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Sample records for diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid dtpa

  1. Solid dispersions of the penta-ethyl ester prodrug of diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA): Formulation design and optimization studies

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yu-Tsai; Di Pasqua, Anthony J.; Zhang, Yong; Sueda, Katsuhiko; Jay, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The penta-ethyl ester prodrug of diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA), which exists as an oily liquid, was incorporated into a solid dispersion for oral administration by the solvent evaporation method using blends of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), Eudragit® RL PO and α-tocopherol. D-optimal mixture design was used to optimize the formulation. Formulations that had a high concentration of both Eudragit® RL PO and α-tocopherol exhibited low water absorption and enhanced stability of the DTPA prodrug. Physicochemical properties of the optimal formulation were evaluated using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). In vitro release of the prodrug was evaluated using the USP Type II apparatus dissolution method. DSC studies indicated that the matrix had an amorphous structure, while FTIR spectrometry showed that DTPA penta-ethyl ester and excipients did not react with each other during formation of the solid dispersion.. Dissolution testing showed that the optimized solid dispersion exhibited a prolonged release profile, which could potentially result in a sustained delivery of DTPA penta-ethyl to enhance bioavailability. In conclusion, DTPA penta-ethyl ester was successfully incorporated into a solid matrix with high drug loading and improved stability compared to prodrug alone. PMID:24047113

  2. Decorporation of systemically distributed americium by a novel orally administered diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) formulation in beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Wilson, James P; Cobb, Ronald R; Dungan, Nathanael W; Matthews, Laura L; Eppler, Bärbel; Aiello, Kenneth V; Curtis, Shiro; Boger, Teannetta; Guilmette, Raymond A; Weber, Waylon; Doyle-Eisele, Melanie; Talton, James D

    2015-03-01

    Novel decorporation agents are being developed to protect against radiological accidents and terrorists attacks. Radioactive americium is a significant component of nuclear fallout. Removal of large radioactive materials, such as 241Am, from exposed persons is a subject of significant interest due to the hazards they pose. The objective of this study was to evaluate the dose-related efficacy of daily doses of NanoDTPA™ Capsules for decorporating Am administered intravenously as a soluble citrate complex to male and female beagle dogs. In addition, the efficacy of the NanoDTPA™ Capsules for decorporating 241Am was directly compared to intravenously administered saline and DTPA. Animals received a single IV administration of 241Am(III)-citrate on Day 0. One day after radionuclide administration, one of four different doses of NanoDTPA™ Capsules [1, 2, or 6 capsules d(-1) (30 mg, 60 mg, or 180 mg DTPA) or 2 capsules BID], IV Zn-DTPA (5 mg kg(-1) pentetate zinc trisodium) as a positive control, or IV saline as a placebo were administered. NanoDTPA™ Capsules, IV Zn-DTPA, or IV saline was administered on study days 1-14. Animals were euthanized on day 21. A full necropsy was conducted, and liver, spleen, kidneys, lungs and trachea, tracheobronchial lymph nodes (TBLN), muscle samples (right and left quadriceps), gastrointestinal (GI) tract (stomach plus esophagus, upper and lower intestine), gonads, two femurs, lumbar vertebrae (L1-L4), and all other soft tissue remains were collected. Urinary and fecal excretion profiles were increased approximately 10-fold compared to those for untreated animals. Tissue contents were decreased compared to untreated controls. In particular, liver content was decreased by approximately eightfold compared to untreated animals. The results from this study further demonstrate that oral NanoDTPA™ Capsules are equally efficient compared to IV Zn-DTPA in decorporation of actinides.

  3. Preparation of alginate beads containing a prodrug of diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yu-Tsai; Di Pasqua, Anthony J.; He, Weiling; Tsai, Tsuimin; Sueda, Katsuhiko; Zhang, Yong; Jay, Michael

    2012-01-01

    A penta-ethyl ester prodrug of the radionuclide decorporation agent diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA), which exists as an oily liquid, was encapsulated in alginate beads by the ionotropic gelation method. An optimal formulation was found by varying initial concentrations of DTPA pentaethyl ester, alginate polymer, Tween 80 surfactant and calcium chloride. All prepared alginate beads were ~1.6 mm in diameter, and the optimal formulation had loading and encapsulation efficiencies of 91.0 ± 1.1 and 72.6 ± 2.2%, respectively, and only 3.2 ± 0.8% water absorption after storage at room temperature in ~80% relative humidity. Moreover, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy showed that DTPA penta-ethyl ester did not react with excipients during formation of the DTPA penta-ethyl ester-containing alginate beads. Release of prodrug from alginate beads was via anomalous transport, and its stability enhanced by encapsulation. Collectively, these data suggest that this solid dosage form may be suitable for oral administration after radionuclide contamination. PMID:23399237

  4. Thermodynamic, spectroscopic, and computational studies of lanthanide complexation with Diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acide: temperature effect and coordination modes

    SciTech Connect

    Guoxin Tian; Leigh R. Martin; Zhiyong Zhang; Linfeng Rao

    2011-04-01

    Stability constants of two DTPA (diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid) complexes with lanthanides (ML2- and MHL-, where M stands for Nd and Eu and L stands for diethylenetriaminepentaacetate) at 10, 25, 40, 55, and 70 degrees C were determined by potentiometry, absorption spectrophotometry, and luminescence spectroscopy. The enthalpies of complexation at 25 degrees C were determined by microcalorimetry. Thermodynamic data show that the complexation of Nd3þ and Eu3þ with DTPA is weakened at higher temperatures, a 10-fold decrease in the stability constants of ML2- and MHL- as the temperature is increased from 10 to 70 degrees C. The effect of temperature is consistent with the exothermic enthalpy of complexation directly measured by microcalorimetry. Results by luminescence spectroscopy and density functional theory (DFT) calculations suggest that DTPA is octa-dentate in both the EuL2- and EuHL- complexes and, for the first time, the coordination mode in the EuHL- complex was clarified by integration of the experimental data and DFT calculations. In the EuHL- complex, the Eu is coordinated by an octa-dentate H(DTPA) ligand and a water molecule, and the protonation occurs on the oxygen of a carboxylate group.

  5. Separation Nanotechnology of Diethylenetriaminepentaacetic Acid Bonded Magnetic Nanoparticles for Spent Nuclear Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Kaur, Maninder; Johnson, Andrew; Tian, Guoxin; Jiang, Weilin; Rao, Linfeng; Paszczynski, Andrzej; Qiang, You

    2013-01-01

    A nanomagnetic separation method based on Diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) conjugated with magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) is studied for application in spent nuclear fuel separation. The high affinity of DTPA towards actinides aids in separation from the highly acidic medium of nuclear waste. The solubility and magnetization of particles at low pH is protected by encapsulating them in silica layer. Surface functionalization of silica coated particles with polyamines enhances the loading capacity of the chelators on MNPs. The particles were characterized before and after surface modification using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), helium ion microscopy (HIM), Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR) spectrometry, and X-ray diffractometry. The coated and uncoated samples were studied using vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) to understand the change in magnetic properties due to the influence of the surface functionalization. The hydrodynamic size and surface charge of the particles are investigated using Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS). The uptake behavior of Am(III), Pu(IV), U(VI), and Np(V) from 0.1M NaNO3 solution was investigated. The sorption result shows the strong affinity of DTPA towards Am(III) and Pu(IV) by extracting 97% and 80% of actinides, respectively. The high removal efficiency and fast uptake of actinides make the chelator conjugated MNPs an effective method for spent nuclear fuel separation.

  6. Comparative evaluation of glutamate-sensitive radiopharmaceuticals: Technetium-99m-glutamic acid and technetium-99m-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid-bis(glutamate) conjugate for tumor imaging.

    PubMed

    Kakkar, Dipti; Tiwari, Anjani K; Chuttani, Krishna; Kaul, Ankur; Singh, Harpal; Mishra, Anil K

    2010-12-01

    Single-photon emission computed tomography has become a significant imaging modality with huge potential to visualize and provide information of anatomic dysfunctions that are predictive of future diseases. This imaging tool is complimented by radiopharmaceuticals/radiosubstrates that help in imaging specific physiological aspects of the human body. The present study was undertaken to explore the utility of technetium-99m (⁹⁹(m)Tc)-labeled glutamate conjugates for tumor scintigraphy. As part of our efforts to further utilize the application of chelating agents, glutamic acid was conjugated with a multidentate ligand, diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA). The DTPA-glutamate conjugate [DTPA-bis(Glu)] was well characterized by IR, NMR, and mass spectroscopy. The biological activity of glutamic acid was compared with its DTPA conjugate by radiocomplexation with ⁹⁹(m)Tc (labeling efficiency ≥98%). In vivo studies of both the radiolabeled complexes ⁹⁹(m)Tc-Glu and ⁹⁹(m)Tc-DTPA-bis(Glu) were then carried out, followed by gamma scintigraphy in New Zealand albino rabbits. Improved serum stability of ⁹⁹(m)Tc-labeled DTPA conjugate indicated that ⁹⁹(m)Tc remained bound to the conjugate up to 24 hours. Blood clearance showed a relatively slow washout of the DTPA conjugate when compared with the labeled glutamate. Biodistribution characteristics of the conjugate in Balb/c mice revealed that DTPA conjugation of glutamic acid favors less accumulation in the liver and bone and rapid renal clearance. Tumor scintigraphy in mice showed increasing tumor accumulation, stable up to 4 hours. These preliminary studies show that ⁹⁹(m)Tc-DTPA-bis(Glu) can be a useful radiopharmaceutical for diagnostic applications in single-photon emission computed tomography imaging.

  7. A novel DTPA cross-linking of hyaluronic acid and metal complexation thereof.

    PubMed

    Buffa, Radovan; Běťák, Jiří; Kettou, Sofiane; Hermannová, Martina; Pospíšilová, Lucie; Velebný, Vladimír

    2011-09-27

    Macromolecular conjugates of a natural polysaccharide, hyaluronic acid, with diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA)-metal complexes were synthesized and characterized by FTIR, NMR, SEC-MALLS and ICP analysis. Several parameters of the cross-linking reaction as molecular weight of starting HA, temperature, equivalent of DTPA bis-anhydride, concentration of HA, presence of transacylation catalyst DMAP and reaction time were studied. The mechanism for the reaction was suggested and relationship between the molecular weight assigned by SEC-MALLS, reaction parameters and rheological properties of the final cross-linked products were investigated.

  8. Formulation for Tin-.sup.117m /diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acids

    DOEpatents

    Srivastava, Suresh C.; Meinken, George E.

    1999-01-01

    The invention provides improved formulations of .sup.117m Sn (Sn.sup.4+) DTPA which allow higher doses of .sup.117m Sn (Sn.sup.4+) to be administered than were previously possible. Methods for making pharmaceutical compositions comprising .sup.117m Sn (Sn.sup.4+) DTPA in which the amount of unchelated DTPA is minimized are disclosed along with methods of using the improved formlulations, both for palliation of bone pain associated with cancer and for treatment of osseous tumors.

  9. Process for the manufacture of 117Sn diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acids

    DOEpatents

    Srivastava, Suresh C.; Li, Zizhong; Meinken, George

    2003-01-01

    Novel methods are provided for the manufacture of .sup.117m Sn(Sn.sup.4+) DTPA. The method allows the use of DTPA, a toxic chelating agent, in an approximately 1:1 ratio to .sup.117m Sn(Sn.sup.4+) via either aqueous conditions, or using various organic solvents, such as methylene chloride. A pharmaceutical composition manufactured by the novel method is also provided, as well as methods for treatment of bone tumors and pain associated with bone cancer using the pharmaceutical composition of the invention.

  10. Effects of positive expiratory pressure on pulmonary clearance of aerosolized technetium-99m-labeled diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid in healthy individuals

    PubMed Central

    de Albuquerque, Isabella Martins; Cardoso, Dannuey Machado; Masiero, Paulo Ricardo; Paiva, Dulciane Nunes; Resqueti, Vanessa Regiane; Fregonezi, Guilherme Augusto de Freitas; Menna-Barreto, Sérgio Saldanha

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the effects of positive expiratory pressure (PEP) on pulmonary epithelial membrane permeability in healthy subjects. Methods: We evaluated a cohort of 30 healthy subjects (15 males and 15 females) with a mean age of 28.3 ± 5.4 years, a mean FEV1/FVC ratio of 0.89 ± 0.14, and a mean FEV1 of 98.5 ± 13.1% of predicted. Subjects underwent technetium-99m-labeled diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (99mTc-DTPA) radioaerosol inhalation lung scintigraphy in two stages: during spontaneous breathing; and while breathing through a PEP mask at one of three PEP levels-10 cmH2O (n = 10), 15 cmH2O (n = 10), and 20 cmH2O (n = 10). The 99mTc-DTPA was nebulized for 3 min, and its clearance was recorded by scintigraphy over a 30-min period during spontaneous breathing and over a 30-min period during breathing through a PEP mask. Results: The pulmonary clearance of 99mTc-DTPA was significantly shorter when PEP was applied-at 10 cmH2O (p = 0.044), 15 cmH2O (p = 0.044), and 20 cmH2O (p = 0.004)-in comparison with that observed during spontaneous breathing. Conclusions: Our findings indicate that PEP, at the levels tested, is able to induce an increase in pulmonary epithelial membrane permeability and lung volume in healthy subjects. PMID:28117469

  11. Rapid and sensitive determination of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid and diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid in water samples by ion-pair reversed-phase liquid chromatography--electrospray tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Quintana, José Benito; Reemtsma, Thorsten

    2007-03-23

    A new method is presented for the quantitative determination of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) from aqueous samples without an enrichment step. It consist of the formation of the Fe(III) complexes of EDTA and DTPA, liquid-chromatography with a volatile ion-pairing agent and determination by electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS). Limits of quantification (LOQ) of 1.0 and 0.6 microgL(-1) for EDTA and DTPA were obtained, allowing the direct injection of most aqueous environmental samples without any preceding enrichment. With a more recent mass spectrometer, the LOQ could be further decreased by almost one order of magnitude. Parallel analysis of real samples by a standardized method employing enrichment, derivatization and GC-MS analysis yielded comparable results. The method was applied to the determination of both complexing agents in several wastewater, surface water and drinking water samples, showing that EDTA is an omnipresent contaminant in partially closed water cycles.

  12. Nucleation of calcium carbonate in presence of citric acid, DTPA, EDTA and pyromellitic acid.

    PubMed

    Westin, K-J; Rasmuson, A C

    2005-02-15

    The influence of four calcium complexing additives, i.e., citric acid (CIT), diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA), ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and pyromellitic acid (PMA), and their concentration on the induction time of calcium carbonate nucleation has been studied. The experiments were performed by rapidly mixing a sodium carbonate solution and a calcium chloride solution of various concentrations. The induction time was obtained by recording the white light absorption of the solution. Chemical speciation was used to estimate the initial thermodynamic driving force of each experiment. The induction time was found to increase with additive concentration. The effect varies from one additive to another. CIT causes the greatest increase in induction time and PMA the least. Using classical nucleation theory the experimental data were evaluated in terms of the interfacial energy. In pure water a value of 37.8 mJ m(-2) was obtained, showing good agreement with other works. CIT, DTPA and EDTA caused a notable increase of the interfacial energy at a concentration of 0.5 mmol l(-1). PMA does not appear to have any effect at all on the interfacial energy. Different mechanisms for the influence of the additives on the measured induction time and on the estimated interfacial energy are discussed.

  13. Prospective evaluation of renal allograft dysfunction with 99mtechnetium-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid renal scans

    SciTech Connect

    McConnell, J.D.; Sagalowsky, A.I.; Lewis, S.E.; Gailiunas, P.; Helderman, J.H.; Dawidson, I.; Peters, P.C.

    1984-05-01

    A prospective, single-blinded study was done to determine the ability of serial 99mtechnetium-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid scans to diagnose renal allograft rejection. Among 28 transplant recipients 111 renal scans were obtained 1 day postoperatively and every 3 to 4 days thereafter for 3 weeks in all patients retaining an allograft. Computer-generated time-activity blood flow curves were analyzed semiquantitatively for the 1) interval between curve peaks of the allograft and iliac artery, 2) renal transit time and 3) renal washout of radionuclide. Excretory function was assessed by degree and interval to appearance of radionuclide in the calices and bladder. Deterioration of renal blood flow and excretion compared to the initial scan was considered rejection. Of 52 scans performed during clinical rejection 47 (90.4 per cent) were interpreted as showing rejection (sensitivity). Of 53 scans interpreted as showing rejection 47 (88.7 per cent) were positive for clinical rejection. The remaining 6 patients (initial false positive results) suffered clinical rejection within 24 to 72 hours. We conclude that 99mtechnetium-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid renal scans are useful in the differential diagnosis of renal allograft dysfunction.

  14. Crystal growth of aragonite and calcite in presence of citric acid, DTPA, EDTA and pyromellitic acid.

    PubMed

    Westin, K-J; Rasmuson, A C

    2005-02-15

    The influence of four calcium complexing substances, i.e., citric acid (CIT), diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA), ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and pyromellitic acid (PMA), on the crystal growth rate of the calcium carbonate polymorphs aragonite and calcite has been studied. Using a seeded constant supersaturation method supersaturation was maintained at 4 by keeping a constant pH of 8.5 through addition of sodium carbonate and calcium chloride solutions. The unique composition of each solution was calculated using chemical speciation. The growth rate was interpreted in terms of an overall growth rate. For both calcite and aragonite, the crystal growth rate is significantly reduced in the presence of the calcium complexing substances. The growth retarding effect depends on both the concentration and the polymorph. The relative crystal growth rate was correlated to the total complexing agent concentration using a Langmuir adsorption approach. Aragonite appeared fully covered for lower total concentrations than calcite. Furthermore, CIT very efficiently blocked aragonite growth contrary to what was observed for calcite. This is thought to be related to certain distinct features of the dominant aragonite crystal faces compared to the dominant calcite faces.

  15. Adsorption of chromium from aqueous solutions using crosslinked chitosan-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid.

    PubMed

    Bhatt, Ronak; Sreedhar, B; Padmaja, P

    2015-03-01

    Chitosan (CH) and its derivatives have been the focus of attention for researchers as potential adsorbents for heavy metal removal. The adsorption potential of chitosan cross-linked with diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (CD) for Cr6+ was investigated. CD was characterized by FTIR, XRD, TGA, XPS and ESR techniques. Batch experiments were conducted to optimize the parameters affecting the adsorption of chromium. The optimum pH was found to be 3 and the adsorption process was found to be exothermic. Adsorption isotherms were determined and the maximum adsorption capacity of CD for chromium was found to be 192.3 mg/g which was higher than the adsorption capacity of the adsorbents reported in literature. The thermodynamic parameters, such as Gibbs free energy, changes in enthalpy and changes in entropy change were also evaluated. XPS and ESR studies revealed that Cr6+ adsorbed onto CD was reduced to Cr3+. The efficacy of CD for removal of Cr6+ from chrome plating effluent was demonstrated.

  16. Thermodynamic study of the complexation of protactinium(V) with diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid.

    PubMed

    Mendes, Mickaël; Leguay, Sébastien; Le Naour, Claire; Hamadi, Séna; Roques, Jérôme; Moisy, Philippe; Guillaumont, Dominique; Topin, Sylvain; Aupiais, Jean; Den Auwer, Christophe; Hennig, Christoph

    2013-07-01

    The complex formation of protactinium(V) with DTPA was studied at different temperatures (25-50 °C) and ionic strengths (0.1-1 M) with the element at tracer scale. Irrespective of the temperature and ionic strength studied, only one neutral complex with (1:1) stoichiometry was identified from solvent extraction and capillary electrophoresis coupled to ICP-MS (CE-ICP-MS) experiments. Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations revealed that two complexes can be considered: Pa(DTPA) and PaO(H2DTPA). The associated formation constants were determined from solvent extraction data at different ionic strengths and temperatures and then extrapolated to zero ionic strength by SIT methodology. These constants are valid, regardless of complex form, Pa(DTPA) or PaO(H2DTPA). The standard thermodynamic data determined with these extrapolated constants revealed a very stable complex formed energetically by an endothermic contribution which is counter balanced by a strong entropic contribution. Both, the positive enthalpy and entropy energy terms suggest the formation of an inner sphere complex.

  17. DFT investigation of Ni(II) adsorption onto MA-DTPA/PVDF chelating membrane in the presence of coexistent cations and organic acids.

    PubMed

    Song, Laizhou; Zhao, Xiaodan; Fu, Jie; Wang, Xiuli; Sheng, Yiping; Liu, Xiaowei

    2012-01-15

    Melamine-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid/polyvinylidene fluoride (MA-DTPA/PVDF) chelating membrane bearing polyaminecarboxylate groups was used to remove Ni(II) from nickel plating effluents. Adsorption experiments were conducted to study the adsorption of the membrane towards Ni(II) in Ni(II)-Ca(II), Ni(II)-NH(4)(+), Ni(II)-Fe(III) binary systems, and Ni(II)-lactic acid, Ni(II)-succinic acid and Ni(II)-citric acid complex systems. For the ternary nickel plating processes, the effects of 3d transition metals including Fe(II), Co(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II) on Ni(II) adsorption were evaluated. The influences of the aforementioned coexistent cations and organic acids were elucidated by the continuum solvation model (COSMO)-corrected density functional theory (DFT) method. Geometries and complexation energies were analyzed for metal-MA-DTPA and Ni(II)-organic acid complexes. DFT results accord with the experimental data, indicating that DFT is helpful to evaluate the complexation between the membrane and metal cations. The coexistent Ca(II) tends to form more stable complex with MA-DTPA ligand than NH(4)(+) and Fe(III), and can interfere with the formation of Ni(II)-MA-DTPA complex. The complexing sequence of 3d metals with MA-DTPA ligand is Zn(II)acid complexes follow the order of lactic acidacidacid, but cannot be comparable to that of Ni(II)-MA-DTPA complex.

  18. Gadoxate disodium: gadolinium EOB DTPA, gadoxetic acid, Gd-EOB-DTPA.

    PubMed

    2004-01-01

    Gadoxate disodium [gadolinium EOB DTPA, Gd-EOB-DTPA, gadoxetic acid, Eovist injection, Primovist] is a hydrophilic paramagnetic contrast agent being developed by Schering AG for hepatobiliary magnetic resonance imaging. In April 2004, gadoxate disodium (Primovist) was approved in Sweden, the reference member state for the EU registration. Following the Swedish approval, Schering will initiate a mutual recognition procedure for the EU with approvals expected in most countries during 2004. Gadoxate disodium is in phase III clinical trials in the US and has completed phase III studies in Japan. Submissions for approval in Japan and other Asian countries are planned for 2004. Schering AG plans to launch Eovist in Japan in 2005. Schering AG acquired a worldwide, royalty-bearing licence to EPIX Medical's patents covering liver-enhancing agents such as Eovist injection. These included a European patent (222886) and the US patents (4,899,755 and 4,888,008) that EPIX Medical exclusively licensed from the Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH). The MGH patents, a part of EPIX's extensive intellectual property, also covered albumin-targeted agents such as MS 325 (AngioMARK). Schering AG formally withdrew from the opposition proceedings against EPIX's EU patent 222886 following its acquisition of EPIX's intellectual property. These EU and US patents were also non-exclusively licensed by EPIX Medical to Bracco in September 2001. Apart from covering Eovist (Schering AG), the EU patent also covered gadobenate dimeglumine (MultiHance Bracco). Following the licensing agreement, Bracco withdrew its opposition to the patents in Europe and Japan, and both EPIX Medical and Bracco settled their European patent dispute. In its 2002 Annual Report, Schering predicted that Eovist has the potential to reach peak sales of euro50 million, three years after launch--at the time, launch in Europe was anticipated in 2004, followed by launch in Japan in 2005. This is down from earlier predictions

  19. Spectrophotometric determination and removal of unchelated europium ions from solutions containing Eu-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid chelate-peptide conjugates.

    PubMed

    Elshan, N G R Dayan; Patek, Renata; Vagner, Josef; Mash, Eugene A

    2014-11-01

    Europium chelates conjugated with peptide ligands are routinely used as probes for conducting in vitro binding experiments. The presence of unchelated Eu ions in these formulations gives high background luminescence and can lead to poor results in binding assays. In our experience, the reported methods for purification of these probes do not achieve adequate removal of unchelated metal ions in a reliable manner. In this work, a xylenol orange-based assay for the quantification of unchelated metal ions was streamlined and used to determine levels of metal ion contamination as well as the success of metal ion removal on attempted purification. We compared the use of Empore chelating disks and Chelex 100 resin for the selective removal of unchelated Eu ions from several Eu-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid chelate-peptide conjugates. Both purification methods gave complete and selective removal of the contaminant metal ions. However, Empore chelating disks were found to give much higher recoveries of the probes under the conditions used. Related to the issue of probe recovery, we also describe a significantly more efficient method for the synthesis of one such probe using Rink amide AM resin in place of Tentagel S resin.

  20. Decorporation of plutonium by pulmonary administration of Ca-DTPA dry powder: a study in rat after lung contamination with different plutonium forms.

    PubMed

    Sérandour, A L; Tsapis, N; Gervelas, C; Grillon, G; Fréchou, M; Deverre, J R; Bénech, H; Fattal, E; Fritsch, P; Poncy, J L

    2007-01-01

    This study evaluates the decorporation efficacy of a pulmonary administration of a new Ca-DTPA (diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid) dry powder (18 micromol kg(-1) of body mass) after pulmonary contamination of rats with different Pu compounds. After inhalation of PuO2, a delayed intratracheal administration of DTPA cannot reduce significantly the retention of Pu in the lungs but limits its transfer in liver and skeleton. After pulmonary contamination by Pu nitrate, early insufflation of the DTPA powder appears twice as more efficient than an i.v injection of DTPA (30 micromol kg(-1)) to reduce Pu retention in the lungs and is as effective as i.v. injection to limit the extrapulmonary deposit. In contrast, a delayed administration of DTPA cannot reduce the lung or extrapulmonary retention. In conclusion, the improvement of aerodynamic properties of DTPA powder leads to an increase of DTPA amount deposited in the lungs and enhances the body decorporation.

  1. Evaluation of the therapeutic effect of percutaneous nephroureterolithotomy by Tc-99m diethylenetiaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) renal scintigraphy--alteration of the renal fraction of blood flow, split-GFR, and renal mean transit time.

    PubMed

    Ishibashi, M; Morita, S; Rabito, C A; Umezaki, N; Matsuoka, K; Noda, S; Eto, K; Ohtake, H

    1990-01-01

    To evaluate the therapeutic effects of percutaneous nephroureterolithotomy, the renal function of eleven patients with renal calculi was studied, pre- and post-intervention. Renal function was determined, by renal scintigraphy with the renal agent, Tc-99m diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA). In each renal scintigram the renogram curve was analyzed and the following were determined by deconvolution analysis; the renal fraction of blood flow (RFBF), DTPA-glomerular filtration ratio (GFR), and the renal mean transit time (MTT). The successful results in percutaneous nephroureterolithotomy (PNL) was proven using the radionuclide technique in most cases. From these results it can be concluded that renal scintigraphy is an effective procedure to evaluate the effect of PNL for treating renal calculi and secondary hydronephrosis.

  2. Gd-DTPA-loaded polymer-metal complex micelles with high relaxivity for MR cancer imaging.

    PubMed

    Mi, Peng; Cabral, Horacio; Kokuryo, Daisuke; Rafi, Mohammad; Terada, Yasuko; Aoki, Ichio; Saga, Tsuneo; Takehiko, Ishii; Nishiyama, Nobuhiro; Kataoka, Kazunori

    2013-01-01

    Nanodevices for magnetic resonance imaging of cancer were self-assembled to core-shell micellar structures by metal complex formation of K(2)PtCl(6) with diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid gadolinium (III) dihydrogen (Gd-DTPA), a T(1)-contrast agent, and poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly{N-[N'-(2-aminoethyl)-2-aminoethyl]aspartamide} (PEG-b-PAsp(DET)) copolymer in aqueous solution. Gd-DTPA-loaded polymeric micelles (Gd-DTPA/m) showed a hydrodynamic diameter of 45 nm and a core size of 22 nm. Confining Gd-DTPA inside the core of the micelles increased the relaxivity of Gd-DTPA more than 13 times (48 mM(-1) s(-1)). In physiological conditions Gd-DTPA/m sustainedly released Gd-DTPA, while the Pt(IV) complexes remain bound to the polymer. Gd-DTPA/m extended the circulation time in plasma and augmented the tumor accumulation of Gd-DTPA leading to successful contrast enhancement of solid tumors. μ-Synchrotron radiation-X-ray fluorescence results confirmed that Gd-DTPA was delivered to the tumor site by the micelles. Our study provides a facile strategy for incorporating contrast agents, dyes and bioactive molecules into nanodevices for developing safe and efficient drug carriers for clinical application.

  3. Indium-111 labeled monoclonal antibodies (Ab): The effect of DTPA conjugation on the Ab activity and tissue distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Sakahara, H.; Endo, K.; Nakashima, T.; Ohta, H.; Okada, K.; Yoshida, O.; Ohmomo, Y.; Horiuchi, K.; Yokoyama, A.; Torizuka, K.

    1984-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (Ab) to human ..cap alpha..-fetoprotein (AFP) were conjugated with diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) using cyclic DTPA anhydride and the obtained conjugates, DTPA-Ab, were labeled with In-111. The effect of DTPA conjugation on the affinity constant and the maximum binding capacity of Ab was evaluated by radioimmunoassay and Scatchard plot analysis and In-111 labeled DTPA-Ab were used for the radioimmunodetection of tumor. Ab containing 1.0 DTPA molecule per Ab showed almost full retention of both the affinity constant and the maximum binding capacity. Then, 40 ..mu..Ci of In-111 labeled DTPA-Ab were injected intravenously to nude mice bearing AFP-producing human testicular tumor and the resulted were compared with I-131 labeled Ab. Scintigraphy clearly revealed transplanted tumor. Localization of In-111 labeled DTPA-Ab was significantly higher than I-131 labeled Ab. Tumor to blood ratio obtained at 4 days after injection was 2.59 with In-111 labeled DTPA-Ab compared to 0.99 with I-131 labeled Ab. When more than 1.9 DTPA molecules were incorporated per Ab, the maximum binding capacity decreased, although the affinity constant was less affected. These In-111 labeled DTPA-Ab caused significantly higher liver accumulation. These results indicate that In-111 labeled DTPA-Ab at a cojugated DTPA to Ab molar ratio of 1.0 may be superior to I-131 labeled Ab for tumor imaging, but the maximum binding capacity and tissue distribution of In-111 labeled DTPA-AB are greatly dependent upon the number of DTPA molecules incorporated per Ab molecule.

  4. Species-dependent effective concentration of DTPA in plasma for chelation of 241Am

    PubMed Central

    Sueda, Katsuhiko; Sadgrove, Matthew P.; Jay, Michael; Di Pasqua, Anthony J.

    2013-01-01

    Diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) is a chelating agent that is used to facilitate the elimination of radionuclides, such as americium, from contaminated individuals. Its primary site of action is in the blood, where it competes with various biological ligands, including transferrin and albumin, for the binding of radioactive metals. To evaluate the chelation potential of DTPA under these conditions, the competitive binding of 241Am between DTPA and plasma proteins was studied in rat, beagle and human plasma in vitro. Following incubation of DTPA and 241Am in plasma, the 241Am-bound ligands were fractionated by ultrafiltration and ion-exchange chromatography, and each fraction was assayed for 241Am content by gamma scintillation counting. Dose-response curves of DTPA for 241Am binding were established, and these models were used to calculate the 90% maximal effective concentration, or EC90, of DTPA in each plasma system. The EC90 were determined to be 31.4, 15.9 and 10.0 μM in rat, beagle and human plasma, respectively. These values correspond to plasma concentrations of DTPA that maximize 241Am chelation while minimizing excess DTPA. Based on the pharmacokinetic profile of DTPA in humans, after a standard 30 μmol kg−1 intravenous bolus injection, the plasma concentration of DTPA remains above EC90 for approximately 5.6 h. Likewise, the effective duration of DTPA in rat and beagle were determined to be 0.67 and 1.7 h, respectively. These results suggest that species differences must be considered when translating DTPA efficacy data from animals to humans and offer further insights into improving the current DTPA treatment regimen. PMID:23799506

  5. Treatment of human contamination with plutonium and americium: would orally administered Ca- or Zn-DTPA be effective?

    PubMed

    Taylor, David M; Hodgson, Susan A; Stradling, Neil

    2007-01-01

    Accidental or deliberate dispersion of plutonium (Pu) and americium (Am) into the public environment could contaminate large numbers of people by inhalation. If measures to reduce the internal dose are considered appropriate, oral administration of either calcium (Ca) or zinc (Zn) diethylenetriaminepenta-acetic acid (DTPA) would be the simplest treatment. Published experimental data from rats on the effects of oral DTPA on the retention of inhaled Pu and Am show that: (1) orally administered Zn-DTPA is as effective as repeated intravenous injection for the decorporation of Pu and Am inhaled as nitrates, although higher dosages are required; (2) oral Zn-DTPA appears to be an effective treatment for Am dioxide but not Pu dioxide; (3) maximum decorporation of Pu, by oral or intravenous administration, requires a large molar excess of Zn-DTPA over Pu (>1 x 10(6)); (4) neither oral nor injected Zn-DTPA are likely to be effective for Pu oxides, nor when Pu and Am nitrates are mixed with other dusts. It is concluded that oral administration of a simple aqueous solution of Zn-DTPA could be an important treatment in accident or emergency scenarios after intake of pure chemical forms of Pu and Am, which are highly or moderately soluble in biological fluids. However, more research is needed on the efficacy of treatment when these forms are mixed with other materials. Importantly, studies designed to increase the efficiency of uptake of DTPA from the gastrointestinal tract could appreciably reduce the dosage.

  6. Hyaluronic Acid-Chitosan Nanoparticles to Deliver Gd-DTPA for MR Cancer Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Li; Liu, Tingxian; Xiao, Yanan; Yu, Dexin; Zhang, Na

    2015-01-01

    Molecular imaging is essential to increase the sensitivity and selectivity of cancer diagnosis especially at the early stage of tumors. Recently, polyionic nanocomplexes (PICs), which are composed of polyanions and opposite polycations, have been demonstrated to be a promising strategy for biomedical applications. In this work, chitosan-hyaluronic acid nanoparticles (GCHN) were developed to deliver Gd-DTPA as MRI contrast agents for tumor diagnosis. The Gd-labeled conjugates (CS-DTPA-Gd) were successfully synthesized by carbodiimide reaction, and then GCHN were prepared by ionic gelation using the obtained CS-DTPA-Gd and hyaluronic acid. The morphology of GCHN was spherical or ellipsoidal, which is observed by transmission electronic microscopy (TEM). The mean particle size and zeta potential of GCHN were 213.8 ± 2.6 nm and 19.92 ± 1.69 mV, respectively. The significant enhancement of signal intensity induced by GCHN was observed both in vitro and in vivo. Also, compared with Magnevist, GCHN was witnessed for a prolonged imaging time in the B16 tumor-bearing mice model. Furthermore, GCHN were verified as below toxic both in vitro and in vivo. These results indicated that GCHN could potentially be an alternative to current MRI contrast agents for tumor diagnosis.

  7. Orally administered DTPA penta-ethyl ester for the decorporation of inhaled 241Am

    PubMed Central

    Sueda, Katsuhiko; Sadgrove, Matthew P.; Huckle, James E.; Leed, Marina G. D.; Weber, Waylon M.; Doyle-Eisele, Melanie; Guilmette, Raymond A.; Jay, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) is an effective decorporation agent to facilitate the elimination of radionuclides from the body, but its permeability-limited oral bioavailability limits its utility in mass-casualty emergencies. To overcome this limitation, a prodrug strategy using the penta-ethyl ester form of DTPA is under investigation. Pharmacokinetic and biodistribution studies were conducted in rats by orally administering [14C]DTPA penta-ethyl ester, and this prodrug and its hydrolysis products were analyzed as a single entity. Compared to a previous reporting of intravenously administered DTPA, the oral administration of this prodrug resulted in a sustained plasma concentration profile with higher plasma exposure and lower clearance. An assessment of the urine composition revealed that the bioactivation was extensive but incomplete, with no detectable levels of the penta- or tetra-ester forms. Tissue distribution at 12 h was limited, with approximately 73% of the administered dose being associated with the gastrointestinal tract. In the efficacy study, rats were exposed to aerosols of 241Am nitrate before receiving a single oral treatment of the prodrug. The urinary excretion of 241Am was found to be 19% higher than with the control. Consistent with prior reports of DTPA, the prodrug was most effective when the treatment delays were minimized. PMID:24619514

  8. Design, synthesis and evaluation of a new Mn - Contrast agent for MR imaging of myocardium based on the DTPA-phenylpentadecanoic acid complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belyanin, Maxim L.; Stepanova, Elena V.; Valiev, Rashid R.; Filimonov, Victor D.; Usov, Vladimir Y.; Borodin, Oleg Y.; Ågren, Hans

    2016-11-01

    In the present paper we describe the first synthesis and evaluation of a novel Mn (II) complex (DTPA-PPDA Mn (II)) which contains a C-15 fatty acid moiety that has high affinity to the heart muscle. The complexation energy of DTPA-PPDA Mn (II) evaluated by quantum chemistry methodology indicates that it essentially exceeds the corresponding value for the known DTPA Mn (II) complex. Molecular docking revealed that the affinity of the designed complex to the heart-type transport protein H-FABP well exceeds that of lauric acid. Phantom experiments in low-field MRI the designed contrast agent provides MR imaging comparable to gadopentetic acid.

  9. [In vitro comparative study of plasma protein binding of 99mTc-DTPA used in renal scintigraphy].

    PubMed

    Chemlal, L; Makram, S; Zoubir, B; Cherrah, Y; Faouzi, M A

    2013-11-01

    The radiopharmaceutical (99m)Tc-DTPA (diethylene-triamine-pentaacetic acid) is a tracer widely used in renal scintigraphy to assess glomerular filtration rate. The estimation of protein binding is very important due to its impact on clinical parameters biodistribution since only the free fraction is filtered by the kidney. A number of laboratory techniques have been developed to study protein binding. Precipitation and ultrafiltration are the mostly used techniques in pharmacology for studies of the binding between proteins and small molecules. The aim of this work is to apply and compare those two analytical methods in (99m)Tc-DTPA protein binding determination in vitro before in vivo application. The results obtained by precipitation with trichloroacetic acid are not enough reproducible, while those obtained by ultrafiltration seem more consistent and reproducible.

  10. Spectral, thermal and electrochemical characterization of novel homo-dinuclear complexes [M 2(H 3DTPA)(H 2O) 6]Cl 2· xH 2O (M = Cr 2+, Mn 2+, Co 2+, Ni 2+ or Cu 2+)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siddiqi, Zafar A.; Noor, Shabana; Shahid, M.; Khalid, Mohd

    2011-05-01

    The title complexes were prepared and characterized employing spectral (FAB-Mass, IR, electronic, 1H and 13C NMR), thermal and electrochemical techniques. Analytical and FAB-Mass data suggested a homo-dinuclear stoichiometry. IR and electronic ligand field spectral studies coupled with molecular model computations have indicated a distorted octahedral geometry where the ligand coordinates as a hexadentate dianionic [H 3DTPA] 2-(H 5DTPA = diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid) moiety. The electrochemical redox properties and the antibacterial activities of the compounds were also investigated.

  11. Antibacterial activity of synthetic curcumin derivatives: 3,5-bis(benzylidene)-4-piperidone (EF24) and EF24-dimer linked via diethylenetriaminepentacetic acid (EF2DTPA).

    PubMed

    Vilekar, Prachi; King, Catherine; Lagisetty, Pallavi; Awasthi, Vibhudutta; Awasthi, Shanjana

    2014-04-01

    Curcumin is well known for its antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory properties. However, since systemic absorption and bioavailability of curcumin from gastrointestinal tract is considerably poor, synthetic curcuminoids are being developed as better alternatives. Two curcumin derivatives: 3,5-bis(benzylidene)-4-piperidone (EF24) and EF24-dimer linked via diethylenetriaminepentacetic acid (EF2DTPA), were included in this study. We investigated the antibacterial activity of EF24 and EF2DTPA against Gram-negative (Escherichia coli) and Gram-positive (Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus) bacteria. We also studied the effects of EF24 and EF2DTPA on uptake and localization of pHrodo-labeled E. coli in the acidic compartments (phagolysosomes) of dendritic cells (DCs) under in vitro conditions. Our results demonstrate that treatment with EF24 and EF2DTPA directly suppresses the bacterial growth. However, these compounds do not affect the bacterial uptake or localization in the DCs.

  12. Effectiveness of DTPA treatments following the injection of particulate plutonium.

    PubMed

    Bruenger, F W; Taylor, D M; Taylor, G N; Lloyd, R D

    1991-11-01

    A limited long-term experiment has been completed in which the chronic toxicity resulting from a single intravenous injection of 31.4 kBq of a poly-disperse 239Pu colloid sol per kg of body weight was tested in Beagle dogs. The Pu deposited mostly in the phagocytic cells of liver, spleen and to a lesser degree in lung and bone marrow. Slow solubilization of the Pu particles by endogenous ligands caused translocation of the nuclide and redeposition mostly as monomeric Pu in the skeleton and in liver hepatocytes. Thus, the deposit behaved as expected from a pulmonary or wound contamination in humans with a moderately soluble depot of Pu such as Class W hot particles. Therefore, this type of deposit provided the basis for a practical model to study the ensuing radiation effects under various experimental conditions. The dogs were divided into three groups of four animals each, and the following conditions were applied: (a) no further treatment was given, allowing free translocation of the Pu to its secondary deposition sites; (b) interception of the Pu translocation by weekly injections of 30 mumol of Ca-DTPA/kg of body weight (Ca-chelate of diethylene-triaminepentaacetic acid); and (c) interception of translocation by daily injections of 30 mumol/kg body weight of Zn-DTPA. For each of the groups (b) and (c), three dogs were used in a lifetime study, and one was sacrificed for nuclide distribution studies. Free translocation and subsequent deposition in the skeleton resulted in the death of each of the non-chelated dogs from osteosarcoma between 1267 and 1594 days after injection. Weekly treatment with Ca-DTPA reduced the total Pu burden significantly, but these dogs also died with osteosarcoma between 1462 and 1783 days. Daily injections with Zn-DTPA reduced the total Pu burden more efficiently than Ca-DTPA and prevented continuous deposition of solubilized Pu on bone surfaces. The mean post-injection survival of these dogs was 3520 days or about 2.1 times that of

  13. Efficacy of orally administered amphipathic polyaminocarboxylic acid chelators for the removal of plutonium and americium: comparison with injected Zn-DTPA in the rat.

    PubMed

    Miller, Scott C; Liu, Gang; Bruenger, Fred W; Lloyd, Ray D

    2006-01-01

    Chelators are used to promote excretion of actinides and some other metals, but few are orally effective. The relative efficacies of orally administered triethylenetetraminepentaacetic acids (TT) with varying lipophilic properties on the removal of 241Am and 239Pu and comparison with parenteral Zn-DTPA was determined. The actinides were administered to adult rats 2 weeks prior to initiation of 30 d of chelation treatment. The TT compounds were given orally while Zn-DTPA was given twice weekly by injection. Total body content of 241Am was measured before and during the treatment period and organ contents of 241Am and 239Pu were measured at the end of the study. Significant reductions in 241Am occurred within the first week, with Zn-DTPA being the most effective. By 3 weeks, the most lipophilic chelator, C22TT was as effective as Zn-DTPA. After 30 d, reductions in organ content of 239Pu and 241Am directly correlated with increasing lipophilicity of the TT chelators. Oral C22TT was as effective as injected Zn-DTPA in liver and bone, the major organs of actinide deposition. The removal of 239Pu from the liver and reduction of redeposition of 239Pu in newly formed bone by C22TT was confirmed by neutron-induced autoradiographs. The amphipathic TT chelators may be useful as orally administered alternatives to current parenteral DTPA for the removal of actinide elements from the body, particularly for longer-term therapeutic applications.

  14. Species-dependent chelation of (241)Am by DTPA Di-ethyl ester.

    PubMed

    Huckle, James E; Sadgrove, Matthew P; Mumper, Russell J; Jay, Michael

    2015-04-01

    Diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) is an FDA-approved chelating agent for enhancing the elimination of transuranic elements such as americium from the body. Early access to therapy minimizes deposition of these radionuclides in tissues such as the bone. Due to its poor oral bioavailability, DTPA is administered as an IV injection, delaying access. Therefore, a diethyl-ester analog of DTPA, named C2E2, was synthesized as a means to increase oral absorption. As a hexadentate ligand, it was hypothesized that C2E2 was capable of binding americium directly. Therefore, the protonation constants and americium stability constant for C2E2 were determined by potentiometric titration and a solvent extraction method, respectively. C2E2 was shown to bind americium with a log K of 19.6. The concentrations of C2E2, its metabolite C2E1, and DTPA required to achieve effective binding in rat, beagle, and human plasma were studied in vitro. Dose response curves for each ligand were established, and the 50% maximal effective concentrations were determined for each species. As expected, higher concentrations of C2E2 were required to achieve the same degree of binding as DTPA. The results indicated that chelation in beagle plasma is more representative of the human response than rats. Finally, the pharmacokinetics of C2E2 were investigated in beagles, and the data was fit to a two-compartment model with elimination from the central compartment, along with first-order absorption. Based on the in vitro data, a 100 mg kg dose of C2E2 can be expected to have an effective duration of action of 3.8 h in beagles.

  15. Species-Dependent Chelation of 241Am by DTPA Di-ethyl Ester

    PubMed Central

    Huckle, James E.; Sadgrove, Matthew P.; Mumper, Russell J.; Jay, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) is an FDA approved chelating agent for enhancing the elimination of transuranic elements such as americium from the body. Early access to therapy minimizes deposition of these radionuclides in tissues such as the bone. Due to its poor oral bioavailability, DTPA is administered as an IV injection, delaying access. Therefore a diethyl-ester analog of DTPA, named C2E2, was synthesized as a means to increase oral absorption. As a hexadentate ligand, it was hypothesized that C2E2 was capable of binding americium directly. Therefore, the protonation constants and americium stability constant for C2E2 were determined by potentiometric titration and a solvent extraction method, respectively. C2E2 was shown to bind americium with a log K of 19.6. The concentrations of C2E2, its metabolite C2E1, and DTPA required to achieve effective binding in rat, beagle, and human plasma were studied in vitro. Dose response curves for each ligand were established and the 50% maximal effective concentrations were determined for each species. As expected, higher concentrations of C2E2 were required to achieve the same degree of binding as DTPA. The results indicated that chelation in beagle plasma is more representative of the human response than rats. Finally, the pharmacokinetics of C2E2 were investigated in beagles and the data was fit to a two-compartment model with elimination from the central compartment, along with first-order absorption. Based on the in vitro data, a 100 mg kg−1 dose of C2E2 can be expected to have an effective duration of action of 3.8 hours in beagles. PMID:25706138

  16. Preparation and initial characterization of biodegradable particles containing gadolinium-DTPA contrast agent for enhanced MRI.

    PubMed

    Doiron, Amber L; Chu, Kevin; Ali, Adeel; Brannon-Peppas, Lisa

    2008-11-11

    Accurate imaging of atherosclerosis is a growing necessity for timely treatment of the disease. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a promising technique for plaque imaging. The goal of this study was to create polymeric particles of a small size with high loading of diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid gadolinium (III) (Gd-DTPA) and demonstrate their usefulness for MRI. A water-in-oil-in-oil double emulsion solvent evaporation technique was used to encapsulate the MRI agent in a poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) or polylactide-poly(ethylene glycol) (PLA-PEG) particle for the purpose of concentrating the agent at an imaging site. PLGA particles with two separate average sizes of 1.83 microm and 920 nm, and PLA-PEG particles with a mean diameter of 952 nm were created. Loading of up to 30 wt % Gd-DTPA was achieved, and in vitro release occurred over 5 h. PLGA particles had highly negative zeta potentials, whereas the particles incorporating PEG had zeta potentials closer to neutral. Cytotoxicity of the particles on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) was shown to be minimal. The ability of the polymeric contrast agent formulation to create contrast was similar to that of Gd-DTPA alone. These results demonstrate the possible utility of the contrast agent-loaded polymeric particles for plaque detection with MRI.

  17. Cholesterol-diethylenetriaminepentaacetate complexed with thulium ions integrated into bicelles to increase their magnetic alignability.

    PubMed

    Liebi, Marianne; Kuster, Simon; Kohlbrecher, Joachim; Ishikawa, Takashi; Fischer, Peter; Walde, Peter; Windhab, Erich J

    2013-11-27

    Lanthanides have been used for several decades to increase the magnetic alignability of bicelles. DMPE-DTPA (1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-ethanolamine-diethylenetriaminepentaacetate) is commonly applied to anchor the lanthanides into the bicelles. However, because DMPE-DTPA has the tendency to accumulate at the highly curved edge region of the bicelles and if located there does not contribute to the magnetic orientation energy, we have tested cholesterol-DTPA complexed with thulium ions (Tm(3+)) as an alternative chelator to increase the magnetic alignability. Differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) measurements indicate the successful integration of cholesterol-DTPA into a DMPC (1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine) bilayer. Cryo transmission electron microscopy and small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) measurements show that the disklike structure, that is, bicelles, is maintained if cholesterol-DTPA·Tm(3+) is integrated into a mixture of DMPC, cholesterol, and DMPE-DTPA·Tm(3+). The size of the bicelles is increased compared to the size of the bicelles obtained from mixtures without cholesterol-DTPA·Tm(3+). Magnetic-field-induced birefringence and SANS measurements in a magnetic field show that with addition of cholesterol-DTPA·Tm(3+) the magnetic alignability of these bicelles is significantly increased compared to bicelles composed of DMPC, cholesterol, and DMPE-DTPA·Tm(3+) only.

  18. Aragonite–calcite–vaterite: A temperature influenced sequential polymorphic transformation of CaCO{sub 3} in the presence of DTPA

    SciTech Connect

    Gopi, Shanmukhaprasad; Subramanian, V.K.; Palanisamy, K.

    2013-05-15

    Highlights: ► Crystallization of CaCO{sub 3} between 60 and 230 °C in the presence of DTPA. ► Formation of exclusive and individual polymorphs at different temperatures. ► Violation of second law of thermodynamics/Ostwald rule of stages has been observed. - Abstract: Calcium carbonate was precipitated from calcium chloride using sodium carbonate in the presence of diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) between 60 and 230 °C. The samples were characterized by FTIR, Raman, XRD and SEM techniques. CaCO{sub 3} with different crystal morphologies such as spherolite/datura pod, dumbbell, peanut, were obtained depending on the experimental conditions. The results showed that pure aragonite, calcite and vaterite were formed at low, moderate and high temperatures respectively. A binary mixture of calcite and vaterite was resulted between 150 and 200 °C. The data suggested an unusual conversion of stable calcite to meta stable vaterite at higher temperature in presence of DTPA. The study revealed a novel methodology for the exclusive/individual preparation of different crystalline polymorphs of CaCO{sub 3}. Formation of pure vaterite above 200 °C divulged the possibility of DTPA as a potential scale inhibitor and boiler sludge conditioner at elevated temperatures.

  19. Variability in soil micronutrients extracted by DTPA and Mehlich-3 at the plot scale in an acidic environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paz-Ferreiro, Jorge; Lado, Marcos; de Abreu, Cleide A.

    2014-05-01

    Land use practices affect soil properties and nutrient supply. Very limited data are available on micronutrient extractability in northwest Spain. The aim of this study was to analyse long-term effects of land use on the concentration, variability and spatial distribution of soil nutrients. To this end, neighboring forest and cultivated stands were compared. The study was carried out in an acid, rich in organic matter soil developed over sediments at the province of Lugo, northwestern of Spain. Adjacent plots with a surface of 100 m2 were marked on regular square grids with 2-m spacing. Fe, Mn, Zn and Cu were extracted both by Mehlich-3 and DTPA solutions and determined by ICP-MS. General soil chemical and physical properties were routinely analyzed. In arable land, microelement concentration ranges were as follows: Fe (100 and 135 mg kg-1), Mn (7.6 and 21.5 mg kg-1), Zn (0.6 and 3.7 mg kg-1), and Cu (0.2 and 0.7 mg kg-1). In forest land, these ranges were: Fe (62 and 309 mg kg-1), Mn (0.2 and 2.1 mg kg-1), Zn (0.2 and 2.9 mg kg-1), and Cu (0.1 and 0.2 mg kg-1). With the exception of Fe-DTPA, microelement concentrations extracted both with DTPA and Mehlich-3 were higher in the cultivated than in the forest stand. Coefficients of variation were higher for the microelement content of the soil under forest. Principal component analysis was performed to evaluate associations between extractable microelements and general physico-chemical properties. At the studied scale, nutrient management was the main factor affecting the agricultural site, whereas soil-plant interactions were probably responsible for the higher variation within the forest site. Patterns of spatial variability of the studied nutrients at the small plot scale also were assessed by geostatistical techniques. Results were discussed in the frame of sustainable land use and organic matter decline with conventional tillage and sustainable land use

  20. Diethylentriaminepenta acetic acid glucose conjugates as a cell permeable iron chelator

    PubMed Central

    Mosayebnia, Mona; Shafiee-Ardestani, Mehdi; Pasalar, Parvin; Mashayekhi, Mojgan; Amanlou, Massoud

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To find out whether DTPA-DG complex can enhance clearance of intracellular free iron. Materials and Methods: Diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid-D-deoxy-glucosamine (DTPA-DG) was synthesized and examined for its activity as a cell-permeable iron chelator in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HEPG2) cell line exposed to high concentration of iron sulfate and compared with deferoxamine (DFO), a prototype iron chelator. The effect of DTPA-DG on cell viability was monitored using the 3-(4,5-dimethythiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide MTT assay as well. Results: There was a significant increase of iron level after iron overload induction in HEPG2 cell culture. DTPA-DG presented a remarkable capacity to iron burden reducing with estimated 50% inhibitory concentration value of 65.77 nM. In fact, glycosyl moiety was gained access of DTPA to intracellular iron deposits through glucose transporter systems. Conclusion: DTPA-DG, more potent than DFO to sequester deposits of free iron with no profound toxic effect. The results suggest the potential of DTPA-DG in chelating iron and permitting its excretion from primary organ storage. PMID:24554907

  1. Orally Administered DTPA Di-ethyl Ester for Decorporation of 241Am in dogs: Assessment of Safety and Efficacy in an Inhalation-Contamination Model

    PubMed Central

    Huckle, James E.; Sadgrove, Matthew P.; Pacyniak, Erik; Leed, Marina G. D.; Weber, Waylon M.; Doyle-Eisele, Melanie; Guilmette, Raymond A.; Agha, Bushra J.; Susick, Robert L.; Mumper, Russell J.; Jay, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Currently two injectable products of diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) are U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved for decorporation of 241Am, however, an oral product is considered more amenable in a mass casualty situation. The diethyl ester of DTPA, named C2E2, is being developed as an oral drug for treatment of internal radionuclide contamination. Materials and methods Single dose decorporation efficacy of C2E2 administered 24-hours post contamination was determined in beagle dogs using a 241Am nitrate inhalation contamination model. Single and multiple dose toxicity studies in beagle dogs were performed as part of an initial safety assessment program. In addition, the genotoxic potential of C2E2 was evaluated by the in vitro bacterial reverse mutation Ames test, mammalian cell chromosome aberration cytogenetic assay and an in vivo micronucleus test. Results Oral administration of C2E2 significantly increased 241Am elimination over untreated controls and significantly reduced the retention of 241Am in tissues, especially liver, kidney, lung and bone. Daily dosing of 200 mg/kg/day for 10 days was well tolerated in dogs. C2E2 was found to be neither mutagenic or clastogenic. Conclusions The di-ethyl ester of DTPA (C2E2) was shown to effectively enhance the elimination of 241Am after oral administration in a dog inhalation-contamination model and was well tolerated in toxicity studies. PMID:25912343

  2. Gd-DTPA-Dopamine-Bisphytanyl Amphiphile: Synthesis, Characterisation and Relaxation Parameters of the Nanoassemblies and Their Potential as MRI Contrast Agents.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Abhishek; Willis, Scott A; Waddington, Lynne J; Stait-Gardner, Tim; de Campo, Liliana; Hwang, Dennis W; Kirby, Nigel; Price, William S; Moghaddam, Minoo J

    2015-09-28

    Here, a new amphiphilic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agent, a Gd(III)-chelated diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid conjugated to two branched alkyl chains via a dopamine spacer, Gd-DTPA-dopamine-bisphytanyl (Gd-DTPA-Dop-Phy), which is readily capable of self-assembling into liposomal nanoassemblies upon dispersion in an aqueous solution, is reported. In vitro relaxivities of the dispersions were found to be much higher than Magnevist, a commercially available contrast agent, at 0.47 T but comparable at 9.40 T. Analysis of variable temperature (17)O NMR transverse relaxation measurements revealed the water exchange of the nanoassemblies to be faster than that previously reported for paramagnetic liposomes. Molecular reorientation dynamics were probed by (1)H NMRD profiles using a classical inner and outer sphere relaxation model and a Lipari-Szabo "model-free" approach. High payloads of Gd(III) ions in the liposomal nanoassemblies made solely from the Gd-DTPA-Dop-Phy amphiphiles, in combination with slow molecular reorientation and fast water exchange makes this novel amphiphile a suitable candidate to be investigated as an advanced MRI contrast agent.

  3. Complexation of Curium(III) with DTPA at 10–70 °C: Comparison with Eu(III)–DTPA in Thermodynamics, Luminescence, and Coordination Modes

    SciTech Connect

    Tian, Guoxin; Zhang, Zhiyong; Martin, Leigh R.; Rao, Linfeng

    2015-02-16

    Separation of trivalent actinides (An(III)) from trivalent lanthanides (Ln(III)) is a challenging task because of their nearly identical chemical properties. Diethylenetriaminepentaacetate (DTPA), a key reagent used in the TALSPEAK process that effectively separates An(III) from Ln(III), is believed to play a critical role in the An(III)/Ln(III) separation. However, the underlying principles for the separation based on the difference in the complexation of DTPA with An(III) and Ln(III) remain unclear. In this work, the complexation of DTPA with Cm(III) at 10-70 ºC was investigated by spectrophotometry, luminescence spectroscopy, and microcalorimetry, in conjunction with computational methods. The binding strength, the enthalpy of complexation, the coordination modes, and the luminescence properties are compared between the Cm(III)-DTPA and Eu(III)-DTPA systems. The experimental and computational data have demonstrated that the difference between Cm(III) and Eu(III) in the binding strength with DTPA can be attributed to the stronger covalence bonding between Cm(III) and the nitrogen donors of DTPA.

  4. Localization of neurofibromas by scanning with technetium-99m diethylene triamine-pentacetic acid (Tc-99 DTPA)

    SciTech Connect

    Mandell, G.A.; Herrick, W.C.; Harcke, H.T.; Sharkey, C.; Brooks, K.; MacEwen, G.D.

    1985-05-01

    Tc-99m DTPA is commonly utilized to evaluate renal function. Reports of a uterine myoma and a soft tissue sarcoma accumulating this radiopharmaceutical have also appeared in the literature. The authors have observed the affinity for plexiform as well as well circumscribed soft tissue tumors of neurofibromatosis for Tc-99m DTPA. In a series of 16 patients with clinical stigmata of neurofibromatosis, twenty-eight sites of abnormal soft tissue localization of the isotope were documented by clinical and radiographic (predominantly CT) correlation. The best visualization of the tumors occurred 1 to 3 hours post-injection of the radiopharmaceutical. Multiple images (150,000 to 500,000 counts) of areas suspected of having neurofibromatous involvement were obtained. Several unsuspected lesions were recognized. Similar images obtained in sixteen control patients showed no similar soft tissue localization. The smallest lesion detected was a 1.5-centimeter subcutaneous neurofibroma. The mechanism for selectivity of neurofibroma for Tc-99m DTPA does not appear to be related to hypervascularity or necrosis. Time activity curves of several lesions demonstrate gradual increase in their activity pointing to cellular uptake or stasis within the tumor as possible explanations. The significance of this observation relates to easy mapping of lesions with minimal radiation. Important implications of this discovery include sequential evaluation of tumor growth and detection of unsuspected lesions.

