Science.gov

Sample records for dietary supplement products

  1. Term Coverage of Dietary Supplements Ingredients in Product Labels

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yefeng; Adam, Terrence J.; Zhang, Rui

    2016-01-01

    As the clinical application and consumption of dietary supplements has grown, their side effects and possible interactions with prescribed medications has become a serious issue. Information extraction of dietary supplement related information is a critical need to support dietary supplement research. However, there currently is not an existing terminology for dietary supplements, placing a barrier for informatics research in this field. The terms related to dietary supplement ingredients should be collected and normalized before a terminology can be established to facilitate convenient search on safety information and control possible adverse effects of dietary supplements. In this study, the Dietary Supplement Label Database (DSLD) was chosen as the data source from which the ingredient information was extracted and normalized. The distribution based on the product type and the ingredient type of the dietary supplements were analyzed. The ingredient terms were then mapped to the existing terminologies, including UMLS, RxNorm and NDF-RT by using MetaMap and RxMix. The large gap between existing terminologies and ingredients were found: only 14.67%, 19.65%, and 12.88% of ingredient terms were covered by UMLS, RxNorm and NDF-RT, respectively. PMID:28269965

  2. Term Coverage of Dietary Supplements Ingredients in Product Labels.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yefeng; Adam, Terrence J; Zhang, Rui

    2016-01-01

    As the clinical application and consumption of dietary supplements has grown, their side effects and possible interactions with prescribed medications has become a serious issue. Information extraction of dietary supplement related information is a critical need to support dietary supplement research. However, there currently is not an existing terminology for dietary supplements, placing a barrier for informatics research in this field. The terms related to dietary supplement ingredients should be collected and normalized before a terminology can be established to facilitate convenient search on safety information and control possible adverse effects of dietary supplements. In this study, the Dietary Supplement Label Database (DSLD) was chosen as the data source from which the ingredient information was extracted and normalized. The distribution based on the product type and the ingredient type of the dietary supplements were analyzed. The ingredient terms were then mapped to the existing terminologies, including UMLS, RxNorm and NDF-RT by using MetaMap and RxMix. The large gap between existing terminologies and ingredients were found: only 14.67%, 19.65%, and 12.88% of ingredient terms were covered by UMLS, RxNorm and NDF-RT, respectively.

  3. Beware of Fraudulent 'Dietary Supplements'

    MedlinePlus

    ... Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products For Consumers Home For Consumers ... Supplements Dietary Supplements More in Consumer Updates Animal & Veterinary Children's Health Cosmetics Dietary Supplements Drugs Food Medical ...

  4. FDA 101: Dietary Supplements

    MedlinePlus

    ... Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products For Consumers Home For Consumers ... Knowledge About Vitamins More in Consumer Updates Animal & Veterinary Children's Health Cosmetics Dietary Supplements Drugs Food Medical ...

  5. Dietary Supplements

    MedlinePlus

    ... other products. They can come as pills, capsules, powders, drinks, and energy bars. Supplements do not have to go through the testing that drugs do. Some supplements can play an important role in health. For example, calcium and vitamin D are important for keeping bones ...

  6. Rosaceae products: Anthocyanin quality and comparisons between dietary supplements and foods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rosaceae (strawberry, cherry, blackberry, red raspberry, and black raspberry) dietary supplements and food products (total n=74) were purchased and analyzed to determine their anthocyanin concentrations and profiles. Eight of the 33 dietary supplements had no detectable anthocyanins (five samples) o...

  7. Feasibility of Including Green Tea Products for an Analytically Verified Dietary Supplement Database

    PubMed Central

    Saldanha, Leila; Dwyer, Johanna; Andrews, Karen; Betz, Joseph; Harnely, James; Pehrsson, Pamela; Rimmer, Catherine; Savarala, Sushma

    2015-01-01

    The Dietary Supplement Ingredient Database (DSID) is a federally funded, publicly accessible dietary supplement database that currently contains analytically-derived information on micronutrients in selected adult and children’s multivitamin and mineral (MVM) supplements. Other constituents in dietary supplement products such as botanicals are also of interest and thus are being considered for inclusion in the DSID. Thirty-eight constituents, mainly botanicals were identified and prioritized by a federal interagency committee. Green tea was selected from this list as the botanical for expansion of the DSID. This paper describes the process for prioritizing dietary ingredients in the DSID. It also discusses the criteria for inclusion of these ingredients, and the approach for selecting and testing products for the green tea pilot study. PMID:25817236

  8. Dietary Supplements

    MedlinePlus

    ... makes the product for more information. Report false advertising to the Federal Trade Comission (FTC). www.ftc. ... feeds Follow FDA on Twitter Follow FDA on Facebook View FDA videos on YouTube View FDA photos ...

  9. Important considerations for treatment with dietary supplement versus prescription niacin products.

    PubMed

    Backes, James M; Padley, Robert J; Moriarty, Patrick M

    2011-03-01

    Niacin is a water-soluble B vitamin (B3) known to have favorable effects on multiple lipid parameters, including raising high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels and lowering triglycerides (TGs), lipoprotein(a), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). Although LDL-C remains the primary target of lipid-altering therapy, current guidelines emphasize HDL-C and other modifiable lipid factors as key secondary targets. Thus, niacin is considered an important therapeutic option to help reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease in patients with mixed dyslipidemia who, in addition to high LDL-C, have elevated TGs and low HDL-C. Although available prescription niacin products, including immediate-release niacin (IR; Niacor) and an extended-release niacin formulation (Niaspan), have demonstrated safety and efficacy in randomized clinical trials, confusion remains among health care providers and their patients regarding the various commercially available nonprescription dietary supplement niacin products. These dietary supplements, which include IR, sustained-release (SR), and "no-flush" or "flush-free" niacin products, are not subject to the same stringent US Food and Drug Administration regulations as prescription drugs. In fact, both the American Heart Association and the American Pharmacists Association recommend against the use of dietary supplement niacin as a substitute for prescription niacin. Although some dietary supplement IR and SR niacin products have demonstrated a lipid response in clinical trials, products labeled as "no-flush" or "flush-free" that are intended to avoid the common niacin-associated adverse effect of flushing generally contain minimal or no free, pharmacologically active niacin and therefore lack beneficial lipid-modifying effects. To clarify important differences between available prescription and dietary supplement niacin products, this article contrasts current regulatory standards for dietary supplements and prescription

  10. The impact of cGMP compliance on consumer confidence in dietary supplement products.

    PubMed

    Crowley, Richard; FitzGerald, Libby Harvey

    2006-04-03

    The FDA estimates that US citizens spend more than $ 8.5 billion a year on dietary supplements and world wide the market is estimated at more than $ 60 billion. However, although a majority of consumers express confidence in the safety of these products, 74% believe the government should be more involved in ensuring that these products are safe and efficacious. Recent regulatory initiatives such as the imminent adoption of cGMPs for dietary supplements in the US, implementation of cGMPs in Canada and the recent EU dietary supplement initiative represent legislative and industry response to public clamor for more comprehensive oversight of dietary supplements. Regardless of mandated practices, the majority of dietary supplement manufacturers have done an excellent job of protecting the safety and quality of their products. The promulgation of these cGMPs will help ensure consumers that equal standards are followed throughout the industry. For some companies with established processes based on existing food or pharmaceutical cGMP regulations, the transition will be relatively painless while, for many, it will represent a significant increase in the level of documentation and testing. However, consumers deserve and demand that products meet standards for safety and quality and the implementation of cGMPs for these products are an important first step. Although the cGMPs are designed to ensure products are safe from a standpoint of identity, purity, quality, strength and composition, they do not address preclinical or clinical testing of ingredients for safety or efficacy. This would involve ingredients meeting the requirements of Generally Recognized as Safe (GRAS) status or going through the New Dietary Ingredient (NDI) process.

  11. Herbal Products and Supplements

    MedlinePlus

    ... of dietary supplement that contains one or more herbs.Herbal health products and supplements are available in ... wort.Are herbal health products and supplements safe?Herbs aren't necessarily safer than the ingredients in ...

  12. Functional foods and dietary supplements: products at the interface between pharma and nutrition.

    PubMed

    Eussen, Simone R B M; Verhagen, Hans; Klungel, Olaf H; Garssen, Johan; van Loveren, Henk; van Kranen, Henk J; Rompelberg, Cathy J M

    2011-09-01

    It is increasingly recognized that most chronic diseases of concern today are multifactorial in origin. To combat such diseases and adverse health conditions, a treatment approach where medicines and nutrition complement each other may prove to be the most successful. Within nutrition, apart from (disease-related) dietetic regimes, an increasing number of functional foods and dietary supplements, each with their own health claim, are marketed. These food items are considered to be positioned between traditional foods and medicines at the so-called 'Pharma-Nutrition Interface'. This paper encompasses aspects related to the regulatory framework and health claims of functional foods and dietary supplements. The use of functional foods or dietary supplements may offer opportunities to reduce health risk factors and risk of diseases, both as monotherapy and in combination with prescription drugs. Nevertheless, the potential caveats of these products should not be overlooked. These caveats include the increased risk for food-drug interactions due to the elevated amounts of specific functional ingredients in the diet, and the stimulation of self-medication potentially resulting in lower adherence to drug therapy. Health technology assessments should be used more to compare the cost-effectiveness and benefit-risk ratios of drugs, functional foods and dietary supplements, and to evaluate the added value of functional foods or dietary supplements to drug therapy.

  13. Dietary Supplements: What Is Safe?

    MedlinePlus

    ... and side effects of dietary supplements Dietary supplement advertising and promotion Talking with your doctor about dietary ... Statistics Center Volunteer Learning Center Follow Us Twitter Facebook Instagram Cancer Information, Answers, and Hope. Available Every ...

  14. Feasibility of including green tea products for an analytically verified dietary supplement database

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Dietary Supplement Ingredient Database (DSID) is a federally-funded, publically-accessible dietary supplement database that currently contains analytically derived information on micronutrients in selected adult and children’s multivitamin and mineral (MVM) supplements. Other constituents in di...

  15. Dietary supplements in weight reduction.

    PubMed

    Dwyer, Johanna T; Allison, David B; Coates, Paul M

    2005-05-01

    We summarize evidence on the role of dietary supplements in weight reduction, with particular attention to their safety and benefits. Dietary supplements are used for two purposes in weight reduction: (a) providing nutrients that may be inadequate in calorie-restricted diets and (b) for their potential benefits in stimulating weight loss. The goal in planning weight-reduction diets is that total intake from food and supplements should meet recommended dietary allowance/adequate intake levels without greatly exceeding them for all nutrients, except energy. If nutrient amounts from food sources in the reducing diet fall short, dietary supplements containing a single nutrient/element or a multivitamin-mineral combination may be helpful. On hypocaloric diets, the addition of dietary supplements providing nutrients at a level equal to or below recommended dietary allowance/adequate intake levels or 100% daily value, as stated in a supplement's facts box on the label, may help dieters to achieve nutrient adequacy and maintain electrolyte balance while avoiding the risk of excessive nutrient intakes. Many botanical and other types of dietary supplements are purported to be useful for stimulating or enhancing weight loss. Evidence of their efficacy in stimulating weight loss is inconclusive at present. Although there are few examples of safety concerns related to products that are legal and on the market for this purpose, there is also a paucity of evidence on safety for this intended use. Ephedra and ephedrine-containing supplements, with or without caffeine, have been singled out in recent alerts from the Food and Drug Administration because of safety concerns, and use of products containing these substances cannot be recommended. Dietitians should periodically check the Food and Drug Administration Web site ( www.cfsan.fda.gov ) for updates and warnings and alert patients/clients to safety concerns. Dietetics professionals should also consult authoritative sources for

  16. Dietary supplements for aquatic sports.

    PubMed

    Derave, Wim; Tipton, Kevin D

    2014-08-01

    Many athletes use dietary supplements, with use more prevalent among those competing at the highest level. Supplements are often self-prescribed, and their use is likely to be based on an inadequate understanding of the issues at stake. Supplementation with essential micronutrients may be useful when a diagnosed deficiency cannot be promptly and effectively corrected with food-based dietary solutions. When used in high doses, some supplements may do more harm than good: Iron supplementation, for example, is potentially harmful. There is good evidence from laboratory studies and some evidence from field studies to support health or performance benefits from appropriate use of a few supplements. The available evidence from studies of aquatic sports is small and is often contradictory. Evidence from elite performers is almost entirely absent, but some athletes may benefit from informed use of creatine, caffeine, and buffering agents. Poor quality assurance in some parts of the dietary supplements industry raises concerns about the safety of some products. Some do not contain the active ingredients listed on the label, and some contain toxic substances, including prescription drugs, that can cause health problems. Some supplements contain compounds that will cause an athlete to fail a doping test. Supplement quality assurance programs can reduce, but not entirely eliminate, this risk.

  17. Approaches by the US National Institutes of Health to support rigorous scientific research on dietary supplements and natural products.

    PubMed

    Kuszak, A J; Hopp, D C; Williamson, J S; Betz, J M; Sorkin, B C

    2016-01-01

    Mechanistic, clinical, and epidemiological research relevant to dietary supplements (DS) is supported by the U.S. National Institutes of Health. The Office of Dietary Supplements and the National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health promote the development and appropriate use of rigorous and comprehensive DS analyses which are critical for research reproducibility, particularly when the investigational DS include chemically complex natural products with unclear mechanisms of action.

  18. Effects of a Spirulina-based dietary supplement on cytokine production from allergic rhinitis patients.

    PubMed

    Mao, T K; Van de Water, J; Gershwin, M E

    2005-01-01

    Spirulina represents a blue-green alga that is widely produced and commercialized as a dietary supplement for modulating immune functions, as well as ameliorating a variety of diseases. We have previously shown that the in vitro culture of Spirulina with human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) modulated the production of cytokines. In the present study, we evaluated the impact of a Spirulina-based dietary supplement (Earthrise Nutritionals, Inc., Irvine, CA) on patients with allergic rhinitis by assessing the production of cytokines [interleukin (IL)-4, interferon (IFN)-gamma, and IL-2] critical in regulating immunoglobulin E-mediated allergy. In a randomized double-blinded crossover study versus placebo, allergic individuals were fed daily with either placebo or Spirulina, at 1,000 mg or 2,000 mg, for 12 weeks. PBMCs isolated before and after the Spirulina feeding were stimulated with phytohemagglutinin (PHA) prior to determining the levels of cytokine from cell culture supernatants. Although Spirulina seemed to be ineffective at modulating the secretion of Th1 cytokines (IFN-gamma and IL-2), we discovered that Spirulina, administered at 2,000 mg/day, significantly reduced IL-4 levels by 32% from PHA-stimulated cells. These results indicate that Spirulina can modulate the Th profile in patients with allergic rhinitis by suppressing the differentiation of Th2 cells mediated, in part, by inhibiting the production of IL-4. To our knowledge, this is the first human feeding study that demonstrates the protective effects of Spirulina towards allergic rhinitis.

  19. Hyperkalemia from Dietary Supplements

    PubMed Central

    Villgran, Vipin

    2016-01-01

    Hyperkalemia is a common electrolyte problem in patients with chronic kidney disease. It is typically caused by medications in patients with poor kidney function. Patients with comorbodities such as heart failure and diabetes are predisposed to electrolyte problems. Salt substitutes and dietary supplements are uncommon causes of hyperkalemia, but we propose that they are under-recognized and underdiagnosed causes in patients with chronic kidney disease. Our case report and literature review illustrates that a careful dietary history is essential in patients presenting with electrolyte disorders, especially hyperkalemia. PMID:27924248

  20. A structured vocabulary for indexing dietary supplements in databases in the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Food composition databases are critical to assess and plan dietary intakes. Dietary supplement databases are also needed because dietary supplements make significant contributions to total nutrient intakes. However, no uniform system exists for classifying dietary supplement products and indexing ...

  1. The effect of dietary supplementation of salts of organic acid on production performance of laying hens

    PubMed Central

    Dahiya, Ravinder; Berwal, Raj Singh; Sihag, Sajjan; Patil, Chandrashekhar Santosh; Lalit

    2016-01-01

    Aim: An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of supplementing different levels of salts of organic acid in the laying hen’s diet on their production performance and egg quality parameters during a period of 16-week. Materials and Methods: A total of 140 white leghorn laying hens at 24 weeks of age were randomly distributed to seven dietary treatment groups, i.e. T1 (control), T2 (0.5% sodium-butyrate), T3 (1.0% sodium-butyrate), T4 (1.5% sodium-butyrate), T5 (0.5% calcium-propionate), T6 (1.0% calcium-propionate) and T7 (1.5% calcium-propionate) consisting of 5 replications of 4 birds each in each treatment and housed in individual cages from 24 to 40 weeks of age. Feed intake, percent hen-day egg production, egg weight, egg mass production, feed conversion ratio (FCR), and economics of supplementation of salts of organic acids in layers’ ration were evaluated. Results: The dietary supplementation of salts of organic acids did not significantly affect the feed intake (g/day/hen) and body weight gain (g). Different levels of supplementation significantly (p<0.05) improved production performance (percent hen-day egg production and egg mass production) as compared to control group. FCR in terms of feed intake (kg) per dozen eggs was lowest (1.83±0.05) in T4 and feed intake (kg) per kg egg mass was lowest (2.87±0.05) in T5 as comparison to control (T1) group. Salts of organic acids supplementation resulted in significant (p<0.05) improvement in FCR. Egg weight was significantly (p<0.05) increased at 0.5% level of salts of organic acids in the diet. The cumulative mean values of feed cost per dozen egg production were Rs. 44.14, 42.40, 42.85, 43.26, 42.57, 43.29 and 43.56 in treatment groups T1, T2, T3, T4, T5, T6 and T7, respectively, and reduction in feed cost per kg egg mass production for Rs. 0.52 and 0.99 in groups T2 and T5, respectively, in comparison to T1 group. Conclusions: It can be concluded that supplementation of salts of organic acids may

  2. Cysteine dietary supplementation reverses the decrease in mitochondrial ROS production at complex I induced by methionine restriction.

    PubMed

    Gomez, A; Gomez, J; Lopez Torres, M; Naudi, A; Mota-Martorell, N; Pamplona, R; Barja, G

    2015-06-01

    It has been described that dietary cysteine reverses many of the beneficial changes induced by methionine restriction in aging rodents. In this investigation male Wistar rats were subjected to diets low in methionine, supplemented with cysteine, or simultaneously low in methionine and supplemented with cysteine. The results obtained in liver showed that cysteine supplementation reverses the decrease in mitochondrial ROS generation induced by methionine restriction at complex I. Methionine restriction also decreased various markers of oxidative and non-oxidative stress on mitochondrial proteins which were not reversed by cysteine. Instead, cysteine supplementation also lowered protein damage in association with decreases in mTOR activation. The results of the present study add the decrease in mitochondrial ROS production to the various beneficial changes induced by methionine restriction that are reversed by cysteine dietary supplementation.

  3. The Caffeine Content of Dietary Supplements Commonly Purchased in the U.S.: Analysis of 53 Products Having Caffeine-containing Ingredients

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As part of a study initiating the development of an analytically validated Dietary Supplement Ingredient Database (DSID) in the United States (U.S.), a selection of dietary supplement products were analyzed for their caffeine content. Products sold as tablets, caplets, or capsules and listing at l...

  4. Quantitative determination of vinpocetine in dietary supplements

    PubMed Central

    French, John M. T.; King, Matthew D.

    2017-01-01

    Current United States regulatory policies allow for the addition of pharmacologically active substances in dietary supplements if derived from a botanical source. The inclusion of certain nootropic drugs, such as vinpocetine, in dietary supplements has recently come under scrutiny due to the lack of defined dosage parameters and yet unproven short- and long-term benefits and risks to human health. This study quantified the concentration of vinpocetine in several commercially available dietary supplements and found that a highly variable range of 0.6–5.1 mg/serving was present across the tested products, with most products providing no specification of vinpocetine concentrations. PMID:27319129

  5. Effects of dietary copper supplementation on production performance and plasma biochemical parameters in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Samanta, B; Biswas, A; Ghosh, P R

    2011-10-01

    A study was conducted to estimate the effect of copper (Cu) supplementation on growth performance and biochemical profiles of blood and meat in broiler chickens. A total of 240 d-old broiler chicks (Vencobb-100) were randomly divided into 12 groups, each of 20 chicks (4 treatments x 3 replicates). The basal diet (T₁) contained 215 g kg⁻¹ crude protein (CP), 12·76 MJ kg⁻¹ ME, 32 g kg⁻¹ total calcium and 5 g kg⁻¹ total phosphorus. T₂, T₃ and T₄ were formulated to contain an additional 75, 150 and 250 mg Cu kg⁻¹ diet, respectively. Copper sulphate pentahydrate (CuSO₄, 5H₂O) was used as the source of Cu. Significant reductions in plasma total cholesterol and triglyceride, and an elevated concentration of HDL-cholesterol, were observed in the chickens fed with 250 mg Cu kg⁻¹ (T₄) of feed at the 3rd and 6th week of the experiment. Total cholesterol in meat decreased significantly in the birds fed with dietary Cu at 250 mg kg⁻¹ (T₄) of feed. Growth performance was measured in terms of live weight gain, cumulative feed intake and feed conversion ratio at the end of d 21 and d 42 of the experiment, and the result was found to be commercially beneficial for the chickens receiving 150 mg Cu kg⁻¹ (T₃) of diet. The concentration of Cu in breast muscle and liver increased significantly at the end of experiment. From this study it can be concluded that supplementation with dietary Cu may be beneficial for production performance and plasma biochemical characteristics of broiler chickens.

  6. Herbal and dietary supplement hepatotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Navarro, Victor J

    2009-11-01

    Herbal and dietary supplements (HDS) are commonly used in the United States and throughout the world. The Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act and public standards set through the U.S. Pharmacopeia provide regulatory framework for these products. These regulations help to ensure the safety of grandfathered and new HDS coming onto the market, and the opportunity to identify and take action against unsafe products that have been distributed. The clinical patterns of presentation and severity of HDS-associated hepatotoxicity can be highly variable, even for the same product. In addition, accurate causality assessment in cases of suspected HDS hepatotoxicity is confounded by infrequent ascertainment of product intake by healthcare providers, under-reporting of HDS use by patients, the ubiquity of HDS and the complexity of their components, and the possibility for product adulteration. Additional measures to prevent HDS-induced hepatotoxicity include greater consumer and provider awareness, increased spontaneous reporting, and reassessment of regulations regarding the manufacturing, distribution, and marketing of these products.

  7. Pulque production from fermented agave sap as a dietary supplement in Prehispanic Mesoamerica

    PubMed Central

    Correa-Ascencio, Marisol; Robertson, Ian G.; Cabrera-Cortés, Oralia; Cabrera-Castro, Rubén; Evershed, Richard P.

    2014-01-01

    Although in modern societies fermented beverages are associated with socializing, celebration, and ritual, in ancient times they were also importa`nt sources of essential nutrients and potable water. In Mesoamerica, pulque, an alcoholic beverage produced from the fermented sap of several species of maguey plants (Agavaceae; Fig. 1) is hypothesized to have been used as a dietary supplement and risk-buffering food in ancient Teotihuacan (150 B.C. to A.D. 650). Although direct archaeological evidence of pulque production is lacking, organic residue analysis of pottery vessels offers a new avenue of investigation. However, the chemical components of alcoholic beverages are water-soluble, greatly limiting their survival over archaeological timescales compared with hydrophobic lipids widely preserved in food residues. Hence, we apply a novel lipid biomarker approach that considers detection of bacteriohopanoids derived from the ethanol-producing bacterium Zymomonas mobilis for identifying pulque production/consumption in pottery vessels. Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry selected ion monitoring (m/z 191) of lipid extracts of >300 potsherds revealed characteristic bacteriohopanoid distributions in a subset of 14 potsherds. This hopanoid biomarker approach offers a new means of identifying commonly occurring bacterially fermented alcoholic beverages worldwide, including palm wine, beer, cider, perry, and other plant sap- or fruit-derived beverages [Swings J, De Ley J (1977) Bacteriol Rev 41(1):1–46]. PMID:25225408

  8. Pulque production from fermented agave sap as a dietary supplement in Prehispanic Mesoamerica.

    PubMed

    Correa-Ascencio, Marisol; Robertson, Ian G; Cabrera-Cortés, Oralia; Cabrera-Castro, Rubén; Evershed, Richard P

    2014-09-30

    Although in modern societies fermented beverages are associated with socializing, celebration, and ritual, in ancient times they were also importa`nt sources of essential nutrients and potable water. In Mesoamerica, pulque, an alcoholic beverage produced from the fermented sap of several species of maguey plants (Agavaceae; Fig. 1) is hypothesized to have been used as a dietary supplement and risk-buffering food in ancient Teotihuacan (150 B.C. to A.D. 650). Although direct archaeological evidence of pulque production is lacking, organic residue analysis of pottery vessels offers a new avenue of investigation. However, the chemical components of alcoholic beverages are water-soluble, greatly limiting their survival over archaeological timescales compared with hydrophobic lipids widely preserved in food residues. Hence, we apply a novel lipid biomarker approach that considers detection of bacteriohopanoids derived from the ethanol-producing bacterium Zymomonas mobilis for identifying pulque production/consumption in pottery vessels. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry selected ion monitoring (m/z 191) of lipid extracts of >300 potsherds revealed characteristic bacteriohopanoid distributions in a subset of 14 potsherds. This hopanoid biomarker approach offers a new means of identifying commonly occurring bacterially fermented alcoholic beverages worldwide, including palm wine, beer, cider, perry, and other plant sap- or fruit-derived beverages [Swings J, De Ley J (1977) Bacteriol Rev 41(1):1-46].

  9. Dietary Leucine Supplementation Improves the Mucin Production in the Jejunal Mucosa of the Weaned Pigs Challenged by Porcine Rotavirus.

    PubMed

    Mao, Xiangbing; Liu, Minghui; Tang, Jun; Chen, Hao; Chen, Daiwen; Yu, Bing; He, Jun; Yu, Jie; Zheng, Ping

    2015-01-01

    The present study was mainly conducted to determine whether dietary leucine supplementation could attenuate the decrease of the mucin production in the jejunal mucosa of weaned pigs infected by porcine rotavirus (PRV). A total of 24 crossbred barrows weaned at 21 d of age were assigned randomly to 1 of 2 diets supplemented with 1.00% L-leucine or 0.68% L-alanine (isonitrogenous control) for 17 d. On day 11, all pigs were orally infused PRV or the sterile essential medium. During the first 10 d of trial, dietary leucine supplementation could improve the feed efficiency (P = 0.09). The ADG and feed efficiency were impaired by PRV infusion (P<0.05). PRV infusion also increased mean cumulative score of diarrhea, serum rotavirus antibody concentration and crypt depth of the jejunal mucosa (P<0.05), and decreased villus height: crypt depth (P = 0.07), goblet cell numbers (P<0.05), mucin 1 and 2 concentrations (P<0.05) and phosphorylated mTOR level (P<0.05) of the jejunal mucosa in weaned pigs. Dietary leucine supplementation could attenuate the effects of PRV infusion on feed efficiency (P = 0.09) and mean cumulative score of diarrhea (P = 0.09), and improve the effects of PRV infusion on villus height: crypt depth (P = 0.06), goblet cell numbers (P<0.05), mucin 1 (P = 0.08) and 2 (P = 0.07) concentrations and phosphorylated mTOR level (P = 0.08) of the jejunal mucosa in weaned pigs. These results suggest that dietary 1% leucine supplementation alleviated the decrease of mucin production and goblet cell numbers in the jejunal mucosa of weaned pigs challenged by PRV possibly via activation of the mTOR signaling.

  10. Culinary Spice Plants in Dietary Supplement Products and Tested in Clinical Trials123

    PubMed Central

    Saldanha, Leila G; Dwyer, Johanna T; Betz, Joseph M

    2016-01-01

    Dried plant parts used as culinary spices (CSs) in food are permitted as dietary ingredients in dietary supplements (DSs) within certain constraints in the United States. We reviewed the amounts, forms, and nutritional support (structure/function) claims of DSs that contain CS plants listed in the Dietary Supplement Label Database (DSLD) and compared this label information with trial doses and health endpoints for CS plants that were the subject of clinical trials listed in clinicaltrials.gov. According to the DSLD, the CS plants occurring most frequently in DSs were cayenne, cinnamon, garlic, ginger, pepper, rosemary, and turmeric. Identifying the botanical species, categorizing the forms used, and determining the amounts from the information provided on DS labels was challenging. CS plants were typically added as a component of a blend, as the powered biomass, dried extracts, and isolated phytochemicals. The amounts added were declared on about 55% of the labels, rendering it difficult to determine the amount of the CS plant used in many DSs. Clinicaltrials.gov provided little information about the composition of test articles in the intervention studies. When plant names were listed on DS labels and in clinical trials, generally the common name and not the Latin binomial name was given. In order to arrive at exposure estimates and enable researchers to reproduce clinical trials, the Latin binomial name, form, and amount of the CS plant used in DSs and tested in clinical trials must be specified. PMID:26980817

  11. Culinary Spice Plants in Dietary Supplement Products and Tested in Clinical Trials.

    PubMed

    Saldanha, Leila G; Dwyer, Johanna T; Betz, Joseph M

    2016-03-01

    Dried plant parts used as culinary spices (CSs) in food are permitted as dietary ingredients in dietary supplements (DSs) within certain constraints in the United States. We reviewed the amounts, forms, and nutritional support (structure/function) claims of DSs that contain CS plants listed in the Dietary Supplement Label Database (DSLD) and compared this label information with trial doses and health endpoints for CS plants that were the subject of clinical trials listed in clinicaltrials.gov. According to the DSLD, the CS plants occurring most frequently in DSs were cayenne, cinnamon, garlic, ginger, pepper, rosemary, and turmeric. Identifying the botanical species, categorizing the forms used, and determining the amounts from the information provided on DS labels was challenging. CS plants were typically added as a component of a blend, as the powered biomass, dried extracts, and isolated phytochemicals. The amounts added were declared on about 55% of the labels, rendering it difficult to determine the amount of the CS plant used in many DSs. Clinicaltrials.gov provided little information about the composition of test articles in the intervention studies. When plant names were listed on DS labels and in clinical trials, generally the common name and not the Latin binomial name was given. In order to arrive at exposure estimates and enable researchers to reproduce clinical trials, the Latin binomial name, form, and amount of the CS plant used in DSs and tested in clinical trials must be specified.

  12. Dietary supplements: International legal framework and adulteration profiles, and characteristics of products on the Brazilian clandestine market.

    PubMed

    da Justa Neves, Diana Brito; Caldas, Eloisa Dutra

    2015-10-01

    The objectives of this work were to evaluate current legislation on dietary supplements in the United States, the European Union and Brazil, and the profile of adulterated and/or irregular products on these markets. Due to a less restrictive legal framework, a supplement product that is freely available in the US may be considered a drug or even be proscribed in the EU and Brazil, thus giving rise to a clandestine market based on smuggling. From 2007 to 2014, the United States Food and Drug Administration reported 572 cases of supplement adulterations in the country, mainly products for sexual enhancement (41.6%). Data from the European Union Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed showed 929 adulterations during the same period, over 40% due to unauthorized ingredients or undeclared medicines. From 2007 to 2013, the Brazilian Federal Police Department seized 5470 supplement products, 92.2% with an American-declared origin. Qualitative chemical analyses performed on 2898 products found 180 adulterations, 41.1% due to undeclared drugs, mainly anabolic steroids, anorectics and products for erectile dysfunction, all considered medicines in Brazil. Educating the public regarding the potential risks they are taking when consuming adulterated or irregular products is necessary to protect the health of consumers.

  13. Nutravigilance: principles and practices to enhance adverse event reporting in the dietary supplement and natural products industry.

    PubMed

    Schmitz, Stephen M; Lopez, Hector L; MacKay, Douglas

    2014-03-01

    Nutravigilance is defined as "the science and activities relating to the detection, assessment, understanding and prevention of adverse effects related to the use of a food, dietary supplement, or medical food". The nutravigilance approach is derived from well-defined principles of pharmacovigilance in the drug and biologics industries, which have been developed and refined over a number of years through expert recommendations. While the primary purpose of nutravigilance is to protect customer/patient safety, it also serves to reduce product liability risks for manufacturers and marketing agents of such products. Compliance with the current FDA adverse event reporting requirements is suboptimal, and FDA oversight and enforcement activities have recently increased. In order to better protect customer and product safety, dietary supplement manufacturers must significantly change their current approach, and demonstrate a proactive, systematic, risk-based, scientific approach to product safety, similar to one utilized successfully in the pharmaceutical industry. While this article focuses on FDA regulations, the principles are widely relevant to the supplement industry in the rest of the world.

  14. Progress in developing analytical and label-based dietary supplement databases at the NIH Office of Dietary Supplements

    PubMed Central

    Dwyer, Johanna T.; Picciano, Mary Frances; Betz, Joseph M.; Fisher, Kenneth D.; Saldanha, Leila G.; Yetley, Elizabeth A.; Coates, Paul M.; Milner, John A.; Whitted, Jackie; Burt, Vicki; Radimer, Kathy; Wilger, Jaimie; Sharpless, Katherine E.; Holden, Joanne M.; Andrews, Karen; Roseland, Janet; Zhao, Cuiwei; Schweitzer, Amy; Harnly, James; Wolf, Wayne R.; Perry, Charles R.

    2013-01-01

    Although an estimated 50% of adults in the United States consume dietary supplements, analytically substantiated data on their bioactive constituents are sparse. Several programs funded by the Office of Dietary Supplements (ODS) at the National Institutes of Health enhance dietary supplement database development and help to better describe the quantitative and qualitative contributions of dietary supplements to total dietary intakes. ODS, in collaboration with the United States Department of Agriculture, is developing a Dietary Supplement Ingredient Database (DSID) verified by chemical analysis. The products chosen initially for analytical verification are adult multivitamin-mineral supplements (MVMs). These products are widely used, analytical methods are available for determining key constituents, and a certified reference material is in development. Also MVMs have no standard scientific, regulatory, or marketplace definitions and have widely varying compositions, characteristics, and bioavailability. Furthermore, the extent to which actual amounts of vitamins and minerals in a product deviate from label values is not known. Ultimately, DSID will prove useful to professionals in permitting more accurate estimation of the contribution of dietary supplements to total dietary intakes of nutrients and better evaluation of the role of dietary supplements in promoting health and well-being. ODS is also collaborating with the National Center for Health Statistics to enhance the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey dietary supplement label database. The newest ODS effort explores the feasibility and practicality of developing a database of all dietary supplement labels marketed in the US. This article describes these and supporting projects. PMID:25346570

  15. Progress in developing analytical and label-based dietary supplement databases at the NIH Office of Dietary Supplements.

    PubMed

    Dwyer, Johanna T; Picciano, Mary Frances; Betz, Joseph M; Fisher, Kenneth D; Saldanha, Leila G; Yetley, Elizabeth A; Coates, Paul M; Milner, John A; Whitted, Jackie; Burt, Vicki; Radimer, Kathy; Wilger, Jaimie; Sharpless, Katherine E; Holden, Joanne M; Andrews, Karen; Roseland, Janet; Zhao, Cuiwei; Schweitzer, Amy; Harnly, James; Wolf, Wayne R; Perry, Charles R

    2008-02-01

    Although an estimated 50% of adults in the United States consume dietary supplements, analytically substantiated data on their bioactive constituents are sparse. Several programs funded by the Office of Dietary Supplements (ODS) at the National Institutes of Health enhance dietary supplement database development and help to better describe the quantitative and qualitative contributions of dietary supplements to total dietary intakes. ODS, in collaboration with the United States Department of Agriculture, is developing a Dietary Supplement Ingredient Database (DSID) verified by chemical analysis. The products chosen initially for analytical verification are adult multivitamin-mineral supplements (MVMs). These products are widely used, analytical methods are available for determining key constituents, and a certified reference material is in development. Also MVMs have no standard scientific, regulatory, or marketplace definitions and have widely varying compositions, characteristics, and bioavailability. Furthermore, the extent to which actual amounts of vitamins and minerals in a product deviate from label values is not known. Ultimately, DSID will prove useful to professionals in permitting more accurate estimation of the contribution of dietary supplements to total dietary intakes of nutrients and better evaluation of the role of dietary supplements in promoting health and well-being. ODS is also collaborating with the National Center for Health Statistics to enhance the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey dietary supplement label database. The newest ODS effort explores the feasibility and practicality of developing a database of all dietary supplement labels marketed in the US. This article describes these and supporting projects.

  16. Dietary supplementation with sodium bicarbonate improves calcium absorption and eggshell quality of laying hens during peak production.

    PubMed

    Jiang, M J; Zhao, J P; Jiao, H C; Wang, X J; Zhang, Q; Lin, H

    2015-01-01

    The advantage of supplemental sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) on eggshell quality in laying hens changes with age. Besides increasing calcium (Ca) secretion in the eggshell gland, it may improve Ca absorption in the intestine or kidney. Hy-Line Brown layers (n = 384), 25 weeks of age, were allocated to two treatment groups in two experiments, each of which included 4 replicates of 24 hens. Hens were fed a basal diet (control) or the basal diet containing 3 g NaHCO3 g/kg for 50 or 20 weeks in Experiment 1 or 2, respectively. A 24-h continuous lighting regimen was used to allow hens to consume the dietary supplements during the period of active eggshell formation. In Experiment 1, particularly from 25 to 50 weeks of age, and in Experiment 2, NaHCO3 supplementation favoured hen-d egg production at the expense of lower egg weight. The increased eggshell thickness should have nothing to do with the additional eggshell formation, because of the unchanged egg mass and daily eggshell calcification. At 35 weeks of age in both experiments, NaHCO3 supplementation increased duodenal expression of calbindin-d28k (CaBP-D28k) protein, contributing to higher Ca retention and balance. From 50 to 75 weeks of age in Experiment 1, the hens had little response to NaHCO3 supplementation and showed a negative trend on eggshell thickness and strength. It is concluded that dietary supplementation with 3 g NaHCO3 g/kg improves Ca absorption and eggshell quality of laying hens during the peak but not late production period, with the introduction of continuous lighting.

  17. Launching a new food product or dietary supplement in the United States: industrial, regulatory, and nutritional considerations.

    PubMed

    Finley, John Weldon; Finley, John Wescott; Ellwood, Kathleen; Hoadley, James

    2014-01-01

    Launching a new food/dietary supplement into the US market can be a confusing process to those unfamiliar with the food industry. Industry capability and product specifications are initial determinants of whether a candidate product can be manufactured in a reproducible manner and whether pilot production can be brought up to the market scale. Regulatory issues determine how a product can be produced and marketed; the primary federal institutions involved in regulations are the US Department of Agriculture, the Food and Drug Administration, and the Federal Trade Commission. A primary distinction is made between food and drugs, and no product may enter the food market if it is in part or whole a drug. Product safety is a major concern, and myriad regulations govern the determination of safety. New foods/dietary supplements are often marketed by health claims or structure/function claims, and there are specific regulations pertaining to claims. Not understanding the regulatory issues involved in developing a new product or failing to comply with associated regulations can have legal and financial repercussions.

  18. Immune response, productivity and quality of milk from grazing goats as affected by dietary polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation.

    PubMed

    Caroprese, Mariangela; Ciliberti, Maria Giovana; Santillo, Antonella; Marino, Rosaria; Sevi, Agostino; Albenzio, Marzia

    2016-04-01

    This study was undertaken to assess how diet supplemented with fish oil and linseed improve the immune profile, the production performance, and milk quality of grazing goats by a diet supplementation of fish oil or linseed. Twenty-four Garganica grazing goats were divided into three groups named control (CON), fish oil (FO) and linseed (LIN) according to the fat supplement received in their diet. In vivo immune responses were evaluated by monitoring cell-mediated and humoral immune responses in order to verify the effects of polyunsaturated fatty acids supplementation on goats' health status. Goat milk samples were analysed weekly to determine milk chemical composition, fatty acid profile, and somatic cell count. Diet based on linseed supplementation (LIN) significantly increased milk yield by 30%, milk fat yield by 67%, protein yield by 34%, and casein yield by 41% as compared with CON. Fat content increased by 30% in LIN milk as compared with CON milk, and by 12% as compared with FO milk. Linseed modified milk fatty acid profile; LIN milk showed lower SFA and higher PUFA than FO milk. The modified fatty acid composition of LIN milk resulted in lower AI and TI indexes than FO and CON milk. Linseed and fish oil administration can reduce humoral immunity of goats, but has no effect in their cellular immunity. Dietary linseed supplementation in grazing dairy goat supports feeding programs to improve milk composition and quality, and a modulation of their immune responses.

  19. Dietary supplements and team-sport performance.

    PubMed

    Bishop, David

    2010-12-01

    A well designed diet is the foundation upon which optimal training and performance can be developed. However, as long as competitive sports have existed, athletes have attempted to improve their performance by ingesting a variety of substances. This practice has given rise to a multi-billion-dollar industry that aggressively markets its products as performance enhancing, often without objective, scientific evidence to support such claims. While a number of excellent reviews have evaluated the performance-enhancing effects of most dietary supplements, less attention has been paid to the performance-enhancing claims of dietary supplements in the context of team-sport performance. Dietary supplements that enhance some types of athletic performance may not necessarily enhance team-sport performance (and vice versa). Thus, the first aim of this review is to critically evaluate the ergogenic value of the most common dietary supplements used by team-sport athletes. The term dietary supplements will be used in this review and is defined as any product taken by the mouth, in addition to common foods, that has been proposed to have a performance-enhancing effect; this review will only discuss substances that are not currently banned by the World Anti-Doping Agency. Evidence is emerging to support the performance-enhancing claims of some, but not all, dietary supplements that have been proposed to improve team-sport-related performance. For example, there is good evidence that caffeine can improve single-sprint performance, while caffeine, creatine and sodium bicarbonate ingestion have all been demonstrated to improve multiple-sprint performance. The evidence is not so strong for the performance-enhancing benefits of β-alanine or colostrum. Current evidence does not support the ingestion of ribose, branched-chain amino acids or β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate, especially in well trained athletes. More research on the performance-enhancing effects of the dietary supplements

  20. Common dietary supplements for weight loss.

    PubMed

    Saper, Robert B; Eisenberg, David M; Phillips, Russell S

    2004-11-01

    Over-the-counter dietary supplements to treat obesity appeal to many patients who desire a "magic bullet" for weight loss. Asking overweight patients about their use of weight-loss supplements and understanding the evidence for the efficacy, safety, and quality of these supplements are critical when counseling patients regarding weight loss. A schema for whether physicians should recommend, caution, or discourage use of a particular weight-loss supplement is presented in this article. More than 50 individual dietary supplements and more than 125 commercial combination products are available for weight loss. Currently, no weight-loss supplements meet criteria for recommended use. Although evidence of modest weight loss secondary to ephedra-caffeine ingestion exists, potentially serious adverse effects have led the U.S. Food and Drug Administration to ban the sale of these products. Chromium is a popular weight-loss supplement, but its efficacy and long-term safety are uncertain. Guar gum and chitosan appear to be ineffective; therefore, use of these products should be discouraged. Because of insufficient or conflicting evidence regarding the efficacy of conjugated linoleic acid, ginseng, glucomannan, green tea, hydroxycitric acid, L-carnitine, psyllium, pyruvate, and St. John's wort in weight loss, physicians should caution patients about the use of these supplements and closely monitor those who choose to use these products.

  1. Dietary Supplements for Toddlers

    MedlinePlus

    ... about which supplements are needed and the amounts. Iron Deficiency Iron deficiency does occur among some young children and ... need to receive at least 15 milligrams of iron a day in their food, but many fail ...

  2. Online Dietary Supplement Resources

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Internet is becoming an increasingly popular tool for finding nutrition-related information; therefore, nutrition professionals must know how to use it effectively. This article describes websites that dietitians and other health professionals can use to obtain reliable information on dietary s...

  3. Lessons Learned from the Analysis of Ingredients in Dietary Supplements

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lessons learned and findings from the analysis of caffeine in dietary supplements and the analysis of vitamins and minerals in adult multivitamin products will be included in this discussion. Fifty-four dietary supplement products for weight loss or sports performance listing at least caffeine-cont...

  4. Dietary supplement intake in national-level Sri Lankan athletes.

    PubMed

    de Silva, Angela; Samarasinghe, Yasas; Senanayake, Dhammika; Lanerolle, Pulani

    2010-02-01

    Intake of dietary supplements is widespread among athletes in developed countries. This study evaluated the use of dietary supplements in athletes from a developing country. Dietary supplementation practices of 113 national-level athletes age 15-35 yr in Sri Lanka were assessed. All athletes from track-and-field, badminton, football, swimming, cycling, and karate squads who consented to participate in the study were administered an anonymous questionnaire by an interviewer. Information on number of supplements taken, frequency of use, nature of product, rationale, sources of advice, and reasons for taking supplements was obtained. Most athletes (94%) consumed dietary supplements. On average, 3.7 products/day were consumed. Footballers had significantly lower intake of supplements than other athletes (footballers 71%, others 98%; p < .05). They also consumed fewer products per day (footballers 0.7, others 3.5; p < .05). Popular supplements included multivitamins, vitamin E, calcium, energy foods and drinks, and creatine. Multiple supplement use was common, with 29% athletes taking 4 products/day. The athletes sought advice on supplement use from sports doctors (45%), team coaches (40%), or friends (15%). Most took supplements to improve performance (79%), and 19% claimed to take supplements to improve their overall health status. Dietary supplement use is widespread among national-level Sri Lankan athletes. The ad hoc use of supplements indicates that educational intervention in the sporting community is essential.

  5. Effects of dietary arginine supplementation on antibody production and antioxidant enzyme activity in burned mice.

    PubMed

    Shang, Huey-Fang; Tsai, Hui-Ju; Chiu, Wan-Chun; Yeh, Sung-Ling

    2003-02-01

    This study investigated the effect of arginine (Arg) supplementation on specific antibody production and antioxidant enzyme activities in burned mice vaccinated with detoxified Pseudomonas exotoxin A linked with the outer membrane proteins I and F, named PEIF. Also, the survival rate of burned mice complicated with Pseudomonas aeruginosa was evaluated. Experiment 1: Thirty BALB/c mice were assigned to two groups. One group was fed a control diet with casein as the protein source, while the other group was supplemented with 2% Arg in addition to casein. The two groups were isonitrogenous. The mice were immunized twice with PEIF, and the production of specific antibodies against PEIF was measured every week. After 8 weeks, all mice received a 30% body surface area burn injury. Mice were sacrificed 24h after the burn. The antioxidant enzyme activities and lipid peroxides in the tissues as well as the specific antibody production were analyzed. Experiment 2: Twenty-eight mice were divided into two groups and vaccinated as described in experiment 1. After the burn the mice were infected with P. aeruginosa, and the survival rate was observed for 8 days. The results demonstrated that antioxidant enzyme activities and lipid peroxides in tissues were significantly lower in the Arg group than in the control group after the burn. The production of specific antibodies against P. aeruginosa significantly increased in the Arg group at 4 and 7 weeks after immunization, and 24h after the burn. The survival rates of vaccinated burned mice after bacterial infection did not significantly differ between the two groups. These results suggest that vaccinating mice with Arg supplementation may enhance humoral immunity and attenuate the oxidative stress induced by burn injury. However, Arg supplementation did not improve survival in vaccinated mice complicated with P. aeruginosa infection.

  6. Selenium species in selenium fortified dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Niedzielski, Przemyslaw; Rudnicka, Monika; Wachelka, Marcin; Kozak, Lidia; Rzany, Magda; Wozniak, Magdalena; Kaskow, Zaneta

    2016-01-01

    This article presents a study of dietary supplements available on the Polish market. The supplements comprised a large group of products with selenium content declared by the producer. The study involved determination of dissolution time under different conditions and solubility as well as content and speciation of selenium. The total content was determined as well as organic selenium and the inorganic forms Se(IV) and Se(VI). The organic selenium content was calculated as the difference between total Se and inorganic Se. The values obtained were compared with producers' declarations. The work is the first such study of selenium supplements available on the market of an EU Member State.

  7. Market Assessment and Product Evaluation of Probiotic Containing Dietary Supplements Available in Bangladesh Market

    PubMed Central

    Begum, Anjuman Ara; Jakaria, D. M.; Anisuzzaman, Sharif Md; Islam, Mahfuzul; Mahmud, Siraje Arif

    2015-01-01

    Probiotics containing food supplements available in Bangladesh market were identified and collected for assessment. To assess their label claim, they were resuspended into sterile distilled water. Then, series dilutions of each sample solution were prepared and immediately plated out, in duplicate, into De Man Rogosa Sharpe (MRS) agar. These plates were then incubated at 37°C for 48 hours and colonies were counted. Viable cell numbers stated on the labels were compared with actual viable cell numbers. To assess the viability of the probiotics included in the products, probiotic strains were isolated from each of the four products and screened for inhibitory activity against six indicator strains. It was surprisingly found that although the viable cell numbers of all supplements were three to four log cycles lower than label claim of the products, however, this problem did not affect the inhibitory activity of the probiotic strains against indicator strains according to in vitro assessment. Legislation and regulation regarding prebiotic-probiotic containing products should be built up in Bangladesh to ensure quality products supply to the consumers. Moreover, manufacturers of probiotic containing products should take the responsibility for providing the consumer with scientifically and legally correct information. PMID:26649229

  8. Determinants of dietary supplements use among adolescents in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Sien, Yeo Pei; Sahril, Norhafizah; Abdul Mutalip, Mohd Hatta; Zaki, Nor Azian Mohd; Abdul Ghaffar, Suhaila

    2014-09-01

    Dietary supplements use is relatively widespread in some countries but knowledge of supplements consumption in Malaysia is limited, more so among adolescents. This study aimed to investigate the determinants of dietary supplements use among Malaysian adolescents using multiple logistic regressions analysis. Data from the Malaysia School-based Nutrition Survey 2012 based on a 2-stage stratified sampling was used. The prevalence of vitamin/mineral supplements and food supplements intake among adolescents was 54.1% and 40.2%, respectively. Usage was significantly higher among younger adolescents and among boys. Dietary supplements were also taken mostly by those who thought they were underweight. The most common vitamin/mineral supplements and food supplements consumed were vitamin C and bee products. The main reason for taking supplements was parents' instruction. These findings can be useful for developing health communications on supplement use targeted to adolescents and their parents.

  9. High dietary supplement intakes among Flemish preschoolers.

    PubMed

    Huybrechts, Inge; Maes, Lea; Vereecken, Carine; De Keyzer, Willem; De Bacquer, Dirk; De Backer, Guy; De Henauw, Stefaan

    2010-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of dietary supplement use among Flemish preschoolers and to investigate associations between dietary supplement use and socio-economic variables of the parents. Parentally reported 3-day estimated dietary records (n=696) were used to calculate mean daily nutrient intakes, using Software for Intake Distribution Estimation (Cside). Socio-demographic information and frequency of dietary supplement use were collected via parental questionnaires, including a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) (n=1847). The results from the FFQ revealed that more than 30% of the children used dietary supplements in the past month. Children of more highly educated parents and children of non-smokers were significantly more likely to use supplements than their counterparts. The types most frequently used were multi-vitamin/mineral supplements. Except for vitamin D, mean dietary intakes derived from foods alone was higher than the minimum recommendations for both supplement and non-supplement users. The youngest group of supplement users even exceeded the tolerable upper intake level for zinc (7 mg). However, for vitamin D, dietary supplements could help meet dietary recommendations for this micronutrient. In conclusion, the results indicated that dietary supplement use by healthy children who typically achieve their micronutrient requirements by foods alone could cause excessive intakes. Future studies should investigate potential harms and benefits of dietary supplementation use among preschoolers.

  10. Influence of dietary docosahexaenoic acid supplementation on the overall rumen microbiota of dairy cows and linkages with production parameters.

    PubMed

    Torok, Valeria A; Percy, Nigel J; Moate, Peter J; Ophel-Keller, Kathy

    2014-05-01

    The rumen microbiota contributes to greenhouse gas emissions and has an impact on feed efficiency and ruminant product fatty acid composition. Dietary fat supplements have shown promise in reducing enteric methane production and in altering the fatty acid profiles of ruminant-derived products, yet in vivo studies on how these impact the rumen microbiota are limited. In this study, we investigated the rumen bacterial, archaeal, fungal, and ciliate protozoan communities of dairy cows fed diets supplemented with 4 levels of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) (0, 25, 50, and 75 g·cow(-1)·day(-1)) and established linkages between microbial communities and production parameters. Supplementation with DHA significantly (P < 0.05) altered rumen bacterial and archaeal, including methanogenic archaeal, communities but had no significant (P > 0.05) effects on rumen fungal or ciliate protozoan communities. Rumen bacterial communities of cows receiving no DHA were correlated with increased saturated fatty acids (C18:0 and C11:0) in their milk. Furthermore, rumen bacterial communities of cows receiving a diet supplemented with 50 g DHA·cow(-1)·day(-1) were correlated with increases in monounsaturated fatty acids (C20:1n-9) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (C22:5n-3; C22:6n-3; C18:2 cis-9, trans-11; C22:3n-6; and C18:2n-6 trans) in their milk. The significant diet-associated changes in rumen archaeal communities observed did not result in altered enteric methane outputs in these cows.

  11. The Dietary Supplement Ingredient Database (DSID) - 3 release.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Dietary Supplement Ingredient Database (DSID) provides analytically-derived estimates of ingredient content in dietary supplement (DS) products sold in the United States. DSID was developed by the Nutrient Data Laboratory (NDL) within the Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agricu...

  12. [Isoflavone-containing dietary supplements].

    PubMed

    Lehmann, Leane; Soukup, Sebastian T; Gerhäuser, Clarissa; Vollmer, Günter; Kulling, Sabine E

    2017-03-01

    Isoflavones (IFs) from soy and other legumes have weak estrogenic properties. Isolated IFs are available as dietary supplements and advertised to alleviate symptoms of menopause. The present chapter provides an overview of the occurrence, the chemical structure of IFs and their metabolites, the market situation and reviews the current evidence on the efficacy and safety of IF-containing dietary supplements.The biological effectiveness of IFs is attributable to the activation of the estrogen receptor (ER). Studies on the influence of IFs on endogenous estrogen levels in women show inconsistent results. So far, the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) has rejected all submitted health claims for IFs due to insufficient scientific evidence for any of the postulated health effects. Based on the results of their recent risk assessment, the EFSA concluded that the available human studies did not support the hypothesis of adverse effects of isolated IFs on the human mammary gland, uterus or thyroid in healthy postmenopausal women. However, the assessment does not allow a general statement on the safety of IF-containing dietary supplements. Studies in animal models are often not comparable with the complex interactions in humans due to differences in the metabolism of IFs, in the developmental stage at time of consumption and in the temporarily restricted uptake of IFs during certain stages of life.

  13. Commonly Used Dietary Supplements on Coagulation Function during Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chong-Zhi; Moss, Jonathan; Yuan, Chun-Su

    2015-01-01

    Background Patients who undergo surgery appear to use dietary supplements significantly more frequently than the general population. Because they contain pharmacologically active compounds, dietary supplements may affect coagulation and platelet function during the perioperative period through direct effects, pharmacodynamic interactions, and pharmacokinetic interactions. However, in this regard, limited studies have been conducted that address the pharmacological interactions of dietary supplements. To avoid possible bleeding risks during surgery, information of potential complications of dietary supplements during perioperative management is important for physicians. Methods Through a systematic database search of all available years, articles were identified in this review if they included dietary supplements and coagulation/platelet function, while special attention was paid to studies published after 1990. Results Safety concerns are reported in commercially available dietary supplements. Effects of the most commonly used natural products on blood coagulation and platelet function are systematically reviewed, including 11 herbal medicines (echinacea, ephedra, garlic, ginger, ginkgo, ginseng, green tea, kava, saw palmetto, St John’s wort, and valerian) and 4 other dietary supplements (coenzyme Q10, glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate, fish oil, and vitamins). Bleeding risks of garlic, ginkgo, ginseng, green tea, saw palmetto, St John’s wort, and fish oil are reported. Cardiovascular instability was observed with ephedra, ginseng, and kava. Pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic interactions between dietary supplements and drugs used in the perioperative period are discussed. Conclusions To prevent potential problems associated with the use of dietary supplements, physicians should be familiar with the perioperative effects of commonly used dietary supplements. Since the effects of dietary supplements on coagulation and platelet function are difficult to

  14. 77 FR 11134 - Guidance for Industry on Postmarketing Adverse Event Reporting for Medical Products and Dietary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-24

    ... Reporting for Medical Products and Dietary Supplements During an Influenza Pandemic; Availability AGENCY... Medical Products and Dietary Supplements During an Influenza Pandemic.'' The guidance discusses FDA's... devices, and dietary supplements during an influenza pandemic. The Agency makes recommendations...

  15. Anthocyanin analyses of Vaccinium fruit dietary supplements

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vaccinium fruit ingredients within dietary supplements were identified by comparisons with anthocyanin analyses of known Vaccinium profiles (demonstration of anthocyanin fingerprinting). Available Vaccinium supplements were purchased and analyzed; their anthocyanin profiles (based on HPLC separation...

  16. Stereospecific quantitation of 6-prenylnaringenin in commercially available H. lupulus-containing natural health products and dietary supplements

    PubMed Central

    Martinez, S.E.; Davies, N.M.

    2015-01-01

    6-Prenylnaringenin (6PN) is a chiral prenylflavonoid found most prevalently in hops (Humulus lupulus) and present in hops and hop products. It is an isomer of the potent phytoestrogen, 8-prenylnaringenin. An enantiospecific method for quantitation 6PN by LC-ESI-MS has been developed. Baseline enantiomeric resolution of 6PN was attained on a Chiralpak® AD-RH column with an isocratic mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile and 10 mM ammonium formate (pH 8.5) (39:61, v/v) and a flow rate of 1.25 mL/min. Quantitative MS data were obtained by selected ion monitoring of the [M-H]--ion of both enantiomers of 6PN (m/z 339.10) and the internal standard, 4-acetamidobenzoic acid (m/z 178.05). The method was found to be accurate and precise for enantiospecific quantification of 6PN. The method was successfully applied to the content analysis of 39 commercially available natural health products and dietary supplements reported to contain H. lupulus plant material, extracts and label claims of 6PN. 6PN was present in 25 of 34 products containing plant material or extracts of H. lupulus. Of the five products with claimed amounts of 6PN, all were found to possess <50% of label claims. Results of the content analysis indicated a lack of uniformity in botanical nutraceuticals claiming 6PN content. PMID:26600844

  17. Progress in development of an integrated dietary supplement ingredient database at the NIH Office of Dietary Supplements

    PubMed Central

    Dwyer, Johanna T.; Picciano, Mary Frances; Betz, Joseph M.; Fisher, Kenneth D.; Saldanha, Leila G.; Yetley, Elizabeth A.; Coates, Paul M.; Radimer, Kathy; Bindewald, Bernadette; Sharpless, Katherine E.; Holden, Joanne; Andrews, Karen; Zhao, Cuiwei; Harnly, James; Wolf, Wayne R.; Perry, Charles R.

    2013-01-01

    Several activities of the Office of Dietary Supplements (ODS) at the National Institutes of Health involve enhancement of dietary supplement databases. These include an initiative with US Department of Agriculture to develop an analytically substantiated dietary supplement ingredient database (DSID) and collaboration with the National Center for Health Statistics to enhance the dietary supplement label database in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). The many challenges that must be dealt with in developing an analytically supported DSID include categorizing product types in the database, identifying nutrients, and other components of public health interest in these products and prioritizing which will be entered in the database first. Additional tasks include developing methods and reference materials for quantifying the constituents, finding qualified laboratories to measure the constituents, developing appropriate sample handling procedures, and finally developing representative sampling plans. Developing the NHANES dietary supplement label database has other challenges such as collecting information on dietary supplement use from NHANES respondents, constant updating and refining of information obtained, developing default values that can be used if the respondent cannot supply the exact supplement or strength that was consumed, and developing a publicly available label database. Federal partners and the research community are assisting in making an analytically supported dietary supplement database a reality. PMID:25309034

  18. Protecting military personnel from high risk dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Deuster, Patricia A; Lieberman, Harris R

    2016-01-01

    It is legal tomarketmost naturally occurring substances as dietary supplements in the USA without manufacturers demonstrating they are safe or effective, and an endless variety of ingredients, from esoteric botanicals to unapproved pharmaceuticals, can be found in dietary supplements. Use of certain supplements can pose a risk, but since a robust reporting systemdoes not exist in the USA it is difficult to know which are problematic and the number of adverse events (AE) resulting from their use. Certain populations, includingmilitary personnel, aremore likely to use dietary supplements than the general population. Approximately 70% of military personnel take dietary supplements while about 50% of civilians do. Service members prefer supplements purported to enhance physical performance such as supposedly natural stimulants, protein and amino acids, and combination products. Since some of thesemay be problematic, Servicemembers are probably at higher risk of injury than the general population. Ten percent of military populations appear to be taking potentially risky supplements, and the US Department of Defense (DoD) has taken variousmeasures to protect uniformed personnel including education, policy changes, and restricting sales. Actions taken include launching Operation Supplement Safety (OPSS), introducing a High Risk Supplement list, educating health care professionals on reporting AE thatmight be associated with dietary supplements, recommending policy for reporting AE, and developing an online AE reporting system. OPSS is a DoD-wide effort to educate service members, leaders, health care providers, military families, and retirees on how to safely select supplements

  19. Detection of Cyanotoxins in Algae Dietary Supplements

    PubMed Central

    Roy-Lachapelle, Audrey; Solliec, Morgan; Bouchard, Maryse F.; Sauvé, Sébastien

    2017-01-01

    Algae dietary supplements are marketed worldwide as natural health products. Although their proprieties have been claimed as beneficial to improve overall health, there have been several previous reports of contamination by cyanotoxins. These products generally contain non-toxic cyanobacteria, but the methods of cultivation in natural waters without appropriate quality controls allow contamination by toxin producer species present in the natural environment. In this study, we investigated the presence of total microcystins, seven individual microcystins (RR, YR, LR, LA, LY, LW, LF), anatoxin-a, dihydroanatoxin-a, epoxyanatoxin-a, cylindrospermopsin, saxitoxin, and β-methylamino-l-alanine in 18 different commercially available products containing Spirulina or Aphanizomenon flos-aquae. Total microcystins analysis was accomplished using a Lemieux oxidation and a chemical derivatization using dansyl chloride was needed for the simultaneous analysis of cylindrospermopsin, saxitoxin, and β-methylamino-l-alanine. Moreover, the use of laser diode thermal desorption (LDTD) and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) both coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) enabled high performance detection and quantitation. Out of the 18 products analyzed, 8 contained some cyanotoxins at levels exceeding the tolerable daily intake values. The presence of cyanotoxins in these algal dietary supplements reinforces the need for a better quality control as well as consumer’s awareness on the potential risks associated with the consumption of these supplements. PMID:28245621

  20. Dietary Supplements and Sports Performance: Herbals

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Melvin

    2006-01-01

    This is the fourth in a series of six articles to discuss the major classes of dietary supplements (vitamins; minerals; amino acids; herbs or botanicals; metabolites, constituents/extracts, or combinations). The major focus is on efficacy of such dietary supplements to enhance exercise or sport performance. PMID:18500959

  1. USDA dietary supplement ingredient database, release 2

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Nutrient Data Laboratory (NDL),Beltsville Human Nutrition Research Center (BHNRC), Agricultural Research Service (ARS), USDA, in collaboration with the Office of Dietary Supplements, National Institutes of Health (ODS/NIH) and other federal agencies has developed a Dietary Supplement Ingredient ...

