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  1. Effect of the dietary supplement Meltdown on catecholamine secretion, markers of lipolysis, and metabolic rate in men and women: a randomized, placebo controlled, cross-over study

    PubMed Central

    Bloomer, Richard J; Canale, Robert E; Blankenship, Megan M; Hammond, Kelley G; Fisher-Wellman, Kelsey H; Schilling, Brian K

    2009-01-01

    Background We have recently reported that the dietary supplement Meltdown® increases plasma norepinephrine (NE), epinephrine (EPI), glycerol, free fatty acids (FFA), and metabolic rate in men. However, in that investigation measurements ceased at 90 minutes post ingestion, with values for blood borne variables peaking at this time. It was the purpose of the present investigation to extend the time course of measurement to 6 hours, and to include women within the design to determine if sex differences to treatment exist. Methods Ten men (24 ± 4 yrs) and 10 women (22 ± 2 yrs) ingested Meltdown® or a placebo, using a randomized, cross-over design with one week separating conditions. Blood samples were collected immediately before supplementation and at one hour intervals through 6 hours post ingestion. A standard meal was provided after the hour 3 collection. Samples were assayed for EPI, NE, glycerol, and FFA. Five minute breath samples were collected at each time for measurement of metabolic rate and substrate utilization. Area under the curve (AUC) was calculated. Heart rate and blood pressure were recorded at all times. Data were also analyzed using a 2 (sex) × 2 (condition) × 7 (time) repeated measures analysis of variance, with Tukey post hoc testing. Results No sex × condition interactions were noted for AUC for any variable (p > 0.05). Hence, AUC data are collapsed across men and women. AUC was greater for Meltdown® compared to placebo for EPI (367 ± 58 pg·mL-1·6 hr-1 vs. 183 ± 27 pg·mL-1·6 hr-1; p = 0.01), NE (2345 ± 205 pg·mL-1·6 hr-1 vs. 1659 ± 184 pg·mL-1·6 hr-1; p = 0.02), glycerol (79 ± 8 μg·mL-1·6 hr-1 vs. 59 ± 6 μg·mL-1·6 hr-1; p = 0.03), FFA (2.46 ± 0.64 mmol·L-1·6 hr-1 vs. 1.57 ± 0.42 mmol·L-1·6 hr-1; p = 0.05), and kilocalorie expenditure (439 ± 26 kcal·6 hrs-1 vs. 380 ± 14 kcal·6 hrs-1; p = 0.02). No effect was noted for substrate utilization (p = 0.39). Both systolic and diastolic blood pressure (p < 0.0001; 1

  2. Dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Massey, Patrick B

    2002-01-01

    The amount of published information on dietary supplements mushroomed in the 1990s. In fewer than 5 years, publications increased at least 100-fold in the medical literature alone. Dietary supplements are an uncharted territory that warrants complete and accurate exploration. One should not be surprised that disease and illness may respond to dietary supplements. Nutrition is the foundation to good health, and dietary supplements may prove to be some of the most powerful medicines ever discovered. An especially exciting discovery is that dietary supplements may enhance the effects of specific drugs. This discovery may lead to more effective and safer protocols for the treatment of cancer, heart and lung disease, and a host of chronic medical conditions. Information about dietary supplements is becoming more common in the popular medical literature and is creating increased curiosity and an increased awareness. The explosion of the dietary supplement market is compelling physicians to become aware of dietary supplements. Whether or not they are used in clinical practice is a decision for the individual physician. Given the increasing number of patients who are using dietary supplements, however, it is imperative that physicians have a good understanding of this topic. Considering the increasing complexity and magnitude of this topic, physician specialization may be essential. There are many good reference books, review articles, and internet sites on specific supplements that probably should be part of every physician's reference library. The accompanying box provides a brief list of such sources.

  3. Dietary Supplements

    MedlinePlus

    ... other products. They can come as pills, capsules, powders, drinks, and energy bars. Supplements do not have to go through the testing that drugs do. Some supplements can play an important role in health. For example, calcium and vitamin D are important for keeping bones ...

  4. Using Dietary Supplements Wisely

    MedlinePlus

    ... you to take. If you experience any side effects that concern you, stop taking the dietary supplement, and contact your health care provider. You can report serious problems suspected with dietary supplements to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and the National Institutes of ...

  5. Dietary Supplement Ingredient Database

    MedlinePlus

    ... and US Department of Agriculture Dietary Supplement Ingredient Database Toggle navigation Menu Home About DSID Mission Current ... values can be saved to build a small database or add to an existing database for national, ...

  6. FDA 101: Dietary Supplements

    MedlinePlus

    ... has certain safety monitoring responsibilities. These include monitoring mandatory reporting of serious adverse events by dietary supplement ... Medical Devices Nutrition Radiation-Emitting Products Tobacco Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Articulos en Espanol Alimentos y Bebidas ...

  7. Dietary supplements for football.

    PubMed

    Hespel, P; Maughan, R J; Greenhaff, P L

    2006-07-01

    Physical training and competition in football markedly increase the need for macro- and micronutrient intake. This requirement can generally be met by dietary management without the need for dietary supplements. In fact, the efficacy of most supplements available on the market is unproven. In addition, players must be cautious of inadequate product labelling and supplement impurities that may cause a positive drug test. Nonetheless, a number of dietary supplements may beneficially affect football performance. A high endurance capacity is a prerequisite for optimal match performance, particularly if extra time is played. In this context, the potential of low-dose caffeine ingestion (2 - 5 mg . kg body mass(-1)) to enhance endurance performance is well established. However, in the case of football, care must be taken not to overdose because visual information processing might be impaired. Scoring and preventing goals as a rule requires production of high power output. Dietary creatine supplementation (loading dose: 15 - 20 g . day(-1), 4 - 5 days; maintenance dose: 2 - 5 g g . day(-1)) has been found to increase muscle power output, especially during intermittent sprint exercises. Furthermore, creatine intake can augment muscle adaptations to resistance training. Team success and performance also depend on player availability, and thus injury prevention and health maintenance. Glucosamine or chondroitin may be useful in the treatment of joint pain and osteoarthritis, but there is no evidence to support the view that the administration of these supplements will be preventative. Ephedra-containing weight-loss cocktails should certainly be avoided due to reported adverse health effects and positive doping outcomes. Finally, the efficacy of antioxidant or vitamin C intake in excess of the normal recommended dietary dose is equivocal. Responses to dietary supplements can vary substantially between individuals, and therefore the ingestion of any supplement must be assessed

  8. Dietary supplements in sport.

    PubMed

    Burke, L M; Read, R S

    1993-01-01

    Studies of the dietary practices of athletes report that nutritional supplements are commonly used. Supplementation practices vary between sports and individual athletes; however, there is evidence that at least some athletes use a large number of supplements concurrently, often in doses that are very high in comparison with normal dietary intakes. In exploring supplementation practices we propose a classification system separating the supplements into dietary supplements and nutritional erogogenic aids. The dietary supplement is characterised as a product which can be used to address physiological or nutritional issues arising in sport. It may provide a convenient or practical means of consuming special nutrient requirements for exercise, or it may be used to prevent/reverse nutritional deficiencies that commonly occur among athletes. The basis of the dietary supplement is an understanding of nutritional requirements and physiological effects of exercise. When the supplement is used to successfully meet a physiological/nutritional goal arising in sport it may be demonstrated to improve sports performance. While there is some interest in refining the composition or formulation of some dietary supplements, the real interest belongs to the use or application of the supplement; i.e. educating athletes to understand and achieve their nutritional needs in a specific sports situation. The sports drink (carbohydrate-electrolyte replacement drink) is a well known example of a dietary supplement. Scientific attitudes towards the sports drink have changed over the past 20 years. Initial caution that carbohydrate-electrolyte fluids compromise gastric emptying during exercise has now been shown to be unjustified. Numerous studies have shown that 5 to 10% solutions of glucose, glucose polymers (maltodextrins) and other simple sugars all have suitable gastric emptying characteristics for the delivery of fluid and moderate amounts of carbohydrate substrate. The optimal

  9. Children and Dietary Supplements

    MedlinePlus

    ... and dietary supplements. This issue provides information about scope of use of complementary health practices by children , ... Systematic Reviews/Reviews/Meta-analyses (PubMed®) Randomized Controlled Trials (PubMed®) Research Spotlights National Survey Reports on CAM ...

  10. Hyperkalemia from Dietary Supplements

    PubMed Central

    Villgran, Vipin

    2016-01-01

    Hyperkalemia is a common electrolyte problem in patients with chronic kidney disease. It is typically caused by medications in patients with poor kidney function. Patients with comorbodities such as heart failure and diabetes are predisposed to electrolyte problems. Salt substitutes and dietary supplements are uncommon causes of hyperkalemia, but we propose that they are under-recognized and underdiagnosed causes in patients with chronic kidney disease. Our case report and literature review illustrates that a careful dietary history is essential in patients presenting with electrolyte disorders, especially hyperkalemia. PMID:27924248

  11. The regulation of dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Larissa L; Berry, Judith A

    2003-09-01

    To discuss the regulatory history of dietary supplements, define the term dietary supplement, clarify ingredient and nutrition information labeling, and discuss safety issues and implications for practice. Review of primary and secondary sources, including both Internet sites and journal articles. In the United States, 6 out of every 10 people use dietary supplements. For decades, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) protected the public from mislabeled and unsafe products by regulating as foods those dietary supplements that included only essential nutrients. The Nutrition Labeling and Education Act of 1990 included herbs as dietary supplements. When the Dietary Supplement and Health and Education Act (DSHEA) of 1994 was passed, the FDA lost its regulatory power. The DSHEA expanded the definition of dietary supplements beyond essential nutrients. Dietary supplements are no longer considered food additives, which makes them exempt from prescreening or any safety and efficacy studies before they are released to the public. Under the DSHEA, the FDA may take action if a product poses a direct health threat and only after adverse health effects have already occurred. A good understanding of the regulatory procedures for dietary supplements will aid nurse practitioners (NPs) in patient education regarding these products. Patients should be advised to choose supplements that are made by nationally known food and drug manufacturers that belong to trade groups. NPs and patients can contact the manufacturer directly and can access government Internet sites for more product information.

  12. Beware of Fraudulent 'Dietary Supplements'

    MedlinePlus

    ... Products Marketed as Dietary Supplements Hidden Risks of Erectile Dysfunction 'Treatments' Sold Online 'All Natural' Alternatives for Erectile Dysfunction: A Risky Proposition For More Information Questions and ...

  13. Dietary supplements for dysmenorrhoea.

    PubMed

    Pattanittum, Porjai; Kunyanone, Naowarat; Brown, Julie; Sangkomkamhang, Ussanee S; Barnes, Joanne; Seyfoddin, Vahid; Marjoribanks, Jane

    2016-03-22

    Dysmenorrhoea refers to painful menstrual cramps and is a common gynaecological complaint. Conventional treatments include non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and oral contraceptive pills (OCPs), which both reduce myometrial activity (contractions of the uterus). A suggested alternative approach is dietary supplements. We used the term 'dietary supplement' to include herbs or other botanical, vitamins, minerals, enzymes, and amino acids. We excluded traditional Chinese medicines. To determine the efficacy and safety of dietary supplements for treating dysmenorrhoea. We searched sources including the Cochrane Gynaecology and Fertility Group Specialised Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE, AMED, PsycINFO (all from inception to 23 March 2015), trial registries, and the reference lists of relevant articles. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of dietary supplements for moderate or severe primary or secondary dysmenorrhoea. We excluded studies of women with an intrauterine device. Eligible comparators were other dietary supplements, placebo, no treatment, or conventional analgesia. Two review authors independently performed study selection, performed data extraction and assessed the risk of bias in the included trials. The primary outcomes were pain intensity and adverse effects. We used a fixed-effect model to calculate odds ratios (ORs) for dichotomous data, and mean differences (MDs) or standardised mean differences (SMDs) for continuous data, with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). We presented data that were unsuitable for analysis either descriptively or in additional tables. We assessed the quality of the evidence using Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) methods. We included 27 RCTs (3101 women). Most included studies were conducted amongst cohorts of students with primary dysmenorrhoea in their late teens or early twenties. Twenty-two studies were

  14. Dietary supplements in weight reduction.

    PubMed

    Dwyer, Johanna T; Allison, David B; Coates, Paul M

    2005-05-01

    We summarize evidence on the role of dietary supplements in weight reduction, with particular attention to their safety and benefits. Dietary supplements are used for two purposes in weight reduction: (a) providing nutrients that may be inadequate in calorie-restricted diets and (b) for their potential benefits in stimulating weight loss. The goal in planning weight-reduction diets is that total intake from food and supplements should meet recommended dietary allowance/adequate intake levels without greatly exceeding them for all nutrients, except energy. If nutrient amounts from food sources in the reducing diet fall short, dietary supplements containing a single nutrient/element or a multivitamin-mineral combination may be helpful. On hypocaloric diets, the addition of dietary supplements providing nutrients at a level equal to or below recommended dietary allowance/adequate intake levels or 100% daily value, as stated in a supplement's facts box on the label, may help dieters to achieve nutrient adequacy and maintain electrolyte balance while avoiding the risk of excessive nutrient intakes. Many botanical and other types of dietary supplements are purported to be useful for stimulating or enhancing weight loss. Evidence of their efficacy in stimulating weight loss is inconclusive at present. Although there are few examples of safety concerns related to products that are legal and on the market for this purpose, there is also a paucity of evidence on safety for this intended use. Ephedra and ephedrine-containing supplements, with or without caffeine, have been singled out in recent alerts from the Food and Drug Administration because of safety concerns, and use of products containing these substances cannot be recommended. Dietitians should periodically check the Food and Drug Administration Web site ( www.cfsan.fda.gov ) for updates and warnings and alert patients/clients to safety concerns. Dietetics professionals should also consult authoritative sources for

  15. Dietary supplements for aquatic sports.

    PubMed

    Derave, Wim; Tipton, Kevin D

    2014-08-01

    Many athletes use dietary supplements, with use more prevalent among those competing at the highest level. Supplements are often self-prescribed, and their use is likely to be based on an inadequate understanding of the issues at stake. Supplementation with essential micronutrients may be useful when a diagnosed deficiency cannot be promptly and effectively corrected with food-based dietary solutions. When used in high doses, some supplements may do more harm than good: Iron supplementation, for example, is potentially harmful. There is good evidence from laboratory studies and some evidence from field studies to support health or performance benefits from appropriate use of a few supplements. The available evidence from studies of aquatic sports is small and is often contradictory. Evidence from elite performers is almost entirely absent, but some athletes may benefit from informed use of creatine, caffeine, and buffering agents. Poor quality assurance in some parts of the dietary supplements industry raises concerns about the safety of some products. Some do not contain the active ingredients listed on the label, and some contain toxic substances, including prescription drugs, that can cause health problems. Some supplements contain compounds that will cause an athlete to fail a doping test. Supplement quality assurance programs can reduce, but not entirely eliminate, this risk.

  16. Issues in Nutrition: Dietary Supplements.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Margaret E; Noel, Mary Barth

    2017-01-01

    The majority of American adults report use of one or more dietary supplements every day or occasionally. The Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act of 1994 defines dietary supplements and regulates their manufacture and distribution. One of the most commonly used supplements is vitamin D. Measurement of serum levels of vitamin D must be undertaken with the caveats that different laboratories define normal levels differently, and that there is rarely a clinical correlation with the actual level. Patients should understand that supplements should not be used to excess, as there are toxicities and other adverse effects associated with most of them. There currently is considerable research being performed on probiotics and how the gut microbiome affects health and disease states. Protein supplements may be useful in reducing mortality rates in elderly patients but they do not appear to increase quality of life. If used, protein supplements should contain essential amino acids. Casein and whey supplements, derived from dairy sources, help transport essential amino acids to tissues. Although there have been many studies investigating the role of vitamin supplements in disease prevention, there have been few conclusive positive results. Written permission from the American Academy of Family Physicians is required for reproduction of this material in whole or in part in any form or medium.

  17. Dietary Supplements for Toddlers

    MedlinePlus

    ... about which supplements are needed and the amounts. Iron Deficiency Iron deficiency does occur among some young children and can ... Drinking large quantities of milk may lead to iron deficiency anemia, as the child will be less interested ...

  18. Online Dietary Supplement Resources

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Internet is becoming an increasingly popular tool for finding nutrition-related information; therefore, nutrition professionals must know how to use it effectively. This article describes websites that dietitians and other health professionals can use to obtain reliable information on dietary s...

  19. Assessing patients' attitudes towards dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Wierzejska, Regina; Jarosz, Mirosław; Siuba, Magdalena; Rambuszek, Michał

    2014-01-01

    There is currently many over the counter products on the market that exert nutritional or physiological effects on the human body. The differences between dietary supplements and non-prescription drugs are however poorly understood by the average consumer and may thus affect their expectations as to the desired effect produced on the body. To evaluate patients' knowledge and attitudes towards dietary supplements as compared to non-prescription drugs. Subjects were 335 patients of the Mazowiecki Voivodeship Hospital in Warsaw, Poland. The data were collected from a face-to-face interview using a single and multiple choice questionnaire with 10 questions on dietary supplements. Statistical analysis used the Chi-square (χ2) test. The majority of respondents were found to be familiar with the term 'dietary supplements', but had difficulties in classifying these products into appropriate categories. Over 55% do not consider dietary supplements to be foodstuffs and more than 40% considered such products to be drugs. Most respondents thought that the main purpose of taking dietary supplements is to improve nutrition, but over one third expected them to also treat disease. Over 70% declared taking notice to which category the non-prescription products they bought belongs to ie. whether non-prescription drugs (medicinal products) or dietary supplements. Many patients mistakenly believe that dietary supplements are drugs and can be used to treat disease and health disorders. dietary supplements, opinion on dietary supplements, nutrition, dietary supplement vs. medicinal product.

  20. High dietary supplement intakes among Flemish preschoolers.

    PubMed

    Huybrechts, Inge; Maes, Lea; Vereecken, Carine; De Keyzer, Willem; De Bacquer, Dirk; De Backer, Guy; De Henauw, Stefaan

    2010-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of dietary supplement use among Flemish preschoolers and to investigate associations between dietary supplement use and socio-economic variables of the parents. Parentally reported 3-day estimated dietary records (n=696) were used to calculate mean daily nutrient intakes, using Software for Intake Distribution Estimation (Cside). Socio-demographic information and frequency of dietary supplement use were collected via parental questionnaires, including a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) (n=1847). The results from the FFQ revealed that more than 30% of the children used dietary supplements in the past month. Children of more highly educated parents and children of non-smokers were significantly more likely to use supplements than their counterparts. The types most frequently used were multi-vitamin/mineral supplements. Except for vitamin D, mean dietary intakes derived from foods alone was higher than the minimum recommendations for both supplement and non-supplement users. The youngest group of supplement users even exceeded the tolerable upper intake level for zinc (7 mg). However, for vitamin D, dietary supplements could help meet dietary recommendations for this micronutrient. In conclusion, the results indicated that dietary supplement use by healthy children who typically achieve their micronutrient requirements by foods alone could cause excessive intakes. Future studies should investigate potential harms and benefits of dietary supplementation use among preschoolers.

  1. [Isoflavone-containing dietary supplements].

    PubMed

    Lehmann, Leane; Soukup, Sebastian T; Gerhäuser, Clarissa; Vollmer, Günter; Kulling, Sabine E

    2017-03-01

    Isoflavones (IFs) from soy and other legumes have weak estrogenic properties. Isolated IFs are available as dietary supplements and advertised to alleviate symptoms of menopause. The present chapter provides an overview of the occurrence, the chemical structure of IFs and their metabolites, the market situation and reviews the current evidence on the efficacy and safety of IF-containing dietary supplements.The biological effectiveness of IFs is attributable to the activation of the estrogen receptor (ER). Studies on the influence of IFs on endogenous estrogen levels in women show inconsistent results. So far, the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) has rejected all submitted health claims for IFs due to insufficient scientific evidence for any of the postulated health effects. Based on the results of their recent risk assessment, the EFSA concluded that the available human studies did not support the hypothesis of adverse effects of isolated IFs on the human mammary gland, uterus or thyroid in healthy postmenopausal women. However, the assessment does not allow a general statement on the safety of IF-containing dietary supplements. Studies in animal models are often not comparable with the complex interactions in humans due to differences in the metabolism of IFs, in the developmental stage at time of consumption and in the temporarily restricted uptake of IFs during certain stages of life.

  2. Knowledge of dietary supplement label information among female supplement users.

    PubMed

    Miller, Carla K; Russell, Teri

    2004-03-01

    The use of dietary supplements is a popular form of health behavior, especially among women. Little research has been conducted to determine consumers' comprehension of supplement label information. Therefore, this research evaluated comprehension of supplement label information among women 25-45 years of age who consumed a dietary supplement > or =4 times per week. Participants (n=51) completed a written questionnaire about supplement practices, a 10-item knowledge test, and an individual interview about terms used on supplement labels. Participants answered 70% of the questions correctly on the knowledge test indicating adequate knowledge of dietary sources of nutrients. Knowledge of recommended dosages, dosing instructions, and instructions about inappropriate use of supplements for certain people also was adequate. However, misconceptions regarding the term "natural" on supplement labels, product claims, and testing for product safety existed among participants. Supplement users need additional education about supplement claims and testing for product safety and efficacy to make informed health care choices.

  3. Anthocyanin analyses of Vaccinium fruit dietary supplements

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Vaccinium fruit ingredients within dietary supplements were identified by comparisons with anthocyanin analyses of known Vaccinium profiles (demonstration of anthocyanin fingerprinting). Available Vaccinium supplements were purchased and analyzed; their anthocyanin profiles (based on HPLC separation...

  4. Herbal and dietary supplement hepatotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Navarro, Victor J

    2009-11-01

    Herbal and dietary supplements (HDS) are commonly used in the United States and throughout the world. The Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act and public standards set through the U.S. Pharmacopeia provide regulatory framework for these products. These regulations help to ensure the safety of grandfathered and new HDS coming onto the market, and the opportunity to identify and take action against unsafe products that have been distributed. The clinical patterns of presentation and severity of HDS-associated hepatotoxicity can be highly variable, even for the same product. In addition, accurate causality assessment in cases of suspected HDS hepatotoxicity is confounded by infrequent ascertainment of product intake by healthcare providers, under-reporting of HDS use by patients, the ubiquity of HDS and the complexity of their components, and the possibility for product adulteration. Additional measures to prevent HDS-induced hepatotoxicity include greater consumer and provider awareness, increased spontaneous reporting, and reassessment of regulations regarding the manufacturing, distribution, and marketing of these products.

  5. Dietary supplements for chronic gout.

    PubMed

    Andrés, Mariano; Sivera, Francisca; Falzon, Louise; Buchbinder, Rachelle; Carmona, Loreto

    2014-10-07

    Dietary supplements are frequently used for the treatment of several medical conditions, both prescribed by physicians or self administered. However, evidence of benefit and safety of these supplements is usually limited or absent. To assess the efficacy and safety of dietary supplementation for people with chronic gout. We performed a search in the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE and CINAHL on 6 June 2013. We applied no date or language restrictions. In addition, we performed a handsearch of the abstracts from the 2010 to 2013 American College of Rheumatology (ACR) and European League against Rheumatism (EULAR) conferences, checked the references of all included studies and trial registries. We considered all published randomised controlled trials (RCTs) or quasi-RCTs that compared dietary supplements with no supplements, placebo, another supplement or pharmacological agents for adults with chronic gout for inclusion. Dietary supplements included, but were not limited to, amino acids, antioxidants, essential minerals, polyunsaturated fatty acids, prebiotic agents, probiotic agents and vitamins. The main outcomes were reduction in frequency of gouty attacks and trial participant withdrawal due to adverse events. We also considered pain reduction, health-related quality of life, serum uric acid (sUA) normalisation, function (i.e. activity limitation), tophus regression and the rate of serious adverse events. We used standard methodological procedures expected by The Cochrane Collaboration. We identified two RCTs (160 participants) that fulfilled our inclusion criteria. As these two trials evaluated different diet supplements (enriched skim milk powder (SMP) and vitamin C) with different outcomes (gout flare prevention for enriched SMP and sUA reduction for vitamin C), we reported the results separately.One trial including 120 participants, at moderate risk of bias, compared SMP enriched with glycomacropeptides (GMP) with

  6. Computer access to research on dietary supplements: a database of federally funded dietary supplement research.

    PubMed

    Haggans, Carol J; Regan, Karen S; Brown, Lynda M; Wang, Chunling; Krebs-Smith, Jim; Coates, Paul M; Swanson, Christine A

    2005-07-01

    Dietary supplement use is prevalent in the United States, but support for supplement research has been relatively modest and only recently emphasized at the NIH. The Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act of 1994 led to the creation of the Office of Dietary Supplements (ODS) at the NIH to promote research on dietary supplements. In order to track federally funded dietary supplement research, the ODS developed a database known as Computer Access to Research on Dietary Supplements (CARDS). This article provides an overview of the development and potential uses of the CARDS database. In addition, we report that NIH-funded dietary supplement research steadily increased from fiscal year (FY) 1999 through 2002. The majority of NIH institutes or centers (ICs) funded research relevant to dietary supplements during this time, led by the National Cancer Institute and one of the newest NIH ICs, the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine. CARDS data indicate that NIH-funded dietary supplement research from FY 1999 through 2002 involved primarily vitamins, minerals, botanicals and phytochemicals. Cancer and cardiovascular disease, two of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in the United States, collectively accounted for almost 45% of the research related to dietary supplements. A variety of types of research studies were funded, with the majority consisting of human intervention studies. This information is useful to evaluate trends in federally funded dietary supplement research, identify research gaps, and help research scientists identify potential sources of NIH funding.

  7. USDA dietary supplement ingredient database, release 2

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Nutrient Data Laboratory (NDL),Beltsville Human Nutrition Research Center (BHNRC), Agricultural Research Service (ARS), USDA, in collaboration with the Office of Dietary Supplements, National Institutes of Health (ODS/NIH) and other federal agencies has developed a Dietary Supplement Ingredient ...

  8. Dietary Supplements and Sports Performance: Herbals

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Melvin

    2006-01-01

    This is the fourth in a series of six articles to discuss the major classes of dietary supplements (vitamins; minerals; amino acids; herbs or botanicals; metabolites, constituents/extracts, or combinations). The major focus is on efficacy of such dietary supplements to enhance exercise or sport performance. PMID:18500959

  9. Physician-Patient Communication about Dietary Supplements

    PubMed Central

    Tarn, Derjung M.; Paterniti, Debora A.; Good, Jeffrey S.; Coulter, Ian D.; Galliher, James M.; Kravitz, Richard L.; Karlamangla, Arun; Wenger, Neil S.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Describe the content and frequency of provider-patient dietary supplement discussions during primary care office visits. Methods Inductive content analysis of 1477 transcribed audio-recorded office visits to 102 primary care providers was combined with patient and provider surveys. Encounters were collected in Los Angeles, California (2009–2010), geographically-diverse practice settings across the United States (2004–2005), and Sacramento, CA (1998–1999). Results Providers discussed 738 dietary supplements during encounters with 357 patients (24.2% of all encounters in the data). They mentioned: 1) reason for taking the supplement for 46.5% of dietary supplements; 2) how to take the supplement for 28.2%; 3) potential risks for 17.3%; 4) supplement effectiveness for 16.7%; and 5) supplement cost or affordability for 4.2%. Of these five topics, a mean of 1.13 (SD=1.2) topics were discussed for each supplement. More topics were reviewed for non-vitamin non-mineral supplements (mean 1.47 (SD=1.2)) than for vitamin/mineral supplements (mean 0.99 (SD=1.1); p<0.001). Conclusion While discussions about supplements are occurring, it is clear that more discussion might be needed to inform patient decisions about supplement use. Practice Implication Physicians could more frequently address topics that may influence patient dietary supplement use, such as the risks, effectiveness, and costs of supplements. PMID:23466249

  10. Physician-patient communication about dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Tarn, Derjung M; Paterniti, Debora A; Good, Jeffrey S; Coulter, Ian D; Galliher, James M; Kravitz, Richard L; Karlamangla, Arun S; Wenger, Neil S

    2013-06-01

    Describe the content and frequency of provider-patient dietary supplement discussions during primary care office visits. Inductive content analysis of 1477 transcribed audio-recorded office visits to 102 primary care providers was combined with patient and provider surveys. Encounters were collected in Los Angeles, CA (2009-2010), geographically diverse practice settings across the United States (2004-2005), and Sacramento, CA (1998-1999). Providers discussed 738 dietary supplements during encounters with 357 patients (24.2% of all encounters in the data). They mentioned: (1) reason for taking the supplement for 46.5% of dietary supplements; (2) how to take the supplement for 28.2%; (3) potential risks for 17.3%; (4) supplement effectiveness for 16.7%; and (5) supplement cost or affordability for 4.2%. Of these five topics, a mean of 1.13 (SD=1.2) topics were discussed for each supplement. More topics were reviewed for non-vitamin non-mineral supplements (mean 1.47 (SD=1.2)) than for vitamin/mineral supplements (mean 0.99 (SD=1.1); p<0.001). While discussions about supplements are occurring, it is clear that more discussion might be needed to inform patient decisions about supplement use. Physicians could more frequently address topics that may influence patient dietary supplement use, such as the risks, effectiveness, and costs of supplements. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. 5 Things To Know About Dietary Supplements and Children

    MedlinePlus

    ... a complementary health approach, such as dietary or herbal supplements . Some teens use products advertised as dietary supplements ... prescription and over-the-counter drugs. Dietary and herbal supplements may be poor quality and contain contaminants, including ...

  12. The Dietary Supplement and Health Education Act and supplements: dietary and nutritional supplements need no more regulations.

    PubMed

    Wollschlaeger, Bernd

    2003-01-01

    The Dietary Supplement and Health Education Act (DSHEA) of 1994 was intended to ensure consumer access to safe dietary supplements, e.g., herbs, minerals, and vitamins. It granted the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) considerable enforcement authority to regulate dietary supplement industry. This article discusses relevant components of the DSHEA, explains the division of regulatory responsibilities between the FDA and the Federal Trade Commission (FTC), and refutes the often cited allegation that the herb and dietary supplement industry are unregulated.

  13. Why US children use dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Regan L; Gahche, Jaime J; Thomas, Paul R; Dwyer, Johanna T

    2013-12-01

    Dietary supplements are used by one-third of children. We examined motivations for supplement use in children, the types of products used by motivations, and the role of physicians and health care practitioners in guiding choices about supplements. We examined motivations for dietary supplement use reported for children (from birth to 19 y of age; n = 8,245) using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007-2010. Dietary supplements were used by 31% of children; many different reasons were given as follows: to "improve overall health" (41%), to "maintain health" (37%), for "supplementing the diet" (23%), to "prevent health problems" (20%), and to "boost immunity" (14%). Most children (~90%) who use dietary supplements use a multivitamin-mineral or multivitamin product. Supplement users tend to be non-Hispanic white, have higher family incomes, report more physical activity, and have health insurance. Only a small group of supplements used by children (15%) were based on the recommendation of a physician or other health care provider. Most supplements used by children are not under the recommendation of a health care provider. The most common reasons for use of supplements in children are for health promotion, yet little scientific data support this notion in nutrient-replete children.

  14. Why US children use dietary supplements

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Regan L.; Gahche, Jaime J.; Thomas, Paul R.; Dwyer, Johanna T.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Dietary supplements are used by one-third of children. We examined motivations for supplement use in children, the types of products used by motivations, and the role of physicians and health care practitioners in guiding choices about supplements. Methods: We examined motivations for dietary supplement use reported for children (from birth to 19 y of age; n = 8,245) using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007–2010. Results: Dietary supplements were used by 31% of children; many different reasons were given as follows: to “improve overall health” (41%), to “maintain health” (37%), for “supplementing the diet” (23%), to “prevent health problems” (20%), and to “boost immunity” (14%). Most children (~90%) who use dietary supplements use a multivitamin–mineral or multivitamin product. Supplement users tend to be non-Hispanic white, have higher family incomes, report more physical activity, and have health insurance. Only a small group of supplements used by children (15%) were based on the recommendation of a physician or other health care provider. Conclusion: Most supplements used by children are not under the recommendation of a health care provider. The most common reasons for use of supplements in children are for health promotion, yet little scientific data support this notion in nutrient-replete children. PMID:24002333

  15. Quantitative determination of vinpocetine in dietary supplements

    PubMed Central

    French, John M. T.; King, Matthew D.

    2017-01-01

    Current United States regulatory policies allow for the addition of pharmacologically active substances in dietary supplements if derived from a botanical source. The inclusion of certain nootropic drugs, such as vinpocetine, in dietary supplements has recently come under scrutiny due to the lack of defined dosage parameters and yet unproven short- and long-term benefits and risks to human health. This study quantified the concentration of vinpocetine in several commercially available dietary supplements and found that a highly variable range of 0.6–5.1 mg/serving was present across the tested products, with most products providing no specification of vinpocetine concentrations. PMID:27319129

  16. Tips for Older Dietary Supplement Users

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Efficacy of Dietary Supplements ? What is FDA's Responsibility ? What if I Have had a Reaction to ... from consumers using their products What is FDA's Responsibility? FDA has the responsibility to take action against ...

  17. Risk assessment of dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Boobis, Alan R

    2007-01-01

    Risk assessment of dietary supplements shares many of the requirements of that for other chemicals, although there are some important differences. Amongst these is the essential nature of some nutrients so that it may be necessary to balance the need to minimize toxicological risk with the need to avoid deficiency. There may also be limitations on experimental design, in that high doses may not be achievable for nutritional reasons and available human data on toxicological hazard is likely to be very limited. Prior to embarking on a risk assessment the problem needs to be formulated. This involves risk assessors, risk managers and relevant stakeholders. A key decision is whether a risk assessment is necessary and, if so, what is required of the assessment. This will shape the nature and output of the assessment. Risk assessment itself is a scientific process comprising four steps, hazard identification, hazard characterization, exposure assessment and risk characterization. Hazard identification involves determining the range of toxicological effects that might be caused by the substance, whilst hazard characterization establishes dose-response relationships, toxicological and species relevance of the findings and establishes health based guidance values. Exposure assessment involves predicting or measuring the level, pattern and duration of intake of the substance by exposed individuals. This may require dietary consumption data. Finally, risk characterization is the process whereby all of the prior information is integrated to reach conclusions in a form appropriate to the question posed. The nature of the output can take several different forms, and may be qualitative or quantitative. There are some cross-cutting issues in risk assessment, primarily on uncertainty and variability. The sources of uncertainty at each step of the risk assessment should be clearly identified and quantified to the extent possible. Variability requires that the risk assessment should

  18. Determinants of dietary supplement use--healthy individuals use dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Kofoed, Christina L F; Christensen, Jane; Dragsted, Lars O; Tjønneland, Anne; Roswall, Nina

    2015-06-28

    The prevalence of dietary supplement use varies largely among populations, and previous studies have indicated that it is high in the Danish population compared with other European countries. The diversity in supplement use across countries indicates that cultural and environmental factors could influence the use of dietary supplements. Only few studies investigating the use of dietary supplements have been conducted in the Danish population. The present cross-sectional study is based on 54,948 Danes, aged 50-64 years, who completed self-administrated questionnaires on diet, dietary supplements and lifestyle between 1993 and 1997. A health index including smoking, physical activity, alcohol and diet, and a metabolic risk index including waist circumference, urinary glucose and measured hypertension were constructed. Logistic regression was used to investigate these determinants in relation to the intake of dietary supplements. We found that 71 % of the participants were dietary supplement users; female sex, older age groups and higher educated participants were more likely to be users of any dietary supplements. One additional point in the health index was associated with 19, 16 and 9 % higher likelihood of being user of any, more common and less common supplements, respectively. In the metabolic risk index, one additional point was associated with 17 and 16 % lower likelihood of being user of any supplement and more common supplements, respectively. No significant association was found for less common supplement use. In conclusion, those with the healthiest lifestyle were more likely to use dietary supplements. Thus, lifestyle and dietary composition should be considered as confounders on supplement use and health outcomes.

  19. The use of dietary supplements in oncology.

    PubMed

    Frenkel, Moshe; Sierpina, Victor

    2014-11-01

    The use of dietary supplements among patients affected by cancer is extensive, with an estimated 20-90 % of patients using these products. Their use of these products is often not shared with the treating physician. This is because patients perceive or believe that their physicians are indifferent or negative toward the use of dietary supplements. As a result, patients may obtain information about dietary supplements from unreliable sources, exposing themselves to unnecessary risks. Since there are limited scientific data on the efficacy and safety of many dietary supplements, advising patients about when to use them during the course of illness is a clinical challenge. Improving the communication process between the health care team and their patients in this area is critical. We describe a practical patient-centered approach to managing dietary supplement use in cancer care. This approach makes use of all available scientific data relating to the safety and efficacy of these supplements combined with how to have an open, patient-centered discussion with patients about their needs and expectations.

  20. Common Herbal Dietary Supplement-Drug Interactions.

    PubMed

    Asher, Gary N; Corbett, Amanda H; Hawke, Roy L

    2017-07-15

    Nearly 25% of U.S. adults report concurrently taking a prescription medication with a dietary supplement. Some supplements, such as St. John's wort and goldenseal, are known to cause clinically important drug interactions and should be avoided by most patients receiving any pharmacologic therapy. However, many other supplements are predicted to cause interactions based only on in vitro studies that have not been confirmed or have been refuted in human clinical trials. Some supplements may cause interactions with a few medications but are likely to be safe with other medications (e.g., curcumin, echinacea, garlic, Asian ginseng, green tea extract, kava kava). Some supplements have a low likelihood of drug interactions and, with certain caveats, can safely be taken with most medications (e.g., black cohosh, cranberry, ginkgo, milk thistle, American ginseng, saw palmetto, valerian). Clinicians should consult reliable dietary supplement resources, or clinical pharmacists or pharmacologists, to help assess the safety of specific herbal supplement-drug combinations. Because most patients do not disclose supplement use to clinicians, the most important strategy for detecting herb-drug interactions is to develop a trusting relationship that encourages patients to discuss their dietary supplement use.

  1. Dietary supplements and team-sport performance.

    PubMed

    Bishop, David

    2010-12-01

    A well designed diet is the foundation upon which optimal training and performance can be developed. However, as long as competitive sports have existed, athletes have attempted to improve their performance by ingesting a variety of substances. This practice has given rise to a multi-billion-dollar industry that aggressively markets its products as performance enhancing, often without objective, scientific evidence to support such claims. While a number of excellent reviews have evaluated the performance-enhancing effects of most dietary supplements, less attention has been paid to the performance-enhancing claims of dietary supplements in the context of team-sport performance. Dietary supplements that enhance some types of athletic performance may not necessarily enhance team-sport performance (and vice versa). Thus, the first aim of this review is to critically evaluate the ergogenic value of the most common dietary supplements used by team-sport athletes. The term dietary supplements will be used in this review and is defined as any product taken by the mouth, in addition to common foods, that has been proposed to have a performance-enhancing effect; this review will only discuss substances that are not currently banned by the World Anti-Doping Agency. Evidence is emerging to support the performance-enhancing claims of some, but not all, dietary supplements that have been proposed to improve team-sport-related performance. For example, there is good evidence that caffeine can improve single-sprint performance, while caffeine, creatine and sodium bicarbonate ingestion have all been demonstrated to improve multiple-sprint performance. The evidence is not so strong for the performance-enhancing benefits of β-alanine or colostrum. Current evidence does not support the ingestion of ribose, branched-chain amino acids or β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate, especially in well trained athletes. More research on the performance-enhancing effects of the dietary supplements

  2. Why US adults use dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Regan L; Gahche, Jaime J; Miller, Paige E; Thomas, Paul R; Dwyer, Johanna T

    2013-03-11

    Dietary supplements are used by more than half of adults, although to our knowledge, the reasons motivating use have not been previously examined in US adults using nationally representative data. The purpose of this analysis was to examine motivations for dietary supplement use, characterize the types of products used for the most commonly reported motivations, and to examine the role of physicians and health care practitioners in guiding choices about dietary supplements. Data from adults (≥20 years; n = 11 956) were examined in the 2007-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, a nationally representative, cross-sectional, population-based survey. The most commonly reported reasons for using supplements were to "improve" (45%) or "maintain" (33%) overall health. Women used calcium products for "bone health" (36%), whereas men were more likely to report supplement use for "heart health or to lower cholesterol" (18%). Older adults (≥60 years) were more likely than younger individuals to report motivations related to site-specific reasons like heart, bone and joint, and eye health. Only 23% of products were used based on recommendations of a health care provider. Multivitamin-mineral products were the most frequently reported type of supplement taken, followed by calcium and ω-3 or fish oil supplements. Supplement users are more likely to report very good or excellent health, have health insurance, use alcohol moderately, eschew cigarette smoking, and exercise more frequently than nonusers. Supplement users reported motivations related to overall health more commonly than for supplementing nutrients from food intakes. Use of supplements was related to more favorable health and lifestyle choices. Less than a quarter of supplements used by adults were recommended by a physician or health care provider.

  3. Overview of Dietary Supplements in Prostate Cancer.

    PubMed

    Yacoubian, Aline; Dargham, Rana Abu; Khauli, Raja B; Bachir, Bassel G

    2016-11-01

    Prostate cancer is a key health concern for men with its etiology still under investigation. Recently, the role of dietary supplements has been noted to have a major inhibitory effect on prostate cancer and numerous studies have been conducted in this regard. This review provides a summary on numerous recent studies conducted in this field. Some of the studies reviewed revealed a protective role for supplements, and others showed no correlation while some even had an adverse effect. The mechanism of how these supplements act on the prostate is still not clear. Further studies are warranted especially for supplements that have been shown to have a potential inhibitory role in prostate cancer.

  4. Dietary Supplement Use, Knowledge, and Perceptions Among Student Pharmacists

    PubMed Central

    Vanova, Janka; Edel, Courtney; Slack, Marion

    2017-01-01

    Objective. To compare dietary supplement use between student pharmacists and the general population, and assess knowledge, attitudes toward use, and dietary supplement effectiveness; and to explore how student pharmacists view their education on dietary supplements. Methods. Paper questionnaires administered to student pharmacists collected data about their use, knowledge, and attitudes of dietary supplements. Use was compared to the 2007 National Health Interview survey findings. Results. Of 179 students who responded, 52% had used at least one dietary supplement in their lifetime versus 25% in the general population. Students perceived supplement label information as unhelpful, research into supplements inadequate, and supplements non-essential to health. Students thought supplement knowledge was important but their education was inadequate. Conclusion. Dietary supplement use was higher in this sample of student pharmacists than the general population. Student pharmacists had limited knowledge and need more education on dietary supplements. PMID:28720920

  5. 76 FR 55927 - Draft Guidance for Industry; Dietary Supplements: New Dietary Ingredient Notifications and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-09

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Guidance for Industry; Dietary Supplements: New...: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice; extension of comment period. SUMMARY: The Food and... notice entitled ``Draft Guidance for Industry; Dietary Supplements: New Dietary Ingredient Notifications...

  6. Preventing Student Meltdowns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koch, Steven P.

    2010-01-01

    Student meltdowns can be a frequent source of discouragement for teachers. Mild to moderate verbal outbursts, anger, defacing instructional materials, and withdrawal can cause the most seasoned teacher to wonder if there is a way to help students constructively deal with their frustrations without losing control. There can be situations in which a…

  7. Preventing Student Meltdowns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koch, Steven P.

    2010-01-01

    Student meltdowns can be a frequent source of discouragement for teachers. Mild to moderate verbal outbursts, anger, defacing instructional materials, and withdrawal can cause the most seasoned teacher to wonder if there is a way to help students constructively deal with their frustrations without losing control. There can be situations in which a…

  8. Common dietary supplements for weight loss.

    PubMed

    Saper, Robert B; Eisenberg, David M; Phillips, Russell S

    2004-11-01

    Over-the-counter dietary supplements to treat obesity appeal to many patients who desire a "magic bullet" for weight loss. Asking overweight patients about their use of weight-loss supplements and understanding the evidence for the efficacy, safety, and quality of these supplements are critical when counseling patients regarding weight loss. A schema for whether physicians should recommend, caution, or discourage use of a particular weight-loss supplement is presented in this article. More than 50 individual dietary supplements and more than 125 commercial combination products are available for weight loss. Currently, no weight-loss supplements meet criteria for recommended use. Although evidence of modest weight loss secondary to ephedra-caffeine ingestion exists, potentially serious adverse effects have led the U.S. Food and Drug Administration to ban the sale of these products. Chromium is a popular weight-loss supplement, but its efficacy and long-term safety are uncertain. Guar gum and chitosan appear to be ineffective; therefore, use of these products should be discouraged. Because of insufficient or conflicting evidence regarding the efficacy of conjugated linoleic acid, ginseng, glucomannan, green tea, hydroxycitric acid, L-carnitine, psyllium, pyruvate, and St. John's wort in weight loss, physicians should caution patients about the use of these supplements and closely monitor those who choose to use these products.

  9. Selenium species in selenium fortified dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Niedzielski, Przemyslaw; Rudnicka, Monika; Wachelka, Marcin; Kozak, Lidia; Rzany, Magda; Wozniak, Magdalena; Kaskow, Zaneta

    2016-01-01

    This article presents a study of dietary supplements available on the Polish market. The supplements comprised a large group of products with selenium content declared by the producer. The study involved determination of dissolution time under different conditions and solubility as well as content and speciation of selenium. The total content was determined as well as organic selenium and the inorganic forms Se(IV) and Se(VI). The organic selenium content was calculated as the difference between total Se and inorganic Se. The values obtained were compared with producers' declarations. The work is the first such study of selenium supplements available on the market of an EU Member State.

  10. Assessing Vitamin D Levels in Dietary Supplements

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Vitamin D is a nutrient of public health concern, particularly in the elderly, and is naturally present in some foods, added to others, and available as a dietary supplement. It is essential for bone growth and bone remodeling and recent research indicates it has other roles in human health, includi...

  11. 76 FR 39111 - Draft Guidance for Industry; Dietary Supplements: New Dietary Ingredient Notifications and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-05

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Guidance for Industry; Dietary Supplements: New... Dietary Supplements, Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (HFS-850), Food and Drug Administration... NDI and any other dietary ingredients in the dietary supplement ``have been present in the food supply...

  12. Examples of Dietary Supplement Interactions

    MedlinePlus

    ... in the brain, which can cause serious side effects in the brain.Warfarin. May slow blood clotting in addition to the warfarin, which can increase chance of bruising and bleeding.Supplement: ... which can increase the effects and side effects. Talk to your doctor to ...

  13. 21 CFR 101.36 - Nutrition labeling of dietary supplements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nutrition labeling of dietary supplements. 101.36... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FOOD LABELING Specific Nutrition Labeling Requirements and Guidelines § 101.36 Nutrition labeling of dietary supplements. (a) The label of a dietary supplement that is...

  14. 21 CFR 119.1 - Dietary supplements containing ephedrine alkaloids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Dietary supplements containing ephedrine alkaloids... UNREASONABLE RISK § 119.1 Dietary supplements containing ephedrine alkaloids. Dietary supplements containing ephedrine alkaloids present an unreasonable risk of illness or injury under conditions of use recommended...

  15. 21 CFR 119.1 - Dietary supplements containing ephedrine alkaloids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Dietary supplements containing ephedrine alkaloids... UNREASONABLE RISK § 119.1 Dietary supplements containing ephedrine alkaloids. Dietary supplements containing ephedrine alkaloids present an unreasonable risk of illness or injury under conditions of use recommended...

  16. 21 CFR 119.1 - Dietary supplements containing ephedrine alkaloids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dietary supplements containing ephedrine alkaloids... UNREASONABLE RISK § 119.1 Dietary supplements containing ephedrine alkaloids. Dietary supplements containing ephedrine alkaloids present an unreasonable risk of illness or injury under conditions of use recommended...

  17. 21 CFR 119.1 - Dietary supplements containing ephedrine alkaloids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Dietary supplements containing ephedrine alkaloids... UNREASONABLE RISK § 119.1 Dietary supplements containing ephedrine alkaloids. Dietary supplements containing ephedrine alkaloids present an unreasonable risk of illness or injury under conditions of use recommended...

  18. 21 CFR 119.1 - Dietary supplements containing ephedrine alkaloids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Dietary supplements containing ephedrine alkaloids... UNREASONABLE RISK § 119.1 Dietary supplements containing ephedrine alkaloids. Dietary supplements containing ephedrine alkaloids present an unreasonable risk of illness or injury under conditions of use recommended...

  19. Dietary supplements for established atopic eczema.

    PubMed

    Bath-Hextall, Fiona J; Jenkinson, Claire; Humphreys, Rosemary; Williams, Hywel C

    2012-02-15

    Many people with atopic eczema are reluctant to use the most commonly recommended treatments because they fear the long-term health effects. As a result, many turn to dietary supplements as a possible treatment approach, often with the belief that some essential ingredient is 'missing' in their diet. Various supplements have been proposed, but it is unclear whether any of these interventions are effective. To evaluate dietary supplements for treating established atopic eczema/dermatitis.Evening primrose oil, borage oil, and probiotics are covered in other Cochrane reviews. We searched the following databases up to July 2010: the Cochrane Skin Group Specialised Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) in The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE (from 2005), EMBASE (from 2007), PsycINFO (from 1806), AMED (from 1985), LILACS (from 1982), ISI Web of Science, GREAT (Global Resource of EczemA Trials) database, and reference lists of articles. We searched ongoing trials registers up to April 2011. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of dietary supplements for the treatment of those with established atopic eczema/dermatitis. Two authors independently screened the titles and abstracts, read the full text of the publications, extracted data, and assessed the risk of bias. We included 11 studies with a total of 596 participants. Two studies assessed fish oil versus olive oil or corn oil placebo. The following were all looked at in single studies: oral zinc sulphate compared to placebo, selenium versus selenium plus vitamin E versus placebo, vitamin D versus placebo, vitamin D versus vitamin E versus vitamins D plus vitamin E together versus placebo, pyridoxine versus placebo, sea buckthorn seed oil versus sea buckthorn pulp oil versus placebo, hempseed oil versus placebo, sunflower oil (linoleic acid) versus fish oil versus placebo, and DHA versus control (saturated fatty acids of the same energy value). Two small studies on fish oil suggest a possible

  20. Influence of the dietary supplement health and education act on consumer beliefs about the safety and effectiveness of dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Dodge, Tonya; Litt, Dana; Kaufman, Annette

    2011-03-01

    The authors conducted two studies to examine the influence of the U.S. Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act (DSHEA) on consumer beliefs about the safety and effectiveness of dietary supplements. Study 1 manipulated information about Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval in the context of a dietary supplement designed to improve immune system functioning. Study 2 tested the effect of an educational intervention designed to improve knowledge about the DSHEA. Results of Study 1 highlighted deficits in consumer knowledge about FDA regulation of dietary supplements. Results also showed that information about FDA approval failed to have a statistically significant effect on beliefs about safety or effectiveness of the dietary supplement. Results of Study 2 showed that participants who were educated about the regulation of dietary supplements under the DSHEA rated dietary supplements as less safe and less effective than did participants in the control condition. The authors discuss the implications for consumers in the United States and for public policy.

  1. Neurotoxicity of Dietary Supplements from Annonaceae Species.

    PubMed

    Höllerhage, Matthias; Rösler, Thomas W; Berjas, Magda; Luo, Rensheng; Tran, Kevin; Richards, Kristy M; Sabaa-Srur, Armando U; Maia, José Guilherme S; Moraes, Maria Rosa de; Godoy, Helena T; Höglinger, Günter U; Smith, Robert E

    2015-01-01

    Dietary supplements containing plant materials of Annonaceae species (Annona muricata L., A. squamosa L., A. mucosa JACQ., A. squamosa × cherimola Mabb.) were extracted by hot, pressurized ethyl acetate and analyzed for their effect in vitro on Lund human mesencephalic neurons. Cell viability was measured by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay, and cell death was determined by lactate dehydrogenase levels. Three supplements strongly decreased the cell viability at extract concentrations of 1 µg/mL, of which 1 decreased cell viability at 0.1 µg/µL. Also, strong neuronal toxicities of these supplements were found. Cell death was observed at concentrations of 10 µg/mL. The degree of toxicity was comparable to the ones found in Annonaceous fruit extracts. Two fruit pulps of Annonaceae (A. muricata and A. squamosa) showed a reduction in cell viability at lower concentrations. The fruit pulp extract of A. muricata revealed the strongest neurotoxic effect, with 67% cell death at a concentration of 1 µg/mL. A high reduction in cell viability coupled with pronounced cell death was found at 0.1 µg/mL for an Annonaceous seed extract. These results demonstrate that the intake of dietary supplements containing plant material from Annonaceae may be hazardous to health in terms of neurotoxicity.

  2. Use of dietary supplements among preschool children in Japan.

    PubMed

    Sato, Yoko; Yamagishi, Azumi; Hashimoto, Yoko; Virgona, Nantiga; Hoshiyama, Yoshiharu; Umegaki, Keizo

    2009-08-01

    This study was conducted to examine the characteristics and use of dietary supplements by preschool children in Japan. A survey was conducted among 2,125 parents of preschool children to discover the status of dietary supplement use and their attitudes towards supplement use by their children. Logistic regression models were used to determine which characteristics predict supplement use in this population. For detailed characterization, child supplement users were also categorized as either the users of vitamins and minerals only or the users of other supplement components. For parents of non-user children, the parent's knowledge and attitudes toward supplements for children were investigated. Fifteen percent of children had used dietary supplements. Two parent-related factors were especially important, the frequency with which they referred to nutritional labels and their own supplement use, which had a significant encouraging effect on their children's supplement use. The parents of child supplement users showed limited awareness of the government system concerning diet and food, placed safety over efficacy, selected products with natural ingredients, and did not seek consultations with professionals. These parents, especially those who were aware of the specially designed supplements for children, exhibited positive responses to supplement use by their children. It is likely that parents' knowledge and attitudes toward dietary supplements and nutrition have a striking effect on their children's use of supplements. Unfortunately, their knowledge at present was less than satisfactory. More accurate information on nutrition, dietary intake and dietary supplements must be disseminated.

  3. A structured vocabulary for indexing dietary supplements in databases in the United States

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Food composition databases are critical to assess and plan dietary intakes. Dietary supplement databases are also needed because dietary supplements make significant contributions to total nutrient intakes. However, no uniform system exists for classifying dietary supplement products and indexing ...

  4. Progress in developing analytical and label-based dietary supplement databases at the NIH Office of Dietary Supplements

    PubMed Central

    Dwyer, Johanna T.; Picciano, Mary Frances; Betz, Joseph M.; Fisher, Kenneth D.; Saldanha, Leila G.; Yetley, Elizabeth A.; Coates, Paul M.; Milner, John A.; Whitted, Jackie; Burt, Vicki; Radimer, Kathy; Wilger, Jaimie; Sharpless, Katherine E.; Holden, Joanne M.; Andrews, Karen; Roseland, Janet; Zhao, Cuiwei; Schweitzer, Amy; Harnly, James; Wolf, Wayne R.; Perry, Charles R.

    2013-01-01

    Although an estimated 50% of adults in the United States consume dietary supplements, analytically substantiated data on their bioactive constituents are sparse. Several programs funded by the Office of Dietary Supplements (ODS) at the National Institutes of Health enhance dietary supplement database development and help to better describe the quantitative and qualitative contributions of dietary supplements to total dietary intakes. ODS, in collaboration with the United States Department of Agriculture, is developing a Dietary Supplement Ingredient Database (DSID) verified by chemical analysis. The products chosen initially for analytical verification are adult multivitamin-mineral supplements (MVMs). These products are widely used, analytical methods are available for determining key constituents, and a certified reference material is in development. Also MVMs have no standard scientific, regulatory, or marketplace definitions and have widely varying compositions, characteristics, and bioavailability. Furthermore, the extent to which actual amounts of vitamins and minerals in a product deviate from label values is not known. Ultimately, DSID will prove useful to professionals in permitting more accurate estimation of the contribution of dietary supplements to total dietary intakes of nutrients and better evaluation of the role of dietary supplements in promoting health and well-being. ODS is also collaborating with the National Center for Health Statistics to enhance the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey dietary supplement label database. The newest ODS effort explores the feasibility and practicality of developing a database of all dietary supplement labels marketed in the US. This article describes these and supporting projects. PMID:25346570

  5. Progress in developing analytical and label-based dietary supplement databases at the NIH Office of Dietary Supplements.

    PubMed

    Dwyer, Johanna T; Picciano, Mary Frances; Betz, Joseph M; Fisher, Kenneth D; Saldanha, Leila G; Yetley, Elizabeth A; Coates, Paul M; Milner, John A; Whitted, Jackie; Burt, Vicki; Radimer, Kathy; Wilger, Jaimie; Sharpless, Katherine E; Holden, Joanne M; Andrews, Karen; Roseland, Janet; Zhao, Cuiwei; Schweitzer, Amy; Harnly, James; Wolf, Wayne R; Perry, Charles R

    2008-02-01

    Although an estimated 50% of adults in the United States consume dietary supplements, analytically substantiated data on their bioactive constituents are sparse. Several programs funded by the Office of Dietary Supplements (ODS) at the National Institutes of Health enhance dietary supplement database development and help to better describe the quantitative and qualitative contributions of dietary supplements to total dietary intakes. ODS, in collaboration with the United States Department of Agriculture, is developing a Dietary Supplement Ingredient Database (DSID) verified by chemical analysis. The products chosen initially for analytical verification are adult multivitamin-mineral supplements (MVMs). These products are widely used, analytical methods are available for determining key constituents, and a certified reference material is in development. Also MVMs have no standard scientific, regulatory, or marketplace definitions and have widely varying compositions, characteristics, and bioavailability. Furthermore, the extent to which actual amounts of vitamins and minerals in a product deviate from label values is not known. Ultimately, DSID will prove useful to professionals in permitting more accurate estimation of the contribution of dietary supplements to total dietary intakes of nutrients and better evaluation of the role of dietary supplements in promoting health and well-being. ODS is also collaborating with the National Center for Health Statistics to enhance the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey dietary supplement label database. The newest ODS effort explores the feasibility and practicality of developing a database of all dietary supplement labels marketed in the US. This article describes these and supporting projects.

  6. Detection of Cyanotoxins in Algae Dietary Supplements

    PubMed Central

    Roy-Lachapelle, Audrey; Solliec, Morgan; Bouchard, Maryse F.; Sauvé, Sébastien

    2017-01-01

    Algae dietary supplements are marketed worldwide as natural health products. Although their proprieties have been claimed as beneficial to improve overall health, there have been several previous reports of contamination by cyanotoxins. These products generally contain non-toxic cyanobacteria, but the methods of cultivation in natural waters without appropriate quality controls allow contamination by toxin producer species present in the natural environment. In this study, we investigated the presence of total microcystins, seven individual microcystins (RR, YR, LR, LA, LY, LW, LF), anatoxin-a, dihydroanatoxin-a, epoxyanatoxin-a, cylindrospermopsin, saxitoxin, and β-methylamino-l-alanine in 18 different commercially available products containing Spirulina or Aphanizomenon flos-aquae. Total microcystins analysis was accomplished using a Lemieux oxidation and a chemical derivatization using dansyl chloride was needed for the simultaneous analysis of cylindrospermopsin, saxitoxin, and β-methylamino-l-alanine. Moreover, the use of laser diode thermal desorption (LDTD) and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) both coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) enabled high performance detection and quantitation. Out of the 18 products analyzed, 8 contained some cyanotoxins at levels exceeding the tolerable daily intake values. The presence of cyanotoxins in these algal dietary supplements reinforces the need for a better quality control as well as consumer’s awareness on the potential risks associated with the consumption of these supplements. PMID:28245621

  7. Detection of Cyanotoxins in Algae Dietary Supplements.

    PubMed

    Roy-Lachapelle, Audrey; Solliec, Morgan; Bouchard, Maryse F; Sauvé, Sébastien

    2017-02-25

    Algae dietary supplements are marketed worldwide as natural health products. Although their proprieties have been claimed as beneficial to improve overall health, there have been several previous reports of contamination by cyanotoxins. These products generally contain non-toxic cyanobacteria, but the methods of cultivation in natural waters without appropriate quality controls allow contamination by toxin producer species present in the natural environment. In this study, we investigated the presence of total microcystins, seven individual microcystins (RR, YR, LR, LA, LY, LW, LF), anatoxin-a, dihydroanatoxin-a, epoxyanatoxin-a, cylindrospermopsin, saxitoxin, and β-methylamino-l-alanine in 18 different commercially available products containing Spirulina or Aphanizomenon flos-aquae. Total microcystins analysis was accomplished using a Lemieux oxidation and a chemical derivatization using dansyl chloride was needed for the simultaneous analysis of cylindrospermopsin, saxitoxin, and β-methylamino-l-alanine. Moreover, the use of laser diode thermal desorption (LDTD) and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) both coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) enabled high performance detection and quantitation. Out of the 18 products analyzed, 8 contained some cyanotoxins at levels exceeding the tolerable daily intake values. The presence of cyanotoxins in these algal dietary supplements reinforces the need for a better quality control as well as consumer's awareness on the potential risks associated with the consumption of these supplements.

  8. Integrating dietary supplements into cancer care.

    PubMed

    Frenkel, Moshe; Abrams, Donald I; Ladas, Elena J; Deng, Gary; Hardy, Mary; Capodice, Jillian L; Winegardner, Mary F; Gubili, J K; Yeung, K Simon; Kussmann, Heidi; Block, Keith I

    2013-09-01

    Many studies confirm that a majority of patients undergoing cancer therapy use self-selected forms of complementary therapies, mainly dietary supplements. Unfortunately, patients often do not report their use of supplements to their providers. The failure of physicians to communicate effectively with patients on this use may result in a loss of trust within the therapeutic relationship and in the selection by patients of harmful, useless, or ineffective and costly nonconventional therapies when effective integrative interventions may exist. Poor communication may also lead to diminishment of patient autonomy and self-efficacy and thereby interfere with the healing response. To be open to the patient's perspective, and sensitive to his or her need for autonomy and empowerment, physicians may need a shift in their own perspectives. Perhaps the optimal approach is to discuss both the facts and the uncertainty with the patient, in order to reach a mutually informed decision. Today's informed patients truly value physicians who appreciate them as equal participants in making their own health care choices. To reach a mutually informed decision about the use of these supplements, the Clinical Practice Committee of The Society of Integrative Oncology undertook the challenge of providing basic information to physicians who wish to discuss these issues with their patients. A list of leading supplements that have the best suggestions of benefit was constructed by leading researchers and clinicians who have experience in using these supplements. This list includes curcumin, glutamine, vitamin D, Maitake mushrooms, fish oil, green tea, milk thistle, Astragalus, melatonin, and probiotics. The list includes basic information on each supplement, such as evidence on effectiveness and clinical trials, adverse effects, and interactions with medications. The information was constructed to provide an up-to-date base of knowledge, so that physicians and other health care providers would

  9. Determinants of dietary supplements use among adolescents in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Sien, Yeo Pei; Sahril, Norhafizah; Abdul Mutalip, Mohd Hatta; Zaki, Nor Azian Mohd; Abdul Ghaffar, Suhaila

    2014-09-01

    Dietary supplements use is relatively widespread in some countries but knowledge of supplements consumption in Malaysia is limited, more so among adolescents. This study aimed to investigate the determinants of dietary supplements use among Malaysian adolescents using multiple logistic regressions analysis. Data from the Malaysia School-based Nutrition Survey 2012 based on a 2-stage stratified sampling was used. The prevalence of vitamin/mineral supplements and food supplements intake among adolescents was 54.1% and 40.2%, respectively. Usage was significantly higher among younger adolescents and among boys. Dietary supplements were also taken mostly by those who thought they were underweight. The most common vitamin/mineral supplements and food supplements consumed were vitamin C and bee products. The main reason for taking supplements was parents' instruction. These findings can be useful for developing health communications on supplement use targeted to adolescents and their parents. © 2014 APJPH.