  5. The protective effect of amifostine on radiation-induced acute pulmonary toxicity: Detection by {sup 99m}Tc-DTPA transalveolar clearances

    SciTech Connect

    Uzal, Cem . E-mail: cemuzal@yahoo.com; Durmus-Altun, Gulay; Caloglu, Murat; Erguelen, Alev; Altaner, Semsi; Yigitbasi, N. Omer

    2004-10-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine by using {sup 99m}Tc-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) lung scintigraphy whether amifostine given before irradiation protects alveolocapillary integrity in a rabbit model. Methods and materials: Twenty white New Zealand rabbits were randomly divided into 4 groups: (1) control (CONT), (2) amifostine alone (AMF), (3) radiation (RAD), and (4) radiation plus amifostine (RAD+AMF). The AMF and RAD+AMF groups received amifostine. The RAD and RAD+AMF groups were irradiated to the right hemithorax with a single dose of 20 Gy using a {sup 60}Co treatment unit. Amifostine (200 mg/kg) was given i.p. 30 min before irradiation. The {sup 99m}Tc-DTPA radioaerosol study was performed 14 day after irradiation. Results: The mean clearance rate of {sup 99m}Tc-DTPA in control subjects was 140 {+-} 21 min. The highest t{sub 1}/2 value was noted in the RAD group (603 {+-} 105 min, p = 0.001). There were no significant differences between the {sup 99m}Tc-DTPA lung clearance rates of the CONT, RAD+AMF (238 {+-} 24 min), and AMF groups (227 {+-} 54 min). The mean penetration index values of CONT, RAD, AMF, and RAD+AMF are 63% {+-} 1.6%, 63% {+-} 2.5%, 60% {+-} 2.9%, and 63% {+-} 2%, respectively. Conclusions: We concluded that amifostine treatment before the lung irradiation protects the lung alveolocapillary integrity. This study confirms the protective effect of amifostine in an acute phase of radiation lung injury.

  6. Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI for evaluation of liver function: Comparison between signal-intensity-based indices and T1 relaxometry

    PubMed Central

    Haimerl, Michael; Verloh, Niklas; Zeman, Florian; Fellner, Claudia; Nickel, Dominik; Lang, Sven A.; Teufel, Andreas; Stroszczynski, Christian; Wiggermann, Philipp

    2017-01-01

    Gadolinium ethoxybenzyl-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (Gd-EOB-DTPA) is a paramagnetic hepatobiliary magnetic resonance (MR) contrast agent. Due to its OATP1B1/B3-dependent hepatocyte-specific uptake and paramagnetic properties increasing evidence has emerged to suggest that Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI can be potentially used for evaluation of liver function. In this paper we compare the diagnostic performance of Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced relaxometry-based and commonly used signal-intensity (SI)-based indices, including the hepatocellular uptake index (HUI) and SI-based indices corrected by spleen or muscle, for evaluation of liver function, determined using the Indocyanin green clearance (ICG) test. Simple linear regression model showed a significant correlation of the plasma disappearance rate of ICG (ICG-PDR) with all Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI-based liver function indices with a significantly better correlation of relaxometry-based indices on ICG-PDR compared to SI-based indices. Among SI-based indices, HUI achieved best correlation on ICG-PDR and no significant difference of respective correlations on ICG-PDR could be shown. Assessment of liver volume and consecutive evaluation of multiple linear regression model revealed a stronger correlation of ICG-PDR with both (SI)-based and T1 relaxometry-based indices. Thus, liver function can be estimated quantitatively from Gd-EOB-DTPA–enhanced MRI-based indices. Here, indices derived from T1 relaxometry are superior to SI-based indices, and all indices benefit from taking into account respective liver volumes. PMID:28266528

  7. Multi-functional chitosan nanoparticles encapsulating quantum dots and Gd-DTPA as imaging probes for bio-applications.

    PubMed

    Tan, Wee Beng; Zhang, Yong

    2007-07-01

    Chitosan was used to encapsulate both CdSe/ZnS quantum dots (QDs) and the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agent gadolinium-diethylenetriaminepentaacetate (Gd-DTPA), forming multi-functional nanoparticles that can be used in a wide range of in vitro or in vivo studies as fluorescent biological labels as well as MRI contrast agents, respectively. Multi-color QDs at pre-determined molar ratios were encapsulated into chitosan nanoparticles to produce bar-coding fluorescent labels. The encapsulated QDs and Gd-DTPA still maintained their desirable optical properties and relatively high relaxivity, respectively. The chitosan nanoparticles also showed good aqueous stability and enhanced biocompatibility on myoblast cells.

  8. ¹¹¹In-Bn-DTPA-nimotuzumab with/without modification with nuclear translocation sequence (NLS) peptides: an Auger electron-emitting radioimmunotherapeutic agent for EGFR-positive and trastuzumab (Herceptin)-resistant breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Fasih, Aisha; Fonge, Humphrey; Cai, Zhongli; Leyton, Jeffrey V; Tikhomirov, Ilia; Done, Susan J; Reilly, Raymond M

    2012-08-01

    Increased expression of epidermal growth factor receptors (EGFR) in breast cancer (BC) is often associated with trastuzumab (Herceptin)-resistant forms of the disease and represents an attractive target for novel therapies. Nimotuzumab is a humanized IgG(1) monoclonal antibody that is in clinical trials for treatment of EGFR-overexpressing malignancies. We show here that nimotuzumab derivatized with benzylisothiocyanate diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid for labelling with the subcellular range Auger electron-emitter, (111)In and modified with nuclear translocation sequence (NLS) peptides ((111)In-NLS-Bn-DTPA-nimotuzumab) was bound, internalized and transported to the nucleus of EGFR-positive BC cells. Emission of Auger electrons in close proximity to the nucleus caused multiple DNA double-strand breaks which diminished the clonogenic survival (CS) of MDA-MB-468 cells that have high EGFR density (2.4 × 10(6) receptors/cell) to less than 3 %. (111)In-Bn-DTPA-nimotuzumab without NLS peptide modification was sevenfold less effective for killing MDA-MB-468 cells. (111)In-Bn-DTPA-nimotuzumab with/without NLS peptide modification were equivalently cytotoxic to MDA-MB-231 and TrR1 BC cells that have moderate EGFR density (5.4 × 10(5) or 4.2 × 10(5) receptors/cell, respectively) reducing their CS by twofold. MDA-MB-231 cells have intrinsic trastuzumab resistance due to low HER2 density, whereas TrR1 cells have acquired resistance despite HER2 overexpression. Biodistribution and microSPECT/CT imaging revealed that (111)In-NLS-Bn-DTPA-nimotuzumab exhibited more rapid elimination from the blood and lower tumour uptake than (111)In-Bn-DTPA-nimotuzumab. Tumour uptake of the radioimmunoconjugates in mice with MDA-MB-468 xenografts was high (8-16 % injected dose/g) and was blocked by administration of an excess of unlabelled nimotuzumab, demonstrating EGFR specificity. We conclude that (111)In-Bn-DTPA-nimotuzumab with/without NLS peptide modification are promising Auger

  9. Solution structure and dynamics of lanthanide complexes of the macrocyclic polyamino carboxylate DTPA-dien. NMR study and crystal structures of the lanthanum(III) and europium(III) complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Franklin, S.J.; Raymond, K.N.

    1994-12-07

    An 18-membered macrocyclic DTPA-bis(amide) ligand (DTPA = diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid) containing a heteroatom in the amide link has been prepared via the condensation of DTPA-dianhydride and diethylenetriamine. The solution structures of the two isomeric pairs present in the Ln(III) complexes of DTPA-dien have been investigated by {sup 1}H NMR. The structures of the lanthanum(III) and europium(III) DTPA-dien complexes have been determined by X-ray analysis. [La(DTPA-dienH{sup +})H{sub 2}O]{sub 2}(CF{sub 3}SO{sub 3}{sup -}){sub 2}{center_dot}18H{sub 2}O (I) crystallizes as a carboxylate-bridged dimer about a center of inversion in the orthorhombic space group Pbca with a = 12.626(2) {angstrom}, b = 21.405(3) {angstrom}, c = 26.422(9) {angstrom}, and Z = 8. Each lanthanum ion is 11-coordinate with octadentate ligand coordination, an {eta}{sup 2} bridging carboxylate, and one water. [Eu(DTPA-dienH{sup +})]{sub 4}(CF{sub 3}SO{sub 3}{sup -}){sub 4}{center_dot}6NaCF{sub 3}SO{sub 3}{center_dot}20H{sub 2}O (II) crystallizes as a carboxylate-bridged tetramer with two crystallographically independent Eu(III) positions (Z = 8 for each) in the monoclinic space group C2/c: a = 30.94(1) {angstrom}, b = 23.456(3) {angstrom}, c = 22.611(4) {angstrom}, {beta} = 105.78(2){degrees}. The coordination geometries about Eu1 and Eu2 are nearly identical and are described as a nine-coordinate tricapped trigonal prism with octadentate ligand coordination plus an {eta}{sup 1} bridging carboxylate. The tendency to oligomerize is attributed to the constraints imposed by the macrocycle and the hydrogen bonding available with the link heteroatom. The structural differences between the two complexes are attributed to a difference in La(III) and Eu(III) ionic size.

  10. Adsorption characteristics of Ni(II) onto MA-DTPA/PVDF chelating membrane.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xiaodan; Song, Laizhou; Fu, Jie; Tang, Pei; Liu, Feng

    2011-05-30

    The melamine-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid/polyvinylidene fluoride (MA-DTPA/PVDF) chelating membrane bearing polyaminecarboxylate groups was prepared for the removal of Ni(II) from wastewater effluents. The membrane was characterized by SEM, (13)C NMR and FTIR techniques. Quantitative adsorption experiments were performed in view of pH, contact time, temperature, the presence of Ca(II) and lactic acid as the controlling parameters. Adsorption kinetics and equilibrium were examined regarding the single Ni(II) system, binary Ni(II) and Ca(II) system and nickel-lactic acid complexes system. The desorption efficiency was also evaluated, and the adsorption mechanism was suggested based on experimental data. The results show that the sorption kinetics fit well to Lagergren second-order equation and the isotherms can be well described by Langmuir model. At 298 K, the second-order rate constant is calculated to be 4.171, 11.39, 6.203 cm(2)/(mg min) and the equilibrium uptake is 0.0264, 0.0211 and 0.0216 mg/cm(2) in the aforementioned three systems. The distribution coefficient of Ni(II) slowly decreases from 4.27 to 2.72, and the separation factor (f(Ni(II)/Ca(II))) increases from 3.10 to 8.46 when the initial Ca(II) concentration varies from 20 to 200mg/L. This reveals the chelating membrane shows more affinity for Ni(II) than Ca(II) ions. In the studied range of lactic acid concentration, Ni(II) uptake decreases with the maximum ratio of 10%. Chemical bonding (chelation) dominates in the adsorption process, and the negative ΔG° and ΔH° indicate the spontaneous and exothermic nature of adsorption.

  11. Calcium and zinc DTPA administration for internal contamination with plutonium-238 and americium-241.

    PubMed

    Kazzi, Ziad N; Heyl, Alexander; Ruprecht, Johann

    2012-08-01

    The accidental or intentional release of plutonium or americium can cause acute and long term adverse health effects if they enter the human body by ingestion, inhalation, or injection. These effects can be prevented by rapid removal of these radionuclides by chelators such as calcium or zinc diethylenetriaminepentaacetate (calcium or zinc DTPA). These compounds have been shown to be efficacious in enhancing the elimination of members of the actinide family particularly plutonium and americium when administered intravenously or by nebulizer. The efficacy and adverse effects profile depend on several factors that include the route of internalization of the actinide, the type, and route time of administration of the chelator, and whether the calcium or zinc salt of DTPA is used. Current and future research efforts should be directed at overcoming limitations associated with the use of these complex drugs by using innovative methods that can enhance their structural and therapeutic properties.

  12. A simplified determination of glomerular filtration rate with 99Tcm-DTPA.

    PubMed

    Galli, G; Rufini, V; Meduri, G

    1994-10-01

    Using 99Tcm-diethylenetriaminepentaacetate (DTPA) an acceptable estimate of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) can be obtained in adult patients by the equation GF (ml/min) = (0.14 x W + 5) x 1000 x k, where W is the 'ideal' body mass (kg) and k the slope determined by two plasma samples. This has been verified in comparison with the results of the Russell (two samples) and Christensen (one sample) methods in 50 patients. The procedure, which does not require determination of the injected dose, could be useful in patients undergoing sequential renal scintigraphy with 99Tcm-DTPA, for example, to check a doubtful value of glomerular filtration obtained by external counting.

  13. DTPA complexation of bismuth in human blood serum.

    PubMed

    Montavon, G; Le Du, A; Champion, J; Rabung, T; Morgenstern, A

    2012-07-28

    The in vivo(212)Pb/(212)Bi generator is promising for application in targeted alpha therapy (TAT) of cancer. One main limitation of its therapeutic application is due to potential release of (212)Bi from the radioconjugate upon radioactive decay of the mother nuclide (212)Pb, potentially leading to irradiation of healthy tissue. The objective of the present work is to assess whether the chelate CHX-A''-DTPA (N-(2-aminoethyl)-trans-1,2-diaminocyclohexane-N,N',N''-pentaacetic acid) bound to a biological carrier molecule may be able to re-complex released (212)Bi under in vivo conditions to limit its translocation from the target site. CHX-A''-DTPA was bound to bovine gamma globulin (BGG) to mimic a model conjugate and the stability of the Bi-CHX-A''-DTPA-BGG conjugate was studied in blood serum by ultrafiltration. TRLFS experiments using Cm(III) as a fluorescent probe demonstrated that linking CHX-A''-DTPA to BGG does not affect the coordination properties of the ligand. Furthermore, comparable stability constants were observed between Bi(III) and free CHX-A''-DTPA, BGG-bound CHX-A''-DTPA and DTPA. The complexation constants determined between Bi(III) and the chelate molecules are sufficiently high to allow ultra trace amounts of the ligand to efficiently compete with serum transferrin controlling Bi(III) speciation in blood plasma conditions. Nevertheless, CHX-A''-DTPA is not able to complex Bi(III) generated in blood serum because of the strong competition between Bi(III) and Fe(II) for the ligand. In other words, CHX-A''-DTPA is not "selective" enough to limit Bi(iii) release in the body when applying the (212)Pb/(212)Bi in vivo generator.

  14. Gastrointestinal transit measurements in mice with 99mTc-DTPA-labeled activated charcoal using NanoSPECT-CT

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Gastrointestinal (GI) disorders are commonly associated with chronic conditions such as diabetes, obesity, and hypertension. Direct consequences are obstipation or diarrhea as opposite aspects of the irritable bowel syndrome, and more indirectly, alteration of appetite, feeling of fullness, flatulence, bloatedness, and eventually leading to altered absorption of nutrients. Moreover, GI retention and passage times have been recognized as important factors in determining the release site and hence the bioavailability of orally administered drugs. To facilitate the understanding of physiological and pathological processes involved, it is necessary to monitor the gut motility in animal models. Here, we describe a method for studying the GI transit time using technetium-labeled activated charcoal diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (99mTc-Ch-DTPA) detected by single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Methods Tc-DTPA was adsorbed onto activated charcoal and administered orally to trypan blue-tainted (n = 4) 129SvEv mice (50 to 80 MBq/animal, n = 11). The exact distribution and movement of radioactivity in the gastrointestinal tract was measured at intervals of 1, 3, 6, 12, and 22 h by SPECT-CT. In addition, in order to validate the imaging of GI transient time, loperamide (0.25 mg/animal, n = 3) was used to delay the GI transit. Results The transit time measured as the peak radioactivity occurring in the rectum was 6 to 7 h after gavaging of 99mTc-Ch-DTPA. After 1 h, the bolus had passed into the small intestine and entered the cecum and the colon. At 6 and 8 h, the cecum, the ascending, transverse, and descending colon, and the rectum showed significant labeling. Several pellets were stored in the rectum for defecation. After 22 h, little activity remained in the stomach and none was detected in the transverse colon or other GI locations. In contrast, 6 h after administration of loperamide, only the cecum and part of the transverse colon were labeled

  15. Chlorophyll-a analogues conjugated with aminobenzyl-DTPA as potential bifunctional agents for magnetic resonance imaging and photodynamic therapy.

    PubMed

    Li, Guolin; Slansky, Adam; Dobhal, Mahabeer P; Goswami, Lalit N; Graham, Andrew; Chen, Yihui; Kanter, Peter; Alberico, Ronald A; Spernyak, Joseph; Morgan, Janet; Mazurchuk, Richard; Oseroff, Allan; Grossman, Zachary; Pandey, Ravindra K

    2005-01-01

    A clinically relevant photosensitizer, 3-devinyl-3-(1-hexyloxyethyl)pyropheophorbide-a (HPPH, a chlorophyll-a derivative), was conjugated with Gd(III)-aminobenzyl-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA), an experimental magnetic resonance (MR) imaging agent. In vivo reflectance spectroscopy confirmed tumor uptake of HPPH-aminobenzyl-Gd(III)-DTPA conjugate was higher than free HPPH administered intraveneously (iv) to C3H mice with subcutaneously (sc) implanted radiation-induced fibrosarcoma (RIF) tumor cells. In other experiments, Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats with sc implanted Ward Colon Carcinoma cells yielded markedly increased MR signal intensities from tumor regions-of-interest (ROIs) 24 h post-iv injection of HPPH-aminobenzyl-Gd(III)-DTPA conjugate as compared to unconjugated HPPH. In both in vitro (RIF tumor cells) and in vivo (mice bearing RIF tumors and rats bearing Ward Colon tumors) the conjugate produced significant increases in tumor conspicuity at 1.5 T and retained therapeutic efficacy following PDT. Also synthesized were a series of novel bifunctional agents containing two Gd(III) atoms per HPPH molecule that remained tumor-avid and PDT-active and yielded improved MR tumor conspicuity compared to their corresponding mono-Gd(III) analogues. Administered iv at a MR imaging dose of 10 micromol/kg, these conjugates produced severe skin phototoxicity. However, by replacing the hexyl group of the pyropheophorbide-a with a tri(ethylene glycol) monomethyl ether (PEG-methyl ether), these conjugates produced remarkable MR tumor enhancement at 8 h post-iv injection, significant tumoricidal activity (80% of mice were tumor-free on day 90), and reduced skin phototoxicity compared to their corresponding hexyl ether analogues. The poor water-solubility characteristic of these conjugates was resolved by incorporation into a liposomal formulation. This paper presents the synthesis of tumor-avid contrast enhancing agents for MR imaging and thus represents an important

  16. Spectroscopic studies on interaction of BSA and Eu(III) complexes with H5ph-dtpa and H5dtpa ligands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Deyong; Qin, Cui; Fan, Ping; Li, Bing; Wang, Jun

    2015-04-01

    An novel aromatic aminopolycarboxylic acid ligand, N-(2-N,N-Dicarboxymethylaminophenyl) ethylenediamine-N,N‧,N‧-triacetic acid (H5ph-dtpa), was synthesized by improving experimental method and its corresponding Eu(III) complex, Na2[EuIII(ph-dtpa)(H2O)]·6H2O, was successfully prepared through heat-refluxing method. As a comparison, the Eu(III) complex with diethylenetriamine-N,N,N‧,N‧,N″-pentaacetic acid (H5dtpa) ligand, Na2[EuIII(dtpa)(H2O)]·6H2O, was also prepared by the same method. And then, the interaction between prepared Eu(III) complexes ([EuIII(dtpa)(H2O)]2- and [EuIII(ph-dtpa)(H2O)]2-) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) in aqueous solution were studied by the combination of ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis), fluorescence and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopies. In addition, the binding sites of Eu(III) complexes ([EuIII(dtpa)(H2O)]2- and [EuIII(ph-dtpa)(H2O)]2-) to BSA molecules were also estimated by synchronous fluorescence. Moreover, the theoretical and experimental results show that the Van der Waals, hydrogen bond and π-π stacking interactions are the mainly impulse to the reaction. The binding distances (r) between Eu(III) complexes ([EuIII(dtpa)(H2O)]2- and [EuIII(ph-dtpa)(H2O)]2-) and BSA were obtained according to Förster's non-radiative energy transfer theory. Also, the determined UV-vis absorption spectroscopy, synchronous fluorescence and circular dichroism (CD) spectra showed that the conformation of BSA could be changed in the presence of Eu(III) complexes. The obtained results can help understand the action mode between rare earth metal complexes of aminopolycarboxylic acid ligands with BSA and they are also expected to provide important information of designs of new inspired drugs.

  17. Spectroscopic studies on interaction of BSA and Eu(III) complexes with H5ph-dtpa and H5dtpa ligands.

    PubMed

    Kong, Deyong; Qin, Cui; Fan, Ping; Li, Bing; Wang, Jun

    2015-04-05

    An novel aromatic aminopolycarboxylic acid ligand, N-(2-N,N-Dicarboxymethylaminophenyl) ethylenediamine-N,N',N'-triacetic acid (H5ph-dtpa), was synthesized by improving experimental method and its corresponding Eu(III) complex, Na2[EuIII(ph-dtpa)(H2O)]·6H2O, was successfully prepared through heat-refluxing method. As a comparison, the Eu(III) complex with diethylenetriamine-N,N,N',N',N″-pentaacetic acid (H5dtpa) ligand, Na2[Eu(III)(dtpa)(H2O)]·6H2O, was also prepared by the same method. And then, the interaction between prepared Eu(III) complexes ([EuIII(dtpa)(H2O)]2- and [EuIII(ph-dtpa)(H2O)]2-) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) in aqueous solution were studied by the combination of ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis), fluorescence and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopies. In addition, the binding sites of Eu(III) complexes ([EuIII(dtpa)(H2O)]2- and [EuIII(ph-dtpa)(H2O)]2-) to BSA molecules were also estimated by synchronous fluorescence. Moreover, the theoretical and experimental results show that the Van der Waals, hydrogen bond and π-π stacking interactions are the mainly impulse to the reaction. The binding distances (r) between Eu(III) complexes ([EuIII(dtpa)(H2O)]2- and [EuIII(ph-dtpa)(H2O)]2-) and BSA were obtained according to Förster's non-radiative energy transfer theory. Also, the determined UV-vis absorption spectroscopy, synchronous fluorescence and circular dichroism (CD) spectra showed that the conformation of BSA could be changed in the presence of Eu(III) complexes. The obtained results can help understand the action mode between rare earth metal complexes of aminopolycarboxylic acid ligands with BSA and they are also expected to provide important information of designs of new inspired drugs.

  18. Comparison of Renal Function between Robot-Assisted and Open Partial Nephrectomy as Determined by Tc 99m-DTPA Renal Scintigraphy

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    We compared postoperative renal function impairment between patients undergoing robot-assisted partial nephrectomy (RAPN) and those undergoing open partial nephrectomy (OPN) by using Tc-99m diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) renal scintigraphy. Patients who underwent partial nephrectomy by a single surgeon between 2007 and 2013 were eligible and were matched by propensity score, based on age, tumor size, exophytic properties of tumor, and location relative to the polar lines. Of the 403 patients who underwent partial nephrectomy, 114 (28%) underwent RAPN and 289 (72%) underwent OPN. Mean follow-up duration was 35.2 months. Following propensity matching, there were no significant differences between the two groups in tumor exophytic properties (P = 0.818) or nephrometry score (P = 0.527). Renal ischemic time (24.4 minutes vs. 17.8 minutes, P < 0.001) was significantly longer in the RAPN group than in the OPN group, while the other characteristics were similar. Multivariate analysis showed that greater preoperative renal unit function (P = 0.011) and nephrometry score (P = 0.041) were independently correlated with a reduction in glomerular filtration rate. The operative method did not correlate with renal function impairment (P = 0.704). Postoperative renal function impairment was similar between patients who underwent OPN and those who underwent RAPN, despite RAPN having a longer ischemic time. PMID:27134496

  19. Comparison of Renal Function between Robot-Assisted and Open Partial Nephrectomy as Determined by Tc 99m-DTPA Renal Scintigraphy.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chanwoo; Kwon, Taekmin; Yoo, Sangjun; Jung, Jaeyoon; Lee, Chunwoo; You, Dalsan; Jeong, In Gab; Kim, Choung-Soo

    2016-05-01

    We compared postoperative renal function impairment between patients undergoing robot-assisted partial nephrectomy (RAPN) and those undergoing open partial nephrectomy (OPN) by using Tc-99m diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) renal scintigraphy. Patients who underwent partial nephrectomy by a single surgeon between 2007 and 2013 were eligible and were matched by propensity score, based on age, tumor size, exophytic properties of tumor, and location relative to the polar lines. Of the 403 patients who underwent partial nephrectomy, 114 (28%) underwent RAPN and 289 (72%) underwent OPN. Mean follow-up duration was 35.2 months. Following propensity matching, there were no significant differences between the two groups in tumor exophytic properties (P = 0.818) or nephrometry score (P = 0.527). Renal ischemic time (24.4 minutes vs. 17.8 minutes, P < 0.001) was significantly longer in the RAPN group than in the OPN group, while the other characteristics were similar. Multivariate analysis showed that greater preoperative renal unit function (P = 0.011) and nephrometry score (P = 0.041) were independently correlated with a reduction in glomerular filtration rate. The operative method did not correlate with renal function impairment (P = 0.704). Postoperative renal function impairment was similar between patients who underwent OPN and those who underwent RAPN, despite RAPN having a longer ischemic time.

  20. Influence of DTPA Treatment on Internal Dose Estimates.

    PubMed

    Davesne, Estelle; Blanchardon, Eric; Peleau, Bernadette; Correze, Philippe; Bohand, Sandra; Franck, Didier

    2016-06-01

    In case of internal contamination with plutonium materials, a treatment with diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA) can be administered in order to reduce plutonium body burden and consequently avoid some radiation dose. DTPA intravenous injections or inhalation can start almost immediately after intake, in parallel with urinary and fecal bioassay sampling for dosimetric follow-up. However, urine and feces excretion will be significantly enhanced by the DTPA treatment. As internal dose is calculated from bioassay results, the DTPA effect on excretion has to be taken into account. A common method to correct bioassay data is to divide it by a factor representing the excretion enhancement under DTPA treatment by intravenous injection. Its value may be based on a nominal reference or observed after a break in the treatment. The aim of this study was to estimate the influence of this factor on internal dose by comparing the dose estimated using default or upper and lower values of the enhancement factor for 11 contamination cases. The observed upper and lower values of the enhancement factor were 18.7 and 63.0 for plutonium and 24.9 and 28.8 for americium. For americium, a default factor of 25 is proposed. This work demonstrates that the use of a default DTPA enhancement factor allows the determination of the magnitude of the contamination because dose estimated could vary by a factor of 2 depending on the value of the individual DTPA enhancement factor. In case of significant intake, an individual enhancement factor should be determined to obtain a more reliable dose assessment.

  1. Comparative biodistribution of potential anti-glioblastoma conjugates [111In]DTPA-hEGF and [111In]Bz-DTPA-hEGF in normal mice.

    PubMed

    Tolmachev, Vladimir; Orlova, Anna; Wei, Qichun; Bruskin, Alexander; Carlsson, Jörgen; Gedda, Lars

    2004-08-01

    EGF-receptors (EGFR) are overexpressed in gliomas, as well as in tumors of breast, lung, and urinary bladder. For this reason, EGFR may be an attractive target for both visualization and therapy of malignant tumors using radioactive nuclides. Natural ligand of EGFR, epidermal growth factor (EGF) is a small 53-amino-acid protein. Low molecular weight of EGF may enable better intratumoral penetration in comparison to antibodies. [111In]DTPA-EGF was proposed for the targeting of glioblastoma and breast cancer, and its tumor-seeking properties were confirmed in animal studies. The aim of this study was to evaluate how the substitution of heptadentate DTPA for octadentate benzyl-DTPA (Bz-DTPA) effects the biodistribution of indium-labeled human EGF (hEGF) in normal NMRI mice. [111In]DTPA-hEGF and [111In]Bz-DTPA-hEGF, obtained by the coupling of ITC-benzyl-DTPA to hEGF, were injected into the tail vein. At 0.5, 1, 4, and 24 hours postinjection, the animals were sacrificed, and radioactivity in different organs was measured. The blood clearance of both conjugates was fast. The uptake of both conjugates in the liver, spleen, stomach, pancreas, intestines, and submaxillary gland was most likely receptor-mediated. The uptake in a majority of organs was similar. However, indium uptake in the case of [111In]DTPA-hEGF was significantly higher in the kidneys and bones. In conclusion, [111In]Bz-DTPA-hEGF seems to have more favourable in vivo distribution in comparison to [111In]DTPA-hEGF.

  2. Tin-117m-labeled stannic (Sn/sup 4 +/) chelate of diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA) for application in diagnosis and therapy

    DOEpatents

    Srivastava, S.C.; Meinken, G.E.; Richards, P.

    1983-08-25

    The radiopharmaceutical reagents of this invention and the class of Tin-117m radiopharmaceuticals are therapeutic and diagnostic agents that incorporate gamma-emitting nuclides that localize in bone after intravenous injection in mammals (mice, rats, dogs, and rabbits). Images reflecting bone structure or function can then be obtained by a scintillation camera that detects the distribution of ionizing radiation emitted by the radioactive agent. Tin-117m-labeled chelates of stannic tin localize almost exclusively in cortical bone. Upon intravenous injection of the reagent, the preferred chelates are phosphonate compounds, preferable, PYP, MDP, EHDP, and DTPA. This class of reagents is therapeutically and diagnostically useful in skeletal scintigraphy and for the radiotherapy of bone tumors and other disorders.

  3. Bifunctional DTPA-type ligand

    SciTech Connect

    Gansow, O.A.; Brechbiel, M.W.

    1990-03-26

    The subject matter of the invention relates to bifunctional cyclohexyl DTPA ligands and methods of using these compounds. Specifically, such ligands are useful for radiolabeling proteins with radioactive metals, and can consequently be utilized with respect to radioimmunoimaging and/or radioimmunotherapy.

  4. MADOR: a new tool to calculate decrease of effective doses in human after DTPA therapy.

    PubMed

    Fritsch, P; Grémy, O; Hurtgen, C; Bérard, P; Grappin, L; Poncy, J L

    2011-03-01

    Abstract models have been developed to describe dissolution of Pu/Am/Cm after internal contamination by inhalation or wound, chelation of actinides by diethylene triamine penta acetic acid (DTPA) in different retention compartments and excretion of actinide-DTPA complexes. After coupling these models with those currently used for dose calculation, the modelling approach was assessed by fitting human data available in IDEAS database. Good fits were obtained for most studied cases, but further experimental studies are needed to validate some modelling hypotheses as well as the range of parameter values. From these first results, radioprotection tools are being developed: MAnagement of DOse Reduction after DTPA therapy.

  5. Tracheal blood flow and luminal clearance of [sup 99m][Tc]-DTPA in sheep

    SciTech Connect

    Hanafi, Z.; Corfield, D.R.; Webber, S.E.; Widdicombe, J.G. )

    1992-10-01

    Tracheal blood flow and [sup 99m][Tc]-labeled diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA) clearance were measured in the sheep trachea in vivo. The tracheal arteries were isolated and perfused. An isolated segment of tracheal lumen was filled with Krebs-Henseleit solution containing [sup 99m][Tc]-DTPA, and radioactivity was measured in blood from a catheterized tracheal vein. Infusions at constant pressure of methacholine (n=5), albuterol (n=6), and histamine (n=5) increased arterial inflow and venous outflow but decreased [sup 99m][Tc]-DTPA output and concentration. Phenylephrine (n=9) decreased arterial inflow and venous outflow but increased [sup 99m][Tc]-DTPA output and concentration. When the tracheal arteries were initially perfused at constant flow and the flow rate was then changed, 50% increases in flow (n=5) increased perfusion pressure and venous outflow but decreased [sup 99m][Tc]-DTPA output and concentration. Decreases in flow of 50% (n=3) and 100% (n=10) decreased perfusion pressure and venous outflow but increased [sup 99m][Tc]-DTPA output and concentration. Infusion of the same drugs at constant flow produced significant changes in perfusion pressure but no significant changes in venous outflow or, except for histamine, in [sup 99m][Tc]-DTPA output. Thus [sup 99m][Tc]-DTPA output was inversely related to both mechanically and drug-induced changes in tracheal blood flow but, except for histamine, was not directly affected by the drugs. The results may be due to redistribution of blood between collateral circuits and altered interstitial fluid volume affecting [sup 99m][Tc]-DTPA transport across the interstitium. 24 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. Combining octyl(phenyl)-N,N-diisobutyl-carbamoylmethylphosphine oxide and bis-(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid extractants for recovering transuranic elements from irradiated nuclear fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Lumetta, Gregg J.; Carter, Jennifer C.; Gelis, Artem V.; Vandegrift, George F.

    2009-10-14

    Advanced concepts for closing the nuclear fuel cycle include separating Am and Cm from other fuel components. Separating these elements from the lanthanide elements at an industrial scale remains a significant technical challenge. We describe here a chemical system in which a neutral extractant--octyl(phenyl)-N,N-diisobutyl-carbamoylmethyl-phosphine oxide (CMPO)--is combined with an acidic extractant--bis-(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid (HDEHP)--to form a single process solvent (with dodecane as the diluent) for separating Am and Cm from the other components of irradiated nuclear fuel. Continuous variation experiments in which the relative CMPO and HDEHP concentrations are varied indicate a synergistic relationship between the two extractants in the extraction of Am from buffered diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) solutions. A solvent mixture consisting or 0.1 M CMPO + 1 M HDEHP in dodecane offers acceptable extraction efficiency for the trivalent lanthanides and actinides from 1 M HNO3 while maintaining good lanthanide/actinide separation factors in the stripping regime (buffered DTPA solutions with pH 3.5 to 4). Using citrate buffer instead of lactate buffer results in improved lanthanide/actinide separation factors.

  7. DISTRIBUTION OF LANTHANIDE AND ACTINIDE ELEMENTS BETWEEN BIS-(2-ETHYLHEXYL)PHOSPHORIC ACID AND BUFFERED LACTATE SOLUTIONS CONTAINING SELECTED COMPLEXANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Rudisill, Tracy S.; Diprete, David P.; Thompson, Major C.

    2013-04-15

    With the renewed interest in the closure of the nuclear fuel cycle, the TALSPEAK process is being considered for the separation of Am and Cm from the lanthanide fission products in a next generation reprocessing plant. However, an efficient separation requires tight control of the pH which likely will be difficult to achieve on a large scale. To address this issue, we measured the distribution of lanthanide and actinide elements between aqueous and organic phases in the presence of complexants which were potentially less sensitive to pH control than the diethylenetriaminepentaacetic (DTPA) used in the process. To perform the extractions, a rapid and accurate method was developed for measuring distribution coefficients based on the preparation of lanthanide tracers in the Savannah River National Laboratory neutron activation analysis facility. The complexants tested included aceto-, benzo-, and salicylhydroxamic acids, N,N,N',N'-tetrakis(2-pyridylmethyl)ethylenediamine (TPEN), and ammonium thiocyanate (NH{sub 4}SCN). The hydroxamic acids were the least effective of the complexants tested. The separation factors for TPEN and NH{sub 4}SCN were higher, especially for the heaviest lanthanides in the series; however, no conditions were identified which resulted in separations factors which consistently approached those measured for the use of DTPA.

  8. Design and synthesis of novel adenine fluorescence probe based on Eu(III) complexes with dtpa-bis(guanine) ligand.

    PubMed

    Tian, Fengyun; Jiang, Xiaoqing; Dou, Xuekai; Wu, Qiong; Wang, Jun; Song, Youtao

    2017-02-24

    A novel adenine (Ad) fluorescence probe (Eu(III)-dtpa-bis(guanine)) was designed and synthesized by improving experimental method based on the Eu(III) complex and dtpa-bis(guanine) ligand. The dtpa-bis(guanine) ligand was first synthesized by the acylation action between dtpaa and guanine (Gu), and the corresponding Eu(III) complex was successfully prepared through heat-refluxing method with dtpa-bis(guanine) ligand. As a novel fluorescence probe, the Eu(III)-dtpa-bis(guanine) complex can detect adenine (Ad) with characteristics of strong targeting, high specificity and high recognition ability. The detection mechanism of the adenine (Ad) using this probe in buffer solution was studied by ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) and fluorescence spectroscopy. When the Eu(III)-dtpa-bis(guanine) was introduced to the adenine (Ad) solution, the fluorescence emission intensity was significantly enhanced. However, adding other bases such as guanine (Gu), xanthine (Xa), hypoxanthine (Hy) and uric acid (Ur) with similar composition and structure to that of adenine (Ad) to the Eu(III)-dtpa-bis(guanine) solution, the fluorescence emission intensities are nearly invariable. Meanwhile, the interference of guanine (Gu), xanthine (Xa), hypoxanthine (Hy) and uric acid (Ur) on the detection of the adenine using Eu(III)-dtpa-bis(guanine) probe was also studied. It was found that presence of these bases does not affect the detection of adenine (Ad). A linear response of fluorescence emission intensities of Eu(III)-dtpa-bis(guanine) at 570nm as a function of adenine (Ad) concentration in the range of 0.00-5.00×10(-5)molL(-1) was observed. The detection limit is about 4.70×10(-7)molL(-1).

  9. Evaluations of cellular proliferation and chromosome breakages after in vitro exposure of human lymphocytes to calcium or zinc DTPA

    SciTech Connect

    Littlefield, L.G.; Joiner, E.E.; Colyer, S.P.; DuFrain, R.J.; Washburn, L.C.

    1984-07-01

    The analysis of mitotic indices (MI) and chromosome breakages in metaphases of 50-hr lymphocyte cultures exposed to the calcium or zinc chelates of diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA) demonstrated: (1) an 80% reduction in MI in cultures from three women but no reduction in those from two men after in vitro exposure to CaDTPA in concentrations as low as 10..mu..g/ml culture medium, and complete suppression of mitoses in cultures from men and women after exposure to 40 ..mu..g/ml CaDTPA; (2) minor suppression in MI in cultures from women and none in those from men after exposure to 40 or 80 ..mu..g/ml ZnDTPA; (3) no ring or dicentric chromosomes in 1700 metaphases from DTPA-treated cultures. Likewise, the authors observed no differences in the frequency or distributions of rings and dicentrics in lymphocyte cultures from two persons after in vitro exposure to 250-R /sup 60/Co ..gamma.. radiation in the presence or absence of 10 ..mu..g/ml CaDTPA or 10 or 80 ..mu..g/ml ZnDTPA.

  10. An Evaluation of the Chelating Agent EDDS for Marigold Production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aminopolycarboxylic acid (APCA) ligands (chelating agents) like ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) are commonly used in soluble fertilizers to supply copper (Cu), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), and/or zinc (Zn) to plants. The offsite runoff and contamina...

  11. Neurofibromas: location by scanning with Tc-99m DTPA. Work in progress

    SciTech Connect

    Mandell, G.A.; Herrick, W.C.; Harcke, H.T.; Sharkey, C.; Brooks, K.M.; MacEwen, G.D.

    1985-12-01

    The accumulation of technetium-99m diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (Tc-99m DTPA) in benign soft-tissue neurofibromatosis tumors is reported. In a series of 16 patients with clinical stigmata of neurofibromatosis, 28 sites of abnormal soft-tissue localization of the isotope observed scintigraphically were documented to be sites of soft-tissue tumor by clinical and/or radiographic (predominantly computed tomographic) correlations. The smallest lesion detected was a 1.5-cm subcutaneous neurofibroma. Normal physiologic nonrenal distribution of the Tc-99m DTPA was established by scintigraphic imaging of a control population.

  12. Thermodynamic stability and kinetic inertness of a Gd-DTPA bisamide complex grafted onto gold nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Mogilireddy, Vijetha; Déchamps-Olivier, Isabelle; Alric, Christophe; Laurent, Gautier; Laurent, Sophie; Vander Elst, Luce; Muller, Robert; Bazzi, Rana; Roux, Stéphane; Tillement, Olivier; Chuburu, Françoise

    2015-01-01

    Gold nanoparticles coated by gadolinium (III) chelates (Au@DTDTPA) where DTDTPA is a dithiolated bisamide derivative of diethylenetriamine-N,N,N',N'',N''-pentaacetic acid (DTPA), constituted contrast agents for both X-ray computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. In an MRI context, highly stable Gd(3+) complexes are needed for in vivo applications. Thus, knowledge of the thermodynamic stability and kinetic inertness of these chelates, when grafted onto gold nanoparticles, is crucial since bisamide DTPA chelates are usually less suited for Gd(3+) coordination than DTPA. Therefore, these parameters were evaluated by means of potentiometric titrations and relaxivity measurements. The results showed that, when the chelates were grafted onto the nanoparticle, not only their thermodynamic stability but also their kinetic inertness were improved. These positive effects were correlated to the chelate packing at the nanoparticle surface that stabilized the corresponding Gd(3+) complexes and greatly enhanced their kinetic inertness.

  13. Complexation of DTPA and EDTA with Cd(2+): stability constants and thermodynamic parameters at the soil-water interface.

    PubMed

    Karak, Tanmoy; Paul, Ranjit Kumar; Das, Dilip Kumar; Boruah, Romesh Kumar

    2016-12-01

    Two alkaline soils collected from the surface horizon (0-15 cm) of two agricultural fields Lakshmikantapur (LKP; 22° 06' 03″ N and 88° 18' 19″ E) and Diamond Harbour (DHB; 22° 11' N and 88° 14' E) of West Bengal, India were studied to observe the stability of cadmium (Cd) chelate complexes with diethylenetriaminepentaacetatic acid (DTPA) and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), removing organic matter (OM). The objective of the present study is "determination of the stability constants and the thermodynamic parameters of Cd-DTPA and Cd-EDTA complexes at different pH and temperatures at the soil-water interface". Complex formation of soil Cd with DTPA and EDTA at the soil-water interface was studied under different ligand-to-metal ratios, pHs and temperatures. Apparent conditional stability constants (log k´) were calculated from the concentrations of Cd chelates and free Cd(2+), estimated by solid phase extraction with an ion exchanger. Standard Gibbs energy (ΔG°), standard enthalpy (ΔH°) and standard entropy (ΔS°) of formation were calculated at three different temperatures. The higher stability constants of Cd-DTPA than Cd-EDTA indicated longer persistence of Cd-DTPA at the soil solution interface than Cd-EDTA complex. Increase of ΔG°, ΔH° and ΔS° with progress of temperature revealed that Cd-complex formation was facilitated by temperature. Highly negative ΔG° and positive ΔH° for Cd-complex formation indicated the reaction spontaneous and exothermic. In general, both ligands complexed high percentages of cadmium signalling their role in enhancing remobilization of Cd present in soil and preventing exchange of contaminated Cd from external source with soil mineral matrix; these phenomena may greatly reduce hazard for environment and human health. The result of this study support that DTPA increases solubility and more persistence of Cd in acidic soils within the range of temperature and mole fraction (MF = moles of Cd(2+)

  14. Brain Delivery of Drug and MRI Contrast Agent: Detection and Quantitative Determination of Brain Deposition of CPT-Glu Using LC-MS/MS and Gd-DTPA Using Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Tabanor, Kayann; Lee, Phil; Kiptoo, Paul; Choi, In-Young; Sherry, Erica B.; Eagle, Cheyenne Sun; Williams, Todd D.; Siahaan, Teruna J.

    2015-01-01

    Successful treatment and diagnosis of neurological diseases depend on reliable delivery of molecules across the blood-brain barrier (BBB), which restricts penetration of pharmaceutical drugs and diagnostic agents into the brain. Thus, developing new non-invasive strategies to improve drug delivery across the BBB is critically needed. This study was aimed at evaluating the activity of HAV6 peptide (Ac-SHAVSS-NH2) in improving brain delivery of camptothecin-glutamate (CPT-Glu) conjugate and gadolinium-diethylenetriaminepentaacetate (Gd-DTPA) contrast agent in Sprague-Dawley rats. Brain delivery of both CPT-Glu and Gd-DTPA was evaluated in an in situ rat brain perfusion model in the presence and absence of HAV6 peptide (1.0 mM). Gd-DTPA (0.6 mmol/kg) was intravenously (i.v.) administered with and without HAV6 peptide (0.019 mmol/kg) in rats. The detection and quantification of CPT-Glu and Gd-DTPA in the brain were carried out by LC-MS/MS and quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), respectively. Rats perfused with CPT-Glu in combination with HAV6 had significantly higher deposition of drug in the brain compared to CPT-Glu alone. MRI results also showed that administration of Gd-DTPA in the presence of HAV6 peptide led to significant accumulation of Gd-DTPA in various regions of the brain in both the in situ rat brain perfusion and in vivo studies. All observations taken together indicate that HAV6 peptide can disrupt the BBB and enhance delivery of small molecules into the brain. PMID:26705088

  15. Brain Delivery of Drug and MRI Contrast Agent: Detection and Quantitative Determination of Brain Deposition of CPT-Glu Using LC-MS/MS and Gd-DTPA Using Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    PubMed

    Tabanor, Kayann; Lee, Phil; Kiptoo, Paul; Choi, In-Young; Sherry, Erica B; Eagle, Cheyenne Sun; Williams, Todd D; Siahaan, Teruna J

    2016-02-01

    Successful treatment and diagnosis of neurological diseases depend on reliable delivery of molecules across the blood-brain barrier (BBB), which restricts penetration of pharmaceutical drugs and diagnostic agents into the brain. Thus, developing new noninvasive strategies to improve drug delivery across the BBB is critically needed. This study was aimed at evaluating the activity of HAV6 peptide (Ac-SHAVSS-NH2) in improving brain delivery of camptothecin-glutamate (CPT-Glu) conjugate and gadolinium-diethylenetriaminepentaacetate (Gd-DTPA) contrast agent in Sprague-Dawley rats. Brain delivery of both CPT-Glu and Gd-DTPA was evaluated in an in situ rat brain perfusion model in the presence and absence of HAV6 peptide (1.0 mM). Gd-DTPA (0.6 mmol/kg) was intravenously (iv) administered with and without HAV6 peptide (0.019 mmol/kg) in rats. The detection and quantification of CPT-Glu and Gd-DTPA in the brain were carried out by LC-MS/MS and quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), respectively. Rats perfused with CPT-Glu in combination with HAV6 had significantly higher deposition of drug in the brain compared to CPT-Glu alone. MRI results also showed that administration of Gd-DTPA in the presence of HAV6 peptide led to significant accumulation of Gd-DTPA in various regions of the brain in both the in situ rat brain perfusion and in vivo studies. All observations taken together indicate that HAV6 peptide can disrupt the BBB and enhance delivery of small molecules into the brain.

  16. ( sup 111 In-DTPA-D-Phe sup 1 )-octreotide, a potential radiopharmaceutical for imaging of somatostatin receptor-positive tumors: Synthesis, radiolabeling and in vitro validation

    SciTech Connect

    Bakker, W.H.; Albert, R.; Bruns, C.; Breeman, W.A.P.; Hofland, L.J.; Marbach, P.; Pless, J.; Pralet, D.; Stolz, B.; Koper, J.W.; Lamberts, S.W.J.; Visser, T.J.; Krenning, E.P. Sandoz Pharma AG, Basel )

    1991-01-01

    As starting material for a potentially convenient radiopharmaceutical, a diethylenetriaminopentaacetic acid (DTPA) conjugated derivative of octreotide (SMS 201-995) was prepared. This peptide, (DTPA-D-Phe{sup 1})-octreotide (SDZ 215-811) binds more than 95% of added {sup 111}In in an easy, single-step labeling procedure without necessity of further purification. The specific somatostatin-like biologic effect of these analogues was proven by the inhibition of growth hormone secretion by cultured rat pituitary cells in a dose-dependent fashion by octreotide, (DTPA-D-Phe{sup 1})-octreotide and non-radioactive ({sup 115}In-DTPA-D-Phe{sup 1})-octreotide. The binding of ({sup 111}In-DTPA-D-Phe{sup 1})-octreotide to rat brain cortex membranes proved to be displaced similarly by natural somatosatin as well as by octreotide, suggesting specific binding of ({sup 111}In-DTPA-D-Phe{sup 1})-octreotide to somatostatin receptors. The binding of the indium-labeled compound showed a somewhat lower affinity when compared with the iodinated (Tyr{sup 3})-octreotide, but indium-labeled (DTPA-D-Phe{sup 1})-octreotide still binds with nanomolar affinity. In conjunction with in vivo studies, these results suggest that ({sup 111}In-DTPA-D-Phe{sup 1})-octreotide is a promising radiopharmaceutical for scintigraphic imaging of somatostatin receptor-positive tumors.

  17. COMBINING NEUTRAL AND ACIDIC EXTRACTANTS FOR RECOVERING TRANSURANIC ELEMENTS FROM NUCLEAR FUEL

    SciTech Connect

    Lumetta, Gregg J.; Neiner, Doinita; Sinkov, Sergey I.; Carter, Jennifer C.; Braley, Jenifer C.; Latesky, Stanley; Gelis, Artem V.; Tkac, Peter; Vandegrift, George F.

    2011-10-03

    We have been investigating a solvent extraction system that combines a neutral extractant--octyl(phenyl)-N,N-diisobutyl-carbamoylmethylphosphine oxide (CMPO)--with an acidic extractant--bis(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid (HDEHP)--to form a single process solvent for separating Am and Cm from the other components of irradiated nuclear fuel. It was originally hypothesized that the extraction chemistry of CMPO would dominate under conditions of high acidity (> 1 M HNO3), resulting in co-extraction of the transuranic and lanthanide elements into the organic phase. Contacting the loaded solvent with a solution of diethylenetriaminepentaacetate (DTPA) buffered with lactic or citric acid at pH {approx}3 to 4 would result in a condition in which the HDEHP chemistry dominates. Although the data somewhat support this hypothesis, it is clear that there are interactions between the two extractants such that they do not act independently in the extraction and stripping regimes. We report here studies directed at determining the nature and extent of interaction between CMPO and HDEHP, the synergistic behavior of CMPO and HDEHP in the extraction of americium and neodymium, and progress towards determining the thermodynamics of this extraction system. Neodymium and americium behave similarly in the combined solvent system, with a significant synergy between CMPO and HDEHP in the extraction of both of these trivalent elements from lactate-buffered DTPA solutions. In contrast, a much weaker synergistic behaviour is observed for europium. Thus, investigations into the fundamental chemistry involved in this system have focused on the neodymium extraction. The extraction of neodymium has been systematically investigated, individually varying the HDEHP concentration, the CMPO concentration, or the aqueous phase composition. Thermodynamic modeling of the neodymium extraction system has been initiated. Interactions between CMPO and HDEHP in the organic phase must be taken into account in

  18. Heavy metal uptake and leaching from polluted soil using permeable barrier in DTPA-assisted phytoextraction.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Shulan; Shen, Zhiping; Duo, Lian

    2015-04-01

    Application of sewage sludge (SS) in agriculture is an alternative technique of disposing this waste. But unreasonable application of SS leads to excessive accumulation of heavy metals in soils. A column experiment was conducted to test the availability of heavy metals to Lolium perenne grown in SS-treated soils following diethylene triamine penta acetic acid (DTPA) application at rates of 0, 10 and 20 mmol kg(-1) soil. In order to prevent metal leaching in DTPA-assisted phytoextraction process, a horizontal permeable barrier was placed below the treated soil, and its effectiveness was also assessed. Results showed that DTPA addition significantly increased metal uptake by L. perenne shoots and metal leaching. Permeable barriers increased metal concentrations in plant shoots and effectively decreased metal leaching from the treated soil. Heavy metals in SS-treated soils could be gradually removed by harvesting L. perenne many times in 1 year and adding low dosage of DTPA days before each harvest.

  19. Biodistribution of Ru-97-labeled DTPA, DMSA and transferrin. [Diagnostic potential

    SciTech Connect

    Som, P; Oster, Z H; Fairchild, R G; Atkins, H L; Brill, A B; Gil, M C; Srivastava, S C; Meinken, G E; Goldman, A G; Richards, P

    1980-01-01

    Ruthenium-97 is being produced at the Brookhaven Linac Isotope Producer (BLIP). The favorable physical properties of Ru-97 and chemical reactivity of ruthenium offer a potential for using this isotope to label compounds useful for delayed scanning. Diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA), 2,3-Dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA), and Transferrin (TF) were labeled with Ru-97-chloride. Ru-97-DTPA and In-111-DTPA, injected intravenously, showed similar organ distribution, kinetics, and more than 80% excretion by 0.5 h. Ru-97-DTPA and In-111-DTPA injected into the cisterna magna of dogs showed similar kinetics in brain, blood, and urinary bladder. The energy deposited by 1 mCi In-111-DTPA is twice that from 1 mCi Ru-97-DTPA. High quality camera images of the CSF space in the dog were obtained with both isotopes. Ru-97-DMSA was prepared with and without the addition of SnCl/sub 2/.2H/sub 2/O. Tin-free DMSA was rapidly excreted via the kidneys, whereas for maximum cortical deposition, the tin-containing preparation was superior. This compound is suitable for delayed imaging of both normal and impaired kidneys. Tissue distribution studies were performed in abscess-bearing rats with Ru-97-transferrin. Although blood levels were higher than with Ga-67-citrate, the abscess had twice as much Ru-97-TF as Ga-67-citrate and the Ru-97 muscle activity was one-third that of Ga-67. Imaging of abscess-bearing rabbits with Ru-97-TF visualized the abscesses as early as 1/2 hr after injection. Since the initial images visualize the abscess so clearly and since the TF portion of the compound binds to the abscess, Tc-99m-TF is being studied for the same purpose. Ru-97-labeled compounds are a promising replacement for In-111 and possibly also for Ga-67 compounds with the advantages of lower radiation dose and high quality image. (ERB)

  20. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Acute Reperfused Myocardial Infarction: Intraindividual Comparison of ECIII-60 and Gd-DTPA in a Swine Model

    SciTech Connect

    Jin Jiyang; Teng Gaojun; Feng Yi; Wu Yanping; Jin Qindi; Wang Yu; Wang Zhen; Lu Qin; Jiang Yibo; Wang Shengqi; Chen Feng; Marchal, Guy; Ni Yicheng

    2007-04-15

    Purpose. To compare a necrosis-avid contrast agent (NACA) bis-Gd-DTPA-pamoic acid derivative (ECIII-60) after intracoronary delivery with an extracellular agent Gd-DTPA after intravenous injection on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in a swine model of acute reperfused myocardial infarction (MI). Methods. Eight pigs underwent 90 min of transcatheter coronary balloon occlusion and 60 min of reperfusion. After intravenous injection of Gd-DTPA at a dose of 0.2 mmol/kg, all pigs were scanned with T1-weighted MRI until the delayed enhancement of MI disappeared. Then they were intracoronarily infused with ECIII-60 at 0.0025 mmol/kg and imaged for 5 hr. Signal intensity, infarct-over-normal contrast ratio and relative infarct size were quantified, compared, and correlated with the results of postmortem MRI and triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) histochemical staining. Results. A contrast ratio over 3.0 was induced by both Gd-DTPA and ECIII-60. However, while the delayed enhancement with Gd-DTPA virtually vanished in 1 hr, ECIII-60 at an 80x smaller dose depicted the MI accurately over 5 hr as proven by ex vivo MRI and TTC staining. Conclusion. Both Gd-DTPA and ECIII-60 strongly enhanced acute MI. Comparing with fading contrast in a narrow time window with intravenous Gd-DTPA, intracoronary ECIII-60 persistently demarcated the acute MI, indicating a potential method for postprocedural assessment of myocardial viability after coronary interventions.

  1. Scavenging of free-radical metabolites of aniline xenobiotics and drugs by amino acid derivatives: toxicological implications of radical-transfer reactions.

    PubMed

    Michail, Karim; Baghdasarian, Argishti; Narwaley, Malyaj; Aljuhani, Naif; Siraki, Arno G

    2013-12-16

    We investigated a novel scavenging mechanism of arylamine free radicals by poly- and monoaminocarboxylates. Free radicals of arylamine xenobiotics and drugs did not react with oxygen in peroxidase-catalyzed reactions; however, they showed marked oxygen uptake in the presence of an aminocarboxylate. These free-radical intermediates were identified using the spin trap 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline-N-oxide (DMPO) and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectrometry. Diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA), a polyaminocarboxylate, caused a concentration-dependent attenuation of N-centered radicals produced by the peroxidative metabolism of arylamines with the subsequent formation of secondary aliphatic carbon-centered radicals stemming from the cosubstrate molecule. Analogously, N,N-dimethylglycine (DMG) and N-methyliminodiacetate (MIDA), but not iminodiacetic acid (IDA), demonstrated a similar scavenging effect of arylamine-derived free radicals in a horseradish peroxidase/H2O2 system. Using human promyelocytic leukemia (HL-60) cell lysate as a model of human neutrophils, DTPA, MIDA, and DMG readily reduced anilinium cation radicals derived from the arylamines and gave rise to the corresponding carbon radicals. The rate of peroxidase-triggered polymerization of aniline was studied as a measure of nitrogen-radical scavenging. Although, IDA had no effect on the rate of aniline polymerization, this was almost nullified in the presence of DTPA and MIDA at half of the molar concentration of the aniline substrate, whereas a 20 molar excess of DMPO caused only a partial inhibition. Furthermore, the yield of formaldehyde, a specific reaction endproduct of the oxidation of aminocarboxylates by aniline free-radical metabolites, was quantitatively determined. Azobenzene, a specific reaction product of peroxidase-catalyzed free-radical dimerization of aniline, was fully abrogated in the presence of DTPA, as confirmed by GC/MS. Under aerobic conditions, a radical-transfer reaction

  2. Plutonium-DTPA Model Application with USTUR Case 0269.

    PubMed

    Konzen, Kevin; Brey, Richard; Miller, Scott

    2016-01-01

    A plutonium-DTPA (Pu-DTPA) biokinetic model was introduced that had originated from the study of a plutonium-contaminated wound. This work evaluated the extension of the Pu-DTPA model to United States Transuranium and Uranium Registry (USTUR) Case 0269 involving an acute inhalation of a plutonium nitrate aerosol. Chelation was administered intermittently for the first 7 mo as Ca-EDTA, mostly through intravenous injection, with Ca-DTPA treatments administered approximately 2.5 y post intake. Urine and fecal bioassays were collected following intake for several years. Tissues were collected and analyzed for plutonium content approximately 38 y post intake. This work employed the Pu-DTPA model for predicting the urine and fecal bioassay and final tissue quantity at autopsy. The Pu-DTPA model was integrated with two separate plutonium systemic models (i.e., ICRP Publication 67 and its proposed modification). This work illustrated that the Pu-DTPA model was useful for predicting urine and fecal bioassay, including final tissue quantity, 38 y post intake.

  3. Contrast agent Gd-EOB-DTPA (EOB·Primovist®) for low-field magnetic resonance imaging of canine focal liver lesions.

    PubMed

    Yonetomi, Daisuke; Kadosawa, Tsuyoshi; Miyoshi, Kenjirou; Nakao, Yukie; Homma, Emi; Hanazono, Kiwamu; Yamada, Eriko; Nakamura, Kozo; Ijiri, Atsuki; Minegishi, Noriyuki; Maetani, Shigeki; Hirayama, Kazuko; Taniyama, Hiroyuki; Nakade, Tetsuya

    2012-01-01

    Contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) imaging with a new liver-specific contrast agent gadolinium-ethoxybenzyl-diethylenetriamine penta-acetic acid (Gd-EOB-DTPA; EOB·Primovist®) was studied in 14 normal beagles and 9 dogs with focal liver lesions. Gd-EOB-DTPA accumulates in normally functioning hepatocytes 20 min after injection. As with Gd-DTPA, it is also possible to perform a dynamic multiphasic examination of the liver with Gd-EOB-DTPA, including an arterial phase and a portal venous phase. First, a reliable protocol was developed and the appropriate timings for the dynamic study and the parenchymal phase in normal dogs using Gd-EOB-DTPA were determined. Second, the patterns of these images were evaluated in patient dogs with hepatic masses. The optimal time of arterial imaging was from 15 s after injection, and the optimal time for portal venous imaging was from 40 s after injection. Meanwhile, the optimal time to observe changes during the hepatobiliary phase was from 20 min after injection. In patient dogs, 11 lesions were diagnosed as malignant tumors; all were hypointense to the surrounding normal liver parenchyma during the hepatobiliary phase. Even with a low-field MR imaging unit, the sequences afforded images adequate to visualize the liver parenchyma and to detect tumors within an appropriate scan time. Contrast-enhanced MR imaging with Gd-EOB-DTPA provides good demarcation on low-field MR imaging for diagnosing canine focal liver lesions.

  4. Development of the Plutonium-DTPA Biokinetic Model.

    PubMed

    Konzen, Kevin; Brey, Richard

    2015-06-01

    Estimating radionuclide intakes from bioassays following chelation treatment presents a challenge to the dosimetrist due to the observed excretion enhancement of the particular radionuclide of concern where no standard biokinetic model exists. This document provides a Pu-DTPA biokinetic model that may be used for making such determination for plutonium intakes. The Pu-DTPA biokinetic model is intended to supplement the standard recommended biokinetic models. The model was used to evaluate several chelation strategies that resulted in providing recommendations for effective treatment. These recommendations supported early treatment for soluble particle inhalations and an initial 3-day series of DTPA treatments for wounds. Several late chelation strategies were also compared where reduced treatment frequencies proved to be as effective as multiple treatments. The Pu-DTPA biokinetic model can be used to assist in estimating initial intakes of transuranic radionuclides and for studying the effects of different treatment strategies.