  2. Effects of dietary protein concentration and coconut oil supplementation on nitrogen utilization and production in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Lee, C; Hristov, A N; Heyler, K S; Cassidy, T W; Long, M; Corl, B A; Karnati, S K R

    2011-11-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of metabolizable protein (MP) deficiency and coconut oil supplementation on N utilization and production in lactating dairy cows. The hypothesis of the study was that a decrease in ruminal protozoal counts with coconut oil would increase microbial protein synthesis in the rumen, thus compensating for potential MP deficiency. The experiment was conducted for 10 wk with 36 cows (13 primiparous and 23 multiparous), including 6 ruminally cannulated cows. The experimental period, 6 wk, was preceded by 2-wk adaptation and 2-wk covariate periods. Cows were blocked by parity, days in milk, milk yield, and rumen cannulation and randomly assigned to one of the following diets: a diet with a positive MP balance (+44 g/d) and 16.7% dietary crude protein (CP) concentration (AMP); a diet deficient in MP (-156 g/d) and 14.8% CP concentration (DMP); or DMP supplemented with approximately 500 g of coconut oil/head per day (DMPCO). Ruminal ammonia tended to be greater and plasma urea N (20.1, 12.8, and 13.1 mg/dL, for AMP, DMP, and DMPCO diets, respectively) and milk urea N (12.5, 8.3, and 9.5mg/dL, respectively) were greater for AMP compared with DMP and DMPCO. The DMPCO diet decreased total protozoa counts (by 60%) compared with DMP, but had no effect on the methanogens profile in the rumen. Total tract apparent digestibility of dry matter and CP was decreased by DMP compared with AMP. Fiber digestibility was lower for both DMP and DMPCO compared with AMP. Urinary N excretion was decreased (by 37%) by both DMP and DMPCO compared with AMP. The DMP and DMPCO diets resulted in greater milk N efficiency compared with AMP (32.0 and 35.1 vs. 27.6%, respectively). Milk yield was decreased by both DMP and DMPCO compared with AMP (36.2, 34.4, and 39.3 kg/d, respectively) and coconut oil supplementation suppressed feed intake and caused milk fat depression. Coconut oil supplementation decreased short-chain fatty acid (C4:0, C6:0, and

  3. Physician-Patient Communication about Dietary Supplements

    PubMed Central

    Tarn, Derjung M.; Paterniti, Debora A.; Good, Jeffrey S.; Coulter, Ian D.; Galliher, James M.; Kravitz, Richard L.; Karlamangla, Arun; Wenger, Neil S.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Describe the content and frequency of provider-patient dietary supplement discussions during primary care office visits. Methods Inductive content analysis of 1477 transcribed audio-recorded office visits to 102 primary care providers was combined with patient and provider surveys. Encounters were collected in Los Angeles, California (2009–2010), geographically-diverse practice settings across the United States (2004–2005), and Sacramento, CA (1998–1999). Results Providers discussed 738 dietary supplements during encounters with 357 patients (24.2% of all encounters in the data). They mentioned: 1) reason for taking the supplement for 46.5% of dietary supplements; 2) how to take the supplement for 28.2%; 3) potential risks for 17.3%; 4) supplement effectiveness for 16.7%; and 5) supplement cost or affordability for 4.2%. Of these five topics, a mean of 1.13 (SD=1.2) topics were discussed for each supplement. More topics were reviewed for non-vitamin non-mineral supplements (mean 1.47 (SD=1.2)) than for vitamin/mineral supplements (mean 0.99 (SD=1.1); p<0.001). Conclusion While discussions about supplements are occurring, it is clear that more discussion might be needed to inform patient decisions about supplement use. Practice Implication Physicians could more frequently address topics that may influence patient dietary supplement use, such as the risks, effectiveness, and costs of supplements. PMID:23466249

  4. Development of Safe and Effective Botanical Dietary Supplements

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Regulated differently than drugs or foods, the market for botanical dietary supplements continues to grow worldwide. The recently implemented U.S. FDA regulation that all botanical dietary supplements must be produced using good manufacturing practice is an important step toward enhancing the safety of these products, but additional safeguards could be implemented, and unlike drugs, there are currently no efficacy requirements. To ensure a safe and effective product, botanical dietary supplements should be developed in a manner analogous to pharmaceuticals that involves identification of mechanisms of action and active constituents, chemical standardization based on the active compounds, biological standardization based on pharmacological activity, preclinical evaluation of toxicity and potential for drug–botanical interactions, metabolism of active compounds, and finally, clinical studies of safety and efficacy. Completing these steps will enable the translation of botanicals from the field to safe human use as dietary supplements. PMID:26125082

  5. Dietary fat and not calcium supplementation or dairy product consumption is associated with changes in anthropometrics during a randomized, placebo-controlled energy-restriction trial

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Insufficient calcium intake has been proposed to cause unbalanced energy partitioning leading to obesity. However, weight loss interventions including dietary calcium or dairy product consumption have not reported changes in lipid metabolism measured by the plasma lipidome. Methods The objective of this study was to determine the relationships between dairy product or supplemental calcium intake with changes in the plasma lipidome and body composition during energy restriction. A secondary objective of this study was to explore the relationships among calculated macronutrient composition of the energy restricted diet to changes in the plasma lipidome, and body composition during energy restriction. Overweight adults (n = 61) were randomized into one of three intervention groups including a deficit of 500kcal/d: 1) placebo; 2) 900 mg/d calcium supplement; and 3) 3-4 servings of dairy products/d plus a placebo supplement. Plasma fatty acid methyl esters of cholesterol ester, diacylglycerol, free fatty acids, lysophosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine and triacylglycerol were quantified by capillary gas chromatography. Results After adjustments for energy and protein (g/d) intake, there was no significant effect of treatment on changes in weight, waist circumference or body composition. Plasma lipidome did not differ among dietary treatment groups. Stepwise regression identified correlations between reported intake of monounsaturated fat (% of energy) and changes in % lean mass (r = -0.44, P < 0.01) and % body fat (r = 0.48, P < 0.001). Polyunsaturated fat intake was associated with the % change in waist circumference (r = 0.44, P < 0.01). Dietary saturated fat was not associated with any changes in anthropometrics or the plasma lipidome. Conclusions Dairy product consumption or calcium supplementation during energy restriction over the course of 12 weeks did not affect plasma lipids. Independent of calcium and dairy product consumption

  6. Dietary supplementation practices in Canadian high-performance athletes.

    PubMed

    Lun, Victor; Erdman, Kelly A; Fung, Tak S; Reimer, Raylene A

    2012-02-01

    Dietary supplementation is a common practice in athletes with a desire to enhance performance, training, exercise recovery, and health. Supplementation habits of elite athletes in western Canada have been documented, but research is lacking on supplement use by athletes across Canada. The purpose of this descriptive study was to evaluate the dietary supplementation practices and perspectives of high-performance Canadian athletes affiliated with each of the country's eight Canadian Sport Centres. Dietitians administered a validated survey to 440 athletes (63% women, 37% men; M=19.99±5.20 yr) representing 34 sports who predominantly trained≥16 hr/wk, most competing in "power" based sports. Within the previous 6 months, 87% declared having taken≥3 dietary supplements, with sports drinks, multivitamin and mineral preparations, carbohydrate sports bars, protein powder, and meal-replacement products the most prevalent supplements reported. Primary sources of information on supplementation, supplementation justification, and preferred means of supplementation education were identified. Fifty-nine percent reported awareness of current World Anti-Doping Agency legislation, and 83% subjectively believed they were in compliance with such anti-doping regulations. It was concluded that supplementation rates are not declining in Canada, current advisors on supplementation for this athletic population are not credible, and sports medicine physicians and dietitians need to consider proactive strategies to improve their influence on supplementation practices in these elite athletes.

  7. Effect of Dietary Supplementation of Red Ginseng By-product on Laying Performance, Blood Biochemistry, Serum Immunoglobulin and Microbial Population in Laying Hens.

    PubMed

    Kang, H K; Park, S-B; Kim, C H

    2016-10-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the effect of dietary supplementation of red ginseng by-product (RGB) on the laying performance, blood biochemistry, and microbial population in laying hens. A total of 120 Hy-Line Brown laying hens (75 weeks old) were randomly allotted to 1 of 3 dietary treatments with 4 replicates per treatment. A commercial-type basal diet was prepared, and 2 additional diets were prepared by supplementing 5.0 or 10.0 g/kg of RGB to the basal diet at the expense of corn. The diets were fed to hens on an ad libitum basis for 4 weeks. There were no differences in feed intake, egg weight, and feed conversion ratio during 4 weeks of the feeding trial. However, hen-day egg production was significantly greater (p<0.05) for the RGB treatment groups than that for the basal treatment group. There were no differences in triglyceride, aspartate aminotransferase, and alanine aminotransferase during the 4-week feeding trial. However, RGB supplementation increased (p<0.05) the serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgM content compared with basal treatment group. The total cholesterol was lower (p<0.05) in the RGB treatments groups than that in the basal treatment group. The intestinal Lactobacillus population was greater (p<0.05) for the RGB treatments groups than that for the basal treatment group. However, the numbers of Salmonella and Escherichia coli were not different among dietary treatments. During the entire experiment, there was no significant difference in egg quality among all the treatments. In conclusion, in addition to improving hen-day production, there were positive effects of dietary RGB supplementation on serum immunoglobulin and cholesterol levels in laying hens.

  8. Mitochondrial disease patients' perception of dietary supplements' use.

    PubMed

    Karaa, Amel; Kriger, Joshua; Grier, Johnston; Holbert, Amy; Thompson, John L P; Parikh, Sumit; Hirano, Michio

    2016-09-01

    Surveys of mitochondrial disease physicians conducted through the Mitochondrial Medicine Society have shown that virtually all providers recommend a variety of dietary supplements as treatments to their patients in an effort to enhance energy production and reduce oxidative stress. In this survey, we asked patients and their parents about their experiences taking these dietary supplements for mitochondrial disease. The survey was disseminated through the North American Mitochondrial Disease Consortium (NAMDC) and the Rare Disease Clinical Research Network (RDCRN) registries and gathered 162 responses. The study ascertained each patient's mitochondrial disease diagnosis, dietary supplements used, adjunct therapy, and effects of the supplements on symptoms and health. Regardless of the specific underlying mitochondrial disease, the majority of the survey respondents stated they are or have been on dietary supplements. Most patients take more than four supplements primarily coenzyme Q10, l-carnitine, and riboflavin. The majority of patients taking supplements reported health benefits from the supplements. The onset of perceived benefits was between 2weeks to 3months of initiating intake. Supplements seem to be safe, with only 28% of patients experiencing mild side-effects and only 5.6% discontinuing their intake due to intolerance. Only 9% of patients had insurance coverage for their supplements and when paying out of pocket, 95% of them spend up to $500/month. Despite the use of concomitant therapies (prescribed medications, physical therapy, diet changes and other), 45.5% of patients think that dietary supplements are the only intervention improving their symptoms. Some limitations of this study include the retrospective collection of data probably associated with substantial recall bias, lack of longitudinal follow up to document pre- and post-supplement clinical status and second hand reports by parents for children which may reflect parents' subjective

  9. Dietary supplementation with Bifidobacterium lactis NCC2818 from weaning reduces local immunoglobulin production in lymphoid-associated tissues but increases systemic antibodies in healthy neonates.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Marie C; Patel, Dilip V; Fowler, Jenni; Duncker, Swantje; Zuercher, Adrian W; Mercenier, Annick; Bailey, Mick

    2013-10-01

    Weaning is associated with a major shift in the microbial community of the intestine, and this instability may make it more acquiescent than the adult microbiota to long-term changes. Modulation achieved through dietary interventions may have potentially beneficial effects on the developing immune system, which is driven primarily by the microbiota. The specific aim of the present study was to determine whether immune development could be modified by dietary supplementation with the human probiotic Bifidobacterium lactis NCC2818 in a tractable model of weaning in infants. Piglets were reared by their mothers before being weaned onto a solid diet supplemented with B. lactis NCC2818, while sibling controls did not receive supplementation. Probiotic supplementation resulted in a reduction in IgA (P<0·0005) and IgM (P<0·009) production by mucosal tissues but had no effect on IgG production (P>0·05). Probiotic-supplemented pigs had more mast cells than unsupplemented littermates (P<0·0001), although numbers in both groups were low. In addition, the supplemented piglets made stronger serum IgG responses to fed and injected antigens (P<0·05). The present findings are consistent with B. lactis NCC2818 reducing intestinal permeability induced by weaning, and suggest that the piglet is a valuable intermediate between rodent models and human infants. The results also strongly suggest that measures of the effect of probiotic supplementation on the immune system need to be interpreted carefully as proxy measures of health benefit. However, they are useful in developing an understanding of the mechanism of action of probiotic strains, an important factor in predicting favourable health outcomes of nutritional intervention.

  10. Determinants of dietary supplement use--healthy individuals use dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Kofoed, Christina L F; Christensen, Jane; Dragsted, Lars O; Tjønneland, Anne; Roswall, Nina

    2015-06-28

    The prevalence of dietary supplement use varies largely among populations, and previous studies have indicated that it is high in the Danish population compared with other European countries. The diversity in supplement use across countries indicates that cultural and environmental factors could influence the use of dietary supplements. Only few studies investigating the use of dietary supplements have been conducted in the Danish population. The present cross-sectional study is based on 54,948 Danes, aged 50-64 years, who completed self-administrated questionnaires on diet, dietary supplements and lifestyle between 1993 and 1997. A health index including smoking, physical activity, alcohol and diet, and a metabolic risk index including waist circumference, urinary glucose and measured hypertension were constructed. Logistic regression was used to investigate these determinants in relation to the intake of dietary supplements. We found that 71 % of the participants were dietary supplement users; female sex, older age groups and higher educated participants were more likely to be users of any dietary supplements. One additional point in the health index was associated with 19, 16 and 9 % higher likelihood of being user of any, more common and less common supplements, respectively. In the metabolic risk index, one additional point was associated with 17 and 16 % lower likelihood of being user of any supplement and more common supplements, respectively. No significant association was found for less common supplement use. In conclusion, those with the healthiest lifestyle were more likely to use dietary supplements. Thus, lifestyle and dietary composition should be considered as confounders on supplement use and health outcomes.

  11. Risk assessment of dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Boobis, Alan R

    2007-01-01

    Risk assessment of dietary supplements shares many of the requirements of that for other chemicals, although there are some important differences. Amongst these is the essential nature of some nutrients so that it may be necessary to balance the need to minimize toxicological risk with the need to avoid deficiency. There may also be limitations on experimental design, in that high doses may not be achievable for nutritional reasons and available human data on toxicological hazard is likely to be very limited. Prior to embarking on a risk assessment the problem needs to be formulated. This involves risk assessors, risk managers and relevant stakeholders. A key decision is whether a risk assessment is necessary and, if so, what is required of the assessment. This will shape the nature and output of the assessment. Risk assessment itself is a scientific process comprising four steps, hazard identification, hazard characterization, exposure assessment and risk characterization. Hazard identification involves determining the range of toxicological effects that might be caused by the substance, whilst hazard characterization establishes dose-response relationships, toxicological and species relevance of the findings and establishes health based guidance values. Exposure assessment involves predicting or measuring the level, pattern and duration of intake of the substance by exposed individuals. This may require dietary consumption data. Finally, risk characterization is the process whereby all of the prior information is integrated to reach conclusions in a form appropriate to the question posed. The nature of the output can take several different forms, and may be qualitative or quantitative. There are some cross-cutting issues in risk assessment, primarily on uncertainty and variability. The sources of uncertainty at each step of the risk assessment should be clearly identified and quantified to the extent possible. Variability requires that the risk assessment should

  12. Examples of Dietary Supplement Interactions

    MedlinePlus

    ... is absorbed by the body.Supplement: Saw PalmettoPossible drug-supplement interaction with:Birth control pills. Can decrease effects of estrogen in the body, which can reduce the effectiveness of birth control ...

  13. Liver injury from herbal and dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Navarro, Victor J; Khan, Ikhlas; Björnsson, Einar; Seeff, Leonard B; Serrano, Jose; Hoofnagle, Jay H

    2017-01-01

    Herbal and dietary supplements (HDS) are used increasingly both in the United States and worldwide, and HDS-induced liver injury in the United States has increased proportionally. Current challenges in the diagnosis and management of HDS-induced liver injury were the focus of a 2-day research symposium sponsored by the American Association for the Study of Liver Disease and the National Institutes of Health. HDS-induced liver injury now accounts for 20% of cases of hepatotoxicity in the United States based on research data. The major implicated agents include anabolic steroids, green tea extract, and multi-ingredient nutritional supplements. Anabolic steroids marketed as bodybuilding supplements typically induce a prolonged cholestatic but ultimately self-limiting liver injury that has a distinctive serum biochemical as well as histological phenotype. Green tea extract and many other products, in contrast, tend to cause an acute hepatitis-like injury. Currently, however, the majority of cases of HDS-associated liver injury are due to multi-ingredient nutritional supplements, and the component responsible for the toxicity is usually unknown or can only be suspected. HDS-induced liver injury presents many clinical and research challenges in diagnosis, identification of the responsible constituents, treatment, and prevention. Also important are improvements in regulatory oversight of nonprescription products to guarantee their constituents and ensure purity and safety. The confident identification of injurious ingredients within HDS will require strategic alignments among clinicians, chemists, and toxicologists. The ultimate goal should be to prohibit or more closely regulate potentially injurious ingredients and thus promote public safety. (Hepatology 2017;65:363-373).

  14. 76 FR 55927 - Draft Guidance for Industry; Dietary Supplements: New Dietary Ingredient Notifications and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-09

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Guidance for Industry; Dietary Supplements: New...: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice; extension of comment period. SUMMARY: The Food and... notice entitled ``Draft Guidance for Industry; Dietary Supplements: New Dietary Ingredient...

  15. Effect of dietary supplementation with a probiotic (Enterococcus faecium) on production performance, excreta microflora, ammonia emission, and nutrient utilization in ISA brown laying hens.

    PubMed

    Park, J W; Jeong, J S; Lee, S I; Kim, I H

    2016-12-01

    The ban on the use of antibiotics as growth promoters due to resistance issues has urged scientists to find alternatives to antibiotics. Entercoccus faecium is one of the probiotics which have been used as an alternative to antibiotics in the livestock industry. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of probiotic (Enterococcus faecium DSM 7134) supplementation on production performance, feed intake, egg quality, excreta microflora, ammonia emission, and nutrient utilization in laying hens. A total of 288 ISA brown laying hens were used in a 27 wk feeding experiment and randomly assigned to 3 dietary treatments with 8 replicates of 12 birds each. The treatments were CON (basal diet), PB1 (basal diet + 0.005% E. faecium), and PB2 (basal diet + 0.01% E. faecium). Overall, our results demonstrated that E. faecium supplementation resulted in a significant increase in egg production, egg shell thickness, and nutrient digestibility (dry matter, nitrogen, and energy) in laying hens, and a significant reduction in fecal coliform counts as compared with CON. The shift of excreta fecal microbial composition by E. faecium supplementation was accompanied by increased nutrient retention and reduction in nutrient excretion, leading to improved nutrient digestibility and reduced excreta ammonia emission. Overall, E. faecium supplementation appears to have a beneficial effect in ISA brown laying hens and should be considered as a positive diet supplement to use in the industry.

  16. Evaluation of selenium in dietary supplements using elemental speciation.

    PubMed

    Kubachka, Kevin M; Hanley, Traci; Mantha, Madhavi; Wilson, Robert A; Falconer, Travis M; Kassa, Zena; Oliveira, Aline; Landero, Julio; Caruso, Joseph

    2017-03-01

    Selenium-enriched dietary supplements containing various selenium compounds are readily available to consumers. To ensure proper selenium intake and consumer confidence, these dietary supplements must be safe and have accurate label claims. Varying properties among selenium species requires information beyond total selenium concentration to fully evaluate health risk/benefits A LC-ICP-MS method was developed and multiple extraction methods were implemented for targeted analysis of common "seleno-amino acids" and related oxidation products, selenate, selenite, and other species relatable to the quality and/or accuracy of the labeled selenium ingredients. Ultimately, a heated water extraction was applied to recover selenium species from non-selenized yeast supplements in capsule, tablet, and liquid forms. For selenized yeast supplements, inorganic selenium was monitored as a means of assessing selenium yeast quality. A variety of commercially available selenium supplements were evaluated and discrepancies between labeled ingredients and detected species were noted.

  17. Effect of dietary boron supplementation on egg production, shell quality, and calcium metabolism in aged broiler breeder hens.

    PubMed

    Qin, X; Klandorf, H

    1991-10-01

    Three experiments were conducted using aged broiler breeder hens (greater than 60 wk) to investigate the effects of supplemental B on egg production (EP), shell quality, and Ca metabolism. Experiment 1 had a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments: 1) high Ca (3.5%); 2) high Ca plus B; 3) low Ca (1.5%); and 4) low Ca plus B; using 32 60-wk-old hens. The B levels were basal and 100 ppm supplemental for the first 2 wk of the experiment and reduced to 60 ppm for the remaining 3 wk. Egg production, shell thickness (ST), and egg specific gravity (SG) were recorded weekly. In Experiment 2, 40 60-wk-old hens were divided into two groups: high and low shell quality. Each group was further divided into two subgroups and fed a low-Ca basal diet with or without supplemental B. The level of B supplementation and the experimental period was the same as in Experiment 1. In Experiment 3, 52 75-wk-old hens were force-molted. After molting, 36 hens were fed a commercial layer diet with the remaining 16 hens fed the control diet supplemented with 100 ppm B. Blood samples were taken during the nonlaying and laying periods, respectively. The results showed that B significantly (P less than .05) depressed EP in Experiment 1 but not in Experiments 2 and 3. Supplemental B decreased plasma Ca when hens were fed a diet containing high Ca levels (3.5%). Supplemental B did not affect SG, ST, or Ca retention, but did significantly increase tibial bone ash percentage (P less than .05).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  18. Dietary Supplements: What You Need to Know

    MedlinePlus

    ... product. How can I be a smart supplement shopper? Be a savvy supplement user. Here’s how: When ... Coordinator in your area . File a safety report online through the Safety Reporting Portal . Learn more about ...

  19. Quality assurance issues in the use of dietary supplements, with special reference to protein supplements.

    PubMed

    Maughan, Ronald J

    2013-11-01

    The use of dietary supplements is widespread in the general population, in athletes and recreational exercisers, and in military personnel. A wide array of supplements is available, but protein-containing products are consistently among the most popular, especially among those who engage in resistance training. There are significant risks associated with the use of unregulated dietary supplements. Risks include the absence of active ingredients, the presence of harmful substances (including microbiological agents and foreign objects), the presence of toxic agents, and the presence of potentially dangerous prescription-only pharmaceuticals. There is ample evidence of athletes who have failed doping tests because of the use of dietary supplements. There is also growing evidence of risks to health and of serious adverse events, including a small number of fatalities, as a result of supplement use. The risk associated with the use of protein powders produced by major manufacturers is probably low, and the risk can be further reduced by using only products that have been tested under one of the recognized supplement quality assurance programs that operate in various countries. Nevertheless, a small risk remains, and athletes, soldiers, and other consumers should conduct a cost-benefit analysis before using any dietary supplements.

  20. A free new dietary supplement label database for dietitians

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Over half of US adults consume dietary supplements (DS). Some of the approximately 50,000 products on the market provide significant sources of nutrients or other bioactive constituents. It is important for dietitians to have information about them. In keeping with their missions, the Office of Di...

  1. Catechins in Dietary Supplements and Hepatotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Bonkovsky, Herbert L.; Hwang, Sun-Il; Vega, Maricruz; Barnhart, Huiman; Serrano, Jose

    2013-01-01

    Background Green tea extract (GTE) and its component catechins are found in many herbal dietary supplements (HDS), some of which may not indicate their presence on the product label. Aim Because GTE and catechins have been implicated in human hepatotoxicity through several case reports, we aimed to determine whether catechins were present in HDS that were implicated in hepatotoxicity even if not identified among the labeled ingredients, and whether these compounds could be associated with liver injury. Methods We assayed 97 HDS implicated in human hepatotoxicity for catechins. Results We found that 29 of 73 HDS (39.7%) that did not identify GTE or any of its component catechins on their label contained catechins. Among the patients with confirmed hepatotoxicity, there was no statistically significant association between the presence of catechin or dose consumed and liver injury causality score, severity, or pattern of liver injury. Products used for weight loss tended to have the highest catechin levels, although catechin concentrations were low in most products. Conclusions Catechins are commonly present in many HDS that are implicated in hepatotoxicity, even when not identified on the product label. Although our results did not establish an association between GTE or catechin with hepatotoxicity, they highlight some of the many complexities and uncertainties that surround to the attribution of DILI to HDS. PMID:23625293

  2. Assessing Vitamin D Levels in Dietary Supplements

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vitamin D is a nutrient of public health concern, particularly in the elderly, and is naturally present in some foods, added to others, and available as a dietary supplement. It is essential for bone growth and bone remodeling and recent research indicates it has other roles in human health, includi...

  3. ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANTS IN BOTANICAL DIETARY SUPPLEMENT GINSENG AND POTENTIAL HUMAN HEALTH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Botanical dietary supplements have a long history of use in Europe and Asia, but the use of these products is becoming increasingly popular in the United States. Because these products are classified as dietary supplements, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration does not routinely...

  4. 21 CFR 119.1 - Dietary supplements containing ephedrine alkaloids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Dietary supplements containing ephedrine alkaloids... UNREASONABLE RISK § 119.1 Dietary supplements containing ephedrine alkaloids. Dietary supplements containing ephedrine alkaloids present an unreasonable risk of illness or injury under conditions of use recommended...

  5. 21 CFR 119.1 - Dietary supplements containing ephedrine alkaloids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dietary supplements containing ephedrine alkaloids... UNREASONABLE RISK § 119.1 Dietary supplements containing ephedrine alkaloids. Dietary supplements containing ephedrine alkaloids present an unreasonable risk of illness or injury under conditions of use recommended...

  6. 21 CFR 119.1 - Dietary supplements containing ephedrine alkaloids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Dietary supplements containing ephedrine alkaloids... UNREASONABLE RISK § 119.1 Dietary supplements containing ephedrine alkaloids. Dietary supplements containing ephedrine alkaloids present an unreasonable risk of illness or injury under conditions of use recommended...

  7. 21 CFR 119.1 - Dietary supplements containing ephedrine alkaloids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Dietary supplements containing ephedrine alkaloids... UNREASONABLE RISK § 119.1 Dietary supplements containing ephedrine alkaloids. Dietary supplements containing ephedrine alkaloids present an unreasonable risk of illness or injury under conditions of use recommended...

  8. 21 CFR 119.1 - Dietary supplements containing ephedrine alkaloids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Dietary supplements containing ephedrine alkaloids... UNREASONABLE RISK § 119.1 Dietary supplements containing ephedrine alkaloids. Dietary supplements containing ephedrine alkaloids present an unreasonable risk of illness or injury under conditions of use recommended...

  9. 21 CFR 101.36 - Nutrition labeling of dietary supplements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Nutrition labeling of dietary supplements. 101.36... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FOOD LABELING Specific Nutrition Labeling Requirements and Guidelines § 101.36 Nutrition labeling of dietary supplements. (a) The label of a dietary supplement that...

  10. 21 CFR 101.36 - Nutrition labeling of dietary supplements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Nutrition labeling of dietary supplements. 101.36... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FOOD LABELING Specific Nutrition Labeling Requirements and Guidelines § 101.36 Nutrition labeling of dietary supplements. (a) The label of a dietary supplement that...

  11. 21 CFR 101.36 - Nutrition labeling of dietary supplements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Nutrition labeling of dietary supplements. 101.36... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FOOD LABELING Specific Nutrition Labeling Requirements and Guidelines § 101.36 Nutrition labeling of dietary supplements. (a) The label of a dietary supplement that...

  12. 21 CFR 101.36 - Nutrition labeling of dietary supplements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Nutrition labeling of dietary supplements. 101.36... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FOOD LABELING Specific Nutrition Labeling Requirements and Guidelines § 101.36 Nutrition labeling of dietary supplements. (a) The label of a dietary supplement that...

  13. Dietary supplements: What's in a name? What's in the bottle?

    PubMed

    Marcus, Donald M

    2016-01-01

    The Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act of 1994 (DSHEA), which arbitrarily classified herbals and other medicinal products as dietary supplements, obscured fundamental differences between two classes of products. Authentic supplements to the diet, such as multivitamins or calcium, have nutritional value and are safe. Herbals are used worldwide as medicines, they do not supplement the diet, they may cause severe adverse events, and they should be regulated as medicines. DSHEA also prevented the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) from effectively regulating herbal supplements as medicines. One consequence of weak FDA regulatory oversight is the poor quality of herbals. FDA inspections of manufacturing facilities have revealed violations of good manufacturing practices in over half of facilities inspected, including unsanitary conditions and lack of product specifications. Moreover, many "all natural" herbals marketed for weight loss, enhancement of sexual health and improving sports performance are adulterated with prescription and over-the-counter medications that have caused adverse cardiovascular events. New procedures to authenticate the identity of plants used in herbals will neither detect adulteration by medications nor provide assurance of appropriate pharmacological activity or safety. Nonvitamin, nonmineral "supplements" should be regulated as medicines, but revision or repeal of DSHEA faces strong opposition in Congress. The marketing of botanical supplements is based on unfounded claims that they are safe and effective. Health professionals need to inform patients and the public that there is no reason to take herbal medicines whose composition and benefits are unknown, and whose risks are evident.

  14. Prevalence, Adverse Events, and Factors Associated with Dietary Supplement and Nutritional Supplement Use by US Navy and Marine Corps Personnel

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-04-12

    hospitaliza- tions per year could be attributed to AEs from dietary sup- plements.11 The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has banned or warned...Meal-replacement beverages are consumed as a substitute for solid food and are usually used for weight control. These products are classified as...nutritional supplements because they are labeled as foods (as opposed to dietary supplements that are labeled as supplements) and are subject to FDA

  15. Effect of hens fed dietary flaxseed with and without a fatty liver supplement on hepatic, plasma and production characteristics relevant to fatty liver haemorrhagic syndrome in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Schumann, B E; Squires, E J; Leeson, S; Hunter, B

    2003-05-01

    1. Two long-term experiments were conducted with Single Comb White Leghorn (SCWL) hens (line UCD-003) predisposed to fatty liver haemorrhagic syndrome (FLHS). The first investigated the effect of adding a fatty liver supplement to the diet of laying hens prior to the onset of lay, and continuing either until peak production or throughout 39 weeks into lay. The second experiment, lasting 9 months into lay, investigated the effect of adding a fatty liver supplement, with or without 100 g/kg dietary ground flaxseed, to the diet. Body weight, feed intake, plasma triglycerides (in experiment 2) and egg production were measured throughout the experiment. Liver weight, liver fat content, liver malondialdehyde (MDA) content and liver haemorrhage score and fatty acid content of liver fat (in experiment 2) were measured at the end of each experiment. 2. In experiment 1, hens given diets containing the fatty liver supplement had higher egg production and eggshell strength, but there was no difference in liver parameters including MDA content or haemorrhage score compared with controls. 3. At the end of experiment 2, hens on 100 g/kg flaxseed diets had lower body weight, liver weight, liver dry matter and fat content, and plasma triglyceride concentrations than hens given the control diets. 4. Liver haemorrhage score was positively correlated with liver weight, but not with liver fat content, plasma triglyceride concentration or liver MDA content. This suggests that reducing the liver lipid content or feeding fatty liver supplements may not be as effective in controlling FLHS as controlling the size of the liver.

  16. Toxin content and cytotoxicity of algal dietary supplements

    SciTech Connect

    Heussner, A.H.; Mazija, L.; Fastner, J.; Dietrich, D.R.

    2012-12-01

    Blue-green algae (Spirulina sp., Aphanizomenon flos-aquae) and Chlorella sp. are commercially distributed as organic algae dietary supplements. Cyanobacterial dietary products in particular have raised serious concerns, as they appeared to be contaminated with toxins e.g. microcystins (MCs) and consumers repeatedly reported adverse health effects following consumption of these products. The aim of this study was to determine the toxin contamination and the in vitro cytotoxicity of algae dietary supplement products marketed in Germany. In thirteen products consisting of Aph. flos-aquae, Spirulina and Chlorella or mixtures thereof, MCs, nodularins, saxitoxins, anatoxin-a and cylindrospermopsin were analyzed. Five products tested in an earlier market study were re-analyzed for comparison. Product samples were extracted and analyzed for cytotoxicity in A549 cells as well as for toxin levels by (1) phosphatase inhibition assay (PPIA), (2) Adda-ELISA and (3) LC–MS/MS. In addition, all samples were analyzed by PCR for the presence of the mcyE gene, a part of the microcystin and nodularin synthetase gene cluster. Only Aph. flos-aquae products were tested positive for MCs as well as the presence of mcyE. The contamination levels of the MC-positive samples were ≤ 1 μg MC-LR equivalents g{sup −1} dw. None of the other toxins were found in any of the products. However, extracts from all products were cytotoxic. In light of the findings, the distribution and commercial sale of Aph. flos-aquae products, whether pure or mixed formulations, for human consumption appear highly questionable. -- Highlights: ► Marketed algae dietary supplements were analyzed for toxins. ► Methods: Phosphatase inhibition assay (PPIA), Adda-ELISA, LC-MS/MS. ► Aph. flos-aquae products all tested positive for microcystins. ► Products tested negative for nodularins, saxitoxins, anatoxin-a, cylindrospermopsin. ► Extracts from all products were cytotoxic.

  17. Marketplace analysis demonstrates quality control standards needed for black raspberry dietary supplements

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is currently no standard for the minimum anthocyanin concentration a black raspberry dietary supplement must contain for legal sale in the US. All consumer available black raspberry products (n=19), packaged as dietary supplements or otherwise prepared (freeze-dried whole and pre-ground powder...

  18. Symptomatic hyperthyroidism in a patient taking the dietary supplement tiratricol.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Brent A; Elkin, Peter L; Erickson, Dana; Klee, George G; Brennan, Michael D

    2002-06-01

    An 87-year-old woman was referred for evaluation of nervousness, tremor, insomnia, and fatigue of 2 months' duration. Initial laboratory evaluation revealed a suppressed thyrotropin level and an elevated triiodothyronine level. A review of her medications revealed that she had started taking several dietary supplements at the recommendation of her chiropractor before the onset of symptoms. One of these was tiratricol (3,5,3'-triiodothyroacetic acid or Triac), a substance sold as a dietary supplement despite classification as a drug by the Food and Drug Administration. Tiratricol has weak thyromimetic effects, can inhibit pituitary thyrotropin secretion, and in higher doses can significantly stimulate metabolism. Such was the case with this patient who presented with signs, symptoms, and biochemical evidence of hyperthyroidism that promptly resolved after discontinuation of tiratricol therapy. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of documented thyrotoxicosis secondary to tiratricol use. Because tiratricol is still available for sale on several Internet sites, this case emphasizes the importance of inquiring about the use of dietary supplements in all patients. The availability of such products on the Internet increases the already complex task of monitoring patients' use of dietary supplements.

  19. Gluten screening of several dietary supplements by immunochromatographic assay.

    PubMed

    Oancea, Simona; Wagner, Adriana; Cîrstea, Elena; Sima, Mirela

    2011-01-01

    Celiac disease (CD) is a chronic intestinal disorder of public health concern caused by gluten ingestion in sensitive individuals. Gluten is a protein found not only in gluten-containing food but also as normal component of drugs and dietary supplements. Detection of gluten in dietary supplements is a very important task required for establishing their gluten status, which is highly important for the safety of products consumed by CD and gluten-sensitive patients. In this paper, we investigated the presence of gluten in twenty one common dietary supplements from the national market using the immunochromatographic assay. This visual assay proved to be an efficient rapid tool for gluten screening as an alternative to the ELISA techniques. The results have shown the presence of gluten in 23.8% of the investigated samples (vitamins, minerals, plant extracts, probiotics supplements, lactoferrin, propolis supplements). The results provide information which may contribute to the completion of the existing lists of gluten-free pharmaceuticals. It is known that for CD patients obtaining accurate information about the gluten content of a particular item is a difficult and time-consuming process.

  20. Neurotoxicity of Dietary Supplements from Annonaceae Species.

    PubMed

    Höllerhage, Matthias; Rösler, Thomas W; Berjas, Magda; Luo, Rensheng; Tran, Kevin; Richards, Kristy M; Sabaa-Srur, Armando U; Maia, José Guilherme S; Moraes, Maria Rosa de; Godoy, Helena T; Höglinger, Günter U; Smith, Robert E

    2015-01-01

    Dietary supplements containing plant materials of Annonaceae species (Annona muricata L., A. squamosa L., A. mucosa JACQ., A. squamosa × cherimola Mabb.) were extracted by hot, pressurized ethyl acetate and analyzed for their effect in vitro on Lund human mesencephalic neurons. Cell viability was measured by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay, and cell death was determined by lactate dehydrogenase levels. Three supplements strongly decreased the cell viability at extract concentrations of 1 µg/mL, of which 1 decreased cell viability at 0.1 µg/µL. Also, strong neuronal toxicities of these supplements were found. Cell death was observed at concentrations of 10 µg/mL. The degree of toxicity was comparable to the ones found in Annonaceous fruit extracts. Two fruit pulps of Annonaceae (A. muricata and A. squamosa) showed a reduction in cell viability at lower concentrations. The fruit pulp extract of A. muricata revealed the strongest neurotoxic effect, with 67% cell death at a concentration of 1 µg/mL. A high reduction in cell viability coupled with pronounced cell death was found at 0.1 µg/mL for an Annonaceous seed extract. These results demonstrate that the intake of dietary supplements containing plant material from Annonaceae may be hazardous to health in terms of neurotoxicity.

  1. Dietary Supplements: What You Need to Know

    MedlinePlus

    ... product. How can I be a smart supplement shopper? Be a savvy supplement user. Here’s how: • When ... gov/Safety/ReportaProblem/ConsumerComplaintCoordinators • File a safety report online through the Safety Reporting Portal at: http://www. ...

  2. Dangerous dietary supplements: Garcinia cambogia-associated hepatic failure requiring transplantation.

    PubMed

    Lunsford, Keri E; Bodzin, Adam S; Reino, Diego C; Wang, Hanlin L; Busuttil, Ronald W

    2016-12-07

    Commercial dietary supplements are marketed as a panacea for the morbidly obese seeking sustainable weight-loss. Unfortunately, many claims cited by supplements are unsupported and inadequately regulated. Most concerning, however, are the associated harmful side effects, often unrecognized by consumers. Garcinia cambogia extract and Garcinia cambogia containing products are some of the most popular dietary supplements currently marketed for weight loss. Here, we report the first known case of fulminant hepatic failure associated with this dietary supplement. One active ingredient in this supplement is hydroxycitric acid, an active ingredient also found in weight-loss supplements banned by the Food and Drug Administration in 2009 for hepatotoxicity. Heightened awareness of the dangers of dietary supplements such as Garcinia cambogia is imperative to prevent hepatoxicity and potential fulminant hepatic failure in additional patients.

  3. Dangerous dietary supplements: Garcinia cambogia-associated hepatic failure requiring transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Lunsford, Keri E; Bodzin, Adam S; Reino, Diego C; Wang, Hanlin L; Busuttil, Ronald W

    2016-01-01

    Commercial dietary supplements are marketed as a panacea for the morbidly obese seeking sustainable weight-loss. Unfortunately, many claims cited by supplements are unsupported and inadequately regulated. Most concerning, however, are the associated harmful side effects, often unrecognized by consumers. Garcinia cambogia extract and Garcinia cambogia containing products are some of the most popular dietary supplements currently marketed for weight loss. Here, we report the first known case of fulminant hepatic failure associated with this dietary supplement. One active ingredient in this supplement is hydroxycitric acid, an active ingredient also found in weight-loss supplements banned by the Food and Drug Administration in 2009 for hepatotoxicity. Heightened awareness of the dangers of dietary supplements such as Garcinia cambogia is imperative to prevent hepatoxicity and potential fulminant hepatic failure in additional patients. PMID:28018115

  4. Influences of dietary protein level, amino acid supplementation and environmental temperature on performance, body composition, organ weights and total heat production of growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Kerr, B J; Yen, J T; Nienaber, J A; Easter, R A

    2003-08-01

    The study was conducted to determine the effects of feeding a 16% CP diet, a 12% CP diet, or a 12% CP diet supplemented with crystalline Lys, Trp, and Thr (12% CP + AA diet) in a thermal-neutral (23 degrees C) or heat-stressed (33 degrees C) environment on various body and physiological measurements in growing pigs. Heat-stressed pigs were given a 15% lower daily feed allowance than thermal-neutral pigs to remove the confounding effect of feed intake caused by high temperature. No diet x temperature interaction was observed for any variables (P > 0.09) except for pig activity and pancreas weight. At 33 degrees C, pig activity and pancreas weight did not differ among dietary treatments (P > 0.05). In contrast, at 23 degrees C, pigs fed the 12% CP diet had greater activity than those fed the 16% CP diet or the 12% CP + AA diet (P < 0.05). Pancreas weight was greater for pigs fed the 12% CP + AA diet than those fed the 12% CP diet (P < 0.05) when maintained at 23 degrees C. Compared with 23 degrees C, the 33 degrees C temperature decreased pig activity, heat production, daily gain, feed efficiency, and affected the concentration and accretion of empty body protein and ash, as well as weights of heart, pancreas, stomach, and large intestine (P < 0.05). Pigs fed the 12% CP + AA diet attained similar levels of performance and rates of empty body water, protein, lipid, and ash deposition as pigs fed the 16% CP diet (P > 0.10). Pigs fed the 12% CP + AA diet had lower serum urea plus ammonia nitrogen concentrations (P < 0.01) and total heat production (P < 0.05) compared with those fed the 16% CP diet or the 12% CP diet. These results confirm that, with crystalline AA supplementation, growing pigs fed a 12% CP diet will perform similar to pigs fed a 16% CP diet. The data further indicate that lowering dietary CP and supplementing crystalline AA will decrease total heat production in growing pigs whether they are housed in a thermal-neutral or heat-stressed environment.

  5. Dietary supplements quality analysis tools from the United States Pharmacopeia.

    PubMed

    Sarma, Nandakumara; Giancaspro, Gabriel; Venema, Jaap

    2016-01-01

    The United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issued the dietary supplement (DS) current good manufacturing practice (GMP) regulations in compliance with the mandate from the Dietary Supplements Health and Education Act (DSHEA), with the intention of protecting public health by ensuring the quality of DS. The GMP regulations require manufacturers to establish their own quality specifications for identity, purity, strength, composition, and absence of contaminants. Numerous FDA-conducted GMP inspections found that the private specifications set by these manufacturers are often insufficient to ensure adequate quality of dietary ingredients and DS. Wider use of the public standards developed by the United States Pharmacopeial Convention (USP), in conjunction with GMP compliance, can help ensure quality and consistency of DS as they do for medicines. Public health protection could be enhanced by strengthening the GMP provisions to require conformance with relevant United States Pharmacopeia-National Formulary (USP-NF) standards, or in the absence of USP standards, other public compendial standards. Another serious concern is the presence of synthetic drugs and drug analogues in products marketed as DS. Use of the new USP General Chapter Adulteration of Dietary Supplements with Drugs and Drug Analogs <2251> may reduce the exposure of consumers to dangerous drugs disguised as DS. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Dietary supplements quality analysis tools from the United States Pharmacopeia

    PubMed Central

    Giancaspro, Gabriel; Venema, Jaap

    2016-01-01

    The United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issued the dietary supplement (DS) current good manufacturing practice (GMP) regulations in compliance with the mandate from the Dietary Supplements Health and Education Act (DSHEA), with the intention of protecting public health by ensuring the quality of DS. The GMP regulations require manufacturers to establish their own quality specifications for identity, purity, strength, composition, and absence of contaminants. Numerous FDA‐conducted GMP inspections found that the private specifications set by these manufacturers are often insufficient to ensure adequate quality of dietary ingredients and DS. Wider use of the public standards developed by the United States Pharmacopeial Convention (USP), in conjunction with GMP compliance, can help ensure quality and consistency of DS as they do for medicines. Public health protection could be enhanced by strengthening the GMP provisions to require conformance with relevant United States Pharmacopeia–National Formulary (USP–NF) standards, or in the absence of USP standards, other public compendial standards. Another serious concern is the presence of synthetic drugs and drug analogues in products marketed as DS. Use of the new USP General Chapter Adulteration of Dietary Supplements with Drugs and Drug Analogs <2251> may reduce the exposure of consumers to dangerous drugs disguised as DS. © 2016 The Authors. Drug Testing and Analysis published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:26857794

  7. Amphetamine Containing Dietary Supplements and Acute Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Hritani, Abdulwahab; Antoun, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Weight loss is one of the most researched and marketed topics in American society. Dietary regimens, medications that claim to boost the metabolism, and the constant pressure to fit into society all play a role in our patient's choices regarding new dietary products. One of the products that are well known to suppress appetite and cause weight loss is amphetamines. While these medications suppress appetite, most people are not aware of the detrimental side effects of amphetamines, including hypertension, tachycardia, arrhythmias, and in certain instances acute myocardial infarction. Here we present the uncommon entity of an acute myocardial infarction due to chronic use of an amphetamine containing dietary supplement in conjunction with an exercise regimen. Our case brings to light further awareness regarding use of amphetamines. Clinicians should have a high index of suspicion of use of these substances when young patients with no risk factors for coronary artery disease present with acute arrhythmias, heart failure, and myocardial infarctions. PMID:27516911

  8. Dietary Supplements are Not all Safe and Not all Food: How the Low Cost of Dietary Supplements Preys on the Consumer.

    PubMed

    Sax, Joanna K

    2015-01-01

    Dietary supplements are regulated as food, even though the safety and efficacy of some supplements are unknown. These products are often promoted as 'natural.' This leads many consumers to fail to question the supplements' safety, and some consumers even equate 'natural' with safe. But, 'natural' does not mean safe. For example, many wild berries and mushrooms are dangerous although they are natural. Another example is tobacco--a key ingredient in cigarettes: it is natural, but overwhelming studies have established the harm of cigarette smoke. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) requires safety and efficacy testing prior to market entry for drugs. In contrast, the FDA only has limited ability to regulate the entry of new dietary supplements into the marketplace because supplements are treated as food. Two main arguments support the current regulatory structure of dietary supplements: (1) cost and (2) access. But lower cost and increased access to dietary supplements do not necessary have any relationship to safety and efficacy. Manufacturers' marketing techniques tout the health benefits of their supplements. Meanwhile, consumers are ingesting supplements without scientific studies indicating whether or not they are harmful. The FDA Food Safety and Modernization Act, signed into law on January 4, 2011, did not address the safety concerns regarding dietary supplements. This article discusses the regulatory deficiencies concerning dietary supplements and proposes novel solutions to address this specific sector of the food supply. This article advocates for the use of scientific data to support a multi-tiered classification system to ensure that dietary supplements on the market are safe.

  9. A structured vocabulary for indexing dietary supplements in databases in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Saldanha, Leila G; Dwyer, Johanna T; Holden, Joanne M; Ireland, Jayne D.; Andrews, Karen W; Bailey, Regan L; Gahche, Jaime J.; Hardy, Constance J; Møller, Anders; Pilch, Susan M.; Roseland, Janet M

    2011-01-01

    Food composition databases are critical to assess and plan dietary intakes. Dietary supplement databases are also needed because dietary supplements make significant contributions to total nutrient intakes. However, no uniform system exists for classifying dietary supplement products and indexing their ingredients in such databases. Differing approaches to classifying these products make it difficult to retrieve or link information effectively. A consistent approach to classifying information within food composition databases led to the development of LanguaL™, a structured vocabulary. LanguaL™ is being adapted as an interface tool for classifying and retrieving product information in dietary supplement databases. This paper outlines proposed changes to the LanguaL™ thesaurus for indexing dietary supplement products and ingredients in databases. The choice of 12 of the original 14 LanguaL™ facets pertinent to dietary supplements, modifications to their scopes, and applications are described. The 12 chosen facets are: Product Type; Source; Part of Source; Physical State, Shape or Form; Ingredients; Preservation Method, Packing Medium, Container or Wrapping; Contact Surface; Consumer Group/Dietary Use/Label Claim; Geographic Places and Regions; and Adjunct Characteristics of food. PMID:22611303

  10. Integrating dietary supplements into cancer care.

    PubMed

    Frenkel, Moshe; Abrams, Donald I; Ladas, Elena J; Deng, Gary; Hardy, Mary; Capodice, Jillian L; Winegardner, Mary F; Gubili, J K; Yeung, K Simon; Kussmann, Heidi; Block, Keith I

    2013-09-01

    Many studies confirm that a majority of patients undergoing cancer therapy use self-selected forms of complementary therapies, mainly dietary supplements. Unfortunately, patients often do not report their use of supplements to their providers. The failure of physicians to communicate effectively with patients on this use may result in a loss of trust within the therapeutic relationship and in the selection by patients of harmful, useless, or ineffective and costly nonconventional therapies when effective integrative interventions may exist. Poor communication may also lead to diminishment of patient autonomy and self-efficacy and thereby interfere with the healing response. To be open to the patient's perspective, and sensitive to his or her need for autonomy and empowerment, physicians may need a shift in their own perspectives. Perhaps the optimal approach is to discuss both the facts and the uncertainty with the patient, in order to reach a mutually informed decision. Today's informed patients truly value physicians who appreciate them as equal participants in making their own health care choices. To reach a mutually informed decision about the use of these supplements, the Clinical Practice Committee of The Society of Integrative Oncology undertook the challenge of providing basic information to physicians who wish to discuss these issues with their patients. A list of leading supplements that have the best suggestions of benefit was constructed by leading researchers and clinicians who have experience in using these supplements. This list includes curcumin, glutamine, vitamin D, Maitake mushrooms, fish oil, green tea, milk thistle, Astragalus, melatonin, and probiotics. The list includes basic information on each supplement, such as evidence on effectiveness and clinical trials, adverse effects, and interactions with medications. The information was constructed to provide an up-to-date base of knowledge, so that physicians and other health care providers would

  11. Cardiorespiratory function associated with dietary nitrate supplementation

    PubMed Central

    Bond, Vernon; Curry, Bryan H.; Adams, Richard G.; Millis, Richard M.; Haddad, Georges E.

    2014-01-01

    The advent of medical nutrition therapy and nutritional physiology affords the opportunity to link diet to specific cardiovascular mechanisms, suggesting novel treatments for cardiovascular disease. This study tests the hypothesis that beetroot juice increases the plasma nitric oxide (NO) concentration, which is associated with improvements in cardiorespiratory function at rest and during submaximal aerobic exercise. The subjects were 12 healthy, young adult, normotensive African-American females, with a body mass of 61 ± 2 kg, body fat of 28% ± 4%, and peak oxygen consumption of 26 ± 3 mL·kg−1·min−1. The subjects were studied at rest and during cycle ergometer exercise at 40%, 60%, and 80% of peak oxygen consumption. Plasma NO concentration, respiratory quotient (RQ), minute ventilation, systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP), heart rate, and oxygen consumption were compared between isocaloric, isovolumetric placebo control orange juice and experimental beetroot juice treatments on separate days. The beetroot juice treatment increased plasma NO concentration and decreased oxygen consumption, SBP, and the heart rate-SBP product at rest and at 40%, 60%, and 80% of peak oxygen consumption in the absence of significant effects on RQ, minute ventilation, heart rate, and DBP. These findings suggest that, in healthy subjects, beetroot juice treatments increase plasma NO concentration and decrease cardiac afterload and myocardial oxygen demand at rest and during 3 submaximal levels of aerobic exercise. Future studies should determine the cellular and molecular mechanisms responsible for the improvement in cardiorespiratory function associated with dietary nitrate supplementation and whether they translate into better cardiovascular function and exercise tolerance in individuals with a compromised cardiovascular system. PMID:24476472

  12. DNA barcode authentication of saw palmetto herbal dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Little, Damon P; Jeanson, Marc L

    2013-12-17

    Herbal dietary supplements made from saw palmetto (Serenoa repens; Arecaceae) fruit are commonly consumed to ameliorate benign prostate hyperplasia. A novel DNA mini-barcode assay to accurately identify [specificity = 1.00 (95% confidence interval = 0.74-1.00); sensitivity = 1.00 (95% confidence interval = 0.66-1.00); n = 31] saw palmetto dietary supplements was designed from a DNA barcode reference library created for this purpose. The mini-barcodes were used to estimate the frequency of mislabeled saw palmetto herbal dietary supplements on the market in the United States of America. Of the 37 supplements examined, amplifiable DNA could be extracted from 34 (92%). Mini-barcode analysis of these supplements demonstrated that 29 (85%) contain saw palmetto and that 2 (6%) supplements contain related species that cannot be legally sold as herbal dietary supplements in the United States of America. The identity of 3 (9%) supplements could not be conclusively determined.

  13. New Dietary Supplements for Obesity: What We Currently Know.

    PubMed

    Ríos-Hoyo, Alejandro; Gutiérrez-Salmeán, Gabriela

    2016-06-01

    Obesity and its associated cardiometabolic alterations currently are considered an epidemic; thus, their treatment is of major importance. The cornerstone for such treatment involves therapeutic lifestyle changes; however, the vast majority of cases fail and/or significant weight loss is maintained only in the short term because of lack of compliance. The popularity of dietary supplements for weight management has increased, and a wide variety of these products are available over the counter. However, the existing scientific evidence is insufficient to recommend their safe use. Hence, the purpose of this article is to review the clinical effects, proposed mechanism of action, and safety profile of some of the new dietary supplements, including white bean extract, Garcinia cambogia, bitter orange, Hoodia gordonii, forskolin, green coffee, glucomannan, β-glucans, chitosan, guar gum, and raspberry ketones.

  14. Dietary Supplement Polypharmacy: An Unrecognized Public Health Problem?

    PubMed Central

    Gryzlak, Brian M.; Zimmerman, M. Bridget; Wallace, Robert B.

    2010-01-01

    Excessive and inappropriate use of medications, or ‘polypharmacy’, has been recognized as a public health problem. In addition, there is growing use of dietary supplements in the United States; however, little is known about the patterns of supplement use. Recent reports in the literature of cases of excessive or inappropriate use of herbal dietary supplements leading to the term ‘polyherbacy’. The clinical vignettes described in this article highlight the need for further research on the nature and extent of multiple and inappropriate dietary supplement use or ‘dietary supplement polypharmacy’. Clinical interviewing and population surveys both address this issue in complementary ways, and provide a further understanding of dietary supplement use patterns. PMID:18955288

  15. Dietary supplement research portfolio at the NIH, 2009-2011.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Cazarin, Mary L; Wambogo, Edwina A; Regan, Karen S; Davis, Cindy D

    2014-04-01

    The U.S. dietary supplement market increased by 7.5% in 2012 compared with 2011, reaching $32.5 billion in sales. Therefore, federally supported research on dietary supplements is important to determine their health effects, safety, and efficacy. A portfolio analysis was performed across the NIH and the Office of Dietary Supplements (ODS) for fiscal years (FYs) 2009-2011 by using the databases Human Nutrition Research Information Management (HNRIM) and Computer Access to Research on Dietary Supplements (CARDS). The results indicated that total NIH dietary supplement-related funding for FYs 2009-2011 was $855 million ($295 million in 2009, $311 million in 2010, and $249 million in 2011). The institutes and centers with the highest investment in dietary supplement research were as follows: the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute ($135 million); the National Cancer Institute ($188 million); the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine ($99 million); the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases ($68 million); the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences ($58 million); and the ODS ($32 million). The dietary supplement ingredients receiving the most funding were botanicals (22%), vitamins (20%), lipids (14%), and minerals and trace elements (10%). The top 3 outcome research areas were cancer (61% of total dietary supplement investment), cardiovascular disease (47%), and women's reproductive health (38%). In FYs 2009, 2010, and 2011, the ODS provided 3.5%, 3.6%, and 4.1%, respectively, of the NIH investment in dietary supplement research. ODS funding focused on cellular, enzymatic, or molecular mechanisms (64% of total ODS funding). This portfolio analysis demonstrates that the NIH has committed substantial funding to dietary supplement research in an effort to expand the scientific knowledge base on the efficacy and safety of dietary supplements.

  16. Dietary supplement use in people being treated for depression.

    PubMed

    Silvers, Karen M; Woolley, Cheryl C; Hedderley, Duncan

    2006-01-01

    The use of dietary supplements has increased over the past 10 years, with up to 50% of adults being reported to have taken dietary supplements. The types of supplements taken are often related to physical morbidities. However, information about their use in combination with prescription drugs is lacking. In particular, there is little information on the use of supplements by people with depression. Our aim was to examine the use of dietary supplements by people being treated for depression. Seventy-two participants who were being treated for depression in the community were recruited for a clinical trial to determine the effect of fish oil on mood in the treatment of depression. The results of the primary analysis are reported elsewhere. Exclusion criteria included any co-existing psychiatric disorder (except anxiety disorders), blood clotting disorders, unstable medical conditions, and those taking fish oil supplements. Demographic information, details about the participants' depression and current therapies, use of dietary and herbal supplements in the previous 12 months, and physical activity data were collected at baseline. Characteristics of supplement users were compared with those of non-users using either chi-square or Mann-Whitney U tests. Forty-five (63%) of 72 participants who provided dietary supplement information had taken at least one dietary supplement within the previous 12 months. On average, supplement users were found to have taken 2.8 (SD=1.56) dietary supplements during the assessment period. Women were more likely to be taking supplements than men (P<0.001). In conclusion, the use of dietary supplements is common among people being treated for depression. This has important implications for clinical practice as little is known about supplement-drug interactions.

  17. Caffeine and Creatine Content of Dietary Supplements Consumed by Brazilian Soccer Players.

    PubMed

    Inácio, Suelen Galante; de Oliveira, Gustavo Vieira; Alvares, Thiago Silveira

    2016-08-01

    Caffeine and creatine are ingredients in the most popular dietary supplements consumed by soccer players. However, some products may not contain the disclosed amounts of the ingredients listed on the label, compromising the safe usage and the effectiveness of these supplements. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the content of caffeine and creatine in dietary supplements consumed by Brazilian soccer players. The results obtained were compared with the caffeine content listed on the product label. Two batches of the supplement brands consumed by ≥ 50% of the players were considered for analysis. The quantification of caffeine and creatine in the supplements was determined by a high-performance liquid chromatography system with UV detector. Nine supplements of caffeine and 7 supplements of creatine met the inclusion criteria for analysis. Eight brands of caffeine and five brands of creatine showed significantly different values (p < .05) as compared with the values stated on the label. There were no significant differences between the two batches of supplements analyzed, except for one caffeine supplement. It can be concluded that caffeine and creatine dietary supplements consumed by Brazilian soccer players present inaccurate values listed on the label, although most presented no difference among batches. To ensure consumer safety and product efficacy, accurate information on caffeine and creatine content should be provided on all dietary supplement labels.

  18. Protein supplements: do they alter dietary intakes?

    PubMed

    Mallard, Alistair R; McLay-Cooke, Rebecca T; Rehrer, Nancy J

    2014-06-01

    Effects of protein versus mixed macronutrient supplementation on total energy intake (TEI) and protein intake during an ad libitum diet were examined. Trained males undertook two, 2-week dietary interventions which were randomized, double blinded, and separated by 2 weeks. These were high-protein supplementation (HP: 1034.5 kJ energy, 29.6 g protein, 8.7 g fat and 12.3 g CHO) and standard meal supplementation (SM: 1039 kJ energy, 9.9 g protein, 9.5 g fat, and 29.4 g CHO) consumed daily following a week of baseline measures. Eighteen participants finished both interventions and one only completed HP. TEI (mean ± SD) was not different between baseline (11148 ± 3347 kJ) and HP (10705 ± 3143 kJ) nor between baseline and SM (12381 ± 3877 kJ), however, TEI was greater with SM than HP (923 ± 4015 kJ p = .043). Protein intake (%TEI) was greater with HP (22.4 ± 6.2%) than baseline (19.4 ± 5.4%; p = .008) but not SM (20.0 ± 5.0%). No differences in absolute daily protein intake were found. Absolute CHO intake was greater with SM than HP (52.0 ± 89.5 g, p = .006). No differences in fat intake were found. Body mass did not change between baseline (82.7 ± 11.2 kg) and either HP (83.1 ± 11.7 kg) or SM (82.9 ± 11.0 kg). Protein supplementation increases the relative proportion of protein in the diet, but doesn't increase the absolute amount of total protein or energy consumed. Thus some compensation by a reduction in other foods occurs. This is in contrast to a mixed nutrient supplement, which does not alter the proportion of protein consumed but does increase TEI.

  19. Dietary supplements and cancer prevention: balancing potential benefits against proven harms.

    PubMed

    Martínez, María Elena; Jacobs, Elizabeth T; Baron, John A; Marshall, James R; Byers, Tim

    2012-05-16

    Nutritional supplementation is now a multibillion-dollar industry, and about half of all US adults take supplements. Supplement use is fueled in part by the belief that nutritional supplements can ward off chronic disease, including cancer, although several expert committees and organizations have concluded that there is little to no scientific evidence that supplements reduce cancer risk. To the contrary, there is now evidence that high doses of some supplements increase cancer risk. Despite this evidence, marketing claims by the supplement industry continue to imply anticancer benefits. Insufficient government regulation of the marketing of dietary supplement products may continue to result in unsound advice to consumers. Both the scientific community and government regulators need to provide clear guidance to the public about the use of dietary supplements to lower cancer risk.

  20. Degradation of vitamin B12 in dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Keiko; Shimodaira, Michiko; Chida, Seiko; Yamada, Noriko; Matsushima, Norio; Fukuda, Morimichi; Yamada, Shoji

    2008-01-01

    Beverages and solid dietary supplements rich in various added vitamins and minerals have recently become available. It seems reasonable to consider that the intake of these foods is convenient for easy ingestion of nutrients, but problems caused by blending different nutrients in high concentrations have arisen. We focused on vitamin B12 (B12) among vitamins and determined the B12 contents of beverages and solid dietary supplements purchased from a retail shop. The B12 contents of three of five beverages were less than stated on the labels. On the other hand, certain beverages unexpectedly contained much more B12 than stated on the labels. In these beverages the amount of B12 decreased rapidly with time, whereas B12 content was lower than stated on the label in only one of four solid dietary supplements. The content of B12 was affected by storage time, light exposure, temperature and vitamin C. From experimental analysis with a competitive binding assay method employing a ACS Chemiluminescent B12 kit, examining differential binding by intrinsic factors and spectral analysis of B12, it was determined that some of the B12 might have been converted into B12 analogues or small degradation products by multinutrient interaction during storage.

  1. Effects of commercially available dietary supplements on resting energy expenditure: a brief report.

    PubMed

    Vaughan, Roger A; Conn, Carole A; Mermier, Christine M

    2014-01-01

    Commercially available dietary products advertised to promote weight loss are an underresearched but heavily purchased commodity in the United States. Despite only limited evidence, interest in dietary supplements continues to increase. This work uniquely summarizes the current evidence evaluating the efficacy of several over-the-counter thermogenic products for their effects on resting energy expenditure. Currently, there is some evidence suggesting dietary products containing select ingredients can increase energy expenditure in healthy young people immediately following consumption (within 6 hours). It is unclear if supplement-induced increases in metabolic rate provide additional benefit beyond that provided by dietary constituents that contain similar ingredients. It is also unclear if dietary supplements are effective for weight loss in humans.

  2. Effects of Commercially Available Dietary Supplements on Resting Energy Expenditure: A Brief Report

    PubMed Central

    Vaughan, Roger A.; Conn, Carole A.; Mermier, Christine M.

    2014-01-01

    Commercially available dietary products advertised to promote weight loss are an underresearched but heavily purchased commodity in the United States. Despite only limited evidence, interest in dietary supplements continues to increase. This work uniquely summarizes the current evidence evaluating the efficacy of several over-the-counter thermogenic products for their effects on resting energy expenditure. Currently, there is some evidence suggesting dietary products containing select ingredients can increase energy expenditure in healthy young people immediately following consumption (within 6 hours). It is unclear if supplement-induced increases in metabolic rate provide additional benefit beyond that provided by dietary constituents that contain similar ingredients. It is also unclear if dietary supplements are effective for weight loss in humans. PMID:24967272

  3. Dietary fat intake, supplements, and weight loss

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dyck, D. J.

    2000-01-01

    Although there remains controversy regarding the role of macronutrient balance in the etiology of obesity, the consumption of high-fat diets appears to be strongly implicated in its development. Evidence that fat oxidation does not adjust rapidly to acute increases in dietary fat, as well as a decreased capacity to oxidize fat in the postprandial state in the obese, suggest that diets high in fat may lead to the accumulation of fat stores. Novel data is also presented suggesting that in rodents, high-fat diets may lead to the development of leptin resistance in skeletal muscle and subsequent accumulations of muscle triacylglycerol. Nevertheless, several current fad diets recommend drastically reduced carbohydrate intake, with a concurrent increase in fat content. Such recommendations are based on the underlying assumption that by reducing circulating insulin levels, lipolysis and lipid oxidation will be enhanced and fat storage reduced. Numerous supplements are purported to increase fat oxidation (carnitine, conjugated linoleic acid), increase metabolic rate (ephedrine, pyruvate), or inhibit hepatic lipogenesis (hydroxycitrate). All of these compounds are currently marketed in supplemental form to increase weight loss, but few have actually been shown to be effective in scientific studies. To date, there is little or no evidence supporting that carnitine or hydroxycitrate supplementation are of any value for weight loss in humans. Supplements such as pyruvate have been shown to be effective at high dosages, but there is little mechanistic information to explain its purported effect or data to indicate its effectiveness at lower dosages. Conjugated linoleic acid has been shown to stimulate fat utilization and decrease body fat content in mice but has not been tested in humans. The effects of ephedrine, in conjunction with methylxanthines and aspirin, in humans appears unequivocal but includes various cardiovascular side effects. None of these compounds have been

  4. Dietary fat intake, supplements, and weight loss.

    PubMed

    Dyck, D J

    2000-12-01

    Although there remains controversy regarding the role of macronutrient balance in the etiology of obesity, the consumption of high-fat diets appears to be strongly implicated in its development. Evidence that fat oxidation does not adjust rapidly to acute increases in dietary fat, as well as a decreased capacity to oxidize fat in the postprandial state in the obese, suggest that diets high in fat may lead to the accumulation of fat stores. Novel data is also presented suggesting that in rodents, high-fat diets may lead to the development of leptin resistance in skeletal muscle and subsequent accumulations of muscle triacylglycerol. Nevertheless, several current fad diets recommend drastically reduced carbohydrate intake, with a concurrent increase in fat content. Such recommendations are based on the underlying assumption that by reducing circulating insulin levels, lipolysis and lipid oxidation will be enhanced and fat storage reduced. Numerous supplements are purported to increase fat oxidation (carnitine, conjugated linoleic acid), increase metabolic rate (ephedrine, pyruvate), or inhibit hepatic lipogenesis (hydroxycitrate). All of these compounds are currently marketed in supplemental form to increase weight loss, but few have actually been shown to be effective in scientific studies. To date, there is little or no evidence supporting that carnitine or hydroxycitrate supplementation are of any value for weight loss in humans. Supplements such as pyruvate have been shown to be effective at high dosages, but there is little mechanistic information to explain its purported effect or data to indicate its effectiveness at lower dosages. Conjugated linoleic acid has been shown to stimulate fat utilization and decrease body fat content in mice but has not been tested in humans. The effects of ephedrine, in conjunction with methylxanthines and aspirin, in humans appears unequivocal but includes various cardiovascular side effects. None of these compounds have been

  5. Dietary fat and not calcium supplementation or dairy product consumption is associated with changes in anthropometrics during a randomized, placebo-controlled energy-restriction trial

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Insufficient calcium intake has been proposed to cause unbalanced energy partitioning leading to obesity. However, weight loss interventions including dietary calcium or dairy product consumption have not reported changes in lipid metabolism measured by the plasma lipidome. Methods. The objective ...

  6. Chromatographic fingerprint analysis of Pycnogenol dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Chen, Pei; Song, Fenhong; Lin, Long-Ze

    2009-01-01

    The bark of maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Aiton) has been widely used as a remedy for various degenerative diseases. A standard high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) procedure for Pycnogenol analysis is a method specified in the United States Pharmacopeia (USP) monograph, which requires measurement of peak areas and identification of four components of the extract: caffeic acid, catechin, ferulic acid, and taxifolin. In this study, a fingerprint analysis using an HPLC method based on the USP monograph has been developed to provide additional qualitative information for the analysis of Pycnogenol-containing dietary supplements (PDS). Twelve commercially available PDS samples were purchased and analyzed along with a standard Pycnogenol extract. Their chromatographic fingerprints were analyzed using principal component analysis. The results showed that two of the samples were not consistent with the standard reference Pycnogenol extract. One contained other active ingredients in addition to Pycnogenol, and the other may have resulted from a quality control issue in manufacturing.

  7. [Influence of dietary supplementation on newborn weight].