  10. Micronutrients: dietary intake v. supplement use.

    PubMed

    Woodside, Jayne V; McCall, Damian; McGartland, Claire; Young, Ian S

    2005-11-01

    Whilst clinical deficiency of micronutrients is uncommon in the developed world, a suboptimal intake of certain micronutrients has been linked with an increased risk of chronic diseases such as CVD and cancer. Attention has therefore focused on increasing micronutrient status in order to theoretically reduce chronic disease risk. Increasing micronutrient status can involve a number of approaches: increasing dietary intake of micronutrient-rich foods; food fortification; use of supplements. Observational cohort studies have demonstrated an association between high intakes of micronutrients such as vitamin E, vitamin C, folic acid and beta-carotene, and lower risk of CHD, stroke and cancer at various sites. However, randomised intervention trials of micronutrient supplements have, to date, largely failed to show an improvement in clinical end points. The discordance between data from cohort studies and the results so far available from clinical trials remains to be explained. One reason may be that the complex mixture of micronutrients found, for example, in a diet high in fruit and vegetables may be more effective than large doses of a small number of micronutrients, and therefore that intervention studies that use single micronutrient supplements are unlikely to produce a lowering of disease risk. Studies concentrating on whole foods (e.g. fruit and vegetables) or diet pattern (e.g. Mediterranean diet pattern) may be more effective in demonstrating an effect on clinical end points. The present review will consider the clinical trial evidence for a beneficial effect of micronutrient supplements on health, and review the alternative approaches to the study of dietary intake of micronutrients.

  11. DNA barcode authentication of saw palmetto herbal dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Little, Damon P; Jeanson, Marc L

    2013-12-17

    Herbal dietary supplements made from saw palmetto (Serenoa repens; Arecaceae) fruit are commonly consumed to ameliorate benign prostate hyperplasia. A novel DNA mini-barcode assay to accurately identify [specificity = 1.00 (95% confidence interval = 0.74-1.00); sensitivity = 1.00 (95% confidence interval = 0.66-1.00); n = 31] saw palmetto dietary supplements was designed from a DNA barcode reference library created for this purpose. The mini-barcodes were used to estimate the frequency of mislabeled saw palmetto herbal dietary supplements on the market in the United States of America. Of the 37 supplements examined, amplifiable DNA could be extracted from 34 (92%). Mini-barcode analysis of these supplements demonstrated that 29 (85%) contain saw palmetto and that 2 (6%) supplements contain related species that cannot be legally sold as herbal dietary supplements in the United States of America. The identity of 3 (9%) supplements could not be conclusively determined.

  12. U.S. Kids Overdosing on Dietary Supplements

    MedlinePlus

    ... annual rate of accidental exposures to dietary supplements rose in the United States by nearly 50 percent, ... calls to U.S. poison control centers involving supplements rose 46 percent each year. From 2002 to 2005, ...

  13. Dietary supplements and disease prevention: a global overview

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Undernutrition and micronutrient malnutrition are prevalent conditions that affect global public health. Dietary supplements are widely used in many developed countries. However, it remains unclear whether supplementation with individual or combined vitamins, minerals, and other nutrients are effe...

  14. [Potential interactions between drugs and dietary supplements].

    PubMed

    Farghali, Hassan; Kameníková, Ludmila; Hodis, Jiří; Kutinová Canová, Nikolina

    2014-01-01

    Purified active plant constituents were isolated and assessed for their pharmacological activities that constitute a basis of modern drug development. The situation with herbal supplements is different because the extract or dried herb or mixture of herbs contains several substances beside the beneficial one(s) that might produce drug interaction with the conventional medicine(s). Most patients are misinformed and believe that anything "natural" must be safe. This article is focusing on plant-based substances referred as dietary supplements (DS). Examples of reported drug interactions and contraindications associated with DS with two case studies are presented. As supplements are typically not prescribed, many doctors seem to have no interest in drug-DS interactions since a typical medical history of the patients does not include any questions about self-prescribed remedies of this nature. Rather, patients are left alone when they are tempted to try this or that DS and tend to rely on advice from friends, or on material they read on internet. A better quality control, compliance, public awareness and healthcare professionals vigilance for potential interactions are needed. It is of utmost importance to appreciate the impact of supplements on different stages of pharmacokinetics, especially on drug absorption and metabolism.

  15. Dietary supplement intake in national-level Sri Lankan athletes.

    PubMed

    de Silva, Angela; Samarasinghe, Yasas; Senanayake, Dhammika; Lanerolle, Pulani

    2010-02-01

    Intake of dietary supplements is widespread among athletes in developed countries. This study evaluated the use of dietary supplements in athletes from a developing country. Dietary supplementation practices of 113 national-level athletes age 15-35 yr in Sri Lanka were assessed. All athletes from track-and-field, badminton, football, swimming, cycling, and karate squads who consented to participate in the study were administered an anonymous questionnaire by an interviewer. Information on number of supplements taken, frequency of use, nature of product, rationale, sources of advice, and reasons for taking supplements was obtained. Most athletes (94%) consumed dietary supplements. On average, 3.7 products/day were consumed. Footballers had significantly lower intake of supplements than other athletes (footballers 71%, others 98%; p < .05). They also consumed fewer products per day (footballers 0.7, others 3.5; p < .05). Popular supplements included multivitamins, vitamin E, calcium, energy foods and drinks, and creatine. Multiple supplement use was common, with 29% athletes taking 4 products/day. The athletes sought advice on supplement use from sports doctors (45%), team coaches (40%), or friends (15%). Most took supplements to improve performance (79%), and 19% claimed to take supplements to improve their overall health status. Dietary supplement use is widespread among national-level Sri Lankan athletes. The ad hoc use of supplements indicates that educational intervention in the sporting community is essential.

  16. Review article: herbal and dietary supplement hepatotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Bunchorntavakul, C; Reddy, K R

    2013-01-01

    Herbal and dietary supplements are commonly used throughout the World. There is a tendency for underreporting their ingestion by patients and the magnitude of their use is underrecognised by Physicians. Herbal hepatotoxicity is not uncommonly encountered, but the precise incidence and manifestations have not been well characterised. To review the epidemiology, presentation and diagnosis of herbal hepatotoxicity. This review will mainly discuss single ingredients and complex mixtures of herbs marketed under a single label. A Medline search was undertaken to identify relevant literature using search terms including 'herbal', 'herbs', 'dietary supplement', 'liver injury', 'hepatitis' and 'hepatotoxicity'. Furthermore, we scanned the reference lists of the primary and review articles to identify publications not retrieved by electronic searches. The incidence rates of herbal hepatotoxicity are largely unknown. The clinical presentation and severity can be highly variable, ranging from mild hepatitis to acute hepatic failure requiring transplantation. Scoring systems for the causality assessment of drug-induced liver injury may be helpful, but have not been validated for herbal hepatotoxicity. Hepatotoxicity features of commonly used herbal products, such as Ayurvedic and Chinese herbs, black cohosh, chaparral, germander, greater celandine, green tea, Herbalife, Hydroxycut, kava, pennyroyal, pyrrolizidine alkaloids, skullcap, and usnic acid, have been individually reviewed. Furthermore, clinically significant herb-drug interactions are also discussed. A number of herbal medicinal products are associated with a spectrum of hepatotoxicity events. Advances in the understanding of the pathogenesis and the risks involved are needed to improve herbal medicine safety. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  17. Dietary Supplement Polypharmacy: An Unrecognized Public Health Problem?

    PubMed Central

    Gryzlak, Brian M.; Zimmerman, M. Bridget; Wallace, Robert B.

    2010-01-01

    Excessive and inappropriate use of medications, or ‘polypharmacy’, has been recognized as a public health problem. In addition, there is growing use of dietary supplements in the United States; however, little is known about the patterns of supplement use. Recent reports in the literature of cases of excessive or inappropriate use of herbal dietary supplements leading to the term ‘polyherbacy’. The clinical vignettes described in this article highlight the need for further research on the nature and extent of multiple and inappropriate dietary supplement use or ‘dietary supplement polypharmacy’. Clinical interviewing and population surveys both address this issue in complementary ways, and provide a further understanding of dietary supplement use patterns. PMID:18955288

  18. Dietary supplement use in people being treated for depression.

    PubMed

    Silvers, Karen M; Woolley, Cheryl C; Hedderley, Duncan

    2006-01-01

    The use of dietary supplements has increased over the past 10 years, with up to 50% of adults being reported to have taken dietary supplements. The types of supplements taken are often related to physical morbidities. However, information about their use in combination with prescription drugs is lacking. In particular, there is little information on the use of supplements by people with depression. Our aim was to examine the use of dietary supplements by people being treated for depression. Seventy-two participants who were being treated for depression in the community were recruited for a clinical trial to determine the effect of fish oil on mood in the treatment of depression. The results of the primary analysis are reported elsewhere. Exclusion criteria included any co-existing psychiatric disorder (except anxiety disorders), blood clotting disorders, unstable medical conditions, and those taking fish oil supplements. Demographic information, details about the participants' depression and current therapies, use of dietary and herbal supplements in the previous 12 months, and physical activity data were collected at baseline. Characteristics of supplement users were compared with those of non-users using either chi-square or Mann-Whitney U tests. Forty-five (63%) of 72 participants who provided dietary supplement information had taken at least one dietary supplement within the previous 12 months. On average, supplement users were found to have taken 2.8 (SD=1.56) dietary supplements during the assessment period. Women were more likely to be taking supplements than men (P<0.001). In conclusion, the use of dietary supplements is common among people being treated for depression. This has important implications for clinical practice as little is known about supplement-drug interactions.

  19. Dietary supplement research portfolio at the NIH, 2009-2011.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Cazarin, Mary L; Wambogo, Edwina A; Regan, Karen S; Davis, Cindy D

    2014-04-01

    The U.S. dietary supplement market increased by 7.5% in 2012 compared with 2011, reaching $32.5 billion in sales. Therefore, federally supported research on dietary supplements is important to determine their health effects, safety, and efficacy. A portfolio analysis was performed across the NIH and the Office of Dietary Supplements (ODS) for fiscal years (FYs) 2009-2011 by using the databases Human Nutrition Research Information Management (HNRIM) and Computer Access to Research on Dietary Supplements (CARDS). The results indicated that total NIH dietary supplement-related funding for FYs 2009-2011 was $855 million ($295 million in 2009, $311 million in 2010, and $249 million in 2011). The institutes and centers with the highest investment in dietary supplement research were as follows: the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute ($135 million); the National Cancer Institute ($188 million); the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine ($99 million); the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases ($68 million); the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences ($58 million); and the ODS ($32 million). The dietary supplement ingredients receiving the most funding were botanicals (22%), vitamins (20%), lipids (14%), and minerals and trace elements (10%). The top 3 outcome research areas were cancer (61% of total dietary supplement investment), cardiovascular disease (47%), and women's reproductive health (38%). In FYs 2009, 2010, and 2011, the ODS provided 3.5%, 3.6%, and 4.1%, respectively, of the NIH investment in dietary supplement research. ODS funding focused on cellular, enzymatic, or molecular mechanisms (64% of total ODS funding). This portfolio analysis demonstrates that the NIH has committed substantial funding to dietary supplement research in an effort to expand the scientific knowledge base on the efficacy and safety of dietary supplements.

  20. Commonly Used Dietary Supplements on Coagulation Function during Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chong-Zhi; Moss, Jonathan; Yuan, Chun-Su

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background Patients who undergo surgery appear to use dietary supplements significantly more frequently than the general population. Because they contain pharmacologically active compounds, dietary supplements may affect coagulation and platelet function during the perioperative period through direct effects, pharmacodynamic interactions, and pharmacokinetic interactions. However, in this regard, limited studies have been conducted that address the pharmacological interactions of dietary supplements. To avoid possible bleeding risks during surgery, information about the potential complications of dietary supplements during perioperative management is important for physicians. Methods Through a systematic database search of all available years, articles were identified in this review if they included dietary supplements and coagulation/platelet function, while special attention was paid to studies published after 1990. Results Safety concerns are reported in commercially available dietary supplements. Effects of the most commonly used natural products on blood coagulation and platelet function are systematically reviewed, including 11 herbal medicines (echinacea, ephedra, garlic, ginger, ginkgo, ginseng, green tea, kava, saw palmetto, St John’s wort, and valerian) and four other dietary supplements (coenzyme Q10, glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate, fish oil, and vitamins). Bleeding risks of garlic, ginkgo, ginseng, green tea, saw palmetto, St John’s wort, and fish oil are reported. Cardiovascular instability was observed with ephedra, ginseng, and kava. Pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic interactions between dietary supplements and drugs used in the perioperative period are discussed. Conclusions To prevent potential problems associated with the use of dietary supplements, physicians should be familiar with the perioperative effects of commonly used dietary supplements. Since the effects of dietary supplements on coagulation and platelet function are

  1. Protein supplements: do they alter dietary intakes?

    PubMed

    Mallard, Alistair R; McLay-Cooke, Rebecca T; Rehrer, Nancy J

    2014-06-01

    Effects of protein versus mixed macronutrient supplementation on total energy intake (TEI) and protein intake during an ad libitum diet were examined. Trained males undertook two, 2-week dietary interventions which were randomized, double blinded, and separated by 2 weeks. These were high-protein supplementation (HP: 1034.5 kJ energy, 29.6 g protein, 8.7 g fat and 12.3 g CHO) and standard meal supplementation (SM: 1039 kJ energy, 9.9 g protein, 9.5 g fat, and 29.4 g CHO) consumed daily following a week of baseline measures. Eighteen participants finished both interventions and one only completed HP. TEI (mean ± SD) was not different between baseline (11148 ± 3347 kJ) and HP (10705 ± 3143 kJ) nor between baseline and SM (12381 ± 3877 kJ), however, TEI was greater with SM than HP (923 ± 4015 kJ p = .043). Protein intake (%TEI) was greater with HP (22.4 ± 6.2%) than baseline (19.4 ± 5.4%; p = .008) but not SM (20.0 ± 5.0%). No differences in absolute daily protein intake were found. Absolute CHO intake was greater with SM than HP (52.0 ± 89.5 g, p = .006). No differences in fat intake were found. Body mass did not change between baseline (82.7 ± 11.2 kg) and either HP (83.1 ± 11.7 kg) or SM (82.9 ± 11.0 kg). Protein supplementation increases the relative proportion of protein in the diet, but doesn't increase the absolute amount of total protein or energy consumed. Thus some compensation by a reduction in other foods occurs. This is in contrast to a mixed nutrient supplement, which does not alter the proportion of protein consumed but does increase TEI.

  2. Dietary Supplement Use in the United States, 2003–20061

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Regan L.; Gahche, Jaime J.; Lentino, Cindy V.; Dwyer, Johanna T.; Engel, Jody S.; Thomas, Paul R.; Betz, Joseph M.; Sempos, Christopher T.; Picciano, Mary Frances

    2011-01-01

    Dietary supplement use has steadily increased over time since the 1970s; however, no current data exist for the U.S. population. Therefore, the purpose of this analysis was to estimate dietary supplement use using the NHANES 2003–2006, a nationally representative, cross-sectional survey. Dietary supplement use was analyzed for the U.S. population (≥1 y of age) by the DRI age groupings. Supplement use was measured through a questionnaire and was reported by 49% of the U.S. population (44% of males, 53% of females). Multivitamin-multimineral use was the most frequently reported dietary supplement (33%). The majority of people reported taking only 1 dietary supplement and did so on a daily basis. Dietary supplement use was lowest in obese adults and highest among non-Hispanic whites, older adults, and those with more than a high-school education. Between 28 and 30% reported using dietary supplements containing vitamins B-6, B-12, C, A, and E; 18–19% reported using iron, selenium, and chromium; and 26–27% reported using zinc- and magnesium-containing supplements. Botanical supplement use was more common in older than in younger age groups and was lowest in those aged 1–13 y but was reported by ~20% of adults. About one-half of the U.S. population and 70% of adults ≥ 71 y use dietary supplements; one-third use multivitamin-multimineral dietary supplements. Given the widespread use of supplements, data should be included with nutrient intakes from foods to correctly determine total nutrient exposure. PMID:21178089

  3. Dietitians use and recommend dietary supplements: report of a survey

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Dietary supplement use is common in the United States, with more than half of the population using such products. Nutrition authorities consistently advocate a "food first" approach to achieving nutritional adequacy but some, including the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics (formerly the American Dietetic Association), also recognize that dietary supplements have a role to play in improving nutrient intake to support health and wellness. Surveys show that many health professionals use dietary supplements themselves and also recommend dietary supplements to their patients or clients. Methods As one component of a series of surveys of healthcare professionals (the "Life...supplemented" HCP Impact Studies), 300 registered dietitians were surveyed in 2009 regarding their personal use of dietary supplements and whether they recommend dietary supplements to their clients. Respondents were registered dietitians whose business involved seeing clients in a private practice or at a clinic. Results Seventy-four percent of the dietitians surveyed said they were regular users of dietary supplements, while 22% said they used dietary supplements occasionally or seasonally. The primary reasons for using dietary supplements were for bone health (58%), overall health and wellness (53%), and to fill nutrient gaps (42%). When asked if they "ever recommend dietary supplements to clients," 97% of the respondents said they did. The primary reasons were for bone health (70%), to fill nutrient gaps (67%), and overall health and wellness (49%). Eighty-seven percent of the dietitians agreed with the statement, "There are gaps in clients' diets that could effectively be addressed with dietary supplements." The dietitians surveyed said they followed healthy habits including eating a balanced diet (96%), managing stress (92%), visiting their own healthcare professional regularly (86%), exercising regularly (83%), maintaining a healthy weight (80%), and getting a good night's sleep

  4. Dietitians use and recommend dietary supplements: report of a survey.

    PubMed

    Dickinson, Annette; Bonci, Leslie; Boyon, Nicolas; Franco, Julio C

    2012-03-14

    Dietary supplement use is common in the United States, with more than half of the population using such products. Nutrition authorities consistently advocate a "food first" approach to achieving nutritional adequacy but some, including the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics (formerly the American Dietetic Association), also recognize that dietary supplements have a role to play in improving nutrient intake to support health and wellness. Surveys show that many health professionals use dietary supplements themselves and also recommend dietary supplements to their patients or clients. As one component of a series of surveys of healthcare professionals (the "Life...supplemented" HCP Impact Studies), 300 registered dietitians were surveyed in 2009 regarding their personal use of dietary supplements and whether they recommend dietary supplements to their clients. Respondents were registered dietitians whose business involved seeing clients in a private practice or at a clinic. Seventy-four percent of the dietitians surveyed said they were regular users of dietary supplements, while 22% said they used dietary supplements occasionally or seasonally. The primary reasons for using dietary supplements were for bone health (58%), overall health and wellness (53%), and to fill nutrient gaps (42%). When asked if they "ever recommend dietary supplements to clients," 97% of the respondents said they did. The primary reasons were for bone health (70%), to fill nutrient gaps (67%), and overall health and wellness (49%). Eighty-seven percent of the dietitians agreed with the statement, "There are gaps in clients' diets that could effectively be addressed with dietary supplements." The dietitians surveyed said they followed healthy habits including eating a balanced diet (96%), managing stress (92%), visiting their own healthcare professional regularly (86%), exercising regularly (83%), maintaining a healthy weight (80%), and getting a good night's sleep (72%). Nearly all respondents

  5. Dietary Supplement Research Portfolio at the NIH, 2009–201112

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Cazarin, Mary L.; Wambogo, Edwina A.; Regan, Karen S.; Davis, Cindy D.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. dietary supplement market increased by 7.5% in 2012 compared with 2011, reaching $32.5 billion in sales. Therefore, federally supported research on dietary supplements is important to determine their health effects, safety, and efficacy. A portfolio analysis was performed across the NIH and the Office of Dietary Supplements (ODS) for fiscal years (FYs) 2009–2011 by using the databases Human Nutrition Research Information Management (HNRIM) and Computer Access to Research on Dietary Supplements (CARDS). The results indicated that total NIH dietary supplement–related funding for FYs 2009–2011 was $855 million ($295 million in 2009, $311 million in 2010, and $249 million in 2011). The institutes and centers with the highest investment in dietary supplement research were as follows: the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute ($135 million); the National Cancer Institute ($188 million); the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine ($99 million); the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases ($68 million); the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences ($58 million); and the ODS ($32 million). The dietary supplement ingredients receiving the most funding were botanicals (22%), vitamins (20%), lipids (14%), and minerals and trace elements (10%). The top 3 outcome research areas were cancer (61% of total dietary supplement investment), cardiovascular disease (47%), and women’s reproductive health (38%). In FYs 2009, 2010, and 2011, the ODS provided 3.5%, 3.6%, and 4.1%, respectively, of the NIH investment in dietary supplement research. ODS funding focused on cellular, enzymatic, or molecular mechanisms (64% of total ODS funding). This portfolio analysis demonstrates that the NIH has committed substantial funding to dietary supplement research in an effort to expand the scientific knowledge base on the efficacy and safety of dietary supplements. PMID:24523489

  6. Dietary supplement increases plasma norepinephrine, lipolysis, and metabolic rate in resistance trained men

    PubMed Central

    Bloomer, Richard J; Fisher-Wellman, Kelsey H; Hammond, Kelley G; Schilling, Brian K; Weber, Adrianna A; Cole, Bradford J

    2009-01-01

    Background Dietary supplements targeting fat loss and increased thermogenesis are prevalent within the sport nutrition/weight loss market. While some isolated ingredients have been reported to be efficacious when used at high dosages, in particular in animal models and/or via intravenous delivery, little objective evidence is available pertaining to the efficacy of a finished product taken by human subjects in oral form. Moreover, many ingredients function as stimulants, leading to increased hemodynamic responses. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the effects of a finished dietary supplement on plasma catecholamine concentration, markers of lipolysis, metabolic rate, and hemodynamics. Methods Ten resistance trained men (age = 27 ± 4 yrs; BMI = 25 ± 3 kg· m-2; body fat = 9 ± 3%; mean ± SD) ingested a dietary supplement (Meltdown®, Vital Pharmaceuticals) or a placebo, in a random order, double blind cross-over design, with one week separating conditions. Fasting blood samples were collected before, and at 30, 60, and 90 minutes post ingestion and were assayed for epinephrine (EPI), norepinephrine (NE), glycerol, and free fatty acids (FFA). Area under the curve (AUC) was calculated for all variables. Gas samples were collected from 30–60 minutes post ingestion for measurement of metabolic rate. Heart rate and blood pressure were recorded at all blood collection times. Results AUC was greater for the dietary supplement compared to the placebo for NE (1332 ± 128 pg·mL-1·90 min-1 vs. 1003 ± 133 pg·mL-1·90 min-1; p = 0.03), glycerol (44 ± 3 μg·mL-1·90 min-1 vs. 26 ± 2 μg·mL-1·90 min-1; p < 0.0001), and FFA (1.24 ± 0.17 mmol·L-1·90 min-1 vs. 0.88 ± 0.12 mmol·L-1·90 min-1; p = 0.0003). No difference between conditions was noted for EPI AUC (p > 0.05). For all variables, values were highest at 90 minutes post ingestion. Total kilocalorie expenditure during the 30 minute collection period was 29.6% greater (p = 0.02) for the

  7. Lessons Learned from the Analysis of Ingredients in Dietary Supplements

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Lessons learned and findings from the analysis of caffeine in dietary supplements and the analysis of vitamins and minerals in adult multivitamin products will be included in this discussion. Fifty-four dietary supplement products for weight loss or sports performance listing at least caffeine-cont...

  8. Term Coverage of Dietary Supplements Ingredients in Product Labels.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yefeng; Adam, Terrence J; Zhang, Rui

    2016-01-01

    As the clinical application and consumption of dietary supplements has grown, their side effects and possible interactions with prescribed medications has become a serious issue. Information extraction of dietary supplement related information is a critical need to support dietary supplement research. However, there currently is not an existing terminology for dietary supplements, placing a barrier for informatics research in this field. The terms related to dietary supplement ingredients should be collected and normalized before a terminology can be established to facilitate convenient search on safety information and control possible adverse effects of dietary supplements. In this study, the Dietary Supplement Label Database (DSLD) was chosen as the data source from which the ingredient information was extracted and normalized. The distribution based on the product type and the ingredient type of the dietary supplements were analyzed. The ingredient terms were then mapped to the existing terminologies, including UMLS, RxNorm and NDF-RT by using MetaMap and RxMix. The large gap between existing terminologies and ingredients were found: only 14.67%, 19.65%, and 12.88% of ingredient terms were covered by UMLS, RxNorm and NDF-RT, respectively.

  9. The Dietary Supplement Ingredient Database (DSID) - 3 release.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Dietary Supplement Ingredient Database (DSID) provides analytically-derived estimates of ingredient content in dietary supplement (DS) products sold in the United States. DSID was developed by the Nutrient Data Laboratory (NDL) within the Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agricu...

  10. Term Coverage of Dietary Supplements Ingredients in Product Labels

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yefeng; Adam, Terrence J.; Zhang, Rui

    2016-01-01

    As the clinical application and consumption of dietary supplements has grown, their side effects and possible interactions with prescribed medications has become a serious issue. Information extraction of dietary supplement related information is a critical need to support dietary supplement research. However, there currently is not an existing terminology for dietary supplements, placing a barrier for informatics research in this field. The terms related to dietary supplement ingredients should be collected and normalized before a terminology can be established to facilitate convenient search on safety information and control possible adverse effects of dietary supplements. In this study, the Dietary Supplement Label Database (DSLD) was chosen as the data source from which the ingredient information was extracted and normalized. The distribution based on the product type and the ingredient type of the dietary supplements were analyzed. The ingredient terms were then mapped to the existing terminologies, including UMLS, RxNorm and NDF-RT by using MetaMap and RxMix. The large gap between existing terminologies and ingredients were found: only 14.67%, 19.65%, and 12.88% of ingredient terms were covered by UMLS, RxNorm and NDF-RT, respectively. PMID:28269965

  11. Dietary fat intake, supplements, and weight loss

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dyck, D. J.

    2000-01-01

    Although there remains controversy regarding the role of macronutrient balance in the etiology of obesity, the consumption of high-fat diets appears to be strongly implicated in its development. Evidence that fat oxidation does not adjust rapidly to acute increases in dietary fat, as well as a decreased capacity to oxidize fat in the postprandial state in the obese, suggest that diets high in fat may lead to the accumulation of fat stores. Novel data is also presented suggesting that in rodents, high-fat diets may lead to the development of leptin resistance in skeletal muscle and subsequent accumulations of muscle triacylglycerol. Nevertheless, several current fad diets recommend drastically reduced carbohydrate intake, with a concurrent increase in fat content. Such recommendations are based on the underlying assumption that by reducing circulating insulin levels, lipolysis and lipid oxidation will be enhanced and fat storage reduced. Numerous supplements are purported to increase fat oxidation (carnitine, conjugated linoleic acid), increase metabolic rate (ephedrine, pyruvate), or inhibit hepatic lipogenesis (hydroxycitrate). All of these compounds are currently marketed in supplemental form to increase weight loss, but few have actually been shown to be effective in scientific studies. To date, there is little or no evidence supporting that carnitine or hydroxycitrate supplementation are of any value for weight loss in humans. Supplements such as pyruvate have been shown to be effective at high dosages, but there is little mechanistic information to explain its purported effect or data to indicate its effectiveness at lower dosages. Conjugated linoleic acid has been shown to stimulate fat utilization and decrease body fat content in mice but has not been tested in humans. The effects of ephedrine, in conjunction with methylxanthines and aspirin, in humans appears unequivocal but includes various cardiovascular side effects. None of these compounds have been

  12. Dietary fat intake, supplements, and weight loss

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dyck, D. J.

    2000-01-01

    Although there remains controversy regarding the role of macronutrient balance in the etiology of obesity, the consumption of high-fat diets appears to be strongly implicated in its development. Evidence that fat oxidation does not adjust rapidly to acute increases in dietary fat, as well as a decreased capacity to oxidize fat in the postprandial state in the obese, suggest that diets high in fat may lead to the accumulation of fat stores. Novel data is also presented suggesting that in rodents, high-fat diets may lead to the development of leptin resistance in skeletal muscle and subsequent accumulations of muscle triacylglycerol. Nevertheless, several current fad diets recommend drastically reduced carbohydrate intake, with a concurrent increase in fat content. Such recommendations are based on the underlying assumption that by reducing circulating insulin levels, lipolysis and lipid oxidation will be enhanced and fat storage reduced. Numerous supplements are purported to increase fat oxidation (carnitine, conjugated linoleic acid), increase metabolic rate (ephedrine, pyruvate), or inhibit hepatic lipogenesis (hydroxycitrate). All of these compounds are currently marketed in supplemental form to increase weight loss, but few have actually been shown to be effective in scientific studies. To date, there is little or no evidence supporting that carnitine or hydroxycitrate supplementation are of any value for weight loss in humans. Supplements such as pyruvate have been shown to be effective at high dosages, but there is little mechanistic information to explain its purported effect or data to indicate its effectiveness at lower dosages. Conjugated linoleic acid has been shown to stimulate fat utilization and decrease body fat content in mice but has not been tested in humans. The effects of ephedrine, in conjunction with methylxanthines and aspirin, in humans appears unequivocal but includes various cardiovascular side effects. None of these compounds have been

  13. Liver injury from herbal and dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Navarro, Victor J; Khan, Ikhlas; Björnsson, Einar; Seeff, Leonard B; Serrano, Jose; Hoofnagle, Jay H

    2017-01-01

    Herbal and dietary supplements (HDS) are used increasingly both in the United States and worldwide, and HDS-induced liver injury in the United States has increased proportionally. Current challenges in the diagnosis and management of HDS-induced liver injury were the focus of a 2-day research symposium sponsored by the American Association for the Study of Liver Disease and the National Institutes of Health. HDS-induced liver injury now accounts for 20% of cases of hepatotoxicity in the United States based on research data. The major implicated agents include anabolic steroids, green tea extract, and multi-ingredient nutritional supplements. Anabolic steroids marketed as bodybuilding supplements typically induce a prolonged cholestatic but ultimately self-limiting liver injury that has a distinctive serum biochemical as well as histological phenotype. Green tea extract and many other products, in contrast, tend to cause an acute hepatitis-like injury. Currently, however, the majority of cases of HDS-associated liver injury are due to multi-ingredient nutritional supplements, and the component responsible for the toxicity is usually unknown or can only be suspected. HDS-induced liver injury presents many clinical and research challenges in diagnosis, identification of the responsible constituents, treatment, and prevention. Also important are improvements in regulatory oversight of nonprescription products to guarantee their constituents and ensure purity and safety. The confident identification of injurious ingredients within HDS will require strategic alignments among clinicians, chemists, and toxicologists. The ultimate goal should be to prohibit or more closely regulate potentially injurious ingredients and thus promote public safety. (Hepatology 2017;65:363-373).

  14. Dietary fat intake, supplements, and weight loss.

    PubMed

    Dyck, D J

    2000-12-01

    Although there remains controversy regarding the role of macronutrient balance in the etiology of obesity, the consumption of high-fat diets appears to be strongly implicated in its development. Evidence that fat oxidation does not adjust rapidly to acute increases in dietary fat, as well as a decreased capacity to oxidize fat in the postprandial state in the obese, suggest that diets high in fat may lead to the accumulation of fat stores. Novel data is also presented suggesting that in rodents, high-fat diets may lead to the development of leptin resistance in skeletal muscle and subsequent accumulations of muscle triacylglycerol. Nevertheless, several current fad diets recommend drastically reduced carbohydrate intake, with a concurrent increase in fat content. Such recommendations are based on the underlying assumption that by reducing circulating insulin levels, lipolysis and lipid oxidation will be enhanced and fat storage reduced. Numerous supplements are purported to increase fat oxidation (carnitine, conjugated linoleic acid), increase metabolic rate (ephedrine, pyruvate), or inhibit hepatic lipogenesis (hydroxycitrate). All of these compounds are currently marketed in supplemental form to increase weight loss, but few have actually been shown to be effective in scientific studies. To date, there is little or no evidence supporting that carnitine or hydroxycitrate supplementation are of any value for weight loss in humans. Supplements such as pyruvate have been shown to be effective at high dosages, but there is little mechanistic information to explain its purported effect or data to indicate its effectiveness at lower dosages. Conjugated linoleic acid has been shown to stimulate fat utilization and decrease body fat content in mice but has not been tested in humans. The effects of ephedrine, in conjunction with methylxanthines and aspirin, in humans appears unequivocal but includes various cardiovascular side effects. None of these compounds have been

  15. Chromatographic fingerprint analysis of Pycnogenol dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Chen, Pei; Song, Fenhong; Lin, Long-Ze

    2009-01-01

    The bark of maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Aiton) has been widely used as a remedy for various degenerative diseases. A standard high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) procedure for Pycnogenol analysis is a method specified in the United States Pharmacopeia (USP) monograph, which requires measurement of peak areas and identification of four components of the extract: caffeic acid, catechin, ferulic acid, and taxifolin. In this study, a fingerprint analysis using an HPLC method based on the USP monograph has been developed to provide additional qualitative information for the analysis of Pycnogenol-containing dietary supplements (PDS). Twelve commercially available PDS samples were purchased and analyzed along with a standard Pycnogenol extract. Their chromatographic fingerprints were analyzed using principal component analysis. The results showed that two of the samples were not consistent with the standard reference Pycnogenol extract. One contained other active ingredients in addition to Pycnogenol, and the other may have resulted from a quality control issue in manufacturing.

  16. [Influence of dietary supplementation on newborn weight].

    PubMed

    Urbaniak, Tomasz; Klejewski, Andrzej; Pisarska, Magdalena; Kostecka, Ewelina

    2012-01-01

    The basic source of vitamins and microelements for an expectant mother should be a good arranged diet. The diet should mainly meets the demand for individual nutrient elements, evolves during a pregnancy and supplies with indispensable macro and microelements to mother and a growing up embryo. The usage of multivitamin supplements for expectant mothers ought to always consult with a physician responsible for an expectant mother. Dietary supplements ought to be good chose to individual needs so that it can in an optimal way aid the health of an expectant mother and the progress of baby. The specialist literature and my ones researches show that a supplementary diet with multivitamin supplements and preparations with a folic acid in pregnancy can affect the mass of a neonate and increaser it. One should considers the implementation of multivitamin supplements by women from a risk group of the disorder development of an embryo that means: women from a lower social and economic status, with lower education, young mothers, with an unhealthy diet, exposed to anemia, with too low body mass before conception and with bad habits and a lifestyle. It should be mentioned that not only complications as a result of too low body mass of a neonate but also too high body mass can redound to many irregularities and disorders during a pregnancy. To them we can include a higher rate of caesareans and an increase in a perinatal mortality of neonates. So that is way the decision of including a supplementary diet should be made very carefully and individually for every patient. Special attention should be emphasized on the necessity of a health education to the extent of a healthy diet and a weight gain of mother while a cyophoria. The aim of carried out researches was estimation the influence of supplementary diet on the body mass of a neonate. One hundred respondents were covered by the research - the patients of "Maternity and Gynaecology Ward" with the obstetric, perinatology and

  17. Protecting military personnel from high risk dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Deuster, Patricia A; Lieberman, Harris R

    2016-01-01

    It is legal tomarketmost naturally occurring substances as dietary supplements in the USA without manufacturers demonstrating they are safe or effective, and an endless variety of ingredients, from esoteric botanicals to unapproved pharmaceuticals, can be found in dietary supplements. Use of certain supplements can pose a risk, but since a robust reporting systemdoes not exist in the USA it is difficult to know which are problematic and the number of adverse events (AE) resulting from their use. Certain populations, includingmilitary personnel, aremore likely to use dietary supplements than the general population. Approximately 70% of military personnel take dietary supplements while about 50% of civilians do. Service members prefer supplements purported to enhance physical performance such as supposedly natural stimulants, protein and amino acids, and combination products. Since some of thesemay be problematic, Servicemembers are probably at higher risk of injury than the general population. Ten percent of military populations appear to be taking potentially risky supplements, and the US Department of Defense (DoD) has taken variousmeasures to protect uniformed personnel including education, policy changes, and restricting sales. Actions taken include launching Operation Supplement Safety (OPSS), introducing a High Risk Supplement list, educating health care professionals on reporting AE thatmight be associated with dietary supplements, recommending policy for reporting AE, and developing an online AE reporting system. OPSS is a DoD-wide effort to educate service members, leaders, health care providers, military families, and retirees on how to safely select supplements

  18. Use of Nonvitamin, Nonmineral Dietary Supplements among College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newberry, Heather; Beerman, Kathy; Duncan, Sam; McGuire, Michelle; Hillers, Virginia

    2001-01-01

    Assessed college students' use of nonvitamin, nonmineral (NVNM) dietary supplements. Student surveys indicated that nearly half of the respondents took NVNM supplements, most frequently echinacea, ginseng, and St. John's wort. Over 80 percent had acceptable body mass index values. Users and nonusers of NVNM supplements did not differ significantly…

  19. Use of Nonvitamin, Nonmineral Dietary Supplements among College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newberry, Heather; Beerman, Kathy; Duncan, Sam; McGuire, Michelle; Hillers, Virginia

    2001-01-01

    Assessed college students' use of nonvitamin, nonmineral (NVNM) dietary supplements. Student surveys indicated that nearly half of the respondents took NVNM supplements, most frequently echinacea, ginseng, and St. John's wort. Over 80 percent had acceptable body mass index values. Users and nonusers of NVNM supplements did not differ significantly…

  20. Liver Injury from Herbal and Dietary Supplements

    PubMed Central

    Navarro, Victor; Khan, Ikhlas; Björnsson, Einar; Seeff, Leonard B.; Serrano, Jose; Hoofnagle, Jay H.

    2017-01-01

    Herbal and dietary supplements (HDS) are used increasingly both in the United States and worldwide and HDS induced liver injury in the U.S. has increased proportionally. Current challenges in the diagnosis and management of HDS-induced liver injury were the focus of a 2-day research symposium sponsored by the American Association for the Study of Liver Disease and the National Institutes of Health. HDS-induced liver injury now accounts for 20% of cases of hepatotoxicity in the United States based on research data. The major implicated agents include anabolic steroids, green tea extract, and multi-ingredient nutritional supplements (MINS). Anabolic steroids marketed as bodybuilding supplements typically induce a prolonged cholestatic, but ultimately self-limiting liver injury that has a distinctive serum biochemical as well as histological phenotype. Green tea extract and many other products, in contrast, tend to cause an acute-hepatitis like injury. Currently, however, the majority of cases of HDS-associated liver injury are due to MINS, and the component responsible for the toxicity is usually unknown or can only be suspected. HDS-induced liver injury presents many clinical and research challenges, in diagnosis, identification of the responsible constituents, treatment and prevention. Also important are improvements in regulatory oversight of non-prescription products to guarantee their constituents and insure purity and safety. The confident identification of injurious ingredients within HDS will require strategic alignments among clinicians, chemists, and toxicologists. The ultimate goal should be to prohibit or more closely regulate potentially injurious ingredients and thus promote public safety. PMID:27677775

  1. Evaluation of congruence among dietary supplement use and motivation for supplementation in young, Canadian athletes.

    PubMed

    Parnell, Jill A; Wiens, Kristin; Erdman, Kelly Anne

    2015-01-01

    Dietary supplement use is endemic in young athletes; however, it is unclear if their choices are congruent with their motivation for supplementation and the established benefits of the dietary supplements. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationships between dietary supplement use and self-reported rationale in young athletes. Canadian athletes (n = 567; 11-25 years; 76% club or provincial level, 24% national or higher) completed a questionnaire designed to assess supplementation patterns and motivation for supplementation. Chi square tests examined associations between dietary supplements and self-reported rationale for use. Vitamin and mineral supplements, including vitamin-enriched water, were associated with several health- and performance- related reasons (p < 0.001). Branched chain amino acids (BCAA) and glutamine were linked to improving diet and immune function (p < 0.01), but were more strongly associated with performance reasons, as were performance foods (protein powder, sport bars, sport gels, etc.). Plant extracts and fatty acids were primarily associated with health reasons, particularly immune support (p < 0.001). Congruencies exist between performance rationales and supplementation for common ergogenic aids, however, less so for vitamin and mineral supplements, vitamin-enriched water, and plant extracts. Incongruences were found between fatty acids, protein supplements, vitamin and mineral supplements, vitamin-enriched water, and plant extracts and health motivators for supplementation. Educational interventions are essential to ensure young athletes are using dietary supplements safely and effectively.

  2. Progress in development of an integrated dietary supplement ingredient database at the NIH Office of Dietary Supplements

    PubMed Central

    Dwyer, Johanna T.; Picciano, Mary Frances; Betz, Joseph M.; Fisher, Kenneth D.; Saldanha, Leila G.; Yetley, Elizabeth A.; Coates, Paul M.; Radimer, Kathy; Bindewald, Bernadette; Sharpless, Katherine E.; Holden, Joanne; Andrews, Karen; Zhao, Cuiwei; Harnly, James; Wolf, Wayne R.; Perry, Charles R.

    2013-01-01

    Several activities of the Office of Dietary Supplements (ODS) at the National Institutes of Health involve enhancement of dietary supplement databases. These include an initiative with US Department of Agriculture to develop an analytically substantiated dietary supplement ingredient database (DSID) and collaboration with the National Center for Health Statistics to enhance the dietary supplement label database in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). The many challenges that must be dealt with in developing an analytically supported DSID include categorizing product types in the database, identifying nutrients, and other components of public health interest in these products and prioritizing which will be entered in the database first. Additional tasks include developing methods and reference materials for quantifying the constituents, finding qualified laboratories to measure the constituents, developing appropriate sample handling procedures, and finally developing representative sampling plans. Developing the NHANES dietary supplement label database has other challenges such as collecting information on dietary supplement use from NHANES respondents, constant updating and refining of information obtained, developing default values that can be used if the respondent cannot supply the exact supplement or strength that was consumed, and developing a publicly available label database. Federal partners and the research community are assisting in making an analytically supported dietary supplement database a reality. PMID:25309034

  3. Effects of hyperparathyroidism and dietary calcium supplementation on bone healing.

    PubMed

    Hubbard, G B; Schmidt, R E; Gleiser, C A; MacKenzie, W F

    1979-02-01

    Effects of nutritional secondary hyperparathyroidism and dietary calcium supplementation on bone healing were determined. Groups (n = 4) of 5 mature male dogs each were fed the following diets: group 1, control diet (0.48% Ca, 0.43% P); group 2, test diet (0.12% Ca, 1.14% P): group 3, control diet plus calcium; group 4, test diet plus calcium. The dietary calcium supplementation was calcium gluconate. Lesions were induced in the right tibial cortex by trephinization. Within the time limitations of this study, it was determined that nutritional secondary hyperparathyroidism does not inhibit bone healing and that dietary calcium supplementation does not aid bone healing.

  4. Complementarity in dietary supplements and foods: are supplement users vegetable eaters?

    PubMed

    Kang, Hyoung-Goo; Joo, Hailey Hayeon; Choi, Kyong Duk; Lee, Dongmin; Moon, Junghoon

    2017-01-01

    Background: The consumption of fruits, vegetables, and dietary supplements correlate. Most previous studies have aimed to identify the determinants of supplement uses or the distinct features of supplement users; this literature lacks a discussion on dietary supplement consumption as a predictor of fruit and vegetable consumption. Objective: This study examines how dietary supplement consumption correlates with fruit and vegetable consumption by combining scanner data and surveys of Korean household grocery shopping. Methods: Propensity score matching (PSM) is used to identify the relationship between dietary supplement consumption and fruit and vegetable consumption in a household. A logit regression using supplement consumption as the dependent variable is used. Then, the supplement takers (the treatment group) are matched with non-takers (the control group) based on the propensity scores estimated in the logit regression. The fruit and vegetable consumption levels of the groups are then compared. Results: We found that dietary supplement use is associated with higher fruit and vegetable consumption. This supports the health consciousness hypothesis based on attention bias, availability heuristics, the focusing effect, and the consumption episode effect. It rejects the health substitute hypothesis based on economic substitutes and mental accounting. Conclusions: Future research on the health benefits of dietary supplements should address the complementary consumption of fruits/vegetables and their health benefits to avoid misstating the health effects of supplements.

  5. Dietary Supplement Ingredient Database (DSID): Preliminary USDA studies on composition of adult multivitamin/mineral supplements

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Nutrient Data Laboratory, USDA, is collaborating with the Office of Dietary Supplements (ODS), the National Center for Health Statistics, and other government agencies to design and populate a Dietary Supplement Ingredient Database (DSID). This analytically based, publicly available database wi...

  6. Dietary supplement use among patients with hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Lee, Valerie; Goyal, Abhishek; Hsu, Christine C; Jacobson, Judith S; Rodriguez, Rosa D; Siegel, Abby B

    2015-01-01

    More than 50% of US adults, and an even larger proportion of cancer patients, use dietary supplements. Since many supplements require hepatic metabolism, they may be particularly likely to cause toxicities in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, little is known about supplement use in patients with HCC. From 2008 to 2012, we gave newly diagnosed HCC patients at our institution a standardized questionnaire about dietary supplement use, demographic factors, and clinical characteristics. We then followed patients for four years or until time to death to examine the relationship with supplement use. Of 146 patients, 71% had used vitamins and 45% herbal supplements. Most commonly used supplements were antioxidants (51%), multivitamins (46%), vitamin D (25%), and milk thistle (23%). People in mid-higher income brackets were more likely to use herbal supplements (19% of those earning <$30 000, 50% of those earning $30 000-60 000, and 34% of those earning >$60 000 used supplements). Hepatitis C (HCV) patients were more likely to use milk thistle than those without HCV (30% vs 13%, P = .03), and patients with hepatitis B (HBV) were more likely than non-HBV patients to use vitamin C (32% vs 14%, P = .01). Supplement use was not associated with overall survival. Like cancer patients in other studies, the majority of our HCC patients used dietary supplements. Supplement use was not associated with overall survival but should be studied in larger patient samples. © The Author(s) 2014.

  7. Dietary supplementation practices in Canadian high-performance athletes.

    PubMed

    Lun, Victor; Erdman, Kelly A; Fung, Tak S; Reimer, Raylene A

    2012-02-01

    Dietary supplementation is a common practice in athletes with a desire to enhance performance, training, exercise recovery, and health. Supplementation habits of elite athletes in western Canada have been documented, but research is lacking on supplement use by athletes across Canada. The purpose of this descriptive study was to evaluate the dietary supplementation practices and perspectives of high-performance Canadian athletes affiliated with each of the country's eight Canadian Sport Centres. Dietitians administered a validated survey to 440 athletes (63% women, 37% men; M=19.99±5.20 yr) representing 34 sports who predominantly trained≥16 hr/wk, most competing in "power" based sports. Within the previous 6 months, 87% declared having taken≥3 dietary supplements, with sports drinks, multivitamin and mineral preparations, carbohydrate sports bars, protein powder, and meal-replacement products the most prevalent supplements reported. Primary sources of information on supplementation, supplementation justification, and preferred means of supplementation education were identified. Fifty-nine percent reported awareness of current World Anti-Doping Agency legislation, and 83% subjectively believed they were in compliance with such anti-doping regulations. It was concluded that supplementation rates are not declining in Canada, current advisors on supplementation for this athletic population are not credible, and sports medicine physicians and dietitians need to consider proactive strategies to improve their influence on supplementation practices in these elite athletes.

  8. Use of Dietary Supplements among Professional Athletes in Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Aljaloud, Sulaiman O.; Ibrahim, Salam A.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to understand the usage patterns of dietary supplements among professional athletes in Saudi Arabia. The survey consisted of sixteen questions divided into four categories: use of supplements, reason for consumption of supplements, personal beliefs about supplements, and behavior. The questionnaires were given to the three teams residing in Riyadh: Al Hilal, Al Nasr, and Al-Shabab. Out of the 105 athletes surveyed, we found that only 98 are currently taking dietary supplements and the mean age and standard deviation were 25.74 ± 2.90. The survey results showed a high percentage of athletes (93.3%; n = 98) using different dietary supplements throughout the season, 43.8% (n = 43) reported using supplements for performance, and 32.6% (n = 32) believed in health benefits as a reason for using dietary supplements. Our results showed that a total of 87 (88.7%), 81 (82.6%), and 51 (52.0%) athletes are consuming sports drinks, vitamin C, and multivitamins, respectively. Meanwhile, those supplements ranking among the least used included omega 6 (18.6%), creatine (16.3%), and Ginkgo biloba (10.2%). A majority of athletes indicated that their use of supplements was for the purpose of improving their health and performance. PMID:23762541

  9. Mitochondrial disease patients' perception of dietary supplements' use.

    PubMed

    Karaa, Amel; Kriger, Joshua; Grier, Johnston; Holbert, Amy; Thompson, John L P; Parikh, Sumit; Hirano, Michio

    2016-09-01

    Surveys of mitochondrial disease physicians conducted through the Mitochondrial Medicine Society have shown that virtually all providers recommend a variety of dietary supplements as treatments to their patients in an effort to enhance energy production and reduce oxidative stress. In this survey, we asked patients and their parents about their experiences taking these dietary supplements for mitochondrial disease. The survey was disseminated through the North American Mitochondrial Disease Consortium (NAMDC) and the Rare Disease Clinical Research Network (RDCRN) registries and gathered 162 responses. The study ascertained each patient's mitochondrial disease diagnosis, dietary supplements used, adjunct therapy, and effects of the supplements on symptoms and health. Regardless of the specific underlying mitochondrial disease, the majority of the survey respondents stated they are or have been on dietary supplements. Most patients take more than four supplements primarily coenzyme Q10, l-carnitine, and riboflavin. The majority of patients taking supplements reported health benefits from the supplements. The onset of perceived benefits was between 2weeks to 3months of initiating intake. Supplements seem to be safe, with only 28% of patients experiencing mild side-effects and only 5.6% discontinuing their intake due to intolerance. Only 9% of patients had insurance coverage for their supplements and when paying out of pocket, 95% of them spend up to $500/month. Despite the use of concomitant therapies (prescribed medications, physical therapy, diet changes and other), 45.5% of patients think that dietary supplements are the only intervention improving their symptoms. Some limitations of this study include the retrospective collection of data probably associated with substantial recall bias, lack of longitudinal follow up to document pre- and post-supplement clinical status and second hand reports by parents for children which may reflect parents' subjective

  10. Evaluation of Herbal and Dietary Supplement Resource Term Coverage

    PubMed Central

    Manohar, Nivedha; Adam, Terrance J.; Pakhomov, Serguei V.; Melton, Genevieve B.; Zhang, Rui

    2016-01-01

    The use of Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) is increasingly popular in places like North America and Europe where western medicine is primarily practiced. People are consuming herbal and dietary supplements along with western medications simultaneously. Sometimes, supplements and drugs react with one another via antagonistic or potentiation actions of the drug or supplement resulting in an adverse event. Unfortunately, it is not easy to study drug-supplement interactions without a standard terminology to describe herbal and dietary supplements. This pilot study investigated coverage of supplement databases to one another as well as coverage by the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) and RxNorm for supplement terms. We found that none of the supplement databases completely covers supplement terms. UMLS, MeSH, SNOMED CT, RxNorm and NDF-RT cover 54%, 40%, 32%, 22% and 14% of supplement concepts, respectively. NDF-RT provides some value for grouping supplements into drug classes. Enhancing our understanding of the gap between the traditional biomedical terminology systems and supplement terms could lead to the development of a comprehensive terminology resources for supplements, and other secondary uses such as better detection and extraction of drug-supplement interactions. PMID:26262159

  11. Catechins in Dietary Supplements and Hepatotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Bonkovsky, Herbert L.; Hwang, Sun-Il; Vega, Maricruz; Barnhart, Huiman; Serrano, Jose

    2013-01-01

    Background Green tea extract (GTE) and its component catechins are found in many herbal dietary supplements (HDS), some of which may not indicate their presence on the product label. Aim Because GTE and catechins have been implicated in human hepatotoxicity through several case reports, we aimed to determine whether catechins were present in HDS that were implicated in hepatotoxicity even if not identified among the labeled ingredients, and whether these compounds could be associated with liver injury. Methods We assayed 97 HDS implicated in human hepatotoxicity for catechins. Results We found that 29 of 73 HDS (39.7%) that did not identify GTE or any of its component catechins on their label contained catechins. Among the patients with confirmed hepatotoxicity, there was no statistically significant association between the presence of catechin or dose consumed and liver injury causality score, severity, or pattern of liver injury. Products used for weight loss tended to have the highest catechin levels, although catechin concentrations were low in most products. Conclusions Catechins are commonly present in many HDS that are implicated in hepatotoxicity, even when not identified on the product label. Although our results did not establish an association between GTE or catechin with hepatotoxicity, they highlight some of the many complexities and uncertainties that surround to the attribution of DILI to HDS. PMID:23625293

  12. Development of Safe and Effective Botanical Dietary Supplements

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Regulated differently than drugs or foods, the market for botanical dietary supplements continues to grow worldwide. The recently implemented U.S. FDA regulation that all botanical dietary supplements must be produced using good manufacturing practice is an important step toward enhancing the safety of these products, but additional safeguards could be implemented, and unlike drugs, there are currently no efficacy requirements. To ensure a safe and effective product, botanical dietary supplements should be developed in a manner analogous to pharmaceuticals that involves identification of mechanisms of action and active constituents, chemical standardization based on the active compounds, biological standardization based on pharmacological activity, preclinical evaluation of toxicity and potential for drug–botanical interactions, metabolism of active compounds, and finally, clinical studies of safety and efficacy. Completing these steps will enable the translation of botanicals from the field to safe human use as dietary supplements. PMID:26125082

  13. Mixing Medications and Dietary Supplements Can Endanger Your Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Mixing Medications and Dietary Supplements Can Endanger Your Health Share ... you take prescription or over-the-counter (OTC) medications, do you take also a vitamin, mineral, or ...

  14. Hepatitis C and Dietary Supplements: What the Science Says

    MedlinePlus

    ... professionals Hepatitis C and Dietary Supplements: What the Science Says Share: May 2016 © Thinkstock Clinical Guidelines, Scientific ... products and practices in the context of rigorous science, training complementary health researchers, and disseminating authoritative information ...

  15. An Evidence-based Elective on Dietary Supplements

    PubMed Central

    Caron, Whitney; Zeolla, Mario

    2009-01-01

    Objective To implement and evaluate the effectiveness of a pharmacy elective on dietary supplements that emphasized evidence-based care. Design A 3-credit elective that employed both traditional lectures and a variety of active-learning exercises was implemented. The course introduction provided a background in dietary supplement use and evidence-based medicine principles before addressing dietary supplements by primary indication. Assessment Student learning was assessed through quizzes, case assignments, discussion board participation, and completion of a longitudinal group project. Precourse and postcourse surveys were conducted to assess students' opinions, knowledge, and skills related to course objectives. Conclusion The course was an effective way to increase students' knowledge of dietary supplements and skills and confidence in providing patient care in this area. PMID:19777095

  16. Development of Safe and Effective Botanical Dietary Supplements.

    PubMed

    van Breemen, Richard B

    2015-11-12

    Regulated differently than drugs or foods, the market for botanical dietary supplements continues to grow worldwide. The recently implemented U.S. FDA regulation that all botanical dietary supplements must be produced using good manufacturing practice is an important step toward enhancing the safety of these products, but additional safeguards could be implemented, and unlike drugs, there are currently no efficacy requirements. To ensure a safe and effective product, botanical dietary supplements should be developed in a manner analogous to pharmaceuticals that involves identification of mechanisms of action and active constituents, chemical standardization based on the active compounds, biological standardization based on pharmacological activity, preclinical evaluation of toxicity and potential for drug-botanical interactions, metabolism of active compounds, and finally, clinical studies of safety and efficacy. Completing these steps will enable the translation of botanicals from the field to safe human use as dietary supplements.

  17. Proposed rule: current good manufacturing practice in manufacturing, packing, or holding dietary ingredients and dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Melethil, Srikumaran

    2006-03-27

    The Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act (DSHEA) was enacted in October 1994 to promote the health of Americans by ensuring easier access to safe dietary supplements. Many supplements such as vitamins, minerals, herbs and amino acids have been reported to be helpful in chronic conditions (i.e., heart disease, cancer and osteoporosis). Under DSHEA, dietary supplements can be marketed without prior FDA approval; the burden is on this agency to show that a marketed dietary supplement is unsafe. However, DSHEA retained the FDA's authority to issue regulations that require the manufacture of dietary supplements be in compliance with current good manufacturing practice (cGMP) standards, which are needed to ensure their quality. Several quality-related concerns of marketed dietary supplements that came to light since the passage of DSHEA prompted the FDA in 2003 to propose rules for cGMP for the manufacture, packaging and holding (storage) of dietary supplements. This review will present the highlights of these proposed rules, focusing on the legislative history of DSHEA, rationale for proposing cGMPs along with a general discussion of the specific requirements. Given the voluminous nature of the specific details, the reader is directed to the pertinent FDA publications for details. In this analysis, selected scientific and legal issues are also discussed to promote a better understanding and implications of these rules.

  18. Dietary supplement safety information in magazines popular among older readers.

    PubMed

    Kava, Ruth; Meister, Kathleen A; Whelan, Elizabeth M; Lukachko, Alicia M; Mirabile, Christina

    2002-01-01

    Dietary supplements are extensively used in the United States, especially by people age 50 and over. Surveys have shown that magazines and other news media are an important source of information about nutrition and dietary supplements for the American public. It is uncertain, however, whether magazines provide their readers with adequate information about the safety aspects of supplement use. This report presents an analysis of supplement safety information in articles published during 1994-1998 in 10 major magazines popular among older readers. This time period was chosen to allow the impact of the 1994 Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act (DSHEA) to be assessed. The evaluation included 254 magazine articles. More than two-thirds of the articles did not include comprehensive information about the safety aspects of the dietary supplements that were discussed. Information about safety issues such as maximum safe doses and drug-supplement interactions was often lacking even in otherwise informative and well-researched articles. A total of 2,983 advertisements for more than 130 different types of supplements were published in the magazines surveyed. The number of advertisements per year increased between 1995 and 1998. Supplements of particular interest to older adults (such as antioxidants, calcium, garlic, ginkgo biloba, joint health products, liquid oral supplements, and multivitamins) were among the most frequently advertised products. Although magazines popular among older readers contain extensive information about dietary supplements, these publications cannot be relied upon to provide readers with all of the information that they need in order to use supplements safely.

  19. Micronutrient dietary supplements--a new fourth approach.

    PubMed

    Latham, M C; Ash, D; Ndossi, G; Mehansho, H; Tatala, S

    2001-03-01

    Currently the three main widely used strategies to control micronutrient deficiencies are food diversification, fortification, and consumption of medicinal supplements. In Tanzania a fourth strategy has been evaluated in school children, and is to be studied in pregnant and lactating women. The dietary supplement comes in the form of a powder used to prepare a fruit flavored drink. Children consumed for six months 25 grams per school day attended, the powder being added to 200 ml of water. The dietary supplement provides between 40 and 100 percent of the RDA of 10 micronutrients, which includes iron, vitamin A and iodine. Unlike medicinal supplements it provides the multiple vitamins and minerals in physiologic, not megadoses. In a well conducted randomized double blind placebo controlled trial, a dietary supplement in the form of a fortified powder fruit drink produced statistically significant differences not only in vitamin A and iron status, but also in the growth of young school age children.

  20. Use of nonvitamin, nonmineral dietary supplements among college students.

    PubMed

    Newberry, H; Beerman, K; Duncan, S; McGuire, M; Hillers, V

    2001-11-01

    The authors assessed the use of nonvitamin, nonmineral (NVNM) dietary supplements in a college population. They found that the use of NVNM dietary supplements among college students might be higher than that of other population groups and that the types of NVNM products they use differ from those used by an older population. Of the 272 students who completed the questionnaire, 48.5% reported they took an NVNM supplement during the past 12 months. The most frequently used NVNM products were echinacea, ginseng, and St John's wort. Of the 27 students who took NVNM products to promote weight loss, 81.5% had body mass index (BMI) values in the acceptable range. Eleven of the 19 participants who reported an adverse reaction to an NVNM supplement continued to take the products despite negative effects. Users and nonusers of NVNM supplements did not differ significantly by age, ethnicity, gender, perceived dietary adequacy, or by exercise patterns.

  1. Provider and patient expectations for dietary supplement discussions.

    PubMed

    Tarn, Derjung M; Guzmán, Jennifer R; Good, Jeffrey S; Wenger, Neil S; Coulter, Ian D; Paterniti, Debora A

    2014-09-01

    Dietary supplement use in the United States is common. Patients can procure supplements without a prescription, and often do not disclose supplement use to their healthcare providers. Providers and patients may be uncertain about what would be appropriate or helpful in discussions of supplements during routine office visits. To explore provider and patient expectations for discussions of dietary supplements. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with a purposeful sample of healthcare providers from three specialties and their patients who reported taking supplements. Thirty-five outpatient providers (14 primary care, six integrative medicine, and 15 complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) providers) and 107 of their patients. Qualitative analysis of transcripts using grounded theory and iterative review. Both providers and patients raised twelve common topics about dietary supplements that they felt were important to discuss during office visits, such as: supplements taken; supplement risks (interactions, safety/harm, side effects/adverse events); treatment benefits; efficacy; alternative treatments; and patient expectations/preferences for treatment. Some topics were mentioned more frequently by providers than patients, such as how to take, reason for taking, and evidence for use. Providers raised several topics that were mentioned infrequently by patients. Supplement costs and regulations were not brought up by any patients, even though consideration of these topics could influence patient decisions to take supplements. Complementary healthcare providers brought up topics not mentioned by primary care providers, such as the importance of supplement brands and supplement mega-dosing. Patients and providers have concordant views about the need to discuss patient supplement use and ensure patient safety. Patients may undervalue, be unaware of, or discount information about cost or regulations that could affect their decision-making about supplement use

  2. Which sources of flavonoids: complex diets or dietary supplements?

    PubMed

    Egert, Sarah; Rimbach, Gerald

    2011-01-01

    There is increasing interest in the potential health benefits of dietary flavonoids. Fruits and vegetables, tea, and cocoa are rich natural sources of flavonoids. Epidemiological studies have indicated that consumption of these foods is likely to be associated with a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease, but the etiology of this benefit is not yet clearly defined. Furthermore, in some acute interventions, a positive effect of tea and cocoa on vascular function has been reported. An alternative source of flavonoids is dietary supplements, which have become increasingly popular in the recent past. In this context, it needs to be critically evaluated whether vascular health-promoting and other positive properties of flavonoid-rich diets can be replaced by purified flavonoids as dietary supplements. Plant sources of flavonoids contain a complex mixture of secondary plant metabolites and not only flavonoids per se. This complex mixture of secondary plant metabolites cannot be simply exchanged by single purified compounds as dietary supplements. If flavonoids are given as dietary supplements, toxicity issues as well as nutrient drug interactions need to be taken into account. Purified flavonoids given in high doses as dietary supplements may affect trace element, folate, and vitamin C status. Furthermore, they may exhibit antithyroid and goitrogenic activities. In this review article, the available literature on the safety issues surrounding high dose supplemental flavonoid consumption has been summarized.

  3. Effectiveness of dietary supplements in spinal cord injury subjects.

    PubMed

    Navarrete-Opazo, Angela; Cuitiño, Pilar; Salas, Inés

    2017-04-01

    Individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) consume more dietary supplements than the general population. However, there is limited information regarding the clinical effectiveness of dietary supplements in SCI population. To systematically review the effectiveness of dietary supplements for the prevention or treatment of health-related conditions associated with SCI. Randomized or non-randomized controlled clinical trials were selected, comparing the effect of any dose and form of a dietary supplement (defined by the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act), with either no treatment, placebo, or other medication. Data Sources included the Cochrane Database, DARE, LILACS, CINAHL, EMBASE, MEDLINE, OTSeeker, PEDro, PsycINFO, SpeechBITE, ScienceDirect, Scopus, clinicaltrials.gov, Google Scholar, and OpenGrey. Two reviewers independently classified articles from January 1970 through October 2015, and 18 articles were selected. Due to the heterogeneity of outcome measures across studies, a meta-analysis was not conducted. However, high-quality evidence showed that cranberry supplementation is not effective for prevention of urinary tract infections (UTIs) in SCI. Moderate-quality evidence supported a beneficial effect of vitamin D, alpha-lipoic acid, and omega-3 supplementation, although replication of results is needed. There were conflicting results for the effect of creatine supplementation on improvement of motor outcomes. Low-quality evidence does not permit assessment of the effectiveness of melatonin, whey protein, vitamin C, and Chinese herb in SCI. There is sufficient data suggesting that cranberry supplementation is ineffective for prevention of UTIs in individuals with SCI. There is insufficient data to support or refute the use of any other dietary supplement in individuals with SCI. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Should states and local governments regulate dietary supplements?