  5. Development of the Plutonium-DTPA biokinetic model

    SciTech Connect

    Konzen, Kevin; Brey, Richard

    2015-06-01

    Estimating radionuclide intakes from bioassays following chelation treatment presents a challenge to the dosimetrist due to the observed excretion enhancement of the particular radionuclide of concern, where no standard biokinetic model exists. This document provides a Pu-DTPA biokinetic model that may be used for making such determination for plutonium intakes. The Pu-DTPA biokinetic model is intended to supplement the standard recommended biokinetic models. The model was used to evaluate several chelation strategies that resulted in providing recommendations for effective treatment. These recommendations supported early treatment for soluble particle inhalations and an initial 3-day treatment series of DTPA treatments for wounds. Several late chelation strategies were also compared where reduced treatment frequencies proved to be as effective as multiple treatments. Furthermore, the Pu-DTPA biokinetic model can be used to assist in estimating initial intakes of transuranic radionuclides, and for studying the effects of different treatment strategies.

  6. Development of the Plutonium-DTPA biokinetic model

    DOE PAGES

    Konzen, Kevin; Brey, Richard

    2015-06-01

    Estimating radionuclide intakes from bioassays following chelation treatment presents a challenge to the dosimetrist due to the observed excretion enhancement of the particular radionuclide of concern, where no standard biokinetic model exists. This document provides a Pu-DTPA biokinetic model that may be used for making such determination for plutonium intakes. The Pu-DTPA biokinetic model is intended to supplement the standard recommended biokinetic models. The model was used to evaluate several chelation strategies that resulted in providing recommendations for effective treatment. These recommendations supported early treatment for soluble particle inhalations and an initial 3-day treatment series of DTPA treatments for wounds.more » Several late chelation strategies were also compared where reduced treatment frequencies proved to be as effective as multiple treatments. Furthermore, the Pu-DTPA biokinetic model can be used to assist in estimating initial intakes of transuranic radionuclides, and for studying the effects of different treatment strategies.« less

  7. Potential Role of Tc-99m DTPA Diuretic Renal Scan in the Diagnosis of Calyceal Diverticulum in Children

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Chun-Chen; Shih, Bing-Fu; Shih, Shin-Lin; Tsai, Jeng-Daw

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The aim of the study was to assess the usefulness of Technetium-99m diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (Tc-99m DTPA) diuretic scan to diagnose calyceal diverticulum (CD). From January 2000 to June 2014, children with evidence of renal cystic lesions of undetermined diagnosis on ultrasound were enrolled. Computed tomography urography (CTU) and Tc-99m DTPA diuretic scan were performed to characterize the precise anatomy. The diagnosis of CD depended on visualization of a renal cystic lesion with filling of contrast material or radiotracer from the collecting system on CTU or diuretic renal scan. Children who had positive findings of CD on 1 or both imaging studies were selected and analyzed. Both CTU and Tc-99m DTPA diuretic renal scan were performed in 39 children. A total of 9 (23.1 %) children with CD were diagnosed. All 9 children had positive diagnosis of CD on diuretic renal scan. Only 6 (66.7%) children could be diagnosed by CTU, and CD was missed by CTU in 3 subjects. The differential renal functions in patients with CD were 46% to 55%. The time of radiotracer appearance in the CD ranged from the 8th to the 24th minute. Seven patients had persistent accumulation of radiotracer in their CD at the end of the study. Tc-99m DTPA diuretic renal scan seems to be more sensitive than CTU in diagnosing CD. The possible reasons of higher sensitivity are discussed. Additional advantages that Tc-99m DTPA diuretic renal scan provides include the following: continuous monitoring, less radiation doses, and information on renal function, making it an attractive alternative to CTU for diagnosis of CD. PMID:26091475

  8. The efficiency of Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced magnetic resonance cholangiography in living donor liver transplantation: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Ogul, Hayri; Kantarci, Mecit; Pirimoglu, Berhan; Karaca, Leyla; Aydinli, Bulent; Okur, Aylin; Ozturk, Gurkan; Kizrak, Yesim

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate utility of gadoxetic acid disodium (Gd-EOB-DTPA)-enhanced magnetic resonance cholangiography (MRC) for the detection of biliary complications after living donor liver transplantation (LDLT). A total of 18 patients with suspected biliary complications underwent MRC. T2-weighted MRC and contrast-enhanced MRC (CE-MRC) were used to identify the biliary complications. MRC included routine breath-hold T2-weighted MRC using half-Fourier acquisition single-shot turbo spin-echo (HASTE) sequences and Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRC T1-weighted volumetric interpolated breath-hold examination (VIBE) sequences. Before confirming the biliary complications, one observer reviewed the MRC images and the CE-MRC images separately. The verification procedures and MRC findings were compared, and the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of both techniques were calculated for the identification of biliary complications. The observer found six of seven biliary complications using CE-MRC. The sensitivity was 85.7% and the accuracy was 94.4%. Using MRC alone, sensitivity was 57.1% and accuracy was 55.5%. The accuracy of Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRC was superior to MRC in locating biliary leaks (p < 0.05). The usage of Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRC yields information that complements the MRC findings that improve the identification of biliary complications. We recommend the use of MRC in addition to Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRC to increase the preoperative accuracy when assessing the biliary complications after LDLT.

  9. Simultaneous determination of DTPA, EDTA, and NTA by UV-visible spectrometry and HPLC.

    PubMed

    Laine, Pirita; Matilainen, Rose

    2005-08-01

    In this study, UV-visible spectrophotometry (UV-Vis) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) were used for simultaneous analysis of chelating agents diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA), ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA), and nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA), as their metal chelates in dishwashing detergents, natural waters, and pulp mill water. The total amounts of the chelating agents in dishwashing detergents were verified by potentiometric titration with Fe(III) solution. Nickel(II) chelates were determined by UV-Vis and iron(III)chelates by HPLC and titration. Recoveries of DTPA, EDTA, and NTA from a standard mixture of analytes by UV-Vis were 107+/-7, 101+/-12 and 94+/-13%, respectively, and the recovery of the total amount of complexing agents was 99+/-4%. The limits of detection for DTPA, EDTA, and NTA were 667, 324, and 739 micromol L(-1), respectively. In HPLC measurements the optimized mobile phase contained 0.03 mol L(-1) sodium acetate, 0.002 mol L(-1) tetrabutylammonium bromide, and 5% methanol at pH 3.15 and the detection was by UV-Vis detection at 254 nm. All three complexing agents could be separated from each other in a simultaneous analysis in less than 5 min. The limits of detection were 0.34, 0.27, and 0.62 micromol L(-1) for DTPA, EDTA, and NTA, respectively. The total amounts of the analytes measured in the dishwashing detergents by the three techniques were found to be highly comparable (ANOVA: F=0.04, P=0.96). R(2) values were 0.99 for EDTA, 0.99 for NTA, and 0.99 for all the results when UV-Vis and HPLC determinations were compared using regression lines. The UV-Vis and HPLC methods were proved to be viable also for analyses of natural and pulp mill waters. The absence of matrix interferences was verified by the standard addition technique.

  10. Separation and characterization of the two diastereomers for [Gd(DTPA-bz-NH2)(H2O)]2-, a common synthon in macromolecular MRI contrast agents: their water exchange and isomerization kinetics.

    PubMed

    Burai, László; Tóth, Eva; Sour, Angélique; Merbach, André E

    2005-05-16

    Chiral, bifunctional poly(amino carboxylate) ligands are commonly used for the synthesis of macromolecular, Gd(III)-based MRI contrast agents, prepared in the objective of increasing relaxivity or delivering the paramagnetic Gd(III) to a specific site (targeting). Complex formation with such ligands results in two diastereomeric forms for the complex which can be separated by HPLC. We demonstrated that the diastereomer ratio for Ln(III) DTPA derivatives (approximately 60:40) remains constant throughout the lanthanide series, in contrast to Ln(III) EPTPA derivatives, where it varies as a function of the cation size with a maximum for the middle lanthanides (DTPA(5-) = diethylenetriaminepentaacetate; EPTPA(5-) = ethylenepropylenetriaminepentaacetate). The interconversion of the two diastereomers, studied by HPLC, is a proton-catalyzed process (k(obs) = k(1)[H(+)]). It is relatively fast for [Gd(EPTPA-bz-NH(2))(H(2)O)](2-) but slow enough for [Gd(DTPA-bz-NH(2))(H(2)O)](2-) to allow investigation of pure individual isomers (isomerization rate constants are k(1) = (3.03 +/- 0.07) x 10(4) and 11.6 +/- 0.5 s(-1) M(-1) for [Gd(EPTPA-bz-NH(2))(H(2)O)](2)(-) and [Gd(DTPA-bz-NH(2))(H(2)O)](2-), respectively). Individual water exchange rates have been determined for both diastereomers of [Gd(DTPA-bz-NH(2))(H(2)O)](2-) by a variable-temperature (17)O NMR study. Similarly to Ln(III) EPTPA derivatives, k(ex) values differ by a factor of 2 (k(ex)(298) = (5.7 +/- 0.2) x 10(6) and (3.1 +/- 0.1) x 10(6) s(-1)). This variance in the exchange rate has no consequence on the proton relaxivity of the two diastereomers, since it is solely limited by fast rotation. However, such difference in k(ex) will affect proton relaxivity when these diastereomers are linked to a slowly rotating macromolecule. Once the rotation is optimized, slow water exchange will limit relaxivity; thus, a factor of 2 in the exchange rate can lead to a remarkably different relaxivity for the diastereomer complexes

  11. Evaluation of the efficiency of DTPA and other new chelating agents for removing neptunium from target organs.

    PubMed

    Paquet, F; Metivier, H; Poncy, J L; Burgada, R; Bailly, T

    1997-05-01

    Diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA) has been tested with 8 other new chelators for neptunium decorporation after systemic contamination in the rat. The ligands were injected intravenously at a dosage of 30 mumol kg-1 and the animals killed 24 h later. The results show that none of the chelators tested was efficient in removing significant amounts of the radionuclide from the body. In order to understand why these chelators were ineffective, in vitro approaches have since been developed in which high concentrations of DTPA were added to Np-bearing ligands in the blood, liver and skeleton. The main conclusions were that under our experimental conditions neptunium was not chelatable after its organ deposition.

  12. Structural determination of Zn and Cd-DTPA complexes: MS, infrared, (13)C NMR and theoretical investigation.

    PubMed

    Silva, Vanézia L; Carvalho, Ruy; Freitas, Matheus P; Tormena, Cláudio F; Melo, Walclée C

    2007-12-31

    The joint application of MS, infrared and (13)C NMR techniques for the determination of metal-DTPA structures (metal=Zn and Cd; DTPA=diethylenetriaminepentacetic acid) is reported. Mass spectrometry allowed determining the 1:1 stoichiometry of the complexes, while infrared analysis suggested that both nitrogen and carboxyl groups are sites for complexation. The (13)C NMR spectrum for the cadmium-containing complex evidenced the existence of free and complexed carboxyl groups, due to a straight singlet at 179.0 ppm (free carboxylic (13)C) and to two broad singlets or a broad doublet at 178.3 ppm (complexed carboxylic (13)C, (2)J(Cd-C(=O))=45.2 Hz). A similar interpretation might be given for the zinc derivative and, with the aid of DFT calculations, structures for both complexes were then proposed.

  13. Cerebrospinal fluid flow abnormalities in patients with neoplastic meningitis. An evaluation using /sup 111/In-DTPA ventriculography

    SciTech Connect

    Grossman, S.A.; Trump, D.L.; Chen, D.C.; Thompson, G.; Camargo, E.E.

    1982-11-01

    Cerebrospinal fluid flow dynamics were evaluated by /sup 111/In-diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (/sup 111/In-DTPA) ventriculography in 27 patients with neoplastic meningitis. Nineteen patients (70 percent) had evidence of cerebrospinal fluid flow disturbances. These occurred as ventricular outlet obstructions, abnormalities of flow in the spinal canal, or flow distrubances over the cortical convexities. Tumor histology, physical examination, cerebrospinal fluid analysis, myelograms, and computerized axial tomographic scans were not sufficient to predict cerebrospinal fluid flow patterns. These data indicate that cerebrospinal fluid flow abnormalities are common in patients with neoplastic meningitis and that /sup 111/In-DTPA cerebrospinal fluid flow imaging is useful in characterizing these abnormalities. This technique provides insight into the distribution of intraventricularly administered chemotherapy and may provide explanations for treatment failure and drug-induced neurotoxicity in patients with neoplastic meningitis.

  14. Leaching and efficiency of six organic zinc fertilizers applied to navy bean crop grown in a weakly acidic soil of Spain.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, D; Novillo, J; Rico, M I; Alvarez, J M

    2008-05-14

    Zinc contamination of groundwater from fertilizers applied to pulse crops is a potential problem, but the use of different types of organic chelates can minimize the contamination potential while still adequately feeding the crops. The objective of this study was to compare the leaching, distribution in fractions and availability, and relative effectiveness of Zn from six organic Zn fertilizers (zinc-ethylenediaminetetraacetate- N-2-hydroxyethylethylenediaminetriacetate (Zn-EDTA-HEDTA), Zn-HEDTA, zinc- S, S'-ethylenediaminedisuccinate (Zn- S, S-EDDS), zinc-polyhydroxyphenylcarboxylate, Zn-EDTA, and zinc-ethylenediaminedi(2-hydroxy-5-sulfophenylacetate) (Zn-EDDHSA)) applied to a navy bean ( Phaseolus vulgaris, L.) crop cultivated by applying different Zn levels, in a weakly acidic soil under greenhouse conditions. Zinc soil behavior was evaluated by diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid-triethanolamine (DTPA-TEA), DTPA-ammonium bicarbonate (DTPA-AB), Mehlich-3, and BaCl 2 extractions and sequential fractionation. In all the fertilizer treatments, the percentage of labile Zn that remained in the soil was high with respect to the quantity of Zn applied, with values respectively ranging from 42 to 80% for Zn-EDDHSA and Zn-EDTA sources. A positive correlation with a high level of significance existed between the micronutrient concentration in the navy bean crop (total and soluble) and labile Zn fractions, available Zn, and easily leachable Zn ( r ranged from 0.89 to 0.95, P < 0.0001). The relatively high quantity of total Zn leached by applying Zn-EDTA and Zn-S,S-EDDS sources (11.9 and 6.0%, respectively, for the rate 10 mg of Zn kg(-1) of soil) poses a potential pollution risk for neighboring waters. It would seem recommendable to apply Zn-HEDTA or Zn-EDDHSA sources, even applied at the low rate (5 mg of Zn kg(-1) of soil), because they produced available Zn concentrations in the soil that were above the critical concentration and also produced high Zn concentrations in

  15. Clearance of [sup 99m]Tc-DTPA and experimentally increased alveolar surfactant content

    SciTech Connect

    Bos, J.A.H.; Wollmer, P.; Bakker, W.; Hannappel, E.; Lachmann, B. Univ. of Lund Univ. of Erlangen )

    1992-04-01

    The authors measured clearance of [sup 99m]Tc-labeled diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid ([sup 99m]Tc-DTPA) in rabbits with experimentally increased alveolar surfactant content. In one group of animals, surfactant production was increased by treatment with ambroxol, and another group of animals was treated with tracheal instillation of natural surfactant. A group of untreated control animals and animals treated with instillation of saline were also studied. Clearance was measured during standard conditions of mechanical ventilation and during ventilation with large tidal volumes. In ambroxol- and surfactant-treated groups, clearance rate was reduced compared with untreated control animals. In contrast, clearance rate increased after saline instillation. The differences were observed at both modes of ventilation. The findings indicate that the pulmonary surfactant system is a rate-limiting factor for the clearance of [sup 99m]Tc-DTPA and that the volume dependence of clearance is not explained by stretching of the alveolar wall only. 28 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  16. On the use of speciation techniques and ab initio modelling to understand tetravalent actinide behavior in a biological medium: An(IV)DTPA case.

    PubMed

    Aupiais, J; Bonin, L; Den Auwer, C; Moisy, P; Siberchicot, B; Topin, S

    2016-03-07

    In the case of an accidental nuclear event, contamination of human bodies by actinide elements may occur. Such elements have the particularity to exhibit both radiological and chemical toxicities that may induce severe damages at several levels, depending on the biokinetics of the element. In order to eliminate the actinide elements before they are stored in target organs (liver, kidneys, or bone, depending on the element), sequestering agents must be quickly injected. However, to date, there is still no ideal sequestering agent, despite the recent interest in this topic due to contamination concerns. DTPA (diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid) is currently generating interest for the development of oral or alternative self-administrable forms. Although biokinetics data are mostly available, molecular scale characterization of actinide-DTPA complexes is still scarce. Nevertheless, strong interest is growing in the characterization of An(IV)DTPA(-) complexes at the molecular level because this opens the way for predicting the stability constants of unknown systems or even for developing new analytical strategies aimed at better and more selective decorporation. For this purpose, Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (EXAFS) and Ab Initio Molecular Dynamics (AIMD) investigations were undertaken and compared with capillary electrophoresis (CE) used in a very unusual way. Indeed, it is commonly believed that CE is incapable of extracting structural information. In capillary electrophoresis, the electrophoretic mobility of an ion is a function of its charge and size. Despite very similar ratios, partial separations between An(IV)DTPA(-) species (An(IV) = Th, U, Np, Pu) were obtained. A linear relationship between the electrophoretic mobility and the actinide--oxygen distance calculated by AIMD was evidenced. As an example, the interpolated U-O distances in U(IV)DTPA(-) from CE-ICPMS experiments, EXAFS, AIMD, and the relationship between the stability constants and

  17. Detection of alveolar epithelial injury by 99mTC-DTPA radioaerosol inhalation lung scan following blunt chest trauma.

    PubMed

    Okudan, Berna; Han, Serdar; Baldemir, Makbule; Yildiz, Mustafa

    2004-10-01

    DTPA clearance rate is a reliable index of alveolar epithelial permeability, and is a highly sensitive marker of pulmonary epithelial damage, even of mild degree. In this study, 99mTc-DTPA aerosol inhalation scintigraphy was used to assesss the pulmonary epithelial membrane permeability and to investigate the possible application of this permeability value as an indicator of early alveolar or interstitial changes in patients with blunt chest trauma. A total of 26 patients was chest trauma (4 female, 22 male, 31-80 yrs, mean age; 53+/-13 yrs) who were referred to the emergency department in our hospital participated in this tsudy. Technetium-99m diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA) aerosol inhalation scintigraphy was performed on the first and thirtieth days after trauma. Clearance half times (T1/2) were calculated by placing a mono-exponential fit on the curves. Penetration index (PI) was calculated on the first-minute image. On the first day, mean T1/2 value of the whole lung was 63+/-19 minutes (min), and thirtieth day mean T1/2 value was 67+/-21 min. On the first day, mean PI values of the lung and 30th day mean PI value were 0.60+/-0.05, and 0.63+/-0.05, respectively. Significant changes were observed in radioaerosol clearance and penetration indices. Following chest trauma, clearance of 99mTc-DTPA increased owing to breakdown of the alveolar-capillary barrier. This increase in the epithelial permeability of the lung appears to be an early manifestation of lung disease that may lead to efficient therapy in the early phase.

  18. Gd-DTPA Adsorption on Chitosan/Magnetite Nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pylypchuk, Ie. V.; Kołodyńska, D.; Kozioł, M.; Gorbyk, P. P.

    2016-03-01

    The synthesis of the chitosan/magnetite nanocomposites is presented. Composites were prepared by co-precipitation of iron(II) and iron(III) salts by aqueous ammonia in the 0.1 % chitosan solution. It was shown that magnetite synthesis in the chitosan medium does not affect the magnetite crystal structure. The thermal analysis data showed 4.6 % of mass concentration of chitosan in the hybrid chitosan/magnetite composite. In the concentration range of initial Gd-DTPA solution up to 0.4 mmol/L, addition of chitosan to magnetite increases the adsorption capacity and affinity to Gd-DTPA complex. The Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption models were applied to describe adsorption processes. Nanocomposites were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), differential thermal analysis (DTA), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and specific surface area determination (ASAP) methods.

  19. Analysis of Pharmacokinetics of Gd-DTPA for Dynamic Contrast-enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Taheri, Saeid; Jon Shah, N.; Rosenberg, Gary A.

    2016-01-01

    The pharmacokinetics (PK) of the contrast agent Gd-DTPA administered intravenously (i.v.) for contrast-enhanced MR imaging (DCE-MRI) is an important factor for quantitative data acquisition. We studied the effect of various initial bolus doses on the PK of Gd-DTPA and analyzed population PK of a lower dose for intra-subject variations in DCE-MRI. First, fifteen subjects (23–85 years, M/F) were randomly divided into four groups for DCE-MRI with different Gd-DTPA dose: group-I, 0.1mmol/kg, n=4; group-II, 0.05 mmol/kg, n=4; group-III, 0.025mmol/kg, n=4; and group-IV, 0.0125 mmol/kg, n=3. Sequential fast T1 mapping sequence, after a bolus i.v. Gd-DTPA administered, and a linear T1-[Gd-DTPA] relationship were used to estimate the PK of Gd-DTPA. Secondly, MR-acquired PK of Gd-DTPA from 58 subjects (28–80 years, M/F) were collected retrospectively, from an ongoing study of the brain using DCE-MRI with Gd-DTPA at 0.025 mmol/kg, to statistically analyze population PK of Gd-DTPA. We found that the PK of Gd-DTPA (i.v. 0.025 mmol/kg) had a half-life of 37.3 ± 6.6 mins, and was a better fit into a linear T1-[Gd-DTPA] relationship than higher doses (up to 0.1 mmol/kg). The area under the curve (AUC) for 0.025 mmol/kg was 3.37± 0.46, which was a quarter of AUC of 0.1 mmol/kg. In population analysis, a dose of 0.025 mmol/kg of Gd-DTPA provided less than 5% subject-dependent variation in the PK of Gd-DTPA. Administration of 0.025 mmol/kg Gd-DTPA enable us to estimate [Gd-DTPA] from T1 by using a linear relationship that has a lower estimation error compared to a non-linear relationship. DCE-MRI with a quarter dose of Gd-DTPA is more sensitive to detect changes in [Gd-DTPA]. PMID:27109487

  20. Tc-99m DTPA uptake in extramedullary plasmacytoma of the retroperitoneum

    SciTech Connect

    Aburano, T.; Yokoyama, K.; Michigishi, T.; Tonami, N.; Hisada, K.

    1988-12-01

    A case is presented in which uptake of Tc-99m DTPA has been demonstrated in an extramedullary plasmacytoma of the retroperitoneum. Because Ga-67 citrate does not concentrate in the same areas as Tc-99m DTPA, a radionuclide-specific uptake mechanism may be present. Extramedullary plasmacytoma should be included in the list of possible causes if extrarenal or extracentral nervous system uptake of Tc-99m DTPA occurs.

  1. Pulmonary 99mTc-DTPA aerosol clearance and survival in usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP)

    PubMed Central

    Mogulkoc, N; Brutsche, M; Bishop, P; Murby, B; Greaves, M; Horrocks, A; Wilson, M; McCullough, C; Prescott, M; Egan, J

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Clearance of inhaled technetium 99m-labelled diethylenetriamine penta-acetic acid (99mTc-DTPA) from the lungs is a potential indicator of disease progression in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF).
METHODS—We prospectively analysed the usefulness of this technique for predicting survival in 106 non-smoking patients with usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) pattern IPF diagnosed by high resolution CT (HRCT) scanning or histological examination (M/F 65/41, mean (SD) age 61 (11) years). DTPA clearance was analysed according to both mono-exponential and bi-exponential models. Half times for the fast (t0.5F) and slow (t0.5S) components of clearance, the percentage contribution of the fast component (fF), and half time for mono-exponential approximation to the early part of the clearance curve (t0.5) were calculated.
RESULTS—The patients had substantially faster t0.5 (mean 23.9 (9.6) minutes) than normal values (>45 minutes). Thirty seven patients (35%) died during follow up (median 15 months). Univariate Cox regression analysis identified significant predictors of survival as age, forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC), total lung capacity (TLC), % predicted TLC, carbon monoxide transfer factor (TLCO), % predicted TLCO, arterial oxygen tension (PaO2), oxygen saturation, t0.5F, and HRCT fibrosis score. Multiple stepwise Cox regression analysis identified t0.5F (p=0.03, hazard ratio 0.747, 95% CI 0.578 to 0.964), % predicted TLC (p=0.02, hazard ratio 0.976, 95% CI 0.956 to 0.995), % predicted TLCO (p=0.003, hazard ratio 0.960, 95% CI 0.935 to 0.986), and age (p=0.003, hazard ratio 1.062, 95% CI 1.021 to 1.104) as independent predictors of survival.
CONCLUSION—These data suggest that 99mTc-DTPA clearance t0.5F measurement may predict survival in patients with UIP pattern IPF.

 PMID:11713353

  2. USTUR WHOLE BODY CASE 0269: DEMONSTRATING EFFECTIVENESS OF I.V. CA-DTPA FOR PU

    SciTech Connect

    James, Anthony C.; Sasser , Lyle B.; Stuit, Dorothy B.; Glover, Samuel E.; Carbaugh, Eugene H.

    2008-01-28

    This whole body donation case (USTUR Registrant) involved a single acute inhalation of an acidic Pu(NO3)4 solution in the form of an aerosol ‘mist.’ Chelation treatment with i.v. Ca-EDTA was initiated on the day of the intake, and continued intermittently over 6 months. After 2½ years with no further treatment, a course of i.v. Ca-DTPA was administered. A total of 400 measurements of 239+240Pu excreted in urine were recorded; starting on the first day (both before and during the initial Ca-EDTA chelation), and continuing for 37 years. This sampling included all intervals of chelation. In addition, 91 measurements of 239+240Pu-in-feces were recorded over this whole period. The Registrant died about 38 years after the intake, at age 79 y, with extensive carcinomatosis secondary to adenocarcinoma of the prostate gland. At autopsy, all major soft tissue organs were harvested for radiochemical analyses of their 238Pu, 239+240Pu and 241Am content. Also, all types of bone (comprising about half the skeleton) were harvested for radiochemical analyses, as well as samples of skin, subcutaneous fat and muscle. This comprehensive dataset has been applied to derive ‘chelation-enhanced’ transfer rates in the ICRP Publication 67 plutonium biokinetic model, representing the behaviour of blood-borne and tissue-incorporated plutonium during intervals of therapy. The resulting model of the separate effects of i.v. Ca-EDTA and Ca-DTPA chelation shows that the therapy administered in this case succeeded in reducing substantially the long-term burden of plutonium in all body organs, except for the lungs. The calculated reductions in organ content at the time of death are approximately 40% for the liver, 60% for other soft tissues (muscle, skin, glands, etc.), 50% for the kidneys, and 50% for the skeleton. Essentially all of the substantial reduction in skeletal burden occurred in trabecular bone. This modeling exercise demonstrated that 3-y-delayed Ca-DTPA therapy was as

  3. Ustur whole body case 0269: demonstrating effectiveness of i.v. CA-DTPA for Pu.

    PubMed

    James, A C; Sasser, L B; Stuit, D B; Glover, S E; Carbaugh, E H

    2007-01-01

    This whole body donation case (USTUR Registrant) involved a single acute inhalation of an acidic Pu(NO3)4 solution in the form of an aerosol 'mist'. Chelation treatment with intravenously (i.v.) Ca-EDTA was initiated on the day of the intake, and continued intermittently over 6 months. After 2.5 y with no further treatment, a course of i.v. Ca-DTPA was administered. A total of 400 measurements of 239+240Pu excreted in urine were recorded; starting on the first day (both before and during the initial Ca-EDTA chelation) and continuing for 37 y. This sampling included all intervals of chelation. In addition, 91 measurements of 239+240Pu-in-feces were recorded over this whole period. The Registrant died about 38 y after the intake, at age 79 y, with extensive carcinomatosis secondary to adenocarcinoma of the prostate gland. At autopsy, all major soft tissue organs were harvested for radiochemical analyses of their 238Pu, 239+240Pu and 241Am content. Also, all types of bone (comprising about half the skeleton) were harvested for radiochemical analyses, as well as samples of skin, subcutaneous fat and muscle. This comprehensive data set has been applied to derive 'chelation-enhanced' transfer rates in the ICRP Publication 67 plutonium biokinetic model, representing the behaviour of blood-borne and tissue-incorporated plutonium during intervals of therapy. The resulting model of the separate effects of i.v. Ca-EDTA and Ca-DTPA chelation shows that the therapy administered in this case succeeded in reducing substantially the long-term burden of plutonium in all body organs, except for the lungs. The calculated reductions in organ content at the time of death are approximately 40% for the liver, 60% for other soft tissues (muscle, skin, glands, etc.), 50% for the kidneys and 50% for the skeleton. Essentially, all of the substantial reduction in skeletal burden occurred in trabecular bone. This modelling exercise demonstrated that 3-y-delayed Ca-DTPA therapy was as effective

  4. Spontaneous perforation of the ureter diagnosed on technetium 99m DTPA excretory urography

    SciTech Connect

    Barasch, E.; Kashdan, B.; Rathore, A.

    1988-01-01

    A case of nontraumatic rupture of the ureter secondary to a nonopaque calculus is presented. Because of the inherent high image contrast caused by the leak of technetium 99m-DTPA-labeled urine, the technetium 99m-DTPA excretory urogram is seen as an alternative to the intravenous urogram or contrast-enhanced computed tomography in selected cases of suspected ureteral rupture.

  5. Incidental 99mTc-DTPA Uptake in Tarlov Cysts on Radionuclide SPECT/CT Cisternography.

    PubMed

    Vamadevan, Shankar; Le, Ken; Bui, Chuong; Mansberg, Robert

    2017-04-01

    Sacral perineural cysts are also known as Tarlov cysts. A 58-year-old man with suspected intracranial hypotension was evaluated with Tc-DTPA radionuclide cisternography. Radionuclide planar and SPECT/CT cisternography revealed Tc-DTPA uptake in sacral lesions. Spine MRI confirmed Tarlov cysts at the S1 and S2 levels.

  6. Immune activity and biodistribution of polypeptide K237 and folic acid conjugated amphiphilic PEG-PLGA copolymer nanoparticles radiolabeled with 99mTc

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yufeng; Huang, Xuanzhang; Chen, Jie; Xia, Junyong; Jiang, Hao; Ma, Jing; Wu, Jian

    2016-01-01

    In a previous study, amphiphilic copolymer, polypeptide K237 (HTMYYHHYQHHL) and folic acid (FA) modified poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (K237/FA-PEG-PLGA) nanoparticles were developed and studied as a drug carrier. To further promote the clinical application of K237/FA-PEG-PLGA nanoparticles and provide guidance for future research, we need to examine their specific biodistribution in vivo. In this study, K237/FA-PEG-PLGA nanoparticles were effectively labeled by a direct method with Technetium-99m (99mTc) using stannous chloride as a reducing agent. The optimal stability of the labeled nanoparticles was determined by evaluating their radiochemical purity in serum, physiological saline, diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) and cysteine solutions. The affinity of ligands and receptors was elicited by cell binding and blocking experiments in KDR/folate receptor high expressing SKOV-3 ovarian cancer cells. The nanoparticles biodistribution was studied after intravenous administration in healthy mice xenografted with SKOV-3 cells. A higher percent injected dose per gram of tissue (% ID/g) was observed in liver, kidney, spleen, blood and tumor at 3 and 9 h post-injection. Scintigraphic images revealed that the radioactivity was mainly concentrated in tumor, liver, kidney and bladder; and in the heart, lung, and muscle was significantly lower at 3 h. The radioactivity distribution in the images is consistent with the in vivo biodistribution data. Our works demonstrated that K237/FA-PEG-PLGA nanoparticles have great potential as biodegradable drug carriers, especially for tumors expressing the folate and KDr receptor. PMID:27791199

  7. Iron-[S,S']-EDDS (FeEDDS) Chelate as an Iron Source for Horticultural Crop Production: Marigold Growth and Nutrition, Spectral Properties, and Photodegradation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aminopolycarboxylic acid (APCA) complexones, commonly referred to as ligands or chelating agents, like ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) are commonly used in soluble fertilizers to supply copper (Cu), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), and/or zinc (Zn) to p...

  8. An Evaluation of the Chelating Agent EDDS for Floriculture Crop Production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aminopolycarboxylic acid (APCA) ligands (chelating agents) like ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) are commonly used in soluble fertilizers to supply copper (Cu), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), and/or zinc (Zn) to plants. When complexed with Fe, EDTA and...

  9. Comparison of Gd-Bz-TTDA, Gd-EOB-DTPA, and Gd-BOPTA for dynamic MR imaging of the liver in rat models.

    PubMed

    Jaw, Twei-Shiun; Chen, Shih-Hsien; Wang, Yun-Ming; Hsu, Jui-Sheng; Kuo, Yu-Ting; Chiu, Yen-Yu; Tsai, Kun-Bow; Hsieh, Tsyh-Jyi; Liu, Gin-Chung

    2012-03-01

    To evaluate the competitive potential of a new lipophilic paramagnetic complex, Gd-Bz-TTDA [4-benzyl-3,6,10-tri (carboxymethyl)-3,6,10-triazado-decanedioic acid] compared with two other commercially available MR hepatobiliary contrast agents, gadobenate dimeglumine (Gd-BOPTA) and gadoxetic acid (Gd-EOB-DTPA), dynamic MR imaging studies were performed on normal and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) rat models using a 1.5-Tesla MR scanner. The results indicate that normal rats that were injected with 0.1 mmol/kg Gd-Bz-TTDA showed significantly more intense and persistent liver enhancement than those that were injected with the same dose of Gd-EOB-DTPA or Gd-BOPTA. All of these agents showed similar enhancement patterns in the implanted HCC. The liver-lesion contrast-to-noise ratios were higher and more persistent in rats that were injected with Gd-Bz-TTDA. These results indicate that Gd-Bz-TTDA is comparable with the commercially available hepatobiliary agents, Gd-EOB-DTPA and Gd-BOPTA, and can result in more intense and prolonged liver enhancement while still providing better liver-lesion discrimination. These results warrant further large-scale studies.

  10. Structure of a single model to describe plutonium and americium decorporation by DTPA treatments.

    PubMed

    Fritsch, P; Sérandour, A L; Grémy, O; Phan, G; Tsapis, N; Fattal, E; Benech, H; Deverre, J R; Poncy, J L

    2010-10-01

    The aim of this study is to propose a single modeling structure to describe both plutonium and americium decorporation by DTPA, which is based on hypotheses mostly validated by experimental data. Decorporation efficacy of extracellular retention depends on the concentration ratio of DTPA vs. actinides and varies in each compartment according to the amount of biological ligands and their affinity for actinides. By contrast, because the relatively long residence time of DTPA after its cell internalization and the stability of actinide-DTPA complexes, intracellular decorporation efficacy is mainly controlled by a DTPA/actinide ratio, which is specific to each retention compartment. Although the affinity of DTPA is much lower for americium than for plutonium, a larger decorporation of americium can be obtained, which is explained by different biological ligands and/or their affinity for the actinide. Altogether, these results show that the relative contribution of intra vs. extracellular decorporation varies depending on the actinide, the chemical form of radionuclides, the galenic formulation of DTPA, and the treatment schedule.

  11. Detection of acute inhalation injury in fire victims by means of technetium-99m DTPA radioaerosol inhalation lung scintigraphy.

    PubMed

    Lin, W Y; Kao, C H; Wang, S J

    1997-02-01

    Mortality and morbidity in fire victims are largely a function of injury due to heat and smoke. While the degree and area of burn together constitute a reliable numerical measure of cutaneous injury due to heat, as yet no satisfactory measure of inhalation injury has been developed. In this study, we employed technetium-99m diethylene triamine penta-acetic acid (DTPA) radioaerosol lung scintigraphy (inhalation scan) to evaluate acute inhalation injury in fire victims. Ten normal controls and 17 survivors from a fire accident were enrolled in the study. All patients suffered from respiratory symptoms (dyspnoea and/or cough with sputum). 99mTc-DTPA aerosol inhalation lung scintigraphy was performed in all subjects, using a commercial lung aerosol delivery unit. The degree of lung damage was presented as the clearance rate (k; %/min) calculated from the time-activity curve over the right lungs. In addition, the distribution pattern of the radioactivity in the lungs was evaluated and classified into two groups: homogeneous distribution and inhomogeneous distribution. A plain chest radiograph (CxR) and pulmonary function test (PFT) were performed in the same group of patients. The results showed that 6/17 (35.3%) patients had inhomogeneous distribution of radioactivity in their inhalation scans, and 11/17 (64.7%) had homogeneous scans. Five of the six patients with inhomogeneous scans were admitted for further management, and all patients with homogeneous scans were discharged from the emergency department and needed no further intensive care. The clearance rates of the right lung were 0.73%+/-0.13%/min for normal controls and 1.54%+/-0.58%/min for fire victims. The difference was significant, with a P value of less than 0.01. Using a cut-off value of 0.9%/min (all normal subjects were below 0. 9%/min), 14 (82.4%) patients had abnormal clearance rates of 99mTc-DTPA from the lung. In contrast, only three (17.6%) patients had abnormal CxR and three (17.6%) had abnormal

  12. LAT-1 Based Primary Breast Cancer Detection by [99m]Tc-Labeled DTPA-Bis-Methionine Scintimammography: First Results Using Indigenously Developed Single Vial Kit Preparation

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Sarika; Mishra, Anil K.; Rathod, Deepti; Hazari, Puja Panwar; Chuttani, Krishna; Chopra, Shalini; Singh, Paramvir Mangat; Abrar, M.L.; Mittal, Bhagwant R.; Singh, Gurpreet

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To evaluate the diagnostic utility of a single vial ready to label with [99m]Tc kit preparation of DTPA-bis-methionine (DTPA-bis-MET) for the detection of primary breast cancer. Methods: The conjugate (DTPA-bis-MET) was synthesized by covalently conjugating two molecules of methionine to DTPA and formulated as a single vial ready to label with [99m]Tc lyophilized kit preparations. Thirty female patients (mean age=47.5±11.8 years; range=21–69 years) with radiological/clinical evidence of having primary breast carcinoma were subjected to [99m]Tc-methionine scintigraphy. The whole body (anterior and posterior) imaging was performed on all the patients at 5 minutes, 10 minutes, 1 hour, 2 hours, and 4 hours following an intravenous administration of 555–740 MBq radioactivity of [99m]Tc-methionine. In addition, scintimammography (static images; 256×256 matrix) at 1, 2, and 4 hours was also performed on all the patients. Results: The resultant radiolabel, that is, [99m]Tc-DTPA-bis-MET, yielded high radiolabeling efficiency (>97.0%), radiochemical purity (166–296 MBq/μmol), and shelf life (>3 months). The radiotracer primarily gets excreted through the kidneys and localizes in the breast cancer lesions with high target-to-nontarget ratios. The mean±SD ratios on the scan-positive lesions acquired at 1, 2, and 4 hours postinjection were 3.6±0.48, 3.10±0.24, and 2.5±0.4, respectively. [99m]Tc-methionine scintimammography demonstrated an excellent sensitivity and positive predictive value of 96.0% each for the detection of primary breast cancer. Conclusion: Ready to label single vial kit formulations of DTPA-bis-MET can be easily synthesized as in-house production and conveniently used for the scintigraphic detection of breast cancer and other methionine-dependent tumors expressing the L-type amino acid transporter-1 receptor. The imaging technique thus could be a potential substitute for the conventional single-photon emission computed

  13. Palliation of bone pain with Sn-117m(4+)DTPA

    SciTech Connect

    Atkins, L.F.; Mausner, L.F.; Meinken, G.E.

    1994-05-01

    Sn-117m(4+)DTPA prepared at Brookhaven National Laboratory has favorable physical and biological characteristics for use as a palliative agent to relieve pain from osseous metastases. The short range of the emitted conversion electrons permits large bone radiation doses without excessive radiation to the bone marrow. An accompanying 158.6 keV gamma is useful for monitoring the distribution. The T1/2 of 13.6 days provides an adequate shelf life. A previous study in humans has demonstrated favorable dosimetry with a bone surface dose of approximately 57.9 mGy/MBq and a bone surface to marrow ratio of 10:1. This study was instituted to find a dose level which was effective and to monitor effects on bone marrow. Sn-117m was administered to 14 patients. Administered activity ranged between 66 and 573 MBq or 1.2-5.8 MBq/kg body weight. At the lower dose levels (<3.1 MBq/kg, n=7), 1 obtained good relief of pain, 1 partial relief, and 1 no relief. The remaining 4 were not evaluated because of the need for further treatment of soft tissue disease or because of intervening death. The 7 patients treated at the higher dose level (4.8-5.8 MBq/kg) included patients with prostate (3), breast (3) and unknown (1) primary cancers. All patients experienced relief of pain, 5 excellent and 2 partial. No marrow suppression was observed as a result of Sn-117m therapy. Initial observations indicate that Sn-117m DTPA is effective in palliation of pain from osseous metastases without producing bone marrow suppression. Further studies at a higher dose level are planned.

  14. Investigations on the Ga(III) Complex of EOB-DTPA and Its 68Ga Radiolabeled Analogue.

    PubMed

    Greiser, Julia; Niksch, Tobias; Weigand, Wolfgang; Freesmeyer, Martin

    2016-08-17

    We demonstrate a method for the isolation of EOB-DTPA (3,6,9-triaza-3,6,9-tris(carboxymethyl)-4-(ethoxybenzyl)-undecanedioic acid) from its Gd(III) complex and protocols for the preparation of its novel non-radioactive, i.e., natural Ga(III) as well as radioactive (68)Ga complex. The ligand as well as the Ga(III) complex were characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, mass spectrometry and elemental analysis. (68)Ga was obtained by a standard elution method from a (68)Ge/(68)Ga generator. Experiments to evaluate the (68)Ga-labeling efficiency of EOB-DTPA at pH 3.8-4.0 were performed. Established analysis techniques radio TLC (thin layer chromatography) and radio HPLC (high performance liquid chromatography) were used to determine the radiochemical purity of the tracer. As a first investigation of the (68)Ga tracers' lipophilicity the n-octanol/water distribution coefficient of (68)Ga species present in a pH 7.4 solution was determined by an extraction method. In vitro stability measurements of the tracer in various media at physiological pH were performed, revealing different rates of decomposition.

  15. Single-walled carbon nanotube-loaded doxorubicin and Gd-DTPA for targeted drug delivery and magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Yan, Chenyu; Chen, Chengqun; Hou, Lin; Zhang, Huijuan; Che, Yingyu; Qi, Yuedong; Zhang, Xiaojian; Cheng, Jingliang; Zhang, Zhenzhong

    2017-02-01

    An aspargine-glycine-arginine (NGR) peptide modified single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) system, developed by a simple non-covalent approach, could be loaded with the anticancer drug doxorubicin (DOX) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agent gadolinium-diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (Gd-DTPA). This DOX- and Gd-DTPA-loaded NGR functionalized SWCNTs (DOX/NGR-SWCNTs/Gd-DPTA) retained both cytotoxicity of DOX and MRI contrast effect of Gd-DPTA. This drug delivery system showed excellent stability in physiological solutions. This DOX/NGR-SWCNTs/Gd-DPTA system could accumulate in tumors and enter into tumor cells, which facilitated combination chemotherapy with diagnosis of tumor in one system. An excellent in vitro anti-tumor effect was shown in MCF-7 cells treated by DOX/NGR-SWCNTs/Gd-DPTA, compared with DOX solution, DOX/SWCNTs and DOX/SWCNTs/Gd-DPTA. In vivo data of DOX/NGR-SWCNTs/Gd-DPTA group in tumor-bearing mice further confirmed that this system performed much higher tumor targeting capacity and anti-tumor efficacy than other control groups.

  16. Preferential decorporation of americium by pulmonary administration of DTPA dry powder after inhalation of aged PuO(2) containing americium in rats.

    PubMed

    Grémy, Olivier; Tsapis, Nicolas; Chau, Quang; Renault, Daniel; Abram, Marie-Claire; Van der Meeren, Anne

    2010-11-01

    After inhalation of plutonium oxides containing various percentages of americium in rats, we identified an acellular transient pulmonary compartment, the epithelial lining fluid (ELF), in which a fraction of actinide oxides dissolve prior to absorption and subsequent extrapulmonary deposit. Chelation therapy is usually considered to be poorly efficient after inhalation of actinide oxides. However, in the present study, prompt pulmonary administration of diethylenetraminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) as a dry powder led to a decrease in actinide content in ELF together with a limitation of bone and liver deposits. Because americium is more soluble than plutonium, higher amounts of americium were found in ELF, extrapulmonary tissues and urine. Our results also demonstrated that the higher efficacy of DTPA on americium compared to plutonium in ELF induced a preferential inhibition of extrapulmonary deposit and a greater urinary excretion of americium compared to plutonium. All together, our data justify the use of an early and local DTPA treatment after inhalation of plutonium oxide aerosols in which americium can be in high proportion such as in aged compounds.

  17. Detection of urinary extravasation by delayed technetium-99m DTPA renal imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Taki, J.; Tonami, N.; Aburano, T.; Hisada, K.

    1986-08-01

    Delayed imaging with Tc-99m DTPA renal scintigraphy demonstrated urinary extravasation in a patient with acute anuria in whom early sequential imaging showed no abnormal extrarenal radionuclide accumulation.

  18. The value of Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MR imaging in characterizing cirrhotic nodules with atypical enhancement on Gd-DTPA-enhanced MR images

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Ching-Po; Chen, Yao-Li; Chen, Yung-Fang; Chen, Ran-Chou

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the utility of Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in characterizing atypically enhanced cirrhotic nodules detected on conventional Gd-DTPA-enhanced MR images. Materials and methods We enrolled 61 consecutive patients with 88 atypical nodules seen on conventional Gd-DTPA-enhanced MR images who underwent Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI within a 3-month period. Using a reference standard, we determined that 58 of the nodules were hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and 30 were dysplastic nodules (DNs). Tumor size, signal intensity on precontrast T1-weighted images (T1WI), T2-weighted images (T2WI) and diffusion-weighted images (DWI), and the enhancement patterns seen on dynamic phase and hepatocyte phase images were determined. Results There were significant differences between DNs and HCC in hyperintensity on T2WI, hypointensity on T1WI, hypervascularity on arterial phase images, typical HCC enhancement patterns on dynamic MR images, hypointensity on hepatocyte phase images, and hyperintensity on DWI. The sensitivity and specificity were 79.3% and 83.3% for T2WI, 50.0% and 80.0% for T1WI, 82.8% and 76.7% for DWI, 17.2% and 100% for dynamic MR imaging, 93.1% and 83.3% for hepatocyte phase imaging, and 46.8% and 100% when arterial hypervascularity was combined with hypointensity on hepatocyte-phase imaging. Conclusion Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced hepatocyte phase imaging is recommended for patients at high risk for HCC who present with atypical lesions on conventional Gd-DTPA-enhanced MR images. PMID:28355258

  19. Design and functionalities of the MADOR® software suite for dose-reduction management after DTPA therapy.

    PubMed

    Leprince, B; Fritsch, P; Bérard, P; Roméo, P-H

    2016-03-01

    A software suite on biokinetics of radionuclides and internal dosimetry intended for the occupational health practitioners of nuclear industry and for expert opinions has been developed under Borland C++ Builder™. These computing tools allow physicians to improve the dosimetric follow-up of workers in agreement with the French regulations and to manage new internal contaminations by radionuclides such as Pu and/or Am after diethylene triamine penta-acetic acid treatments. In this paper, the concept and functionalities of the first two computing tools of this MADOR(®) suite are described. The release 0.0 is the forensic application, which allows calculating the derived recording levels for intake by inhalation or ingestion of the main radioisotopes encountered in occupational environment. Indeed, these reference values of activity are convenient to interpret rapidly the bioassay measurements and make decisions as part of medical monitoring. The release 1.0 addresses the effect of DTPA treatments on Pu/Am biokinetics and the dose benefit. The forensic results of the MADOR(®) suite were validated by comparison with reference data.

  20. Induction of sister chromatid exchange in the presence of gadolinium-DTPA and its reduction by dimethyl sulfoxide

    SciTech Connect

    Yamazaki, Etsuo; Fukuda, Hozumi; Shibuya, Hitoshi; Matsubara, Sho

    1996-05-01

    The authors investigate the frequency of sister chromatid exchange (SCE) after the addition of gadolinium (Gd)-DTPA to venous blood samples. Venous blood was obtained from nonsmokers. Samples were incubated with Gd-DTPA alone or in combination with mitomycin C, cytarabine, and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), and then evaluated for SCEs. The frequency of SCE increased with the concentration of Gd-DTPA and as each chemotherapeutic agent was added. Sister chromatid exchange frequencies were lower when the blood was treated with a combination of Gd-DTPA and DMSO compared with Gd-DTPA alone. The increase in frequency of SCE seen after the addition of Gd-DTPA was decreased by the addition of DMSO, indicating the production of hydroxyl radicals. The effect likely is dissociation-related. 14 refs., 6 tabs.

  1. Quantitative measurement of regional blood flow with gadolinium diethylenetriaminepentaacetate bolus track NMR imaging in cerebral infarcts in rats: validation with the iodo[14C]antipyrine technique.

    PubMed Central

    Wittlich, F; Kohno, K; Mies, G; Norris, D G; Hoehn-Berlage, M

    1995-01-01

    NMR bolus track measurements were correlated with autoradiographically determined regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF). The NMR method is based on bolus infusion of the contrast agent gadolinium diethylenetriaminepentaacetate and high-speed T*2-sensitive NMR imaging. The first pass of the contrast agent through the image plane causes a transient decrease of the signal intensity. This time course of the signal intensity is transformed into relative concentrations of the contrast agent in each pixel. The mean transit time and relative blood flow and volume are calculated from such indicator dilution curves. We investigated whether this NMR technique correctly expresses the relative rCBF. The relative blood flow data, calculated from NMR bolus track experiments, and the absolute values of iodo[14C]antipyrine autoradiography were compared. A linear relationship was observed, indicating the proportionality of the transient NMR signal change with CBF. Excellent interindividual reproducibility of calibration constants is observed (r = 0.963). For a given NMR protocol, bolus track measurements calibrated with autoradiography after the experiment allow determination of absolute values for rCBF and regional blood volume. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:7892189

  2. Prolonged local retention of subcutaneously injected polymers monitored by noninvasive SPECT imaging.

    PubMed

    Kojima, Chie; Niki, Yuichiro; Ogawa, Mikako; Magata, Yasuhiro

    2014-12-10

    Polymers are widely applied to drug delivery systems because polymers are generally excreted from the body more slowly than small molecules. Subcutaneous injection is one plausible means of administration. In this study, the in vivo behaviors of subcutaneously injected polymers, linear poly(glutamic acid) (Poly-Glu), acetylated dendrimer (Ac-den) and collagen peptide-conjugated dendrimer (CP-den), were investigated. Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging was used to noninvasively monitor the in vivo behaviors. Diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) was conjugated to these polymers, which were labeled with radioactive (111)In. These (111)In-DTPA-bearing polymers (Poly-Glu-DTPA, Ac-den-DTPA and CP-den-DTPA) and unconjugated DTPA were subcutaneously injected into tumor-bearing mice, which were subjected to SPECT imaging. These (111)In-DTPA-bearing polymers were largely retained at the injection site for at least 1 day, whereas the unconjugated DTPA was rapidly cleared from the whole body through excretion. Poly-Glu-DTPA and Ac-den-DTPA were partly accumulated in the kidney (and the liver), but the CP-den-DTPA was not. However, these (111)In-DTPA-bearing polymers were accumulated in the liver and the kidney following intravenous administration. These results indicate that the subcutaneously injected polymers did not largely gain substantial access to the systemic circulation, which is useful for a depot of drug around the injection site.

  3. Decorporation approach following rat lung contamination with a moderately soluble compound of plutonium using local and systemic Ca-DTPA combined chelation.

    PubMed

    Grémy, Olivier; Tsapis, Nicolas; Bruel, Sylvie; Renault, Daniel; Van der Meeren, Anne

    2012-09-01

    Decorporation efficacy of prompt pulmonary delivery of DTPA dry powder was assessed following lung contamination with plutonium nitrate and compared to an intravenous injection of DTPA solution and a combined administration of both DTPA compounds. In addition, efficacy of a delayed treatment was assessed. In case of either early or late administration, insufflated DTPA was more efficient than intravenously injected DTPA in reducing the plutonium lung burden due to its high local concentration. Prompt treatment with DTPA powder was also more effective in limiting extrapulmonary deposits by removing the early transportable fraction of plutonium from lungs prior its absorption into blood. Translocation of DTPA from lungs to blood may also contribute to the decrease in extrapulmonary retention, as shown by reduced liver deposit after delayed pulmonary administration of DTPA. Efficacy of DTPA dry powder was further increased by the combined intravenous administration of DTPA solution for reducing extrapulmonary deposits of plutonium and promoting its urinary excretion. According to our results, the most effective treatment protocol for plutonium decorporation was the early pulmonary delivery of DTPA powder supplemented by an intravenous injection of DTPA solution. Following inhalation of plutonium as nitrate chemical form, this combined chelation therapy should provide a more effective method of treatment than conventional intravenous injection alone. At later stages following lung contamination, pulmonary administration of DTPA should also be considered as the treatment of choice for decreasing the lung burden.

  4. Simplified structure of a new model to describe urinary excretion of plutonium after systemic, liver or pulmonary contamination of rats associated with Ca-DTPA treatments.

    PubMed

    Fritsch, P; Sérandour, A L; Grémy, O; Phan, G; Tsapis, N; Abram, M C; Renault, D; Fattal, E; Benech, H; Deverre, J R; Poncy, J L

    2009-06-01

    This study validates, by targeted experiments, several modeling hypotheses for interpretation of urinary excretion of plutonium after Ca-DTPA treatments. Different formulations and doses of Ca-DTPA were administered to rats before or after systemic, liver or lung contamination with various chemical forms of plutonium. The biokinetics of plutonium was also characterized after i.v. injection of Pu-DTPA. Once formed, Pu-DTPA complexes are stable in most biological environments. Pu-DTPA present in circulating fluids is rapidly excreted in the urine, but 2-3% is retained, mainly in soft tissues, and is then excreted slowly in the urine after transfer to blood. Potentially, all intracellular monoatomic forms of plutonium could be decorporated after DTPA internalization involving slow urinary excretion of Pu-DTPA with half-lives varying from 2.5 to 6 days as a function of tissue retention. The ratio of fast to slow urinary excretion of Pu-DTPA depends on both plutonium contamination and Ca-DTPA treatment. Fast urinary excretion of Pu-DTPA corresponds to extracellular decorporation that occurs beyond a threshold of the free DTPA concentration in circulating fluids. Slow excretion corresponds mostly to intracellular decorporation and depends on the amount of intracellular DTPA. From these results, the structure of a simplified model is proposed for interpretation of data obtained with Ca-DTPA treatments after systemic, wound or pulmonary contamination by plutonium.

  5. Spatial variability of soil total and DTPA-extractable cadmium caused by long-term application of phosphate fertilizers, crop rotation, and soil characteristics.

    PubMed

    Jafarnejadi, A R; Sayyad, Gh; Homaee, M; Davamei, A H

    2013-05-01

    Increasing cadmium (Cd) accumulation in agricultural soils is undesirable due to its hazardous influences on human health. Thus, having more information on spatial variability of Cd and factors effective to increase its content on the cultivated soils is very important. Phosphate fertilizers are main contamination source of cadmium (Cd) in cultivated soils. Also, crop rotation is a critical management practice which can alter soil Cd content. This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of long-term consumption of the phosphate fertilizers, crop rotations, and soil characteristics on spatial variability of two soil Cd species (i.e., total and diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA) extractable) in agricultural soils. The study was conducted in wheat farms of Khuzestan Province, Iran. Long-term (27-year period (1980 to 2006)) data including the rate and the type of phosphate fertilizers application, the respective area, and the rotation type of different regions were used. Afterwards, soil Cd content (total or DTPA extractable) and its spatial variability in study area (400,000 ha) were determined by sampling from soils of 255 fields. The results showed that the consumption rate of di-ammonium phosphate fertilizer have been varied enormously in the period study. The application rate of phosphorus fertilizers was very high in some subregions with have extensive agricultural activities (more than 95 kg/ha). The average and maximum contents of total Cd in the study region were obtained as 1.47 and 2.19 mg/kg and DTPA-extractable Cd as 0.084 and 0.35 mg/kg, respectively. The spatial variability of Cd indicated that total and DTPA-extractable Cd contents were over 0.8 and 0.1 mg/kg in 95 and 25 % of samples, respectively. The spherical model enjoys the best fitting and lowest error rate to appraise the Cd content. Comparing the phosphate fertilizer consumption rate with spatial variability of the soil cadmium (both total and DTPA extractable) revealed the high

  6. Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced 3.0-Tesla MRI findings for the preoperative detection of focal liver lesions: Comparison with iodine-enhanced multi-detector computed tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Hyong-Hu; Goo, Eun-Hoe; Im, In-Chul; Lee, Jae-Seung; Kim, Moon-Jib; Kwak, Byung-Joon; Chung, Woon-Kwan; Dong, Kyung-Rae

    2012-12-01

    The safety of gadolinium-ethoxybenzyl-diethylenetriamine-pentaacetic-acid (Gd-EOB-DTPA) has been confirmed, but more study is needed to assess the diagnostic accuracy of Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in patients with a hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) for whom surgical treatment is considered or with a metastatic hepatoma. Research is also needed to examine the rate of detection of hepatic lesions compared to multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT), which is used most frequently to localize and characterize a HCC. Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI and iodine-enhanced MDCT imaging were compared for the preoperative detection of focal liver lesions. The clinical usefulness of each method was examined. The current study enrolled 79 patients with focal liver lesions who preoperatively underwent MRI and MDCT. In these patients, there was less than one month between the two diagnostic modalities. Imaging data were taken before and after contrast enhancement in both methods. To evaluate the images, we analyzed the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) in the lesions and the liver parenchyma. To compare the sensitivity of the two methods, we performed a quantitative analysis of the percentage signal intensity of the liver (PSIL) on a high resolution picture archiving and communication system (PACS) monitor (paired-samples t-test, p < 0.05). The enhancement was evaluated based on a consensus of four observers. The enhancement pattern and the morphological features during the arterial and the delayed phases were correlated between the Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI findings and the iodine-enhanced MDCT by using an adjusted x2 test. The SNRs, CNRs, and PSIL all had a greater detection rate in Gd-EOB-DTPA enhanced MRI than in iodine-enhanced MDCT. Hepatocyte-selective uptake was observed 20 minutes after the injection in the focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH, 9/9), adenoma (9/10), and highly-differentiated HCC (grade G1, 27/30). Rim

  7. Evaluation of Gd-DTPA-monophytanyl and phytantriol nanoassemblies as potential MRI contrast agents.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Abhishek; de Campo, Liliana; Rehmanjan, Beenish; Willis, Scott A; Waddington, Lynne J; Stait-Gardner, Tim; Kirby, Nigel; Price, William S; Moghaddam, Minoo J

    2015-02-03

    Supramolecular self-assembling amphiphiles have been widely used in drug delivery and diagnostic imaging. In this report, we present the self-assembly of Gd (III) chelated DTPA-monophytanyl (Gd-DTPA-MP) amphiphiles incorporated within phytantriol (PT), an inverse bicontinuous cubic phase forming matrix at various compositions. The dispersed colloidal nanoassemblies were evaluated as potential MRI contrast agents at various magnetic field strengths. The homogeneous incorporation of Gd-DTPA-MP in PT was confirmed by polarized optical microscopy (POM) and synchrotron small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) of the bulk phases of the mixtures. The liquid crystalline nanostructures, morphology, and the size distribution of the nanoassemblies were studied by SAXS, cryogenic transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM), and dynamic light scattering (DLS). The dispersions with up to 2 mol % of Gd-DTPA-MP in PT retained inverse cubosomal nanoassemblies, whereas the rest of the dispersions transformed to liposomal nanoassemblies. In vitro relaxivity studies were performed on all the dispersions at 0.54, 9.40, and 11.74 T and compared to Magnevist, a commercially available contrast agent. All the dispersions showed much higher relaxivities compared to Magnevist at both low and high magnetic field strengths. Image contrast of the nanoassemblies was also found to be much better than Magnevist at the same Gd concentration at 11.74 T. Moreover, the Gd-DTPA-MP/PT dispersions showed improved relaxivities over the pure Gd-DTPA-MP dispersion at high magnetic fields. These stable colloidal nanoassemblies have high potential to be used as combined delivery matrices for diagnostics and therapeutics.