    PubMed

    Urbaniak, Tomasz; Klejewski, Andrzej; Pisarska, Magdalena; Kostecka, Ewelina

    2012-01-01

    The basic source of vitamins and microelements for an expectant mother should be a good arranged diet. The diet should mainly meets the demand for individual nutrient elements, evolves during a pregnancy and supplies with indispensable macro and microelements to mother and a growing up embryo. The usage of multivitamin supplements for expectant mothers ought to always consult with a physician responsible for an expectant mother. Dietary supplements ought to be good chose to individual needs so that it can in an optimal way aid the health of an expectant mother and the progress of baby. The specialist literature and my ones researches show that a supplementary diet with multivitamin supplements and preparations with a folic acid in pregnancy can affect the mass of a neonate and increaser it. One should considers the implementation of multivitamin supplements by women from a risk group of the disorder development of an embryo that means: women from a lower social and economic status, with lower education, young mothers, with an unhealthy diet, exposed to anemia, with too low body mass before conception and with bad habits and a lifestyle. It should be mentioned that not only complications as a result of too low body mass of a neonate but also too high body mass can redound to many irregularities and disorders during a pregnancy. To them we can include a higher rate of caesareans and an increase in a perinatal mortality of neonates. So that is way the decision of including a supplementary diet should be made very carefully and individually for every patient. Special attention should be emphasized on the necessity of a health education to the extent of a healthy diet and a weight gain of mother while a cyophoria. The aim of carried out researches was estimation the influence of supplementary diet on the body mass of a neonate. One hundred respondents were covered by the research - the patients of "Maternity and Gynaecology Ward" with the obstetric, perinatology and

  8. Dietary supplements and functional foods: 2 sides of a coin?

    PubMed

    Halsted, Charles H

    2003-04-01

    Dietary supplements are used by more than one-half of the adult US population. In contrast to pharmaceuticals, dietary supplements may be sold in the United States with little regulation other than listing of ingredients and the potential health benefits. By contrast, herbal products in Germany are carefully regulated by the same standards as drugs, and efforts are under way to standardize their regulation in the entire European Union. Most herbal users do not inform their physicians that they are taking these supplements, and most physicians do not inquire. Although some herbal products have clinically proven benefits, it is increasingly apparent that many contain potentially toxic substances, particularly in relation to interactions with drugs. Hence, it is essential that practicing physicians develop a working knowledge of herbals-specifically, about claims for their usage and potential or proven efficacies and toxicities-and that they incorporate such knowledge into the evaluation and management of their patients. By contrast, functional foods-integral components of the diet that are understood to contribute added health benefits-are the subject of intense and widespread research in food and nutritional science. Examples include many polyphenolic substances, carotenoids, soy isoflavones, fish oils, and components of nuts that possess antioxidant and other properties that decrease the risk of vascular diseases and cancer. Practicing physicians are advised to stay abreast of these emerging findings in order to best advise their patients on the value of health-promoting diets in disease prevention.

  9. Use of Nonvitamin, Nonmineral Dietary Supplements among College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newberry, Heather; Beerman, Kathy; Duncan, Sam; McGuire, Michelle; Hillers, Virginia

    2001-01-01

    Assessed college students' use of nonvitamin, nonmineral (NVNM) dietary supplements. Student surveys indicated that nearly half of the respondents took NVNM supplements, most frequently echinacea, ginseng, and St. John's wort. Over 80 percent had acceptable body mass index values. Users and nonusers of NVNM supplements did not differ significantly…

  10. Why the United States still needs improved dietary supplement regulation and oversight.

    PubMed

    Morrow, J D

    2008-03-01

    It has been 3 years since the American Society for Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics (ASCPT) issued a position statement regarding dietary supplement safety and regulation. I was the Chair of the ASCPT task force charged with issuing the statement. At the time, after careful review of available data, the other members and I concluded that dietary supplement legislation in the United States was lacking and that enhanced oversight was essential to increase the safety of these products for the American consumer.

  11. Confidence in the Efficacy and Safety of Dietary Supplements Among United States Active Duty Army Personnel

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-10-10

    including vitamins, minerals, combination products, antioxidants, herbals , protein and amino acid supplements , and purported steroid analogs) and...rarely or never” harm the user. Likewise, individuals who use herbal supplements or OTC weight-loss aids were found to be more likely to perceive...Sun C, Willsie SK: Herbal products and dietary supplements : a survey of use, attitudes, and knowledge among older adults. J Am Osteopath Assoc 2007

  12. Overview of regulation of dietary supplements in the USA and issues of adulteration with phenethylamines (PEAs).

    PubMed

    Pawar, Rahul S; Grundel, Erich

    2016-06-03

    The multi-billion dollar dietary supplement industry is global in reach. The industry has been criticized for problems related to poor quality control, safety, misbranding, and adulteration. In this review, we describe how the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulates dietary supplements within the framework of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FD&C Act). The Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act of 1994 (DSHEA), which amended the FD&C Act, gave the FDA the authority to promulgate Good Manufacturing Practices for dietary supplements and required that manufacturers provide the FDA information supporting a conclusion that the ingredients are reasonably expected to be safe if the dietary ingredients were not marketed in the USA before 15 October 1994. Recent amendments to the FD&C Act require that serious dietary-supplement-related adverse events be reported to the FDA and provide the agency with mandatory recall authority. We discuss the presence of naturally occurring (e.g. Ephedra, Citrus aurantium, Acacia) and synthetic (e.g. β-methylphenethylamines, methylsynephrine, α-ethyl-phenethylamine) biologically active phenethylamines (PEAs) in dietary supplements and of PEA drugs (e.g. clenbuterol, fenfluramine, sibutramine, lorcaserin) in weight-loss products. Regulatory actions against manufacturers of products labelled as dietary supplements that contain the aliphatic amines 1,3-dimethylamine and 1,3-dimethylbutylamine, and PEAs such as β-methylphenethylamine, aegeline, and Dendrobium illustrate the FDA's use of its authority under the FD&C Act to promote dietary supplement safety. Published 2016. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  13. Herbal and Dietary Supplement-Induced Liver Injury.

    PubMed

    de Boer, Ynto S; Sherker, Averell H

    2017-02-01

    The increase in the use of herbal and dietary supplements (HDSs) over the last decades has been accompanied by an increase in the reports of HDS-associated hepatotoxicity. The spectrum of HDS-induced liver injury is diverse and the outcome may vary from transient liver test increases to fulminant hepatic failure resulting in death or requiring liver transplant. There are no validated standardized tools to establish the diagnosis, but some HDS products have a typical clinical signature that may help to identify HDS-induced liver injury.

  14. Development of a Drinkable, Peanut-Based Dietary Supplement and Comparison of Its Nutritional and Microbiological Qualities with Commercial Products.

    PubMed

    Klu, Yaa Asantewaa Kafui; Phillips, Robert D; Chen, Jinru

    2016-05-01

    This study was undertaken to formulate, using peanuts as a major ingredient, a beverage which will benefit older adults who are at a high risk of protein-energy malnutrition and other health complications, and to compare its nutritional and microbiological qualities to commercial products. Peanuts, rice flour, and flaxseed meal in a ratio of 48.0:49.8:2.2 were mixed with water (20% solids) and cooked into gruel which was sequentially treated with BAN(®) , (480 KNU-B/g, 75 °C 1 h), Alcalase(®) (2.4 AU-A/g, 60 °C 1 h), and Flavourzyme(®) (1000 LAPU/g, 55 °C 1 h) to predigest starch and protein, respectively. The degree of hydrolysis and product viscosity during hydrolysis was measured. The nutritional and microbiological qualities of the product were compared to 10 commercial products. Results indicate that 60% of starch was hydrolyzed while a total of 1.62% protein hydrolysis was observed. Product viscosity reduced from 228.55 to 3.60 cP at the end of hydrolysis. The formulation had no cholesterol and low sodium which was a functional property that was absent in the commercial products. Results of this study suggest that the formulation can be further optimized into a unique product that could cater for the protein needs and other nutritional requirements of older adults.

  15. Dietary cholesterol supplementation to a plant-based diet suppresses the complete pathway of cholesterol synthesis and induces bile acid production in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.).

    PubMed

    Kortner, Trond M; Björkhem, Ingemar; Krasnov, Aleksei; Timmerhaus, Gerrit; Krogdahl, Åshild

    2014-06-28

    Plants now supply more than 50 % of protein in Norwegian salmon aquafeeds. The inclusion of plant protein in aquafeeds may be associated with decreased lipid digestibility and cholesterol and bile salt levels, indicating that the replacement of fishmeal with plant protein could result in inadequate supplies of cholesterol in fish. A reduction in feed efficiency, fish growth and pathogen resistance is often observed in parallel to alterations in sterol metabolism. Previous studies have indicated that the negative effects induced by plant components can be attenuated when diets are supplemented with cholesterol. The present study evaluated the effects of dietary cholesterol supplementation (1·5 %) in Atlantic salmon fed a plant-based diet for 77 d. The weights of body, intestines and liver were recorded and blood, tissues, faeces, chyme and bile were sampled for the evaluation of effects on growth, nutrient utilisation and metabolism, and transcriptome and metabolite levels, with particular emphasis on sterol metabolism and organ structure and function. Cholesterol supplementation did not affect the growth or organ weights of Atlantic salmon, but seemed to promote the induction of cholesterol and plant sterol efflux in the intestine while suppressing sterol uptake. Cholesterol biosynthesis decreased correspondingly and conversion into bile acids increased. The marked effect of cholesterol supplementation on bile acid synthesis suggests that dietary cholesterol can be used to increase bile acid synthesis in fish. The present study clearly demonstrated how Atlantic salmon adjusted their metabolic functions in response to the dietary load of cholesterol. It has also expanded our understanding of sterol metabolism and turnover, adding to the existing, rather sparse, knowledge of these processes in fish.

  16. Effects of hyperparathyroidism and dietary calcium supplementation on bone healing.

    PubMed

    Hubbard, G B; Schmidt, R E; Gleiser, C A; MacKenzie, W F

    1979-02-01

    Effects of nutritional secondary hyperparathyroidism and dietary calcium supplementation on bone healing were determined. Groups (n = 4) of 5 mature male dogs each were fed the following diets: group 1, control diet (0.48% Ca, 0.43% P); group 2, test diet (0.12% Ca, 1.14% P): group 3, control diet plus calcium; group 4, test diet plus calcium. The dietary calcium supplementation was calcium gluconate. Lesions were induced in the right tibial cortex by trephinization. Within the time limitations of this study, it was determined that nutritional secondary hyperparathyroidism does not inhibit bone healing and that dietary calcium supplementation does not aid bone healing.

  17. Research of stimulants and anabolic steroids in dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Baume, N; Mahler, N; Kamber, M; Mangin, P; Saugy, M

    2006-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the composition of 103 dietary supplements bought on the internet. The supplements were dispatched in four different categories according to their announced contents [creatine, prohormones, "mental enhancers" and branched chain amino acids (BCAA)]. All the supplements were screened for the presence of stimulants and main anabolic steroids parent compounds. At the same time, the research was focused on the precursors and metabolites of testosterone and nandrolone. The study pointed out three products containing an anabolic steroid, metandienone, in a very high amount. The ingestion of such products induced a high quantity of metandienone metabolites in urines that would be considered as a positive antidoping test. The results have also shown that one creatine product and three "mental enhancers" contained traces of hormones or prohormones not claimed on the labels and 14 prohormone products contained substances other than those indicated by the manufacturer. The oral intake of the creatine product revealed the presence of the two main nandrolone metabolites (19-norandrosterone and 19-noretiocholanolone) in urine.

  18. Health habits and other characteristics of dietary supplement users: a review

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Dietary supplements are used by half to two-thirds of American adults, and the evidence suggests that this usage is one component of a larger effort to develop a healthier lifestyle. Dietary supplement users tend on average to be better educated and to have somewhat higher incomes than nonusers, and these factors may contribute to their health-consciousness. Dietary supplement use also tends to be more prevalent among women than among men, and the prevalence of use increases with age in both men and women. Numerous surveys document that users of dietary supplements are significantly more likely than nonusers to have somewhat better dietary patterns, exercise regularly, maintain a healthy weight, and avoid tobacco products. While supplement users tend to have better diets than nonusers, the differences are relatively small, their diets have some substantial nutrient shortfalls, and their supplement use has been shown to improve the adequacy of nutrient intakes. Overall, the evidence suggests that users of dietary supplements are seeking wellness and are consciously adopting a variety of lifestyle habits that they consider to contribute to healthy living. PMID:24499096

  19. Review of liver injury associated with dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Stickel, Felix; Kessebohm, Kerstin; Weimann, Rosemarie; Seitz, Helmut K

    2011-05-01

    Dietary supplements (DS) are easily available and increasingly used, and adverse hepatic reactions have been reported following their intake. To critically review the literature on liver injury because of DSs, delineating patterns and mechanisms of injury and to increase the awareness towards this cause of acute and chronic liver damage. Studies and case reports on liver injury specifically because of DSs published between 1990 and 2010 were searched in the PubMed and EMBASE data bases using the terms 'dietary/nutritional supplements', 'adverse hepatic reactions', 'liver injury'; 'hepatitis', 'liver failure', 'vitamin A' and 'retinoids', and reviewed for yet unidentified publications. Significant liver injury was reported after intake of Herbalife and Hydroxycut products, tea extracts from Camellia sinensis, products containing usnic acid and high contents of vitamin A, anabolic steroids and others. No uniform pattern of hepatotoxicity has been identified and severity may range from asymptomatic elevations of serum liver enzymes to hepatic failure and death. Exact estimates on how frequent adverse hepatic reactions occur as a result of DSs cannot be provided. Liver injury from DSs mimicking other liver diseases is increasingly recognized. Measures to reduce risk include tighter regulation of their production and distribution and increased awareness of users and professionals of the potential risks.

  20. 21 CFR 111.165 - What requirements apply to a product received for packaging or labeling as a dietary supplement...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false What requirements apply to a product received for...)? 111.165 Section 111.165 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE IN...

  1. 21 CFR 111.165 - What requirements apply to a product received for packaging or labeling as a dietary supplement...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false What requirements apply to a product received for...)? 111.165 Section 111.165 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE IN...

  2. 21 CFR 111.165 - What requirements apply to a product received for packaging or labeling as a dietary supplement...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What requirements apply to a product received for...)? 111.165 Section 111.165 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE IN...

  3. 21 CFR 111.165 - What requirements apply to a product received for packaging or labeling as a dietary supplement...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false What requirements apply to a product received for...)? 111.165 Section 111.165 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE IN...

  4. 21 CFR 111.165 - What requirements apply to a product received for packaging or labeling as a dietary supplement...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What requirements apply to a product received for...)? 111.165 Section 111.165 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE IN...

  5. Dietary Supplement Ingredient Database (DSID): Preliminary USDA studies on composition of adult multivitamin/mineral supplements

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Nutrient Data Laboratory, USDA, is collaborating with the Office of Dietary Supplements (ODS), the National Center for Health Statistics, and other government agencies to design and populate a Dietary Supplement Ingredient Database (DSID). This analytically based, publicly available database wi...

  6. Effect of different dietary levels of mangrove (Laguncularia racemosa) leaves and spice supplementation on productive performance, egg quality, lipid metabolism and metabolic profiles in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Al-Harthi, M A; El-Deek, A A; Attia, Y A; Bovera, F; Qota, E M

    2009-11-01

    In order to study the influence of white mangrove (Laguncularia racemosa) leaves on productive performance, egg quality, lipids metabolism and metabolic profiles, 180 Hy-line laying hens were randomly distributed to 6 dietary treatments each contained 6 replicates of 5 individually caged hens during the period from 50 to 60 weeks of age. 2. Three isoenergetic and isonitrogenous diets were formulated to contain 0, 50 and 100 g/kg of sun-dried mangrove leaves. Each diet was fed with or without supplementation of 2 g of cardamom, cumin, hot and black pepper mixture (1:1:1:1)/kg diet. 3. Mangrove leaves at either 50 or 100 g/kg adversely affect laying rate, egg mass and FCR, whilst increasing water intake and water to feed ratio. Mangrove leaves had no significant effect on dry matter, protein, lipid, cholesterol and ash content of liver, or on dry matter, protein and ash of yolk. 4. Plasma total protein, total lipids; liver enzymes AST and ALT and mortality rate were not significantly affected by mangrove leaves. On the other hand, yolk lipid, yolk cholesterol and plasma cholesterol significantly decreased, while yolk colour significantly increased with inclusion of 50 or 100 g/kg mangrove leaves, and Haugh unit score significantly increased with 100 g/kg mangrove leaves. 5. Spice mixture significantly increased egg weight by 2.2%. Yolk lipid content significantly decreased by 2.6%, while yolk colour and Haugh unit significantly increased with inclusion of spice mixtures. 6. In conclusion, mangrove leaves at 50 g/kg may be included in the laying hen diets as a means of decreasing lipid and cholesterol in yolk and plasma cholesterol and increasing yolk colour. Spice mixture at 2 g of cardamom, cumin, hot and black pepper mixture (1:1:1:1)/kg diet increased laying rate, egg mass, Haugh unit score and yolk colour while decreasing yolk lipids.

  7. Feasibility of wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry for the determination of metal impurities in pharmaceutical products and dietary supplements in view of regulatory guidelines.

    PubMed

    Figueiredo, Alexandra; Fernandes, Tânia; Costa, Isabel Margarida; Gonçalves, Luísa; Brito, José

    2016-04-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of Wavelength Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (WDXRF) spectrometry for the measurement of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ir, Mn, Mo, Ni, Os, Pb, Pd, Pt, Rh, Ru and V impurities in pharmaceuticals and dietary supplements, in view of the requirements by EMA and USP for the measurement of elemental impurities in drug products and according to the International Conference on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use (ICH guidelines). For that purpose, a 4 kW WDXRF spectrometer (S4 Pioneer, Bruker AXS) was used after system calibration. The linearity of the method was demonstrated by correlation coefficients in excess of 0.9 and by appropriate test of lack of fit, except for Cd, Hg, Pd, V and As, which were excluded from analysis. The calculated limits of detection and quantification were in the ranges 0.6-5.4 μg/g and 1.7-16.4 μg/g meeting defined acceptance criteria, except for Pb. The accuracy of the method, determined by the percent recovery (R) of known amounts of each element added to a selected drug, at 3 different concentration levels, was in the acceptance range 70-150% except for Os and Pt, in which case R was marginally outside that range. The repeatability of the method, assessed as the % residual standard deviation (%RSD) of 3 replicate measurements at 3 concentration levels, produced %RSD values lower than 20%, as required. These results show that the WDXRF method complies with the validation requirements defined by the European Pharmacopeia for Cu, Cr, Ir, Mn, Mo, Ni, Os, and Pt, and by the United States Pharmacopeia for Ir, Ni, Os and Pt. Therefore, it may be an alternative to the compendial analytical procedures recommended for such elements. The novelty of the present work is the application of WDXRF to final medicines and not only to active pharmaceutical ingredients and/or excipients.

  8. The history of efforts to regulate dietary supplements in the USA.

    PubMed

    Swann, John P

    2016-01-01

    This review examines the emergence of dietary supplements and how the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) attempted to regulate these, beginning with the arrival of vitamins and how these were managed under the 1906 Food and Drugs Act, and ending with the seismic influence of the 1994 Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act (DSHEA). Included are the impact of major laws, key court decisions, and the construction of the FDA's supplement actions and rules from the 1920s to the 1990s for products that were neither drugs nor typical foods. Stiff resistance to the regulations by supplement manufacturers, trade associations, politicians, and especially the public at large is an important part of this story. The paper closes with the passage of DSHEA and how it literally changed the definition and parameters of control of dietary supplements. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Pathogenic Potential of Saccharomyces Strains Isolated from Dietary Supplements

    PubMed Central

    Monteoliva, Lucía; Querol, Amparo; Molina, María; Fernández-Espinar, María T.

    2014-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae plays a beneficial role in health because of its intrinsic nutritional value and bio-functional properties, which is why it is also used as a dietary supplement. However, the perception that S. cerevisiae is harmless has changed due to an increasing number of infections caused by this yeast. Given this scenario, we have tested whether viable strains contained in dietary supplements displayed virulence-associated phenotypic traits that could contribute to virulence in humans. We have also performed an in vivo study of the pathogenic potential of these strains using a murine model of systemic infection by intravenous inoculation. A total of 5 strains were isolated from 22 commercial products and tested. Results highlight one strain (D14) in terms of burden levels in brains and kidneys and ability to cause death, whereas the other two strains (D2 and D4) were considered of low virulence. Our results suggest a strong relationship between some of the virulence-associated phenotypic traits (ability to grow at 39°C and pseudohyphal growth) and the in vivo virulence in a mouse model of intravenous inoculation for isolates under study. The isolate displaying greatest virulence (D14) was evaluated in an experimental murine model of gastrointestinal infection with immunosuppression and disruption of mucosal integrity, which are common risk factors for developing infection in humans, and results were compared with an avirulent strain (D23). We showed that D14 was able to spread to mesenteric nodes and distant organs under these conditions. Given the widespread consumption of dietary supplements, we recommend only safe strains be used. PMID:24879417

  10. An Evidence-based Elective on Dietary Supplements

    PubMed Central

    Caron, Whitney; Zeolla, Mario

    2009-01-01

    Objective To implement and evaluate the effectiveness of a pharmacy elective on dietary supplements that emphasized evidence-based care. Design A 3-credit elective that employed both traditional lectures and a variety of active-learning exercises was implemented. The course introduction provided a background in dietary supplement use and evidence-based medicine principles before addressing dietary supplements by primary indication. Assessment Student learning was assessed through quizzes, case assignments, discussion board participation, and completion of a longitudinal group project. Precourse and postcourse surveys were conducted to assess students' opinions, knowledge, and skills related to course objectives. Conclusion The course was an effective way to increase students' knowledge of dietary supplements and skills and confidence in providing patient care in this area. PMID:19777095

  11. Evaluation of Herbal and Dietary Supplement Resource Term Coverage

    PubMed Central

    Manohar, Nivedha; Adam, Terrance J.; Pakhomov, Serguei V.; Melton, Genevieve B.; Zhang, Rui

    2016-01-01

    The use of Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) is increasingly popular in places like North America and Europe where western medicine is primarily practiced. People are consuming herbal and dietary supplements along with western medications simultaneously. Sometimes, supplements and drugs react with one another via antagonistic or potentiation actions of the drug or supplement resulting in an adverse event. Unfortunately, it is not easy to study drug-supplement interactions without a standard terminology to describe herbal and dietary supplements. This pilot study investigated coverage of supplement databases to one another as well as coverage by the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) and RxNorm for supplement terms. We found that none of the supplement databases completely covers supplement terms. UMLS, MeSH, SNOMED CT, RxNorm and NDF-RT cover 54%, 40%, 32%, 22% and 14% of supplement concepts, respectively. NDF-RT provides some value for grouping supplements into drug classes. Enhancing our understanding of the gap between the traditional biomedical terminology systems and supplement terms could lead to the development of a comprehensive terminology resources for supplements, and other secondary uses such as better detection and extraction of drug-supplement interactions. PMID:26262159

  12. Proposed rule: current good manufacturing practice in manufacturing, packing, or holding dietary ingredients and dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Melethil, Srikumaran

    2006-03-27

    The Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act (DSHEA) was enacted in October 1994 to promote the health of Americans by ensuring easier access to safe dietary supplements. Many supplements such as vitamins, minerals, herbs and amino acids have been reported to be helpful in chronic conditions (i.e., heart disease, cancer and osteoporosis). Under DSHEA, dietary supplements can be marketed without prior FDA approval; the burden is on this agency to show that a marketed dietary supplement is unsafe. However, DSHEA retained the FDA's authority to issue regulations that require the manufacture of dietary supplements be in compliance with current good manufacturing practice (cGMP) standards, which are needed to ensure their quality. Several quality-related concerns of marketed dietary supplements that came to light since the passage of DSHEA prompted the FDA in 2003 to propose rules for cGMP for the manufacture, packaging and holding (storage) of dietary supplements. This review will present the highlights of these proposed rules, focusing on the legislative history of DSHEA, rationale for proposing cGMPs along with a general discussion of the specific requirements. Given the voluminous nature of the specific details, the reader is directed to the pertinent FDA publications for details. In this analysis, selected scientific and legal issues are also discussed to promote a better understanding and implications of these rules.

  13. Micronutrient dietary supplements--a new fourth approach.

    PubMed

    Latham, M C; Ash, D; Ndossi, G; Mehansho, H; Tatala, S

    2001-03-01

    Currently the three main widely used strategies to control micronutrient deficiencies are food diversification, fortification, and consumption of medicinal supplements. In Tanzania a fourth strategy has been evaluated in school children, and is to be studied in pregnant and lactating women. The dietary supplement comes in the form of a powder used to prepare a fruit flavored drink. Children consumed for six months 25 grams per school day attended, the powder being added to 200 ml of water. The dietary supplement provides between 40 and 100 percent of the RDA of 10 micronutrients, which includes iron, vitamin A and iodine. Unlike medicinal supplements it provides the multiple vitamins and minerals in physiologic, not megadoses. In a well conducted randomized double blind placebo controlled trial, a dietary supplement in the form of a fortified powder fruit drink produced statistically significant differences not only in vitamin A and iron status, but also in the growth of young school age children.

  14. Evaluating Term Coverage of Herbal and Dietary Supplements in Electronic Health Records

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Rui; Manohar, Nivedha; Arsoniadis, Elliot; Wang, Yan; Adam, Terrence J.; Pakhomov, Serguei V.; Melton, Genevieve B.

    2015-01-01

    Herbal and dietary supplement consumption has rapidly expanded in recent years. Due to pharmacological and metabolic characteristics of some supplements, they can interact with prescription medications, potentially leading to clinically important and potentially preventable adverse reactions. Electronic health record (EHR) system provides a valuable source from which drug-supplement interactions can be mined and assessed for their clinical effects. A fundamental prerequisite is a functional understanding of supplement documentation in EHR and associated supplement coverage in major online databases. To address this, clinical notes and corresponding medication lists from an integrated healthcare system were extracted and compared with online databases. Overall, about 40% of listed medications are supplements, most of which are included in medication lists as nutritional or miscellaneous products. Gaps were found between supplement and standard medication terminologies, creating documentation difficulties in fully achieving robust supplement documentation in EHR systems. In addition, in the clinical notes we identified supplements which were not mentioned in the medication lists. PMID:26958277

  15. Which sources of flavonoids: complex diets or dietary supplements?

    PubMed

    Egert, Sarah; Rimbach, Gerald

    2011-01-01

    There is increasing interest in the potential health benefits of dietary flavonoids. Fruits and vegetables, tea, and cocoa are rich natural sources of flavonoids. Epidemiological studies have indicated that consumption of these foods is likely to be associated with a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease, but the etiology of this benefit is not yet clearly defined. Furthermore, in some acute interventions, a positive effect of tea and cocoa on vascular function has been reported. An alternative source of flavonoids is dietary supplements, which have become increasingly popular in the recent past. In this context, it needs to be critically evaluated whether vascular health-promoting and other positive properties of flavonoid-rich diets can be replaced by purified flavonoids as dietary supplements. Plant sources of flavonoids contain a complex mixture of secondary plant metabolites and not only flavonoids per se. This complex mixture of secondary plant metabolites cannot be simply exchanged by single purified compounds as dietary supplements. If flavonoids are given as dietary supplements, toxicity issues as well as nutrient drug interactions need to be taken into account. Purified flavonoids given in high doses as dietary supplements may affect trace element, folate, and vitamin C status. Furthermore, they may exhibit antithyroid and goitrogenic activities. In this review article, the available literature on the safety issues surrounding high dose supplemental flavonoid consumption has been summarized.

  16. Dietary supplements and hypertension: potential benefits and precautions.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Carly B; Glisson, James K; Minor, Deborah S

    2012-07-01

    Dietary supplements (DSs) are used extensively in the general population and many are promoted for the natural treatment and management of hypertension. Patients with hypertension often choose to use these products either in addition to or instead of pharmacologic antihypertensive agents. Because of the frequent use of DS, both consumers and health care providers should be aware of the considerable issues surrounding these products and factors influencing both efficacy and safety. In this review of the many DSs promoted for the management of hypertension, 4 products with evidence of possible benefits (coenzyme Q10, fish oil, garlic, vitamin C) and 4 that were consistently associated with increasing blood pressure were found (ephedra, Siberian ginseng, bitter orange, licorice). The goals and objectives of this review are to discuss the regulation of DS, evaluate the efficacy of particular DS in the treatment of hypertension, and highlight DS that may potentially increase blood pressure.

  17. Prevalence and predictors of children's dietary supplement use: the 2007 National Health Interview Survey1234

    PubMed Central

    Dwyer, Johanna; Nahin, Richard L; Rogers, Gail T; Barnes, Patricia M; Jacques, Paul M; Sempos, Christopher T; Bailey, Regan

    2013-01-01

    Background: Little is known about the characteristics of US children who are dietary supplement users. Objective: We described the prevalence and predictors of and reasons for giving children dietary supplements. Design: The study included children <18 y of age who participated in the Complementary and Alternative Medicine supplement of the National Health Interview Survey of 2007 whose proxies provided complete information on child dietary supplement use. Results: A total of 37% of subjects used dietary supplements, 31% of subjects used multivitamin mineral (MVM) products exclusively, 4% of subjects used single vitamins or minerals solely or in combination with MVMs, and 2% of subjects used nonvitamin, nonmineral products either solely or in combination with other supplements. Users were more likely than nonusers to be Asian, white, or non-Hispanic; belong to families with higher parental education and income levels; reside in areas other than the South; be in good, very good, or excellent health; have private health insurance; and have a usual place at which they received conventional medical care. Children (3%) with the most disease burden and health care were more likely to use supplements than were healthier children. Supplements were given for the prevention or treatment of many illnesses and conditions. Neither the caregiver's reasons nor specific supplements used were consistently associated with particular conditions. Conclusions: The 37% of US children who used any type of dietary supplements differed from nonusers in family socioeconomic status and many other health-related characteristics. Users were given supplements to prevent or treat many illnesses and conditions for which there is only limited evidence of their efficacy. PMID:23576049

  18. DNA Barcode Authentication of Saw Palmetto Herbal Dietary Supplements

    PubMed Central

    Little, Damon P.; Jeanson, Marc L.

    2013-01-01

    Herbal dietary supplements made from saw palmetto (Serenoa repens; Arecaceae) fruit are commonly consumed to ameliorate benign prostate hyperplasia. A novel DNA mini–barcode assay to accurately identify [specificity = 1.00 (95% confidence interval = 0.74–1.00); sensitivity = 1.00 (95% confidence interval = 0.66–1.00); n = 31] saw palmetto dietary supplements was designed from a DNA barcode reference library created for this purpose. The mini–barcodes were used to estimate the frequency of mislabeled saw palmetto herbal dietary supplements on the market in the United States of America. Of the 37 supplements examined, amplifiable DNA could be extracted from 34 (92%). Mini–barcode analysis of these supplements demonstrated that 29 (85%) contain saw palmetto and that 2 (6%) supplements contain related species that cannot be legally sold as herbal dietary supplements in the United States of America. The identity of 3 (9%) supplements could not be conclusively determined. PMID:24343362

  19. Effects of dietary supplementation of selenium-enriched probiotics on production performance and intestinal microbiota of weanling piglets raised under high ambient temperature.

    PubMed

    Lv, C H; Wang, T; Regmi, N; Chen, X; Huang, K; Liao, S F

    2015-12-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of selenium-enriched probiotics (SeP) on production performance and intestinal microbiota of piglets raised under high ambient temperature. Forty-eight cross-bred weanling piglets (28 days old), randomly allotted into 12 pens (four piglets/pen) and four dietary treatments (three pens/treatment group), were fed ad libitum for 42 days a basal diet (Con) or the basal diet supplemented with probiotics (Pro), sodium selenite (ISe) or a SeP preparation. Blood and faecal samples were collected on days 0, 14, 28 and 42 post-treatment. The SeP group had higher final BW (p < 0.05), greater ADG (p < 0.05) and lower FCR (p < 0.01) than the Pro, ISe or Con group. The diarrhoea incidence rate of either SeP or Pro group was lower (p < 0.01) than the ISe or Con group. Blood Se concentration and GSH-Px activity were both higher (p < 0.01) in the SeP than in the Pro, ISe or Con group. On days 28 and 42, the serum concentrations of T3 were higher (p < 0.01) and T4 lower (p < 0.01) in the SeP than in the ISe group, and the T3 and T4 concentrations in the ISe group, in turn, were higher (p < 0.05) and lower (p < 0.01), respectively, than in the Pro or Con group. Also on days 28 and 42, the faecal counts of lactobacillus bacteria were higher (p < 0.01) while Escherichia coli lower (p < 0.01) in the SeP or Pro group as compared to the ISe or Con group. The results of RFLP showed that the faecal microbial flora in the SeP group changed the most (numerically) as compared to the Pro or ISe group. These results suggest that the SeP product may serve as a better alternative to antibiotics than the solo probiotics for using as a growth promoter for weanling piglets.

  20. Use of dietary supplements among people living with HIV/AIDS is associated with vulnerability to medical misinformation on the internet

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Use of dietary supplements is common among people living with HIV/AIDS. Because dietary supplements are used in the context of other health behaviors, they may have direct and indirect health benefits. However, supplements may also be associated with vulnerability to medical misinformation and unfounded health claims. We examined use of dietary supplements among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWH) and the association between use of dietary supplements and believing medical misinformation. Methods A convenience sample of 268 men and 76 women living with HIV was recruited from AIDS services and clinics in Atlanta, GA. Participants completed measures of demographic and health characteristics, dietary supplement use, beliefs about dietary supplements, internet use, and an internet evaluation task designed to assess vulnerability to medical misinformation. Results One out of four PLWH currently used at least one dietary supplement product excluding vitamins. Dietary supplement use was associated with higher education and greater use of the internet for health-related information. Dietary supplement users also endorsed greater believability and trust in unfounded claims for HIV cures. Conclusions Dietary supplement use is common among PLWH and is associated with a broad array of health information seeking behaviors. Interventions are needed to reduce the vulnerability of PLWH, particularly dietary supplement users, to medical misinformation propagated on the internet. PMID:22233928

  1. Hepatotoxicity associated with the dietary supplement OxyELITE Pro™ - Hawaii, 2013.

    PubMed

    Johnston, David I; Chang, Arthur; Viray, Melissa; Chatham-Stephens, Kevin; He, Hua; Taylor, Ethel; Wong, Linda L; Schier, Joshua; Martin, Colleen; Fabricant, Daniel; Salter, Monique; Lewis, Lauren; Park, Sarah Y

    2016-01-01

    Dietary supplements are increasingly marketed to and consumed by the American public for a variety of purported health benefits. On 9 September 2013, the Hawaii Department of Health (HDOH) was notified of a cluster of acute hepatitis and fulminant hepatic failure among individuals with exposure to the dietary supplement OxyELITE Pro™ (OEP). HDOH conducted an outbreak investigation in collaboration with federal partners. Physicians were asked to report cases, defined as individuals with acute onset hepatitis of unknown etiology on or after 1 April 2013, a history of weight-loss/muscle-building dietary supplement use during the 60 days before illness onset, and residence in Hawaii during the period of exposure. Reported cases' medical records were reviewed, questionnaires were administered, and a product investigation, including chemical analyses and traceback, was conducted. Of 76 reports, 44 (58%) met case definition; of these, 36 (82%) reported OEP exposure during the two months before illness. No other common supplements or exposures were observed. Within the OEP-exposed subset, two patients required liver transplantation, and a third patient died. Excessive product dosing was not reported. No unique lot numbers were identified; there were multiple mainland distribution points, and lot numbers common to cases in Hawaii were also identified in continental states. Product analysis found consumed products were consistent with labeled ingredients; the mechanism of hepatotoxicity was not identified. We report one of the largest statewide outbreaks of dietary supplement-associated hepatotoxicity. The implicated product was OEP. The increasing popularity of dietary supplements raises the potential for additional clusters of dietary supplement-related adverse events. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Hepatotoxicity associated with the dietary supplement OxyELITE Pro™ — Hawaii, 2013

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, David I.; Chang, Arthur; Viray, Melissa; Chatham-Stephens, Kevin; He, Hua; Taylor, Ethel; Wong, Linda L.; Schier, Joshua; Martin, Colleen; Fabricant, Daniel; Salter, Monique; Lewis, Lauren; Park, Sarah Y.

    2015-01-01

    Dietary supplements are increasingly marketed to and consumed by the American public for a variety of purported health benefits. On 9 September 2013, the Hawaii Department of Health (HDOH) was notified of a cluster of acute hepatitis and fulminant hepatic failure among individuals with exposure to the dietary supplement OxyELITE Pro™ (OEP). HDOH conducted an outbreak investigation in collaboration with federal partners. Physicians were asked to report cases, defined as individuals with acute onset hepatitis of unknown etiology on or after 1 April 2013, a history of weight-loss/muscle-building dietary supplement use during the 60 days before illness onset, and residence in Hawaii during the period of exposure. Reported cases’ medical records were reviewed, questionnaires were administered, and a product investigation, including chemical analyses and trace back, was conducted. Of 76 reports, 44 (58%) met case definition; of these, 36 (82%) reported OEP exposure during the two months before illness. No other common supplements or exposures were observed. Within the OEP-exposed subset, two patients required liver transplantation, and a third patient died. Excessive product dosing was not reported. No unique lot numbers were identified; there were multiple mainland distribution points, and lot numbers common to cases in Hawaii were also identified in continental states. Product analysis found consumed products were consistent with labeled ingredients; the mechanism of hepatotoxicity was not identified. We report one of the largest statewide outbreaks of dietary supplement-associated hepatotoxicity. The implicated product was OEP. The increasing popularity of dietary supplements raises the potential for additional clusters of dietary supplement-related adverse events. PMID:26538199

  3. Multiple dietary supplements do not affect metabolic and cardiovascular health

    PubMed Central

    Holloszy, John O.; Fontana, Luigi

    2014-01-01

    Dietary supplements are widely used for health purposes. However, little is known about the metabolic and cardiovascular effects of combinations of popular over-the-counter supplements, each of which has been shown to have anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and pro-longevity properties in cell culture or animal studies. This study was a 6-month randomized, single-blind controlled trial, in which 56 non-obese (BMI 21.0-29.9 kg/m2) men and women, aged 38 to 55 yr, were assigned to a dietary supplement (SUP) group or control (CON) group, with a 6-month follow-up. The SUP group took 10 dietary supplements each day (100 mg of resveratrol, a complex of 800 mg each of green, black, and white tea extract, 250 mg of pomegranate extract, 650 mg of quercetin, 500 mg of acetyl-l-carnitine, 600 mg of lipoic acid, 900 mg of curcumin, 1 g of sesamin, 1.7 g of cinnamon bark extract, and 1.0 g fish oil). Both the SUP and CON groups took a daily multivitamin/mineral supplement. The main outcome measures were arterial stiffness, endothelial function, biomarkers of inflammation and oxidative stress, and cardiometabolic risk factors. Twenty-four weeks of daily supplementation with 10 dietary supplements did not affect arterial stiffness or endothelial function in nonobese individuals. These compounds also did not alter body fat measured by DEXA, blood pressure, plasma lipids, glucose, insulin, IGF-1, and markers of inflammation and oxidative stress. In summary, supplementation with a combination of popular dietary supplements has no cardiovascular or metabolic effects in non-obese relatively healthy individuals. PMID:24659610

  4. Prophylactic effect of dietary glutamine supplementation on interleukin 8 and tumour necrosis factor α production in trinitrobenzene sulphonic acid induced colitis

    PubMed Central

    Ameho, C; Adjei, A; Harrison, E; Takeshita, K; Morioka, T; Arakaki, Y; Ito, E; Suzuki, I; Kulkarni, A; Kawajiri, A; Yamamoto, S

    1997-01-01

    Background—It is well established that glutamine supplemented elemental diets result in less severe intestinal damage in experimental colitis. However, few studies have examined the mode of action of glutamine in reducing intestinal damage. 
Aims—To examine the effects of glutamine supplemented elemental diets on the potent inflammatory cytokines interleukin 8 (IL-8) and tumour necrosis factor α (TNF-α) in trinitrobenzene sulphonic acid (TNBS) induced colitis which presents with both acute and chronic features of ulcerative colitis. 
Methods—Sprague-Dawley rats were randomised into three dietary groups and fed 20% casein (controls), or 20% casein supplemented with either 2% glutamine (2% Gln) or 4% glutamine (4% Gln). After two weeks they received intracolonic TNBS to induce colitis.
Results—Both Gln groups of rats gained more weight than the control group (p<0.05) which had progressive weight loss. Colon weight, macroscopic, and microscopic damage scores for the Gln groups were lower than in the control group (p<0.05). IL-8 and TNF-α concentrations in inflamed colonic tissues were lower in the Gln groups than in the control group (p<0.05), and correlated well with disease severity. Bacterial translocation was lower both in incidence (p<0.05) and in the number of colony forming units (p<0.05) for the Gln groups, than in the control group. With respect to all indices studied, the 4% Gln group performed better than did the 2% Gln group. 
Conclusion—Prophylactic glutamine supplementation modulates the inflammatory activities of IL-8 and TNF-α in TNBS induced colitis. 

 Keywords: glutamine; trinitrobenzene sulphonic acid; inflammatory bowel disease; rats; interleukin 8; tumour necrosis factor α PMID:9391247

  5. Effect of a dietary supplementation with linseed oil and selenium to growing rabbits on their productive performances, carcass traits and fresh and cooked meat quality.

    PubMed

    Matics, Zs; Cullere, M; Szín, M; Gerencsér, Zs; Szabó, A; Fébel, H; Odermatt, M; Radnai, I; Dalle Zotte, A; Szendrő, Zs

    2016-08-23

    The present experiment tested a dietary supplementation with linseed oil and selenium to growing rabbits. The basal diet (B) contained 3% sunflower oil, while it was substituted with 3% linseed oil in the experimental feed (S). The selenium (Se) content of the two diets was 0.10 vs. 0.46 mg/kg. Rabbits were fed with B diet from the age of 18 days. One group was fed with the B diet until 11 weeks of age (group B), whereas the experimental groups were fed with S diet for 1, 2, 3 or 4 weeks (groups S1, S2, S3 and S4, respectively), before slaughtering (11 weeks of age). Live performance and carcass traits of rabbits, fatty acid (FA) profile and selenium content of their hind leg (HL) and Longissimus thoracis et lumborum (LTL) meat were considered in this study. In addition, the effect of two different cooking methods on the nutritional value of the enriched HL meat was also assessed. The tested dietary supplementation only minimally affected the live performance and carcass traits of rabbits. The S supplementation significantly reduced the Σ n-6 FA and increased the Σ n-3 FA of the HL meat and LTL meat, compared to the B diet (p < 0.001); thus, n-6/n-3 ratio was improved (p < 0.001). In addition, HL meat and LTL meat of S fed rabbits were significantly enriched in Se reaching a twofold increase in both meat cuts (p < 0.01). Therefore, the S supplementation improved the functional value of the rabbit meat. The heat treatment affected cooking loss, Se and vitamin E contents as well as the oxidative status of the HL meat (p < 0.001), with the different cooking methods providing different results. In addition, even if the beneficial C20:5 n-3 and C22:6 n-3 decreased with cooking, the n-6/n-3 ratio remained unaffected.

  6. Authentication of Ginkgo biloba herbal dietary supplements using DNA barcoding.

    PubMed

    Little, Damon P

    2014-09-01

    Ginkgo biloba L. (known as ginkgo or maidenhair tree) is a phylogenetically isolated, charismatic, gymnosperm tree. Herbal dietary supplements, prepared from G. biloba leaves, are consumed to boost cognitive capacity via improved blood perfusion and mitochondrial function. A novel DNA mini-barcode assay was designed and validated for the authentication of G. biloba in herbal dietary supplements (n = 22; sensitivity = 1.00, 95% CI = 0.59-1.00; specificity = 1.00, 95% CI = 0.64-1.00). This assay was further used to estimate the frequency of mislabeled ginkgo herbal dietary supplements on the market in the United States of America: DNA amenable to PCR could not be extracted from three (7.5%) of the 40 supplements sampled, 31 of 37 (83.8%) assayable supplements contained identifiable G. biloba DNA, and six supplements (16.2%) contained fillers without any detectable G. biloba DNA. It is hoped that this assay will be used by supplement manufacturers to ensure that their supplements contain G. biloba.

  7. Dietary supplements usage among elderly Taiwanese during 2005-2008.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shih-Ying; Lin, Jia-Rong; Chen, Tzu-Hsiu; Guo, Shiou-Guei; Kao, Mei-Ding; Pan, Wen-Harn

    2011-01-01

    This study describes dietary supplement consumption practices among the Taiwanese population over the age of 65. Data for the analyses were derived from the 2005-2008 Nutrition and Health Survey in Taiwan. Data from a total of 914 participants (456 men and 458 women) was collected in the study to delineate patterns of supplement usage. The results indicated that the percentage of individuals taking supplements was 45.7% for men and 52.2% for women. There were no significant differences in supplement use by gender, age group, geographic stratum, current employment status, household monthly income, self-reported health status or marital status, except for higher education and adequate perceived financial resources. Half of both men and women chose to take only one supplement. In addition, as the number of supplements taken increased, the number of people decreased. The elderly with higher education levels were more likely to take two kinds of supplements. The top five supplements consumed from highest to lowest were: glucosamine, multivitamins and minerals, calcium, fish oil and vitamin B complex. The major reason for supplements use for men was to supplement an unbalanced diet, and that for women was to prevent joint degeneration. The main factor influencing choice of supplements in the elderly was receiving the supplement as a gift from another person. Note that mean intakes of vitamins A, C, E, B-1, B-2, B-6, B-12, biotin, niacin, and pantothenic acid from supplements over-exceeded DRIs in Taiwan.

  8. Dietary Medium Chain Fatty Acid Supplementation Leads to Reduced VLDL Lipolysis and Uptake Rates in Comparison to Linoleic Acid Supplementation

    PubMed Central

    van Schalkwijk, Daniël B.; Pasman, Wilrike J.; Hendriks, Henk F. J.; Verheij, Elwin R.; Rubingh, Carina M.; van Bochove, Kees; Vaes, Wouter H. J.; Adiels, Martin; Freidig, Andreas P.; de Graaf, Albert A.

    2014-01-01

    Dietary medium chain fatty acids (MCFA) and linoleic acid follow different metabolic routes, and linoleic acid activates PPAR receptors. Both these mechanisms may modify lipoprotein and fatty acid metabolism after dietary intervention. Our objective was to investigate how dietary MCFA and linoleic acid supplementation and body fat distribution affect the fasting lipoprotein subclass profile, lipoprotein kinetics, and postprandial fatty acid kinetics. In a randomized double blind cross-over trial, 12 male subjects (age 51±7 years; BMI 28.5±0.8 kg/m2), were divided into 2 groups according to waist-hip ratio. They were supplemented with 60 grams/day MCFA (mainly C8:0, C10:0) or linoleic acid for three weeks, with a wash-out period of six weeks in between. Lipoprotein subclasses were measured using HPLC. Lipoprotein and fatty acid metabolism were studied using a combination of several stable isotope tracers. Lipoprotein and tracer data were analyzed using computational modeling. Lipoprotein subclass concentrations in the VLDL and LDL range were significantly higher after MCFA than after linoleic acid intervention. In addition, LDL subclass concentrations were higher in lower body obese individuals. Differences in VLDL metabolism were found to occur in lipoprotein lipolysis and uptake, not production; MCFAs were elongated intensively, in contrast to linoleic acid. Dietary MCFA supplementation led to a less favorable lipoprotein profile than linoleic acid supplementation. These differences were not due to elevated VLDL production, but rather to lower lipolysis and uptake rates. PMID:25049048

  9. Effects of dietary supplementation of citrus by-products fermented with a probiotic microbe on growth performance, innate immunity and disease resistance against Edwardsiella tarda in juvenile olive flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus (Temminck & Schlegel).

    PubMed

    Lee, B-J; Kim, S-S; Song, J-W; Oh, D-H; Cha, J-H; Jeong, J-B; Heo, M-S; Kim, K-W; Lee, K-J

    2013-07-01

    Two consecutive studies were conducted to evaluate the dietary supplementation of citrus by-products (CB) fermented with probiotic bacteria on growth performance, feed utilization, innate immune responses and disease resistance of juvenile olive flounder. In Experiment I, five diets were formulated to contain 0% (control) or 3% four different CB fermented with Bacillus subtilis (BS), Enterococcus faecium (EF), Lactobacillus rhamnosus (LR) and L. plantarum (LP) (designated as CON, CBF-BS, CBF-EF, CBF-LR and CBF-LP, respectively). During 10 weeks of a feeding trial, growth performance and feed efficiency were not significantly different among all the fish groups. However, fish fed CBF containing diets had significantly higher survivals than the CON group. Disease resistance of fish against Edwardsiella tarda was increased by the fermentation of CB. In Experiment II, we chose the BS as a promising probiotic and formulated five diets to contain 0%, 2%, 4%, 6% and 8% CBF-BS. Growth performance was not significantly affected by the CBF-BS supplementation during 6 weeks of a feeding trial. Innate immunity of fish was significantly enhanced by CBF-BS supplementation. Myeloperoxidase and lysozyme activities were increased in a dose-dependent manner by dietary CBF-BS inclusions. In a consecutive challenge test against E. tarda, an increased disease resistance was found by CBF-BS supplementation. These studies indicate that the fermentation process of CB with probiotic has beneficial effects on innate immunity and thereby increases disease resistance of olive flounder against E. tarda. Bacillus subtilis can be used as a promising probiotic microbe for by-product fermentation in fish feeds.

  10. The influence of selected ingredients of dietary supplements on skin condition

    PubMed Central

    Łepecka-Klusek, Celina; Kozłowicz, Katarzyna; Jazienicka, Iwona; Krasowska, Dorota

    2014-01-01

    Introduction and aim of the article. Healthy skin is an excellent barrier maintaining balance between the internal and external environment of the body. Because it is constantly changing as a result of, on the one hand, environmental factors and, on the other hand, the process associated with skin aging, it requires many nutrients and minerals that help maintain its homeostasis. The aim of this dissertation is to discuss the most commonly used ingredients in dietary supplements that improve the appearance and quality of the skin. Brief description of the state of the art. Quick pace of life, unbalanced diet and stress make it impossible to provide all the necessary components, which affects the proper functioning of the skin. That is why, the interest in dietary supplements as products that help to reduce the deficiencies of individual components is increasing. Supplements that affect the skin, hair and nails mainly consist of: vitamins C, E, A, B-vitamins, micro- and macronutrients and fatty acids. In this paper, some of the ingredients of skin affecting dietary supplements are discussed. A varied and proper diet should provide all the nutrients necessary for the correct functioning of the body. Dietary supplements are intended to supplement the normal daily food intake of nutrients which are not supplied with food in a sufficient quantity. Therefore, their use becomes relevant. PMID:25097490

  11. Third-party certification of dietary supplements: prevalence and concerns.

    PubMed

    Cancio, Anthony; Eliason, Michael J; Mercer, Jennifer; Tran, Thu; Deuster, Patricia A; Stephens, Mark B

    2012-12-01

    According to recent studies, over 50% of the general population (and nearly 70% of military personnel) report regular use of dietary supplements (DS). Military personnel may be at greater risk for adverse reactions to DS because of operational environments and stressors (extreme heat, altitude, or sleep deprivation) associated with military deployments and training. As a recent example, the Department of Defense placed a medical hold on all DS containing the ingredient 1,3-dimethylamylamine in response to several fatalities linked to the use of this product. This study investigated product certification for DS in military commissaries (grocery stores), exchanges (department stores), and civilian retail stores. Overall, only 12% of the available products were certified by an independent scientific agency. Consumers should be aware that most over-the-counter DS do not have independent certification of product integrity. Although "third-party certification" does not ensure DS safety or effectiveness, it is important that consumers and health care providers are made aware that such product screening takes place, to help patients make more informed decisions about the purchase and use of DS.

  12. Tips for Older Dietary Supplement Users

    MedlinePlus

    ... by the government for safety or effectiveness before marketing. Also, unlike drugs, supplements are not intended to ... Others: American Dietetic Association American Pharmacists Association Food Marketing Institute International Food Information Council Foundation National Council ...

  13. Effect of dietary organic zinc, manganese, copper, and cobalt supplementation on milk production, follicular growth, embryo quality, and tissue mineral concentrations in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Hackbart, K S; Ferreira, R M; Dietsche, A A; Socha, M T; Shaver, R D; Wiltbank, M C; Fricke, P M

    2010-12-01

    This study evaluated potential effects of organic trace mineral supplementation on reproductive measures in lactating dairy cows. Cows were blocked by breed and randomly assigned at dry-off to receive inorganic trace mineral supplementation (control; n = 32) or to have a portion of supplemental inorganic Zn, Cu, Mn, and Co replaced with an equivalent amount of the organic forms of these minerals (treatment; n = 31). Trace minerals were provided through control or treatment premixes fed at 100 g·cow(-1)·d(-1). Premixes were fed to dry cows (range = 40 to 72 d before calving) in 1.8 kg·cow(-1)·d(-1) concentrate pellets through a computer feeder to provide 40, 26, 70, and 100% of supplemented Zn, Mn, Cu, and Co, respectively, and to lactating cows (range = 69 to 116 d after calving) in a total mixed ration to provide 22, 14, 40, and 100% of supplemented Zn, Mn, Cu, and Co, respectively. Treatment increased milk production at wk 14 (P = 0.047) postcalving, milk urea N content (P = 0.039), and BW loss from calving to 1 mo postcalving (P = 0.040), and decreased milk fat percentage (P = 0.045) and BCS (P = 0.048). Treatment tended to increase milk production at wk 13 (P = 0.089) postcalving and endometrial tissue concentrations of Fe (P = 0.070), BW at mo 1 (P = 0.056), and milk protein percentage (P = 0.064). Treatment did not affect (P > 0.1) DMI, health events, first-wave follicular dynamics, first cycle luteal measures, embryo quality, liver trace mineral concentrations, or luteal trace mineral concentrations. Cows with a rectal temperature ≥39°C at the time of AI had a smaller percentage of fertilized entities (P < 0.001). However, of the entities that were fertilized, the percentage of viable embryos, embryo quality, accessory sperm number, and embryo cell number were not affected (P > 0.1) by treatment. We conclude that replacing a portion of inorganic supplemental trace minerals with an equivalent amount of these organic trace minerals (Zn, Mn, Cu, and Co

  14. Characteristics of Drug and Dietary Supplement Inquiries by College Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Ambrose, Peter J.; Tsourounis, Candy; Olander, Rachel; Uryasz, Frank

    2010-01-01

    Background: In the United States, the National Center for Drug Free Sport manages the drug-testing programs for athletes of the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA). Through its Resource Exchange Center (REC), Drug Free Sport supports athletic staff and athletes with information regarding drugs and dietary supplements. Purpose: To characterize the types of drug-related and dietary supplement–related inquiries submitted to Drug Free Sport through the REC. Study Design: Cross-sectional study. Methods: All inquiries submitted to the REC for the period of September 1, 2005, through June 30, 2006, were reviewed. The data were categorized by the method of inquiry submission; the name of the substance in question; the sex, sport, and NCAA division of the athlete involved; the nature of the inquiry; and the response provided by the REC regarding the NCAA’s status of the substance in question. Results: Pseudoephedrine, acetaminophen/hydrocodone, and albuterol were the most commonly self-searched medications; stimulants accounted for the majority of banned medications. Dietary supplements accounted for 80% of all inquiries submitted to the REC via the Banned Drug Inquiry Form. Among all dietary supplements, creatine was the most commonly inquired. Banned substances accounted for 29% of all inquiries. Conclusions: There were more than 10 000 inquiries regarding the status of medications, dietary supplements, and other substances for NCAA athletes during the 2005-2006 academic year. It is helpful for athletes to have resources that help them navigate banned-substance lists and so avoid the inadvertent use of banned substances. Clinical Relevance: Educating athletes regarding the stimulant content of various dietary supplements and addressing the lack of clinical trials to support stated claims and safety appear critical. PMID:23015919

  15. APPROACH FOR ASSESSING RISK OF ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANTS PRESENT IN BOTANICAL DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Botanical dietary supplements have a long history of use in Europe and China, but they are becoming increasing popular in the United States. Since these products are classified as herbals, the United States Food and Drug Administration does not regulate nor monitor these suppleme...

  16. Dietary Supplement Use by Military Personnel

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-12-01

    release of the report on June 10th. A sponsor briefing was held on June 3rd at the Samueli Institute headquarters in Alexandria, V A. The...of Health) and Dr. Joan Walter (The Samueli Institute) presented a description of their respective institutions, their work related to dietary

  17. Biological reactive intermediates (BRIs) formed from botanical dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Dietz, Birgit M; Bolton, Judy L

    2011-06-30

    The use of botanical dietary supplements is increasingly popular, due to their natural origin and the perceived assumption that they are safer than prescription drugs. While most botanical dietary supplements can be considered safe, a few contain compounds, which can be converted to biological reactive intermediates (BRIs) causing toxicity. For example, sassafras oil contains safrole, which can be converted to a reactive carbocation forming genotoxic DNA adducts. Alternatively, some botanical dietary supplements contain stable BRIs such as simple Michael acceptors that react with chemosensor proteins such as Keap1 resulting in induction of protective detoxification enzymes. Examples include curcumin from turmeric, xanthohumol from hops, and Z-ligustilide from dang gui. Quinones (sassafras, kava, black cohosh), quinone methides (sassafras), and epoxides (pennyroyal oil) represent BRIs of intermediate reactivity, which could generate both genotoxic and/or chemopreventive effects. The biological targets of BRIs formed from botanical dietary supplements and their resulting toxic and/or chemopreventive effects are closely linked to the reactivity of BRIs as well as dose and time of exposure.

  18. Safety, Efficacy, and Legal Issues Related to Dietary Supplements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powers, Michael

    2004-01-01

    This article focuses on the effects of dietary supplements on collegiate and adult populations. Anabolic steroids, amphetamines, and other drugs have been used for decades to improve athletic performance. However, the legal issues and dangers associated with these drugs have resulted in reluctance by many athletes to use them. Because dietary…

  19. Effects of dietary blueberry supplementation on older adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aging involves decremental changes in cognition, even in the absense of neurodegenerative pathology. A growing body of pre-clinical research shows that dietary supplementation with berry fruit can improve cognition and mobility in aged rodents, in part due to reduction in inflammation. This study s...

  20. Iodine in food and dietary supplement composition databases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    For a number of years, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the Nutrient Data Laboratory (NDL) of the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s Agricultural Research Service have worked independently on determining the iodine content of foods and dietary supplements and are now harmonizing their e...

  1. Dietary supplements and disease prevention — a global overview

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dietary supplements are widely used and offer the potential to improve health if appropriately targeted to those in need. Inadequate nutrition and micronutrient deficiencies are prevalent conditions that adversely affect global health. Although improvements in diet quality are essential to address t...

  2. Concomitant Use of Dietary Supplements and Medicines in Patients due to Miscommunication with Physicians in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Chiba, Tsuyoshi; Sato, Yoko; Suzuki, Sachina; Umegaki, Keizo

    2015-01-01

    We previously reported that some patients used dietary supplements with their medication without consulting with physicians. Dietary supplements and medicines may interact with each other when used concomitantly, resulting in health problems. An Internet survey was conducted on 2109 people who concomitantly took dietary supplements and medicines in order to address dietary supplement usage in people who regularly take medicines in Japan. A total of 1508 patients (two admitted patients and 1506 ambulatory patients) and 601 non-patients, who were not consulting with physicians, participated in this study. Purpose for dietary supplement use was different among ages. Dietary supplements were used to treat diseases in 4.0% of non-patients and 11.9% of patients, while 10.8% of patients used dietary supplements to treat the same diseases as their medication. However, 70.3% of patients did not declare dietary supplement use to their physicians or pharmacists because they considered the concomitant use of dietary supplements and medicines to be safe. A total of 8.4% of all subjects realized the potential for adverse effects associated with dietary supplements. The incidence of adverse events was higher in patients who used dietary supplements to treat their disease. Communication between patients and physicians is important for avoiding the adverse effects associated with the concomitant use of dietary supplements and medicines. PMID:25894658

  3. Concomitant use of dietary supplements and medicines in patients due to miscommunication with physicians in Japan.

    PubMed

    Chiba, Tsuyoshi; Sato, Yoko; Suzuki, Sachina; Umegaki, Keizo

    2015-04-16

    We previously reported that some patients used dietary supplements with their medication without consulting with physicians. Dietary supplements and medicines may interact with each other when used concomitantly, resulting in health problems. An Internet survey was conducted on 2109 people who concomitantly took dietary supplements and medicines in order to address dietary supplement usage in people who regularly take medicines in Japan. A total of 1508 patients (two admitted patients and 1506 ambulatory patients) and 601 non-patients, who were not consulting with physicians, participated in this study. Purpose for dietary supplement use was different among ages. Dietary supplements were used to treat diseases in 4.0% of non-patients and 11.9% of patients, while 10.8% of patients used dietary supplements to treat the same diseases as their medication. However, 70.3% of patients did not declare dietary supplement use to their physicians or pharmacists because they considered the concomitant use of dietary supplements and medicines to be safe. A total of 8.4% of all subjects realized the potential for adverse effects associated with dietary supplements. The incidence of adverse events was higher in patients who used dietary supplements to treat their disease. Communication between patients and physicians is important for avoiding the adverse effects associated with the concomitant use of dietary supplements and medicines.

  4. Interaction of carbamazepine with herbs, dietary supplements, and food: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Fong, Sophia Yui Kau; Gao, Qiong; Zuo, Zhong

    2013-01-01

    Background. Carbamazepine (CBZ) is a first-line antiepileptic drug which may be prone to drug interactions. Systematic review of herb- and food-drug interactions on CBZ is warranted to provide guidance for medical professionals when prescribing CBZ. Method. A systematic review was conducted on six English databases and four Chinese databases. Results. 196 out of 3179 articles fulfilled inclusion criteria, of which 74 articles were reviewed and 33 herbal products/dietary supplement/food interacting with CBZ were identified. No fatal or severe interactions were documented. The majority of the interactions were pharmacokinetic-based (80%). Traditional Chinese medicine accounted for most of the interactions (n = 17), followed by food (n = 10), dietary supplements (n = 3), and other herbs/botanicals (n = 3). Coadministration of 11 and 12 of the studied herbal products/dietary supplement/food significantly decreased or increased the plasma concentrations of CBZ. Regarding pharmacodynamic interaction, Xiao-yao-san, melatonin, and alcohol increased the side effects of CBZ while caffeine lowered the antiepileptic efficacy of CBZ. Conclusion. This review provides a comprehensive summary of the documented interactions between CBZ and herbal products/food/dietary supplements which assists healthcare professionals to identify potential herb-drug and food-drug interactions, thereby preventing potential adverse events and improving patients' therapeutic outcomes when prescribing CBZ.

  5. Interaction of Carbamazepine with Herbs, Dietary Supplements, and Food: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Zuo, Zhong

    2013-01-01

    Background. Carbamazepine (CBZ) is a first-line antiepileptic drug which may be prone to drug interactions. Systematic review of herb- and food-drug interactions on CBZ is warranted to provide guidance for medical professionals when prescribing CBZ. Method. A systematic review was conducted on six English databases and four Chinese databases. Results. 196 out of 3179 articles fulfilled inclusion criteria, of which 74 articles were reviewed and 33 herbal products/dietary supplement/food interacting with CBZ were identified. No fatal or severe interactions were documented. The majority of the interactions were pharmacokinetic-based (80%). Traditional Chinese medicine accounted for most of the interactions (n = 17), followed by food (n = 10), dietary supplements (n = 3), and other herbs/botanicals (n = 3). Coadministration of 11 and 12 of the studied herbal products/dietary supplement/food significantly decreased or increased the plasma concentrations of CBZ. Regarding pharmacodynamic interaction, Xiao-yao-san, melatonin, and alcohol increased the side effects of CBZ while caffeine lowered the antiepileptic efficacy of CBZ. Conclusion. This review provides a comprehensive summary of the documented interactions between CBZ and herbal products/food/dietary supplements which assists healthcare professionals to identify potential herb-drug and food-drug interactions, thereby preventing potential adverse events and improving patients' therapeutic outcomes when prescribing CBZ. PMID:24023584

  6. The clinical content of preconception care: nutrition and dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Gardiner, Paula M; Nelson, Lauren; Shellhaas, Cynthia S; Dunlop, Anne L; Long, Richard; Andrist, Sara; Jack, Brian W

    2008-12-01

    Women of child-bearing age should achieve and maintain good nutritional status prior to conception to help minimize health risks to both mothers and infants. Many women may not be aware of the importance of preconception nutrition and supplementation or have access to nutrition information. Health care providers should be knowledgeable about preconception/pregnancy-related nutrition and take the initiative to discuss this information during preconception counseling. Women of reproductive age should be counseled to consume a well-balanced diet including fruits and vegetables, iron and calcium-rich foods, and protein-containing foods as well as 400 microg of folic acid daily. More research is critically needed on the efficacy and safety of dietary supplements and the role of obesity in birth outcomes. Preconception counseling is the perfect opportunity for the health care provider to discuss a healthy eating guideline, dietary supplement intake, and maintaining a healthy weight status.

  7. Methylsulfonylmethane: Applications and Safety of a Novel Dietary Supplement

    PubMed Central

    Butawan, Matthew; Benjamin, Rodney L.; Bloomer, Richard J.

    2017-01-01

    Methylsulfonylmethane (MSM) has become a popular dietary supplement used for a variety of purposes, including its most common use as an anti-inflammatory agent. It has been well-investigated in animal models, as well as in human clinical trials and experiments. A variety of health-specific outcome measures are improved with MSM supplementation, including inflammation, joint/muscle pain, oxidative stress, and antioxidant capacity. Initial evidence is available regarding the dose of MSM needed to provide benefit, although additional work is underway to determine the precise dose and time course of treatment needed to provide optimal benefits. As a Generally Recognized As Safe (GRAS) approved substance, MSM is well-tolerated by most individuals at dosages of up to four grams daily, with few known and mild side effects. This review provides an overview of MSM, with details regarding its common uses and applications as a dietary supplement, as well as its safety for consumption. PMID:28300758

  8. Hepatotoxicity by Dietary Supplements: A Tabular Listing and Clinical Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    García-Cortés, Miren; Robles-Díaz, Mercedes; Ortega-Alonso, Aida; Medina-Caliz, Inmaculada; Andrade, Raul J.

    2016-01-01

    Dietary supplements (DS) are extensively consumed worldwide despite unproven efficacy. The true incidence of DS-induced liver injury (DSILI) is unknown but is probably under-diagnosed due to the general belief of safety of these products. Reported cases of herbals and DS-induced liver injury are increasing worldwide. The aim of this manuscript is to report a tabular listing with a description of DS associated with hepatotoxicity as well as review the phenotype and severity of DSILI. Natural remedies related to hepatotoxicity can be divided into herbal product-induced liver injury and DS-induced liver injury. In this article, we describe different DS associated with liver injury, some of them manufactured DS containing several ingredients (Herbalife™ products, Hydroxycut™, LipoKinetix™, UCP-1 and OxyELITE™) while others have a single ingredient (green tea extract, linoleic acid, usnic acid, 1,3-Dimethylamylamine, vitamin A, Garcinia cambogia and ma huang). Additional DS containing some of the aforementioned ingredients implicated in liver injury are also covered. We have also included illicit androgenic anabolic steroids for bodybuilding in this work, as they are frequently sold under the denomination of DS despite being conventional drugs. PMID:27070596

  9. Hepatotoxicity by Dietary Supplements: A Tabular Listing and Clinical Characteristics.

    PubMed

    García-Cortés, Miren; Robles-Díaz, Mercedes; Ortega-Alonso, Aida; Medina-Caliz, Inmaculada; Andrade, Raul J

    2016-04-09

    Dietary supplements (DS) are extensively consumed worldwide despite unproven efficacy. The true incidence of DS-induced liver injury (DSILI) is unknown but is probably under-diagnosed due to the general belief of safety of these products. Reported cases of herbals and DS-induced liver injury are increasing worldwide. The aim of this manuscript is to report a tabular listing with a description of DS associated with hepatotoxicity as well as review the phenotype and severity of DSILI. Natural remedies related to hepatotoxicity can be divided into herbal product-induced liver injury and DS-induced liver injury. In this article, we describe different DS associated with liver injury, some of them manufactured DS containing several ingredients (Herbalife™ products, Hydroxycut™, LipoKinetix™, UCP-1 and OxyELITE™) while others have a single ingredient (green tea extract, linoleic acid, usnic acid, 1,3-Dimethylamylamine, vitamin A, Garcinia cambogia and ma huang). Additional DS containing some of the aforementioned ingredients implicated in liver injury are also covered. We have also included illicit androgenic anabolic steroids for bodybuilding in this work, as they are frequently sold under the denomination of DS despite being conventional drugs.