    PubMed

    Starr, Ranjani

    2016-01-01

    Federal regulation of dietary supplements in the United States is governed by the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act of 1994. The law has been criticized as weak and ineffective. Alarming research has emerged demonstrating that supplements may be mislabelled, contaminated, adulterated with dangerous or unknown compounds, or sold at toxic doses. As a result, the health community has raised concerns about the safety and quality of dietary supplements. Increased federal oversight is an important avenue for improving supplement safety; however, states and local governments may also pursue strategies to strengthen the overall regulatory control of dietary supplements. States and local governments have substantial experience in regulating other products that pose a risk to public health, such as tobacco. Additionally, much has been learned about the tactics the tobacco industry has employed to protect its interests. Lessons learned may be applied to new regulatory efforts aimed at improving the safety of dietary supplements at the state and local levels. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Twenty Years of the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act--How Should Dietary Supplements Be Regulated?

    PubMed

    Wallace, Taylor C

    2015-08-01

    The Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act (DSHEA) of 1994 defines the FDA's statutory authority to regulate dietary supplement products in the United States. The dietary supplement industry has rapidly expanded since 1994, presenting an obvious need for "DSHEA 2.0." Current regulations surrounding dietary supplements have been increasingly and reasonably scrutinized, given their widespread use by over one-half of the US population as well as highly publicized safety concerns over the past 20 y. As the market continues to expand and evolve, so too must the laws that protect consumers from potential harm and misleading communication. This article is meant to begin a scientific dialogue on how regulations may be improved to provide both ease of access and safer products to the consumer by focusing on 4 topics: premarket approval, label claims, current Good Manufacturing Practices, and adverse event reporting. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  6. Dietary supplements and disease prevention - a global overview.

    PubMed

    Rautiainen, Susanne; Manson, JoAnn E; Lichtenstein, Alice H; Sesso, Howard D

    2016-07-01

    Dietary supplements are widely used and offer the potential to improve health if appropriately targeted to those in need. Inadequate nutrition and micronutrient deficiencies are prevalent conditions that adversely affect global health. Although improvements in diet quality are essential to address these issues, dietary supplements and/or food fortification could help meet requirements for individuals at risk of deficiencies. For example, supplementation with vitamin A and iron in developing countries, where women of reproductive age, infants and children often have deficiencies; with folic acid among women of reproductive age and during pregnancy; with vitamin D among infants and children; and with calcium and vitamin D to ensure bone health among adults aged ≥65 years. Intense debate surrounds the benefits of individual high-dose micronutrient supplementation among well-nourished individuals because the alleged beneficial effects on chronic diseases are not consistently supported. Daily low-dose multivitamin supplementation has been linked to reductions in the incidence of cancer and cataracts, especially among men. Baseline nutrition is an important consideration in supplementation that is likely to modify its effects. Here, we provide a detailed summary of dietary supplements and health outcomes in both developing and developed countries to help guide decisions about dietary supplement recommendations.

  7. DNA Barcode Authentication of Saw Palmetto Herbal Dietary Supplements

    PubMed Central

    Little, Damon P.; Jeanson, Marc L.

    2013-01-01

    Herbal dietary supplements made from saw palmetto (Serenoa repens; Arecaceae) fruit are commonly consumed to ameliorate benign prostate hyperplasia. A novel DNA mini–barcode assay to accurately identify [specificity = 1.00 (95% confidence interval = 0.74–1.00); sensitivity = 1.00 (95% confidence interval = 0.66–1.00); n = 31] saw palmetto dietary supplements was designed from a DNA barcode reference library created for this purpose. The mini–barcodes were used to estimate the frequency of mislabeled saw palmetto herbal dietary supplements on the market in the United States of America. Of the 37 supplements examined, amplifiable DNA could be extracted from 34 (92%). Mini–barcode analysis of these supplements demonstrated that 29 (85%) contain saw palmetto and that 2 (6%) supplements contain related species that cannot be legally sold as herbal dietary supplements in the United States of America. The identity of 3 (9%) supplements could not be conclusively determined. PMID:24343362

  8. Cardiorespiratory function associated with dietary nitrate supplementation

    PubMed Central

    Bond, Vernon; Curry, Bryan H.; Adams, Richard G.; Millis, Richard M.; Haddad, Georges E.

    2014-01-01

    The advent of medical nutrition therapy and nutritional physiology affords the opportunity to link diet to specific cardiovascular mechanisms, suggesting novel treatments for cardiovascular disease. This study tests the hypothesis that beetroot juice increases the plasma nitric oxide (NO) concentration, which is associated with improvements in cardiorespiratory function at rest and during submaximal aerobic exercise. The subjects were 12 healthy, young adult, normotensive African-American females, with a body mass of 61 ± 2 kg, body fat of 28% ± 4%, and peak oxygen consumption of 26 ± 3 mL·kg−1·min−1. The subjects were studied at rest and during cycle ergometer exercise at 40%, 60%, and 80% of peak oxygen consumption. Plasma NO concentration, respiratory quotient (RQ), minute ventilation, systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP), heart rate, and oxygen consumption were compared between isocaloric, isovolumetric placebo control orange juice and experimental beetroot juice treatments on separate days. The beetroot juice treatment increased plasma NO concentration and decreased oxygen consumption, SBP, and the heart rate-SBP product at rest and at 40%, 60%, and 80% of peak oxygen consumption in the absence of significant effects on RQ, minute ventilation, heart rate, and DBP. These findings suggest that, in healthy subjects, beetroot juice treatments increase plasma NO concentration and decrease cardiac afterload and myocardial oxygen demand at rest and during 3 submaximal levels of aerobic exercise. Future studies should determine the cellular and molecular mechanisms responsible for the improvement in cardiorespiratory function associated with dietary nitrate supplementation and whether they translate into better cardiovascular function and exercise tolerance in individuals with a compromised cardiovascular system. PMID:24476472

  9. Consumption and reasons for use of dietary supplements in an Australian university population.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Katelyn; Ball, Lauren; Desbrow, Ben; Alsharairi, Naser; Ahmed, Faruk

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the association between dietary supplement use and sociodemographic factors in an Australian university population. Additionally, reasons for use of specific dietary supplements were explored. A cross-sectional online questionnaire was completed by 1633 students and staff members of Griffith University, Queensland, Australia (76% female). The questionnaire collected information on sociodemographic characteristics, use of dietary supplements, and reasons for use of each dietary supplement reported. Multiple regression analyses were used to describe the relationship between demographic factors and dietary supplement use. Pearson χ(2) was used to identify correlations between frequency of dietary supplement use and selected demographic factors. Frequency distributions were used to explore the reasons for use of each dietary supplement reported. Vitamin or mineral use and use of "other" dietary supplements was reported by 69% and 63% of participants, respectively. Age, sex, ethnicity, and physical activity were independently associated with dietary supplement use. Age, sex, and income were associated with acute use of specific dietary supplements during illness or injury. The reasons for use of specific dietary supplements were closely aligned with marketed claims. Broad reasons of health were commonly reported for use of most dietary supplements. Use of dietary supplements in this population reflects that of other countries. Individuals were unsure of the benefits and risks associated with dietary supplementation. Health professionals should account for dietary supplements when assessing diet. These results also warrant consideration by regulating bodies and public health officers to ensure safe practices. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Classification of Use Status for Dietary Supplements in Clinical Notes.

    PubMed

    Fan, Yadan; He, Lu; Zhang, Rui

    2016-12-01

    Clinical notes contain rich information about dietary supplements, which are critical for detecting signals of dietary supplement side effects and interactions between drugs and supplements. One of the important factors of supplement documentation is usage status, such as started and discontinuation. Such information is usually stored in the unstructured clinical notes. We developed a rule-based classifier to identify supplement usage status in clinical notes. The categories referring to the patient's status of supplement use were classified into four classes: Continuing (C), Discontinued (D), Started (S), and Unclassified (U). Clinical notes containing 10 of the most commonly consumed supplements (i.e., alfalfa, echinacea, fish oil, garlic, ginger, ginkgo, ginseng, melatonin, St. John's Wort, and Vitamin E) were retrieved from the University of Minnesota Clinical Data Repository. The gold standard was defined by manually annotating 1000 randomly selected sentences or statements mentioning at least one of these 10 supplements. The rules in the classifier was initially developed on two-thirds of the set of 7 supplements (i.e., alfalfa, garlic, ginger, ginkgo, ginseng, St. John's Wort, and Vitamin E); the performance was evaluated on the remaining one-third of this set. To evaluate the generalizability of rules, we further validated the second testing set on other 3 supplements (i.e., echinacea, fish oil, and melatonin). The performance of the classifier achieved F-measures of 0.95, 0.97, 0.96, and 0.96 for status C, D, S, and U on 7 supplements, respectively. The classifier also showed good generalizability when it was applied to the other 3 supplements with F-measures of 0.96 for C, 0.96 for D, 0.95 for S, and 0.89 for U. This study demonstrated that the classifier can accurately classify supplement usage status, which can be further integrated as a module into the existing natural language processing pipeline for supporting dietary supplement knowledge discovery.

  11. Dietary Supplements: What You Need to Know

    MedlinePlus

    ... product. How can I be a smart supplement shopper? Be a savvy supplement user. Here’s how: When ... Coordinator in your area . File a safety report online through the Safety Reporting Portal . Learn more about ...

  12. Dietary supplement interactions with antiretrovirals: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Jalloh, Mohamed A; Gregory, Philip J; Hein, Darren; Risoldi Cochrane, Zara; Rodriguez, Aleah

    2017-01-01

    Many patients who take antiretroviral drugs also take alternative therapies including dietary supplements. Some drug-supplement combinations may result in clinically meaningful interactions. We aimed to investigate the evidence for dietary supplement interactions with antiretrovirals. A systematic review was conducted using multiple resources including PubMed, Natural Medicine Comprehensive Database, The Review of Natural Products, and Google Scholar. All human studies or case reports evaluating an interaction between a dietary supplement and an antiretroviral were selected for inclusion. Twenty-eight pharmacokinetic studies and case-series/case reports were selected for inclusion. Calcium carbonate, ferrous fumarate, some forms of ginkgo, some forms of garlic, some forms of milk thistle, St. John's wort, vitamin C, zinc sulfate, and multivitamins were all found to significantly decrease the levels of selected antiretrovirals and should be avoided in patients taking these antiretrovirals. Cat's claw and evening primrose oil were found to significantly increase the levels of antiretrovirals and patients should be monitored for adverse effects while taking these dietary supplements with antiretrovirals. This systematic review shows the importance of screening all human immunodeficiency virus patients for dietary supplement use to prevent treatment failure or adverse effects related to an interaction.

  13. Multiple dietary supplements do not affect metabolic and cardiovascular health

    PubMed Central

    Holloszy, John O.; Fontana, Luigi

    2014-01-01

    Dietary supplements are widely used for health purposes. However, little is known about the metabolic and cardiovascular effects of combinations of popular over-the-counter supplements, each of which has been shown to have anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and pro-longevity properties in cell culture or animal studies. This study was a 6-month randomized, single-blind controlled trial, in which 56 non-obese (BMI 21.0-29.9 kg/m2) men and women, aged 38 to 55 yr, were assigned to a dietary supplement (SUP) group or control (CON) group, with a 6-month follow-up. The SUP group took 10 dietary supplements each day (100 mg of resveratrol, a complex of 800 mg each of green, black, and white tea extract, 250 mg of pomegranate extract, 650 mg of quercetin, 500 mg of acetyl-l-carnitine, 600 mg of lipoic acid, 900 mg of curcumin, 1 g of sesamin, 1.7 g of cinnamon bark extract, and 1.0 g fish oil). Both the SUP and CON groups took a daily multivitamin/mineral supplement. The main outcome measures were arterial stiffness, endothelial function, biomarkers of inflammation and oxidative stress, and cardiometabolic risk factors. Twenty-four weeks of daily supplementation with 10 dietary supplements did not affect arterial stiffness or endothelial function in nonobese individuals. These compounds also did not alter body fat measured by DEXA, blood pressure, plasma lipids, glucose, insulin, IGF-1, and markers of inflammation and oxidative stress. In summary, supplementation with a combination of popular dietary supplements has no cardiovascular or metabolic effects in non-obese relatively healthy individuals. PMID:24659610

  14. Ironic effects of dietary supplementation: illusory invulnerability created by taking dietary supplements licenses health-risk behaviors.

    PubMed

    Chiou, Wen-Bin; Yang, Chao-Chin; Wan, Chin-Sheng

    2011-08-01

    The use of dietary supplements and the health status of individuals have an asymmetrical relationship: the growing market for dietary supplements appears not to be associated with an improvement in public health. Building on the notion of licensing, or the tendency for positive choices to license subsequent self-indulgent choices, we argue that because dietary supplements are perceived as conferring health advantages, use of such supplements may create an illusory sense of invulnerability that disinhibits unhealthy behaviors. In two experiments, participants who took placebo pills that they believed were dietary supplements exhibited the licensing effect across multiple forms of health-related behavior: They expressed less desire to engage in exercise and more desire to engage in hedonic activities (Experiment 1), expressed greater preference for a buffet over an organic meal (Experiment 1), and walked less to benefit their health (Experiment 2) compared with participants who were told the pills were a placebo. A mediational analysis indicated that perceived invulnerability was an underlying mechanism for these effects. Thus, a license associated with the use of dietary supplements may operate within cycles of behaviors that alternately protect and endanger health.

  15. Evaluation of selenium in dietary supplements using elemental speciation.

    PubMed

    Kubachka, Kevin M; Hanley, Traci; Mantha, Madhavi; Wilson, Robert A; Falconer, Travis M; Kassa, Zena; Oliveira, Aline; Landero, Julio; Caruso, Joseph

    2017-03-01

    Selenium-enriched dietary supplements containing various selenium compounds are readily available to consumers. To ensure proper selenium intake and consumer confidence, these dietary supplements must be safe and have accurate label claims. Varying properties among selenium species requires information beyond total selenium concentration to fully evaluate health risk/benefits A LC-ICP-MS method was developed and multiple extraction methods were implemented for targeted analysis of common "seleno-amino acids" and related oxidation products, selenate, selenite, and other species relatable to the quality and/or accuracy of the labeled selenium ingredients. Ultimately, a heated water extraction was applied to recover selenium species from non-selenized yeast supplements in capsule, tablet, and liquid forms. For selenized yeast supplements, inorganic selenium was monitored as a means of assessing selenium yeast quality. A variety of commercially available selenium supplements were evaluated and discrepancies between labeled ingredients and detected species were noted.

  16. Authentication of Ginkgo biloba herbal dietary supplements using DNA barcoding.

    PubMed

    Little, Damon P

    2014-09-01

    Ginkgo biloba L. (known as ginkgo or maidenhair tree) is a phylogenetically isolated, charismatic, gymnosperm tree. Herbal dietary supplements, prepared from G. biloba leaves, are consumed to boost cognitive capacity via improved blood perfusion and mitochondrial function. A novel DNA mini-barcode assay was designed and validated for the authentication of G. biloba in herbal dietary supplements (n = 22; sensitivity = 1.00, 95% CI = 0.59-1.00; specificity = 1.00, 95% CI = 0.64-1.00). This assay was further used to estimate the frequency of mislabeled ginkgo herbal dietary supplements on the market in the United States of America: DNA amenable to PCR could not be extracted from three (7.5%) of the 40 supplements sampled, 31 of 37 (83.8%) assayable supplements contained identifiable G. biloba DNA, and six supplements (16.2%) contained fillers without any detectable G. biloba DNA. It is hoped that this assay will be used by supplement manufacturers to ensure that their supplements contain G. biloba.

  17. Evaluation of heavy metals content in dietary supplements in Lebanon

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The consumption of dietary supplements is widely spread and on the rise. These dietary supplements are generally used without prescriptions, proper counseling or any awareness of their health risk. The current study aimed at analyzing the metals in 33 samples of imported dietary supplements highly consumed by the Lebanese population, using 3 different techniques, to ensure the safety and increase the awareness of the citizen to benefit from these dietary supplements. Results Some samples had levels of metals above their maximum allowable levels (Fe: 24%, Zn: 33%, Mn: 27%, Se: 15%, Mo: 12% of samples), but did not pose any health risk because they were below permitted daily exposure limit and recommended daily allowance except for Fe in 6% of the samples. On the other hand, 34% of the samples had Cu levels above allowable limit where 18% of them were above their permitted daily exposure and recommended daily allowance. In contrast, all samples had concentration of Cr, Hg, and Pb below allowable limits and daily exposure. Whereas, 30% of analyzed samples had levels of Cd above allowable levels, and were statistically correlated with Ca, and Zn essential minerals. Similarly 62% of the samples had levels of As above allowable limits and As levels were associated with Fe and Mn essential minerals. Conclusion Dietary supplements consumed as essential nutrients for their Ca, Zn, Fe and Mn content should be monitored for toxic metal levels due to their natural geochemical association with these essential metals to provide citizens the safe allowable amounts. PMID:23331553

  18. Dietary supplements usage among elderly Taiwanese during 2005-2008.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shih-Ying; Lin, Jia-Rong; Chen, Tzu-Hsiu; Guo, Shiou-Guei; Kao, Mei-Ding; Pan, Wen-Harn

    2011-01-01

    This study describes dietary supplement consumption practices among the Taiwanese population over the age of 65. Data for the analyses were derived from the 2005-2008 Nutrition and Health Survey in Taiwan. Data from a total of 914 participants (456 men and 458 women) was collected in the study to delineate patterns of supplement usage. The results indicated that the percentage of individuals taking supplements was 45.7% for men and 52.2% for women. There were no significant differences in supplement use by gender, age group, geographic stratum, current employment status, household monthly income, self-reported health status or marital status, except for higher education and adequate perceived financial resources. Half of both men and women chose to take only one supplement. In addition, as the number of supplements taken increased, the number of people decreased. The elderly with higher education levels were more likely to take two kinds of supplements. The top five supplements consumed from highest to lowest were: glucosamine, multivitamins and minerals, calcium, fish oil and vitamin B complex. The major reason for supplements use for men was to supplement an unbalanced diet, and that for women was to prevent joint degeneration. The main factor influencing choice of supplements in the elderly was receiving the supplement as a gift from another person. Note that mean intakes of vitamins A, C, E, B-1, B-2, B-6, B-12, biotin, niacin, and pantothenic acid from supplements over-exceeded DRIs in Taiwan.

  19. Dietary Supplements: What You Need to Know

    MedlinePlus

    ... product. How can I be a smart supplement shopper? Be a savvy supplement user. Here’s how: • When ... gov/Safety/ReportaProblem/ConsumerComplaintCoordinators • File a safety report online through the Safety Reporting Portal at: http://www. ...

  20. Do dietary supplements improve micronutrient sufficiency in children and adolescents?

    PubMed

    Bailey, Regan L; Fulgoni, Victor L; Keast, Debra R; Lentino, Cindy V; Dwyer, Johanna T

    2012-11-01

    To examine if children use supplements to fill gaps in nutritionally inadequate diets or whether supplements contribute to already adequate or excessive micronutrient intakes from foods. Data were analyzed for children (2-18 years) from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003-2006, a nationally representative, cross-sectional survey (n = 7250). Diet was assessed using two 24-hour recalls, and dietary supplement use was assessed with a 30-day questionnaire. Prevalence of supplements use was 21% (<2 years) and 42% (2-8 years). Supplement users had higher micronutrient intakes than nonusers. Calcium and vitamin D intakes were low for all children. Inadequate intakes of phosphorus, copper, selenium, folate, and vitamins B-6 and B-12 were minimal from foods alone among 2-8 year olds. However, among 9-18 year olds, a higher prevalence of inadequate intakes of magnesium, phosphorus, and vitamins A, C, and E were observed. Supplement use increased the likelihood of intakes above the upper tolerable intake level for iron, zinc, copper, selenium, folic acid, and vitamins A and C. Even with the use of supplements, more than a one-third of children failed to meet calcium and vitamin D recommendations. Children 2-8 years old had nutritionally adequate diets regardless of supplement use. However, in children older than 8 years, dietary supplements added micronutrients to diets that would have otherwise been inadequate for magnesium, phosphorus, vitamins A, C, and E. Supplement use contributed to the potential for excess intakes of some nutrients. These findings may have implications for reformulating dietary supplements for children. Published by Mosby, Inc.

  1. Do dietary supplements improve micronutrient sufficiency in children and adolescents?

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Regan L.; Fulgoni, Victor L.; Keast, Debra R.; Lentino, Cindy V.; Dwyer, Johanna T.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To examine if children use supplements to fill gaps in nutritionally inadequate diets or whether supplements contribute to already adequate or excessive micronutrient intakes from foods. Study design Data were analyzed for children (2–18 y) from the NHANES 2003–2006, a nationally representative, cross-sectional survey (n=7,250). Diet was assessed using two 24-hour recalls, and dietary supplement use was assessed with a 30-day questionnaire. Results Prevalence of supplements use was 21% (< 2 y) and 42% (2–8 y). Supplement users had higher micronutrient intakes than nonusers. Calcium and vitamin D intakes were low for all children. Inadequate intakes of phosphorus, copper, selenium, folate, and vitamins B-6 and B-12 were minimal from foods alone among 2–8 y olds. However, among 9–18 y olds, a higher prevalence of inadequate intakes of magnesium, phosphorus, and vitamins A, C, and E were observed. Supplement use increased the likelihood of intakes above the Upper Tolerable Intake Level for iron, zinc, copper, selenium, folic acid, and vitamins A and C. Conclusions Even with the use of supplements, more than a one-third of children failed to meet calcium and vitamin D recommendations. Children 2–8 y had nutritionally adequate diets regardless of supplement use. However, in children older than 8 y dietary supplements added micronutrients to diets that would have otherwise been inadequate for magnesium, phosphorus, vitamins A,C, and E. Supplement use contributed to the potential for excess intakes of some nutrients. These findings may have implications for reformulating dietary supplements for children. PMID:22717218

  2. Dietary Supplement Laboratory Quality Assurance Program: The First Five Exercises

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Melissa M.; Rimmer, Catherine A.; Wood, Laura J.; Lippa, Katrice A.; Sharpless, Katherine E.; Duewer, David L.; Sander, Lane C.; Betz, Joseph M.

    2011-01-01

    The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has established a Dietary Supplement Laboratory Quality Assurance Program (DSQAP) in collaboration with the National Institutes of Health Office of Dietary Supplements. Program participants measure concentrations of active and/or marker compounds as well as nutritional and toxic elements in food and dietary supplements distributed by NIST. Data are compiled at NIST, where they are analyzed for accuracy relative to reference values and concordance among the participants. Performance reports and certificates of completion are provided to participants, which can be used to demonstrate compliance with current Good Manufacturing Practices as promulgated by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. The DSQAP has conducted five exercises to date, with total participation including more than 75 different laboratories and many more individual analysts. PMID:21797008

  3. Survey on the Effectiveness of Dietary Supplements to Treat Tinnitus.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Claudia; Tyler, Richard; Ji, Haihong; Rojas-Roncancio, Eveling; Witt, Shelley; Tao, Pan; Jun, Hyung-Jin; Wang, Tang Chuan; Hansen, Marlan R; Gantz, Bruce J

    2016-09-01

    We surveyed the benefit of dietary supplements to treat tinnitus and reported adverse effects. A website was created for people with tinnitus to complete a variety of questions. The 1,788 subjects who responded to questionnaires came from 53 different countries; 413 (23.1%) reported taking supplements. No effect on tinnitus was reported in 70.7%, improvement in 19.0%, and worsening in 10.3%. Adverse effects were reported in 6% (n = 36), including bleeding, diarrhea, headache, and others. Supplements were reported to be helpful for sleep: melatonin (effect size, d = 1.228) and lipoflavonoid (d = 0.5244); emotional reactions: melatonin (d = 0.6138) and lipoflavonoid (d = 0.457); hearing: Ginkgo biloba (d = 0.3758); and concentration Ginkgo biloba (d = 0.3611). The positive, subjective reports should be interpreted cautiously; many might have reported a positive effect because they were committed to treatment and expected a benefit. Users of supplements were more likely to have loudness hyperacusis and to have a louder tinnitus. The use of dietary supplements to treat tinnitus is common, particularly with Ginkgo biloba, lipoflavonoids, magnesium, melatonin, vitamin B12, and zinc. It is likely that some supplements will help with sleep for some patients. However, they are generally not effective, and many produced adverse effects. We concluded that dietary supplements should not be recommended to treat tinnitus but could have a positive outcome on tinnitus reactions in some people.

  4. Variation in concentration and labeling of ginger root dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Schwertner, Harvey A; Rios, Deborah C; Pascoe, Joshua E

    2006-06-01

    Ginger root dietary supplements are often used to alleviate symptoms of nausea and vomiting associated with pregnancy. In this study, we determined the variation in 6-gingerol, 6-shogaol, 8-gingerol, and 10-gingerol concentrations and labeling of different brands of ginger root dietary supplements. Ten different ginger root dietary supplements were purchased randomly at local pharmacies and health food stores. The 6-gingerol, 6-shogaol, 8-gingerol, and 10-gingerol concentrations of the dietary supplements were determined by high-performance liquid-chromatography. In addition, we examined the container labeling for the amount of ginger root powder or extract in each capsule, the serving size, ingredients, expiration date, lot number, standardization procedure, and suggested use. The 6-gingerol concentration of the ginger powder dietary supplements ranged from 0.0 to 9.43 mg/g, (mean +/- standard deviation, 2.56 +/- 2.95 mg/g), 6-shogaol ranged from 0.16 to 2.18 mg/g (1.27 +/- 0.58), 8-gingerol ranged from 0.00 to 1.1 mg/g (0.47 +/- 0.34), and 10-gingerol ranged from 0.00 to 1.40 mg/g (0.36 +/- 0.51). The amounts of 6-gingerol, 6-shogaol, 8-gingerol, and 10-gingerol in the ginger root dietary supplements varied widely on both a milligram per gram basis and on a milligram per capsule basis. Likewise, the suggested ginger serving sizes varied from 250 mg to 4.77 g per day. The results of this study indicate that there is a wide variation in the gingerol composition and in the suggested serving sizes of ginger root powder from different manufacturers. II-3.

  5. PATTERNS OF DIETARY SUPPLEMENT USAGE IN DEMOGRAPHICALLY DIVERSE OLDER PEOPLE

    PubMed Central

    Kishiyama, Shirley S.; Leahy, Marjorie J.; Zitzelberger, Tracy A.; Guariglia, Robin; Zajdel, Daniel P.; Calvert, James F.; Kaye, Jeffrey A.; Oken, Barry S.

    2005-01-01

    Objective To analyze dietary supplement usage data from 494 older adults, aged 65 to 101 years. Setting Community dwellers living independently of institutionalized care. Design All dietary supplements, including botanicals, were recorded to aid in assessing the health status of older adults. Participants 1) 224 individuals enrolled in a study that follows the health of persons 85 years and older (oldest-old) in Klamath County, a non-metropolitan area in southern Oregon: 2) 134 participants of oldest-old age living in the metropolitan Portland area, enrolled in a randomized clinical trial of GBE biloba extract (GBE) for dementia prevention: and 3) 136 participants, ages 65–85 years (young-old), also of the Portland area, enrolled in a study of the effects of yoga and exercise on cognition. Measurements Data verified from labels, not from self-report. Results Of the participants, 70.6% used dietary supplements. Women took supplements more often than men, and usage decreased with age. A greater percentage, 67.4%, of the non-metropolitan oldest-old took supplements, compared to 56.7% of the metropolitan oldest-old. The greatest usage, 89.7%, was in the metropolitan young-olds. All of these percentages exceed those for comparable age groups in national representative surveys. Conclusions Dietary supplement usage by older adults in these studies in Oregon exceeded that in other reports and may reflect high interest in complementary and alternative medicine. This report confirms the results of other studies showing that elderly adults, particularly women, use dietary supplements more than other segments of the US population. Researchers and clinicians should be aware of this pattern and potential conflicts with research design or treatment regimen intended for older people. PMID:15945136

  6. Characteristics of Drug and Dietary Supplement Inquiries by College Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Ambrose, Peter J.; Tsourounis, Candy; Olander, Rachel; Uryasz, Frank

    2010-01-01

    Background: In the United States, the National Center for Drug Free Sport manages the drug-testing programs for athletes of the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA). Through its Resource Exchange Center (REC), Drug Free Sport supports athletic staff and athletes with information regarding drugs and dietary supplements. Purpose: To characterize the types of drug-related and dietary supplement–related inquiries submitted to Drug Free Sport through the REC. Study Design: Cross-sectional study. Methods: All inquiries submitted to the REC for the period of September 1, 2005, through June 30, 2006, were reviewed. The data were categorized by the method of inquiry submission; the name of the substance in question; the sex, sport, and NCAA division of the athlete involved; the nature of the inquiry; and the response provided by the REC regarding the NCAA’s status of the substance in question. Results: Pseudoephedrine, acetaminophen/hydrocodone, and albuterol were the most commonly self-searched medications; stimulants accounted for the majority of banned medications. Dietary supplements accounted for 80% of all inquiries submitted to the REC via the Banned Drug Inquiry Form. Among all dietary supplements, creatine was the most commonly inquired. Banned substances accounted for 29% of all inquiries. Conclusions: There were more than 10 000 inquiries regarding the status of medications, dietary supplements, and other substances for NCAA athletes during the 2005-2006 academic year. It is helpful for athletes to have resources that help them navigate banned-substance lists and so avoid the inadvertent use of banned substances. Clinical Relevance: Educating athletes regarding the stimulant content of various dietary supplements and addressing the lack of clinical trials to support stated claims and safety appear critical. PMID:23015919

  7. Quality assurance issues in the use of dietary supplements, with special reference to protein supplements.

    PubMed

    Maughan, Ronald J

    2013-11-01

    The use of dietary supplements is widespread in the general population, in athletes and recreational exercisers, and in military personnel. A wide array of supplements is available, but protein-containing products are consistently among the most popular, especially among those who engage in resistance training. There are significant risks associated with the use of unregulated dietary supplements. Risks include the absence of active ingredients, the presence of harmful substances (including microbiological agents and foreign objects), the presence of toxic agents, and the presence of potentially dangerous prescription-only pharmaceuticals. There is ample evidence of athletes who have failed doping tests because of the use of dietary supplements. There is also growing evidence of risks to health and of serious adverse events, including a small number of fatalities, as a result of supplement use. The risk associated with the use of protein powders produced by major manufacturers is probably low, and the risk can be further reduced by using only products that have been tested under one of the recognized supplement quality assurance programs that operate in various countries. Nevertheless, a small risk remains, and athletes, soldiers, and other consumers should conduct a cost-benefit analysis before using any dietary supplements.

  8. Dietary Supplement Use by Military Personnel

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-12-01

    release of the report on June 10th. A sponsor briefing was held on June 3rd at the Samueli Institute headquarters in Alexandria, V A. The...of Health) and Dr. Joan Walter (The Samueli Institute) presented a description of their respective institutions, their work related to dietary

  9. Dietary supplements and disease prevention — a global overview

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Dietary supplements are widely used and offer the potential to improve health if appropriately targeted to those in need. Inadequate nutrition and micronutrient deficiencies are prevalent conditions that adversely affect global health. Although improvements in diet quality are essential to address t...

  10. Effects of dietary blueberry supplementation on older adults

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Aging involves decremental changes in cognition, even in the absense of neurodegenerative pathology. A growing body of pre-clinical research shows that dietary supplementation with berry fruit can improve cognition and mobility in aged rodents, in part due to reduction in inflammation. This study s...

  11. Iodine in food and dietary supplement composition databases

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    For a number of years, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the Nutrient Data Laboratory (NDL) of the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s Agricultural Research Service have worked independently on determining the iodine content of foods and dietary supplements and are now harmonizing their e...

  12. Detection of antibiotic resistance in probiotics of dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Wong, Aloysius; Ngu, Davey Yueh Saint; Dan, Lydia Annabel; Ooi, Amanda; Lim, Renee Lay Hong

    2015-09-14

    Probiotics are live microorganisms that confer nutrition- and health-promoting benefits if consumed in adequate amounts. Concomitant with the demand for natural approaches to maintaining health is an increase in inclusion of probiotics in food and health products. Since probiotic bacteria act as reservoir for antibiotic resistant determinants, the transfer of these genes to pathogens sharing the same intestinal habitat is thus conceivable considering the fact that dietary supplements contain high amounts of often heterogeneous populations of probiotics. Such events can confer pathogens protection against commonly-used drugs. Despite numerous reports of antibiotic resistant probiotics in food and biological sources, the antibiogram of probiotics from dietary supplements remained elusive. Here, we screened five commercially available dietary supplements for resistance towards antibiotics of different classes. Probiotics of all batches of products were resistant towards vancomycin while batch-dependent resistance towards streptomycin, aztreonam, gentamycin and/or ciprofloxacin antibiotics was detected for probiotics of brands Bi and Bn, Bg, and L. Isolates of brand Cn was also resistant towards gentamycin, streptomycin and ciprofloxacin antibiotics. Additionally, we also report a discrepancy between the enumerated viable bacteria amounts and the claims of the manufacturers. This short report has highlighted the present of antibiotic resistance in probiotic bacteria from dietary supplements and therefore serves as a platform for further screenings and for in-depth characterization of the resistant determinants and the molecular machinery that confers the resistance.

  13. Safety, Efficacy, and Legal Issues Related to Dietary Supplements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powers, Michael

    2004-01-01

    This article focuses on the effects of dietary supplements on collegiate and adult populations. Anabolic steroids, amphetamines, and other drugs have been used for decades to improve athletic performance. However, the legal issues and dangers associated with these drugs have resulted in reluctance by many athletes to use them. Because dietary…

  14. A free new dietary supplement label database for dietitians

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Over half of US adults consume dietary supplements (DS). Some of the approximately 50,000 products on the market provide significant sources of nutrients or other bioactive constituents. It is important for dietitians to have information about them. In keeping with their missions, the Office of Di...

  15. Biological Reactive Intermediates (BRIs) Formed from Botanical Dietary Supplements

    PubMed Central

    Dietz, Birgit M.; Bolton, Judy L.

    2013-01-01

    The use of botanical dietary supplements is increasingly popular, due to their natural origin and the perceived assumption that they are safer than prescription drugs. While most botanical dietary supplements can be considered safe, a few contain compounds, which can be converted to reactive biological reactive intermediates (BRIs) causing toxicity. For example, sassafras oil contains safrole, which can be converted to a reactive carbocation forming genotoxic DNA adducts. Alternatively, some botanical dietary supplements contain stable BRIs such as simple Michael acceptors that react with chemosensor proteins such as Keap1 resulting in induction of protective detoxification enzymes. Examples include curcumin from turmeric, xanthohumol from hops, and Z-ligustilide from dang gui. Quinones (sassafras, kava, black cohosh), quinone methides (sassafras), and epoxides (pennyroyal oil) represent BRIs of intermediate reactivity, which could generate both genotoxic and/or chemopreventive effects. The biological targets of BRIs formed from botanical dietary supplements and their resulting toxic and/or chemopreventive effects are closely linked to the reactivity of BRIs as well as dose and time of exposure. PMID:20970412

  16. Biological reactive intermediates (BRIs) formed from botanical dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Dietz, Birgit M; Bolton, Judy L

    2011-06-30

    The use of botanical dietary supplements is increasingly popular, due to their natural origin and the perceived assumption that they are safer than prescription drugs. While most botanical dietary supplements can be considered safe, a few contain compounds, which can be converted to biological reactive intermediates (BRIs) causing toxicity. For example, sassafras oil contains safrole, which can be converted to a reactive carbocation forming genotoxic DNA adducts. Alternatively, some botanical dietary supplements contain stable BRIs such as simple Michael acceptors that react with chemosensor proteins such as Keap1 resulting in induction of protective detoxification enzymes. Examples include curcumin from turmeric, xanthohumol from hops, and Z-ligustilide from dang gui. Quinones (sassafras, kava, black cohosh), quinone methides (sassafras), and epoxides (pennyroyal oil) represent BRIs of intermediate reactivity, which could generate both genotoxic and/or chemopreventive effects. The biological targets of BRIs formed from botanical dietary supplements and their resulting toxic and/or chemopreventive effects are closely linked to the reactivity of BRIs as well as dose and time of exposure. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Dietary Supplement Ingredient Database (DSID) release 4.0

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Nearly half of U.S. adults report taking dietary supplements (DS). A single serving of a DS may contain amounts of nutrients or other bioactive compounds that exceed their concentration in foods. During the manufacturing of DS, ingredients may be added in amounts exceeding the label claims in orde...

  18. Safety, Efficacy, and Legal Issues Related to Dietary Supplements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powers, Michael

    2004-01-01

    This article focuses on the effects of dietary supplements on collegiate and adult populations. Anabolic steroids, amphetamines, and other drugs have been used for decades to improve athletic performance. However, the legal issues and dangers associated with these drugs have resulted in reluctance by many athletes to use them. Because dietary…

  19. Symptomatic hyperthyroidism in a patient taking the dietary supplement tiratricol.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Brent A; Elkin, Peter L; Erickson, Dana; Klee, George G; Brennan, Michael D

    2002-06-01

    An 87-year-old woman was referred for evaluation of nervousness, tremor, insomnia, and fatigue of 2 months' duration. Initial laboratory evaluation revealed a suppressed thyrotropin level and an elevated triiodothyronine level. A review of her medications revealed that she had started taking several dietary supplements at the recommendation of her chiropractor before the onset of symptoms. One of these was tiratricol (3,5,3'-triiodothyroacetic acid or Triac), a substance sold as a dietary supplement despite classification as a drug by the Food and Drug Administration. Tiratricol has weak thyromimetic effects, can inhibit pituitary thyrotropin secretion, and in higher doses can significantly stimulate metabolism. Such was the case with this patient who presented with signs, symptoms, and biochemical evidence of hyperthyroidism that promptly resolved after discontinuation of tiratricol therapy. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of documented thyrotoxicosis secondary to tiratricol use. Because tiratricol is still available for sale on several Internet sites, this case emphasizes the importance of inquiring about the use of dietary supplements in all patients. The availability of such products on the Internet increases the already complex task of monitoring patients' use of dietary supplements.

  20. Assessment of Vitamin D in multivitamin/mineral dietary supplements

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Vitamin D is a nutrient of public health concern and is naturally present in some foods, added to others, and available in dietary supplements. It is essential for bone growth and may have other roles in human health. To estimate current levels of intake, analytical data for vitamin D in foods and...

  1. Exploring "Responsibility" in Advertising: Health Claims about Dietary Supplements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kreth, Melinda L.

    2000-01-01

    Focuses on a collaborative research assignment on the health claims made for dietary supplements to help students understand responsibility in advertising. Helps students explore the social, economic, and political contexts in which regulatory standards emerge and evolve as well as how they are disseminated, implemented, and enforced. (SC)

  2. Dietary supplements: What's in a name? What's in the bottle?

    PubMed

    Marcus, Donald M

    2016-01-01

    The Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act of 1994 (DSHEA), which arbitrarily classified herbals and other medicinal products as dietary supplements, obscured fundamental differences between two classes of products. Authentic supplements to the diet, such as multivitamins or calcium, have nutritional value and are safe. Herbals are used worldwide as medicines, they do not supplement the diet, they may cause severe adverse events, and they should be regulated as medicines. DSHEA also prevented the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) from effectively regulating herbal supplements as medicines. One consequence of weak FDA regulatory oversight is the poor quality of herbals. FDA inspections of manufacturing facilities have revealed violations of good manufacturing practices in over half of facilities inspected, including unsanitary conditions and lack of product specifications. Moreover, many "all natural" herbals marketed for weight loss, enhancement of sexual health and improving sports performance are adulterated with prescription and over-the-counter medications that have caused adverse cardiovascular events. New procedures to authenticate the identity of plants used in herbals will neither detect adulteration by medications nor provide assurance of appropriate pharmacological activity or safety. Nonvitamin, nonmineral "supplements" should be regulated as medicines, but revision or repeal of DSHEA faces strong opposition in Congress. The marketing of botanical supplements is based on unfounded claims that they are safe and effective. Health professionals need to inform patients and the public that there is no reason to take herbal medicines whose composition and benefits are unknown, and whose risks are evident. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Current good manufacturing practice in manufacturing, packaging, labeling, or holding operations for dietary supplements. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2007-06-25

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is issuing a final rule regarding current good manufacturing practice (CGMP) for dietary supplements. The final rule establishes the minimum CGMPs necessary for activities related to manufacturing, packaging, labeling, or holding dietary supplements to ensure the quality of the dietary supplement. The final rule is one of many actions related to dietary supplements that we are taking to promote and protect the public health.

  4. [Acceptability of dietary supplements of the national Mexican program "Oportunidades"].

    PubMed

    Zarco, Angel; Mora, Gerardo; Pelcastre, Blanca; Flores, Mario; Bronfman, Mario

    2006-01-01

    To identify cultural beliefs and practices to evaluate the acceptability of dietary supplements of Oportunidades Program. Ethnographic study with in-depth interviews (n=43)--mothers of children less than five years of age and pregnant and breasfeeding women (PBW)--, key informants (n=9); focus groups (n=8) and direct observation, in four communities from North, Central, South and Southwest of Mexico. The supplement was prepared in several different ways. The liquid preparation was best accepted; generally the supplement was mixed with milk. Initially, the supplement caused nausea, vomiting and diarrhea, but these symptoms disappeared with continued consumption. Acceptance was highest among PBW. The supplement tends to replace milk as a food product in the daily diet. There is a necessity to develop culturally specific evaluations in regions with different food intake practices. The study results should be interpreted in the context of other program components, such as health care and education.

  5. Gluten screening of several dietary supplements by immunochromatographic assay.

    PubMed

    Oancea, Simona; Wagner, Adriana; Cîrstea, Elena; Sima, Mirela

    2011-01-01

    Celiac disease (CD) is a chronic intestinal disorder of public health concern caused by gluten ingestion in sensitive individuals. Gluten is a protein found not only in gluten-containing food but also as normal component of drugs and dietary supplements. Detection of gluten in dietary supplements is a very important task required for establishing their gluten status, which is highly important for the safety of products consumed by CD and gluten-sensitive patients. In this paper, we investigated the presence of gluten in twenty one common dietary supplements from the national market using the immunochromatographic assay. This visual assay proved to be an efficient rapid tool for gluten screening as an alternative to the ELISA techniques. The results have shown the presence of gluten in 23.8% of the investigated samples (vitamins, minerals, plant extracts, probiotics supplements, lactoferrin, propolis supplements). The results provide information which may contribute to the completion of the existing lists of gluten-free pharmaceuticals. It is known that for CD patients obtaining accurate information about the gluten content of a particular item is a difficult and time-consuming process.

  6. Dietary fiber supplementation for fecal incontinence: a randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Bliss, Donna Z; Savik, Kay; Jung, Hans-Joachim G; Whitebird, Robin; Lowry, Ann; Sheng, Xiaoyan

    2014-10-01

    Dietary fiber supplements are used to manage fecal incontinence (FI), but little is known about the fiber type to recommend or the level of effectiveness of such supplements, which appears related to the fermentability of the fiber. The aim of this single-blind, randomized controlled trial was to compare the effects of three dietary fiber supplements (carboxymethylcellulose [CMC], gum arabic [GA], or psyllium) with differing levels of fermentability to a placebo in community-living individuals incontinent of loose/liquid feces. The primary outcome was FI frequency; secondary outcomes included FI amount and consistency, supplement intolerance, and quality of life (QoL). Possible mechanisms underlying supplement effects were also examined. After a 14-day baseline, 189 subjects consumed a placebo or 16 g total fiber/day of one of the fiber supplements for 32 days. FI frequency significantly decreased after psyllium supplementation versus placebo, in both intent-to-treat and per-protocol mixed model analyses. CMC increased FI frequency. In intent-to-treat analysis, the number of FI episodes/week after supplementation was estimated to be 5.5 for Placebo, 2.5 for Psyllium, 4.3 for GA, and 6.2 for CMC. Only psyllium consumption resulted in a gel in feces. Supplement intolerance was low. QoL scores did not differ among groups. Patients with FI may experience a reduction in FI frequency after psyllium supplementation, and decreased FI frequency has been shown to be an important personal goal of treatment for patients with FI. Formation of a gel in feces appears to be a mechanism by which residual psyllium improved FI. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Dietary Fiber Supplementation for Fecal Incontinence: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Bliss, Donna Z.; Savik, Kay; Jung, Hans-Joachim G.; Whitebird, Robin; Lowry, Ann; Sheng, Xioayan

    2014-01-01

    Dietary fiber supplements are used to manage fecal incontinence (FI), but little is known about the fiber type to recommend or the level of effectiveness of such supplements, which appear related to the fermentability of the fiber. The aim of this single-blind, randomized controlled trial was to compare the effects of three dietary fiber supplements (carboxymethylcellulose [CMC], gum arabic [GA], or psyllium) with differing levels of fermentability to a placebo in community-living individuals incontinent of loose/liquid feces. The primary outcome was FI frequency; secondary outcomes included FI amount and consistency, supplement intolerance, and quality of life (QoL). Possible mechanisms underlying supplement effects were also examined. After a 14-day baseline, 189 subjects consumed a placebo or 16g total fiber/day of one of the fiber supplements for 32 days. FI frequency significantly decreased after psyllium supplementation versus placebo, in both intent-to-treat and per-protocol mixed model analyses. CMC increased FI frequency. In intent-to-treat analysis, the number of FI episodes/week after supplementation was estimated to be 5.5 for Placebo, 2.5 for Psyllium, 4.3 for GA, and 6.2 for CMC. Only psyllium consumption resulted in a gel in feces. Supplement intolerance was low. QoL scores did not differ among groups. Patients with FI may experience a reduction in FI frequency after psyllium supplementation, and decreased FI frequency has been shown to be an important personal goal of treatment for patients with FI. Formation of a gel in feces appears to be a mechanism by which residual psyllium improved FI. PMID:25155992

  8. Methylsulfonylmethane: Applications and Safety of a Novel Dietary Supplement

    PubMed Central

    Butawan, Matthew; Benjamin, Rodney L.; Bloomer, Richard J.

    2017-01-01

    Methylsulfonylmethane (MSM) has become a popular dietary supplement used for a variety of purposes, including its most common use as an anti-inflammatory agent. It has been well-investigated in animal models, as well as in human clinical trials and experiments. A variety of health-specific outcome measures are improved with MSM supplementation, including inflammation, joint/muscle pain, oxidative stress, and antioxidant capacity. Initial evidence is available regarding the dose of MSM needed to provide benefit, although additional work is underway to determine the precise dose and time course of treatment needed to provide optimal benefits. As a Generally Recognized As Safe (GRAS) approved substance, MSM is well-tolerated by most individuals at dosages of up to four grams daily, with few known and mild side effects. This review provides an overview of MSM, with details regarding its common uses and applications as a dietary supplement, as well as its safety for consumption. PMID:28300758

  9. Concomitant Use of Dietary Supplements and Medicines in Patients due to Miscommunication with Physicians in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Chiba, Tsuyoshi; Sato, Yoko; Suzuki, Sachina; Umegaki, Keizo

    2015-01-01

    We previously reported that some patients used dietary supplements with their medication without consulting with physicians. Dietary supplements and medicines may interact with each other when used concomitantly, resulting in health problems. An Internet survey was conducted on 2109 people who concomitantly took dietary supplements and medicines in order to address dietary supplement usage in people who regularly take medicines in Japan. A total of 1508 patients (two admitted patients and 1506 ambulatory patients) and 601 non-patients, who were not consulting with physicians, participated in this study. Purpose for dietary supplement use was different among ages. Dietary supplements were used to treat diseases in 4.0% of non-patients and 11.9% of patients, while 10.8% of patients used dietary supplements to treat the same diseases as their medication. However, 70.3% of patients did not declare dietary supplement use to their physicians or pharmacists because they considered the concomitant use of dietary supplements and medicines to be safe. A total of 8.4% of all subjects realized the potential for adverse effects associated with dietary supplements. The incidence of adverse events was higher in patients who used dietary supplements to treat their disease. Communication between patients and physicians is important for avoiding the adverse effects associated with the concomitant use of dietary supplements and medicines. PMID:25894658

  10. Concomitant use of dietary supplements and medicines in patients due to miscommunication with physicians in Japan.

    PubMed

    Chiba, Tsuyoshi; Sato, Yoko; Suzuki, Sachina; Umegaki, Keizo

    2015-04-16

    We previously reported that some patients used dietary supplements with their medication without consulting with physicians. Dietary supplements and medicines may interact with each other when used concomitantly, resulting in health problems. An Internet survey was conducted on 2109 people who concomitantly took dietary supplements and medicines in order to address dietary supplement usage in people who regularly take medicines in Japan. A total of 1508 patients (two admitted patients and 1506 ambulatory patients) and 601 non-patients, who were not consulting with physicians, participated in this study. Purpose for dietary supplement use was different among ages. Dietary supplements were used to treat diseases in 4.0% of non-patients and 11.9% of patients, while 10.8% of patients used dietary supplements to treat the same diseases as their medication. However, 70.3% of patients did not declare dietary supplement use to their physicians or pharmacists because they considered the concomitant use of dietary supplements and medicines to be safe. A total of 8.4% of all subjects realized the potential for adverse effects associated with dietary supplements. The incidence of adverse events was higher in patients who used dietary supplements to treat their disease. Communication between patients and physicians is important for avoiding the adverse effects associated with the concomitant use of dietary supplements and medicines.

  11. 21 CFR 111.470 - What requirements apply to distributing dietary supplements?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... supplements? 111.470 Section 111.470 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... MANUFACTURING, PACKAGING, LABELING, OR HOLDING OPERATIONS FOR DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS Holding and Distributing § 111.470 What requirements apply to distributing dietary supplements? You must distribute dietary...

  12. 21 CFR 111.470 - What requirements apply to distributing dietary supplements?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... supplements? 111.470 Section 111.470 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... MANUFACTURING, PACKAGING, LABELING, OR HOLDING OPERATIONS FOR DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS Holding and Distributing § 111.470 What requirements apply to distributing dietary supplements? You must distribute dietary...

  13. 21 CFR 111.520 - When may a returned dietary supplement be salvaged?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false When may a returned dietary supplement be salvaged? 111.520 Section 111.520 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN..., PACKAGING, LABELING, OR HOLDING OPERATIONS FOR DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS Returned Dietary Supplements § 111.520...

  14. 21 CFR 111.520 - When may a returned dietary supplement be salvaged?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false When may a returned dietary supplement be salvaged? 111.520 Section 111.520 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN..., PACKAGING, LABELING, OR HOLDING OPERATIONS FOR DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS Returned Dietary Supplements § 111.520...

  15. 21 CFR 111.520 - When may a returned dietary supplement be salvaged?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false When may a returned dietary supplement be salvaged? 111.520 Section 111.520 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN..., PACKAGING, LABELING, OR HOLDING OPERATIONS FOR DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS Returned Dietary Supplements § 111.520...

  16. Plant based dietary supplement increases urinary pH

    PubMed Central

    Berardi, John M; Logan, Alan C; Rao, A Venket

    2008-01-01

    Background Research has demonstrated that the net acid load of the typical Western diet has the potential to influence many aspects of human health, including osteoporosis risk/progression; obesity; cardiovascular disease risk/progression; and overall well-being. As urinary pH provides a reliable surrogate measure for dietary acid load, this study examined whether a plant-based dietary supplement, one marketed to increase alkalinity, impacts urinary pH as advertised. Methods Using pH test strips, the urinary pH of 34 healthy men and women (33.9 +/- 1.57 y, 79.3 +/- 3.1 kg) was measured for seven days to establish a baseline urinary pH without supplementation. After this initial baseline period, urinary pH was measured for an additional 14 days while participants ingested the plant-based nutritional supplement. At the end of the investigation, pH values at baseline and during the treatment period were compared to determine the efficacy of the supplement. Results Mean urinary pH statistically increased (p = 0.03) with the plant-based dietary supplement. Mean urinary pH was 6.07 +/- 0.04 during the baseline period and increased to 6.21 +/- 0.03 during the first week of treatment and to 6.27 +/- 0.06 during the second week of treatment. Conclusion Supplementation with a plant-based dietary product for at least seven days increases urinary pH, potentially increasing the alkalinity of the body. PMID:18990209

  17. Emergency Department Visits for Adverse Events Related to Dietary Supplements.

    PubMed

    Geller, Andrew I; Shehab, Nadine; Weidle, Nina J; Lovegrove, Maribeth C; Wolpert, Beverly J; Timbo, Babgaleh B; Mozersky, Robert P; Budnitz, Daniel S

    2015-10-15

    Dietary supplements, such as herbal or complementary nutritional products and micronutrients (vitamins and minerals), are commonly used in the United States, yet national data on adverse effects are limited. We used nationally representative surveillance data from 63 emergency departments obtained from 2004 through 2013 to describe visits to U.S. emergency departments because of adverse events related to dietary supplements. On the basis of 3667 cases, we estimated that 23,005 (95% confidence interval [CI], 18,611 to 27,398) emergency department visits per year were attributed to adverse events related to dietary supplements. These visits resulted in an estimated 2154 hospitalizations (95% CI, 1342 to 2967) annually. Such visits frequently involved young adults between the ages of 20 and 34 years (28.0% of visits; 95% CI, 25.1 to 30.8) and unsupervised children (21.2% of visits; 95% CI, 18.4 to 24.0). After the exclusion of unsupervised ingestion of dietary supplements by children, 65.9% (95% CI, 63.2 to 68.5) of emergency department visits for single-supplement-related adverse events involved herbal or complementary nutritional products; 31.8% (95% CI, 29.2 to 34.3) involved micronutrients. Herbal or complementary nutritional products for weight loss (25.5%; 95% CI, 23.1 to 27.9) and increased energy (10.0%; 95% CI, 8.0 to 11.9) were commonly implicated. Weight-loss or energy products caused 71.8% (95% CI, 67.6 to 76.1) of supplement-related adverse events involving palpitations, chest pain, or tachycardia, and 58.0% (95% CI, 52.2 to 63.7) involved persons 20 to 34 years of age. Among adults 65 years of age or older, choking or pill-induced dysphagia or globus caused 37.6% (95% CI, 29.1 to 46.2) of all emergency department visits for supplement-related adverse events; micronutrients were implicated in 83.1% (95% CI, 73.3 to 92.9) of these visits. An estimated 23,000 emergency department visits in the United States every year are attributed to adverse events

  18. AOAC SMPR 2014.007: Authentication of selected Vaccinium species (Anthocyanins) in dietary ingredients and dietary supplements

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This AOAC Standard Method Performance Requirements (SMPR) is for authentication of selected Vaccinium species in dietary ingredients and dietary supplements containing a single Vaccinium species using anthocyanin profiles. SMPRs describe the minimum recommended performance characteristics to be used...

  19. The use of, and perceptions about, dietary supplements among patients with heart failure.

    PubMed

    Fan, Xiuzhen; Lee, Kyoung Suk; Frazier, Susan K; Lennie, Terry A; Moser, Debra K

    2014-08-01

    Dietary supplement use is widespread; patterns of use and perceptions about supplements in individuals with heart failure (HF) are not well understood. The purpose of this study was to describe the prevalence, patterns and reasons for use of dietary supplements, and to compare characteristics of, and perceptions about, safety and efficacy between dietary supplement user and non-user participants with HF. Patients with HF (n=99) completed a Dietary Supplement Questionnaire. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze the data. Independent sample t-tests, Fisher's exact test, and Chi square analyses compared dietary supplement users to non-users. More than half of the participants used at least one dietary supplement and almost all patients using dietary supplements reported they had informed their healthcare provider. Dietary supplements were taken to improve intake of dietary components and better individual health state. Participants thought that dietary supplements in general were safer and more effective than current evidence suggests. Users and non-users expressed similar perceptions. Patients who used dietary supplements were older (64±10 years vs 53±12 years) and had a lower body mass index (30.0±6.5 kg/m(2) vs 34.1±8.3 kg/m(2)) compared with patients who did not. Dietary supplement use was common in these participants with HF; global perceptions about safety and efficacy of dietary supplements were similar between users and non-users of dietary supplements. Systematic evaluation of dietary supplement use, with discussion about safety and efficacy may be constructive for patients with HF. © The European Society of Cardiology 2013.

  20. Dietary supplements quality analysis tools from the United States Pharmacopeia

    PubMed Central

    Giancaspro, Gabriel; Venema, Jaap

    2016-01-01

    The United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issued the dietary supplement (DS) current good manufacturing practice (GMP) regulations in compliance with the mandate from the Dietary Supplements Health and Education Act (DSHEA), with the intention of protecting public health by ensuring the quality of DS. The GMP regulations require manufacturers to establish their own quality specifications for identity, purity, strength, composition, and absence of contaminants. Numerous FDA‐conducted GMP inspections found that the private specifications set by these manufacturers are often insufficient to ensure adequate quality of dietary ingredients and DS. Wider use of the public standards developed by the United States Pharmacopeial Convention (USP), in conjunction with GMP compliance, can help ensure quality and consistency of DS as they do for medicines. Public health protection could be enhanced by strengthening the GMP provisions to require conformance with relevant United States Pharmacopeia–National Formulary (USP–NF) standards, or in the absence of USP standards, other public compendial standards. Another serious concern is the presence of synthetic drugs and drug analogues in products marketed as DS. Use of the new USP General Chapter Adulteration of Dietary Supplements with Drugs and Drug Analogs <2251> may reduce the exposure of consumers to dangerous drugs disguised as DS. © 2016 The Authors. Drug Testing and Analysis published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:26857794

  1. Dietary supplements quality analysis tools from the United States Pharmacopeia.

    PubMed

    Sarma, Nandakumara; Giancaspro, Gabriel; Venema, Jaap

    2016-01-01

    The United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issued the dietary supplement (DS) current good manufacturing practice (GMP) regulations in compliance with the mandate from the Dietary Supplements Health and Education Act (DSHEA), with the intention of protecting public health by ensuring the quality of DS. The GMP regulations require manufacturers to establish their own quality specifications for identity, purity, strength, composition, and absence of contaminants. Numerous FDA-conducted GMP inspections found that the private specifications set by these manufacturers are often insufficient to ensure adequate quality of dietary ingredients and DS. Wider use of the public standards developed by the United States Pharmacopeial Convention (USP), in conjunction with GMP compliance, can help ensure quality and consistency of DS as they do for medicines. Public health protection could be enhanced by strengthening the GMP provisions to require conformance with relevant United States Pharmacopeia-National Formulary (USP-NF) standards, or in the absence of USP standards, other public compendial standards. Another serious concern is the presence of synthetic drugs and drug analogues in products marketed as DS. Use of the new USP General Chapter Adulteration of Dietary Supplements with Drugs and Drug Analogs <2251> may reduce the exposure of consumers to dangerous drugs disguised as DS. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Dietary Supplements and Sports Performance: Minerals

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Melvin H

    2005-01-01

    Minerals are essential for a wide variety of metabolic and physiologic processes in the human body. Some of the physiologic roles of minerals important to athletes are their involvement in: muscle contraction, normal hearth rhythm, nerve impulse conduction, oxygen transport, oxidative phosphorylation, enzyme activation, immune functions, antioxidant activity, bone health, and acid-base balance of the blood. The two major classes of minerals are the macrominerals and the trace elements. The scope of this article will focus on the ergogenic theory and the efficacy of such mineral supplementation. PMID:18500950

  3. Dietary supplements and sports performance: minerals.

    PubMed

    Williams, Melvin H

    2005-06-11

    Minerals are essential for a wide variety of metabolic and physiologic processes in the human body. Some of the physiologic roles of minerals important to athletes are their involvement in: muscle contraction, normal hearth rhythm, nerve impulse conduction, oxygen transport, oxidative phosphorylation, enzyme activation, immune functions, antioxidant activity, bone health, and acid-base balance of the blood. The two major classes of minerals are the macrominerals and the trace elements. The scope of this article will focus on the ergogenic theory and the efficacy of such mineral supplementation.

  4. Estimation of dietary supplements intake in a selected group of women over 50 and the risk assessment of interactions between the ingredients of dietary supplements and drugs

    PubMed

    Sadowska, Joanna; Bruszkowska, Magda

    Concurrent use of dietary supplements and drugs may result in complications of pharmacotherapy due to possible interactions between their ingredients. The aim of the survey was to estimate the intake of dietary supplements in a group of women over 50 and to analyse the risk of interactions between the ingredients of dietary supplements and drugs taken by the women. The study was carried out among 146 women over 50 years of age. Questionnaire included detailed questions on the type of prescription drugs, OTC (over-the-counter) drugs, and dietary supplements taken. The risk of interactions was determined on the basis of chemical composition of the drugs and supplements specified by the manufacturer, by comparing the obtained data with literature reports on known interactions. The analysis has shown that 88.4% of respondents constantly took prescription drugs, 44.5% of them took OTC drugs, and 66.4% of respondents took dietary supplements throughout the survey period. It has been found that 71.3% of surveyed women taking prescription drugs, took dietary supplements as well. Among women taking supplements and drugs, 36.9% of respondents were taking them concurrently, 60.9% kept such an interval, but only 21.8% of them waited for at least two hours. It has been found that the drug-supplement interactions might occur in 35.8% women under the survey. The analysis of the obtained results has revealed that taking dietary supplements by the group under survey was frequent, and the risk of interactions between dietary supplements and drugs was significant. It is recommended that doctors ask their patients about taken supplements during regular check-ups, and inform them about possible interactions between dietary supplements and drugs. Moreover, appropriate would be to change the labelling of dietary supplements, so that the packaging provides information on possible interactions between their ingredients and drugs.

  5. Dietary supplementation with fermented soybeans suppresses intimal thickening.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Yasuhiro; Kondo, Kazunao; Ichise, Hideyuki; Tsukamoto, Yoshinori; Urano, Tetsumei; Umemura, Kazuo

    2003-03-01

    Although soy foods have been consumed for more than 1000 y, it is only in the past 20 y that they have made inroads into Western diets. We investigated the effect of dietary supplementation with natto extracts produced from fermented soybeans on intimal thickening of arteries after vessel endothelial denudation. Natto extracts include nattokinase, a potent fibrinolytic enzyme having four times greater fibrinolytic activity than plasmin. Intimal thickening was induced in the femoral arteries by intravenous infusion of rose bengal followed by focal irradiation with a transluminal green light. Dietary natto extract supplementation was started 3 wk before endothelial injury and continued for another 3 wk after. In ex vivo studies, euglobulin clot lysis times were measured 3 wk after the initial supplementation. Neointima formation and thickening were also initiated successfully. The intima media ratio 3 wk after endothelial injury was 0.15 +/- 0.03 in the control group. Dietary natto extract supplementation suppressed intimal thickening (0.06 +/- 0.01; P < 0.05) compared with the control group. Natto extracts shortened euglobulin clot lysis time, suggesting that their thrombolytic activities were enhanced. These findings suggest that natto extracts, because of their thrombolytic activity, suppress intimal thickening after vascular injury as a result of the inhibition of mural thrombi formation.

  6. Comparison of a Medication Inventory and a Dietary Supplement Interview in Assessing Dietary Supplement Use in the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos

    PubMed Central

    Faurot, Keturah R.; Siega-Riz, Anna Maria; Gardiner, Paula; Rivera, José O.; Young, Laura A.; Poole, Charles; Whitsel, Eric A.; González, Hector M.; Chirinos-Medina, Diana A.; Talavera, Gregory A.; Castañeda, Sheila F.; Daviglus, Martha L.; Barnhart, Janice; Giacinto, Rebeca E.; Van Horn, Linda

    2016-01-01

    Although dietary supplement use is common, its assessment is challenging, especially among ethnic minority populations such as Hispanics/Latinos. Using the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL) (n = 16,415), this report compares two strategies for capturing dietary supplement use over a 30-day period: a medication-based inventory and a nutrition-based dietary supplement interview. Age-standardized prevalence was calculated across multiple dietary supplement definitions, adjusted with survey/nonresponse weights. The prevalence of dietary supplement use was substantially higher as measured in the dietary supplement interview, compared to the medication inventory: for total dietary supplements (39% vs 26%, respectively), for nonvitamin, nonmineral supplements (24% vs 12%), and for botanicals (9.2% vs 4.5%). Concordance between the two assessments was fair to moderate (Cohen’s kappa: 0.31–0.52). Among women, inclusion of botanical teas increased the prevalence of botanical supplement use from 7% to 15%. Supplement assessment that includes queries about botanical teas yields more information about patient supplement use. PMID:26917949

  7. Comparison of a Medication Inventory and a Dietary Supplement Interview in Assessing Dietary Supplement Use in the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos.