  8. Gd-EOB-DTPA-Enhanced MR Imaging of the Liver: The Effect on T2 Relaxation Times and Apparent Diffusion Coefficient (ADC)

    PubMed Central

    Cieszanowski, Andrzej; Podgórska, Joanna; Rosiak, Grzegorz; Maj, Edyta; Grudziński, Ireneusz P.; Kaczyński, Bartosz; Szeszkowski, Wojciech; Milczarek, Krzysztof; Rowiński, Olgierd

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background To investigate the effect of gadoxetic acid disodium (Gd-EOB-DTPA) on T2 relaxation times and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values of the liver and focal liver lesions on a 1.5-T system. Material/Methods Magnetic resonance (MR) studies of 50 patients with 35 liver lesions were retrospectively analyzed. All examinations were performed at 1.5T and included T2-weighted turbo spin-echo (TSE) and diffusion-weighted (DW) images acquired before and after intravenous administration of Gd-EOB-DTPA. To assess the effect of this hepatobiliary contrast agent on T2-weighted TSE images and DW images T2 relaxation times and ADC values of the liver and FLLs were calculated and compared pre- and post-injection. Results The mean T2 relaxation times of the liver and focal hepatic lesions were lower on enhanced than on unenhanced T2-weighted TSE images (decrease of 2.7% and 3.6% respectively), although these differences were not statistically significant. The mean ADC values of the liver showed statistically significant decrease (of 4.6%) on contrast-enhanced DW images, compared to unenhanced images (P>0.05). The mean ADC value of liver lesions was lower on enhanced than on unenhanced DW images, but this difference (of 2.9%) did not reach statistical significance. Conclusions The mean T2 relaxation times of the liver and focal liver lesions as well as the mean ADC values of liver lesions were not significantly different before and after administration of Gd-EOB-DTPA. Therefore, acquisition of T2-weighted and DW images between the dynamic contrast-enhanced examination and hepatobiliary phase is feasible and time-saving. PMID:27026795

  9. Vesicoureteral Reflux Detected with 99mTc-DTPA Renal Scintigraphy during Evaluation of Renal Function

    PubMed Central

    Manevska, Nevena; Stojanoski, Sinisa; Majstorov, Venjamin; Pop-Gjorcheva, Daniela; Zdraveska, Nikolina; Kuzmanovska, Dafina

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Radionuclide techniques, as direct radionuclide cystography and 99mTc-DMSA scintigraphy, have been used in evaluation of vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) and reflux nephropathy (RN) in children. Dynamic 99mTc-DTPA scintigraphy is reserved for evaluation of differential renal function and obstruction in children, where hydronephrosis is detected by ultrasonography (US) pre- or postnatally. CASE REPORT: Six year old boy was prenatally diagnosed with bilateral hydronephrosis. Postnatal, severe bilateral VUR was detected by voiding urethrocytography. US and 99mTc-DTPA scintigraphy performed in the first month of life showed small left kidney that participated with 2% in the global renal function. Bilateral cutaneous ureterostomy has been performed in order to obtain good renal drainage and promote optimal renal growth. Twelve months later, classic antireflux procedure was done. Control 99mTc-DTPA scintigraphy, 5 ys after antireflux surgery, revealed persisting radioactivity during the diuretic phase, in the left kidney that indicated antireflux procedure failure with VUR reappearance. CONCLUSION: 99mTc-DTPA scintigraphy is the first method of choice for long-term monitoring of individual kidney function in children with VUR and other congenital urinary tract anomalies. Additionally, it can be used as indirect radionuclide cystography when rising of radioactivity in the kidney region, during the diuretic phase can indicate presence of VUR. PMID:27275347

  10. Technetium-99m DTPA aerosol and gallium scanning in acquired immune deficiency syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Picard, C.; Meignan, M.; Rosso, J.; Cinotti, L.; Mayaud, C.; Revuz, J.

    1987-07-01

    In 11 non-smoking AIDS patients suspected of pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP), the results of Tc-99m DTPA aerosol clearances, gallium scans, and arterial blood gases were compared with those of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL). Nine patients had PCP. All had increased clearances five times higher than the normal (5.6 +/- 2.3% X min-1 vs 1.1 +/- 0.34% X min-1, N = 10, P less than 0.001), suggesting an increased alveolar permeability. Gallium scans were abnormal in six patients but normal or slightly abnormal in the three others. Four of these nine patients had normal chest x-rays. In two of these the gallium scan was abnormal, but in the two others, only the increased Tc-99m DTPA clearances showed evidence of lung disease. Two patients had normal BAL, with normal clearances and gallium scans. Four out of the nine patients with PCP were studied after treatment. Three recovered and had normal clearance and gallium scans. One still had PCP with increased clearance but normal gallium scan. Gallium scanning and Tc-99m DTPA clearance are useful for detecting lung disease in AIDS patients with suspected PCP and for prompting BAL when chest x-rays and PaO/sub 2/ levels are normal. Due to its high sensitivity, a normal Tc-99m DTPA clearance could avoid BAL.

  11. Treatment of actinide exposures: a review of Ca-DTPA injections inside CEA-COGEMA plants.

    PubMed

    Grappin, Louise; Berard, Philippe; Menetrier, Florence; Carbone, Lise; Courtay, Catherine; Castagnet, Xavier; Le Goff, Jean-Pierre; Neron, Marie-Odile; Piechowski, Jean

    2007-01-01

    Calcium diethylenetriamine pentacetate (Ca-DTPA) has been used for medical treatment of plutonium and americium contaminations in the CEA and COGEMA plants from 1970 to 2003. This paper is a survey of the injections Ca-DTPA administered as a chelating molecule and it will be a part of the authorisation process for Ca-DTPA by intravenous administration. Out of 1158 injections administered to 469 persons, 548 events of possible or confirmed contamination were reported. These employees were followed by occupational physicians according to the current French regulations. These incidents took place at work, were most often minor, not requiring follow-up treatment. The authors present (1) a synthesis of the most recent findings. Due to its short biological half-time and its limited action in the blood, Ca-DTPA does not chelate with plutonium and americium as soon as these elements are deposited in the target organs. It justifies an early treatment, even in cases of suspected contamination followed by additional injections if necessary (2) data concerning these 1158 injections (route of contamination, dosage, adverse effects, etc.) The authors also investigated a study on the efficacy of the product on a group of persons having received five or more injections. These results were compared with the efficacy estimated theoretically. Dosages and therapeutic schemes were proposed based on these observations. This synthesis is the result of a collective work having mobilised the occupational medicine departments, the medical laboratories inside a working group CEA-COGEMA-SPRA.

  12. Pharmacokinetics of DTPA entrapped in conventional and long-circulating liposomes of different size for plutonium decorporation.

    PubMed

    Phan, Guillaume; Herbet, Amaury; Cholet, Sophie; Benech, Henri; Deverre, Jean-Robert; Fattal, Elias

    2005-12-10

    The aim of the present study was to develop an efficient DTPA liposome formulation designed for plutonium decorporation. DTPA was encapsulated in conventional (CL) and polyethylene glycol-coated stealth liposomes (SL) prepared by extrusion followed by the freeze-thawing method and sizing from around 100 to 800 nm. DTPA encapsulation percentages were approximately 30% in CL of any size but dropped from 48% to 7% as the diameter of SL was reduced. The pharmacokinetics of [(14)C]-DTPA encapsulated in large and small vesicles was evaluated in rats after a single intravenous administration. Both liposomal composition and size reduction had a significant impact on pharmacokinetic parameters, inducing a marked increased in exposure of the body to DTPA and its delayed excretion. DTPA distribution was moderate in liver but enhanced in spleen and bone and was dose-dependent, especially when SL of 100 nm were given. In conclusion, small and stealth(R) vesicles have interesting properties in delivering DTPA to contaminated tissues.

  13. The half maximum time of (99m)Tc-DTPA renography measured in healthy kidney donors, compared to (131)I-OIH.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Bing; Ding, Xianmin; Du, Xiaoguang; Xie, Xinli; Han, Xinmin; Liu, Baoping

    2011-01-01

    Technetium-99m-diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid ((99m)Tc-DTPA) has been widely used after (131)I-ortho-hippurate ((131)I-OIH) for renography and to test renal function. Only a few reports refer to normal values range of (99m)Tc-DTPA renography half maximum time (HMT). We have measured the normal value range of (99m)Tc-DTPA renography HMT in our department, of 433 healthy kidney donors from 2007 to 2010, and compared these results with those of (131)I-OIH renography. There were 326 men and 107 women, 18y-69y (median age 29y), subjects were measured before the donation of their kidneys operation and their biochemical, ultrasound and renal function tests were normal. All subjects drunk at least 1 litre of tap water before renography. The (99m)Tc-DTPA dynamic scintigraphy was performed in the posterior view by injecting intravenously as a bolus 185-296MBq. Dynamic imaging was performed immediately after the injection, using a high-resolution low-energy general purpose collimator and a large field of view dual-detector gamma-camera (Hawkeye; General Electric Medical Systems, USA). Matrix was 64Χ64, the phase acquisition time of blood perfusion was 1s/frame and 30 frames were collected. Dynamic acquisition was 30s/frame and 39 frames were collected. Total acquisition time was 20min. We defined as background two regions of interest around the kidneys and the aorta, for radioactive decay correction. We also compared (99m)Tc-DTPA renography HMT values with the HMT values of (131)I-OIH, between the two kidneys, and between men and women. The findings were evaluated by using frequency distribution analysis, paired Sample Student's t-test and one sample t test, with a level of significance P<0.05. We used the SPSS 10.0 statistical software. Since values beyond a high boundary were regarded as unusual, we used the P(95), i.e. " 95% of HMT reference ranges value" to determine the medical reference range of values, as the HMT normal limit. This reference value is used

  14. Multinuclear magnetic resonance study on the structure and dynamics of lanthanide(III) complexes of cyclic DTPA derivatives in aqueous solution

    SciTech Connect

    Bovens, E.; Hoefnagel, M.A.; Boers, E.

    1996-12-18

    The lanthanide coordination of the macrocyclic ligands cy(DTPA-EN) and cy (DTPA-EN-DTPA-EN) was studied in aqueous solution. {sup 17}O NMR measurements on the Dy{sup III} complexes showed that, in both complexes, the first coordination sphere of the Ln{sup III} ion contains one water molecule, leaving eight coordination sites for the ligand molecule. {sup 89}Y and {sup 139}La NMR analysis confirmed that the coordination mode of cy(DTPA-EN-DTPA-EN) is similar to that of the acyclic DTPA-bis(amide) derivatives. However, as a result of the cyclic nature of the similar to that of the acyclic DTPA-bis(amide) derivatives. However, as a result of the cyclic nature of the ligands considered the number of isomers in solution is lower than for the acyclic compounds. From variable-temperature {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR data, the authors conclude that, in the respective Ln{sup III} complexes in solution, the cy(DTPA-EN) ligand is present in two rapidly interconverting isomers, whereas the cy(DTPA-EN-DTPA-EN) ligand exists in four isomeric forms. Two types of exchange processes are observed for the cy(DTPA-EN-DTPA-EN) complexes; one is fast on the NMR time scale and does not require decoordination of the ligand, and the second is relatively slow and decoordination is necessary to realize the interconversion. The complexes of cy(DTPA-EN) and the lighter Ln{sup III} ions (Ln = La {yields} Eu) precipitated, probably due to the formation of binuclear complexes. Comparisons are made with the previously studied acyclic DTPA-bis (amides).

  15. Explorations of TALSPEAK chemistry in extraction chromatography: Comparisons of TTHA with DTPA and HDEHP with HEH[EHP

    SciTech Connect

    Braley, Jenifer C.; McAlister, Daniel; Horwitz, E. P.; Nash, Kenneth L.

    2013-03-01

    An advanced nuclear fuel cycle includes a reprocessing stage for the group separation of the lanthanides from the trivalent actinides. The TALSPEAK (Trivalent Actinide - Lanthanide Separation by Phosphorus reagent Extraction from Aqueous Komplexes) solvent extraction process provides the An3+/Ln3+ separation through the use of an organic lanthanide extractant (bis-2-ethyl(hexyl) phosphoric acid, HDEHP) and an aqueous actinide-selective holdback reagent (diethylenetriamine-N,N,N’,N’’,N’’-pentaacetic acid, DTPA). Organic phase interactions in TALSPEAK have proven sufficiently complex that, even with substantial research effort, a descriptive thermodynamic model has yet to be developed. If one were to consider an extraction chromatographic (EXC) version of TALSPEAK, the presence of concentrated extractant on the resin surface should augment the multifaceted organic phase chemistry. This study examines the previously unexplored impact of each aqueous phase TALSPEAK component (holdback reagent, carboxylic acid buffer, and pH) on the chemistry of the EXC system. The presence of alternative reagents, 2-ethyl(hexyl) phosphonic acid mono-2-ethyl(hexyl) ester acid (HEH[EHP]) and triethylenetetramine-N,N,N’,N’’,N’’’,N’’’-hexaacetic acid (TTHA) are also considered. Results indicate the concentrated extractant appears to enhance solid-phase reactions that most likely involve water, lactate and sodium. The presumed water, lactate and sodium partitioning consumes resin capacity sufficiently that the weaker hold-back reagent under TALSPEAK aqueous conditions (pH ~ 3.6), TTHA, provides preferential Am3+/Ln3+ separations performance. If a TALSPEAK-EXC process were to be developed, a resin with solvent diluted extractant or covalently bound functional groups may be preferential to reduce the complexity of the solid-phase chemistry.

  16. Usage of radiopharmaceuticals in the development of pharmaceutical drug delivery systems: validation of [99mTc]DTPA and [99mTc]ECD.

    PubMed

    Terán, Mariella; Savio, Eduardo; Paolino, Andrea; Frier, Malcolm

    2004-03-01

    Tablets containing drugs of different lipophilicity, ranitidine and cinarizine, and placebo were prepared and their in vitro behaviour was studied by dissolution and disintegration tests. [(99m)Tc]Diethylenetriamine-pentaacetic acid ([(99m)Tc]DTPA) and [(99m)Tc]ethyl cysteinate dimer ([(99m)Tc]ECD) were used as tracers of the process. Both of them were added to tablets during wet granulation. Dissolution and disintegration profiles were assessed at different pH values (1, 4 and 7). Radioactivity was evaluated in filtered samples and scintigraphic studies were carried out in gamma camera. Stability in dissolution media was confirmed for both tracers under these conditions. Dissolution and disintegration velocity constants were calculated. [(99m)Tc]DTPA proved to be an appropriate tracer for polar drugs such as ranitidine. Nevertheless, it was not a suitable tracer for lipophilic active drugs such as cinarizine. On the other hand, the most lipophilic tracer, [(99m)Tc]ECD, exhibited the opposite behaviour. Scintigraphic studies of the disintegration process did not show significant differences between placebos and tablets containing active drugs. As disintegration is a physical process it does not discriminate between chemical differences in tablet formulations. Both methods complement each other because the dissolution process can be followed when a suitable radiotracer is chosen according to the physicochemical characteristics of the active drug.

  17. Self-Assembled Monolayers of Dithiophosphinic Acids on Gold

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    San Juan, Ronan Roca

    This dissertation reports the synthesis of derivatives of dithiophosphinic acids (R1R2DTPAs), and the formation and characterization of DTPA SAMs on gold to build a knowledge base on their nature of binding, organization of the alkyl chains and electrochemical barrier properties. The binding of DTPA molecules on gold depends on the morphology of the gold film: They bind in a mixed monodentate and bidentate modes on standard as-deposited (As-Dep) gold, while they fully chelate on smoother template-stripped (TS) gold. Chapter 2 focuses on van der Waals interactions of various alkyl chain lengths of symmetrical R2DTPA SAMs, which increase with increasing chain lengths similar to those of the analogous n-alkanethiol SAMs, but with alkyl chains that are generally less dense than those of n-alkanethiol SAMs. Chapter 3 addresses why the DTPA compounds do not chelate on the standard As-Dep gold by comparing (C16)2DTPA SAM to (C16 )2DDP SAM. Here, side chain crystallinity stabilizes DTPA SAM structure at the expense of chelation of the DTPA molecules, which leads to a mixture of bidentate and monodentate DTPA molecules, whereas the increased flexibility of the chains in DDP due to the oxygen atoms retains chelation of the DDP molecules. Chapter 4 focuses on the SAMs formed from RlongRshort DTPAs, which shows that the length of the short chain spacer affects SAM packing density and thickness. The SAMs of these molecules also show homogeneous mixing of Rlong and Rshort chains. Chapter 5 investigates PhRDTPA SAMs in preparation for molecular junction studies. The chelation of PhRDTPA molecules on TS gold allows the PhRDTPAs to act as molecular alligator clips. The length of the alkyl chains controls the density of the phenyl group and they fill in the voids between adsorbates to prevent electrical shorting. Finally, Chapter 6 incorporates OH tail group(s) to control the wettability of DTPA SAMs. The presence of OH groups in DTPAs forms hydrophilic SAMs. The symmetrical OH

  18. Preclinical evaluation of (111)In-DTPA-INCA-X anti-Ku70/Ku80 monoclonal antibody in prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Evans-Axelsson, Susan; Vilhelmsson Timmermand, Oskar; Welinder, Charlotte; Borrebaeck, Carl Ak; Strand, Sven-Erik; Tran, Thuy A; Jansson, Bo; Bjartell, Anders

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to assess the Ku70/Ku80 complex as a potential target for antibody imaging of prostate cancer. We evaluated the in vivo and ex vivo tumor targeting and biodistribution of the (111)In-labeled human internalizing antibody, INCA-X ((111)In-DTPA-INCA-X antibody), in NMRI-nude mice bearing human PC-3, PC-3M-Lu2 or DU145 xenografts. DTPA-conjugated, non-labeled antibody was pre-administered at different time-points followed by a single intravenous injection of (111)In-DTPA-INCA-X. At 48, 72 and 96 h post-injection, tissues were harvested, and the antibody distribution was determined by measuring radioactivity. Preclinical SPECT/CT imaging of mice with and without the predose was performed at 48 hours post-injection of labeled DTPA-INCA-X. Biodistribution of the labeled antibody showed enriched activity in tumor, spleen and liver. Animals pre-administered with DTPA-INCA-X showed increased tumor uptake and blood content of (111)In-DTPA-INCA-X with reduced splenic and liver uptake. The in vitro and in vivo data presented show that the (111)In-labeled INCA-X antibody is internalized into prostate cancer cells and by pre-administering non-labeled DTPA-INCA-X, we were able to significantly reduce the off target binding and increase the (111)In-DTPA-INCA-X mAb uptake in PC-3, PC-3M-Lu2 and DU145 xenografts. The results are encouraging and identifying the Ku70/Ku80 antigen as a target is worth further investigation for functional imaging of prostate cancer.

  19. Influence of phosphorus sources and rates on soil pH, extractable phosphorus, and DTPA-extractable micronutrients

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Showk, A.M.; Westerman, R.L.; Weeks, D.L.

    1987-07-01

    Two soils (McLain sicl-fine, mixed, thermic, Pachic Argiustoll and Quinlan cl-loamy, mixed, thermic, shallow Typic Ustocrept) that differed in micronutrient content and chemical characteristics were collected from western Oklahoma. Soils were passed through a 2-mm screen and placed in plastic Petri dishes, and five P levels (0, 20, 40, 60, and 80 kg ha/sup -1/) were applied using monocalcium phosphate (MCP), monoammonium phosphate (MAP), and ammonium polyphosphate (APP); the soils were then mixed uniformly. Soils were moistened to approximately 0.33 MPa and incubated for 2 mo at room temperature. Application of P decreased soil pH in both soils, and MAP and APP had a greater effect than MCP, which was attributed to the nitrification of the added ammonium. Bray and Kurtz no. 1 P increased with P application in both soils. Monocalcium phosphate and MAP decreased DTPA-Fe, -Mn, and -Cu in McLain soil. However, high levels of P applied as APP increased DTPA-Fe, -Mn, and -Cu. Phosphorus application, regardless of source, had no effect on DTPA-Zn in McLain soil. Monocalcium phosphate and MAP decreased DTPA-Mn in the Quinlan soil; however; high levels of P applied as APP increased DTPA-Fe. Phosphorus application, regardless of source, had no effect on DTPA-Zn and -Cu in Quinlan soil.

  20. Characterization of Microcirculation in Multiple Sclerosis Lesions by Dynamic Texture Parameter Analysis (DTPA)

    PubMed Central

    Heldner, Mirjam Rahel; Kellner-Weldon, Frauke; Kottke, Raimund; Ozdoba, Christoph; Weisstanner, Christian; Kamm, Christian Philipp; Wiest, Roland

    2013-01-01

    Objective Texture analysis is an alternative method to quantitatively assess MR-images. In this study, we introduce dynamic texture parameter analysis (DTPA), a novel technique to investigate the temporal evolution of texture parameters using dynamic susceptibility contrast enhanced (DSCE) imaging. Here, we aim to introduce the method and its application on enhancing lesions (EL), non-enhancing lesions (NEL) and normal appearing white matter (NAWM) in multiple sclerosis (MS). Methods We investigated 18 patients with MS and clinical isolated syndrome (CIS), according to the 2010 McDonald's criteria using DSCE imaging at different field strengths (1.5 and 3 Tesla). Tissues of interest (TOIs) were defined within 27 EL, 29 NEL and 37 NAWM areas after normalization and eight histogram-based texture parameter maps (TPMs) were computed. TPMs quantify the heterogeneity of the TOI. For every TOI, the average, variance, skewness, kurtosis and variance-of-the-variance statistical parameters were calculated. These TOI parameters were further analyzed using one-way ANOVA followed by multiple Wilcoxon sum rank testing corrected for multiple comparisons. Results Tissue- and time-dependent differences were observed in the dynamics of computed texture parameters. Sixteen parameters discriminated between EL, NEL and NAWM (pAVG = 0.0005). Significant differences in the DTPA texture maps were found during inflow (52 parameters), outflow (40 parameters) and reperfusion (62 parameters). The strongest discriminators among the TPMs were observed in the variance-related parameters, while skewness and kurtosis TPMs were in general less sensitive to detect differences between the tissues. Conclusion DTPA of DSCE image time series revealed characteristic time responses for ELs, NELs and NAWM. This may be further used for a refined quantitative grading of MS lesions during their evolution from acute to chronic state. DTPA discriminates lesions beyond features of enhancement or T2

  1. A case of bronchial carcinoid: diagnosis and follow-up with 111In-DTPA-octreotide.

    PubMed

    Orsolon, P; Bagni, B; Basadonna, P; Geatti, O; Talmassons, G; Guerra, U P

    1995-12-01

    Scintigraphy with radiolabelled analogue of somatostatin is highly sensitive in detecting carcinoid tumors especially if performed with Single Photon Computed Tomography (SPECT). In this report we describe our experience with 111In-DTPA-Octreotide in a female patient affected by a small asymptomatic intrabronchial carcinoid demonstrated by CT scan and bronchial endoscopy performed after recurrent left pneumonias. Planar views and SPECT images, using 111In-DTPA-Octreotide, were collected before and four hours after the first endoscopic laser resection. All groups of SPECT images were positive in the left parahilar region but at a different degree. Scans performed after resection showed a low degree of uptake which was considered to be probably secondary to local swelling; CT scan was negative. Follow up endoscopic biopsy repeated at six months, showed a relapse always in the same site; CT scan of the thorax was again negative. 111In-DTPA-Octreotide images obtained at twelve months were positive always in the left parahilar region, CT scan was negative but another biopsy was not possible. Therefore it was suspected a relapse of the carcinoid which was probably growing only through the bronchial wall without spreading towards the bronchial lumen and/or the lung parenchima. In this occasion, it was also thought that images collected four hours after resection could be positive not only for swelling but for a relapse as well. In every scintigraphic session, SPECT images presented higher quality than planar. This case suggests that 111In-DTPA-Octreotide SPECT is a non-invasive diagnostic technique which could be applied as a follow-up tool especially to patients with no-secreting carcinoid neoplasm and/or with negative or doubtful endoscopic and radiological investigations.

  2. NMR and chiroptical examination of the diastereoisomers of (S)-Eu-EOB-DTPA.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Nicola C; Parker, David; Schmitt-Willich, Heribert; Sulzle, Detlev; Muller, Gilles; Riehl, James P

    2004-06-21

    The solution structure of the diastereoisomers of (S)-Eu--EOB--DTPA has been analysed by (1)H NMR, CD and CPL spectroscopy. Two major species exist which possess very similar (1)H NMR paramagnetic shifts and emission spectra, consistent with a 9-coordinate structure involving one bound water. Circularly polarised luminescence data are consistent with a common Lambda-helicity for each isomer; the isomers differ only in the absolute configuration of the central nitrogen atom.

  3. [177Lu]Bz-DTPA-EGF: Preclinical characterization of a potential radionuclide targeting agent against glioma.

    PubMed

    Sundberg, Asa Liljegren; Gedda, Lars; Orlova, Anna; Bruskin, Alexander; Blomquist, Erik; Carlsson, Jörgen; Tolmachev, Vladimir

    2004-04-01

    Patients with glioblastoma multiforme have a poor prognosis due to recurrences originating from spread cells. The use of radionuclide targeting might increase the chance of inactivating single tumor cells with minimal damage to surrounding healthy tissue. As a target, overexpressed epidermal growth factor receptors (EGFR) may be used. A natural ligand to EGFR, the epidermal growth factor (EGF) is an attractive targeting agent due to its low molecular weight (6 kDa) and high affinity for EGFR. 177Lu (T(1/2) = 6.7 days) is a radionuclide well suited for treatment of small tumor cell clusters, since it emits relatively low-energy beta particles. The goal of this study was to prepare and preclinically evaluate both in vitro and in vivo the [177Lu]Bz-DTPA-EGF conjugate. The conjugate was characterized in vitro for its cell-binding properties, and in vivo for its pharmacokinetics and ability to target EGFR. [177Lu]Bz-DTPA-EGF bound to cultured U343 glioblastoma cells with an affinity of 1.9 nM. Interaction with EGFR led to rapid internalization, and more than 70% of the cell-associated radioactivity was internalized after 30 minutes of incubation. The retention of radioactivity was good, with more than 65% of the 177Lu still cell-associated after 2 days. Biodistribution studies of i.v. injected [177Lu]Bz-DTPA-EGF in NMRI mice demonstrated a rapid blood clearance. Most of the radioactivity was found in the liver and kidneys. The liver uptake was receptor-mediated, since it could be significantly reduced by preinjection of unlabeled EGF. In conclusion, [177Lu]Bz-DTPA-EGF seems to be a promising candidate for locoregional treatment of glioblastoma due to its high binding affinity, low molecular weight, and ability to target EGFR in vivo.

  4. Monopropionate analogues of DOTA4- and DTPA5-: kinetics of formation and dissociation of their lanthanide(III) complexes.

    PubMed

    Balogh, Edina; Tripier, Raphaël; Fousková, Petra; Reviriego, Felipe; Handel, Henri; Tóth, Eva

    2007-08-28

    The replacement of an acetate function of the macrocyclic DOTA4-(DO3A-Nprop4-) or the acyclic DTPA5- in terminal position (DTTA-Nprop5-) has been recently shown to result in a significant increase of the water exchange rate on the Gd3+ complexes, which makes these chelates potential contrast agents for MRI applications. Here, two novel and straightforward synthetic routes to H4DO3A-Nprop are described. Protonation constants of DO3A-Nprop4- and stability constants with several alkaline earth and transition metal ions have been determined by potentiometry. For each metal, the thermodynamic stability constant is decreased in comparison to the DOTA chelates. The formation reaction of LnDO3A-Nprop- complexes (Ln=Ce, Gd and Yb) proceeds via the rapid formation of a diprotonated intermediate and its subsequent deprotonation and rearrangement in a slow, OH- catalyzed process. The stability of the LnH2DO3A-Nprop* intermediates is similar to those reported for the corresponding DOTA analogues. The rate constants of the OH- catalyzed deprotonation step increase with decreasing lanthanide ion size, and are slightly higher than for DOTA complexes. The kinetic inertness of GdDTTA-Nprop2- was characterized by the rates of its exchange reactions with Zn2+ and Eu3+. The rate of the reaction between GdDTTA-Nprop2- and Zn2+ increases with Zn2+ concentration, while it is independent of pH, implying that the exchange takes place predominantly via direct attack of the metal ion on the complex. In the Eu3+ exchange, the rate decreases with increasing concentration of the exchanging ion which is accounted for by the transitional formation of a dinuclear GdDTTA-NpropEu+ species. The kinetic inertness of the monopropionate GdDTTA-Nprop2- is decreased in comparison to GdDTPA2-: all rate constants, characterizing the dissociation reaction via either proton- or metal-catalyzed pathways being higher by 1-2 orders of magnitude. Similarly, a study of the acid-catalyzed dissociation of the

  5. Evaluation of the viability of /sup 111/In-abeled DTPA coupled to fibrinogen

    SciTech Connect

    Layne, W.W.; Hnatowich, D.J.; Doherty, P.W.; Childs, R.L.; Lanteigne, D.; Ansell, J.

    1982-07-01

    In earlier work, DTPA has been covalently coupled to albumin via the cyclic anhydride of DTPA. Using fibrinogen, we have studied the effect of such coupling on protein viability by both an in vitro and an in vivo assay. Clotting time remained identical to that of the native protein whether the anhydride-to-protein molar ratio was 1:1 or 5:1. In vivo studies were done in dogs, with human fibrinogen labeled with /sup 125/I and /sup 111/In. Throughout 130 hr, blood clearances for the two tracers agreed whether with 1:1 or 5:1 coupling. In a dog model with a thrombogenic catheter, the clot-to-blood ratios for the two radiotracers agreed within experimental error. Finally, 1:1-coupled canine fibrinogen, labeled with /sup 111/In, was administered to dogs with a catheter in a jugular vein, and scintigrams at 24 hr clearly showed clotting along the length of the catheter. We conclude that fibrinogen, coupled to DTPA, retains its viability, behaving like radioiodinated fibrinogen in vivo, and /sup 111/In labeled fibrinogen looks promising as a clinical diagnostic agent.

  6. Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MR relaxometry for the detection and staging of liver fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Haimerl, Michael; Utpatel, Kirsten; Verloh, Niklas; Zeman, Florian; Fellner, Claudia; Nickel, Dominik; Teufel, Andreas; Fichtner-Feigl, Stefan; Evert, Matthias; Stroszczynski, Christian; Wiggermann, Philipp

    2017-01-01

    Gd-EOB-DTPA, a liver-specific contrast agent with T1-shortening effects, is routinely used in clinical routine for detection and characterization of focal liver lesions and has recently received increasing attention as a tool for the quantitative analyses of liver function. We report the relationship between the extent of Gd-EOB-DTPA- induced T1 relaxation and the degree of liver fibrosis, which was assessed according to the METAVIR score. For the T1 relaxometry, a transverse 3D VIBE sequence with inline T1 calculation was acquired prior to and 20 minutes after Gd-EOB-DTPA administration. The reduction rates of the T1 relaxation time (rrT1) between the pre- and postcontrast images were calculated, and the optimal cutoff values for the fibrosis stages were determined with receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analyses. The rrT1 decreased with the severity of liver fibrosis and regression analysis revealed a significant correlation of the rrT1 with the stage of liver fibrosis (r = −0.906, p < 0.001). ROC analysis revealed sensitivities ≥78% and specificities ≥94% for the differentiation of different fibrosis stages. Gd-EOB-DTPA–enhanced T1 relaxometry is a reliable tool for both the detection of initial hepatic fibrosis and the staging of hepatic fibrosis. PMID:28128291

  7. Rapid clearance of inhaled aerosols of Technetium-99M DTPA in patients with pneumocystis carinii pneumonia

    SciTech Connect

    Mason, G.R.; Duane, G.B.; Effros, R.M.; Mena, I.

    1985-05-01

    Because infection with Pheumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) causes alteration of the type I epithelial cells as the primary event, the authors studied patients with PCP to determine if PCP causes rapid clearance of Tc-99m DTPA. Twenty normal non-smoking subjects and 7 non-smoking patients with histologically proven PCP were studied. Serial studies were obtained in three patients. Following a two-minute inhalation of 1.6 ..mu..m aerosol particles of Tc-99m DTPA in saline, the activity over three peripheral regions of interest (ROI) of each lung was monitored for the next 7 minutes. The rate of decline of activity over each ROI was expressed as per cent decline/min. In 7 patients with PCP, the average clearance was 7.5 +- 3.6% min., normal, 1.3 +- 0.6% min.(SD). Three patients studied from 5 to 38 days following therapy had improvement in the rate of clearance. This has been demonstrated to be persistent even after clinical recovery of the patient. The ability to quantitate injury to the pulmonary epithelium may directly reflect the ability of Pneumocystis carinii to invade the lung. The authors conclude that Tc-99m DTPA clearance may be a useful test to help diagnosis and monitor the activity of PCP infections.

  8. Evaluation of technetium-99m DTPA for localization of site of acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding

    SciTech Connect

    Abdel-Dayem, H.M.; Mahajan, K.K.; Ericsson, S.; Nawaz, K.; Owunwanne, A.; Kouris, K.; Higazy, E.; Awdeh, M.

    1986-11-01

    Intravenous Tc-99m DTPA was evaluated in 34 patients with active upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Active bleeding was detected in 25 patients: nine in the stomach, 12 in the duodenum, and four from esophageal varices. No active bleeding was seen in nine patients (two gastric ulcers and seven duodenal ulcers). Results were correlated with endoscopic and/or surgical findings. All completely correlated except: 1) one case of esophageal varices in which there was disagreement on the site, 2) three cases of duodenal ulcers that were not bleeding on endoscopy but showed mild oozing on delayed images and 3) one case of gastric ulcer, in which no bleeding was detected in the Tc-99m DTPA study, but was found to be bleeding at surgery 24 hours later. The Tc-99m DTPA study is a reliable method for localization of upper gastrointestinal bleeding with an agreement ratio of 85%. This method also can be used safely for follow-up of patients with intermittent bleeding. It is less invasive than endoscopy, is easily repeatable, and has the same accuracy.

  9. Clearance of Tc-99m DTPA aerosol from coal miners' lungs

    SciTech Connect

    Susskind, H.; Brill, A.B.; Harold, W.H.

    1985-07-01

    Alterations in regional epithelial permeability were assessed in 22 retired West Virginia coal miners' lungs by measuring the clearance of inhaled 0.5-..mu..m Tc-99m DTPA aerosol. Activity was measured in both lungs and in regions of interest placed over the lung periphery in the apical, middle, and basal portions of each lung. Clearance rates (T/sub 1/2/) for 5 nonsmokers, 8 ex-smokers, and 9 smokers were significantly faster than for comparable subjects measured elsewhere, who were not coal miners. Regional apex-to-base distributions of DTPA were measured as a function of clearance time and compared with regional ventilation and perfusion. Regional, as well as overall lung clearance curves of 8 smokers and 4 ex-smokers had two components, with overall T/sub 1/2/ of <7 min for the faster one. No correlations were found between T/sub 1/2/ and DLCO or with P(A-a)O/sub 2/. The results of our study suggest that measurement of DTPA clearance is a potentially useful noninvasive technique to assess lung injury in miners exposed to coal dust. 14 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. The behavior and importance of lactic acid complexation in Talspeak extraction systems

    SciTech Connect

    Grimes, Travis S.; Nilsson, Mikael; Nash, Kenneth L.

    2008-07-01

    Advanced partitioning of spent nuclear fuel in the UREX +la process relies on the TALSPEAK process for separation of fission-product lanthanides from trivalent actinides. The classic TALSPEAK utilizes an aqueous medium of both lactic acid and diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid and the extraction reagent di(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid in an aromatic diluent. In this study, the specific role of lactic acid and the complexes involved in the extraction of the trivalent actinides and lanthanides have been investigated using {sup 14}C-labeled lactic acid. Our results show that lactic acid partitions between the phases in a complex fashion. (authors)

  11. A simple and inexpensive system for controlling body temperature in small animal experiments using MRI and the effect of body temperature on the hepatic kinetics of Gd-EOB-DTPA.

    PubMed

    Murase, Kenya; Assanai, Purapan; Takata, Hiroshige; Saito, Shigeyoshi; Nishiura, Motoko

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a simple and inexpensive system for controlling body temperature in small animal experiments using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and to investigate the effect of body temperature on the kinetic behavior of gadolinium ethoxybenzyl diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (Gd-EOB-DTPA) in the liver. In our temperature-control system, body temperature was controlled using a feedback-regulated heated or cooled air flow generated by two Futon dryers. The switches of the two Futon dryers were controlled using a digital temperature controller, in which the rectal temperature of a mouse measured by an optical fiber thermometer was used as the input. In experimental studies, male ICR mice aged 8weeks old were used and allocated into 5 groups (39-, 36-, 33-, 30-, and 27-degree groups, n=10), in which the body temperature was maintained at 39 °C, 36 °C, 33 °C, 30 °C, and 27 °C, respectively, using our system. The dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) data were acquired with an MRI system for animal experiments equipped with a 1.5-Tesla permanent magnet, for approximately 43min, after the injection of Gd-EOB-DTPA into the tail vein. After correction of the image shift due to the temperature-dependent drift of the Larmor frequency using the gradient-based image registration method with robust estimation of displacement parameters, the kinetic behavior of Gd-EOB-DTPA was analyzed using an empirical mathematical model. With the use of this approach, the upper limit of the relative enhancement (A), the rates of contrast uptake (α) and washout (β), the parameter related to the slope of early uptake (q), the area under the curve (AUC), the maximum relative enhancement (REmax), the time to REmax (Tmax), and the elimination half-life of the contrast agent (T1/2) were calculated. The body temperature of mice could be controlled well by use of our system. Although there were no significant differences in α, AUC, and q among groups, there

  12. Model-based comparison of maternal and foetal organ doses from (99m)Tc pertechnetate, DMSA, DTPA, HDP, MAA and MAG(3) diagnostic intakes during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Saunders, Margaret; Palmer, Maria; Preece, Alan; Millard, Roger

    2002-10-01

    Organ residence times were calculated for diagnostic intakes of (99m)Tc pertechnetate, 2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA), diethylene triamine penta-acetic acid (DTPA), hydroxymethylene diphosphonate (HDP), macroaggregated albumin (MAA) and mercapto-acetyltriglycine (MAG(3)) during the 1st and 3rd stages of pregnancy and used with the MIRDOSE3 pregnant female phantoms for generation of dose estimates. At stage 3 individual foetal organ doses were estimated via a surrogate phantom based on that for the new-born but with mean dose/cumulated activity ( S) values scaled for compatibility with foetal whole body S. Stage 1 or 3 whole foetus doses ranged from 5.2 to 0.77 microGy MBq(-1) respectively, analogous to current ICRP estimates for these agents using similar in vivo biodistribution model databases. Most stage 3 maternal and foetal organ doses were similar within a factor of 3, being higher in the foetus than the mother with pertechnetate, DTPA and MAG(3), and lower with DMSA, HDP and MAA. Doses were more uniformly distributed among foetal organs than in the mother. Placental transfer was greatest with pertechnetate, where dose to the stage 3 foetal thyroid was 60-140 microGy MBq(-1). With each agent there was more placental transfer in stage 3 than in stage 1, but doses to stage 1 whole foetus were always higher, with the contribution from the mother dominant. For DMSA, HDP and MAG(3) the maternal contribution to total foetal body dose exceeded 93% for both stages.

  13. Effects of the Magnetic Resonance Imaging Contrast Agent Gd-DTPA on Plant Growth and Root Imaging in Rice

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Binmei; Wang, Qi; Ni, Xiaoyu; Dong, Yaling; Zhong, Kai; Wu, Yuejin

    2014-01-01

    Although paramagnetic contrast agents have a wide range of applications in medical studies involving magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), these agents are seldom used to enhance MRI images of plant root systems. To extend the application of MRI contrast agents to plant research and to develop related techniques to study root systems, we examined the applicability of the MRI contrast agent Gd-DTPA to the imaging of rice roots. Specifically, we examined the biological effects of various concentrations of Gd-DTPA on rice growth and MRI images. Analysis of electrical conductivity and plant height demonstrated that 5 mmol Gd-DTPA had little impact on rice in the short-term. The results of signal intensity and spin-lattice relaxation time (T1) analysis suggested that 5 mmol Gd-DTPA was the appropriate concentration for enhancing MRI signals. In addition, examination of the long-term effects of Gd-DTPA on plant height showed that levels of this compound up to 5 mmol had little impact on rice growth and (to some extent) increased the biomass of rice. PMID:24945975

  14. Effects of the magnetic resonance imaging contrast agent Gd-DTPA on plant growth and root imaging in rice.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zan; Qian, Junchao; Liu, Binmei; Wang, Qi; Ni, Xiaoyu; Dong, Yaling; Zhong, Kai; Wu, Yuejin

    2014-01-01

    Although paramagnetic contrast agents have a wide range of applications in medical studies involving magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), these agents are seldom used to enhance MRI images of plant root systems. To extend the application of MRI contrast agents to plant research and to develop related techniques to study root systems, we examined the applicability of the MRI contrast agent Gd-DTPA to the imaging of rice roots. Specifically, we examined the biological effects of various concentrations of Gd-DTPA on rice growth and MRI images. Analysis of electrical conductivity and plant height demonstrated that 5 mmol Gd-DTPA had little impact on rice in the short-term. The results of signal intensity and spin-lattice relaxation time (T1) analysis suggested that 5 mmol Gd-DTPA was the appropriate concentration for enhancing MRI signals. In addition, examination of the long-term effects of Gd-DTPA on plant height showed that levels of this compound up to 5 mmol had little impact on rice growth and (to some extent) increased the biomass of rice.

  15. The role of equilibrium and kinetic properties in the dissociation of Gd[DTPA-bis(methylamide)] (Omniscan) at near to physiological conditions.

    PubMed

    Baranyai, Zsolt; Brücher, Ernő; Uggeri, Fulvio; Maiocchi, Alessandro; Tóth, Imre; Andrási, Melinda; Gáspár, Attila; Zékány, László; Aime, Silvio

    2015-03-16

    [Gd(DTPA-BMA)] is the principal constituent of Omniscan, a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agent. In body fluids, endogenous ions (Zn(2+), Cu(2+), and Ca(2+)) may displace the Gd(3+). To assess the extent of displacement at equilibrium, the stability constants of DTPA-BMA(3-) complexes of Gd(3+), Ca(2+), Zn(2+), and Cu(2+) have been determined at 37 °C in 0.15 M NaCl. The order of these stability constants is as follows: GdL≈CuL>ZnL≫CaL. Applying a simplified blood plasma model, the extent of dissociation of Omniscan (0.35 mM [Gd(DTPA-BMA)]) was found to be 17% by the formation of Gd(PO4), [Zn(DTPA-BMA)](-) (2.4%), [Cu(DTPA-BMA)](-) (0.2%), and [Ca(DTPA-BMA)](-) (17.7%). By capillary electrophoresis, the formation of [Ca(DTPA-BMA)](-) has been detected in human serum spiked with [Gd(DTPA-BMA)] (2.0 mM) at pH 7.4. Transmetallation reactions between [Gd(DTPA-BMA)] and Cu(2+) at 37 °C in the presence of citrate, phosphate, and bicarbonate ions occur by dissociation of the complex assisted by the endogenous ligands. At physiological concentrations of citrate, phosphate, and bicarbonate ions, the half-life of dissociation of [Gd(DTPA-BMA)] was calculated to be 9.3 h at pH 7.4. Considering the rates of distribution and dissociation of [Gd(DTPA-BMA)] in the extracellular space of the body, an open two-compartment model has been developed, which allows prediction of the extent of dissociation of the Gd(III) complex in body fluids depending on the rate of elimination of the contrast agent.

  16. Specific PET Imaging Probes for Early Detection of Prostate Cancer Metastases

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-05-01

    0.20 mmol) in acetonitrile, K2CO3 (120mg, 0.87 mmol) was added followed by methyl chloroacetate (39 mg, 0.20 mmol) in 2 mL of acetonitrile. The...diyl)bis(5-tert-butoxy-5-oxopentanoic acid ) (8; Scheme 1). To a solution of 7 (100 mg, 0.13 mmol) in 5 mL of THF/H2O (2:1) was added portionwise 10 mg...diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) was added to the reaction mixture, which was allowed to incubate for another 5 min (DTPA was used to remove non

  17. Quantitative assessment of the rheumatoid synovial microvascular bed by gadolinium-DTPA enhanced magnetic resonance imaging

    PubMed Central

    Gaffney, K.; Cookson, J.; Blades, S.; Coumbe, A.; Blake, D.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To examine the relation between rate of synovial membrane enhancement, intra-articular pressure (IAP), and histologically determined synovial vascularity in rheumatoid arthritis, using gadolinium-DTPA enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).
METHODS—Dynamic gadolinium-DTPA enhanced MRI was performed in 31 patients with knee synovitis (10 patients IAP study, 21 patients vascular morphometry study). Rate of synovial membrane enhancement was quantified by line profile analysis using the image processing package ANALYZE. IAP was measured using an intra-compartmental pressure monitor system. Multiple synovial biopsy specimens were obtained by a blind biopsy technique. Blood vessels were identified immunohistochemically using the endothelial cell marker QBend30 and quantified (blood vessel numerical density and fractional area).
RESULTS—Median blood vessel numerical density and fractional area were 77.5/mm2 (IQR; 69.3-110.7) and 5.6% (IQR; 3.4-8.5) respectively. The rate of synovial membrane enhancement (median 2.74 signal intensity units/s, IQR 2.0-3.8) correlated with both blood vessel numerical density (r = 0.46, p < 0.05) and blood vessel fractional area (r = 0.55, p < 0.02). IAP did not influence the rate of enhancement.
CONCLUSIONS—Gadolinium-DTPA enhanced MRI may prove to be a valuable technique for evaluating drugs that influence angiogenesis.

 Keywords: magnetic resonance imaging; rheumatoid arthritis; synovitis; vascularity PMID:9640130

  18. Extrarenal abnormalities in Tc-99m-DTPA renal blood flow studies

    SciTech Connect

    Shih, W.J.; Domstad, P.A.; DeLand, F.H.

    1985-01-01

    The authors observed extrarenal abnormalities during renal flow scintigraphy and retrospectively reviewed 90 patient studies to determine the types and frequencies of such abnormal findings. For each routine Tc-99m-DTPA renal flow study, they obtained nine 2-second sequential images, which included the heart, abdominal aorta, spleen and kidneys. Eighty abnormalities, observed in 62 patients, were divided into three categories: aortic, 37 cases; splenic, 40 cases; and miscellaneous, 3 cases. Other correlative studies including Tc-99m sulfur colloid-spleen scintigraphy, ultrasonography (US), CT, aortography, and surgical and/or autopsy findings were available for corroboration in 56 of 80 lesions.

  19. Evaluation of (177)Lu-CHX-A''-DTPA-Bevacizumab as a radioimmunotherapy agent targeting VEGF expressing cancers.

    PubMed

    Kameswaran, Mythili; Pandey, Usha; Gamre, Naresh; Vimalnath, K V; Sarma, Haladhar Dev; Dash, Ashutosh

    2016-08-01

    This study aimed at the preparation and evaluation of (177)Lu-CHX-A''-DTPA-Bevacizumab for targeting VEGF over-expressing cancers. Bevacizumab conjugated to p-NCS-Bn-CHX-A''-DTPA was radiolabeled with (177)Lu. The radioimmunoconjugate characterized by SE-HPLC exhibited radiochemical purity of 98.0±0.6%. In vitro stability was retained upto 4 days at 37°C. In vitro cell binding studies showed good uptake by VEGF expressing U937 tumor cells. Biodistribution studies in melanoma model showed significant uptake and retention of (177)Lu-CHX-A''-DTPA-Bevacizumab in tumor with reduction in uptake in presence of cold Bevacizumab confirming its specificity to VEGF.

  20. Radionuclide studies of chronic schistosomal uropathy. [/sup 99m/Tc-DTPA; /sup 131/I-hippuran

    SciTech Connect

    Lamki, L.M.; Lamki, N.

    1981-08-01

    Fifty patients with chronic urinary tract schistosomiasis were studied with /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA. All had a flow study, sequential analog imaging, and digital imaging for 25 to 35 min (20-sec frames). Time-activity curves (DTPA renograms) were extracted; 12 patients had /sup 131/I-Hippuran probe renograms as well. Renal changes included diminished perfusion and structural abnormalities ranging from minor calyceal dilatation to overt hydronephrosis. Ureteral changes included dilatation, tortuosity, and kinking. Marked distortion of the ureterovesical junction was seen in some patients due to periureteral and perivesicular fibrosis, which is a major factor in upper urinary tract damage. Renograms showed varying obstruction and parenchymal damage. Nuclear medicine complements excretory urography and is sometimes preferable for visualization of the ureters. After the initial urogram, sequential DTPA scanning and renography are sufficient for follow-up.

  1. Spatial heterogeneity of DTPA-extractable zinc in cultivated soils induced by city pollution and land use.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yong; Liang, Wenju; Wen, Dazhong; Zhang, Yuge; Chen, Wenbo

    2005-05-01

    The spatial heterogeneity of DTPA-extractable zinc in the cultivated soils of Shenyang suburbs in Liaoning Province of China was investigated, and its map was drawn by the methods of geostatistics combined with geographic information system. The data of soil DTPA-extractable zinc fitted normal distribution after logarithm transformation, and its semivariogram fitted a spherical model. The semivariogram indicated that the spatial dependence of soil DTPA-extractable zinc content was moderate, with the spatial dependence range of 1.69 km and the fractal dimension of 1.96. Stochastic factors contributed to 49.9% of the spatial variability, while structural factors contributed to 50.1% of it. The spatial heterogeneity of soil DTPA-extractable zinc shown by a kriged interpolation map was deeply influenced by stochastic factors such as city pollution, land use pattern and crop distributions. For example, the average content of Zn in vegetable garden soils was 2.5-4 times as much as in their originated soils, and was lower in paddy soils than in their originated soils. The areas with a higher content of soil DTPA-extractable zinc appeared in the near suburbs and the riverside along Hunhe River and the wastewater drainage of Xihe River, and the extremely high values in the near suburb of the city's residential area were a striking feature, indicating the key role of city pollution in the spatial heterogeneity of soil DTPA-extractable zinc. When recorded in the form of a soil pollution map, the results of such a survey make it possible to identify the unusually polluted areas, and to provide more information for precise agriculture and environmental control.

  2. Evaluation of Focal Liver Reaction after Proton Beam Therapy for Hepatocellular Carcinoma Examined Using Gd-EOB-DTPA Enhanced Hepatic Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Kazutaka; Maeda, Yoshikazu; Kawamura, Mariko; Shibata, Satoshi; Sato, Yoshitaka; Terashima, Kazuki; Shimizu, Yasuhiro; Tameshige, Yuji; Sasaki, Makoto; Asahi, Satoko; Kondou, Tamaki; Kobayashi, Satoshi; Matsui, Osamu; Gabata, Toshifumi

    2016-01-01

    Background Proton beam therapy (PBT) achieves good local control for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and toxicity tends to be lower than for photon radiotherapy. Focal liver parenchymal damage in radiotherapy is described as the focal liver reaction (FLR); the threshold doses (TDs) for FLR in the background liver have been analyzed in stereotactic ablative body radiotherapy and brachytherapy. To develop a safer approach for PBT, both TD and liver volume changes are considered clinically important in predicting the extent of damage before treatment, and subsequently in reducing background liver damage. We investigated appearance time, TDs and volume changes regarding FLR after PBT for HCC. Material and Methods Patients who were treated using PBT and were followed up using gadolinium ethoxybenzyl diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (Gd-EOB-DTPA MRI) after PBT were enrolled. Sixty-eight lesions in 58 patients were eligible for analysis. MRI was acquired at the end of treatment, and at 1, 2, 3 and 6 months after PBT. We defined the FLR as a clearly depicted hypointense area on the hepatobiliary phase of Gd-EOB-DTPA MRI, and we monitored TDs and volume changes in the FLR area and the residual liver outside of the FLR area. Results FLR was depicted in all lesions at 3 months after PBT. In FLR expressed as the 2-Gy equivalent dose (α/β = 3 Gy), TDs did not differ significantly (27.0±6.4 CGE [10 fractions [Fr] vs. 30.5±7.3 CGE [20 Fr]). There were also no correlations between the TDs and clinical factors, and no significant differences between Child-Pugh A and B scores. The volume of the FLR area decreased and the residual liver volume increased, particularly during the initial 3 months. Conclusion This study established the FLR dose for liver with HCC, which might be useful in the prediction of remnant liver volume for PBT. PMID:27907063

  3. Effect of DTPA on concentration ratios of /sup 237/Np and /sup 244/Cm in vegetative parts of bush bean and barley

    SciTech Connect

    Romney, E.M.; Wallace, A.; Mueller, R.T.; Cha, J.W.; Wood, R.A.

    1981-07-01

    We grew bush beans, barley, and rice in two different soils in a glasshouse with /sup 237/Np or /sup 244/Cm mixed into separate containers of the soil. The chelating agent DTPA at 100 ..mu..g/g soil was added to half of the containers. The concentration ratio (CR) for /sup 237/Np without DTPA was two orders of magnitude higher than for /sup 244/Cm without DTPA for all three plant species. The DTPA increased the CR of /sup 244/Cm by two to three orders of magnitude, but had no influence on that for /sup 237/Np. In bush beans, both /sup 237/Np and /sup 244/Cm CRs were higher in primary leaves than in trifoliate leaves, which were higher than for stems. The CRs for bush beans were generally higher for both /sup 237/Np and /sup 244/Cm than for either barley or rice, especially without DTPA.

  4. [Effect of the chelator Zn-DTPA on the excretion of lead in lead intoxication mice detected with ICP-MS].

    PubMed

    Li, Chen; Lu, Kai-zhi; Zhou, Qi; Wang, Qiong; Zeng, Yu-liang; Yin, Hong-jun; He, Xuan-hui; Tian, Ying; Dong, Jun-Xing

    2014-11-01

    To study the lead excretion effect of the chelator Zn-DTPA on the lead intoxication mice, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was applied to detect the lead content of biological samples. The acute lead intoxication mice model was established by injecting lead acetate intraperitoneally with the dose of 1 mg. Zn-DTPA was administered intraperitoneally to mice once daily for five consecutive days 4 h after intoxication. Control group, model group, combination of Zn-DTPA and Ca-DTPA group were evaluated at the same time. The urine was collected every day. The mice were sacrificed in batches in the 2rd, 4th, 6th day. Biological samples including urine, whole blood, femur and brain were prepared and nitrated. Lead concentration was detected by ICP-MS. The result showed that Zn-DTPA could increase lead content in urine markedly and reduce lead content in blood, femur and brain.

  5. Clinical experience with technetium-99m DTPA aerosol with perfusion scintigraphy in suspected pulmonary embolism

    SciTech Connect

    Selby, J.B.; Gardner, J.J.

    1987-01-01

    To evaluate the clinical value of radioaerosol imaging, 156 patients with suspected pulmonary embolism (PE) were studied. In 25 patients, a preperfusion xenon-133 (Xe-133) study was compared with a postperfusion study using Tc-99m DTPA aerosol. It was found that they were of equal value most of the time (56%), but that the aerosol study was more often helpful. Because of this, and the technical ease of using six standard views with radioaerosol, the series was completed using perfusion scintigraphy followed by radioaerosol images. In 19 patients the perfusion scintigraphy with Tc-99 macroaggregated albumin (Tc-99m MAA) was normal or nearly normal and no aerosol study was required. Tc-99m DTPA aerosol images were satisfactory when the count rate was at least twice and preferably three times that of the previous perfusion study. There were 17 studies (11%) classified as intermediate. There were 26 patients classified as high probability for PE, and angiographic or autopsy correlation was available in 14. All of the 14 proved to have PE. In the 113 patients classified as low probability, there were ten with angiographic or autopsy correlation. In the ten, there was one patient with a small pulmonary embolus found at autopsy. Clinical follow-up for over two months confirmed the absence of PE in the remainder of this group. Aerosol studies have proven technically easier to perform and a satisfactory substitute for xenon imaging in suspected PE.

  6. Safety and efficacy parameters in patients treated with TiN-117m DTPA

    SciTech Connect

    Atkins, H.L.; Srivastava, S.C.; Meinken, G.E.

    1997-05-01

    We determined factors related to the administered dose versus efficacy and hematological toxicity in patients treated with Sn-117m DTPA for palliation of metastatic bone pain. We collected data in 47 patients (50 administrations) given Sn-117m DTPA in a dose escalation trial (5, 10, 12.5, 16, and 20 mCi/70/kg) for alleviation of pain from bone metastases derived from a variety of primary cancers. We correlated administered activity per unit body weight and calculated marrow dose, with both percent and absolute decrease in WBC and platelet counts, percent pain response, and onset of pain relief. We also correlated pain response with the extent of disease, using degree of uptake of tracer in bone and the bone index. At 5-20 mCi/70 kg dose levels, Sn-117m appears to have less hematological toxicity than other bone pain palliation agents (p<0.05). Overall pain relief (75%) was not correlated with administered activity and is similar to the other agents. There was a good correlation (p<0.05) between low and high levels of administered dose with response onset.

  7. Influence of complexans (EDTA, DTPA) on the toxicity of Cadmium to fish at chronic levels

    SciTech Connect

    Muramoto, S.

    1981-05-01

    There are a few reports on the effects of the complexing agents, as heavy metal pollution-inhibiting agents, to the aquatic animals. SPRAGUE(1968) reported on the influence of NTA on the zinc-and copper poisoning to brook trout. NISHIKAWA and TABATA(1969) conducted some experiments on eliminations of the toxicity of waste water from copper mines with EDTA using water fleas and dace. However, this in an area which has not so far as been clarifies in investigations on metal complexan toxicity and accumulation. In the previous paper, the effects of complexans(EDTA,NTA, and DTPA) on the metal-toxicity(Cd,Cu,Zn and Pb) at lethal levels and of complexan(EDTA) on the removing cadmium from the Cd-polluted fish were reported. This reports is examination of influence of complexans (EDTA and DTPA) on the metal toxicity and on the metal accumulation in viscera, gills and other parts of the fish exposing cadmium at low concentrations, long term(3 months). Vertebrae deformed fish induced by cadmium were observed with eye. The vertebrae of the fish were then examined by x-ray photography.

  8. Immunological persistence in 5 y olds previously vaccinated with hexavalent DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib at 3, 5, and 11 months of age.

    PubMed

    Silfverdal, Sven A; Assudani, Deepak; Kuriyakose, Sherine; Van Der Meeren, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    The combined diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis-hepatitis B-poliomyelitis/Haemophilus influenza vaccine (DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib: Infanrix™ hexa, GlaxoSmithKline Vaccines) is used for primary vaccination of infants in a range of schedules world-wide. Antibody persistence after 4 DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib doses in the first 2 y of life has been documented, but long-term persistence data following the 3, 5, 11-12 months (3-5-11) infant vaccination schedule, employed for example in Nordic countries, are limited. We assessed antibody persistence in 57 5-year-old children who had received either DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib or DTPa-IPV/Hib (Infanrix™-IPV/Hib, GlaxoSmithKline Vaccines) in the 3-5-11 schedule. Among DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib recipients, 7/12 retained seroprotective antibody concentrations for diphtheria, 10/12 for tetanus, 5/12 for hepatitis and 10/12 for Hib. Detectable antibodies were observed for 0/12 children for pertussis toxin (PT), 12/12 for filamentous haemagglutinin (FHA) and 8/12 for pertactin (PRN). Among DTPa-IPV/Hib recipients, 28/45 retained seroprotective anti-diphtheria concentrations, 34/44 for tetanus and 40/45 for Hib. Detectable antibodies were observed for 9/45 children for PT, 41/45 for FHA and 34/45 for PRN. Antibody persistence in DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib and DTPa-IPV/Hib-vaccinees appeared similar in 5 y olds to that previously observed in children of a similar age who had received 4 prior doses of DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib (or DTPa-IPV/Hib). As in subjects primed with 4 prior doses, we observed that antibodies markedly declined by 5 y of age, calling for the administration of a pre-school booster dose in order to ensure continued protection against pertussis.

  9. Influence of mixed-ligand complexes on retention and distribution of radioniobium in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Gachalyi, A.; Namenyi, J.; Szegedi, I.; Varga, L.P.

    1987-11-01

    The individual effects of desferrioxamine B (DFOA), Na3Ca diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA), Na-salicylate, DL-penicillamine, and 2-aminoethylisothiouronium bromide hydrobromide, as well as the effect of mixed-ligand treatment on the retention and elimination of /sup 95/Nb in mice have been examined. It was found that /sup 95/Nb could easily be mobilized by a single dose of DFOA, but the best result was obtained with the DFOA and DTPA combination. Mixed-ligand treatment did not change the deposition characteristics and translocation kinetics of /sup 95/Nb.