  10. Dietary fiber supplementation for fecal incontinence: a randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Bliss, Donna Z; Savik, Kay; Jung, Hans-Joachim G; Whitebird, Robin; Lowry, Ann; Sheng, Xiaoyan

    2014-10-01

    Dietary fiber supplements are used to manage fecal incontinence (FI), but little is known about the fiber type to recommend or the level of effectiveness of such supplements, which appears related to the fermentability of the fiber. The aim of this single-blind, randomized controlled trial was to compare the effects of three dietary fiber supplements (carboxymethylcellulose [CMC], gum arabic [GA], or psyllium) with differing levels of fermentability to a placebo in community-living individuals incontinent of loose/liquid feces. The primary outcome was FI frequency; secondary outcomes included FI amount and consistency, supplement intolerance, and quality of life (QoL). Possible mechanisms underlying supplement effects were also examined. After a 14-day baseline, 189 subjects consumed a placebo or 16 g total fiber/day of one of the fiber supplements for 32 days. FI frequency significantly decreased after psyllium supplementation versus placebo, in both intent-to-treat and per-protocol mixed model analyses. CMC increased FI frequency. In intent-to-treat analysis, the number of FI episodes/week after supplementation was estimated to be 5.5 for Placebo, 2.5 for Psyllium, 4.3 for GA, and 6.2 for CMC. Only psyllium consumption resulted in a gel in feces. Supplement intolerance was low. QoL scores did not differ among groups. Patients with FI may experience a reduction in FI frequency after psyllium supplementation, and decreased FI frequency has been shown to be an important personal goal of treatment for patients with FI. Formation of a gel in feces appears to be a mechanism by which residual psyllium improved FI.

  11. AOAC SMPR 2014.007: Authentication of selected Vaccinium species (Anthocyanins) in dietary ingredients and dietary supplements

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This AOAC Standard Method Performance Requirements (SMPR) is for authentication of selected Vaccinium species in dietary ingredients and dietary supplements containing a single Vaccinium species using anthocyanin profiles. SMPRs describe the minimum recommended performance characteristics to be used...

  12. Effect of dietary supplementation with vitamins E and C on production performance, immune responses and antioxidant status of White Leghorn layers under tropical summer conditions.

    PubMed

    Panda, A K; Ramarao, S V; Raju, M V L N; Chatterjee, R N

    2008-09-01

    1. The effects of vitamin E (DL-alpha-tocopheryl acetate) and vitamin C (ascorbic acid) supplementation on performance, some immune variables and antioxidant status of White Leghorn layers (aged 44-56 weeks) exposed to tropical summer conditions were investigated. 2. Both vitamins E and C significantly improved the egg production, food conversion efficiency, antibody responses to inoculated sheep red blood cells (SRBC) and Newcastle disease virus (NDV) vaccine, lymphocyte proliferation in response to mitogen and activities of antioxidant enzymes red blood cell catalase (RBCC) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX) in layers. Vitamin C increased the inflammatory response to phytohaemagglutinin-P (PHA-P) inoculation. 3. Supplemental vitamin C at 200 mg/kg diet significantly increased eggshell weight, eggshell thickness, and shell breaking strength. However, no effect of supplemental vitamin E on eggshell quality was observed. 4. Vitamins E and C, as well as interactions between them, significantly influenced the activities of glutathione reductase and lipid peroxidase. A combination of vitamin E at 125 IU/kg with vitamin C at 200 mg/kg diet had an additive effect on reducing the activity of oxidative enzyme lipid peroxidase (LP) and increasing the activity of antioxidant enzyme glutathione reductase (GSHR). 5. It is concluded that vitamin E (125 IU/kg) and vitamin C (200 mg/kg) could independently alleviate the effects of heat stress on production performance and immunological variables of layers. However, combination of both the vitamins at the above-mentioned concentrations is beneficial in eliciting higher antioxidant status in laying hens exposed to tropical summer conditions.

  13. Determination of the isoflavone composition and estrogenic activity of commercial dietary supplements based on soy or red clover.

    PubMed

    Andres, Susanne; Hansen, Ulf; Niemann, Birgit; Palavinskas, Richard; Lampen, Alfonso

    2015-06-01

    Dietary supplements high in isolated isoflavones are commercially available for human consumption primarily to alleviate menopausal symptoms in women. The isoflavone composition, quantity and importantly their estrogenic potency are poorly standardised and can vary considerably between different products. The aim of this study was to analyse the isoflavone composition of 11 dietary supplements based on soy or red clover using the HPLC/MS/MS technique. Furthermore, we investigated the transactivational potential of the supplements on the estrogen receptors (ER), ERα and ERβ, performing luciferase reporter gene assays. As expected, we found that the isoflavone composition varies between different products. The measured total isoflavone contents in various supplements were mostly comparable to those claimed by the manufacturers in their product information. However expressing the isoflavone content as isoflavone aglycone equivalents, soy-based supplements had a clearly lower quantity compared to the manufacturer information. All supplements transactivated more or less ERα and ERβ with a preference for ERβ. The transactivational efficiency exceeded partly the maximal 17β-estradiol induced ER activation. While the different soy-based supplements revealed similar transactivation potential to both ERs, red clover-based supplements differed considerably. We conclude that different commercial dietary supplements based on soy or red clover vary in their isoflavone composition and quantity. They are estrogenically active, although especially the red clover-based supplements show considerable differences in their estrogenic potential to ERα and ERβ. Thus, different isoflavone-rich products cannot be necessarily compared regarding possible biological effects.

  14. Marketplace analysis demonstrates quality control standards needed for black raspberry dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jungmin

    2014-06-01

    There is currently no standard for the minimum anthocyanin concentration a black raspberry dietary supplement must contain for legal sale in the US. All consumer available black raspberry products (n = 19), packaged as dietary supplements or otherwise prepared (freeze-dried whole and pre-ground powders), were purchased and analyzed for their anthocyanin composition and concentration. Seven of the 19 samples contained no anthocyanins from black raspberry fruit, while three of those seven (without black raspberry fruit) had no anthocyanins of any kind. There was a wide range of anthocyanin concentration within the remaining products (18.1-2,904.8 mg/100 g; n = 12). When expressed as per capsule or per ∼1 teaspoon, concentration ranged from 0.1 to 145.2 mg (average 28 mg; n = 12). Until US dietary supplement labeling comes under regulatory oversight similar to food guidelines, foods are a more dependable source for dietary phenolics than supplements.

  15. Nutritional Supplement Use by Dutch Elite and Sub-Elite Athletes: Does Receiving Dietary Counselling Make a Difference?

    PubMed

    Wardenaar, Floris C; Ceelen, Ingrid Jm; Van Dijk, Jan-Willem; Hangelbroek, Roland Wj; Van Roy, Lore; Van der Pouw, Britte; De Vries, Jeanne Hm; Mensink, Marco; Witkamp, Renger F

    2016-09-06

    The use of nutritional supplements is highly prevalent among athletes. In this cross-sectional study we assessed the prevalence of nutritional supplement use by a large group of Dutch competitive athletes in relation to dietary counselling. A total of 778 athletes (407 males and 371 females) completed a web-based questionnaire about the use of nutritional supplements. Log-binomial regression models were applied to estimate crude and adjusted prevalence ratios (PR) for the use of individual nutritional supplements in athletes receiving dietary counselling as compared to athletes not receiving dietary counselling. Of the athletes 97.2% had used nutritional supplements at some time during their sports career, whereas 84.7% indicated having used supplements during the last 4 weeks. The top ranked supplements used over the last 4 weeks from dietary supplements, sport nutrition products and ergogenic supplements were multivitamin and mineral preparations (42.9%), isotonic sports drinks (44.1%) and caffeine (13.0%). After adjustment for elite status, age, and weekly exercise duration, dietary counselling was associated with a higher prevalence of the use of vitamin D, recovery drinks, energy bars, isotonic drinks with protein, dextrose, beta-alanine, and sodium bicarbonate. In contrast, dietary counselling was inversely associated with the use of combivitamins, calcium, vitamin E, vitamin B2, retinol, energy drinks and BCAA and other amino acids. In conclusion, almost all athletes had used nutritional supplements at some time during their athletic career. Receiving dietary counselling seemed to result in better informed choices with respect to the use of nutritional supplements related to performance, recovery, and health.

  16. Dietary supplementation with fermented soybeans suppresses intimal thickening.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Yasuhiro; Kondo, Kazunao; Ichise, Hideyuki; Tsukamoto, Yoshinori; Urano, Tetsumei; Umemura, Kazuo

    2003-03-01

    Although soy foods have been consumed for more than 1000 y, it is only in the past 20 y that they have made inroads into Western diets. We investigated the effect of dietary supplementation with natto extracts produced from fermented soybeans on intimal thickening of arteries after vessel endothelial denudation. Natto extracts include nattokinase, a potent fibrinolytic enzyme having four times greater fibrinolytic activity than plasmin. Intimal thickening was induced in the femoral arteries by intravenous infusion of rose bengal followed by focal irradiation with a transluminal green light. Dietary natto extract supplementation was started 3 wk before endothelial injury and continued for another 3 wk after. In ex vivo studies, euglobulin clot lysis times were measured 3 wk after the initial supplementation. Neointima formation and thickening were also initiated successfully. The intima media ratio 3 wk after endothelial injury was 0.15 +/- 0.03 in the control group. Dietary natto extract supplementation suppressed intimal thickening (0.06 +/- 0.01; P < 0.05) compared with the control group. Natto extracts shortened euglobulin clot lysis time, suggesting that their thrombolytic activities were enhanced. These findings suggest that natto extracts, because of their thrombolytic activity, suppress intimal thickening after vascular injury as a result of the inhibition of mural thrombi formation.

  17. Dietary supplements and their future in health care: commentary on draft guidelines proposed by the Food and Drug Administration.

    PubMed

    Umhau, John C; Garg, Keva; Woodward, Albert M

    2012-03-01

    The Dietary Supplement and Health and Education Act of 1994 gives the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) responsibility for oversight of the dietary supplement industry. Recent draft guidelines proposed by the FDA to insure the safety of new dietary ingredients would significantly alter the ability of manufacturers to bring new dietary ingredients to market, and may cause many products introduced since 1994 to be discontinued. These changes will have an impact on health care, but with limited research on dietary supplements and how their use affects the health care system, there is no way to predict what their overall effect on health will be. Since the natural raw materials for dietary supplements are often inexpensive and generally cannot be patented, manufactures have little incentive to conduct the research which might otherwise be warranted. Appropriate clinical trials that evaluate the use and efficacy of various supplements may be critical for our health care system. If inexpensive dietary supplements are found to be safe and effective, such research could yield significant cost savings as well as health benefits.

  18. Dietary Supplements and Sports Performance: Minerals

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Melvin H

    2005-01-01

    Minerals are essential for a wide variety of metabolic and physiologic processes in the human body. Some of the physiologic roles of minerals important to athletes are their involvement in: muscle contraction, normal hearth rhythm, nerve impulse conduction, oxygen transport, oxidative phosphorylation, enzyme activation, immune functions, antioxidant activity, bone health, and acid-base balance of the blood. The two major classes of minerals are the macrominerals and the trace elements. The scope of this article will focus on the ergogenic theory and the efficacy of such mineral supplementation. PMID:18500950

  19. Dietary supplements and sports performance: minerals.

    PubMed

    Williams, Melvin H

    2005-06-11

    Minerals are essential for a wide variety of metabolic and physiologic processes in the human body. Some of the physiologic roles of minerals important to athletes are their involvement in: muscle contraction, normal hearth rhythm, nerve impulse conduction, oxygen transport, oxidative phosphorylation, enzyme activation, immune functions, antioxidant activity, bone health, and acid-base balance of the blood. The two major classes of minerals are the macrominerals and the trace elements. The scope of this article will focus on the ergogenic theory and the efficacy of such mineral supplementation.

  20. A Review of Clinical Trials Conducted With Oral, Multicomponent Dietary Supplements for Improving Photoaged Skin.

    PubMed

    Birnbaum, Jay; Le Moigne, Anne; Dispensa, Lisa; Buchner, Larry

    2015-12-01

    Although the FDA does not require documentation of efficacy of dietary supplements, prospective clinical studies, including randomized controlled trials, have been conducted with individual micronutrients alone and in combination with other ingredients for promoting skin health. Proposed mechanisms include antioxidation, anti-inflammation, photoprotection, collagen formation, reductions in matrix metalloproteinases, and other effects on photoaging. Literature searches were conducted to identify clinical trials assessing multicomponent dietary supplement formulations on photoaging outcomes. Sixteen studies of various nutrient and non-nutrient ingredients, including essential micronutrients (vitamins, minerals), plant extracts (polyphenols, carotenoids), and marine- or animal-derived ingredients, were identified. Studies were single center, 2-12 months in duration, primarily enrolled women, and evaluated numerous outcomes, including investigator/subject assessments and instrumental/objective measures. Methods to control for potential confounders were implemented in some studies, including limiting sun exposure, cosmetic procedures, and changes in dietary habits/body weight. Given the range of different products, clinical/methodologic heterogeneity, insufficient detail in reporting, and lack of comparable outcome measures, quantitative analysis of results was not possible. Results of individual studies revealed significant improvements from baseline for the dietary supplement group(s) on ≥ 1 endpoint across all studies; significant differences from placebo were observed in 7 of 12 controlled studies (although only 1 study designated a prospectively defined primary endpoint). Most products had only been tested in 1 study; confirmatory studies were rarely conducted per the publicly available literature. Meaningful assessment of dietary supplements, which typically contain nutrients found in the diet, requires unique methodologic considerations and endpoints

  1. Comparison of a Medication Inventory and a Dietary Supplement Interview in Assessing Dietary Supplement Use in the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos

    PubMed Central

    Faurot, Keturah R.; Siega-Riz, Anna Maria; Gardiner, Paula; Rivera, José O.; Young, Laura A.; Poole, Charles; Whitsel, Eric A.; González, Hector M.; Chirinos-Medina, Diana A.; Talavera, Gregory A.; Castañeda, Sheila F.; Daviglus, Martha L.; Barnhart, Janice; Giacinto, Rebeca E.; Van Horn, Linda

    2016-01-01

    Although dietary supplement use is common, its assessment is challenging, especially among ethnic minority populations such as Hispanics/Latinos. Using the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL) (n = 16,415), this report compares two strategies for capturing dietary supplement use over a 30-day period: a medication-based inventory and a nutrition-based dietary supplement interview. Age-standardized prevalence was calculated across multiple dietary supplement definitions, adjusted with survey/nonresponse weights. The prevalence of dietary supplement use was substantially higher as measured in the dietary supplement interview, compared to the medication inventory: for total dietary supplements (39% vs 26%, respectively), for nonvitamin, nonmineral supplements (24% vs 12%), and for botanicals (9.2% vs 4.5%). Concordance between the two assessments was fair to moderate (Cohen’s kappa: 0.31–0.52). Among women, inclusion of botanical teas increased the prevalence of botanical supplement use from 7% to 15%. Supplement assessment that includes queries about botanical teas yields more information about patient supplement use. PMID:26917949

  2. Inappropriate usage of dietary supplements in patients by miscommunication with physicians in Japan.

    PubMed

    Chiba, Tsuyoshi; Sato, Yoko; Nakanishi, Tomoko; Yokotani, Kaori; Suzuki, Sachina; Umegaki, Keizo

    2014-11-26

    Recently, people have used dietary supplements not only for nutritional supplementation, but also for treatment of their diseases. However, use of dietary supplements to treat diseases, especially with medications, may cause health problems in patients. In this study, we investigated use of dietary supplements in patients in Japan. This survey was conducted from January to December 2012, and was completed by 2732 people, including 599 admitted patients, 1154 ambulatory patients, and 979 healthy subjects who attended a seminar about dietary supplements. At the time of the questionnaire, 20.4% of admitted patients, 39.1% of ambulatory patients, and 30.7% of healthy subjects were using dietary supplements, which including vitamin/mineral supplements, herbal extracts, its ingredients, or food for specified health uses. The primary purpose for use in all groups was health maintenance, whereas 3.7% of healthy subjects, 10.0% of ambulatory patients, and 13.2% of admitted patients used dietary supplements to treat diseases. In addition, 17.7% of admitted patients and 36.8% of ambulatory patients were using dietary supplements concomitantly with their medications. However, among both admitted patients and ambulatory patients, almost 70% did not mention dietary supplement use to their physicians. Overall, 3.3% of all subjects realized adverse effects associated with dietary supplements. Communication between patients and physicians is important to avoid health problems associated with the use of dietary supplements.

  3. Breaking the gridlock: Regulation of dietary supplements in the United States.

    PubMed

    Kapoor, Akshay; Sharfstein, Joshua M

    2016-01-01

    Despite increasing use of dietary supplements by millions of consumers, regulation of these products has not kept pace with changes and risks in the market. A major reason for this policy gridlock is the inability of different parties to come to an agreement on a path forward. The purpose of this paper is to set out a new framework for regulation in which consumers, industry, and regulators can all find common ground. This framework is based on a conceptual shift from 'benefit versus risk', the model for prescription drugs, to 'access with safety'. Steps should include registration of all dietary supplements to permit easier enforcement against rogue products, a stronger disclaimer explaining the limited role of FDA in evaluating structure/function product claims, the establishment of standard laboratory techniques for characterization of products, and more clear authority for the agency when safety concerns arise. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Inorganic elemental compositions of commercial multivitamin/mineral dietary supplements: application of collision/reaction cell inductively coupled-mass spectroscopy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Microwave digestion followed by analysis using ICP-MS has been shown to be a simple, fast reliable method for the multi-element determination in multivitamin/mineral dietary supplements (MVM). A study of 35 popular MVM dietary supplements revealed that composition and levels varied among products, a...

  5. Determination of ephedrine alkaloids in dietary supplement standard reference materials.

    PubMed

    Sander, Lane C; Sharpless, Katherine E; Satterfield, Mary B; Ihara, Toshihide; Phinney, Karen W; Yen, James H; Wise, Stephen A; Gay, Martha L; Lam, Joseph W; McCooeye, Margaret; Gardner, Graeme; Fraser, Catharine; Sturgeon, Ralph; Roman, Mark

    2005-05-15

    A suite of five ephedra-containing dietary supplement Standard Reference Materials (SRMs) has been issued by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) with certified values for ephedrine alkaloids, synephrine, caffeine, and selected toxic trace elements. The materials represent a variety of natural, extracted, and processed sample matrixes that provide different analytical challenges. The constituents have been determined by multiple independent methods with measurements performed by NIST and by three collaborating laboratories. The methods utilized different sample extraction and cleanup steps in addition to different instrumental analytical techniques and approaches to quantification. In addition, food-matrix proximates were determined by National Food Processor Association laboratories for one of the ephedra-containing SRMs. The SRMs are primarily intended for method validation and for use as control materials to support the analysis of dietary supplements and related botanical materials.

  6. Biological and Chemical Standardization of a Hop (Humulus lupulus) Botanical Dietary Supplement

    PubMed Central

    Krause, Elizabeth; Yuan, Yang; Hajirahimkhan, Atieh; Dong, Huali; Dietz, Birgit M.; Nikolic, Dejan; Pauli, Guido F.; Bolton, Judy L.; van Breemen, Richard B.

    2014-01-01

    Concerned about the safety of conventional estrogen replacement therapy, women are using botanical dietary supplements as alternatives for the management of menopausal symptoms such as hot flashes. Before botanical dietary supplements can be evaluated clinically for safety and efficacy, botanically authenticated and standardized forms are required. To address the demand for a standardized, estrogenic botanical dietary supplement, an extract of hops (Humulus lupulus, L.) was developed. Although valued in the brewing of beer, hop extracts are used as anxiolytics and hypnotics and have well established estrogenic constituents. Starting with a hop cultivar used in the brewing industry, spent hops (the residue remaining after extraction of bitter acids) were formulated into a botanical dietary supplement that was then chemically and biologically standardized. Biological standardization utilized the estrogen dependent induction of alkaline phosphatase in the Ishikawa cell line. Chemical standardization was based on the prenylated phenols in hops that included estrogenic 8-prenylnaringenin (8-PN), its isomer 6-prenylnaringenin (6-PN), and pro-estrogenic isoxanthohumol (IX) and its isomeric chalcone xanthohumol (XN), all of which were measured using high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS-MS). The product of this process was a reproducible botanical extract suitable for subsequent investigations of safety and efficacy. PMID:24861737

  7. Biological and chemical standardization of a hop (Humulus lupulus) botanical dietary supplement.

    PubMed

    Krause, Elizabeth; Yuan, Yang; Hajirahimkhan, Atieh; Dong, Huali; Dietz, Birgit M; Nikolic, Dejan; Pauli, Guido F; Bolton, Judy L; van Breemen, Richard B

    2014-06-01

    Concerned about the safety of conventional estrogen replacement therapy, women are using botanical dietary supplements as alternatives for the management of menopausal symptoms such as hot flashes. Before botanical dietary supplements can be evaluated clinically for safety and efficacy, botanically authenticated and standardized forms are required. To address the demand for a standardized, estrogenic botanical dietary supplement, an extract of hops (Humulus lupulus L.) was developed. Although valued in the brewing of beer, hop extracts are used as anxiolytics and hypnotics and have well-established estrogenic constituents. Starting with a hop cultivar used in the brewing industry, spent hops (the residue remaining after extraction of bitter acids) were formulated into a botanical dietary supplement that was then chemically and biologically standardized. Biological standardization utilized the estrogen-dependent induction of alkaline phosphatase in the Ishikawa cell line. Chemical standardization was based on the prenylated phenols in hops that included estrogenic 8-prenylnaringenin, its isomer 6-prenylnaringenin, and pro-estrogenic isoxanthohumol and its isomeric chalcone xanthohumol, all of which were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The product of this process was a reproducible botanical extract suitable for subsequent investigations of safety and efficacy.

  8. A Review of the Efficacy, Safety, and Clinical Implications of Naturally Derived Dietary Supplements for Dyslipidemia.

    PubMed

    Thaipitakwong, Thanchanit; Aramwit, Pornanong

    2017-02-01

    Dyslipidemia is recognized as a major cause of cardiovascular disease. A number of evidence-based guidelines recommend conventional synthetic drugs as standard therapy for dyslipidemia in clinical practice. However, antihyperlipidemic drugs have some serious side effects. Naturally derived dietary supplements are becoming attractive as an alternative strategy because of their high efficacy and safety, as supported by numerous data. Moreover, they could be considered an initial treatment for dyslipidemia. The aims of this literature review were to demonstrate the efficacy, safety, and clinical implications of dietary supplements for treating dyslipidemia. We reviewed the literature, including data from in vitro, in vivo, and human studies, and clinical guideline recommendations. We classified dietary supplements by their proposed mechanisms of action on lipid metabolism and also collected daily dosage recommendations, interactions with concurrent drugs and/or foods, dosage forms, and examples of commercially available products. Various types of naturally derived dietary supplements exhibit lipid-improving properties. Efficacy and safety are acceptable; however, their use in clinical practice will require further well-designed investigations and the support of scientific data.

  9. 76 FR 39111 - Draft Guidance for Industry; Dietary Supplements: New Dietary Ingredient Notifications and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-05

    ... written requests for single copies of this draft guidance to the Office of Nutrition, Labeling, and Dietary Supplements, Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (HFS-850), Food and Drug Administration... for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (HFS-850), Food and Drug Administration, 5100 Paint Branch...

  10. [Regulatory sciences in herbal medicines and dietary supplements].

    PubMed

    Tsutani, Kiichiro; Takuma, Hiroki

    2008-06-01

    Regulatory science began in the late 1980's in the pharmaceutical area in Japan. It aimed not only at vertical, top-down regulation but also horizontal regulation to suit the social value system. Herbal medicines and dietary supplements are two areas where regulatory science is still not well developed and used. Risk perception, risk assessment and risk management in these areas are often neglected by regulators, academicians and the public. Since the risk of using herbal medicines and dietary supplements is a global concern, development of a global regulatory system is needed. In this paper, we introduce the current situation of several projects which deal with regulatory science in herbal medicines and dietary supplements, namely: (1) Herbal ATC (HATC) classification project initiated by Uppsala Monitoring Centre (UMC) which led to the development of the provisional HATC code of 228 Kampo formulae and Standard Kampo Formula Nomenclature (SKFN) in Japan, (2) WHO/WPRO International Standardization of Terminology (IST) which resulted in the publication of "WHO Internal Standard Terminologies on Traditional Medicine in the Western Pacific Region Forum for Herbal Harmonization", (3) Forum for the Harmonization of Herbal Medicines (FHH), (4) CONSORT extension for herbal medicines, (5) ICH M5 (Data elements and standards for drug dictionaries), and (6) activities on nomenclature at the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). However, there is a lack of coordination among these projects. Therefore, harmonization of all projects aimed at harmonizing and standardizing all aspects of regulatory science for herbal medicines and dietary supplements is recommended. However, careful consideration should be given to each unique local situation.

  11. Evaluation of alcohol content and metal impurities in liquid dietary supplements by sHSS-GC-FID and GFAAS techniques.

    PubMed

    Mornar, Ana; Sertić, Miranda; Amidžić Klarić, Daniela; Klarić, Ilija; Stipanović, Ksenija; Nigović, Biljana

    2016-11-15

    Despite efforts by many dietary supplements' manufactures to reduce or replace ethanol, many products containing ethanol in concentrations up to 70% are available on market. Furthermore, botanical dietary supplements can vary in metal content as a function of the environment, processing equipment and product containers. Therefore, the aim of study was to develop a new rapid and highly sensitive method for simultaneous determination of ethanol and its impurities in dietary supplements by sHSS-GC-FID technique. In addition, contamination with metals by GFAAS technique was evaluated. The proposed sHSS-GC-FID method was successfully applied for analysis of 93 samples containing various amounts of ethanol. It should be highlighted that the dramatic variation from manufacture's claims was found in even one third of products. Furthermore, high amounts of ethanol were found in several products especially designed for children and in one product labeled as "alcohol-free". Metal impurities were below the limits established by USP.

  12. Pharmacokinetic Interactions between Drugs and Botanical Dietary Supplements

    PubMed Central

    Sprouse, Alyssa A.

    2016-01-01

    The use of botanical dietary supplements has grown steadily over the last 20 years despite incomplete information regarding active constituents, mechanisms of action, efficacy, and safety. An important but underinvestigated safety concern is the potential for popular botanical dietary supplements to interfere with the absorption, transport, and/or metabolism of pharmaceutical agents. Clinical trials of drug–botanical interactions are the gold standard and are usually carried out only when indicated by unexpected consumer side effects or, preferably, by predictive preclinical studies. For example, phase 1 clinical trials have confirmed preclinical studies and clinical case reports that St. John’s wort (Hypericum perforatum) induces CYP3A4/CYP3A5. However, clinical studies of most botanicals that were predicted to interact with drugs have shown no clinically significant effects. For example, clinical trials did not substantiate preclinical predictions that milk thistle (Silybum marianum) would inhibit CYP1A2, CYP2C9, CYP2D6, CYP2E1, and/or CYP3A4. Here, we highlight discrepancies between preclinical and clinical data concerning drug–botanical interactions and critically evaluate why some preclinical models perform better than others in predicting the potential for drug–botanical interactions. Gaps in knowledge are also highlighted for the potential of some popular botanical dietary supplements to interact with therapeutic agents with respect to absorption, transport, and metabolism. PMID:26438626

  13. Pharmacokinetic Interactions between Drugs and Botanical Dietary Supplements.

    PubMed

    Sprouse, Alyssa A; van Breemen, Richard B

    2016-02-01

    The use of botanical dietary supplements has grown steadily over the last 20 years despite incomplete information regarding active constituents, mechanisms of action, efficacy, and safety. An important but underinvestigated safety concern is the potential for popular botanical dietary supplements to interfere with the absorption, transport, and/or metabolism of pharmaceutical agents. Clinical trials of drug-botanical interactions are the gold standard and are usually carried out only when indicated by unexpected consumer side effects or, preferably, by predictive preclinical studies. For example, phase 1 clinical trials have confirmed preclinical studies and clinical case reports that St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum) induces CYP3A4/CYP3A5. However, clinical studies of most botanicals that were predicted to interact with drugs have shown no clinically significant effects. For example, clinical trials did not substantiate preclinical predictions that milk thistle (Silybum marianum) would inhibit CYP1A2, CYP2C9, CYP2D6, CYP2E1, and/or CYP3A4. Here, we highlight discrepancies between preclinical and clinical data concerning drug-botanical interactions and critically evaluate why some preclinical models perform better than others in predicting the potential for drug-botanical interactions. Gaps in knowledge are also highlighted for the potential of some popular botanical dietary supplements to interact with therapeutic agents with respect to absorption, transport, and metabolism.

  14. Effect of dietary supplementation of omega-3 fatty acids and high levels of dietary protein on performance of sows.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was conducted to determine the effect of dietary supplementation of omega-3 fatty acids (O3FA), with or without high levels of dietary protein supplementation, on the performance of sows and their litters during first and subsequent parities. Sixty-four pregnant gilts with body weight (BW...

  15. Associations between Forkhead Box O1 (FoxO1) Expression and Indicators of Hepatic Glucose Production in Transition Dairy Cows Supplemented with Dietary Nicotinic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Kinoshita, Asako; Locher, Lena; Tienken, Reka; Meyer, Ulrich; Dänicke, Sven; Rehage, Jürgen; Huber, Korinna

    2016-01-01

    Forkhead box protein O1 (FoxO1) is a transcription factor which promotes hepatic glucose production (HGP) by up-regulating the transcription of gluconeogenic enzymes in monogastric species. The activity of FoxO1 is inhibited by insulin-induced phosphorylation. The aims of the present study were to find associations between FoxO1 expression and variables associated with HGP as affected by feeding regimen in dairy cows during the transition period. Twenty one healthy German Holstein cows were allocated to four groups (LC-CON, HC-CON, LC-NA with 5 cows/group and HC-NA with 6 cows/group, respectively). Cows received 0 (LC-CON and HC-CON) or 24 (LC-NA and HC-NA) g/d nicotinic acid with high (HC) or low (LC) concentrate proportion from -42 days (-41.8 + 4.8; mean + standard deviation) relative to expected calving date (d-42) to d24. Liver biopsy was taken at d-42, 1, 21, and 100. The total protein expression of FoxO1 (tFoxO1) and the extent of phosphorylation of FoxO1 at serine 256 (pFoxO1) were analysed semiquantitatively by Western Blotting. The expression of hepatic mRNA of FoxO1 and seven genes associated with HGP was measured by real-time RT-PCR. Mixed model and Pearson’s correlation were used for statistical evaluation with the level of significance at P<0.05. No dietary effect was observed either on feed intake, energy balance, or on the concentration of blood metabolites. Neither time nor diet affected the expression of FoxO1 total protein and mRNA. A NA × concentrate interaction was found in pFoxO1. However, no corresponding dietary effect was found in the mRNA expression of investigated genes. Different patterns of correlations between FoxO1-related variables and investigated indicators for HGP were found at d21 and 100. The results indicated that the regulation of HGP did not take place on the levels of mRNA and protein expression and the phosphorylation of FoxO1 in dairy cows in early lactation. PMID:26800252

  16. Flavonoids, the emerging dietary supplement against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Athira, K V; Madhana, Rajaram Mohanrao; Lahkar, Mangala

    2016-03-25

    The letter illustrates the emerging potential of flavonoids as dietary supplement to ameliorate cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity and refers to the recent article on ''Anti-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory effects of naringin on cisplatin-induced renal injury in the rat'' by Chtourou et al. They demonstrated that supplementation of naringin, a flavanone glycoside, found in grape and citrus fruit species, can attenuate cisplatin-induced renal dysfunction via restoration of redox balance and suppression of inflammation, NF-κB activation and apoptosis. The chemotherapeutic efficacy of cisplatin has always compelled the researchers to find solution to ameliorate its side effects. In recent years, numerous candidates have been evaluated for their protective potential against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity and flavonoids have come up with promising results. The future prospects might be promising with a proper refinement and collective integration of the preclinical and clinical research in the field of flavonoid supplementation to cisplatin therapy.

  17. Acute Selenium Toxicity Associated With a Dietary Supplement

    PubMed Central

    MacFarquhar, Jennifer K.; Broussard, Danielle L.; Melstrom, Paul; Hutchinson, Richard; Wolkin, Amy; Martin, Colleen; Burk, Raymond F.; Dunn, John R.; Green, Alice L.; Hammond, Roberta; Schaffner, William; Jones, Timothy F.

    2011-01-01

    Background Selenium is an element necessary for normal cellular function, but it can have toxic effects at high doses. We investigated an outbreak of acute selenium poisoning. Methods A case was defined as the onset of symptoms of selenium toxicity in a person within 2 weeks after ingesting a dietary supplement manufactured by “Company A,” purchased after January 1, 2008. We conducted case finding, administered initial and 90-day follow-up questionnaires to affected persons, and obtained laboratory data where available. Results The source of the outbreak was identified as a liquid dietary supplement that contained 200 times the labeled concentration of selenium. Of 201 cases identified in 10 states, 1 person was hospitalized. The median estimated dose of selenium consumed was 41 749 μg/d (recommended dietary allowance is 55 μg/d). Frequently reported symptoms included diarrhea (78%), fatigue (75%), hair loss (72%), joint pain (70%), nail discoloration or brittleness (61%), and nausea (58%). Symptoms persisting 90 days or longer included fingernail discoloration and loss (52%), fatigue (35%), and hair loss (29%). The mean initial serum selenium concentration of 8 patients was 751 μg/L (reference range, ≤125 μg/L). The mean initial urine selenium concentration of 7 patients was 166 μg/24 h (reference range, ≤55 μg/24 h). Conclusions Toxic concentrations of selenium in a liquid dietary supplement resulted in a widespread outbreak. Had the manufacturers been held to standards used in the pharmaceutical industry, it may have been prevented. PMID:20142570

  18. Dentinal sensitivity: a natural mineral dietary supplement study.

    PubMed

    Rogo, E; Hodges, K; Herzog, A

    2006-08-01

    The purpose of the investigation was to determine the effect of drinking a natural mineral dietary supplement (NMDS) on gingival health and dentinal hypersensitivity. The NMDS product was from a geothermal source and contained 3.6 mg l(-1) of fluoride and other minerals. Sample selection included subjects with gingival inflammation and sensitivity as well as screening for exclusion factors. A double-blind randomized parallel approach was used. The investigation was a quasi-experimental pre/post-test design. The experimental group ingested and swished twice a day with the NMDS (1 l) and the control group followed the same regimen with a placebo containing de-ionized water (DIW). Clinical measurements of gingival inflammation and dentinal sensitivity were taken at baseline, 4 and 8 weeks. Gingival inflammation was measured using the Gingival Index. Dentinal hypersensitivity was measured using a tactile stimulus and an evaporative stimulus. After each stimulus was applied, the subjects rated the amount of discomfort on a visual analogue scale from 0 to 10. Each set of data was analysed using anova and a post hoc probing technique to determine within- and between-group differences (P = 0.05). The experimental and control groups (n = 70) experienced a statistically significant decrease in tactile and evaporative sensitivity scores over time; however, the between-group differences were not significant. The gingival inflammation data were not statistically significant with regard to the within- and between-group differences. Therefore the NMDS and DIW were equally effective in reducing dentinal hypersensitivity and neither product effectively reduced gingival inflammation.

  19.  Hepatotoxicity associated with dietary energy supplements: use and abuse by young athletes.

    PubMed

    Avelar-Escobar, Giovanni; Méndez-Navarro, Jorge; Ortiz-Olvera, Nayeli X; Castellanos, Guillermo; Ramos, Roberto; Gallardo-Cabrera, Víctor E; Vargas-Alemán, José de Jesús; Díaz de León, Oscar; Rodríguez, Elda V; Dehesa-Violante, Margarita

    2012-01-01

     In recent years there has been a significant increase in the consumption of dietary energy supplements (DES) associated with the parallel advertising against obesity and favoring high physical performance. We present the case and outcome of a young patient who developed acute mixed liver injury (hepatocellular and cholestatic) after ingestion of various "over the counter" products to increase muscle mass and physical performance (NO Xplode®, creatine, L-carnitine, and Growth Factor ATN®). The diagnosis was based on the exclusion of other diseases and liver biopsy findings. The dietary supplement and herbal multivitamins industry is one with the highest growth rates in the market, with annual revenues amounting to billions and constantly lacking scientific or reproducible evidence about the efficacy and/or safety of the offered products. Furthermore, and contrary to popular belief, different forms of injury associated with these natural substances have been documented particularly in the liver, supporting the need of a more strict regulation.

  20. Herbal medications and other dietary supplements. A clinical review for physicians caring for older people.

    PubMed

    Pitkälä, Kaisu H; Suominen, Merja H; Bell, J Simon; Strandberg, Timo E

    2016-12-01

    Evidence for the safety and effectiveness of dietary supplements is mixed. The extent to which older people use dietary supplements concomitantly with conventional medications is often under-appreciated by physicians. We conducted a literature review on clinical considerations associated with dietary supplement use, focusing on benefits and harms, motivations for use and contribution to polypharmacy among older people. Vitamin D ≥ 800 IU has demonstrated benefits in fracture prevention. Vitamins A, E, and β-carotene have been associated with an increase in total mortality in several meta-analyses. A range of non-vitamin dietary supplements have been studied in randomized controlled trials but their efficacy remains largely unclear. Supplement use has been associated with a range of adverse events and drug interactions yet physicians rarely initiate discussions about their use with older patients. Older people may take dietary supplements to exercise control over their health. Given the contribution of supplements to polypharmacy, supplements may be targeted for "deprescribing" if the risk of harm is judged to outweigh benefits. This is best done as part of a comprehensive, patient-centered approach. A respectful and non-judgmental discussion may result in a shared decision to reduce polypharmacy through cessation of dietary supplements. KEY MESSAGES Herbal medications and other dietary supplements are highly prevalent among older people. Physicians are often unaware that their patients use herbal medications and other dietary supplements concomitantly with conventional medications. Herbal medications and other dietary supplements contribute to high rates of polypharmacy, particularly among older people with multimorbidity. Herbal medications and other dietary supplements can interact with conventional medications and be associated with a range of adverse events. Physicians need to be patient-centered and non-judgmental when initiating discussions about

  1. Dietary supplement use among participants of a databank and biorepository at a comprehensive cancer centre

    PubMed Central

    Luc, LeQuyen; Baumgart, Charlotte; Weiss, Edward; Georger, Lesley; Ambrosone, Christine B; Zirpoli, Gary; McCann, Susan E

    2015-01-01

    Objective We assessed the prevalence, patterns and predictors of dietary supplement use among participants of the databank and biorepository (DBBR) at a comprehensive cancer centre in western New York. Design Archived epidemiological questionnaire data were obtained from the DBBR at Roswell Park Cancer Institute. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression explored the prevalence, patterns and predictors of lifetime use of four common supplements (multivitamins, vitamin C, vitamin E and calcium) and use of multivitamins, sixteen single vitamins/minerals and eighteen herbal/specialty supplements within the previous 10 years. Setting Western New York, USA. Subjects DBBR participants (n 8096) enrolled between December 2003 and July 2012 were included in these analyses: 66.9 % (n 5418) with cancer, 65.6 % (n 5309) women, mean age for patients ν. cancer-free controls 59.9 (sd 12.6) years and 50.7 (sd 15.4) years, respectively. Results Overall, 54.4 % of DBBR participants reported lifetime use of one or more supplements and 63.1 % reported use of one or more supplements within the previous 10 years (excluding multivitamins). Multivitamin use was high in this sample (lifetime: 64.1 %; 10 years: 71.3 %; current: 51.8 %). Supplementation was higher among cancer-free controls than cancer patients. Vitamin C, calcium and fish oil were the most common single vitamin, mineral and specialty product, respectively. Conclusions A consistently high and increasing proportion of dietary supplement use over time remains clear. Supplementation is prevalent among cancer patients and may even be higher than predicted in cancer-free individuals. Further studies should assess the safety and efficacy of specific supplements in reducing disease risk. PMID:24866812

  2. FDA regulation of dietary supplements and requirements regarding adverse event reporting.

    PubMed

    Frankos, V H; Street, D A; O'Neill, R K

    2010-02-01

    In 1994, the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act (DSHEA) amended the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FDC Act) to set up a distinct regulatory framework for what we now call dietary supplements. The DSHEA was passed with the intent of striking a balance between providing consumers access to safe dietary supplements to help maintain or improve their health and giving the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) authority to regulate and take action against manufacturers of supplements or supplement ingredients that present safety problems, are presented with false or misleading claims, or are adulterated or misbranded. This article will present FDA's recent experience in collecting and evaluating dietary supplement adverse event data for the purpose of assuring the public that the dietary supplements they purchase are safe.

  3. Does pharmaceutical advertising affect journal publication about dietary supplements?

    PubMed Central

    Kemper, Kathi J; Hood, Kaylene L

    2008-01-01

    Background Advertising affects consumer and prescriber behaviors. The relationship between pharmaceutical advertising and journals' publication of articles regarding dietary supplements (DS) is unknown. Methods We reviewed one year of the issues of 11 major medical journals for advertising and content about DS. Advertising was categorized as pharmaceutical versus other. Articles about DS were included if they discussed vitamins, minerals, herbs or similar products. Articles were classified as major (e.g., clinical trials, cohort studies, editorials and reviews) or other (e.g., case reports, letters, news, and others). Articles' conclusions regarding safety and effectiveness were coded as negative (unsafe or ineffective) or other (safe, effective, unstated, unclear or mixed). Results Journals' total pages per issue ranged from 56 to 217 while advertising pages ranged from 4 to 88; pharmaceutical advertisements (pharmads) accounted for 1.5% to 76% of ad pages. Journals with the most pharmads published significantly fewer major articles about DS per issue than journals with the fewest pharmads (P < 0.01). Journals with the most pharmads published no clinical trials or cohort studies about DS. The percentage of major articles concluding that DS were unsafe was 4% in journals with fewest and 67% among those with the most pharmads (P = 0.02). The percentage of articles concluding that DS were ineffective was 50% higher among journals with more than among those with fewer pharmads (P = 0.4). Conclusion These data are consistent with the hypothesis that increased pharmaceutical advertising is associated with publishing fewer articles about DS and publishing more articles with conclusions that DS are unsafe. Additional research is needed to test alternative hypotheses for these findings in a larger sample of more diverse journals. PMID:18400092

  4. Hepatotoxicity of herbal and dietary supplements: an update.

    PubMed

    Stickel, Felix; Shouval, Daniel

    2015-06-01

    Herbal and dietary supplements (HDS) have been used for health-related purposes since more than 5000 years, and their application is firmly anchored in all societies worldwide. Over last decades, a remarkable renaissance in the use of HDS can be noticed in affluent societies for manifold reasons. HDS are forms of complementary and alternative medicines commonly used to prevent or treat diseases, or simply as a health tonic. Another growing indication for HDS is their alleged benefit for weight loss or to increase physical fitness. Access is easy via internet and mail-order pharmacies, and their turnover reaches billions of dollars in the USA and Europe alone. However, HDS are generally not categorized as drugs and thus less strictly regulated in most countries. As a result, scientific evidence proving their beneficial effects is mostly lacking, although some HDS may have purported benefits. However, the majority lacks such proof of value, and their use is predominantly based on belief and hope. In addition to missing scientific evidence supporting their use, HDS are typically prone to batch-to-batch variability in composition and concentration, contamination, and purposeful adulteration. Moreover, numerous examples of preparations emerged which have been linked to significant liver injury. These include single ingredients, such as kava, germander, and several Chinese herbals. Other HDS products associated with liver toxicity consist of multiple, often ill-defined ingredients, such as Hydroxycut and Herbalife. Affirmative diagnostic tests are not available, and the assessment of liver injury ascribed to HDS depends on a thorough and proactive medical history, careful exclusion of other causes, and a search for available reports on similar events linked to the intake of the suspected preparation or ingredients contained therein.

  5. A Cross-Sectional Survey on Dietary Supplements Consumption among Italian Teen-Agers

    PubMed Central

    del Balzo, Valeria; Vitiello, Valeria; Germani, Alessia; Donini, Lorenzo M.; Poggiogalle, Eleonora; Pinto, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    Introduction In the last decades, dietary supplements consumption has increased in the Western world for all age groups. The long-term potentially dangerous effects related to an indiscriminate consumption of dietary supplements are still unknown and are becoming a matter of public health concern. Therefore, the aims of the present study were: to explore the contribution of dietary supplements to micronutrient daily intake, and to evaluate awareness and knowledge about dietary supplements. Methods Participants (age ranging from 14 to 18 years) were recruited among students attending 8 high schools in the province of Frosinone (Italy). An anonymous questionnaire, composed of 12 multiple-choice items, was administered to all the participants. T-test and the analysis of variance (ANOVA) were performed to describe differences between means of the groups, while the chi-square test was used to compare observed and expected frequencies. The logistic regression model, aimed at identifying the characteristics of potential consumers of dietary supplements, Results A total of 686 teenagers (288 males and 398 females, average age: 17,89±0,91 years) participated in the study. The 83,6% of participants affirmed to be aware of dietary supplements. 239 participants consumed dietary supplements: 118 males and 121 females. 49,1% of females consumed dietary supplements less than twice a week, whereas 43,6% of males consumed dietary supplements from 2 to 5 times per week. Statistically significant differences emerged between the genders with respect to the source of information regarding dietary supplements, the perceived indications for their use, and the choice of the store/place to purchase them. Discussion Findings in the present study provide insight into the consumption of dietary supplements among young Italians, highlighting the need to foster further awareness among adolescents about the correct use of dietary supplements, especially in terms of indications and

  6. Hepatotoxicity associated with chinese skullcap contained in Move Free Advanced dietary supplement: two case reports and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Linnebur, Sunny A; Rapacchietta, Olivia C; Vejar, Maria

    2010-07-01

    Move Free Advanced is a widely available dietary supplement in the United States, marketed to comfort sore joints and improve flexibility and mobility. This product contains glucosamine, chondroitin, hyaluronic acid, and Uniflex proprietary extract, which is a combination of Chinese skullcap and black catechu. We describe two patients who developed hepatotoxicity after ingesting a Move Free Advanced product. In both patients, the hepatotoxicity resolved after discontinuation of the supplement. Use of the Naranjo adverse drug reaction probability scale indicated a probable relationship (score of 6 for both patients) between the patients' development of hepatotoxicity and the Move Free Advanced supplement. Based on a review of the literature, the herbal extract Chinese skullcap is the most likely cause of the hepatotoxicity. To our knowledge, these two cases are the first to be published regarding possible hepatotoxicity associated with Move Free Advanced. Patients seeking dietary supplements for osteoarthritis may want to avoid glucosaminechondroitin products such as Move Free Advanced that also contain Chinese skullcap.

  7. An Evidence-Based Review of Fat Modifying Supplemental Weight Loss Products

    PubMed Central

    Egras, Amy M.; Hamilton, William R.; Lenz, Thomas L.; Monaghan, Michael S.

    2011-01-01

    Objective. To review the literature on fat modifying dietary supplements commonly used for weight loss. Methods. Recently published randomized, placebo-controlled trials were identified in PubMed, MEDLINE, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts, Cochrane Database, and Google Scholar using the search terms dietary supplement, herbal, weight loss, obesity, and individual supplement names. Discussion. Data for conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), Garcinia cambogia, chitosan, pyruvate, Irvingia gabonensis, and chia seed for weight loss were identified. CLA, chitosan, pyruvate, and Irvingia gabonensis appeared to be effective in weight loss via fat modifying mechanisms. However, the data on the use of these products is limited. Conclusion. Many obese people use dietary supplements for weight loss. To date, there is little clinical evidence to support their use. More data is necessary to determine the efficacy and safety of these supplements. Healthcare providers should assist patients in weighing the risks and benefits of dietary supplement use for weight loss. PMID:20847896

  8. Determination of total iodine in foods and dietary supplements using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Darryl; Zywicki, Richard

    2012-01-01

    A method was developed and validated for the determination of total iodine in a wide variety of food products and dietary supplements. The method involves a unique sample digestion with a KOH solution in an oven or by using an open-vessel microwave system. After digestion, a stabilizer is added and the solution is taken to volume, then filtered and analyzed either directly or after dilution. The amount of iodine is determined with inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The method was validated by experiments to determine its precision, accuracy, linearity, specificity, ruggedness, and robustness. The LOQ of this method is 25-50 microg/kg. The method demonstrated an average RSD of 2.27% during analysis of milk powder and 4.30% during analysis of a dietary supplement tablet reference material. The accuracy of the method as determined with these same reference materials was 100 and 94.2%, respectively. The method has been used successfully on commodity foods, processed foods, dairy products, pet food, infant formula, animal feed, mineral premixes, and a variety of dietary supplements.

  9. Environmental neurotoxins β-N-methylamino-l-alanine (BMAA) and mercury in shark cartilage dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Mondo, Kiyo; Broc Glover, W; Murch, Susan J; Liu, Guangliang; Cai, Yong; Davis, David A; Mash, Deborah C

    2014-08-01

    Shark cartilage products are marketed as dietary supplements with claimed health benefits for animal and human use. Shark fin and cartilage products sold as extracts, dry powders and in capsules are marketed based on traditional Chinese medicine claims that it nourishes the blood, enhances appetite, and energizes multiple internal organs. Shark cartilage contains a mixture of chondroitin and glucosamine, a popular nutritional supplement ingested to improve cartilage function. Sharks are long-lived apex predators, that bioaccumulate environmental marine toxins and methylmercury from dietary exposures. We recently reported detection of the cyanobacterial toxin β-N-methylamino-l-alanine (BMAA) in the fins of seven different species of sharks from South Florida coastal waters. Since BMAA has been linked to degenerative brain diseases, the consumption of shark products may pose a human risk for BMAA exposures. In this report, we tested sixteen commercial shark cartilage supplements for BMAA by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC-FD) with fluorescence detection and ultra performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). Total mercury (Hg) levels were measured in the same shark cartilage products by cold vapor atomic fluorescence spectrometry (CVAFS). We report here that BMAA was detected in fifteen out of sixteen products with concentrations ranging from 86 to 265μg/g (dry weight). All of the shark fin products contained low concentrations of Hg. While Hg contamination is a known risk, the results of the present study demonstrate that shark cartilage products also may contain the neurotoxin BMAA. Although the neurotoxic potential of dietary exposure to BMAA is currently unknown, the results demonstrate that shark cartilage products may contain two environmental neurotoxins that have synergistic toxicities.

  10. Metabolic and immune effects of dietary arginine supplementation after burn.

    PubMed

    Saito, H; Trocki, O; Wang, S L; Gonce, S J; Joffe, S N; Alexander, J W

    1987-07-01

    The effect of supplemental dietary arginine on metabolism and immunity was studied in 36 burned guinea pigs (30% of total body surface area) with previously placed catheter gastrostomies. The animals were randomized into four groups. After an initial three-day adaptation period, all groups received continuous isonitrogenous, isocaloric (175 kcal [735 kJ]/kg/d), and isovolemic intragastric tube feedings until postburn day (PBD) 14. Groups A, B, C, and D received 0%, 1%, 2%, and 4%, respectively, of total energy intake as arginine given in the form of crystalline arginine hydrochloride with 22%, 21%, 20%, and 18%, respectively, of total energy as whey protein. The average body weight after burn decreased equally in all groups. Resting metabolic expenditure on PBD 6 was higher in groups B (151% +/- 6% of preburn) and C (156% +/- 7%) than in groups A (131% +/- 4%) and D (136% +/- 3%). Ear-thickness response to dinitrofluorobenzene challenge on PBD 12 showed the best response in group C. The mortality rates of groups A, B, C, and D were 56%, 29%, 22%, and 56%, respectively. This study suggests that oral dietary arginine supplementation up to 2% of energy intake may be beneficial after burn injury.

  11. Expertise about herbs and dietary supplements among diverse health professionals

    PubMed Central

    Kemper, Kathi J; Gardiner, Paula; Gobble, Jessica; Woods, Charles

    2006-01-01

    Background Herbs and other dietary supplements are among the most commonly used complementary medical therapies. However, clinicians generally have limited knowledge, confidence and communication about herbs and dietary supplements (HDS). We compared diverse clinicians' expertise about HDS to better target future curricula. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional survey of physicians, pharmacists, nurses, dietitians and trainees in these professions prior to e-curriculum about HDS in 2004–2005. The survey had 28 questions about knowledge, 19 questions about their confidence and 11 questions about their communication practices about HDS. Results Of the 1,268 participants, 25% were male; the average age was 40 years. Mean scores were 66% correct for knowledge; 53/95 on the confidence scale and 2.2 out of possible 10 on the communication practices scale. On average, scores were lowest for those who used fewer HDS; and trainees and nurses compared with physicians, pharmacists and dietitians (P<0.01 for all comparisons). Conclusion Clinicians have moderate levels of knowledge and confidence, but poor communication skills about HDS. Future curricula about HDS should target nurses, students, practitioners and those not currently using HDS. Research is needed to determine the most cost-effective educational strategies for diverse health professionals. PMID:16646964

  12. Galactoglucomannan Oligosaccharide Supplementation Affects Nutrient Digestibility, Fermentation End-Product Production, and Large Bowel Microbiota of the Dog

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A galactoglucomannan oligosaccharide (GGMO) obtained from fiberboard production was evaluated as a dietary supplement for dogs. The GGMO substrate contained high concentrations of oligosaccharides containing mannose, xylose, and glucose, with the mannose component accounting for 35% of dry matter. ...

  13. Effect of hesperidin dietary supplementation on hen performance, egg quality and yolk oxidative stability.

    PubMed

    Goliomytis, M; Orfanou, H; Petrou, E; Charismiadou, M A; Simitzis, P E; Deligeorgis, S G

    2014-02-01

    1. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of dietary supplementation with hesperidin (one or 3 g/kg of feed) for 31 d on the performance, egg quality and yolk oxidative stability of brown and white laying hens (26-wk old). 2. Supplementation with hesperidin did not affect egg production, egg weight and egg quality traits. 3. No hesperidin effect on yolk and plasma cholesterol was observed. A strain effect was found with lower total and per g yolk cholesterol of brown hens in comparison to the white ones. 4. Oxidative stability of egg yolk, expressed as ng MDA/g yolk, was significantly improved in the hesperidin groups even from the first week of supplementation. At the same time, a significant improvement in the oxidative stability of egg yolk due to the incorporation of hesperidin in hens' diet was observed after 30 and 90 d of storage at 20°C and 4°C, respectively. 5. No hesperidin by strain interaction was detected for any of the traits measured. 6. In conclusion, incorporation of hesperidin to laying hens' feed did not affect productive and egg qualitative traits. On the other hand, dietary hesperidin supplementation significantly improved oxidative stability of both fresh and stored eggs. Antioxidant properties of hesperidin seem to make it a promising natural agent for improving the shelf life of eggs.

  14. The Role of Omega-3 Dietary Supplementation in Blepharitis and Meibomian Gland Dysfunction (An AOS Thesis)

    PubMed Central

    Macsai, Marian S.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose Blepharitis and meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD) are common sources of complaints from patients. To evaluate the effect on ocular symptoms, ocular findings, and serum and meibomian gland contents, patients with blepharitis and MGD were prospectively evaluated to determine the effects of dietary supplementation with omega-3 fatty acids. Methods In a prospective randomized placebo-controlled masked trial, patients with simple obstructive MGD and blepharitis, who had discontinued all topical medications and tetracyclines, received oral omega-3 dietary supplementation consisting of two 1000-mg capsules 3 times a day. Patients were examined every 3 months for 1 year with the Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) objective clinical measures, including tear production and stability, ocular surface and meibomian gland health, and biochemical plasma, red blood cell (RBC), and meibum evaluation. Primary outcome measures were change in tear breakup time (TBUT), meibum score, and overall OSDI score at 1 year. Results At 1 year, the omega-3 group had a 36% and 31% reduction in their omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acid ratios in RBCs and plasma, respectively (P = .3), whereas the placebo group demonstrated no change. At 12 months, the omega-3 group had an improvement in TBUT, OSDI score, and meibum score. Changes in meibum content were observed in the omega-3 group (P = .21); the level of meibum saturated fatty acids decreased. Conclusions This trial demonstrated a decrease in the RBC and plasma ratios of omega-6 to omega-3 in patients taking omega-3 dietary supplementation, as compared to controls, and improvements in their overall OSDI score, TBUT, and meibum score. This is the first demonstration of an induced change in the fatty acid saturation content in meibum as a result of dietary supplementation with omega-3 fatty acids. PMID:19277245

  15. Effects of dietary supplementation with Gynura procumbens (Merr.) on egg yolk cholesterol, excreta microflora and laying hen performance.

    PubMed

    Lokhande, A; Ingale, S L; Lee, S H; Sen, S; Khong, C; Chae, B J; Kwon, I K

    2014-01-01

    Abstract 1. The present study investigated the effects of dietary supplementation with Gynura procumbens on egg yolk and serum cholesterol and triglycerides, excreta microflora, laying performance and egg quality. 2. A total of 160 Hy-Line Brown layers (45 weeks old) were randomly assigned into 4 treatments on the basis of laying performance. Each treatment had 4 replicates with 10 birds each. 3. Dietary treatments were basal diet supplemented with 0 (control), 2.5, 5.0 and 7.5 g/kg diet G. procumbens during 56-d feeding period. 4. Serum (d 21, 42 and 56) and egg yolk (d 28, 42 and 56) cholesterol and triglycerides concentrations were linearly reduced with increasing dietary concentrations of G. procumbens. 5. Increasing dietary concentrations of G. procumbens linearly reduced the excreta total anaerobic bacteria (d 28), Clostridium sp. and Escherichia coli (d 28 and 56) populations. 6. Overall egg production and egg mass were linearly increased, and overall feed efficiency was linearly improved with increase in dietary G. procumbens. 7. Dietary increasing concentrations of G. procumbens linearly improved egg yolk colour (d 28 and 56) and breaking strength of eggs (d 56). 8. The results obtained in the present experiment indicate that dietary supplementation with G. procumbens could reduce the egg yolk cholesterol, suppresses harmful excreta microflora and improves layers performance.

  16. Herbals and natural dietary supplements in psychiatric practice.

    PubMed

    Chiappedi, Matteo; Bejor, Maurizio

    2010-06-01

    There is some evidence that links the increase of mental disorders' prevalence with a deterioration of Western countries' nutritional habits and it is found that the use of herbal and "natural" food supplements to treat different disorders is increasing. With factors such as chronic illness, poor health, emotional distress, and quality of life influencing the desire for complementary medicine, patients with comorbid medical and psychiatric problems seem likely to turn to this approach. We reviewed the most commonly used herbal and dietary supplements for which a certain efficacy on psychiatric symptoms or disorders has been claimed, checking current Pubmed-indexed literature (the most important being St. John's wort, Omega-3 fatty acids, valerian, Kava, Ginkgo, folate, B vitamins, SAMe, Inositol). There is an evidence of efficacy for some of these herbs an supplements, but current studies are often insufficient to reach a final conclusion; still patents are being requested and registered. Many different areas (including efficacy, tolerability, optimal dosing, adequate shelf life, drug and non-pharmacological interactions) need to be thoroughly studied; moreover political decisions need to be scientifically guided in order to best serve psychiatric patients' interests and to prevent the usage of expensive and sometimes un-useful therapies. This implies that a scientific strategy has to be used to rule out any third-part economical interest which could in any way influence therapeutic choices.

  17. Content Variation of Catechin Markers, Total Phenolics and Caffeine in Green Tea Dietary Supplements.

    PubMed

    Abourashed, Ehab A; Roberson, Cindy Leslie A; Elsharkawy, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    Green tea (Camellia sinensis) preparations are among the top selling products in the United States dietary supplements market. Numerous manufacturers claim different levels of specific catechin markers in their products while many others use total phenolic concentration instead, or not at all. Limited quality control results have been published for green tea dietary supplements over the past seven years. Thus, the goal of this work was to correlate determined levels of phenolics, catechins, and caffeine with manufacturer label claims for selected dietary supplement products (26 total) purchased in the United States. The Folin-Ciocalteu (FC) method was used to determine the total phenolic content while reversed-phase (RP) HPLC was used to quantify the major catechins: epicatechin (EC), epigallocatechin (EGC), epicatechin gallate (ECG), epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG). The developed HPLC method was validated for accuracy and precision. It utilized a C8 column with gradient elution of acetonitrile in 0.1% aqueous formic acid over 11 min total run time. Peak detection was performed at 280 nm. Caffeine was also included in the HPLC method as another non-phenolic alkaloid marker commonly found in green tea. Both methods showed a good correlation between the content of catechins and polyphenolic compounds in the selected products. The ranges of total catechins and polyphenol concentrations were 3.8-70.2% and 3.6-95.8%, respectively, while that of caffeine was 0.8-11.2%. The selected products displayed a wide range of marker levels. A lack of conformity in disclosing the actual levels of marker compounds was also noticed in the labeling of many products.

  18. Extensive gut metabolism limits the intestinal absorption of excessive supplemental dietary glutamate loads in infant pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Glutamate (Glu) is a major intestinal oxidative fuel, key neurotransmitter, and may be a useful dietary supplement to augment health of the infant gut. We quantified the metabolic fate of various supplemental dietary Glu intakes in young pigs surgically implanted with vascular, intraduodenal (ID), o...

  19. Consumption of Sport-Related Dietary Supplements among NCAA Division 1 Female Student Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Housman, Jeff; Dorman, Steve; Pruitt, Buzz; Ranjita, Misra; Perko, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To determine factors that influence sport-related dietary supplement consumption among NCAA Division 1 female student athletes and to estimate the plausibility of the theory of planned behavior (TPB) for predicting the use of sport-related dietary supplements among NCAA Division 1 female student athletes. Method: Self-report data were…

  20. 75 FR 9232 - Office of Dietary Supplements (ODS) 2010-2014 Strategic Plan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-01

    ... was developed after more than a year's worth of reflection on its programs, activities, and..., the dietary supplement industry, consumer advocacy and education groups, and interested consumers. FOR... provision of the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act of 1994 (DSHEA). Dated: February 22, 2010....

  1. Prevalence and predictors of children's dietary supplement use: the 2007 National Health Interview Survey

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Little is known about the characteristics of US children who are dietary supplement users. We described the prevalence and predictors of and reasons for giving children dietary supplements. The study included children <18 y of age who participated in the Complementary and Alternative Medicine supple...

  2. ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANTS AND POTENTIAL HUMAN RISK ASSOCIATED WITH SELECTED BOTANICAL DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Botanical dietary supplements have a long history of use in Europe and China and they are becoming increasingly popular in the United States. However, little data is available regarding environmental contaminants in botanical dietary supplements and the risk posed to those ingest...

  3. Simultaneous quantitation of six major quassinoids in Tongkat Ali dietary supplements by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Han, Young Min; Jang, Moonhee; Kim, In Sook; Kim, Seung Hyun; Yoo, Hye Hyun

    2015-07-01

    Tongkat Ali (Eurycoma longifolia) is one of the most popular traditional herbs in Southeast Asia and generally consumed as forms of dietary supplements, tea, or drink additives for coffee or energy beverages. In this study, the liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry method for the simultaneous quantitation of six major quassinoids of Tongkat Ali (eurycomanone, 13,21-dihydroeurycomanone, 13α(21)-epoxyeurycomanone, 14,15β-dihydroxyklaineanone, eurycomalactone, and longilactone) was developed and validated. Using the developed method, the content of the six quassinoids was measured in Tongkat Ali containing dietary supplement tablets or capsules, and the resulting data were used to confirm the presence of Tongkat Ali in those products. Among the six quassinoids, eurycomanone was the most abundant quassinoid in all samples tested. The developed method would be useful for the quality assessment of Tongkat Ali containing dietary supplements.

  4. Dietary supplement increases plasma norepinephrine, lipolysis, and metabolic rate in resistance trained men

    PubMed Central

    Bloomer, Richard J; Fisher-Wellman, Kelsey H; Hammond, Kelley G; Schilling, Brian K; Weber, Adrianna A; Cole, Bradford J

    2009-01-01

    Background Dietary supplements targeting fat loss and increased thermogenesis are prevalent within the sport nutrition/weight loss market. While some isolated ingredients have been reported to be efficacious when used at high dosages, in particular in animal models and/or via intravenous delivery, little objective evidence is available pertaining to the efficacy of a finished product taken by human subjects in oral form. Moreover, many ingredients function as stimulants, leading to increased hemodynamic responses. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the effects of a finished dietary supplement on plasma catecholamine concentration, markers of lipolysis, metabolic rate, and hemodynamics. Methods Ten resistance trained men (age = 27 ± 4 yrs; BMI = 25 ± 3 kg· m-2; body fat = 9 ± 3%; mean ± SD) ingested a dietary supplement (Meltdown®, Vital Pharmaceuticals) or a placebo, in a random order, double blind cross-over design, with one week separating conditions. Fasting blood samples were collected before, and at 30, 60, and 90 minutes post ingestion and were assayed for epinephrine (EPI), norepinephrine (NE), glycerol, and free fatty acids (FFA). Area under the curve (AUC) was calculated for all variables. Gas samples were collected from 30–60 minutes post ingestion for measurement of metabolic rate. Heart rate and blood pressure were recorded at all blood collection times. Results AUC was greater for the dietary supplement compared to the placebo for NE (1332 ± 128 pg·mL-1·90 min-1 vs. 1003 ± 133 pg·mL-1·90 min-1; p = 0.03), glycerol (44 ± 3 μg·mL-1·90 min-1 vs. 26 ± 2 μg·mL-1·90 min-1; p < 0.0001), and FFA (1.24 ± 0.17 mmol·L-1·90 min-1 vs. 0.88 ± 0.12 mmol·L-1·90 min-1; p = 0.0003). No difference between conditions was noted for EPI AUC (p > 0.05). For all variables, values were highest at 90 minutes post ingestion. Total kilocalorie expenditure during the 30 minute collection period was 29.6% greater (p = 0.02) for the

  5. Scientific and Regulatory Perspectives in Herbal and Dietary Supplement Associated Hepatotoxicity in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Avigan, Mark I.; Mozersky, Robert P.; Seeff, Leonard B.