    PubMed

    Faurot, Keturah R; Siega-Riz, Anna Maria; Gardiner, Paula; Rivera, José O; Young, Laura A; Poole, Charles; Whitsel, Eric A; González, Hector M; Chirinos-Medina, Diana A; Talavera, Gregory A; Castañeda, Sheila F; Daviglus, Martha L; Barnhart, Janice; Giacinto, Rebeca E; Van Horn, Linda

    2016-01-01

    Although dietary supplement use is common, its assessment is challenging, especially among ethnic minority populations such as Hispanics/Latinos. Using the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL) (n = 16,415), this report compares two strategies for capturing dietary supplement use over a 30-day period: a medication-based inventory and a nutrition-based dietary supplement interview. Age-standardized prevalence was calculated across multiple dietary supplement definitions, adjusted with survey/nonresponse weights. The prevalence of dietary supplement use was substantially higher as measured in the dietary supplement interview, compared to the medication inventory: for total dietary supplements (39% vs 26%, respectively), for nonvitamin, nonmineral supplements (24% vs 12%), and for botanicals (9.2% vs 4.5%). Concordance between the two assessments was fair to moderate (Cohen's kappa: 0.31-0.52). Among women, inclusion of botanical teas increased the prevalence of botanical supplement use from 7% to 15%. Supplement assessment that includes queries about botanical teas yields more information about patient supplement use.

  8. NIH and USDA Funding of Dietary Supplement Research, 1999–20071

    PubMed Central

    Regan, Karen S.; Wambogo, Edwina A.; Haggans, Carol J.

    2011-01-01

    Over one-half of U.S. adults use dietary supplements, so federally supported research into the safety and effectiveness of these compounds is important for the health of many Americans. Data collected in the Computer Access to Research on Dietary Supplements database, which compiles federally sponsored dietary supplement-related research, are useful to scientists in determining the type of dietary supplement research that federal agencies are currently funding and where research gaps exist. This article describes the dietary supplement-related research funded by the NIH and the USDA. Between fiscal years 1999 and 2007, the number of research projects and funding for dietary supplement research more than doubled. During that period, NIH funded 6748 dietary supplement-related projects at a cost of $1.9 billion and the USDA funded 2258 projects at a cost of $347 million. The top funded dietary supplement ingredient categories were vitamins and minerals, botanicals, phytochemicals, and fatty acids. Cancer was by far the most frequent health outcome in dietary supplement research funding, nearly double the next closest health outcome category. Other health outcomes with the greatest funding were cellular and molecular mechanisms, cardiovascular health, women’s reproductive health, and immune function. The greatest number of dietary supplement research projects are funded by the NIH National Cancer Institute, the NIH National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine, the NIH Office of Dietary Supplements, and the USDA Agricultural Research Service. PMID:21106929

  9. Attitudes, beliefs and behaviours of Australia dietitians regarding dietary supplements: A cross-sectional survey.

    PubMed

    Marx, Wolfgang; Kiss, Nicole; McKavanagh, Daniel; Isenring, Elisabeth

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the attitudes, beliefs and behaviors of Australian dietitians regarding dietary supplements. An online survey was disseminated through the mailing lists of multiple healthcare organizations. There were 231 Australian dietitians that replied to the online survey. The results indicate that Australian dietitians are interested in dietary supplements (65%); however, the results also indicate that Australian dietitians are tentative about integrating dietary supplements into their dietetic practice. Concerns regarding potential drug-nutrient/herbal interactions were reported as the primary barrier (67%) to utilizing dietary supplements as part of clinical practice. In addition, there was a strong interest in additional training in dietary supplements (79%). In summary, Australian dietitians are interested in the use of dietary supplements; however, due to current barriers, few dietitians utilize dietary supplements as part of dietetic practice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Inappropriate Usage of Dietary Supplements in Patients by Miscommunication with Physicians in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Chiba, Tsuyoshi; Sato, Yoko; Nakanishi, Tomoko; Yokotani, Kaori; Suzuki, Sachina; Umegaki, Keizo

    2014-01-01

    Recently, people have used dietary supplements not only for nutritional supplementation, but also for treatment of their diseases. However, use of dietary supplements to treat diseases, especially with medications, may cause health problems in patients. In this study, we investigated use of dietary supplements in patients in Japan. This survey was conducted from January to December 2012, and was completed by 2732 people, including 599 admitted patients, 1154 ambulatory patients, and 979 healthy subjects who attended a seminar about dietary supplements. At the time of the questionnaire, 20.4% of admitted patients, 39.1% of ambulatory patients, and 30.7% of healthy subjects were using dietary supplements, which including vitamin/mineral supplements, herbal extracts, its ingredients, or food for specified health uses. The primary purpose for use in all groups was health maintenance, whereas 3.7% of healthy subjects, 10.0% of ambulatory patients, and 13.2% of admitted patients used dietary supplements to treat diseases. In addition, 17.7% of admitted patients and 36.8% of ambulatory patients were using dietary supplements concomitantly with their medications. However, among both admitted patients and ambulatory patients, almost 70% did not mention dietary supplement use to their physicians. Overall, 3.3% of all subjects realized adverse effects associated with dietary supplements. Communication between patients and physicians is important to avoid health problems associated with the use of dietary supplements. PMID:25431879

  11. Inappropriate usage of dietary supplements in patients by miscommunication with physicians in Japan.

    PubMed

    Chiba, Tsuyoshi; Sato, Yoko; Nakanishi, Tomoko; Yokotani, Kaori; Suzuki, Sachina; Umegaki, Keizo

    2014-11-26

    Recently, people have used dietary supplements not only for nutritional supplementation, but also for treatment of their diseases. However, use of dietary supplements to treat diseases, especially with medications, may cause health problems in patients. In this study, we investigated use of dietary supplements in patients in Japan. This survey was conducted from January to December 2012, and was completed by 2732 people, including 599 admitted patients, 1154 ambulatory patients, and 979 healthy subjects who attended a seminar about dietary supplements. At the time of the questionnaire, 20.4% of admitted patients, 39.1% of ambulatory patients, and 30.7% of healthy subjects were using dietary supplements, which including vitamin/mineral supplements, herbal extracts, its ingredients, or food for specified health uses. The primary purpose for use in all groups was health maintenance, whereas 3.7% of healthy subjects, 10.0% of ambulatory patients, and 13.2% of admitted patients used dietary supplements to treat diseases. In addition, 17.7% of admitted patients and 36.8% of ambulatory patients were using dietary supplements concomitantly with their medications. However, among both admitted patients and ambulatory patients, almost 70% did not mention dietary supplement use to their physicians. Overall, 3.3% of all subjects realized adverse effects associated with dietary supplements. Communication between patients and physicians is important to avoid health problems associated with the use of dietary supplements.

  12. Dietary Supplementation of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Deline, Marshall L.; Vrablik, Tracy L.; Watts, Jennifer L.

    2013-01-01

    Fatty acids are essential for numerous cellular functions. They serve as efficient energy storage molecules, make up the hydrophobic core of membranes, and participate in various signaling pathways. Caenorhabditis elegans synthesizes all of the enzymes necessary to produce a range of omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids. This, combined with the simple anatomy and range of available genetic tools, make it an attractive model to study fatty acid function. In order to investigate the genetic pathways that mediate the physiological effects of dietary fatty acids, we have developed a method to supplement the C. elegans diet with unsaturated fatty acids. Supplementation is an effective means to alter the fatty acid composition of worms and can also be used to rescue defects in fatty acid-deficient mutants. Our method uses nematode growth medium agar (NGM) supplemented with fatty acidsodium salts. The fatty acids in the supplemented plates become incorporated into the membranes of the bacterial food source, which is then taken up by the C. elegans that feed on the supplemented bacteria. We also describe a gas chromatography protocol to monitor the changes in fatty acid composition that occur in supplemented worms. This is an efficient way to supplement the diets of both large and small populations of C. elegans, allowing for a range of applications for this method. PMID:24326396

  13. New Dietary Supplements for Obesity: What We Currently Know.

    PubMed

    Ríos-Hoyo, Alejandro; Gutiérrez-Salmeán, Gabriela

    2016-06-01

    Obesity and its associated cardiometabolic alterations currently are considered an epidemic; thus, their treatment is of major importance. The cornerstone for such treatment involves therapeutic lifestyle changes; however, the vast majority of cases fail and/or significant weight loss is maintained only in the short term because of lack of compliance. The popularity of dietary supplements for weight management has increased, and a wide variety of these products are available over the counter. However, the existing scientific evidence is insufficient to recommend their safe use. Hence, the purpose of this article is to review the clinical effects, proposed mechanism of action, and safety profile of some of the new dietary supplements, including white bean extract, Garcinia cambogia, bitter orange, Hoodia gordonii, forskolin, green coffee, glucomannan, β-glucans, chitosan, guar gum, and raspberry ketones.

  14. Determination of ephedrine alkaloids in dietary supplement standard reference materials.

    PubMed

    Sander, Lane C; Sharpless, Katherine E; Satterfield, Mary B; Ihara, Toshihide; Phinney, Karen W; Yen, James H; Wise, Stephen A; Gay, Martha L; Lam, Joseph W; McCooeye, Margaret; Gardner, Graeme; Fraser, Catharine; Sturgeon, Ralph; Roman, Mark

    2005-05-15

    A suite of five ephedra-containing dietary supplement Standard Reference Materials (SRMs) has been issued by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) with certified values for ephedrine alkaloids, synephrine, caffeine, and selected toxic trace elements. The materials represent a variety of natural, extracted, and processed sample matrixes that provide different analytical challenges. The constituents have been determined by multiple independent methods with measurements performed by NIST and by three collaborating laboratories. The methods utilized different sample extraction and cleanup steps in addition to different instrumental analytical techniques and approaches to quantification. In addition, food-matrix proximates were determined by National Food Processor Association laboratories for one of the ephedra-containing SRMs. The SRMs are primarily intended for method validation and for use as control materials to support the analysis of dietary supplements and related botanical materials.

  15. DNA barcode identification of black cohosh herbal dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Baker, David A; Stevenson, Dennis W; Little, Damon P

    2012-01-01

    Black cohosh (Actaea racemosa) herbal dietary supplements are commonly consumed to treat menopausal symptoms, but there are reports of adverse events and toxicities associated with their use. Accidental misidentification and/or deliberate adulteration results in harvesting other related species that are then marketed as black cohosh. Some of these species are known to be toxic to humans. We have identified two matK nucleotides that consistently distinguish black cohosh from related species. Using these nucleotides, an assay was able to correctly identify all of the black cohosh samples in the validation set. None of the other Actaea species in the validation set were falsely identified as black cohosh. Of 36 dietary supplements sequenced, 27 (75%) had a sequence that exactly matched black cohosh. The remaining nine samples (25%) had a sequence identical to that of three Asian Actaea species (A. cimicifuga, A. dahurica, and A. simplex). Manufacturers should routinely test plant material using a reliable assay to ensure accurate labeling.

  16. Thrombocytopenic Purpura Associated with Dietary Supplements Containing Citrus Flavonoids.

    PubMed

    Ghali, Alaa; Bourneau-Martin, Delphine; Dopter, Aymeric; Lainé-Cessac, Pascale; Belizna, Cristina; Urbanski, Geoffrey; Lavigne, Christian

    2015-01-01

    We report a case of thrombocytopenic purpura associated with the intake of two dietary supplements containing mainly citrus flavonoids. This is the first case to be notified to the French Agency for Food, Environmental and Occupational Health Safety (ANSES). It addresses the importance of an accurate medication history interview for each patient. © 2015 Société Française de Pharmacologie et de Thérapeutique.

  17. The effect of prolonged dietary nitrate supplementation on atherosclerosis development.

    PubMed

    Marsch, Elke; Theelen, Thomas L; Janssen, Ben J A; Briede, Jacco J; Haenen, Guido R; Senden, Joan M G; van Loon, Lucas J C; Poeze, Martijn; Bierau, Jörgen; Gijbels, Marion J; Daemen, Mat J A P; Sluimer, Judith C

    2016-02-01

    Short term dietary nitrate or nitrite supplementation has nitric oxide (NO)-mediated beneficial effects on blood pressure and inflammation and reduces mitochondrial oxygen consumption, possibly preventing hypoxia. As these processes are implicated in atherogenesis, dietary nitrate was hypothesized to prevent plaque initiation, hypoxia and inflammation. Study prolonged nitrate supplementation on atherogenesis, hypoxia and inflammation in low density lipoprotein receptor knockout mice (LDLr(-/-)). LDLr(-/-) mice were administered sodium-nitrate or equimolar sodium-chloride in drinking water alongside a western-type diet for 14 weeks to induce atherosclerosis. Plasma nitrate, nitrite and hemoglobin-bound nitric oxide were measured by chemiluminescence and electron parametric resonance, respectively. Plasma nitrate levels were elevated after 14 weeks of nitrate supplementation (NaCl: 40.29 ± 2.985, NaNO3: 78.19 ± 6.837, p < 0.0001). However, prolonged dietary nitrate did not affect systemic inflammation, hematopoiesis, erythropoiesis and plasma cholesterol levels, suggesting no severe side effects. Surprisingly, neither blood pressure, nor atherogenesis were altered. Mechanistically, plasma nitrate and nitrite were elevated after two weeks (NaCl: 1.0 ± 0.2114, NaNO3: 3.977 ± 0.7371, p < 0.0001), but decreased over time (6, 10 and 14 weeks). Plasma nitrite levels even reached baseline levels at 14 weeks (NaCl: 0.7188 ± 0.1072, NaNO3: 0.9723 ± 0.1279 p = 0.12). Also hemoglobin-bound NO levels were unaltered after 14 weeks. This compensation was not due to altered eNOS activity or conversion into peroxynitrite and other RNI, suggesting reduced nitrite formation or enhanced nitrate/nitrite clearance. Prolonged dietary nitrate supplementation resulted in compensation of nitrite and NO levels and did not affect atherogenesis or exert systemic side effects. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. [Regulatory sciences in herbal medicines and dietary supplements].

    PubMed

    Tsutani, Kiichiro; Takuma, Hiroki

    2008-06-01

    Regulatory science began in the late 1980's in the pharmaceutical area in Japan. It aimed not only at vertical, top-down regulation but also horizontal regulation to suit the social value system. Herbal medicines and dietary supplements are two areas where regulatory science is still not well developed and used. Risk perception, risk assessment and risk management in these areas are often neglected by regulators, academicians and the public. Since the risk of using herbal medicines and dietary supplements is a global concern, development of a global regulatory system is needed. In this paper, we introduce the current situation of several projects which deal with regulatory science in herbal medicines and dietary supplements, namely: (1) Herbal ATC (HATC) classification project initiated by Uppsala Monitoring Centre (UMC) which led to the development of the provisional HATC code of 228 Kampo formulae and Standard Kampo Formula Nomenclature (SKFN) in Japan, (2) WHO/WPRO International Standardization of Terminology (IST) which resulted in the publication of "WHO Internal Standard Terminologies on Traditional Medicine in the Western Pacific Region Forum for Herbal Harmonization", (3) Forum for the Harmonization of Herbal Medicines (FHH), (4) CONSORT extension for herbal medicines, (5) ICH M5 (Data elements and standards for drug dictionaries), and (6) activities on nomenclature at the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). However, there is a lack of coordination among these projects. Therefore, harmonization of all projects aimed at harmonizing and standardizing all aspects of regulatory science for herbal medicines and dietary supplements is recommended. However, careful consideration should be given to each unique local situation.

  19. Environmental influences: factors influencing a woman's decision to use dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Conner, Mark; Kirk, Sara F L; Cade, Janet E; Barrett, Jennifer H

    2003-06-01

    Use of dietary supplements by women, particularly those over 40 years of age may be widespread in the United Kingdom. However, from surveillance data, there appears to be a disparity between nutrition and health needs and the rationale for and actual use of dietary supplements by women. This apparent paradox forms the basis for an inverse supplement hypothesis (i.e., supplement use in women appears to be most prevalent among those with least need). Little research has been done to examine the factors underlying the decision to use dietary supplements. Reasons for consuming dietary supplements are often complex, combining social, psychological, knowledge and economic factors. The theory of planned behavior is a widely used model for assessing factors influencing behavioral motivation and action that may be useful for assessing specific diet- and nutrition-related practices. It provided the basis for the development of a questionnaire to explore overall dietary supplement use in a cohort of women in the United Kingdom. The analysis of factors related to beliefs underlying dietary supplement use revealed differences between supplement users and nonusers. Differences included a stronger belief by users than nonusers that taking dietary supplements ensures against possible ill health. Both users and nonusers of supplements also perceived the media (books and magazines) to be a powerful influence on a person's decision to use supplements. These findings highlight the potential of the theory of planned behavior in exploring supplement-taking behavior while throwing light on the factors influencing an individual's motivations to use dietary supplements.

  20. Patterns of dietary supplement use among college students.

    PubMed

    Lieberman, Harris R; Marriott, Bernadette P; Williams, Christianna; Judelson, Daniel A; Glickman, Ellen L; Geiselman, Paula J; Dotson, Laura; Mahoney, Caroline R

    2015-10-01

    Dietary supplements (DS) are popular in many countries but little data are available on their use by sub-populations such as college students. Since students share a variety of characteristics and similar lifestyles, their DS use may differ from the general population. This study assessed DS use, factors associated with DS use, and reasons for use among U.S. college students. College students (N = 1248) at 5 U.S. universities were surveyed. Survey questions included descriptive demographics, types and frequency of DS used, reasons for use and money spent on supplements. Supplements were classified using standard criteria. Logistic regression analyses examined relationships between demographic and lifestyle factors and DS use. Sixty-six percent of college students surveyed used DS at least once a week, while 12% consumed 5 or more supplements a week. Forty-two percent used multivitamins/multiminerals, 18% vitamin C, 17% protein/amino acids and 13% calcium at least once a week. Factors associated with supplement use included dietary patterns, exercise, and tobacco use. Students used supplements to promote general health (73%), provide more energy (29%), increase muscle strength (20%), and enhance performance (19%). College students appear more likely to use DS than the general population and many use multiple types of supplements weekly. Habits established at a young age persist throughout life. Therefore, longitudinal research should be conducted to determine whether patterns of DS use established early in adulthood are maintained throughout life. Adequate scientific justification for widespread use of DS in healthy, young populations is lacking. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Amphetamine Containing Dietary Supplements and Acute Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Hritani, Abdulwahab; Antoun, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Weight loss is one of the most researched and marketed topics in American society. Dietary regimens, medications that claim to boost the metabolism, and the constant pressure to fit into society all play a role in our patient's choices regarding new dietary products. One of the products that are well known to suppress appetite and cause weight loss is amphetamines. While these medications suppress appetite, most people are not aware of the detrimental side effects of amphetamines, including hypertension, tachycardia, arrhythmias, and in certain instances acute myocardial infarction. Here we present the uncommon entity of an acute myocardial infarction due to chronic use of an amphetamine containing dietary supplement in conjunction with an exercise regimen. Our case brings to light further awareness regarding use of amphetamines. Clinicians should have a high index of suspicion of use of these substances when young patients with no risk factors for coronary artery disease present with acute arrhythmias, heart failure, and myocardial infarctions. PMID:27516911

  2. Pharmacokinetic Interactions between Drugs and Botanical Dietary Supplements

    PubMed Central

    Sprouse, Alyssa A.

    2016-01-01

    The use of botanical dietary supplements has grown steadily over the last 20 years despite incomplete information regarding active constituents, mechanisms of action, efficacy, and safety. An important but underinvestigated safety concern is the potential for popular botanical dietary supplements to interfere with the absorption, transport, and/or metabolism of pharmaceutical agents. Clinical trials of drug–botanical interactions are the gold standard and are usually carried out only when indicated by unexpected consumer side effects or, preferably, by predictive preclinical studies. For example, phase 1 clinical trials have confirmed preclinical studies and clinical case reports that St. John’s wort (Hypericum perforatum) induces CYP3A4/CYP3A5. However, clinical studies of most botanicals that were predicted to interact with drugs have shown no clinically significant effects. For example, clinical trials did not substantiate preclinical predictions that milk thistle (Silybum marianum) would inhibit CYP1A2, CYP2C9, CYP2D6, CYP2E1, and/or CYP3A4. Here, we highlight discrepancies between preclinical and clinical data concerning drug–botanical interactions and critically evaluate why some preclinical models perform better than others in predicting the potential for drug–botanical interactions. Gaps in knowledge are also highlighted for the potential of some popular botanical dietary supplements to interact with therapeutic agents with respect to absorption, transport, and metabolism. PMID:26438626

  3. Ocular side effects associated with dietary supplements and herbal medicines.

    PubMed

    Fraunfelder, Frederick W

    2005-08-01

    Dietary supplements are prevalent worldwide and play a significant role in the treatment of human disease. In the United States, allopathic physicians are at the early stage of learning how to treat patients with natural remedies and other forms of alternative medicine. Elsewhere, however, alternative remedies have been embraced more fully. In Germany, for example, the German Federal Health Agency created Commission E, which has allowed for a more sophisticated approach to assessing the efficacy and safety of dietary supplements and herbal medicines. Health insurance in Germany frequently covers costs for doctor-prescribed herbal remedies. While there is strong evidence that many herbal products have therapeutic effects, there are also a large number of cases of severe adverse reactions due to some of the many thousands of herbal products. One of the first signs of potential toxicity is in the visual system, as in many cases patients notice loss of vision more than systemic side effects. In addition, ophthalmologists are able to detect objective findings through external eye exams and dilated fundus exams. Presented here are some of the more common ocular side effects from frequently prescribed dietary supplements. In most instances, stopping the treatment or decreasing the dose allows for full resolution of symptoms. In addition, comment is made on the regulatory confusion that exists for this industry, especially in the United States.

  4. Degradation of vitamin B12 in dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Keiko; Shimodaira, Michiko; Chida, Seiko; Yamada, Noriko; Matsushima, Norio; Fukuda, Morimichi; Yamada, Shoji

    2008-01-01

    Beverages and solid dietary supplements rich in various added vitamins and minerals have recently become available. It seems reasonable to consider that the intake of these foods is convenient for easy ingestion of nutrients, but problems caused by blending different nutrients in high concentrations have arisen. We focused on vitamin B12 (B12) among vitamins and determined the B12 contents of beverages and solid dietary supplements purchased from a retail shop. The B12 contents of three of five beverages were less than stated on the labels. On the other hand, certain beverages unexpectedly contained much more B12 than stated on the labels. In these beverages the amount of B12 decreased rapidly with time, whereas B12 content was lower than stated on the label in only one of four solid dietary supplements. The content of B12 was affected by storage time, light exposure, temperature and vitamin C. From experimental analysis with a competitive binding assay method employing a ACS Chemiluminescent B12 kit, examining differential binding by intrinsic factors and spectral analysis of B12, it was determined that some of the B12 might have been converted into B12 analogues or small degradation products by multinutrient interaction during storage.

  5. Pharmacokinetic Interactions between Drugs and Botanical Dietary Supplements.

    PubMed

    Sprouse, Alyssa A; van Breemen, Richard B

    2016-02-01

    The use of botanical dietary supplements has grown steadily over the last 20 years despite incomplete information regarding active constituents, mechanisms of action, efficacy, and safety. An important but underinvestigated safety concern is the potential for popular botanical dietary supplements to interfere with the absorption, transport, and/or metabolism of pharmaceutical agents. Clinical trials of drug-botanical interactions are the gold standard and are usually carried out only when indicated by unexpected consumer side effects or, preferably, by predictive preclinical studies. For example, phase 1 clinical trials have confirmed preclinical studies and clinical case reports that St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum) induces CYP3A4/CYP3A5. However, clinical studies of most botanicals that were predicted to interact with drugs have shown no clinically significant effects. For example, clinical trials did not substantiate preclinical predictions that milk thistle (Silybum marianum) would inhibit CYP1A2, CYP2C9, CYP2D6, CYP2E1, and/or CYP3A4. Here, we highlight discrepancies between preclinical and clinical data concerning drug-botanical interactions and critically evaluate why some preclinical models perform better than others in predicting the potential for drug-botanical interactions. Gaps in knowledge are also highlighted for the potential of some popular botanical dietary supplements to interact with therapeutic agents with respect to absorption, transport, and metabolism.

  6. Interactions between preparations containing female sex hormones and dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Zabłocka-Słowińska, Katarzyna; Jawna, Katarzyna; Grajeta, Halina; Biernat, Jadwiga

    2014-01-01

    An increasing number of premenopausal women use contraception whereas postmenopausal women use hormone replacement therapy (HRT). This long-term hormone therapy poses a high risk of interactions with dietary supplements. Taking estrogens at the same time as selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs), biologically-active compounds of glycine soja, Ginkgo biloba or Pimpinella anisum, may distort the final effect of the hormone agent. On the other hand, estrogen therapy coupled with melatonin or retinol supplementation may lead to an increased level of dietary supplements in the serum as studies have proved a concomitant beneficial effect of HRT and vitamin E supplementation on lipid profiles. In turn, taking preparations containing St John's wort during hormone therapy may lead to a reduction in hormone concentrations in serum and debilitation of the pharmacological effect. It results from the inductive effect of the biologically-active compounds of St John's wort on the metabolism of hormones as a result of the enhanced activity of cytochrome P450 CYP3A4.

  7. Dietary supplements and human health: for better or for worse?

    PubMed

    Jerome-Morais, Anita; Diamond, Alan M; Wright, Margaret E

    2011-01-01

    Encouraged by the potential health benefits of higher dietary intake of substances with beneficial properties, the use of supplements containing these compounds has increased steadily over recent years. The effects of several of these, many of which are antioxidants, have been supported by data obtained in vitro, in animal models, and often by human studies as well. However, as carefully controlled human supplementation trials have been conducted, questions about the efficacy and safety of these supplements have emerged. In this Educational Paper, three different supplements were selected for consideration of the benefits and risks currently associated with their intake. The selected supplements include β-carotene, selenium, and genistein. The use of each is discussed in the context of preclinical and clinical data that provide evidence for both their use in reducing disease incidence and the possible liabilities that accompany their enhanced consumption. Variables that may influence their impact, such as lifestyle habits, baseline nutritional levels, and genetic makeup are considered and the application of these issues to broader classes of supplements is discussed. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Effect of dietary supplementation of omega-3 fatty acids and high levels of dietary protein on performance of sows.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This study was conducted to determine the effect of dietary supplementation of omega-3 fatty acids (O3FA), with or without high levels of dietary protein supplementation, on the performance of sows and their litters during first and subsequent parities. Sixty-four pregnant gilts with body weight (BW...

  9. Dietary nicotinic acid supplementation ameliorates chronic alcohol-induced fatty liver in rats.

    PubMed

    Li, Qiong; Xie, Guoxiang; Zhang, Wenliang; Zhong, Wei; Sun, Xiuhua; Tan, Xiaobing; Sun, Xinguo; Jia, Wei; Zhou, Zhanxiang

    2014-07-01

    Alcohol abuse frequently causes niacin deficiency in association with the development of alcoholic liver disease. The objective of the present study was to determine whether dietary nicotinic acid (NA) deficiency exaggerates and whether dietary NA supplementation alleviates alcohol-induced fatty liver. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were pair-fed with 4 isocaloric liquid diets: control, ethanol (EtOH), EtOH with dietary NA deficiency, and EtOH with dietary NA supplementation, respectively, for 8 weeks. The control and EtOH diets contained normal levels of NA (7.5 mg/l). Dietary NA deficiency (0 mg NA/l) was achieved by removing NA from the vitamin mix, while NA was added to the liquid diet at 750 mg/l for dietary NA supplementation. Chronic EtOH feeding induced significant lipid accumulation in the liver, which was not worsened by dietary NA deficiency, but was ameliorated by dietary NA supplementation. Liver total NAD, NAD(+) , and NADH levels were remarkably higher in the NA supplemented group than the NA deficient or EtOH alone groups. Dietary NA supplementation to EtOH-fed rats increased the protein levels of hepatic cytochrome P450 4A1 (CYP4A1) and acyl-coenzyme A oxidase 1 without affecting their mRNA levels. Interestingly, we found dietary NA supplementation reduced the ubiquitination level of CYP4A1. In addition, hepatic fatty acid synthase expression was reduced, while the serum β-hydroxybutyrate and adiponectin concentrations were significantly elevated by dietary NA supplementation. Moreover, dietary NA supplementation modulated EtOH-perturbed liver and serum metabolite profiles. These results demonstrate that alcoholic fatty liver was not exaggerated by dietary NA deficiency, but was ameliorated by dietary NA supplementation. Increased hepatic fatty acid oxidation and decreased hepatic de novo lipogenesis contribute to the effects of dietary NA supplementation. Copyright © 2014 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  10. Herbal and Dietary Supplement Disclosure to Health Care Providers by Individuals with Chronic Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Gardiner, Paula M.; Phillips, Russell S.; McCarthy, Ellen P.

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Very little is known about herbal and dietary supplement disclosure in adults with chronic medical conditions, especially on a national level. Objective To examine herbal and dietary supplement disclosure to conventional health care providers by adults with chronic medical conditions. Design Data on herbal and dietary supplement use (N = 5456 users) in the previous year were used from the 2002 National Health Interview Survey. Bi-variable analyses compared characteristics between herbal and dietary supplement disclosers and nondisclosers. Multivariable logistic regression identified independent correlates of herbal and dietary supplement disclosure. Results Overall, only 33% of herbal and dietary supplement users reported disclosing use of herbal and dietary supplements to their conventional health care provider. Among herbal and dietary supplement users with chronic conditions, less than 51% disclosed use to their conventional health care provider. Hispanic (adjusted odds ratio and 95% confidence interval = 0.70 [0.52, 0.94]) and Asian American (adjusted odds ratio and 95% confidence interval = 0.54 [0.33, 0.89]) adults were much less likely than non-Hispanic white Americans to disclose herbal and dietary supplement use. Having less than a high school education (adjusted odds ratio and 95% confidence interval = 0.61 [0.45, 0.82]) and not having insurance (adjusted odds ratio and 95% confidence interval = 0.77 [0.59, 1.00]) were associated with being less likely to disclose herbal and dietary supplement use. Conclusion Herbal and dietary supplement disclosure rates are low, even among adults with chronic conditions. These findings raise concerns about the safety of herbal and dietary supplements in combination with allopathic care. Future studies should focus on educating physicians about crosscultural care as well as eliciting information about herbal and dietary supplement use. PMID:19032071

  11. Toxin content and cytotoxicity of algal dietary supplements

    SciTech Connect

    Heussner, A.H.; Mazija, L.; Fastner, J.; Dietrich, D.R.

    2012-12-01

    Blue-green algae (Spirulina sp., Aphanizomenon flos-aquae) and Chlorella sp. are commercially distributed as organic algae dietary supplements. Cyanobacterial dietary products in particular have raised serious concerns, as they appeared to be contaminated with toxins e.g. microcystins (MCs) and consumers repeatedly reported adverse health effects following consumption of these products. The aim of this study was to determine the toxin contamination and the in vitro cytotoxicity of algae dietary supplement products marketed in Germany. In thirteen products consisting of Aph. flos-aquae, Spirulina and Chlorella or mixtures thereof, MCs, nodularins, saxitoxins, anatoxin-a and cylindrospermopsin were analyzed. Five products tested in an earlier market study were re-analyzed for comparison. Product samples were extracted and analyzed for cytotoxicity in A549 cells as well as for toxin levels by (1) phosphatase inhibition assay (PPIA), (2) Adda-ELISA and (3) LC–MS/MS. In addition, all samples were analyzed by PCR for the presence of the mcyE gene, a part of the microcystin and nodularin synthetase gene cluster. Only Aph. flos-aquae products were tested positive for MCs as well as the presence of mcyE. The contamination levels of the MC-positive samples were ≤ 1 μg MC-LR equivalents g{sup −1} dw. None of the other toxins were found in any of the products. However, extracts from all products were cytotoxic. In light of the findings, the distribution and commercial sale of Aph. flos-aquae products, whether pure or mixed formulations, for human consumption appear highly questionable. -- Highlights: ► Marketed algae dietary supplements were analyzed for toxins. ► Methods: Phosphatase inhibition assay (PPIA), Adda-ELISA, LC-MS/MS. ► Aph. flos-aquae products all tested positive for microcystins. ► Products tested negative for nodularins, saxitoxins, anatoxin-a, cylindrospermopsin. ► Extracts from all products were cytotoxic.

  12. Acute Selenium Toxicity Associated With a Dietary Supplement

    PubMed Central

    MacFarquhar, Jennifer K.; Broussard, Danielle L.; Melstrom, Paul; Hutchinson, Richard; Wolkin, Amy; Martin, Colleen; Burk, Raymond F.; Dunn, John R.; Green, Alice L.; Hammond, Roberta; Schaffner, William; Jones, Timothy F.

    2011-01-01

    Background Selenium is an element necessary for normal cellular function, but it can have toxic effects at high doses. We investigated an outbreak of acute selenium poisoning. Methods A case was defined as the onset of symptoms of selenium toxicity in a person within 2 weeks after ingesting a dietary supplement manufactured by “Company A,” purchased after January 1, 2008. We conducted case finding, administered initial and 90-day follow-up questionnaires to affected persons, and obtained laboratory data where available. Results The source of the outbreak was identified as a liquid dietary supplement that contained 200 times the labeled concentration of selenium. Of 201 cases identified in 10 states, 1 person was hospitalized. The median estimated dose of selenium consumed was 41 749 μg/d (recommended dietary allowance is 55 μg/d). Frequently reported symptoms included diarrhea (78%), fatigue (75%), hair loss (72%), joint pain (70%), nail discoloration or brittleness (61%), and nausea (58%). Symptoms persisting 90 days or longer included fingernail discoloration and loss (52%), fatigue (35%), and hair loss (29%). The mean initial serum selenium concentration of 8 patients was 751 μg/L (reference range, ≤125 μg/L). The mean initial urine selenium concentration of 7 patients was 166 μg/24 h (reference range, ≤55 μg/24 h). Conclusions Toxic concentrations of selenium in a liquid dietary supplement resulted in a widespread outbreak. Had the manufacturers been held to standards used in the pharmaceutical industry, it may have been prevented. PMID:20142570

  13. Dietary supplement consumption among cardiac patients admitted to internal medicine and cardiac wards.

    PubMed

    Karny-Rahkovich, Orith; Blatt, Alex; Elbaz-Greener, Gabby Atalya; Ziv-Baran, Tomer; Golik, Ahuva; Berkovitch, Matityahu

    2015-01-01

    Dietary supplements may have adverse effects and potentially interact with conventional medications. They are perceived as "natural" products, free of side effects with no need for medical consultation. Little is known about consumption of dietary supplements by patients with cardiac diseases. The objective of this study was to investigate dietary supplement consumption among cardiac patients admitted to internal and cardiology wards. Potential drug-dietary supplement interactions were also assessed. During a period of 6 months, patients with cardiac disease hospitalized in the Internal Medicine and Cardiology Wards at Assaf Harofeh Medical Center were evaluated regarding their dietary supplement consumption. A literature survey examining possible drug-supplement interaction was performed. Out of 149 cardiac patients, 45% were dietary supplement consumers. Patients ad-mitted to the Internal Medicine Wards consumed more dietary supplements than those admit-ted to the Cardiology Division. Dietary supplement consumption was associated with older age (OR = 1.05, p = 0.022), female gender (OR = 2.94, p = 0.014) and routine physical activity (OR = 3.15, p = 0.007). Diabetes mellitus (OR = 2.68, p = 0.020), hematological diseases (OR = 13.29, p = 0.022), and the use of anti-diabetic medications (OR = 4.28, p = 0.001) were independently associated with dietary supplement intake. Sixteen potential moderate interactions between prescribed medications and dietary supplements were found. Consumption of dietary supplements is common among cardiac patients. It is more common in those admitted to Internal Medicine Departments than in those admitted to the Cardiology Wards. Due to the risk of various drug-supplement interactions consumed by patients with cardiac diseases, there is a need to increase awareness and knowledge among medical staff regarding the intake of dietary supplements.

  14. Effects of long-term dietary nitrate supplementation in mice

    PubMed Central

    Hezel, Michael P.; Liu, Ming; Schiffer, Tomas A.; Larsen, Filip J.; Checa, Antonio; Wheelock, Craig E.; Carlström, Mattias; Lundberg, Jon O.; Weitzberg, Eddie

    2015-01-01

    Background Inorganic nitrate (NO3-) is a precursor of nitric oxide (NO) in the body and a large number of short-term studies with dietary nitrate supplementation in animals and humans show beneficial effects on cardiovascular health, exercise efficiency, host defense and ischemia reperfusion injury. In contrast, there is a long withstanding concern regarding the putative adverse effects of chronic nitrate exposure related to cancer and adverse hormonal effects. To address these concerns we performed in mice, a physiological and biochemical multi-analysis on the effects of long-term dietary nitrate supplementation. Design 7 week-old C57BL/6 mice were put on a low-nitrate chow and at 20 weeks-old were treated with NaNO3 (1 mmol/L) or NaCl (1 mmol/L, control) in the drinking water. The groups were monitored for weight gain, food and water consumption, blood pressure, glucose metabolism, body composition and oxygen consumption until one group was reduced to eight animals due to death or illness. At that point remaining animals were sacrificed and blood and tissues were analyzed with respect to metabolism, cardiovascular function, inflammation, and oxidative stress. Results Animals were supplemented for 17 months before final sacrifice. Body composition, oxygen consumption, blood pressure, glucose tolerance were measured during the experiment, and vascular reactivity and muscle mitochondrial efficiency measured at the end of the experiment with no differences identified between groups. Nitrate supplementation was associated with improved insulin response, decreased plasma IL-10 and a trend towards improved survival. Conclusions Long term dietary nitrate in mice, at levels similar to the upper intake range in the western society, is not detrimental. PMID:26068891

  15. Effects of long-term dietary nitrate supplementation in mice.

    PubMed

    Hezel, Michael P; Liu, Ming; Schiffer, Tomas A; Larsen, Filip J; Checa, Antonio; Wheelock, Craig E; Carlström, Mattias; Lundberg, Jon O; Weitzberg, Eddie

    2015-08-01

    Inorganic nitrate (NO3(-)) is a precursor of nitric oxide (NO) in the body and a large number of short-term studies with dietary nitrate supplementation in animals and humans show beneficial effects on cardiovascular health, exercise efficiency, host defense and ischemia reperfusion injury. In contrast, there is a long withstanding concern regarding the putative adverse effects of chronic nitrate exposure related to cancer and adverse hormonal effects. To address these concerns we performed in mice, a physiological and biochemical multi-analysis on the effects of long-term dietary nitrate supplementation. 7 week-old C57BL/6 mice were put on a low-nitrate chow and at 20 weeks-old were treated with NaNO3 (1 mmol/L) or NaCl (1 mmol/L, control) in the drinking water. The groups were monitored for weight gain, food and water consumption, blood pressure, glucose metabolism, body composition and oxygen consumption until one group was reduced to eight animals due to death or illness. At that point remaining animals were sacrificed and blood and tissues were analyzed with respect to metabolism, cardiovascular function, inflammation, and oxidative stress. Animals were supplemented for 17 months before final sacrifice. Body composition, oxygen consumption, blood pressure, glucose tolerance were measured during the experiment, and vascular reactivity and muscle mitochondrial efficiency measured at the end of the experiment with no differences identified between groups. Nitrate supplementation was associated with improved insulin response, decreased plasma IL-10 and a trend towards improved survival. Long term dietary nitrate in mice, at levels similar to the upper intake range in the western society, is not detrimental. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. [Dietary supplements--evaluation of patient inquiries at a drug information service].

    PubMed

    Goltz, L; Schröder, J; Kirch, W

    2012-04-01

    Dietary supplements are a product group of foods, which are meant to supplement the general nutrition with micronutrients and other substances. They are widely used in Germany. We evaluated the frequency of their use and of information requirements concerning dietary supplements in patients who contacted the independent drug information service at TU Dresden. All inquiries from 2008 to 2010 were evaluated regarding information requirement about dietary supplements, the kind of products used and characteristics of patients using supplements. Sociodemographic characteristics, kind and number of drugs and dietary supplements as well as underlying diseases were recorded from the inquiring patients. 23.3 % of persons looking for advice used dietary supplements. The most frequently used product groups included vitamins and minerals (52.5 %) as well as plant extracts (14.0 %). Information requirements were especially high for plant extracts and for products containing glucosamine/chondroitin and lutein/zeaxanthin. Users of dietary supplements were exposed to a higher number of different products than non-users. Information requirements were primarily detected for products without clearly proven benefits or for supplements which are advertised to relieve certain diseases or symptoms although the product characteristics do not support such utilization. The frequency of use of dietary supplements among patients which already receive multiple medications substantiates the necessity to include dietary supplements in assessments of drug interactions and to scrutinize indications for supplement use. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  17. Feasibility of including green tea products for an analytically verified dietary supplement database

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Dietary Supplement Ingredient Database (DSID) is a federally-funded, publically-accessible dietary supplement database that currently contains analytically derived information on micronutrients in selected adult and children’s multivitamin and mineral (MVM) supplements. Other constituents in di...

  18. 21 CFR 111.510 - What requirements apply when a returned dietary supplement is received?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... supplement is received? 111.510 Section 111.510 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE IN MANUFACTURING, PACKAGING, LABELING, OR HOLDING OPERATIONS FOR DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS Returned Dietary Supplements...

  19. 21 CFR 111.510 - What requirements apply when a returned dietary supplement is received?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... supplement is received? 111.510 Section 111.510 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE IN MANUFACTURING, PACKAGING, LABELING, OR HOLDING OPERATIONS FOR DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS Returned Dietary Supplements...

  20. 21 CFR 111.510 - What requirements apply when a returned dietary supplement is received?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... supplement is received? 111.510 Section 111.510 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE IN MANUFACTURING, PACKAGING, LABELING, OR HOLDING OPERATIONS FOR DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS Returned Dietary Supplements...

  1. Prevalence, Adverse Events, and Factors Associated with Dietary Supplement and Nutritional Supplement Use by US Navy and Marine Corps Personnel.

    PubMed

    Knapik, Joseph J; Trone, Daniel W; Austin, Krista G; Steelman, Ryan A; Farina, Emily K; Lieberman, Harris R

    2016-09-01

    About 50% of Americans and 60% to 70% of US military personnel use dietary supplements, some of which have been associated with adverse events (AEs). Nutritional supplements like sport drinks and sport bars/gels are also commonly used by athletes and service members. Previous dietary supplement and nutritional supplement surveys were conducted on Army, Air Force, and Coast Guard personnel. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate dietary and nutritional supplement use in Navy and Marine Corps personnel, including the prevalence, types, factors associated with use, and AEs. A random sample of 10,000 Navy and Marine Corps personnel were contacted. Service members were asked to complete a detailed questionnaire describing their personal characteristics, supplement use, and AEs experienced. In total, 1,708 service members completed the questionnaire during August through December 2014, with 1,683 used for analysis. Overall, 73% reported using dietary supplements one or more times per week. The most commonly used dietary supplements (used one or more times per week) were multivitamins/multiminerals (48%), protein/amino acids (34%), combination products (33%), and individual vitamins and minerals (29%). About 31% of service members reported using five or more dietary supplements. Sport drinks and sport bars/gels were used by 45% and 23% of service members, respectively. Monthly expenditures on dietary supplements averaged $39; 31% of service members spent ≥$50/mo. Multivariate logistic regression modeling indicated that female sex (women/men; odds ratio [OR]=1.76, 95% CI 1.32 to 2.36), higher educational level (college degree/no college degree; OR=2.23, 95% CI 1.62 to 3.30), higher body mass index (calculated as kg/m(2)) (≥30/<25; OR=1.67, 95% CI 1.06 to 2.63), and a greater amount of resistance training (≥271/0 to 45 min/week; OR=2.85, 95% CI 1.94 to 4.17) were associated with dietary supplement use. Twenty-two percent of dietary supplement users

  2. Herbal medications and other dietary supplements. A clinical review for physicians caring for older people.

    PubMed

    Pitkälä, Kaisu H; Suominen, Merja H; Bell, J Simon; Strandberg, Timo E

    2016-12-01

    Evidence for the safety and effectiveness of dietary supplements is mixed. The extent to which older people use dietary supplements concomitantly with conventional medications is often under-appreciated by physicians. We conducted a literature review on clinical considerations associated with dietary supplement use, focusing on benefits and harms, motivations for use and contribution to polypharmacy among older people. Vitamin D ≥ 800 IU has demonstrated benefits in fracture prevention. Vitamins A, E, and β-carotene have been associated with an increase in total mortality in several meta-analyses. A range of non-vitamin dietary supplements have been studied in randomized controlled trials but their efficacy remains largely unclear. Supplement use has been associated with a range of adverse events and drug interactions yet physicians rarely initiate discussions about their use with older patients. Older people may take dietary supplements to exercise control over their health. Given the contribution of supplements to polypharmacy, supplements may be targeted for "deprescribing" if the risk of harm is judged to outweigh benefits. This is best done as part of a comprehensive, patient-centered approach. A respectful and non-judgmental discussion may result in a shared decision to reduce polypharmacy through cessation of dietary supplements. KEY MESSAGES Herbal medications and other dietary supplements are highly prevalent among older people. Physicians are often unaware that their patients use herbal medications and other dietary supplements concomitantly with conventional medications. Herbal medications and other dietary supplements contribute to high rates of polypharmacy, particularly among older people with multimorbidity. Herbal medications and other dietary supplements can interact with conventional medications and be associated with a range of adverse events. Physicians need to be patient-centered and non-judgmental when initiating discussions about

  3. Suggested guidelines for articles about botanical dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Swanson, Christine A

    2002-01-01

    Recently, The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition (AJCN) began reviewing articles about dietary supplements. The purpose of this commentary is to provide guidelines to authors and reviewers for articles on one category of supplement ingredients, botanicals. The botanicals in the studies published by the AJCN tend to fall into 1 of 2 groups: 1) plants as foods containing nonessential bioactive constituents that may provide health benefits beyond basic nutrition, and 2) plants as herbs, specifically those used as phytomedicines. Research in these areas is relevant to clinical nutrition, but both topics represent relatively new territory to many AJCN reviewers, readers, and contributors. Although studies of botanicals are unique in many respects, the research should be evaluated with the same basic criteria applied to other types of investigations. For example, a study cannot be evaluated or replicated unless the test materials are properly identified and characterized. Investigators must provide an accurate and complete description of the botanical test material regardless of whether it is a finished product, commercial ingredient, extract, or single chemical constituent. For herbal preparations, investigators are advised to follow the criteria used by researchers in the field of pharmacognosy. Finally, the quality of research related to botanical dietary supplements would be improved and cross-study comparisons facilitated if standard reference materials and certified methods of analysis were more broadly available.

  4. An instrument to evaluate pharmacists' patient counseling on herbal and dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hsiang-Wen; Pickard, A Simon; Mahady, Gail B; Karabatsos, George; Crawford, Stephanie Y; Popovich, Nicholas G

    2010-12-15

    To develop a measure of pharmacists' patient counseling on herbal and dietary supplements. A systematic process was used for item generation, testing, and validation of a measure of pharmacists counseling on herbal and dietary supplements. Because a pharmacist-patient encounter may or may not identify an indication for taking an herb or dietary supplement, the instrument was bifurcated into 2 distinct components: (1) patient counseling in general; and (2) patient counseling related to herbal and dietary supplements. The instrument demonstrated high reliability and desirable construct validity. After adjusting for item difficulty, we found that pharmacists tended to provide more general patient counseling than counseling related to herbal and dietary supplements. This instrument can be applied to assess the quality of counseling provided by pharmacists and pharmacy students, and the outcomes of pharmacist and pharmacy student education on herbal and dietary supplements.

  5. An Instrument to Evaluate Pharmacists’ Patient Counseling on Herbal and Dietary Supplements

    PubMed Central

    Pickard, A. Simon; Mahady, Gail B.; Karabatsos, George; Crawford, Stephanie Y.; Popovich, Nicholas G.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To develop a measure of pharmacists’ patient counseling on herbal and dietary supplements. Methods A systematic process was used for item generation, testing, and validation of a measure of pharmacists counseling on herbal and dietary supplements. Because a pharmacist-patient encounter may or may not identify an indication for taking an herb or dietary supplement, the instrument was bifurcated into 2 distinct components: (1) patient counseling in general; and (2) patient counseling related to herbal and dietary supplements. Results The instrument demonstrated high reliability and desirable construct validity. After adjusting for item difficulty, we found that pharmacists tended to provide more general patient counseling than counseling related to herbal and dietary supplements. Conclusion This instrument can be applied to assess the quality of counseling provided by pharmacists and pharmacy students, and the outcomes of pharmacist and pharmacy student education on herbal and dietary supplements. PMID:21436933

  6. Dental patients' self-reported use of dietary supplements on medical history questionnaires.

    PubMed

    Bakuri, Sarmad; Lanning, Sharon K; Best, Al M; Sabatini, Robert; Gunsolley, John; Waldrop, Thomas C

    2016-01-01

    Dietary supplement effects and drug interactions can lead to significant adverse health events, thus potentially impacting the safe delivery of oral healthcare. This study sought to determine the frequency of, and factors impacting, dietary supplement use among 209 dental patients and whether the design of a medical history questionnaire influences reporting of supplement use. Patients were randomly allocated to 1 of 2 groups in which they completed either a standard medical history questionnaire (n = 107) or the same questionnaire with an additional item about dietary supplement use (n = 102). All patients were then administered a survey with questions about their demographics, their use and knowledge of dietary supplements, and the person or persons who recommended dietary supplement use to the patient. While 62% of the total population (130/209) reported supplement use, specific prompting nearly doubled the number of supplements reported (mean with prompting: 1.53; mean without prompting: 0.76; P < 0.0001). Patients younger than 30 years of age reported significantly less dietary supplement use than all other age groups except the 30-40 age group (P = 0.0003). An estimated 70% of all respondents were not aware of potentially detrimental side effects of dietary supplement use or possible interactions with conventional drug therapies. Since patients tended to report a greater use of dietary supplements when specifically asked about their use on a medical history questionnaire, a checklist or set of designated questions may be a suitable first step toward gathering this essential information.

  7. FDA regulation of dietary supplements and requirements regarding adverse event reporting.

    PubMed

    Frankos, V H; Street, D A; O'Neill, R K

    2010-02-01

    In 1994, the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act (DSHEA) amended the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FDC Act) to set up a distinct regulatory framework for what we now call dietary supplements. The DSHEA was passed with the intent of striking a balance between providing consumers access to safe dietary supplements to help maintain or improve their health and giving the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) authority to regulate and take action against manufacturers of supplements or supplement ingredients that present safety problems, are presented with false or misleading claims, or are adulterated or misbranded. This article will present FDA's recent experience in collecting and evaluating dietary supplement adverse event data for the purpose of assuring the public that the dietary supplements they purchase are safe.

  8. A Cross-Sectional Survey on Dietary Supplements Consumption among Italian Teen-Agers

    PubMed Central

    del Balzo, Valeria; Vitiello, Valeria; Germani, Alessia; Donini, Lorenzo M.; Poggiogalle, Eleonora; Pinto, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    Introduction In the last decades, dietary supplements consumption has increased in the Western world for all age groups. The long-term potentially dangerous effects related to an indiscriminate consumption of dietary supplements are still unknown and are becoming a matter of public health concern. Therefore, the aims of the present study were: to explore the contribution of dietary supplements to micronutrient daily intake, and to evaluate awareness and knowledge about dietary supplements. Methods Participants (age ranging from 14 to 18 years) were recruited among students attending 8 high schools in the province of Frosinone (Italy). An anonymous questionnaire, composed of 12 multiple-choice items, was administered to all the participants. T-test and the analysis of variance (ANOVA) were performed to describe differences between means of the groups, while the chi-square test was used to compare observed and expected frequencies. The logistic regression model, aimed at identifying the characteristics of potential consumers of dietary supplements, Results A total of 686 teenagers (288 males and 398 females, average age: 17,89±0,91 years) participated in the study. The 83,6% of participants affirmed to be aware of dietary supplements. 239 participants consumed dietary supplements: 118 males and 121 females. 49,1% of females consumed dietary supplements less than twice a week, whereas 43,6% of males consumed dietary supplements from 2 to 5 times per week. Statistically significant differences emerged between the genders with respect to the source of information regarding dietary supplements, the perceived indications for their use, and the choice of the store/place to purchase them. Discussion Findings in the present study provide insight into the consumption of dietary supplements among young Italians, highlighting the need to foster further awareness among adolescents about the correct use of dietary supplements, especially in terms of indications and

  9. A cross-sectional survey on dietary supplements consumption among Italian teen-agers.

    PubMed

    del Balzo, Valeria; Vitiello, Valeria; Germani, Alessia; Donini, Lorenzo M; Poggiogalle, Eleonora; Pinto, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    In the last decades, dietary supplements consumption has increased in the Western world for all age groups. The long-term potentially dangerous effects related to an indiscriminate consumption of dietary supplements are still unknown and are becoming a matter of public health concern. Therefore, the aims of the present study were: to explore the contribution of dietary supplements to micronutrient daily intake, and to evaluate awareness and knowledge about dietary supplements. Participants (age ranging from 14 to 18 years) were recruited among students attending 8 high schools in the province of Frosinone (Italy). An anonymous questionnaire, composed of 12 multiple-choice items, was administered to all the participants. T-test and the analysis of variance (ANOVA) were performed to describe differences between means of the groups, while the chi-square test was used to compare observed and expected frequencies. The logistic regression model, aimed at identifying the characteristics of potential consumers of dietary supplements. A total of 686 teenagers (288 males and 398 females, average age: 17,89±0,91 years) participated in the study. The 83,6% of participants affirmed to be aware of dietary supplements. 239 participants consumed dietary supplements: 118 males and 121 females. 49,1% of females consumed dietary supplements less than twice a week, whereas 43,6% of males consumed dietary supplements from 2 to 5 times per week. Statistically significant differences emerged between the genders with respect to the source of information regarding dietary supplements, the perceived indications for their use, and the choice of the store/place to purchase them. Findings in the present study provide insight into the consumption of dietary supplements among young Italians, highlighting the need to foster further awareness among adolescents about the correct use of dietary supplements, especially in terms of indications and contraindications.

  10. Pathogenic Potential of Saccharomyces Strains Isolated from Dietary Supplements

    PubMed Central

    Monteoliva, Lucía; Querol, Amparo; Molina, María; Fernández-Espinar, María T.

    2014-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae plays a beneficial role in health because of its intrinsic nutritional value and bio-functional properties, which is why it is also used as a dietary supplement. However, the perception that S. cerevisiae is harmless has changed due to an increasing number of infections caused by this yeast. Given this scenario, we have tested whether viable strains contained in dietary supplements displayed virulence-associated phenotypic traits that could contribute to virulence in humans. We have also performed an in vivo study of the pathogenic potential of these strains using a murine model of systemic infection by intravenous inoculation. A total of 5 strains were isolated from 22 commercial products and tested. Results highlight one strain (D14) in terms of burden levels in brains and kidneys and ability to cause death, whereas the other two strains (D2 and D4) were considered of low virulence. Our results suggest a strong relationship between some of the virulence-associated phenotypic traits (ability to grow at 39°C and pseudohyphal growth) and the in vivo virulence in a mouse model of intravenous inoculation for isolates under study. The isolate displaying greatest virulence (D14) was evaluated in an experimental murine model of gastrointestinal infection with immunosuppression and disruption of mucosal integrity, which are common risk factors for developing infection in humans, and results were compared with an avirulent strain (D23). We showed that D14 was able to spread to mesenteric nodes and distant organs under these conditions. Given the widespread consumption of dietary supplements, we recommend only safe strains be used. PMID:24879417

  11. Use of dietary supplements among gym trainees in Tanta city, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Abo Ali, Ehab A; Elgamal, Hanan H

    2016-12-01

    The use of dietary supplements has greatly increased in the past few years. Few studies described the prevalence of supplement use among gym trainees. The practices of most of the athletes and gym trainees in Egypt remain undocumented. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of dietary supplement use among gyms trainees in Tanta city, Egypt. A cross-sectional comparative study was carried out on 450 gym trainees aged more than or equal to 20 years in Tanta city, Egypt. Nine representative gyms (50 participants from each) were recruited in the study. Data on sociodemographic characteristics, health and lifestyle characteristics, type, underlying motive(s), and source(s) of information about dietary supplements were collected from each participant. Of the 450 participants, 38.2% reported using dietary supplements. Male participants and those with higher family incomes used dietary supplements more than female participants and those with lower family incomes (P<0.05). Female participants used vitamins/minerals, weight loss, and natural groups of dietary supplements more than male participants (P<0.05), whereas male participants used body-building group of supplements more than female participants (P<0.05). Participants of older ages (≥30) tended to use the natural group of dietary supplements more than younger ones (P<0.05). Female participants were more motivated to use dietary supplements for the prevention of nutritional and/or medical problems and for weight loss, whereas male participants used dietary supplements for muscle building/repair (P<0.05). Female participants mostly got their information about dietary supplements from health professionals and from the media more than male participants, whereas male participants got this information mainly from gym personnel. A considerable proportion of gym trainees use dietary supplements, mostly without professional consultation and frequently without any indication. It is very important to disseminate accurate

  12. Dietary Supplements are Not all Safe and Not all Food: How the Low Cost of Dietary Supplements Preys on the Consumer.

    PubMed

    Sax, Joanna K

    2015-01-01

    Dietary supplements are regulated as food, even though the safety and efficacy of some supplements are unknown. These products are often promoted as 'natural.' This leads many consumers to fail to question the supplements' safety, and some consumers even equate 'natural' with safe. But, 'natural' does not mean safe. For example, many wild berries and mushrooms are dangerous although they are natural. Another example is tobacco--a key ingredient in cigarettes: it is natural, but overwhelming studies have established the harm of cigarette smoke. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) requires safety and efficacy testing prior to market entry for drugs. In contrast, the FDA only has limited ability to regulate the entry of new dietary supplements into the marketplace because supplements are treated as food. Two main arguments support the current regulatory structure of dietary supplements: (1) cost and (2) access. But lower cost and increased access to dietary supplements do not necessary have any relationship to safety and efficacy. Manufacturers' marketing techniques tout the health benefits of their supplements. Meanwhile, consumers are ingesting supplements without scientific studies indicating whether or not they are harmful. The FDA Food Safety and Modernization Act, signed into law on January 4, 2011, did not address the safety concerns regarding dietary supplements. This article discusses the regulatory deficiencies concerning dietary supplements and proposes novel solutions to address this specific sector of the food supply. This article advocates for the use of scientific data to support a multi-tiered classification system to ensure that dietary supplements on the market are safe.

  13. Herbal and Dietary Supplement-Induced Liver Injury.

    PubMed

    de Boer, Ynto S; Sherker, Averell H

    2017-02-01

    The increase in the use of herbal and dietary supplements (HDSs) over the last decades has been accompanied by an increase in the reports of HDS-associated hepatotoxicity. The spectrum of HDS-induced liver injury is diverse and the outcome may vary from transient liver test increases to fulminant hepatic failure resulting in death or requiring liver transplant. There are no validated standardized tools to establish the diagnosis, but some HDS products have a typical clinical signature that may help to identify HDS-induced liver injury.

  14. Understanding the properties of common dietary supplements: clinical implications for healthcare practitioners.

    PubMed

    Zelig, Rena; Rigassio Radler, Diane

    2012-12-01

    Dietary supplement usage in the United States continues to increase. This article explores the background of dietary supplements and their regulations, discusses trends in usage patterns highlighting the properties of 10 popular dietary supplements, addresses safety concerns and drug-nutrient interactions, and discusses the role of the healthcare professional in assessing and recommending usage of dietary supplements. The authors reviewed the literature on dietary supplementation. Government websites were used to obtain background and regulatory information. Evidence-based databases were used to summarize popular dietary supplements in terms of their common uses, mechanisms of action, and clinical implications. The related literature was reviewed to discuss important factors for the healthcare professional to consider as well as the role of the healthcare professional in integrating dietary supplement use within patient care. Healthcare professionals need to be prepared to evaluate dietary supplement usage and make appropriate recommendations for an individualized plan of care. As the popularity of dietary supplements continues to grow, healthcare professionals will need to communicate with patients about their usage; educate themselves on their potential benefits, interactions, and contraindications; evaluate the literature; make recommendations; and document appropriately in a comprehensive and integrated plan of care.

  15. Prevalence of dietary supplement use in healthy pre-school Chinese children in Australia and China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shu; Binns, Colin W; Maycock, Bruce; Liu, Yi; Zhang, Yuexiao

    2014-02-21

    There is a growing use of dietary supplements in many countries including China. This study aimed to document the prevalence of dietary supplements use and characteristics of Chinese pre-school children using dietary supplements in Australia and China. A survey was carried out in Perth, Western Australia of 237 mothers with children under five years old and 2079 in Chengdu and Wuhan, China. A total of 22.6% and 32.4% of the Chinese children were taking dietary supplements in Australia and China, respectively. In China, the most commonly used dietary supplements were calcium (58.5%) and zinc (40.4%), while in Australia, the most frequently used types were multi-vitamins/minerals (46.2%) and fish oil (42.3%). In Australia, "not working", "never breastfeed", "higher education level of the mother" and "older age of the child" were associated with dietary supplement use in children. In China, being unwell and "having higher household income" were significantly related to dietary supplement usage. Because of the unknown effects of many supplements on growth and development and the potential for adverse drug interactions, parents should exercise caution when giving their infants or young children dietary supplements. Wherever possible it is preferable to achieve nutrient intakes from a varied diet rather than from supplements.

  16. Common use of dietary supplements for bipolar disorder: a naturalistic, self-reported study.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Michael; Glenn, Tasha; Conell, Jörn; Rasgon, Natalie; Marsh, Wendy; Sagduyu, Kemal; Munoz, Rodrigo; Lewitzka, Ute; Bauer, Rita; Pilhatsch, Maximilian; Monteith, Scott; Whybrow, Peter C

    2015-12-01

    Dietary supplements are taken by about half of Americans. Knowledge of dietary supplement use is important because they may interact with prescription drugs or other supplements, cause adverse reactions including psychiatric symptoms, or contain inherently toxic ingredients or contaminants. This study explores the use of dietary supplements by patients with bipolar disorder in the US. Data were obtained from an ongoing, naturalistic study of patients with bipolar disorder who received pharmacological treatment as usual. The patients self-reported their daily mood, sleep, and medications taken, including all drugs prescribed for bipolar disorder or that the patient felt impacted their mood. These included other prescribed drugs, over-the-counter drugs and dietary supplements. Drugs that received premarketing approval from the FDA were not included as dietary supplements. Patient demographics and daily medication use were characterized. Data were available from 348 patients in the US who returned a mean 249.5 days of data. In addition to prescribed psychiatric drugs, 101 of the 348 patients (29 %) used a dietary supplement for at least 7 days and 69 (20 %) used a supplement long term (for at least 50 % of days). Of the 101 supplement users, 72 (71.3 %) took one supplement daily. The 101 patients tried over 40 different supplements, and the long-term users took 19 different supplements. The most commonly taken supplements for both groups were fish oil, B vitamins, melatonin, and multivitamins. Patients using supplements were more likely to be white (p < 0.001), older (p = 0.009), and ill for more years (p = 0.025). Many patients with bipolar disorder use dietary supplements in addition to prescribed drugs. Physicians should obtain detailed information about all dietary supplements taken by patients with bipolar disorder.

  17. Too little, too late: ineffective regulation of dietary supplements in the United States.

    PubMed

    Starr, Ranjani R

    2015-03-01

    Millions of people in the United States consume dietary supplements hoping to maintain or improve their health; however, extensive research has failed to demonstrate the efficacy of numerous supplements in disease prevention. In addition, concerns about the safety of routine and high-dose supplementation have been raised. The Food and Drug Administration regulates dietary supplement quality, safety, and labeling, and the Federal Trade Commission monitors advertisements and marketing; still, vast enforcement challenges remain, and optimal governmental oversight has not been achieved. If the composition and quality of ingredients cannot be reliably ensured, the validity of research on dietary supplements is questionable. Moreover, the health of the US public is put at risk.

  18. Determination of caffeine and identification of undeclared substances in dietary supplements and caffeine dietary exposure assessment.