  10. Diagnostic Accuracy of Gd-EOB-DTPA for Detection Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC): A Comparative Study with Dynamic Contrast Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and Dynamic Contrast Enhanced Computed Tomography (CT)

    PubMed Central

    Imbriaco, Massimo; De Luca, Serena; Coppola, Milena; Fusari, Mario; Klain, Michele; Puglia, Marta; Mainenti, Pierpaolo; Liuzzi, Raffaele; Maurea, Simone

    2017-01-01

    Summary Background To compare the diagnostic accuracy of hepato-biliary (HB) phase with gadolinium-ethoxybenzyl-diethylenetriamine-pentaacetic acid (Gd-EOB-DTPA) with dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging (DCEMRI) and contrast-enhanced CT (DCECT) for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) detection. Material/Methods 73 patients underwent DCECT and Gd-EOB-DTPA-3T-MR. Lesions were classified using a five-point confidence scale. Reference standard was a combination of pathological evidence and tumor growth at follow-up CT/MR at 12 months. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves were obtained. Results A total of 125 lesions were confirmed in 73 patients. As many as 74 were HCCs and 51 were benign. Area under the curve (AUC) was 0.984 for DCEMRI+HB phase vs. 0.934 for DCEMRI (p<0.68) and 0.852 for DCECT (p<0.001). For lesions >20 mm (n.40), AUC was 0.984 for DCEMRI+HB phase, 0.999 for DCEMRI, and 0.913 for DCECT, (p=n.s.). For lesions <20 mm (n.85) AUC was 0.982 for DCEMRI+HB phase vs. 0.910 for DCEMRI (p<0.01) and 0.828 for DCECT (p<0.001). Conclusions The addition of HB phase to DCEMRI provides an incremental accuracy of 4.5% compared to DCEMRI and DCECT for HCC detection. The accuracy of Gd-EOB-DTPA-3T-MR significantly improves for lesions <20 mm. No significant improvement is observed for lesions >20 mm and patients with Child-Pugh class B or C. PMID:28217239

  11. New normal values not related to age and sex, of glomerular filtration rate by (99m)Tc-DTPA renal dynamic imaging, for the evaluation of living kidney graft donors.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xiuyi; Shao, Yahui; Wang, Yanming; Tian, Jun; Sun, Ben; Ru, Yanhui; Zhang, Aimin; Hao, Junwen

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the normal values of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) by technetium-99m diaethylene-triamine-pentaacetic acid ((99m)Tc-DTPA) renal dynamic imaging for living kidney graft donors. In a total of 212 candidate donors, GFR was examined using (99m)Tc-DTPA renal dynamic imaging. Donors with GFR≥80mL/(min×1.73m(2)) and as low as with GFR≥70mL/(min×1.73m(2)) but a normal endogenous creatinine clearance rate (CCr) were quantified for living kidney donation. Differences in GFR levels based on sex and age were analyzed using rank correlation coefficient. Out of the 212 candidates, 161 were finally selected as kidney graft donors. The double kidney total GFR between the male and female donor groups, the GFR levels among differently-aged donor groups, and the GFR levels between the elderly (>55 years) and young- and middle-aged (≤55 years) donor groups did not show any significant difference (P>0.05). After kidney donation, renal function measured by blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and serum creatinine of all donors returned to normal within one week, and no serious complications were noticed. In conclusion, renal dynamic imaging by (99m)Tc-DTPA had a good accuracy and repeatability in GFR evaluation for living kidney donors. Candidate donors with GFR between 70mL/(min×1.73m(2)) and 80mL/(min×1.73m(2)) can be selected as kidney donors after strict screening. In living kidney donors GFR is not significantly correlated with age or sex.

  12. Development of 153Sm-DTPA-SPION as a theranostic dual contrast agents in SPECT/MRI

    PubMed Central

    Gholami, Amir; Mousavie Anijdan, Seyyed Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Objective(s): This study describes the preparation, biodistribution of 153Sm-DTPA-SPION after intravenous injection in rats. Materials and Methods: The chelator DTPA dianhydride was conjugated to SPION using a small modification of the well-known cyclic anhydride method. Conjugation was done at a 1: 4 (SPION:ccDTPA) molar ratio. Conjugation reaction was purified with magnetic assorting column (MACs) using high gradient magnetic field following incubation, the radio labeled conjugate was checked using RTLC method for labeling and purity checked. Results: The RTLC showed that labeling yield was above 99% after purification and the compound have good in vitro stabilities until 48 hr post injection in the presence of human serum. The biodistribution of 153Sm-DTPA-SPION in rats showed dramatic uptake in the reticuloendothelial system (RES) and their clearance is so fast in other organs especially in the blood. Biodistribution results show that after 30 min post injection more than 84% of injected activities were taken up by the liver and spleen (about 64% and 20%, respectively). Conclusion: Due to magnificent uptakes of this radiotracer in the liver and spleen and their fast clearance from other tissues, especially in blood, it is suggested that this radiotracer would be a potential candidate for RES theranostic purposes. PMID:27872701

  13. Pneumocystis pneumonia increases the clearance rate of inhaled /sup 99m/Tc DTPA from lung to blood

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, D.K.; Higenbottam, T.W.

    1985-10-01

    Despite no radiographic change, a patient with Pneumocystis pneumonia showed increased clearance of inhaled /sup 99m/Tc DTPA from lung to blood. Gas transfer for carbon monoxide was also reduced, but improved with treatment. This was paralleled by serial increase in the t1/2 LB.

  14. Passive and active hepatoma tumor targeting of new N-(2-hydroxypropyl)methacrylamide copolymer conjugates: synthesis, characterization, and evaluation in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Jianchao; Yuan, Bingnian; Guo, Hongyun; Zeng, Xianwu; Wang, Xiaoqi; Liao, Shiqi; Li, Jing; Jia, Zong; Song, Fengying; Wang, Fuzhou

    2013-01-01

    Human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the major causes of death worldwide. To investigate the relative importance of active and passive targeting strategies, the synthesis, characterization, in vitro uptake, and in vivo biodistribution of specific sulfapyridine HPMA (HPMA: N-(2-hydroxypropyl methacrylamide)) copolymer (sulfapyridine: SPD) conjugates, nonspecific HPMA copolymer conjugates, and DTPA are described in this study. The poly(HPMA)-SPD-DTPA (DTPA: diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid), poly(HPMA)-DTPA, and DTPA conjugates were radiolabeled with the radionuclide (99m)Tc and tested for uptake by cultured H22 cells. The cellular accumulation of poly(HPMA)-SPD-DTPA-(99m)Tc complex was found to be time-dependent. The poly(HPMA)-SPD-DTPA-(99m)Tc tracer exhibited rapid uptake kinetics in cell culture with a t(1/2) of ~5 min. The uptake of poly(HPMA)-SPD-DTPA-(99m)Tc was significantly higher than that of poly(HPMA)-DTPA-(99m)Tc, indicating that the uptake of the poly(HPMA)-SPD-DTPA-(99m)T was active binding. The uptake of poly(HPMA)-DTPA-(99m)Tc was significantly higher than that of DTPA-(99m)Tc, suggesting that the uptake of the poly(HPMA)-DTPA-(99m)T was passive binding. Twenty-four hour necropsy data in the hepatocellular carcinoma tumor model showed significantly higher (p < 0.001) tumor localization for poly(HPMA)-SPD-DTPA-(99m)Tc (4.98 ± 0.48%ID/g [percentage injected dose per gram tissue]) compared with poly(HPMA)-DTPA-(99m)Tc (2.69 ± 0.15% ID/g) and DTPA-(99m)Tc (0.83 ± 0.03%ID/g). Moreover, higher T/B for poly(HPMA)-SPD-DTPA-(99m)Tc indicated reduced extravazation of the targeted polymeric conjugates in normal tissues. Specific molecular targeting and nonspecific vascular permeability are both significant in the relative tumor localization of poly(HPMA)-SPD-DTPA-(99m)Tc. Extravascular leak in nonspecific organs appears to be a major factor in reducing the T/B for the sulfapyridine molecules. Thus, the poly(HPMA)-SPD-DTPA is expected to be used

  15. Synthesis and biological assessment of folate-accepted developer (99m)Tc-DTPA-folate-polymer.

    PubMed

    Chen, Fei; Shao, Kejing; Zhu, Bao; Jiang, Mengjun

    2016-05-15

    A novel cancer-targetable folate-poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (PFDH) copolymer containing DTPA segment was prepared by conventional chemical synthesis and labeled with (99m)Tc subsequently. The (99m)Tc-labled PFDH could be produced easily with high radiochemical yield of 91% and radiochemical purity of 95%. The LogP octanol-water value for the (99m)Tc-labled PFDH was -2.19 and the radiotracer was stable in phosphate-buffered saline and human serum for 2h (>95% in PBS or ∼90% in human serum). To investigate (99m)Tc-labled PFDH tumor targeting, the in vitro and in vivo stability, cell uptake, in vivo biodistribution, and SPECT imaging were evaluated, respectively. These preliminary results strongly suggest that the novel folate conjugated dendrimer maybe developed to be potential for delivery of therapeutic radionuclides.

  16. Paramagnetic perfluorocarbon-filled albumin-(Gd-DTPA) microbubbles for the induction of focused-ultrasound-induced blood-brain barrier opening and concurrent MR and ultrasound imaging.

    PubMed

    Liao, Ai-Ho; Liu, Hao-Li; Su, Chia-Hao; Hua, Mu-Yi; Yang, Hung-Wei; Weng, Yu-Ting; Hsu, Po-Hung; Huang, Sheng-Min; Wu, Shih-Yen; Wang, Hsin-Ell; Yen, Tzu-Chen; Li, Pai-Chi

    2012-05-07

    This paper presents new albumin-shelled Gd-DTPA microbubbles (MBs) that can concurrently serve as a dual-modality contrast agent for ultrasound (US) imaging and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging to assist blood-brain barrier (BBB) opening and detect intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) during focused ultrasound brain drug delivery. Perfluorocarbon-filled albumin-(Gd-DTPA) MBs were prepared with a mean diameter of 2320 nm and concentration of 2.903×10(9) MBs ml(-1) using albumin-(Gd-DTPA) and by sonication with perfluorocarbon (C(3)F(8)) gas. The albumin-(Gd-DTPA) MBs were then centrifuged and the procedure was repeated until the free Gd(3+) ions were eliminated (which were detected by the xylenol orange sodium salt solution). The albumin-(Gd-DTPA) MBs were also characterized and evaluated both in vitro and in vivo by US and MR imaging. Focused US was used with the albumin-(Gd-DTPA) MBs to induce disruption of the BBB in 18 rats. BBB disruption was confirmed with contrast-enhanced T(1)-weighted turbo-spin-echo sequence MR imaging. Heavy T(2)*-weighted 3D fast low-angle shot sequence MR imaging was used to detect ICH. In vitro US imaging experiments showed that albumin-(Gd-DTPA) MBs can significantly enhance the US contrast in T(1)-, T(2)- and T(2)*-weighted MR images. The r(1) and r(2) relaxivities for Gd-DTPA were 7.69 and 21.35 s(-1)mM(-1), respectively, indicating that the MBs represent a positive contrast agent in T(1)-weighted images. In vivo MR imaging experiments on 18 rats showed that focused US combined with albumin-(Gd-DTPA) MBs can be used to both induce disruption of the BBB and detect ICH. To compare the signal intensity change between pure BBB opening and BBB opening accompanying ICH, albumin-(Gd-DTPA) MB imaging can provide a ratio of 5.14 with significant difference (p = 0.026), whereas Gd-DTPA imaging only provides a ratio of 2.13 and without significant difference (p = 0.108). The results indicate that albumin-(Gd-DTPA) MBs have potential as a US/MR dual

  17. Paramagnetic perfluorocarbon-filled albumin-(Gd-DTPA) microbubbles for the induction of focused-ultrasound-induced blood-brain barrier opening and concurrent MR and ultrasound imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Ai-Ho; Liu, Hao-Li; Su, Chia-Hao; Hua, Mu-Yi; Yang, Hung-Wei; Weng, Yu-Ting; Hsu, Po-Hung; Huang, Sheng-Min; Wu, Shih-Yen; Wang, Hsin-Ell; Yen, Tzu-Chen; Li, Pai-Chi

    2012-05-01

    This paper presents new albumin-shelled Gd-DTPA microbubbles (MBs) that can concurrently serve as a dual-modality contrast agent for ultrasound (US) imaging and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging to assist blood-brain barrier (BBB) opening and detect intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) during focused ultrasound brain drug delivery. Perfluorocarbon-filled albumin-(Gd-DTPA) MBs were prepared with a mean diameter of 2320 nm and concentration of 2.903×109 MBs ml-1 using albumin-(Gd-DTPA) and by sonication with perfluorocarbon (C3F8) gas. The albumin-(Gd-DTPA) MBs were then centrifuged and the procedure was repeated until the free Gd3+ ions were eliminated (which were detected by the xylenol orange sodium salt solution). The albumin-(Gd-DTPA) MBs were also characterized and evaluated both in vitro and in vivo by US and MR imaging. Focused US was used with the albumin-(Gd-DTPA) MBs to induce disruption of the BBB in 18 rats. BBB disruption was confirmed with contrast-enhanced T1-weighted turbo-spin-echo sequence MR imaging. Heavy T2*-weighted 3D fast low-angle shot sequence MR imaging was used to detect ICH. In vitro US imaging experiments showed that albumin-(Gd-DTPA) MBs can significantly enhance the US contrast in T1-, T2- and T2*-weighted MR images. The r1 and r2 relaxivities for Gd-DTPA were 7.69 and 21.35 s-1mM-1, respectively, indicating that the MBs represent a positive contrast agent in T1-weighted images. In vivo MR imaging experiments on 18 rats showed that focused US combined with albumin-(Gd-DTPA) MBs can be used to both induce disruption of the BBB and detect ICH. To compare the signal intensity change between pure BBB opening and BBB opening accompanying ICH, albumin-(Gd-DTPA) MB imaging can provide a ratio of 5.14 with significant difference (p = 0.026), whereas Gd-DTPA imaging only provides a ratio of 2.13 and without significant difference (p = 0.108). The results indicate that albumin-(Gd-DTPA) MBs have potential as a US/MR dual-modality contrast agent for

  18. Tin-117m(4+)-DTPA for palliation of pain from osseous metastases: A pilot study

    SciTech Connect

    Atkins, H.L.; Mausner, L.F.; Srivastava, S.C. ||

    1995-05-01

    The physical and biological attributes of {sup 117m}Sn(4+)-DTPA indicate that it should be an effective agent for palliative therapy of painful bony metastatic disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether or not this agent could effectively reduce pain while sparing the hemopoietic marrow from adverse effects. Fifteen patients (10 males and 5 females) with painful bony metastases from various primary cancers were included in the study. Seven patients received 1.22 to 3.11 MBq/kg of {sub 117m}Sn intravenously (Group 1) and eight patients received 4.85 to 5.77 MBq/kg (Group 2). All but one were treated as outpatients and followed for a minimum of 2 mo. In the first group, pain relief was nonassessable in four patients because of death or additional treatment of soft-tissue disease by another modality. One patient had no relief of pain, one had complete relief of pain and one had transient relief of pain. No myelotoxicity was observed. For Group 2, three patients achieved complete relief of pain, two good relief, two partial relief and one began to experience pain relief when he suffered a pathological fracture 2 mo most-treatment. None of these patients had myelotoxicity. Tin-117m(4+)-DTPA can reduce pain from metastatic disease to bone without inducing adverse reactions related to bone marrow. Further studies are needed to assess tolerance levels for the bone marrow and to evaluate response rates and duration of effect. 6 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  19. Evaluation of cell tracking effects for transplanted mesenchymal stem cells with jetPEI/Gd-DTPA complexes in animal models of hemorrhagic spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yu; He, Zhi-Jie; Xu, Bo; Wu, Qi-Zhu; Liu, Gang; Zhu, Hongyan; Zhong, Qian; Deng, David Y; Ai, Hua; Yue, Qiang; Wei, Yi; Jun, Shen; Zhou, Guangqian; Gong, Qi-Yong

    2011-05-19

    Cell tracking using iron oxide nanoparticles has been well established in MRI. However, in experimental rat models, the intrinsic iron signal derived from erythrocytes masks the labeled cells. The research evaluated a clinically applied Gd-DTPA for T1-weighted positive enhancement for cell tracking in spinal cord injury (SCI) rat models. MSCs were labeled with jetPEI/Gd-DTPA particles to evaluate the transfection efficiency by MRI in vitro. Differentiation assays were carried out to evaluate the differentiation ability of Gd-DTPA-labeled MSCs. The Gd-DTPA-labeled MSCs were transplanted to rat SCI model and monitored by MRI in vivo. Fluorescence images were taken to confirm the MRI results. Behavior test was assessed with Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan (BBB) scoring in 6weeks after cell transplantation. The Gd-labeled MSCs showed a significant increase in signal intensity in T1-weighted images. After local transplantation, Gd-DTPA-labeled MSCs could be detected in SCI rat models by the persistent T1-weighted positive enhancement from 3 to 14days. Under electronic microscope, Gd-DTPA/jetPEI complexes were mostly observed in cytoplasm. Fluorescence microscopy examination showed that the Gd-labeled MSCs survived and distributed within the injured spinal cord until 2weeks. The Gd-labeled MSCs were identified and tracked with MRI by cross and sagittal sections. The BBB scores of the rats with labeled MSCs transplantation were significantly higher than those of control rats. Our results demonstrated that Gd-DTPA is appropriate for cell tracking in rat model of SCI, indicating that an efficient and nontoxic label method with Gd-DTPA could properly track MSCs in hemorrhage animal models.

  20. Comparison of methods for calculating glomerular filtration rate: Technetium-99m-DTPA scintigraphic analysis, protein-free and whole-plasma clearance of technetium-99m-DTPA and iodine-125-iothalamate clearance

    SciTech Connect

    Goates, J.J.; Morton, K.A.; Whooten, W.W.; Greenberg, H.E.; Datz, F.L.; Handy, J.E.; Scuderi, A.J.; Haakenstad, A.O.; Lynch, R.E. )

    1990-04-01

    True glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was measured in normal volunteers and in patients with normal and impaired renal function by the iothalamate clearance (IC) method of Sigman. Within 24 hr, GFR was also determined by two other methods: technetium-99m- ({sup 99m}Tc) DTPA scintigraphic analysis (SA) utilizing a modification of the Gates computer program, and by measuring disappearance of {sup 99m}Tc-DTPA from whole plasma (WPC) and from protein-free ultrafiltered plasma (PFPC). Determinations of GFR by IC and by PFPC methods were virtually identical (mean absolute error 5.36 ml/min, r = 0.99, p greater than 0.05). GFRs measured in protein-free, ultrafiltered plasma differed significantly from those obtained from whole plasma only in sicker patients and in those taking multiple medications (in whom alterations in protein-binding of DTPA may be seen). The SA method correlated less well with the iodine-125-({sup 125}I) IC method than did either the protein-free or whole-plasma clearance methods (mean absolute error 32.36 ml/min, r = 0.74, p less than 0.05). However, the SA method provided useful information with respect to differential (split) renal function.

  1. Aqueous complexation of thorium(IV), uranium(IV), neptunium(IV), plutonium(III/IV), and cerium(III/IV) with DTPA.

    PubMed

    Brown, M Alex; Paulenova, Alena; Gelis, Artem V

    2012-07-16

    Aqueous complexation of Th(IV), U(IV), Np(IV), Pu(III/IV), and Ce(III/IV) with DTPA was studied by potentiometry, absorption spectrophotometry, and cyclic voltammetry at 1 M ionic strength and 25 °C. The stability constants for the 1:1 complex of each trivalent and tetravalent metal were calculated. From the potentiometric data, we report stability constant values for Ce(III)DTPA, Ce(III)HDTPA, and Th(IV)DTPA of log β(101) = 20.01 ± 0.02, log β(111) = 22.0 ± 0.2, and log β(101) = 29.6 ± 1, respectively. From the absorption spectrophotometry data, we report stability constant values for U(IV)DTPA, Np(IV)DTPA, and Pu(IV)DTPA of log β(101) = 31.8 ± 0.1, 32.3 ± 0.1, and 33.67 ± 0.02, respectively. From the cyclic voltammetry data, we report stability constant values for Ce(IV) and Pu(III) of log β(101) = 34.04 ± 0.04 and 20.58 ± 0.04, respectively. The values obtained in this work are compared and discussed with respect to the ionic radius of each cationic metal.

  2. The effect of x rays, DTPA, and aspirin on the absorption of plutonium from the gastrointestinal tract of rats

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, M.F.; Gorham, L.S.; Miller, B.M.

    1983-04-01

    To measure the effect of radiation on plutonium transport, rats that were exposed to 250-kVp X rays were given /sup 238/Pu 3 days afterwards by either gavage or injection into a ligated segment of the duodenum. In a second group of experiments, rats were either injected intraduodenally with /sup 238/Pu-DTPA or administered the chelate intravenously and the /sup 238/Pu by gavage. In a third experiment, rats that had been gavaged with 200 or 400 mg/kg/day of aspirin for 2 days were injected intragastrically with /sup 238/Pu nitrate. Results of the first experiment showed a dose-dependent increase in /sup 238/Pu absorption between 800 and 1500 rad of lower-body X irradiation. Intravenous or intraduodenal injections of DTPA caused a marked increase in /sup 238/Pu absorption but resulted in decreased plutonium deposition in the skeleton and liver. Retention of /sup 238/Pu in the skeleton of rats given aspirin was double that of controls, but the effect on plutonium absorption was less marked than that of DTPA.

  3. MR Prediction of Liver Function and Pathology Using Gd-EOB-DTPA: Effect of Liver Volume Consideration

    PubMed Central

    Shimamoto, Dai; Nishie, Akihiro; Asayama, Yoshiki; Ushijima, Yasuhiro; Takayama, Yukihisa; Fujita, Nobuhiro; Shirabe, Ken; Hida, Tomoyuki; Kubo, Yuichiro; Honda, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To evaluate whether the diagnostic performance of Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI in evaluating liver function and pathology is improved by considering liver volume (LV). Methods. This retrospective study included 104 patients who underwent Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI before liver surgery. For each patient, using the precontrast and hepatobiliary phase images, we calculated the increase rate of the liver-to-spleen signal intensity ratio (LSR), that is, the “ΔLSR,” and the increase rate of the liver-to-muscle signal intensity ratio (LMR), that is, the “ΔLMR.” ΔLSR × LV and ΔLMR × LV were also calculated. The correlation of each MR parameter with liver function data or liver pathology was assessed. The correlation coefficients were compared between ΔLSR (ΔLMR) and ΔLSR (ΔLMR) × LV. Results. The correlation coefficient between ΔLSR (ΔLMR) × LV and cholinesterase was significantly higher than that between ΔLSR (ΔLMR) and cholinesterase. The correlation coefficient between ΔLSR (ΔLMR) × LV and the degree of fibrosis or necroinflammatory activity was significantly lower than that between ΔLSR (ΔLMR) and the degree of fibrosis or necroinflammatory activity. Conclusion. The inclusion of liver volume may improve Gd-EOB-DTPA-based predictions of liver function, but not in predictions of liver pathology. PMID:26609519

  4. Detection of renal ischemic lesions using Gd-DTPA enhanced turbo FLASH MRI: Experimental and clinical results

    SciTech Connect

    Vosshenrich, R.; Fischer, U.; Funke, M.; Kopka, L.; Grabbe, E.

    1996-03-01

    Our goal was to investigate the role of Gd-DTPA-enhanced dynamic MRI in the evaluation of renal ischemic lesions. With a turbo FLASH sequence before and after injection of Gd-DTPA, nine foxhound dogs after 60-120 min of renal ischemia underwent MR examination. In addition, five patients with a tumor in a solitary kidney were examined before and after nephron-sparing renal surgery to evaluate renal perfusion and function. The experimental and clinical findings were correlated with conventional measurements of kidney function and with histological findings. Complete renal ischemia leads to a poor corticomedullary differentiation in Gd-DTPA-enhanced turbo FLASH MRI. The signal-intensity-versus-time plots of kidneys with significant postischemic changes show a less steep increase of signal intensity in the cortex and a steeper increase of signal intensity in the medulla than those of normal kidneys. Dynamic MRI demonstrate renal morphology and reflect the functional status of the renal vasculature. 21 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  5. The determination of relative renal function in a pediatric population using Tc-99m DTPA and Tc-99m DMSA

    SciTech Connect

    Rosen, P.R.; Kuruc, A.; Treves, S.T.

    1985-05-01

    Three methods for evaluating relative renal function in a pediatric population were compared. The clinical and nuclear medicine data of 73 patients were reviewed. Pertinent data included patient age, serum creatinine and the referral diagnosis (reflux, hypertension, obstructive uropathy). Time activity curves for renal regions of interest (ROI) were obtained by renography with Tc-99m DTPA, and deconvolved by an externally detected blood pool curve Furosemide was then administered to evaluate the renal collecting system (if indicated). This was followed by DMSA administration. Relative function was determined in 3 ways: 1) Accumulated renal DTPA activity 60-120 sec. following injection. 2) Amplitude of the tubular phase of the deconvolved renal curve and, 3) Accumulated Tc-99m DMSA activity in renal ROI 4 or 24 hrs. post-injection. Regression analysis revealed: 1) The basic relationship of relative functional data obtained by all three methods was not affected by creatinine, age or other factors. 2) The relationship between the three methods is linear and highly correlated. 3) The DMSA values may be predicted from either method of analyzing the DTPA study using appropriate predictor equations. The authors conclude that Tc-99m DMSA, due to its higher cost and more radiation exposure should not be used for the routine evaluation of relative renal function.

  6. Gd3+-DTPA-bis (N-methylamine) - anionic linear globular Dendrimer-G1; a more efficient MRI contrast media.

    PubMed

    Ghalandarlaki, N; Mohammadi, T D; Agha Babaei, R; Tabasi, M A; Keyhanvar, P; Mehravi, B; Yaghmaei, P; Cohan, R A; Ardestani, M S

    2014-02-01

    By advancing of molecular imaging techniques, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is becoming an increasingly important tool in early diagnosis. Researchers have found new ways to increase contrast of MRI images.Therefore some types of drug known as contrast media are produced. Contrast media improve the visibility of internal body structures in MRI images. Gadodiamide (Omniscan®) is one of these contrast media which is produced commercially and used clinically. In this study Gadodiamide was first synthesized and then qualitative and quantitative methods were carried out to ensure the proper synthesis of this drug then to increase the efficiency of this contrast medium use dendrimer that is one kind of nano particle. This dendrimer has a polyethylene glycol (PEG) core and citric acid branches. After dendrimer attached to Gadodiamide to ensure the proper efficient connection between them the stability studies were carried out and cytotoxicity of the drug was evaluated. Finally, after ensuring the non-toxicity of the drug, in vivo studies (injected into mice) MR imaging was performed to examine the impact of synthesis drug on the resolution of image.The result obtained from this study demonstrated that the attachment of Gadodiamide to dendrimer reduces its cytotoxicity and also improved resolution of image. Also the new contrast media (Gd3+-DTPA- bis [N-methylamine] - Dendrimer) - unlike Omniscan® - is biodegradable and able to enter the HEPG2 cell line. The results confirm the hypothesis that using dendrimer to synthesize this new nano contrast medium increases its effectiveness.

  7. PET imaging of tumor angiogenesis in mice with VEGF-A-targeted (86)Y-CHX-A″-DTPA-bevacizumab.

    PubMed

    Nayak, Tapan K; Garmestani, Kayhan; Baidoo, Kwamena E; Milenic, Diane E; Brechbiel, Martin W

    2011-02-15

    Bevacizumab is a humanized monoclonal antibody that binds to tumor-secreted vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A and inhibits tumor angiogenesis. In 2004, the antibody was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of metastatic colorectal carcinoma in combination with chemotherapy. This report describes the preclinical evaluation of a radioimmunoconjugate, (86)Y-CHX-A″-DTPA-bevacizumab, for potential use in Positron Emission Tomography (PET) imaging of VEGF-A tumor angiogenesis and as a surrogate marker for (90)Y-based radioimmunotherapy. Bevacizumab was conjugated to CHX-A″-DTPA and radiolabeled with (86)Y. In vivo biodistribution and PET imaging studies were performed on mice bearing VEGF-A-secreting human colorectal (LS-174T), human ovarian (SKOV-3) and VEGF-A-negative human mesothelioma (MSTO-211H) xenografts. Biodistribution and PET imaging studies demonstrated highly specific tumor uptake of the radioimmunoconjugate. In mice bearing VEGF-A-secreting LS-174T, SKOV-3 and VEGF-A-negative MSTO-211H tumors, the tumor uptake at 3 days postinjection was 13.6 ± 1.5, 17.4 ± 1.7 and 6.8 ± 0.7 % ID/g, respectively. The corresponding tumor uptake in mice coinjected with 0.05 mg cold bevacizumab were 5.8 ± 1.3, 8.9 ± 1.9 and 7.4 ± 1.0 % ID/g, respectively at the same time point, demonstrating specific blockage of the target in VEGF-A-secreting tumors. The LS-174T and SKOV3 tumors were clearly visualized by PET imaging after injecting 1.8-2.0 MBq (86)Y-CHX-A″-DTPA-bevacizumab. Organ uptake quantified by PET closely correlated (r(2) = 0.87, p = 0.64, n = 18) to values determined by biodistribution studies. This preclinical study demonstrates the potential of the radioimmunoconjugate, (86)Y-CHX-A″-DTPA-bevacizumab, for noninvasive assessment of the VEGF-A tumor angiogenesis status and as a surrogate marker for (90)Y-CHX-A″-DTPA-bevacizumab radioimmunotherapy.

  8. PET imaging of tumor angiogenesis in mice with VEGF-A targeted 86Y-CHX-A″-DTPA-bevacizumab

    PubMed Central

    Nayak, Tapan K.; Garmestani, Kayhan; Baidoo, Kwamena E.; Milenic, Diane E.; Brechbiel, Martin W.

    2010-01-01

    Bevacizumab is a humanized monoclonal antibody that binds to tumor-secreted VEGF-A and inhibits tumor angiogenesis. In 2004, the antibody was approved by the United States FDA for the treatment of metastatic colorectal carcinoma in combination with chemotherapy. This report describes the preclinical evaluation of a radioimmunoconjugate, 86Y-CHX-A″-DTPA-bevacizumab, for potential use in PET imaging of VEGF-A tumor angiogenesis and as a surrogate marker for 90Y based radioimmunotherapy. Bevacizumab was conjugated to CHX-A″-DTPA and radiolabeled with 86Y. In vivo biodistribution and PET imaging studies were performed on mice bearing VEGF-A secreting human colorectal (LS-174T), human ovarian (SKOV-3) and VEGF-A negative human mesothelioma (MSTO-211H) xenografts. Biodistribution and PET imaging studies demonstrated high specific tumor uptake of the radioimmunoconjugate. In mice bearing VEGF-A secreting LS-174T, SKOV-3 and VEGF-A negative MSTO-211H tumors, the tumor uptake at 3 d post-injection (p.i) was 13.6 ± 1.5, 17.4 ± 1.7 and 6.8 ± 0.7 % ID/g, respectively. The corresponding tumor uptake in mice co-injected with 0.05 mg cold bevacizumab were 5.8 ± 1.3, 8.9 ± 1.9 and 7.4 ± 1.0 % ID/g, respectively at the same time point, demonstrating specific blockage of the target in VEGF-A secreting tumors. The LS-174T and SKOV3 tumors were clearly visualized by PET imaging after injecting 1.8–2.0 MBq 86Y-CHX-A″-DTPA-bevacizumab. Organ uptake quantified by PET closely correlated (r2=0.87, p=0.64, n=18) to values determined by biodistribution studies. This preclinical study demonstrates the potential of the radioimmunoconjugate, 86Y-CHX-A″-DTPA-bevacizumab, for non-invasive assessment of the VEGF-A tumor angiogenesis status and as a surrogate marker for 90Y-CHX-A″-DTPA-bevacizumab radioimmunotherapy. PMID:20473899

  9. Case Study: Three Acute 241Am Inhalation Exposures with DTPA Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Carbaugh, Eugene H.; Lynch, Timothy P.; Cannon, Curt; Lewis, Loren L.

    2010-10-01

    Three workers incurred inhalation exposures to 241Am oxide as a result of waste sorting and compaction activities. The magnitudes of the exposures were not fully recognized until the following day when an in vivo chest count identified a significant lung deposition of 241Am in a male worker, and DTPA chelation therapy was initiated. Two additional workers (one female and one male) were then identified as sufficiently exposed to also warrant therapy. In vivo bioassay measurements were performed over the ensuing 6 months to quantify the 241Am activity in the lungs, liver, and skeleton. Urine and fecal samples were collected and showed readily detectable 241Am. Clinical lab tests and medical evaluations all showed normal results. There were no significant adverse clinical health effects from the therapy. The estimated 241Am inhalation intakes for the three workers were 1800 Bq, 630 Bq, and 150 Bq. Lung retention showed somewhat longer pulmonary clearance half-times than standard inhalation class W or absorption Type M assumptions. The three underwent slightly different therapy regimes, with therapy effectiveness factors (defined as the ratio of the reference doses without therapy relative to the final assessed doses) of 4.65, 1.93, and 1.67, respectively.

  10. Tumor-Targeted HPMA Copolymer-(RGDfK)-(CHX-A″-DTPA) Conjugates Show Increased Kidney Accumulation

    PubMed Central

    Borgman, Mark P.; Coleman, Tomika; Kolhatkar, Rohit B.; Geyser-Stoops, Sandra; Line, Bruce R.; Ghandehari, Hamidreza

    2008-01-01

    N-(2-hydroxypropyl) methacrylamide (HPMA) copolymer-RGDfK conjugates targeting the αvβ3 integrin have shown increased accumulation in solid tumors and promise for selective delivery of radiotherapeutics to sites of angiogenesis- or tumor-expressed αvβ3 integrin. An unresolved issue in targeting radiotherapeutics to solid tumors is toxicity to non-target organs. To reduce toxicity of radiolabeled conjugates, we have synthesized HPMA copolymer-RGDfK conjugates with varying molecular weight and charge content to help identify a polymeric structure that maximizes tumor accumulation while rapidly clearing from non-targeted organs. Endothelial cell binding studies showed that copolymer conjugates of approximately 43, 20 and 10 kD actively bind to the αvβ3 integrin. Scintigraphic images showed rapid clearance of indium-111 radiolabeled conjugates from the blood pool and high kidney accumulation within 1 h in tumor bearing mice. Biodistribution data confirms images with high accumulation in kidney (max 210% ID/g for 43 kD conjugate) and lower tumor accumulation (max 1.8% ID/g for 43kD conjugate). While actively binding to the αvβ3 integrin in vitro, HPMA copolymer-RGDfK conjugates with increased negative charge through increased CHX-A″-DTPA chelator content in the side chains causes increased kidney accumulation with a loss of tumor binding in vivo. PMID:18687371

  11. Renal uptakes of 99mTc-MAG3, 99mTc-DTPA, and 99mTc-DMSA in rabbits with unilateral ureteral obstruction.

    PubMed

    Lee, Won Guk; Kim, Joong-Hyun; Kim, Jong Min; Shim, Kyung Mi; Kang, Seong Soo; Chae, Hong In; Choi, Seok Hwa

    2010-01-01

    Renal function measurements using (99m)Tc-DTPA and (99m)Tc-MAG(3) dynamic scintigraphs were compared to those obtained using (99m)Tc-DMSA static scintigraphy. Eighteen experimental rabbits were randomly divided into (99m)Tc-DTPA-, (99m)Tc-MAG(3)-, and (99m) Tc-DMSA-injected groups. Experimental unilateral renal damage was induced by ligating a unilateral right ureter in 18 rabbits. Scintigraphic images were obtained at 2 and 5 h after intravenous injection of (99m)Tc-DMSA, or immediately after administration of (99m)Tc-DTPA or (99m)Tc-MAG(3). For the dynamic images using (99m)Tc-DTPA and (99m)Tc-MAG(3), rapid sequential images were obtained every 2 s for 30 images up to 1 min. The three groups presented different relative renal functions between the left normal and the right abnormal kidneys at 1, 2, 3, and 4 weeks post-ligation (p<0.05). However, the between-group comparisons showed no significant differences at any time. These results suggest that dynamic images of (99m)Tc-DTPA and (99m)Tc-MAG(3) can be used to measure the relative renal function in place of the static image of (99m)Tc-DMSA.

  12. The DyP-type peroxidase DtpA is a Tat-substrate required for GlxA maturation and morphogenesis in Streptomyces

    PubMed Central

    Petrus, Marloes L. C.; Chaplin, Amanda K.; Worrall, Jonathan A. R.; van Wezel, Gilles P.

    2016-01-01

    The filamentous bacterium Streptomyces lividans depends on the radical copper oxidase GlxA for the formation of reproductive aerial structures and, in liquid environments, for the formation of pellets. Incorporation of copper into the active site is essential for the formation of a cross-linked tyrosyl-cysteine cofactor, which is needed for enzymatic activity. In this study, we show a crucial link between GlxA maturation and a group of copper-related proteins including the chaperone Sco and a novel DyP-type peroxidase hereinafter called DtpA. Under copper-limiting conditions, the sco and dtpA deletion mutants are blocked in aerial growth and pellet formation, similarly to a glxA mutant. Western blot analysis showed that GlxA maturation is perturbed in the sco and dtpA mutants, but both maturation and morphology can by rescued by increasing the bioavailability of copper. DtpA acts as a peroxidase in the presence of GlxA and is a substrate for the twin-arginine translocation (Tat) translocation pathway. In agreement, the maturation status of GlxA is also perturbed in tat mutants, which can be compensated for by the addition of copper, thereby partially restoring their morphological defects. Our data support a model wherein a copper-trafficking pathway and Tat-dependent secretion of DtpA link to the GlxA-dependent morphogenesis pathway. PMID:26740586

  13. Real-time tracking of dissociation of hyperpolarized 89Y-DTPA: a model for degradation of open-chain Gd3+ MRI contrast agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferguson, Sarah; Niedbalski, Peter; Parish, Christopher; Kiswandhi, Andhika; Kovacs, Zoltan; Lumata, Lloyd

    Gadolinium (Gd) complexes are widely used relaxation-based clinical contrast agents in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Gd-based MRI contrast agents with open-chain ligand such as Gd-DTPA, commercially known as magnevist, are less stable compared to Gd complexes with macrocyclic ligands such as GdDOTA (Dotarem). The dissociation of Gd-DPTA into Gd ion and DTPA ligand under certain biological conditions such as high zinc levels can potentially cause kidney damage. Since Gd is paramagnetic, direct NMR detection of the Gd-DTPA dissociation is quite challenging due to ultra-short relaxation times. In this work, we have investigated Y-DTPA as a model for Gd-DPTA dissociation under high zinc content solutions. Using dissolution dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP), the 89Y NMR signal is amplified by several thousand-fold. Due to the the relatively long T1 relaxation time of 89Y which translates to hyperpolarization lifetime of several minutes, the dissociation of Y-DTPA can be tracked in real-time by hyperpolarized 89Y NMR spectroscopy. Dissociation kinetic rates and implications on the degradation of open-chain Gd3+ MRI contrast agents will be discussed. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Defense Award Number W81XWH-14-1-0048 and by the Robert A. Welch Foundation research Grant Number AT-1877.

  14. Immunogenicity and safety of 3-dose primary vaccination with combined DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib in Indian infants

    PubMed Central

    Lalwani, Sanjay K.; Agarkhedkar, Sharad; Sundaram, Balasubramanian; Mahantashetti, Niranjana S.; Malshe, Nandini; Agarkhedkar, Shalaka; Van Der Meeren, Olivier; Mehta, Shailesh; Karkada, Naveen; Han, Htay Htay; Mesaros, Narcisa

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Multivalent combination vaccines have reduced the number of injections and therefore improved vaccine acceptance, timeliness of administration and global coverage. The hexavalent diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis-hepatitis B-inactivated poliovirus/Haemophilus influenzae type b (DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib; Infanrix hexa™) vaccine, administered according to various schedules, is widely used for the primary vaccination of infants worldwide. In the current publication, we are presenting the immunogenicity and safety of 3 doses of DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib vaccine when administered to Indian infants. 224 healthy infants (mean age 6.8 weeks) were vaccinated at 6–10–14 weeks (W) of age (n = 112) or 2–4–6 months (M) of age (n = 112). One month after the third vaccine dose, the seroprotection/seropositivity status against diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus, polio, hepatitis B and Hib antigens ranged from 98.6% to 100% in both groups. The vaccine response rate to the pertussis antigens ranged from 97% to 100%. Pain (6–10–14W group: 25.2%; 2–4–6M group: 13.4%) and fever (15.3% and; 15.2%, respectively) were the most frequently reported solicited local and general symptoms. Unsolicited adverse events were reported for 35.7% (6–10–14W group) and 22.3% (2–4–6M group) of subjects. No vaccine related serious adverse events were reported. In conclusion, the hexavalent DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib vaccine was immunogenic and well tolerated, irrespective of the dosing schedule. PMID:27629913

  15. Immunogenicity and safety of 3-dose primary vaccination with combined DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib in Indian infants.

    PubMed

    Lalwani, Sanjay K; Agarkhedkar, Sharad; Sundaram, Balasubramanian; Mahantashetti, Niranjana S; Malshe, Nandini; Agarkhedkar, Shalaka; Van Der Meeren, Olivier; Mehta, Shailesh; Karkada, Naveen; Han, Htay Htay; Mesaros, Narcisa

    2017-01-02

    Multivalent combination vaccines have reduced the number of injections and therefore improved vaccine acceptance, timeliness of administration and global coverage. The hexavalent diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis-hepatitis B-inactivated poliovirus/Haemophilus influenzae type b (DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib; Infanrix hexa™) vaccine, administered according to various schedules, is widely used for the primary vaccination of infants worldwide. In the current publication, we are presenting the immunogenicity and safety of 3 doses of DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib vaccine when administered to Indian infants. 224 healthy infants (mean age 6.8 weeks) were vaccinated at 6-10-14 weeks (W) of age (n = 112) or 2-4-6 months (M) of age (n = 112). One month after the third vaccine dose, the seroprotection/seropositivity status against diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus, polio, hepatitis B and Hib antigens ranged from 98.6% to 100% in both groups. The vaccine response rate to the pertussis antigens ranged from 97% to 100%. Pain (6-10-14W group: 25.2%; 2-4-6M group: 13.4%) and fever (15.3% and; 15.2%, respectively) were the most frequently reported solicited local and general symptoms. Unsolicited adverse events were reported for 35.7% (6-10-14W group) and 22.3% (2-4-6M group) of subjects. No vaccine related serious adverse events were reported. In conclusion, the hexavalent DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib vaccine was immunogenic and well tolerated, irrespective of the dosing schedule.

  16. A feasibility study evaluating the relationship between dose and focal liver reaction in stereotactic ablative radiotherapy for liver cancer based on intensity change of Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced magnetic resonance images

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Sang Hoon; Yu, Jeong Il; Lim, Do Hoon; Han, Youngyih

    2016-01-01

    Purpose In order to evaluate the relationship between the dose to the liver parenchyma and focal liver reaction (FLR) after stereotactic ablative body radiotherapy (SABR), we suggest a novel method using a three-dimensional dose distribution and change in signal intensity of gadoxetate disodium-gadolinium ethoxybenzyl diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (Gd-EOB-DTPA)-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) hepatobiliary phase images. Materials and Methods In our method, change of the signal intensity between the pretreatment and follow-up hepatobiliary phase images of Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI was calculated and then threshold dose (TD) for developing FLR was obtained from correlation of dose with the change of the signal intensity. For validation of the method, TDs for six patients, who had been treated for liver cancer with SABR with 45–60 Gy in 3 fractions, were calculated using the method, and we evaluated concordance between volume enclosed by isodose of TD by the method and volume identified as FLR by a physician. Results The dose to normal liver was correlated with change in signal intensity between pretreatment and follow-up MRI with a median R2 of 0.935 (range, 0.748 to 0.985). The median TD by the method was 23.5 Gy (range, 18.3 to 39.4 Gy). The median value of concordance was 84.5% (range, 44.7% to 95.9%). Conclusion Our method is capable of providing a quantitative evaluation of the relationship between dose and intensity changes on follow-up MRI, as well as determining individual TD for developing FLR. We expect our method to provide better information about the individual relationship between dose and FLR in radiotherapy for liver cancer. PMID:27104169

  17. Synthesis and complexation properties of DTPA-N,N''-bis[bis(n-butyl)]-N'-methyl-tris(amide). Kinetic stability and water exchange of its Gd3+ complex.

    PubMed

    Jaszberényi, Z; Tóth, E; Kálai, T; Király, R; Burai, L; Brücher, E; Merbach, A E; Hideg, K

    2005-02-21

    A novel DTPA-tris(amide) derivative ligand, DTPA-N,N''-bis[bis(n-butyl)]-N'-methyl-tris(amide)(H2L3) was synthesized. With Gd3+, it forms a positively charged [Gd(L3)]+ complex, whereas with Cu2+ and Zn2+ [ML3], [MHL3]+ and [M2L3]2+ species are formed. The protonation constants of H2L3 and the stability constants of the complexes were determined by pH potentiometry. The stability constants are lower than those for DTPA-N,N''-bis[bis(n-butyl)amide)](H3L2), due to the lower negative charge and reduced basicity of the amine nitrogens in (L3)2-. The kinetic stability of [Gd(L3)]+ was characterised by the rates of metal exchange reactions with Eu3+, Cu2+ and Zn2+. The exchange reactions, which occur via proton and metal ion assisted dissociation of [Gd(L3)]+, are significantly slower than for [Gd(DTPA)]2-, since the amide groups cannot be protonated and interact only weakly with the attacking metal ions. The relaxivities of [Gd(L2)] and [Gd(L3)]+ are constant between 10-20 degrees C, indicating a relatively slow water exchange. Above 25 degrees C, the relaxivities decrease, similarly to other Gd3+ DTPA-bis(amide) complexes. The pH dependence of the relaxivities for [Gd(L3)]+ shows a minimum at pH approximately 9, thus differs from the behaviour of Gd3+-DTPA-bis(amides) which have constant relaxivities at pH 3-8 and an increase below and above. The water exchange rates for [Gd(L2)(H2O)] and [Gd(L3)(H2O)]+, determined from a variable temperature (17)O NMR study, are lower than that for [Gd(DTPA)(H2O)]2-. This is a consequence of the lower negative charge and decreased steric crowding at the water binding site in amides as compared to carboxylate analogues. Substitution of the third acetate of DTPA5- with an amide, however, results in a less pronounced decrease in kex than substitution of the first two acetates. The activation volumes derived from a variable pressure (17)O NMR study prove a dissociative interchange and a limiting dissociative mechanism for [Gd(L2)(H2O

  18. Bronchoalveolar lavage and clearance of 99m-Tc-DTPA in asbestos workers without evidence of asbestosis.

    PubMed

    Gellert, A R; Langford, J A; Uthayakumar, S; Rudd, R M

    1985-07-01

    We performed BAL and measured the clearance of 99m-Tc-DTPA in 20 non-smoking subjects (mean age 50, range 36-68 years) occupationally exposed to asbestos (mean duration 14, range 3-30 years). All had normal lung function and none had clinical or radiological evidence of asbestosis. The mean BAL results were: total cells per ml 737 X 10(3) (360-1210), percentage macrophages 79 (49-96), percentage lymphocytes 13 (1-42), percentage neutrophils 8 (1-40), percentage eosinophils 0 (0-3), asbestos bodies per ml 83 (0-550). Eight subjects showed increased percentage of lymphocytes and four others showed increased percentages of neutrophils when compared with normal ranges in our laboratory. Higher percentages of neutrophils correlated with longer duration of exposure to asbestos (r = 0.54, P less than 0.025), and shorter time since last exposure to asbestos (r = -0.54, P less than 0.025). Four subjects showed faster clearance of 99m-Tc-DTPA than was observed in 31 normal non-smoking control subjects. There was a tendency for faster solute clearance to be associated with greater numbers of BAL macrophages (r = -0.39, P less than 0.10) but there were no significant relationships between solute clearance and other BAL variables. BAL profiles in asbestos workers may be abnormal in the absence of clinical or radiological evidence of asbestosis.

  19. The correlation between effective renal plasma flow (ERPF) and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) with renal scintigraphy 99mTc-DTPA study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratnasari, D.; Nazir, F.; Toresano, L. O. H. Z.; Pawiro, S. A.; Soejoko, D. S.

    2016-03-01

    The prevalence of chronic renal diseases in Indonesia has an increasing annual trend, because it is frequently unrecognized and often co-exists with other disease. GFR and ERPF are parameters currently utilized to estimate renal function at routine renal scintigraphy 99m-Tc DTPA study. This study used 99m-Tc DTPA to measure GFR and ERPF. The purpose of this study was to find the correlation between ERPF and GFR, for ERPF analysis with Schlegel's method, and GFR analysis with Gate's method, as well as to find correction factor between both variables. Analysis of renal scintigraphy has been performed at Department of Nuclear Medicine Pertamina Center Hospital to thirty patient images acquired from 2014 to 2015 which were analyzed retrospectively data, using gamma camera dual head with counting method from renal scintigraphy 99m-Tc DTPA study. The calculation was executed by means of both display and manual calculation. Pearson's statistical analysis resulted on Positive Correlation for all data, with ERPF and GFR (display) showing Strongly Positive Correlation (r = 0.82; p- value < 0.05). Standard deviation was found to be 27.58 and 107.64 for GFR and ERPF (display), respectively. Our result indicated that the use of 99mTc-DTPA measure ERPF was not recommended.

  20. Safety, immunogenicity and persistence of immune response to the combined diphtheria, tetanus, acellular pertussis, poliovirus and Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccine (DTPa-IPV/Hib) administered in Chinese infants

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yanping; Li, Rong Cheng; Ye, Qiang; Li, Changgui; Liu, You Ping; Ma, Xiao; Li, Yanan; Zhao, Hong; Chen, Xiaoling; Assudani, Deepak; Karkada, Naveen; Han, Htay Htay; Van Der Meeren, Olivier; Mesaros, Narcisa

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT We conducted 3 phase III, randomized, open-label, clinical trials assessing the safety, reactogenicity (all studies), immunogenicity (Primary vaccination study) and persistence of immune responses (Booster study) to the combined diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, poliomyelitis, and Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine (DTPa-IPV/Hib) in Chinese infants and toddlers. In the Pilot study (NCT00964028), 50 infants (randomized 1:1) received 3 doses of DTPa-IPV/Hib at 2–3–4 (Group A) or 3–4–5 months of age (Group B). In the Primary study (NCT01086423), 984 healthy infants (randomized 1:1:1) received 3 doses of DTPa-IPV/Hib at 2–3–4 (Group A) or 3–4–5 (Group B) months of age, or concomitant DTPa/Hib and poliomyelitis (IPV) vaccination at 2–3–4 months of age (Control group); 825 infants received a booster dose of DTPa/Hib and IPV at 18–24 months of age (Booster study; NCT01449812). In the Pilot study, unsolicited symptoms were more frequent in Group A (16 versus 1 infant; mostly upper respiratory tract infection and pyrexia); this observation was attributed to an epidemic outbreak of viral infections. Non-inferiority of 3-dose primary vaccination with DTPa-IPV/Hib over separately administered DTPa/Hib and IPV was demonstrated for Group A (primary objective). Similar antibody concentrations were observed in all groups, except for anti-polyribosyl-ribitol phosphate and anti-poliovirus types 1–3 which were higher in DTPa-IPV/Hib recipients. Protective antibody levels against all vaccine antigens remained high until booster vaccination. Three-dose vaccination with DTPa-IPV/Hib had a clinically acceptable safety profile. PMID:27768515

  1. Safety, immunogenicity and persistence of immune response to the combined diphtheria, tetanus, acellular pertussis, poliovirus and Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccine (DTPa-IPV/Hib) administered in Chinese infants.

    PubMed

    Li, Yanping; Li, Rong Cheng; Ye, Qiang; Li, Changgui; Liu, You Ping; Ma, Xiao; Li, Yanan; Zhao, Hong; Chen, Xiaoling; Assudani, Deepak; Karkada, Naveen; Han, Htay Htay; Van Der Meeren, Olivier; Mesaros, Narcisa

    2017-03-04

    We conducted 3 phase III, randomized, open-label, clinical trials assessing the safety, reactogenicity (all studies), immunogenicity (Primary vaccination study) and persistence of immune responses (Booster study) to the combined diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, poliomyelitis, and Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine (DTPa-IPV/Hib) in Chinese infants and toddlers. In the Pilot study (NCT00964028), 50 infants (randomized 1:1) received 3 doses of DTPa-IPV/Hib at 2-3-4 (Group A) or 3-4-5 months of age (Group B). In the Primary study (NCT01086423), 984 healthy infants (randomized 1:1:1) received 3 doses of DTPa-IPV/Hib at 2-3-4 (Group A) or 3-4-5 (Group B) months of age, or concomitant DTPa/Hib and poliomyelitis (IPV) vaccination at 2-3-4 months of age (Control group); 825 infants received a booster dose of DTPa/Hib and IPV at 18-24 months of age (Booster study; NCT01449812). In the Pilot study, unsolicited symptoms were more frequent in Group A (16 versus 1 infant; mostly upper respiratory tract infection and pyrexia); this observation was attributed to an epidemic outbreak of viral infections. Non-inferiority of 3-dose primary vaccination with DTPa-IPV/Hib over separately administered DTPa/Hib and IPV was demonstrated for Group A (primary objective). Similar antibody concentrations were observed in all groups, except for anti-polyribosyl-ribitol phosphate and anti-poliovirus types 1-3 which were higher in DTPa-IPV/Hib recipients. Protective antibody levels against all vaccine antigens remained high until booster vaccination. Three-dose vaccination with DTPa-IPV/Hib had a clinically acceptable safety profile.

  2. Enhancement of radiopharmaceutical excretion by chemical interventions

    SciTech Connect

    Oster, Z.H.; Som, P.; Brill, A.B.; Sacker, D.F.; Atkins, H.L.

    1982-01-01

    The goal was to find methods of decreasing the radiation dose after radionuclide studies, by giving a compound that will increase the rate of excretion of the radionuclide. Sprague - 1 Dawley rats were given Tc-99m pertechnetate, Ga-67 citrate or Tl-201 chloride intravenously followed at intervals of 1 to 24 hours by one of the following compounds: desferroxamine (DFO), 2,3-dimercapto-1-propanol (BAL), triethylene tetraamine hexaacetic acid (TETHA), stannous tartarate, bleomycin (BLEO), 2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA), diethylene-triaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA), DTPA+SnCl.2H/sub 2/O, dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHB), and ferric-cyanoferrate (IT)(Prussian blue, PB). All the agents except PB are chelators. Some of these agents enhance excretion through the urinary tract (DFO), while most are excreted through the bile. PB was shown to increase Cs excrection through the G.I. tract. (ACR)

  3. Investigation of the usefulness of NTA, EDTA and DTPA in separation of some platinum metals on cellulose exchangers.

    PubMed

    Brajter, K; Słonawska, K

    1980-09-01

    The possibility of using NTA, EDTA and DTPA as complexing agents for separation of some platinum group ions on cellulose ion-exchangers has been investigated. The greatest differences in the affinities of Pd(II) and Pt(IV) toward the cellulose ion-exchangers are obtained in the presence of DPTA, Cellex D (as ion-exchanger) in hydroxide form. The column separation of Pd(II) from Pt(IV), Rh(III) from Pd(II) and of a Rh(III)Pd(II)Pt(IV) mixture can be achieved with DPTA and chloride solutions. The method can be for determination of the components of RhPdPt alloys.

  4. Effect of Temperature on the Protonation of the TALSPEAK Ligands: Lactic and Diethylenetrinitropentaacetic Acids

    SciTech Connect

    Tian, Guoxin; Rao, Linfeng

    2009-10-20

    The protonation reactions of two ligands that play important roles in the TALSPEAK process for the separation of trivalent actinides from lanthanides, lactic acid and diethylenetrinitropentaacetic acid (DTPA), have been studied at variable temperatures. The protonation constants at 10-70 C were determined by titration potentiometry and the protonation enthalpies were determined at 25 C by titration microcalorimetry. The protonation constants remain essentially unchanged (25-70 C) within the experimental uncertainties, indicating that the effect of temperature on the protonation of lactate is insignificant. In contrast, the protonation constants of DTPA (log {beta}H's) generally decrease as the temperature is increased. Results from this study indicate that the effect of temperature on the protonation of DTPA could alter the speciation of metal ions (actinides and lanthanides) in the TALSPEAK system, since lower values of log{beta}H at higher temperatures suggest that the hydrogen ions would compete less strongly with the metal ions for the complexation of DTPA at higher temperatures.

  5. Comparison of Performance of Improved Serum Estimators of Glomerular Filtration Rate (GFR) to (99m)Tc-DTPA GFR Methods in Patients with Hepatic Cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Haddadin, Zaid; Lee, Vivian; Conlin, Christopher; Zhang, Lei; Carlston, Kristi; Morrell, Glen; Kim, Daniel; Hoffman, John M; Morton, Kathryn

    2017-03-01

    Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) measurements are critical in patients with hepatic cirrhosis but potentially erroneous when based on serum creatinine. New equations for estimated GFR (eGFR) have shown variable performance in cirrhotics, possibly because of inaccuracies in reference methods for measured GFR (mGFR). The primary objective was to compare the performance of 4 improved eGFR equations with a 1-compartment, 2-sample plasma slope intercept (99m)Tc-DTPA mGFR method to determine whether any of the eGFR calculations could replace plasma (99m)Tc-DTPA mGFR in patients with cirrhosis. The secondary objective was to test the hypothesis that mGFR using voluntary voided urine collections introduces error compared with plasma-only methods. Methods: Fifty-four patients with hepatic cirrhosis underwent mGFR determinations from 2 plasma samples at 1 and 3 h after intravenous administration of 185 MBq of (99m)Tc-DTPA. GFR was also generated by a UV/P calculation derived from blood and urine samples. These mGFRs were compared with the eGFRs generated by 4 estimating equations: MDRD (Modified Diet in Renal Disease), CKD-EPI (Chronic Kidney Disease-Epidemiology Collaboration) (serum creatinine [SCr]), CKD-EPI (cystatin [CysC]), and CKD-EPI (CysC+SCr). eGFRs were compared with mGFRs by Pearson correlation, precision, bias, percentage bias, and accuracy (eGFRs varying by <10% [p10], <20% [p20] or <30% [p30] from the corresponding mGFR). Results: All eGFRs showed poorer performance when the UV/P (99m)Tc-DTPA mGFR was used as the reference than when the plasma (99m)Tc-DTPA mGFR was used. When compared with the plasma (99m)Tc-DTPA mGFR method, the performance of all eGFR equations was superior to most published reports. There was a moderately good positive correlation between eGFRs and mGFRs. When compared with plasma (99m)Tc-DTPA mGFR, precision of eGFRs was in the range of 14-20 mL/min and showed a negligible bias. Compared with the plasma (99m)Tc-DTPA mGFR, CKD-EPI (Cys

  6. Distribution of pancreatic B cell imaging agent 99mTc-DTPA-NGN2 in the body and animal experimental research on pancreatic B cell functional imaging

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhi-Hua; Xie, Ying; Tang, Jun; Liu, Chun-Feng

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To explore the feasibility of the application of 99mTc-DTPA-Nateglinide as a nuclear medicine imaging agent for evaluating pancreatic B cell function. Methods: (1) Distribution of the experiment: Forty-two mice were selected and divided into seven groups. Each mice was injected with 3.7 MBq (100 μCi) of 99mTc-DTPA-NGN2 from the vena caudalis and was sacrificed by bloodletting at five minutes, 15 minutes, 30 minutes, one hour, two hours, four hours and six hours, respectively. Then, their tissues and organs such as the heart, liver, spleen, brain, kidneys, bones, small bowels, stomach and pancreas,and blood were collected, weighted, and their radioactivity was tested. Subsequently, the percentage injection dose rate (%ID/g) per gram of tissue was calculated. (2) Imaging experiment: Thirty-five mice were selected and divided into seven groups. Each was injected with 18.5 MBq (100 μCi) of 99mTc-DTPA-NGN2 from the vena caudalis and imaging were conducted at the same time as above. (3) Forty-eight Wistar rats were attained and randomly divided into four groups. The first group served as the healthy control group, while the second, third and fourth groups were diabetic model groups induced by intraperitoneally injecting STZ at different doses. Each group was injected with 99mTc-DTPA-Nateglinide from the vena caudalis, and radiological evaluations were conducted at 30 minutes, one hour, 1.5 hours and two hours, respectively. The data obtained were estimated using a correlation comparison with the levels of insulin and immunohistochemical count of beta cells. Results: The 99mTc-DTPA-Nateglinide demonstrated good imaging in the pancreases of mice and rats, and was positively correlated to the level of insulin and the number of pancreatic beta cells. Conclusion: Pancreatic beta cell imaging using 99mTc-DTPA-Nateglinide may be a method to evaluate pancreatic beta cell function. PMID:27186309

  7. Alteration of tissue disposition of cadmium by chelating agents. [Mice; rats

    SciTech Connect

    Klaassen, C.D.; Waalkes, M.P.; Cantilena, L.R. Jr.