    2016-01-01

    In the United States (US), the risk of hepatotoxicity linked to the widespread use of certain herbal products has gained increased attention among regulatory scientists. Based on current US law, all dietary supplements sold domestically, including botanical supplements, are regulated by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as a special category of foods. Under this designation, regulatory scientists do not routinely evaluate the efficacy of these products prior to their marketing, despite the content variability and phytochemical complexity that often characterizes them. Nonetheless, there has been notable progress in the development of advanced scientific methods to qualitatively and quantitatively measure ingredients and screen for contaminants and adulterants in botanical products when hepatotoxicity is recognized. PMID:26950122

  6. Scientific and Regulatory Perspectives in Herbal and Dietary Supplement Associated Hepatotoxicity in the United States.

    PubMed

    Avigan, Mark I; Mozersky, Robert P; Seeff, Leonard B

    2016-03-03

    In the United States (US), the risk of hepatotoxicity linked to the widespread use of certain herbal products has gained increased attention among regulatory scientists. Based on current US law, all dietary supplements sold domestically, including botanical supplements, are regulated by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as a special category of foods. Under this designation, regulatory scientists do not routinely evaluate the efficacy of these products prior to their marketing, despite the content variability and phytochemical complexity that often characterizes them. Nonetheless, there has been notable progress in the development of advanced scientific methods to qualitatively and quantitatively measure ingredients and screen for contaminants and adulterants in botanical products when hepatotoxicity is recognized.

  7. UHPLC/HRMS Analysis of African Mango (Irvingia gabonensis) Seeds, Extract and Related Dietary Supplements

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jianghao; Chen, Pei

    2012-01-01

    Dietary Supplements based on an extract from Irvingia gabonensis (African Mango, AM for abbreviation) seeds are one of the popular herbal weight loss dietary supplements in the US market. The extract is believed to be a natural and healthy way to lose weight and improve overall health. However, the chemical composition of African mango based-dietary supplements (AMDS) has never been reported. In this study, the chemical constituents of African mango seeds, African mango seeds extract (AMSE), and different kinds of commercially available African mango based dietary supplements (AMDS) have been investigated using an ultra high-performance liquid chromatography with high resolution mass spectrometry (UHPLC-HRMS) method. Ellagic acid, mono, di, tri-O methyl-ellagic acids and their glycosides were found as major components in African Mango seeds. These compounds may be used for quality control of African Mango extract and related dietary supplements. PMID:22880691

  8. Intake of micronutrients among Danish adult users and non-users of dietary supplements

    PubMed Central

    Tetens, Inge; Biltoft-Jensen, Anja; Spagner, Camilla; Christensen, Tue; Gille, Maj-Britt; Bügel, Susanne; Banke Rasmussen, Lone

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the intake of micronutrients from the diet and from supplements in users and non-users of dietary supplements, respectively, in a representative sample of the Danish adult population. A specific objective was to identify the determinants of supplement use. Design A cross-sectional representative national study of the intake of vitamins and minerals from the diet and from dietary supplements. Method The Danish National Survey of Dietary Habits and Physical Activity, 2000–2004. Participants (n=4,479; 53% females) aged 18–75 years gave information about the use of dietary supplements in a personal interview. The quantification of the micronutrient contribution from supplements was estimated from a generic supplement constructed from data on household purchases. Nutrient intakes from the diet were obtained from a self-administered 7-day pre-coded dietary record. Median intakes of total nutrients from the diets of users and non-users of supplements were analysed using the Wilcoxon rank-sum test. Results Sixty percent of females and 51% of males were users of supplements. With the exception of vitamin D, the intake of micronutrients from the diet was adequate at the group level for all age and gender groups. Among females in the age group 18–49 years, the micronutrient intake from the diet was significantly higher compared with the non-users of dietary supplements. The use of dietary supplements increased with age and with ‘intention to eat healthy.’ Conclusion Intake of micronutrients from the diet alone was considered adequate for both users and non-users of dietary supplements. Younger females who were supplement users had a more micronutrient-dense diet compared to non-users. PMID:21909288

  9. Effect of variable water intake as mediated by dietary potassium carbonate supplementation on rumen dynamics in lactating dairy cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Water is a critical nutrient for dairy cows, with intake varying with environment, production, and diet. However, little work has evaluated the effects of water intake on rumen parameters. Using dietary potassium carbonate (Kcarb) as a K supplement to increase water intake, the objective of this stu...

  10. Identification of Phthalates in Medications and Dietary Supplement Formulations in the United States and Canada

    PubMed Central

    Hernández-Díaz, Sonia; Chaplin, Erica L.; Hauser, Russ; Mitchell, Allen A.

    2011-01-01

    Background: In animal studies, some ortho-phthalates, including di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP), have been shown to be reproductive and developmental toxicants. Human studies show widespread population exposure to background levels of phthalates. Limited evidence suggests that particularly high exposure levels may result from orally ingested medicinal products containing phthalates as excipients (inactive ingredients). Objective: In this study we aimed to identify and describe the scope of prescription (RX) and nonprescription (over-the-counter; OTC) medicinal products and dietary supplements marketed in the United States and Canada since 1995 that include phthalates as excipients. Methods: We used lists of modified-release drug products to identify potential drug products. Inclusion of phthalates was verified using available electronic databases, print references, published package inserts, product packages, and direct communication from manufacturers. Additional products were identified using Internet searches utilizing keywords for phthalates. Results: Based on labeling information, 6 RX drug products included DBP as an excipient, and 45 specified the use of diethyl phthalate (DEP). Phthalate polymers with no known toxicity—hypromellose phthalate (HMP), cellulose acetate phthalate (CAP), and polyvinyl acetate phthalate (PVAP)—were included in 75 RX products. Three OTC drug and dietary supplement products listed DBP, 64 listed DEP, and > 90 indicated inclusion of polymers. Conclusions: Numerous RX and OTC drug products and supplements from a wide range of therapeutic categories may use DBP or DEP as excipients in oral dosage forms. The potential effects of human exposure to these phthalates through medications are unknown and warrant further investigation. PMID:22169271

  11. Thyrotoxic hypokalemic periodic paralysis due to dietary weight-loss supplement.

    PubMed

    Akinyemi, Emmanuel; Bercovici, Silvia; Niranjan, Selvanayagam; Paul, Nisha; Hemavathy, Bhakthavatsalam

    2011-05-01

    Herbal and dietary supplements for weight loss and in treatment of obesity are growing in popularity and acceptance in the United States. Most of these supplements can be obtained over the counter and can have serious adverse effects associated with their consumption. We describe 2 patients who developed thyrotoxic hypokalemic periodic paralysis 2-3 weeks after consuming thyroxine-containing weight-loss supplements. This is the first known case of thyrotoxic hypokalemic periodic paralysis secondary to dietary supplements. It is important that patients and physicians are aware of the severe adverse reactions associated with dietary supplements. Physicians should as a routine inquire about herbal and dietary supplement consumption during all patient encounters.

  12. Broadband quantitative NQR for authentication of vitamins and dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Chen, Cheng; Zhang, Fengchao; Bhunia, Swarup; Mandal, Soumyajit

    2017-03-24

    We describe hardware, pulse sequences, and algorithms for nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) spectroscopy of medicines and dietary supplements. Medicine and food safety is a pressing problem that has drawn more and more attention. NQR is an ideal technique for authenticating these substances because it is a non-invasive method for chemical identification. We have recently developed a broadband NQR front-end that can excite and detect (14)N NQR signals over a wide frequency range; its operating frequency can be rapidly set by software, while sensitivity is comparable to conventional narrowband front-ends over the entire range. This front-end improves the accuracy of authentication by enabling multiple-frequency experiments. We have also developed calibration and signal processing techniques to convert measured NQR signal amplitudes into nuclear spin densities, thus enabling its use as a quantitative technique. Experimental results from several samples are used to illustrate the proposed methods.

  13. Composition of Lutein Ester Regioisomers in Marigold Flower, Dietary Supplement, and Herbal Tea.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Aal, El-Sayed M; Rabalski, Iwona

    2015-11-11

    Characterization of lutein and its esters in a health product is necessary for its efficacy. In the current study lutein ester regioisomers were quantified and identified in several dietary supplements and herbal teas in comparison with marigold flower, the commercial source of lutein. The products were extracted with three solvents and separated on a C30 column. The separated esters were identified/confirmed with LC-MS in APCI+ve mode with the use of synthetic lutein esters. The total content of lutein esters substantially varied among marigold flowers (167-5752 μg/g), supplements (88,000-110,700 μg/g), and herbal teas (12.4-91.3 μg/g). Lutein supplement had a lutein profile similar to that of marigold flower, whereas herbal tea showed an extremely different profile. Lutein dipalmitate was the dominant compound in supplements and marigold flowers followed by lutein 3'-O-myristate-3-O-palmitate and lutein 3'-O-palmitate-3-O-myristate. Lutein was the major compound in marigold herbal tea with small amounts of lutein mono- and diesters. Differences in the concentration and composition of lutein compounds among marigold products could indicate distinct product quality and lutein bioavailability.

  14. Bioavailability of different dietary supplemental methionine sources in animals.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shuai; Wong, Eric A; Gilbert, Elizabeth R

    2015-06-01

    Dietary methionine is indispensable for animal maintenance, growth and development. L-methionine (L-Met), and its synthetic forms DL-methionine (DL-Met) and 2-hydroxy-4 (methylthio) butanoic acid (HMTBA) are common supplemental methionine sources in animal diets. There are different characteristics for cellular absorption, transport, metabolism and bio-efficiency between these three dietary methionine sources. Moreover, there are differences in their utilization among various species such as chickens, pigs and ruminants. As a methionine precursor, HMTBA is efficacious in the promotion of growth in animals. It is absorbed mainly by monocarboxylate transporter 1 (MCT1), coupled with the activity of the Na(+)/H(+) exchanger (NHE3), while DL-Met uptake occurs via multiple carrier-mediated systems. Liver, kidney and small intestine can metabolize D-Met and HMTBA to L-Met through oxidation and transamination. In ruminants, the non-hepatic tissues act as major sites of HMTBA conversion, which are different from that in chickens and pigs. HMTBA also has additional benefits in anti-oxidation. Understanding the characteristics of uptake and metabolism of different methionine sources will greatly benefit the industry and bioscience research.

  15. Estimation of Potential Availability of Essential Oil in Some Brands of Herbal Teas and Herbal Dietary Supplements

    PubMed Central

    Kowalski, Radosław; Baj, Tomasz; Kowalska, Grażyna; Pankiewicz, Urszula

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The aim of the study was to estimate potential availability of essential oil in some brands of herbal products. Methods A comparison was performed on the basis of the essential oil yield in the unprocessed raw materials such as leaves of peppermint and lemon balm and inflorescence of chamomile as well as herbal tea bags and in dietary supplements. The yield of essential oil was determined by distillation. Essential oil was analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS. Results It was found that the average potential availability of essential oils in the products such as dietary supplements for the doses recommended by the producers is lower than in the corresponding tea infusions: for peppermint formulations approximately 6-fold lower, for the formulations with lemon balm about 4-fold lower, and for the chamomile preparations about 3-fold lower. It was found that essential oils extracted from herbal teas have a similar chemical profile with characteristic deviations in the amount of individual components, which arise from the origin of the raw material. Discussion In contrast to homogenous pharmaceutical herbal mixtures consistent with, the Pharmacopoeia requirements, herbal teas (available in grocery stores) and dietary supplements are often out of control in terms of the yield and composition of the essential oil, which is primarily responsible for the health benefits and aromatic qualities of these products. Analysis of the composition of the dietary supplements showed that they contain on average significantly lower amounts of plant material compared to the herbal teas. PMID:26110869

  16. Botanical origin of dietary supplements labeled as "Kwao Keur", a folk medicine from Thailand.

    PubMed

    Maruyama, Takuro; Kawamura, Maiko; Kikura-Hanajiri, Ruri; Goda, Yukihiro

    2014-01-01

    In the course of our study on the quality of dietary supplements in Japan, both the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequence of nrDNA and the rps16 intron sequence of cpDNA of products labeled as "Kwao Keur" were investigated. As a result, the DNA sequence of Pueraria candollei var. mirifica, which is the source plant of Kwao Keur, was observed in only about half of the products. Inferred from the determined sequences, source plants in the other products included Medicago sativa, Glycyrrhiza uralensis, Pachyrhizus erosus, and Ipomoea batatas, etc. These inferior products are estimated to lack the efficacy implied by their labeling. In order to guarantee the quality of dietary supplements, it is important to identify the source materials exactly; in addition, an infrastructure that can exclude these inferior products from the market is needed for the protection of consumers from potential damage to their health and finances. The DNA analysis performed in this study is useful for this purpose.

  17. Dietary supplement with vitamin C prevents nitrate tolerance.

    PubMed Central

    Bassenge, E; Fink, N; Skatchkov, M; Fink, B

    1998-01-01

    Enhanced formation of superoxide radicals has been proposed to play a major role in the development of nitrate tolerance in humans. We tested the effects of vitamin C (Vit-C) supplementation on glyceroltrinitrate (GTN)-induced hemodynamic effects during 3-d nonintermittent transdermal administration of GTN (0.4 mg/h) in nine healthy subjects. Tolerance development was monitored by changes in arterial pressure, dicrotic digital pulse pressure, and heart rate. Studies with GTN, Vit-C, or GTN/Vit-C were successively carried out at random in three different series in the same subjects. GTN treatment caused an immediate rise in arterial conductivity (a/b ratio of dicrotic pulse), but within 2 d of initiating GTN, the a/b ratio progressively decreased and reached basal levels. In addition, there was a progressive loss of the orthostatic decrease in blood pressure. However, coadministration of Vit-C and GTN fully maintained the GTN-induced changes in the orthostatic blood pressure, and the rise of a/b ratio was augmented by 310% for the duration of the test period. Changes in vascular tolerance in GTN-treated subjects were paralleled by upregulation of the activity of isolated platelets, which was also reversed by Vit-C administration. These findings demonstrate that dietary supplementation with Vit-C eliminates vascular tolerance and concomitant upregulation of ex vivo-washed platelet activity during long-term nonintermittent administration of GTN in humans. PMID:9649558

  18. Benefits of Selenium Supplementation on Leukocyte DNA Integrity Interact with Dietary Micronutrients: A Short Communication

    PubMed Central

    Karunasinghe, Nishi; Zhu, Shuotun; Ferguson, Lynnette R.

    2016-01-01

    A male cohort from New Zealand has previously shown variability in Selenium (Se) supplementation effects on measured biomarkers. The current analysis is to understand the reasons for variability of the H2O2-induced DNA damage recorded after Se supplementation. We have looked at the variation of demographic, lifestyle, medication, genetic and dietary factors and biomarkers measured at baseline and post-supplementation in these two extreme subgroups A and B. Group A showed increased H2O2-induced DNA damage and group B showed decreased damage after Se supplementation. We have also considered correlations of biomarkers and dietary factors in the complete dataset. The glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity and DNA damage were significantly lower at post-supplementation in Group B compared to Group A. Post-supplementation, Group B showed a significant reduction in the GPx activity, while Group A showed a significant increase in DNA damage compared to baseline levels. Dietary methionine intake was significantly higher and folate intake was significantly lower in Group B compared to Group A. Se supplementation significantly increased the caspase-cleaved keratin 18 levels in both groups, indicating increased apoptotic potential of this supplement. Parameter correlation with the complete dataset showed dietary methionine to have a significant negative correlation with H2O2-induced DNA damage post-supplementation. The data suggest that Se supplementation is beneficial for the leukocyte DNA integrity only in interaction with the dietary methionine and folate intake. PMID:27128937

  19. Short term supplementation of dietary antioxidants selectively regulates the inflammatory responses during early cutaneous wound healing in diabetic mice

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Diabetic foot ulcers are serious complications for diabetic patients, yet the precise mechanism that underlines the treatment of these diabetic complications remains unclear. We hypothesized that dietary antioxidant supplementation with vitamin C, combined either with vitamin E or with vitamin E and NAC, improves delayed wound healing through modulation of blood glucose levels, oxidative stress, and inflammatory response. Methods Diabetes was induced by administration of alloxan monohydrate. Mice were divided into 4 groups; CON (non-diabetic control mice fed AIN 93 G purified rodent diet), DM (diabetic mice fed AIN 93 G purified rodent diet), VCE (diabetic mice fed 0.5% vitamin C and 0.5% vitamin E supplemented diet), and Comb (diabetic mice fed 0.5% vitamin C, 0.5% vitamin E, and 2.5% NAC supplemented diet). After 10 days of dietary antioxidant supplementation, cutaneous full-thickness excisional wounds were performed, and the rate of wound closure was examined. TBARS as lipid peroxidation products and vitamin E levels were measured in the liver. Expression levels of oxidative stress and inflammatory response related proteins were measured in the cutaneous wound site. Results Dietary antioxidant supplementation improved blood glucose levels and wound closure rate and increased liver vitamin E, but not liver TBARS levels in the diabetic mice as compared to those of the CON. In addition, dietary antioxidant supplementation modulated the expression levels of pIκBα, HO-1, CuZnSOD, iNOS and COX-2 proteins in the diabetic mice. Conclusions These findings demonstrated that delayed wound healing is associated with an inflammatory response induced by hyperglycaemia, and suggests that dietary antioxidant supplementation may have beneficial effects on wound healing through selective modulation of blood glucose levels, oxidative stress, and inflammatory response. PMID:22088091

  20. Dietary aspects in fibromyalgia patients: results of a survey on food awareness, allergies, and nutritional supplementation.

    PubMed

    Arranz, Laura-Isabel; Canela, Miguel-Ángel; Rafecas, Magda

    2012-09-01

    Fibromyalgia (FM) is a common disease that results in poor quality of life, causing widespread musculoskeletal pain and stiffness, fatigue, sleep disorders, and cognitive impairment among other symptoms. The lack of an effective treatment makes necessary a multidimensional management. FM patients usually seek, from different sources, information about possible benefits from foods, nutrients, or diets. Our objective was to investigate the dietary awareness, food allergies and/or intolerances (FAIs), and nutritional supplement (NS) consumption of FM patients. A questionnaire was prepared with six questions regarding dietary habits, FAIs, and NS use. The questionnaire was filled out by patients recruited in local fibromyalgia associations. One hundred and one women were suffering from FM, diagnosed for more than 6 months, mean age of 53.88 ± 7.78 years; 30% of them changed their diet because of their disease, trying to improve it, and most of them were also using some NS; 7% of women in this group had FAIs, a figure slightly higher than the FAI prevalence in the general population (2-5%) and positively associated with consumption of supplements. Among NS users, some differences were observed; past NS users currently consume a wider range of products, more than new NS users. Magnesium was one of the supplements most recommended specifically for FM. Seventy-four percentage of these patients used NS following advice from health professionals. Once patients are diagnosed, they change their dietary habits and nutritional supplement intake, seeking nutritional strategies to improve their symptoms. Health professionals' advice plays a relevant role.

  1. Vitamin D intoxication due to an erroneously manufactured dietary supplement in seven children.

    PubMed

    Kara, Cengiz; Gunindi, Figen; Ustyol, Ala; Aydin, Murat

    2014-01-01

    Pediatric cases of vitamin D intoxication (VDI) with dietary supplements have not been previously reported. We report on 7 children with VDI caused by consumption of a fish oil supplement containing an excessively high dose of vitamin D due to a manufacturing error. Seven children aged between 0.7 and 4.2 years were admitted with symptoms of hypercalcemia. Initial median (range) serum concentrations of calcium and 25-hydroxyvitamin D were 16.5 (13.4-18.8) mg/dL and 620 (340-962) ng/mL, respectively. Repeated questioning of the parents revealed use of a fish oil that was produced recently by a local manufacturer. Analysis of the fish oil by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry revealed that the vitamin D3 content was ~4000 times the labeled concentration. Estimated daily amounts of vitamin D3 intake varied between 266,000 and 800,000 IU. Patients were successfully treated with intravenous hydration, furosemide, and pamidronate infusions. With treatment, serum calcium returned to the normal range within 3 days (range: 2-7 days). Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels normalized within 2 to 3 months. Complications, including nephrocalcinosis, were not observed throughout the 1-year follow-up. In conclusion, errors in manufacturing of dietary supplements may be a cause of VDI in children. Physicians should be aware of this possibility in unexplained VDI cases and repeatedly question the families about dietary supplement use. To prevent the occurrence of such unintentional incidents, manufacturers must always monitor the levels of ingredients of their products and should be rigorously overseen by governmental regulatory agencies, as is done in the pharmaceutical industry.

  2. Concomitant use of prescription medications and dietary supplements in menopausal women; an approach to provider preparedness

    PubMed Central

    Gardiner, Paula; Stargrove, Mitchell Bebel; Dog, Tieraona Low

    2010-01-01

    Dietary supplements are becoming increasingly popular as therapies for symptom relief among menopause-age women in the United States. However, a large gap exists between research in the concomitant use of prescription medications and dietary supplements and provider preparedness to guide patient decision making. Many menopausal women take prescription medications, over the counter medications, and herbs and dietary supplements for climactic symptoms or other health conditions. With any drug, there is the potential for interactions. Women taking medications with a narrow therapeutic index, such as anticoagulants, anticonvulsants, and drugs for the treatment of chronic diseases, are at particular risk. Patients should be queried regarding their use of dietary supplements when starting or stopping a prescription drug, or if unexpected reactions occur. When counseling patients, one must carefully consider the risks and benefits of each supplement and medication being taken by each individual. PMID:21168291

  3. Masters Swimmers Use More Dietary Supplements Than a Large National Comparison Population in the United States.

    PubMed

    Guthrie, Sally K; Erickson, Steven R

    2016-04-01

    The use of dietary supplements was compared between a cohort of committed exercisers, U.S. Masters Swimming (USMS) members (n = 1,042), and the general U.S. population, exemplified by respondents to the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) from 2009 to 2010 (n = 6,209). USMS swimmers were significantly more likely to take dietary supplements (62%) than the general U.S. adult population, as represented by the NHANES population (37%). Those taking dietary supplements were older, more likely to be female and Caucasian, and more highly educated and affluent than those not taking supplements (p < .001 for all). When adjusted for age, race, gender, annual income, and education, masters swimmers were still more likely (p < .001) to use dietary supplements than the NHANES cohort. In addition, masters swimmers were significantly more likely (p < .001) to use either creatine or dehydroepiandrosterone or testosterone than those in the NHANES cohort.

  4. Evaluation of Moringa oleifera as a dietary supplement on growth and reproductive performance in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Paul, Latoya T; Fowler, Lauren A; Barry, Robert J; Watts, Stephen A

    2013-12-01

    The leaves of the Moringa oleifera (Moringa) tree contain a significant source of protein, vitamins and minerals, and are considered as an important dietary supplement in countries where chronic malnourishment is linked to poor fetal development. We evaluated the effectiveness of the Moringa leaf as a supplemental replacement for vitamins, minerals, and protein in a formulated zebrafish diet and the impact that it may have on growth and reproductive outcome. Diets included a formulated control (FC) containing an array of vitamins and mineral supplements (pre-mixes), dried ground Moringa only (M), formulated control minus vitamin and mineral pre-mixes (Fvm), and formulated control minus vitamin and mineral pre-mixes and supplemented with Moringa (FM). Juvenile zebrafish were fed experimental diets ad libitum. After a 12 week feeding period, each treatment group was evaluated based on growth and reproductive performance. The M treatment showed the least growth performance (length and weight gain) and no reproductive success (no egg production). Although small, M fish appeared otherwise healthy, with survivorship at ca. 70%, suggesting, Moringa can serve as a single ingredient source for a short period of time. FC showed the highest growth performance, and had the highest reproductive success. Growth performance and reproduction in the Fvm diet was greatly reduced. However, inclusion of Moringa (FM) promoted significant, but not total, recovery of growth and reproductive metrics. These data suggest that Moringa leaves can serve as an acceptable supplement for macro and micronutrients in the diet and could, in part, reduce problems associated with nutrient deficiencies.

  5. Do specific dietary constituents and supplements affect mental energy? Review of the evidence.

    PubMed

    Gorby, Heather E; Brownawell, Amy M; Falk, Michael C

    2010-12-01

    The numbers of marketing claims and food, beverage, and drug products claiming to increase mental energy have risen rapidly, thus increasing the need for scientific specificity in marketing and food label claims. Mental energy is a three-dimensional construct consisting of mood (transient feelings about the presence of fatigue or energy), motivation (determination and enthusiasm), and cognition (sustained attention and vigilance). The present review focuses on four dietary constituents/supplements (Ginkgo biloba, ginseng, glucose, and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids) to illustrate the current state of the literature on dietary constituents and mental energy. The strongest evidence suggests effects of Ginkgo biloba on certain aspects of mood and on attention in healthy subjects, as well as associations between omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and reduced risk of age-related cognitive decline. Limitations of the current data and challenges for future research are discussed.

  6. Mycotoxins in Plant-Based Dietary Supplements: Hidden Health Risk for Consumers.

    PubMed

    Veprikova, Zdenka; Zachariasova, Milena; Dzuman, Zbynek; Zachariasova, Alena; Fenclova, Marie; Slavikova, Petra; Vaclavikova, Marta; Mastovska, Katerina; Hengst, Daniel; Hajslova, Jana

    2015-07-29

    Mycotoxin contamination of dietary supplements represents a possible risk for human health, especially in the case of products intended for people suffering from certain health conditions. The aim of this study was to assess the extent of this problem based on analyses of a wide set of herbal-based dietary supplements intended for various purposes: (i) treatment of liver diseases (milk thistle); (ii) reduction of menopause effects (red clover, flax seed, and soy); and (iii) preparations for general health support (green barley, nettle, goji berries, yucca, etc.) The analytical method including 57 mycotoxins was based on a QuEChERS-like (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, safe) approach and ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. The main mycotoxins determined were Fusarium trichothecenes, zearalenone and enniatins, and Alternaria mycotoxins. Co-occurrence of enniatins, HT-2/T-2 toxins, and Alternaria toxins was observed in many cases. The highest mycotoxin concentrations were found in milk thistle-based supplements (up to 37 mg/kg in the sum).

  7. Dietary omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation and airway hyperresponsiveness in asthma.

    PubMed

    Mickleborough, Timothy D

    2005-06-01

    Asthma prevalence continues to increase despite the progress that has been made in the treatment options for asthma. Alternative treatment therapies that reduce the dose requirements of pharmacological interventions would be beneficial, and could potentially reduce the public health burden of this disease. There is accumulating evidence that dietary modification has potential to influence the severity of asthma and reduce the prevalence and incidence of this condition. A possible contributing factor to the increased incidence of asthma in Western societies may the consumption of a pro-inflammatory diet. In the typical Western diet, 20-25-fold more omega (n)-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) than n-3 PUFA are consumed, which results in the release of pro-inflammatory arachidonic acid metabolites. Eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid are n-3 PUFA derived from fish oil that competitively inhibit n-6 PUFA arachidonic acid (AA) metabolism and this reduce the generation of pro-inflammatory 4-series leukotrienes (LTs) and 2-series prostaglandins (PGs) and production of cytokines from inflammatory cells. These data are consistent with the proposed pathway by which dietary intake of n-3 PUFA modulates lung disease. This article will review the existing information concerning the relationship between n-3 PUFA supplementation and airway hyperresponsiveness in asthma. It includes studies assessing the efficacy of n-3 PUFA supplementation in exercise-induced bronchoconstriction. This review will also address the question as to whether supplementing the diet with n-3 PUFA represents a viable alternative treatment regimen for asthma.

  8. Identification of (antioxidative) plants in herbal pharmaceutical preparations and dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Deconinck, Eric; Custers, Deborah; De Beer, Jacques Omer

    2015-01-01

    The standard procedures for the identification, authentication, and quality control of medicinal plants and herbs are nowadays limited to pure herbal products. No guidelines or procedures, describing the detection or identification of a targeted plant or herb in pharmaceutical preparations or dietary supplements, can be found. In these products the targeted plant is often present together with other components of herbal or synthetic origin. This chapter describes a strategy for the fast development of a chromatographic fingerprint approach that allows the identification of a targeted plant in herbal preparations and dietary supplements. The strategy consists of a standard chromatographic gradient that is tested for the targeted plant with different extraction solvents and different mobile phases. From the results obtained, the optimal fingerprint is selected. Subsequently the samples are analyzed according to the selected methodological parameters, and the obtained fingerprints can be compared with the one obtained for the pure herbal product or a standard preparation. Calculation of the dissimilarity between these fingerprints will result in a probability of presence of the targeted plant. Optionally mass spectrometry can be used to improve specificity, to confirm identification, or to identify molecules with a potential medicinal or antioxidant activity.

  9. Acute liver failure caused by ‘fat burners’ and dietary supplements: A case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Radha Krishna, Y; Mittal, V; Grewal, P; Fiel, MI; Schiano, T

    2011-01-01

    Globally, people are struggling with obesity. Many effective, non-conventional methods of weight reduction, such as herbal and natural dietary supplements, are increasingly being sought. Fat burners are believed to raise metabolism, burn more calories and hasten fat loss. Despite patient perceptions that herbal remedies are free of adverse effects, some supplements are associated with severe hepatotoxicity. The present report describes a young healthy woman who presented with fulminant hepatic failure requiring emergent liver transplantation caused by a dietary supplement and fat burner containing usnic acid, green tea and guggul tree extracts. Thorough investigation, including histopathological examination, revealed no other cause of hepatotoxicity. The present case adds to the increasing number of reports of hepatotoxicity associated with dietary supplements containing usnic acid, and highlights that herbal extracts from green tea or guggul tree may not be free of adverse effects. Until these products are more closely regulated and their advertising better scrutinized, physicians and patients should become more familiar with herbal products that are commonly used as weight loss supplements and recognize those that are potentially harmful. PMID:21499580

  10. Dietary supplementation with mulberry leaf flavonoids inhibits methanogenesis in sheep.

    PubMed

    Ma, Tao; Chen, Dan-Dan; Tu, Yan; Zhang, Nai-Feng; Si, Bing-Wen; Diao, Qi-Yu

    2017-01-01

    The effects of flavonoids on methanogenesis and microbial flora in Dorper × thin-tailed Han crossbred ewes were evaluated in two experiments. To investigate the effects of flavonoids on nutrient digestibility and nitrogen balance, 18 ewes (60.0 ± 1.73 kg body weight (BW)) were allotted to two dietary treatments in experiment one, a control diet and the control diet supplemented with flavonoids (2 g/head/day). In experiment two, the effects of supplementary flavonoids on ruminal fermentation and microbial flora were investigated using quantitative polymerase chain reaction with six ewes (67.2 ± 0.79 kg BW) with ruminal cannula assigned to the identical dietary treatments used in experiment one. Supplementary flavonoids improved the apparent digestibility of nitrogen (N, P < 0.001) and neutral detergent fibre (NDF, P = 0.024) and decreased daily CH4 output (P < 0.001). The ruminal pH (P = 0.638) and ammonia (P = 0.690) were not affected by supplementary flavonoids, whereas the total volatile fatty acid (VFA) content increased (P = 0.037). Supplementary flavonoids decreased ruminal populations of protozoans (P = 0.002) and methanogens (P < 0.001) and increased the populations of Fibrobacter succinogenes (P = 0.016). In conclusion, flavonoids improved the digestibility of organic matter and reduced CH4 output by inhibiting the populations of microbes involved in methanogenesis.

  11. Botanical and Dietary Supplements for Menopausal Symptoms: What Works, What Doesn’t

    PubMed Central

    Geller, Stacie E.; Studee, Laura

    2006-01-01

    All women reach menopause and approximately two-thirds of women develop menopausal symptoms, primarily hot flashes. Hormone therapy long was considered the first line of treatment for vasomotor symptoms. However, given the results of the Women’s Health Initiative, many women are reluctant use exogenous hormones for symptomatic treatment and are turning to botanicals and dietary supplement (BDS) products for relief. Despite the fact that there is limited scientific evidence describing efficacy and long term safety of such products, many women find these “natural treatments” appealing. Peri- and postmenopausal women are amongst the highest users of these products, but 70% of women do not tell their health care providers about their use. Compounding this issue is the fact that few clinicians ask their patients about use of BDS, largely because they have not been exposed to alternative medical practices in their training and are unfamiliar with these products. This paper reviews the botanicals and dietary supplements commonly used in menopause, (such as black cohosh, red clover, soy products, among others) as well as the available data on efficacy and safety. We searched the MEDLINE database from 1966 to December 2004 using terms related to botanical and dietary supplements and menopausal symptoms for peri- or postmenopausal women. Abstracts from relevant meetings as well as reference books and websites on herbal supplements were also searched. Randomized-controlled trials (RCTs) were used if available; open trials and comparison group studies were used when RCTs were not available. The evidence to date suggests that black cohosh is safe and effective for reducing menopausal symptoms, primarily hot flashes and possibly mood disorders. Phytoestrogen extracts, including soy foods and red clover appear to have at best only minimal effect on menopausal symptoms but have positive health effects on plasma lipid concentrations and may reduce heart disease. St. John

  12. National nutrition data: contributions and challenges to monitoring dietary supplement use in women.

    PubMed

    Radimer, Kathy L

    2003-06-01

    Survey data from three nationally representative surveys--the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, National Health Interview Survey and Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals--indicate that, in general, women are greater consumers of dietary supplements than men in terms of overall prevalence of use and number of supplements taken. However, monitoring dietary supplement use over time and aggregation or comparison of findings over different surveys is hampered by a lack of comparability between survey data collection and analysis. Differences exist in the types of dietary supplements queried, use of a referent time frame, specificity regarding the supplement taken and level of detail collected relating to personal usage. Some comparability in supplement data collection may be possible but some inconsistencies may persist because of differences in survey goals or collection procedures. Collection of data on dietary supplement use is challenging and collection of very detailed and precise data are time consuming and expensive. Consequently, the level of detail and precision necessary for monitoring, research, and policy uses is an issue that should be addressed in view of the high monetary and time costs of detailed dietary supplement data collection, as well as increased demands on survey respondent time.

  13. Determination of selected biogenic amines in Acacia rigidula plant materials and dietary supplements using LC-MS/MS methods.

    PubMed

    Pawar, Rahul S; Grundel, Erich; Fardin-Kia, Ali Reza; Rader, Jeanne I

    2014-01-01

    Extracts of Acacia rigidula leaves are used in weight-loss products sold in vitamin shops and over the internet with little or no published data about their potential biological effects. In our chemical investigations on authenticated A. rigidula plant material, we established a rapid and sensitive LC-MS/MS method for the quantitative determination of several phenethylamine, tyramine and tryptamine derivatives. Stable isotopically labeled compounds were used as internal standards for quantitative analysis. We found total calculated contents of 6 biogenic amines in A. rigidula leaf of 18.6 and 32.9μg/g. The content of selected amines in 21 dietary supplements labeled as containing A. rigidula was determined by a second LC-MS/MS method. Our study revealed significant differences in the amine profiles of authenticated plant materials and dietary supplements. β-Methylphenethylamine, a non-natural compound, was found in 9 of the 21 dietary supplement products. β-Methylphenethylamine was found at levels of 960-60,500μg/g while phenethylamine was found at levels of 710-171,620μg/g. β-Methylphenethylamine is a positional isomer of amphetamine and our results showed that it can be misidentified as amphetamine during LC-MS analysis. An independent GC-MS analysis was used to confirm the presence of β-methylphenethylamine and the absence of amphetamine in dietary supplements labeled as containing A. rigidula. This study demonstrates that confirmations by independent analytical methods are essential to verify findings of unusual or unexpected compounds in dietary supplements.

  14. Catechin and caffeine content of green tea dietary supplements and correlation with antioxidant capacity.

    PubMed

    Seeram, Navindra P; Henning, Susanne M; Niu, Yantao; Lee, Rupo; Scheuller, H Samuel; Heber, David

    2006-03-08

    The health benefits associated with tea consumption have resulted in the wide inclusion of green tea extracts in botanical dietary supplements, which are widely consumed as adjuvants for complementary and alternative medicines. Tea contains polyphenols such as catechins or flavan-3-ols including epicatechin, epigallocatechin, epicatechin gallate, and epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), as well as the alkaloid, caffeine. Polyphenols are antioxidants, and EGCG, due to its high levels, is widely accepted as the major antioxidant in green tea. Therefore, commercial green tea dietary supplements (GTDS) may be chemically standardized to EGCG levels and/or biologically standardized to antioxidant capacity. However, label claims on GTDS may not correlate with actual phytochemical content or antioxidant capacity nor provide information about the presence and levels of caffeine. In the current study, 19 commonly available GTDS were evaluated for catechin and caffeine content (using high-performance liquid chromatography) and for antioxidative activity [using trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) and oxygen radical antioxidant capacity (ORAC) assays]. Product labels varied in the information provided and were inconsistent with actual phytochemical contents. Only seven of the GTDS studied made label claims of caffeine content, 11 made claims of EGCG content, and five specified total polyphenol content. Caffeine, EGCG, and total polyphenol contents in the GTDS varied from 28 to 183, 12-143, and 14-36% tablet or capsule weight, respectively. TEAC and ORAC values for GTDS ranged from 187 to 15340 and from 166 to 13690 mumol Trolox/g for tablet or capsule, respectively. The antioxidant activities for GTDS determined by TEAC and ORAC were well-correlated with each other and with the total polyphenol content. Reliable labeling information and standardized manufacturing practices, based on both chemical standardization and biological assays, are recommended for the quality

  15. Chromatographic fingerprint analysis of yohimbe bark and related dietary supplements using UHPLC/UV/MS.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jianghao; Chen, Pei

    2012-03-05

    A practical ultra high-performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) method was developed for fingerprint analysis of and determination of yohimbine in yohimbe barks and related dietary supplements. Good separation was achieved using a Waters Acquity BEH C(18) column with gradient elution using 0.1% (v/v) aqueous ammonium hydroxide and 0.1% ammonium hydroxide in methanol as the mobile phases. The study is the first reported chromatographic method that separates corynanthine from yohimbine in yohimbe bark extract. The chromatographic fingerprint analysis was applied to the analysis of 18 yohimbe commercial dietary supplement samples. Quantitation of yohimbine, the traditional method for analysis of yohimbe barks, were also performed to evaluate the results of the fingerprint analysis. Wide variability was observed in fingerprints and yohimbine content among yohimbe dietary supplement samples. For most of the dietary supplements, the yohimbine content was not consistent with the label claims.

  16. The Determination of Calcium in Dietary Supplement Tablets by Ion-Exchange.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dietz, Mark L.

    1986-01-01

    An experimental simple ion-exchange experiment in which the amount of calcium present in dietary supplement tablets has been developed is described and some typical student results for several brands of tablets are presented. (JN)

  17. Extension of AOAC official method 999.14 (choline in infant formula and milk) to the determination of choline in dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Rader, Jeanne I; Weaver, Carol M; Trucksess, Mary W

    2004-01-01

    AOAC Official Method 999.14 is applicable for the determination of choline in milk and infant formulas. To date, its use has not been extended beyond these matrixes. We modified Official Method 999.14 and applied it to the determination of choline in a range of choline-containing dietary supplements. Dietary supplement tablets, capsules, wafers, softgels, liquid products, and drink powders were included. We found that the standard curve could be extended to cover a wider range of choline concentrations and defined a procedure for the use of Norit for samples in which the vitamin C content was high enough to interfere with the analysis. Recoveries of choline added to infant formula powders and to representative dietary supplement tablets, capsules, powdered drink mix, and wafer products were 85-114%. The use of Norit during the procedure did not affect the recovery of choline added to infant formula powders or to dietary supplements. An alkaline digestion was included for use with a product containing lecithin as the sole source of choline. Ten of 11 dietary supplement products analyzed by the modified method contained amounts of choline at or above declarations found on the product labels. The remaining product contained about 40% of the label-declared amount of choline.

  18. Mixing Medications and Dietary Supplements Can Endanger Your Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... effective when taken with St. John’s Wort, an herbal supplement. Depending on the medication involved, the results can ... warfarin (a prescription blood thinner), ginkgo biloba (an herbal supplement), aspirin and vitamin E (a supplement) can each ...

  19. Mixing Medications and Dietary Supplements Can Endanger Your Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... effective when taken with St. John’s Wort, an herbal supplement. Depending on the medication involved, the results OMCvoeeurd- ... a prescrip- tion blood thinner), ginkgo biloba (an herbal supplement), aspirin and vita- min E (a supplement) can ...

  20. Causality assessment in hepatotoxicity by drugs and dietary supplements

    PubMed Central

    Teschke, Rolf; Schwarzenboeck, Alexander; Hennermann, Karl-Heinz

    2008-01-01

    Structured causality assessment of hepatotoxicity by drugs and dietary supplements (DDS) is a major clinical challenge, since temporal associations as the sole criteria for a valid evaluation are not acceptable. Initially, a clear intuition for an ad hoc evaluation is necessary, but only provisional, and must be followed by a diagnostic algorithm using a pretest, main test and post test. The evaluation is based on a variety of items such as latency period, course of alanine aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase after DDS discontinuation, risk factors, co-medication, previous information on hepatotoxicity of the DDS, response to rechallenge, and exclusion of other diseases. It is essential that practising and hospital physicians as well as other key health professionals, such as pharmacists, gather all information required for a sound causality assessment, obviating major discussions by expert panels, manufacturers and health agencies in face of scanty and fragmentary data. Because pharmacogenetic alterations may trigger metabolic hepatotoxicity by a few DDS, levels in plasma and urine should be measured and may be helpful for diagnosis. Concomitant genotyping of cytochrome P450 and other enzymes may also be useful in future to minimize the risk of unwanted side-effects, including toxic liver disease elicited by DDS. PMID:19032721

  1. Phytoestrogens in botanical dietary supplements: implications for cancer.

    PubMed

    Piersen, Colleen E

    2003-06-01

    Phytoestrogens are plant constituents that possess either estrogenic or antiestrogenic activity. Although their activities are weak as compared with human endogenous estrogens, the consumption of phytoestrogens may have clinically significant consequences. A number of botanicals, or the compounds contained therein, have been identified as putative estrogenic agents, but consensus in the biomedical community has been hampered by conflicting data from various in vitro and in vivo models of estrogenic activity. Phytoestrogens may serve as chemopreventive agents while at the same time being capable of promoting growth in estrogen receptor positive cancer cell lines. Furthermore, they may exert their estrogenic influence through receptor-dependent and/or receptor-independent mechanisms. These findings have led to speculation that phytoestrogen intake might be ill advised for patients at an increased risk for hormone-dependent cancers, cancer patients, or cancer survivors. This article will attempt to sort out discrepancies between various experimental models and establish whether certain herbs possess estrogenic activity. The review will focus on 5 popular botanical dietary supplements: Trifolium pratense (red clover), Cimicifuga racemosa (black cohosh), Humulus lupulus (hops), Angelica sinensis (dong quai), and Glycyrrhiza glabra (licorice). It will address their mechanisms of action, clinical evidence bases, and implications for use in cancer.

  2. Natural Dietary and Herbal Products in Anti-Obesity Treatment.

    PubMed

    Sun, Nan-Nong; Wu, Tsung-Yen; Chau, Chi-Fai

    2016-10-11

    The prevalence of overweight and obesity is on the rise around the world. Common comorbidities associated with obesity, particularly diabetes, hypertension, and heart disease have an impact on social and financial systems. Appropriate lifestyle and behavior interventions are still the crucial cornerstone to weight loss success, but maintaining such a healthy lifestyle is extremely challenging. Abundant natural materials have been explored for their obesity treatment potential and widely used to promote the development of anti-obesity products. The weight loss segment is one of the major contributors to the overall revenue of the dietary supplements market. In this review, the anti-obesity effects of different dietary or herbal products, and their active ingredients and mechanisms of action against obesity will be discussed.

  3. Mandatory disclaimers on dietary supplements do not reliably communicate the intended issues.

    PubMed

    Kesselheim, Aaron S; Connolly, John; Rogers, James; Avorn, Jerry

    2015-03-01

    Some efforts by the government to regulate the promotional statements of pharmaceutical manufacturers have recently been found unconstitutional under the First Amendment, which has been interpreted to protect commercial as well as personal speech. As an alternative means of protecting patients from unreliable marketing claims, courts have proposed that the Food and Drug Administration could add disclaimers to promotional messages that discuss off-label, or unapproved, uses. We conducted a systematic review of studies of the disclaimers currently required for dietary supplements, to assess how well disclaimers inform consumers' health choices. A few small studies reported a modest impact of disclaimers on consumers' attitudes about dietary supplements, but larger and more rigorous studies generally revealed that many consumers were unaware of a disclaimer or reported that it did not affect their perceptions of a product. The available evidence indicates that replacing government restrictions on pharmaceutical marketing with potentially ineffective disclaimers will be an inadequate way of informing patients about the efficacy and safety of drugs, and it risks returning the United States to a previous era when inappropriate marketing claims about prescription drugs proliferated and contributed to the inappropriate use of those products.

  4. Dietary Supplements and Military Divers: A Synopsis for Undersea Medical Officers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-01-01

    headaches, among other side effects. More than 200 mg per day can cause a sensory peripheral neuropathy . Vitamin B6 is likely safe for use in pregnancy...and proteins. The Nutrition Labeling and Education Act of 1990 added herbs , or similar nutritional substances, to the term dietary supplement...that is intended to supplement the diet that bears or contains one or more of the following dietary ingredients: a vitamin, a mineral, an herb or other

  5. Predictors of Dietary Supplement Usage among Medical Interns of Tehran University of Medical Sciences

    PubMed Central

    Kabiri, Sanaz; Yeganeh, Haleh Sadrzadeh; Koohdani, Fariba; Khajehnasiri, Farahnaz; Khosravi, Shahla

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT This study aimed to determine the prevalence of dietary supplement-use and its relationship with demographics and lifestyle of medical interns. The study sample comprised 356 interns aged 23 to 25 years. Participants completed a questionnaire on dietary supplement-use during the month preceding the study, information on demographic characteristics and lifestyle was also obtained. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression were employed to assess the correlates of dietary supplement-use. The prevalence of dietary supplement-use was about 33% (males 20.4% and females 43.2%, p<0.001). The most commonly-used dietary supplement was multivitamin/multivitamin-mineral (90.6% in males and 52.3% in females). Approximately 30% of supplements were used regularly (≥5 days/week) by all subjects. The most-frequently reported reasons for supplement-use in males were: enhancing daily energy/stamina (51.1%), poor food intake (13.3%) and, in females, were: improving health and nutritional status (39.3%) and reducing hair loss (23.4%). The decision to use dietary supplement was mostly driven by the interns themselves (56% in males, 61% in females). In the univariable analysis, men who exercised once or twice a week were less likely to use supplements compared to those who reported doing exercise more than twice weekly (OR=0.35, 95% CI 0.12-0.98). Females who reported their health status to be ‘excellent’ were more likely to use supplements compared to those who described their health status as ‘moderate/poor/very poor’ (OR=2.53, 95% CI 1.15-5.56) as were women who mentioned their breakfast consumption status as ‘always’ (OR=2.69, 95% CI 1.47-4.92). In the multivariable analysis, only breakfast consumption was significantly related with dietary supplement-use in females (OR=2.20, 95% CI 1.11-4.38). In conclusion, dietary supplement-use among medical interns, especially among females, was relatively very common. Dietary supplement-use was related to a

  6. Too Little, Too Late: Ineffective Regulation of Dietary Supplements in the United States

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Millions of people in the United States consume dietary supplements hoping to maintain or improve their health; however, extensive research has failed to demonstrate the efficacy of numerous supplements in disease prevention. In addition, concerns about the safety of routine and high-dose supplementation have been raised. The Food and Drug Administration regulates dietary supplement quality, safety, and labeling, and the Federal Trade Commission monitors advertisements and marketing; still, vast enforcement challenges remain, and optimal governmental oversight has not been achieved. If the composition and quality of ingredients cannot be reliably ensured, the validity of research on dietary supplements is questionable. Moreover, the health of the US public is put at risk. PMID:25602879

  7. Effect of Dietary Conjugated Linoleic Acid Supplementation on Early Inflammatory Responses during Cutaneous Wound Healing

    PubMed Central

    Park, Na-Young; Valacchi, Giuseppe; Lim, Yunsook

    2010-01-01

    Inflammatory response is considered the most important period that regulates the entire healing process. Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), a class of linoleic acid positional and geometric isomers, is well known for its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. We hypothesized that dietary CLA supplementation accelerates cutaneous wound healing by regulating antioxidant and anti-inflammatory functions. To investigate wound closure rates and inflammatory responses, we used a full-thickness excisional wound model after 2-week treatments with control, 0.5%, or 1% CLA-supplemented diet. Mice fed dietary CLA supplementation had reduced levels of oxidative stress and inflammatory markers. Moreover, the wound closure rate was improved significantly in mice fed a 1% CLA-supplemented diet during early stage of wound healing (inflammatory stage). We conclude that dietary CLA supplementation enhances the early stage of cutaneous wound healing as a result of modulating oxidative stress and inflammatory responses. PMID:20871865

  8. Supplemental dietary protein for grazing dairy cows: effect on pasture intake and lactation performance.

    PubMed

    McCormick, M E; Ward, J D; Redfearn, D D; French, D D; Blouin, D C; Chapa, A M; Fernandez, J M

    2001-04-01

    One hundred twenty-four cows (92 multiparous and 32 primiparous) were used to evaluate the effect of grain supplements containing high crude protein [(22.8% CP, 5.3% rumen undegradable protein (RUP), dry matter basis], moderate CP (16.6% CP, 6.1% RUP), and moderate CP with supplemental RUP (16.2% CP, 10.8% RUP) on lactation performance of Holstein cows rotationally grazing annual ryegrass-oat pastures. Supplemental protein was provided by solvent extracted soybean meal in the high CP and moderate CP supplements and as a corn gluten meal-blood meal mixture (2.8:1) in the moderate CP, high RUP supplement. Cows were blocked according to previous mature milk equivalent production and calving date (partum group; 0 d in milk or postpartum group; 21 to 65 d in milk) and randomly assigned to dietary treatments. Grain was individually fed, at approximately a 1:3 grain to milk ratio, before a.m. and p.m milkings. The study was replicated during two grazing seasons that averaged 199 d. Cows had ad libitum access to bermudagrass hay while on pasture (dry matter intake = 1.3 kg/d). Protein supplementation had no effect on study long pasture dry matter (12.7 +/- 1.0 kg/d) or total dry matter (23.9 +/- 1.2 kg/d) consumption. Protein concentration did not affect actual milk yield of either calving group (high CP vs. moderate CP); however, postpartum group cows receiving high CP grain supplements maintained greater milk fat concentrations (3.34 vs. 3.11%), which led to higher fat-corrected milk (FCM) yields than control cows receiving moderate CP grain diets (30.3 vs. 28.9 kg/d). Crude protein concentration in milk of high CP-supplemented, postpartum group cows was also higher than moderate CP cows (3.42 vs. 3.27%). Additional RUP did not increase FCM yield above that generated by moderate CP grain diets for partum (34.3 vs. 32.9 kg/d) or postpartum-group cows (28.9 vs. 28.2 kg/d). Increasing CP concentration of grain supplement did not affect milk yield of Holstein cows grazing

  9. Dietary supplements used in the treatment of depression, anxiety, and sleep disorders.

    PubMed

    Cauffield, J S; Forbes, H J

    1999-01-01

    Dietary supplement use has increased during the past decade. Epidemiologic studies suggest that patients turn to dietary supplements because of a reluctance to take prescription medications or a lack of satisfaction with the results. They often perceive dietary supplements to be a safer or more natural alternative. Patients with mental health conditions, including depression, anxiety, and sleep disorders, are among those who use dietary supplements. St. John's Wort is used to treat depression. Clinical studies comparing dietary supplements with low-dose antidepressants (maprotiline, amitriptyline, or imipramine at 75 mg/day) or high-dose antidepressants (imipramine at 150 mg/day) find no significant difference between treatments. Kava kava is used to treat anxiety. Clinical trials demonstrate it to be superior to placebo, and roughly equivalent to oxazepam 15 mg/day or bromazepam 9 mg/day. Agents discussed for use in sleep disorders include melatonin, valerian, 5-hydroxytryptamine, catnip, chamomile, gotu kola, hops, L-tryptophan, lavender, passionflower, skullcap, and valerian. Familiarity with the evidence for use and the possible resulting risks can help health professionals to guide patient decisions regarding use of dietary supplements.

  10. Selenium, Chromium, and Vitamin D: What Dietitians Need to Know Regarding Dietary Supplements

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Accurate nutrient data for dietary supplement composition are essential for determining supplements’ contribution to total dietary intake. To plan a nationwide adult multivitamin/mineral (MVM) study, the USDA Nutrient Data Laboratory (NDL) obtained prevalence information for the most common labeled...

  11. 21 CFR 101.36 - Nutrition labeling of dietary supplements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., total calories, calories from fat, total fat, saturated fat, trans fat, cholesterol, sodium, total..., saturated fat, cholesterol, total carbohydrate, dietary fiber, vitamin K, selenium, manganese, chromium... fat, saturated fat, cholesterol, sodium, potassium, total carbohydrate, and dietary fiber,...

  12. Issues with fruit dietary supplements in the US - authentication by anthocyanin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Current fruit-based dietary supplements in the US marketplace have no obligation to meet any fruit-component concentration requirement. For example, berry supplements might be promoted for their high anthocyanin content, but they actually have no standard or minimum anthocyanin threshold for legal s...

  13. Dietary supplementation with curcumin enhances metastatic growth of Lewis lung carcinoma in mice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The present study investigated the effects of dietary supplementation with curcumin (the principal curcuminoid of the popular Indian spice turmeric) on spontaneous metastasis of Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) in female C57/BL6 mice. Mice were fed the AIN93G control diet or that diet supplemented with 2...

  14. Determination of Ephedrine Alkaloids in Botanicals and Dietary Supplements by HPLC-UV

    PubMed Central

    Roman, Mark C.; Gray, D.; Luo, G.; McClanahan, R.; Perez, R.; Roper, C.; Roscoe, V.; Shevchuk, C.; Suen, E.; Sullivan, D.; Walther, H.J.

    2008-01-01

    An international collaborative study was conducted of a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-UV method for the determination of the major (ephedrine [EP] and pseudoephedrine [PS]) and minor (norephedrine [NE], norpseudoephedrine [NP], methylephedrine [ME], and methylpseudoephedrine [MP]) alkaloids in selected dietary supplements representative of the commercially available products. Ten collaborating laboratories determined the ephedrine-type alkaloid content in 8 blind replicate samples. Five products contained ephedra ground herb or ephedra extract. These 5 products included ground botanical raw material of Ephedra sinica, a common powdered extract of Ephedra sinica, a finished product containing only Ephedra sinica ground botanical raw material, a complex multicomponent dietary supplement containing Ma Huang, and a high-protein chocolate flavored drink mix containing Ma Huang extract. In addition, collaborating laboratories received a negative control and negative control spiked with ephedrine alkaloids at high and low levels for recovery studies. Test extracts were treated to solid-phase extraction using a strong-cation exchange column to help remove interferences. The HPLC analyses were performed on a polar-embedded phenyl column using UV detection at 210 nm. Repeatability relative standard deviations (RSDr) ranged from 0.64–3.0% for EP and 2.0–6.6% for PS, excluding the high protein drink mix. Reproducibility relative standard deviations (RSDR) ranged from 2.1–6.6% for EP and 9.0–11.4% for PS, excluding the high protein drink mix. Recoveries ranged from 84.7–87.2% for EP and 84.6–98.2% for PS. The data developed for the minor alkaloids are more variable with generally unsatisfactory HORRATS(i.e., >2). However, since these alkaloids generally add little to the total alkaloid content of the products, the method gives satisfactory results in measuring total alkaloid content (RSDr 0.85–3.13%; RSDR 2.03–10.97%, HORRAT 0.69–3

  15. Potential drug interactions with dietary and herbal supplements during hospitalization.

    PubMed

    Levy, Ilana; Attias, Samuel; Ben-Arye, Eran; Goldstein, Lee; Schiff, Elad

    2017-04-01

    Dietary and herbal supplements (DHS) are widely used in the general population, including during hospitalization. Yet, their potential interactions with prescription drugs have seldom been delineated among inpatients. We aimed to evaluate potentially dangerous interactions of DHS with prescribed medications among inpatients. This was a cross-sectional prospective study involving a cohort of patients hospitalized in 12 departments of a public academic medical center (Bnai Zion Medical Center, Haifa, Israel) from 2009 to 2014. DHS users were determined via a questionnaire. The Natural Medicine database was used to search for potential DHS-drug interactions for identified DHS, and the clinical significance was evaluated using Lexi-interact online interaction analysis. Medical files were assessed for documentation of DHS use. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to characterize potential risk factors for DHS-drug interactions. Of 927 patients consenting to answer the questionnaire, 458 (49 %) reported DHS use. Of these, 215 (47 %) had at least one potential interaction during hospitalization (759 interactions). Of these interactions, 116 (15 %) were potentially clinically significant. Older age [OR = 1.02 (1.01-1.04), p = 0.002], males [OR = 2.11 (1.35-3.29), p = 0.001] and increased number of used DHS [OR = 4.28 (2.28-8.03), p < 0.001] or drugs [OR = 1.95 (1.17-3.26), p = 0.011] were associated with potential interactions in DHS users. Physicians documented only 16.5 % of DHS involved in these interactions in patients' medical files. In conclusion, a substantial number of inpatients use DHS with potential interactions with concomitant medications. Medical staff should be aware of this, question patients on DHS usage and check for such interactions.

  16. Effect of dietary supplementation of omega-3 fatty acids and high levels of dietary protein on performance of sows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study was conducted to determine the effect of dietary supplementation of omega-3 fatty acids (O3FA), with or without high levels of protein, on the performance of sows during first and subsequent parity. Sixty-four pregnant gilts with BW of 195.0 ± 2.1 kg and backfat (BF) thickness of 12.9 ± 0.2 ...

  17. Plant Growth Biostimulants, Dietary Feed Supplements and Cosmetics Formulated with Supercritical CO₂ Algal Extracts.

    PubMed

    Michalak, Izabela; Chojnacka, Katarzyna; Saeid, Agnieszka

    2017-01-03

    The review paper presents the use of algal extracts as safe and solvent-free components of plant growth biostimulants, dietary feed additives and cosmetics. Innovative technology that uses extracts obtained by supercritical CO₂ extraction, as a method of isolation of biologically active compounds from algal biomass, is presented. An important part of the complete technology is the final formulation of the product. This enabled realization of the further step which was assessment of the utilitarian properties of the extract-based products. The extracts were analysed for the presence of biologically active molecules (e.g., plant hormones, polyphenols) which provide useful properties such as antioxidant, antiviral, anti-inflammatory and antibacterial. The bio-products were tested in germination tests and underwent field trials to search for plant growth biostimulatory properties. Tests on animals (laying hens experiments) were conducted to assess pro-health properties of new dietary feed supplement. Another application were cosmetic formulations (dermatological tests). The results of the application tests were very promising, however further studies are required for the registration of the products and successful implementation to the market.

  18. Dietary supplement use within a multiethnic population as measured by a unique inventory method.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Suzanne P; Wilkens, Lynne R; Monroe, Kristine R; Steffen, Alana D; Yonemori, Kim M; Morimoto, Yukiko; Albright, Cheryl L

    2011-07-01

    Use of dietary supplements is widespread, yet intakes from supplements are difficult to quantify. The Supplement Reporting study utilized a unique inventory method to quantify dietary supplement use across 1 year in a sample of 397 supplement users. Interviewers visited participants' homes in 2005-2006 to record supplement purchases and the number of pills in each supplement bottle every 3 months. Total use for the year was calculated from these inventories. Participants in this observational study were older adults (average age 68 years) from the Multiethnic Cohort in Hawaii and Los Angeles, CA, with approximately equal representation of men and women and six ethnic groups (white, Japanese American, Hawaiian, African American, Latinos born in the United States, and Latinos born elsewhere). The most commonly used supplement type was one-a-day multivitamins/minerals, which were taken at least once during the year by 83% of men and 73% of women. Other common supplements were vitamin C, fish oil, vitamin E, and bone or joint supplements. Participants used a median of seven (women) and five and a half (men) different supplements during the year. There were few differences in supplement use across ethnic groups for men, but use tended to be highest for white and Japanese-American women. Use of nonvitamin/nonmineral supplements was common among these older adults, sometimes at high doses. When assessing intakes, supplement use should be correctly quantified because users tend to take many different supplements and nutrient intakes from supplements can be substantial. The inventory method may help improve the measurement of supplement use.

  19. Conceptual Development of a Measure to Assess Pharmacists' Knowledge of Herbal and Dietary Supplements

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Hsiang-Wen; Mahady, Gail B.; Popovich, Nicholas G.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives To describe the conceptual development of a measure for assessing pharmacist knowledge of herbal and dietary supplements. Methods A standardized approach to constructing a multiple-choice competency examination following 8 pre-specified criteria (eg, specifying the target spectrum of herbal and dietary supplements) was used to create an item bank. The quality of each item was evaluated by 5 herbal and dietary supplement content experts based on specific criteria in 3 rounds of review. Results From 122 initial items, 56 items were retained for the item bank representing 4 content areas: efficacy/effectiveness, safety, drug-supplement interactions, and regulation. The experts tended to agree that the constructed items represented a wide range of difficulty. Conclusion The initial development of a conceptually based item bank/measure of pharmacist herbal and dietary supplement knowledge lays the groundwork for a large-scale validation study. The measure should be useful as a standalone tool and as a component of a knowledge, attitude, and behavior survey for the assessment of pharmacist traits related to herbal and dietary supplements. PMID:18698390

  20. Estimating caffeine intake from energy drinks and dietary supplements in the United States.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Regan L; Saldanha, Leila G; Gahche, Jaime J; Dwyer, Johanna T

    2014-10-01

    No consistent definition exists for energy products in the United States. These products have been marketed and sold as beverages (conventional foods), energy shots (dietary supplements), and in pill or tablet form. Recently, the number of available products has surged, and formulations have changed to include caffeine. To help characterize the use of caffeine-containing energy products in the United States, three sources of data were analyzed: sales data, data from federal sources, and reports from the Drug Abuse Warning Network. These data indicate that sales of caffeine-containing energy products and emergency room visits involving their consumption appear to be increasing over time. Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2010 indicate that 2.7% [standard error (SE) 0.2%] of the US population ≥1 year of age used a caffeine-containing energy product, providing approximately 150-200 mg/day of caffeine per day in addition to caffeine from traditional sources like coffee, tea, and colas. The highest usage of these products was among males between the ages of 19 and 30 years (7.6%, SE 1.0). Although the prevalence of caffeine-containing energy product use remains low overall in the US population, certain subgroups appear to be using these products in larger amounts. Several challenges remain in determining the level of caffeine exposure from and accurate usage patterns of caffeine-containing energy products.

  1. Estimating caffeine intake from energy drinks and dietary supplements in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Regan L; Saldanha, Leila G; Gahche, Jaime J; Dwyer, Johanna T

    2014-01-01

    No consistent definition exists for energy products in the United States. These products have been marketed and sold as beverages (conventional foods), energy shots (dietary supplements), and in pill or tablet form. Recently, the number of available products has surged, and formulations have changed to include caffeine. To help characterize the use of caffeine-containing energy products in the United States, three sources of data were analyzed: sales data, data from federal sources, and reports from the Drug Abuse Warning Network. These data indicate that sales of caffeine-containing energy products and emergency room visits involving their consumption appear to be increasing over time. Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007–2010 indicate that 2.7% [standard error (SE) 0.2%] of the US population ≥1 year of age used a caffeine-containing energy product, providing approximately 150–200 mg/day of caffeine per day in addition to caffeine from traditional sources like coffee, tea, and colas. The highest usage of these products was among males between the ages of 19 and 30 years (7.6%, SE 1.0). Although the prevalence of caffeine-containing energy product use remains low overall in the US population, certain subgroups appear to be using these products in larger amounts. Several challenges remain in determining the level of caffeine exposure from and accurate usage patterns of caffeine-containing energy products. PMID:25293539

  2. Use of dietary supplements in patients seeking treatment at a periodontal clinic.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Bryan D; Fritz, Peter C; Ward, Wendy E

    2013-04-02

    Dietary supplement use may modify the risk of periodontal disease but effects on wound healing after periodontal procedures are less clear. This study characterized dietary supplement use by male and female patients (n = 376) attending a periodontal clinic-information that is essential for evidence-based intervention studies that may improve patient outcomes after periodontal procedures. Calcium, vitamin D, multivitamin and vitamin C were most commonly used. A greater (p ≤ 0.05) number of males took no supplements compared to females, and more (p ≤ 0.05) females than males took ≥ four supplements. Females took more (p ≤ 0.05) calcium, vitamin D, fish oil, green tea, magnesium, omega 3,6,9 and B vitamin complex. Younger patients (31-50 years) had the highest (p ≤ 0.05) frequency of no supplement use compared to older age groups. Patients over age 50 had a higher (p ≤ 0.05) frequency of using ≥ four supplements including calcium and vitamin D. Supplement use was lower (p ≤ 0.05) in smokers, particularly for calcium, fish oil, green tea and vitamin D. In conclusion, females, older individuals and non-smokers have higher supplement use. Future dietary intervention studies can focus on supplements with known biological activities-anti-inflammatory, antioxidant or osteogenic activity-that may enhance wound healing after reconstructive periodontal procedures.

  3. Determination of mercury in an assortment of dietary supplements using an inexpensive combustion atomic absorption spectrometry technique.

    PubMed

    Levine, Keith E; Levine, Michael A; Weber, Frank X; Hu, Ye; Perlmutter, Jason; Grohse, Peter M

    2005-01-01

    The concentrations of mercury in forty, commercially available dietary supplements, were determined using a new, inexpensive analysis technique. The method involves thermal decomposition, amalgamation, and detection of mercury by atomic absorption spectrometry with an analysis time of approximately six minutes per sample. The primary cost savings from this approach is that labor-intensive sample digestion is not required prior to analysis, further automating the analytical procedure. As a result, manufacturers and regulatory agencies concerned with monitoring lot-to-lot product quality may find this approach an attractive alternative to the more classical acid-decomposition, cold vapor atomic absorption methodology. Dietary supplement samples analyzed included astragalus, calcium, chromium picolinate, echinacea, ephedra, fish oil, ginger, ginkgo biloba, ginseng, goldenseal, guggul, senna, St John's wort, and yohimbe products. Quality control samples analyzed with the dietary supplements indicated a high level of method accuracy and precision. Ten replicate preparations of a standard reference material (NIST 1573a, tomato leaves) were analyzed, and the average mercury recovery was 109% (2.0% RSD). The method quantitation limit was 0.3 ng, which corresponded to 1.5 ng/g sample. The highest found mercury concentration (123 ng/g) was measured in a concentrated salmon oil sample. When taken as directed by an adult, this product would result in an approximate mercury ingestion of 7 mug per week.