    PubMed

    Neves, Diana Brito da Justa; Caldas, Eloisa Dutra

    2017-07-01

    Caffeine is one of the most consumed stimulants in the world, and is a frequent ingredient of dietary supplements. The aims of this work were to validate a GC-MS method for the quantitation of caffeine and identification of other substances in supplements, mainly weight loss products, and to estimate the caffeine intake by consumers. Sample preparation included extraction with chloroform:water in ultrasonic bath, centrifugation and analysis of the organic layer for caffeine quantitation, and extraction with methanol for identification of other substances. A total of 213 samples of 52 supplement products not registered in Brazil and seized by the Brazilian Federal Police were analyzed. From the 109 samples that declared the amount of caffeine present, 26.6% contained more than 120% of the specified content. Considering the maximum recommended dose stated on the product labels, the consumption of 47.9% of the samples would lead to a daily intake of caffeine above the safe limit of 400 mg. Undeclared drugs, including sibutramine, phenolphthalein, amphepramone and femproporex were found in 28 samples. These results show that consumers of dietary supplements should be aware that these products might contain caffeine at levels that could represent potential health risks, in addition to undeclared pharmaceutical drugs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Herbal and dietary supplement use in Bangkok: a survey.

    PubMed

    Tangkiatkumjai, Mayuree; Boardman, Helen; Walker, Dawn-Marie

    2014-09-01

    People living in Asian countries including Thailand are likely to use herbal and dietary supplements (HDS). However, there is limited evidence of their usage in Thailand. The objectives of this study were to determine (1) the prevalence of HDS usage amongst a general population in Bangkok; (2) patterns of HDS use; (3) reasons why Bangkok residents use HDS. This cross-sectional survey recruited 400 Thai people aged 15 years or over at busy bus stops in Bangkok, Thailand, using convenience sampling. Data were collected via an interview regarding demographics, HDS usage and reasons of using HDS. Descriptive statistics, such as frequencies and percentages, were used to analyse the prevalence and the patterns of HDS use. The prevalence of HDS usage in the previous 6 months was 52%. The majority of people who took herbs used them to treat illnesses (58%), whereas the majority of people who took dietary supplements used them to promote well-being (65%). Respondents reported using HDS due to their efficacy (28%), wanting to try them (26%) and safety concerns with conventional medicines (15%). Health care providers should be aware of HDS use amongst Thai residents in Bangkok. Policy makers should educate people about appropriate HDS use.

  20. Metabolic and immune effects of dietary arginine supplementation after burn.

    PubMed

    Saito, H; Trocki, O; Wang, S L; Gonce, S J; Joffe, S N; Alexander, J W

    1987-07-01

    The effect of supplemental dietary arginine on metabolism and immunity was studied in 36 burned guinea pigs (30% of total body surface area) with previously placed catheter gastrostomies. The animals were randomized into four groups. After an initial three-day adaptation period, all groups received continuous isonitrogenous, isocaloric (175 kcal [735 kJ]/kg/d), and isovolemic intragastric tube feedings until postburn day (PBD) 14. Groups A, B, C, and D received 0%, 1%, 2%, and 4%, respectively, of total energy intake as arginine given in the form of crystalline arginine hydrochloride with 22%, 21%, 20%, and 18%, respectively, of total energy as whey protein. The average body weight after burn decreased equally in all groups. Resting metabolic expenditure on PBD 6 was higher in groups B (151% +/- 6% of preburn) and C (156% +/- 7%) than in groups A (131% +/- 4%) and D (136% +/- 3%). Ear-thickness response to dinitrofluorobenzene challenge on PBD 12 showed the best response in group C. The mortality rates of groups A, B, C, and D were 56%, 29%, 22%, and 56%, respectively. This study suggests that oral dietary arginine supplementation up to 2% of energy intake may be beneficial after burn injury.

  1. Expertise about herbs and dietary supplements among diverse health professionals

    PubMed Central

    Kemper, Kathi J; Gardiner, Paula; Gobble, Jessica; Woods, Charles

    2006-01-01

    Background Herbs and other dietary supplements are among the most commonly used complementary medical therapies. However, clinicians generally have limited knowledge, confidence and communication about herbs and dietary supplements (HDS). We compared diverse clinicians' expertise about HDS to better target future curricula. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional survey of physicians, pharmacists, nurses, dietitians and trainees in these professions prior to e-curriculum about HDS in 2004–2005. The survey had 28 questions about knowledge, 19 questions about their confidence and 11 questions about their communication practices about HDS. Results Of the 1,268 participants, 25% were male; the average age was 40 years. Mean scores were 66% correct for knowledge; 53/95 on the confidence scale and 2.2 out of possible 10 on the communication practices scale. On average, scores were lowest for those who used fewer HDS; and trainees and nurses compared with physicians, pharmacists and dietitians (P<0.01 for all comparisons). Conclusion Clinicians have moderate levels of knowledge and confidence, but poor communication skills about HDS. Future curricula about HDS should target nurses, students, practitioners and those not currently using HDS. Research is needed to determine the most cost-effective educational strategies for diverse health professionals. PMID:16646964

  2. Review of liver injury associated with dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Stickel, Felix; Kessebohm, Kerstin; Weimann, Rosemarie; Seitz, Helmut K

    2011-05-01

    Dietary supplements (DS) are easily available and increasingly used, and adverse hepatic reactions have been reported following their intake. To critically review the literature on liver injury because of DSs, delineating patterns and mechanisms of injury and to increase the awareness towards this cause of acute and chronic liver damage. Studies and case reports on liver injury specifically because of DSs published between 1990 and 2010 were searched in the PubMed and EMBASE data bases using the terms 'dietary/nutritional supplements', 'adverse hepatic reactions', 'liver injury'; 'hepatitis', 'liver failure', 'vitamin A' and 'retinoids', and reviewed for yet unidentified publications. Significant liver injury was reported after intake of Herbalife and Hydroxycut products, tea extracts from Camellia sinensis, products containing usnic acid and high contents of vitamin A, anabolic steroids and others. No uniform pattern of hepatotoxicity has been identified and severity may range from asymptomatic elevations of serum liver enzymes to hepatic failure and death. Exact estimates on how frequent adverse hepatic reactions occur as a result of DSs cannot be provided. Liver injury from DSs mimicking other liver diseases is increasingly recognized. Measures to reduce risk include tighter regulation of their production and distribution and increased awareness of users and professionals of the potential risks.

  3. Dietary Supplement Use Immediately Before and During Pregnancy in Norwegian Women with Eating Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Dellava, Jocilyn E.; Von Holle, Ann; Torgersen, Leila; Reichborn-Kjennerud, Ted; Haugen, Margaretha; Meltzer, Helle M.; Bulik, Cynthia M.

    2010-01-01

    Objective Many pregnant women use dietary supplements. Little is known about dietary supplement use during pregnancy in women with eating disorders. Method We examined dietary supplement use in 37,307 pregnant women, from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study. Results Dietary supplement use during pregnancy was as follows: 91.2% of women with anorexia nervosa, 92.2% of women with bulimia nervosa, 93.2% of women with eating disorder not otherwise specified-purging (EDNOS-P), 90.6% of women with binge eating disorder, and 93.5% of the women without eating disorder. Among group differences were not statistically significant. After adjusting for covariates, women with EDNOS-P were more likely to take iron containing supplements (p≤0.04). Conclusion Overall dietary supplement use, in this sample is similar in women with and without eating disorders. PMID:21472751

  4. Dietary nitrate supplementation improves revascularization in chronic ischemia.

    PubMed

    Hendgen-Cotta, Ulrike B; Luedike, Peter; Totzeck, Matthias; Kropp, Martina; Schicho, Andreas; Stock, Pia; Rammos, Christos; Niessen, Michael; Heiss, Christian; Lundberg, Jon O; Weitzberg, Eddie; Kelm, Malte; Rassaf, Tienush

    2012-10-16

    Revascularization is an adaptive repair mechanism that restores blood flow to undersupplied ischemic tissue. Nitric oxide plays an important role in this process. Whether dietary nitrate, serially reduced to nitrite by commensal bacteria in the oral cavity and subsequently to nitric oxide and other nitrogen oxides, enhances ischemia-induced remodeling of the vascular network is not known. Mice were treated with either nitrate (1 g/L sodium nitrate in drinking water) or sodium chloride (control) for 14 days. At day 7, unilateral hind-limb surgery with excision of the left femoral artery was conducted. Blood flow was determined by laser Doppler. Capillary density, myoblast apoptosis, mobilization of CD34(+)/Flk-1(+), migration of bone marrow-derived CD31(+)/CD45(-), plasma S-nitrosothiols, nitrite, and skeletal tissue cGMP levels were assessed. Enhanced green fluorescence protein transgenic mice were used for bone marrow transplantation. Dietary nitrate increased plasma S-nitrosothiols and nitrite, enhanced revascularization, increased mobilization of CD34(+)/Flk-1(+) and migration of bone marrow-derived CD31(+)/CD45(-) cells to the site of ischemia, and attenuated apoptosis of potentially regenerative myoblasts in chronically ischemic tissue. The regenerative effects of nitrate treatment were abolished by eradication of the nitrate-reducing bacteria in the oral cavity through the use of an antiseptic mouthwash. Long-term dietary nitrate supplementation may represent a novel nutrition-based strategy to enhance ischemia-induced revascularization.

  5. Toxin content and cytotoxicity of algal dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Heussner, A H; Mazija, L; Fastner, J; Dietrich, D R

    2012-12-01

    Blue-green algae (Spirulina sp., Aphanizomenon flos-aquae) and Chlorella sp. are commercially distributed as organic algae dietary supplements. Cyanobacterial dietary products in particular have raised serious concerns, as they appeared to be contaminated with toxins e.g. microcystins (MCs) and consumers repeatedly reported adverse health effects following consumption of these products. The aim of this study was to determine the toxin contamination and the in vitro cytotoxicity of algae dietary supplement products marketed in Germany. In thirteen products consisting of Aph. flos-aquae, Spirulina and Chlorella or mixtures thereof, MCs, nodularins, saxitoxins, anatoxin-a and cylindrospermopsin were analyzed. Five products tested in an earlier market study were re-analyzed for comparison. Product samples were extracted and analyzed for cytotoxicity in A549 cells as well as for toxin levels by (1) phosphatase inhibition assay (PPIA), (2) Adda-ELISA and (3) LC-MS/MS. In addition, all samples were analyzed by PCR for the presence of the mcyE gene, a part of the microcystin and nodularin synthetase gene cluster. Only Aph. flos-aquae products were tested positive for MCs as well as the presence of mcyE. The contamination levels of the MC-positive samples were ≤ 1 μg MC-LR equivalents g(-1) dw. None of the other toxins were found in any of the products. However, extracts from all products were cytotoxic. In light of the findings, the distribution and commercial sale of Aph. flos-aquae products, whether pure or mixed formulations, for human consumption appear highly questionable. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Dietary quercetin supplementation is not ergogenic in untrained men.

    PubMed

    Cureton, Kirk J; Tomporowski, Phillip D; Singhal, Arpit; Pasley, Jeffrey D; Bigelman, Kevin A; Lambourne, Kathleen; Trilk, Jennifer L; McCully, Kevin K; Arnaud, Maurice J; Zhao, Qun

    2009-10-01

    Quercetin supplementation increases muscle oxidative capacity and endurance in mice, but its ergogenic effect in humans has not been established. Our study investigates the effects of short-duration chronic quercetin supplementation on muscle oxidative capacity; metabolic, perceptual, and neuromuscular determinants of performance in prolonged exercise; and cycling performance in untrained men. Using a double-blind, pretest-posttest control group design, 30 recreationally active, but not endurance-trained, young men were randomly assigned to quercetin and placebo groups. A noninvasive measure of muscle oxidative capacity (phosphocreatine recovery rate using magnetic resonance spectroscopy), peak oxygen uptake (Vo(2peak)), metabolic and perceptual responses to submaximal exercise, work performed on a 10-min maximal-effort cycling test following the submaximal cycling, and voluntary and electrically evoked strength loss following cycling were measured before and after 7-16 days of supplementation with 1 g/day of quercetin in a sports hydration beverage or a placebo beverage. Pretreatment-to-posttreatment changes in phosphocreatine recovery time constant, Vo(2peak,) substrate utilization, and perception of effort during submaximal exercise, total work done during the 10-min maximal effort cycling trial, and voluntary and electrically evoked strength loss were not significantly different (P > 0.05) in the quercetin and placebo groups. Short duration, chronic dietary quercetin supplementation in untrained men does not improve muscle oxidative capacity; metabolic, neuromuscular and perceptual determinants of performance in prolonged exercise; or cycling performance. The null findings indicate that metabolic and physical performance consequences of quercetin supplementation observed in mice should not be generalized to humans.

  7. Use of dietary supplements by cardiologists, dermatologists and orthopedists: report of a survey.

    PubMed

    Dickinson, Annette; Shao, Andrew; Boyon, Nicolas; Franco, Julio C

    2011-03-03

    Dietary supplements are regularly used by a majority of the American population, and usage by health professionals is also common. There is considerable interest in usage patterns within the population and in the reasons for using dietary supplements. The "Life...supplemented" Healthcare Professionals 2008 Impact Study (HCP Impact Study) surveyed usage of dietary supplements by physicians in three specialties: cardiology, dermatology, and orthopedics. The HCP Impact Study was conducted online by Ipsos Public Affairs for the Council for Responsible Nutrition (CRN), a trade association of the dietary supplement industry. Respondents were 900 physicians, including 300 each from three specialties--cardiology, dermatology, and orthopedics. Fifty-seven percent of cardiologists said they use dietary supplements at least occasionally, as did 75% of dermatologists and 73% of orthopedists. The product most commonly reported to be used was a multivitamin, but over 25% in each specialty said they used omega-3 fatty acids and over 20% said they used some botanical supplements. Regular dietary supplement use was reported by 37% of cardiologists, 59% of dermatologists, and 50% of orthopedists. Seventy-two percent of cardiologists, 66% of dermatologists, and 91% of orthopedists reported recommending dietary supplements to their patients. The primary reason given for recommending dietary supplements to patients was for heart health or lowering cholesterol for the cardiologists; benefits for skin, hair and nails for the dermatologists; and bone and joint health for the orthopedists. Reported dietary supplement use was relatively common in this sample of physicians, and when they recommended dietary supplements to patients, they tended to do so for reasons related to their specialty.

  8. Dangerous dietary supplements: Garcinia cambogia-associated hepatic failure requiring transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Lunsford, Keri E; Bodzin, Adam S; Reino, Diego C; Wang, Hanlin L; Busuttil, Ronald W

    2016-01-01

    Commercial dietary supplements are marketed as a panacea for the morbidly obese seeking sustainable weight-loss. Unfortunately, many claims cited by supplements are unsupported and inadequately regulated. Most concerning, however, are the associated harmful side effects, often unrecognized by consumers. Garcinia cambogia extract and Garcinia cambogia containing products are some of the most popular dietary supplements currently marketed for weight loss. Here, we report the first known case of fulminant hepatic failure associated with this dietary supplement. One active ingredient in this supplement is hydroxycitric acid, an active ingredient also found in weight-loss supplements banned by the Food and Drug Administration in 2009 for hepatotoxicity. Heightened awareness of the dangers of dietary supplements such as Garcinia cambogia is imperative to prevent hepatoxicity and potential fulminant hepatic failure in additional patients. PMID:28018115

  9. Dangerous dietary supplements: Garcinia cambogia-associated hepatic failure requiring transplantation.

    PubMed

    Lunsford, Keri E; Bodzin, Adam S; Reino, Diego C; Wang, Hanlin L; Busuttil, Ronald W

    2016-12-07

    Commercial dietary supplements are marketed as a panacea for the morbidly obese seeking sustainable weight-loss. Unfortunately, many claims cited by supplements are unsupported and inadequately regulated. Most concerning, however, are the associated harmful side effects, often unrecognized by consumers. Garcinia cambogia extract and Garcinia cambogia containing products are some of the most popular dietary supplements currently marketed for weight loss. Here, we report the first known case of fulminant hepatic failure associated with this dietary supplement. One active ingredient in this supplement is hydroxycitric acid, an active ingredient also found in weight-loss supplements banned by the Food and Drug Administration in 2009 for hepatotoxicity. Heightened awareness of the dangers of dietary supplements such as Garcinia cambogia is imperative to prevent hepatoxicity and potential fulminant hepatic failure in additional patients.

  10. Antioxidants and antiinflammatory dietary supplements for osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Rosenbaum, Cathy Creger; O'Mathúna, Dónal P; Chavez, Mary; Shields, Kelly

    2010-01-01

    To review efficacy studies of antioxidant and antiinflammatory dietary supplements used to manage osteoarthritis (OA) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and make conclusions about their place in therapy. Glucosamine, chondroitin, and methyl sulfonyl methane were excluded. A literature search was conducted using MEDLINE (1996 through January 2009), EMBASE, Cochrane Library, Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database, and Natural Standard, with bibliographic review of relevant articles. Cited studies from before our search range were included if they represented the only published human data available. Search words included "antioxidant," "antiinflammatory," "cat's claw," "ginger," "fish oil," "omega-3," "turmeric," "vitamin E," "vitamin C," "Baikal skullcap," "barberry," "Chinese goldthread," "green tea," "Indian holy basil," "hu zhang,"oregano," and"rosemary." Efficacy studies published in English were included provided they evaluated the dietary supplements in patients with OA or RA. Our search strategy yielded 16 clinical studies (11 randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trials, three crossover trials, one case-controlled study, and one open-label study) in addition to one meta-analysis and one review article. Three studies support cat's claw alone or in combination for OA, and two studies support omega-3 fatty acids for the treatment of RA. We cannot recommend use of vitamin E alone; vitamins A, C, and E in combination; ginger; turmeric; or Zyflamend (New Chapter, Brattleboro, Vermont) for the treatment of OA or RA or omega-3 fatty acids for OA. Whether any of these supplements can be effectively and safely recommended to reduce nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug or steroid usage is unclear and requires more high-quality research.

  11. Dietary Supplement Intake and Associated Factors Among Gym Users in a University Community.

    PubMed

    Attlee, Amita; Haider, Amina; Hassan, Asma; Alzamil, Noura; Hashim, Mona; Obaid, Reyad Shaker

    2017-05-30

    Dietary supplement intake and associated factors among gym users in a university community in Sharjah, United Arab Emirates (UAE), were assessed using a structured, self-administered questionnaire in this cross-sectional study. Adults (N = 320) from five gyms in the University City of Sharjah participated in this cross-sectional study. The prevalence of dietary supplement intake was 43.8%. Statistically significant associations were found between the use of dietary supplements and sex (47.7% males, 28.1% females; p = .006), as well as weight lifting (88.6% taking supplements vs. 11.4% not taking supplements; p < .001), favoring male gym users. The reasons attributed to the use of dietary supplements varied between the sexes. Male exercisers used supplements to increase or maintain muscles mass, strength, and power and to boost exercise recovery. Females mainly used dietary supplements to increase energy, maintain their health, and prevent nutrition deficiency. Overall, protein supplements (whey proteins [48.6%] and protein powder [45.7%]) were among the most-consumed dietary supplements, followed by multivitamins (38.6%), branched-chain amino acids (36.4%), caffeine (35.0%), and creatine (29.3%). A widespread use of Internet-driven, self-prescribed dietary supplement intake was reported among gym users (60.7%). Only 12.8% of dietary supplement users sought information from dietitians. Practical implications suggest that gym instructors and coaches should be sufficiently trained to be able to provide accurate and scientifically sound information on dietary supplements to the exercisers in gyms in the university environment.

  12. Are those in need taking dietary supplements? A survey of 21 923 adults.

    PubMed

    Harrison, R A; Holt, D; Pattison, D J; Elton, P J

    2004-04-01

    Many people take dietary supplements, but information on characteristics associated with their use is lacking. The relationship between lifestyle behaviours, morbidity and use of dietary supplements has not been examined and earlier studies have limited applicability to a general population. These issues were addressed in the current study. Information was obtained by postal questionnaire sent to a sample of the general population. The questionnaire was completed by 70.5 % of the sample (15 465 from a total sample of 21 923), with at least one-third (35.5 %) taking dietary supplements. In adjusted analyses, supplement users were more likely to be women, white, home-owners, non-smokers and physically active. Use of vitamin, mineral and/or antioxidant supplements was associated with eating more fruits and vegetables, and taking fish-oil supplements was associated with eating oil-rich fish. A history of CVD or risk factors for CVD reduced the risk of taking vitamins, minerals and/or antioxidants or fish-oil supplements. Those reporting musculoskeletal disorders such as arthritis were more likely to take fish-oil supplements For the first time, we have shown that dietary supplement use is related to different types of morbidity. In particular, people at risk of primary or secondary CVD seem less likely to use dietary supplements, despite possible benefits shown in clinical trials. Public health organisations need to develop guidelines for the public and health professionals regarding the uncontrolled use of dietary supplements in the community.

  13. Herbals and natural dietary supplements in psychiatric practice.

    PubMed

    Chiappedi, Matteo; Bejor, Maurizio

    2010-06-01

    There is some evidence that links the increase of mental disorders' prevalence with a deterioration of Western countries' nutritional habits and it is found that the use of herbal and "natural" food supplements to treat different disorders is increasing. With factors such as chronic illness, poor health, emotional distress, and quality of life influencing the desire for complementary medicine, patients with comorbid medical and psychiatric problems seem likely to turn to this approach. We reviewed the most commonly used herbal and dietary supplements for which a certain efficacy on psychiatric symptoms or disorders has been claimed, checking current Pubmed-indexed literature (the most important being St. John's wort, Omega-3 fatty acids, valerian, Kava, Ginkgo, folate, B vitamins, SAMe, Inositol). There is an evidence of efficacy for some of these herbs an supplements, but current studies are often insufficient to reach a final conclusion; still patents are being requested and registered. Many different areas (including efficacy, tolerability, optimal dosing, adequate shelf life, drug and non-pharmacological interactions) need to be thoroughly studied; moreover political decisions need to be scientifically guided in order to best serve psychiatric patients' interests and to prevent the usage of expensive and sometimes un-useful therapies. This implies that a scientific strategy has to be used to rule out any third-part economical interest which could in any way influence therapeutic choices.

  14. Research of stimulants and anabolic steroids in dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Baume, N; Mahler, N; Kamber, M; Mangin, P; Saugy, M

    2006-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the composition of 103 dietary supplements bought on the internet. The supplements were dispatched in four different categories according to their announced contents [creatine, prohormones, "mental enhancers" and branched chain amino acids (BCAA)]. All the supplements were screened for the presence of stimulants and main anabolic steroids parent compounds. At the same time, the research was focused on the precursors and metabolites of testosterone and nandrolone. The study pointed out three products containing an anabolic steroid, metandienone, in a very high amount. The ingestion of such products induced a high quantity of metandienone metabolites in urines that would be considered as a positive antidoping test. The results have also shown that one creatine product and three "mental enhancers" contained traces of hormones or prohormones not claimed on the labels and 14 prohormone products contained substances other than those indicated by the manufacturer. The oral intake of the creatine product revealed the presence of the two main nandrolone metabolites (19-norandrosterone and 19-noretiocholanolone) in urine.

  15. Flavonoids, the emerging dietary supplement against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Athira, K V; Madhana, Rajaram Mohanrao; Lahkar, Mangala

    2016-03-25

    The letter illustrates the emerging potential of flavonoids as dietary supplement to ameliorate cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity and refers to the recent article on ''Anti-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory effects of naringin on cisplatin-induced renal injury in the rat'' by Chtourou et al. They demonstrated that supplementation of naringin, a flavanone glycoside, found in grape and citrus fruit species, can attenuate cisplatin-induced renal dysfunction via restoration of redox balance and suppression of inflammation, NF-κB activation and apoptosis. The chemotherapeutic efficacy of cisplatin has always compelled the researchers to find solution to ameliorate its side effects. In recent years, numerous candidates have been evaluated for their protective potential against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity and flavonoids have come up with promising results. The future prospects might be promising with a proper refinement and collective integration of the preclinical and clinical research in the field of flavonoid supplementation to cisplatin therapy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Marketplace analysis demonstrates quality control standards needed for black raspberry dietary supplements

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    There is currently no standard for the minimum anthocyanin concentration a black raspberry dietary supplement must contain for legal sale in the US. All consumer available black raspberry products (n=19), packaged as dietary supplements or otherwise prepared (freeze-dried whole and pre-ground powder...

  17. 75 FR 9232 - Office of Dietary Supplements (ODS) 2010-2014 Strategic Plan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-01

    ... was developed after more than a year's worth of reflection on its programs, activities, and..., the dietary supplement industry, consumer advocacy and education groups, and interested consumers. FOR... provision of the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act of 1994 (DSHEA). Dated: February 22, 2010....

  18. ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANTS AND POTENTIAL HUMAN RISK ASSOCIATED WITH SELECTED BOTANICAL DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Botanical dietary supplements have a long history of use in Europe and China and they are becoming increasingly popular in the United States. However, little data is available regarding environmental contaminants in botanical dietary supplements and the risk posed to those ingest...

  19. ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANTS IN BOTANICAL DIETARY SUPPLEMENT GINSENG AND POTENTIAL HUMAN HEALTH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Botanical dietary supplements have a long history of use in Europe and Asia, but the use of these products is becoming increasingly popular in the United States. Because these products are classified as dietary supplements, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration does not routinely...

  20. Consumption of Sport-Related Dietary Supplements among NCAA Division 1 Female Student Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Housman, Jeff; Dorman, Steve; Pruitt, Buzz; Ranjita, Misra; Perko, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To determine factors that influence sport-related dietary supplement consumption among NCAA Division 1 female student athletes and to estimate the plausibility of the theory of planned behavior (TPB) for predicting the use of sport-related dietary supplements among NCAA Division 1 female student athletes. Method: Self-report data were…

  1. Consumption of Sport-Related Dietary Supplements among NCAA Division 1 Female Student Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Housman, Jeff; Dorman, Steve; Pruitt, Buzz; Ranjita, Misra; Perko, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To determine factors that influence sport-related dietary supplement consumption among NCAA Division 1 female student athletes and to estimate the plausibility of the theory of planned behavior (TPB) for predicting the use of sport-related dietary supplements among NCAA Division 1 female student athletes. Method: Self-report data were…

  2. ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANTS IN BOTANICAL DIETARY SUPPLEMENT GINSENG AND POTENTIAL HUMAN HEALTH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Botanical dietary supplements have a long history of use in Europe and Asia, but the use of these products is becoming increasingly popular in the United States. Because these products are classified as dietary supplements, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration does not routinely...

  3. Prevalence and predictors of children's dietary supplement use: the 2007 National Health Interview Survey

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Little is known about the characteristics of US children who are dietary supplement users. We described the prevalence and predictors of and reasons for giving children dietary supplements. The study included children <18 y of age who participated in the Complementary and Alternative Medicine supple...

  4. Extensive gut metabolism limits the intestinal absorption of excessive supplemental dietary glutamate loads in infant pigs

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Glutamate (Glu) is a major intestinal oxidative fuel, key neurotransmitter, and may be a useful dietary supplement to augment health of the infant gut. We quantified the metabolic fate of various supplemental dietary Glu intakes in young pigs surgically implanted with vascular, intraduodenal (ID), o...

  5. ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANTS AND POTENTIAL HUMAN RISK ASSOCIATED WITH SELECTED BOTANICAL DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Botanical dietary supplements have a long history of use in Europe and China and they are becoming increasingly popular in the United States. However, little data is available regarding environmental contaminants in botanical dietary supplements and the risk posed to those ingest...

  6. 21 CFR 111.130 - What quality control operations are required for returned dietary supplements?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... returned dietary supplements? 111.130 Section 111.130 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE IN MANUFACTURING, PACKAGING, LABELING, OR HOLDING OPERATIONS FOR DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS Production...

  7. Rosaceae products: Anthocyanin quality and comparisons between dietary supplements and foods

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Rosaceae (strawberry, cherry, blackberry, red raspberry, and black raspberry) dietary supplements and food products (total n=74) were purchased and analyzed to determine their anthocyanin concentrations and profiles. Eight of the 33 dietary supplements had no detectable anthocyanins (five samples) o...

  8. Intake of micronutrients among Danish adult users and non-users of dietary supplements

    PubMed Central

    Tetens, Inge; Biltoft-Jensen, Anja; Spagner, Camilla; Christensen, Tue; Gille, Maj-Britt; Bügel, Susanne; Banke Rasmussen, Lone

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the intake of micronutrients from the diet and from supplements in users and non-users of dietary supplements, respectively, in a representative sample of the Danish adult population. A specific objective was to identify the determinants of supplement use. Design A cross-sectional representative national study of the intake of vitamins and minerals from the diet and from dietary supplements. Method The Danish National Survey of Dietary Habits and Physical Activity, 2000–2004. Participants (n=4,479; 53% females) aged 18–75 years gave information about the use of dietary supplements in a personal interview. The quantification of the micronutrient contribution from supplements was estimated from a generic supplement constructed from data on household purchases. Nutrient intakes from the diet were obtained from a self-administered 7-day pre-coded dietary record. Median intakes of total nutrients from the diets of users and non-users of supplements were analysed using the Wilcoxon rank-sum test. Results Sixty percent of females and 51% of males were users of supplements. With the exception of vitamin D, the intake of micronutrients from the diet was adequate at the group level for all age and gender groups. Among females in the age group 18–49 years, the micronutrient intake from the diet was significantly higher compared with the non-users of dietary supplements. The use of dietary supplements increased with age and with ‘intention to eat healthy.’ Conclusion Intake of micronutrients from the diet alone was considered adequate for both users and non-users of dietary supplements. Younger females who were supplement users had a more micronutrient-dense diet compared to non-users. PMID:21909288

  9. UHPLC/HRMS Analysis of African Mango (Irvingia gabonensis) Seeds, Extract and Related Dietary Supplements

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jianghao; Chen, Pei

    2012-01-01

    Dietary Supplements based on an extract from Irvingia gabonensis (African Mango, AM for abbreviation) seeds are one of the popular herbal weight loss dietary supplements in the US market. The extract is believed to be a natural and healthy way to lose weight and improve overall health. However, the chemical composition of African mango based-dietary supplements (AMDS) has never been reported. In this study, the chemical constituents of African mango seeds, African mango seeds extract (AMSE), and different kinds of commercially available African mango based dietary supplements (AMDS) have been investigated using an ultra high-performance liquid chromatography with high resolution mass spectrometry (UHPLC-HRMS) method. Ellagic acid, mono, di, tri-O methyl-ellagic acids and their glycosides were found as major components in African Mango seeds. These compounds may be used for quality control of African Mango extract and related dietary supplements. PMID:22880691

  10. Factors Associated with Dietary Supplement Use among Preschool Children: Results from a Nationwide Survey in Japan.

    PubMed

    Sato, Yoko; Suzuki, Sachina; Chiba, Tsuyoshi; Umegaki, Keizo

    2016-01-01

    This study was performed to reveal factors associated with dietary supplement use among Japanese preschool children in a nationwide survey. A cross-sectional, Internet survey was conducted among 2,058 mothers aged 20-40 y old who had preschool children and were registrants of a Japanese social research company in February 2013. The questionnaires assessed dietary supplement use, lifestyle and eating habits in both children and their mothers, eating awareness among mothers and the mothers' sources of health information. The study employed logistic regression analysis to evaluate the association between dietary supplement use and other variables. Dietary supplements were used by 8.0% of the children. Children who used supplements tended to be older in age, less likely to "get up cheerfully every morning," more likely to skip breakfast, eat out more frequently, and have mothers who used supplements, than children who did not use supplements. Mothers' level of education and household income were not associated with supplement use among their children. It is likely that mothers' anxiety about their children's health or unhealthy eating habits has a striking effect on supplement use among children. However, the actual dietary balance and daily rhythms of child supplement users were not irregular or unhealthy. It is necessary to give more accurate information on children's dietary habits and health to address mothers' anxiety.

  11. Consumers' perceptions of the dietary supplement health and education act: implications and recommendations.

    PubMed

    Dodge, Tonya

    2016-01-01

    In 1994, the United States Congress passed the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act (DSHEA). The regulatory framework for dietary supplements created by DSHEA has led to significant misperceptions regarding consumers' understanding of the safety and efficacy of supplements. Research shows that consumers erroneously believe that: (1) supplements are approved by the government, (2) supplements have been tested for safety and effectiveness, (3) the content of supplements is analyzed, and (4) manufacturers are required to disclose known adverse effects to consumers. Furthermore, labelling requirements that are intended to provide transparency to consumers are relatively ineffective. The following four recommendations are offered for reforming DSHEA: (1) only allow structure-function claims that are supported by research evidence, (2) require manufacturers to list known adverse effects on the labels of dietary supplements, (3) require that the Food and Drug Administration analyzes the content of dietary supplements and (4) restrict the definition of dietary ingredients. These recommendations would bring DSHEA to more closely align with consumer expectations regarding the regulation of dietary supplements and would likely provide a safer landscape for the use of supplements. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Thyrotoxic hypokalemic periodic paralysis due to dietary weight-loss supplement.

    PubMed

    Akinyemi, Emmanuel; Bercovici, Silvia; Niranjan, Selvanayagam; Paul, Nisha; Hemavathy, Bhakthavatsalam

    2011-05-01

    Herbal and dietary supplements for weight loss and in treatment of obesity are growing in popularity and acceptance in the United States. Most of these supplements can be obtained over the counter and can have serious adverse effects associated with their consumption. We describe 2 patients who developed thyrotoxic hypokalemic periodic paralysis 2-3 weeks after consuming thyroxine-containing weight-loss supplements. This is the first known case of thyrotoxic hypokalemic periodic paralysis secondary to dietary supplements. It is important that patients and physicians are aware of the severe adverse reactions associated with dietary supplements. Physicians should as a routine inquire about herbal and dietary supplement consumption during all patient encounters.

  13. Broadband quantitative NQR for authentication of vitamins and dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Chen, Cheng; Zhang, Fengchao; Bhunia, Swarup; Mandal, Soumyajit

    2017-05-01

    We describe hardware, pulse sequences, and algorithms for nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) spectroscopy of medicines and dietary supplements. Medicine and food safety is a pressing problem that has drawn more and more attention. NQR is an ideal technique for authenticating these substances because it is a non-invasive method for chemical identification. We have recently developed a broadband NQR front-end that can excite and detect (14)N NQR signals over a wide frequency range; its operating frequency can be rapidly set by software, while sensitivity is comparable to conventional narrowband front-ends over the entire range. This front-end improves the accuracy of authentication by enabling multiple-frequency experiments. We have also developed calibration and signal processing techniques to convert measured NQR signal amplitudes into nuclear spin densities, thus enabling its use as a quantitative technique. Experimental results from several samples are used to illustrate the proposed methods. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Dietary supplements and hypertension: potential benefits and precautions.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Carly B; Glisson, James K; Minor, Deborah S

    2012-07-01

    Dietary supplements (DSs) are used extensively in the general population and many are promoted for the natural treatment and management of hypertension. Patients with hypertension often choose to use these products either in addition to or instead of pharmacologic antihypertensive agents. Because of the frequent use of DS, both consumers and health care providers should be aware of the considerable issues surrounding these products and factors influencing both efficacy and safety. In this review of the many DSs promoted for the management of hypertension, 4 products with evidence of possible benefits (coenzyme Q10, fish oil, garlic, vitamin C) and 4 that were consistently associated with increasing blood pressure were found (ephedra, Siberian ginseng, bitter orange, licorice). The goals and objectives of this review are to discuss the regulation of DS, evaluate the efficacy of particular DS in the treatment of hypertension, and highlight DS that may potentially increase blood pressure.

  15. Broadband quantitative NQR for authentication of vitamins and dietary supplements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Cheng; Zhang, Fengchao; Bhunia, Swarup; Mandal, Soumyajit

    2017-05-01

    We describe hardware, pulse sequences, and algorithms for nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) spectroscopy of medicines and dietary supplements. Medicine and food safety is a pressing problem that has drawn more and more attention. NQR is an ideal technique for authenticating these substances because it is a non-invasive method for chemical identification. We have recently developed a broadband NQR front-end that can excite and detect 14N NQR signals over a wide frequency range; its operating frequency can be rapidly set by software, while sensitivity is comparable to conventional narrowband front-ends over the entire range. This front-end improves the accuracy of authentication by enabling multiple-frequency experiments. We have also developed calibration and signal processing techniques to convert measured NQR signal amplitudes into nuclear spin densities, thus enabling its use as a quantitative technique. Experimental results from several samples are used to illustrate the proposed methods.

  16. Program for Research on Dietary Supplements in Military Operations and Healthcare Metabolically Optimized Brain - JWF

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-05-01

    minerals (17.9%), combination products (9.1%), and herbal supplements (8.3%).7 Reasons for DS use among military members were to improve health (64...Alcohol; Vitamins / Minerals / Antioxidants / Dietary supplements (not specified); Herbal Medicine (Subsets: Ginseng and Gingko Biloba); Diet...AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-13-1-0068 TITLE: Program for Research on Dietary Supplements In Military Operations and Healthcare Metabolically

  17. Dietary Supplement Use in Older People Attending Memory Clinics in Australia.

    PubMed

    Cross, A J; George, J; Woodward, M C; Ames, D; Brodaty, H; Elliott, R A

    2017-01-01

    Dietary supplement use is common in older adults. There has been limited research in people attending memory clinics. To explore the use of dietary supplements in older people attending Australian memory clinics. Cross-sectional analysis of baseline data from the Prospective Research In MEmory clinics (PRIME) study. Community-dwelling older people who attended nine memory clinics and had a diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or dementia. Dietary supplement was defined as a product that contains one or more: vitamin, mineral, herb or other botanical, amino acid or other dietary substance. Non-prescribed supplement was defined as a supplement that is not usually prescribed by a medical practitioner. Polypharmacy was defined as use of five or more medications. 964 patients, mean age 77.6 years, were included. Dietary supplements were used by 550 (57.1%) patients; 353 (36.6%) used two or more. Non-prescribed supplements were used by 364 (36.8%) patients. Supplement use was associated with older age (OR: 1.12, 95% CI: 1.03-1.21), lower education level (OR: 1.53, 95% CI: 1.01-2.32) and a diagnosis of MCI rather than dementia (OR: 1.52, 95% CI: 1.05-2.21). Potential drug-supplement interactions were identified in 107 (11.1%) patients. Supplement users had increased prevalence of polypharmacy compared to non-users (80.5% vs. 48.1%, p<0.001). Dietary supplements, including non-prescribed supplements, were commonly used by people attending memory clinics. Supplement use increased the prevalence of polypharmacy and resulted in potential supplement-drug interactions. Further research is required to assess the clinical outcomes of supplement use.

  18. Bioavailability of different dietary supplemental methionine sources in animals.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shuai; Wong, Eric A; Gilbert, Elizabeth R

    2015-06-01

    Dietary methionine is indispensable for animal maintenance, growth and development. L-methionine (L-Met), and its synthetic forms DL-methionine (DL-Met) and 2-hydroxy-4 (methylthio) butanoic acid (HMTBA) are common supplemental methionine sources in animal diets. There are different characteristics for cellular absorption, transport, metabolism and bio-efficiency between these three dietary methionine sources. Moreover, there are differences in their utilization among various species such as chickens, pigs and ruminants. As a methionine precursor, HMTBA is efficacious in the promotion of growth in animals. It is absorbed mainly by monocarboxylate transporter 1 (MCT1), coupled with the activity of the Na(+)/H(+) exchanger (NHE3), while DL-Met uptake occurs via multiple carrier-mediated systems. Liver, kidney and small intestine can metabolize D-Met and HMTBA to L-Met through oxidation and transamination. In ruminants, the non-hepatic tissues act as major sites of HMTBA conversion, which are different from that in chickens and pigs. HMTBA also has additional benefits in anti-oxidation. Understanding the characteristics of uptake and metabolism of different methionine sources will greatly benefit the industry and bioscience research.

  19. Dietary supplement with vitamin C prevents nitrate tolerance.

    PubMed Central

    Bassenge, E; Fink, N; Skatchkov, M; Fink, B

    1998-01-01

    Enhanced formation of superoxide radicals has been proposed to play a major role in the development of nitrate tolerance in humans. We tested the effects of vitamin C (Vit-C) supplementation on glyceroltrinitrate (GTN)-induced hemodynamic effects during 3-d nonintermittent transdermal administration of GTN (0.4 mg/h) in nine healthy subjects. Tolerance development was monitored by changes in arterial pressure, dicrotic digital pulse pressure, and heart rate. Studies with GTN, Vit-C, or GTN/Vit-C were successively carried out at random in three different series in the same subjects. GTN treatment caused an immediate rise in arterial conductivity (a/b ratio of dicrotic pulse), but within 2 d of initiating GTN, the a/b ratio progressively decreased and reached basal levels. In addition, there was a progressive loss of the orthostatic decrease in blood pressure. However, coadministration of Vit-C and GTN fully maintained the GTN-induced changes in the orthostatic blood pressure, and the rise of a/b ratio was augmented by 310% for the duration of the test period. Changes in vascular tolerance in GTN-treated subjects were paralleled by upregulation of the activity of isolated platelets, which was also reversed by Vit-C administration. These findings demonstrate that dietary supplementation with Vit-C eliminates vascular tolerance and concomitant upregulation of ex vivo-washed platelet activity during long-term nonintermittent administration of GTN in humans. PMID:9649558

  20. Dietary intake and dietary quality of low-income adults in the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program.

    PubMed

    Leung, Cindy W; Ding, Eric L; Catalano, Paul J; Villamor, Eduardo; Rimm, Eric B; Willett, Walter C

    2012-11-01

    The Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) aims to alleviate hunger among its beneficiaries by providing benefits to purchase nutritious foods. We conducted a comprehensive dietary analysis of low-income adults and examined differences in dietary intake between SNAP participants and nonparticipants. The study population comprised 3835 nonelderly adults with a household income ≤130% of the federal poverty level from the 1999-2008 NHANES. The National Cancer Institute method was used to estimate the distributions of usual intake for dietary outcomes. Relative differences in dietary intake by SNAP participation were estimated with adjustment for sociodemographic characteristics and household food security. Few low-income adults consumed recommended amounts of whole grains, fruit, vegetables, fish, and nuts/seeds/legumes. Conversely, many low-income adults exceeded recommended limits for processed meats, sweets, and bakery desserts and sugar-sweetened beverages. Approximately 13-22% of low-income adults did not meet any food and nutrient guidelines; virtually no adults met all of the guidelines. Compared with nonparticipants, SNAP participants consumed 39% fewer whole grains (95% CI: -57%, -15%), 44% more 100% fruit juice (95% CI: 0%, 107%), 56% more potatoes (95% CI: 18%, 106%), 46% more red meat (95% CI: 4%, 106%), and, in women, 61% more sugar-sweetened beverages (95% CI: 3%, 152%). SNAP participants also had lower dietary quality scores than did nonparticipants, as measured by a modified Alternate Healthy Eating Index. Although the diets of all low-income adults need major improvement, SNAP participants in particular had lower-quality diets than did income-eligible nonparticipants.

  1. Dietary supplements and cancer prevention: balancing potential benefits against proven harms.

    PubMed

    Martínez, María Elena; Jacobs, Elizabeth T; Baron, John A; Marshall, James R; Byers, Tim

    2012-05-16

    Nutritional supplementation is now a multibillion-dollar industry, and about half of all US adults take supplements. Supplement use is fueled in part by the belief that nutritional supplements can ward off chronic disease, including cancer, although several expert committees and organizations have concluded that there is little to no scientific evidence that supplements reduce cancer risk. To the contrary, there is now evidence that high doses of some supplements increase cancer risk. Despite this evidence, marketing claims by the supplement industry continue to imply anticancer benefits. Insufficient government regulation of the marketing of dietary supplement products may continue to result in unsound advice to consumers. Both the scientific community and government regulators need to provide clear guidance to the public about the use of dietary supplements to lower cancer risk.

  2. Dietary supplementation with a natural carotenoid mixture decreases oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Kiokias, S; Gordon, M H

    2003-09-01

    To determine whether dietary supplementation with a natural carotenoid mixture counteracts the enhancement of oxidative stress induced by consumption of fish oil. A randomised double-blind crossover dietary intervention. Hugh Sinclair Unit of Human Nutrition, School of Food Biosciences, The University of Reading, Whiteknights PO Box 226, Reading RG6 6AP, UK. A total of 32 free-living healthy nonsmoking volunteers were recruited by posters and e-mails in The University of Reading. One volunteer withdrew during the study. The volunteers consumed a daily supplement comprising capsules containing fish oil (4 x 1 g) or fish oil (4 x 1 g) containing a natural carotenoid mixture (4 x 7.6 mg) for 3 weeks in a randomised crossover design separated by a 12 week washout phase. The carotenoid mixture provided a daily intake of beta-carotene (6.0 mg), alpha-carotene (1.4 mg), lycopene (4.5 mg), bixin (11.7 mg), lutein (4.4 mg) and paprika carotenoids (2.2 mg). Blood and urine samples were collected on days 0 and 21 of each dietary period. The carotenoid mixture reduced the fall in ex vivo oxidative stability of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) induced by the fish oil (P=0.045) and it reduced the extent of DNA damage assessed by the concentration of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine in urine (P=0.005). There was no effect on the oxidative stability of plasma ex vivo assessed by the oxygen radical absorbance capacity test. beta-Carotene, alpha-carotene, lycopene and lutein were increased in the plasma of subjects consuming the carotenoid mixture. Plasma triglyceride levels were reduced significantly more than the reduction for the fish oil control (P=0.035), but total cholesterol, HDL and LDL levels were not significantly changed by the consumption of the carotenoid mixture. Consumption of the natural carotenoid mixture lowered the increase in oxidative stress induced by the fish oil as assessed by ex vivo oxidative stability of LDL and DNA degradation product in urine. The carotenoid

  3. Determinants of the use of dietary supplements among secondary and high school students

    PubMed

    Gajda, Karolina; Zielińska, Monika; Ciecierska, Anna; Hamułka, Jadwiga

    All over the world, including Poland, the sale of dietary supplements is increasing. More and more often, people including children and youths, use dietary supplements on their own initiative and without any medical indications or knowledge in this field. Analysis of the conditions of using the dietary supplements with vitamins and minerals among secondary school and high school students in Poland. The study included 396 students aged 13-18 years (249 girls and 147 boys). Authors’ questionnaire was used to evaluate the intake of dietary supplements. The use of cluster analysis allowed to distinguish groups of students with similar socio-demographic characteristics and the frequency of use of dietary supplements. In the studied population of students three clusters were created that significantly differed in socio-demographic characteristics. In cluster 1 and 2, were mostly students who used dietary supplements (respectively, 56% of respondents and 100%). In cluster 1 there were mostly students coming from rural areas and small city, with a worse financial situation, mainly boys (56%), while cluster 2 was dominated by girls (81%) living in a big city, coming from families with a good financial situation and who were more likely to be underweight (28.8%). In cluster 3 there were mostly older students (62%), not taking dietary supplements. In comparison to cluster 2, they had lower frequency of breakfast consumption (55% vs. 69%), but higher frequency of the consumption of soft drinks, fast-food, coffee as well as salt use at the table. The results show that the use of dietary supplements in adolescence is a common phenomenon and slightly conditioned by eating behaviors. This unfavorable habit of common dietary supplements intake observed among students indicates the need for education on the benefits and risks of the supplements usage.

  4. 21 CFR 111.370 - What requirements apply to rejected dietary supplements?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... supplements? 111.370 Section 111.370 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... MANUFACTURING, PACKAGING, LABELING, OR HOLDING OPERATIONS FOR DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS Production and Process Control... supplements? You must clearly identify, hold, and control under a quarantine system for appropriate...

  5. Current dietary supplement use of Australian military veterans of Middle East operations.

    PubMed

    van der Pols, Jolieke C; Kanesarajah, Jeeva; Bell, Alison; Lui, Chi-Wai

    2017-08-15

    To assess patterns and levels of dietary supplement use among Australian Defence Forces, previously deployed to the Middle East Area of Operations. A cross-sectional study. Participants of a large survey self-completed questions about dietary supplement use, health status, personal and job-related characteristics, and lifestyle factors. Frequency of current use of supplements was assessed in three categories (bodybuilding, energy and weight loss). Middle East Area of Operations post-deployment health survey. Current and ex-serving Australian Defence Force personnel (n 14 032) who deployed to the Middle East between 2001 and 2009. Bodybuilding supplements were used by 17·5 % of participants, energy supplements by 24·5 % and weight-loss supplements by 7·6 %. Overall, 32·3 % of participants used any of these supplements. Bodybuilding and energy supplements were more often used by men, younger persons and those in the Army, while weight-loss supplements were more commonly used by women and Navy personnel. Supplements in all three categories were more commonly used by persons in lower ranks, active service and combat roles. Users of bodybuilding supplements had healthier lifestyles and better health status, while users of energy and weight-loss supplements had less healthy lifestyles and poorer mental and physical health status. Overall, 11·7 % of participants used supplements containing caffeine and 3·6 % used a creatine-containing product. Use of dietary supplements among Australian Defence Force personnel is common, and patterned by lifestyle factors and health status.

  6. Benefits of Selenium Supplementation on Leukocyte DNA Integrity Interact with Dietary Micronutrients: A Short Communication

    PubMed Central

    Karunasinghe, Nishi; Zhu, Shuotun; Ferguson, Lynnette R.

    2016-01-01

    A male cohort from New Zealand has previously shown variability in Selenium (Se) supplementation effects on measured biomarkers. The current analysis is to understand the reasons for variability of the H2O2-induced DNA damage recorded after Se supplementation. We have looked at the variation of demographic, lifestyle, medication, genetic and dietary factors and biomarkers measured at baseline and post-supplementation in these two extreme subgroups A and B. Group A showed increased H2O2-induced DNA damage and group B showed decreased damage after Se supplementation. We have also considered correlations of biomarkers and dietary factors in the complete dataset. The glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity and DNA damage were significantly lower at post-supplementation in Group B compared to Group A. Post-supplementation, Group B showed a significant reduction in the GPx activity, while Group A showed a significant increase in DNA damage compared to baseline levels. Dietary methionine intake was significantly higher and folate intake was significantly lower in Group B compared to Group A. Se supplementation significantly increased the caspase-cleaved keratin 18 levels in both groups, indicating increased apoptotic potential of this supplement. Parameter correlation with the complete dataset showed dietary methionine to have a significant negative correlation with H2O2-induced DNA damage post-supplementation. The data suggest that Se supplementation is beneficial for the leukocyte DNA integrity only in interaction with the dietary methionine and folate intake. PMID:27128937

  7. A structured vocabulary for indexing dietary supplements in databases in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Saldanha, Leila G; Dwyer, Johanna T; Holden, Joanne M; Ireland, Jayne D.; Andrews, Karen W; Bailey, Regan L; Gahche, Jaime J.; Hardy, Constance J; Møller, Anders; Pilch, Susan M.; Roseland, Janet M

    2011-01-01

    Food composition databases are critical to assess and plan dietary intakes. Dietary supplement databases are also needed because dietary supplements make significant contributions to total nutrient intakes. However, no uniform system exists for classifying dietary supplement products and indexing their ingredients in such databases. Differing approaches to classifying these products make it difficult to retrieve or link information effectively. A consistent approach to classifying information within food composition databases led to the development of LanguaL™, a structured vocabulary. LanguaL™ is being adapted as an interface tool for classifying and retrieving product information in dietary supplement databases. This paper outlines proposed changes to the LanguaL™ thesaurus for indexing dietary supplement products and ingredients in databases. The choice of 12 of the original 14 LanguaL™ facets pertinent to dietary supplements, modifications to their scopes, and applications are described. The 12 chosen facets are: Product Type; Source; Part of Source; Physical State, Shape or Form; Ingredients; Preservation Method, Packing Medium, Container or Wrapping; Contact Surface; Consumer Group/Dietary Use/Label Claim; Geographic Places and Regions; and Adjunct Characteristics of food. PMID:22611303

  8. Updates on chemical and biological research on botanical ingredients in dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Pawar, Rahul S; Tamta, Hemlata; Ma, Jun; Krynitsky, Alexander J; Grundel, Erich; Wamer, Wayne G; Rader, Jeanne I

    2013-05-01

    Increased use of dietary supplements is a phenomenon observed worldwide. In the USA, more than 40% of the population recently reported using complementary and alternative medicines, including botanical dietary supplements. Perceptions that such dietary supplements are natural and safe, may prevent disease, may replace prescription medicines, or may make up for a poor diet, play important roles in their increased use. Toxicity of botanical dietary supplements may result from the presence of naturally occurring toxic constituents or from contamination or adulteration with pharmaceutical agents, heavy metals, mycotoxins, pesticides, or bacteria, misidentification of a plant species in a product, formation of electrophilic metabolites, organ-specific reactions, or botanical-drug interactions. The topics discussed in this review illustrate several issues in recent research on botanical ingredients in dietary supplements. These include (1) whether 1,3-dimethylamylamine is a natural constituent of rose geranium (Pelargonium graveolens), (2) how analysis of the components of dietary supplements containing bitter melon (Momordica charantia) is essential to understanding their potential biological effects, and (3) how evolving methods for in vitro studies on botanical ingredients can contribute to safety evaluations. The virtual explosion in the use of botanical ingredients in hundreds of products presents a considerable challenge to the analytical community, and the need for appropriate methods cannot be overstated. We review recent developments and use of newer and increasingly sensitive methods that can contribute to increasing the safety and quality of botanical ingredients in dietary supplements.

  9. The ethics of dietary supplements and natural health products in pharmacy practice: a systematic documentary analysis.

    PubMed

    Boon, Heather; Hirschkorn, Kristine; Griener, Glenn; Cali, Michelle

    2009-02-01

    Many natural health products and dietary supplements are purchased in pharmacies and it has been argued that pharmacists are in the best position to provide patients with evidence-based information about them. This study was designed to identify how the pharmacist's role with respect to natural health products and dietary supplements is portrayed in the literature. A systematic search was conducted in a variety of health databases to identify all literature that pertained to both pharmacy and natural health products and dietary supplements. Of the 786 articles identified, 665 were broad-coded and 259 were subjected to in-depth qualitative content analysis for emergent themes. Overwhelmingly, support for the sale of natural health products and dietary supplements in pharmacies is strong. Additionally, a role for pharmacist counselling is underscored. But another recurrent theme is that pharmacists are ill-equipped to counsel patients about these products that are available on their shelves. This situation has led some to question the ethics of pharmacists selling natural health products and dietary supplements and to highlight the existence of an ethical conflict stemming from the profit-motive associated with sales of natural health products and dietary supplements. This analysis raises concerns about the ethics of natural health products and dietary supplements being sold in pharmacies, and about pharmacists being expected to provide counselling about products of which they have little knowledge.

  10. Dietary interventions for fetal growth restriction - therapeutic potential of dietary nitrate supplementation in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Cottrell, Elizabeth; Tropea, Teresa; Ormesher, Laura; Greenwood, Susan; Wareing, Mark; Johnstone, Edward; Myers, Jenny; Sibley, Colin

    2017-08-01

    Fetal growth restriction (FGR) affects around 5% of pregnancies and is associated with significant short- and long-term adverse outcomes. A number of factors can increase the risk of FGR, one of which is poor maternal diet. In terms of pathology, both clinically and in many experimental models of FGR, impaired uteroplacental vascular function is implicated, leading to a reduction in the delivery of oxygen and nutrients to the developing fetus. Whilst mechanisms underpinning impaired uteroplacental vascular function are not fully understood, interventions aimed at enhancing nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability remain a key area of interest in obstetric research. In addition to endogenous NO production from the amino acid l-arginine, via nitric oxide synthase (NOS) enzymes, research in recent years has established that significant NO can be derived from dietary nitrate, via the 'alternative NO pathway'. Dietary nitrate, abundant in green leafy vegetables and beetroot, can increase NO bioactivity, conferring beneficial effects on cardiovascular function and blood flow. Given the beneficial effects of dietary nitrate supplementation to date in non-pregnant humans and animals, current investigations aim to assess the therapeutic potential of this approach in pregnancy to enhance NO bioactivity, improve uteroplacental vascular function and increase fetal growth. © 2017 The Authors. The Journal of Physiology © 2017 The Physiological Society.

  11. Masters Swimmers Use More Dietary Supplements Than a Large National Comparison Population in the United States.

    PubMed

    Guthrie, Sally K; Erickson, Steven R

    2016-04-01

    The use of dietary supplements was compared between a cohort of committed exercisers, U.S. Masters Swimming (USMS) members (n = 1,042), and the general U.S. population, exemplified by respondents to the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) from 2009 to 2010 (n = 6,209). USMS swimmers were significantly more likely to take dietary supplements (62%) than the general U.S. adult population, as represented by the NHANES population (37%). Those taking dietary supplements were older, more likely to be female and Caucasian, and more highly educated and affluent than those not taking supplements (p < .001 for all). When adjusted for age, race, gender, annual income, and education, masters swimmers were still more likely (p < .001) to use dietary supplements than the NHANES cohort. In addition, masters swimmers were significantly more likely (p < .001) to use either creatine or dehydroepiandrosterone or testosterone than those in the NHANES cohort.

  12. Concomitant use of prescription medications and dietary supplements in menopausal women; an approach to provider preparedness

    PubMed Central

    Gardiner, Paula; Stargrove, Mitchell Bebel; Dog, Tieraona Low

    2010-01-01

    Dietary supplements are becoming increasingly popular as therapies for symptom relief among menopause-age women in the United States. However, a large gap exists between research in the concomitant use of prescription medications and dietary supplements and provider preparedness to guide patient decision making. Many menopausal women take prescription medications, over the counter medications, and herbs and dietary supplements for climactic symptoms or other health conditions. With any drug, there is the potential for interactions. Women taking medications with a narrow therapeutic index, such as anticoagulants, anticonvulsants, and drugs for the treatment of chronic diseases, are at particular risk. Patients should be queried regarding their use of dietary supplements when starting or stopping a prescription drug, or if unexpected reactions occur. When counseling patients, one must carefully consider the risks and benefits of each supplement and medication being taken by each individual. PMID:21168291

  13. Dietary Supplementation in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: Common, Insufficient, and Excessive.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Patricia A; Hyman, Susan L; Schmidt, Brianne L; Macklin, Eric A; Reynolds, Ann; Johnson, Cynthia R; James, S Jill; Manning-Courtney, Patricia

    2015-08-01

    Little is known about the effect on dietary adequacy of supplements given to children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This cross-sectional study examines dietary supplement use and micronutrient intake in children with ASD. Three-day diet/supplement records and use of a gluten/casein-free diet (GFCF) were documented. Estimates of usual intake of micronutrients from food and supplements were compared with the Dietary Reference Intakes. Children aged 2 to 11 years (N=288) with ASD from five Autism Treatment Network sites from 2009-2011. Percentage of children meeting or exceeding upper limits of micronutrient intake with or without supplements and relative to GFCF diet status. Micronutrient intake from food and supplements was compared by Spearman rank correlation. Usual intake was estimated by the National Cancer Institute method adjusted for age, sex, supplement use, and GFCF diet. Adequacy of intake was compared between supplement use status and between food and total intake in supplement users relative to Dietary Reference Intakes limits. Dietary supplements, especially multivitamin/minerals, were used by 56% of children with ASD. The most common micronutrient deficits were not corrected (vitamin D, calcium, potassium, pantothenic acid, and choline) by supplements. Almost one-third of children remained deficient for vitamin D and up to 54% for calcium. Children receiving GFCF diets had similar micronutrient intake but were more likely to use supplements (78% vs 56%; P=0.01). Supplementation led to excess vitamin A, folate, and zinc intake across the sample, vitamin C, and copper among children aged 2 to 3 years, and manganese and copper for children aged 4 to 8 years. Few children with ASD need most of the micronutrients they are commonly given as supplements, which often leads to excess intake. Even when supplements are used, careful attention should be given to adequacy of vitamin D and calcium intake. Copyright © 2015 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics

  14. Nutrient intake and use of dietary supplements among US adults with disabilities.

    PubMed

    An, Ruopeng; Chiu, Chung-Yi; Andrade, Flavia

    2015-04-01

    Physical, mental, social, and financial hurdles in adults with disabilities may limit their access to adequate nutrition. To examine the impact of dietary supplement use on daily total nutrient intake levels among US adults 20 years and older with disabilities. Study sample came from 2007-2008 and 2009-2010 waves of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, a nationally representative repeated cross-sectional survey. Disability was classified into 5 categories using standardized indices. Nutrient intakes from foods and dietary supplements were calculated from 2 nonconsecutive 24-hour dietary recalls. Two-sample proportion tests and multiple logistic regressions were used to examine the adherence rates to the recommended daily nutrient intake levels between dietary supplement users and nonusers in each disability category. The association between sociodemographic characteristics and dietary supplement use was assessed using multiple logistic regressions, accounting for complex survey design. A substantial proportion of the US adult population with disabilities failed to meet dietary guidelines, with insufficient intakes of multiple nutrients. Over half of the US adults with disabilities used dietary supplements. Dietary supplement use was associated with higher adherence rates for vitamin A, vitamin B1, vitamin B2, vitamin B6, vitamin B12, vitamin C, vitamin D, vitamin E, calcium, copper, iron, magnesium, and zinc intake among adults with disabilities. Women, non-Hispanic Whites, older age, higher education, and higher household income were found to predict dietary supplement use. Proper use of dietary supplements under the guidance of health care providers may improve the nutritional status among adults with disabilities. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Identification, quantitation and biological activity of phytoestrogens in a dietary supplement for breast enhancement.

    PubMed

    Coldham, N G; Sauer, M J

    2001-12-01

    A hop-based dietary supplement, marketed for natural breast enhancement, was analysed to determine the identity and biological activity of active constituents and potential biological effects in man. Extracts of the dietary supplement were analysed by LC-MS(n) and phytoestrogens identified and quantitated by reference to appropriate standards. Only hop-associated phytoestrogens were found in the dietary supplement at significant concentrations as follows (mean+/-1 S.D.); 8-prenylnaringenin 10.9+/-0.3, 6-prenylnaringenin 27.4+/-1.2, 6,8-diprenylnaringenin 0.9+/-0.1, xanthohumol 321+/-17 and isoxanthohumol 81.1+/-1.6 microg/g of dietary supplement. The oestrogenic activity of extracts in an ERalpha reporter gene assay was equivalent to 48+/-6.3 ng 17beta-oestradiol/g supplement and consistent with the 8-prenylnaringenin content. The dietary supplement extract also inhibited reductive 17beta-hydroxysteroid oxidoreductase activity, but to a greater extent than a concentration matched reference mixture of hop phytoestrogens. However, the supplement was only weakly active in mouse uterotrophic assays following administration in feed or after subcutaneous injection of extract at doses of 8-PN up to 250 times higher than that recommended for women. These preliminary findings suggest that the dietary supplement is unlikely to produce oestrogenic effects in vivo at the level of the uterus; supporting evidence is still required to demonstrate efficacy.

  16. Caffeine and Creatine Content of Dietary Supplements Consumed by Brazilian Soccer Players.

    PubMed

    Inácio, Suelen Galante; de Oliveira, Gustavo Vieira; Alvares, Thiago Silveira

    2016-08-01

    Caffeine and creatine are ingredients in the most popular dietary supplements consumed by soccer players. However, some products may not contain the disclosed amounts of the ingredients listed on the label, compromising the safe usage and the effectiveness of these supplements. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the content of caffeine and creatine in dietary supplements consumed by Brazilian soccer players. The results obtained were compared with the caffeine content listed on the product label. Two batches of the supplement brands consumed by ≥ 50% of the players were considered for analysis. The quantification of caffeine and creatine in the supplements was determined by a high-performance liquid chromatography system with UV detector. Nine supplements of caffeine and 7 supplements of creatine met the inclusion criteria for analysis. Eight brands of caffeine and five brands of creatine showed significantly different values (p < .05) as compared with the values stated on the label. There were no significant differences between the two batches of supplements analyzed, except for one caffeine supplement. It can be concluded that caffeine and creatine dietary supplements consumed by Brazilian soccer players present inaccurate values listed on the label, although most presented no difference among batches. To ensure consumer safety and product efficacy, accurate information on caffeine and creatine content should be provided on all dietary supplement labels.