    1984-03-01

    The effect of several chelating agents (diethyldithiocarbamic acid, DDC; nitrilotriacetic acid, NTA; 2,3-dimercaptopropanol, BAL; d,l-penicillamine, PEN; 2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid, DMSA; ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, EDTA; and diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid, DTPA) on the toxicity, distribution and excretion of cadmium (Cd) was determined in mice. When chelators were administered immediately after Cd, significant increases in survival were noted after treatment with DMSA, EDTA, and DTPA. DTPA, followed by EDTA and then DMSA, were consistently the most effective in decreasing the tissue concentrations of Cd and increasing the excretion of Cd. NTA, BAL, DDC and PEN had no beneficial effects. To determine the role of MT in the acute decrease in chelator efficacy following Cd poisoning, rats were injected IV with Cd followed by DTPA at various times after Cd. Although DTPA reduced Cd content in the various organs when given immediately after Cd, the chelator was ineffective at all later times. Increases in hepatic and renal metallothionein (MT) did not occur until 2 hr after Cd, and did not coincide with the earlier drop in chelator efficacy. Blockade of MT synthesis by actinomycin D failed to eliminate this decreased DTPA effectiveness. Therefore, it appears that MT does not play an important role in the acute decrease in efficacy of chelation therapy for Cd poisoning. The effect of repeated daily administration of chelators on the distribution and excretion of Cd was studied by administering chelators daily for 5 days starting 48 hr after Cd. DTPA, EDTA, DMSA and BAL significantly increased the urinary elimination of Cd. Thus, mobilization of Cd into urine occurs with repeated chelation therapy, which may decrease tissue concentrations of Cd and reduce the toxicity of the metal. 4 references, 15 figures, 2 tables.

  8. Graphene Oxide and Gadolinium-Chelate Functionalized Poly(lactic acid) Nanocapsules Encapsulating Perfluorooctylbromide for Ultrasound/Magnetic Resonance Bimodal Imaging Guided Photothermal Ablation of Cancer.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhenglin; Ke, Hengte; Wang, Jinrui; Miao, Zhaohua; Yue, Xiuli

    2016-03-01

    This paper successfully fabricated a novel multifunctional theranostic agent (PFOB@PLA/GO/Gd-DTPA NCs) by loading perfluorooctylbromide (PFOB) into poly(lactic acid) (PLA) nanocapsules (NCs) followed by surface functionalization with graphene oxide (GO) and gadolinium-chelate (Gd-DTPA). It was found that the resulting nanoagent could serve as a contrast agent simultaneously to enhance ultrasound (US) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Benefiting from the strong absorption in the near infrared (NIR) region, the nanocapsules could efficiently kill cancer cells under NIR laser irradiation. Thus, such a single theranostic agent with the combination of realtime US imaging and high-resolution MR imaging could achieve great therapeutic effectiveness without systemic damage to the body. In addition, the cytotoxicity assay on HUVEC cells revealed a good biocompatibility of PFOB@PLA/GO/Gd-DTPA NCs, showing that the versatile nanocapsule system may hold great potential as an effective nanoplatform for contrast enhanced imaging guided photothermal therapy.

  9. Radionuclide evaluation of renal transplants

    SciTech Connect

    Dubovsky, E.V.; Russell, C.D.

    1988-07-01

    In this review article, the following topics are treated: the radiopharmaceuticals /sup 99m/Tc-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA), /sup 131/I-orthoiodohippurate (OIH), /sup 99m/Tc-mercaptoacetyltriglycine (MAG3), /sup 67/Ga-citrate, radioiodinated fibrinogen, /sup 99m/Tc-sulfur colloid, 111In-labelled white cells and platelets; gamma camera methods based on images, on first pass and on tubular transit; blood clearance methods; and the diagnosis of surgical complications, acute rejection (AR), acute tubular necrosis (ATN), chronic rejection (CR), and cyclosporine-A (CYA) toxicity. 94 references.

  10. Evaluation of residual functional lung volume on Tc-99m DTPA aerosol ventilation and Tc-99m MAA perfusion scintigraphy in primary ciliary dyskinesia (Kartagener syndrome).

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu-Wen; Chang, Chin-Chuan; Lai, Yung-Chuang; Lu, Chia-Ying; Dai, Zen-Kong

    2008-12-01

    Kartagener syndrome is diagnosed as sinusitis, bronchitis (bronchiectasis), and situs inversus by the clinical features. It is a subclass of primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) disease. A 12-year-old girl who had frequent upper and lower airway infections since birth, which was confirmed as Kartagener syndrome by HRCT imaging. We present the residual functional lung volume and mucociliary clearance findings seen on Tc-99m DTPA aerosol ventilation and Tc-99m MAA perfusion scintigraphy.

  11. Threshold Doses for Focal Liver Reaction After Stereotactic Ablative Body Radiation Therapy for Small Hepatocellular Carcinoma Depend on Liver Function: Evaluation on Magnetic Resonance Imaging With Gd-EOB-DTPA

    SciTech Connect

    Sanuki, Naoko; Takeda, Atsuya; Oku, Yohei; Eriguchi, Takahisa; Nishimura, Shuichi; Aoki, Yosuke; Mizuno, Tomikazu; Iwabuchi, Shogo; Kunieda, Etsuo

    2014-02-01

    Purpose: Focal liver reaction (FLR) appears on radiographic images after stereotactic ablative body radiation therapy (SABR) in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and chronic liver disease. We investigated the threshold dose (TD) of FLR and possible factors affecting the TD on gadoxetate acid (Gd-EOB-DTPA)-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Methods and Materials: In 50 patients who were treated with SABR for small HCC and followed up by MRI for >6 months, FLR, seen as a hypointense area, was evaluated on the hepatobiliary phase of Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI. The follow-up MRI with the largest extent of FLR was fused to the planning computed tomography (CT) image, and patients with good image fusion concordance were eligible. After delineating the border of the FLR manually, a dose–volume histogram was used to identify the TD for the FLR. Clinical and volumetric factors were analyzed for correlation with the TD. Results: A total of 45 patients were eligible for analysis with a median image fusion concordance of 84.9% (range, 71.6-95.4%). The median duration between SABR and subsequent hepatobiliary phase MRI with the largest extent of FLR was 3 months (range, 1-6 months). The median TD for FLR was 28.0 Gy (range, 22.3-36.4 Gy). On univariate analysis, pre-treatment Child-Pugh (CP) score and platelet count were significantly correlated with the TD. On multiple linear regression analysis, CP score was the only parameter that predicted TD. Median TDs were 30.5 Gy (range, 26.2.3-36.4 Gy) and 25.2 Gy (range, 22.3-27.5 Gy) for patients with CP-A and CP-B disease, respectively. Conclusion: The TD was significantly correlated with baseline liver function. We propose 30 Gy for CP-A disease and 25 Gy for CP-B disease in 5 fractions as TDs for FLR after SABR for patients with HCC and chronic liver disease. Use of these TDs will help to predict potential loss of liver tissue after SABR.

  12. New Developments in the Pathogenesis of Smoke Inhalation-Induced Pulmonary Edema

    PubMed Central

    Witten, Mark L.; Quan, Stuart F.; Sobonya, Richard E.; Lemen, Richard J.

    1988-01-01

    Smoke inhalation causes most of the deaths in fire-related injuries, with pulmonary edema as a major determinant in the outcome of smoke-inhalation injury. The pathophysiology of pulmonary edema is thought to be related to the products of incomplete combustion. Damage to the integrity of the alveolar epithelium is one of the determinants of the development of smoke-induced pulmonary edema. In recent studies using lung clearance of aerosolized pentetic acid (DTPA [diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid]) labeled with technetium Tc 99m to assess the permeability of the alveolar epithelium, several factors were identified that may increase a person's susceptibility to smoke-induced acute lung injury. These are increased initial alveolar permeability and alterations in the number and activity of alveolar macrophages. Clinical measurement of 99mTcDTPA clearance may provide a sensitive and convenient method for the early detection and serial assessment of smoke-induced alveolar epithelial permeability changes. Images PMID:3277334

  13. Metabolic imaging with gallium-68- and indium-111-labeled low-density lipoprotein

    SciTech Connect

    Moerlein, S.M.; Daugherty, A.; Sobel, B.E.; Welch, M.J. )

    1991-02-01

    Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) labeled with either gallium-68 ({sup 68}Ga) or indium-111 ({sup 111}In) was evaluated as a potential PET or SPECT radiopharmaceutical for determination of hepatic lipoprotein metabolism in rabbits. Gallium-68 or {sup 111}In was linked to LDL via diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) with a 25-70% radiochemical yield. Studies in vivo that compared {sup 68}Ga- or {sup 111}In-DTPA-LDL with dilactitol-({sup 125}I)-tyramine LDL and 131I-LDL showed that both {sup 68}Ga- and {sup 111}In-labeled LDL behaved as residualizing radiotracers. Localization of radioactivity within the liver of normal rabbits was visualized clearly with ({sup 68}Ga)DTPA-LDL by PET and with ({sup 111}In)DTPA-LDL by gamma scintigraphy. Significant differences were observed in hepatic uptake of normal compared with hypercholesterolemic rabbits in which low-capacity LDL receptor-mediated catabolism was saturated. Gallium-68 and {sup 111}In-DTPA-LDL are attractive radiopharmaceuticals for noninvasive delineation of tissue LDL metabolism under normal and pathophysiologic conditions.

  14. Proteinuria, 99mTc-DTPA Scintigraphy, Creatinine-, Cystatin- and Combined-Based Equations in the Assessment of Chronic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Trimarchi, Hernán; Muryan, Alexis; Toscano, Agostina; Martino, Diana; Forrester, Mariano; Pomeranz, Vanesa; Lombi, Fernando; Young, Pablo; Raña, María Soledad; Karl, Alejandra; Alonso, M.; Dicugno, Mariana; Fitzsimons, Clara

    2014-01-01

    Background. Precise estimation of the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and the identification of markers of progression are important. We compared creatinine, cystatin, and combined CKD-EPI equations with 99mTc-DTPA scintigraphy to measure GFR and proteinuria as markers of progression. Methods. Cross-sectional, observational study including 300 subjects. CKD was classified by 99mTc-DTPA scintigraphy. Determinations. Creatinine, 24-hour creatinine clearance, cystatin, Hoek formula, and creatinine, cystatin, and combined CKD-EPI equations. Results. In the global assessment, creatinine CKD-EPI and combined CKD-EPI equations yielded the highest correlations with 99mTc-DTPA: ρ = 0.839, P < 0.0001 and ρ = 0.831, P < 0.0001. Intergroup analysis versus 99mTc-DTPA: control G, creatinine clearance ρ = 0.414, P = 0.013; G3, combined CKD-EPI ρ = 0.5317, P < 0.0001; G4, Hoek ρ = 0.618, P < 0.0001, combined CKD-EPI ρ = 0.4638, P < 0.0001; and G5, creatinine clearance ρ = 0.5414, P < 0.0001, combined CKD-EPI ρ = 0.5288, P < 0.0001. In the global assessment, proteinuria displayed the highest significant correlations with cystatin (ρ = 0.5433, P < 0.0001) and cystatin-based equations (Hoek: ρ = −0.5309, P < 0.0001). When GFR < 60 mL/min: in stage 3, proteinuria-cystatin (ρ = 0.4341, P < 0.0001); proteinuria-Hoek (ρ = −0.4105, P < 0.0001); in stage 4, proteinuria-cystatin (ρ = 0.4877, P < 0.0001); proteinuria-Hoek (ρ = −0.4877, P = 0.0026). Conclusions. At every stage of GFR < 60 mL/min, cystatin-based equations displayed better correlations with 99mTc-DTPA. Proteinuria and cystatin-based equations showed strong associations and high degrees of correlation. PMID:24977136

  15. [Assessment of obstructive nephropathy using diuretic 99mTc-DTPA renogram and 99mTc-DMSA renoscintigraphy].

    PubMed

    Okamura, K; Takaba, H; Ito, K; Shimoji, T

    1987-12-01

    99mTc-DMSA and diuretic 99mTc-DTPA renoscintigraphy were performed on 51 kidneys suspected of obstructive nephropathy based on excretory urography to evaluate the residual renal function and the degree of urinary flow impairment respectively. We classified the response to diuretics into 6 patterns: I. normal, IIa. severely damaged renal function, IIb. slow RI excretion without urinary tract visualization (pattern II had no response to furosemide), IIIa. rapid elimination of tracer from the obstructed upper tract, IIIb. slow elimination, and IV. gradual tracer accumulation in the pelvicalyceal system with fairly well preserved renal function but no response. Hydronephrosis varied according to pattern type, in the ascending order of I, IIIa, IIIb and IV (p less than 0.05). Degree of hydronephrosis was inversely related to 99mTc-DMSA uptake, but without statistical significance. 99mTc-DMSA uptake was lower for pattern III as a whole (IIIa + (IIIb) than for pattern I (p less than 0.005), but there was no difference between IIIa and IIIb. Pattern IIa exhibited a significantly lower uptake than any of the other groups. (p less than 0.005) In contrast to previous views, we believe that pattern IIIa indicates a mild obstruction of urinary flow and impaired renal function. Consequently, assessment of obstructive nephropathy should not be based only on urodynamic study but also on differential renal function test.

  16. Registration of parametric dynamic F-18-FDG PET/CT breast images with parametric dynamic Gd-DTPA breast images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magri, Alphonso; Krol, Andrzej; Lipson, Edward; Mandel, James; McGraw, Wendy; Lee, Wei; Tillapaugh-Fay, Gwen; Feiglin, David

    2009-02-01

    This study was undertaken to register 3D parametric breast images derived from Gd-DTPA MR and F-18-FDG PET/CT dynamic image series. Nonlinear curve fitting (Levenburg-Marquardt algorithm) based on realistic two-compartment models was performed voxel-by-voxel separately for MR (Brix) and PET (Patlak). PET dynamic series consists of 50 frames of 1-minute duration. Each consecutive PET image was nonrigidly registered to the first frame using a finite element method and fiducial skin markers. The 12 post-contrast MR images were nonrigidly registered to the precontrast frame using a free-form deformation (FFD) method. Parametric MR images were registered to parametric PET images via CT using FFD because the first PET time frame was acquired immediately after the CT image on a PET/CT scanner and is considered registered to the CT image. We conclude that nonrigid registration of PET and MR parametric images using CT data acquired during PET/CT scan and the FFD method resulted in their improved spatial coregistration. The success of this procedure was limited due to relatively large target registration error, TRE = 15.1+/-7.7 mm, as compared to spatial resolution of PET (6-7 mm), and swirling image artifacts created in MR parametric images by the FFD. Further refinement of nonrigid registration of PET and MR parametric images is necessary to enhance visualization and integration of complex diagnostic information provided by both modalities that will lead to improved diagnostic performance.

  17. The biodistribution and dosimetry of {sup 117m}Sn DTPA with special emphasis on active marrow absorbed doses

    SciTech Connect

    Stubbs, J.; Atkins, H.

    1999-01-01

    {sup 117m}Sn(4+) DTPA is a new radiopharmaceutical for the palliation of pain associated with metastatic bone cancer. Recently, the Phase 2 clinical trials involving 47 patients were completed. These patients received administered activities in the range 6.7--10.6 MBq/kg of body mass. Frequent collections of urine were acquired over the first several hours postadministration and daily cumulative collections were obtained for the next 4--10 days. Anterior/posterior gamma camera images were obtained frequently over the initial 10 days. Radiation dose estimates were calculated for 8 of these patients. Each patient`s biodistribution data were mathematically simulated using a multicompartmental model. The model consisted of the following compartments: central, bone, kidney, other tissues, and cumulative urine. The measured cumulative urine data were used as references for the cumulative urine excretion compartment. The total-body compartment (sum of the bone surfaces, central, kidney, and other tissues compartments) was reference to all activity not excreted in the urine.

  18. Using the integral spleen method of radiorenogram analysis and a baboon model to compare the diagnostic usefulness of technetium-99m-diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid to that of various technetium-99m-mercaptoacetyltriglycene formulations and iodine-123-hippuran

    SciTech Connect

    Dormehl, I.C.; Van Wyk, A.; Pilloy, W.; Maree, M.; Knoesen, O.; De Winter, R.; Jacobs, L.; Hoppe, H.C.

    1989-01-01

    In light of the high price of commercially available mercaptoacetyltriglycene (MAG3) it was decided to attempt a local MAG3-formation and to test this against diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA), /sup 123/I-Hippuran, and commercial MAG3 for diagnostic radiorenographic capabilities also in conjunction with furosemide and captopril. A baboon model (n = 6) was used, and the parameters evaluated were obtained by the integral spleen method of radiorenogram analysis. Although the images and parameters pointed to /sup 123/I-Hippuran and commercial MAG3 as the ideal renal scanning agents and to DTPA as the least so, with the local product an acceptable alternative, the differences were not significant enough to warrant either the purchase of the commercial product or the extensive development of the local product. Inexpensive /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA in conjunction with modern computer techniques will probably supply most of the answers.

  19. Extraction and determination of hexavalent chromium in soil samples.

    PubMed

    Grabarczyk, Malgorzata; Korolczuk, Mieczyslaw; Tyszczuk, Katarzyna

    2006-09-01

    A procedure for the extraction of Cr(VI) from solid soil-like samples was presented in which the complexing properties of diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) were exploited to extract insoluble compounds of Cr(VI). A concentration of DTPA in an ammonium sulphate/ammonium hydroxide buffer equal to 0.02 mol l(-1) was chosen. The conditions of extraction of insoluble Cr(VI) from solid samples were optimised using soil certified reference material spiked with known concentration of insoluble Cr(VI) added as PbCrO(4). The extracts were analysed by adsorptive stripping voltammetry. Validation of the proposed procedure of extraction was carried out by analysis of certified reference material (CRM) 545 and comparison of the results obtained using the proposed and other methods of extraction in the course of analysis of natural soil samples.

  20. Sucralose sweetener in vivo effects on blood constituents radiolabeling, red blood cell morphology and radiopharmaceutical biodistribution in rats.

    PubMed

    Rocha, G S; Pereira, M O; Benarroz, M O; Frydman, J N G; Rocha, V C; Pereira, M J; Fonseca, A S; Medeiros, A C; Bernardo-Filho, M

    2011-01-01

    Effects of sucralose sweetener on blood constituents labelled with technetium-99m ((99m)Tc) on red blood cell (RBC) morphology, sodium pertechnetate (Na(99m)TcO(4)) and diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid labeled with (99m)Tc ((99m)Tc-DTPA) biodistribution in rats were evaluated. Radiolabeling on blood constituents from Wistar rats was undertaken for determining the activity percentage (%ATI) on blood constituents. RBC morphology was also evaluated. Na(99m)TcO(4) and (99m)Tc-DTPA biodistribution was used to determine %ATI/g in organs. There was no alteration on RBC blood constituents and morphology %ATI. Sucralose sweetener was capable of altering %ATI/g of the radiopharmaceuticals in different organs. These findings are associated to the sucralose sweetener in specific organs.

  1. Tumor characterization in small animals using magnetic resonance-guided dynamic contrast enhanced diffuse optical tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yuting; Thayer, Dave; Nalcioglu, Orhan; Gulsen, Gultekin

    2011-10-01

    We present a magnetic resonance (MR)-guided near-infrared dynamic contrast enhanced diffuse optical tomography (DCE-DOT) system for characterization of tumors using an optical contrast agent (ICG) and a MR contrast agent [Gd-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA)] in a rat model. Both ICG and Gd-DTPA are injected and monitored simultaneously using a combined MRI-DOT system, resulting in accurate co-registration between two imaging modalities. Fisher rats bearing R3230 breast tumor are imaged using this hybrid system. For the first time, enhancement kinetics of the exogenous contrast ICG is recovered from the DCE-DOT data using MR anatomical a priori information. As tumors grow, they undergo necrosis and the tissue transforms from viable to necrotic. The results show that the physiological changes between viable and necrotic tissue can be differentiated more accurately based on the ICG enhancement kinetics when MR anatomical information is utilized.

  2. Renal scans in pregnant transplant patients

    SciTech Connect

    Goldstein, H.A.; Ziessman, H.A.; Fahey, F.H.; Collea, J.V.; Alijani, M.R.; Helfrich, G.B.

    1988-08-01

    This study demonstrates the normal technetium-99m diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid ((/sup 99m/Tc)DTPA) renal scan in pregnant patients with transplanted kidneys. Five pregnant renal transplant patients had seven (/sup 99m/Tc)DTPA renal studies to assess allograft perfusion and function. All scans showed the uteroplacental complex. The bladder was always compressed and distorted. The transplanted kidney was frequently rotated to a more vertical position. In all patients allograft flow and function were maintained. There was calyceal retention on all studies and ureteral retention activity in three of five patients. Using the MIRD formalism, the total radiation absorbed dose to the fetus was calculated to be 271 mrad. This radiation exposure is well within NRCP limits for the fetus of radiation workers and an acceptable low risk in the management of these high risk obstetric patients.

  3. Semi-automatic detection of Gd-DTPA-saline filled capsules for colonic transit time assessment in MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrer, Christian; Kirchhoff, Sonja; Keil, Andreas; Kirchhoff, Chlodwig; Mussack, Thomas; Lienemann, Andreas; Reiser, Maximilian; Navab, Nassir

    2008-03-01

    Functional gastrointestinal disorders result in a significant number of consultations in primary care facilities. Chronic constipation and diarrhea are regarded as two of the most common diseases affecting between 2% and 27% of the population in western countries 1-3. Defecatory disorders are most commonly due to dysfunction of the pelvic floor or the anal sphincter. Although an exact differentiation of these pathologies is essential for adequate therapy, diagnosis is still only based on a clinical evaluation1. Regarding quantification of constipation only the ingestion of radio-opaque markers or radioactive isotopes and the consecutive assessment of colonic transit time using X-ray or scintigraphy, respectively, has been feasible in clinical settings 4-8. However, these approaches have several drawbacks such as involving rather inconvenient, time consuming examinations and exposing the patient to ionizing radiation. Therefore, conventional assessment of colonic transit time has not been widely used. Most recently a new technique for the assessment of colonic transit time using MRI and MR-contrast media filled capsules has been introduced 9. However, due to numerous examination dates per patient and corresponding datasets with many images, the evaluation of the image data is relatively time-consuming. The aim of our study was to develop a computer tool to facilitate the detection of the capsules in MRI datasets and thus to shorten the evaluation time. We present a semi-automatic tool which provides an intensity, size 10, and shape-based 11,12 detection of ingested Gd-DTPA-saline filled capsules. After an automatic pre-classification, radiologists may easily correct the results using the application-specific user interface, therefore decreasing the evaluation time significantly.

  4. Accurate and precise plasma clearance measurement using four 99mTc-DTPA plasma samples over 4 h

    PubMed Central

    Wanasundara, Surajith N.; Wesolowski, Michal J.; Barnfield, Mark C.; Waller, Michael L.; Murray, Anthony W.; Burniston, Maria T.; Babyn, Paul S.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Glomerular filtration rate can be measured as the plasma clearance (CL) of a glomerular filtration rate marker despite body fluid disturbances using numerous, prolonged time samples. We desire a simplified technique without compromised accuracy and precision. Materials and methods We compared CL values derived from two plasma concentration curve area methods – (a) biexponential fitting [CL (E2)] and (b) Tikhonov adaptively regularized gamma variate fitting [CL (Tk-GV)] – for 4 versus 8 h time samplings from 412 99mTc-DTPA studies in 142 patients, mostly paediatric patients, with suspected fluid disturbances. Results CL (Tk-GV) from four samples/4 h and from nine samples/8 h, both accurately and precisely agreed with the standard, which was taken to be nine samples/8 h CL from (noncompartmental) numerical integration [CL (NI)]. The E2 method, four samples/4 h, and nine samples/8 h median CL values significantly overestimated the CL (NI) values by 4.9 and 3.8%, respectively. Conclusion Compared with the standard, CL (E2) from four samples/4 h and from nine samples/8 h proved to be the most inaccurate and imprecise method examined, and can be replaced by better methods for calculating CL. The CL (Tk-GV) can be used to reduce sampling time in half from 8 to 4 h and from nine to four samples for a precise and accurate, yet more easily tolerated and simplified test. PMID:26465802

  5. Direct lung delivery of a dry powder formulation of DTPA with improved aerosolization properties: effect on lung and systemic decorporation of plutonium.

    PubMed

    Gervelas, C; Serandour, A-L; Geiger, S; Grillon, G; Fritsch, P; Taulelle, C; Le Gall, B; Benech, H; Deverre, J-R; Fattal, E; Tsapis, N

    2007-03-12

    DTPA, an actinide chelating agent, has demonstrated its ability to complex plutonium (Pu) and to facilitate its urinary excretion after internal contamination. This process, known as decorporation is crucial to diminish the burden of Pu in the body. The ability to deliver a chelating agent directly to the alveolar region may increase its local concentration as compared to systemic delivery and therefore increase the extent of decorporation. Second, inhalation offers the potential for needle-free, systemic delivery of small molecules and would be convenient in case of nuclear accident as a first pass emergency treatment. To benefit from the improvement of inhalation technology, we have formulated DTPA into porous particles by spray-drying with dl-Leucine, DPPC and ammonium bicarbonate. The optimized particles possess a volume mean geometric diameter around 4.5 mum and crumpled paper morphology. The in vitro aerodynamic evaluation shows that about 56% of the powder should deposits in the lungs, with about 27% in the alveolar region, an improvement as compared with the micronized powder available with the Spinhaler. After pulmonary administration to rats contaminated with PuO(2), a 3-fold increase of the Pu urinary excretion was observed, but the dissolution of PuO(2) in the lungs was not enhanced.

  6. Effect of MPL 9000 extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy on renal hemodynamics and urine flow: assessment by 99mTc-DTPA renal scintigraphy.

    PubMed

    Naito, S; Yoshida, T; Ogata, N; Ichiya, Y; Koga, H; Kotoh, S; Masuda, K; Kumazawa, J

    1995-01-01

    The effect of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) with an MPL9000 lithotriptor on renal hemodynamics and urine flow was investigated by 99mTc-DTPA renal scintigraphy. In the first-pass scintigrams obtained within 1 min after injection of 99mTc-DTPA, there was no significant change in the time to the maximum radioactivity level and the maximum radioactivity ratio at 1 day before ESWL and 1 day or 1 month after ESWL. However, analysis of 30-min scintigrams showed that urinary clearance of radioactivity was delayed in the treated kidney 1 day after ESWL, particularly in the region targeted by shock waves, despite the absence of overt urinary tract obstruction by residual stone fragments. This change was reversible and was no longer noted 1 month after ESWL. These results suggest that ESWL with the MPL9000 lithotriptor induces a focal and temporary decrease in urine flow in the treated kidney, but has little or no effect on renal hemodynamics.

  7. A competitive indirect enzyme-linked immunoassay for lead ion measurement using mAbs against the lead-DTPA complex.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Jun-jian; Zhai, Yi-fan; Tang, Yong; Wang, Hong; Liu, Bin; Guo, Chang-wei

    2010-05-01

    Immunoassays for quantitative measurement of environmental heavy metals offer several advantages over other traditional methods. To develop an immunoassay for lead, Balb/c mice were immunized with a lead-chelate-protein conjugate to allow maximum exposure of the metal to the immune system. Three stable hybridoma cell lines were obtained through spleen cells fusion with Sp2/0 cells. One cell line, 2A11D11, produced mAbs with preferential selectivity and sensitivity for Pb-DTPA than DTPA, exhibiting an affinity constant of 3.34 + or - 0.24 x 10(9) M(-1). Cross reactivity (CR) with other metals were below 1%, except for Fe(III) with a CR less than 5%. This quantitative indirect ELISA for the lead ion was used to detect environmental lead content in local water sources; importantly, the results from the immunoassay were in excellent agreement with those from ICP-MS. Development of immunoassays for metal ions may thus facilitate the detection and regulation of environmental pollution.

  8. Unusual Use of Gd-EOB-DTPA in MRCP in Order to Reveal the Source of Bile Leakage in a Patient with Neuroendocrine Tumor – Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Mazur, Rafał; Pawluś, Aleksander; Szymańska, Kinga; Patyk, Mateusz; Otlewska, Anna; Międzybrodzki, Krzysztof; Sokołowska-Dąbek, Dąbrówka; Kubicka, Eliza; Zaleska-Dorobisz, Urszula

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background MRCP is the method of choice in diagnosing pathologies of the biliary system. One of them is bile fistulae. They are uncommon but tend to cause many diagnostic problems. The possible way to improve MRCP is using it with intravenous injection of hepatobiliary-specific contrast agents. As it is eliminated via the hepatobiliary system, it can be visualized in the bile ducts and may help to reveal disorders undetected by a standard MRCP. Case Report We report a case of a 36-year-old woman with leakage in the biliary system which led to creation of a subcutaneous bile reservoir. By means of a regular MRCP protocol it was impossible to reveal any disorders of the biliary system and thus a decision to inject Gd-EOB-DTPA was taken. As a result, a fistula with its opening in the fundus of the gall bladder was revealed. Patient was qualified for treatment with somatostatin analogues in order to stop bile secretion. Conclusions The Gd-EOB-DTPA in combination with regular T2-weighted MRCP may be helpful in detecting anomalies of the biliary system. Although a high price of the procedure restricts its accessibility, such advantages as lower risk of complications, lower costs of hospitalization, and less traumatic nature make it a technique that may take precedence over ERCP in ambiguous cases. PMID:27920840

  9. The safety and reactogenicity of a reduced-antigen-content diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis (dTpa) booster vaccine in healthy Vietnamese children.

    PubMed

    Anh, Dang Duc; Jayadeva, Girish; Kuriyakose, Sherine; Han, Htay Htay

    2016-08-17

    Despite effective infant immunization against pertussis, the disease continues to circulate due to waning immunity. Booster vaccinations against pertussis beyond infancy are widely recommended. In Vietnam, however, no recommendations for pertussis boosters beyond the second year of life exist. This open-label, single-centre study was designed to assess the safety of a single booster dose of reduced-antigen-content-diphtheria-tetanus-acellular-pertussis vaccine (dTpa) in 300 healthy Vietnamese children (mean age 7.9years), who had completed primary vaccination against diphtheria, tetanus and pertussis. Solicited symptoms were recorded for 4days and unsolicited and serious adverse events (SAEs) for 31days post-vaccination. Pain and fatigue were the most common solicited local and general symptoms in 35.0% and 14.0% of children, respectively. Grade 3 swelling occurred in 3 children; no large injection site reactions or SAEs were reported. The dTpa booster vaccine was well tolerated and this study supports its administration in school age Vietnamese children.

  10. Discrepancies between the fate of myoblast xenograft in mouse leg muscle and NMR label persistency after loading with Gd-DTPA or SPIOs.

    PubMed

    Baligand, C; Vauchez, K; Fiszman, M; Vilquin, J-T; Carlier, P G

    2009-06-01

    1H-NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance) imaging is regularly proposed to non-invasively monitor cell therapy protocols. Prior to transplantation, cells must be loaded with an NMR contrast agent (CA). Most studies performed so far make use of superparamagnetic iron oxide particles (SPIOs), mainly for favorable detection sensitivity. However, in the case of labeled cell death, SPIO recapture by inflammatory cells might introduce severe bias. We investigated whether NMR signal changes induced by preloading with SPIOs or the low molecular weight gadolinium (Gd)-DTPA accurately monitored the outcome of transplanted cells in a murine model of acute immunologic rejection. CA-loaded human myoblasts were grafted in the tibialis anterior of C57BL/6 mice. NMR imaging was repeated regularly until 3 months post-transplantation. Label outcome was evaluated by the size of the labeled area and its relative contrast to surrounding tissue. In parallel, immunohistochemistry assessed the presence of human cells. Data analysis revealed that CA-induced signal changes did not strictly reflect the graft status. Gd-DTPA label disappeared rapidly yet with a 2-week delay compared with immunohistochemical evaluation. More problematically, SPIO label was still visible after 3 months, grossly overestimating cell survival (<1 week). SPIOs should be used with extreme caution to evaluate the presence of grafted cells in vivo and could hardly be recommended for the long-term monitoring of cell transplantation protocols.

  11. A Microfluidic Platform to design crosslinked Hyaluronic Acid Nanoparticles (cHANPs) for enhanced MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russo, Maria; Bevilacqua, Paolo; Netti, Paolo Antonio; Torino, Enza

    2016-11-01

    Recent advancements in imaging diagnostics have focused on the use of nanostructures that entrap Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Contrast Agents (CAs), without the need to chemically modify the clinically approved compounds. Nevertheless, the exploitation of microfluidic platforms for their controlled and continuous production is still missing. Here, a microfluidic platform is used to synthesize crosslinked Hyaluronic Acid NanoParticles (cHANPs) in which a clinically relevant MRI-CAs, gadolinium diethylenetriamine penta-acetic acid (Gd-DTPA), is entrapped. This microfluidic process facilitates a high degree of control over particle synthesis, enabling the production of monodisperse particles as small as 35 nm. Furthermore, the interference of Gd-DTPA during polymer precipitation is overcome by finely tuning process parameters and leveraging the use of hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (HLB) of surfactants and pH conditions. For both production strategies proposed to design Gd-loaded cHANPs, a boosting of the relaxation rate T1 is observed since a T1 of 1562 is achieved with a 10 μM of Gd-loaded cHANPs while a similar value is reached with 100 μM of the relevant clinical Gd-DTPA in solution. The advanced microfluidic platform to synthesize intravascularly-injectable and completely biocompatible hydrogel nanoparticles entrapping clinically approved CAs enables the implementation of straightforward and scalable strategies in diagnostics and therapy applications.

  12. A Microfluidic Platform to design crosslinked Hyaluronic Acid Nanoparticles (cHANPs) for enhanced MRI

    PubMed Central

    Russo, Maria; Bevilacqua, Paolo; Netti, Paolo Antonio; Torino, Enza

    2016-01-01

    Recent advancements in imaging diagnostics have focused on the use of nanostructures that entrap Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Contrast Agents (CAs), without the need to chemically modify the clinically approved compounds. Nevertheless, the exploitation of microfluidic platforms for their controlled and continuous production is still missing. Here, a microfluidic platform is used to synthesize crosslinked Hyaluronic Acid NanoParticles (cHANPs) in which a clinically relevant MRI-CAs, gadolinium diethylenetriamine penta-acetic acid (Gd-DTPA), is entrapped. This microfluidic process facilitates a high degree of control over particle synthesis, enabling the production of monodisperse particles as small as 35 nm. Furthermore, the interference of Gd-DTPA during polymer precipitation is overcome by finely tuning process parameters and leveraging the use of hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (HLB) of surfactants and pH conditions. For both production strategies proposed to design Gd-loaded cHANPs, a boosting of the relaxation rate T1 is observed since a T1 of 1562 is achieved with a 10 μM of Gd-loaded cHANPs while a similar value is reached with 100 μM of the relevant clinical Gd-DTPA in solution. The advanced microfluidic platform to synthesize intravascularly-injectable and completely biocompatible hydrogel nanoparticles entrapping clinically approved CAs enables the implementation of straightforward and scalable strategies in diagnostics and therapy applications. PMID:27901092

  13. DTPA (Diethylenetriamine pentaacetate)

    MedlinePlus

    ... 192) Plutonium Radioisotope Brief Toxicological Profile Toxicology FAQs Polonium-210 Q & A: Information about Public Health Issues Related to Polonium-210 Contamination in the United Kingdom Guidance for Public ...

  14. Graphene oxide based theranostic platform for T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging and drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Mengxin; Cao, Yuhua; Chong, Yu; Ma, Yufei; Zhang, Hailu; Deng, Zongwu; Hu, Chunhong; Zhang, Zhijun

    2013-12-26

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a powerful and widely used clinical technique in cancer diagnosis. MRI contrast agents (CAs) are often used to improve the quality of MRI-based diagnosis. In this work, we developed a positive T1 MRI CA based on graphene oxide (GO)-gadolinium (Gd) complexes. In our strategy, diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) is chemically conjugated to GO, followed by Gd(III) complexation, to form a T1 MRI CA (GO-DTPA-Gd). We have demonstrated that the GO-DTPA-Gd system significantly improves MRI T1 relaxivity and leads to a better cellular MRI contrast effect than Magnevist, a commercially used CA. Next, an anticancer drug, doxorubicin (DOX), was loaded on the surface of GO sheets via physisorption. Thus-prepared GO-DTPA-Gd/DOX shows significant cytotoxicity to the cancer cells (HepG2). This work provides a novel strategy to build a GO-based theranostic nanoplatform with T1-weighted MRI, fluorescence imaging, and drug delivery functionalities.

  15. Biodistribution and Lymphatic Tracking of the Main Neurotoxin of Micrurus fulvius Venom by Molecular Imaging.

    PubMed

    Vergara, Irene; Castillo, Erick Y; Romero-Piña, Mario E; Torres-Viquez, Itzel; Paniagua, Dayanira; Boyer, Leslie V; Alagón, Alejandro; Medina, Luis Alberto

    2016-03-26

    The venom of the Eastern coral snake Micrurus fulvius can cause respiratory paralysis in the bitten patient, which is attributable to β-neurotoxins (β-NTx). The aim of this work was to study the biodistribution and lymphatic tracking by molecular imaging of the main β-NTx of M. fulvius venom. β-NTx was bioconjugated with the chelator diethylenetriaminepenta-acetic acid (DTPA) and radiolabeled with the radionuclide Gallium-67. Radiolabeling efficiency was 60%-78%; radiochemical purity ≥92%; and stability at 48 h ≥ 85%. The median lethal dose (LD50) and PLA₂ activity of bioconjugated β-NTx decreased 3 and 2.5 times, respectively, in comparison with native β-NTx. The immune recognition by polyclonal antibodies decreased 10 times. Biodistribution of β-NTx-DTPA-(67)Ga in rats showed increased uptake in popliteal, lumbar nodes and kidneys that was not observed with (67)Ga-free. Accumulation in organs at 24 h was less than 1%, except for kidneys, where the average was 3.7%. The inoculation site works as a depot, since 10% of the initial dose of β-NTx-DTPA-(67)Ga remains there for up to 48 h. This work clearly demonstrates the lymphatic system participation in the biodistribution of β-NTx-DTPA-(67)Ga. Our approach could be applied to analyze the role of the lymphatic system in snakebite for a better understanding of envenoming.

  16. Biodistribution and Lymphatic Tracking of the Main Neurotoxin of Micrurus fulvius Venom by Molecular Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Vergara, Irene; Castillo, Erick Y.; Romero-Piña, Mario E.; Torres-Viquez, Itzel; Paniagua, Dayanira; Boyer, Leslie V.; Alagón, Alejandro; Medina, Luis Alberto

    2016-01-01

    The venom of the Eastern coral snake Micrurus fulvius can cause respiratory paralysis in the bitten patient, which is attributable to β-neurotoxins (β-NTx). The aim of this work was to study the biodistribution and lymphatic tracking by molecular imaging of the main β-NTx of M. fulvius venom. β-NTx was bioconjugated with the chelator diethylenetriaminepenta-acetic acid (DTPA) and radiolabeled with the radionuclide Gallium-67. Radiolabeling efficiency was 60%–78%; radiochemical purity ≥92%; and stability at 48 h ≥ 85%. The median lethal dose (LD50) and PLA2 activity of bioconjugated β-NTx decreased 3 and 2.5 times, respectively, in comparison with native β-NTx. The immune recognition by polyclonal antibodies decreased 10 times. Biodistribution of β-NTx-DTPA-67Ga in rats showed increased uptake in popliteal, lumbar nodes and kidneys that was not observed with 67Ga-free. Accumulation in organs at 24 h was less than 1%, except for kidneys, where the average was 3.7%. The inoculation site works as a depot, since 10% of the initial dose of β-NTx-DTPA-67Ga remains there for up to 48 h. This work clearly demonstrates the lymphatic system participation in the biodistribution of β-NTx-DTPA-67Ga. Our approach could be applied to analyze the role of the lymphatic system in snakebite for a better understanding of envenoming. PMID:27023607

  17. Pyogenic liver abscess: contrast-enhanced MR imaging in rats.

    PubMed

    Weissleder, R; Saini, S; Stark, D D; Elizondo, G; Compton, C; Wittenberg, J; Ferrucci, J T

    1988-01-01

    MR imaging was used to evaluate experimentally induced pyogenic liver abscesses in an animal model. Rats were examined before and after IV administration of either gadolinium-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (Gd-DTPA), ferrite particles, or both contrast agents together. Pyogenic liver abscesses appeared hypointense on T1-weighted images and hyperintense on T2-weighted images. Bolus administration of Gd-DTPA using a fast spin-echo sequence with repetition time of 250 msec and echo time of 20 msec (SE 250/20) showed transient selective enhancement of normal hepatic tissue and increased lesion conspicuity, quantitatively assessed by the contrast-to-noise ratio, which increased from -35.7 to -59.0. Delayed leakage of Gd-DTPA into the abscess center partially obscured small lesions at 30-60 min. Ferrite particles reduced the signal intensity of normal liver, and the abscess then appeared homogenously hyperintense. Applying the SE 500/32 sequence, the contrast-to-noise ratio increased from -1.2 to +74.0. Coordinated administration of both contrast agents showed a further increase in contrast to +94.0, with a hyperintense abscess rim surrounded by hypointense liver. Gd-DTPA increases abscess-liver contrast by rim enhancement of the abscess wall, and ferrite increases the abscess-liver contrast by selectively decreasing the signal intensity of surrounding normal liver. As a result of increased contrast-to-noise ratio, both contrast agents, alone or in combination, increase the conspicuity of hepatic abscesses.

  18. Specific lipase-responsive polymer-coated gadolinium nanoparticles for MR imaging of early acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hong-Wu; Wang, Li-Qin; Xiang, Qing-Feng; Zhong, Qian; Chen, Lu-Ming; Xu, Cai-Xia; Xiang, Xian-Hong; Xu, Bo; Meng, Fei; Wan, Yi-Qian; Deng, David Y B

    2014-01-01

    Currently, available methods for diagnosis of acute pancreatitis (AP) are mainly dependent on serum enzyme analysis and imaging techniques that are too low in sensitivity and specificity to accurately and promptly diagnose AP. The lack of early diagnostic tools highlights the need to search for a highly effective and specific diagnostic method. In this study, we synthesized a conditionally activated, gadolinium-containing, nanoparticle-based MRI nanoprobe as a diagnostic tool for the early identification of AP. Gadolinium diethylenetriaminepentaacetic fatty acid (Gd-DTPA-FA) nanoparticles were synthesized by conjugation of DTPA-FA ligand and gadolinium acetate. Gd-DTPA-FA exhibited low cytotoxicity and excellent biocompatibility when characterized in vitro and in vivo studies. L-arginine induced a gradual increase in the intensity of the T1-weighted MRI signal from 1 h to 36 h in AP rat models. The increase in signal intensity was most significant at 1 h, 6 h and 12 h. These results suggest that the Gd-DTPA-FA as an MRI contrast agent is highly efficient and specific to detect early AP.

  19. Mutagenesis induced by targeted alpha therapy using 213Bi-cDTPA-9.2.27 in lacZ transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Allen, Barry J; So, Trina; Abbas Rizvi, Syed M; Song, Emma Y; Fernandez, Harvey R; Lutz-Mann, Louise

    2009-05-01

    Targeted alpha therapy utilizes alpha-emitting radionuclides conjugated to monoclonal antibodies to allow specific irradiation of cancer cells whilst sparing normal, healthy tissues. The mutagenic potential of (213)Bi conjugated to a human melanoma antigen-specific antibody (9.2.27) was examined using an in vivo transgenic mouse model containing multiple copies of a lacZ target gene in every cell, allowing the quantification and comparison of mutagenesis in different organs. Mice received an ip injection of 16.65 MBq of (213)Bi-cDTPA-9.2.27, and were sacrificed at 24 h, 1 w and 4 w post-injection. Pharmacokinetic studies gave the absorbed and effective doses for each organ. The mutant frequency and mutant spectra were analysed for the brain, spleen and kidneys. The brain and spleen did not show significant increases in induced mutation frequencies compared to spontaneous background levels or changes in mutant spectra, these results being independent of p53 status. However, elevated mutation frequencies and persistent size change mutations were observed in the kidneys, but are not significant at the p = 0.05 level. The effect of p53 status was also evident, as p53 heterozygotes displayed higher mutation frequencies than their wild-type counterparts, suggesting a reduction in the p53 gene may lead to an increased susceptibility to mutagenesis. These effects were time dependent and levels returned to those of the controls at 4 w post-irradiation, albeit with a predominant residue of size mutations. These effects were observed at activities very much higher than those expected for the therapy of human patients. As such, the induction of secondary cancer with the (213)Bi-cDTPA-9.2.27 alpha immunoconjugate is not expected to be a significant problem in the clinic.

  20. Recognition of lipopeptide patterns by Toll-like receptor 2-Toll-like receptor 6 heterodimer.

    PubMed

    Kang, Jin Young; Nan, Xuehua; Jin, Mi Sun; Youn, Suk-Jun; Ryu, Young Hee; Mah, Shinjee; Han, Seung Hyun; Lee, Hayyoung; Paik, Sang-Gi; Lee, Jie-Oh

    2009-12-18

    Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) initiates potent immune responses by recognizing diacylated and triacylated lipopeptides. Its ligand specificity is controlled by whether it heterodimerizes with TLR1 or TLR6. We have determined the crystal structures of TLR2-TLR6-diacylated lipopeptide, TLR2-lipoteichoic acid, and TLR2-PE-DTPA complexes. PE-DTPA, 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine-N-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid, is a synthetic phospholipid derivative. Two major factors contribute to the ligand specificity of TLR2-TLR1 or TLR2-TLR6 heterodimers. First, the lipid channel of TLR6 is blocked by two phenylalanines. Simultaneous mutation of these phenylalanines made TLR2-TLR6 fully responsive not only to diacylated but also to triacylated lipopeptides. Second, the hydrophobic dimerization interface of TLR2-TLR6 is increased by 80%, which compensates for the lack of amide lipid interaction between the lipopeptide and TLR2-TLR6. The structures of the TLR2-lipoteichoic acid and the TLR2-PE-DTPA complexes demonstrate that a precise interaction pattern of the head group is essential for a robust immune response by TLR2 heterodimers.

  1. Safety and reactogenicity of the combined diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis-inactivated poliovirus-Haemophilus influenzae type b (DTPa-IPV/Hib) vaccine in healthy Vietnamese toddlers: An open-label, phase III study

    PubMed Central

    Anh, Dang Duc; Van Der Meeren, Olivier; Karkada, Naveen; Assudani, Deepak; Yu, Ta-Wen; Han, Htay Htay

    2016-01-01

    abstract The introduction of combination vaccines plays a significant role in increasing vaccine acceptance and widening vaccine coverage. Primary vaccination against diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, poliomyelitis and Haemophilus influenza type b (Hib) diseases has been implemented in Vietnam. In this study we evaluated the safety and reactogenicity of combined diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis-inactivated polio (DTPa-IPV)/Hib vaccine when administered as a booster dose in 300 healthy Vietnamese children <2 years of age (mean age: 15.8 months). During the 4-day follow-up period, pain (31.7%) and redness (27.3%) were the most frequent solicited local symptoms. Pain (2%) was also the most frequent grade 3 local symptom. One subject reported 2 serious adverse events that were not causally related to the study vaccine. DTPa-IPV/Hib conjugate vaccine was well tolerated as a booster dose in healthy Vietnamese children aged <2 years. PMID:26337197

  2. Safety and reactogenicity of the combined diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis-inactivated poliovirus-Haemophilus influenzae type b (DTPa-IPV/Hib) vaccine in healthy Vietnamese toddlers: An open-label, phase III study.

    PubMed

    Anh, Dang Duc; Van Der Meeren, Olivier; Karkada, Naveen; Assudani, Deepak; Yu, Ta-Wen; Han, Htay Htay

    2016-03-03

    The introduction of combination vaccines plays a significant role in increasing vaccine acceptance and widening vaccine coverage. Primary vaccination against diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, poliomyelitis and Haemophilus influenza type b (Hib) diseases has been implemented in Vietnam. In this study we evaluated the safety and reactogenicity of combined diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis-inactivated polio (DTPa-IPV)/Hib vaccine when administered as a booster dose in 300 healthy Vietnamese children <2 years of age (mean age: 15.8 months). During the 4-day follow-up period, pain (31.7%) and redness (27.3%) were the most frequent solicited local symptoms. Pain (2%) was also the most frequent grade 3 local symptom. One subject reported 2 serious adverse events that were not causally related to the study vaccine. DTPa-IPV/Hib conjugate vaccine was well tolerated as a booster dose in healthy Vietnamese children aged <2 years.

  3. Grape seed extract inhibits lipid oxidation in muscle from different species during refrigerated and frozen storage and oxidation catalyzed by peroxynitrite and iron/ascorbate in a pyrogallol red model system.

    PubMed

    Brannan, Robert G; Mah, Eunice

    2007-12-01

    The antioxidant effect of grape seed extract (GSE) was determined by assessing the bleaching of pyrogallol red (PGR) by peroxynitrite or iron/ascorbate, and the formation of lipid hydroperoxides (LOOH) and thiobarbituric acid substances (TBARS) in raw or cooked ground muscle during refrigerated or frozen storage. In PGR models, GSE was more effective than gallic acid in inhibiting oxidation. The formation of LOOH and TBARS was inhibited by GSE (0.1% and 1.0%) compared to untreated controls and samples treated with sodium tripolyphosphate. Diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA), alone or in combination with GSE, had no effect on LOOH or TBARS, which provides clues about the possible mechanism of action of GSE. These results show that GSE at concentrations as low as 0.1% is a very effective inhibitor of primary and secondary oxidation products in various muscle systems and has potential as a natural antioxidant in raw and cooked meat systems.

  4. The Actinide-Lanthanide Separation Process

    SciTech Connect

    Lumetta, Gregg J.; Gelis, Artem V.; Carter, Jennifer C.; Niver, Cynthia M.; Smoot, Margaret R.

    2014-02-21

    The Actinide-Lanthanide SEParation (ALSEP) process is described. The process uses an extractant phase consisting of either N,N,N',N'-tetraoctyldiglycolamide (TODGA) or N,N,N',N'-tetra(2 ethylhexyl)diglycolamide (T2EHDGA) combined with 2-ethylhexylphosphonic acid mono-2-ethylhexyl ester (HEH[EHP]). The neutral TODGA or T2EHDGA serves to co-extract the trivalent actinide and lanthanide ions from nitric acid media. Switching the aqueous phase chemistry to a citrate buffered diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) solution at pH 2.5 to 4 results in selective transfer of the actinides to the aqueous phase, thus resulting in separation of these two groups of elements.

  5. Azomethine H colorimetric method for determining dissolved boron in water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spencer, R.R.; Erdmann, D.E.

    1979-01-01

    An automated colorimetric method for determining dissolved boron in water is described. The boron is complexed with azomethine H, which is readily available as the condensation product of H acid (8-amino-1-naphthol-3,6-disulfonic acid) and salicylaldehyde. The absorbance of the yellow complex formed is then measured colorimetrically at 410 nm. Interference effects from other dissolved species are minimized by the addition of diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA); however, iron, zinc, and bicarbonate interfere at concentrations above 400 ??g/L, 2000 ??g/L, and 200 mg/L, respectively. The bicarbonate interference can be eliminated by careful acidification of the sample with concentrated HCl to a pH between 5 and 6. Thirty samples per hour can be routinely analyzed over the range of from 10 to 400 ??g/L, boron.

  6. Potential of Vetiveria zizanoides L. Nash for phytoremediation of plutonium ((239)Pu): Chelate assisted uptake and translocation.

    PubMed

    Singh, Shraddha; Fulzele, D P; Kaushik, C P

    2016-10-01

    Plants have demonstrated a great potential to remove toxic elements from soils and solutions and been successfully used for phytoremediation of important radionuclides. Uptake potential of vetiver plants (V. zizanoides) for the remediation of (239)Pu in hydroponic and soil conditions was studied in the present work. High efficiency of V. zizanoides for the removal of (239)Pu was recorded with 66.2% being removed from the hydroponic solution after 30 days. However, remediation of (239)Pu from soil was limited. Remediation of (239)Pu from soil was increased with the addition of chelating agents citric acid (CA) and diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA). Accumulation of (239)Pu was recorded higher in roots than shoots, however its translocation from roots to shoots increased in the presence of chelators in hydroponic as well as soil conditions. DTPA was found more effective than CA showing higher translocation index (TI). Increase in TI was observed 8 and 6 times in the solution and soil respectively when plants were exposed to (239)Pu-DTPA in comparison to only (239)Pu. The present study demonstrates that V. zizanoides plant is a potential plant for phytoremediation of (239)Pu.

  7. Characterization of radionuclide-chelating agent complexes found in low-level radioactive decontamination waste. Literature review

    SciTech Connect

    Serne, R.J.; Felmy, A.R.; Cantrell, K.J.; Krupka, K.M.; Campbell, J.A.; Bolton, H. Jr.; Fredrickson, J.K.

    1996-03-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission is responsible for regulating the safe land disposal of low-level radioactive wastes that may contain organic chelating agents. Such agents include ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA), picolinic acid, oxalic acid, and citric acid, and can form radionuclide-chelate complexes that may enhance the migration of radionuclides from disposal sites. Data from the available literature indicate that chelates can leach from solidified decontamination wastes in moderate concentration (1--100 ppm) and can potentially complex certain radionuclides in the leachates. In general it appears that both EDTA and DTPA have the potential to mobilize radionuclides from waste disposal sites because such chelates can leach in moderate concentration, form strong radionuclide-chelate complexes, and can be recalcitrant to biodegradation. It also appears that oxalic acid and citric acid will not greatly enhance the mobility of radionuclides from waste disposal sites because these chelates do not appear to leach in high concentration, tend to form relatively weak radionuclide-chelate complexes, and can be readily biodegraded. In the case of picolinic acid, insufficient data are available on adsorption, complexation of key radionuclides (such as the actinides), and biodegradation to make definitive predictions, although the available data indicate that picolinic acid can chelate certain radionuclides in the leachates.

  8. Gadolinium-Functionalized Peptide Amphiphile Micelles for Multimodal Imaging of Atherosclerotic Lesions

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The leading causes of morbidity and mortality globally are cardiovascular diseases, and nanomedicine can provide many improvements including disease-specific targeting, early detection, and local delivery of diagnostic agents. To this end, we designed fibrin-binding, peptide amphiphile micelles (PAMs), achieved by incorporating the targeting peptide cysteine-arginine-glutamic acid-lysine-alanine (CREKA), with two types of amphiphilic molecules containing the gadoliniuim (Gd) chelator diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA), DTPA-bis(stearylamide)(Gd), and 1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine-N-[(poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG))-2000]-DTPA(Gd) (DSPE-PEG2000-DTPA(Gd)). The material characteristics of the resulting nanoparticle diagnostic probes, clot-binding properties in vitro, and contrast enhancement and safety for dual, optical imaging–magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were evaluated in the atherosclerotic mouse model. Transmission electron micrographs showed a homogenous population of spherical micelles for formulations containing DSPE-PEG2000-DTPA(Gd), whereas both spherical and cylindrical micelles were formed upon mixing DTPA-BSA(Gd) and CREKA amphiphiles. Clot-binding assays confirmed DSPE-PEG2000-DTPA(Gd)-based CREKA micelles targeted clots over 8-fold higher than nontargeting (NT) counterpart micelles, whereas no difference was found between CREKA and NT, DTPA-BSA(Gd) micelles. However, in vivo MRI and optical imaging studies of the aortas and hearts showed fibrin specificity was conferred by the peptide ligand without much difference between the nanoparticle formulations or shapes. Biodistribution studies confirmed that all micelles were cleared through both the reticuloendothelial system and renal clearance, and histology showed no signs of necrosis. In summary, these studies demonstrate the successful synthesis, and the molecular imaging capabilities of two types of CREKA-Gd PAMs for atherosclerosis. Moreover, we demonstrate the differences in

  9. Circulatory kinetics of intravenously injected {sup 238}Pu(IV) citrate and {sup 14}C-CaNa{sub 3}-DTPA in mice: Comparison with rat, dog, and Reference Man

    SciTech Connect

    Durbin, P.W.; Kullgren, B.; Schmidt, C.T.

    1997-02-01

    New ligands for in vivo chelation of Pu(IV) are being synthesized and evaluated in mice for efficacy and toxicity. Biokinetic studies of the new ligands, CaNa{sub 3}-DTPA, and Pu(IV) are major components of those investigations. Young adult female mice were injected intravenously (iv) with {sup 3}H-inulin, {sup 14}C-CaNa{sub 3}-DTPA, or {sup 238}Pu(IV) citrate to provide base- line data for plasma clearance, tissue uptake, and excretion rates and to determine the dilution volume (VOD) and renal clearance rate (RC) of filterable substances. Published plasma clearance data in Reference Man, dog, and rat were collected. Based on combined data for {sup 3}H-inulin and {sup 14}C-CaNa{sub 3}-DTPA, VOD = 17% of body weight and RC = 18 mL kg{sup -1} min{sup -1} for mice. Retention of {sup 14}C-CaNa{sub 3}-DTPA in the four species is proportional to body weight and inversely proportional to RC: Integrals of the retention of {sup 14}C-CaNa{sub 3}-DTPA from R(t) = 1.0 to R(t) = 0.05 are 108, 43, 28, and 10 DF min, respectively, for Reference Man, dog, rat, and mouse. Clearances of iv-injected Pu(IV) citrate from plasma are in the same order: The plasma curve integrals from injection to 1440 min are 840, 640, 280, and 67 DF min, respectively, for Reference Man, dog, rat, and mouse. In mice, a large fraction of newly injected Pu(IV) is rapidly transferred to the interstitial water of bulk soft tissue (excluding liver and kidneys), from which it is cleared at the same rate as from the plasma. Rapid plasma clearance, escape into interstitial water (22%ID at 20 min), significant early urinary excretion (8%ID in 12 h), and prompt deposition in liver and skeleton (complete in 12 h) are evidence of inefficient binding to plasma protein of newly injected Pu(IV) in mice. Slow plasma clearance, little early urinary excretion, and delayed deposition in liver and skeleton reflect more efficient binding of newly injected Pu(IV) in Reference Man and dog. 39 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. Immunogenicity and safety of the 10-valent pneumococcal nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae protein D conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV) co-administered with DTPa vaccine in Japanese children: A randomized, controlled study.

    PubMed

    Iwata, Satoshi; Kawamura, Naohisa; Kuroki, Haruo; Tokoeda, Yasunobu; Miyazu, Mitsunobu; Iwai, Asayuki; Oishi, Tomohiro; Sato, Tomohide; Suyama, Akari; François, Nancy; Shafi, Fakrudeen; Ruiz-Guiñazú, Javier; Borys, Dorota

    2015-01-01

    This phase III, randomized, open-label, multicenter study (NCT01027845) conducted in Japan assessed the immunogenicity, safety, and reactogenicity of 10-valent pneumococcal nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae protein D conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV, given intramuscularly) co-administered with diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis vaccine (DTPa, given subcutaneously). Infants (N=360 ) were randomized (2:1) to receive either PHiD-CV and DTPa (PHiD-CV group) or DTPa alone (control group) as 3-dose primary vaccination (3-4-5 months of age) and booster vaccination (17-19 months of age). Immune responses were measured before and one month after primary/booster vaccination and adverse events (AEs) were recorded. Post-primary immune responses were non-inferior to those in pivotal/efficacy European or Latin American pneumococcal protein D-conjugate vaccine studies. For each PHiD-CV serotype, at least 92.6% of infants post-primary vaccination and at least 97.7% of children post-booster had pneumococcal antibody concentrations ≥0.2 μg/ml, and at least 95.4% post-primary and at least 98.1% post-booster had opsonophagocytic activity (OPA) titers ≥8 . Geometric mean antibody concentrations and OPA titers (except OPA titer for 6B) were higher post-booster than post-priming for each serotype. All PHiD-CV-vaccinated children had anti-protein D antibody concentrations ≥100 EL.U/ml one month post-primary/booster vaccination and all were seroprotected/seropositive against each DTPa antigen. Redness and irritability were the most common solicited AEs in both groups. Incidences of unsolicited AEs were comparable between groups. Serious AEs were reported for 47 children (28 in PHiD-CV group); none were assessed as vaccine-related. In conclusion, PHiD-CV induced robust immune responses and was well tolerated when co-administered with DTPa in a 3-dose priming plus booster regimen to Japanese children.