  4. Determination of Mercury in an Assortment of Dietary Supplements Using an Inexpensive Combustion Atomic Absorption Spectrometry Technique

    PubMed Central

    Levine, Michael A.; Weber, Frank X.; Hu, Ye; Perlmutter, Jason; Grohse, Peter M.

    2005-01-01

    The concentrations of mercury in forty, commercially available dietary supplements, were determined using a new, inexpensive analysis technique. The method involves thermal decomposition, amalgamation, and detection of mercury by atomic absorption spectrometry with an analysis time of approximately six minutes per sample. The primary cost savings from this approach is that labor-intensive sample digestion is not required prior to analysis, further automating the analytical procedure. As a result, manufacturers and regulatory agencies concerned with monitoring lot-to-lot product quality may find this approach an attractive alternative to the more classical acid-decomposition, cold vapor atomic absorption methodology. Dietary supplement samples analyzed included astragalus, calcium, chromium picolinate, echinacea, ephedra, fish oil, ginger, ginkgo biloba, ginseng, goldenseal, guggul, senna, St John's wort, and yohimbe products. Quality control samples analyzed with the dietary supplements indicated a high level of method accuracy and precision. Ten replicate preparations of a standard reference material (NIST 1573a, tomato leaves) were analyzed, and the average mercury recovery was 109% (2.0% RSD). The method quantitation limit was 0.3 ng, which corresponded to 1.5 ng/g sample. The highest found mercury concentration (123 ng/g) was measured in a concentrated salmon oil sample. When taken as directed by an adult, this product would result in an approximate mercury ingestion of 7 μg per week. PMID:18924735

  5. Potential toxicity of caffeine when used as a dietary supplement for weight loss.

    PubMed

    Pendleton, Morgan; Brown, Stacy; Thomas, Christan; Odle, Brian

    2012-12-01

    Many dietary supplements being promoted for weight loss contain caffeine- or ephedra-related alkaloids to increase energy and suppress appetite. People may be unaware that supplements can contain caffeine, even if caffeine is not listed as an ingredient. Commonly used herbal dietary supplement ingredients, such as guarana, are natural sources of caffeine. Additions of these natural sources of caffeine to dietary supplements have increased in recent years. We describe a case of possible caffeine-induced seizure in a patient taking an over-the-counter weight loss supplement. A previously healthy 38-year-old female experienced blurring of vision and a new onset grand mal seizure. The patient had a 2-month history of taking the dietary supplement, Zantrex-3™. Zantrex-3™ is advertised as a weight loss supplement, which may provide rapid weight loss and extreme energy in one "power packed pill." Zantrex-3™ is a proprietary blend containing niacin, caffeine, and various herbs. After presenting to the hospital emergency room, the patient's chemistry panel, with the exception of potassium (2.9 mEq/L), was within normal limits. An electroencephalogram (EEG) was unremarkable. The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed possible atrophy in the right frontal lobe. Findings from follow-up MRI and EEG ordered as an outpatient were within normal limits. After discontinuation of Zantrex-3™, the patient has experienced no further seizure activity.

  6. Results and lessons from clinical trials using dietary supplements for cancer: direct and indirect investigations.

    PubMed

    Moyad, M A

    2001-11-01

    Randomized controlled trials are generally regarded as the standard of study designs to determine potential causality. The inclusion of a placebo group in these trials, when appropriate, is generally needed to access the efficacy of a drug or dietary supplement. The recent increasing use of dietary supplements and herbal medications by patients makes it imperative to reevaluate the past findings of clinical studies. Several large-scale trials of dietary supplements have been tested in various populations to determine their effect on cancer prevention. Other trials have focused on patients already diagnosed with cancer. In the latter case, it is difficult to involve a placebo because of the serious nature of the disease. Nevertheless, much has been gleaned from these trials directly and indirectly. Overall, when analyzing primary endpoints in these trials, the results have been discouraging and even support the nonuse of certain supplements because of potential adverse effects. Other secondary endpoints in these same trials have revealed some potential encouraging and discouraging data. Individuals who currently qualify for the potential use of dietary supplements for cancer may be restricted to those who have a deficiency in a certain compound despite adequate dietary sources or lifestyle changes. Those individuals with a smoking history or other unhealthy lifestyle seem to have the most to gain or lose from taking certain dietary supplements for cancer. The time seems more than ripe to evaluate past adequate trials with supplements, such as beta-carotene, N-acetyl-cysteine, selenium, shark cartilage, vitamin C, vitamin E, and others. Again, these studies have been disappointing, but they provide insight for the clinician and patient of what to potentially expect when using these supplements for cancer. In addition, indirect trials for other conditions (cardiovascular) may provide future insight into possible results for future cancer prevention trials.

  7. Dietary supplementation with monosodium glutamate is safe and improves growth performance in postweaning pigs.

    PubMed

    Rezaei, Reza; Knabe, Darrell A; Tekwe, Carmen D; Dahanayaka, Sudath; Ficken, Martin D; Fielder, Susan E; Eide, Sarah J; Lovering, Sandra L; Wu, Guoyao

    2013-03-01

    Dietary intake of glutamate by postweaning pigs is markedly reduced due to low feed consumption. This study was conducted to determine the safety and efficacy of dietary supplementation with monosodium glutamate (MSG) in postweaning pigs. Piglets were weaned at 21 days of age to a corn and soybean meal-based diet supplemented with 0, 0.5, 1, 2, and 4 % MSG (n = 25/group). MSG was added to the basal diet at the expense of cornstarch. At 42 days of age (21 days after weaning), blood samples (10 mL) were obtained from the jugular vein of 25 pigs/group at 1 and 4 h after feeding for hematological and clinical chemistry tests; thereafter, pigs (n = 6/group) were euthanized to obtain tissues for histopathological examinations. Feed intake was not affected by dietary supplementation with 0-2 % MSG and was 15 % lower in pigs supplemented with 4 % MSG compared with the 0 % MSG group. Compared with the control, dietary supplementation with 1, 2 and 4 % MSG dose-dependently increased plasma concentrations of glutamate, glutamine, and other amino acids (including lysine, methionine, phenylalanine and leucine), daily weight gain, and feed efficiency in postweaning pigs. At day 7 postweaning, dietary supplementation with 1-4 % MSG also increased jejunal villus height, DNA content, and antioxidative capacity. The MSG supplementation dose-dependently reduced the incidence of diarrhea during the first week after weaning. All variables in standard hematology and clinical chemistry tests, as well as gross and microscopic structures, did not differ among the five groups of pigs. These results indicate that dietary supplementation with up to 4 % MSG is safe and improves growth performance in postweaning pigs.

  8. Evaluation of Moringa oleifera as a dietary supplement on growth and reproductive performance in zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Latoya T.; Fowler, Lauren A.; Barry, Robert J.; Watts, Stephen A.

    2016-01-01

    The leaves of the Moringa oleifera (Moringa) tree contain a significant source of protein, vitamins and minerals, and are considered as an important dietary supplement in countries where chronic malnourishment is linked to poor fetal development. We evaluated the effectiveness of the Moringa leaf as a supplemental replacement for vitamins, minerals, and protein in a formulated zebrafish diet and the impact that it may have on growth and reproductive outcome. Diets included a formulated control (FC) containing an array of vitamins and mineral supplements (pre-mixes), dried ground Moringa only (M), formulated control minus vitamin and mineral pre-mixes (Fvm), and formulated control minus vitamin and mineral pre-mixes and supplemented with Moringa (FM). Juvenile zebrafish were fed experimental diets ad libitum. After a 12 week feeding period, each treatment group was evaluated based on growth and reproductive performance. The M treatment showed the least growth performance (length and weight gain) and no reproductive success (no egg production). Although small, M fish appeared otherwise healthy, with survivorship at ca. 70%, suggesting, Moringa can serve as a single ingredient source for a short period of time. FC showed the highest growth performance, and had the highest reproductive success. Growth performance and reproduction in the Fvm diet was greatly reduced. However, inclusion of Moringa (FM) promoted significant, but not total, recovery of growth and reproductive metrics. These data suggest that Moringa leaves can serve as an acceptable supplement for macro and micronutrients in the diet and could, in part, reduce problems associated with nutrient deficiencies. PMID:27570785

  9. Dietary supplementation with probiotics during late pregnancy: outcome on vaginal microbiota and cytokine secretion

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The vaginal microbiota of healthy women consists of a wide variety of anaerobic and aerobic bacterial genera and species dominated by the genus Lactobacillus. The activity of lactobacilli helps to maintain the natural healthy balance of the vaginal microbiota. This role is particularly important during pregnancy because vaginal dismicrobism is one of the most important mechanisms for preterm birth and perinatal complications. In the present study, we characterized the impact of a dietary supplementation with the probiotic VSL#3, a mixture of Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium and Streptococcus strains, on the vaginal microbiota and immunological profiles of healthy women during late pregnancy. Results An association between the oral intake of the probiotic VSL#3 and changes in the composition of the vaginal microbiota of pregnant women was revealed by PCR-DGGE population profiling. Despite no significant changes were found in the amounts of the principal vaginal bacterial populations in women administered with VSL#3, qPCR results suggested a potential role of the probiotic product in counteracting the decrease of Bifidobacterium and the increase of Atopobium, that occurred in control women during late pregnancy. The modulation of the vaginal microbiota was associated with significant changes in some vaginal cytokines. In particular, the decrease of the anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-4 and IL-10 was observed only in control women but not in women supplemented with VSL#3. In addition, the probiotic consumption induced the decrease of the pro-inflammatory chemokine Eotaxin, suggesting a potential anti-inflammatory effect on the vaginal immunity. Conclusion Dietary supplementation with the probiotic VSL#3 during the last trimester of pregnancy was associated to a modulation of the vaginal microbiota and cytokine secretion, with potential implications in preventing preterm birth. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01367470 PMID:23078375

  10. A Dietary Supplement Containing Standardized Phaseolus vulgaris Extract Influences Body Composition of Overweight Men and Women

    PubMed Central

    Celleno, Leonardo; Tolaini, Maria Vittoria; D'Amore, Alessandra; Perricone, Nicholas V.; Preuss, Harry G.

    2007-01-01

    Background: More than one billion human adults worldwide are overweight and, therefore, are at higher risk of developing cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and a variety of other chronic perturbations. Many believe that use of natural dietary supplements could aid in the struggle against obesity. So-called "starch blockers" are listed among natural weight loss supplements. Theoretically, they may promote weight loss by interfering with the breakdown of complex carbohydrates thereby reducing, or at least slowing, the digestive availability of carbohydrate-derived calories and/or by providing resistant starches to the lower gastrointestinal tract. Aims: The present research study examines a dietary supplement containing 445 mg of Phaseolus vulgaris extract derived from the white kidney bean, previously shown to inhibit the activity of the digestive enzyme alpha amylase, on body composition of overweight human subjects. Methods: A randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study was conducted on 60 pre-selected, slightly overweight volunteers, whose weight had been essentially stable for at least six months. The volunteers were divided into two groups, homogeneous for age, gender, and body weight. The test product containing Phaseolus vulgaris extract and the placebo were taken one tablet per day for 30 consecutive days before a main meal rich in carbohydrates. Each subject's body weight, fat and non-fat mass, skin fold thickness, and waist/hip/thigh circumferences were measured. Results: After 30 days, subjects receiving Phaseolus vulgaris extract with a carbohydrate-rich, 2000- to 2200-calorie diet had significantly (p<0.001) greater reduction of body weight, BMI, fat mass, adipose tissue thickness, and waist,/hip/ thigh circumferences while maintaining lean body mass compared to subjects receiving placebo. Conclusion: The results indicate that Phaseolus vulgaris extract produces significant decrements in body weight and suggest decrements in fat mass in the

  11. Dietary supplementation patterns of Korean olympic athletes participating in the Beijing 2008 Summer Olympic Games.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jongkyu; Kang, Seung-ki; Jung, Han-sang; Chun, Yoon-suck; Trilk, Jennifer; Jung, Seung Ho

    2011-04-01

    Athletes report frequent use of various dietary supplements (DSs). However, no study has examined DS use and antidoping knowledge in Korean Olympians. The objectives of this study were to obtain information about Korean Olympians' DS use during the training period for the Beijing 2008 Summer Olympic Games and immediately before their Olympic events, to obtain DS-intake reasons and DS providers, and to obtain information on athletes' doping education, knowledge, and educators. Korean Olympians completed 2 questionnaires 1 wk before the opening and within 1 wk after the closing of the Beijing 2008 Summer Olympic Games. Results showed that 79% of male and 82% of female Olympians take more than 1 DS during the training period and that vitamins and Oriental supplements are the 2 top-ranked DSs. Reasons for DS use were to improve recovery ability (66%) and muscle performance (22%), and sources of obtaining DSs were parents (36%) and coaches (35%). Furthermore, 79% of Korean Olympians reported receiving regular education on antidoping regulations from Olympic-sponsored education classes (64%) and coaches (15%). In conclusion, this study was the first to examine DS use and antidoping-related information in Korean Olympians. Because some herbal products contain substances banned by the World Anti-Doping Agency, athletes should be cautious in using mixed Oriental supplements.

  12. New insights into dietary supplements used in sport: active substances, pharmacological and side effects.

    PubMed

    Koncic, Marijana Zovko; Tomczyk, Michal

    2013-08-01

    As a society we are increasingly concerned about our physical appearance. For example, as much as 24% of people in developed countries admittedly exercise to improve their performance. Professional sportsmen and amateurs alike are in a constant search for new means that will enable them better sport results in shorter time. Among those means, a prominent place belongs to dietary supplements. However, the producers often advertise products whose use in sports is neither scientifically founded nor safe. This brings on an irrational use of herbal supplements which sometimes leads to unwanted side effects, but is more often of little use. Thus, the aim of this review will be to systematically evaluate some of the herbal supplements that are used as adaptogenic and ergogenic aids in sport. The review will include available data on Rhodiola rosea, Withania somnifera, Schisandra chinensis, Tribulus terrestris, Vitis vinifera, Citrus aurantium, and others. Their effects, active ingredients as well as possible adverse effects will be discussed with special focus on clinical studies.

  13. Dietary Inulin Supplementation Modifies Significantly the Liver Transcriptomic Profile of Broiler Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Sevane, Natalia; Bialade, Federica; Velasco, Susana; Rebolé, Almudena; Rodríguez, Maria Luisa; Ortiz, Luís T.; Cañón, Javier; Dunner, Susana

    2014-01-01

    Inclusion of prebiotics in the diet is known to be advantageous, with positive influences both on health and growth. The current study investigated the differences in the hepatic transcriptome profiles between chickens supplemented with inulin (a storage carbohydrate found in many plants) and controls. Liver is a major metabolic organ and has been previously reported to be involved in the modification of the lipid metabolism in chickens fed with inulin. A nutrigenomic approach through the analysis of liver RNA hybridized to the Affymetrix GeneChip Chicken Genome Array identified 148 differentially expressed genes among both groups: 104 up-regulated (≥1.4-fold) and 44 down-regulated (≤0.6-fold). Quantitative real-time PCR analysis validated the microarray expression results for five out of seven genes tested. The functional annotation analyses revealed a number of genes, processes and pathways with putative involvement in chicken growth and performance, while reinforcing the immune status of animals, and fostering the production of long chain fatty acids in broilers supplemented with 5 g of inulin kg−1 diet. As far as we are aware, this is the first report of a microarray based gene expression study on the effect of dietary inulin supplementation, supporting further research on the use of this prebiotic on chicken diets as a useful alternative to antibiotics for improving performance and general immunity in poultry farming, along with a healthier meat lipid profile. PMID:24915441

  14. Dietary inulin supplementation modifies significantly the liver transcriptomic profile of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Sevane, Natalia; Bialade, Federica; Velasco, Susana; Rebolé, Almudena; Rodríguez, Maria Luisa; Ortiz, Luís T; Cañón, Javier; Dunner, Susana

    2014-01-01

    Inclusion of prebiotics in the diet is known to be advantageous, with positive influences both on health and growth. The current study investigated the differences in the hepatic transcriptome profiles between chickens supplemented with inulin (a storage carbohydrate found in many plants) and controls. Liver is a major metabolic organ and has been previously reported to be involved in the modification of the lipid metabolism in chickens fed with inulin. A nutrigenomic approach through the analysis of liver RNA hybridized to the Affymetrix GeneChip Chicken Genome Array identified 148 differentially expressed genes among both groups: 104 up-regulated (≥ 1.4-fold) and 44 down-regulated (≤ 0.6-fold). Quantitative real-time PCR analysis validated the microarray expression results for five out of seven genes tested. The functional annotation analyses revealed a number of genes, processes and pathways with putative involvement in chicken growth and performance, while reinforcing the immune status of animals, and fostering the production of long chain fatty acids in broilers supplemented with 5 g of inulin kg(-1) diet. As far as we are aware, this is the first report of a microarray based gene expression study on the effect of dietary inulin supplementation, supporting further research on the use of this prebiotic on chicken diets as a useful alternative to antibiotics for improving performance and general immunity in poultry farming, along with a healthier meat lipid profile.

  15. Carnitine supplementation modulates high dietary copper-induced oxidative toxicity and reduced performance in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Güçlü, Berrin Kocaoğlu; Kara, Kanber; Çakır, Latife; Çetin, Ebru; Kanbur, Murat

    2011-12-01

    This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of L-carnitine on performance, egg quality and certain biochemical parameters in laying hens fed a diet containing high levels of copper proteinate. Forty-eight 42-week-old laying hens were divided into four groups with four replicates. The laying hens were fed with a basal diet (control) or the basal diet supplemented with either 400 mg carnitine (Car)/kg diet, 800 mg copper proteinate (CuP)/kg diet or 400 mg carnitine + 800 mg copper (Car+CuP)/kg diet, for 6 weeks. Supplemental CuP decreased feed consumption (p < 0.01), feed efficiency and egg production (p < 0.001), as compared to control. The combination of Car and CuP increased (p < 0.001) egg production and feed efficiency as compared to CuP. The activities of alanine aminotransferase (p < 0.05) and alkaline phosphatase (p < 0.01) were increased, while lactate dehydrogenase activity was decreased (p < 0.001) by supplemental CuP and Car+CuP. Supplemental CuP caused an increase in plasma malondialdehyde (p < 0.01) and nitric oxide levels (p < 0.05). In the Car+CuP group, this increase was observed to have been reduced significantly (p < 0.05). Furthermore, Car+CuP increased (p < 0.05) glucose level. These results indicate that the carnitine and copper combination may prevent the possible adverse effects of high dietary copper on performance and lipid peroxidation in hens.

  16. Primary constituents of blue cohosh: quantification in dietary supplements and potential for toxicity.

    PubMed

    Rader, Jeanne I; Pawar, Rahul S

    2013-05-01

    Dietary supplements containing dried roots or extracts of the roots and/or rhizomes of blue cohosh (Caulophyllum thalictroides) are widely available. This botanical has a long history of use by Native Americans and its use continues to the present day. The primary constituents of blue cohosh are its alkaloids and saponins. The structures of the alkaloids magnoflorine, baptifoline, anagyrine, and N-methylcytisine have been known for many years. The last 10 years have seen a great increase in isolation and identification of the large number of saponins present in blue cohosh. Important developments in nuclear magnetic resonance techniques have contributed substantially to the increase in elucidation of the structures of the complex saponins. Several authors have described quantitative methods for both the alkaloids and saponins in blue cohosh. Such methods have made it possible to quantify these constituents in dietary supplements containing this botanical ingredient. Concentrations of both alkaloids and saponins vary substantially in dietary supplements of blue cohosh. The nicotinic alkaloid, N-methylcytisine, a potent toxicant, has been found in all dietary supplements of blue cohosh analyzed. The teratogenic alkaloid anagyrine has been found in some but not all dietary supplements.

  17. Soldier use of dietary supplements, including protein and body building supplements, in a combat zone is different than use in garrison.

    PubMed

    Austin, Krista G; McLellan, Tom M; Farina, Emily K; McGraw, Susan M; Lieberman, Harris R

    2016-01-01

    United States Army personnel in garrison who are not deployed to combat theater report using dietary supplements (DSs) to promote health, increase physical and mental strength, and improve energy levels. Given the substantial physical and cognitive demands of combat, DS use may increase during deployment. This study compared DS use by garrison soldiers with DS use by personnel deployed to a combat theater in Afghanistan. Prevalence and patterns of DS use, demographic factors, and health behaviors were assessed by survey (deployed n = 221; garrison n = 1001). Eighty-two percent of deployed and 74% of garrison soldiers used DSs ≥ 1 time·week(-1). Logistic regression analyses, adjusted for significant demographic and health predictors of DS use, showed deployed personnel were more likely than garrison soldiers to use protein, amino acids, and combination products. Deployed females were more likely to use protein supplements and deployed males were more likely to use multivitamins, combination products, protein, and body building supplements than garrison respondents. Significantly more deployed (17%) than garrison (10%) personnel spent more than $50∙month(-1) on DSs. Higher protein supplement use among deployed personnel was associated with higher frequency of strength training and lower amounts of aerobic exercise for males but similar amounts of strength training and aerobic exercise for females. Protein supplements and combination products are used more frequently by deployed than garrison soldiers with the intent of enhancing strength and energy.

  18. Dietary Lecithin Supplementation Can Improve the Quality of the M. Longissimus thoracis

    PubMed Central

    D’Souza, Darryl N.; Blake, Bronwyn L.; Williams, Ian H.; Mullan, Bruce P.; Pethick, David W.; Dunshea, Frank R.

    2015-01-01

    Simple Summary Meat tenderness and texture can be influenced by the connective tissue content. Dietary lecithin offers a means of improving fat digestibility of pigs and reducing the connective tissue of pork. This feeding study confirmed that dietary lecithin decreased the chewiness and improved the fatty acid composition of pork without impacting on growth performance of pigs. Therefore, dietary lecithin supplementation has the potential to improve the quality attributes of pork. Abstract Forty crossbred (Large White × Landrace × Duroc) female pigs (16.4 kg ± 0.94 kg) were used to investigate the effect of dietary lecithin supplementation on growth performance and pork quality. Pigs were randomly allocated to a commercial diet containing either 0, 3, 15 or 75 g lecithin/kg of feed during the grower and finisher growth phase. Pork from pigs consuming the diets containing 15 g and 75 g lecithin/kg had lower hardness (P < 0.001) and chewiness (P < 0.01) values compared to the controls. Dietary lecithin supplementation at 75 g/kg significantly increased (P < 0.05) the linoleic acid and reduced (P < 0.05) the myristic acid levels of pork compared to the control and the 3 g/kg and 15 g/kg lecithin supplemented treatments. Pigs fed the 75 g/kg lecithin supplemented diet had lower plasma cholesterol (P < 0.05) at slaughter compared to pigs fed the control diet and the 3 g/kg and 15 g/kg lecithin supplemented treatments. These data indicate that dietary lecithin supplementation has the potential to improve the quality attributes of pork from female pigs. PMID:26610579

  19. Efficacy trials of a micronutrient dietary supplement in schoolchildren and pregnant women in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Latham, Michael C; Ash, Deborah M; Makola, Diklar; Tatala, Simon R; Ndossi, Godwin D; Mehansho, Haile

    2003-12-01

    Traditionally, the main strategies used to control micronutrient deficiencies have been food diversification, consumption of medicinal supplements, and food fortification. In Tanzania, we conducted efficacy trials using a dietary supplement as a fourth approach. These were randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled efficacy trials conducted separately first in children and later in pregnant women. The dietary supplement was a powder used to prepare an orange-flavored beverage. In the school trial, children consumed 25 g per school day attended. In the pregnancy trial, women consumed the contents of two 25-g sachets per day with meals. This dietary supplement, unlike most medicinal supplements, provided 11 micronutrients, including iron and vitamin A, in physiologic amounts. In both trials we compared changes in subjects consuming either the fortified or the nonfortified supplement. Measures of iron and vitamin A status were similar in the groups at the baseline examination, but significantly different at follow-up, always in favor of the fortified groups. Children receiving the fortified supplement had significantly improved anthropometric measures when compared with controls. At four weeks postpartum, the breast milk of a supplemented group of women had significantly higher mean retinol content than did the milk of mothers consuming the nonfortified supplement. The advantages of using a fortified dietary supplement, compared with other approaches, include its ability to control several micronutrient deficiencies simultaneously; the use of physiologic amounts of nutrients, rather than megadoses that require medical supervision; and the likelihood of better compliance than with the use of pills because subjects liked the beverage used in these trials.

  20. 76 FR 1170 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Postmarketing Adverse Event Reporting for Medical Products and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-07

    ... Reporting for Medical Products and Dietary Supplements During an Influenza Pandemic; Availability AGENCY... for Medical Products and Dietary Supplements During an Influenza Pandemic.'' The draft guidance..., biologics, medical devices, and dietary supplements during an influenza pandemic. The agency...

  1. Total and inorganic arsenic in dietary supplement supplies in northern Mexico.

    PubMed

    García-Rico, Leticia; Tejeda-Valenzuela, Lourdes

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of total and inorganic arsenic in dietary supplements composed of herbal plants and seaweed, and to determine the potential toxicological risk. Total arsenic was determined by dry ashing and hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry, and inorganic arsenic was determined by acid digestion, solvent extraction, and hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry. Total and inorganic arsenic in the supplements ranged from 0.07 to 8.31 mg kg(-1) dry weight and from 0.14 to 0.28 mg kg(-1) dry weight, respectively. Daily intake of total arsenic ranged from 0.05 to 12.46 μg day(-1). Inorganic arsenic intake ranged from 0.21 to 0.83 μg day(-1), values that are below the Benchmark Dose Lower Confidence Limit recommended by the Word Health Organization. Therefore, there appears to be a low risk of adverse effects resulting from excess inorganic arsenic intake from these supplements. This is the first study conducted in Mexico that investigates total and inorganic arsenic in dietary supplements. Although the results do not suggest toxicological risk, it is nonetheless important considering the toxicity of inorganic arsenic and the increasing number consumer preferences for dietary supplements. Moreover, it is important to improve and ensure the safety of dietary supplements containing inorganic arsenic.

  2. 2-Hydroxy-4-Methylselenobutanoic Acid as New Organic Selenium Dietary Supplement to Produce Selenium-Enriched Eggs.

    PubMed

    Tufarelli, V; Ceci, E; Laudadio, V

    2016-06-01

    Food-based strategies need to be developed to improve the selenium (Se) status of individuals. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a new organic Se [2-hydroxy-4-methylselenobutanoic acid (HMSeBA)] on selected performance criteria and Se deposition in egg of laying hens. Isa Brown laying hens, 18 weeks of age were randomly allocated to two dietary treatments and fed for 10 weeks. The hens were fed two corn-soybean meal-based diets comprising a control basal diet without Se supplementation and a test diet supplemented with Se at 0.2 mg/kg from HMSeBA. No difference was observed among dietary treatments on feed intake, egg weight and laying rate, whereas egg yolk fatty acid profile and vitamin E content were positively influenced by HMSeBA supplementation. Hens fed Se-supplemented diet exhibited greater (P < 0.001) egg yolk total Se contents, which averaged 21.2 mg/100 g dry matter (DM) compared to control diet (11.7 mg/100 g DM). Our results suggested that HMSeBA as Se supplement influences positively egg yolk quality without affecting hens' productive traits. Moreover, HMSeBA offers an efficient alternative to fortify eggs with Se, which can consequently lead to greater supply of Se for humans.

  3. Dietary tools to modulate glycogen storage in gilthead seabream muscle: glycerol supplementation.

    PubMed

    Silva, Tomé S; Matos, Elisabete; Cordeiro, Odete D; Colen, Rita; Wulff, Tune; Sampaio, Eduardo; Sousa, Vera; Valente, Luisa M P; Gonçalves, Amparo; Silva, Joana M G; Bandarra, Narcisa; Nunes, Maria Leonor; Dinis, Maria Teresa; Dias, Jorge; Jessen, Flemming; Rodrigues, Pedro M

    2012-10-24

    The quality and shelf life of fish meat products depend on the skeletal muscle's energetic state at slaughter, as meat decomposition processes can be exacerbated by energy depletion. In this study, we tested dietary glycerol as a way of replenishing muscle glycogen reserves of farmed gilthead seabream. Two diets were tested in duplicate (n = 42/tank). Results show 5% inclusion of crude glycerol in gilthead seabream diets induces increased muscle glycogen, ATP levels and firmness, with no deleterious effects in terms of growth, proximate composition, fatty acid profile, oxidative state, and organoleptic properties (aroma and color). Proteomic analysis showed a low impact of glycerol-supplementation on muscle metabolism, with most changes probably reflecting increased stress coping capacity in glycerol-fed fish. This suggests inclusion of crude glycerol in gilthead seabream diets (particularly in the finishing phase) seems like a viable strategy to increase glycogen deposition in muscle without negatively impacting fish welfare and quality.

  4. Pediatric fatality following ingestion of dinitrophenol: postmortem identification of a "dietary supplement".

    PubMed

    Hsiao, Allen L; Santucci, Karen A; Seo-Mayer, Patricia; Mariappan, M Rajan; Hodsdon, Michael E; Banasiak, Kenneth J; Baum, Carl R

    2005-01-01

    Dinitrophenol, a chemical currently used as an insecticide, is known to uncouple mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. A component of explosives, it has also been used in the past as a food coloring and clothing dye. In the 1930s, physicians prescribed it for weight loss, but this practice was discontinued when reports of cataracts, deaths, and other adverse outcomes came to light. We describe in our report the overdose and fatality of a teenager who purchased the product as a weight loss dietary supplement by mail order. We also describe a laboratory method that allowed postmortem determination of the dinitrophenol concentration in the victim's serum. Her death, despite prompt medical treatment, underscores the danger of dinitrophenol. The easy accessibility and apparent resurgent interest in dinitrophenol as a weight loss agent is extremely timely and troubling.

  5. Bioaccessibility of vitamin A, vitamin C and folic acid from dietary supplements, fortified food and infant formula.

    PubMed

    Brandon, E F A; Bakker, M I; Kramer, E; Bouwmeester, H; Zuidema, T; Alewijn, M

    2014-06-01

    In the Netherlands, vitamin intake occurs mainly via food and for some vitamins also via fortified food. In addition, some people take dietary supplements. Information on the bioavailability of vitamins is important for a good estimation of the actual exposure to vitamins. Furthermore, for a reliable intake estimation, it is important to know the accurateness of the claimed vitamin concentration on the product label. In the current study, the amount of vitamin A, vitamin C, and folic acid in different products and their maximum bioavailability (bioaccessibility) were investigated. In about half of the products, the amount of vitamins significantly deviated from the declared amounts. The vitamin bioaccessibility ranged from <1% to 100%. When assessing the dietary intake exposure of vitamins, it is important to take into account both the possible deviation from the declared level and (the variability of) the bioaccessibility of the vitamin in the products.

  6. Milk fat responses to dietary supplementation of short- and medium-chain fatty acids in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Vyas, D; Teter, B B; Erdman, R A

    2012-09-01

    Short-and medium-chain fatty acids (SMCFA), which are synthesized de novo in the mammary gland, are reduced to a much greater extent than the long-chain fatty acids during diet-induced milk fat depression. Our hypothesis was that SMCFA are limiting for milk fat synthesis even under conditions when milk fat is not depressed. Our objective was to test the potential limitation of SMCFA on milk fat synthesis via dietary supplementation. Sixteen lactating Holstein cows (107±18 d in milk) were fed a corn silage-based total mixed ration. Cows were randomly assigned to groups of 4 per pen and supplemented with 1 of 4 dietary fat supplements (600 g/d) supplied in a 4×4 Latin square design with 21-d experimental periods. Treatments consisted of fat supplements containing mixtures of calcium salts of long-chain fatty acids (Megalac; Church & Dwight Co. Inc., Princeton, NJ) and an SMCFA mixture (S; 3.3% C8, 7.6% C10, 9.85% C12, 32.12% C14, and 47.11% C16) that contained 0, 200, 400, and 600 g/d of S substituted for Megalac (S0, S200, S400, and S600, respectively). No treatment effects were observed for dry matter and fat-corrected milk. However, milk yield was decreased with S600. Milk fat increased linearly by 0.17, 0.25, and 0.33 percentage units for the respective S treatments. However, fat yield peaked at S200 and milk protein concentration and yield was significantly decreased at the higher S levels because of a linear trend toward decreased milk yield in the S600 treatment. In conclusion, SMCFA supplementation linearly increased milk fat concentration but decreased milk production at the higher levels of supplementation. The dietary inclusion of SMCFA had no effects on total milk fat yield.

  7. Meta-analysis of lactation performance in dairy cows receiving supplemental dietary methionine sources or postruminal infusion of methionine.

    PubMed

    Zanton, G I; Bowman, G R; Vázquez-Añón, M; Rode, L M

    2014-11-01

    The objectives of our study were to evaluate the productive response to methionine supplementation in lactating dairy cows and to define a relationship between metabolizable Met (MP Met) intake and production. A database of 64 papers meeting the selection criteria was developed evaluating postruminally infused dl-methionine (9 papers with 18 control diets and 35 treatment comparisons), 2-hydroxy-4-methylthio butanoic acid (HMTBa) provided as either a liquid or Ca salt form (17 papers with 34 control diets and 46 treatment comparisons), Mepron (Evonik Industries, Essen, Germany; 18 papers with 35 control diets and 42 treatment comparisons), and Smartamine (Adisseo Inc., Antony, France; 20 papers with 30 control diets and 39 treatment comparisons). Dietary ingredients and their accompanying nutritional compositions as described in the reports were entered into the Cornell-Penn-Miner software to model the diets and to predict nutrients that were not reported in the original publication. Data were analyzed using a weighted analysis of response to supplementation compared with the intraexperiment control, as well as through a regression analysis to changing dietary MP Met. Data included in the analysis were from experiments published between 1970 and 2011 with cows supplemented with between 3.5 and 67.9 g of Met or its equivalent from HMTBa. Cows supplemented with Smartamine consumed more, whereas cows supplemented with Mepron consumed less DM compared with controls. Milk yield did not significantly respond to Met supplementation, although it tended to increase for cows supplemented with HMTBa and Mepron. Milk protein yield was increased due to supplementation from all sources or from infusion, and protein concentration was greater for all supplements or infusion of dl-Met, except for cows supplemented with HMTBa. Irrespective of Met source, milk protein yield increased 2.23 g of protein/g of MP Met until reaching the breakpoint. Milk fat yield was increased for Mepron

  8. Diets, dietary supplements, and nutritional therapies in rheumatic diseases.

    PubMed

    Henderson, C J; Panush, R S

    1999-11-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis and many other systemic rheumatic diseases remain illnesses of unknown cause for which current therapy is often inadequate. This leads patients to seek questionable remedies, prominent among which are dietary manipulations. Is there a role for dietary modifications in the routine therapy for patients with rheumatic diseases? This article discusses the relationships between diets, fasting, elemental nutrition, vitamins, minerals, and foods for rheumatic diseases. Known scientific-based evidence for the use, safety, and efficacy of diets and dietary-related practices subscribed by patients with rheumatic diseases are presented. Studies that link diet with arthritis offer the possibility of identifying new therapeutic approaches for selected patients and of developing new insights to disease pathogenesis. Dietary therapy for arthritis, however, is still being investigated.

  9. Program for Research on Dietary Supplements in Military Operations and Healthcare Metabolically Optimized Brain - JWF

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-05-01

    ABSTRACT “The Program for Research on Dietary Supplements in Military Operations and Healthcare: The Metabolically Optimized Brain ( MOB ) Study targets a...Operations and Healthcare: The Metabolically Optimized Brain ( MOB ) Study targets a more specific aspect of dietary nutrition, feeding policy and...psychological consequences of brain injury from high intensity training, and combat operations exposures. The MOB Study has 3 specific aims: 1. Convene a

  10. Arsenic speciation and fucoxanthin analysis from seaweed dietary supplements using LC-MS.

    PubMed

    Avula, Bharathi; Wang, Yan-Hong; Khan, Ikhlas A

    2015-01-01

    The study involves the analysis of total arsenic (As) in metallic form, and organic and inorganic As species from seaweeds and dietary supplements. The analysis provides data for dietary exposure estimates of inorganic species that are considered more toxic to humans than organic and total As. Total As was determined by acid digestion followed by inductively coupled plasma (ICP)-MS. To characterize the As species, solvent extraction with sonication and microwave extraction using various aqueous and aqueous/organic solvent mixtures were initially evaluated. The optimum As speciation method was determined to be water extraction followed by anion exchange HPLC coupled with ICP-MS. Optimization of chromatographic conditions led to baseline separation for six As species, including As acid, arsenous acid, monomethylarsonic acid, dimethylarsinic acid, arsenobetaine, and arsenocholine, in approximately 8 min using gradient elution. Detection limits for all six compounds were in the range of 10-15 ng/mL. The data presented here will be valuable for the QA of analytical method development and surveys of total As and As species in dietary supplements. The most abundant As species found were arsenite [As(III)] and arsenate [As(V)]. The sum of inorganic As species present in the dietary supplements ranged from 1.2 to 31 μg/day. In addition, the dietary supplements purported to contain fucoxanthin, a carotenoid having pharmacological activities, were analyzed using ultra-performance LC-UV/MS.

  11. [Prostate cancer prophylaxis by dietary supplements: more than just an illusion?].

    PubMed

    Merkle, W

    2014-11-01

    Prophylaxis of tumors of the prostate gland is theoretically simple but what makes it difficult is that no appropriate test methods are available. The topic of prostate cancer prophylaxis by dietary supplements remains difficult as there are still no really certain data. The psychological aspect of wanting and being able to actively contribute to success of a therapy oneself, is absolutely not an aspect to be ignored to accept such dietary supplements. There are also studies which show that a certain helpful effect seems to be present. From these considerations the question arises whether cancer prophylaxis could be developed from this. This article presents the state of the art in early 2014.

  12. Prolonged intrahepatic cholestasis and renal failure secondary to anabolic androgenic steroid-enriched dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, Prashant V; Feng, Zhen-Zhou; Gordon, Stuart C

    2009-08-01

    The illegal enrichment of anabolic androgenic steroids in over-the-counter dietary supplements is well documented, but the health consequences have not been widely recognized. Three recent reports document cholestatic jaundice and nephropathy due to these compounds. We present 3 additional cases of anabolic androgenic steroid-enriched dietary supplement-induced hepatotoxicity and 1 case of renal failure, and we review the literature and the relevant features of this growing health concern. Recognition of this entity could obviate the need for invasive diagnostic testing and hospitalization and facilitate diagnosis and appropriate counseling.

  13. Response of growing goslings to dietary supplementation with methionine and betaine.

    PubMed

    Yang, Z; Wang, Z Y; Yang, H M; Zhao, F Z; Kong, L L

    2016-12-01

    An experiment with a 2 × 3 factorial design with two concentrations of dietary betaine (0 and 600 mg/kg) and three dietary concentrations of methionine (0, 600 and 1200 mg/kg) was conducted using goslings to estimate growth, nutrient utilisation and digestibility of amino acids from 21 to 70 d of age. Three hundred geese were randomised at 18 d of age into 6 groups with 5 replicates per treatment and 10 geese per replicate. Increasing dietary concentrations of methionine gave a linear increase in body weight and average daily gain. The coefficient of crude fat retention increased as dietary methionine increased and there was a significant non-linear response to increasing dietary methionine. Similarly, increasing supplemental methionine gave linear increases in the digestibility of methionine and cysteine. The results of this study indicated that optimal dietary supplementation of methionine could increase growth performance and methionine and cysteine utilisation in growing goslings. Betaine supplementation had no apparent sparing effect on methionine needs for growth performance, but did improve the apparent cysteine digestibility.

  14. Simultaneous determination of water-soluble vitamins in beverages and dietary supplements by LC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Kakitani, Ayano; Inoue, Tomonori; Matsumoto, Keiko; Watanabe, Jun; Nagatomi, Yasushi; Mochizuki, Naoki

    2014-01-01

    An LC-MS/MS method was developed for the simultaneous determination of 15 water-soluble vitamins that are widely used as additives in beverages and dietary supplements. This combined method involves the following simple pre-treatment procedures: dietary supplement samples were prepared by centrifugation and filtration after an extraction step, whereas beverage samples were diluted prior to injection. Chromatographic analysis in this method utilised a multi-mode ODS column, which provided reverse-phase, anion- and cation-exchange capacities, and therefore improved the retention of highly polar analytes such as water-soluble vitamins. Additionally, the multi-mode ODS column did not require adding ion pair reagents to the mobile phase. We optimised the chromatographic separation of 15 water-soluble vitamins by adjusting the mobile phase pH and the organic solvent. We also conducted an analysis of a NIST Standard Reference Material (SRM 3280 Multi-vitamin/Multi-element tablets) using this method to verify its accuracy. In addition, the method was applied to identify the vitamins in commercial beverages and dietary supplements. By comparing results with the label values and results obtained by official methods, it was concluded that the method could be used for quality control and to compose nutrition labels for vitamin-enriched products.

  15. Trans-11 vaccenic acid dietary supplementation induces hypolipidemic effects in JCR:LA-cp rats.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ye; Lu, Jing; Ruth, Megan R; Goruk, Sue D; Reaney, Martin J; Glimm, David R; Vine, Donna F; Field, Catherine J; Proctor, Spencer D

    2008-11-01

    Trans-11 vaccenic acid [VA; 18:1(n-9)] is a positional and geometric isomer of oleic acid and is the precursor to conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in humans. Despite VA being the predominant trans monoene in ruminant-derived lipids, very little is known about its nutritional bioactivity, particularly in conditions of chronic metabolic disorders, including obesity, insulin resistance, and/or dyslipidemia. The aim of this study was to assess the potential of VA to improve dyslipidemia, insulin sensitivity, or inflammatory status in obese and insulin-resistant JCR:LA-cp rats. The obese rats and age-matched lean littermates were fed a control diet or a control diet supplemented with 1.5% (wt:wt) VA for a period of 3 wk. The incorporation of VA and subsequent conversion to CLA in triglyceride was measured in adipose tissue. Glucose and insulin metabolism were assessed via a conscious adapted meal tolerance test procedure. Plasma lipids as well as serum inflammatory cytokine concentrations were measured by commercially available assays. VA supplementation did not result in any observable adverse health effects in either lean or obese JCR:LA-cp rats. After 3 wk of feeding, body weight, food intake, and glucose/insulin metabolism did not differ between VA-supplemented and control groups. The incorporation of VA and CLA into adipose triglycerides in obese rats fed VA increased by 1.5-fold and 6.5-fold, respectively, compared with obese rats fed the control diet. The most striking effect was a 40% decrease (P < 0.05) in fasting triglyceride concentrations in VA-treated obese rats relative to obese controls. Serum Il-10 concentration was decreased by VA, regardless of genotype (P < 0.05). In conclusion, short-term dietary supplementation of 1.5% VA did not result in any detrimental metabolic effects in JCR:LA-cp rats. In contrast, dietary VA had substantial hypo-triglyceridemic effects, suggesting a new bioactivity of this fatty acid that is typically found in ruminant

  16. Performance level affects the dietary supplement intake of both individual and team sports athletes.

    PubMed

    Giannopoulou, Ifigenia; Noutsos, Kostantinos; Apostolidis, Nikolaos; Bayios, Ioannis; Nassis, George P

    2013-01-01

    Dietary supplement (DS) intake is high in elite level athletes, however few studies have investigated the impact that the performance level of the athletes has on supplementation intake in individual and team sports. The purpose of the study was to determine and compare the DS intake among individual and team sport athletes of various performance levels. A total of 2845 participants (athletes: 2783, controls: 62) between the ages of 11 and 44 years old participated in the study. A 3-page questionnaire was developed to assess the intake of DS. Athletes were categorized based on participation in individual (n = 775) and team sports (n = 2008). To assess the effect of performance level in supplementation intake, athletes were categorized based on training volume, participation in the national team, and winning at least one medal in provincial, national, international or Olympic games. Overall, 37% of all athletes of various performance levels reported taking at least one DS in the last month. A higher prevalence of DS intake was reported in individual (44%) compared to team sport athletes (35%) (p < 0.001). Athletes of high performance level reported greater DS intake compared to lower performance athletes. Males reported a significantly greater prevalence of DS intake compared to females. The most popular supplement reported was amino acid preparation with the main reason of supplementation being endurance improvements. In conclusion, performance level and type of sport appear to impact the DS practices of male and female athletes. These findings should be validated in other populations. Key points37% of Mediterranean athletes of various sports and levels have reported taking dietary supplements.The performance level of the athletes affects the dietary supplementation intake.Athletes in individual sports appear to have a higher DS intake compared to team sport athletes.Male athletes appear to take more dietary supplements compared to female athletes.

  17. Performance Level Affects the Dietary Supplement Intake of Both Individual and Team Sports Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Giannopoulou, Ifigenia; Noutsos, Kostantinos; Apostolidis, Nikolaos; Bayios, Ioannis; Nassis, George P.

    2013-01-01

    Dietary supplement (DS) intake is high in elite level athletes, however few studies have investigated the impact that the performance level of the athletes has on supplementation intake in individual and team sports. The purpose of the study was to determine and compare the DS intake among individual and team sport athletes of various performance levels. A total of 2845 participants (athletes: 2783, controls: 62) between the ages of 11 and 44 years old participated in the study. A 3-page questionnaire was developed to assess the intake of DS. Athletes were categorized based on participation in individual (n = 775) and team sports (n = 2008). To assess the effect of performance level in supplementation intake, athletes were categorized based on training volume, participation in the national team, and winning at least one medal in provincial, national, international or Olympic games. Overall, 37% of all athletes of various performance levels reported taking at least one DS in the last month. A higher prevalence of DS intake was reported in individual (44%) compared to team sport athletes (35%) (p < 0.001). Athletes of high performance level reported greater DS intake compared to lower performance athletes. Males reported a significantly greater prevalence of DS intake compared to females. The most popular supplement reported was amino acid preparation with the main reason of supplementation being endurance improvements. In conclusion, performance level and type of sport appear to impact the DS practices of male and female athletes. These findings should be validated in other populations. Key points 37% of Mediterranean athletes of various sports and levels have reported taking dietary supplements. The performance level of the athletes affects the dietary supplementation intake. Athletes in individual sports appear to have a higher DS intake compared to team sport athletes. Male athletes appear to take more dietary supplements compared to female athletes. PMID

  18. Regulation of Dietary Supplements in the Military. Report of an Expert Panel

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    Supplements in the Military Report of an Expert Panel Ian D. Coulter, Sydne Newberry, Lara Hilton Sponsored by the Samueli Institute The research described in...this report was sponsored by the Samueli Institute and was conducted within the RAND Center for Military Health Policy Research, a strategic...of supplements. In 2008, at the request of the Samueli Institute, RAND Health conducted an informal one-day workshop on the use of dietary

  19. Leukoencephalopathic changes on magnetic resonance imaging associated with a thermogenic dietary supplement (Thermatrim)

    PubMed Central

    Treviño-Garcia, Manuel; Chua-Tuan, John James; Rodriguez-Cordero, Jose M.; Gil-Valadez, Alfonso H.; Akle, Nassim; Calleros, Jesus E.; Ramos-Duran, Luis R.

    2015-01-01

    Acute toxic leukoencephalopathy can be caused by exposure to many compounds. Reversibility has been described in some cases with prompt recognition and withdrawal of the offending agent. Its association with a thermogenic supplement has never been reported. We describe two such cases in young women taking a commercially available thermogenic dietary supplement who presented with acute neurologic deficits and a common magnetic resonance imaging pattern. PMID:26130900

  20. Leukoencephalopathic changes on magnetic resonance imaging associated with a thermogenic dietary supplement (Thermatrim).

    PubMed

    Olivas-Chacon, Cristina I; Treviño-Garcia, Manuel; Chua-Tuan, John James; Rodriguez-Cordero, Jose M; Gil-Valadez, Alfonso H; Akle, Nassim; Calleros, Jesus E; Ramos-Duran, Luis R

    2015-07-01

    Acute toxic leukoencephalopathy can be caused by exposure to many compounds. Reversibility has been described in some cases with prompt recognition and withdrawal of the offending agent. Its association with a thermogenic supplement has never been reported. We describe two such cases in young women taking a commercially available thermogenic dietary supplement who presented with acute neurologic deficits and a common magnetic resonance imaging pattern.

  1. Clinical presentations and outcomes of bile duct loss caused by drugs and herbal and dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Bonkovsky, Herbert L; Kleiner, David E; Gu, Jiezhun; Odin, Joseph A; Russo, Mark W; Navarro, Victor M; Fontana, Robert J; Ghabril, Marwan S; Barnhart, Huiman; Hoofnagle, Jay H

    2017-04-01

    Bile duct loss during the course of drug-induced liver injury is uncommon, but can be an indication of vanishing bile duct syndrome (VBDS). In this work, we assess the frequency, causes, clinical features, and outcomes of cases of drug-induced liver injury with histologically proven bile duct loss. All cases of drug-induced liver injury enrolled into a prospective database over a 10-year period that had undergone liver biopsies (n = 363) were scored for the presence of bile duct loss and assessed for clinical and laboratory features, causes, and outcomes. Twenty-six of the 363 patients (7%) with drug-, herbal-, or dietary-supplement-associated liver injury had bile duct loss on liver biopsy, which was moderate to severe (<50% of portal areas with bile ducts) in 14 and mild (50%-75%) in 12. The presenting clinical features of the 26 cases varied, but the most common clinical pattern was a severe cholestatic hepatitis. The implicated agents included amoxicillin/clavulanate (n = 3), temozolomide (n = 3), various herbal products (n = 3), azithromycin (n = 2), and 15 other medications or dietary supplements. Compared to those without, those with bile duct loss were more likely to develop chronic liver injury (94% vs. 47%), which was usually cholestatic and sometimes severe. Five patients died and 2 others underwent liver transplantation for progressive cholestasis despite treatment with corticosteroids and ursodiol. The most predictive factor of poor outcome was the degree of bile duct loss on liver biopsy.

  2. Dietary supplement use among infants, children, and adolescents in the United States (U.S.): 1999-2002

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study describes dietary supplement use among 10,136 children from birth through 18 years of age who participated in the 1999-2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES). Thirty-two percent of children used dietary supplements in 1999-2002, with lowest use reported among inf...

  3. UHPLC/HRMS analysis of African mango (Irvingia gabonensis) seeds, seed extracts, and African mango based dietary supplements

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dietary Supplements based on extract from Irvingia gabonensis (African Mango, or AM) seeds are one of the popular herbal weight loss dietary supplements in the US market. The extract from the AM seeds is believed to be a natural and healthy way to lose weight and improve overall health. However, the...

  4. Dietary supplementation with methylseleninic acid, but not selenomethionine, reduces spontaneous metastasis of Lewis lung carcinoma in mice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dietary supplementation with methylseleninic acid reduces spontaneous metastasis of Lewis lung carcinoma in mice Lin Yan*, Lana C. DeMars The present study investigated the effects of dietary supplementation with methylseleninic acid (MSeA) on spontaneous metastasis of Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) in...

  5. A Nutritional-Toxicological Assessment of Antarctic Krill Oil versus Fish Oil Dietary Supplements

    PubMed Central

    Bengtson Nash, Susan M.; Schlabach, Martin; Nichols, Peter D.

    2014-01-01

    Fish oil dietary supplements and complementary medicines are pitched to play a role of increasing strategic importance in meeting daily requirements of essential nutrients, such as long-chain (≥C20, LC) omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and vitamin D. Recently a new product category, derived from Antarctic krill, has been launched on the omega-3 nutriceutical market. Antarctic krill oil is marketed as demonstrating a greater ease of absorption due to higher phospholipid content, as being sourced through sustainable fisheries and being free of toxins and pollutants; however, limited data is available on the latter component. Persistent Organic Pollutants (POP) encompass a range of toxic, man-made contaminants that accumulate preferentially in marine ecosystems and in the lipid reserves of organisms. Extraction and concentration of fish oils therefore represents an inherent nutritional-toxicological conflict. This study aimed to provide the first quantitative comparison of the nutritional (EPA and DHA) versus the toxicological profiles of Antarctic krill oil products, relative to various fish oil categories available on the Australian market. Krill oil products were found to adhere closely to EPA and DHA manufacturer specifications and overall were ranked as containing intermediate levels of POP contaminants when compared to the other products analysed. Monitoring of the pollutant content of fish and krill oil products will become increasingly important with expanding regulatory specifications for chemical thresholds. PMID:25170991

  6. A nutritional-toxicological assessment of Antarctic krill oil versus fish oil dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Bengtson Nash, Susan M; Schlabach, Martin; Nichols, Peter D

    2014-08-28

    Fish oil dietary supplements and complementary medicines are pitched to play a role of increasing strategic importance in meeting daily requirements of essential nutrients, such as long-chain (≥ C20, LC) omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and vitamin D. Recently a new product category, derived from Antarctic krill, has been launched on the omega-3 nutriceutical market. Antarctic krill oil is marketed as demonstrating a greater ease of absorption due to higher phospholipid content, as being sourced through sustainable fisheries and being free of toxins and pollutants; however, limited data is available on the latter component. Persistent Organic Pollutants (POP) encompass a range of toxic, man-made contaminants that accumulate preferentially in marine ecosystems and in the lipid reserves of organisms. Extraction and concentration of fish oils therefore represents an inherent nutritional-toxicological conflict. This study aimed to provide the first quantitative comparison of the nutritional (EPA and DHA) versus the toxicological profiles of Antarctic krill oil products, relative to various fish oil categories available on the Australian market. Krill oil products were found to adhere closely to EPA and DHA manufacturer specifications and overall were ranked as containing intermediate levels of POP contaminants when compared to the other products analysed. Monitoring of the pollutant content of fish and krill oil products will become increasingly important with expanding regulatory specifications for chemical thresholds.

  7. Determination of bovine immunoglobulin G in bovine colostrum powders, bovine milk powders, and dietary supplements containing bovine colostrum products by an automated direct immunoassay with optical biosensor: collaborative study.

    PubMed

    Gapper, Leyton

    2013-01-01

    Nine laboratories participated in an AOAC collaborative study to determine bovine immunoglobulin G (IgG) levels in selected dairy powders and dietary supplements by surface plasmon resonance (SPR) methodology. Each sample matrix was dissolved in buffer and suitably diluted to fit within the standard curve. The sample extract was injected over a surface functionalized with affinity-purified, polyclonal goat anti-bovine IgG (H+L) antibody; IgG was then detected. SPR detection was used for the direct immunoassay and quantification was made against a calibration curve prepared from bovine serum IgG. Between each standard and sample, the surface was regenerated using 10 mM glycine at pH 1.5. The samples analyzed included the likely matrixes for which the assay would find commercial use, namely, high- and low-protein-content colostrum powders, tablets containing colostrum powder, infant formula containing colostrum powder, and some IgG-containing dairy powders, i.e., milk protein isolate, whey protein concentrate, and skim milk powder. Each laboratory provided data for the study and assayed blind duplicates of seven materials. Due to gross outliers in the majority of results from one laboratory, the data from eight laboratories were used for the statistical analysis. The repeatability RSD (RSDr) values ranged from 3.2 to 7.3%, and the reproducibility RSDR values from 13.0 to 22.6%.

  8. Mercury, cadmium and arsenic contents of calcium dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Kim, Meehye

    2004-08-01

    The cadmium (Cd) and arsenic (As) contents of calcium (Ca) supplements available on the Korean market were determined by a graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometer using Zeeman background correction and peak area mode after microwave digestion. The mercury (Hg) content of the supplements was measured using an Hg analyser. Recoveries ranged from 92 to 98% for Hg, Cd and As analyses. Fifty-five brands of Ca supplements were classified into seven categories based on the major composite: bone, milk, oyster/clam shell, egg shell, algae, shark cartilage and chelated. The means of Hg, Cd and As in Ca supplements were 0.01, 0.02, and 0.48 mg kg(-1), respectively. Ca supplements made of shark cartilage had the highest means of Hg (0.06 mg kg(-1)) and Cd (0.13 mg kg(-1)). The mean daily intakes of Hg and Cd from the supplement were estimated as about 0.1-0.2 microg, with both contributing less than 0.4% of provisional tolerable daily intakes set by the Food and Agricultural Organization/World Health Organization Joint Food Additive and Contaminants Committee.

  9. Dietary Supplementation with Probiotics Improves Hematopoiesis in Malnourished Mice

    PubMed Central

    Salva, Susana; Merino, María Cecilia; Agüero, Graciela; Gruppi, Adriana; Alvarez, Susana

    2012-01-01

    Background Lactobacillus rhamnosus CRL1505 (Lr) administered during the repletion of immunocompromised-malnourished mice improves the resistance against intestinal and respiratory infections. This effect is associated with an increase in the number and functionality of immune cells, indicating that Lr could have some influence on myeloid and lymphoid cell production and maturation. Objective This study analyzed the extent of the damage caused by malnutrition on myeloid and lymphoid cell development in the spleen and bone marrow (BM). We also evaluated the impact of immunobiotics on the recovery of hematopoiesis affected in malnourished mice. Methods Protein malnourished mice were fed on a balanced conventional diet for 7 or 14 consecutive d with or without supplemental Lr or fermented goat's milk (FGM). Malnourished mice and well-nourished mice were used as controls. Histological and flow cytometry studies were carried out in BM and spleen to study myeloid and lymphoid cells. Results Malnutrition induced quantitative alterations in spleen B and T cells; however, no alteration was observed in the ability of splenic B cells to produce immunoglobulins after challenge with LPS or CpG. The analysis of BM B cell subsets based on B220, CD24, IgM and IgD expression showed that malnutrition affected B cell development. In addition, BM myeloid cells decreased in malnourished mice. On the contrary, protein deprivation increased BM T cell number. These alterations were reverted with Lr or FGM repletion treatments since normal numbers of BM myeloid, T and B cells were observed in these groups. Conclusions Protein malnutrition significantly alters B cell development in BM. The treatment of malnourished mice with L. rhamnosus CRL1505 was able to induce a recovery of B cells that would explain its ability to increase immunity against infections. This work highlights the possibility of using immunobiotics to accelerate the recovery of lymphopoyesis in immunocompromised

  10. Dietary Chitosan Supplementation Increases Microbial Diversity and Attenuates the Severity of Citrobacter rodentium Infection in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hongbing; Xiong, Xia; Tan, Bie; Al-Dhabi, Naif Abdullah; Fang, Jun

    2016-01-01

    C57BL/6 mice were tested in order to investigate the effects of dietary chitosan (COS) supplements on intestinal microflora and resistance to Citrobacter rodentium infection. The findings reveal that, after consuming a 300 mg/kg COS diet for 14 days, microflora became more diverse as a result of the supplement. Mice receiving COS exhibited an increase in the percentage of Bacteroidetes phylum and a decrease in the percentage of Firmicutes phylum. After Citrobacter rodentium infection, the histopathology scores indicated that COS feeding resulted in less severe colitis. IL-6 and TNF-α were significantly lower in colon from COS-feeding mice than those in the control group. Furthermore, mice in COS group were also found to experience inhibited activation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) in the colonic tissue. Overall, the findings revealed that adding 300 mg/kg COS to the diet changed the composition of the intestinal microflora of mice, resulting in suppressed NF-κB activation and less production of TNF-α and IL-6; and these changes led to better control of inflammation and resolution of infection with C. rodentium. PMID:27761062

  11. Dietary strategies to improve nutritional value, oxidative stability, and sensory properties of poultry products.

    PubMed

    Bou, Ricard; Codony, Rafael; Tres, Alba; Decker, Eric A; Guardiola, Francesc

    2009-10-01

    Consumers demand both safer and more nutritious food products exempt of non-natural origin preservatives or other food additives. In this frame, products with lower fat content and/or a higher ratio in unsaturated fatty acids, especially n-3 fatty acids, are desired because these lipids can help prevent the development of cardiovascular and inflammatory pathologies. The intake of meat products is of interest because they are an excellent source of vitamins and minerals. In addition, the shelf-life of meat products can be extended by the presence of natural antioxidants coming from different sources such as plant extracts. Therefore, different strategies have been studied to improve the nutritional value, oxidative stability, and sensory characteristics of meat products and eggs through different mineral and natural dietary supplements. In comparison to other strategies, dietary supplements present the advantage that first the living animals may efficiently distribute the compounds throughout the tissues and second, the dietary supplementation is safer because the resulting enriched meat products and eggs ensure tolerable amounts in humans. Poultry meats and eggs are widely consumed and their fatty acid profile and tocopherol content can be easily modified through different dietary strategies thus being excellent models to improve their nutritional value and oxidative stability.

  12. Effect of dietary oligochitosan supplementation on ileal digestibility of nutrients and performance in broilers.

    PubMed

    Huang, R L; Yin, Y L; Wu, G Y; Zhang, Y G; Li, T J; Li, L L; Li, M X; Tang, Z R; Zhang, J; Wang, B; He, J H; Nie, X Z

    2005-09-01

    The effect of dietary chitosan oligosaccharides (COS) supplementation on ileal digestibilities of nutrients and performance in broilers was assessed by feeding graded levels (0, 50, 100, 150 mg/kg) of COS. Two thousand four hundred male commercial Avian broilers (1-d-old) were assigned randomly to 5 dietary treatment groups (60 birds per pen with 8 pens per treatment). Diet A was a typical corn- and soybean meal-based diet supplemented with 6 mg/kg of an antibiotic flavomycin (positive control). Diet B was the basal diet without any supplement. Diets C, D, and E were formulated by adding 50, 100, and 150 mg/kg of COS to the basal diet, respectively. On the morning of d 21 and 42, 64 birds (8 per pen with 8 pens per treatment) from the growth trial for each age group were killed by cervical dislocation for determination of the ileal digestibilities of nutrients. Dietary supplementation with COS and antibiotic enhanced (P < 0.05) the ileal digestibilities of DM, Ca, P, CP, and all amino acids (except for alanine in the 21-d-old birds or phenylalanine, glutamate, and glycine for the 42-d-old birds). Feed efficiency was improved (P < 0.05) in response to dietary supplementation of an antibiotic or COS (150 mg/kg for d 1 to 21, and 100 and 150 mg/kg for d 21 to 42). The results demonstrate for the first time to our knowledge that dietary COS supplementation was effective in increasing the ileal digestibilities of nutrients and feed efficiency in broilers. Our findings may explain a beneficial effect of COS on chicken growth performance.

  13. Over-the-Counter Medication and Herbal or Dietary Supplement Use in College: Dose Frequency and Relationship to Self-Reported Distress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stasio, Michael J.; Curry, Kim; Sutton-Skinner, Kelly M.; Glassman, Destinee M.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: A growing number of researchers have examined the use of over-the-counter (OTC) medications and herbal or dietary supplements among college students. There is concern about the efficacy and safety of these products, particularly because students appear to use them at a higher rate than does the general public. Participants and Methods:…

  14. Fatty acid analysis of saw palmetto (Serenoa repens) and pygeum (Prunus africanum) in dietary supplements by mass spectrometry in the selected ion monitoring mode

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Saw palmetto and pygeum are natural products commonly used in dietary supplements for the treatment of enlarged prostate glands. These plant materials are rich in fatty acids, and the fatty acid compositions of both plants are similar. The goal of this study was to develop a gas chromatography-mass ...

  15. Supplemental photosynthetic lighting for greenhouse tomato production

    SciTech Connect

    Godfriaux, B.L.; Wittman, W.K. ); Janes, H.W.; McAvoy, R.J.; Putman, J.; Logendra, S. . Dept. of Horticulture and Forestry); Mears, D.R.; Giacommelli, G.; Giniger, M. . Dept. of Biological and Agricultural Engineering)

    1989-12-01

    The influence of supplemental light on the growth and productivity of greenhouse tomatoes grown to a single cluster on movable benches is examined, and the economic feasibility of such a system is evaluated. Experiments were conducted to quantify the tomato plants' response to various levels of supplemental light in terms of growth rate and yield at various stages in their development (e.g., seedling, flowering plant, etc.). The 1984--85 experiments showed that supplemental photosynthetic lighting nearly doubled tomato yields, from 0.48 to 0.86 lbs/plant. Subsequent experiments in 1985--86 identified the best tomato varieties for this treatment and further increased yields to 1.3 lbs/plant. In addition, the use of supplemental lighting was found to hasten tomato crop maturity. An economic analysis was performed on the 1985--86 empirical data using the tax rates and provisions then in force. It indicated that a 10-acre greenhouse could provide an after-tax internal rate of return of 10% to 12% using only equity financing. This return could likely be increased to 15--18% with the use of combined debt/equity financing. Using supplemental lighting on 10,000 acres of greenhouse production would require an estimated 7.5 billion kWh of additional electricity per year and, at 4.7 cents/kWh, generate an estimated $350 million in additional utility revenues. 48 refs., 34 figs., 24 tabs.

  16. Effect of variable water intake as mediated by dietary potassium carbonate supplementation on rumen dynamics in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Fraley, S E; Hall, M B; Nennich, T D

    2015-05-01

    Water is a critical nutrient for dairy cows, with intake varying with environment, production, and diet. However, little work has evaluated the effects of water intake on rumen parameters. Using dietary potassium carbonate (K2CO3) as a K supplement to increase water intake, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of K2CO3 supplementation on water intake and on rumen parameters of lactating dairy cows. Nine ruminally cannulated, late-lactation Holstein cows (207±12d in milk) were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 treatments in a replicated 3×3 Latin square design with 18-d periods. Dietary treatments (on a dry matter basis) were no added K2CO3 (baseline dietary K levels of 1.67% dietary K), 0.75% added dietary K, and 1.5% added dietary K. Cows were offered treatment diets for a 14-d adaption period followed by a 4-d collection period. Ruminal total, liquid, and dry matter digesta weights were determined by total rumen evacuations conducted 2h after feeding on d 4 of the collection period. Rumen fluid samples were collected to determine pH, volatile fatty acids, and NH3 concentrations, and Co-EDTA was used to determine fractional liquid passage rate. Milk samples were collected twice daily during the collection period. Milk, milk fat, and protein yields showed quadratic responses with greatest yields for the 0.75% added dietary K treatment. Dry matter intake showed a quadratic response with 21.8kg/d for the 0.75% added dietary K treatment and 20.4 and 20.5kg/d for control and the 1.5% added dietary K treatment, respectively. Water intake increased linearly with increasing K2CO3 supplementation (102.4, 118.4, and 129.3L/d) as did ruminal fractional liquid passage rate in the earlier hours after feeding (0.118, 0.135, and 0.141 per hour). Total and wet weights of rumen contents declined linearly and dry weight tended to decline linearly as dietary K2CO3 increased, suggesting that the increasing water intake and fractional liquid passage rate with increasing

  17. Galactoglucomannan oligosaccharide Supplementation affects Nutrient Digestibility, Fermentation End-product Production, and Large Bowel Microbiota of the Dog

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A galactoglucomannan oligosaccharide (GGMO) obtained from fiberboard production was evaluated as a dietary supplement for dogs. The GGMO substrate contained high concentrations of mannose, xylose, and glucose oligosaccharides. Adult dogs assigned to a 6x6 Latin square design were fed six diets, ea...