  17. Dietary supplement use by South Korean adults: Data from the national complementary and alternative medicine use survey (NCAMUS) in 2006

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Seung-Sik; Lee, Jeong-Seop; Song, Chan-Hee; Ock, Chan-Myung

    2010-01-01

    There has been little data on the prevalence of supplement use and the characteristics of the dietary supplement users in the Republic of Korea. This study presents the prevalence and the details of any dietary supplement use and the characteristics of the adults who use dietary supplements in the Republic of Korea. Between May 18 and June 16, 2006, nationwide and population-weighted personal interviews with 6,201 adult aged from 30 to 69 years were conducted and the final sample consisted of 3,000 people with a 49.8% response rate. We examined the prevalence and details of the use of dietary supplements and the characteristics of those who use the dietary supplement among adults. About sixty two percent of adults had taken any dietary supplement during the previous 12-month period in 2006. The most commonly reported dietary supplement was ginseng, followed by multivitamins, glucosamine, probiotics, and vitamin C. Female (versus male), an older age group, a higher family income, those living in metropolitan cities, those with marital experience, those with a higher level of education, and those having medical problems had a greater likelihood of reporting the use of any dietary supplements. The particular relationships differed depending on the type of supplement. The most Korean adults took one more dietary supplement and the dietary supplement users had different demographic and health characteristics compared to those of the nonusers. Research on diet supplements by the medical community is needed in the future. PMID:20198211

  18. Vitamin and mineral supplement use by healthy teenagers in Korea: motivating factors and dietary consequences.

    PubMed

    Kim, S H; Han, J H; Keen, C L

    2001-05-01

    The use of vitamin and mineral supplements is increasing among young individuals. We surveyed 972 Korean teenagers (age 13-18 y ) for their use of vitamin/mineral supplements, their motivational factors, and the dietary consequences of supplement use. Prevalence of vitamin/mineral supplement use was 31%. Supplement use was highest in high-school students, females, individuals living in rural communities, and individuals from families in high socioeconomic strata. The supplements used most frequently were vitamin C, multivitamins, and vitamin A. Supplement users had a more positive view of the potential health benefits of supplements than did non-users. Most supplements were taken daily. Vitamins B2, B6, and C were the most frequently ingested nutrients from vitamin/mineral supplements. Vitamin/mineral intakes from supplements had a wide range, with mean intakes typically exceeding Korean or the U.S./Canadian recommended dietary allowances. Vitamins B12, B1, and C and iron comprised 2770%, 1930%, 1120%, and 1026%, respectively, of the Korean recommended dietary allowances. When nutrient intakes from the diet and supplements were combined, intakes of niacin, vitamin C, and iron exceeded the recommended upper-intake levels for these nutrients. The health benefits and risks of supplement use by teenagers merits further study.

  19. Use of dietary supplements for weight loss in the United States: results of a national survey.

    PubMed

    Pillitteri, Janine L; Shiffman, Saul; Rohay, Jeffrey M; Harkins, Andrea M; Burton, Steven L; Wadden, Thomas A

    2008-04-01

    We examined dietary supplement use for weight loss and perceptions about safety, efficacy, and regulatory oversight of these products. A random digit-dialed telephone survey was conducted in 2005-2006, with a representative sample of 3,500 US adults. The survey assessed the beliefs and practices related to weight control. Outcome measures included the prevalence of dietary supplement use for weight reduction, demographic profile of supplement users, and knowledge about safety, efficacy, and regulation of dietary supplements. Of the adults who made a serious weight-loss attempt (n = 1,444), 33.9% reported ever using a dietary supplement for weight loss. Supplement use was more common among women (44.9%) vs. men (19.8%); those aged 25-34; African Americans (48.7%) or Hispanics (41.6%) vs. whites (31.2%); less educated (38.4% high school degree or less vs. 31.1% some college or more); lower income households (41.8% made <$40K vs. 30.3% made > or =$40K); obese (40.7%) vs. overweight (29.1%); those who made more lifetime weight-loss attempts (42.0% made > or =3 vs. 22.1% made <3); and those who used more weight-loss methods (48.2% used > or =4 vs. 25.2% used <4). Many users and non-users of dietary supplements had misperceptions about these products-many believed they are evaluated for safety and efficacy by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) before marketing, and that dietary supplements are safer than over-the-counter (OTC) or prescription medications. Use of dietary supplements for weight loss is common. More information about dietary supplements is necessary to correct misperceptions and encourage the use of safe and effective weight-loss methods.

  20. Mutational Meltdown in Large Sexual Populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernardes, A. T.

    1995-11-01

    When a new individual is formed (independently of the reproduction process) it inherits harmful mutations. Moreover, new mutations are acquired even in the genetic code formation, most of them deleterious ones. This might lead to a time decay in the mean fitness of the whole population that, for long enough time, would produce the extinction of the species. This process is called Mutational Meltdown and such question used to be considered in the biological literature as a problem that only occurs in small populations. In contrast with earlier biological assumptions, here we present results obtained in different models showing that the mutational meltdown can occur in large populations, even in sexual reproductive ones. We used a bit-string model introduced to study the time evolution of age-structured populations and a genetically inspired model that allows to observe the time evolution of the population mean fitness.

  1. Dietary supplementation with apple juice decreases endogenous amyloid-beta levels in murine brain.

    PubMed

    Chan, Amy; Shea, Thomas B

    2009-01-01

    Folate deficiency has been associated with age-related neurodegeneration. We demonstrate herein that dietary deficiency in folate and vitamin E, coupled pro-oxidant stress induced by dietary iron, increased amyloid-beta (Abeta) levels in normal adult mice. This increase was potentiated by apolipoprotein E (ApoE) deficiency as shown by treatment of transgenic mice homozygously lacking murine ApoE. Dietary supplementation with apple juice concentrate in drinking water alleviated the increase in Abeta for both mouse genotypes. These findings provide further evidence linking nutritional and genetic risk factors for age-related neurodegeneration, and underscore that dietary supplementation may be useful to augment therapeutic approaches.

  2. Dietary supplementation with mulberry leaf flavonoids inhibits methanogenesis in sheep.

    PubMed

    Ma, Tao; Chen, Dan-Dan; Tu, Yan; Zhang, Nai-Feng; Si, Bing-Wen; Diao, Qi-Yu

    2017-01-01

    The effects of flavonoids on methanogenesis and microbial flora in Dorper × thin-tailed Han crossbred ewes were evaluated in two experiments. To investigate the effects of flavonoids on nutrient digestibility and nitrogen balance, 18 ewes (60.0 ± 1.73 kg body weight (BW)) were allotted to two dietary treatments in experiment one, a control diet and the control diet supplemented with flavonoids (2 g/head/day). In experiment two, the effects of supplementary flavonoids on ruminal fermentation and microbial flora were investigated using quantitative polymerase chain reaction with six ewes (67.2 ± 0.79 kg BW) with ruminal cannula assigned to the identical dietary treatments used in experiment one. Supplementary flavonoids improved the apparent digestibility of nitrogen (N, P < 0.001) and neutral detergent fibre (NDF, P = 0.024) and decreased daily CH4 output (P < 0.001). The ruminal pH (P = 0.638) and ammonia (P = 0.690) were not affected by supplementary flavonoids, whereas the total volatile fatty acid (VFA) content increased (P = 0.037). Supplementary flavonoids decreased ruminal populations of protozoans (P = 0.002) and methanogens (P < 0.001) and increased the populations of Fibrobacter succinogenes (P = 0.016). In conclusion, flavonoids improved the digestibility of organic matter and reduced CH4 output by inhibiting the populations of microbes involved in methanogenesis.

  3. Consumer attitudes about the role of multivitamins and other dietary supplements: report of a survey.

    PubMed

    Dickinson, Annette; MacKay, Douglas; Wong, Andrea

    2015-07-02

    U.S. nutrition surveys find that intakes of many nutrients fall short of recommendations. The majority of U.S. adults use multivitamins and other dietary supplements as one means of improving nutrient intakes. Some policy makers and health professionals appear reluctant to recommend routine use of dietary supplements to fill nutrient gaps in the diet, in part because they are concerned that people will view the supplements as a substitute for dietary improvement and that the use of supplements may lead to overconsumption of micronutrients. Surveys find that in fact users of dietary supplements tend to have better diets and adopt other healthy habits, suggesting that the supplements are viewed as one aspect of an overall effort to improve wellness. Furthermore, evidence demonstrates that the incidence of excess micronutrient intake is low. We report the results of a survey probing consumer attitudes about the role of dietary supplements. The Council for Responsible Nutrition funded a survey to measure consumer attitudes about the role of multivitamins, calcium and/or vitamin D supplements, and other supplements in improving dietary intakes. The research was designed and analyzed by FoodMinds and was fielded using Toluna's On-line Omnibus. The weighted sample of 2159 respondents is representative of U.S. adults. Nearly 90% of the survey respondents agreed that multivitamins and supplements of calcium and/or vitamin D can help meet nutrient needs when desirable intakes are not achieved through food alone. At the same time, 80% agreed that dietary supplements should not be used to replace healthy dietary or lifestyle habits, and 82% agreed that people considering taking a high dose, single nutrient supplement should talk with their physician. These results provide additional support for the conclusion that the vast majority of consumers recognize that multivitamins and other supplements can help fill nutrient gaps but should not be viewed as replacements for a healthy

  4. The Regulation of Dietary Supplements in Canada: Many Promises but Little Progress.

    PubMed

    Temple, Norman J

    2016-07-05

    This article examines key issues concerning the regulation of dietary supplements in Canada. The article looks at problems related to both the composition of supplements and of marketing practices. It looks back to the situation around 1999, the year of the introduction of the new system for the regulation of supplements, and then assesses the situation now. The new system has failed to bring about the intended improvement in either the formulation of supplements or the level of honesty in their marketing.

  5. Regulation of Dietary Supplements in the Military. Report of an Expert Panel

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    For a high proportion of supplements , particularly herbals , effec- tiveness is an area of considerable research and controversy. Concerns about the...during the yearly physical, comprise sports drinks without creatine, ephedra, or other herbal supplements ; supplements providing solely protein; vitamins...REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2011 to 00-00-2011 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Regulation of Dietary Supplements in the Military: Report of an

  6. Dietary and cancer-related behaviors of vitamin/mineral dietary supplement users in a large cohort of French women

    PubMed Central

    Touvier, Mathilde; Kesse, Emanuelle; Volatier, Jean-Luc; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine

    2006-01-01

    Summary Background Several epidemiological studies suggested an association between vitamin/mineral dietary supplement use and cancer risk. However, characteristics of supplement users may themselves be related to cancer risk, and therefore could confound such etiological studies. Very little is known about the characteristics of French supplement users. Aim of the study To identify cancer-related behaviors and dietary characteristics of vitamin/mineral supplement users in the E3N cohort of French women. Methods Data on supplement use and cancer-related and socio-demographic characteristics were collected by self-administered questionnaires completed by 83,058 women, 67,229 of whom also completed a food frequency questionnaire. Supplement users were compared to non-users by unconditional logistic regression. Results Vitamin/mineral supplement users were significantly older and leaner (odds ratio [OR] for BMI ≥ 30 vs. <18.5 kg/m2=0.35, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.31–0.39), were less often current smokers, had a higher level of education and had more leisure physical activity. They used more phytooestrogen supplements (OR=3.95, 95 % CI 3.69–4.23), had more often a family history of breast cancer and had more often undergone cancer-screening. Users tended to have a healthier diet: less alcohol, more vegetables, fruit, dairy products, fish and soups. They had higher dietary intakes for most micronutrients, fiber and ω3 fatty acids, lower fat intake and either similar or lower prevalence of inadequate dietary intake for all relevant nutrients except magnesium. Conclusions To avoid major confounding, the lifestyle characteristics of supplement users should be considered in studies investigating the association between supplement use and cancer risk. PMID:16382374

  7. Dietary supplement use is associated with higher intakes of minerals from food sources.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Regan L; Fulgoni, Victor L; Keast, Debra R; Dwyer, Johanna T

    2011-11-01

    Dietary supplement use is extensive in US adults. Some reports suggested that supplement users had higher nutrient intakes from the diet than did nonusers, but to our knowledge this finding has not been examined in nationally representative survey data. In this analysis, we examined mineral intakes from the diet by supplement-use categories and how these supplements contributed to meeting or exceeding Dietary Reference Intakes for selected minerals. Data from adults (≥19 y of age; n = 8860) who participated in NHANES 2003-2006, a nationally representative, cross-sectional survey, were examined. Supplement use was defined as the participant's self-reported use of a supplement that contained one or more selected minerals. Dietary intakes of minerals from food sources were higher for magnesium, copper, potassium, and selenium in male supplement users than in nonusers. For women, dietary intakes of minerals from food sources were higher for users than for nonusers for each mineral examined except for selenium. In women, users of calcium-containing dietary supplements were much more likely to meet the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) than were nonusers. Even after consideration of supplement use, >14% of adults had inadequate intakes for calcium and magnesium on the basis of the percentage of adults with usual intakes less than the EAR. The prevalence of adults who exceeded the tolerable upper intake level (UL) for calcium, zinc, iron, and magnesium was higher in users than in nonusers. Individuals who used mineral-containing dietary supplements had higher mineral intakes from food sources in the diet than did nonusers. For all minerals examined, and particularly for calcium and magnesium in men and women and iron in women, supplement use decreased the prevalence of intake inadequacy for each respective mineral; however, supplements contributed to risk of potentially excessive intakes for calcium, iron, zinc, and magnesium.

  8. Dietary supplement use is associated with higher intakes of minerals from food sources1234

    PubMed Central

    Fulgoni, Victor L; Keast, Debra R; Dwyer, Johanna T

    2011-01-01

    Background: Dietary supplement use is extensive in US adults. Some reports suggested that supplement users had higher nutrient intakes from the diet than did nonusers, but to our knowledge this finding has not been examined in nationally representative survey data. Objective: In this analysis, we examined mineral intakes from the diet by supplement-use categories and how these supplements contributed to meeting or exceeding Dietary Reference Intakes for selected minerals. Design: Data from adults (≥19 y of age; n = 8860) who participated in NHANES 2003–2006, a nationally representative, cross-sectional survey, were examined. Supplement use was defined as the participant's self-reported use of a supplement that contained one or more selected minerals. Results: Dietary intakes of minerals from food sources were higher for magnesium, copper, potassium, and selenium in male supplement users than in nonusers. For women, dietary intakes of minerals from food sources were higher for users than for nonusers for each mineral examined except for selenium. In women, users of calcium-containing dietary supplements were much more likely to meet the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) than were nonusers. Even after consideration of supplement use, >14% of adults had inadequate intakes for calcium and magnesium on the basis of the percentage of adults with usual intakes less than the EAR. The prevalence of adults who exceeded the tolerable upper intake level (UL) for calcium, zinc, iron, and magnesium was higher in users than in nonusers. Conclusions: Individuals who used mineral-containing dietary supplements had higher mineral intakes from food sources in the diet than did nonusers. For all minerals examined, and particularly for calcium and magnesium in men and women and iron in women, supplement use decreased the prevalence of intake inadequacy for each respective mineral; however, supplements contributed to risk of potentially excessive intakes for calcium, iron, zinc

  9. Overview of regulation of dietary supplements in the USA and issues of adulteration with phenethylamines (PEAs).

    PubMed

    Pawar, Rahul S; Grundel, Erich

    2016-06-03

    The multi-billion dollar dietary supplement industry is global in reach. The industry has been criticized for problems related to poor quality control, safety, misbranding, and adulteration. In this review, we describe how the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulates dietary supplements within the framework of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FD&C Act). The Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act of 1994 (DSHEA), which amended the FD&C Act, gave the FDA the authority to promulgate Good Manufacturing Practices for dietary supplements and required that manufacturers provide the FDA information supporting a conclusion that the ingredients are reasonably expected to be safe if the dietary ingredients were not marketed in the USA before 15 October 1994. Recent amendments to the FD&C Act require that serious dietary-supplement-related adverse events be reported to the FDA and provide the agency with mandatory recall authority. We discuss the presence of naturally occurring (e.g. Ephedra, Citrus aurantium, Acacia) and synthetic (e.g. β-methylphenethylamines, methylsynephrine, α-ethyl-phenethylamine) biologically active phenethylamines (PEAs) in dietary supplements and of PEA drugs (e.g. clenbuterol, fenfluramine, sibutramine, lorcaserin) in weight-loss products. Regulatory actions against manufacturers of products labelled as dietary supplements that contain the aliphatic amines 1,3-dimethylamine and 1,3-dimethylbutylamine, and PEAs such as β-methylphenethylamine, aegeline, and Dendrobium illustrate the FDA's use of its authority under the FD&C Act to promote dietary supplement safety. Published 2016. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  10. Dietary supplements in the management of hypertension and diabetes - a review.

    PubMed

    Afolayan, Anthony Jide; Wintola, Olubunmi Abosede

    2014-01-01

    The use of alternative therapies like herbs and dietary supplements is very common among hypertensive and diabetic patients all over the globe. Hypertension is a silent disease that causes increase in cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, renal morbidity and mortality whereas diabetic complications cause heart attack, stroke, blindness and kidney disease. These are serious and chronic metabolic disorders that have a significant impact on the health, quality of life, and life expectancy of patients, as well as on the health care systems. Orthodox drugs used for the treatment of hypertension and diabetes produce side effects such as headache, nausea, vomiting, stomach pain, constipation, diarrhea, weakness, fatigue and erectile dysfunction. The need for considering alternate therapies in the form of dietary supplements known to promote good health, having little or no side effects therefore arises. This review was carried out using comprehensive and systematic literature reports on the concurrent use of dietary supplements in the management of diabetes and hypertension. Empirical searches were conducted using Google scholar (http://scholar.google.com), and Science Direct (http://www.sciencedirect.com). In addition to these databases, the University database was also used. Searches were also undertaken using keyword combinations such as dietary supplements and the names of the diseases in question. This review chronicled the therapeutic values of vitamins, minerals, amino acids, fruits, vegetables, herbs and other botanicals used as dietary supplements. Results show that these supplements provided better and safe substitutes to toxic and expensive conventional drugs. Generally dietary supplements are free from major side effects, readily available and affordable. It is envisaged that the use of dietary supplement will promote good health and improve the status of hypertensive and diabetic patients. Medical doctors are therefore encouraged to incorporate dietary supplements

  11. Health habits and other characteristics of dietary supplement users: a review

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Dietary supplements are used by half to two-thirds of American adults, and the evidence suggests that this usage is one component of a larger effort to develop a healthier lifestyle. Dietary supplement users tend on average to be better educated and to have somewhat higher incomes than nonusers, and these factors may contribute to their health-consciousness. Dietary supplement use also tends to be more prevalent among women than among men, and the prevalence of use increases with age in both men and women. Numerous surveys document that users of dietary supplements are significantly more likely than nonusers to have somewhat better dietary patterns, exercise regularly, maintain a healthy weight, and avoid tobacco products. While supplement users tend to have better diets than nonusers, the differences are relatively small, their diets have some substantial nutrient shortfalls, and their supplement use has been shown to improve the adequacy of nutrient intakes. Overall, the evidence suggests that users of dietary supplements are seeking wellness and are consciously adopting a variety of lifestyle habits that they consider to contribute to healthy living. PMID:24499096

  12. Mixing Medications and Dietary Supplements Can Endanger Your Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... effective when taken with St. John’s Wort, an herbal supplement. Depending on the medication involved, the results OMCvoeeurd- ... a prescrip- tion blood thinner), ginkgo biloba (an herbal supplement), aspirin and vita- min E (a supplement) can ...

  13. Use of dietary supplements in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition calibration study.

    PubMed

    Skeie, G; Braaten, T; Hjartåker, A; Lentjes, M; Amiano, P; Jakszyn, P; Pala, V; Palanca, A; Niekerk, E M; Verhagen, H; Avloniti, K; Psaltopoulou, T; Niravong, M; Touvier, M; Nimptsch, K; Haubrock, J; Walker, L; Spencer, E A; Roswall, N; Olsen, A; Wallström, P; Nilsson, S; Casagrande, C; Deharveng, G; Hellström, V; Boutron-Ruault, M-C; Tjønneland, A; Joensen, A M; Clavel-Chapelon, F; Trichopoulou, A; Martinez, C; Rodríguez, L; Frasca, G; Sacerdote, C; Peeters, P H M; Linseisen, J; Schienkiewitz, A; Welch, A A; Manjer, J; Ferrari, P; Riboli, E; Bingham, S; Engeset, D; Lund, E; Slimani, N

    2009-11-01

    Dietary supplement use is increasing, but there are few comparable data on supplement intakes and how they affect the nutrition and health of European consumers. The aim of this study was to describe the use of dietary supplements in subsamples of the 10 countries participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Specific questions on dietary supplement use were asked as a part of single 24-h recalls performed on 36,034 men and women aged 35-74 years from 1995 to 2000. Between countries, the mean percentage of dietary supplement use varied almost 10-fold among women and even more among men. There was a clear north-south gradient in use, with a higher consumption in northern countries. The lowest crude mean percentage of use was found in Greece (2.0% among men, 6.7% among women), and the highest was in Denmark (51.0% among men, 65.8% among women). Use was higher in women than in men. Vitamins, minerals or combinations of them were the predominant types of supplements reported, but there were striking differences between countries. This study indicates that there are wide variations in supplement use in Europe, which may affect individual and population nutrient intakes. The results underline the need to monitor consumption of dietary supplements in Europe, as well as to evaluate the risks and benefits.

  14. National nutrition data: contributions and challenges to monitoring dietary supplement use in women.

    PubMed

    Radimer, Kathy L

    2003-06-01

    Survey data from three nationally representative surveys--the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, National Health Interview Survey and Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals--indicate that, in general, women are greater consumers of dietary supplements than men in terms of overall prevalence of use and number of supplements taken. However, monitoring dietary supplement use over time and aggregation or comparison of findings over different surveys is hampered by a lack of comparability between survey data collection and analysis. Differences exist in the types of dietary supplements queried, use of a referent time frame, specificity regarding the supplement taken and level of detail collected relating to personal usage. Some comparability in supplement data collection may be possible but some inconsistencies may persist because of differences in survey goals or collection procedures. Collection of data on dietary supplement use is challenging and collection of very detailed and precise data are time consuming and expensive. Consequently, the level of detail and precision necessary for monitoring, research, and policy uses is an issue that should be addressed in view of the high monetary and time costs of detailed dietary supplement data collection, as well as increased demands on survey respondent time.

  15. Phytoestrogens in botanical dietary supplements: implications for cancer.

    PubMed

    Piersen, Colleen E

    2003-06-01

    Phytoestrogens are plant constituents that possess either estrogenic or antiestrogenic activity. Although their activities are weak as compared with human endogenous estrogens, the consumption of phytoestrogens may have clinically significant consequences. A number of botanicals, or the compounds contained therein, have been identified as putative estrogenic agents, but consensus in the biomedical community has been hampered by conflicting data from various in vitro and in vivo models of estrogenic activity. Phytoestrogens may serve as chemopreventive agents while at the same time being capable of promoting growth in estrogen receptor positive cancer cell lines. Furthermore, they may exert their estrogenic influence through receptor-dependent and/or receptor-independent mechanisms. These findings have led to speculation that phytoestrogen intake might be ill advised for patients at an increased risk for hormone-dependent cancers, cancer patients, or cancer survivors. This article will attempt to sort out discrepancies between various experimental models and establish whether certain herbs possess estrogenic activity. The review will focus on 5 popular botanical dietary supplements: Trifolium pratense (red clover), Cimicifuga racemosa (black cohosh), Humulus lupulus (hops), Angelica sinensis (dong quai), and Glycyrrhiza glabra (licorice). It will address their mechanisms of action, clinical evidence bases, and implications for use in cancer.

  16. Third-party certification of dietary supplements: prevalence and concerns.

    PubMed

    Cancio, Anthony; Eliason, Michael J; Mercer, Jennifer; Tran, Thu; Deuster, Patricia A; Stephens, Mark B

    2012-12-01

    According to recent studies, over 50% of the general population (and nearly 70% of military personnel) report regular use of dietary supplements (DS). Military personnel may be at greater risk for adverse reactions to DS because of operational environments and stressors (extreme heat, altitude, or sleep deprivation) associated with military deployments and training. As a recent example, the Department of Defense placed a medical hold on all DS containing the ingredient 1,3-dimethylamylamine in response to several fatalities linked to the use of this product. This study investigated product certification for DS in military commissaries (grocery stores), exchanges (department stores), and civilian retail stores. Overall, only 12% of the available products were certified by an independent scientific agency. Consumers should be aware that most over-the-counter DS do not have independent certification of product integrity. Although "third-party certification" does not ensure DS safety or effectiveness, it is important that consumers and health care providers are made aware that such product screening takes place, to help patients make more informed decisions about the purchase and use of DS.

  17. Hepatotoxicity by Dietary Supplements: A Tabular Listing and Clinical Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    García-Cortés, Miren; Robles-Díaz, Mercedes; Ortega-Alonso, Aida; Medina-Caliz, Inmaculada; Andrade, Raul J.

    2016-01-01

    Dietary supplements (DS) are extensively consumed worldwide despite unproven efficacy. The true incidence of DS-induced liver injury (DSILI) is unknown but is probably under-diagnosed due to the general belief of safety of these products. Reported cases of herbals and DS-induced liver injury are increasing worldwide. The aim of this manuscript is to report a tabular listing with a description of DS associated with hepatotoxicity as well as review the phenotype and severity of DSILI. Natural remedies related to hepatotoxicity can be divided into herbal product-induced liver injury and DS-induced liver injury. In this article, we describe different DS associated with liver injury, some of them manufactured DS containing several ingredients (Herbalife™ products, Hydroxycut™, LipoKinetix™, UCP-1 and OxyELITE™) while others have a single ingredient (green tea extract, linoleic acid, usnic acid, 1,3-Dimethylamylamine, vitamin A, Garcinia cambogia and ma huang). Additional DS containing some of the aforementioned ingredients implicated in liver injury are also covered. We have also included illicit androgenic anabolic steroids for bodybuilding in this work, as they are frequently sold under the denomination of DS despite being conventional drugs. PMID:27070596

  18. Mechanical Properties of a Calcium Dietary Supplement, Calcium Fumarate Trihydrate.

    PubMed

    Sun, Shijing; Henke, Sebastian; Wharmby, Michael T; Yeung, Hamish H-M; Li, Wei; Cheetham, Anthony K

    2015-12-07

    The mechanical properties of calcium fumarate trihydrate, a 1D coordination polymer considered for use as a calcium source for food and beverage enrichment, have been determined via nanoindentation and high-pressure X-ray diffraction with single crystals. The nanoindentation studies reveal that the elastic modulus (16.7-33.4 GPa, depending on crystallographic orientation), hardness (1.05-1.36 GPa), yield stress (0.70-0.90 GPa), and creep behavior (0.8-5.8 nm/s) can be rationalized in view of the anisotropic crystal structure; factors include the directionality of the inorganic Ca-O-Ca chain and hydrogen bonding, as well as the orientation of the fumarate ligands. High-pressure single-crystal X-ray diffraction studies show a bulk modulus of ∼ 20 GPa, which is indicative of elastic recovery intermediate between small molecule drug crystals and inorganic pharmaceutical ingredients. The combined use of nanoindentation and high-pressure X-ray diffraction techniques provides a complementary experimental approach for probing the critical mechanical properties related to tableting of these dietary supplements.

  19. Hepatotoxicity by Dietary Supplements: A Tabular Listing and Clinical Characteristics.

    PubMed

    García-Cortés, Miren; Robles-Díaz, Mercedes; Ortega-Alonso, Aida; Medina-Caliz, Inmaculada; Andrade, Raul J

    2016-04-09

    Dietary supplements (DS) are extensively consumed worldwide despite unproven efficacy. The true incidence of DS-induced liver injury (DSILI) is unknown but is probably under-diagnosed due to the general belief of safety of these products. Reported cases of herbals and DS-induced liver injury are increasing worldwide. The aim of this manuscript is to report a tabular listing with a description of DS associated with hepatotoxicity as well as review the phenotype and severity of DSILI. Natural remedies related to hepatotoxicity can be divided into herbal product-induced liver injury and DS-induced liver injury. In this article, we describe different DS associated with liver injury, some of them manufactured DS containing several ingredients (Herbalife™ products, Hydroxycut™, LipoKinetix™, UCP-1 and OxyELITE™) while others have a single ingredient (green tea extract, linoleic acid, usnic acid, 1,3-Dimethylamylamine, vitamin A, Garcinia cambogia and ma huang). Additional DS containing some of the aforementioned ingredients implicated in liver injury are also covered. We have also included illicit androgenic anabolic steroids for bodybuilding in this work, as they are frequently sold under the denomination of DS despite being conventional drugs.

  20. The Determination of Calcium in Dietary Supplement Tablets by Ion-Exchange.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dietz, Mark L.

    1986-01-01

    An experimental simple ion-exchange experiment in which the amount of calcium present in dietary supplement tablets has been developed is described and some typical student results for several brands of tablets are presented. (JN)

  1. Feasibility of Including Green Tea Products for an Analytically Verified Dietary Supplement Database

    PubMed Central

    Saldanha, Leila; Dwyer, Johanna; Andrews, Karen; Betz, Joseph; Harnely, James; Pehrsson, Pamela; Rimmer, Catherine; Savarala, Sushma

    2015-01-01

    The Dietary Supplement Ingredient Database (DSID) is a federally funded, publicly accessible dietary supplement database that currently contains analytically-derived information on micronutrients in selected adult and children’s multivitamin and mineral (MVM) supplements. Other constituents in dietary supplement products such as botanicals are also of interest and thus are being considered for inclusion in the DSID. Thirty-eight constituents, mainly botanicals were identified and prioritized by a federal interagency committee. Green tea was selected from this list as the botanical for expansion of the DSID. This paper describes the process for prioritizing dietary ingredients in the DSID. It also discusses the criteria for inclusion of these ingredients, and the approach for selecting and testing products for the green tea pilot study. PMID:25817236

  2. The Determination of Calcium in Dietary Supplement Tablets by Ion-Exchange.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dietz, Mark L.

    1986-01-01

    An experimental simple ion-exchange experiment in which the amount of calcium present in dietary supplement tablets has been developed is described and some typical student results for several brands of tablets are presented. (JN)

  3. Chromatographic fingerprint analysis of yohimbe bark and related dietary supplements using UHPLC/UV/MS.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jianghao; Chen, Pei

    2012-03-05

    A practical ultra high-performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) method was developed for fingerprint analysis of and determination of yohimbine in yohimbe barks and related dietary supplements. Good separation was achieved using a Waters Acquity BEH C(18) column with gradient elution using 0.1% (v/v) aqueous ammonium hydroxide and 0.1% ammonium hydroxide in methanol as the mobile phases. The study is the first reported chromatographic method that separates corynanthine from yohimbine in yohimbe bark extract. The chromatographic fingerprint analysis was applied to the analysis of 18 yohimbe commercial dietary supplement samples. Quantitation of yohimbine, the traditional method for analysis of yohimbe barks, were also performed to evaluate the results of the fingerprint analysis. Wide variability was observed in fingerprints and yohimbine content among yohimbe dietary supplement samples. For most of the dietary supplements, the yohimbine content was not consistent with the label claims.

  4. Consumption of sport-related dietary supplements among NCAA Division 1 female student athletes.

    PubMed

    Housman, Jeff; Dorman, Steve; Pruitt, Buzz; Ranjita, Misra; Perko, Michael

    2011-07-01

    To determine factors that influence sport-related dietary supplement consumption among NCAA Division 1 female student athletes and to estimate the plausibility of the theory of planned behavior (TPB) for predicting the use of sport-related dietary supplements among NCAA Division 1 female student athletes. Self-report data were collected by questionnaire from 207 NCAA Division 1 female student athletes. Parameter estimates of 3 TPB-based models were calculated using Mplus software. The TPB-based models explained 64-66% and 18% of variance in behavioral intention and behavior, respectively, with subjective norm being the strongest predictor of dietary supplement consumption intention. Results support plausibility for the TPB to predict sport-related dietary supplement consumption among NCAA Division 1 female student athletes.

  5. Effects of commercially available dietary supplements on resting energy expenditure: a brief report.

    PubMed

    Vaughan, Roger A; Conn, Carole A; Mermier, Christine M

    2014-01-01

    Commercially available dietary products advertised to promote weight loss are an underresearched but heavily purchased commodity in the United States. Despite only limited evidence, interest in dietary supplements continues to increase. This work uniquely summarizes the current evidence evaluating the efficacy of several over-the-counter thermogenic products for their effects on resting energy expenditure. Currently, there is some evidence suggesting dietary products containing select ingredients can increase energy expenditure in healthy young people immediately following consumption (within 6 hours). It is unclear if supplement-induced increases in metabolic rate provide additional benefit beyond that provided by dietary constituents that contain similar ingredients. It is also unclear if dietary supplements are effective for weight loss in humans.

  6. Effects of Commercially Available Dietary Supplements on Resting Energy Expenditure: A Brief Report

    PubMed Central

    Vaughan, Roger A.; Conn, Carole A.; Mermier, Christine M.

    2014-01-01

    Commercially available dietary products advertised to promote weight loss are an underresearched but heavily purchased commodity in the United States. Despite only limited evidence, interest in dietary supplements continues to increase. This work uniquely summarizes the current evidence evaluating the efficacy of several over-the-counter thermogenic products for their effects on resting energy expenditure. Currently, there is some evidence suggesting dietary products containing select ingredients can increase energy expenditure in healthy young people immediately following consumption (within 6 hours). It is unclear if supplement-induced increases in metabolic rate provide additional benefit beyond that provided by dietary constituents that contain similar ingredients. It is also unclear if dietary supplements are effective for weight loss in humans. PMID:24967272

  7. Dietary Compliance, Dietary Supplementation and Traditional Remedy Usage of Type 2 Diabetic Patients With and Without Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Ooi Chuan; Wong, Teck Wee; Joseph, Anthony; Hejar, Abdul Rahman; Rushdan, Abdul Aziz

    2015-01-01

    This analytical cross-sectional study examined the nutrient intakes, dietary compliance, dietary supplementation and traditional remedy usage in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients from selected tertiary hospitals in multi-racial Malaysia. We compared the different characteristics of T2DM patients with and without cardiovascular disease (CVD). Socio-demographic status, dietary intakes, dietary supplementation, traditional remedy use, medical history, anthropometric measurements and clinical characteristics were obtained from face-to-face interviews. A total of 313 patients who were treated for T2DM participated in this study, in which 36.1% of them had CVD. The mean age of study subjects was 55.7 ± 9.2 years; mean diabetes duration was 10.1 ± 8.1 years; 52.1% were females; and 47.0% were Malays. The mean total energy intake of the subjects was 1674 ± 694 kcal/day, and patients with CVD consumed higher total calories (p = 0.001). Likewise, the mean carbohydrate, protein and total fat intake of CVD patients were significantly higher than non-CVD patients (p < 0.05), while mean intakes of cholesterol, fibre, minerals and all vitamins were comparable between CVD and non-CVD patients. Regardless of CVD status, a notably high proportion of the subjects did not meet the recommendations of the Medical Nutrition Therapy Guidelines for Type 2 Diabetes for total energy, carbohydrate, protein, total fat, and fibre intakes. Meanwhile, 52.4% used at least one dietary supplement and 12.1% took single traditional remedy or in various combinations. Traditional remedies and supplement intake did not differ between CVD and non-CVD subjects. It is suggested that T2DM patients should be educated based on their personalized dietary intake, dietary supplementation and traditional remedy usage. The recommendations for T2DM patients shall be met to achieve the optimal metabolic goals and minimize the potential diabetic complications. PMID:25713789

  8. Dietary compliance, dietary supplementation and traditional remedy usage of type 2 diabetic patients with and without cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Tan, Mun Chieng; Ng, Ooi Chuan; Wong, Teck Wee; Joseph, Anthony; Hejar, Abdul Rahman; Rushdan, Abdul Aziz

    2015-01-01

    This analytical cross-sectional study examined the nutrient intakes, dietary compliance, dietary supplementation and traditional remedy usage in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients from selected tertiary hospitals in multi-racial Malaysia. We compared the different characteristics of T2DM patients with and without cardiovascular disease (CVD). Socio-demographic status, dietary intakes, dietary supplementation, traditional remedy use, medical history, anthropometric measurements and clinical characteristics were obtained from face-to-face interviews. A total of 313 patients who were treated for T2DM participated in this study, in which 36.1% of them had CVD. The mean age of study subjects was 55.7 ± 9.2 years; mean diabetes duration was 10.1 ± 8.1 years; 52.1% were females; and 47.0% were Malays. The mean total energy intake of the subjects was 1674 ± 694 kcal/day, and patients with CVD consumed higher total calories (p = 0.001). Likewise, the mean carbohydrate, protein and total fat intake of CVD patients were significantly higher than non-CVD patients (p < 0.05), while mean intakes of cholesterol, fibre, minerals and all vitamins were comparable between CVD and non-CVD patients. Regardless of CVD status, a notably high proportion of the subjects did not meet the recommendations of the Medical Nutrition Therapy Guidelines for Type 2 Diabetes for total energy, carbohydrate, protein, total fat, and fibre intakes. Meanwhile, 52.4% used at least one dietary supplement and 12.1% took single traditional remedy or in various combinations. Traditional remedies and supplement intake did not differ between CVD and non-CVD subjects. It is suggested that T2DM patients should be educated based on their personalized dietary intake, dietary supplementation and traditional remedy usage. The recommendations for T2DM patients shall be met to achieve the optimal metabolic goals and minimize the potential diabetic complications.

  9. Dietary supplementation during diabetes therapy and the potential risk of interactions.

    PubMed

    Zabłocka-Słowińska, Katarzyna; Dzielska, Ewelina; Gryszkin, Iwona; Grajeta, Halina

    2014-01-01

    The classification of dietary supplements as foodstuffs promotes widespread access to them and increases the possibility of patients using them without being monitored. Unreasonable or excessive consumption of these preparations poses risks to type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients (among others) because it may induce disturbances in glycemic control. The aim of this study was to assess the frequency of dietary supplementation among patients using anti-diabetic drugs and such patients' nutrient intake in order to evaluate the potential risk of interactions. The study participants were 150 diabetic patients who were asked about the type of pharmacotherapy and dietary supplementation they used. The intake of minerals, vitamins, dietary fiber and long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) from the patients' diets were also assessed, using the 24-h dietary recall method. The highest percentage of patients taking individual anti-diabetic drugs used supplements containing magnesium and herbs. They also often took antioxidant vitamins, B-group vitamins and omega-3 fatty acids. In the majority of patients (both those using supplements and those not), the dietary recall showed insufficient intake of potassium, calcium and magnesium, as well as of vitamin E, folic acid, vitamin D and LC-PUFAs. In addition, their diets provided high median amounts of iron, copper, vitamin A and β-carotene. The level of dietary supplementation and the ill-balanced diets reported by the majority of the recruited T2DM patients indicate a high possible risk of interactions with the anti-diabetic drugs. Therefore, patients should always consult their physicians regarding dietary supplementation, and medically trained staff should routinely assess dietary intake to avoid hazardous changes in the activity of drugs.

  10. Why the United States still needs improved dietary supplement regulation and oversight.

    PubMed

    Morrow, J D

    2008-03-01

    It has been 3 years since the American Society for Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics (ASCPT) issued a position statement regarding dietary supplement safety and regulation. I was the Chair of the ASCPT task force charged with issuing the statement. At the time, after careful review of available data, the other members and I concluded that dietary supplement legislation in the United States was lacking and that enhanced oversight was essential to increase the safety of these products for the American consumer.

  11. Predictors of Dietary Supplement Usage among Medical Interns of Tehran University of Medical Sciences

    PubMed Central

    Kabiri, Sanaz; Yeganeh, Haleh Sadrzadeh; Koohdani, Fariba; Khajehnasiri, Farahnaz; Khosravi, Shahla

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT This study aimed to determine the prevalence of dietary supplement-use and its relationship with demographics and lifestyle of medical interns. The study sample comprised 356 interns aged 23 to 25 years. Participants completed a questionnaire on dietary supplement-use during the month preceding the study, information on demographic characteristics and lifestyle was also obtained. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression were employed to assess the correlates of dietary supplement-use. The prevalence of dietary supplement-use was about 33% (males 20.4% and females 43.2%, p<0.001). The most commonly-used dietary supplement was multivitamin/multivitamin-mineral (90.6% in males and 52.3% in females). Approximately 30% of supplements were used regularly (≥5 days/week) by all subjects. The most-frequently reported reasons for supplement-use in males were: enhancing daily energy/stamina (51.1%), poor food intake (13.3%) and, in females, were: improving health and nutritional status (39.3%) and reducing hair loss (23.4%). The decision to use dietary supplement was mostly driven by the interns themselves (56% in males, 61% in females). In the univariable analysis, men who exercised once or twice a week were less likely to use supplements compared to those who reported doing exercise more than twice weekly (OR=0.35, 95% CI 0.12-0.98). Females who reported their health status to be ‘excellent’ were more likely to use supplements compared to those who described their health status as ‘moderate/poor/very poor’ (OR=2.53, 95% CI 1.15-5.56) as were women who mentioned their breakfast consumption status as ‘always’ (OR=2.69, 95% CI 1.47-4.92). In the multivariable analysis, only breakfast consumption was significantly related with dietary supplement-use in females (OR=2.20, 95% CI 1.11-4.38). In conclusion, dietary supplement-use among medical interns, especially among females, was relatively very common. Dietary supplement-use was related to a

  12. Too Little, Too Late: Ineffective Regulation of Dietary Supplements in the United States

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Millions of people in the United States consume dietary supplements hoping to maintain or improve their health; however, extensive research has failed to demonstrate the efficacy of numerous supplements in disease prevention. In addition, concerns about the safety of routine and high-dose supplementation have been raised. The Food and Drug Administration regulates dietary supplement quality, safety, and labeling, and the Federal Trade Commission monitors advertisements and marketing; still, vast enforcement challenges remain, and optimal governmental oversight has not been achieved. If the composition and quality of ingredients cannot be reliably ensured, the validity of research on dietary supplements is questionable. Moreover, the health of the US public is put at risk. PMID:25602879

  13. Effect of Dietary Conjugated Linoleic Acid Supplementation on Early Inflammatory Responses during Cutaneous Wound Healing

    PubMed Central

    Park, Na-Young; Valacchi, Giuseppe; Lim, Yunsook

    2010-01-01

    Inflammatory response is considered the most important period that regulates the entire healing process. Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), a class of linoleic acid positional and geometric isomers, is well known for its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. We hypothesized that dietary CLA supplementation accelerates cutaneous wound healing by regulating antioxidant and anti-inflammatory functions. To investigate wound closure rates and inflammatory responses, we used a full-thickness excisional wound model after 2-week treatments with control, 0.5%, or 1% CLA-supplemented diet. Mice fed dietary CLA supplementation had reduced levels of oxidative stress and inflammatory markers. Moreover, the wound closure rate was improved significantly in mice fed a 1% CLA-supplemented diet during early stage of wound healing (inflammatory stage). We conclude that dietary CLA supplementation enhances the early stage of cutaneous wound healing as a result of modulating oxidative stress and inflammatory responses. PMID:20871865

  14. Dietary Supplements Commonly Used by Cancer Survivors: Are There Any Benefits?

    PubMed

    Marian, Mary J

    2017-10-01

    Following a cancer diagnosis, dietary supplements are reportedly used by 20%-80% of individuals. Supplements are most commonly used by breast cancer survivors, followed by patients with prostate, colorectal, and lung cancers, which is not surprising since these are the most common types of cancer diagnosed in adults. Reasons cited for such use include improving quality of life, reducing symptoms related to treatment and/or the disease process, and recommendation from medical practitioners; family and friends may also be an influence. However, controversy surrounds the use of dietary supplements, particularly during treatment-specifically, whether supplements affect treatment efficacy is unknown. This article discusses the evidence related to common dietary supplements used to prevent cancer or a recurrence.

  15. The history of efforts to regulate dietary supplements in the USA.

    PubMed

    Swann, John P

    2016-01-01

    This review examines the emergence of dietary supplements and how the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) attempted to regulate these, beginning with the arrival of vitamins and how these were managed under the 1906 Food and Drugs Act, and ending with the seismic influence of the 1994 Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act (DSHEA). Included are the impact of major laws, key court decisions, and the construction of the FDA's supplement actions and rules from the 1920s to the 1990s for products that were neither drugs nor typical foods. Stiff resistance to the regulations by supplement manufacturers, trade associations, politicians, and especially the public at large is an important part of this story. The paper closes with the passage of DSHEA and how it literally changed the definition and parameters of control of dietary supplements. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Dietary supplements used in the treatment of depression, anxiety, and sleep disorders.

    PubMed

    Cauffield, J S; Forbes, H J

    1999-01-01

    Dietary supplement use has increased during the past decade. Epidemiologic studies suggest that patients turn to dietary supplements because of a reluctance to take prescription medications or a lack of satisfaction with the results. They often perceive dietary supplements to be a safer or more natural alternative. Patients with mental health conditions, including depression, anxiety, and sleep disorders, are among those who use dietary supplements. St. John's Wort is used to treat depression. Clinical studies comparing dietary supplements with low-dose antidepressants (maprotiline, amitriptyline, or imipramine at 75 mg/day) or high-dose antidepressants (imipramine at 150 mg/day) find no significant difference between treatments. Kava kava is used to treat anxiety. Clinical trials demonstrate it to be superior to placebo, and roughly equivalent to oxazepam 15 mg/day or bromazepam 9 mg/day. Agents discussed for use in sleep disorders include melatonin, valerian, 5-hydroxytryptamine, catnip, chamomile, gotu kola, hops, L-tryptophan, lavender, passionflower, skullcap, and valerian. Familiarity with the evidence for use and the possible resulting risks can help health professionals to guide patient decisions regarding use of dietary supplements.

  17. National Athletic Trainers' Association position statement: evaluation of dietary supplements for performance nutrition.

    PubMed

    Buell, Jackie L; Franks, Rob; Ransone, Jack; Powers, Michael E; Laquale, Kathleen M; Carlson-Phillips, Amanda

    2013-01-01

    To help athletic trainers promote a "food-first" philosophy to support health and performance, understand federal and sport governing body rules and regulations regarding dietary supplements and banned substances, and become familiar with reliable resources for evaluating the safety, purity, and efficacy of dietary supplements. The dietary supplement industry is poorly regulated and takes in billions of dollars per year. Uneducated athletes need to gain a better understanding of the safety, eligibility, and efficacy concerns associated with choosing to take dietary supplements. The athletic trainer is a valuable athletic team member who can help in the educational process. In many cases, athletic trainers are asked to help evaluate the legality, safety, and efficacy of dietary supplements. For this position statement, our mission is to provide the athletic trainer with the necessary resources for these tasks. Proper nutrition and changes in the athlete's habitual diet should be considered first when improved performance is the goal. Athletes need to understand the level of regulation (or lack thereof) governing the dietary supplement industry at the international, federal, state, and individual sport-participation levels. Athletes should not assume a product is safe simply because it is marketed over the counter. All products athletes are considering using should be evaluated for purity (ie, truth in labeling), safety, and efficacy.

  18. National Athletic Trainers' Association Position Statement: Evaluation of Dietary Supplements for Performance Nutrition

    PubMed Central

    Buell, Jackie L; Franks, Rob; Ransone, Jack; Powers, Michael E; Laquale, Kathleen M; Carlson-Phillips, Amanda

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To help athletic trainers promote a “food-first” philosophy to support health and performance, understand federal and sport governing body rules and regulations regarding dietary supplements and banned substances, and become familiar with reliable resources for evaluating the safety, purity, and efficacy of dietary supplements. Background The dietary supplement industry is poorly regulated and takes in billions of dollars per year. Uneducated athletes need to gain a better understanding of the safety, eligibility, and efficacy concerns associated with choosing to take dietary supplements. The athletic trainer is a valuable athletic team member who can help in the educational process. In many cases, athletic trainers are asked to help evaluate the legality, safety, and efficacy of dietary supplements. For this position statement, our mission is to provide the athletic trainer with the necessary resources for these tasks. Recommendations Proper nutrition and changes in the athlete's habitual diet should be considered first when improved performance is the goal. Athletes need to understand the level of regulation (or lack thereof) governing the dietary supplement industry at the international, federal, state, and individual sport-participation levels. Athletes should not assume a product is safe simply because it is marketed over the counter. All products athletes are considering using should be evaluated for purity (ie, truth in labeling), safety, and efficacy. PMID:23672334

  19. A systematic review of community pharmacist therapeutic knowledge of dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Waddington, Freya; Naunton, Mark; Kyle, Greg; Thomas, Jackson; Cooper, Gabrielle; Waddington, Ainsley

    2015-06-01

    Internationally, the use of dietary supplements has been growing rapidly. Patient support for pharmacist sales of nutritional and dietary supplements is also strong. The increase in demand for nutritional and dietary supplements and subsequent advice about these products, however, makes it necessary that pharmacists maintain a contemporary knowledge of the area. This systematic review was conducted to examine the current evidence regarding the level of the nutritional and dietary supplement knowledge of community pharmacists and their understanding of their therapeutic effects. Electronic databases including Medline, Scopus, Embase, CINAHL, Scifinder and the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register were searched. Studies assessing nutritional knowledge of pharmacists in community pharmacies were eligible for inclusion. All languages and study designs were considered. Study results were analysed and pharmacist knowledge scores were given out of 100 %. Results From 5594 studies identified, nine met the inclusion criteria. Each study tested pharmacist knowledge with predetermined questions calculating results as the number of questions answered correctly. These knowledge scores were converted to a percentage score for the purpose of this paper. The median knowledge score across all papers was 64 %. A lack of studies assessing community pharmacists' knowledge of commonly sold vitamins and minerals was observed. Global community pharmacist knowledge of dietary supplements appears to be poor. Community pharmacists have an professional responsibility to provide accurate health information about dietary supplements as they do for any other therapies they provide to patients. Further research including that which assesses pharmacists' therapeutic knowledge of commonly sold vitamins and minerals is suggested.

  20. Selenium, Chromium, and Vitamin D: What Dietitians Need to Know Regarding Dietary Supplements

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Accurate nutrient data for dietary supplement composition are essential for determining supplements’ contribution to total dietary intake. To plan a nationwide adult multivitamin/mineral (MVM) study, the USDA Nutrient Data Laboratory (NDL) obtained prevalence information for the most common labeled...

  1. Self medication and use of dietary supplements in adult patients with endocrine and metabolic disorders.

    PubMed

    Heller, T; Müller, N; Kloos, C; Wolf, G; Müller, U A

    2012-10-01

    Patients often use dietary supplements in addition to the therapies prescribed by their physicians. This self medication is often not listed in the drug history. We supposed that people, who are more afraid of co-morbidities or diabetes late complications and who exhibit a higher fear of the potential side effects of prescribed drugs, are more inclined to use dietary supplements. We checked the use of dietary supplements with a standardised questionnaire in patients treated in a centre for endocrinology and metabolic diseases. Demographic and clinical data were taken from the electronic health record EMIL®. A total of 428 patients (51.4% women), mean age 58.3 years, completed the standardised questionnaire. Supplements were used by 41%: Mineral nutrients 60.2%, vitamins 56.8%, "other supplements" (e. g. omega-3-fatty acids, antidiabetic agents) 43.1% and medical herbs 35.1%. The users of supplements were predominantly women (p<0.001), non-smokers (p=0.004), persons with frequent medical appointments (p=0.014) and with a negative attitude towards the effectiveness of the physician prescribed medication (p=0.012). Patients with diabetes do not use supplements more often than patients without. The use of dietary supplements was not associated with patients' fear to develop co-morbidities of existing diseases (p=0.132) or a higher fear of side effects of prescribed drugs (p=0.099). Nearly half of the patients in a centre for endocrinology and metabolic diseases use self medications with dietary supplements. There is no association between the fear of co-morbidities or side effects of physicians prescribed drugs and a self medication with dietary supplements. © J. A. Barth Verlag in Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  2. The effect of an herbal dietary supplement containing ephedrine and caffeine on oxygen consumption in humans.

    PubMed

    Greenway, F L; Raum, W J; DeLany, J P

    2000-12-01

    To determine if an herbal dietary supplement for weight loss increases metabolism. Measurement of peak oxygen consumption in response to the supplement followed by a double-blind placebo-controlled crossover measurement of oxygen consumption in response to the supplement. The study was conducted in an academic research clinic. Ten obese females (aged 41 +/- 4 years [body mass index (BMI)] 33.3 +/- 2.6 kg/m2) participated in the peak oxygen consumption test; six of these females participated in the crossover trial. Peak oxygen consumption was measured for 45 minutes after taking two herbal dietary supplement capsules orally, each containing the equivalent of 10 mg of caffeine and 5 mg of ephedrine. The crossover trial measured oxygen consumption for 45 minutes after taking two herbal dietary supplement capsules or two placebo capsules orally. The herbal dietary supplement increased peak oxygen consumption 0.178 +/- 0.03 (SEM) kcal/min (8.01 +/- 1.35 kcal/min expressed over 45 minutes) above baseline (p < 0.0001), and 2.0 +/- 0.56 kcal/min over 45 minutes compared to placebo (p < 0.006). The herbal dietary supplement increased oxygen consumption when taken according to the package directions. The significance of this rise for weight loss requires further research.

  3. Evaluating Term Coverage of Herbal and Dietary Supplements in Electronic Health Records.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Rui; Manohar, Nivedha; Arsoniadis, Elliot; Wang, Yan; Adam, Terrence J; Pakhomov, Serguei V; Melton, Genevieve B

    2015-01-01

    Herbal and dietary supplement consumption has rapidly expanded in recent years. Due to pharmacological and metabolic characteristics of some supplements, they can interact with prescription medications, potentially leading to clinically important and potentially preventable adverse reactions. Electronic health record (EHR) system provides a valuable source from which drug-supplement interactions can be mined and assessed for their clinical effects. A fundamental prerequisite is a functional understanding of supplement documentation in EHR and associated supplement coverage in major online databases. To address this, clinical notes and corresponding medication lists from an integrated healthcare system were extracted and compared with online databases. Overall, about 40% of listed medications are supplements, most of which are included in medication lists as nutritional or miscellaneous products. Gaps were found between supplement and standard medication terminologies, creating documentation difficulties in fully achieving robust supplement documentation in EHR systems. In addition, in the clinical notes we identified supplements which were not mentioned in the medication lists.

  4. Evaluating Term Coverage of Herbal and Dietary Supplements in Electronic Health Records

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Rui; Manohar, Nivedha; Arsoniadis, Elliot; Wang, Yan; Adam, Terrence J.; Pakhomov, Serguei V.; Melton, Genevieve B.

    2015-01-01

    Herbal and dietary supplement consumption has rapidly expanded in recent years. Due to pharmacological and metabolic characteristics of some supplements, they can interact with prescription medications, potentially leading to clinically important and potentially preventable adverse reactions. Electronic health record (EHR) system provides a valuable source from which drug-supplement interactions can be mined and assessed for their clinical effects. A fundamental prerequisite is a functional understanding of supplement documentation in EHR and associated supplement coverage in major online databases. To address this, clinical notes and corresponding medication lists from an integrated healthcare system were extracted and compared with online databases. Overall, about 40% of listed medications are supplements, most of which are included in medication lists as nutritional or miscellaneous products. Gaps were found between supplement and standard medication terminologies, creating documentation difficulties in fully achieving robust supplement documentation in EHR systems. In addition, in the clinical notes we identified supplements which were not mentioned in the medication lists. PMID:26958277

  5. Dietary advice with or without oral nutritional supplements for disease-related malnutrition in adults.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, Christine; Weekes, Christine Elizabeth

    2011-09-07

    Disease-related malnutrition has been reported in 10% to 55% of people in hospital and the community. Dietary advice encouraging the use of energy- and nutrient-rich foods rather than oral nutritional supplements has been suggested as the initial approach for managing disease-related malnutrition. To examine evidence that dietary advice in adults with disease-related malnutrition improves survival, weight and anthropometry; to estimate the size of any additional effect of nutritional supplements combined with dietary advice and to compare the effects of dietary advice with oral nutritional supplements. Relevant publications were identified from comprehensive electronic database searches and handsearching.Last search: 14 February 2010. Randomised controlled trials of dietary advice with or without oral nutritional supplements in people with disease-related malnutrition in any health-care setting compared with no advice, oral nutritional supplements or dietary advice given alone. Two authors independently assessed trial eligibility, risk of bias and extracted data. Forty-five studies (3186 participants) met the inclusion criteria; (dietary advice compared with: no advice (1053 participants); with oral nutritional supplements (332 participants); with dietary advice and oral nutritional supplements (731 participants); and dietary advice plus oral nutritional supplements compared with no additional intervention (1070 participants). Follow-up ranged from 18 days to 24 months. No comparison showed a significant difference between groups for mortality or morbidity. There was a significant change in weight found between groups when comparing dietary advice to no advice for interventions lasting greater than 12 months, mean difference 3.75 kg (95% confidence interval 0.97 to 6.53), and when all studies were combined, mean difference 1.47 kg (95% confidence interval 0.32 to 2.61) although there was significant heterogeneity in the combined analysis (I(2) = 90%). Similar

  6. Dietary supplementation is more prevalent among adults with arthritis in the United States population.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Patrick B

    2016-12-01

    Sparse data are available to describe the prevalence of dietary supplementation among individuals with arthritis. Using a nationally representative sample, this investigation assessed the prevalence of dietary supplement use among Americans self-reporting arthritis. Data from 4606 participants of the 2011-2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were analyzed, including from 1170 participants self-reporting arthritis. Participants reported dietary supplementation over the past 30days. Approximately 62.5% of adults with arthritis reported taking at least one dietary supplement, which was greater than the 49.0% among individuals without arthritis (P<0.001). Arthritis was not independently associated with higher odds of supplement use (odds ratio=1.12, 95% confidence interval [CI]=0.88-1.42) in a multivariate logistic regression model. Among individuals with arthritis, supplement use was more prevalent in older adults (≥50 years), non-Hispanic whites, those with greater education, and those with health insurance. Among 721 participants with arthritis that were taking at least one supplement, 15.1% (95% CI=12.8-17.8%) indicated at least one of their supplements was 'for healthy joints, arthritis', compared to only 7.7% (95% CI=6.4-9.3%) of participants without arthritis (P<0.001). Glucosamine and/or chondroitin were the most common types of supplements used to improve joint health in arthritis. Given that roughly three out of five individuals with arthritis regularly use dietary supplements, health practitioners should be prepared to discuss potential benefits and risks of supplementation for the management of pain and function in arthritis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Prevalence and predictors of children's dietary supplement use: the 2007 National Health Interview Survey1234

    PubMed Central

    Dwyer, Johanna; Nahin, Richard L; Rogers, Gail T; Barnes, Patricia M; Jacques, Paul M; Sempos, Christopher T; Bailey, Regan

    2013-01-01

    Background: Little is known about the characteristics of US children who are dietary supplement users. Objective: We described the prevalence and predictors of and reasons for giving children dietary supplements. Design: The study included children <18 y of age who participated in the Complementary and Alternative Medicine supplement of the National Health Interview Survey of 2007 whose proxies provided complete information on child dietary supplement use. Results: A total of 37% of subjects used dietary supplements, 31% of subjects used multivitamin mineral (MVM) products exclusively, 4% of subjects used single vitamins or minerals solely or in combination with MVMs, and 2% of subjects used nonvitamin, nonmineral products either solely or in combination with other supplements. Users were more likely than nonusers to be Asian, white, or non-Hispanic; belong to families with higher parental education and income levels; reside in areas other than the South; be in good, very good, or excellent health; have private health insurance; and have a usual place at which they received conventional medical care. Children (3%) with the most disease burden and health care were more likely to use supplements than were healthier children. Supplements were given for the prevention or treatment of many illnesses and conditions. Neither the caregiver's reasons nor specific supplements used were consistently associated with particular conditions. Conclusions: The 37% of US children who used any type of dietary supplements differed from nonusers in family socioeconomic status and many other health-related characteristics. Users were given supplements to prevent or treat many illnesses and conditions for which there is only limited evidence of their efficacy. PMID:23576049

  8. Regulatory alerts for dietary supplements in Canada and the United States, 2005-13.

    PubMed

    Abe, Andrew M; Hein, Darren J; Gregory, Philip J

    2015-06-01

    Dietary supplement regulatory alerts published by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and Health Canada were evaluated and characterized. FDA MedWatch and Health Canada websites were reviewed to identify regulatory alerts regarding dietary supplements from January 1, 2005, through December 31, 2013. Alerts were analyzed to identify product characteristics that may be predictive of product quality issues and potential patient harm. A total of 1560 dietary supplement-related regulatory alerts were identified. Of those, 1287 (83%) were identified through Health Canada, and 273 (18%) were identified through FDA MedWatch. The country of origin of dietary supplements associated with regulatory alerts was not provided in most regulatory alerts; however, when their origin was provided, the United States was the most common. Dietary supplements intended for sexual enhancement were the subject of 33% of all regulatory alerts identified. Products purchased online were the most likely to be associated with a regulatory alert. Dietary supplements intended for sexual enhancement, weight loss, and bodybuilding or athletic performance appeared to pose the greatest risk for patient harm due to product contamination with a pharmaceutical such as a phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor or sibutramine. Analysis of Canadian and U.S. regulatory alerts concerning dietary supplements revealed that more than 80% of the composite alerts were issued by Health Canada. The most common intended uses of supplements for which alerts were issued were sexual enhancement, weight loss, and bodybuilding or athletic performance. The most common reason for alerts was the presence of a pharmaceutical contaminant. Copyright © 2015 by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Dietary supplementation with curcumin enhances metastatic growth of Lewis lung carcinoma in mice

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The present study investigated the effects of dietary supplementation with curcumin (the principal curcuminoid of the popular Indian spice turmeric) on spontaneous metastasis of Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) in female C57/BL6 mice. Mice were fed the AIN93G control diet or that diet supplemented with 2...

  10. Health and dietary characteristics of supplement users in an elderly population.

    PubMed

    Houston, D K; Johnson, M A; Daniel, T D; Poon, L W

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the association of health and dietary characteristics with the use of vitamin and mineral supplements in community-dwelling, cognitively intact elders aged in their 60s (n = 89), 80s (n = 92), and 100s (n = 76) who resided in Georgia in the southeastern United States. Elders who were physically active (p = 0.008), had stomach problems (p = 0.042), or used arthritis medication (p = 0.015) were more likely to take a nutritional supplement than elders without these characteristics. Physically active elders were more likely to take calcium (p = 0.004), vitamin E (p = 0.022), and vitamin C (p = 0.046) than non-physically active elders. Compared to non-users, supplement users were also more likely to comply with nutritional health seeking behaviors such as avoiding too much salt, fat, cholesterol, sugar, caffeine, and eating enough fiber, vitamins and minerals from food or supplements, and calcium in foods or supplements. The observation that the use of certain vitamin or mineral supplements is associated with dietary fat intakes, dietary protein intakes, and patterns of alcohol, decaffeinated coffee, and tea consumption suggests that supplement use is one of a cluster of health behaviors. Thus, it may be important that future investigations concerning the impact of supplement use on diseases, such as heart disease or cancer, control for the effects of dietary patterns and physical activity.

  11. Issues with fruit dietary supplements in the US - authentication by anthocyanin

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Current fruit-based dietary supplements in the US marketplace have no obligation to meet any fruit-component concentration requirement. For example, berry supplements might be promoted for their high anthocyanin content, but they actually have no standard or minimum anthocyanin threshold for legal s...

  12. Why consumers need more protection against claims for dietary supplements and herbs.

    PubMed

    Barrett, Stephen

    2003-01-01

    Federal agencies have never had enough resources to cope with the enormous amount of deception in the supplement and health-food marketplace. Passage of the 1994 Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act (DSHEA) has worsened the situation by encouraging dubious claims and weakening the Food and Drug Administration (FDA)'s ability to ban dangerous products.

