte differentiation and triglyceride accumulation, stimulate lipolysis and fatty acid β-oxidation, and reduce inflammation. Concomitantly, the polyphenols modulate signaling pathways including the AMP-activated protein kinase, peroxisome proliferator activated receptor γ, CCAAT/enhancer binding protein α, PPAR gamma activator 1-alpha, sirtuin 1, sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c, uncoupling proteins 1 and 2, and nuclear factor kappa B that regulate adipogenesis, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory responses. Animal studies strongly suggest that commonly consumed polyphenols described in this review have a pronounced effect on obesity as shown by lower body weight, fat mass, and triglycerides through enhancing energy expenditure and fat utilization, and modulating glucose hemostasis. Limited human studies have been conducted in this area, and are inconsistent about the anti-obesity impact of dietary polyphenols, probably due to the various study designs and lengths, variation among subjects (age, gender, ethnicity), chemical forms of the dietary polyphenols used and confounding factors such as other weight reducing agents. Future randomized controlled trials are warranted to reconcile the discrepancies between preclinical efficacies and inconclusive clinic outcomes of these polyphenols. PMID:24314860

  12. Dietary Fat, Eicosanoids and Breast Cancer Risk

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-10-01

    postmenopausal women. The study objectives are to: 1) evaluate the effects of total fat and omega -3 fatty acid intake on plasma and urinary sex hormone...associated with reducing breast cancer risk in postmenopausal women. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Dietary fat, omega -3 fatty acids , eicosanoids, sex hormones 16...candidate in September, 2007. • Preliminary data from plasma sex hormone analysis supports low fat, high omega -3 fatty acid diet in prevention of breast

  13. Dietary Fat, Eicosanoids and Breast Cancer Risk

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-01

    risk of sex. hormone mediated cancer, such as breast canoer. A high intake oftotal fat and omega -6 fatty acids increases risk while omega -3 (03...Era ofHope meeting. No manuscripts have yet been gtmm’ated. dietary fat, omega -3 fatty acids ,. eicosanoids, sex ho~nes 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF... fatty acids are associated with risk reduction. Our proposal is testi~g the effect ofdietary fat and fatty acids on sex homwne . concentrations in post

  14. Dietary protein quality and malnutrition in Africa.

    PubMed

    Schönfeldt, Hettie Carina; Gibson Hall, Nicolette

    2012-08-01

    The WHO (2007) Technical Report on protein and amino acid requirements in human nutrition states that the best estimate for a population average requirement is 105 mg nitrogen/kg body weight per day, or 0·66 g protein/kg body weight per day. In many developing countries protein intake falls significantly short of these values. Apart from protein quantity, protein quality including bioavailability and digestibility, from different food sources, are currently on the global agenda. The 1st International Symposium on Dietary Protein for Human Health held in Auckland, in March 2011, and the consecutive Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations (FAO) Expert Consultation on Dietary Protein Quality, both highlighted the importance of assessing the quality of protein from different food sources through determination of amino acid content. Throughout the developed world, animal products and cereals are the two most important sources of protein; in developing countries this order is reversed. In low income countries only 3 % of total dietary energy, as an indicator of diet composition, is derived from meat and offal, 11 % from roots and tubers and 6 % from pulses, nuts and oilseeds. The remainder of the dietary energy is mainly derived from cereal-based staple food. Although the production of livestock has increased in developing countries, the consumption of protein in these countries with people consuming the most limited amounts of protein are continually decreasing. Undernutrition, including insufficient consumption of protein, remains a persistent problem in the developing world, and although many diets within these developing countries are deficient in the quantity of protein compared to recommendations, the quality of the protein also strongly comes into focus.

  15. Methods to standardize dietary intake before performance testing.

    PubMed

    Jeacocke, Nikki A; Burke, Louise M

    2010-04-01

    When testing is undertaken to monitor an athlete's progress toward competition goals or the effect of an intervention on athletic outcomes, sport scientists should aim to minimize extraneous variables that influence the reliability, sensitivity, or validity of performance measurement. Dietary preparation is known to influence metabolism and exercise performance. Few studies, however, systematically investigate the outcomes of protocols that acutely control or standardize dietary intake in the hours and days before a performance trial. This review discusses the nutrients and dietary components that should be standardized before performance testing and reviews current approaches to achieving this. The replication of habitual diet or dietary practices, using tools such as food diaries or dietary recalls to aid compliance and monitoring, is a common strategy, and the use of education aids to help athletes achieve dietary targets offers a similarly low burden on the researcher. However, examination of dietary intake from real-life examples of these protocols reveals large variability between and within participants. Providing participants with prepackaged diets reduces this variability but can increase the burden on participants, as well as the researcher. Until studies can better quantify the effect of different protocols of dietary standardization on performance testing, sport scientists can only use a crude cost-benefit analysis to choose the protocols they implement. At the least, study reports should provide a more comprehensive description of the dietary-standardization protocols used in the research and the effect of these on the dietary intake of participants during the period of interest.