  18. Dietary Protein and Amino Acid Supplementation in Inflammatory Bowel Disease Course: What Impact on the Colonic Mucosa?

    PubMed Central

    Vidal-Lletjós, Sandra; Beaumont, Martin; Tomé, Daniel; Benamouzig, Robert; Blachier, François; Lan, Annaïg

    2017-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), after disease onset, typically progress in two cyclically repeated phases, namely inflammatory flare and remission, with possible nutritional status impairment. Some evidence, either from epidemiological, clinical, and experimental studies indicate that the quantity and the quality of dietary protein consumption and amino acid supplementation may differently influence the IBD course according to the disease phases. For instance, although the dietary protein needs for mucosal healing after an inflammatory episode remain undetermined, there is evidence that amino acids derived from dietary proteins display beneficial effects on this process, serving as building blocks for macromolecule synthesis in the wounded mucosal area, energy substrates, and/or precursors of bioactive metabolites. However, an excessive amount of dietary proteins may result in an increased intestinal production of potentially deleterious bacterial metabolites. This could possibly affect epithelial repair as several of these bacterial metabolites are known to inhibit colonic epithelial cell respiration, cell proliferation, and/or to affect barrier function. In this review, we present the available evidence about the impact of the amount of dietary proteins and supplementary amino acids on IBD onset and progression, with a focus on the effects reported in the colon. PMID:28335546

  19. Dietary Protein and Amino Acid Supplementation in Inflammatory Bowel Disease Course: What Impact on the Colonic Mucosa?

    PubMed

    Vidal-Lletjós, Sandra; Beaumont, Martin; Tomé, Daniel; Benamouzig, Robert; Blachier, François; Lan, Annaïg

    2017-03-21

    Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), after disease onset, typically progress in two cyclically repeated phases, namely inflammatory flare and remission, with possible nutritional status impairment. Some evidence, either from epidemiological, clinical, and experimental studies indicate that the quantity and the quality of dietary protein consumption and amino acid supplementation may differently influence the IBD course according to the disease phases. For instance, although the dietary protein needs for mucosal healing after an inflammatory episode remain undetermined, there is evidence that amino acids derived from dietary proteins display beneficial effects on this process, serving as building blocks for macromolecule synthesis in the wounded mucosal area, energy substrates, and/or precursors of bioactive metabolites. However, an excessive amount of dietary proteins may result in an increased intestinal production of potentially deleterious bacterial metabolites. This could possibly affect epithelial repair as several of these bacterial metabolites are known to inhibit colonic epithelial cell respiration, cell proliferation, and/or to affect barrier function. In this review, we present the available evidence about the impact of the amount of dietary proteins and supplementary amino acids on IBD onset and progression, with a focus on the effects reported in the colon.

  20. Effects of dietary supplementation with phytonutrients on vaccine-stimulated immunity against infection with Eimeria tenella.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sung Hyen; Lillehoj, Hyun S; Jang, Seung I; Lee, Kyung Woo; Bravo, David; Lillehoj, Erik P

    2011-09-27

    Two phytonutrient mixtures, VAC (carvacrol, cinnamaldehyde, and Capsicum oleoresin), and MC (Capsicum oleoresin and turmeric oleoresin), were evaluated for their effects on chicken immune responses following immunization with an Eimeria profilin protein. Chickens were fed with a non-supplemented diet, or with VAC- or MC-supplemented diets, immunized with profilin, and orally challenged with virulent oocysts of Eimeria tenella. Immunity against infection was evaluated by body weight, fecal oocyst shedding, profilin antibody levels, lymphocyte recall responses, cytokine expression, and lymphocyte subpopulations. Following immunization and infection, chickens fed the VAC- or MC-supplemented diets showed increased body weights, greater profilin antibody levels, and/or greater lymphocyte proliferation compared with non-supplemented controls. Prior to Eimeria infection, immunized chickens on the MC-supplemented diet showed reduced IFN-γ and IL-6 levels, but increased expression of TNFSF15, compared with non-supplemented controls. Post-infection levels of IFN-γ and IL-6 were increased, while IL-17F transcripts were decreased, with MC-supplementation. For VAC-supplemented diets, decreased IL-17F and TNFSF15 levels were observed only in infected chickens. Finally, immunized chickens fed the MC-supplemented diet exhibited increased MHC class II(+), CD4(+), CD8(+), TCR1+, or TCR2(+) T cells compared with nonsupplemented controls. Animals on the VAC-containing diet only displayed an increase in K1(+) macrophages. In conclusion, dietary supplementation with VAC or MC alters immune parameters following recombinant protein vaccination against avian coccidiosis.

  1. 21 CFR 111.455 - What requirements apply to holding components, dietary supplements, packaging, and labels?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false What requirements apply to holding components, dietary supplements, packaging, and labels? 111.455 Section 111.455 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CURRENT...

  2. 21 CFR 111.520 - When may a returned dietary supplement be salvaged?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false When may a returned dietary supplement be salvaged? 111.520 Section 111.520 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE IN...

  3. 21 CFR 111.465 - What requirements apply to holding reserve samples of dietary supplements?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false What requirements apply to holding reserve samples of dietary supplements? 111.465 Section 111.465 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CURRENT GOOD...

  4. 21 CFR 111.510 - What requirements apply when a returned dietary supplement is received?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false What requirements apply when a returned dietary supplement is received? 111.510 Section 111.510 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE...

  5. 21 CFR 111.470 - What requirements apply to distributing dietary supplements?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false What requirements apply to distributing dietary supplements? 111.470 Section 111.470 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE...

  6. Chromatographic and mass spectrometric fingerprinting analyses of Angelica sinensis (Oliv.) Diels-derived dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yang; Sun, Jianghao; Yu, Liangli Lucy; Chen, Pei

    2013-05-01

    Angelica sinensis (Oliv.) Diels ("Danggui" in Chinese) is one of the most commonly used traditional Chinese medicines. It has been used to invigorate blood circulation for the treatment of anemia, hypertension, chronic bronchitis, asthma, rheumatism, and cardiovascular diseases. There are a number of A. sinensis-derived dietary supplements in the US markets. However, no study have been conducted to investigate the quality of these dietary supplements. In this paper, high-performance liquid chromatographic and flow-injection mass spectrometric fingerprints were both evaluated to assess the consistency of A. sinensis-derived dietary supplements. Similarity analysis was carried out on the high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) fingerprints. Meanwhile, principal component analysis (PCA) was performed on the data obtained from flow-injection mass spectrometric (FIMS) fingerprints, which can analyze each sample in 2 min, compared with 30 min required for the chromatographic fingerprint. Both methods show significant chemical differences between samples that may be due to differences in growing locations, growing conditions, harvesting times, and/or botanical processing. The loading plots obtained from PCA singled out the discriminatory ions that were responsible for chemical differences of A. sinensis-derived dietary supplements.

  7. Phyto-power dietary supplement potently inhibits dimethylnitrosamine-induced liver fibrosis in rats.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ming-Fen; Tsai, Mei-Ling; Sun, Pei-Pei; Chien, Ling-Lung; Cheng, An-Chin; Ma, Nianhan Jia-Lin; Ho, Chi-Tang; Pan, Min-Hsiung

    2013-02-26

    Curcumin has been extensively studied for its therapeutic effects in a variety of disorders. Fermented soy consumption is associated with a low incidence rate of chronic diseases in many Asian countries. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential underlying mechanisms of the effect of a phyto-power dietary supplement on liver fibrosis. Sprague-Dawley rats were intraperitoneally injected with dimethylnitrosamine (DMN; 10 mg kg(-1)) three times a week for four consecutive weeks. A phyto-power dietary supplement (50 or 100 mg kg(-1)) was administered by oral gavage daily for four weeks. Liver morphology, function, and fibrotic status were examined in DMN induced hepatic fibrogenesis. However, a phyto-power dietary supplement alleviated liver damage as indicated by histopathological examination of the α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and collagen I, accompanied by the concomitant reduction of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) and matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2). These data indicate that the phyto-power dietary supplement may inhibit the TGF-β1/Smad signaling and relieve liver damage in experimental fibrosis.

  8. Arsenic speciation and fucoxanthin analysis from seaweed dietary supplements using LC-MS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Inorganic species are considered more toxic to humans than organic arsenic and total arsenic. Analysis of total arsenic in metallic form, organic and inorganic arsenic species from seaweeds and dietary supplements using LC-ICP-MS was developed. Solvent extraction with sonication and microwave extr...

  9. Dietary supplementation with white button mushroom augments the protective immune response to Salmonella vaccine in mice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We previously showed that dietary white button mushrooms (WBM) enhanced natural killer cell activity and that in vitro WBM supplementation promotes maturation and function of dendritic cells (DC). The current study investigated whether WBM consumption would enhance pathogen-specific immune response ...

  10. 21 CFR 101.93 - Certain types of statements for dietary supplements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Certain types of statements for dietary supplements. 101.93 Section 101.93 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... bears one of the statements listed in section 403(r)(6) or the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act,...

  11. 21 CFR 101.93 - Certain types of statements for dietary supplements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Certain types of statements for dietary supplements. 101.93 Section 101.93 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... bears one of the statements listed in section 403(r)(6) or the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act,...

  12. 21 CFR 101.93 - Certain types of statements for dietary supplements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Certain types of statements for dietary supplements. 101.93 Section 101.93 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... bears one of the statements listed in section 403(r)(6) or the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act,...

  13. Determination of Calcium in Dietary Supplements: Statistical Comparison of Methods in the Analytical Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garvey, Sarah L.; Shahmohammadi, Golbon; McLain, Derek R.; Dietz, Mark L.

    2015-01-01

    A laboratory experiment is described in which students compare two methods for the determination of the calcium content of commercial dietary supplement tablets. In a two-week sequence, the sample tablets are first analyzed via complexometric titration with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid and then, following ion exchange of the calcium ion present…

  14. Effects of dietary arginine supplementation on the performance of lactating primiparous sows and nursing piglets.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments in a randomized block design was utilized to determine the effects of dietary arginine supplementation during gestation and/or lactation on the lactation performance of 38 first-parity sows. At 30 d of gestation, pregnant gilts were allotted based on BW to...

  15. Dietary Supplements and Health Aids - A Critical Evaluation Part 2 - Macronutrients and Fiber.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dubick, Michael A.

    1983-01-01

    Part 1 of this evaluation of dietary supplements and health aids (SE 533 788) focused on various therapeutic claims made for vitamins and minerals. This part examines health-promoting claims made for selected macronutrients and fiber. Macronutrients examined include selected proteins, amino acids, enzymes, carbohydrates, and lipids. (JN)

  16. Dietary copper supplementation reverses hypertrophic cardiomyopathy induced by chronic pressure overload in mice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sustained pressure overload causes cardiac hypertrophy and the transition to heart failure. We show here that dietary supplementation with physiologically relevant levels of copper (Cu) reverses pre-established hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in the presence of pressure overload induced by ascending aor...

  17. Simultaneous analysis of 17 diuretics in dietary supplements by HPLC and LC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Woo, H; Kim, J W; Han, K M; Lee, J H; Hwang, I S; Lee, J H; Kim, J; Kweon, S J; Cho, S; Chae, K R; Han, S Y; Kim, J

    2013-01-01

    In order to test health foods for illegally added diuretics for weight loss, we developed simple, rapid, selective, and sensitive methods using HPLC and LC-MS/MS for the simultaneous analysis of 17 diuretics in dietary supplements. HPLC conditions were set with a Capcell-pak C18, using a mobile phase consisting of gradient conditions, UV detection at 254 nm and validated for linearity (r(2)> 0.999), precision (CV ≤ 3%), recoveries (90.4-102.8%) and reproducibility. Identification and quantification of 17 diuretics were accomplished by ion-spray LC-MS/MS using multiple reaction monitoring (MRM). The chromatographic separation was carried out under the reversed-phase mechanism on an HSS-T3 column. The LC-MS/MS method was validated for linearity (r(2)> 0.99) and precision (CV < 13%). Sixteen dietary supplements were tested with the developed methods. Diuretics were not detected in all samples. Extraction recovery was also investigated and the extraction recoveries in different formulations were from 88% to 110% and from 81% to 116% using HPLC and LC-MS/MS, respectively. There was no significant difference in recoveries in the type of dietary supplements. Based on this result, the developed methods to monitor illegal drug adulterations in dietary supplements using HPLC and LC-MS/MS are simple, fast and reliable. Therefore, it is applicable to routine drug-adulteration screening.

  18. Phospholipids, Dietary Supplements, and Chicken Eggs: An Inquiry-Based Exercise Using Thin-Layer Chromatography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potteiger, Sara E.; Belanger, Julie M.

    2015-01-01

    This inquiry-based experiment is designed for organic or biochemistry undergraduate students to deduce the identity of phospholipids extracted from chicken eggs and dietary supplements. This is achieved using thin-layer chromatography (TLC) data, a series of guided questions of increasing complexity, and provided relative retention factor (Rf)…

  19. 21 CFR 111.130 - What quality control operations are required for returned dietary supplements?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What quality control operations are required for returned dietary supplements? 111.130 Section 111.130 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CURRENT GOOD...

  20. Symptoms associated with dietary fiber supplementation over time in individuals with fecal incontinence

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this study was to compare the severity of adverse gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms during supplementation with dietary fiber or placebo over time in adults with fecal incontinence. Secondary aims were to determine the relationship between symptom severity and upset and their association...

  1. Study of Vitamins and Dietary Supplements Containing Ferrous Fumarate and Ferrous Sulfate Using Moessbauer Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Oshtrakh, M. I.; Novikov, E. G.; Semionkin, V. A.; Dubiel, S. M.

    2010-07-13

    A study of several samples of vitamins and dietary supplements containing ferrous fumarate and ferrous sulfate was carried out using Moessbauer spectroscopy with a high velocity resolution. A presence of ferrous and ferric impurities was revealed. Small variations of Moessbauer hyperfine parameters were found for both ferrous fumarates and ferrous sulfates in the investigated medicines.

  2. 21 CFR 111.455 - What requirements apply to holding components, dietary supplements, packaging, and labels?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What requirements apply to holding components, dietary supplements, packaging, and labels? 111.455 Section 111.455 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CURRENT...

  3. 21 CFR 111.155 - What requirements apply to components of dietary supplements?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false What requirements apply to components of dietary supplements? 111.155 Section 111.155 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE...

  4. 21 CFR 111.155 - What requirements apply to components of dietary supplements?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false What requirements apply to components of dietary supplements? 111.155 Section 111.155 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE...

  5. 21 CFR 111.455 - What requirements apply to holding components, dietary supplements, packaging, and labels?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What requirements apply to holding components, dietary supplements, packaging, and labels? 111.455 Section 111.455 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CURRENT...

  6. 21 CFR 111.155 - What requirements apply to components of dietary supplements?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What requirements apply to components of dietary supplements? 111.155 Section 111.155 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE...

  7. 21 CFR 111.455 - What requirements apply to holding components, dietary supplements, packaging, and labels?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false What requirements apply to holding components, dietary supplements, packaging, and labels? 111.455 Section 111.455 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CURRENT...

  8. 21 CFR 111.155 - What requirements apply to components of dietary supplements?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What requirements apply to components of dietary supplements? 111.155 Section 111.155 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE...

  9. 21 CFR 111.155 - What requirements apply to components of dietary supplements?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false What requirements apply to components of dietary supplements? 111.155 Section 111.155 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE...

  10. 21 CFR 111.370 - What requirements apply to rejected dietary supplements?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What requirements apply to rejected dietary supplements? 111.370 Section 111.370 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE...

  11. 21 CFR 111.465 - What requirements apply to holding reserve samples of dietary supplements?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What requirements apply to holding reserve samples of dietary supplements? 111.465 Section 111.465 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CURRENT GOOD...

  12. 21 CFR 111.520 - When may a returned dietary supplement be salvaged?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false When may a returned dietary supplement be salvaged? 111.520 Section 111.520 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE IN...

  13. 21 CFR 111.470 - What requirements apply to distributing dietary supplements?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What requirements apply to distributing dietary supplements? 111.470 Section 111.470 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE...

  14. 21 CFR 111.510 - What requirements apply when a returned dietary supplement is received?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What requirements apply when a returned dietary supplement is received? 111.510 Section 111.510 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE...

  15. Effects of Fear Appeals on Communicating Potential Health Risks of Unregulated Dietary Supplements to College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Hyang-Sook; Sheffield, Donna; Almutairi, Talal

    2014-01-01

    Background: Fear appeals are commonly used in health communication to reduce risk. It is not clear, however, whether familiarity with a health topic can lessen the threat intended. The use of unregulated dietary supplements among young adults is one such area that needs study. Purpose: The study examined the effect of fear appeals on…

  16. Dietary CDP-Choline Supplementation Prevents Memory Impairment Caused by Impoverished Environmental Conditions in Rats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teather, Lisa A.; Wurtman, Richard J.

    2005-01-01

    The authors previously showed that dietary cytidine (5')-diphosphocholine (CDP-choline) supplementation could protect against the development of memory deficits in aging rats. In the present study, younger rats exposed to impoverished environmental conditions and manifesting hippocampal-dependent memory impairments similar to those observed in the…

  17. Dietary wolfberry supplementation enhances the protective effect of flu vaccine against influenza challenge in aged mice.

    PubMed

    Du, Xiaogang; Wang, Junpeng; Niu, Xinli; Smith, Donald; Wu, Dayong; Meydani, Simin Nikbin

    2014-02-01

    Current vaccines for influenza do not fully protect the aged against influenza infection. Although wolfberry (goji berry) has been shown to improve immune response, including enhanced antibody production, after vaccination in the aged, it is not known if this effect would translate to better protection after influenza infection, nor is its underlying mechanism well understood. To address these issues, we conducted a study using a 2 × 2 design in which aged male mice (20-22 mo) were fed a control or a 5% wolfberry diet for 30 d, then immunized with an influenza vaccine or saline (control) on days 31 and 52 of the dietary intervention, and finally challenged with influenza A/Puerto Rico/8/34 virus. Mice fed wolfberry had higher influenza antibody titers and improved symptoms (less postinfection weight loss) compared with the mice treated by vaccine alone. Furthermore, an in vitro mechanistic study showed that wolfberry supplementation enhanced maturation and activity of antigen-presenting dendritic cells (DCs) in aged mice, as indicated by phenotypic change in expression of DC activation markers major histocompatibility complex class II, cluster of differentiation (CD) 40, CD80, and CD86, and functional change in DC production of cytokines interleukin-12 and tumor necrosis factor-α as well as DC endocytosis. Also, adoptive transfer of wolfberry-treated bone marrow DCs (loaded with ovalbumin(323-339)-peptide) promoted antigen-specific T cell proliferation as well as interleukin-4 and interferon-γ production in CD4(+) T cells. In summary, our data indicate that dietary wolfberry enhances the efficacy of influenza vaccination, resulting in better host protection to prevent subsequent influenza infection; this effect may be partly attributed to improved DC function.

  18. Prevalent use of dietary supplements among people who exercise at a commercial gym.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Laura J; Gizis, Frances; Shorter, Barbara

    2004-08-01

    Supplement use was surveyed in a convenience sample of persons who exercised regularly at a Long Island, NY gym. Participants, age at least 18 y, completed anonymous questionnaires. A majority (84.7 %) took supplements. Many consumed multivitamin/minerals (MVM; 45 %), protein shakes/bars (PRO; 42.3 %), vitamin C (34.7 %), and vitamin E (VE; 23.4 %) at least 5 times per wk. Other dietary supplements were used less frequently or by fewer participants. Ephedra was consumed by 28 % at least once per wk. Choices and reasons for dietary supplement use varied with age of the participant. More of the oldest consumed MVM or VE, while those 45 y or younger chose PRO. Those younger than 30 consumed creatine more frequently. The oldest participants took supplements to prevent future illness, while others took supplements to build muscle. The reason for committing to an exercise program influenced supplement use. Bodybuilders more frequently consumed PRO, creatine, and ephedra compared to those exercising for health reasons.

  19. Predictors of Dietary Supplement Use by U.S. Coast Guard Personnel

    PubMed Central

    Austin, Krista G.; Price, Lori Lyn; McGraw, Susan M.; Lieberman, Harris R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Personnel in Armed Forces entities such as the US Coast Guard (USCG) engage in strenuous tasks requiring high levels of physiological and psychological fitness. Previous reports have found increased prevalence of dietary supplement (DS) use by military personnel to meet the demands of their occupation. Objective This study assessed DS prevalence and patterns of use in USCG personnel and compared these findings to reports from other Armed Forces personnel. Design Use of DS by USCG personnel (n = 1059) was assessed by survey at USCG installations. Data were weighted by age, sex, and rank to be representative of total USCG demographics. Results Seventy percent of USCG personnel reported using a DS at least 1 time/wk. Thirty-three percent used 1–2 DS ≤ 1 time/wk, 18% 3–4 DS ≥ 1 time/wk, and almost 19% ≥ 5 DS ≥ 1 time/wk. Average expenditure on DSs by UCSG personnel was $40/mo. More than 47% of USCG personnel used a multivitamin and mineral, 33% consumed protein supplements, 22% used individual vitamins and minerals, 23% reported taking combination products, and 9% consumed herbal supplements. Increased use of DS use was associated with high intensity operational occupations, participating in high volumes of aerobic exercise and strength training. Use of DS was not associated with age, education or body mass index. Conclusion Occupation is an important determinate of DS use. Prevalence of DS use by USCG personnel is greater than reported for other Armed Forces personnel and reflects high levels of participation in aerobic and strength training activities. PMID:26230407

  20. Effect of dietary supplementation of thymol, synbiotic and their combination on performance, egg quality and serum metabolic profile of Hy-Line Brown hens.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Wareth, A A A

    2016-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of dietary supplementation of thymol, synbiotic (Biomin, IMBO) and their combination in laying hen diets on laying performance, egg quality and serum metabolic profile from 24 to 36 weeks of age. Treatment groups were fed on a control diet, the control diet supplemented with thymol (250 mg/kg), the control diet supplemented with synbiotic (250 mg/kg) or the control diet supplemented with a combination of thymol (250 mg/kg) and synbiotic (250 mg/kg). Supplementation of thymol and synbiotic, separately as well as combined, improved egg weight, egg production, egg mass and feed conversion ratio from 24 to 36 weeks of age. The eggs obtained from thymol, synbiotic or their combination treatments displayed higher values of shell thickness, Haugh unit and shell percentage compared to the control. Serum cholesterol significantly decreased in the single or combined form of thymol and synbiotic supplementation treatments.

  1. Intake of Dietary Supplements and Malnutrition in Patients in Intensive Care Unit

    PubMed Central

    Samadi, Mehnoosh; Zeinali, Fahime; Habibi, Nahal; Ghotbodin-Mohammadi, Shirin

    2016-01-01

    Background: Malnutrition is prevalent among patients hospitalized in Intensive Care Units (ICUs) and causes various complications. Dietary supplementation to provide appropriate nutritional support may reduce the malnutrition and complications through improvement in nutritional status. This study was carried out to assess the association between dietary supplementation and malnutrition among patients in ICUs. Methods: A case–control study was conducted on 180 male patients aged 20–60 years in the ICUs of the hospitals in Ahvaz, Iran in 2013. Data of two groups including 83 patients (cases) who had consumed regular hospital meals and dietary supplements and 97 patients (controls) who had received regular hospital meals were compared. Anthropometric measurements, laboratory values, and dietary intakes were extracted from medical records, and Maastricht index (MI) was calculated. Data were analyzed using the IBM SPSS Statistics 21. T-test and paired-sample t-test were used to determine the difference between groups. Results: Taking supplements increased daily energy intake, carbohydrate, and protein in case group (n = 83) significantly (P < 0.05). MI changed to 3.1 ± 3.8 and 4.3 ± 4.2 in case (n = 83) and control (n = 97) groups, respectively. Although the MI fell in both groups, it showed a greater reduction in case group (from 6.3 ± 5.3 to 3.1 ± 3.8). Conclusions: Since consuming dietary supplements besides the regular hospital meals increased intake of energy and macronutrients and reduced the MI significantly, it was concluded that it helped supply nutritional requirements more effectively and improved the malnutrition in ICU. PMID:27512556

  2. Determination of the iron state in ferrous iron containing vitamins and dietary supplements: application of Mössbauer spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Oshtrakh, M I; Milder, O B; Semionkin, V A

    2006-03-18

    Determination of the iron state in commercially manufactured iron containing vitamins and dietary supplements is important for evaluation of pharmaceuticals quality. Mössbauer (nuclear gamma-resonance) spectroscopy was used for analyzing the iron state in commercial pharmaceutical products containing ferrous fumarate (FeC(4)H(2)O(4)), ferrous sulfate (FeSO(4)), ferrous bisglycinate chelate (Ferrochel) and ferrous iron (hydrolyzed protein chelate). Mössbauer parameters and the iron states were determined for iron compounds in the studied pharmaceuticals. Various ferric and ferrous impurities were found in all of the commercial products. The quantities of ferric impurities exceeded the FDA limitation of 2% in products containing ferrous fumarate. The quantities of ferric impurities exceeded 58% and 30% in products containing ferrous bisglycinate chelate and ferrous iron (hydrolyzed protein chelate), respectively. The presence of ferrous and ferric impurities was not related to the ageing of the vitamins and dietary supplements. Two pharmaceutical products contained major iron compounds, the Mössbauer parameters of which did not correspond to the ferrous fumarate or ferrous bisglycinate chelate claimed by the manufacturer.

  3. High-performance liquid chromatography determination of hydrastine and berberine in dietary supplements containing goldenseal.

    PubMed

    Abourashed, E A; Khan, I A

    2001-07-01

    Goldenseal (Hydrastis canadensis L., Ranunculaceae) is an ingredient of various dietary supplements intended for enhancing general body immunity. Many goldenseal products are currently available in the United States, either alone or in combination with echinacea. In most products, the content of the main active alkaloids of goldenseal, hydrastine and berberine, is not indicated on the label. A high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method has been developed for the detection and quantification of hydrastine and berberine in a number of products obtained from the United States market. The method uses a Phenomenex Luna C(18) column, a mobile phase consisting of solvent A (100 mM sodium acetate/acetic acid, pH 4.0) and solvent B (acetonitrile/methanol; 90/10, v/v). Elution was run at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min, with a linear gradient of 80- 40% A in B over 20 min and ultraviolet detection at 290 nm. A wide range of content variation was observed for both alkaloids in the tested samples.

  4. Effect of Alzheimer disease genetic risk disclosure on dietary supplement use1234

    PubMed Central

    Vernarelli, Jacqueline A; Roberts, J Scott; Hiraki, Susan; Chen, Clara A; Cupples, L Adrienne

    2010-01-01

    Background: Genetic susceptibility testing for Alzheimer disease (AD) with APOE genotype disclosure is not recommended for clinical use but is available through direct-to-consumer (DTC) genetic testing companies. Little is known about whether APOE genotype disclosure would actually prompt changes in nutrition behaviors among at-risk individuals. Objective: We studied the effect of APOE genotype disclosure for AD risk assessment on dietary supplement use in adults with a family history of AD. Design: As part of a secondary analysis of data from the second Risk Evaluation and Education for Alzheimer's Disease Study, we examined the effect of genotype disclosure on health-behavior changes among 272 unaffected first-degree relatives of persons with AD. Results: Overall, 16% of all participants reported a change in dietary supplement use after AD risk assessment. Participants who learned that they had at least one copy of the risk-increasing ϵ4 allele (ϵ4+) had 4.75 times the odds of reporting a change in dietary supplement use than did their counterparts who had an absence of the risk-increasing ϵ4 allele (ϵ4−) (95% CI: 2.23, 10.10; P < 0.0001) after adjustment for age, sex, race, baseline supplement use, randomization arm, and educational level. There were no significant differences between APOE ϵ4+ and ϵ4− participants in changes in overall diet, exercise, or medications. Conclusions: In this sample of first-degree relatives receiving genetic susceptibility testing for AD, an APOE ϵ4+ genotype status was positively associated with dietary supplement use after risk disclosure. Such changes occurred despite the absence of evidence that supplement use reduces the risk of AD. Given the expansion of DTC genetic tests, this study highlights the need for future studies in disease risk communication. PMID:20219963

  5. An LC-MS screening method with library identification for the detection of steroids in dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Becue, Ilse; Van Poucke, Christof; Van Peteghem, Carlos

    2011-03-01

    For many years anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) are by far the most frequently detected pharmacological substances in doping control. In order to improve their performances, professional sportsmen are often tempted to take dietary supplements. However, due to the frequent and widespread occurrence of contaminated supplements, the use of such products is not without risk for the athletes involved. In order to minimize the chances of an unattended positive doping test or serious health problems, fast and reliable screening methods for the detection of anabolic steroids in dietary supplements are needed. A general screening procedure requires the fast and unambiguous detection of a large range of steroids. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) has been used intensively in the detection of doping substances for the past 40 years. Over time, many laboratories have delivered spectra to be included in standard reference databases, one of which is maintained by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) (Gaithersburg, MD, USA). In recent years, however, liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (LC-MS) has gained popularity. Unfortunately, existing GC-MS libraries are not applicable to LC-MS analysis. In the present study, a new mass spectral library of 88 steroids was developed, along with a fast UPLC-MS method. For the construction of this mass spectral library, three different mass spectra were measured for each steroid, with a sample cone voltage of 30, 60 and 100 V, respectively. This method was then successfully tested on contaminated dietary supplements which had previously been tested by means of a targeted LC-MS/MS method. Overall, the library search was shown to identify the same compounds as the MRM method.

  6. Effects of dietary organic zinc and α-tocopheryl acetate supplements on growth performance, meat quality, tissues minerals, and α-tocopherol deposition in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Akbari Moghaddam Kakhki, R; Bakhshalinejad, R; Hassanabadi, A; Ferket, P

    2016-11-11

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of different dietary levels of zinc (Zn) and α-tocopheryl acetate (α-TOA) on broilers performance, meat quality, Zn, selenium (Se), and α-tocopherol (α-TO) tissue depositions. A total of 1,080 one-day-old Ross 308 broiler chickens (mixed-sex) were allocated to nine dietary treatments. Three levels of supplemental Zn (0, 60, and 120 mg/kg of diet) and three levels of α-TOA (0, 150, and 300 mg/kg of diet) were combined as a completely randomized design with 3 × 3 factorial arrangement. Chicks were penned in groups of 20 with six pens per treatment. The ADFI, ADG, feed conversion ratio (FCR), mortality rate, and European production efficiency factor (EPEF) were not affected by dietary treatments. In addition, supplementation of Zn and α-TOA and their interaction did not affect carcass parts yield. Drip loss of the breast and thigh muscles were significantly reduced 1.27 and 1.47% by α-tocopheryl acetate (α-TOA) supplementation, respectively (P < 0.01). Deposition of Zn in liver, breast, and thigh muscles were linearly increased by dietary Zn supplementation. Furthermore, supplementation of Zn increased Se content in the breast and thigh muscles and liver. Supplementation of either α-TOA or Zn increased deposition of α-TO in liver and the muscles. The Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) values in the breast and thigh muscles and the liver were diminished by supplementation of α-TOA (P = 0.0001) and there was positive interaction between Zn and α-TOA (P < 0.01), in which within each increase in Zn supplementation level, α-TOA supplementation resulted in a reduction of TBARS values. In conclusion, 300 mg/kg dietary supplementation of α-TOA could improve drip loss, nutritional content, and oxidation stability of muscle without any adverse effect on growth performance of chickens. In addition, 120 mg/kg dietary supplementation of Zn could fortify α-TOA effect to improve oxidation stability

  7. Effect of dietary fiber on properties and acceptance of meat products: a review.

    PubMed

    Talukder, Suman

    2015-01-01

    Meat is an important source of all essential nutritional components of our daily diet as it content most of the essential amino acids, fatty acids, vitamins, and minerals which are lack in plant based food, but it is devoid of dietary fiber, which is very essential component for normal physiological/biochemical process. During meat products processing, its functional values can be improved by supplementation of dietary fiber rich vegetative substances like cereal and pulse flour, vegetable and fruits pulp, etc. by this process, a significant proportion of required daily allowance of dietary fiber can be fulfilled for the frequent meat consumers. The consumption of meat products fortified with of dietary fiber can lead to the prevention of diseases like coronary heart disease, diabetes, irritable bowel disease, obesity, etc. On the other hand, the dietary fiber can effectively be incorporated in the processed meat products as binders, extender, and filler, they can significantly replace the unhealthy fat components from the products; increase acceptability by improving nutritional components, pH, water-holding capacity, emulsion stability, shear press value, sensory characters, etc. of finished products. Addition of dietary fiber in the meat products can increase the cooking yield therefore the economic gain as well.

  8. Dietary supplementation and rapid catch-up growth after acute diarrhoea in childhood.

    PubMed

    Hoare, S; Poppitt, S D; Prentice, A M; Weaver, L T

    1996-10-01

    Diarrhoea is a major cause of short-term growth faltering in children of the developing world. If catch-up weight gain is delayed by inadequate dietary intake, or by further bouts of diarrhoea, progressive growth failure occurs. To test the hypothesis that early refeeding is as effective as later feeding after acute diarrhoea with weight loss, we measured the effects of a timed dietary intervention on weight gain after acute diarrhoea in underweight Gambian children. Thirty-four children aged 4-22 months with weight loss following acute diarrhoea were given a high-energy-protein supplement for 14 d beginning either immediately after rehydration or a fortnight later. With a 50% increase in energy intake and a 100% increase in protein intake there was a rapid and highly significant (P < 0.001) gain in weight within a fortnight whether the supplement was given immediately or 2 weeks after presentation. Rates of weight increase were similar whether supplementation was provided early or late, but over the full 28 d (of intervention and non-intervention) children who received late supplementation had greater overall weight gain (P < 0.02) than those supplemented early. Vigorous and early feeding with a high-energy-protein supplement should be central to the management of malnourished children with acute diarrhoea in developing countries, and may be as important as control of diarrhoea in preventing malnutrition and growth failure. This may be achieved in the community using locally available foods, in the face of continuing diarrhoea.

  9. Taking weight-loss supplements may elicit liberation from dietary control. A laboratory experiment.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yevvon Yi-Chi; Chiou, Wen-Bin

    2014-01-01

    Given that changes in diet and exercise habits are difficult to initiate and maintain, the use of weight-loss supplements has become an appealing alternative approach to weight management for many individuals. The current research examined whether the use of weight-loss supplements induced overly optimistic assessments of progress toward weight reduction, leading to psychological abdication of dietary regulation. Participants were randomly assigned to take either an identified placebo or a purported weight-loss supplement (actually the same placebo). Each participant reported perceived progress toward weight reduction following the manipulation. Consumption of snacks in a taste test and choice of sugary drinks were recorded. The results showed that participants receiving a purported supplement ate more in a taste task and preferred larger quantities of sugar in their reward drinks than did controls. Mediation analysis supported that the perception of progress toward weight reduction contributed to the liberating effect. Using weight-loss supplements may increase perceived progress toward weight reduction but decrease dietary self-regulation. These thought-provoking findings can serve as a basis for educating the public about the myth that they are free to feel liberated from the need to regulate their eating when using weight-loss supplements.

  10. Acute dietary nitrate supplementation does not augment submaximal forearm exercise hyperemia in healthy young men.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jin-Kwang; Moore, David J; Maurer, David G; Kim-Shapiro, Daniel B; Basu, Swati; Flanagan, Michael P; Skulas-Ray, Ann C; Kris-Etherton, Penny; Proctor, David N

    2015-02-01

    Despite the popularity of dietary nitrate supplementation and the growing evidence base of its potential ergogenic and vascular health benefits, there is no direct information about its effects on exercising limb blood flow in humans. We hypothesized that acute dietary nitrate supplementation from beetroot juice would augment the increases in forearm blood flow, as well as the progressive dilation of the brachial artery, during graded handgrip exercise in healthy young men. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study, 12 young (22 ± 2 years) healthy men consumed a beetroot juice (140 mL Beet-It Sport, James White Juice Company) that provided 12.9 mmol (0.8 g) of nitrate or placebo (nitrate-depleted Beet-It Sport) on 2 study visits. At 3 h postconsumption, brachial artery diameter, flow, and blood velocity were measured (Doppler ultrasound) at rest and during 6 exercise intensities. Nitrate supplementation raised plasma nitrate (19.5-fold) and nitrite (1.6-fold) concentrations, and lowered resting arterial pulse wave velocity (PWV) versus placebo (all p < 0.05), indicating absorption, conversion, and a biological effect of this supplement. The supplement-associated lowering of PWV was also negatively correlated with plasma nitrite (r = -0.72, p = 0.0127). Despite these systemic effects, nitrate supplementation had no effect on brachial artery diameter, flow, or shear rates at rest (all p ≥ 0.28) or during any exercise workload (all p ≥ 0.18). These findings suggest that acute dietary nitrate supplementation favorably modifies arterial PWV, but does not augment blood flow or brachial artery vasodilation during nonfatiguing forearm exercise in healthy young men.

  11. Interactions of commonly used dietary supplements with cardiovascular drugs: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The objective of this systematic review was to examine the benefits, harms and pharmacokinetic interactions arising from the co-administration of commonly used dietary supplements with cardiovascular drugs. Many patients on cardiovascular drugs take dietary supplements for presumed benefits and may be at risk for adverse supplement-drug interactions. Methods The Allied and Complementary Medicine Database, the Cochrane Library, EMBASE, International Bibliographic Information on Dietary Supplements and MEDLINE were searched from the inception of the review to October 2011. Grey literature was also reviewed. Two reviewers independently screened records to identify studies comparing a supplement plus cardiovascular drug(s) with the drug(s) alone. Reviewers extracted data using standardized forms, assessed the study risk of bias, graded the strength of evidence and reported applicability. Results Evidence was obtained from 65 randomized clinical trials, 2 controlled clinical trials and 1 observational study. With only a few small studies available per supplement, evidence was insufficient for all predefined gradable clinical efficacy and harms outcomes, such as mortality and serious adverse events. One long-term pragmatic trial showed no benefit from co-administering vitamin E with aspirin on a composite cardiovascular outcome. Evidence for most intermediate outcomes was insufficient or of low strength, suggesting no effect. Incremental benefits were noted for triglyceridemia with omega-3 fatty acid added to statins; and there was an improvement in levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol with garlic supplementation when people also consumed nitrates Conclusions Evidence of low-strength indicates benefits of omega-3 fatty acids (plus statin, or calcium channel blockers and antiplatelets) and garlic (plus nitrates or warfarin) on triglycerides and HDL-C, respectively. Safety concerns, however, persist. PMID:22651380

  12. Acute dietary nitrate supplementation does not augment submaximal forearm exercise hyperemia in healthy young men

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jin-Kwang; Moore, David J.; Maurer, David G.; Kim-Shapiro, Daniel B.; Basu, Swati; Flanagan, Michael P.; Skulas-Ray, Ann C.; Kris-Etherton, Penny; Proctor, David N.

    2014-01-01

    Despite the popularity of dietary nitrate supplementation and the growing evidence base of its potential ergogenic and vascular health benefits, there is no direct information about its effects on exercising limb blood flow in humans. We hypothesized that acute dietary nitrate supplementation from beetroot juice would augment the increases in forearm blood flow, as well as the progressive dilation of the brachial artery, during graded handgrip exercise in healthy young men. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study, 12 young (22 ± 2 years) healthy men consumed a beetroot juice (140 mL Beet-It Sport, James White Juice Company) that provided 12.9 mmol (0.8 g) of nitrate or placebo (nitrate-depleted Beet-It Sport) on 2 study visits. At 3 h postconsumption, brachial artery diameter, flow, and blood velocity were measured (Doppler ultrasound) at rest and during 6 exercise intensities. Nitrate supplementation raised plasma nitrate (19.5-fold) and nitrite (1.6-fold) concentrations, and lowered resting arterial pulse wave velocity (PWV) versus placebo (all p < 0.05) indicating absorption, conversion, and a biological effect of this supplement. The supplement-associated lowering of PWV was also negatively correlated with plasma nitrite (r = -0.72, p = 0.0127). Despite these systemic effects, nitrate supplementation had no effect on brachial artery diameter, flow, or shear rates at rest (all p ≥ 0.28) or during any exercise workload (all p ≥ 0.18). These findings suggest that acute dietary nitrate supplementation favorably modifies arterial PWV, but does not augment blood flow or brachial artery vasodilation during non-fatiguing forearm exercise in healthy young men. PMID:25536008

  13. Effects of dietary supplementation of vitamins D(3) and E on quality characteristics of pigs and longissimus muscle antioxidative capacity.

    PubMed

    Lahucky, Rudolf; Bahelka, Ivan; Kuechenmeister, Ulrich; Vasickova, Katarina; Nuernberg, Karin; Ender, Klaus; Nuernberg, Gerd

    2007-10-01

    The effects of addition of vitamin D(3) and vitamin E to pig diets on blood plasma calcium concentration, meat quality (longissimus muscle) and antioxidative capacity were investigated. Two treatments consisted of supplementation with vitamin D(3) (500,000IU/d) for 5 days separately (group D) and a combination of vitamin E (500mg α-tocopheryl acetate/kg diet) for 30 days and vitamin D(3) (500,000IU/d) for 5 days (group D+E) to growing-finishing pigs before slaughter. Pigs fed with vitamin D(3) had higher (P<0.01) plasma calcium concentration compared with control pigs. Dietary supplementation of vitamin E significantly (P<0.05) increased the concentration of α-tocopherol in meat (longissimus muscle). Vitamin D(3) supplementation resulted in higher (P=0.07) a(∗) values of loin chops at 5 days of storage. Vitamin D(3) and vitamin E supplementation did not affect other meat quality characteristics or tenderness (quantified by Warner-Bratzler shear force). Antioxidative capacity (measured as MDA production after incubation of longissimus muscle homogenates with Fe(2+)/ascorbate) was improved by vitamin E and partly by vitamin D(3) supplementation.

  14. Dietary CDP-choline supplementation prevents memory impairment caused by impoverished environmental conditions in rats.

    PubMed

    Teather, Lisa A; Wurtman, Richard J

    2005-01-01

    We previously showed that dietary cytidine (5')-diphosphocholine (CDP-choline) supplementation could protect against the development of memory deficits in aging rats. In the present study, younger rats exposed to impoverished environmental conditions and manifesting hippocampal-dependent memory impairments similar to those observed in the aging rodents were given CDP-choline, and its effects on this cognitive deficit were assessed. Male Sprague-Dawley rats reared for 3 mo in impoverished (IC) or enriched environmental (EC) conditions concurrently received either a control diet or a diet supplemented with CDP-choline (approximately 500 mg/kg/d). After 3 mo, rats were trained to perform spatial and cued versions of the Morris water maze, and their rates of acquisition and retention were compared. Impoverished rats exhibited a selective deficit in hippocampal-dependent spatial memory which could be ameliorated by feeding them CDP-choline. The CDP-choline had no memory-enhancing effect in enriched rats, nor did it prevent the memory impairment of impoverished rats if the animals consumed it for the initial or final months instead of for the entire 3-mo period. These findings indicate that long-term dietary CDP-choline supplementation can ameliorate the hippocampal-dependent memory impairment caused by impoverished environmental conditions in rats, and suggest that its actions result, in part, from a long-term effect such as enhanced membrane phosphatide synthesis, an effect shown to require long-term dietary supplementation with CDP-choline.

  15. Dietary CDP-choline supplementation prevents memory impairment caused by impoverished environmental conditions in rats

    PubMed Central

    Teather, Lisa A.; Wurtman, Richard J.

    2005-01-01

    We previously showed that dietary cytidine (5′)-diphosphocholine (CDP-choline) supplementation could protect against the development of memory deficits in aging rats. In the present study, younger rats exposed to impoverished environmental conditions and manifesting hippocampal-dependent memory impairments similar to those observed in the aging rodents were given CDP-choline, and its effects on this cognitive deficit were assessed. Male Sprague-Dawley rats reared for 3 mo in impoverished (IC) or enriched environmental (EC) conditions concurrently received either a control diet or a diet supplemented with CDP-choline (∼500 mg/kg/d). After 3 mo, rats were trained to perform spatial and cued versions of the Morris water maze, and their rates of acquisition and retention were compared. Impoverished rats exhibited a selective deficit in hippocampal-dependent spatial memory which could be ameliorated by feeding them CDP-choline. The CDP-choline had no memory-enhancing effect in enriched rats, nor did it prevent the memory impairment of impoverished rats if the animals consumed it for the initial or final months instead of for the entire 3-mo period. These findings indicate that long-term dietary CDP-choline supplementation can ameliorate the hippocampal-dependent memory impairment caused by impoverished environmental conditions in rats, and suggest that its actions result, in part, from a long-term effect such as enhanced membrane phosphatide synthesis, an effect shown to require long-term dietary supplementation with CDP-choline. PMID:15647594

  16. Enantiomeric determination of DOPA in dietary supplements containing Mucuna pruriens by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Takashi; Takahashi, Kazunaga; Fukiwake, Tomohide; Saijo, Masaaki; Motoki, Yuji

    2013-01-01

    We developed a simple and rapid liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) method for the enantiomeric determination of DOPA in dietary supplements containing Mucuna pruriens. L- and D-DOPA were ultrasonically extracted with 1% formic acid aqueous solution. The isolated extracts were analyzed by LC/MS using a Crownpak CR (-) column at 30℃. The mass spectrometer was operated in the positive mode of electrospray ionization, and the mobile phase was aqueous formic acid (pH 2.0). L-DOPA-ring-d3 was used as an internal standard. The method was validated for a dietary supplement spiked with L- and D-DOPA at 50 and 500 μg/g, respectively, and the recoveries of the DOPA enantiomers were between 97.5% and 101.3%. Relative standard deviation values of repeatability and intermediate precision were less than 7%. The method was applied to 14 dietary supplements. L-DOPA was detected in these supplements in the range of 0.88-12.8 mg/unit. D-DOPA was not detected.

  17. Effects of dietary supplementation with carnosine on meat quality and antioxidant capacity in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Cong, J; Zhang, L; Li, J; Wang, S; Gao, F; Zhou, G

    2017-02-01

    1. This study aimed to investigate the effects of carnosine supplementation on meat quality, antioxidant capacity and lipid peroxidation status in broiler chickens. 2. A total of 256 1-d-old male Arbor Acres broilers were randomly assigned to 4 treatments consisting of 8 replicates of 8 chickens each. The birds were supplied with 4 different diets: a basal diet or a basal diet supplemented with 100, 200 or 400 mg/kg carnosine, respectively. The whole experiment lasted 42 d. 3. The results showed that dietary supplementation with carnosine linearly increased the values of pH45 min and redness and reduced drip loss of breast meat. Dietary carnosine increased the activity of antioxidant enzymes in liver, serum and breast meat and decreased the contents of lipid peroxides at 21 and 42 d of age. 4. These findings indicated that dietary supplementation with carnosine was beneficial to enhance meat quality, antioxidant capacity and decrease lipid peroxidation status of breast meat.

  18. Influence of dietary supplementation with dextrin or oligofructose on the hepatic redox balance in rats.

    PubMed

    Kozmus, Carina E P; Moura, Eduardo; Serrão, Maria P; Real, Helena; Guimarães, João T; Guedes-de-Pinho, Paula; Duarte, Barbara P; Marques, Franklim; Martins, Maria João; Vieira-Coelho, Maria A

    2011-11-01

    We assessed the impact of oligofructose (OFS) and dextrin (DEX) as diet supplements on hepatic redox state. Rats were fed either a 10% OFS or a 10% DEX supplemented diet for 9 wk. In the DEX diet group, the levels of hepatic protein carbonylation were decreased by 63%. Total glutathione and reduced glutathione (GSH) contents were reduced in the OFS and DEX diet groups by around 20%. DEX supplementation significantly reduced oxidized glutathione (GSSG) levels resulting in a 33% increase in the GSH/GSSG ratio. The activity of the hepatic antioxidant enzymes was not changed by either OFS or DEX supplementation. OFS supplementation caused a decrease in serum levels of triglycerides (36%), cholesterol (24%), HDL (16%) and LDL (17%). DEX supplementation only reduced triglycerides (32%) and urea (22%). Both diets increased serum levels of acetate by fivefold and propionate by twofold, but DEX diet decreased butyrate levels by 75%. Due to their different composition/structure these two dietary fibers affected metabolism in different ways. Diet supplementation with 10% DEX can potentially improve host health, by protecting the liver from protein carbonylation and by improving GSH/GSSG ratio and diet supplementation with 10% OFS can improve the lipid profile.

  19. Dietary supplementation with short-chain fructo-oligosaccharides improves insulin sensitivity in obese horses.

    PubMed

    Respondek, F; Myers, K; Smith, T L; Wagner, A; Geor, R J

    2011-01-01

    Obesity and insulin resistance are risk factors for laminitis in horses and ponies, and diet can play an important role in modulating these risk factors. Dietary supplementation with prebiotic fibers, such as short-chain fructo-oligosaccharides (scFOS), has resulted in improvement of insulin sensitivity in obese dogs and rodents. Thus, we hypothesized that scFOS may reduce insulin resistance in obese horses and designed a study to evaluate the effect of dietary supplementation with scFOS on insulin sensitivity. Eight mature Arabian geldings (BW = 523.0 ± 56.5 kg) with an average BCS of 8 were included in a crossover study. In each period, 4 horses were provided 45 g/d per horse of maltodextrin (control) and 4 horses received the same amount of scFOS for 6 wk, with a 3-wk washout between periods. Resting plasma concentrations of glucose, insulin, triglycerides, and leptin were measured. Minimal model analysis of a frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test was used to evaluate insulin sensitivity, glucose effectiveness, acute insulin response to glucose, and disposition index. Without affecting BW and BCS, dietary supplementation with scFOS increased (P < 0.05) insulin sensitivity and reduced (P < 0.05) acute insulin response to glucose in comparison with maltodextrin but did not alter (P > 0.05) glucose effectiveness and disposition index. Resting serum insulin concentration also was reduced (P < 0.05) by scFOS supplementation but not by maltodextrin (P > 0.05). There was no effect (P > 0.05) of scFOS supplementation on plasma glucose or serum triglyceride and leptin concentrations. This study demonstrated that scFOS can moderately improve insulin sensitivity of obese horses, a finding that has potential relevance to the dietary management of obese, insulin-resistant horses at increased risk for laminitis.

  20. Knowledge, Attitude and Practices Related to Dietary Supplements and Micronutrients in Health Sciences Students

    PubMed Central

    Adiga, Shalini; M, Ashok

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Little is known about supplement users and their dietary behavior in India. This study was conducted with the following objectives: 1. To determine the usage of dietary supplements in health sciences students. 2. To determine their knowledge, attitudes and beliefs regarding micronutrients. Materials and Methods: Cross-sectional, questionnaire based study conducted at a University in south India, which included second year students pursuing medical, dental and nursing courses. Data was analysed using SPSS version 19. Results: The commonest reasons for consuming supplements were to maintain good health (136, 40.1%) and ensure adequate nutrition (125, 36.9%). The respondents’ opinions about dietary supplements were generally between ‘unsure’ and ‘agree’. Medical students scored the highest percentage (44.84%) in their knowledge about micronutrients as compared to nursing (43.17%) and dental (37.8%). There was a significant difference between the scores of medical and dental students (p=0.005) while the scoring of students of medical and nursing did not vary significantly. There was no significant difference between the scoring percentage of males and females in medical and dental groups while in the nursing group female students scored a better percentage as compared to males (p=0.036). Conclusion: Although, the usage of dietary supplements in health sciences students is high, there is a dearth of knowledge, especially regarding role of micronutrients in health and disease. Hence, it is crucial this information must be highlighted in the health sciences curriculum with the objective of producing well-informed professionals who can later on have a positive impact on the health of society. PMID:25302213

  1. The type, amount, frequency and timing of dietary supplement use by elite players in the First Spanish Basketball League.

    PubMed

    Schröder, H; Navarro, E; Mora, J; Seco, J; Torregrosa, J M; Tramullas, A

    2002-04-01

    The aims of this study were to determine the type, frequency and amount of dietary supplement consumption among a group of professional basketball players. The type, amount and specific timing of supplement use were recorded by 55 professional basketball players from seven different teams of the First Spanish Basketball League. Most participants (58%) consumed dietary supplements. Multivitamins and vitamins were the most frequently used supplements among the athletes (50.9%), followed by sport drinks (21.8%), miscellaneous supplements (21.8%), amino acids (14.5%), proteins (12.7%) and carbohydrates (12.7%). The average daily dietary supplement was one capsule of multivitamins, one capsule of antioxidant vitamins, 0.2-1.0 g vitamin C, 10.3 g protein, 1.9 g amino acids, 16.2 g carbohydrates and 377 ml of a commercial sport drink. Although the proportion of participants who consumed dietary supplements before, during and immediately after exercise was 25.4%, 16.3% and 7.3% respectively, only a few consumed a potentially ergogenic supplement at these times. It would appear unlikely that the type or amount of dietary supplements consumed had a beneficial effect on the physical performance of these professional basketball players, with the possible exception of antioxidant vitamins and the commercial sport drinks.

  2. Effect of dietary supplementation on resistance to experimental infection with Haemonchus contortus in Creole kids.

    PubMed

    Bambou, J C; Archimède, H; Arquet, R; Mahieu, M; Alexandre, G; González-Garcia, E; Mandonnet, N

    2011-06-10

    The aim of the present study was to test the effect of dietary supplementation on resistance to experimental infection with Haemonchus contortus in Creole kids. One trial with three replicates involved a total of 154 female kids that were chosen from three successive cohorts of the Creole flock of INRA-Gardel in 2007. The kids were placed into four treatments according to the amount of concentrate they received: G0 (no concentrate and a quality Dichantium spp. hay ad libitum, HAY), G1 (HAY+100g commercial concentrate d(-1)), G2 (HAY+200 g commercial concentrate d(-1)), G3 (HAY+300 g commercial concentrate d(-1)). The G0-G3 groups were infected with a single dose of 10,000 H. contortus third stage larvae (L(3)) at Day 0 (D0). Each infected group was comprised of one half resistant and one half susceptible genetically indexed kids. The average breeding values on egg excretion at 11 months of age were distant of 0.70, 0.65, 0.61 and 0.61 genetic standard deviations in G0, G1, G2 and G3, respectively. The faecal egg count (FEC), packed cell volume (PCV), eosinophilia (EOSI) and dry matter intake (DMI) indices were monitored weekly until 42 days post-infection. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was carried out on serum samples to determine the level of IgA anti-H. contortus L(3) crude extracts and adult excretion/secretion products (ESP). The 10,000 L(3) dose received by the kids induced a severe infection: 8000 eggs per gram at the FEC peak, a PCV less than 15% and mortality. Interestingly, the supplemented animals in G3 showed a higher level of EOSI but a lower level of IgA anti-L3 and IgA anti-ESP than non-supplemented animals (G0). Resistant and susceptible kids had significantly different FEC variations within the groups. Susceptible kids had a 1.6 times higher egg output than resistant kids in G0. This difference was not found in the supplemented groups. The results of this study showed that supplementary feeding improved resistance of Creole kids to H. contortus

  3. Dietary supplementation of yucca (Yucca schidigera) affects ovine ovarian functions.

    PubMed

    Vlčková, Radoslava; Sopková, Drahomíra; Andrejčáková, Zuzana; Valocký, Igor; Kádasi, Attila; Harrath, Abdel Halim; Petrilla, Vladimír; Sirotkin, Alexander V

    2017-01-15

    Yucca (Yucca schidigera) is a popular medicinal plant due to its many positive effects on animal and human physiology, including their reproductive systems. To examine the effect of supplemental yucca feeding on sheep reproduction, including ovarian functions and their hormonal regulators, ewes were fed (or not fed, control) yucca powder (1.5 g/head/day, 30 days). Macromorphometric indexes of the oviduct, ovary, and ovarian folliculogenesis were measured. Reproductive hormone levels in the blood were measured using a radioimmunoassay. Granulosa cells were aspirated from the ovary, and their proliferation and apoptosis were detected using immunocytochemistry. To assess secretory activity and its response to gonadotropin, ovarian fragments of treated and control ewes were cultured with and without follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH; 0, 0.1, 1, 10, or 100 IU/mL), and the release of reproductive hormones into the culture medium was evaluated. Finally, to examine the direct action of yucca on the ovary, ovarian fragments from control ewes were cultured with and without yucca extract (1, 10, or 100 μg/mL), and the release of reproductive hormones was measured. Yucca supplementation significantly decreased the size of small antral follicles (2 to <5 mm in diameter), increased accumulation of the apoptosis marker bax, and decreased serum progesterone (P4) and estradiol (E2) levels. It inhibited the release of P4 (but not other hormones), to prevent the stimulatory action of FSH on P4 output and promoted insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) release by fragments cultured with FSH. However, yucca supplementation did not affect the size of larger follicles and number of follicles, volume and weight of ovaries, length and weight of oviducts, caspase 3 accumulation, cell proliferation, testosterone (T) or IGF-I serum levels, or T or E2 release by cultured ovarian fragments and their response to FSH. Yucca addition to culture medium inhibited P4 and IGF-I, but not T or E2

  4. Effects of nicotinamide on milk composition and production in dairy cows fed supplemental fat.

    PubMed

    Cervantes, A; Smith, T R; Young, J W

    1996-01-01

    Thirty-two cows, averaging 112 DIM, were assigned to four dietary treatments: 1) control, 2) Ca salts of fatty acids, 3) nicotinamide, and 4) Ca salts of fatty acids blended with nicotinamide during manufacture. Preliminary studies showed that nicotinamide survives blending with Ca salts of fatty acids during manufacture and that a blended mixture of nicotinamide and Ca salts of fatty acids gave results similar to those from nicotinamide plus Ca salts of fatty acids supplemented separately. Calcium salts of fatty acids increased milk fat percentage, decreased milk protein percentage, but had no effect on production of milk, FCM, fat, or protein. Nicotinamide increased production of milk and protein, decreased fat percentage, but had no effect on either production of FCM and protein or percentage of protein. Calcium salts of fatty acids increased NEFA in blood, and dietary nicotinamide increased concentrations of nicotinamide in blood, but glucose and BHBA in blood were unaffected by either dietary ingredient. Therefore, in these midlactation cows, the decreased milk protein percentage caused by supplemental dietary fat was prevented by nicotinamide. Supplementation with only nicotinamide increased total production of milk protein.

  5. Supplementation of banana flower powder pellet and plant oil sources on in vitro ruminal fermentation, digestibility, and methane production.

    PubMed

    Kang, Sungchhang; Wanapat, Metha; Viennasay, Bounnaxay

    2016-12-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of banana flower power pellet (BAFLOP-pellet) and plant oil source on in vitro gas production, fermentation efficiency, and methane (CH4) production. Rumen fluid was collected from two rumen-fistulated dairy steers fed on rice straw-based diet with concentrate supplement to maintain normal rumen ecology. All supplemented feed were added to respective treatments in the 30:70 roughage to concentrate-based substrate. The treatments were arranged according to a 3 × 3 factorial arrangement in a completely randomized design. First factor was different levels of BAFLOP-pellet supplementation (0, 30, and 60 g/kg of dietary substrate) and second factor was plant oil source supplementation [non-supplemented, 20 g/kg krabok seed oil (KSO), and 20 g/kg coconut oil (CO) of dietary substrate, respectively]. Under this investigation, BAFLOP-pellet supplementation increased gas production kinetics and in vitro digestibility (P < 0.05). Ruminal pH was dropped post incubation time in the non-supplemented group but was enhanced in BAFLOP-pellet-supplemented treatments. On the other hand, supplementation of KSO and CO depressed gas production and digestibility, but did not influence ruminal pH. In addition, protozoal population and CH4 production were decreased by BAFLOP-pellet and plant oil addition (P < 0.05). Based on this study, it could be concluded that supplementation of BAFLOP-pellet and plant oil source could enhance the in vitro fermentation efficiency while reduced protozoal population and CH4 production. It is suggested that BAFLOP-pellet (60 g/kg of dietary substrate) and KSO/CO (20 g/kg of dietary substrate) could be used to manipulate rumen fermentation characteristics fed on high-concentrate diet.

  6. Supplemental dietary leucine and the skeletal muscle anabolic response to essential amino acids.

    PubMed

    Pasiakos, Stefan M; McClung, James P

    2011-09-01

    Skeletal muscle protein synthesis (MPS) is regulated by a number of dietary factors, to include essential amino acids (EAAs). Leucine, a branched-chain amino acid, has been identified as a stimulator of MPS in many cell culture and animal studies. However, whether supplemental leucine exerts a unique stimulatory effect, as compared to other EAAs, on muscle anabolism in humans has not been clearly demonstrated. A recent study found no improvement in resting MPS in adults who consumed a 10 g EAA supplement providing added leucine (3.5 g leucine) when compared to a control 10 g EAA supplement (1.8 g leucine). These findings suggest that added leucine is unnecessary for the stimulation of MPS when sufficient EAAs are provided; however, the study of supplemental leucine during conditions such as endurance exercise, caloric deprivation, and ageing may be warranted.

  7. Determination of lycopene in dietary supplements and raw materials by high-performance liquid chromatography: collaborative study.

    PubMed

    Waysek, Edward H; Schierle, Joseph; Duesterloh, Andre; Deshpande, Jayant; Austad, John

    2010-01-01

    A collaborative study was conducted to evaluate the interlaboratory performance of an LC method for lycopene in dietary supplements and the raw materials commonly used in their manufacture. Twelve laboratories from six countries agreed to participate in the study. Results from 10 laboratories were received and are reported. Five dietary supplements, including both tablets and a softgel capsule with a lycopene content ranging from 25 microg to 25 mg per unit, and three raw materials, including gelatin-based beadlets, vegetarian beadlets, and a suspension in oil ranging from 5 to 20% lycopene, were analyzed as blind duplicates. In addition to the commercial products, two positive controls and a negative control were included in the study. For the raw materials studied, the repeatability relative standard deviations (RSDr) ranged from 1.49 to 5.13% for total lycopene, and the reproducibility relative standard deviations (RSDR) ranged from 3.84 to 9.21% with HorRat values from 1.23 to 3.24. For finished products, the RSDr ranged from 1.31 to 4.62%, RSDR from 4.28 to 10.5%, and HorRat values from 0.79 to 2.07. Corresponding values for all-trans-lycopene were significantly higher. It is recommended that the method be considered for Official First Action for all-trans- and total lycopene in finished products and raw materials.

  8. Dietary Niacin Supplementation Suppressed Hepatic Lipid Accumulation in Rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Lei; Li, Chunyan; Fu, Chunyan; Li, Fuchang

    2016-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of niacin supplementation on hepatic lipid metabolism in rabbits. Rex Rabbits (90 d, n = 32) were allocated to two equal treatment groups: Fed basal diet (control) or fed basal diet with additional 200 mg/kg niacin supplementation (niacin). The results show that niacin significantly increased the levels of plasma adiponectin, hepatic apoprotein B and hepatic leptin receptors mRNA (p<0.05), but significantly decreased the hepatic fatty acid synthase activity and adiponectin receptor 2, insulin receptor and acetyl-CoA carboxylase mRNA levels (p<0.05). Plasma insulin had a decreasing tendency in the niacin treatment group compared with control (p = 0.067). Plasma very low density lipoproteins, leptin levels and the hepatic adiponectin receptor 1 and carnitine palmitoyl transferase 1 genes expression were not significantly altered with niacin addition to the diet (p>0.05). However, niacin treatment significantly inhibited the hepatocytes lipid accumulation compared with the control group (p<0.05). In conclusion, niacin treatment can decrease hepatic fatty acids synthesis, but does not alter fatty acids oxidation and triacylglycerol export. And this whole process attenuates lipid accumulation in liver. Besides, the hormones of insulin, leptin and adiponectin are associated with the regulation of niacin in hepatic lipid metabolism in rabbits. PMID:27004817

  9. Improved performance and immunological responses as the result of dietary genistein supplementation of broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Rasouli, E; Jahanian, R

    2015-09-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the effect of supplemental genistein (an isoflavonoid) on performance, lymphoid organs' development, and cellular and humoral immune responses in broiler chicks. A total of 675-day-old male broiler chicks (Ross 308) were randomly assigned to the five replicate pens (15 chicks each) of nine experimental diets. Dietary treatments included a negative (not-supplemented) control diet, two positive control groups (virginiamycin or zinc-bacitracin, 20 mg/kg), and diets containing 10, 20, 40, 80, 160 and 320 mg/kg of genistein. The cutaneous basophil hypersensivity (CBH) test was measured at day 10 of age after toe web injection with phytohemagglutinin-P. In addition, sera samples were collected after different antigen inoculations to investigate antibody responses. At day 28 of age, three randomly selected birds from each pen were euthanized to evaluate the relative weights of lymphoid organs. Results showed that dietary supplementation of both antibiotics increased (P<0.01) feed intake during 1 to 42 days of age. Furthermore, daily weight gain was influenced (P<0.01) by dietary treatments throughout the trial, so that the birds fed on antibiotics and 20 to 80 mg/kg genistein diets revealed the greater weight gains compared with other experimental groups. The best (P<0.05) feed conversion ratio assigned to the birds fed on diets containing antibiotics and moderate levels (40 to 80 mg/kg) of genistein. Although the relative weights of thymus (P<0.05) and bursa of Fabricius (P<0.01) were greater in birds fed on genistein-supplemented diets compared with antibiotics-supplemented birds, the spleen weight was not affected by experimental diets. Similarly, CBH response and antibody titers against Newcastle and infectious bronchitis disease viruses were markedly (P<0.05) greater in chicks fed on diets supplemented with 20 to 80 mg/kg of genistein. Interestingly, the higher dosages of genistein suppressed CBH and antibody responses to the

  10. Dietary chromium methionine supplementation could alleviate immunosuppressive effects of heat stress in broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Jahanian, R; Rasouli, E

    2015-07-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary supplementation of chromium methionine (CrMet) on performance, immune responses, and stress status of broiler chicks subjected to heat-stress conditions. A total of 450 day-old Ross 308 broiler chicks were randomly distributed between 5 replicate pens (15 birds each) of 6 experimental treatments according to a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement of treatments including 2 temperature conditions (thermoneutral and heat stress) and 3 supplemental Cr levels (0, 500, and 1,000 μg/kg as CrMet). For induction of heat stress, the house temperature was set at 35 ± 2°C from 15 to 42 d of age. Results showed that the chicks subjected to heat-stress condition had lower (P < 0.01) feed intake, BW gain, and deteriorated (P < 0.05) feed conversion values compared with those kept in the thermoneutral house. Dietary supplementation with CrMet increased (P < 0.01) feed intake and improved (P < 0.01) weight gain and feed efficiency. There were significant Cr level × temperature interactions, so that inclusion of CrMet into the diets was more effective in heat-stressed chicks. Exposure to heat stress suppressed (P < 0.01) cutaneous hypersensivity response to phytohemagglutinin-P injection at 30 d of age, and dietary supplementation of 500 μg Cr/kg induced (P < 0.05) this response, with the greater impacts in heat-stressed chicks, resulting in a significant (P < 0.01) Cr × temperature interaction. Antibody responses against Newcastle and infectious bronchitis disease viruses were diminished (P < 0.01) in heat-stressed chicks. Dietary inclusion of CrMet improved (P < 0.05) antibody responses to different immunostimulants, and this effect was more pronounced in heat-stressed chicks. Exposure to heat stress caused a significant (P < 0.05) decrease in the proportion of helper (CD4+) T lymphocytes and increased cytotoxic (CD8+) T lymphocytes, resulting in a decreased (P < 0.01) CD4+ to CD8+ ratio in peripheral blood

  11. An examination of structure-function claims in dietary supplement advertising in the U.S.: 2003-2009.

    PubMed

    Avery, Rosemary J; Eisenberg, Matthew D; Cantor, Jonathan H

    2017-04-01

    Dietary supplement advertising cannot claim a causal link between the product and the treatment, prevention, or cure of a disease unless manufacturers seek approval from the FDA for a health claim. Manufacturers can make structure-function (S-F) claims without FDA approval linking a supplement to a body function or system using words such as "may help" or "promotes." These S-F claims are examined in this study in order to determine whether they mimic health claims for which the FDA requires stricter scientific evidence. Data include S-F claims in supplement advertisements (N=6179) appearing in US nationally circulated magazines (N=137) from 2003 to 2009. All advertisements were comprehensively coded for S-F claims, seals of approval, and other claims of guarantee. S-F claims associate supplements with a wide variety of health conditions, many of which are serious diseases and/or ailments. A significant number of the specific verbs used in these S-F claims are indicative of disease treatment/cure effects, thereby possibly mimicking health claims to the average consumer. The strength of the clinical associations made are largely unsubstantiated in the medical literature. Claims that a product is "scientifically proven" or "guaranteed" were largely unsubstantiated by clinical literature. Ads carrying externally validating seals of approval were highly prevalent. S-F claims that strongly mimic FDA-prohibited health claims are likely to create confusion in interpretation and possible public health concerns are discussed.