  13. Online education about herbs and dietary supplements: margin or mission?

    PubMed

    Kemper, Kathi J; Patel, Sejal

    2015-01-01

    Online education is increasingly used to train health professionals, but little is known about how variations in cost affect use of elective training. We assessed whether offering registration for free increased the number of modules consumed in both absolute terms (# modules consumed per person, pp) and relative terms (# modules consumed per # modules registered). We analyzed results of the 'natural experiment' on learner's use of the OSU Center for Integrative Health and Wellness online elective curriculum, Introduction Herbs and Dietary Supplements Across the Lifespan, in which costs varied based on monthly discounts for students, faculty, staff, alumni, and members of selected professional associations. Over 7 months there were a total of 905 registrants for 8553 modules. Most (847/905, 94%) registered for free; they completed 1505 (18%) of 8344 modules for which they registered. Fewer (58/905, 6%) people paid for registration; they completed a significantly higher percentage 90/209 (43%, P < 0.001) of modules for which they registered; those who paid full, non-discount rates had the highest completion rates (62%, P < 0.001). Free and paid registrants completed about the same average number of modules per person, pp, (1.8 pp free vs.1.6 pp paid). Although it may not contribute to financial margins, offering free online elective training addresses the institutional mission of increasing the number health professionals trained and the number of modules consumed compared with charging for training. Additional research is needed to determine the impact of pricing on educational outcomes and ultimately on patient care. © The Author(s) 2014.

  14. Dentinal sensitivity: a natural mineral dietary supplement study.

    PubMed

    Rogo, E; Hodges, K; Herzog, A

    2006-08-01

    The purpose of the investigation was to determine the effect of drinking a natural mineral dietary supplement (NMDS) on gingival health and dentinal hypersensitivity. The NMDS product was from a geothermal source and contained 3.6 mg l(-1) of fluoride and other minerals. Sample selection included subjects with gingival inflammation and sensitivity as well as screening for exclusion factors. A double-blind randomized parallel approach was used. The investigation was a quasi-experimental pre/post-test design. The experimental group ingested and swished twice a day with the NMDS (1 l) and the control group followed the same regimen with a placebo containing de-ionized water (DIW). Clinical measurements of gingival inflammation and dentinal sensitivity were taken at baseline, 4 and 8 weeks. Gingival inflammation was measured using the Gingival Index. Dentinal hypersensitivity was measured using a tactile stimulus and an evaporative stimulus. After each stimulus was applied, the subjects rated the amount of discomfort on a visual analogue scale from 0 to 10. Each set of data was analysed using anova and a post hoc probing technique to determine within- and between-group differences (P = 0.05). The experimental and control groups (n = 70) experienced a statistically significant decrease in tactile and evaporative sensitivity scores over time; however, the between-group differences were not significant. The gingival inflammation data were not statistically significant with regard to the within- and between-group differences. Therefore the NMDS and DIW were equally effective in reducing dentinal hypersensitivity and neither product effectively reduced gingival inflammation.

  15. Dietary nitrate supplementation enhances exercise performance in peripheral arterial disease

    PubMed Central

    Kenjale, Aarti A.; Ham, Katherine L.; Stabler, Thomas; Robbins, Jennifer L.; Johnson, Johanna L.; VanBruggen, Mitch; Privette, Grayson; Yim, Eunji; Kraus, William E.

    2011-01-01

    Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) results in a failure to adequately supply blood and oxygen (O2) to working tissues and presents as claudication pain during walking. Nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability is essential for vascular health and function. Plasma nitrite (NO2−) is a marker of vascular NO production but may also be a protected circulating “source” that can be converted to NO during hypoxic conditions, possibly aiding perfusion. We hypothesized that dietary supplementation of inorganic nitrate in the form of beetroot (BR) juice would increase plasma NO2− concentration, increase exercise tolerance, and decrease gastrocnemius fractional O2 extraction, compared with placebo (PL). This was a randomized, open-label, crossover study. At each visit, subjects (n = 8) underwent resting blood draws, followed by consumption of 500 ml BR or PL and subsequent blood draws prior to, during, and following a maximal cardiopulmonary exercise (CPX) test. Gastrocnemius oxygenation during the CPX was measured by near-infrared spectroscopy. There were no changes from rest for [NO2−] (152 ± 72 nM) following PL. BR increased plasma [NO2−] after 3 h (943 ± 826 nM; P ≤ 0.01). Subjects walked 18% longer before the onset of claudication pain (183 ± 84 s vs. 215 ± 99 s; P ≤ 0.01) and had a 17% longer peak walking time (467 ± 223 s vs. 533 ± 233 s; P ≤ 0.05) following BR vs. PL. Gastrocnemius tissue fractional O2 extraction was lower during exercise following BR (7.3 ± 6.2 vs. 10.4 ± 6.1 arbitrary units; P ≤ 0.01). Diastolic blood pressure was lower in the BR group at rest and during CPX testing (P ≤ 0.05). These findings support the hypothesis that NO2−-related NO signaling increases peripheral tissue oxygenation in areas of hypoxia and increases exercise tolerance in PAD. PMID:21454745

  16. Botanical dietary supplement use in peri- and postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Mahady, Gail B; Parrot, Julie; Lee, Cathy; Yun, Gina S; Dan, Alice

    2003-01-01

    To determine use of botanical dietary supplements (BDS) in women between the ages of 40 and 60 years at the University of Illinois at Chicago (UIC) clinics, including information about commonly used BDS, the reason for use, information resources used, and the overall perception of safety and efficacy of BDS. Five hundred female outpatients at UIC clinics were interviewed by healthcare practitioners using a botanical/drug history questionnaire. Respondents were 46.8% African American, 39.6% Caucasian, 11.7% Hispanic, and 1.5% Asian, with a mean age of 50.34 years. BDS were used by 79% of respondents ( = 395), of which 36.5% used BDS daily. Of the positive respondents, 51.7% used one or two BDS, whereas 48.4% used three or more. Commonly used botanicals included soy (42%), green tea (34.68%), chamomile (20.76%), gingko (20.51%), ginseng (17.97%), Echinacea (15.44%), and St. John's wort (7.34%). Black cohosh, garlic, red clover, kava, valerian, evening primrose, and ephedra were used by less than 15% of respondents. Efficacy ratings were high for BDS, and 68% claimed to have no side effects. Only 3% of respondents obtained BDS information from healthcare professionals, and 70% of respondents were not informing their physician of BDS use. A high percentage of women at UIC clinics were using multiple BDS. The respondents believed that these products were both safe and effective for the treatment of common ailments. Concomitant BDS use with prescription and over-the-counter medications was commonplace, often without a physician's knowledge. Consumer education about the possible benefits and risks associated with BDS use is urgently needed.

  17. Does pharmaceutical advertising affect journal publication about dietary supplements?

    PubMed

    Kemper, Kathi J; Hood, Kaylene L

    2008-04-09

    Advertising affects consumer and prescriber behaviors. The relationship between pharmaceutical advertising and journals' publication of articles regarding dietary supplements (DS) is unknown. We reviewed one year of the issues of 11 major medical journals for advertising and content about DS. Advertising was categorized as pharmaceutical versus other. Articles about DS were included if they discussed vitamins, minerals, herbs or similar products. Articles were classified as major (e.g., clinical trials, cohort studies, editorials and reviews) or other (e.g., case reports, letters, news, and others). Articles' conclusions regarding safety and effectiveness were coded as negative (unsafe or ineffective) or other (safe, effective, unstated, unclear or mixed). Journals' total pages per issue ranged from 56 to 217 while advertising pages ranged from 4 to 88; pharmaceutical advertisements (pharmads) accounted for 1.5% to 76% of ad pages. Journals with the most pharmads published significantly fewer major articles about DS per issue than journals with the fewest pharmads (P < 0.01). Journals with the most pharmads published no clinical trials or cohort studies about DS. The percentage of major articles concluding that DS were unsafe was 4% in journals with fewest and 67% among those with the most pharmads (P = 0.02). The percentage of articles concluding that DS were ineffective was 50% higher among journals with more than among those with fewer pharmads (P = 0.4). These data are consistent with the hypothesis that increased pharmaceutical advertising is associated with publishing fewer articles about DS and publishing more articles with conclusions that DS are unsafe. Additional research is needed to test alternative hypotheses for these findings in a larger sample of more diverse journals.

  18. Does pharmaceutical advertising affect journal publication about dietary supplements?

    PubMed Central

    Kemper, Kathi J; Hood, Kaylene L

    2008-01-01

    Background Advertising affects consumer and prescriber behaviors. The relationship between pharmaceutical advertising and journals' publication of articles regarding dietary supplements (DS) is unknown. Methods We reviewed one year of the issues of 11 major medical journals for advertising and content about DS. Advertising was categorized as pharmaceutical versus other. Articles about DS were included if they discussed vitamins, minerals, herbs or similar products. Articles were classified as major (e.g., clinical trials, cohort studies, editorials and reviews) or other (e.g., case reports, letters, news, and others). Articles' conclusions regarding safety and effectiveness were coded as negative (unsafe or ineffective) or other (safe, effective, unstated, unclear or mixed). Results Journals' total pages per issue ranged from 56 to 217 while advertising pages ranged from 4 to 88; pharmaceutical advertisements (pharmads) accounted for 1.5% to 76% of ad pages. Journals with the most pharmads published significantly fewer major articles about DS per issue than journals with the fewest pharmads (P < 0.01). Journals with the most pharmads published no clinical trials or cohort studies about DS. The percentage of major articles concluding that DS were unsafe was 4% in journals with fewest and 67% among those with the most pharmads (P = 0.02). The percentage of articles concluding that DS were ineffective was 50% higher among journals with more than among those with fewer pharmads (P = 0.4). Conclusion These data are consistent with the hypothesis that increased pharmaceutical advertising is associated with publishing fewer articles about DS and publishing more articles with conclusions that DS are unsafe. Additional research is needed to test alternative hypotheses for these findings in a larger sample of more diverse journals. PMID:18400092

  19. Potential drug interactions with dietary and herbal supplements during hospitalization.

    PubMed

    Levy, Ilana; Attias, Samuel; Ben-Arye, Eran; Goldstein, Lee; Schiff, Elad

    2017-04-01

    Dietary and herbal supplements (DHS) are widely used in the general population, including during hospitalization. Yet, their potential interactions with prescription drugs have seldom been delineated among inpatients. We aimed to evaluate potentially dangerous interactions of DHS with prescribed medications among inpatients. This was a cross-sectional prospective study involving a cohort of patients hospitalized in 12 departments of a public academic medical center (Bnai Zion Medical Center, Haifa, Israel) from 2009 to 2014. DHS users were determined via a questionnaire. The Natural Medicine database was used to search for potential DHS-drug interactions for identified DHS, and the clinical significance was evaluated using Lexi-interact online interaction analysis. Medical files were assessed for documentation of DHS use. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to characterize potential risk factors for DHS-drug interactions. Of 927 patients consenting to answer the questionnaire, 458 (49 %) reported DHS use. Of these, 215 (47 %) had at least one potential interaction during hospitalization (759 interactions). Of these interactions, 116 (15 %) were potentially clinically significant. Older age [OR = 1.02 (1.01-1.04), p = 0.002], males [OR = 2.11 (1.35-3.29), p = 0.001] and increased number of used DHS [OR = 4.28 (2.28-8.03), p < 0.001] or drugs [OR = 1.95 (1.17-3.26), p = 0.011] were associated with potential interactions in DHS users. Physicians documented only 16.5 % of DHS involved in these interactions in patients' medical files. In conclusion, a substantial number of inpatients use DHS with potential interactions with concomitant medications. Medical staff should be aware of this, question patients on DHS usage and check for such interactions.

  20. Hepatotoxicity of herbal and dietary supplements: an update.

    PubMed

    Stickel, Felix; Shouval, Daniel

    2015-06-01

    Herbal and dietary supplements (HDS) have been used for health-related purposes since more than 5000 years, and their application is firmly anchored in all societies worldwide. Over last decades, a remarkable renaissance in the use of HDS can be noticed in affluent societies for manifold reasons. HDS are forms of complementary and alternative medicines commonly used to prevent or treat diseases, or simply as a health tonic. Another growing indication for HDS is their alleged benefit for weight loss or to increase physical fitness. Access is easy via internet and mail-order pharmacies, and their turnover reaches billions of dollars in the USA and Europe alone. However, HDS are generally not categorized as drugs and thus less strictly regulated in most countries. As a result, scientific evidence proving their beneficial effects is mostly lacking, although some HDS may have purported benefits. However, the majority lacks such proof of value, and their use is predominantly based on belief and hope. In addition to missing scientific evidence supporting their use, HDS are typically prone to batch-to-batch variability in composition and concentration, contamination, and purposeful adulteration. Moreover, numerous examples of preparations emerged which have been linked to significant liver injury. These include single ingredients, such as kava, germander, and several Chinese herbals. Other HDS products associated with liver toxicity consist of multiple, often ill-defined ingredients, such as Hydroxycut and Herbalife. Affirmative diagnostic tests are not available, and the assessment of liver injury ascribed to HDS depends on a thorough and proactive medical history, careful exclusion of other causes, and a search for available reports on similar events linked to the intake of the suspected preparation or ingredients contained therein.

  1. Comparison of Fatty Acid Composition in Selected Dietary Supplements Containing Conjugated Linoleic Acid.

    PubMed

    Derewiaka, Dorota; Nestorowicz, Klara; Wołosiak, Rafał

    2017-07-04

    The market of pharmaceutical products is offering a wide range of supplements. Most of the consumers believe that these products will improve their state of health, but are they getting what they want and what they are paying for? The aim of the study was to evaluate the quality of selected dietary supplements containing conjugated linoleic acid (CLA). All supplements were available in the Warsaw markets and bought from pharmacies. Assessment of the quality of food supplements was achieved by analysis of fatty acid using gas chromatography coupled with a mass spectrometer. On the basis of the investigations carried out, it was found that content of CLA in selected dietary supplements ranged between 282 and 528 mg by weight of a single capsule. The content of bioactive ingredients found in three of the four product supplements assessed was lower than was claimed by the manufacturer.

  2. 21 CFR 111.525 - What requirements apply to a returned dietary supplement that quality control personnel approve...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... supplement that quality control personnel approve for reprocessing? 111.525 Section 111.525 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... FOR DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS Returned Dietary Supplements § 111.525 What requirements apply to a returned...

  3. 21 CFR 111.525 - What requirements apply to a returned dietary supplement that quality control personnel approve...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... supplement that quality control personnel approve for reprocessing? 111.525 Section 111.525 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... FOR DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS Returned Dietary Supplements § 111.525 What requirements apply to a returned...

  4. 21 CFR 111.525 - What requirements apply to a returned dietary supplement that quality control personnel approve...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... supplement that quality control personnel approve for reprocessing? 111.525 Section 111.525 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... FOR DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS Returned Dietary Supplements § 111.525 What requirements apply to a returned...

  5. Use of dietary supplements by pregnant and lactating women in North America1234

    PubMed Central

    Picciano, Mary Frances; McGuire, Michelle K

    2009-01-01

    Nutrient requirements increase during periods of growth and development such as pregnancy and lactation. In response, many clinicians recommend dietary supplements during these important periods of the life cycle. Although there exist some recommendations concerning the need for a limited number of nutrients in supplemental form (eg, iron, folic acid, and iodine), there is a relative paucity of data concerning the use of dietary supplements during pregnancy and lactation. Limited data suggest, however, that usage is dependent on demographic, sociologic, and economic factors. Thus, it is possible that the nation's most at-risk populations may be those who are least likely to comply with these recommendations. As researchers continue to study what is meant by “optimal nutrition” during pregnancy and lactation, it is likely that additional recommendations concerning dietary supplements will emerge. For example, it is possible that increased consumption of some of the long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids during pregnancy or lactation may impart a benefit to infant health. Understanding better the population dynamics related to supplement use during these periods will be critical in implementation of campaigns designed to encourage appropriate use—and discourage inappropriate use—of dietary supplements during these important phases of human reproduction. The purpose of this article is to briefly review what is known about the use of dietary supplements in North America and, more specifically, in pregnant and lactating women. In addition, information concerning barriers to supplement use is discussed as are current recommendations for dietary supplement consumption during these periods of the life cycle. PMID:19073789

  6. Dietary supplement use within a multiethnic population as measured by a unique inventory method.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Suzanne P; Wilkens, Lynne R; Monroe, Kristine R; Steffen, Alana D; Yonemori, Kim M; Morimoto, Yukiko; Albright, Cheryl L

    2011-07-01

    Use of dietary supplements is widespread, yet intakes from supplements are difficult to quantify. The Supplement Reporting study utilized a unique inventory method to quantify dietary supplement use across 1 year in a sample of 397 supplement users. Interviewers visited participants' homes in 2005-2006 to record supplement purchases and the number of pills in each supplement bottle every 3 months. Total use for the year was calculated from these inventories. Participants in this observational study were older adults (average age 68 years) from the Multiethnic Cohort in Hawaii and Los Angeles, CA, with approximately equal representation of men and women and six ethnic groups (white, Japanese American, Hawaiian, African American, Latinos born in the United States, and Latinos born elsewhere). The most commonly used supplement type was one-a-day multivitamins/minerals, which were taken at least once during the year by 83% of men and 73% of women. Other common supplements were vitamin C, fish oil, vitamin E, and bone or joint supplements. Participants used a median of seven (women) and five and a half (men) different supplements during the year. There were few differences in supplement use across ethnic groups for men, but use tended to be highest for white and Japanese-American women. Use of nonvitamin/nonmineral supplements was common among these older adults, sometimes at high doses. When assessing intakes, supplement use should be correctly quantified because users tend to take many different supplements and nutrient intakes from supplements can be substantial. The inventory method may help improve the measurement of supplement use. Copyright © 2011 American Dietetic Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Confidence in the Efficacy and Safety of Dietary Supplements Among United States Active Duty Army Personnel

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-10-10

    including vitamins, minerals, combination products, antioxidants, herbals , protein and amino acid supplements , and purported steroid analogs) and...rarely or never” harm the user. Likewise, individuals who use herbal supplements or OTC weight-loss aids were found to be more likely to perceive...Sun C, Willsie SK: Herbal products and dietary supplements : a survey of use, attitudes, and knowledge among older adults. J Am Osteopath Assoc 2007

  8. Adverse effects of herbal or dietary supplements in G6PD deficiency: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Lee, Shaun Wen Huey; Lai, Nai Ming; Chaiyakunapruk, Nathorn; Chong, David Weng Kwai

    2017-01-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is a common genetic disorder, affecting nearly 400 million individuals worldwide. Whilst it is known that a number of drugs, foods and chemicals can trigger haemolysis in G6PD deficient individuals, the association between herbal and dietary supplements and haemolysis is less clear. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between herbal or dietary supplements and adverse events in G6PD deficient individuals. We searched 14 electronic databases from their inception until November 2015 for articles describing the use of herbal or dietary supplements in G6PD deficient individuals. Additional publications were identified from manually searching textbooks, conference abstracts and the grey literature. All study designs were included as long as they contained clinical information. These gathered findings were summarized narratively. Thirty-two publications met inclusion criteria. These reported on 10 herbal and dietary supplements. Overall evidence linking haemolysis to a herbal/dietary supplement was only found for henna. No evidence of harm was observed for vitamin C, vitamin E, vitamin K, Gingko biloba and α-lipoic acid. The review showed that there was insufficient evidence to contravene the use of most herbal or dietary products at therapeutic doses in G6PD deficient subjects. © 2016 The British Pharmacological Society.

  9. Consumer usage and reasons for using dietary supplements: report of a series of surveys.

    PubMed

    Dickinson, Annette; Blatman, Judy; El-Dash, Neale; Franco, Julio C

    2014-01-01

    Consumer usage of dietary supplements is prevalent in the United States, and total usage is higher than reported in recent National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES), because these surveys capture usage only in the 30 days prior to the respondent's interview and do not capture occasional and seasonal use throughout the year. We report data from a series of consumer surveys on the full extent of dietary supplement use, on the reasons for supplement use, and on the products most commonly taken, as well as other health habits of supplement users. The Council for Responsible Nutrition (CRN), a trade association of the dietary supplement industry, has contracted with Ipsos Public Affairs to conduct consumer surveys annually since 2000. The surveys have been administered online since 2007 to about 2000 subjects each year. We report 5 years of data (2007 to 2011) on the prevalence of dietary supplement use, as well as more detailed data from the 2011 survey on the products used, the reasons for using supplements, and other health habits of supplement users. The prevalence of supplement use fluctuated within the range of 64% to 69% from 2007 to 2011, and the prevalence of regular supplement use ranged from 48% to 53%, with no statistically significant differences from year to year. Over the 5-year period, the percentage of respondents who said that they regularly used a variety of supplements increased from 28% to 36%, and the increase from 2010 to 2011 was statistically significant. The percentage of respondents who said that they regularly used only a multivitamin, as opposed to a variety of supplements, declined from 24% to 17%, and the decrease from 2007 to 2008 was statistically significant. Detailed results from the 2011 survey confirm that supplement use increases with age and is higher in women than in men. Vitamin or mineral supplements were used by 67% of all respondents in 2011, specialty supplements by 35%, botanicals by 23%, and sports

  10. Effect of dietary supplementation of omega-3 fatty acids and high levels of dietary protein on performance of sows

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A study was conducted to determine the effect of dietary supplementation of omega-3 fatty acids (O3FA), with or without high levels of protein, on the performance of sows during first and subsequent parity. Sixty-four pregnant gilts with BW of 195.0 ± 2.1 kg and backfat (BF) thickness of 12.9 ± 0.2 ...

  11. Conceptual Development of a Measure to Assess Pharmacists' Knowledge of Herbal and Dietary Supplements

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Hsiang-Wen; Mahady, Gail B.; Popovich, Nicholas G.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives To describe the conceptual development of a measure for assessing pharmacist knowledge of herbal and dietary supplements. Methods A standardized approach to constructing a multiple-choice competency examination following 8 pre-specified criteria (eg, specifying the target spectrum of herbal and dietary supplements) was used to create an item bank. The quality of each item was evaluated by 5 herbal and dietary supplement content experts based on specific criteria in 3 rounds of review. Results From 122 initial items, 56 items were retained for the item bank representing 4 content areas: efficacy/effectiveness, safety, drug-supplement interactions, and regulation. The experts tended to agree that the constructed items represented a wide range of difficulty. Conclusion The initial development of a conceptually based item bank/measure of pharmacist herbal and dietary supplement knowledge lays the groundwork for a large-scale validation study. The measure should be useful as a standalone tool and as a component of a knowledge, attitude, and behavior survey for the assessment of pharmacist traits related to herbal and dietary supplements. PMID:18698390

  12. Dietary Medium Chain Fatty Acid Supplementation Leads to Reduced VLDL Lipolysis and Uptake Rates in Comparison to Linoleic Acid Supplementation

    PubMed Central

    van Schalkwijk, Daniël B.; Pasman, Wilrike J.; Hendriks, Henk F. J.; Verheij, Elwin R.; Rubingh, Carina M.; van Bochove, Kees; Vaes, Wouter H. J.; Adiels, Martin; Freidig, Andreas P.; de Graaf, Albert A.

    2014-01-01

    Dietary medium chain fatty acids (MCFA) and linoleic acid follow different metabolic routes, and linoleic acid activates PPAR receptors. Both these mechanisms may modify lipoprotein and fatty acid metabolism after dietary intervention. Our objective was to investigate how dietary MCFA and linoleic acid supplementation and body fat distribution affect the fasting lipoprotein subclass profile, lipoprotein kinetics, and postprandial fatty acid kinetics. In a randomized double blind cross-over trial, 12 male subjects (age 51±7 years; BMI 28.5±0.8 kg/m2), were divided into 2 groups according to waist-hip ratio. They were supplemented with 60 grams/day MCFA (mainly C8:0, C10:0) or linoleic acid for three weeks, with a wash-out period of six weeks in between. Lipoprotein subclasses were measured using HPLC. Lipoprotein and fatty acid metabolism were studied using a combination of several stable isotope tracers. Lipoprotein and tracer data were analyzed using computational modeling. Lipoprotein subclass concentrations in the VLDL and LDL range were significantly higher after MCFA than after linoleic acid intervention. In addition, LDL subclass concentrations were higher in lower body obese individuals. Differences in VLDL metabolism were found to occur in lipoprotein lipolysis and uptake, not production; MCFAs were elongated intensively, in contrast to linoleic acid. Dietary MCFA supplementation led to a less favorable lipoprotein profile than linoleic acid supplementation. These differences were not due to elevated VLDL production, but rather to lower lipolysis and uptake rates. PMID:25049048

  13. Use of dietary supplements in patients seeking treatment at a periodontal clinic.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Bryan D; Fritz, Peter C; Ward, Wendy E

    2013-04-02

    Dietary supplement use may modify the risk of periodontal disease but effects on wound healing after periodontal procedures are less clear. This study characterized dietary supplement use by male and female patients (n = 376) attending a periodontal clinic-information that is essential for evidence-based intervention studies that may improve patient outcomes after periodontal procedures. Calcium, vitamin D, multivitamin and vitamin C were most commonly used. A greater (p ≤ 0.05) number of males took no supplements compared to females, and more (p ≤ 0.05) females than males took ≥ four supplements. Females took more (p ≤ 0.05) calcium, vitamin D, fish oil, green tea, magnesium, omega 3,6,9 and B vitamin complex. Younger patients (31-50 years) had the highest (p ≤ 0.05) frequency of no supplement use compared to older age groups. Patients over age 50 had a higher (p ≤ 0.05) frequency of using ≥ four supplements including calcium and vitamin D. Supplement use was lower (p ≤ 0.05) in smokers, particularly for calcium, fish oil, green tea and vitamin D. In conclusion, females, older individuals and non-smokers have higher supplement use. Future dietary intervention studies can focus on supplements with known biological activities-anti-inflammatory, antioxidant or osteogenic activity-that may enhance wound healing after reconstructive periodontal procedures.

  14. Use of Dietary Supplements in Patients Seeking Treatment at a Periodontal Clinic

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, Bryan D.; Fritz, Peter C.; Ward, Wendy E.

    2013-01-01

    Dietary supplement use may modify the risk of periodontal disease but effects on wound healing after periodontal procedures are less clear. This study characterized dietary supplement use by male and female patients (n = 376) attending a periodontal clinic—information that is essential for evidence-based intervention studies that may improve patient outcomes after periodontal procedures. Calcium, vitamin D, multivitamin and vitamin C were most commonly used. A greater (p ≤ 0.05) number of males took no supplements compared to females, and more (p ≤ 0.05) females than males took ≥ four supplements. Females took more (p ≤ 0.05) calcium, vitamin D, fish oil, green tea, magnesium, omega 3,6,9 and B vitamin complex. Younger patients (31–50 years) had the highest (p ≤ 0.05) frequency of no supplement use compared to older age groups. Patients over age 50 had a higher (p ≤ 0.05) frequency of using ≥ four supplements including calcium and vitamin D. Supplement use was lower (p ≤ 0.05) in smokers, particularly for calcium, fish oil, green tea and vitamin D. In conclusion, females, older individuals and non-smokers have higher supplement use. Future dietary intervention studies can focus on supplements with known biological activities—anti-inflammatory, antioxidant or osteogenic activity—that may enhance wound healing after reconstructive periodontal procedures. PMID:23549330

  15. Consumers' attitude towards the use and safety of herbal medicines and herbal dietary supplements in Serbia.

    PubMed

    Samojlik, Isidora; Mijatović, Vesna; Gavarić, Neda; Krstin, Sonja; Božin, Biljana

    2013-10-01

    The use of herbal medicines and herbal dietary supplements in Serbia is very common and many patients consume herbal preparations with conventional drug therapy. The aim of this survey was to evaluate the consumers' awareness of herbal remedies and the safety of herbal dietary supplements, their attitude towards combining herbals and drugs, and the source of recommendations for their use. The study included all consumers who bought herbal remedies and herbal dietary supplements in 15 pharmacies on the territory of Novi Sad during 2011 and who accepted to be interviewed. Structured interviews using questionnaire, conducted by pharmacists. The questionnaire included 4 parts: socio-demographic characteristics of consumers, source of recommendations for the use of herbal products, attitude towards safety of herbal remedies and herbal dietary supplements use and their combination with regular drugs, as well as the question of purchased herbal products. Consumers' attitude towards the safety and use of herbal medicines and herbal dietary supplements measured by 9 items. The majority of interviewed participants were highly educated, aged 41-60 and they consumed herbal remedies on their own initiative or on recommendation of nonmedically educated person, without previous consultation with medical doctor or pharmacist. Out of all participants: 88.9 % did not consider it important to inform their physician or pharmacist about use of herbal remedies and herbal dietary supplements; 73.3 % found the use of herbal remedies harmless (where 9.4 % did not have any attitude towards that issue), while 40.3 % of participants regarded the combining of herbal and regular drugs unsafe. There is a need for consumers' education on reliable use of herbal medicines and herbal dietary supplements, in order to improve their awareness of the limits of herbal remedies safety and potential risks of their combination with drugs.

  16. The liberating effect of weight loss supplements on dietary control: a field experiment.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yevvon Y; Chiou, Wen-Bin

    2014-09-01

    Taking weight-loss supplements may create illusion of protection against weight gain and thereby loosen subsequent dietary self-control. The current study examined whether taking weight-loss supplement would increase food intake and further tested whether positive attitudes toward supplements would increase susceptibility to overeating. Participants were randomly assigned to take either a known placebo or a purported weight loss supplement (actually, the same placebo). After supplement provision, participants' actual food consumption at a reward buffet lunch was recorded. Compared with controls, participants receiving a purported weight loss supplement ate more food at the reward buffet. Perceived progress toward the goal of weight reduction mediated the connection between use of weight loss supplements and subsequent food consumption. Participants with more positive attitudes toward weight loss supplements were more susceptible to the liberating effect of taking weight loss supplements on food intake. Using weight loss supplements may produce unintended consequences on dietary self-regulation. The public should pay more attention to the notion of psychological liberation when using weight loss supplements. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Potential toxicity of caffeine when used as a dietary supplement for weight loss.

    PubMed

    Pendleton, Morgan; Brown, Stacy; Thomas, Christan; Odle, Brian

    2012-12-01

    Many dietary supplements being promoted for weight loss contain caffeine- or ephedra-related alkaloids to increase energy and suppress appetite. People may be unaware that supplements can contain caffeine, even if caffeine is not listed as an ingredient. Commonly used herbal dietary supplement ingredients, such as guarana, are natural sources of caffeine. Additions of these natural sources of caffeine to dietary supplements have increased in recent years. We describe a case of possible caffeine-induced seizure in a patient taking an over-the-counter weight loss supplement. A previously healthy 38-year-old female experienced blurring of vision and a new onset grand mal seizure. The patient had a 2-month history of taking the dietary supplement, Zantrex-3™. Zantrex-3™ is advertised as a weight loss supplement, which may provide rapid weight loss and extreme energy in one "power packed pill." Zantrex-3™ is a proprietary blend containing niacin, caffeine, and various herbs. After presenting to the hospital emergency room, the patient's chemistry panel, with the exception of potassium (2.9 mEq/L), was within normal limits. An electroencephalogram (EEG) was unremarkable. The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed possible atrophy in the right frontal lobe. Findings from follow-up MRI and EEG ordered as an outpatient were within normal limits. After discontinuation of Zantrex-3™, the patient has experienced no further seizure activity.

  18. Results and lessons from clinical trials using dietary supplements for cancer: direct and indirect investigations.

    PubMed

    Moyad, M A

    2001-11-01

    Randomized controlled trials are generally regarded as the standard of study designs to determine potential causality. The inclusion of a placebo group in these trials, when appropriate, is generally needed to access the efficacy of a drug or dietary supplement. The recent increasing use of dietary supplements and herbal medications by patients makes it imperative to reevaluate the past findings of clinical studies. Several large-scale trials of dietary supplements have been tested in various populations to determine their effect on cancer prevention. Other trials have focused on patients already diagnosed with cancer. In the latter case, it is difficult to involve a placebo because of the serious nature of the disease. Nevertheless, much has been gleaned from these trials directly and indirectly. Overall, when analyzing primary endpoints in these trials, the results have been discouraging and even support the nonuse of certain supplements because of potential adverse effects. Other secondary endpoints in these same trials have revealed some potential encouraging and discouraging data. Individuals who currently qualify for the potential use of dietary supplements for cancer may be restricted to those who have a deficiency in a certain compound despite adequate dietary sources or lifestyle changes. Those individuals with a smoking history or other unhealthy lifestyle seem to have the most to gain or lose from taking certain dietary supplements for cancer. The time seems more than ripe to evaluate past adequate trials with supplements, such as beta-carotene, N-acetyl-cysteine, selenium, shark cartilage, vitamin C, vitamin E, and others. Again, these studies have been disappointing, but they provide insight for the clinician and patient of what to potentially expect when using these supplements for cancer. In addition, indirect trials for other conditions (cardiovascular) may provide future insight into possible results for future cancer prevention trials.

  19. Dietary supplementation with monosodium glutamate is safe and improves growth performance in postweaning pigs.

    PubMed

    Rezaei, Reza; Knabe, Darrell A; Tekwe, Carmen D; Dahanayaka, Sudath; Ficken, Martin D; Fielder, Susan E; Eide, Sarah J; Lovering, Sandra L; Wu, Guoyao

    2013-03-01

    Dietary intake of glutamate by postweaning pigs is markedly reduced due to low feed consumption. This study was conducted to determine the safety and efficacy of dietary supplementation with monosodium glutamate (MSG) in postweaning pigs. Piglets were weaned at 21 days of age to a corn and soybean meal-based diet supplemented with 0, 0.5, 1, 2, and 4 % MSG (n = 25/group). MSG was added to the basal diet at the expense of cornstarch. At 42 days of age (21 days after weaning), blood samples (10 mL) were obtained from the jugular vein of 25 pigs/group at 1 and 4 h after feeding for hematological and clinical chemistry tests; thereafter, pigs (n = 6/group) were euthanized to obtain tissues for histopathological examinations. Feed intake was not affected by dietary supplementation with 0-2 % MSG and was 15 % lower in pigs supplemented with 4 % MSG compared with the 0 % MSG group. Compared with the control, dietary supplementation with 1, 2 and 4 % MSG dose-dependently increased plasma concentrations of glutamate, glutamine, and other amino acids (including lysine, methionine, phenylalanine and leucine), daily weight gain, and feed efficiency in postweaning pigs. At day 7 postweaning, dietary supplementation with 1-4 % MSG also increased jejunal villus height, DNA content, and antioxidative capacity. The MSG supplementation dose-dependently reduced the incidence of diarrhea during the first week after weaning. All variables in standard hematology and clinical chemistry tests, as well as gross and microscopic structures, did not differ among the five groups of pigs. These results indicate that dietary supplementation with up to 4 % MSG is safe and improves growth performance in postweaning pigs.

  20. Dietary supplement use in the older population of Iceland and association with mortality.

    PubMed

    Ólafsdóttir, Birta; Gunnarsdóttir, Ingibjörg; Nikulásdóttir, Hjálmfríður; Eiríksdóttir, Guðný; Harris, Tamara B; Launer, Lenore J; Guðnason, Vilmundur; Halldórsson, Thórhallur I; Einarsdóttir, Kristjana

    2017-05-01

    Dietary supplements are often used by the elderly to improve their nutritional status. However, intake above the recommended dietary levels may be detrimental, and uncertainty exists on the potential health benefits of supplementation in this population. The aim of this study was to describe supplement use among Icelandic older adults and to assess its association with total mortality and CVD-related mortality. This study used data from the Age Gene/Environment Susceptibility-Reykjavik study, which recruited 5764 participants aged 66-98 years in 2002-2006. Intake of vitamins and minerals from dietary supplements was estimated from interviews. Hazard ratios (HR) for mortality were estimated in multivariate analyses with follow-up ending in 2009. The results showed that most (77 %) of the participants used supplements. Overall, the consumption of vitamins and minerals from supplements was moderate although 22 and 14 % of users exceeded the upper recommended intake levels for vitamin B6 and Zn, respectively. Supplement users followed in general a healthier lifestyle than non-users. There were 1221 deaths including 525 CVD-related deaths during the follow-up period. When comparing multivitamin users with non-users in multivariable models, no associations with total mortality (HR 0·91; 95 % CI: 0·77, 1·08) or CVD-related mortality (HR 0·91; 95 % CI 0·70, 1·18) were observed. In conclusion, users of supplements generally lead healthier lifestyles than non-users and supplements did not confer any added advantage or harm relative to mortality risk. However, the intake of vitamin B6 and Zn from dietary supplements exceeded the recommended daily intake for almost a quarter of the supplement users.

  1. Multiple dietary supplements do not affect metabolic and cardio-vascular health.

    PubMed

    Soare, Andreea; Weiss, Edward P; Holloszy, John O; Fontana, Luigi

    2014-02-01

    Dietary supplements are widely used for health purposes. However, little is known about the metabolic and cardiovascular effects of combinations of popular over-the-counter supplements, each of which has been shown to have anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and pro-longevity properties in cell culture or animal studies. This study was a 6-month randomized, single-blind controlled trial, in which 56 non-obese (BMI 21.0-29.9 kg/m(2)) men and women, aged 38 to 55 yr, were assigned to a dietary supplement (SUP) group or control (CON) group, with a 6-month follow-up. The SUP group took 10 dietary supplements each day (100 mg of resveratrol, a complex of 800 mg each of green, black, and white tea extract, 250 mg of pomegranate extract, 650 mg of quercetin, 500 mg of acetyl-l-carnitine, 600 mg of lipoic acid, 900 mg of curcumin, 1 g of sesamin, 1.7 g of cinnamon bark extract, and 1.0 g fish oil). Both the SUP and CON groups took a daily multivitamin/mineral supplement. The main outcome measures were arterial stiffness, endothelial function, biomarkers of inflammation and oxidative stress, and cardiometabolic risk factors. Twenty-four weeks of daily supplementation with 10 dietary supplements did not affect arterial stiffness or endothelial function in nonobese individuals. These compounds also did not alter body fat measured by DEXA, blood pressure, plasma lipids, glucose, insulin, IGF-1, and markers of inflammation and oxidative stress. In summary, supplementation with a combination of popular dietary supplements has no cardiovascular or metabolic effects in non-obese relatively healthy individuals.

  2. Dietary Supplements, Isotretinoin, and Liver Toxicity in Adolescents: A Retrospective Case Series.

    PubMed

    DeKlotz, Cynthia Marie Carver; Roby, Keith D; Friedlander, Sheila Fallon

    2017-10-01

    Isotretinoin is the most effective acne therapy available, but has the potential for a number of adverse side effects, including transaminitis. The iPLEDGE isotretinoin program recommends avoiding some herbals and supplements due to potential side effects. However, little is known about the effects of protein supplements on the liver, particularly in patients taking isotretinoin. We designed a retrospective chart review to evaluate the symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, and outcome of patients on or preparing to take isotretinoin therapy who were concurrently ingesting protein or herbal supplementation and who developed transaminitis. In 100% (8/8) of cases, dietary supplementation was determined to be at least a possible cause of elevated liver transaminases. In 75% (6/8) of cases, dietary supplement appears to be the most likely cause at some point in their evaluation. Most of our patients' elevations in aspartate aminotransferase and/or alanine aminotransferase were likely caused by supplementation with protein, creatine, or herbal extracts, rather than prescribed isotretinoin or tetracycline antibiotics for acne. Hence, dietary supplementation may cause liver function abnormalities. As supplement usage appears common in teenagers, clinicians should consider counseling their patients to avoid these products, particularly when prescribing known hepatotoxic drugs. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  3. Functional foods and dietary supplements: products at the interface between pharma and nutrition.

    PubMed

    Eussen, Simone R B M; Verhagen, Hans; Klungel, Olaf H; Garssen, Johan; van Loveren, Henk; van Kranen, Henk J; Rompelberg, Cathy J M

    2011-09-01

    It is increasingly recognized that most chronic diseases of concern today are multifactorial in origin. To combat such diseases and adverse health conditions, a treatment approach where medicines and nutrition complement each other may prove to be the most successful. Within nutrition, apart from (disease-related) dietetic regimes, an increasing number of functional foods and dietary supplements, each with their own health claim, are marketed. These food items are considered to be positioned between traditional foods and medicines at the so-called 'Pharma-Nutrition Interface'. This paper encompasses aspects related to the regulatory framework and health claims of functional foods and dietary supplements. The use of functional foods or dietary supplements may offer opportunities to reduce health risk factors and risk of diseases, both as monotherapy and in combination with prescription drugs. Nevertheless, the potential caveats of these products should not be overlooked. These caveats include the increased risk for food-drug interactions due to the elevated amounts of specific functional ingredients in the diet, and the stimulation of self-medication potentially resulting in lower adherence to drug therapy. Health technology assessments should be used more to compare the cost-effectiveness and benefit-risk ratios of drugs, functional foods and dietary supplements, and to evaluate the added value of functional foods or dietary supplements to drug therapy.

  4. Simultaneous determination of vitamin A and beta-carotene in dietary supplements by liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Sundaresan, P Ramnathan

    2002-01-01

    Several liquid chromatography (LC) methods for analysis of vitamin A in foods and feeds have been previously reported but only a few have been applied in non-food matrixes. A validated LC method is needed for determination of vitamin A and beta-carotene in the various matrixes presented by dietary supplements. The performance of a reversed-phase method with methanol-isopropanol gradient elution was evaluated with standard retinyl derivatives and beta-carotene. The reversed-phase method is capable of separating retinol from other derivatives such as retinyl acetate, retinyl palmitate, and beta-carotene. Two types of extraction were used to extract the analytes from the dietary supplements: a hexane-methylene chloride extraction for soft-gel capsules containing beta-carotene, and a direct solvent extraction for dietary supplements in tablet form. The direct solvent extraction consisted of treatment with ethanol and methylene chloride following addition of hot water (55 degrees C). Results with the reversed-phase method for vitamin A and beta-carotene in the products examined (n = 8) indicated excellent method performance. The main form of vitamin A or beta-carotene in dietary supplements was the all-trans isomer. The reversed-phase method avoids saponification and is rapid, accurate, precise, and suitable for simultaneous determination of retinyl derivatives and beta-carotene in dietary supplements.

  5. Primary constituents of blue cohosh: quantification in dietary supplements and potential for toxicity.

    PubMed

    Rader, Jeanne I; Pawar, Rahul S

    2013-05-01

    Dietary supplements containing dried roots or extracts of the roots and/or rhizomes of blue cohosh (Caulophyllum thalictroides) are widely available. This botanical has a long history of use by Native Americans and its use continues to the present day. The primary constituents of blue cohosh are its alkaloids and saponins. The structures of the alkaloids magnoflorine, baptifoline, anagyrine, and N-methylcytisine have been known for many years. The last 10 years have seen a great increase in isolation and identification of the large number of saponins present in blue cohosh. Important developments in nuclear magnetic resonance techniques have contributed substantially to the increase in elucidation of the structures of the complex saponins. Several authors have described quantitative methods for both the alkaloids and saponins in blue cohosh. Such methods have made it possible to quantify these constituents in dietary supplements containing this botanical ingredient. Concentrations of both alkaloids and saponins vary substantially in dietary supplements of blue cohosh. The nicotinic alkaloid, N-methylcytisine, a potent toxicant, has been found in all dietary supplements of blue cohosh analyzed. The teratogenic alkaloid anagyrine has been found in some but not all dietary supplements.

  6. Composition of ruminal bacteria harvested from steers as influenced by dietary forage level and fat supplementation.

    PubMed

    Hussein, H S; Merchen, N R; Fahey, G C

    1995-08-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effects of dietary forage level and fat supplementation on the chemical composition of mixed ruminal bacteria (MRB). Six ruminally cannulated beef steers (354 kg +/- 18) were given ad libitum access to six diets (13.2% CP; DM basis) that were offered twice daily in a 6 x 6 Latin square design. Treatments were arranged as a 2 x 3 factorial with two forage levels (70 vs 30% of dietary DM as corn silage) and three forms of fat supplementation including no canola seed or canola seed added at 10% of dietary DM as whole treated with alkaline hydrogen peroxide or untreated crushed. Canola seed contributed 5% added fat to the total diet. The remaining dietary ingredients were corn, canola meal, molasses, and urea. No interactions (P > .05) between dietary forage level and canola seed supplementation were observed. Concentrations of OM, N, and all amino acids were higher (P < .05) in MRB from steers fed low forage than in MRB from steers fed high forage. Concentrations of purines and GE and the N:purines ratio in MRB were not affected (P > .05) by dietary forage level or canola seed supplementation. Canola seed supplementation did not affect (P > .05) concentrations of OM, N, or most of the amino acids in MRB. Concentrations of four essential amino acids (i.e., isoleucine, leucine, lysine, and phenylalanine) in MRB were decreased (P < .05) due to canola seed supplementation. Dietary forage level did not affect (P > .05) concentrations of long-chain fatty acids in MRB.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  7. Efficacy trials of a micronutrient dietary supplement in schoolchildren and pregnant women in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Latham, Michael C; Ash, Deborah M; Makola, Diklar; Tatala, Simon R; Ndossi, Godwin D; Mehansho, Haile

    2003-12-01

    Traditionally, the main strategies used to control micronutrient deficiencies have been food diversification, consumption of medicinal supplements, and food fortification. In Tanzania, we conducted efficacy trials using a dietary supplement as a fourth approach. These were randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled efficacy trials conducted separately first in children and later in pregnant women. The dietary supplement was a powder used to prepare an orange-flavored beverage. In the school trial, children consumed 25 g per school day attended. In the pregnancy trial, women consumed the contents of two 25-g sachets per day with meals. This dietary supplement, unlike most medicinal supplements, provided 11 micronutrients, including iron and vitamin A, in physiologic amounts. In both trials we compared changes in subjects consuming either the fortified or the nonfortified supplement. Measures of iron and vitamin A status were similar in the groups at the baseline examination, but significantly different at follow-up, always in favor of the fortified groups. Children receiving the fortified supplement had significantly improved anthropometric measures when compared with controls. At four weeks postpartum, the breast milk of a supplemented group of women had significantly higher mean retinol content than did the milk of mothers consuming the nonfortified supplement. The advantages of using a fortified dietary supplement, compared with other approaches, include its ability to control several micronutrient deficiencies simultaneously; the use of physiologic amounts of nutrients, rather than megadoses that require medical supervision; and the likelihood of better compliance than with the use of pills because subjects liked the beverage used in these trials.

  8. Examination of Vitamin Intakes among US Adults by Dietary Supplement Use

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Regan Lucas; Fulgoni, Victor L.; Keast, Debra R.; Dwyer, Johanna T.

    2013-01-01

    Background More than half of US adults use dietary supplements. Some reports suggest that supplement users have higher vitamin intakes from foods than nonusers, but this observation has not been examined using nationally representative survey data. Objective The purpose of this analysis was to examine vitamin intakes from foods by supplement use and how dietary supplements contribute to meeting or exceeding the Dietary Reference Intakes for selected vitamins using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey among adults (aged ≥19 years) in 2003–2006 (n=8,860). Results Among male users, mean intakes of folate and vitamins A, E, and K from food sources were significantly higher than among nonusers. Among women, mean intakes of folate and vitamins A, C, D, and E from foods were higher among users than nonusers. Total intakes (food and supplements) were higher for every vitamin we examined among users than the dietary vitamin intakes of nonusers. Supplement use helped lower the prevalence of intakes below the Estimated Average Requirement for every vitamin we examined, but for folic acid and vitamins A, B-6, and C, supplement use increased the likelihood of intakes above the Tolerable Upper Intake Level. Conclusions Supplement use was associated with higher mean intakes of some vitamins from foods among users than nonusers, but it was not associated with the prevalence of intakes less than the Estimated Average Requirement from foods. Those who do not use vitamin supplements had significantly higher prevalence of inadequate vitamin intakes; however, the use of supplements can contribute to excess intake for some vitamins. PMID:22709770

  9. Examination of vitamin intakes among US adults by dietary supplement use.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Regan Lucas; Fulgoni, Victor L; Keast, Debra R; Dwyer, Johanna T

    2012-05-01

    More than half of US adults use dietary supplements. Some reports suggest that supplement users have higher vitamin intakes from foods than nonusers, but this observation has not been examined using nationally representative survey data. The purpose of this analysis was to examine vitamin intakes from foods by supplement use and how dietary supplements contribute to meeting or exceeding the Dietary Reference Intakes for selected vitamins using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey among adults (aged ≥19 years) in 2003-2006 (n=8,860). Among male users, mean intakes of folate and vitamins A, E, and K from food sources were significantly higher than among nonusers. Among women, mean intakes of folate and vitamins A, C, D, and E from foods were higher among users than nonusers. Total intakes (food and supplements) were higher for every vitamin we examined among users than the dietary vitamin intakes of nonusers. Supplement use helped lower the prevalence of intakes below the Estimated Average Requirement for every vitamin we examined, but for folic acid and vitamins A, B-6, and C, supplement use increased the likelihood of intakes above the Tolerable Upper Intake Level. Supplement use was associated with higher mean intakes of some vitamins from foods among users than nonusers, but it was not associated with the prevalence of intakes less than the Estimated Average Requirement from foods. Those who do not use vitamin supplements had significantly higher prevalence of inadequate vitamin intakes; however, the use of supplements can contribute to excess intake for some vitamins. Copyright © 2012 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Hepatotoxicity associated with the dietary supplement OxyELITE Pro™ - Hawaii, 2013.

    PubMed

    Johnston, David I; Chang, Arthur; Viray, Melissa; Chatham-Stephens, Kevin; He, Hua; Taylor, Ethel; Wong, Linda L; Schier, Joshua; Martin, Colleen; Fabricant, Daniel; Salter, Monique; Lewis, Lauren; Park, Sarah Y

    2016-01-01

    Dietary supplements are increasingly marketed to and consumed by the American public for a variety of purported health benefits. On 9 September 2013, the Hawaii Department of Health (HDOH) was notified of a cluster of acute hepatitis and fulminant hepatic failure among individuals with exposure to the dietary supplement OxyELITE Pro™ (OEP). HDOH conducted an outbreak investigation in collaboration with federal partners. Physicians were asked to report cases, defined as individuals with acute onset hepatitis of unknown etiology on or after 1 April 2013, a history of weight-loss/muscle-building dietary supplement use during the 60 days before illness onset, and residence in Hawaii during the period of exposure. Reported cases' medical records were reviewed, questionnaires were administered, and a product investigation, including chemical analyses and traceback, was conducted. Of 76 reports, 44 (58%) met case definition; of these, 36 (82%) reported OEP exposure during the two months before illness. No other common supplements or exposures were observed. Within the OEP-exposed subset, two patients required liver transplantation, and a third patient died. Excessive product dosing was not reported. No unique lot numbers were identified; there were multiple mainland distribution points, and lot numbers common to cases in Hawaii were also identified in continental states. Product analysis found consumed products were consistent with labeled ingredients; the mechanism of hepatotoxicity was not identified. We report one of the largest statewide outbreaks of dietary supplement-associated hepatotoxicity. The implicated product was OEP. The increasing popularity of dietary supplements raises the potential for additional clusters of dietary supplement-related adverse events. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Hepatotoxicity associated with the dietary supplement OxyELITE Pro™ — Hawaii, 2013

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, David I.; Chang, Arthur; Viray, Melissa; Chatham-Stephens, Kevin; He, Hua; Taylor, Ethel; Wong, Linda L.; Schier, Joshua; Martin, Colleen; Fabricant, Daniel; Salter, Monique; Lewis, Lauren; Park, Sarah Y.

    2015-01-01

    Dietary supplements are increasingly marketed to and consumed by the American public for a variety of purported health benefits. On 9 September 2013, the Hawaii Department of Health (HDOH) was notified of a cluster of acute hepatitis and fulminant hepatic failure among individuals with exposure to the dietary supplement OxyELITE Pro™ (OEP). HDOH conducted an outbreak investigation in collaboration with federal partners. Physicians were asked to report cases, defined as individuals with acute onset hepatitis of unknown etiology on or after 1 April 2013, a history of weight-loss/muscle-building dietary supplement use during the 60 days before illness onset, and residence in Hawaii during the period of exposure. Reported cases’ medical records were reviewed, questionnaires were administered, and a product investigation, including chemical analyses and trace back, was conducted. Of 76 reports, 44 (58%) met case definition; of these, 36 (82%) reported OEP exposure during the two months before illness. No other common supplements or exposures were observed. Within the OEP-exposed subset, two patients required liver transplantation, and a third patient died. Excessive product dosing was not reported. No unique lot numbers were identified; there were multiple mainland distribution points, and lot numbers common to cases in Hawaii were also identified in continental states. Product analysis found consumed products were consistent with labeled ingredients; the mechanism of hepatotoxicity was not identified. We report one of the largest statewide outbreaks of dietary supplement-associated hepatotoxicity. The implicated product was OEP. The increasing popularity of dietary supplements raises the potential for additional clusters of dietary supplement-related adverse events. PMID:26538199

  12. Omega-3 Fatty Acid Formulations in Cardiovascular Disease: Dietary Supplements are Not Substitutes for Prescription Products.

    PubMed

    Fialkow, Jonathan

    2016-08-01

    Omega-3 fatty acid products are available as prescription formulations (icosapent ethyl, omega-3-acid ethyl esters, omega-3-acid ethyl esters A, omega-3-carboxylic acids) and dietary supplements (predominantly fish oils). Most dietary supplements and all but one prescription formulation contain mixtures of the omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Products containing both EPA and DHA may raise low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). In clinical trials, the EPA-only prescription product, icosapent ethyl, did not raise LDL-C compared with placebo. To correct a common misconception, it is important to note that omega-3 fatty acid dietary supplements are not US FDA-approved over-the-counter drugs and are not required to demonstrate safety and efficacy prior to marketing. Conversely, prescription products are supported by extensive clinical safety and efficacy investigations required for FDA approval and have active and ongoing safety monitoring programs. While omega-3 fatty acid dietary supplements may have a place in the supplementation of diet, they generally contain lower levels of EPA and DHA than prescription products and are not approved or intended to treat disease. Perhaps due to the lack of regulation of dietary supplements, EPA and DHA levels may vary widely within and between brands, and products may also contain unwanted cholesterol or fats or potentially harmful components, including toxins and oxidized fatty acids. Accordingly, omega-3 fatty acid dietary supplements should not be substituted for prescription products. Similarly, prescription products containing DHA and EPA should not be substituted for the EPA-only prescription product, as DHA may raise LDL-C and thereby complicate the management of patients with dyslipidemia.

  13. Dietary Lecithin Supplementation Can Improve the Quality of the M. Longissimus thoracis

    PubMed Central

    D’Souza, Darryl N.; Blake, Bronwyn L.; Williams, Ian H.; Mullan, Bruce P.; Pethick, David W.; Dunshea, Frank R.

    2015-01-01

    Simple Summary Meat tenderness and texture can be influenced by the connective tissue content. Dietary lecithin offers a means of improving fat digestibility of pigs and reducing the connective tissue of pork. This feeding study confirmed that dietary lecithin decreased the chewiness and improved the fatty acid composition of pork without impacting on growth performance of pigs. Therefore, dietary lecithin supplementation has the potential to improve the quality attributes of pork. Abstract Forty crossbred (Large White × Landrace × Duroc) female pigs (16.4 kg ± 0.94 kg) were used to investigate the effect of dietary lecithin supplementation on growth performance and pork quality. Pigs were randomly allocated to a commercial diet containing either 0, 3, 15 or 75 g lecithin/kg of feed during the grower and finisher growth phase. Pork from pigs consuming the diets containing 15 g and 75 g lecithin/kg had lower hardness (P < 0.001) and chewiness (P < 0.01) values compared to the controls. Dietary lecithin supplementation at 75 g/kg significantly increased (P < 0.05) the linoleic acid and reduced (P < 0.05) the myristic acid levels of pork compared to the control and the 3 g/kg and 15 g/kg lecithin supplemented treatments. Pigs fed the 75 g/kg lecithin supplemented diet had lower plasma cholesterol (P < 0.05) at slaughter compared to pigs fed the control diet and the 3 g/kg and 15 g/kg lecithin supplemented treatments. These data indicate that dietary lecithin supplementation has the potential to improve the quality attributes of pork from female pigs. PMID:26610579

  14. Dietary supplement usage among elementary school children in Taiwan: their school performance and emotional status.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shih-Ying; Lin, Jia-Rong; Kao, Mei-Ding; Hang, Chi-Ming; Cheng, Lieyueh; Pan, Wen-Harn

    2007-01-01

    Dietary supplement consumption practices among 2417 children (1295 boys and 1122 girls) aged 6 to 12 years in Taiwan were derived from the Nutrition and Health Survey in Taiwan Elementary School Children (NAHSIT 2001-2002). The proportion (22%) of boys and girls using supplements was equivalent. Some 77% of the child supplement takers took only one type of supplement. The top five supplements consumed were: multivitamins and minerals, calcium, vitamin C, cod-liver oil and bee propolis in that order. Children in the most urbanized southern Taiwan had the highest usage (33%), but prevalence was lowest in the mountainous areas (5%). Higher parental education level and household monthly income were associated with higher intakes. Supplement users were more competent at school; however, the frequency and number of supplement types were not related to competence.

  15. The influence of selected ingredients of dietary supplements on skin condition.

    PubMed

    Szyszkowska, Barbara; Lepecka-Klusek, Celina; Kozłowicz, Katarzyna; Jazienicka, Iwona; Krasowska, Dorota

    2014-06-01

    Introduction and aim of the article. Healthy skin is an excellent barrier maintaining balance between the internal and external environment of the body. Because it is constantly changing as a result of, on the one hand, environmental factors and, on the other hand, the process associated with skin aging, it requires many nutrients and minerals that help maintain its homeostasis. The aim of this dissertation is to discuss the most commonly used ingredients in dietary supplements that improve the appearance and quality of the skin. Brief description of the state of the art. Quick pace of life, unbalanced diet and stress make it impossible to provide all the necessary components, which affects the proper functioning of the skin. That is why, the interest in dietary supplements as products that help to reduce the deficiencies of individual components is increasing. Supplements that affect the skin, hair and nails mainly consist of: vitamins C, E, A, B-vitamins, micro- and macronutrients and fatty acids. In this paper, some of the ingredients of skin affecting dietary supplements are discussed. A varied and proper diet should provide all the nutrients necessary for the correct functioning of the body. Dietary supplements are intended to supplement the normal daily food intake of nutrients which are not supplied with food in a sufficient quantity. Therefore, their use becomes relevant.

  16. Total and inorganic arsenic in dietary supplement supplies in northern Mexico.

    PubMed

    García-Rico, Leticia; Tejeda-Valenzuela, Lourdes

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of total and inorganic arsenic in dietary supplements composed of herbal plants and seaweed, and to determine the potential toxicological risk. Total arsenic was determined by dry ashing and hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry, and inorganic arsenic was determined by acid digestion, solvent extraction, and hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry. Total and inorganic arsenic in the supplements ranged from 0.07 to 8.31 mg kg(-1) dry weight and from 0.14 to 0.28 mg kg(-1) dry weight, respectively. Daily intake of total arsenic ranged from 0.05 to 12.46 μg day(-1). Inorganic arsenic intake ranged from 0.21 to 0.83 μg day(-1), values that are below the Benchmark Dose Lower Confidence Limit recommended by the Word Health Organization. Therefore, there appears to be a low risk of adverse effects resulting from excess inorganic arsenic intake from these supplements. This is the first study conducted in Mexico that investigates total and inorganic arsenic in dietary supplements. Although the results do not suggest toxicological risk, it is nonetheless important considering the toxicity of inorganic arsenic and the increasing number consumer preferences for dietary supplements. Moreover, it is important to improve and ensure the safety of dietary supplements containing inorganic arsenic.

  17. The influence of selected ingredients of dietary supplements on skin condition

    PubMed Central

    Łepecka-Klusek, Celina; Kozłowicz, Katarzyna; Jazienicka, Iwona; Krasowska, Dorota

    2014-01-01

    Introduction and aim of the article. Healthy skin is an excellent barrier maintaining balance between the internal and external environment of the body. Because it is constantly changing as a result of, on the one hand, environmental factors and, on the other hand, the process associated with skin aging, it requires many nutrients and minerals that help maintain its homeostasis. The aim of this dissertation is to discuss the most commonly used ingredients in dietary supplements that improve the appearance and quality of the skin. Brief description of the state of the art. Quick pace of life, unbalanced diet and stress make it impossible to provide all the necessary components, which affects the proper functioning of the skin. That is why, the interest in dietary supplements as products that help to reduce the deficiencies of individual components is increasing. Supplements that affect the skin, hair and nails mainly consist of: vitamins C, E, A, B-vitamins, micro- and macronutrients and fatty acids. In this paper, some of the ingredients of skin affecting dietary supplements are discussed. A varied and proper diet should provide all the nutrients necessary for the correct functioning of the body. Dietary supplements are intended to supplement the normal daily food intake of nutrients which are not supplied with food in a sufficient quantity. Therefore, their use becomes relevant. PMID:25097490

  18. Hepatopathy following consumption of a commercially available blue-green algae dietary supplement in a dog.

    PubMed

    Bautista, Adrienne C; Moore, Caroline E; Lin, Yanping; Cline, Martha G; Benitah, Noemi; Puschner, Birgit

    2015-06-19

    Dietary supplement use in both human and animals to augment overall health continues to increase and represents a potential health risk due to the lack of safety regulations imposed on the manufacturers. Because there are no requirements for demonstrating safety and efficacy prior to marketing, dietary supplements may contain potentially toxic contaminants such as hepatotoxic microcystins produced by several species of blue-green algae. An 11-year-old female spayed 8.95 kg Pug dog was initially presented for poor appetite, lethargy polyuria, polydipsia, and an inability to get comfortable. Markedly increased liver enzyme activities were detected with no corresponding abnormalities evident on abdominal ultrasound. A few days later the liver enzyme activities were persistently increased and the dog was coagulopathic indicating substantial liver dysfunction. The dog was hospitalized for further care consisting of oral S-adenosylmethionine, silybin, vitamin K, and ursodeoxycholic acid, as well as intravenous ampicillin sodium/sulbactam sodium, dolasetron, N-acetylcysteine, metoclopramide, and intravenous fluids. Improvement of the hepatopathy and the dog's clinical status was noted over the next three days. Assessment of the dog's diet revealed the use of a commercially available blue-green algae dietary supplement for three-and-a-half weeks prior to hospitalization. The supplement was submitted for toxicology testing and revealed the presence of hepatotoxic microcystins (MCs), MC-LR and MC-LA. Use of the supplement was discontinued and follow-up evaluation over the next few weeks revealed a complete resolution of the hepatopathy. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first case report of microcystin intoxication in a dog after using a commercially available blue-green algae dietary supplement. Veterinarians should recognize the potential harm that these supplements may cause and know that with intervention, recovery is possible. In addition, more prudent oversight of

  19. Using 2 Assessment Methods May Better Describe Dietary Supplement Intakes in the United States123

    PubMed Central

    Nicastro, Holly L; Bailey, Regan L; Dodd, Kevin W

    2015-01-01

    Background: One-half of US adults report using a dietary supplement. NHANES has traditionally assessed dietary supplement use via a 30-d questionnaire but in 2007 added a supplement module to the 24-h dietary recall (24HR). Objective: We compared these 2 dietary assessment methods, examined potential biases in the methods, and determined the effect that instrument choice had on estimates of prevalence of multivitamin/multimineral dietary supplement (MVMM) use. Methods: We described prevalence of dietary supplement use by age, sex, and assessment instrument in 12,285 adults in the United States (>19 y of age) from NHANES 2007–2010. Results: When using data from the questionnaire alone, 29.3% ± 1.0% of men and 35.5% ± 1.0% of women were users of MVMMs, whereas data from the 24HR only produced prevalence estimates of 26.3% ± 1.1% for men and 33.2% ± 1.0% for women. When using data from both instruments combined, 32.3% ± 1.2% of men and 39.5% ± 1.1% of women were classified as MVMM users. Prevalence estimates were significantly higher by 2–9% in all age–sex groups when using information from both instruments combined than when using data from either instrument individually. A digit preference bias and flattened slope phenomenon were observed in responses to the dietary supplement questionnaire. A majority (67%) of MVMMs were captured on both instruments, whereas 19% additional MVMMs were captured on the questionnaire and 14% additional on the 24HR. Of those captured only on the 24HR, 26% had missing label information, whereas only 12% and 9% of those captured on the questionnaire or both, respectively, had missing information. Conclusions: Use of both the dietary supplement questionnaire and the 24HR can provide advantages to researchers over the use of a single instrument and potentially capture a larger fraction of dietary supplement users. PMID:26019244

  20. Diets, dietary supplements, and nutritional therapies in rheumatic diseases.

    PubMed

    Henderson, C J; Panush, R S

    1999-11-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis and many other systemic rheumatic diseases remain illnesses of unknown cause for which current therapy is often inadequate. This leads patients to seek questionable remedies, prominent among which are dietary manipulations. Is there a role for dietary modifications in the routine therapy for patients with rheumatic diseases? This article discusses the relationships between diets, fasting, elemental nutrition, vitamins, minerals, and foods for rheumatic diseases. Known scientific-based evidence for the use, safety, and efficacy of diets and dietary-related practices subscribed by patients with rheumatic diseases are presented. Studies that link diet with arthritis offer the possibility of identifying new therapeutic approaches for selected patients and of developing new insights to disease pathogenesis. Dietary therapy for arthritis, however, is still being investigated.