  16. Dietary restriction of mice on a high-fat diet induces substrate efficiency and improves metabolic health.

    PubMed

    Duivenvoorde, Loes P M; van Schothorst, Evert M; Bunschoten, Annelies; Keijer, Jaap

    2011-08-01

    High energy intake and, specifically, high dietary fat intake challenge the mammalian metabolism and correlate with many metabolic disorders such as obesity and diabetes. However, dietary restriction (DR) is known to prevent the development of metabolic disorders. The current western diets are highly enriched in fat, and it is as yet unclear whether DR on a certain high-fat (HF) diet elicits similar beneficial effects on health. In this research, we report that HF-DR improves metabolic health of mice compared with mice receiving the same diet on an ad libitum basis (HF-AL). Already after five weeks of restriction, the serum levels of cholesterol and leptin were significantly decreased in HF-DR mice, whereas their glucose sensitivity and serum adiponectin levels were increased. The body weight and measured serum parameters remained stable in the following 7 weeks of restriction, implying metabolic adaptation. To understand the molecular events associated with this adaptation, we analyzed gene expression in white adipose tissue (WAT) with whole genome microarrays. HF-DR strongly influenced gene expression in WAT; in total, 8643 genes were differentially expressed between both groups of mice, with a major role for genes involved in lipid metabolism and mitochondrial functioning. This was confirmed by quantitative real-time reverse transcription-PCR and substantiated by increase in mitochondrial density in WAT of HF-DR mice. These results provide new insights in the metabolic flexibility of dietary restricted animals and suggest the development of substrate efficiency.

  17. When is dietary fiber considered a functional food?

    PubMed

    Prosky, L

    2000-01-01

    Before answering the question of when dietary fiber can be considered a functional food we must first decide what can be called a dietary fiber. The generally accepted definition of dietary fiber is that of Trowell that dietary fiber consists of the remnants of edible plant cells polysaccharides, lignin, and associated substances resistant to (hydrolysis) digestion by the alimentary enzymes of humans. In Japan the food tables list the dietary fiber content of animal as well as plant tissues, while many countries accept saccharides of less than DP-10 as dietary fiber (inulin, oligofructose, Fibersol-2, polydextrose, fructooligosaccharides, galactooligosaccharides etc.). These shorter chain oligosaccharides do not precipitate as dietary fiber in the standard Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC) method, which is accepted by the US Food & Drug Administration, the US Department of Agriculture and the Food & Agriculture Organization of the World Health Organization for nutrition labeling purposes. In the United Kingdom the term dietary fiber has been replaced in nutrition labeling by nonstarch polysaccharides. Therefore the American Association of Cereal Chemists (AACC) commissioned an ad hoc committee of scientists to evaluate continuing validity of the currently used definition, and if appropriate, to modify and update that definition. Obtaining scientific input from the community of analysts, health professionals, and dietary fiber researchers was considered a high priority. To this end three meetings were held in the space of six months to assure input from all persons knowledgeable in the field with the answer expected sometime before 2000. Dietary fiber can be considered a functional food when it imparts a special function to that food aside from the normal expected function and similarly when the dietary fiber is used as an additive to foods. For example, dietary fiber contributes to colonic health, bifidobacterial or lactobacillus stimulation in the

  18. Dietary intake of advanced cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Walsh, T D; Bowman, K B; Jackson, G P

    1983-02-01

    A state registered dietitian assessed the voluntary dietary intake of 13 advanced cancer inpatients on one ward of St. Christopher's Hospice for five consecutive days. There were 11 females, two males; median age 74 years (range 56 to 83). Two patients died on the fourth day of the study. A partially individualised weighed technique was used. Standard sized scoops and spoons were used to serve the food in small, medium or large standard portions (depending on appetite) and were weighed as served. Individual plate waste (by weight) was subtracted to give estimated individual intake. Foods provided by visitors was not included. The median and range of individual mean daily intakes (estimated) were: energy 5760 (938-8945) kJ, 1376 (224-2137) kcal; protein 44 (11-86) g; fat 52 (9-93) g; carbohydrate 169 (21-194) g; calcium 748 (268-1457) mg; iron 4.8 (0.5-21.0) mg; dietary fibre 5.0 (0.5-21.0) g. Compared to recommended amounts, energy, iron and dietary fibre intakes were low; calcium intake was high. Nutritional status may affect prognosis and/or subjective well-being in advanced cancer. The value of nutritional supplementation and the role of appetite stimulants in improving nutritional status needs investigation.