  11. Physicochemical Evaluation of Lyophilized Formulation of p-SCN-Bn-DOTA- and p-SCN-Bn-DTPA-rituximab for NHL Radio Immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Ackova, Darinka Gjorgieva; Smilkov, Katarina; Janevik-Ivanovska, Emilija

    2016-01-01

    Radioimmunotherapy (RIT) of Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL) is said to be more advantageous compared to unlabelled therapeutic antibodies. To this date, radiolabelled murine anti-CD20 mAbs, Zevalin® and Bexxar® have been approved for imaging and therapy. A preparation containing rituximab, chimeric mAb radio immunoconjugate suitable for Lu-177 labeling, could provide better imaging and therapeutic profile at the same time. This study was conducted to evaluate prepared lyophilized formulations of two rituximab immune conjugates, intended for immediate Lu-177 labeling, for imaging and therapy. The characterization of the conjugates and demonstration of the integrity of the protein and purity after conjugation and lyophilization was performed by SDS-PAGE, FT-IR and MALDI-TOF-MS. The results showed preserved antibody structure and average of 6.1 p-SCN-Bn-DOTA and 8.8 p-SCN-Bn-DTPA groups per antibody molecule which is suitable for successful labeling. These results support the possibility of developing a “ready-to-label” rituximab immune conjugates for NHL imaging/therapy. PMID:27980563

  12. Synthesis, Radiolabelling and In Vitro Characterization of the Gallium-68-, Yttrium-90- and Lutetium-177-Labelled PSMA Ligand, CHX-A''-DTPA-DUPA-Pep.

    PubMed

    Baur, Benjamin; Solbach, Christoph; Andreolli, Elena; Winter, Gordon; Machulla, Hans-Jürgen; Reske, Sven N

    2014-04-29

    Since prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) has been identified as a diagnostic target for prostate cancer, many urea-based small PSMA-targeting molecules were developed. First, the clinical application of these Ga-68 labelled compounds in positron emission tomography (PET) showed their diagnostic potential. Besides, the therapy of prostate cancer is a demanding field, and the use of radiometals with PSMA bearing ligands is a valid approach. In this work, we describe the synthesis of a new PSMA ligand, CHX-A''-DTPA-DUPA-Pep, the subsequent labelling with Ga-68, Lu-177 and Y-90 and the first in vitro characterization. In cell investigations with PSMA-positive LNCaP C4-2 cells, KD values of ≤14.67 ± 1.95 nM were determined, indicating high biological activities towards PSMA. Radiosyntheses with Ga-68, Lu-177 and Y-90 were developed under mild reaction conditions (room temperature, moderate pH of 5.5 and 7.4, respectively) and resulted in nearly quantitative radiochemical yields within 5 min.

  13. Synthesis, Radiolabelling and In Vitro Characterization of the Gallium-68-, Yttrium-90- and Lutetium-177-Labelled PSMA Ligand, CHX-A''-DTPA-DUPA-Pep

    PubMed Central

    Baur, Benjamin; Solbach, Christoph; Andreolli, Elena; Winter, Gordon; Machulla, Hans-Jürgen; Reske, Sven N.

    2014-01-01

    Since prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) has been identified as a diagnostic target for prostate cancer, many urea-based small PSMA-targeting molecules were developed. First, the clinical application of these Ga-68 labelled compounds in positron emission tomography (PET) showed their diagnostic potential. Besides, the therapy of prostate cancer is a demanding field, and the use of radiometals with PSMA bearing ligands is a valid approach. In this work, we describe the synthesis of a new PSMA ligand, CHX-A''-DTPA-DUPA-Pep, the subsequent labelling with Ga-68, Lu-177 and Y-90 and the first in vitro characterization. In cell investigations with PSMA-positive LNCaP C4-2 cells, KD values of ≤14.67 ± 1.95 nM were determined, indicating high biological activities towards PSMA. Radiosyntheses with Ga-68, Lu-177 and Y-90 were developed under mild reaction conditions (room temperature, moderate pH of 5.5 and 7.4, respectively) and resulted in nearly quantitative radiochemical yields within 5 min. PMID:24787458

  14. Depth and orientational dependencies of MRI T(2) and T(1ρ) sensitivities towards trypsin degradation and Gd-DTPA(2-) presence in articular cartilage at microscopic resolution.

    PubMed

    Wang, Nian; Xia, Yang

    2012-04-01

    Depth and orientational dependencies of microscopic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) T(2) and T(1ρ) sensitivities were studied in native and trypsin-degraded articular cartilage before and after being soaked in 1 mM Gd-DTPA(2-) solution. When the cartilage surface was perpendicular to B(0), a typical laminar appearance was visible in T(2)-weighted images but not in T(1ρ)-weighted images, especially when the spin-lock field was high (2 kHz). At the magic angle (55°) orientation, neither T(2)- nor T(1ρ)-weighted image had a laminar appearance. Trypsin degradation caused a depth- and orientational-dependent T(2) increase (4%-64%) and a more uniform T(1ρ) increase at a sufficiently high spin-lock field (55%-81%). The presence of the Gd ions caused both T(2) and T(1ρ) to decrease significantly in the degraded tissue (6%-38% and 44%-49%, respectively) but less notably in the native tissue (5%-10% and 16%-28%, respectively). A quantity Sensitivity was introduced that combined both the percentage change and the absolute change in the relaxation analysis. An MRI experimental protocol based on two T(1ρ) measurements (without and with the presence of the Gd ions) was proposed to be a new imaging marker for cartilage degradation.

  15. In vivo application of ( sup 111 In-DTPA-D-Phe sup 1 )-octreotide for detection of somatostatin receptor-positive tumors in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Bakker, W.H.; Krenning, E.P.; Reubi, J.C.; Breeman, W.A.P.; Setyono-Han, B.; de Jong, M.; Kooij, P.P.M.; Bruns, C.; van Hagen, P.M.; Marbach, P.; Visser, T.J.; Pless, J.; Lamberts, S.W.J. Sandoz Research Inst., Berne Dr. Daniel den Hoed Cancer Centre, Rotterdam Sandoz Pharma AG, Basel )

    1991-01-01

    In this study the authors investigated its in vivo application in the visualization of somatostatin receptor-positive tumors in rats. The distribution of the radiopharmaceutical was investigated after intravenous injection in normal rats and in rats bearing the somatostatin receptor-positive rat pancreatic carcinoma CA 20948. Ex vivo autoradiographic studies showed that specific accumulation of radioactivity occurred in somatostatin receptor-containing tissue (anterior pituitary gland). However, in contrast to the adrenals and pituitary, the tracer accumulation in the kidneys was not mediated by somatostatin receptors. Increasing radioactivity over the somatostatin receptor-positive tumors was measured rapidly after injection and the tumors were clearly visualized by gamma camera scintigraphy. In rats pretreated with 1 mg octreotide accumulation of ({sup 111}In-DPTA-D-Phe{sup 1})-octreotide in the tumors was prevented. Because of its relatively long effective half-life, ({sup 111}In-DTPA-D-Phe{sup 1})-octreotide is a radionuclide-coupled somatostatin analogue which can be used to visualize somatostatin receptor-bearing tumors efficiently after 24 hr, when interfering background radioactivity is minimized by renal clearance.

  16. Comparison of serum creatinine-based estimating equations with gates protocol for predicting glomerular filtration rate in indian population

    PubMed Central

    Mulay, A. V.; Gokhale, S. M.

    2017-01-01

    In clinical practice, serum creatinine-based predicting equations and Gates protocol based on gamma camera imaging of kidneys after injection of Tc99m-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) are commonly used to assess glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Comparison of these methods, especially the chronic kidney disease-epidemiology collaboration (CKD-EPI) equation with gold standard method of assessment of GFR by plasma clearance of Tc-99mDTPA is not well-studied in Indian population. We conducted this study to compare GFR estimation by gamma camera-based Gates protocol and serum creatinine-based predicting equations with GFR measured by plasma clearance of Tc-99mDTPA. One hundred and five patients (65 male and 40 female) underwent Tc-99m DTPA renal scan followed by withdrawal of venous blood samples at 2, 3, and 4 h as per predefined protocol. Gates method GFR (GFRs) was assessed using standard protocol. GFR by plasma sampling (GFRp) was calculated by slope-intercept method with provision for corrections. Estimated GFR was calculated by Cockroft-Gault formula, four variable modification of diet in renal disease (MDRD) equation, and CKD-EPI equation (GFRCG, GFRMDRD, GFRCKD-EPI, respectively). GFR measured by gold standard method (GFRp) was compared with that estimated by other methods by calculating correlation coefficient, bias, precision, and accuracy. GFR estimated by all three estimating equations correlated better than GFRs with GFRp. For estimating GFRp, GFRCKD-EPI had highest correlation with GFRp with least bias and highest precision. Gamma camera-based Gates protocol was the least precise and least accurate method for estimating GFRp. To conclude, all three estimating equations based on serum creatinine are superior to Tc-99m DTPA scintigraphy for estimating GFR; CKD-EPI equation being the most accurate and precise. PMID:28356664

  17. Optical detection of DNA damage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, Kim R.; Apostol, A.; Cembrano, J.

    1999-02-01

    A rapid and sensitive fluorescence assay for oxidative damage to calf thymus DNA is reported. A decrease in the transition temperature for strand separation resulted from exposure of the DNA to the reactive decomposition products of 3- morpholinosydnonimine (SIN-1) (i.e., nitric oxide, superoxide, peroxynitrite, hydrogen peroxide, and hydroxyl radicals). A decrease in melting temperature of 12 degrees Celsius was indicative of oxidative damage including single strand chain breaks. Double stranded (ds) and single stranded (ss) forms of DNA were determined using the indicator dyes ethidium bromide and PicoGreen. The change in DNA 'melting' curves was dependant on the concentration of SIN-1 and was most pronounced at 75 degrees Celsius. This chemically induced damage was significantly inhibited by sodium citrate, tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane (Tris), and diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA), but was unaffected by superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, ethylenediamine tetraacietic acid (EDTA), or deferoxamine. Lowest observable effect level for SIN-1-induced damage was 200 (mu) M.

  18. Chelators as antidotes of metal toxicity: therapeutic and experimental aspects.

    PubMed

    Blanusa, Maja; Varnai, Veda M; Piasek, Martina; Kostial, Krista

    2005-01-01

    The effects of chelating drugs used clinically as antidotes to metal toxicity are reviewed. Human exposure to a number of metals such as lead, cadmium, mercury, manganese, aluminum, iron, copper, thallium, arsenic, chromium, nickel and platinum may lead to toxic effects, which are different for each metal. Similarly the pharmacokinetic data, clinical use and adverse effects of most of the chelating drugs used in human metal poisoning are also different for each chelating drug. The chelating drugs with worldwide application are dimercaprol (BAL), succimer (meso-DMSA), unithiol (DMPS), D-penicillamine (DPA), N-acetyl-D-penicillamine (NAPA), calcium disodium ethylenediaminetetraacetate (CaNa(2)EDTA), calcium trisodium or zinc trisodium diethylenetriaminepentaacetate (CaNa(3)DTPA, ZnNa(3)DTPA), deferoxamine (DFO), deferiprone (L1), triethylenetetraamine (trientine), N-acetylcysteine (NAC), and Prussian blue (PB). Several new synthetic homologues and experimental chelating agents have been designed and tested in vivo for their metal binding effects. These include three groups of synthetic chelators, namely the polyaminopolycarboxylic acids (EDTA and DTPA), the derivatives of BAL (DMPS, DMSA and mono- and dialkylesters of DMSA) and the carbodithioates. Many factors have been shown to affect the efficacy of the chelation treatment in metal poisoning. Within this context it has been shown in experiments using young and adult animals that metal toxicity and chelation effects could be influenced by age. These findings may have a bearing in the design of new therapeutic chelation protocols for metal toxicity.

  19. Glomerular filtration rate and renal volume in dogs with congenital portosystemic vascular anomalies before and after surgical ligation.

    PubMed

    Deppe, T A; Center, S A; Simpson, K W; Erb, H N; Randolph, J F; Dykes, N L; Yeager, A E; Reynolds, A J

    1999-01-01

    Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and renal volume were evaluated in dogs with confirmed portosystemic vascular anomalies (PSVA) before and after surgical ligation of their PSVA. Pre- and postligation CBC, serum biochemistry, urinalysis, abdominal ultrasonography with measurement of renal volume, and per rectal scintigraphy were performed to document resolution of abnormalities consistent with portosystemic shunting. GFR was estimated by plasma 99mTc-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (99mTc-DTPA) clearance before (n = 21) and after (n = 12) surgical correction of PSVA. Preligation 99mTc-DTPA GFR was increased (median, 5.64 mL/minute/kg; range, 3.53-8.49 mL/minute/kg; reference range, 2.83-4.47 mL/minute/kg) in 81% (17/21) of dogs. Postligation 99mTc-DTPA GFR decreased in all 12 evaluated dogs (median change = -42%; P < .001). Preligation renal volume was above the reference range for the left and right kidneys in 71% (10/14) and 69% (11/16) of dogs evaluated, respectively. Right renal volume decreased significantly (n = 5; median change, -45%; P = .03) after surgical ligation of PSVA. These findings document increased GFR and renal volume in dogs with PSVA, which may explain in part the low blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine concentrations encountered in these dogs. Knowledge of changes in GFR associated with PSVA ligation may prove helpful in the anesthetic, drug, and dietary management of affected dogs.

  20. Evaluation of intakes of transuranics influenced by chelation therapy

    SciTech Connect

    LaBone, T.R.

    1994-02-01

    Once an intake of transuranics occurs, there are only three therapeutic procedures available to the physician for reducing the intake and mitigating the dose: excision of material from wounds, removal of material from the lungs with lavage, and chelation therapy. The only chelation agents approved in the United States for the treatment of occupational intakes of transuranics are the zinc and calcium salts of diethylene-triamine-pentaacetic acid, better known as Zn-DTPA and Ca-DTPA. In the past 35 years, approximately 3000 doses of DTPA have been administrated to over 500 individuals who had intakes of transuranics. The drug is considered to be quiet safe and has few side effects. For the internal dosimetrist, perhaps the most important aspects of chelation therapy is that if enhances the excretion rate of a transuranic and perturbs the shape of the urinary excretion curve. These perturbations last for months and are so great that standard urinary excretion models cannot be used to evaluate the intake. We review here a method for evaluating intakes of transuranics influenced by chelation therapy that has been used with some degree of success at the Savannah River Site for over 20 years.

  1. Zinc and zinc chelators modify taurine transport in rat retinal cells.

    PubMed

    Márquez, Asarí; Urbina, Mary; Lima, Lucimey

    2014-11-01

    Zinc regulates Na(+)/Cl(-)-dependent transporters, similar to taurine one, such as those for dopamine, serotonin and norepinephrine. This study examined the ex vivo effect of zinc (ZnSO4), N,N,N,N-tetraquis-(2-piridilmetil)etilendiamino (TPEN) and diethylenetriaminepenta-acetic acid (DTPA), intracellular and extracellular zinc chelators, respectively, on rat retina [(3)H]taurine transport. Isolated cells were incubated in Locke solution with 100 nM of [(3)H]taurine for 25 s. Different concentrations of ZnSO4 (0.5-200 μM) were used. Low concentrations of ZnSO4 (30 and 40 μM) increased the transport, while higher concentrations (100, 150 and 200 μM) decreased it. Various concentrations of TPEN (1-200 μM) were added. Intermediate concentrations of TPEN (10-60 μM) significantly decreased [(3)H]taurine transport. The presence of TPEN, 20 μM, plus ZnSO4 reversed the effect of TPEN alone. Several concentrations of DTPA (1-500 μM) were also investigated. Reduction of transport took place at high concentrations of the chelator (100, 250 and 500 μM). DTPA, 500 μM, plus ZnSO4, did not modify the effect of it. These results indicate that zinc modulates taurine transport in a concentration-dependent manner, directly acting on the transporter or by forming taurine-zinc complexes in cell membranes.

  2. Measurement of lung fluid volumes and albumin exclusion in sheep

    SciTech Connect

    Pou, N.A.; Roselli, R.J.; Parker, R.E.; Clanton, J.A.; Harris, T.R. )

    1989-10-01

    A radioactive tracer technique was used to determine interstitial diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) and albumin distribution volume in sheep lungs. {sup 125}I- and/or {sup 131}I-labeled albumin were injected intravenously and allowed to equilibrate for 24 h. {sup 99m}Tc-labeled DTPA and {sup 51}Cr-labeled erythrocytes were injected and allowed to equilibrate (2 h and 15 min, respectively) before a lethal dose of thiamylal sodium. Two biopsies (1-3 g) were taken from each lung and the remaining tissue was homogenized for wet-to-dry lung weight and volume calculations. Estimates of distribution volumes from whole lung homogenized samples were statistically smaller than biopsy samples for extravascular water, interstitial {sup 99m}Tc-DTPA, and interstitial albumin. The mean fraction of the interstitium (Fe), which excludes albumin, was 0.68 +/- 0.04 for whole lung samples compared with 0.62 +/- 0.03 for biopsy samples. Hematocrit may explain the consistent difference. To make the Fe for biopsy samples match that for homogenized samples, a mean hematocrit, which was 82% of large vessel hematocrit, was required. Excluded volume fraction for exogenous sheep albumin was compared with that of exogenous human albumin in two sheep, and no difference was found at 24 h.

  3. The role of chelation in the treatment of other metal poisonings.

    PubMed

    Smith, Silas W

    2013-12-01

    These proceedings will review the role of chelation in five metals-aluminum, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, and uranium-in order to illustrate various chelation concepts. The process of "chelation" can often be oversimplified, leading to incorrect assumptions and risking patient harm. For chelation to be effective, two critical assumptions must be fulfilled: the presumed "metal toxicity" must correlate with a given body or a particular compartment burden, and reducing this compartmental or the body burden (through chelation) attenuates toxicity. Fulfilling these assumptions requires an established dose-response relationship, a validated, reproducible means of toxicity assessment (clinical, biochemical, or radiographical), and an appropriate assessment mechanisms of body or compartment burden. While a metal might "technically" be capable of chelation (and readily demonstrable in urine or feces), this is an insufficient endpoint. Clinical relevance must be affirmed. Deferoxamine is an accepted chelator for appropriately documented aluminum toxicity. There is a very minimal treatment window in order to address chelation in cadmium toxicity. In acute toxicity, while no definitive chelation benefit is described, succimer (DMSA), diethylenetriaminepentaacetate (DTPA), and potentially ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) have been considered. In chronic toxicity, chelation is unsupported. There is little evidence to suggest that currently available chromium chelators are efficacious. Similarly, scant human evidence exists with which to provide recommendation for cobalt chelation. DTPA has been recommended for cobalt radionuclide chelation, although DMSA, EDTA, and N-acetylcysteine have also been suggested. DTPA is unsupported for uranium chelation. Sodium bicarbonate is currently recommended, although animal evidence is conflicting.

  4. Dual isotope study of iodine-125 and indium-111-labeled antibody in athymic mice

    SciTech Connect

    Carney, P.L.; Rogers, P.E.; Johnson, D.K. )

    1989-03-01

    Monoclonal antibody B72.3 was coupled to a benzylisothiocyanate derivative of diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA). The maximum substitution achievable without loss of immunoreactivity was three DTPA groups per immunoglobulin molecule. The resulting conjugate was labeled with {sup 111}In by brief incubation with {sup 111}InCl{sub 3}, giving a mean radiochemical yield of {sup 111}In-labeled antibody of 96%. The ({sup 111}In)B72.3 preparation was mixed with an ({sup 125}I) B72.3 preparation, obtained by the chloramine-T method, and the mixture administered to athymic mice bearing subcutaneous LS174T colon carcinoma xenografts. There were no significant differences (p greater than 0.1) in the biodistributions of the two labels at 1, 2, 5, and 7 days postinjection. These results are contrasted with prior studies showing elevated levels of {sup 111}In in liver, spleen, and kidneys using B72.3-DTPA conjugates prepared via the bicyclic anhydride. It is concluded that protein cross-linking and/or the formation of unstable chelate sites in anhydride coupled conjugates underlie these disparities.

  5. Phytotreatment of sewage sludge contaminated by heavy metals and PAHs by co-planting Sedum alfredii and Alocasia marorrhiza.

    PubMed

    Qiu, J R; Guo, X F; Cai, Q Y; Liu, W; Zhang, M W; Wei, Z B; Wu, Q T

    2014-01-01

    High concentrations of heavy metals and organic pollutants in municipal sewage sludge are key factors limiting its use in agriculture. The objectives of this study were to decrease the heavy metal and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations in sewage sludge by phytotreatment and to determine, in a field experiment, whether co-planting is more effective than using a mono-crop of Sedum alfredii. Four treatments were used in the plot experiment: no sludge, no plants, S. alfredii and co-planting S. alfredii and Alocasia marorrhiza. The results showed that co-planting produced tubers and shoots of A. marorrhiza that were suitable as a safe animal feed and good organic K fertilizer, respectively. Co-planting was more effective than mono-planting at reducing concentrations of total Zn and diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA)-extractable Zn, Cd, and Cu in the sludge. Co-planting decreased the concentrations of DTPA-extractable heavy metals and benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) in the sludge significantly compared with the unplanted sludge. Decreases of 87, 75, 85, 31, and 64% were obtained for B[a]P and DTPA-extractable Zn, Cd, Cu, and Pb, respectively, compared with the fresh sludge. These results indicate that co-planting can reduce significantly the environmental risks associated with heavy metals and B[a]P in sewage sludge for further disposal.

  6. Importance of timing of post-contrast MRI in rheumatoid arthritis: what happens during the first 60 minutes after IV gadolinium-DTPA?

    PubMed Central

    Ostergaard, M; Klarlund, M

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Volumes of inflamed synovial membrane determined by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are closely related to histopathological synovitis and may predict erosive progression in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). However, after IV injection, leakage of MRI contrast from the synovium gradually compromises the differentiation of synovium from joint fluid.
OBJECTIVE—To determine the time period after IV MRI contrast (gadolinium-DTPA (Gd)) injection in which synovial membrane volume determination is reliable.
METHODS—MRI of five RA knees with clinical synovitis was carried out, with axial, T1 weighted, spin echo images before IV Gd injection and every 1.75 minutes for 60 minutes post-Gd. By a semiautomated "signal enhancement threshold" method, including voxels with >35% or >45% relative post-Gd enhancement, synovial membrane volumes were estimated at each time point. At 4.25 minutes post-Gd, volumes were also determined by a more accurate but time consuming "manual method".
RESULTS—The initially observed synovium-effusion borderline remained clearly visible, and on the same location, within at least the initial 11 minutes post-Gd (that is, within the normal time frame of post-Gd imaging in RA) but started blurring and moving centripetally thereafter. Compared with volumes at all other time points, synovial membrane volumes at 0.75 and 2.50 minutes post-Gd were significantly lower (Wilcoxon-Pratt), suggesting that some synovial membrane areas had not yet exceeded the enhancement threshold. Thereafter, the measured volumes remained practically unchanged.
CONCLUSION—This study suggests that MR image acquisition in arthritic knee joints should be performed within the initial approximately 10 minutes after gadolinium contrast injection to achieve the most accurate distinction between synovium and joint fluid but that small time variations are not of major importance to the measured synovial membrane volumes.

 PMID:11602477

  7. In vitro Gd-DTPA relaxometry studies in oxygenated venous human blood and aqueous solution at 3 and 7 T.

    PubMed

    Kalavagunta, Chaitanya; Michaeli, Shalom; Metzger, Gregory J

    2014-01-01

    In vitro T(1) and T(2) (*) relaxivities (r(1) and r(2) (*) ) of Gd-DTPA (GaD) in oxygenated human venous blood (OVB) and aqueous solution (AS) at 3 and 7 T were calculated. GaD concentrations ([GaD]) in OVB and AS were prepared in the range 0-5 mM. All measurements were acquired at 37 ± 2 °C. At both 3 and 7 T, a linear relationship was observed between [GaD] and R(1) in both AS and OVB. At 7 T, r(1) in AS decreased by 7.5% (p = 0.045) while there was a negligible change in OVB. With respect to R(2) (*) , a linear relationship with [GaD] was only observed in AS, while a more complex relationship was observed in OVB; quadratic below and linear above 2 mM at both field strengths. There was a significant increase of over 4-fold in r(2) (*) with GaD in OVB at 7 T (for [GaD] above 2 mM, p <0.01) as compared with 3 T. Furthermore, in comparison to r1 , r2 (*) in AS was less than 2-fold higher at both field strengths while in OVB it was ~20-fold and ~90-fold higher at 3 and 7 T, respectively. This observation emphasizes the importance of r(2) (*) knowledge at high magnetic fields, ≥3 T. The comparison between r(1) and r(2) (*) presented in this work is crucial in the design and optimization of high-field MRI studies making use of paramagnetic contrast agents. This is especially true in multiple compartment systems such as blood, where r(2) (*) dramatically increases while r1 remains relatively constant with increasing magnetic field strength.

  8. T1 mapping of the myocardium: intra-individual assessment of post-contrast T1 time evolution and extracellular volume fraction at 3T for Gd-DTPA and Gd-BOPTA

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Myocardial T1 relaxation time (T1 time) and extracellular volume fraction (ECV) are altered in patients with diffuse myocardial fibrosis. The purpose of this study was to perform an intra-individual assessment of normal T1 time and ECV for two different contrast agents. Methods A modified Look-Locker Inversion Recovery (MOLLI) sequence was acquired at 3 T in 24 healthy subjects (8 men; 28 ± 6 years) at mid-ventricular short axis pre-contrast and every 5 min between 5-45 min after injection of a bolus of 0.15 mmol/kg gadopentetate dimeglumine (Gd-DTPA; Magnevist®) (exam 1) and 0.1 mmol/kg gadobenate dimeglumine (Gd-BOPTA; Multihance®) (exam 2) during two separate scanning sessions. T1 times were measured in myocardium and blood on generated T1 maps. ECVs were calculated as ΔR1myocardium/ΔR1blood*1−hematocrit. Results Mean pre-contrast T1 relaxation times for myocardium and blood were similar for both the first and second CMR exam (p > 0.5). Overall mean post-contrast myocardial T1 time was 15 ± 2 ms (2.5 ± 0.7%) shorter for Gd-DTPA at 0.15 mmol/kg compared to Gd-BOPTA at 0.1 mmol/kg (p < 0.01) while there was no significant difference for T1 time of blood pool (p > 0.05). Between 5 and 45 minutes after contrast injection, mean ECV values increased linearly with time for both contrast agents from 0.27 ± 0.03 to 0.30 ± 0.03 (p < 0.0001). Mean ECV values were slightly higher (by 0.01, p < 0.05) for Gd-DTPA compared to Gd-BOPTA. Inter-individual variation of ECV was higher (CV 8.7% [exam 1, Gd-DTPA] and 9.4% [exam 2, Gd-BOPTA], respectively) compared to variation of pre-contrast myocardial T1 relaxation time (CV 4.5% [exam 1] and 3.0% [exam 2], respectively). ECV with Gd-DTPA was highly correlated to ECV by Gd-BOPTA (r = 0.803; p < 0.0001). Conclusion In comparison to pre-contrast myocardial T1 relaxation time, variation in ECV values of normal subjects is larger. However, absolute differences in ECV

  9. New cross-linking quinoline- and quinolone-based luminescent lanthanide probes for sensitive labeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pillai, Shyamala; Wirpsza, Laura; Kozlov, Maxim; Marras, Salvatore A. E.; Krasnoperov, Lev N.; Mustaev, Arkady

    2012-03-01

    New luminescent lanthanide chelates containing thiol-, amine-, and click-reactive groups in antenna-fluorophore moieties were synthesized. The chelates include diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) coupled to two types of chromophores: 7-amino-4-trifluoromethyl-2(1H) quinolinone, and 7-amino-4-trifluoromethyl-2-alkoxyquinoline. The synthesized compounds were characterized using NMR, light absorption, steady-state and time-resolved fluorescent spectroscopy. Some of the compounds displayed high brightness with Tb3+, Eu3+, and Dy3+. Obtained reactive lanthanide chelates can be easily attached to biological molecules. The probes demonstrated high performance in molecular beaconbased DNA hybridization assays (sub-pico molar detection limit), in bacterial proteome labeling, and in live cell imaging.

  10. Non-invasive breast biopsy method using GD-DTPA contrast enhanced MRI series and F-18-FDG PET/CT dynamic image series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magri, Alphonso William

    This study was undertaken to develop a nonsurgical breast biopsy from Gd-DTPA Contrast Enhanced Magnetic Resonance (CE-MR) images and F-18-FDG PET/CT dynamic image series. A five-step process was developed to accomplish this. (1) Dynamic PET series were nonrigidly registered to the initial frame using a finite element method (FEM) based registration that requires fiducial skin markers to sample the displacement field between image frames. A commercial FEM package (ANSYS) was used for meshing and FEM calculations. Dynamic PET image series registrations were evaluated using similarity measurements SAVD and NCC. (2) Dynamic CE-MR series were nonrigidly registered to the initial frame using two registration methods: a multi-resolution free-form deformation (FFD) registration driven by normalized mutual information, and a FEM-based registration method. Dynamic CE-MR image series registrations were evaluated using similarity measurements, localization measurements, and qualitative comparison of motion artifacts. FFD registration was found to be superior to FEM-based registration. (3) Nonlinear curve fitting was performed for each voxel of the PET/CT volume of activity versus time, based on a realistic two-compartmental Patlak model. Three parameters for this model were fitted; two of them describe the activity levels in the blood and in the cellular compartment, while the third characterizes the washout rate of F-18-FDG from the cellular compartment. (4) Nonlinear curve fitting was performed for each voxel of the MR volume of signal intensity versus time, based on a realistic two-compartment Brix model. Three parameters for this model were fitted: rate of Gd exiting the compartment, representing the extracellular space of a lesion; rate of Gd exiting a blood compartment; and a parameter that characterizes the strength of signal intensities. Curve fitting used for PET/CT and MR series was accomplished by application of the Levenburg-Marquardt nonlinear regression

  11. 68Ga-DOTATATE Compared with 111In-DTPA-Octreotide and Conventional Imaging for Pulmonary and Gastroenteropancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Deppen, Stephen A.; Blume, Jeffrey; Bobbey, Adam J.; Shah, Chirayu; Graham, Michael M.; Lee, Patricia; Delbeke, Dominique; Walker, Ronald C.

    2017-01-01

    Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) are uncommon tumors with increasing incidence and prevalence. Current reports suggest that 68Ga-DOTATATE PET/CT imaging improves diagnosis and staging of NETs compared with 111In-DTPA-octreotide and conventional imaging. We performed a systematic review of 68Ga-DOTATATE for safety and efficacy compared with octreotide and conventional imaging to determine whether available evidence supports U.S. Food and Drug Administration approval. Methods Medline, EMBASE, Web of Science, and Cochrane Reviews electronic databases were searched from January 1999 to September 2015. Results were restricted to human studies comparing diagnostic accuracy of 68Ga-DOTATATE with octreotide or conventional imaging for pulmonary or gastroenteropancreatic NET and for human studies reporting safety/ toxicity for 68Ga-DOTATATE with 10 subjects or more thought to have NETs. Direct communication with corresponding authors was attempted to obtain missing information. Abstracts meeting eligibility criteria were collected by a research librarian and assembled for reviewers; 2 reviewers independently determined whether or not to include each abstract. If either reviewer chose inclusion, the abstract was accepted for review. Results Database and bibliography searches yielded 2,479 articles, of which 42 were eligible. Three studies compared the 2 radiopharmaceuticals in the same patient, finding 68Ga-DOTATATE to be more sensitive than octreotide. Nine studies compared 68Ga-DOTATATE with conventional imaging. 68Ga-DOTATATE estimated sensitivity, 90.9% (95% confidence interval, 81.4%–96.4%), and specificity, 90.6% (95% confidence interval, 77.8%–96.1%), were high. Five studies were retained for safety reporting only. Report of harm possibly related to 68Ga-DOTATATE was rare (6 of 974), and no study reported major toxicity or safety issues. Conclusion No direct comparison of octreotide and 68Ga-DOTATATE imaging for diagnosis and staging in an unbiased population of NETs

  12. The role of carboxylic acids in TALSQueak separations

    SciTech Connect

    Braley, Jenifer C.; Carter, Jennifer C.; Sinkov, Sergey I.; Nash, Ken L.; Lumetta, Gregg J.

    2012-04-13

    Recent reports have indicated TALSPEAK-type separations chemistry can be improved through the replacement of bis-2-ethyl(hexyl) phosphoric acid (HDEHP) and diethylenetriamine-N,N,N,N,N-pentaacetic acid (DTPA) with the weaker reagents 2-ethyl(hexyl) phosphonic acid mono-2-ethylhexyl ester (HEH[EHP]) and N-(2-hydroxyethyl)ethylenediamine-N,N',N'-triacetic acid (HEDTA), respectively. This modified TALSPEAK has been provided with an adjusted acronym of TALSQueak (Trivalent Actinide Lanthanide Separation using Quicker Extractants and Aqueous Komplexes). Among several benefits, TALSQueak chemistry provides more rapid phase transfer kinetics, is less reliant on carboxylic acids to mediate lanthanide extraction and allows a simplified thermodynamic description of the separations process that generally requires only parameters available in the literature to describe metal transfer. This manuscript focuses on the role of carboxylic acids in aqueous ternary (M-HEDTA-carboxylate) complexes, americium/lanthanide separations, and extraction kinetics. Spectrophotometry (UV-vis) of the Nd hypersensitive band indicates the presence of aqueous ternary species (K111 = 1.83 {+-} 0.01 at 1.0 M ionic strength, Nd(HEDTA) + Lac <-> Nd(HEDTA)Lac). Varying the carboxylic acid does not have a significant impact on Ln/Am separations or extraction kinetics. TALSqueak separations come to equilibrium in five minutes at the conventional operational pH of 3.6 using only 0.1 M total lactate or citrate.

  13. Pharmacological properties of orally available, amphipathic polyaminocarboxylic acid chelators for actinide decorporation.

    PubMed

    Miller, Scott C; Wang, Xuli; Bowman, Beth M

    2010-09-01

    Commonly used water-soluble polyaminocarboxylic acid (PACA) chelators, such as EDTA and DTPA, require intravenous or subcutaneous administration due to their poor bioavailability. The bioavailability of PACAs can be improved by the addition of differing lengths of alkyl side chains that alter amphipathic properties. Orally administered amphipathic triethylenetetramine pentaacetic acid (TT) compounds are efficacious for decorporation of plutonium and americium. The synthesis, efficacy, binding affinities, and some initial pharmacokinetics properties of amphipathic TT chelators are reviewed. C-labeled C12TT and C22TT chelators are reasonably well absorbed from the intestine and have a substantial biliary/fecal excretion pathway, unlike DTPA, which is mostly excreted in the urine. Whole body retention times are increased as a function of increasing lipophilicity. Neutron-induced autoradiography studies demonstrate that the oral administration of the chelators can substantially inhibit the redistribution of Pu in skeletal tissues. In summary, amphipathic TT-based chelators have favorable bioavailability, have a significant biliary excretion pathway, have demonstrated efficacy for americium and plutonium, and are thus good candidates for further development. Furthermore, some of the pharmacological properties can be manipulated by changing the lengths of the alkyl side chains and this may have some advantage for decorporation of certain metals and radionuclides.

  14. Effects of land use on of soil micronutrients at the plot scale in an acid environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paz González, A.; Vidal Vázquez, E.; de Abreu, C. A.

    2012-04-01

    Land use practices affect soil properties and nutrient supply. Very limited data are available on the heavy metal extractability in northwest Spain. The aim of this study is to analyze long-term effects of land use on the supply, variability and spatial distribution of soil nutrients, which was undertaken by comparison of a forest and a cultivated stand, rich in organic matter content. The study was carried out in an acid, rich in organic matter soil developed over sediments at the province of Lugo, northwestern of Spain. Adjacent plots with were marked on regular square grids with 2-m spacing. Fe, Mn, Zn and Cu were extracted both by Mehlich-3 and DTPA solutions and determined by ICP-MS. General soil chemical and physical properties were routinely analyzed. In arable land microelement concentration ranges were as follows: Fe (100 and 135 mg/Kg), Mn (7.6 and 21.5 mg/Kg), Zn (0.6 and 3.7 mg/Kg), Cu (0.2 and 0.7 mg/Kg). In forest land, the limits for these concentration were: Fe (62 and 309 mg/Kg), Mn (0.2 and 2.1 mg/Kg), Zn (0.2 and 2.9 mg/Kg), Cu (0.1 and 0.2 mg/Kg), Microelement concentrations extracted both with DTPA and Mehlich-3 were higher in the cultivated than in the forest stand, being Fe-DTPA the exception. Coefficients of variation were higher for the microelement content of the soil under forest. Principal component analysis was performed to evaluate associations between extractable microelements and general physico-chemical properties. At the study scale, nutrient management is the main factor affecting the agricultural site, whereas soil-plant interactions are probably driving the higher variation within the forest site. Results are discussed in the frame of organic matter decline with conventional tillage and sustainable land use.

  15. Uptake and translocation of plutonium in two plant species using hydroponics.

    PubMed

    Lee, J H; Hossner, L R; Attrep, M; Kung, K S

    2002-01-01

    This study presents determinations of the uptake and translocation of Pu in Indian mustard (Brassica juncea) and sunflower (Helianthus annuus) from Pu contaminated solution media. The initial activity levels of Pu were 18.50 and 37.00 Bq ml(-1), for Pu-nitrate [239Pu(NO3)4] and for Pu-citrate [239Pu(C6H5O7)+] in nutrient solution. Plutonium-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA: [239Pu-C14H23O10N3] solution was prepared by adding 0, 5, 10, and 50 microg of DTPA ml(-1) with 239Pu(NO3)4 in nutrient solution. Concentration ratios (CR, Pu concentration in dry plant material/Pu concentration in nutrient solution) and transport indices (Tl, Pu content in the shoot/Pu content in the whole plant) were calculated to evaluate Pu uptake and translocation. All experiments were conducted in hydroponic solution in an environmental growth chamber. Plutonium concentration in the plant tissue was increased with increased Pu contamination. Plant tissue Pu concentration for Pu-nitrate and Pu-citrate application was not correlated and may be dependent on plant species. For plants receiving Pu-DTPA, the Pu concentration was increased in the shoots but decreased in the roots resulting in a negative correlation between the Pu concentrations in the plant shoots and roots. The Pu concentration in shoots of Indian mustard was increased for application rates up to 10 microg DTPA ml(-1) and up to 5 microg DTPA ml(-1) for sunflower. Similar trends were observed for the CR of plants compared to the Pu concentration in the shoots and roots, whereas the Tl was increased with increasing DTPA concentration. Plutonium in shoots of Indian mustard was up to 10 times higher than that in shoots of sunflower. The Pu concentration in the apparent free space (AFS) of plant root tissue of sunflower was more affected by concentration of DTPA than that of Indian mustard.

  16. Creatinine clearance as a substitute for the glomerular filtration rate in the assessment of glomerular hemodynamics.

    PubMed

    Okada, N; Imanishi, M; Yoshioka, K; Konishi, Y; Okumura, M; Tanaka, S; Fujii, S

    1999-11-01

    A method for the clinical assessment of glomerular hemodynamics has been published previously. We here examined whether, when using this method, renal creatinine clearance (Ccr) can be substituted for the glomerular filtration rate (GFR). The study subjects comprised 57 inpatients from Osaka City General Hospital: 30 with type 2 diabetes mellitus and 27 with chronic glomerulonephritis. During the 2-wk study, patients received a high-salt diet for 1 wk and a low-salt diet for 1 wk. Urinary sodium excretion and systemic blood pressure were measured daily. The renal plasma flow, Ccr, and plasma total protein concentration were also evaluated simultaneously on the last day of the high-salt diet. The GFR was also calculated from the fractional renal accumulation of 99mTc-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA). Glomerular hemodynamics, represented by the glomerular capillary hydraulic pressure and the resistance of afferent and efferent arterioles, were calculated using the renal clearance, the plasma total protein concentration, and the pressure-natriuresis relationship. Values for renal hemodynamics with the Ccr-derived GFR were compared with those from the 99mTc-DTPA-derived GFR. Ccr values of 53 to 169 ml/min correlated with the 99mTc-DTPA-derived clearance of 39 to 179 ml/min (n=57, r=.71, p<.001). Values for the glomerular pressure and the resistances of afferent and efferent arterioles calculated using the Ccr-derived GFR correlated significantly with those calculated using the 99mTc-DTPA-derived GFR (r=.99, p<.001 and r=.99, p<.001, respectively). These results indicate that the Ccr is an accurate representation of the GFR for use in glomerular hemodynamic analysis of the pressure-natriuresis relationship.

  17. A radiolabeled nonapeptide probe targeting PC-3 cells and bone metastases of prostate cancer in mice.

    PubMed

    Qinghua, Wu; Jianli, Xu; Lu, Liu; Zexuan, Yang; Guansheng, Tong; Hailin, Gao; Jianwei, Jiang

    2012-01-01

    Previous investigations showed that interleukin-11 (IL-11) and the IL-11 receptor (IL-11R) are correlated with regulation of tumor progression and may play significant roles in bone metastases. The nonapeptide structure c(CGRRAGGSC) is a phage-display-selected IL-11 mimic that binds to IL-11R. The aim of this study was to synthesize radiolabeled c(CGRRAGGSC) and to investigate the possible interaction between this radioactive probe and an IL-11R-positive bone metastasis model of PC-3 prostate cancer. The molecular probe (99m)Tc-DTPA-c(CGRRAGGSC) was radiolabeled with (99m)Tc using the diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) chelate. Counterstaining was performed with LSS670, a near-infrared dye. The binding sites of the molecular probe in PC-3 cells were observed under a fluorescence microscope. The binding characteristics of the labeled probe were analyzed using radioreceptor analysis. Single photon emission tomography imaging and biodistribution of the probe were investigated using xenografts of PC-3 cells into tibias of nude mice. The labeled product, (99m) Tc-DTPA-c(CGRRAGGSC), was obtained with high labeling efficiency, high radiochemical purity and good stability. The molecular probe was combined with the PC-3 cell membrane and cytoplasm through fluorescence tracing. In the saturation and competitive inhibition experiments performed in vitro, the K(d) value was 0.32 ± 0.02 n m and the B(max) value was 754 ± 34 fmol mg(-1) pro. The probe exhibited a high tumor uptake in vivo. The radioactive molecular probe (99m) Tc-DTPA-c(CGRRAGGSC) may be used as a specific molecular imaging agent for detecting IL-11R overexpression in tumors and bone metastasis, such as prostate cancers.

  18. Complexation of Am(III) and Nd(III) by 1,10-Phenanthroline-2,9-Dicarboxylic Acid

    SciTech Connect

    Ogden, Mark D.; Sinkov, Sergey I.; Nilsson, Mikael; Lumetta, Gregg J.; Hancock, Robert D.; Nash, Ken L.

    2013-01-01

    The complexant 1,10-phenanthroline-2,9-dicarboxylic acid (PDA) is a planar tetradentate ligand that is more preorganized for metal complexation than its unconstrained analogue ethylendiiminodiacetic acid (EDDA). Furthermore, the backbone nitrogen atoms of PDA are aromatic, hence are softer than the aliphatic amines of EDDA. It has been hypothesized that PDA will selectively bond to trivalent actinides over lanthanides. In this report, the results of spectrophotometric studies of the complexation of Nd(III) and Am(III) by PDA are reported. Because the complexes are moderately stable, it was necessary to conduct these titrations using competitive equilibrium methods, competitive cation omplexing between PDA and diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid, and competition between ligand protonation and complex formation. Stability constants and ligand protonation constants were determined at 0.1 mol/L ionic strength and at 0.5 mol/L ionic strength nitrate media at 21 ± 1 C. The stability constants are lower than those predicted from first principles and speciation calculations indicate that Am(III) selectivity over Nd(III) is less than that exhibited by 1,10-phenanthroline.

  19. Lasting immune memory against hepatitis B in 12–13-year-old adolescents previously vaccinated with 4 doses of hexavalent DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib vaccine in infancy

    PubMed Central

    Behre, Ulrich; Van Der Meeren, Olivier; Crasta, Priya; Hanssens, Linda; Mesaros, Narcisa

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Vaccinating infants against hepatitis B virus (HBV) is the most effective way of preventing the disease. However, since HBV exposure can increase during adolescence, it is essential that antibody persistence is maintained. We evaluated the antibody persistence and immune memory against hepatitis B, in 12-13 y olds who had received complete primary + booster vaccination with diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis-hepatitis B-inactivated poliovirus/Haemophilus influenza type b (DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib) vaccine in infancy. Methods: Open phase-IV study conducted at 12 centers in Germany [NCT02052661]. Adolescents aged 12-13 y, vaccinated with 4 doses of DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib (Infanrix hexa™, GSK Vaccines) in infancy, received a single challenge dose of monovalent pediatric hepatitis B vaccine (Engerix™-B Kinder; GSK Vaccines). Blood samples were taken before and 1-month post-challenge to measure anti-hepatitis B (anti-HBs) antibodies using a chemiluminescence immunoassay (seroprotection cut-off: ≥10 mIU/ml). Post-challenge adverse events (AEs) were monitored. Results: 300 subjects were vaccinated; of 293 subjects in the ATP immunogenicity cohort, 60.5% had pre-challenge anti-HBs antibodies ≥10 mIU/ml, which rose to 97.6% post-challenge (≥100 mIU/ml in 94.1%). An anamnestic response was seen in 96.5% subjects. A 150-fold increase in antibody geometric mean concentrations was observed (22.4 to 3502.6 mIU/ml). Pain (44%) and fatigue (24.3%) were the most frequent solicited local and general AEs, respectively; 14.7% subjects reported unsolicited symptoms during the 31-day post-vaccination period. Two vaccine-unrelated serious AEs occurred. Conclusion: Vaccination with DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib in infancy induces sustained seroprotection and immune memory against HBV, as shown by the strong anamnestic response to the hepatitis B vaccine challenge in 12-13 year-old adolescents. PMID:27653771

  20. Biodegradable chelating agents for industrial, domestic, and agricultural applications--a review.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Isabel S S; Neto, Isabel F F; Soares, Helena M V M

    2014-10-01

    Aminopolycarboxylates, like ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA), are chelating agents widely used in several industrial, agricultural, and domestic applications. However, the fact that they are not biodegradable leads to the presence of considerable amounts in aquatic systems, with serious environmental consequences. The replacement of these compounds by biodegradable alternatives has been the object of study in the last three decades. This paper reviews the most relevant studies towards the use of environmentally friendly chelating agents in a large number of applications: oxidative bleaching, detergents and cleaning compositions, scale prevention and reduction, remediation of soils, agriculture, electroplating, waste treatment, and biocides. Nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA), ethylenediaminedisuccinic acid (EDDS), and iminodisuccinic acid (IDS) are the most commonly suggested to replace the nonbiodegradable chelating agents. Depending on the application, the requirements for metal complexation might differ. Metal chelation ability of the most promising compounds [NTA, EDDS, IDS, methylglycinediacetic acid (MGDA), L-glutamic acid N,N-diacetic acid (GLDA), ethylenediamine-N,N'-diglutaric acid (EDDG), ethylenediamine-N,N'-dimalonic acid (EDDM), 3-hydroxy-2,2-iminodisuccinic acid (HIDS), 2-hydroxyethyliminodiacetic acid (HEIDA), pyridine-2,6-dicarboxylic acid (PDA)] with Fe, Mn, Cu, Pb, Cd, Zn, Ca, and Mg was simulated by computer calculations. The advantages or disadvantages of each compound for the most important applications were discussed.

  1. Potentially toxic elements (PTEs) in soils from the surroundings of the Trans-Amazonian Highway, Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Souza, Edna Santos; Fernandes, Antonio Rodrigues; de Souza Braz, Anderson Martins; Sabino, Lorena Lira Leite; Alleoni, Luís Reynaldo Ferracciú

    2015-01-01

    The Trans-Amazonian Highway (TAH) is located in the northern region of Brazil, comprising a border region where agricultural, mining, and logging activities are the main activities responsible for fostering economic development, in addition to large hydroelectric plants. Such activities lead to environmental contamination by potentially toxic elements (PTEs). Environmental monitoring is only possible through the determination of element contents under natural conditions. Many extraction methods have been proposed to determine PTEs' bioavailability in the soil; however, there is no consensus about which extractor is most suitable. In this study, we determined the contents of PTEs in soils in the surroundings of TAH after mineral extraction with diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid-triethanolamine (DTPA-TEA), Mehlich I, and Mehlich III solutions. Soil samples were collected in areas of natural vegetation in the vicinity of TAH in the state of Pará, Brazil. Chemical attributes and particle size were determined, besides concentrations of Fe, Al, Mn, and Ti by sulfuric acid digestion, Si after alkaline solution attack, and poorly crystalline Fe, Al, and "free" Fe oxides. Mehlich III solution extracted greater contents from Fe, Al, and Pb as compared to Mehlich I and DTPA-TEA and similar contents from Cd, Mn, Zn, and Cu. Significant correlations were found between concentrations of PTEs and the contents of Fe and Mn oxides as well as organic carbon and soil cation exchange capacity. Contents of Cu, Mn, Fe, and Zn by the three methods were positively correlated.

  2. Increased Uptake of Chelated Copper Ions by Lolium perenne Attributed to Amplified Membrane and Endodermal Damage.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Anthea; Singhal, Naresh

    2015-10-23

    The contributions of mechanisms by which chelators influence metal translocation to plant shoot tissues are analyzed using a combination of numerical modelling and physical experiments. The model distinguishes between apoplastic and symplastic pathways of water and solute movement. It also includes the barrier effects of the endodermis and plasma membrane. Simulations are used to assess transport pathways for free and chelated metals, identifying mechanisms involved in chelate-enhanced phytoextraction. Hypothesized transport mechanisms and parameters specific to amendment treatments are estimated, with simulated results compared to experimental data. Parameter values for each amendment treatment are estimated based on literature and experimental values, and used for model calibration and simulation of amendment influences on solute transport pathways and mechanisms. Modeling indicates that chelation alters the pathways for Cu transport. For free ions, Cu transport to leaf tissue can be described using purely apoplastic or transcellular pathways. For strong chelators (ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA)), transport by the purely apoplastic pathway is insufficient to represent measured Cu transport to leaf tissue. Consistent with experimental observations, increased membrane permeability is required for simulating translocation in EDTA and DTPA treatments. Increasing the membrane permeability is key to enhancing phytoextraction efficiency.

  3. Determination of soluble chromium in simulated PWR coolant by differential-pulse adsorptive stripping voltammetry.

    PubMed

    Torrance, K; Gatford, C

    1987-11-01

    An analytical method has been developed for the determination of dissolved chromium at concentrations less than 2 mug/l. in PWR coolant by differential-pulse adsorptive stripping voltammetry at a hanging mercury drop electrode. Concentrations above 2 mug/l. can be determined by appropriate dilution of the sample. The method is based on measurement of the current associated with reduction of a chromium(III)-DTPA (diethylenetriaminepenta-acetic acid) complex adsorbed at the surface of the mercury drop. The effects of boric acid, pH, DTPA concentration, accumulation potential and time were investigated together with the oxidation state of the chromium. No interference was observed from other transition metal ions expected to be present in PWR coolant. No alternative chemical technique of similar sensitivity was available for comparison with the results obtained in solutions containing <1 mug/l. chromium. Recoveries from simulated coolant solutions were greater than 95% and the relative standard deviations for single determinations were in the range 12-25%. The statistical limit of detection at the 95% confidence level was 0.023 mug/l. This method of analysis should prove valuable in corrosion studies and is uniquely capable of following the changes in soluble chromium concentration in PWR coolant that follow operational changes in the reactor.

  4. Increased Uptake of Chelated Copper Ions by Lolium perenne Attributed to Amplified Membrane and Endodermal Damage

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Anthea; Singhal, Naresh

    2015-01-01

    The contributions of mechanisms by which chelators influence metal translocation to plant shoot tissues are analyzed using a combination of numerical modelling and physical experiments. The model distinguishes between apoplastic and symplastic pathways of water and solute movement. It also includes the barrier effects of the endodermis and plasma membrane. Simulations are used to assess transport pathways for free and chelated metals, identifying mechanisms involved in chelate-enhanced phytoextraction. Hypothesized transport mechanisms and parameters specific to amendment treatments are estimated, with simulated results compared to experimental data. Parameter values for each amendment treatment are estimated based on literature and experimental values, and used for model calibration and simulation of amendment influences on solute transport pathways and mechanisms. Modeling indicates that chelation alters the pathways for Cu transport. For free ions, Cu transport to leaf tissue can be described using purely apoplastic or transcellular pathways. For strong chelators (ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA)), transport by the purely apoplastic pathway is insufficient to represent measured Cu transport to leaf tissue. Consistent with experimental observations, increased membrane permeability is required for simulating translocation in EDTA and DTPA treatments. Increasing the membrane permeability is key to enhancing phytoextraction efficiency. PMID:26512647

  5. Using estimates of metal bioavailability in the soil and genetic variation of allozymes to investigate heavy metal tolerance in the earthworm Eisenia fetida (Oligochaeta).

    PubMed

    Voua Otomo, P; Owojori, O J; Reinecke, S A; Daniels, S; Reinecke, A J

    2011-10-01

    In a recent study, we showed that the earthworm species Eisenia fetida, inhabiting an extremely high metal polluted compost heap on a wine farm, did not have elevated body loads of the metals but exhibited genotoxic tolerance when exposed to Cd in the laboratory (Voua Otomo and Reinecke, 2010). To unravel the mechanism behind the surprisingly low metal body burdens on one hand and genotoxic tolerance on the other hand, we investigated the estimated bioavailability of these metals (Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd) using sequential extraction methods with CaCl(2) and di-ethylene-triamine-pentaacetic acid (DTPA) and allozyme polymorphism in this field population, a laboratory control as well as a long-term Cd exposed population. The amounts of mobile (extracted with CaCl(2)) and mobilizable (extracted with DTPA) metals in relation to the total (extracted with nitric acid) metals were all below 0.05% for all four metals, suggesting low availability for uptake. The low availability of these metals could not be explained by physico-chemical properties of soil but by the phenomenon of aging of the metals. There was no difference in allozyme frequency between metal tolerant and non-metal tolerant populations of E. fetida. This suggested that the tolerance found in earlier studies could be a mere physiological adaptation.

  6. Diagnostic use of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors in radioisotope evaluation of unilateral renal artery stenosis

    SciTech Connect

    Kremer Hovinga, T.K.; de Jong, P.E.; Piers, D.A.; Beekhuis, H.; van der Hem, G.K.; de Zeeuw, D.

    1989-05-01

    Iodine-123 hippurate renography, (/sup 99m/Tc)diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) renography, and (/sup 99m/Tc)dimercapto succinic acid (DMSA) renal scintigraphy were performed before and during angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition in a group of 15 hypertensive patients with angiographically ''significant'' unilateral renal artery stenosis. Visual and quantitative evaluation of the three radioisotope methods before ACE inhibition already disclosed abnormalities suggestive of renal artery stenosis in a high percentage (87%, 60%, and 60%, respectively) in this group of patients, but ACE inhibition further improved the diagnostic yield in all three methods (93%, 86%, and 80%). Iodine-123 hippurate renography was at least as useful as (/sup 99m/Tc)DTPA renography in this respect, while (/sup 99m/Tc)DMSA scintigraphy can be used particularly in segmental stenosis. Despite a large drop in blood pressure after ACE inhibition little adverse reactions were seen and overall renal function was fairly well maintained, the exceptions noted in patients with initially a more impaired renal function.

  7. Experimental pretargeting studies of cancer with a humanized anti-CEA x murine anti-[In-DTPA] bispecific antibody construct and a (99m)Tc-/(188)Re-labeled peptide.

    PubMed

    Karacay, H; McBride, W J; Griffiths, G L; Sharkey, R M; Barbet, J; Hansen, H J; Goldenberg, D M

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study was to localize (99m)Tc and (188)Re radionuclides to tumors, using a bispecific antibody (bsMAb) in a two-step approach where the radionuclides are attached to novel peptides incorporating moieties recognized by one arm of the bsMAb. A chemically cross-linked human/murine bsMAb, hMN-14 x 734 (Fab' x Fab'), anti-carcinoembryonic antigen [CEA] x anti-indium-DTPA was prepared as a prelude to constructing a fully humanized bsMAb for future clinical application. N,N'-o-Phenylenedimaleimide was used to cross-link the Fab' fragments of the two antibodies at their hinge regions. This construct was shown to be >92% pure and fully reactive with CEA and a divalent (indium)DTPA-peptide. For pretargeting purposes, a peptide, IMP-192 [Ac-Lys(In-DTPA)-Tyr-Lys(In-DTPA)-Lys(TscG-Cys-)-NH(2) ¿TscG = 3-thiosemicarbazonylglyoxyl¿], with two indium-DTPAs and a chelate for selectively binding (99m)Tc or (188)Re, was synthesized. IMP-192 was formulated in a "single dose" kit and later radiolabeled with (99m)Tc (94-99%) at up to 1836 Ci/mmol and with (188)Re (97%) at 459-945 Ci/mmol of peptide. [(99m)Tc]IMP-192 was shown to be stable by extensive in vitro and in vivo testing and had no specific uptake in the tumor with minimal renal uptake. The biodistribution of the hMN-14 x murine 734 bsMAb was compared alone and in a pretargeting setting to a fully murine anti-CEA (F6) x 734 bsMAb that was reported previously [Gautherot, E., Bouhou, J., LeDoussal, J.-M., Manetti, C., Martin, M., Rouvier, E., and Barbet, J. (1997) Therapy for colon carcinoma xenografts with bispecific antibody-targeted, iodine-131-labeled bivalent hapten. Cancer 80 (Suppl.), 2618-2623]. Both bsMAbs maintained their integrity and dual binding specificity in vivo, but the hMN-14 x m734 was cleared more rapidly from the blood. This coincided with an increased uptake of the hMN-14 x m734 bsMAb in the liver and spleen, suggesting an active reticuloendothelial cell recognition mechanism of this mixed

  8. Influence of soil type on the mobility and bioavailability of chelated zinc.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Jose M

    2007-05-02

    The objective of this study was to compare the distribution, mobility, and relative effectiveness of Zn from Zn-amino acids (Zn-AA) and Zn-DTPA-HEDTA-EDTA (Zn-CH) (DTPA, diethylenetriaminepentaacetate; HEDTA, N-2-hydroxyethyl-ethylenedinitrilotriacetate; and EDTA, ethylenedinitrilotetraacetate) sources by applying different Zn levels to weakly acidic and neutral soils in laboratory (incubation and soil column studies) and greenhouse conditions. The experiments were carried out for 60 days in incubation and column experiments and for 45 days in a greenhouse experiment. The zinc soil behavior was evaluated by DTPA-TEA and Mehlich-3 extractions and sequential speciation. The incubation experiment showed that the highest concentrations of available Zn in weakly acidic soil occurred with Zn-AA treatments, whereas in the neutral soil Zn-CH treatments produced the highest quantities of available Zn. The column experiment showed that in neutral soil, with slow to moderate permeability in the Ap and Bt horizons, only Zn-CH significantly increased the mobility of Zn through the column with respect to the control and the Zn-AA source: 31% of the Zn applied as synthetic chelate was leached from the column. The greenhouse experiment showed that, at different rates of Zn application, the Zn carriers increased Zn uptake by maize (Zea mays L.). The use of applied Zn by maize, or Zn utilization, was greatest when the Zn treatments were Zn-CH (3.3%) at 20 mg kg-1 and Zn-CH (4.9%) at 10 mg kg-1, in weakly acidic and neutral soils, respectively.

  9. Immune memory to hepatitis B persists in children aged 7-8 years, who were vaccinated in infancy with 4 doses of hexavalent DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib (Infanrix™ hexa) vaccine.