  12. Chronic Oral L-Carnitine Supplementation Drives Marked Plasma TMAO Elevations in Patients with Organic Acidemias Despite Dietary Meat Restrictions.

    PubMed

    Miller, Marcus J; Bostwick, Bret L; Kennedy, Adam D; Donti, Taraka R; Sun, Qin; Sutton, V Reid; Elsea, Sarah H

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have implicated trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) in atherosclerosis, raising concern about L-carnitine, a common supplement for patients with inborn errors of metabolism (IEMs) and a TMAO precursor metabolized, in part, by intestinal microbes. Dietary meat restriction attenuates carnitine-to-TMAO conversion, suggesting that TMAO production may not occur in meat-restricted individuals taking supplemental L-carnitine, but this has not been tested. Here, we mine a metabolomic dataset to assess TMAO levels in patients with diverse IEMs, including organic acidemias. These data were correlated with clinical information and confirmed using a quantitative TMAO assay. Marked plasma TMAO elevations were detected in patients treated with supplemental L-carnitine, including those on a meat-free diet. On average, patients with an organic acidemia had ~45-fold elevated [TMAO], as compared to the reference population. This effect was mitigated by metronidazole therapy lasting 7 days each month. Collectively, our data show that TMAO production occurs at high levels in patients with IEMs receiving oral L-carnitine. Further studies are needed to determine the long-term safety and efficacy of chronic oral L-carnitine supplementation and whether suppression or circumvention of intestinal bacteria may improve L-carnitine therapy.

  13. Pharmaceutical quantities of yohimbine found in dietary supplements in the USA.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Pieter A; Wang, Yan-Hong; Maller, Gregory; DeSouza, Renan; Khan, Ikhlas A

    2016-01-01

    In the USA, botanical dietary supplements are presumed to be safe, but this is not necessarily always the case. Extracts of the evergreen tree yohimbe, Pausinystalia johimbe, though banned in many countries, are sold in hundreds of dietary supplements in the USA. We analyzed 49 brands of supplements labelled as containing yohimbe or yohimbine available for sale from seven major retailers in the USA. Supplements were analyzed using ultra high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to photodiode and quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry detectors for quantity of three alkaloids found in P. johimbe (yohimbine, rauwolscine, and corynanthine). The alkaloids were confirmed on the basis of retention time, ultraviolet spectra, and mass spectra against reference standards. The quantity of the most active alkaloid, yohimbine, per recommended serving ranged from none detected to 12.1 mg. Thirty-nine percent of the supplements (19/49) did not contain rauwolscine and corynanthine suggesting that the yohimbine was either from highly processed plant extract or synthetic in origin. Only 11 supplement brands (22%, 11/49) listed a specific quantity of yohimbine on the label. Most of these were inaccurately labelled (actual content ranged from 23% to 147% of the content on the label). Eighteen percent (9/49) of the supplements' labels did not provide any information about yohimbine's adverse effects. Of the 49 yohimbine supplement brands sold at seven major retail chains in the USA, only 4.1% (2/49) provided consumers with both accurate information about the quantity of yohimbine as well as information about yohimbine's known adverse effects. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Dietary Supplement Enriched in Antioxidants and Omega-3 Protects from Progressive Light-Induced Retinal Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Ramchani-Ben Othman, Khaoula; Cercy, Christine; Amri, Mohamed; Doly, Michel; Ranchon-Cole, Isabelle

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, we have evaluated one of the dietary supplements enriched with antioxidants and fish oil used in clinical care for patient with age-related macular degeneration. Rats were orally fed by a gastric canula daily with 0.2 ml of water or dietary supplement until they were sacrificed. After one week of treatment, animals were either sacrificed for lipid analysis in plasma and retina, or used for evaluation of rod-response recovery by electroretinography (ERG) followed by their sacrifice to measure rhodopsin content, or used for progressive light-induced retinal degeneration (PLIRD). For PLIRD, animals were transferred to bright cyclic light for one week. Retinal damage was quantified by ERG, histology and detection of apoptotic nuclei. Animals kept in dim-cyclic-light were processed in parallel. PLIRD induced a thinning of the outer nuclear layer and a reduction of the b-wave amplitude of the ERG in the water group. Retinal structure and function were preserved in supplemented animals. Supplement induced a significant increase in omega-3 fatty acids in plasma by 168% for eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), 142% for docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) and 19% for docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and a decrease in the omega-6 fatty acids, DPA by 28%. In the retina, supplement induced significant reduction of linolenic acid by 67% and an increase in EPA and DPA by 80% and 72%, respectively, associated with significant decrease in omega-6 DPA by 42%. Supplement did not affect rhodopsin content or rod-response recovery. The present data indicate that supplement rapidly modified the fatty acid content and induced an accumulation of EPA in the retina without affecting rhodopsin content or recovery. In addition, it protected the retina from oxidative stress induced by light. Therefore, this supplement might be beneficial to slow down progression of certain retinal degeneration. PMID:26042773

  15. STEMI in a 24-Year-Old Man after Use of a Synephrine-Containing Dietary Supplement

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, John E.; Munir, Jamalah A.; McIntyre, Peter Z.; Ferguson, Michael A.

    2009-01-01

    Billions of dollars are spent annually in the United States in the largely unregulated market of dietary supplements. Many of these supplements are marketed as weight-loss and athletic-performance-enhancement products. The association of various ephedra-containing products with adverse cardiovascular events has led to a ban on the sale of these products by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. The result has been the emergence of new formulations marketed for weight loss and athletic-performance enhancement that are “ephedra-free” but contain other sympathomimetic substances, the safety of which has not been established. We present the case of a previously healthy 24-year-old man who presented with an ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) within hours of taking the ephedra-free product Nutrex Lipo-6x®. Emergent coronary angiography revealed the presence of extensive, diffuse thrombus in the left anterior descending coronary artery. The patient had no risk factors for coronary artery disease or myocardial infarction; this includes the absence of a hypercoagulable state and the absence of a history of illicit drug use. This case of STEMI—associated as it is with the use of a synephrine-containing product by a person without risk factors for coronary artery disease—is to our knowledge the 1st reported in the literature. We discuss the patient's evaluation and clinical course, and we review the literature with respect to synephrine-containing dietary supplements. On the basis of synephrine's chemical composition and mechanism of action, we propose a direct association between this patient's use of Nutrex Lipo-6x® and his STEMI. PMID:20069086

  16. Galactoglucomannan oligosaccharide supplementation affects nutrient digestibility, fermentation end-product production, and large bowel microbiota of the dog.

    PubMed

    Faber, T A; Hopkins, A C; Middelbos, I S; Price, N P; Fahey, G C

    2011-01-01

    A galactoglucomannan oligosaccharide (GGMO) obtained from fiberboard production was evaluated as a dietary supplement for dogs. The GGMO substrate contained increased concentrations of oligosaccharides containing mannose, xylose, and glucose, with the mannose component accounting for 35% of DM. Adult dogs assigned to a 6 × 6 Latin square design were fed 6 diets, each containing a different concentration of supplemental GGMO (0, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, and 8%) that replaced dietary cellulose. Total tract DM and OM apparent digestibilities increased (P < 0.001) linearly, whereas total tract CP apparent digestibility decreased (P < 0.001) linearly as dietary GGMO substrate concentration increased. Fecal concentrations of acetate, propionate, and total short-chain fatty acids increased (P ≤ 0.001) linearly, whereas butyrate concentration decreased (P ≤ 0.001) linearly with increasing dietary concentrations of GGMO. Fecal pH decreased (P ≤ 0.001) linearly as dietary GGMO substrate concentration increased, whereas fecal score increased quadratically (P ≤ 0.001). Fecal phenol (P ≤ 0.05) and indole (P ≤ 0.01) concentrations decreased linearly with GGMO supplementation. Fecal biogenic amine concentrations were not different among treatments except for phenylethylamine, which decreased (P < 0.001) linearly as dietary GGMO substrate concentration increased. Fecal microbial concentrations of Escherichia coli, Lactobacillus spp., and Clostridium perfringens were not different among treatments. A quadratic increase (P ≤ 0.01) was noted for Bifidobacterium spp. as dietary GGMO substrate concentration increased. The data suggest positive nutritional properties of supplemental GGMO when incorporated in a good-quality dog food.

  17. Dietary glutamine supplementation improves growth performance, meat quality and colour stability of broilers under heat stress.

    PubMed

    Dai, S F; Wang, L K; Wen, A Y; Wang, L X; Jin, G M

    2009-05-01

    1. The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary glutamine (Gln) supplementation on growth performance, carcase characteristics and meat quality in broilers exposed to high ambient temperature. 2. A total of 240 35-d-old male Arbor Acres broilers were randomly assigned to 4 treatment groups (three replicates of 20 birds per cage). The broilers were kept in a temperature-controlled room at either 23 degrees C (no-stress groups, NS) or 28 degrees C (heat stress groups, HS). The broilers were fed either on a basal diet (control, NS) or on the basal diet supplemented with 0, 0.5 or 1.0% Gln (HS). 3. Compared with the NS, the HS (0% Gln) group gained less weight and consumed less feed, had lower final body weight, gain-to-feed ratio, and abdominal fat yield. Breast meat in HS (0% Gln) had lower pH, water-holding capacity (WHC), a* value, ether extract (EE) content and crude protein (CP) content, and had higher shear force (SF) and L* value. 4. Linear increase were found in groups supplemented with Gln (0, 0.5% and 1.0%) for final body weight, weight gain, feed consumption, gain-to-feed ratio and abdominal fat yield. Supplementation with Gln improved breast meat pH, WHC, SF, L* value, a* value, EE content and CP content in broilers exposed to heat stress. No significant difference was observed in all the indices determined between the HS (1% Gln) and the NS. 5. Heat stress caused obvious breast meat discoloration in L*, a* and b* values. However, dietary supplementation with Gln gave a better colour stability. 6. The results indicated that dietary supplementation with Gln may alleviate heat stress-caused deterioration in growth performance, carcase characteristics, meat quality and meat colour stability of broilers.

  18. Comparison of dietary food and nutrient intakes by supplement use in pregnant and lactating women in Seoul.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyesook; Jang, Won; Kim, Ki-Nam; Hwang, Ji-Yun; Chung, Hae-Kyung; Yang, Eun-Ju; Kim, Hye-Young; Lee, Jin-Hee; Moon, Gui-Im; Lee, Jin-Ha; Kang, Tae-Seok; Chang, Namsoo

    2013-06-01

    This study was performed to compare the dietary food and nutrient intakes according to supplement use in pregnant and lactating women in Seoul. The subjects were composed of 201 pregnant and 104 lactating women, and their dietary food intake was assessed using the 24-h recall method. General information on demographic and socioeconomic factors, as well as health-related behaviors, including the use of dietary supplements, were collected. About 88% and 60% of the pregnant and lactating women took dietary supplements, respectively. The proportion of dietary supplements used was higher in pregnant women with a higher level of education. After adjusting for potential confounders, among the pregnant women, supplement users were found to consume 45% more vegetables, and those among the lactating women were found to consume 96% more beans and 58% more vegetables. The intakes of dietary fiber and β-carotene among supplement users were higher than those of non-users, by 23% and 39%, respectively. Among pregnant women, the proportion of women with an intake of vitamin C (from diet alone) below the estimated average requirements (EAR) was lower among supplement users [users (44%) vs. non-users (68%)], and the proportion of lactating women with intakes of iron (from diet alone) below the EAR was lower among supplement users [usesr (17%) vs. non-users (38%)]. These results suggest that among pregnant and lactating women, those who do not use dietary supplements tend to have a lower intake of healthy foods, such as beans and vegetables, as well as a lower intake of dietary fiber and β-carotene, which are abundant in these foods, and non-users are more likely than users to have inadequate intake of micro-nutrient such as vitamin C and iron.

  19. Labeled Content of Two Furanocoumarins in Dietary Supplements Correlates with neither Actual Content nor CYP3A Inhibitory Activity

    PubMed Central

    VanderMolen, Karen M.; Ainslie, Garrett R.; Paine, Mary F.; Oberlies, Nicholas H.

    2014-01-01

    Dietary supplements are a multi-billion dollar business, with yearly profit increases. Allegedly safe, these supplements are marketed to a variety of niches, encompassing claims from immune support to weight loss. Six sports nutrition supplements were acquired that were labeled to contain the furanocoumarin(s) bergamottin and/or 6′,7′-dihydroxybergamottin (DHB), both of which are potent irreversible inhibitors of the prominent drug metabolizing enzyme cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A). Both furanocoumarins are typically present in grapefruit juice, which has been shown to inhibit intestinal CYP3A, perpetrating an increase in the systemic exposure of certain concomitant ‘victim’ drugs. The acquired supplements were analyzed using ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to both a photodiode array (PDA) detector and a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer (MS). Contrary to the product labeling, four of the supplements contained no detectable quantities of either furanocoumarin (LOD 0.060 μg/capsule), while two of the supplements contained minimal amounts (one contained 12.13 (± 0.23) μg bergamottin and 65.51 (± 0.64) μg DHB per capsule; the other contained 2.705 (± 0.069) μg bergamottin per capsule and no detectable quantities of DHB). A CYP3A inhibition bioassay was used to assess whether the actual content of the furanocoumarins correlated with CYP3A inhibitory activity. Despite the low amounts of bergamottin and DHB, CYP3A inhibition by the supplements was greater than could be accounted for by the two furanocoumarins. The additional activity suggests the presence of other potent or highly abundant CYP3A inhibitors. PMID:24951959

  20. Oral strategies to supplement older adults' dietary intakes: comparing the evidence.

    PubMed

    Silver, Heidi J

    2009-01-01

    Despite the current global obesity crisis, undernutrition remains prevalent among older adults worldwide. This review compares the efficacy of the main oral strategies used to increase older adults' energy and nutrient intakes, i.e., meal enhancement, multivitamin/multimineral supplementation and oral liquid nutrition supplements. Well-designed long-term investigations that are adequately powered to differentiate effects on nutritional, clinical, functional, and cost outcomes are much needed before scientific and clinical consensus can be reached on where and when to implement any strategy as the optimal choice for improving dietary intakes in a specific older adult population.

  1. Effects of dietary supplementation on autoimmunity in the MRL/lpr mouse: a preliminary investigation.

    PubMed

    Godfrey, D G; Stimson, W H; Watson, J; Belch, J F; Sturrock, R D

    1986-12-01

    The effects of dietary fatty acid supplementation on various disease parameters in the spontaneously autoimmune MRL-mp-lpr/lpr mouse model of systemic lupus erythematosus before onset of disease were investigated. A fat deficient diet was supplemented with the following oils: olive oil, sunflower oil, evening primrose oil (EPO), fish oil, and a fish oil/EPO mixture. The mice receiving a diet enriched with EPO showed an increase in survival, as did those receiving the fish oil/EPO mixture. These results, taken together with those of the other parameters monitored, suggest that EPO may be of benefit in alleviating the murine form of the disease.

  2. Effects of dietary supplementation on autoimmunity in the MRL/lpr mouse: a preliminary investigation.

    PubMed Central

    Godfrey, D G; Stimson, W H; Watson, J; Belch, J F; Sturrock, R D

    1986-01-01

    The effects of dietary fatty acid supplementation on various disease parameters in the spontaneously autoimmune MRL-mp-lpr/lpr mouse model of systemic lupus erythematosus before onset of disease were investigated. A fat deficient diet was supplemented with the following oils: olive oil, sunflower oil, evening primrose oil (EPO), fish oil, and a fish oil/EPO mixture. The mice receiving a diet enriched with EPO showed an increase in survival, as did those receiving the fish oil/EPO mixture. These results, taken together with those of the other parameters monitored, suggest that EPO may be of benefit in alleviating the murine form of the disease. PMID:3492970

  3. Molecular markers that can be utilized in diet and dietary supplement research.

    PubMed

    Moyad, Mark A; Wojno, Kirk J

    2011-08-01

    Prostate and other cancers have a multitude of potential markers that can be used in laboratory and clinical studies of diet and dietary supplement interventions. More overt clinical markers include imaging tests, biopsy samples, prostate-specific antigen kinetics, and urinary testing. Many molecular markers are currently available, including antiapoptotic and apoptotic proteins, cell adhesion molecules, cell cycle compounds, growth factors, angiogenic markers, and proliferative and inflammatory signals. Protein kinases and transcription factors should also be considered for diversity. Testing of numerous molecular markers has become critical in gaining preliminary insight into the potential impact of a novel diet and supplemental agents.

  4. Effect of dietary iodine on production of iodine enriched eggs

    PubMed Central

    Sumaiya, Shaikh; Nayak, Sunil; Baghel, R. P. S.; Nayak, Anju; Malapure, C. D.; Kumar, Rajesh

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Objective of this study was to investigate the effect of different levels of iodine supplementation on iodine content of eggs in laying hens. Materials and Methods: In the experiment, 135 laying hens (White Leghorn) of 55 weeks age were randomly distributed to 5 dietary treatments; each group contained 27 laying hens distributed in three replicates of 9 birds each. Diet T1 was control basal layer diet without iodine enrichment in which iodine content (I2) was as per NRC recommendation. Basal diets were supplemented with calcium iodate (Ca (IO3)2) at 5, 10, 15 and 20 mg/kg in T2, T3, T4 and T5 groups, respectively. The iodine content in the calcium iodate is 65.21%, therefore, the diets T2, T3, T4 and T5 contained 3.25, 6.50, 9.75 and 13.0 ppm iodine, respectively. The laying hens were fed the respective experimental diets ad libitum during the experimental period of 10-week. The iodine content of egg yolk and albumen was analyzed at the end of 5th and 10th week of the experiment. Economics of feeding for the production of iodine enriched egg was calculated at the end of the experiment. Results: Increasing iodine levels in diet of hens from 0.45 to 13.0 ppm significantly increased egg iodine concentration, the highest concentration of egg iodine was observed in the group fed diet supplemented with 13.0 ppm iodine followed by those fed 9.75, 6.50, 3.25 and 0.45 ppm iodine in diet. There was no significant difference in the iodine levels of unboiled versus boiled eggs. Therefore, the consumers are ensured to receive the optimal levels of iodine from boiled iodine-enriched eggs. Among different diets, minimum and significantly lower feeding cost (Rs. per dozen or per kg eggs) was noticed in hens allotted T3 diet (6.50 ppm I2). However, feeding cost of hens receiving 3.25 and 9.25 ppm I2 was statistically (p<0.05) similar to control group (T1). Further, it was noticed that feeding cost (Rs. per dozen or per kg eggs) was significantly increased due to the inclusion

  5. Supplemental lysine sulfate does not negatively affect performance of broiler chicks fed dietary sulfur from multiple dietary and water sources

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Commercial producers and nutritionists have questioned the performance consequences of sulfur (S) from various dietary and water sources combined in current commercial production. The combination of high S containing feed ingredients, including dried distiller’s grains with solubles (DDGS) and dieta...

  6. Comparison of methods for analysis of resveratrol in dietary vegetable supplements.

    PubMed

    Moretón-Lamas, E; Lago-Crespo, M; Lage-Yusty, M A; López-Hernández, J

    2017-06-01

    Resveratrol is a stilbene, which is one of a group of polyphenols in many plant foods. Interest in this substance lies in its potential health benefits. This study aimed to compare two different methods, chromatographic and constant-wavelength synchronous spectrofluorimetry, an alternative technique to determine the amount of resveratrol dietary supplements, as a model for more complex foods. High-performance liquid chromatography-photodyode array detector-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry was used to confirm the results. The results obtained showed that both methods were valid for the determination of resveratrol in dietary supplements. HPLC with fluorescence and variable wavelength detectors offered better linearity and sensitivity, and would be more suitable for the determination of several stilbenes in complex samples. On the other hand, constant-wavelength synchronous spectrofluorimetry is a sensitive, rapid and inexpensive method that could be used for quick and precise determination when samples are expected to contain only one stilbene.

  7. Rapid analytical method for the determination of aflatoxins in plant-derived dietary supplement and cosmetic oils.

    PubMed

    Mahoney, Noreen; Molyneux, Russell J

    2010-04-14

    Consumption of edible oils derived from conventional crop plants is increasing because they are generally regarded as healthier alternatives to animal-based fats and oils. More recently, there has been increased interest in the use of alternative specialty plant-derived oils, including those from tree nuts (almonds, pistachios, and walnuts) and botanicals (borage, evening primrose, and perilla) both for direct human consumption (e.g., as salad dressings) and for the preparation of cosmetics, soaps, and fragrance oils. This has raised the issue as to whether or not exposure to aflatoxins can result from such oils. Although most crops are subject to analysis and control, it has generally been assumed that plant oils do not retain aflatoxins due to the high polarity and lipophobicity of these compounds. There is virtually no scientific evidence to support this supposition, and available information is conflicting. To improve the safety and consistency of botanicals and dietary supplements, research is needed to establish whether or not oils used directly, or in the formulation of products, contain aflatoxins. A validated analytical method for the analysis of aflatoxins in plant-derived oils is essential to establish the safety of dietary supplements for consumption or cosmetic use that contain such oils. The aim of this research was therefore to develop an HPLC method applicable to a wide variety of oils from different plant sources spiked with aflatoxins, thereby providing a basis for a comprehensive project to establish an intra- and interlaboratory validated analytical method for the analysis of aflatoxins in dietary supplements and cosmetics formulated with plant oils.

  8. A Rapid Analytical Method for Determination of Aflatoxins in Plant-Derived Dietary Supplement and Cosmetic Oils

    PubMed Central

    Mahoney, Noreen; Molyneux, Russell J.

    2010-01-01

    Consumption of edible oils derived from conventional crop plants is increasing because they are generally regarded as more healthy alternatives to animal based fats and oils. More recently there has been increased interest in the use of alternative specialty plant-derived oils, including those from tree nuts (almonds, pistachios and walnuts) and botanicals (borage, evening primrose and perilla) both for direct human consumption (e.g. as salad dressings) but also for preparation of cosmetics, soaps, and fragrance oils. This has raised the issue as to whether or not exposure to aflatoxins can result from such oils. Although most crops are subject to analysis and control, it has generally been assumed that plant oils do not retain aflatoxins due to their high polarity and lipophobicity of these compounds. There is virtually no scientific evidence to support this supposition and available information is conflicting. To improve the safety and consistency of botanicals and dietary supplements, research is needed to establish whether or not oils used directly, or in the formulation of products, contain aflatoxins. A validated analytical method for the analysis of aflatoxins in plant-derived oils is essential, in order to establish the safety of dietary supplements for consumption or cosmetic use that contain such oils. The aim of this research was therefore to develop an HPLC method applicable to a wide variety of oils from different plant sources spiked with aflatoxins, thereby providing a basis for a comprehensive project to establish an intra- and inter-laboratory validated analytical method for analysis of aflatoxins in dietary supplements and cosmetics formulated with plant oils. PMID:20235534

  9. Leveraging corporate social responsibility to improve consumer safety of dietary supplements sold for weight loss and muscle building.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, Anvita; Huerto, Ryan; Roberto, Christina A; Austin, S Bryn

    2017-03-01

    The potential dangers associated with dietary supplements sold for weight loss and muscle building are well documented and increasingly garnering the attention of the media, public, and government leaders. Public health professionals have an opportunity to improve population health in the context of dietary supplement use by translating scientific evidence into action. In this commentary, we discuss the potential to motivate corporate social responsibility (CSR) among manufacturers and retailers of dietary supplements sold for weight loss and muscle building. We examine levers available to public health professionals for generating voluntary corporate self-regulation by reviewing examples from successful CSR initiatives in other domains of public health and offering recommendations highlighting effective advocacy strategies. We encourage public health professionals to use one or multiple advocacy strategies to improve consumer protections for dietary supplements sold for weight loss and muscle building.

  10. The Role of Adverse Event Reporting in the FDA Response to a Multistate Outbreak of Liver Disease Associated with a Dietary Supplement

    PubMed Central

    DeBeck, Heidi J.; LeBlanc, Pamela; Mogen, Kathryn M.; Wolpert, Beverly J.; Sabo, Jonathan L.; Salter, Monique; Seelman, Sharon L.; Lance, Susan E.; Monahan, Caitlin; Steigman, David S.; Gensheimer, Kathleen

    2015-01-01

    Objective Liver disease is a potential complication from using dietary supplements. This study investigated an outbreak of non-viral liver disease associated with the use of OxyELITE ProTM, a dietary supplement used for weight loss and/or muscle building. Methods Illness details were ascertained from MedWatch reports submitted to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) describing consumers who ingested OxyELITE Pro alone or in combination with other dietary supplements. FDA's Forensic Chemistry Center analyzed samples of OxyELITE Pro. Results From February 2012 to February 2014, FDA received 114 reports of adverse events of all kinds involving consumers who ingested OxyELITE Pro. The onset of illness for the first report was December 2010 and for the last report was January 2014. Thirty-three states, two foreign nations, and Puerto Rico submitted reports. Fifty-five of the reports (48%) described liver disease in the absence of viral infection, gallbladder disease, autoimmune disease, or other known causes of liver damage. A total of 33 (60%) of these patients were hospitalized, and three underwent liver transplantation. In early 2013, OxyELITE Pro products entered the market with a formulation distinct from products sold previously. The new formulation replaced 1,3-dimethylamylamine with aegeline. However, the manufacturer failed to submit to FDA a required “new dietary ingredient” notice for the use of aegeline in OxyELITE Pro products. Laboratory analysis identified no drugs, poisons, pharmaceuticals, toxic metals, usnic acid, N-Nitroso-fenfluramine, pyrrolizidine alkaloids, aristocholic acid, or phenethylamines in the products. Conclusions Vigilant surveillance is required for adverse events linked to the use of dietary supplements. PMID:26327730

  11. Biphasic modulation of atherosclerosis induced by graded dietary copper supplementation in the cholesterol-fed rabbit.

    PubMed

    Lamb, D J; Avades, T Y; Ferns, G A

    2001-10-01

    There has been considerable debate about how copper status may affect the biochemical and cellular processes associated with atherogenesis. We have investigated the effects of graded dietary copper supplementation on processes likely to contribute to atherogenesis, using the cholesterol-fed New Zealand White rabbit model. Rabbits (n = 40) were fed a 0.25-1% cholesterol diet deficient in copper. Animals received either 0, 1, 3 or 20 mg copper/day and were killed after 13 weeks. Plasma cholesterol levels were similar in each dietary group. Aortic concentrations of copper were higher in the 20 mg copper/day animals compared to those receiving 0 mg copper/day (3.70 +/- 0.78 vs. 1.33 +/- 0.46 microg/g wet tissue; P < 0.05). Aortic superoxide dismutase activity was higher in animals receiving 20 mg copper/day (323 +/- 21 IU/mg tissue) compared to the other groups (187 +/- 21; 239 +/- 53; 201 +/- 33 IU/mg tissue) (P > 0.05). En face staining of aortae with oil red O showed that both high copper supplementation (20 mg/day) (67.1 +/- 5.5%) and a deficient diet (0 mg/day) (63.1 +/- 4.8%) was associated with significantly larger lesions (P < 0.05) compared to moderately supplemented animals (1 mg/day and 3 mg/day) (51.3 +/- 6.3 and 42.8 +/- 7.9%). These data indicate that in the cholesterol-fed rabbit, there is an optimal dietary copper intake and that dietary copper deficiency or excess are associated with an increased susceptibility to aortic atherosclerosis. Many Western diets contain insufficient copper and these findings indicate that a moderate dietary copper content may confer a degree of cardiac protection to the human population.

  12. Dietary Intakes and Supplement Use in Pre-Adolescent and Adolescent Canadian Athletes.

    PubMed

    Parnell, Jill A; Wiens, Kristin P; Erdman, Kelly A

    2016-08-26

    Young athletes experience numerous dietary challenges including growth, training/competition, unhealthy food environments, and travel. The objective was to determine nutrient intakes and supplement use in pre-adolescent and adolescent Canadian athletes. Athletes (n = 187) aged 11-18 years completed an on-line 24-h food recall and dietary supplement questionnaire. Median energy intake (interquartile range) varied from 2159 kcal/day (1717-2437) in 11-13 years old females to 2905 kcal/day (2291-3483) in 14-18 years old males. Carbohydrate and protein intakes were 8.1 (6.1-10.5); 2.4 (1.6-3.4) in males 11-13 years, 5.7 (4.5-7.9); 2.0 (1.4-2.6) in females 11-13 years, 5.3 (4.3-7.4); 2.0 (1.5-2.4) in males 14-18 y and 4.9 (4.4-6.2); 1.7 (1.3-2.0) in females 14-18 years g/kg of body weight respectively. Median vitamin D intakes were below the recommended dietary allowance (RDA) and potassium was below the adequate intake (AI) for all athlete groups. Females 14-18 years had intakes below the RDA for iron 91% (72-112), folate 89% (61-114) and calcium 84% (48-106). Multivitamin-multiminerals, vitamin C, vitamin D, vitamin-enriched water, protein powder, sport foods, fatty acids, probiotics, and plant extracts were popular supplements. Canadian pre-adolescent and adolescent athletes could improve their dietary intakes by focusing on food sources of calcium, vitamin D, potassium, iron, and folate. With the exceptions of vitamin D and carbohydrates during long exercise sessions, supplementation is generally unnecessary.

  13. Dietary Intakes and Supplement Use in Pre-Adolescent and Adolescent Canadian Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Parnell, Jill A.; Wiens, Kristin P.; Erdman, Kelly A.

    2016-01-01

    Young athletes experience numerous dietary challenges including growth, training/competition, unhealthy food environments, and travel. The objective was to determine nutrient intakes and supplement use in pre-adolescent and adolescent Canadian athletes. Athletes (n = 187) aged 11–18 years completed an on-line 24-h food recall and dietary supplement questionnaire. Median energy intake (interquartile range) varied from 2159 kcal/day (1717–2437) in 11–13 years old females to 2905 kcal/day (2291–3483) in 14–18 years old males. Carbohydrate and protein intakes were 8.1 (6.1–10.5); 2.4 (1.6–3.4) in males 11–13 years, 5.7 (4.5–7.9); 2.0 (1.4–2.6) in females 11–13 years, 5.3 (4.3–7.4); 2.0 (1.5–2.4) in males 14–18 y and 4.9 (4.4–6.2); 1.7 (1.3–2.0) in females 14–18 years g/kg of body weight respectively. Median vitamin D intakes were below the recommended dietary allowance (RDA) and potassium was below the adequate intake (AI) for all athlete groups. Females 14–18 years had intakes below the RDA for iron 91% (72–112), folate 89% (61–114) and calcium 84% (48–106). Multivitamin-multiminerals, vitamin C, vitamin D, vitamin-enriched water, protein powder, sport foods, fatty acids, probiotics, and plant extracts were popular supplements. Canadian pre-adolescent and adolescent athletes could improve their dietary intakes by focusing on food sources of calcium, vitamin D, potassium, iron, and folate. With the exceptions of vitamin D and carbohydrates during long exercise sessions, supplementation is generally unnecessary. PMID:27571101

  14. Americans’ Use of Dietary Supplements That Are Potentially Harmful in CKD

    PubMed Central

    Grubbs, Vanessa; Plantinga, Laura C.; Tuot, Delphine S.; Hedgeman, Elizabeth; Saran, Rajiv; Saydah, Sharon; Rolka, Deborah; Powe, Neil R.

    2013-01-01

    Background The prevalence in the United States of dietary supplement use that may be harmful to those with chronic kidney disease (CKD) is unknown. We sought to characterize potentially harmful supplement use by individual CKD status. Study Design Cross-sectional national survey (National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999-2008) Setting & Participants Community-based survey of 21,169 non-pregnant, non-institutionalized U.S. civilian adults (≥20 years) Predictor CKD status (no CKD, at risk for CKD [presence of diabetes, hypertension and/or cardiovascular disease], stage 1/2 [albuminuria only (albumin-creatinine ratio ≥30 mg/g)], or stage 3/4 [estimated glomerular filtration rate of 15-59 ml/min/1.73 m2]). Outcome Self-reported use of dietary supplements containing any of 37 herbs the National Kidney Foundation identified as potentially harmful in the setting of CKD. Measurements Albuminuria and estimated glomerular filtration rate assessed from urine and blood samples; demographics and comorbid conditions assessed by standardized questionnaire. Results An estimated 8.0% of U.S. adults reported potentially harmful supplement use within the last 30 days. Lower crude estimated prevalence of potentially harmful supplement use was associated with higher CKD severity (no CKD, 8.5%; at risk, 8.0%; stage 1/2, 6.1%; and stage 3/4, 6.2%; p<0.001). However, after adjustment for confounders, those with or at risk for CKD were as likely to use a potentially harmful supplement as those without CKD: at-risk OR, 0.93 (95% CI, 0.79 -1.09); stage 1/2 OR, 0.83 (95% CI, 0.64 -1.08); stage 3/4 OR, 0.87 (95% CI, 0.63 -1.18); all vs. no CKD. Limitations Herb content was not available and the list of potentially harmful supplements examined is unlikely to be exhaustive. Conclusions The use of dietary supplements potentially harmful to people with CKD is common, regardless of CKD status. Healthcare providers should discuss the use and potential risks of supplements with

  15. May Diet and Dietary Supplements Improve the Wellness of Multiple Sclerosis Patients? A Molecular Approach

    PubMed Central

    Riccio, Paolo; Rossano, Rocco; Liuzzi, Grazia Maria

    2010-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis is a complex and multifactorial neurological disease, and nutrition is one of the environmental factors possibly involved in its pathogenesis. At present, the role of nutrition is unclear, and MS therapy is not associated to a particular diet. MS clinical trials based on specific diets or dietary supplements are very few and in some cases controversial. To understand how diet can influence the course of MS and improve the wellness of MS patients, it is necessary to identify the dietary molecules, their targets and the molecular mechanisms involved in the control of the disease. The aim of this paper is to provide a molecular basis for the nutritional intervention in MS by evaluating at molecular level the effect of dietary molecules on the inflammatory and autoimmune processes involved in the disease. PMID:21461338

  16. Reproductive performance of sows supplemented with dietary L-carnitine over three reproductive cycles.

    PubMed

    Ramanau, A; Kluge, H; Spilke, J; Eder, K

    2002-08-01

    The effect of L-carnitine supplementation during pregnancy and lactation on the reproductive performance of sows was studied in two separate trials over three reproductive cycles. Both trials were identical in design and conduct but were performed with different animals. The trials comprised of a total of 127 sows (trial 1) and 100 sows (trial 2) which were divided into control and treatment groups. All animals were fed individually and received basic feed mixtures with low native carnitine concentrations. The rations of the sows in the treated group were supplemented with 125 mg L-carnitine per head and day during pregnancy and 250 mg L-carnitine per head and day during lactation. The animals of the control group received identical feed mixtures in identical amounts, but without the L-carnitine supplement. In the first trial, 212 litters were produced and evaluated for number and body weight of the animals, in the second trial, 173 litters were produced. L-carnitine supplementation significantly increased body weight gains of the sows between day 1 and day 85 of weaning. The number of born piglets, stillborn piglets and piglets fit for rearing was not influenced by dietary L-carnitine supplementation. However, L-carnitine supplementation significantly increased the weights of piglets and litters at birth, weight gains of litters during suckling and weights of litters at weaning. These effects of L-carnitine were seen in both trials; they were independent of the age of the sows and remained over three reproductive cycles in which the sows where continuously treated with L-carnitine. Overall, the study shows that dietary supplementation with L-carnitine during pregnancy and lactation improves the reproductive performance of sows over several reproductive cycles, independent of the age of the sows.

  17. Components of an Anticancer Diet: Dietary Recommendations, Restrictions and Supplements of the Bill Henderson Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Mannion, Cynthia; Page, Stacey; Bell, Laurie Heilman; Verhoef, Marja

    2010-01-01

    The use of complementary and alternative medicines including dietary supplements, herbals and special diets to prevent or treat disease continues to be popular. The following paper provides a description of an alternative dietary approach to the self-management and treatment of cancer, the Bill Henderson Protocol (BHP). This diet encourages daily intake of raw foods, a combination of cottage cheese and flaxseed oil and a number of supplements. Some foods and food groups are restricted (e.g., gluten, meat, dairy). Early background theory that contributed to the protocol’s development is presented as is a summary of relevant evidence concerning the anti-cancer fighting properties of the individual components. Supplement intake is considered in relation to daily recommended intakes. Challenges and risks to protocol adherence are discussed. As with many complementary and alternative interventions, clear evidence of this dietary protocol’s safety and efficacy is lacking. Consumers of this protocol may require guidance on the ability of this protocol to meet their individual nutritional needs. PMID:22254073

  18. Benefits of dietary phytochemical supplementation on eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage: Is including antioxidants enough?

    PubMed

    Pereira Panza, Vilma Simões; Diefenthaeler, Fernando; da Silva, Edson Luiz

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this review was to critically discuss studies that investigated the effects of supplementation with dietary antioxidant phytochemicals on recovery from eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage. The performance of physical activities that involve unaccustomed eccentric muscle actions-such as lowering a weight or downhill walking-can result in muscle damage, oxidative stress, and inflammation. These events may be accompanied by muscle weakness and delayed-onset muscle soreness. According to the current evidences, supplementation with dietary antioxidant phytochemicals appears to have the potential to attenuate symptoms associated with eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage. However, there are inconsistencies regarding the relationship between muscle damage and blood markers of oxidative stress and inflammation. Furthermore, the effectiveness of strategies appear to depend on a number of aspects inherent to phytochemical compounds as well as its food matrix. Methodological issues also may interfere with the proper interpretation of supplementation effects. Thus, the study may contribute to updating professionals involved in sport nutrition as well as highlighting the interest of scientists in new perspectives that can widen dietary strategies applied to training.

  19. Non-scientific classification of Chinese herbal medicine as dietary supplement.

    PubMed

    Bao, Kexin

    2017-03-01

    This article focuses the category status of Chinese herbal medicine in the United States where it has been mistakenly classifified as a dietary supplement. According to Yellow Emperor Canon of Internal Medicine (Huang Di Nei Jing), clinical treatment in broad sense is to apply certain poisonous medicines to fight against pathogeneses, by which all medicines have certain toxicity and side effect. From ancient times to modern society, all, or at least most, practitioners have used herbal medicine to treat patients' medical conditions. The educational curriculums in Chinese medicine (CM) comprise the courses of herbal medicine (herbology) and herbal formulae. The objective of these courses is to teach students to use herbal medicine or formulae to treat disease as materia medica. In contrast, dietary supplements are preparations intended to provide nutrients that are missing or are not consumed in suffificient quantity in a person's diet. In contrast, Chinese herbs can be toxic, which have been proven through laboratory research. Both clinical practice and research have demonstrated that Chinese herbal medicine is a special type of natural materia medica, not a dietary supplement.

  20. Position of the American Dietetic Association: food fortification and dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    2001-01-01

    Wise food choices provide the necessary foundation for optimal nutrition. Science has not fully identified the specific chemical components that account for the benefits of healthy eating patterns. Selection of a variety of foods, using tools such as the USDA/HHS Dietary Guidelines for Americans and the USDA Food Guide Pyramid, is the best way to provide a desirable balance, without excessive intakes of macronutrients, micronutrients and other beneficial components of foods. Nevertheless, for certain nutrients and some individuals, fortification, supplementation, or both may also be desirable. Nutrient intakes from all these sources should be considered in dietary assessments, planning and recommendations. The recommendations of the National Academy of Sciences' Food and Nutrition Board provide a sound scientific basis for vitamin and mineral intakes. Intakes exceeding those recommendations have no demonstrated benefit for the normal, healthy population. Dietetics professionals should base recommendations for use of fortified foods or supplements on individualized assessment and sound scientific evidence of efficacy and safety. It is the position of the American Dietetic Association that the best nutritional strategy for promoting optimal health and reducing the risk of chronic disease is to wisely choose a wide variety of foods. Additional vitamins and minerals from fortified foods and/or supplements can help some people meet their nutritional needs as specified by science-based nutrition standards such as the Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI).

  1. Effects of Flavonoids from Food and Dietary Supplements on Glial and Glioblastoma Multiforme Cells.

    PubMed

    Vidak, Marko; Rozman, Damjana; Komel, Radovan

    2015-10-23

    Quercetin, catechins and proanthocyanidins are flavonoids that are prominently featured in foodstuffs and dietary supplements, and may possess anti-carcinogenic activity. Glioblastoma multiforme is the most dangerous form of glioma, a malignancy of the brain connective tissue. This review assesses molecular structures of these flavonoids, their importance as components of diet and dietary supplements, their bioavailability and ability to cross the blood-brain barrier, their reported beneficial health effects, and their effects on non-malignant glial as well as glioblastoma tumor cells. The reviewed flavonoids appear to protect glial cells via reduction of oxidative stress, while some also attenuate glutamate-induced excitotoxicity and reduce neuroinflammation. Most of the reviewed flavonoids inhibit proliferation of glioblastoma cells and induce their death. Moreover, some of them inhibit pro-oncogene signaling pathways and intensify the effect of conventional anti-cancer therapies. However, most of these anti-glioblastoma effects have only been observed in vitro or in animal models. Due to limited ability of the reviewed flavonoids to access the brain, their normal dietary intake is likely insufficient to produce significant anti-cancer effects in this organ, and supplementation is needed.

  2. High amounts of 17-methylated anabolic-androgenic steroids in effervescent tablets on the dietary supplement market.

    PubMed

    Parr, Maria K; Geyer, Hans; Hoffmann, Bernhard; Köhler, Karsten; Mareck, Ute; Schänzer, Wilhelm

    2007-02-01

    In numerous studies it has been demonstrated that several nutritional supplements contain prohormones not declared on the label. In the current study two products (effervescent tablets) containing high amounts of the 17-methylated anabolic androgenic steroids metandienone (product 1: 16.8 mg/tablet) and stanozolol (product 2: 14.5 mg/tablet) were identified. Additionally in both products norandrostenedione was detected, in product 2 with minor amounts of several other steroids. The substances identified can cause enormous health risks. In addition, the use of the analyzed tablets can lead to positive doping results for metabolites of the respective steroids in sports. This study again shows the insufficient surveillance of the production and trade of dietary supplements. Consumers should be aware of the enormous health and doping risks connected with the use of such products. For GC-MS identification of the analytes the trimethylsilyl derivatives of the steroids and the mixed N-t-butyldimethylsilyl,O-trimethylsilyl derivatives were used. The quantitation of metandienone, norandrostenedione, and stanozolol was performed using HPLC-DAD.

  3. Dietary Supplementations as Neuroprotective Therapies: Focus on NT-020 Diet Benefits in a Rat Model of Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Kaneko, Yuji; Cortes, Lourdes; Sanberg, Cyndy; Acosta, Sandra; Bickford, Paula C.; Borlongan, Cesar V.

    2012-01-01

    Stroke remains the number one cause of disability in the adult population. Despite scientific progress in our understanding of stroke pathology, only one treatment (tissue plasminogen activator or tPA) is able to afford benefits but to less than 3% of ischemic stroke patients. The development of experimental dietary supplement therapeutics designed to stimulate endogenous mechanisms that confer neuroprotection is likely to open new avenues for exploring stroke therapies. The present review article evaluates the recent literature supporting the benefits of dietary supplementation for the therapy of ischemic stroke. This article focuses on discussing the medical benefits of NT-020 as an adjunct agent for stroke therapy. Based on our preliminary data, a pre-stroke treatment with dietary supplementation promotes neuroprotection by decreasing inflammation and enhancing neurogenesis. However, we recognize that a pre-stroke treatment holds weak clinical relevance. Thus, the main goal of this article is to provide information about recent data that support the assumption of natural compounds as neuroprotective and to evaluate the therapeutic effects of a dietary supplement called NT-020 as in a stroke model. We focus on a systematic assessment of practical treatment parameters so that NT-020 and other dietary supplementations can be developed as an adjunct agent for the prevention or treatment of chronic diseases. We offer rationale for determining the optimal dosage, therapeutic window, and mechanism of action of NT-020 as a dietary supplement to produce neuroprotection when administered immediately after stroke onset. We highlight our long-standing principle in championing both translational and basic science approaches in an effort to fully reveal the therapeutic potential of NT-020 as dietary supplementation in the treatment of stroke. We envision dietary supplementation as an adjunct therapy for stroke at acute, subacute, and even chronic periods. PMID:22837703

  4. Dietary iron intake and breast cancer risk: modulation by an antioxidant supplementation

    PubMed Central

    Partula, Valentin; Latino-Martel, Paule; Srour, Bernard; Hercberg, Serge; Galan, Pilar; Fassier, Philippine; Guéraud, Françoise; Pierre, Fabrice H.; Touvier, Mathilde

    2016-01-01

    Experimental results suggested that iron-induced lipid peroxidation may explain the direct associations observed between red/processed meat intakes and colorectal and breast cancer risk. However, epidemiological evidence is lacking. Thus, we investigated the association between dietary iron intake and breast cancer risk, and its potential modulation by an antioxidant supplementation and lipid intake. This prospective study included 4646 women from the SU.VI.MAX trial (daily low-dose antioxidants vs. placebo). 188 incident breast cancers were diagnosed (median follow-up=12.6y). Dietary iron intake was assessed using repeated 24h dietary records. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards models were computed. Dietary iron intake was associated with an increased breast cancer risk (HRT3vs.T1=1.67 (1.02-2.71), P-trend=0.04). This association was observed in the placebo group (HRT3vs.T1=2.80 (1.42-5.54), P-trend=0.003), but not in the antioxidant-supplemented group (P-trend=0.7, P-interaction=0.1). Besides, in the placebo group, the increased breast cancer risk associated with dietary iron intake was more specifically observed in women with higher lipid intake (P-trend=0.046). These findings suggest that dietary iron intake may be associated with an increased breast cancer risk, especially in women who did not received antioxidants during the trial and who consumed more lipids. This supports the experimental results suggesting that breast cancer risk may be increased by iron-induced lipid peroxidation. PMID:27738321

  5. Determination of anabolic agents in dietary supplements by liquid chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Odoardi, Sara; Castrignanò, Erika; Martello, Simona; Chiarotti, Marcello; Strano-Rossi, Sabina

    2015-01-01

    A sensitive method for the identification and quantification of anabolic steroids and clenbuterol at trace levels in dietary supplements by liquid chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS) in atmospheric pressure ionisation (APCI) mode using a single-stage Orbitrap analyser operating at a resolution power of 100 000 full width at half maximum (FWHM) was developed and validated. A total of 1 g of dietary supplement was added with testosterone-d3 as internal standard, dissolved in methanol, evaporated to dryness, diluted in sodium hydroxide solution and extracted with a mixture of pentane/ethyl ether 9:1. The extract was directly injected into the LC-HRMS system. The method was fully validated. Limits of detection (LODs) obtained for anabolic androgenic steroids (AASs) varied from 1 to 25 ng g(-1) and the limit of quantitation (LOQ) was 50 ng g(-1) for all analytes. The calibration was linear for all compounds in the range from the LOQ to 2000 ng g(-1), with correlation coefficients always higher than 0.99. Accuracy (intended as %E) and repeatability (%CV) were always lower than 15%. Good values of matrix effect and recovery were achieved. The ease of the sample preparation together with a fast run time of only 16 min permitted rapid identification of the analytes. The method was applied to the analysis of 30 dietary supplements in order to check for the presence of anabolic agents not labelled as being present in these supplements. Many AASs were often detected in the same sample: indeed, androstenedione was detected in nine supplements, 5-androsten-3β-ol-17-one (DHEA) in 12, methandienone in three, stanozolol in one, testosterone in seven and testosterone esters in four of them. A retrospective analysis of suspected compounds not included at the beginning of the method development was also possible by means of the full acquisition spectra obtained with the HRMS technique.

  6. Herbs and other dietary supplements: current regulations and recommendations for use to maintain health in the management of the common cold or other related infectious respiratory illnesses.

    PubMed

    Mathes, Angelo; Bellanger, Renee

    2010-04-01

    Herbal preparations are sold as dietary supplements in the United States and are subject to the rules and regulations of various health care and economic government agencies that monitor the sale of these products. One approach to assessing the usefulness of these substances is to focus on one particular disease state and then review both the primary literature and expert opinion. The common cold is an important illness due to its recurring nature, the number of people it afflicts, and its economic impact on patients. Dietary supplements have been shown to decrease the duration, the severity, and the frequency of symptoms of the common cold. The most commonly available supplements are zinc, ginseng, echinacea, and vitamin C. Data from expert opinion suggested that certain supplements are more beneficial than others to maintain one's health during episodes of the common cold. Expert opinion regarding the use of dietary supplements in other related infectious respiratory illnesses, such as the flu, when aggregated with expert opinion findings regarding the common cold were not contradictory. The primary literature provided insights into specific dosages and compounds that may be used in practice.

  7. Effects of Dietary Crude Glycerin Supplementation on Nutrient Digestibility, Ruminal Fermentation, Blood Metabolites, and Nitrogen Balance of Goats

    PubMed Central

    Chanjula, P.; Pakdeechanuan, P.; Wattanasit, S.

    2014-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of increasing concentrations of crude glycerin (CGLY) in diets on nutrient utilization, ruminal fermentation characteristics, and nitrogen utilization of goats. Four male crossbred (Thai Native×Anglo Nubian) goats, with an average initial weight of 26±3.0 kg, were randomly assigned according to a 4×4 Latin square design with four 21 days consecutive periods. Treatments diets contained 0%, 5%, 10%, and 20% of dietary DM of CGLY. Based on this experiment, there were no significant differences (p>0.05) among treatment groups regarding DM intake and digestion coefficients of nutrients (DM, OM, CP, EE, NDF, and ADF). Likewise, mean serum glucose, BHBA, and PCV concentrations were not affected (p>0.05) by dietary treatments, whereas serum insulin concentration linearly increased (L, p = 0.002) with increasing the amount of CGLY supplementation. Ruminal pH, NH3-N, and BUN concentration were unchanged by dietary treatments, except for 20% of CGLY, NH3-N, and BUN were lower (p<0.05) than for the diets 10% of CGLY, while the difference between the diets 0%, 5%, and 20% of CGLY were not significant. The amount of N absorption and retention were similar among treatments. Based on this study, CGLY levels up to 20% in total mixed ration could be efficiently utilized for goats and this study elucidates a good approach to exploiting the use of biodiesel production for goat production. PMID:25049963

  8. Effects of supplementing holstein heifers with dietary melatonin during late gestation on growth and cardiovascular measurements of their offspring

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective was to examine the effects of supplementing dams with dietary melatonin during late gestation on offspring growth and cardiovascular measurements. On day 190 of gestation, heifers (n = 20) were blocked by body weight and randomly assigned to one of two dietary treatments consisting of ...

  9. Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program participation did not help low income Hispanic women in Texas meet the dietary guidelines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Low-income Hispanic women are at a greater risk for dietary deficiencies and obesity. We assessed the association between Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) participation and dietary intake among 661 Hispanic women aged 26–44 years living in Texas. Cross-sectional data was collected us...

  10. A Cross-Sectional Study of Provider and Patient Characteristics Associated with Outpatient Disclosures of Dietary Supplement Use

    PubMed Central

    Tarn, Derjung M.; Karlamangla, Arun; Coulter, Ian D.; Paterniti, Debora A.; Knox, Lyndee; Khang, Peter S.; Hui, Ka-Kit; Wenger, Neil S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Explore patterns in patients’ disclosures of supplement use and identify provider and patient characteristics associated with disclosures. Methods Cross-sectional study of 61 outpatient primary care, integrative medicine, and complementary medicine providers, and 603 of their patients. Primary outcomes were supplement disclosures (based on audio recorded office visits, post-visit patient surveys and medical record abstractions for the day of the visits). Results Seventy-nine percent of 603 patients reported on a post-visit survey that they took a total of 2107 dietary supplements. Of those taking supplements, 232 patients (48.6%) discussed at least one supplement with their provider on the day of their office visit. However patients disclosed only 714 (33.9%) of the 2107 supplements they were taking. Patients more frequently disclosed supplement use when they saw providers who attributed greater importance to asking about supplements. Patient characteristics, such as patient activation, number of medical conditions, and use of prescription medications were not associated with disclosure of supplement use. Conclusions Provider rating of the importance of asking about supplements is a major factor prompting patients’ disclosures of supplement use. Practice Implications Provider-targeted interventions to encourage provider awareness about potential supplement-drug interactions are needed to increase disclosures about dietary supplement use. PMID:25865413

  11. Dietary Yucca schidigera supplementation reduces arsenic-induced oxidative stress in Swiss albino mice.

    PubMed

    Ince, Sinan; Kucukkurt, Ismail; Turkmen, Ruhi; Demirel, Hasan Huseyin; Sever, Emine

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this study was to clarify the effects of dietary supplementation with Yucca schidigera (Ys) on lipid peroxidation (LPO), antioxidant activity, some biochemical parameters and histopathological changes in arsenic-exposed mice. Forty Swiss albino male mice were divided into five equal groups. Group I (control group) was given normal diet and tap water for 28 days. Group II (arsenic group) was given normal diet and 100 mg/L arsenic along with drinking water for 28 days. Groups III-V were given three different doses of Ys (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg) in supplemented diet and arsenic (100 mg/L) along with drinking water throughout the entire period of 28 days. The arsenic significantly increased serum biochemical parameters and malondialdehyde levels in blood and tissue. However, arsenic significantly decreased tissue glutathione concentration, erythrocyte superoxide dismutase and catalase activities. In contrast, dietary supplementation of Ys, in a dose-dependent manner, resulted in reversal of arsenic-induced oxidative stress, LPO and activities of antioxidant enzymes. Moreover, Ys also exhibited protective action against the arsenic-induced focal gliosis and hyperemi in brain, necrosis and degeneration in liver, degeneration and dilatation in Bowman's capsule of kidney and hyaline degeneration in heart tissue of mice. Consequently, our results demonstrate that Ys especially high-dose supplementation in diet decreases arsenic-induced oxidative stress and enhances the antioxidant defence mechanism and regenerate of tissues in Swiss albino mice.

  12. Dietary taurine supplementation prevents glial alterations in retina of diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Kaihong; Xu, Hongxia; Mi, Mantian; Zhang, Qianyong; Zhang, Yajie; Chen, Ka; Chen, Fang; Zhu, Jundong; Yu, Xiaoping

    2009-02-01

    The preventive effect of dietary taurine supplementation on glial alterations in retina of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats was examined in this study. Blood glucose content, content of taurine, glutamate and -amino butyric acid (GABA) and expression of glial fibrillary acid protein (GFAP), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), glutamate transporter (GLAST), glutamine synthetase (GS) and glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) in retina were determined in diabetic rats fed without or with 5% taurine in a controlled trial lasting 12 weeks, with normal rats fed without or with 5% taurine served as controls. Dietary taurine supplementation could not lower glucose concentration in blood (P > 0.05), but caused an elevation of taurine content and a decline in levels of glutamate and GABA in retina of diabetic rats (P < 0.05). The content of GABA in normal control group was not altered by taurine supplementation. With supplementation of taurine in diet, lower expression of GFAP and VEGF while higher expression of GLAST, GS and GAD in retina of diabetic rats were determinated by RT-PCR, Western-blotting and immunofluorescence (P < 0.05). GFAP, VEGF, GLAST, GS and GAD expressions in normal controls were not altered by taurine treatment. This may have prospective implications of using taurine to treat complications in diabetic retinopathy.

  13. Soluble dietary fiber from Canna edulis Ker by-product and its physicochemical properties.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Juan; Wang, Zheng-Wu

    2013-01-30

    Using Canna edulis Ker by-product as raw materials, soluble dietary fiber (SDF) was prepared using six different methods, including chemical, physical-chemical, enzymatic, physical-enzymatic, chemical-enzymatic and physical-chemical-enzymatic methods. As main component in the C. edulis by-product composed of cellulose, glucose converts to other single sugars, which form a series of compounds in the SDF. The treated methods have impact effects on single sugar composition, metal ion content, molecular size distribution, chemical bonds and groups in the structure, thermal property and color of the final product. In view of security, high yield and homogeneity as well as good thermal stability of final product, physical-enzymatic method will be a best choice for the production of SDF from C. edulis by-product. The SDF obtained can be used as dietary supplement and additive in the food industry.

  14. Total, Dietary, and Supplemental Vitamin C Intake and Risk of Incident Kidney Stones

    PubMed Central

    Ferraro, Pietro Manuel; Curhan, Gary C.; Gambaro, Giovanni; Taylor, Eric N.

    2015-01-01

    Background Previous studies of vitamin C and kidney stones were conducted mostly in men and either reported disparate results for supplemental and dietary vitamin C or did not examine dietary vitamin C. Study Design Prospective cohort analysis. Setting & Participants 156,735 women in the Nurses’ Health Study (NHS) I and II and 40,536 men in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (HPFS). Predictor Total, dietary and supplemental vitamin C intake, adjusted for age, BMI, thiazide use, and dietary factors. Outcomes Incident kidney stones Results During median follow-up of 11.3–11.7 years, 6,245 incident kidney stones were identified. After multivariable adjustment, total vitamin C intake (<90 [reference], 90–249, 250–499, 500–999 and ≥1,000 mg/d) was not significantly associated with the risk of kidney stones among women, but was among men (HRs of 1.00 [reference], 1.19 [95% CI, 0.99–1.46], 1.15 [95% CI, 0.93–1.42], 1.29 [95% CI, 1.04–1.60] and 1.43 [95% CI, 1.15–1.79], respectively; p for trend = 0.005). Median total vitamin C intake for the 500–999 mg/d category was about 700 mg/d. Supplemental vitamin C intake (no use [reference], <500, 500–999, and ≥1,000 mg/d) was not significantly associated with the risk of kidney stones among women, but was among men (HR, 1.19 [95% CI, 1.01–1.40] for ≥1,000 mg/d; p for trend = 0.001). Dietary vitamin C intake was not associated with stones among men or women, although few participants had dietary intakes >700 mg/d. Limitations Nutrient intakes derived from food-frequency questionnaires, lack of data on stone composition for all the cases. Conclusions Total and supplemental intake of vitamin C was significantly associated with a higher risk of incident kidney stones in men, but not among women. PMID:26463139

  15. Volumetric Titrations Using Electrolytically Generated Reagents for the Determination of Ascorbic Acid and Iron in Dietary Supplement Tablets: An Undergraduate Laboratory Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scanlon, Christopher; Gebeyehu, Zewdu; Griffin, Kameron; Dabke, Rajeev B.

    2014-01-01

    An undergraduate laboratory experiment for the volumetric quantitative analysis of ascorbic acid and iron in dietary supplement tablets is presented. Powdered samples of the dietary supplement tablets were volumetrically titrated against electrolytically generated reagents, and the mass of dietary reagent in the tablet was determined from the…

  16. Validity of a dietary calcium questionnaire modified to include supplement use in athletes.

    PubMed

    Henry, Morgan B; Almstedt, Hawley C

    2009-01-01

    When conducting research in the area of bone health, accurate measurement of calcium intake is crucial. The rapid assessment method (RAM) is one technique that has frequently been used for its measurement of calcium intake. However, the RAM and other currently established questionnaires lack the assessment of dietary supplement use, which is common for athletes. Our objective was to evaluate the validity of a RAM questionnaire designed to assess daily calcium consumption which was further modified to meet the needs of athletes who frequently consume dietary supplements. Usefulness of the modified RAM for athletes and non-athletes was evaluated as well as utility among those who do and do not use supplements. The 47 volunteers (n = 31 women, 16 men) were between the ages of 18 and 25 including, 33 athletes and 14 controls. The population also contained 23 supplement users and 24 non-supplement users. Participants completed the modified RAM and were instructed to complete a three-day diet record (3DR), logging food intake for 2 weekdays and 1 weekend day. The data collected via the modified RAM was compared with the 3DR. Mean calcium intake was 935mg ± 420mg and 1085mg ± 573mg, for the modified RAM and 3DR respectively. A strong positive correlation (r) was found between calcium intake measured with the modified RAM and 3DRs (r(45) = 0.854, p < 0.01). Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) revealed that agreement between the two instruments was good (ICC = 0.76, df = 45, p < 0.01) and much improved when compared to agreements without consideration of supplements (ICC = 0.05, df = 21, p > 0.05). We have found the modified RAM to be a valid tool which can be used to estimate calcium intake in the athletes and controls we strive to study. The accuracy of this instrument improved by including assessment of dietary supplement sources of calcium. Key pointsWhen conducting research on bone health, accurate measurement of calcium intake is crucial. The rapid assessment

  17. Effect of dietary nucleotide supplementation on performance and development of the gastrointestinal tract of broilers.

    PubMed

    Jung, B; Batal, A B

    2012-01-01

    1. Two experiments were conducted to determine the effects of dietary nucleotide supplementation on broiler performance, and physical and morphological development of the gastrointestinal tract. 2. Experiment 1: A total of 180 one-d-old male chicks were placed in battery brooders in 3 × 6 replicate pens containing 10 chicks each. Chicks were randomly assigned to one of the three dietary treatments; a maize-soyabean meal based diet supplemented with 0, 0·25, and 0·50% Torula yeast RNA (as a source of nucleotides) from 0 to 16 d of age. 3. Experiment 2: A total of 1344 one-d-old male chicks were placed in floor pens and reared on recycled wood shavings (two flocks) under a high stocking density (0·068 m(2)/bird). Chicks were randomly assigned to one of the 4 dietary treatments (0, 0·25% Torula yeast RNA, 2% and 6% Nupro®) for the starter period (0 to 14 d of age) with 6 replicate pens containing 56 chicks each. All the birds were fed on the same common grower diet with no supplementation of nucleotides from 15 to 32 d of age. 4. Experiment 1: Supplementing the diets with up to 0·50% Torula yeast RNA did not affect broiler performance, or relative intestinal tract weight and length of broilers at any periods measured. 5. Experiment 2: From 0 to 14 d of age, broilers fed on the diets supplemented with 0·25% Torula yeast RNA and 2 and 6% Nupro® were significantly heavier and had improved feed conversion (feed:gain) ratios as compared with the birds fed on the control diet. Supplementing the starter diet only with 2% Nupro® supplementation significantly improved body weight (BW) gain as compared with the control diet over the entire experiment (0 to 32 d of age). Broilers fed on the diets supplemented with 2 and 6% Nupro® from 0 to 14 d of age had better feed conversion (feed:gain) ratios over the entire experiment (0 to 32 d of age) as compared with the birds fed on the control diet, even though the birds were only fed on the diets

  18. Acute Myocardial Infarction Associated with Dietary Supplements Containing 1,3-Dimethylamylamine and Citrus aurantium

    PubMed Central

    Staub, Brian A.; Natarajan, Gayathri M.; Lasorda, David M.; Poornima, Indu G.

    2014-01-01

    We describe the case of a previously healthy 22-year-old man who presented with anginal chest pain and was diagnosed with a non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction. For 3 weeks, he had been ingesting the dietary supplements Jack3d® (principal ingredient, 1,3-dimethylamylamine) and Phenorex™ (principal ingredient, Citrus aurantium) daily, before undertaking physical activity. Coronary angiograms revealed a proximal left anterior descending coronary artery thrombus with distal embolization. A combined medical regimen led to resolution of the thrombus. Three months later, the patient was asymptomatic with no evidence of ischemia. The primary ingredients in the sympathomimetic supplements taken by our patient are controversial in the medical community and have been individually associated with adverse cardiac events. There are no safety data on their simultaneous use. We discuss other reports of adverse effects associated with these supplements and recommend that the relevant safety guidelines be revised. PMID:24512406

  19. Dietary chromium supplementation for targeted treatment of diabetes patients with comorbid depression and binge eating.

    PubMed

    Brownley, Kimberly A; Boettiger, Charlotte A; Young, Laura; Cefalu, William T

    2015-07-01

    Dietary chromium supplementation for the treatment of diabetes remains controversial. The prevailing view that chromium supplementation for glucose regulation is unjustified has been based upon prior studies showing mixed, modest-sized effects in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Based on chromium's potential to improve insulin, dopamine, and serotonin function, we hypothesize that chromium has a greater glucoregulatory effect in individuals who have concurrent disturbances in dopamine and serotonin function--that is, complex patients with comorbid diabetes, depression, and binge eating. We propose, as suggested by the collective data to date, the need to go beyond the "one size fits all" approach to chromium supplementation and put forth a series of experiments designed to link physiological and neurobehavioral processes in the chromium response phenotype.

  20. Does Dietary Mitigation of Enteric Methane Production Affect Rumen Function and Animal Productivity in Dairy Cows?

    PubMed Central

    Veneman, Jolien B.; Muetzel, Stefan; Hart, Kenton J.; Faulkner, Catherine L.; Moorby, Jon M.; Perdok, Hink B.;