  1. Effects of Dietary Supplementation with Glutamate and Aspartate on Diquat-Induced Oxidative Stress in Piglets

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Wenkai; Duan, Jielin; Yang, Guan; Zhao, Yurong; Fang, Rejun; Chen, Lixiang; Li, Tiejun; Yin, Yulong

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the protective effects of dietary glutamate and aspartate supplementations on diquat-induced oxidative stress in piglets. Diquat injection significantly reduced growth performance, including body weight, average daily weight gain, and feed intake (P<0.05). Meanwhile, diquat administration induced oxidative stress evidenced by the decreased serum nitric oxide (NO) and elevated malondialdeyhde (MDA) concentration (P<0.05). Furthermore, diquat-induced oxidative stress disrupted intestinal absorption system and decreased serum threonine, serine, and glycine levels. Dietary supplementation with glutamate improved final body weight, antioxidant system, and expressions of amino acids transporters and enhanced serum glutamate concentration compared with diquat group (P<0.05). While aspartate failed to alleviate diquat-induced oxidative stress, growth depression, and dysfunction of nutrients absorption except for liver relative weight. In conclusion, dietary supplementation with glutamate confers beneficial effects on diquat-induced oxidative stress in piglets, while aspartate exhibits little effects. PMID:25875335

  2. Synthesis and Structure Revision of Dimeric Tadalafil Analogue Adulterants in Dietary Supplements.

    PubMed

    Mandava, Suresh; Ganganna, Bogonda; Hwang, Jungjoong; Jang, Younchang; Hwang, Jiho; Samala, Mallesham; Kim, Ki-Bbeum; Park, Haeil; Lee, Ji Hyun; Baek, Sun Young; Lee, Jongkook

    2017-01-01

    A number of phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE5) inhibitors approved by authorities have been used successfully in the treatment of erectile dysfunction. These medicines must be prescribed carefully due to their adverse effects, but they and their analogues are being illegally added to dietary supplements. These illegal dietary supplements pose a significant risk to public health. Several dimeric tadalafil analogues have been synthesized for use as reference standards in the inspection of functional foods that are mainly advertised as sexual enhancement products. During the course of this synthesis, 1-[bis(dimethylamino)methylene]-1H-1,2,3-triazolo[4,5-b]pyridinium 3-oxid hexafluorophosphate (HATU) was proven to be the reagent of choice for amide coupling to produce these dimeric tadalafil analogues. Moreover, the trans-isomer structures tentatively assigned for the isolated dimeric tadalafil analogues (bisprehomotadalafil and bisprecyclopentyltadalafil) found in dietary supplements are now revised to cis-isomer structures.

  3. Determination of Oxalate Content in Herbal Remedies and Dietary Supplements Based on Plant Extracts.

    PubMed

    Siener, Roswitha; López-Mesas, Montserrat; Valiente, Manuel; Blanco, Francisco

    2016-02-01

    Lifestyle, especially diet, is a prominent risk factor that affects the formation of calcium oxalate stones. Urinary oxalate excretion is directly related to the amount of oral intake and intestinal absorption rate of oxalate. This work evaluated the possibility of increasing oxalate ingestion, which could lead to secondary hyperoxaluria, associated with the intake of herbal remedies and dietary supplements containing plant extracts. A wide variety of 17 commercially available drugs and dietary supplements were analyzed using ion chromatography. The results showed remarkable differences in oxalate contents of the extracts. Total oxalate concentrations ranged from 0.03 to 2.2 mg/g in solid samples and from 0.005 to 0.073 mg/mL in liquid samples. The selected herbal remedies and dietary supplements containing plant extracts represent only a low risk for calcium oxalate stone formers, if the recommended daily dose is not exceeded.

  4. Effects of dietary supplementation with glutamate and aspartate on diquat-induced oxidative stress in piglets.

    PubMed

    Yin, Jie; Liu, Mingfeng; Ren, Wenkai; Duan, Jielin; Yang, Guan; Zhao, Yurong; Fang, Rejun; Chen, Lixiang; Li, Tiejun; Yin, Yulong

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the protective effects of dietary glutamate and aspartate supplementations on diquat-induced oxidative stress in piglets. Diquat injection significantly reduced growth performance, including body weight, average daily weight gain, and feed intake (P<0.05). Meanwhile, diquat administration induced oxidative stress evidenced by the decreased serum nitric oxide (NO) and elevated malondialdeyhde (MDA) concentration (P<0.05). Furthermore, diquat-induced oxidative stress disrupted intestinal absorption system and decreased serum threonine, serine, and glycine levels. Dietary supplementation with glutamate improved final body weight, antioxidant system, and expressions of amino acids transporters and enhanced serum glutamate concentration compared with diquat group (P<0.05). While aspartate failed to alleviate diquat-induced oxidative stress, growth depression, and dysfunction of nutrients absorption except for liver relative weight. In conclusion, dietary supplementation with glutamate confers beneficial effects on diquat-induced oxidative stress in piglets, while aspartate exhibits little effects.

  5. Patterns of nutrient intake among dietary supplement users: attitudinal and behavioral correlates.

    PubMed

    Levy, A S; Schucker, R E

    1987-06-01

    A national telephone interview survey of an age-stratified random sample of 2,991 adults, aged 16 and over, provided detailed information from 1,142 vitamin and mineral supplement users about their nutrient intake patterns from dietary supplements. Dietary supplement users were divided into four groups (Light, Moderate, Heavy, and Very Heavy) on the basis of the type and amount of nutrient intake from supplements. The Light, Moderate, Heavy, and Very Heavy nutrient intake groups accounted for 42%, 16%, 28%, and 14%, respectively, of the total users. Young supplement users (aged 16 to 25) tended to be in the Light user group. Older adults (aged 41 to 64) and residents of the western United States tended to be in the Heavy and Very Heavy user groups. Users in the Light and Moderate nutrient intake groups generally used only one broad-spectrum vitamin and mineral product. Users in the Heavy and Very Heavy groups were typically taking two or more specialized vitamin and mineral products at a time as part of a personalized supplement regimen. Heavy and Very Heavy nutrient intakes were associated with more frequent visits to health food stores, greater nutrition activity, and less physician involvement. Light and Moderate nutrient intakes were more likely to be associated with a defensive interest in avoiding nutritional deficiencies. The implications of generally different motivations for dietary supplement use are discussed in the context of public information strategies.

  6. Dietary Intake, Supplement Use, and Survival Among Women Diagnosed with Early Stage Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Saquib, Juliann; Rock, Cheryl L.; Natarajan, Loki; Saquib, Nazmus; Newman, Vicky A.; Patterson, Ruth E.; Thomson, Cynthia A.; Al-Delaimy, Wael K.; Pierce, John P.

    2011-01-01

    Background Previous studies examining the relationship between micronutrient intakes and survival following diagnosis of breast cancer have reported mixed results. This may be partly due to considerable variance in amounts of micronutrients consumed from diet and supplements across studies. Methods Early stage breast cancer survivors (n=3081) completed four 24-hour dietary and supplement recalls at the baseline assessment (1995 to 2000) and were followed for a median of 9.0 years. Mean micronutrient intakes were compared to dietary reference intakes (DRI) to assess micronutrient adequacy for both users and non-users of supplements. Cox regressions were performed to assess whether intakes of selected micronutrients were associated with all-cause mortality. Results 412 deaths occurred between baseline and August 2009. Among these women, more supplement users had adequate micronutrient intakes than non-users for 15 out of 17 micronutrients. Less than 10% of supplement users (< 2% of non-supplement users) reported levels that exceeded the tolerable upper limit for each micronutrient except magnesium. After adjusting for age, tumor characteristics, and health status variables, micronutrient intakes were not significantly associated with all-cause mortality. Conclusion Dietary supplements may improve overall micronutrient intakes of breast cancer survivors. However, vitamin and mineral intakes were not associated with all-cause mortality. PMID:21391124

  7. Dietary folate and vitamin B12 supplementation and consequent vitamin deposition in chicken eggs.

    PubMed

    Bunchasak, Chaiyapoom; Kachana, Sompong

    2009-10-01

    We determined the effects of dietary supplementation with folate and vitamin B(12) on lipid metabolism and the deposition of these vitamins in eggs of laying hens (age 64-72 weeks). Four levels of folate (0, 0.5, 4 and 10 mg/kg) and three levels of vitamin B(12) (0, 0.01 and 0.08 mg/kg) were added to the basal diet for 8 weeks in a 4 x 3 factorial completely randomized design study. No significant physiological interaction between folate and vitamin B(12) was evident under our experimental conditions. There was no effect of vitamins supplementation on egg production or feed intake. Supplementation with folate significantly elevated serum (p < 0.01) and yolk (p < 0.05) folate levels. Supplementation with vitamin B(12) did not significantly affect serum or egg yolk vitamin B(12) levels. Supplementation with folate or vitamin B(12) did not significantly affect triglyceride or total phospholipid levels in serum or egg yolk although a positive relationship was observed between dietary folate supplementation and total serum phospholipid (r(2) = 0.68, p < 0.05). The study showed that it is possible to produce folate-enriched eggs. An increase in serum total phospholipids due to dietary supplementation with folate may provide physiological benefits to hens, although we did not observe any strong effects of these vitamins on lipid composition.

  8. Dietary Supplement Use in Patients With Celiac Disease in the United States.

    PubMed

    Nazareth, Samantha; Lebwohl, Benjamin; Tennyson, Christina A; Simpson, Suzanne; Greenlee, Heather; Green, Peter H

    2015-08-01

    There has been increasing interest in the use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) in the general population. Little is known about CAM use in patients with celiac disease (CD). We aimed to determine the demographics and clinical characteristics of patients with biopsy-proven CD who use dietary supplements to treat their symptoms. CD patients completed a questionnaire on demographics, types of dietary supplement use, attitudes toward CAM, and 3 validated scales: CD-related Quality Of Life (CD-QOL), the CD Symptoms Index (CSI), and the CD Adherence Test (CDAT). Of 423 patients, 100 (23.6%) used dietary supplements to treat CD symptoms. The most frequently used supplement was probiotics (n=59). Supplement users had a higher CD-QOL score (75.06 vs. 71.43, P=0.04) but had more symptoms based on CSI (35.64 vs. 32.05, P=0.0032). On multivariable analysis, adjusting for age, sex, education, symptom improvement following a gluten-free diet, and where the survey was completed, patients presenting with classic symptoms (OR, 2.56; 95% CI, 1.01-6.44) or nonclassic symptoms (OR, 2.75; 95% CI, 1.04-7.24) were significantly more likely to use supplements than those with asymptomatic/screen-detected CD. Patients with biopsy-proven CD who have symptoms at diagnosis tend to use dietary supplements more than those that are screen detected. Those using supplements report persistent symptoms, but a higher quality of life. The contribution of the gluten-free diet and supplement use to quality of life in the symptomatic CD patient needs to be determined.

  9. Effects of dietary β-glucans supplementation on cytokine expression in porcine liver.

    PubMed

    Ryan, M T; Collins, C B; O'Doherty, J V; Sweeney, T

    2012-12-01

    As dietary supplementation with β-glucans can stimulate the innate immune response in the porcine gastrointestinal system (GIT), the aim of this study was to determine if the effects of β-glucan supplementation extend beyond the GIT to systemic levels. Hence, the effects of dietary supplementation of β-glucans derived from Laminara digitata, Laminara hyperborea, and Sacharomyces cerevisiae on cytokine expression in the porcine liver with or without ex vivo lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge were examined. No significant differences in gene expression were observed in the unchallenged liver tissue, but differences were observed in all supplementation groups in the LPS challenged tissue. Relative to the basal diet, IL-6 (P < 0.05) was less expressed in the S. cerevisiae supplementation group, IL-6 (P < 0.05) and TLR-4 (P < 0.05) were less expressed in the L. digitata supplementation group, and IL-10 (P = 0.06) and IL-1α (P = 0.02) were more expressed in the L. hyperborea supplementation group. There was a ≈ 3-fold increase in both IL-10 and IL-1α in the liver samples of L. hyperborea relative to the L. digitata supplementation groups (P < 0.01). The results indicate that supplementation with β-glucans from both yeast and seaweed sources have systemic effects evidenced by changes in cytokine expression in the liver in response to LPS challenge; however, the cytokines affected varied according to the source of the β-glucan.

  10. Why do Dutch people use dietary supplements? Exploring the role of socio-cognitive and psychosocial determinants.

    PubMed

    Pajor, E M; Eggers, S M; Curfs, K C J; Oenema, A; de Vries, H

    2017-07-01

    In the Netherlands, the prevalence of dietary supplement use has doubled (from 17 to 40 per cent) since the 1980s. Yet, limited data is available on which socio-cognitive factors are associated with dietary supplement use. Therefore, the purpose of the study is to explain dietary supplement use with determinants deriving from the Integrated Change Model (ICM) and from formative research. Socio-cognitive and psychosocial factors were measured among users and non-users of dietary supplements in a longitudinal survey study, with measurements at baseline (N = 1448) and at one-month follow-up (N = 1161). Negative binomial regression analysis was applied to de data. Intention emerged as the main predictor of dietary supplement use (OR = 1.99). Further predictors of dietary supplement use with smaller effect-sizes were: health regulatory focus (promotion, OR = 1.46), social modelling (OR = 1.44), attitude (pros, OR = 1.37), attitude (cons, OR = 0.87), health locus of control (OR = 0.77), and risk perception (chance of getting ill, OR = 1.22). Individuals tend to use dietary supplements if they are promotion oriented, notice dietary supplement users in their social environment, estimate their chances of getting ill higher, and have positive attitudes towards dietary supplements. In contrast, non-users believe that external factors affect their health, and hold negative attitudes towards dietary supplements. Mapping out individuals' socio-cognitive profile may contribute to the development of online health communication. Based on socio-cognitive and demographical factors, personalised advice can be given about dietary supplement use. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Prescription Omega-3 Fatty Acid Products and Dietary Supplements Are Not Interchangeable.

    PubMed

    Hilleman, Daniel; Smer, Aiman

    2016-01-01

    To provide an overview of prescription and dietary supplement omega-3 fatty acid (OM3-FA) products and considerations for clinical use. Narrative review. The PubMed database was searched for cardiovascular-related investigations focused on eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and/or docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) (limit: English-only articles). Additional regulatory information on prescription and dietary supplements was obtained from United States Food and Drug Administration online sources. Prescription QM3-FA products are supported by robust clinical development and safety monitoring programs, whereas dietary supplements are not required to demonstrate safety or efficacy prior to marketing. There are no over-the-counter OM3-FA products available in the United States. Investigations of OM3-FA dietary supplements show that quantities of EPA and DHA are highly variable within and between brands. Dietary supplements also may contain potentially harmful components, including oxidized OM3-FA, other lipids, cholesterol, and toxins. Prescription OM3-FA products may contain DHA and EPA or EPA alone. All prescription OM3-FA products have demonstrated statistically significant triglyceride reduction as monotherapy or in combination with statins in patients with hypertriglyceridemia. Differential effects between products containing EPA and DHA compared with a high-purity EPA product (icosapent ethyl) have clinical implications: Increases in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol associated with DHA have the potential to confound strategies for managing patients with dyslipidemia. Cardiovascular outcomes studies of prescription CM3-FA products are ongoing. OM3-FA dietary supplements should not be substituted for prescription products, and prescription OM3-FA products that contain DHA are not equivalent to or interchangeable with high-purity EPA (icosapent ethyl) and should not be substituted for it.

  12. Important considerations for treatment with dietary supplement versus prescription niacin products.

    PubMed

    Backes, James M; Padley, Robert J; Moriarty, Patrick M

    2011-03-01

    Niacin is a water-soluble B vitamin (B3) known to have favorable effects on multiple lipid parameters, including raising high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels and lowering triglycerides (TGs), lipoprotein(a), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). Although LDL-C remains the primary target of lipid-altering therapy, current guidelines emphasize HDL-C and other modifiable lipid factors as key secondary targets. Thus, niacin is considered an important therapeutic option to help reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease in patients with mixed dyslipidemia who, in addition to high LDL-C, have elevated TGs and low HDL-C. Although available prescription niacin products, including immediate-release niacin (IR; Niacor) and an extended-release niacin formulation (Niaspan), have demonstrated safety and efficacy in randomized clinical trials, confusion remains among health care providers and their patients regarding the various commercially available nonprescription dietary supplement niacin products. These dietary supplements, which include IR, sustained-release (SR), and "no-flush" or "flush-free" niacin products, are not subject to the same stringent US Food and Drug Administration regulations as prescription drugs. In fact, both the American Heart Association and the American Pharmacists Association recommend against the use of dietary supplement niacin as a substitute for prescription niacin. Although some dietary supplement IR and SR niacin products have demonstrated a lipid response in clinical trials, products labeled as "no-flush" or "flush-free" that are intended to avoid the common niacin-associated adverse effect of flushing generally contain minimal or no free, pharmacologically active niacin and therefore lack beneficial lipid-modifying effects. To clarify important differences between available prescription and dietary supplement niacin products, this article contrasts current regulatory standards for dietary supplements and prescription

  13. Prevalence, Adverse Events, and Factors Associated with Dietary Supplement and Nutritional Supplement Use by US Navy and Marine Corps Personnel

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-04-12

    Bioengineered Supplements), 40% (AE n¼22/ user n¼55) for Hydroxycut Hardcore (Inovate Health Science International), 40% (AE¼8/ user n¼20) for Hydroxycut Advanced...Inovate Health Science International), 38% (AE n¼3/ user n¼8) for D4 Thermal (Cellucor), and 35% (AE¼45/ user n¼128) for C4 Extreme (Cellucor). There...dietary supplements. JAMA Int Med. 2013;173(3):355-361. 32. Owens GM. Gender differences in health care expenditures, resource utilization, and quality of

  14. Dietary and Supplemental Vitamin C and D on Symptom Severity and Physical Function in Knee Osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Hung, Man; Bounsanga, Jerry; Voss, Maren W; Gu, Yushan; Crum, Anthony B; Tang, Philip

    2017-05-30

    Vitamins C and D have been associated with decreasing pain and increasing function but these associations are not definitive. This cross-sectional study explores what relationships supplemental and dietary intake of vitamins C and D have on pain severity and physical function in patients with knee osteoarthritis. Using data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative, we performed regression analyses to examine relationships between vitamins C and D, pain, and function. Dietary vitamin D and dietary vitamin C were divided into >90th, 50th-90th, and <50th percentile. The high percentile group for supplemental vitamin D was divided into >85th percentile, whereas the high percentile group for supplemental vitamin C was divided into >90th percentile. We found the 90th/85th percentile levels of dietary and supplemental vitamin D to be positively associated with pain (β = 0.180; p = 0.028) and inversely related to physical function (β = -0.150, p = 0.028), respectively. Daily intake of vitamin C showed no statistical significance. We found that supplementary vitamin D was strongly associated with lessened disability for knee OA patients. The unexpected finding that associated dietary vitamin D with greater knee pain merits further study.

  15. Arsenic speciation and fucoxanthin analysis from seaweed dietary supplements using LC-MS.

    PubMed

    Avula, Bharathi; Wang, Yan-Hong; Khan, Ikhlas A

    2015-01-01

    The study involves the analysis of total arsenic (As) in metallic form, and organic and inorganic As species from seaweeds and dietary supplements. The analysis provides data for dietary exposure estimates of inorganic species that are considered more toxic to humans than organic and total As. Total As was determined by acid digestion followed by inductively coupled plasma (ICP)-MS. To characterize the As species, solvent extraction with sonication and microwave extraction using various aqueous and aqueous/organic solvent mixtures were initially evaluated. The optimum As speciation method was determined to be water extraction followed by anion exchange HPLC coupled with ICP-MS. Optimization of chromatographic conditions led to baseline separation for six As species, including As acid, arsenous acid, monomethylarsonic acid, dimethylarsinic acid, arsenobetaine, and arsenocholine, in approximately 8 min using gradient elution. Detection limits for all six compounds were in the range of 10-15 ng/mL. The data presented here will be valuable for the QA of analytical method development and surveys of total As and As species in dietary supplements. The most abundant As species found were arsenite [As(III)] and arsenate [As(V)]. The sum of inorganic As species present in the dietary supplements ranged from 1.2 to 31 μg/day. In addition, the dietary supplements purported to contain fucoxanthin, a carotenoid having pharmacological activities, were analyzed using ultra-performance LC-UV/MS.

  16. Prolonged intrahepatic cholestasis and renal failure secondary to anabolic androgenic steroid-enriched dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, Prashant V; Feng, Zhen-Zhou; Gordon, Stuart C

    2009-08-01

    The illegal enrichment of anabolic androgenic steroids in over-the-counter dietary supplements is well documented, but the health consequences have not been widely recognized. Three recent reports document cholestatic jaundice and nephropathy due to these compounds. We present 3 additional cases of anabolic androgenic steroid-enriched dietary supplement-induced hepatotoxicity and 1 case of renal failure, and we review the literature and the relevant features of this growing health concern. Recognition of this entity could obviate the need for invasive diagnostic testing and hospitalization and facilitate diagnosis and appropriate counseling.

  17. [Prostate cancer prophylaxis by dietary supplements: more than just an illusion?].

    PubMed

    Merkle, W

    2014-11-01

    Prophylaxis of tumors of the prostate gland is theoretically simple but what makes it difficult is that no appropriate test methods are available. The topic of prostate cancer prophylaxis by dietary supplements remains difficult as there are still no really certain data. The psychological aspect of wanting and being able to actively contribute to success of a therapy oneself, is absolutely not an aspect to be ignored to accept such dietary supplements. There are also studies which show that a certain helpful effect seems to be present. From these considerations the question arises whether cancer prophylaxis could be developed from this. This article presents the state of the art in early 2014.

  18. Response of growing goslings to dietary supplementation with methionine and betaine.

    PubMed

    Yang, Z; Wang, Z Y; Yang, H M; Zhao, F Z; Kong, L L

    2016-12-01

    An experiment with a 2 × 3 factorial design with two concentrations of dietary betaine (0 and 600 mg/kg) and three dietary concentrations of methionine (0, 600 and 1200 mg/kg) was conducted using goslings to estimate growth, nutrient utilisation and digestibility of amino acids from 21 to 70 d of age. Three hundred geese were randomised at 18 d of age into 6 groups with 5 replicates per treatment and 10 geese per replicate. Increasing dietary concentrations of methionine gave a linear increase in body weight and average daily gain. The coefficient of crude fat retention increased as dietary methionine increased and there was a significant non-linear response to increasing dietary methionine. Similarly, increasing supplemental methionine gave linear increases in the digestibility of methionine and cysteine. The results of this study indicated that optimal dietary supplementation of methionine could increase growth performance and methionine and cysteine utilisation in growing goslings. Betaine supplementation had no apparent sparing effect on methionine needs for growth performance, but did improve the apparent cysteine digestibility.

  19. Detection of sibutramine in adulterated dietary supplements using attenuated total reflectance-infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Deconinck, E; Cauwenbergh, T; Bothy, J L; Custers, D; Courselle, P; De Beer, J O

    2014-11-01

    Sibutramine is one of the most occurring adulterants encountered in dietary supplements with slimming as indication. These adulterated dietary supplements often contain a herbal matrix. When customs intercept these kind of supplements it is almost impossible to discriminate between the legal products and the adulterated ones, due to misleading packaging. Therefore in most cases these products are confiscated and send to laboratories for analysis. This results inherently in the confiscation of legal, non-adulterated products. Therefore there is a need for easy to use equipment and techniques to perform an initial screening of samples. Attenuated total reflectance-infrared (ATR-IR) spectroscopy was evaluated for the detection of sibutramine in adulterated dietary supplements. Data interpretation was performed using different basic chemometric techniques. It was found that the use of ATR-IR combined with the k-Nearest Neighbours (k-NN) was able to detect all adulterated dietary supplements in an external test set and this with a minimum of false positive results. This means that a small amount of legal products will still be confiscated and analyzed in a laboratory to be found negative, but no adulterated samples will pass the initial ATR-IR screening. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Micronutrient Intake and the Contribution of Dietary Supplements in Hispanic Infants.

    PubMed

    Amaro-Rivera, Kiara; López-Cepero, Andrea; Diaz, Beatriz; Lee, Jae Eun; Palacios, Cristina

    2017-06-12

    To calculate micronutrient adequacy among infants and toddlers and to determine the contribution of dietary supplements to this adequacy, micronutrient intake was assessed using two nonconsecutive 24-hour recalls in a sample of 296 infants aged 0-24 months. Micronutrient intake was calculated from foods and beverages and from supplements and compared between nonusers and users of supplements. Percentages of children below the Dietary Reference Intake (DRI) and above the tolerable upper limit intake (UL) were also compared between groups. A total of 241 participants had complete data. The prevalence of dietary supplement use among the sample was 15%. Mean intake of all micronutrients from foods and beverages was similar between nonusers and users of supplements (p > .05) but significantly higher for the following vitamins when supplements were included: D, E, B1, B2, B3, and B6 (p < .05). From foods only, the nutrients with highest percentage of children below the DRI were vitamins D and E and potassium. When supplements were included, this percentage significantly decreased among users compared to nonusers (p < .05) for vitamins D and E. From foods, the UL was exceeded for magnesium, zinc, and vitamin B3. These were similar when supplements were added. Supplements significantly increased the intake of some vitamins. Vitamins D and E had the highest percentage of children below the DRI, which was partly corrected with the use of supplements. The UL was exceeded for magnesium, zinc, and vitamin B3 in many children. It is important to understand these patterns as they may be indicative of future nutritional deficiencies and excesses.

  1. SPADE, a new statistical program to estimate habitual dietary intake from multiple food sources and dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Dekkers, Arnold L M; Verkaik-Kloosterman, Janneke; van Rossum, Caroline T M; Ocké, Marga C

    2014-12-01

    For the evaluation of both the adequacy of intakes and the risk of excessive intakes of micronutrients, all potential sources should be included. In addition to micronutrients naturally present in foods, micronutrients can also be derived from fortified foods and dietary supplements. In the estimation of the habitual intake, this may cause specific challenges such as multimodal distributions and heterogeneous variances between the sources. We present the Statistical Program to Assess Dietary Exposure (SPADE) that was developed to cope with these challenges in one single program. Similar to other methods, SPADE can model habitual intake of daily and episodically consumed dietary components. In addition, SPADE has the option to model habitual intake from dietary supplements. Moreover, SPADE offers models to estimate habitual intake distributions from different sources (e.g., foods and dietary supplements) separately and adds these habitual intakes to get the overall habitual intake distribution. The habitual intake distribution is modeled as a function of age, and this distribution can directly be compared with cutoff values to estimate the proportion above or below. Uncertainty in the habitual intake distribution and in the proportion below or above a cutoff value is quantified with ready-for-use bootstrap and provides 95% CIs. SPADE is implemented in R and is freely available as an R package called SPADE.RIVM. The various features of SPADE are illustrated by the estimation of the habitual intake distribution of folate and folic acid for women by using data from the Dutch National Food Consumption Survey 2007-2010. The results correspond well with the results of existing programs. SPADE offers new features to existing programs to estimate the habitual intake distribution because it can handle many different types of modeling with the first-shrink-then-add approach. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.

  2. Leukoencephalopathic changes on magnetic resonance imaging associated with a thermogenic dietary supplement (Thermatrim)

    PubMed Central

    Treviño-Garcia, Manuel; Chua-Tuan, John James; Rodriguez-Cordero, Jose M.; Gil-Valadez, Alfonso H.; Akle, Nassim; Calleros, Jesus E.; Ramos-Duran, Luis R.

    2015-01-01

    Acute toxic leukoencephalopathy can be caused by exposure to many compounds. Reversibility has been described in some cases with prompt recognition and withdrawal of the offending agent. Its association with a thermogenic supplement has never been reported. We describe two such cases in young women taking a commercially available thermogenic dietary supplement who presented with acute neurologic deficits and a common magnetic resonance imaging pattern. PMID:26130900

  3. Multi-ingredient, caffeine-containing dietary supplements: history, safety, and efficacy.

    PubMed

    Gurley, Bill J; Steelman, Susan C; Thomas, Sheila L

    2015-02-01

    Our objective was to review the history, safety, and efficacy of caffeine-containing dietary supplements in the United States and Canada. PubMed and Web of Science databases (1980-2014) were searched for articles related to the pharmacology, toxicology, and efficacy of caffeine-containing dietary supplements with an emphasis on Ephedra-containing supplements, Ephedra-free supplements, and energy drinks or shots. Among the first and most successful dietary supplements to be marketed in the United States were those containing Ephedra—combinations of ephedrine alkaloids, caffeine, and other phytochemicals. A decade after their inception, serious tolerability concerns prompted removal of Ephedra supplements from the US and Canadian markets. Ephedra-free products, however, quickly filled this void. Ephedra-free supplements typically contain multiple caffeine sources in conjunction with other botanical extracts whose purposes can often be puzzling and their pharmacologic properties difficult to predict. Ingestion of these products in the form of tablets, capsules, or other solid dosage forms as weight loss aids, exercise performance enhancers, or energy boosters have once again brought their tolerability and efficacy into question. In addition to Ephedra-free solid dosage forms, caffeine-containing energy drinks have gained a foothold in the world market along with concerns about their tolerability. This review addresses some of the pharmacologic and pharmaceutical issues that distinguish caffeine-containing dietary supplement formulations from traditional caffeine-containing beverages. Such distinctions may account for the increasing tolerability concerns affiliated with these products. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier HS Journals, Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Performance level affects the dietary supplement intake of both individual and team sports athletes.

    PubMed

    Giannopoulou, Ifigenia; Noutsos, Kostantinos; Apostolidis, Nikolaos; Bayios, Ioannis; Nassis, George P

    2013-01-01

    Dietary supplement (DS) intake is high in elite level athletes, however few studies have investigated the impact that the performance level of the athletes has on supplementation intake in individual and team sports. The purpose of the study was to determine and compare the DS intake among individual and team sport athletes of various performance levels. A total of 2845 participants (athletes: 2783, controls: 62) between the ages of 11 and 44 years old participated in the study. A 3-page questionnaire was developed to assess the intake of DS. Athletes were categorized based on participation in individual (n = 775) and team sports (n = 2008). To assess the effect of performance level in supplementation intake, athletes were categorized based on training volume, participation in the national team, and winning at least one medal in provincial, national, international or Olympic games. Overall, 37% of all athletes of various performance levels reported taking at least one DS in the last month. A higher prevalence of DS intake was reported in individual (44%) compared to team sport athletes (35%) (p < 0.001). Athletes of high performance level reported greater DS intake compared to lower performance athletes. Males reported a significantly greater prevalence of DS intake compared to females. The most popular supplement reported was amino acid preparation with the main reason of supplementation being endurance improvements. In conclusion, performance level and type of sport appear to impact the DS practices of male and female athletes. These findings should be validated in other populations. Key points37% of Mediterranean athletes of various sports and levels have reported taking dietary supplements.The performance level of the athletes affects the dietary supplementation intake.Athletes in individual sports appear to have a higher DS intake compared to team sport athletes.Male athletes appear to take more dietary supplements compared to female athletes.

  5. Performance Level Affects the Dietary Supplement Intake of Both Individual and Team Sports Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Giannopoulou, Ifigenia; Noutsos, Kostantinos; Apostolidis, Nikolaos; Bayios, Ioannis; Nassis, George P.

    2013-01-01

    Dietary supplement (DS) intake is high in elite level athletes, however few studies have investigated the impact that the performance level of the athletes has on supplementation intake in individual and team sports. The purpose of the study was to determine and compare the DS intake among individual and team sport athletes of various performance levels. A total of 2845 participants (athletes: 2783, controls: 62) between the ages of 11 and 44 years old participated in the study. A 3-page questionnaire was developed to assess the intake of DS. Athletes were categorized based on participation in individual (n = 775) and team sports (n = 2008). To assess the effect of performance level in supplementation intake, athletes were categorized based on training volume, participation in the national team, and winning at least one medal in provincial, national, international or Olympic games. Overall, 37% of all athletes of various performance levels reported taking at least one DS in the last month. A higher prevalence of DS intake was reported in individual (44%) compared to team sport athletes (35%) (p < 0.001). Athletes of high performance level reported greater DS intake compared to lower performance athletes. Males reported a significantly greater prevalence of DS intake compared to females. The most popular supplement reported was amino acid preparation with the main reason of supplementation being endurance improvements. In conclusion, performance level and type of sport appear to impact the DS practices of male and female athletes. These findings should be validated in other populations. Key points 37% of Mediterranean athletes of various sports and levels have reported taking dietary supplements. The performance level of the athletes affects the dietary supplementation intake. Athletes in individual sports appear to have a higher DS intake compared to team sport athletes. Male athletes appear to take more dietary supplements compared to female athletes. PMID

  6. Leukoencephalopathic changes on magnetic resonance imaging associated with a thermogenic dietary supplement (Thermatrim).

    PubMed

    Olivas-Chacon, Cristina I; Treviño-Garcia, Manuel; Chua-Tuan, John James; Rodriguez-Cordero, Jose M; Gil-Valadez, Alfonso H; Akle, Nassim; Calleros, Jesus E; Ramos-Duran, Luis R

    2015-07-01

    Acute toxic leukoencephalopathy can be caused by exposure to many compounds. Reversibility has been described in some cases with prompt recognition and withdrawal of the offending agent. Its association with a thermogenic supplement has never been reported. We describe two such cases in young women taking a commercially available thermogenic dietary supplement who presented with acute neurologic deficits and a common magnetic resonance imaging pattern.

  7. Mercury, cadmium and arsenic contents of calcium dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Kim, Meehye

    2004-08-01

    The cadmium (Cd) and arsenic (As) contents of calcium (Ca) supplements available on the Korean market were determined by a graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometer using Zeeman background correction and peak area mode after microwave digestion. The mercury (Hg) content of the supplements was measured using an Hg analyser. Recoveries ranged from 92 to 98% for Hg, Cd and As analyses. Fifty-five brands of Ca supplements were classified into seven categories based on the major composite: bone, milk, oyster/clam shell, egg shell, algae, shark cartilage and chelated. The means of Hg, Cd and As in Ca supplements were 0.01, 0.02, and 0.48 mg kg(-1), respectively. Ca supplements made of shark cartilage had the highest means of Hg (0.06 mg kg(-1)) and Cd (0.13 mg kg(-1)). The mean daily intakes of Hg and Cd from the supplement were estimated as about 0.1-0.2 microg, with both contributing less than 0.4% of provisional tolerable daily intakes set by the Food and Agricultural Organization/World Health Organization Joint Food Additive and Contaminants Committee.

  8. UHPLC/HRMS analysis of African mango (Irvingia gabonensis) seeds, seed extracts, and African mango based dietary supplements

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Dietary Supplements based on extract from Irvingia gabonensis (African Mango, or AM) seeds are one of the popular herbal weight loss dietary supplements in the US market. The extract from the AM seeds is believed to be a natural and healthy way to lose weight and improve overall health. However, the...

  9. Dietary supplement use among infants, children, and adolescents in the United States (U.S.): 1999-2002

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This study describes dietary supplement use among 10,136 children from birth through 18 years of age who participated in the 1999-2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES). Thirty-two percent of children used dietary supplements in 1999-2002, with lowest use reported among inf...

  10. 21 CFR 111.515 - When must a returned dietary supplement be destroyed, or otherwise suitably disposed of?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false When must a returned dietary supplement be... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE IN MANUFACTURING, PACKAGING, LABELING, OR HOLDING OPERATIONS FOR DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS...

  11. 21 CFR 111.515 - When must a returned dietary supplement be destroyed, or otherwise suitably disposed of?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false When must a returned dietary supplement be... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE IN MANUFACTURING, PACKAGING, LABELING, OR HOLDING OPERATIONS FOR DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS...

  12. 21 CFR 111.425 - What requirements apply to a packaged and labeled dietary supplement that is rejected for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... dietary supplement that is rejected for distribution? 111.425 Section 111.425 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE IN MANUFACTURING, PACKAGING, LABELING, OR HOLDING OPERATIONS FOR DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS...

  13. 21 CFR 111.515 - When must a returned dietary supplement be destroyed, or otherwise suitably disposed of?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false When must a returned dietary supplement be... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE IN MANUFACTURING, PACKAGING, LABELING, OR HOLDING OPERATIONS FOR DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS...

  14. Dietary supplementation with methylseleninic acid, but not selenomethionine, reduces spontaneous metastasis of Lewis lung carcinoma in mice

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Dietary supplementation with methylseleninic acid reduces spontaneous metastasis of Lewis lung carcinoma in mice Lin Yan*, Lana C. DeMars The present study investigated the effects of dietary supplementation with methylseleninic acid (MSeA) on spontaneous metastasis of Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) in...

  15. Athlete Information Sources About Dietary Supplements: A Review of Extant Research.

    PubMed

    Denham, Bryan E

    2017-08-01

    In the United States, the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act of 1994 (DSHEA) classified dietary supplements as a subcategory of food, exempting manufacturers from providing premarket evidence of product safety and efficacy. Under DSHEA, agencies such as the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) cannot inspect supplements until after the products have entered the marketplace. Recognizing that both limited resources and DSHEA prevent the FDA from conducting broad-based inspections on a regular basis, disreputable manufacturers have spiked products with drugs such as anabolic steroids and amphetamines. With contaminated supplements now causing athletes to fail drug tests and, in some instances, threatening public health, it becomes important to examine sources of supplement information. This article reviews 53 studies that have addressed athlete information sources about dietary supplements. It finds that athletes, in general, rely heavily on coaches and trainers as well as friends and family for information. Relative to U.S. athletes, those competing internationally appear more likely to seek information from a physician or nutritionist. The article offers recommendations for individuals and organizations based on the most frequent information sources identified by athletes.

  16. Pharmacologically effective red yeast rice preparations marketed as dietary supplements illustrated by a case report.

    PubMed

    Venhuis, B J; van Hunsel, F; van de Koppel, S; Keizers, P H J; Jeurissen, S M F; De Kaste, D

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports a typical statin-related adverse reaction from a red yeast rice (RYR) supplement and the analytical findings from the supplement. It also examines the regulatory framework governing botanical supplements in Europe. Two key events that shaped the current regulatory framework are reviewed. First, the Hecht-Pharma judgement by the European Court of Justice (ECJ) that inverted the precautionary principle in the Medicines Act to a reactionary principle. Following the Hecht-Pharma judgement, pharmacological active dietary supplements can be sold until sufficient signals of harm show that they are an unregistered medicine, placing a huge burden on regulatory authorities. Secondly, the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) in 2011 approved the first health claim for pharmacologically active RYR dietary supplements. If the current regulatory status for pharmacologically active RYR dietary supplements does not permit adequate warning and active monitoring of adverse drug reactions, then the current regulatory framework may not be adequate to ensure consumer safety.Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Dietary fiber supplements: effects in obesity and metabolic syndrome and relationship to gastrointestinal functions.

    PubMed

    Papathanasopoulos, Athanasios; Camilleri, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Dietary fiber is a term that reflects a heterogeneous group of natural food sources, processed grains, and commercial supplements. Several forms of dietary fiber have been used as complementary or alternative agents in the management of manifestations of the metabolic syndrome, including obesity. Not surprisingly, there is a great variation in the biological efficacy of dietary fiber in the metabolic syndrome and body weight control. Diverse factors and mechanisms have been reported as mediators of the effects of dietary fiber on the metabolic syndrome and obesity. Among this array of mechanisms, the modulation of gastric sensorimotor influences appears to be crucial for the effects of dietary fiber but also quite variable. This report focuses on the role, mechanism of action, and benefits of different forms of fiber and supplements on obesity and the metabolic syndrome, glycemia, dyslipidemia, and cardiovascular risk and explores the effects of dietary fiber on gastric sensorimotor function and satiety in mediating these actions of dietary fiber. Copyright 2010 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The impact of cGMP compliance on consumer confidence in dietary supplement products.

    PubMed

    Crowley, Richard; FitzGerald, Libby Harvey

    2006-04-03

    The FDA estimates that US citizens spend more than $ 8.5 billion a year on dietary supplements and world wide the market is estimated at more than $ 60 billion. However, although a majority of consumers express confidence in the safety of these products, 74% believe the government should be more involved in ensuring that these products are safe and efficacious. Recent regulatory initiatives such as the imminent adoption of cGMPs for dietary supplements in the US, implementation of cGMPs in Canada and the recent EU dietary supplement initiative represent legislative and industry response to public clamor for more comprehensive oversight of dietary supplements. Regardless of mandated practices, the majority of dietary supplement manufacturers have done an excellent job of protecting the safety and quality of their products. The promulgation of these cGMPs will help ensure consumers that equal standards are followed throughout the industry. For some companies with established processes based on existing food or pharmaceutical cGMP regulations, the transition will be relatively painless while, for many, it will represent a significant increase in the level of documentation and testing. However, consumers deserve and demand that products meet standards for safety and quality and the implementation of cGMPs for these products are an important first step. Although the cGMPs are designed to ensure products are safe from a standpoint of identity, purity, quality, strength and composition, they do not address preclinical or clinical testing of ingredients for safety or efficacy. This would involve ingredients meeting the requirements of Generally Recognized as Safe (GRAS) status or going through the New Dietary Ingredient (NDI) process.

  19. Selective dietary supplementation in early postpartum is associated with high resilience against depressed mood.

    PubMed

    Dowlati, Yekta; Ravindran, Arun V; Segal, Zindel V; Stewart, Donna E; Steiner, Meir; Meyer, Jeffrey H

    2017-03-28

    Medical research is moving toward prevention strategies during prodromal states. Postpartum blues (PPB) is often a prodromal state for postpartum depression (PPD), with severe PPB strongly associated with an elevated risk for PPD. The most common complication of childbearing, PPD has a prevalence of 13%, but there are no widespread prevention strategies, and no nutraceutical interventions have been developed. To counter the effects of the 40% increase in monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A) levels that occurs during PPB, a dietary supplement kit consisting of monoamine precursor amino acids and dietary antioxidants was created. Key ingredients (tryptophan and tyrosine) were shown not to affect their total concentration in breast milk. The aim of this open-label study was to assess whether this dietary supplement reduces vulnerability to depressed mood at postpartum day 5, the typical peak of PPB. Forty-one healthy women completed all study procedures. One group (n = 21) received the dietary supplement, composed of 2 g of tryptophan, 10 g of tyrosine, and blueberry juice with blueberry extract. The control group (n = 20) did not receive any supplement. PPB severity was quantitated by the elevation in depressed mood on a visual analog scale following the sad mood induction procedure (MIP). Following the MIP, there was a robust induction of depressed mood in the control group, but no effect in the supplement group [43.85 ± 18.98 mm vs. 0.05 ± 9.57 mm shift; effect size: 2.9; F(1,39) = 88.33, P < 0.001]. This dietary supplement designed to counter functions of elevated MAO-A activity eliminates vulnerability to depressed mood during the peak of PPB.

  20. Effect of dietary oligochitosan supplementation on ileal digestibility of nutrients and performance in broilers.

    PubMed

    Huang, R L; Yin, Y L; Wu, G Y; Zhang, Y G; Li, T J; Li, L L; Li, M X; Tang, Z R; Zhang, J; Wang, B; He, J H; Nie, X Z

    2005-09-01

    The effect of dietary chitosan oligosaccharides (COS) supplementation on ileal digestibilities of nutrients and performance in broilers was assessed by feeding graded levels (0, 50, 100, 150 mg/kg) of COS. Two thousand four hundred male commercial Avian broilers (1-d-old) were assigned randomly to 5 dietary treatment groups (60 birds per pen with 8 pens per treatment). Diet A was a typical corn- and soybean meal-based diet supplemented with 6 mg/kg of an antibiotic flavomycin (positive control). Diet B was the basal diet without any supplement. Diets C, D, and E were formulated by adding 50, 100, and 150 mg/kg of COS to the basal diet, respectively. On the morning of d 21 and 42, 64 birds (8 per pen with 8 pens per treatment) from the growth trial for each age group were killed by cervical dislocation for determination of the ileal digestibilities of nutrients. Dietary supplementation with COS and antibiotic enhanced (P < 0.05) the ileal digestibilities of DM, Ca, P, CP, and all amino acids (except for alanine in the 21-d-old birds or phenylalanine, glutamate, and glycine for the 42-d-old birds). Feed efficiency was improved (P < 0.05) in response to dietary supplementation of an antibiotic or COS (150 mg/kg for d 1 to 21, and 100 and 150 mg/kg for d 21 to 42). The results demonstrate for the first time to our knowledge that dietary COS supplementation was effective in increasing the ileal digestibilities of nutrients and feed efficiency in broilers. Our findings may explain a beneficial effect of COS on chicken growth performance.

  1. Prostate-Specific Natural Health Products (Dietary Supplements) Radiosensitize Normal Prostate Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Hasan, Yasmin; Schoenherr, Diane; Martinez, Alvaro A.; Wilson, George D.; Marples, Brian

    2010-03-01

    Purpose: Prostate-specific health products (dietary supplements) are taken by cancer patients to alleviate the symptoms linked with poor prostate health. However, the effect of these agents on evidence-based radiotherapy practice is poorly understood. The present study aimed to determine whether dietary supplements radiosensitized normal prostate or prostate cancer cell lines. Methods and Materials: Three well-known prostate-specific dietary supplements were purchased from commercial sources available to patients (Trinovin, Provelex, and Prostate Rx). The cells used in the study included normal prostate lines (RWPE-1 and PWR-1E), prostate tumor lines (PC3, DU145, and LNCaP), and a normal nonprostate line (HaCaT). Supplement toxicity was assessed using cell proliferation assays [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide] and cellular radiosensitivity using conventional clonogenic assays (0.5-4Gy). Cell cycle kinetics were assessed using the bromodeoxyuridine/propidium iodide pulse-labeling technique, apoptosis by scoring caspase-3 activation, and DNA repair by assessing gammaH2AX. Results: The cell growth and radiosensitivity of the malignant PC3, DU145, and LNcaP cells were not affected by any of the dietary prostate supplements (Provelex [2mug/mL], Trinovin [10mug/mL], and Prostate Rx [50 mug/mL]). However, both Trinovin (10mug/mL) and Prostate Rx (6mug/mL) inhibited the growth rate of the normal prostate cell lines. Prostate Rx increased cellular radiosensitivity of RWPE-1 cells through the inhibition of DNA repair. Conclusion: The use of prostate-specific dietary supplements should be discouraged during radiotherapy owing to the preferential radiosensitization of normal prostate cells.

  2. 21 CFR 101.36 - Nutrition labeling of dietary supplements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... products that, other than ingredients added solely for technological reasons, contain only individual amino acids. (A) The names and the quantitative amounts by weight of each (b)(2)-dietary ingredient shall be... follow pantothenic acid, and sodium and potassium shall follow chloride. This results in the following...

  3. 21 CFR 101.36 - Nutrition labeling of dietary supplements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... products that, other than ingredients added solely for technological reasons, contain only individual amino acids. (A) The names and the quantitative amounts by weight of each (b)(2)-dietary ingredient shall be... follow pantothenic acid, and sodium and potassium shall follow chloride. This results in the following...

  4. 21 CFR 101.36 - Nutrition labeling of dietary supplements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... products that, other than ingredients added solely for technological reasons, contain only individual amino acids. (A) The names and the quantitative amounts by weight of each (b)(2)-dietary ingredient shall be... follow pantothenic acid, and sodium and potassium shall follow chloride. This results in the following...

  5. 21 CFR 101.36 - Nutrition labeling of dietary supplements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... products that, other than ingredients added solely for technological reasons, contain only individual amino acids. (A) The names and the quantitative amounts by weight of each (b)(2)-dietary ingredient shall be... follow pantothenic acid, and sodium and potassium shall follow chloride. This results in the following...

  6. Dietary supplementation with 5-aminolevulinic acid modulates growth performance and inflammatory responses in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Sato, K; Matsushita, K; Takahashi, K; Aoki, M; Fuziwara, J; Miyanari, S; Kamada, T

    2012-07-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of dietary supplementation with 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) on the immune system, inflammatory response, and growth performance of broiler chickens. The levels of cluster of differentiation 3 (CD3) mRNA in the spleens of chickens gradually increased with dietary 5-ALA concentration, while the expression levels of interleukin (IL)-2 decreased. Mitogen-induced proliferation of splenic mononuclear cells and blood mononuclear cell phagocytosis in chickens fed 0.001 and 0.01% 5-ALA-supplemented diets were significantly greater than in chickens fed a basal diet (control). Plasma thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) concentration gradually increased along with 5-ALA supplement concentration. These results provide the first evidence that the use of dietary 0.001 and 0.01% 5-ALA supplementation induces the T-cell immune system via mild oxidative stress in chickens. Three hours after Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide-induced immune stimulation, the levels of mRNA encoding pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor-like ligand 1A (TL1A), in chickens fed a 0.001% 5-ALA-supplemented diet were significantly lower than those in chickens exposed to other treatments. The plasma caeruloplasmin concentration in chickens fed a 0.001% 5-ALA-supplemented diet was significantly lower than in controls or in chickens fed diets supplemented with other concentrations of 5-ALA 24 h after injection of LPS. In addition, BW at 21 and 50 d of age was significantly higher in chickens fed a 0.001% 5-ALA-supplemented diet than in control chickens. The findings suggest that supplementation of diets with 0.001% 5-ALA could prevent the catabolic changes induced by immunological stimulation. These results show that 5-ALA might be useful as an immunomodulator to stimulate T-cells via mild oxidative stress in growing broiler chickens, thereby improving the growth performance.

  7. Effect of taking dietary supplement on hematological and biochemical parameters in male bodybuilders an equation model

    PubMed Central

    Meamar, Rokhsareh; Maracy, Mohammad; Nematollahi, Shahrzad; Yeroshalmi, Shemouil; Zamani-Moghaddam, Ali; Ghazvini, Mohammad Reza Aghaye

    2015-01-01

    Background: The improved physical action following administration of supplements to bodybuilders was supported by changes in laboratory parameters. Despite the fact that these supplements are sometimes associated both advantage and side effects, this study were conducted for the purpose of evaluating the possible effects of some commonly used supplements in bodybuilders on the hematological and biochemical parameters. Materials and Methods: In this study, we included 40 male bodybuilders as cases and 40 controls in the age group of 20-40 years. They used different kinds of supplements for 1 year. In general, all the supplements used were classified into two groups: hormonal and non-hormonal. Laboratory tests were requested for evaluation of hematological and biochemical parameters. Results: In an equation model, we found that weight (P = 0.024), duration of bodybuilding (P < 0.001), and duration of hormone supplement consumption (P < 0.001) were loaded significantly on the latent variables, demographic and dietary supplement, respectively. The relationship between dietary supplement and biochemical and hematological parameters was significant (P = 0.01) and some of these parameters including creatinine (P = 0.023), blood aspartate aminotransferase (AST) (P < 0.001), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) (P < 0.001), and red blood cell distribution (RDW) (P = 0.046) had a significant role than others. In a multivariate regression model, we found that WBC (P < 0.001), platelets (P < 0.001), blood urea nitrogen (BUN; P < 0.001), creatinine (P < 0.001), AST (P = 0.005), and ALT (P = 0.001) were higher in athletes than in controls. Conclusions: It is strongly advised that there should be some concerns about possible supplement-induced changes in the laboratory exams for bodybuilders. The available supplements are unchecked and not approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). More studies should be designed for a better and precise administration of each supplement in

  8. Effects of dietary supplementation with phytonutrients on vaccine-stimulated immunity against infection with Eimeria tenella.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sung Hyen; Lillehoj, Hyun S; Jang, Seung I; Lee, Kyung Woo; Bravo, David; Lillehoj, Erik P

    2011-09-27

    Two phytonutrient mixtures, VAC (carvacrol, cinnamaldehyde, and Capsicum oleoresin), and MC (Capsicum oleoresin and turmeric oleoresin), were evaluated for their effects on chicken immune responses following immunization with an Eimeria profilin protein. Chickens were fed with a non-supplemented diet, or with VAC- or MC-supplemented diets, immunized with profilin, and orally challenged with virulent oocysts of Eimeria tenella. Immunity against infection was evaluated by body weight, fecal oocyst shedding, profilin antibody levels, lymphocyte recall responses, cytokine expression, and lymphocyte subpopulations. Following immunization and infection, chickens fed the VAC- or MC-supplemented diets showed increased body weights, greater profilin antibody levels, and/or greater lymphocyte proliferation compared with non-supplemented controls. Prior to Eimeria infection, immunized chickens on the MC-supplemented diet showed reduced IFN-γ and IL-6 levels, but increased expression of TNFSF15, compared with non-supplemented controls. Post-infection levels of IFN-γ and IL-6 were increased, while IL-17F transcripts were decreased, with MC-supplementation. For VAC-supplemented diets, decreased IL-17F and TNFSF15 levels were observed only in infected chickens. Finally, immunized chickens fed the MC-supplemented diet exhibited increased MHC class II(+), CD4(+), CD8(+), TCR1+, or TCR2(+) T cells compared with nonsupplemented controls. Animals on the VAC-containing diet only displayed an increase in K1(+) macrophages. In conclusion, dietary supplementation with VAC or MC alters immune parameters following recombinant protein vaccination against avian coccidiosis.

  9. Usage patterns, health, and nutritional status of long-term multiple dietary supplement users: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Block, Gladys; Jensen, Christopher D; Norkus, Edward P; Dalvi, Tapashi B; Wong, Les G; McManus, Jamie F; Hudes, Mark L

    2007-01-01

    Background Dietary supplement use in the United States is prevalent and represents an important source of nutrition. However, little is known about individuals who routinely consume multiple dietary supplements. This study describes the dietary supplement usage patterns, health, and nutritional status of long-term multiple dietary supplement users, and where possible makes comparisons to non-users and multivitamin/mineral supplement users. Methods Using a cross-sectional study design, information was obtained by online questionnaires and physical examination (fasting blood, blood pressure, body weight) from a convenience sample of long-term users of multiple dietary supplements manufactured by Shaklee Corporation (Multiple Supp users, n = 278). Data for non-users (No Supp users, n = 602) and multivitamin/mineral supplement users (Single Supp users, n = 176) were obtained from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2001–2002 and NHANES III 1988–1994. Logistic regression methods were used to estimate odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals. Results Dietary supplements consumed on a daily basis by more than 50% of Multiple Supp users included a multivitamin/mineral, B-complex, vitamin C, carotenoids, vitamin E, calcium with vitamin D, omega-3 fatty acids, flavonoids, lecithin, alfalfa, coenzyme Q10 with resveratrol, glucosamine, and a herbal immune supplement. The majority of women also consumed gamma linolenic acid and a probiotic supplement, whereas men also consumed zinc, garlic, saw palmetto, and a soy protein supplement. Serum nutrient concentrations generally increased with increasing dietary supplement use. After adjustment for age, gender, income, education and body mass index, greater degree of supplement use was associated with more favorable concentrations of serum homocysteine, C-reactive protein, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglycerides, as well as lower risk of prevalent elevated blood pressure and diabetes

  10. Application of the Dietary Reference Intakes in developing a recommendation for pregnancy iron supplements in Canada.

    PubMed

    Cockell, Kevin A; Miller, Doris C; Lowell, Hélène

    2009-10-01

    For many pregnant Canadian women, usual iron intakes from food appear to be inadequate compared with Dietary Reference Intake requirement estimates. Dietary intake modeling was undertaken to determine an amount of iron supplementation that would confer acceptably low prevalence of apparently inadequate and apparently excessive intakes. The distribution of usual dietary iron intakes was estimated with the use of 24-h recalls from pregnant women aged 19-50 y in the Canadian Community Health Survey, Cycle 2.2. The prevalence of usual intakes below the Estimated Average Requirement for pregnancy (22 mg/d) or above the Tolerable Upper Intake Level (45 mg/d) was estimated. Iterative modeling with incremental iron supplement was performed to determine a suitable supplement amount. Because the sample of pregnant women was small (148 day 1 recalls), estimates of the tails of the distributions had large SDs, and supporting analyses based on intake data from nonpregnant women (4540 day 1 recalls) were made. Daily supplementation shifted the intake distribution curve without changing its shape. Supplementation with 16 mg iron/d was consistent with low (<3%) prevalence of apparently inadequate intakes. This amount of supplementation should not be associated with an increase in apparently excessive intakes by pregnant women in this population. On the basis of Dietary Reference Intakes, an iron supplement of 16 mg/d throughout pregnancy is justified as both efficacious and safe for healthy women living in Canadian households. This does not preclude the need for therapeutic iron doses for some individuals on the basis of iron status. The method can be applied to other populations if suitable baseline iron intake data are available.

  11. Determination of Calcium in Dietary Supplements: Statistical Comparison of Methods in the Analytical Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garvey, Sarah L.; Shahmohammadi, Golbon; McLain, Derek R.; Dietz, Mark L.

    2015-01-01

    A laboratory experiment is described in which students compare two methods for the determination of the calcium content of commercial dietary supplement tablets. In a two-week sequence, the sample tablets are first analyzed via complexometric titration with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid and then, following ion exchange of the calcium ion present…

  12. Chromatographic and mass spectrometric fingerprinting analyses of Angelica sinensis (Oliv.) Diels-derived dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yang; Sun, Jianghao; Yu, Liangli Lucy; Chen, Pei

    2013-05-01

    Angelica sinensis (Oliv.) Diels ("Danggui" in Chinese) is one of the most commonly used traditional Chinese medicines. It has been used to invigorate blood circulation for the treatment of anemia, hypertension, chronic bronchitis, asthma, rheumatism, and cardiovascular diseases. There are a number of A. sinensis-derived dietary supplements in the US markets. However, no study have been conducted to investigate the quality of these dietary supplements. In this paper, high-performance liquid chromatographic and flow-injection mass spectrometric fingerprints were both evaluated to assess the consistency of A. sinensis-derived dietary supplements. Similarity analysis was carried out on the high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) fingerprints. Meanwhile, principal component analysis (PCA) was performed on the data obtained from flow-injection mass spectrometric (FIMS) fingerprints, which can analyze each sample in 2 min, compared with 30 min required for the chromatographic fingerprint. Both methods show significant chemical differences between samples that may be due to differences in growing locations, growing conditions, harvesting times, and/or botanical processing. The loading plots obtained from PCA singled out the discriminatory ions that were responsible for chemical differences of A. sinensis-derived dietary supplements.

  13. 21 CFR 111.455 - What requirements apply to holding components, dietary supplements, packaging, and labels?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false What requirements apply to holding components, dietary supplements, packaging, and labels? 111.455 Section 111.455 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CURRENT...

  14. 21 CFR 111.465 - What requirements apply to holding reserve samples of dietary supplements?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false What requirements apply to holding reserve samples of dietary supplements? 111.465 Section 111.465 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CURRENT GOOD...

  15. Interaction of Carbamazepine with Herbs, Dietary Supplements, and Food: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Zuo, Zhong

    2013-01-01

    Background. Carbamazepine (CBZ) is a first-line antiepileptic drug which may be prone to drug interactions. Systematic review of herb- and food-drug interactions on CBZ is warranted to provide guidance for medical professionals when prescribing CBZ. Method. A systematic review was conducted on six English databases and four Chinese databases. Results. 196 out of 3179 articles fulfilled inclusion criteria, of which 74 articles were reviewed and 33 herbal products/dietary supplement/food interacting with CBZ were identified. No fatal or severe interactions were documented. The majority of the interactions were pharmacokinetic-based (80%). Traditional Chinese medicine accounted for most of the interactions (n = 17), followed by food (n = 10), dietary supplements (n = 3), and other herbs/botanicals (n = 3). Coadministration of 11 and 12 of the studied herbal products/dietary supplement/food significantly decreased or increased the plasma concentrations of CBZ. Regarding pharmacodynamic interaction, Xiao-yao-san, melatonin, and alcohol increased the side effects of CBZ while caffeine lowered the antiepileptic efficacy of CBZ. Conclusion. This review provides a comprehensive summary of the documented interactions between CBZ and herbal products/food/dietary supplements which assists healthcare professionals to identify potential herb-drug and food-drug interactions, thereby preventing potential adverse events and improving patients' therapeutic outcomes when prescribing CBZ. PMID:24023584

  16. APPROACH FOR ASSESSING RISK OF ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANTS PRESENT IN BOTANICAL DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Botanical dietary supplements have a long history of use in Europe and China, but they are becoming increasing popular in the United States. Since these products are classified as herbals, the United States Food and Drug Administration does not regulate nor monitor these suppleme...

  17. Phospholipids, Dietary Supplements, and Chicken Eggs: An Inquiry-Based Exercise Using Thin-Layer Chromatography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potteiger, Sara E.; Belanger, Julie M.

    2015-01-01

    This inquiry-based experiment is designed for organic or biochemistry undergraduate students to deduce the identity of phospholipids extracted from chicken eggs and dietary supplements. This is achieved using thin-layer chromatography (TLC) data, a series of guided questions of increasing complexity, and provided relative retention factor (Rf)…

  18. 21 CFR 101.93 - Certain types of statements for dietary supplements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Certain types of statements for dietary supplements. 101.93 Section 101.93 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FOOD LABELING Specific Requirements for Descriptive...

  19. Dietary Supplements and Health Aids - A Critical Evaluation Part 2 - Macronutrients and Fiber.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dubick, Michael A.

    1983-01-01

    Part 1 of this evaluation of dietary supplements and health aids (SE 533 788) focused on various therapeutic claims made for vitamins and minerals. This part examines health-promoting claims made for selected macronutrients and fiber. Macronutrients examined include selected proteins, amino acids, enzymes, carbohydrates, and lipids. (JN)

  20. 21 CFR 111.155 - What requirements apply to components of dietary supplements?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false What requirements apply to components of dietary supplements? 111.155 Section 111.155 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE...

  1. 21 CFR 111.155 - What requirements apply to components of dietary supplements?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false What requirements apply to components of dietary supplements? 111.155 Section 111.155 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE...

  2. 21 CFR 111.455 - What requirements apply to holding components, dietary supplements, packaging, and labels?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false What requirements apply to holding components, dietary supplements, packaging, and labels? 111.455 Section 111.455 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CURRENT...

  3. 21 CFR 111.155 - What requirements apply to components of dietary supplements?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false What requirements apply to components of dietary supplements? 111.155 Section 111.155 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE...

  4. Effects of dietary arginine supplementation on the performance of lactating primiparous sows and nursing piglets.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments in a randomized block design was utilized to determine the effects of dietary arginine supplementation during gestation and/or lactation on the lactation performance of 38 first-parity sows. At 30 d of gestation, pregnant gilts were allotted based on BW to...

  5. A Review of the Efficacy, Safety, and Clinical Implications of Naturally Derived Dietary Supplements for Dyslipidemia.

    PubMed

    Thaipitakwong, Thanchanit; Aramwit, Pornanong

    2017-02-01

    Dyslipidemia is recognized as a major cause of cardiovascular disease. A number of evidence-based guidelines recommend conventional synthetic drugs as standard therapy for dyslipidemia in clinical practice. However, antihyperlipidemic drugs have some serious side effects. Naturally derived dietary supplements are becoming attractive as an alternative strategy because of their high efficacy and safety, as supported by numerous data. Moreover, they could be considered an initial treatment for dyslipidemia. The aims of this literature review were to demonstrate the efficacy, safety, and clinical implications of dietary supplements for treating dyslipidemia. We reviewed the literature, including data from in vitro, in vivo, and human studies, and clinical guideline recommendations. We classified dietary supplements by their proposed mechanisms of action on lipid metabolism and also collected daily dosage recommendations, interactions with concurrent drugs and/or foods, dosage forms, and examples of commercially available products. Various types of naturally derived dietary supplements exhibit lipid-improving properties. Efficacy and safety are acceptable; however, their use in clinical practice will require further well-designed investigations and the support of scientific data.

  6. Biological and chemical standardization of a hop (Humulus lupulus) botanical dietary supplement.