  19. Weighing the evidence to formulate dietary guidelines.

    PubMed

    Woolf, Steven H

    2006-06-01

    Dietary guidelines have broad implications for the health of individuals and populations. Increasingly, government agencies and medical organization that issue guidelines have pursued evidence-based approaches. These approaches emphasize a comprehensive, critical, and explicit examination of the scientific evidence that the proposed dietary practice will improve health. Evidence-based guidelines typically feature an explicit methodology, include as their foundation a systematic review of the evidence, provide graded recommendations that are linked directly to the supporting evidence, and state explicitly when recommendations are based on opinion. Guideline development usually involves some combination of six steps: (1) specification of the topic and the guideline development methodology, (2) systematic review of the evidence, (3) consideration of expert opinion, (4) public policy analysis, (5) drafting of the document, and (6) peer review. The supporting evidence undergoes critical appraisal, including an assessment of the magnitude of the effect on outcomes observed in studies, the quality of the studies reporting the effect, or both. Dietary guidelines should also consider untoward effects, potential harms, and economic implications to society, the food industry, and others. A hallmark of evidence-based guidelines is making explicit the strength of recommendations and the quality of the evidence on which they are based. Grading systems are commonly used to rate the quality of the supporting evidence.

  20. Aspartame as a dietary trigger of headache.

    PubMed

    Lipton, R B; Newman, L C; Cohen, J S; Solomon, S

    1989-02-01

    Many dietary factors have been implicated as possible precipitants of headache. There have been recent differences of opinion with regard to the effect of the artificial sweetener aspartame as a precipitant of headache. To assess the importance of aspartame as a dietary factor in headache, 190 consecutive patients of the Montefiore Medical Center Headache Unit were questioned about the effect of alcohol, carbohydrates and aspartame in triggering their headaches. Of the 171 patients who fully completed the survey, 49.7 percent reported alcohol as a precipitating factor, compared to 8.2 percent reporting aspartame and 2.3 percent reporting carbohydrates. Patients with migraine were significantly more likely to report alcohol as a triggering factor and also reported aspartame as a precipitant three times more often than those having other types of headache. The conflicting results of two recent placebo-control studies of aspartame and headache are discussed. We conclude that aspartame may be an important dietary trigger of headache in some people.

  1. Dietary fat and risk of breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Binukumar, Bhaskarapillai; Mathew, Aleyamma

    2005-01-01

    Background Breast cancer is one of the major public health problems among women worldwide. A number of epidemiological studies have been carried out to find the role of dietary fat and the risk of breast cancer. The main objective of the present communication is to summarize the evidence from various case-control and cohort studies on the consumption of fat and its subtypes and their effect on the development of breast cancer. Methods A Pubmed search for literature on the consumption of dietary fat and risk of breast cancer published from January 1990 through December 2003 was carried out. Results Increased consumption of total fat and saturated fat were found to be positively associated with the development of breast cancer. Even though an equivocal association was observed for the consumption of total monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) and the risk of breast cancer, there exists an inverse association in the case of oleic acid, the most abundant MUFA. A moderate inverse association between consumption of n-3 fatty acids and breast cancer risk and a moderate positive association between n-6 fatty acids and breast cancer risk were observed. Conclusion Even though all epidemiological studies do not provide a strong positive association between the consumption of certain types of dietary fat and breast cancer risk, at least a moderate association does seem to exist and this has a number of implications in view of the fact that breast cancer is an increasing public health concern. PMID:16022739

  2. Are Chileans exposed to dietary furan?

    PubMed

    Mariotti, María S; Toledo, Carla; Hevia, Karen; Gomez, J Pablo; Fromberg, Arvid; Granby, Kit; Rosowski, Jaime; Castillo, Oscar; Pedreschi, Franco

    2013-01-01

    Chilean consumer preferences include foods that may contain considerable amounts of furan, a potential human carcinogen. However, there is no information regarding dietary exposure to furan in Chile. Thus, the objective of this work was to determine the Chilean exposure to dietary furan. To accomplish this objective, the furan concentration of 14 types of commercial foods processed at high temperature were analysed based on a modified headspace-GC/MS (HS-GC/MS) method in which the limits of detection for different food matrices ranged from 0.01 to 0.6 ng g(-1). In addition, a risk assessment was made with exposure estimates based on dietary data from national studies on different age groups (9-month-old babies, school children, adults and elderly people). Of the food items surveyed "American"-type coffee (espresso coffee plus hot water) obtained from automatic coffee machine (936 ng g(-1)) and low moisture starchy products like crisps and "soda"-type crackers showed the highest furan concentrations (259 and 91 ng g(-1), respectively). Furthermore, furan was also found in samples of breakfast cereals (approximately 20 ng g(-1)), jarred fruit baby foods (8.5 ng g(-1)) and orange juice (7.0 ng g(-1)). School children (aged 9-13 years) represented the highest intake of furan (about 500 ng kg(-1)(bw) day(-1)), with margins of exposure of 2479 and 2411, respectively, which points to a possible public health risk.

  3. Dietary and Pharmacological Intervention to Mitigate the ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Background: Human exposure to air pollution has long been associated with excess morbidity and mortality. Although regulatory measures carried out under the “Clean Air Act” have saved millions of lives, there are still hundreds of thousands of people in the U.S. that live in area in which particulate air pollution (PM) levels exceed the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s Ambient Air Quality Standard for PM. Therefore, there is an urgent need to identify interventional strategies that can ameliorate the adverse health effects from air pollution exposure. Since the health effects of air pollution exposure are believed to be mediated by inflammation and oxidative stress, one approach is to use dietary supplementation or medication with anti-inflammatory or antioxidant properties. Scope of Review: This article reviews the efficacy of dietary supplementation, such as antioxidant vitamins, polyunsaturated fatty acids, and medications as a strategy to mitigate air pollution-induced adverse cardiopulmonary effects. Major Conclusions: Antioxidant vitamins C and E protect the lungs against ozone and PM exposure. Polyunsaturated fatty acids, such as fish oil and olive oil appears to offer protection against air pollution-induced adverse cardiovascular effects. General Significance: Taking dietary supplements or medications with antioxidant or anti-inflammatory properties has the potential to provide at least partial protection against air pollution in those indiv

  4. Effects of dietary cadmium on mallard ducklings

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cain, B.W.; Sileo, L.; Franson, J.C.; Moore, J.

    1983-01-01

    Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) ducklings were fed cadmium in the diet at 0, 5, 10, or 20 ppm from 1 day of age until 12 weeks of age. At 4-week intervals six males and six females from each dietary group were randomly selected, bled by jugular venipuncture, and necropsied. Significant decreases in packed cell volume (PCV) and hemoglobin (Hb) concentration and a significant increase in serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT) were found at 8 weeks of age in ducklings fed 20 ppm cadmium. Mild to severe kidney lesions were evident in ducklings fed 20 ppm cadmium for 12 weeks. No other blood chemistry measurement, hematological parameter, or tissue histopathological measurement indicated a reaction to cadmium ingestion. Body weight, liver weight, and the ratio of the femur weight to length were not affected by dietary cadmium. Femur cadmium concentration In all ducklings 12 weeks of age declined from the values detected at 4 and 8 weeks of age. Liver cadmium concentrations were significantly higher in relation to the increased dietary levels and in relation to the length of time the ducklings were fed the cadmium diets. At 12 weeks of age the cadmium concentration in liver tissue was twice that in the diet.

  5. Reducing dietary sodium intake: the Canadian context.

    PubMed

    Barr, Susan I

    2010-02-01

    Sodium is a required nutrient; Adequate Intakes for adults range from 1200 to 1500 mg*day(-1), depending on age. The Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL) for sodium is 2300 mg*day(-1) for adults, based on the relationship between sodium intake and increased blood pressure. Elevated blood pressure, which is prevalent among Canadians, is, in turn, a major risk factor for stroke, cardiovascular disease, and renal disease. Sodium intake is not the only determinant of blood pressure; other modifiable risk factors include relative mass, physical activity, overall dietary quality, and alcohol consumption. However, because >90% of adult Canadian men and two thirds of Canadian women have sodium intakes above the UL, Health Canada's Working Group on Dietary Sodium Reduction has been charged with developing, implementing, and overseeing a strategy to reduce Canadians' sodium intakes. It is estimated that approximately 75% of dietary sodium is added during food processing; in addition to taste and palatability, sodium also has functional roles in food manufacturing and preservation, although the amounts used often exceed those required. Because of the central role of processed foods in sodium intake, the strategy proposed by Health Canada's Working Group includes voluntary reduction of sodium in processed foods and foods sold in food service establishments. It will also include an education and awareness campaign, and research and surveillance. Initiatives to reduce sodium in other parts of the world have demonstrated that it will be challenging to reduce sodium intake to the recommended range and will likely require many years to accomplish.

  6. Protective Role of Dietary Berries in Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kristo, Aleksandra S.; Klimis-Zacas, Dorothy; Sikalidis, Angelos K.

    2016-01-01

    Dietary patterns, including regular consumption of particular foods such as berries as well as bioactive compounds, may confer specific molecular and cellular protection in addition to the overall epidemiologically observed benefits of plant food consumption (lower rates of obesity and chronic disease risk), further enhancing health. Mounting evidence reports a variety of health benefits of berry fruits that are usually attributed to their non-nutritive bioactive compounds, mainly phenolic substances such as flavonoids or anthocyanins. Although it is still unclear which particular constituents are responsible for the extended health benefits, it appears that whole berry consumption generally confers some anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory protection to humans and animals. With regards to cancer, studies have reported beneficial effects of ber