    PubMed

    Van Der Meeren, Olivier; Bleckmann, Gerhard; Crasta, Priya D

    2014-01-01

    Protection against hepatitis B disease relies on either protective serum antibodies or on the ability of the immune system to mount an anamnestic response when confronted with the hepatitis B virus (HBV). This open multicenter study (EUDRACT: 2010-022538-10) measured antibodies to HBV surface antigen (anti-HBs) in 7-8-year-old children who had received 4 doses of hexavalent diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis-HBV-inactivated poliovirus-Hemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccine (DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib: Infanrix™ hexa; GlaxoSmithKline Vaccines) in the first 2 years of life through routine vaccine services in Germany. The ability of these children to mount an anamnestic response to a challenge dose of monovalent HBV vaccine (Engerix™ B Kinder; GlaxoSmithKline Vaccines) was also assessed. Before the challenge dose, 78.5% of children had anti-HBs levels ≥6.2 mIU/mL (seropositive) and 72.2% had anti-HBs levels ≥10 mIU/mL (seroprotected). Post-challenge, 98.9% had anti-HBs levels ≥10 mIU/mL and 95.8% had anti-HBs ≥100 mIU/mL. An anamnestic response to the challenge was observed in 96.6% of all subjects. The challenge dose was well tolerated, with a reactogenicity and safety profile consistent with published data. DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib induces long-lasting immune memory to HBV that appears very similar to that induced by monovalent HBV vaccines. Protection against hepatitis B may be conferred through immune memory in subjects who responded to primary vaccination, even when they subsequently lose detectable levels of circulating anti-HBs antibodies.

  10. Removal of hazardous radionuclides from uranium ore and/or mill tailings. Progress report, October 1, 1978-September 30, 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Scheitlin, F.M.; Bond, W.D.

    1980-01-01

    The leaching of uranium ore and mill tailings to remove radium was studied. A few scouting tests were performed to obtain data on the recovery of radium, thorium, and uranium from leach liquors and on the recycle of leaching agents. Nitric acid, hydrochloric acid, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), and diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) were evaluated as leachants using one sample of a western US ore and two samples of tailings obtained from different uranium mills that employ the sulfuric acid leach process. Leached solids with radium contents approaching 10 pCi/g (98% radium removal) were obtained after six stages of batch, crosscurrent leaching with 3 M HNO/sub 3/ at 33% concentration of solids and a temperature of 60/sup 0/C. On the basis of two-stage tests on mill tailings, 0.5 M EDTA solutions at pH values of 8.2 to 11.6 were found to be more effective, while hydrochloric acid in two- or three-stage tests was less effective than nitric acid. Solutions of 0.3 M EDTA and 0.05 M DTPA were ineffective. No important differences were observed in the leaching behavior of ore and of mill tailings derived from the same ore. The residue remaining after six stages of nitric acid leaching was relatively intractable to radium leaching with water or additional nitric acid leaching. Tests indicated that the recycle of nitric acid is chemically feasible by evaporating the leach liquors to recover unused acid and then thermally decomposing the metal salts to recover consumed acid. Radium recoveries of 99+% by carrying on barium sulfate were shown to be chemically feasible in a series of experiments with leach liquors, but processing applications would probably require methods for barium recycle and barium-radium separation. Recovery of /sup 230/Th and uranium from nitrate leach liquors by tri-n-butyl phosphate extraction appears promising in initial tests.

  11. Assessment of Phytostabilization Success in Metalliferous Acid Mine Tailings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y.; Root, R. A.; Hammond, C.; Amistadi, M. K.; Maier, R. M.; Chorover, J.

    2014-12-01

    Legacy mine tailings are a significant source of metal(loid)s due to wind and water erosion, especially in the arid southwest, and exposure to fugative dusts presents a health risk to surrounding populations. Compost assisted phytostabilization has been implemented to reduce off site emissions at the Iron King Mine U.S. Superfund Site in central Arizona, concurrent with a greenhouse mesocosm study for detailed study of subsurface mechanisms. Quantification of plant available toxic metal(loid)s in the amended tailings was accessed with a targeted single extraction of diethylenetriaminepentaactic acid (DTPA). Greenhouse mesocosms (1m dia, 0.4 m deep), run in triplicate, mimicked field treatments with: i) tailings only control (TO), ii) tailings plus 15 wt% compost (TC), iii) TC + quailbush seeds (TCA), and iv) TC + buffalo grass seeds (TCB). Core samples collected at 3-month intervals for 1 year were dissected by depth (10 cm each) for analysis. DTPA results indicated that compost treated samples decreased plant availability of Al, As, Cd, Cu, Fe, and Pb but increased Mn and Zn compared with TO. TCB decreased plant available metal(loid)s at all depths, whereas TCA plant available Al, As, Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn increased in the deeper 20-30cm and 30-40 cm relative to TCB. Samples from the greenhouse were compared to tailings from both the field site and tailings impacted soils used to grow vegetables. Mineral transformations and metal complexation, in the pre- and post-extracted tailings were analyzed by synchrotron transmission XRD and FTIR spectroscopy. The temporal change in plant available metal(loid)s in response to phytostabilization indicates mineralogical alteration that improves soil quality by reducing plant available metal(loid)s. These results will aid in the understanding and efficacy of phytostabilization as a means of remediating and reducing toxicity on mine tailings as well as providing information on health risk management in the region.

  12. Influence of chelating agents on the distribution and excretion of cadmium in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Planas-Bohne, F.; Lehmann, M.

    1983-03-15

    The effects of the chelating agents CaNa2-ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA), CaNa3-diethylenetriaminepentaacetate (DTPA), 2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA), 2,3-dimercaptopropanol (BAL), and 2,3-dimercaptopropane-1-sulfonate (DMPS) and of the lipophilic chelating agents Puchel, Puchel-bisamidocysteineethyl ester (Puch-D), and EDTA-bis-amidocysteineethyl ester (EDTA-D) on the distribution of iv injected Cd were studied in male Sprague-Dawley rats. The chelating agents were injected iv as single doses given 10 sec, 1 hr, or 3 hr after 3 mumol/kg Cd + 115mCd. When the chelating agents were injected within 10 sec after the metal, all agents reduced the total body cadmium burden by varying extents ranging from 3% of that in untreated control rats after 0.01 mmol BAL/kg to 94% following 0.1 mmol DTPA/kg. When given 1 hr after Cd injection, the efficacy of all the agents tested was markedly reduced or abolished; at this time only Puchel and Puch-D provoked significant reductions in the body burden of Cd by 21 and 32%, respectively. When treatment was delayed until 3 hr after Cd injection, only Puch-D was able to reduce the body and liver burden of the metal by 14 and 9%, respectively. Combined treatment with Puchel + DTPA, BAL + DTPA, or BAL + DMPS did not enhance Cd removal to an extent greater than that expected from the equivalent dose of the more effective agent of that pair alone. Repeated administration of DTPA, 20 X 0.1 mmol/kg, during 4 weeks by ip or po administration of the same dose in the drinking water over 4 weeks, was no no more effective than the first dose of the chelating agent alone. Gel chromatographic studies of the distribution of Cd among the proteins of the liver cytosol in treated and untreated animals indicate that neither DTPA nor Puchel was able to release Cd from the metallothionein complex.

  13. Polymeric (1) H MRI Probes for Visualizing Tumor In Vivo.

    PubMed

    Kondo, Teruyuki; Kimura, Yu; Yamada, Hisatsugu; Aoyama, Yasuhiro

    2017-04-07

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has become a prominent non- or low-invasive imaging technique, providing high-resolution, three-dimensional images as well as physiological information about tissues. Low-molecular-weight Gd-MRI contrast agents (CAs), such as Gd-DTPA (DTPA: diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid), are commonly used in the clinical diagnosis, while macromolecular Gd-MRI CAs have several advantages over low-molecular-weight Gd-MRI CAs, which help minimize the dose of CAs and the risk of side effects. Accordingly, we developed chiral dendrimer Gd-MRI CAs, which showed high r1 values. The association constant values (Ka ) of S-isomeric dendrimer CAs to bovine serum albumin (BSA) were higher than those of R-isomeric dendrimer CAs. Besides, based on a totally new concept, we developed (13) C/(15) N-enriched multiple-resonance NMR/MRI probes, which realized highly selective observation of the probes and analysis of metabolic reactions of interest. This account summarizes our recent study on developing both chiral dendrimer Gd-MRI CAs, and self-traceable (13) C/(15) N-enriched phosphorylcholine polymer probes for early detection of tumors.

  14. Sewage sludge as an amendment for calcareous bauxite mine spoils reclamation

    SciTech Connect

    Brofas, G.; Michopoulos, P.; Alifragis, D.

    2000-06-01

    Dried aerobically digested sewage sludge applied at seven rates (0, 10, 20, 40, 60, 80, and 120 Mg ha{sup {minus}1}) in a field experiment on calcareous bauxite mine spoils significantly increased the available water capacity, concentrations of organic matter, total N, extractable P (Olsen), exchangeable Mg{sup 2+}, and diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA)-extractable Cu, Mn, Zn, and Pb of mine spoils. Total N and extractable P concentrations decreased with time after sludge application. The DTPA-extractable Cu concentration was high 4 yr after application at sludge rates of 80 and 120 Mg Ha{sup {minus}1}. Extractable Cu and Zn concentrations correlated significantly and positively with Cu and Zn concentrations in burnet (Sanguisorba minor subsp. minor) and fiddleneck (Phacelia tanacetifolia Benth) tissue. Sludge application depressed plant Mn uptake. Plant biomass, plant density, and foliar cover significantly increased with treatment rates in the first and fourth growing seasons but decreased with time. Fiddleneck and burnet were the species favored by the high rate of sludge application.

  15. Time and Nanoparticle Concentration Affect the Extractability of Cu from CuO NP-Amended Soil.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xiaoyu; Spielman-Sun, Eleanor; Rodrigues, Sónia M; Casman, Elizabeth A; Lowry, Gregory V

    2017-02-21

    We assess the effect of CuO nanoparticle (NP) concentration and soil aging time on the extractability of Cu from a standard sandy soil (Lufa 2.1). The soil was dosed with CuO NPs or Cu(NO3)2 at 10 mg/kg or 100 mg/kg of total added Cu, and then extracted using either 0.01 M CaCl2 or 0.005 M diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) (pH 7.6) extraction fluid at selected times over 31 days. For the high dose of CuO NPs, the amount of DTPA-extractable Cu in soil increased from 3 wt % immediately after mixing to 38 wt % after 31 days. In contrast, the extractability of Cu(NO3)2 was highest initially, decreasing with time. The increase in extractability was attributed to dissolution of CuO NPs in the soil. This was confirmed with synchrotron X-ray absorption near edge structure measurements. The CuO NP dissolution kinetics were modeled by a first-order dissolution model. Our findings indicate that dissolution, concentration, and aging time are important factors that influence Cu extractability in CuO NP-amended soil and suggest that a time-dependent series of extractions could be developed as a functional assay to determine the dissolution rate constant.

  16. Reduction of bioavailability and leachability of heavy metals during vermicomposting of water hyacinth.

    PubMed

    Singh, Jiwan; Kalamdhad, Ajay S

    2013-12-01

    Vermicomposting of water hyacinth is a good alternative for the treatment of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) and subsequentially, beneficial for agriculture purposes. The bioavailability and leachability of heavy metals (Zn, Cu, Mn, Fe, Ni, Pb, Cd, and Cr) were evaluated during vermicomposting of E. crassipes employing Eisenia fetida earthworm. Five different proportions (trials 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5) of cattle manure, water hyacinth, and sawdust were prepared for the vermicomposting process. Results show that very poor biomass growth of earthworms was observed in the highest proportion of water hyacinth (trial 1). The water soluble, diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) extractable, and leachable heavy metals concentration (percentage of total heavy metals) were reduced significantly in all trials except trial 1. The total concentration of some metals was low but its water soluble and DTPA extractable fractions were similar or more than other metals which were present in higher concentration. This study revealed that the toxicity of metals depends on bioavailable fraction rather than total metal concentration. Bioavailable fraction of metals may be toxic for plants and soil microorganisms. The vermicomposting of water hyacinth by E. fetida was very effective for reduction of bioavailability and leachability of selected heavy metals. Leachability test confirmed that prepared vermicompost is not hazardous for soil, plants, and human health. The feasibility of earthworms to mitigate the metal toxicity and to enhance the nutrient profile in water hyacinth vermicompost might be useful in sustainable land renovation practices at low-input basis.

  17. Uptake of nickel from 316L stainless steel into contacting osteoblastic cells and metal ion interference with BMP-2-induced alkaline phosphatase.

    PubMed

    Mölders, Martina; Felix, Joachim; Bingmann, Dieter; Hirner, Alfred; Wiemann, Martin

    2007-11-01

    Bone cells contacting nickel (Ni)-containing implant materials may be affected by Ni species via disturbed signaling pathways involved in bone cell development. Here we analyze effects of the Ni-containing steel 316L and major metal constituents thereof on bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2)-induced alkaline phosphatase (ALP) of MC3T3-E1 cells. While cells grew normally on 316L, cellular Ni content increased 10-fold vs. control within 4 days. With respect to the major components of 316L, Ni2+ (3-50 microM) was most inhibitory to BMP-2-induced ALP, whereas even 50 microM Fe3+, Cr3+, Mo5+, or Mn2+ had no such effect. In line with this, BMP-2-induced ALP was significantly reduced in cells on 316L. This effect was not prevented by the metal ion chelator diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA). Instead, DTPA abolished the stimulatory effect of BMP-2 on ALP, pointing to chelatable metal ions involved. Zn2+, as one possible candidate, antagonized the Ni2+ inhibition of BMP-2-induced ALP in both MC3T3-E1 and human bone marrow stromal cells. Results show that cells contacting 316L steel are exposed to increased concentrations of Ni which suffice to impair BMP-2-induced ALP activity. Zn2+, as a competitor of this inhibition, may help to restore normal osteoblastic function and bone development under these conditions.

  18. Intestinal transit of solid and liquid components of a meal in health

    SciTech Connect

    Malagelada, J.R.; Robertson, J.S.; Brown, M.L.; Remington, M.; Duenes, J.A.; Thomforde, G.M.; Carryer, P.W.

    1984-12-01

    The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that, under physiologic conditions, the human small bowel discriminates between the solid and aqueous components of chyme, that is, that in a fashion analogous to the stomach, the intestine would allow the liquid fraction to progress at a faster rate than solid particles. To evaluate this hypothesis, the authors took advantage of a gamma-emitting solid marker, /sup 131/I-fiber, previously developed in their laboratory, that is recognized by the stomach as a solid and that is emptied at a slower rate than liquid markers. Thus, /sup 131/I-fiber enters the intestine during feeding at a slower rate than a liquid marker, being eventually excreted in the feces physically and chemically unchanged. We also developed a mathematical method was also developed to calculate the intestinal transit spectrum based on scintigraphic data obtained from 6 healthy individuals who ingested /sup 131/I-fiber and technetium /sup 99m/ (/sup 99m/Tc)-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA)-water with a meal. The results disprove the hypothesis by showing that whereas /sup 131/I-fiber, as expected, leaves the stomach at a much slower rate than /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA-water, both markers progress along the small bowel separately but at similar speeds. This method for measuring intestinal transit provides a more comprehensive quantification of chyme transit in the human small bowel than earlier methods and should prove a useful technique for further noninvasive studies of transit after feeding.

  19. Dissolution of ion exchange resin by hydrogen peroxide

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.C.

    1981-08-01

    The resin dissolution process was conducted successfully in full-scale equipment at the SRL Semiworks. A solution containing 0.001M Fe/sup 2 +/, or Fe/sup 3 +/, and 3 vol % H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ in 0.1M HNO/sub 3/ is sufficient to dissolve up to 40 vol % resin slurry (Dowex 50W-X8). Foaming and pressurization can be eliminated by maintaining the dissolution temperature below 99/sup 0/C. The recommended dissolution temperature range is 85 to 90/sup 0/C. Premixing hydrogen peroxide with all reactants will not create a safety hazard, but operating with a continual feed of hydrogen peroxide is recommended to control the dissolution rate. An air sparging rate of 1.0 to 1.5 scfm will provide sufficient mixing. Spent resin from chemical separation contains DTPA (diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid) residue, and the resin must be washed with 0.1M NH/sub 4/ OH to remove excess DTPA before dissolution. Gamma irradiation of resin up to 4 kW-hr/L did not change the dissolution rate significantly.

  20. Impact of gadolinium-157 containing nanoscale magnetosensitive composites on morfofunctional properties of cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Lavrenchuk, H Y; Shevchenko, Y B; Petranovska, A L; Asmolkova, V S; Oksamytnyi, V M; Kozlovska, I V; Yavorska, O H

    2014-09-01

    Objective - to investigate the morphofunctional cells properties under the action of magneticallybased nanocomposites containing gadolinium-157. Materials and methods. Experimental studies are performed in cell culture line L929 Nanocomposites based on magnetite modified by functional amino groups chemically fixed by diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) and gadolinium - (Fe3O4/γ-APS/DTPA-Gd) were studied (1), also by meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) - (Fe3O4/DMSA-Gd), which binds to the hydroxyl group of magnetite surface (2); gadolinium was adsorbed from a solution of gadolinium sulfate. Reagent 3 - magnetic substance Fe3O4 with sodium oleate. Morphofunctional characteristics of cell culture were evaluated in various terms by standard indicators of sustainability: proliferative and mitotic activity and the number of giant multinuclear cells, apoptosis. Results and conclusions. We established that magnetdriven nanocomposites with gadolinium modified by DTPA and DMSA, were more biocompatibile to cells: incubation of cells with neutron capture agents (NCA) in the studied range of concentrations showed no toxicity, except maximum concentration, while decreasing cells adhesive properties. For all nanocomposites we observed decrease in mitotic activity in the background of the control cell population density, which may indicate synchronization of cell division. We found that the stabilized by sodium oleate ferrite caused destructive changes in cell culture only at concentrations of 500 μg / ml, but reduced mitotic activity in cell culture in 3-5 times in the whole range of concentrations. It is shown that magnetdriven nanocomposites induce different levels of apoptosis in cultured cells depending on the concentration of the reactants.

  1. Lauriston S. Taylor Lecture: the quest for therapeutic actinide chelators.

    PubMed

    Durbin, Patricia W

    2008-11-01

    All of the actinides are radioactive. Taken into the body, they damage and induce cancer in bone and liver, and in the lungs if inhaled, and U(VI) is a chemical kidney poison. Containment of radionuclides is fundamental to radiation protection, but if it is breached accidentally or deliberately, decontamination of exposed persons is needed to reduce the consequences of radionuclide intake. The only known way to reduce the health risks of internally deposited actinides is to accelerate their excretion with chelating agents. Ethylendiaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) were introduced in the 1950's. DTPA is now clinically accepted, but its oral activity is low, it must be injected as a Ca(II) or Zn(II) chelate to avoid toxicity, and it is structurally unsuitable for chelating U(VI) or Np(V). Actinide penetration into the mammalian iron transport and storage systems suggested that actinide ions would form stable complexes with the Fe(III)-binding units found in potent selective natural iron chelators (siderophores). Testing of that biomimetic approach began in the late 1970's with the design, production, and assessment for in vivo Pu(IV) chelation of synthetic multidentate ligands based on the backbone structures and Fe(III)-binding groups of siderophores. New efficacious actinide chelators have emerged from that program, in particular, octadentate 3,4,3-LI(1,2-HOPO) and tetradentate 5-LIO(Me-3,2-HOPO) have potential for clinical acceptance. Both are much more effective than CaNa3-DTPA for decorporation of Pu(IV), Am(III), U(VI), and Np(IV,V), they are orally active, and toxicity is acceptably low at effective dosage.

  2. Cyclohexyl-triethylenetetraamine hexacetic acid

    DOEpatents

    Mease, Ronnie C.; Srivastava, Suresh C.; Gestin, Jean-Francois

    1992-01-01

    The present invention relates to new rigid chelating structures, to methods for preparing these materials, and to their use in preparing radiometal labeled immunoconjugates. These new chelates include cyclohexyl EDTA monohydride, the trans forms of cyclohexyl DTPA and TTHA, and derivatives of these cyclohexyl polyaminocarboxylate materials.

  3. Labeling and distribution of linear peptides identified using in vivo phage display selection for tumors.

    PubMed

    Kennel, S J; Mirzadeh, S; Hurst, G B; Foote, L J; Lankford, T K; Glowienka, K A; Chappell, L L; Kelso, J R; Davern, S M; Safavy, A; Brechbiel, M W

    2000-11-01

    To develop targeting molecules to be used for vascular targeting of short half-lived alpha-emitters for radioimmunotherapy, linear peptide phage display libraries were selected in vivo for binding to IC-12 rat tracheal tumors growing in severe combined immune deficient mice. After three rounds of selection, 15 phage clones were analyzed for DNA sequence, and the deduced translation products of cDNA inserts were compared. Three consensus sequences were chosen from three separate experimental selection series and peptides of these sequences with added -gly-gly-tyr were obtained. Peptides were radiolabeled on tyrosine with (125)I and the biodistribution in tumor-bearing mice was determined. The radioiodinated peptides were stable in vitro and when injected in tumor-bearing mice approximately 3.0 %ID/g accumulated in the tumor; however, much of the (125)I was found in the gastrointestinal tract and thyroid, indicative of dehalogenation of the labeled peptide. Radiolabeling peptide 2 with N-succinimidyl-3-(125)I-iodobenzoate resulted in faster excretion, which in turn resulted in lower levels in tumor and other organs, especially thyroid and gastrointestinal tract. Peptide 2 was derivatized with the bifunctional isothiocyanates of cyclohexyl-B diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) or CHX-A" DTPA by direct conjugation or with a hydroxylamine derivative of 1B4M-DTPA (2-(p-[O-(carboxamylmethyl)hydroxylamine]benzyl)-6-methyl-diethylenetriamine-N,N,N',N",N"-pentaacetic acid ) coupled at the N-terminus. The primary molecular species in the conjugated products were shown by mass spectrometry to have one DTPA per peptide. Peptide chelate conjugates were radiolabeled with (213)Bi and the products tested for biodistribution in tumor-bearing mice. The data show that chelation of (213)Bi to peptides was accomplished by both the direct method of DTPA attachment and by the method using the linker at the N-terminus. Only small amounts of peptide accumulated at tumor sites. We

  4. Zn uptake behavior of rice genotypes and its implication on grain Zn biofortification

    PubMed Central

    Johnson-Beebout, Sarah E.; Goloran, Johnvie Bayang; Rubianes, Francis H. C.; Jacob, Jack D. C.; Castillo, Oliver B.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding Zn uptake dynamics is critical to rice grain Zn biofortification. Here we examined soil Zn availability and Zn uptake pathways as affected by genotype (high-grain Zn varieties IR69428 and IR68144), Zn fertilization and water management in two pot experiments. Results showed significant interactions (P < 0.05) between genotypes and Zn fertilization on DTPA (diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid)-extractable soil Zn from early tillering to flowering. DTPA-extractable Zn in soils grown with IR69428 was positively correlated with stem (r = 0.78, P < 0.01), flagleaf (r = 0.60, P < 0.01) and grain (r = 0.67, P < 0.01) Zn concentrations, suggesting improved soil Zn availability and continued soil Zn uptake by IR69428 even at maturity. Conversely for IR68144, DTPA-extractable Zn was positively correlated only with leaf Zn uptake (r = 0.60, P < 0.01) at active tillering, indicating dependence on remobilization for grain Zn loading. Furthermore, the highest grain Zn concentration (P < 0.05) was produced by a combination of IR69428 and Zn fertilization applied at panicle initiation (38.5 μg g−1) compared with other treatments (P < 0.05). The results highlight that Zn uptake behavior of a rice genotype determines the fate of Zn from the soil to the grain. This has implications on overcoming Zn translocation barriers between vegetative parts and grains, and achieving grain Zn biofortification targets (30.0 μg g−1). PMID:27910900

  5. Influence of chelator and near-infrared dye labeling on biocharacteristics of dual-labeled trastuzumab-based imaging agents

    PubMed Central

    Aldrich, Melissa B; Yang, Zhi; Zhou, Nina; Xie, Qing; Liu, Chen; Sevick-Muraca, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of fluorescent dye labeling on the targeting capabilities of 111In- (DTPA)n-trastuzumab-(IRDye 800)m. Methods Trastuzumab-based conjugates were synthesized and conjugated with diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) at molar ratios of 1, 2, 3 and 5 and with a fluorescent dye (IRDye 800CW) at molar ratios of 1, 3 and 5. Immunoreactivity and internalization were assessed on SKBR-3 cells, overexpressing human epidermal growth factor receptor 2. The stability in human serum and phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) was evaluated. The biodistribution of dual-labeled conjugates was compared with that of 111In-(DTPA)2-trastuzumab in a SKBR-3 xenograft model to evaluate the effect of dye-to-protein ratio. Results All trastuzumab-based conjugates exhibited a high level of chemical and optical purity. Flow cytometry results showed that increasing dye-to-protein ratios were associated with decreased immunoreactivity. Stability studies revealed that the conjugate was stable in PBS, while in human serum, increased degradation and protein precipitation were observed with increasing dye-to-protein ratios. At 4 h, the percentages of internalization of dual-labeled conjugates normalized by dye-to-protein ratio (m) were 24.88%±2.10%, 19.99%±0.59%, and 17.47%±1.26% for "m" equal to 1, 3, and 5, respectively. A biodistribution study revealed a progressive decrease in tumor uptake with an increase in the dye-to-protein ratios. The liver, spleen and kidney showed a marked uptake with increased dye-to-protein ratios, particularly in the latter. Conclusions With non-specific-site conjugation of the fluorescent dye with a protein based on imaging agent, the increase in dye-to-protein ratios negatively impacted the immunoreactivity and stability, indicating a reduced tumor uptake. PMID:27478322

  6. Attenuation of ozone-induced airway permeability in rats by pretreatment with cyclophosphamide, FPL 55712, and indomethacin

    SciTech Connect

    Bhalla, D.K.; Daniels, D.S.; Luu, N.T. )

    1992-07-01

    Exposure of rats to ozone (O3) produces an increase in airway permeability and a concomitant influx of polymorphonuclear leukocytes in the lung. These observations raise the possibility that the inflammatory cells play a role in the cellular injury and increased airway permeability after O3 exposure. This study was therefore designed to determine if the inflammatory cells or their products are essential for the O3 effect. In a series of experiments, rats were rendered leukopenic with cyclophosphamide, treated with leukotriene B4 (LTB4), or with the inhibitors of lipoxygenase or cyclooxygenase products of arachidonic acid, followed by exposure to O3. A 2-h exposure to 0.8 ppm O3 caused a significant increase in the flux of proteins and albumin in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and elevated the transport of 99mTc-diethylenetriaminepentaacetate (99mTc-DTPA) from trachea to blood. The treatment with cyclophosphamide caused a significant reduction in the circulating and pulmonary leukocytes and prevented an increase in tracheal mucosal permeability to 99mTc-DTPA and the protein and albumin flux in BAL. While the intratracheal instillation of LTB4 did not affect the permeability, tracheal permeability and albumin levels in BAL in rats treated with LTD4 antagonist FPL 55712 and exposed to O3 were lower than in the untreated O3-exposed rats. Pretreatment with indomethacin also prevented the O3 effects, as reflected by the decreased protein and albumin flux in BAL and 99mTc-DTPA transport from trachea to blood. These data show a reduction in the effect of O3 by agents that affect leukocytes or their products. The results support a mechanism of increased permeability that is dependent upon inflammatory cells and their products.

  7. Zn uptake behavior of rice genotypes and its implication on grain Zn biofortification.

    PubMed

    Johnson-Beebout, Sarah E; Goloran, Johnvie Bayang; Rubianes, Francis H C; Jacob, Jack D C; Castillo, Oliver B

    2016-12-02

    Understanding Zn uptake dynamics is critical to rice grain Zn biofortification. Here we examined soil Zn availability and Zn uptake pathways as affected by genotype (high-grain Zn varieties IR69428 and IR68144), Zn fertilization and water management in two pot experiments. Results showed significant interactions (P < 0.05) between genotypes and Zn fertilization on DTPA (diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid)-extractable soil Zn from early tillering to flowering. DTPA-extractable Zn in soils grown with IR69428 was positively correlated with stem (r = 0.78, P < 0.01), flagleaf (r = 0.60, P < 0.01) and grain (r = 0.67, P < 0.01) Zn concentrations, suggesting improved soil Zn availability and continued soil Zn uptake by IR69428 even at maturity. Conversely for IR68144, DTPA-extractable Zn was positively correlated only with leaf Zn uptake (r = 0.60, P < 0.01) at active tillering, indicating dependence on remobilization for grain Zn loading. Furthermore, the highest grain Zn concentration (P < 0.05) was produced by a combination of IR69428 and Zn fertilization applied at panicle initiation (38.5 μg g(-1)) compared with other treatments (P < 0.05). The results highlight that Zn uptake behavior of a rice genotype determines the fate of Zn from the soil to the grain. This has implications on overcoming Zn translocation barriers between vegetative parts and grains, and achieving grain Zn biofortification targets (30.0 μg g(-1)).

  8. Bioavailability of Zn in ZnO nanoparticle-spiked soil and the implications to maize plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xueqin; Wang, Fayuan; Shi, Zhaoyong; Tong, Ruijian; Shi, Xiaojun

    2015-04-01

    Little is known about the relationships between Zn bioavailability in ZnO nanoparticle (NP)-spiked soil and the implications to crops. The present pot culture experiment studied Zn bioavailability in soil spiked with different doses of ZnO NPs, using the diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) extraction method, as well as the toxicity and Zn accumulation in maize plants. Results showed that ZnO NPs exerted dose-dependent effects on maize growth and nutrition, photosynthetic pigments, and root activity (dehydrogenase), ranging from stimulatory (100-200 mg/kg) through to neutral (400 mg/kg) and toxic effect (800-3200 mg/kg). Both Zn concentration in shoots and roots correlated positively ( P < 0.01) with ZnO NPs dose and soil DTPA-extractable Zn concentration. The BCF of Zn in shoots and roots ranged from 1.02 to 3.83 when ZnO NPs were added. In most cases, the toxic effects on plants elicited by ZnO NPs were overall similar to those caused by bulk ZnO and soluble Zn (ZnSO4) at the same doses, irrespective of some significant differences suggesting a higher toxicity of ZnO NPs. Oxidative stress in plants via superoxide free radical production was induced by ZnO NPs at 800 mg/kg and above, and was more severe than the same doses of bulk ZnO and ZnSO4. Although significantly lower compared to bulk ZnO and ZnSO4, at least 16 % of the Zn from ZnO NPs was converted into DTPA-extractable (bioavailable) forms. The dissolved Zn2+ from ZnO NPs may make a dominant contribution to their phytotoxicity. Although low amounts of ZnO NPs exhibited some beneficial effects, the accumulation of Zn from ZnO NPs into maize tissues could pose potential health risks for both plants and human.

  9. Aspartic acid

    MedlinePlus

    ... also called asparaginic acid. Aspartic acid helps every cell in the body work. It plays a role in: Hormone production and release Normal nervous system function Plant sources of aspartic acid include: Legumes such as ...

  10. Folic Acid

    MedlinePlus

    Folic acid is a B vitamin. It helps the body make healthy new cells. Everyone needs folic acid. For women who may get pregnant, it is really important. Getting enough folic acid before and during pregnancy can prevent major birth ...

  11. Folic Acid

    MedlinePlus

    Folic acid is used to treat or prevent folic acid deficiency. It is a B-complex vitamin needed by ... Folic acid comes in tablets. It usually is taken once a day. Follow the directions on your prescription label ...

  12. A comparative study of indium-111 DTPA radionuclide and iothalamate meglumine roentgenographic arthrography in the evaluation of painful total hip arthroplasty

    SciTech Connect

    Maxon, H.R.; Schneider, H.J.; Hopson, C.N.; Miller, E.H.; Von Stein, D.E.; Kereiakes, J.G.; Cummings, D.D.; McDevitt, R.M. )

    1989-08-01

    Fifteen patients with painful total hip prostheses were referred for nuclear medicine and roentgenographic arthrography studies to exclude loosening of the acetabular and/or the femoral component. A new radioisotopic technique suitable for the evaluation of both components was developed using dual-isotope single-photon tomography with {sup 99m}technetium methylene diphosphonate bone imaging and indium-111 diethylenetriaminepentacetic acid arthrography. Thirteen of the 15 subjects were subsequently treated with additional surgery. The surgical findings were compared with the nuclear medicine and roentgenographic results. The overall diagnostic accuracy of both arthrographic procedures was approximately 80%, but the roentgenographic arthrogram was more sensitive and the radionuclide arthrogram was more specific.

  13. Acid Rain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bricker, Owen P.; Rice, Karen C.

    1995-01-01

    Although acid rain is fading as a political issue in the United States and funds for research in this area have largely disappeared, the acidity of rain in the Eastern United States has not changed significantly over the last decade, and it continues to be a serious environmental problem. Acid deposition (commonly called acid rain) is a term applied to all forms of atmospheric deposition of acidic substances - rain, snow, fog, acidic dry particulates, aerosols, and acid-forming gases. Water in the atmosphere reacts with certain atmospheric gases to become acidic. For example, water reacts with carbon dioxide in the atmosphere to produce a solution with a pH of about 5.6. Gases that produce acids in the presence of water in the atmosphere include carbon dioxide (which converts to carbonic acid), oxides of sulfur and nitrogen (which convert to sulfuric and nitric acids}, and hydrogen chloride (which converts to hydrochloric acid). These acid-producing gases are released to the atmosphere through natural processes, such as volcanic emissions, lightning, forest fires, and decay of organic matter. Accordingly, precipitation is slightly acidic, with a pH of 5.0 to 5.7 even in undeveloped areas. In industrialized areas, most of the acid-producing gases are released to the atmosphere from burning fossil fuels. Major emitters of acid-producing gases include power plants, industrial operations, and motor vehicles. Acid-producing gases can be transported through the atmosphere for hundreds of miles before being converted to acids and deposited as acid rain. Because acids tend to build up in the atmosphere between storms, the most acidic rain falls at the beginning of a storm, and as the rain continues, the acids "wash out" of the atmosphere.

  14. Acid Rain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Openshaw, Peter

    1987-01-01

    Provides some background information on acid deposition. Includes a historical perspective, describes some effects of acid precipitation, and discusses acid rain in the United Kingdom. Contains several experiments that deal with the effects of acid rain on water quality and soil. (TW)

  15. Acidification, heavy metal mobility and nutrient accumulation in the soil-plant system of a revegetated acid mine wasteland.

    PubMed

    Yang, Sheng-Xiang; Liao, Bin; Li, Jin-tian; Guo, Tao; Shu, Wen-Sheng

    2010-08-01

    A revegetation program was established at an extreme acidic and metal-toxic pyrite/copper mine wasteland in Guangdong Province, PR China using a combination of four native grass species and one non-native woody species. It was continued and monitored for 2 y. The emphasis was on acidification, metal mobility and nutrient accumulation in the soil-plant system. Our results showed the following: (i) the acid-forming potential of the mine soils decreased steadily with time, which might be due to plant root-induced changes inhibiting the oxidization of sulphide minerals; (ii) heavy metal extractability (diethylene-triamine-pentaacetic acid-extractable Pb and Zn) in the soils increased with time despite an increase in soil pH, which might be attributed to soil disturbance and plant rhizospheric processes, as well as a consequence of the enhanced metal accumulation in plants over time; and (iii) the vegetation cover increased rapidly with time, and plant development accelerated the accumulation of major nutrients (organic matter, total and ammonium-N, and available P and K). The 2-y field experiment demonstrates that direct seeding/planting of native plant species in combination with lime and manure amelioration is a practical approach to the initial establishment of a self-sustaining vegetation cover on this metalliferous and sulphide-bearing mine wasteland. However, heavy metal accumulation in the soil-plant system should be of great concern, and long-term monitoring of ecological risk must be an integral part of such a restoration scheme.

  16. Glomerular filtration rate measured by 99mTc‐DTPA renal dynamic imaging is significantly lower than that estimated by the CKD‐EPI equation in horseshoe kidney patients

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Yan; Hu, Panpan; Wei, Kai; Jin, Meiling; Ma, Guangyu; Li, Qinggang; Xu, Baixuan; Chen, Xiangmei

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Aim Gate's glomerular filtration rate (gGFR) measured by 99mTc‐DTPA renal dynamic imaging and estimated GFR (eGFR) estimated by the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD‐EPI) equation are two indexes used to evaluate renal function. However, little is known about whether gGFR can be used to accurately assess renal function in horseshoe kidney (HSK) patients with renal fusion anomalies. Methods Nineteen HSK patients (HSK group) diagnosed by renal imaging and 38 CKD patients with “normal kidney shape” (non‐HSK group) matched to the HSK patients in terms of gender, age and biochemical indicators at Chinese PLA General Hospital were enrolled in this study. Gender, age, serum total protein (TP), albumin (ALB), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), serum creatinine (Scr), gGFR and eGFR were recorded and analyzed using χ2 test, t‐test, and Wilcoxon test which was presented as median(IQR). Results (1) There were no significant differences in gender, age, TP, ALB, BUN, Scr, or eGFR between these two groups. (2) In HSK patients, the renogram showed abnormal renal axis with the lower poles orientated medially. The timed uptake curve showed that the isotope excretion in the HSK group was slower than that in the non‐HSK group. (3) For all HSK patients, gGFR was significantly lower than eGFR (range –12.52 mL/min per 1.73m2 to –93.18 mL/min per 1.73m2). There was no significant difference in eGFR between the HSK [96.42 (36.02) mL/min per 1.73 m2] and non‐HSK groups [94.46 (33.00) mL/min per 1.73 m2]. The gGFR of the HSK group [41.18 (16.60) mL/min per 1.73m2] was much lower than that of the non‐HSK group [86.42(26.40) mL/min per 1.73m2, P < 0.001] and the eGFR of the HSK group (P < 0.001). The gGFR and eGFR of the non‐HSK group were not significantly different. Conclusion gGFR measured by 99mTc‐DTPA renal dynamic imaging is significantly lower than eGFR estimated by the CKD‐EPI equation, which indicates that

  17. Feasibility of 10-Minute Delayed Hepatocyte Phase Imaging Using a 30° Flip Angle in Gd-EOB-DTPA-Enhanced Liver MRI for the Detection of Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Patients with Chronic Hepatitis or Cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Inhwan; Kim, Joo Hee; Kim, Dae Jung; Yu, Jeong-Sik; Chung, Jae-Joon

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To compare 10-minute (min) delayed hepatocyte phase imaging (HPI) using a 30° flip angle (FA) (10m-FA30) and 20-min delayed HPI using a 10° FA (20m-FA10) or 30° FA (20m-FA30) in Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI in patients with chronic hepatitis or cirrhosis, in terms of lesion-to-liver contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and detection sensitivity for focal hepatic lesions (FHLs). Materials and Methods One hundred and four patients with 168 HCCs and 55 benign FHLs who underwent Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI with 10m-FA30, 20m-FA10, and 20m-FA30 were enrolled. Patients were divided into two groups according to the Child-Pugh classification: group A with chronic hepatitis or Child-Pugh A cirrhosis and group B with Child-Pugh B or C cirrhosis. Lesion-to-liver CNR for HCCs was compared between 10m-FA30 and 20m-FA10 or 20m-FA30 for each group. The presence of FHLs was evaluated using a four-point scale by two independent reviewers, and the detection sensitivity was analyzed. Results In group A, the CNR for HCCs (n = 86) on 10m-FA30 (165.8 ± 99.7) was significantly higher than that on 20m-FA10 (113.4 ± 71.4) and lower than that of 20m-FA30 (210.2 ± 129.3). However, there was no significant difference in the sensitivity of FHL detection between 10m-FA30 (mean 95.0% for two reviewers) and 20m-FA10 (94.7%) or 20m-FA30 (94.7%). In group B, the CNR (54.0 ± 36.4) for HCCs (n = 57) and the sensitivity (94.2%) of FHL detection for 10m-FA30 were significantly higher than those for 20m-FA10 (41.8 ± 36.4 and 80.8%, respectively) and were not different from those for 20m-FA30 (62.7 ± 44.4 and 93.3%, respectively). Conclusion The diagnostic performance of 10m-FA30 was similar to or higher than 20m-FA10 or 20m-FA30 in both groups A and B. This finding indicates that 10m-FA30 could replace 20-min delayed HPI regardless of patient liver function and reduce the delay time by 10 minutes. PMID:27936106

  18. Antagonists for acute oral cadmium chloride intoxication

    SciTech Connect

    Basinger, M.A.; Jones, M.M.; Holscher, M.A.; Vaughn, W.K.

    1988-01-01

    An examination has been carried out on the relative efficacy of a number of chelating agents when acting as antagonists for oral cadmium chloride intoxication in mice. The compounds were administered orally after the oral administration of cadmium chloride at 1 mmol/kg. Of the compounds examined, several were useful in terms of enhancing survival, but by far the most effective in both enhancing survival and leaving minimal residual levels of cadmium in the liver and the kidney, was meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA). Several polyaminocarboxylic acids also enhanced survival. The most effective of these in reducing liver and kidney levels of cadmium were diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA), trans-1,2-diaminocyclohexane-N,N,N'N'-tetraacetic acid (CDTA), and triethylenetetraminehexaacetic acid (TTHA). D-Penicillamine (DPA) was found to promote survival but also led to kidney cadmium levels higher than those found in the controls. Sodium 2,3-dimercaptopropane-1-sulfonate (DMPS) was as effective in promoting survival as DMSA but left levels of cadmium in the kidney and liver that were approximately four times greater than those found with DMSA.

  19. Dysprosium(III)-diethylenetriaminepentaacetate complexes of aminocyclodextrins as chiral NMR shift reagents.

    PubMed

    Wenzel, T J; Miles, R D; Zomlefer, K; Frederique, D E; Roan, M A; Troughton, J S; Pond, B V; Colby, A L

    2000-01-01

    A metal chelating ligand is bonded to alpha-, beta-, and gamma-cyclodextrin by the reaction of diethylenetraminepentaacetic dianhydride with the corresponding 6-mono- and 2-mono(amine)cyclodextrin. Adding Dy(III) to the cyclodextrin derivatives causes shifts in the (1)H-NMR spectra of substrates such as propranolol, tryptophan, aspartame, carbinoxamine, pheniramine, doxylamine, and 1-anilino-8-naphthalenesulfonate. The Dy(III)-induced shifts enhance the enantiomeric resolution in the NMR spectra of several substrates. Enhancements in enantiomeric resolution using cyclodextrin derivatives with the amine tether are compared to previously described compounds in which the chelating ligand is attached through an ethylenediamine tether. In general, the Dy(III) complex of the 6-beta-derivative with the amine tether is a more effective chiral resolving agent than the complex with the ethylenediamine tether. The opposite trend is observed with the 2-beta-derivatives. The presence of the chelating ligand in the 2-beta-derivative hinders certain substrates from entering the cavity. For cationic substrates, evidence suggests that a cooperative association involving inclusion in the cavity and association with the Dy(III) unit occurs. Enhancements in enantiomeric resolution in the spectrum of tryptophan are greater for the secondary alpha- and gamma-derivatives than the beta-derivative.

  20. 76 FR 51991 - Determination That PENTETATE CALCIUM TRISODIUM (Trisodium Calcium Diethylenetriaminepentaacetate...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-19

    ..., equivalent to (EQ) 1 gram (g) base/5 milliliters (mL) (EQ 200 milligrams (mg) base/mL) was not withdrawn from... inhalation administration (EQ 1 g base/5 mL (EQ 200 mg base/mL)), if all other legal and regulatory... intravenous or inhalation administration (EQ 1 g base/5 mL (EQ 200 mg base/mL)) is the subject of NDA...

  1. 76 FR 51992 - Determination That PENTETATE ZINC TRISODIUM (Zinc Trisodium Diethylenetriaminepentaacetate...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-19

    ... milliliters (mL) (EQ 200 milligrams (mg) base per mL), was not withdrawn from sale for reasons of safety or... (EQ 200 mg base/mL)), if all other legal and regulatory requirements are met. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION... administration (EQ 1 g base/5 mL (EQ 200 mg base/mL)) is the subject of NDA 21-751, held by...

  2. Obeticholic Acid

    MedlinePlus

    Obeticholic acid is used alone or in combination with ursodiol (Actigall, Urso) to treat primary biliary cholangitis (PBC; a ... were not treated successfully with ursodiol alone. Obeticholic acid is in a class of medications called farnesoid ...

  3. Aminocaproic Acid

    MedlinePlus

    Aminocaproic acid is used to control bleeding that occurs when blood clots are broken down too quickly. This type ... the baby is ready to be born). Aminocaproic acid is also used to control bleeding in the ...

  4. Acid mucopolysaccharides

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003368.htm Acid mucopolysaccharides To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Acid mucopolysaccharides is a test that measures the amount ...

  5. Aristolochic Acids

    MedlinePlus

    ... Sciences NIH-HHS www.niehs.nih.gov Aristolochic Acids Key Points Report on Carcinogens Status Known to be human carcinogens Aristolochia Clematitis Aristolochic Acids n Known human carcinogens n Found in certain ...

  6. Ascorbic Acid

    MedlinePlus

    Ascorbic acid is used to prevent and treat scurvy, a disease caused by a lack of vitamin C in ... Ascorbic acid comes in extended-release (long-acting) capsules and tablets, lozenges, syrup, chewable tablets, and liquid drops to ...

  7. Ethacrynic Acid

    MedlinePlus

    Ethacrynic acid, a 'water pill,' is used to treat swelling and fluid retention caused by various medical problems. It ... Ethacrynic acid comes as a tablet to take by mouth. It is usually taken once or twice a day ...

  8. Amino acids

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002222.htm Amino acids To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Amino acids are organic compounds that combine to form proteins . ...

  9. Valproic Acid

    MedlinePlus

    Valproic acid is used alone or with other medications to treat certain types of seizures. Valproic acid is also used to treat mania (episodes of ... to relieve headaches that have already begun. Valproic acid is in a class of medications called anticonvulsants. ...

  10. Fatty acids - trans fatty acids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The data supporting a negative effect of dietary trans fatty acids on cardiovascular disease risk is consistent. The primary dietary sources of trans fatty acids include partially hydrogenated fat and rudiment fat. The adverse effect of trans fatty acids on plasma lipoprotein profiles is consisten...

  11. Effect of organic complexants on the mobility of low-level waste radionuclides in soils: status report

    SciTech Connect

    Swanson, J.L.

    1981-09-01

    The effects of some organic complexants on the sorption by soil of some elements typical of those present in low-level wastes are being evaluated and procedures are being developed to efficiently obtain valid sorption data. Data have been obtained with Hanford soil and the elements europium, nickel, cobalt, cesium, and strontium. Complexants studied to date include ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA), and humic acid. The sorption of cesium and strontium has been found to be affected very little by EDTA or DTPA, as expected. However, these complexants have been found to greatly reduce the sorption of europium, nickel, or cobalt by the soil. The Eu/EDTA system was found to be well behaved, and the effect of the complexant on the sorption by soil was quantified. With nickel and cobalt, however, kinetic problems have been encountered, and the effects of complexants on the sorption by soil have not yet been quantified. The problems encountered in the nickel and cobalt systems have further emphasized the need for the development of methods to assure the general validity of the data obtained in the experiments. Series of experimental results that looked very good within themselves were found by additional procedures to be artifacts of the conditions used. One procedure that has been of great value in identifying invalid data is that of contacting the equilibrated solution from a soil contact with a second batch of soil. Unless the sorption coefficient in the second contact is equivalent to that in the first contact, the data are likely invalid. Efforts are continuing to develop procedures that will allow generally valid data to be obtained in an efficient manner and to employ such procedures to obtain data in a variety of systems pertinent to low-level waste disposal.

  12. Acid rain

    SciTech Connect

    Elsworth, S.

    1985-01-01

    This book was written in a concise and readable style for the lay public. It's purpose was to make the public aware of the damage caused by acid rain and to mobilize public opinion to favor the elimination of the causes of acid rain.

  13. Asparagusic acid.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Stephen C; Waring, Rosemary H

    2014-01-01

    Asparagusic acid (1,2-dithiolane-4-carboxylic acid) is a simple sulphur-containing 5-membered heterocyclic compound that appears unique to asparagus, though other dithiolane derivatives have been identified in non-food species. This molecule, apparently innocuous toxicologically to man, is the most probable culprit responsible for the curious excretion of odorous urine following asparagus ingestion. The presence of the two adjacent sulphur atoms leads to an enhanced chemical reactivity, endowing it with biological properties including the ability to substitute potentially for α-lipoic acid in α-keto-acid oxidation systems. This brief review collects the scattered data available in the literature concerning asparagusic acid and highlights its properties, intermediary metabolism and exploratory applications.

  14. Acid rain

    SciTech Connect

    Sweet, W.

    1980-06-20

    Acid precipitation includes not only rain but also acidified snow, hail and frost, as well as sulfur and nitrogen dust. The principal source of acid precipitation is pollution emitted by power plants and smelters. Sulfur and nitrogen compounds contained in the emissions combine with moisture to form droplets with a high acid content - sometimes as acidic as vinegar. When sufficiently concentrated, these acids can kill fish and damage material structures. Under certain circumstances they may reduce crop and forest yields and cause or aggravate respiratory diseases in humans. During the summer, especially, pollutants tend to collect over the Great Lakes in high pressure systems. Since winds typically are westerly and rotate clockwise around high pressure systems, the pollutants gradually are dispersed throughout the eastern part of the continent.

  15. Preparation and characterization of gadolinium-loaded PLGA particles surface modified with RGDS for the detection of thrombus

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yu; Zhou, Jun; Guo, Dajing; Ao, Meng; Zheng, Yuanyi; Wang, Zhigang

    2013-01-01

    Thrombotic disease is a leading cause of death and disability worldwide. The development of magnetic resonance molecular imaging provides potential promise for early disease diagnosis. In this study, we explore the preparation and characterization of gadolinium (Gd)-loaded poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) particles surface modified with the Arg-Gly-Asp-Ser (RGDS) peptide for the detection of thrombus. PLGA was employed as the carrier-delivery system, and a double emulsion solvent-evaporation method (water in oil in water) was used to prepare PLGA particles encapsulating the magnetic resonance contrast agent Gd diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA). To synthesize the Gd-PLGA/chitosan (CS)-RGDS particles, carbodiimide-mediated amide bond formation was used to graft the RGDS peptide to CS to form a CS-RGDS film that coated the surface of the PLGA particles. Blank PLGA, Gd-PLGA, and Gd-PLGA/CS particles were fabricated using the same water in oil in water method. Our results indicated that the RGDS peptide successfully coated the surface of the Gd-PLGA/CS-RGDS particles. The particles had a regular shape, smooth surface, relatively uniform size, and did not aggregate. The high electron density of the Gd-loaded particles and a translucent film around the particles coated with the CS and CS-RGDS films could be observed by transmission electron microscopy. In vitro experiments demonstrated that the Gd-PLGA/CS-RGDS particles could target thrombi and could be imaged using a clinical magnetic resonance scanner. Compared with the Gd-DTPA solution, the longitudinal relaxation time of the Gd-loaded particles was slightly longer, and as the Gd-load concentration increased, the longitudinal relaxation time values decreased. These results suggest the potential of the Gd-PLGA/CS-RGDS particles for the sensitive and specific detection of thrombus at the molecular level. PMID:24124363

  16. Behavior of reduced 99/Tc and 99/Tc organic complexes on Hanford soil

    SciTech Connect

    Franz, J.A.; Martin, L.Y.; Wiggins, D.J.

    1982-02-01

    Both synthetically and naturally derived organic complexing agents in soil have been found in other studies to accelerate the rate of migration of specific radionuclides. In an effort to aid in the development of comprehensive plans for the disposal of low-level waste, the effect of organic complexing agents on the transport properties of /sup 99/Tc, a long-lived constituent of radioactive waste, was examined. The effect of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA), and sodium citrate on the mobility of reduced Tc species was examined from two aspects: first, by techniques of desorption from soil in which reduced, sorbed Tc was exposed to solutions of organic ligands; and second, by exposure of synthetic Tc-organic complexes to soils. Only a slight desorption of reduced Tc from Hanford soil by EDTA was found to occur in 10-day desorption tests. However, when synthetic EDTA and DTPA complexes of reduced Tc were exposed to soil under similar conditions, only a slight amount of Tc was sorbed by the soil. This comparison clearly shows that at least one type of test did not reach equilibrium in the 10-day time period allowed. Although the effects of these complexants at equilibrium cannot be quantified from these data, it is obvious that they can have large effects on the mobility of reduced Tc. Desorption tests of reduced Tc from Hanford soil by citrate solutions showed definite indications of desorption only at a relatively high (0.01 M) citrate concentrations. Results with synthetic Tc(IV) and Tc(V) citrate complexes indicate the Tc(V) citrate complex to be strongly sorbed, while the Tc(IV) citrate complex was sorbed only slightly.

  17. Dissolution kinetics of iron-, manganese-, and copper-containing synthetic hydroxyapatites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sutter, B.; Hossner, L. R.; Ming, D. W.

    2005-01-01

    Micronutrient-substituted synthetic hydroxyapatite (SHA) is being evaluated by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Advanced Life Support (ALS) Program for crop production on long-duration human missions to the International Space Station or for future Lunar or Martian outposts. The stirred-flow technique was utilized to characterize Ca, P, Fe, Mn, and Cu release characteristics from Fe-, Mn-, and Cu-containing SHA in deionized (DI) water, citric acid, and diethylene-triamine-pentaacetic acid (DTPA). Initially, Ca and P release rates decreased rapidly with time and were controlled by a non-SHA calcium phosphate phase(s) with low Ca/P solution molar ratios (0.91-1.51) relative to solid SHA ratios (1.56-1.64). At later times, Ca/P solution molar ratios (1.47-1.79) were near solid SHA ratios and release rates decreased slowly indicating that SHA controlled Ca and P release. Substituted SHA materials had faster dissolution rates relative to unsubstituted SHA. The initial metal release rate order was Mn >> Cu > Fe which followed metal-oxide/phosphate solubility suggesting that poorly crystalline metal-oxides/phosphates were dominating metal release. Similar metal release rates for all substituted SHA (approximately 0.01 cmol kg-1 min-1) at the end of the DTPA experiment indicated that SHA dissolution was supplying the metals into solution and that poorly crystalline metal-oxide/phosphates were not controlling metal release. Results indicate that non-SHA Ca-phosphate phases and poorly crystalline metal-oxide/phosphates will contribute Ca, P, and metals. After these phases have dissolved, substituted SHA will be the source of Ca, P, and metals for plants.

  18. Synthesis of polyglutamide-based metal-chelating polymers and their site-specific conjugation to trastuzumab for auger electron radioimmunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yijie; Ngo Ndjock Mbong, Ghislaine; Liu, Peng; Chan, Conrad; Cai, Zhongli; Weinrich, Dirk; Boyle, Amanda J; Reilly, Raymond M; Winnik, Mitchell A

    2014-06-09

    Three types of metal-chelating polymers (MCPs) with hydrazide end groups were synthesized. (1) The first set of polymers (the F-series) was synthesized with a furan end group, and all of the pendant groups along the chain carried only a diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) metal-chelating functionality. The hydrazide was introduced via a Diels-Alder reaction between the furan and 3,3'-N-[ε-maleimidocaproic acid] hydrazide (EMCH). (2) The P-series polymers was designed to carry several copies of a nuclear-localization peptide sequence (NLS peptides, CGYGPKKKRKVGG, harboring the NLS from the simian virus 40 large T-antigen) in addition to the DTPA metal-chelating groups. (3) The third type of polymer (the P-Py series) was a variation of the P-series polymers but with the introduction of a small number of pyrene chromophores along the backbone to allow for UV measurement of the incorporation of the MCPs into trastuzumab (tmab). These hydrazide-terminated polymers were site-specifically conjugated to aldehyde groups generated by NaIO4 oxidation of the pendant glycan in the Fc domain of tmab. The immunoconjugates were radiolabeled with (111)In and analyzed by SE-HPLC to confirm the attachment of the polymer to the antibody. HER2 binding assays demonstrated that neither the MCPs nor the presence of the NLS peptides interfered with specific antigen recognition on SK-Br-3 cells, although nonspecific binding was increased by polymer conjugation. Our results suggest that MCPs can be site-specifically attached to antibodies via oxidized glycans in the Fc domain and labeled with (111)In to construct radioimmunoconjugates with preserved immunoreactivity.

  19. Chelation in metal intoxication X: influence of different polyaminocarboxylic acids and thiol chelators in the excretion and tissue distribution of /sup 54/Mn in rat

    SciTech Connect

    Tandon, S.K.; Khandelwal, S.

    1982-05-01

    The influence of some selected polyaminocarboxylic acids and thiol metal binding agents on the urinary and faecal excretions of /sup 54/Mn and on the tissue distribution of /sup 54/Mn in /sup 54/MnC1/sub 2/ administered rats was studied to find a suitable chelating drug for Mn poisoning. HEDTA, CDTA, DTPA and TTHA were highly successful in enhancing the excretion of /sup 54/Mn and reducing the tissue levels of /sup 54/Mn in rats. The thiol chelators viz. D L-penicillamine, N-acetyl D L-penicillamine and DMS could neither influence the excretion nor the tissue distribution of /sup 54/Mn suggesting poor affinity of the metal towards sulfhydryl groups.

  20. Acid fog

    SciTech Connect

    Hileman, B.

    1983-03-01

    Fog in areas of southern California previously thought to be pollution-free has been shown to have a pH as low as 1.69. It has been found to be most acidic after smoggy days, suggesting that it forms on the aerosol associated with the previously exiting smog. Studies on Whiteface Mountain in the Adirondacks show that fog water is often 10 times as acidic as rainwater. As a result of their studies, California plans to spend $4 million on acid deposition research in the coming year. (JMT)

  1. Riparian plants on mine runoff in Zimapan, Hidalgo, Mexico: Useful for phytoremediation?

    PubMed

    Carmona-Chit, Eréndira; Carrillo-González, Rogelio; González-Chávez, Ma Del Carmen A; Vibrans, Heike; Yáñez-Espinosa, Laura; Delgado-Alvarado, Adriana

    2016-09-01

    Dispersion and runoff of mine tailings have serious implications for human and ecosystem health in the surroundings of mines. Water, soils and plants were sampled in transects perpendicular to the Santiago stream in Zimapan, Hidalgo, which receives runoff sediments from two acidic and one alkaline mine tailing. Concentrations of potentially toxic elements (PTE) were measured in water, soils (rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere) and plants. Using diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) extractable concentrations of Cu, Zn, Ni, Cd and Pb in rhizosphere soil, the bioconcentration and translocation factors were calculated. Ruderal annuals formed the principal element of the herbaceous vegetation. Accumulation was the most frequent strategy to deal with high concentrations of Zn, Cu, Ni, Cd and Pb. The order of concentration in plant tissue was Zn>Pb>Cu>Ni>Cd. Most plants contained concentrations of PTE considered as phytotoxic and behaved as metal tolerant species. Rorippa nasturtium-aquaticum accumulated particularly high concentrations of Cu. Parietaria pensylvanica and Commelina diffusa, common tropical weeds, behaved as Zn hyperaccumulators and should be studied further.

  2. XAS studies of the effectiveness of iron chelating treatments of Mary Rose timbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berko, A.; Smith, A. D.; Jones, A. M.; Schofield, E. J.; Mosselmans, J. F. W.; Chadwick, A. V.

    2009-11-01

    The oxidation of sulfur in marine archaeological timbers under museum storage conditions is a recently identified problem, particularly for major artefacts such as historic ships excavated from the seabed. Recent work on the Vasa has stressed the role of iron in catalysing the oxidative degradation of the wood cellulose and the polyethylene glycols used to restore mechanical integrity to the timbers. In developing new treatment protocols for the long term preservation of Henry VIII of England's flagship, the Mary Rose, we are investigating the potential of chelating agents to neutralise and remove the iron products from the ships timbers. We have explored the use of aqueous solutions of chelating agents of calcium phytate, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) and ammonium citrate to extract the iron compounds. All of these solutions exhibit some level of iron removal; however the key is to find the most effective concentration at pH of around 7 of the reagent solution, to minimise the treatment time and find the most cost-effective treatment for the whole of the Mary Rose hull. Fe K-edge XAFS data from samples of Mary Rose timbers, before and after treatment by the chelating agents mentioned has been collected. The data collected provide valuable insights into the effectiveness of the treatment solutions.

  3. Effects of prophylactic ibuprofen and paracetamol administration on the immunogenicity and reactogenicity of the 10-valent pneumococcal non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae protein D conjugated vaccine (PHiD-CV) co-administered with DTPa-combined vaccines in children: An open-label, randomized, controlled, non-inferiority trial

    PubMed Central

    Falup-Pecurariu, Oana; Man, Sorin C.; Neamtu, Mihai L.; Chicin, Gratiana; Baciu, Ginel; Pitic, Carmen; Cara, Alexandra C.; Neculau, Andrea E.; Burlea, Marin; Brinza, Ileana L.; Schnell, Cristina N.; Sas, Valentina; Lupu, Valeriu V.; François, Nancy; Swinnen, Kristien; Borys, Dorota

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Prophylactic paracetamol administration impacts vaccine immune response; this study (www.clinicaltrials.gov: NCT01235949) is the first to assess PHiD-CV immunogenicity following prophylactic ibuprofen administration. In this phase IV, multicenter, open-label, randomized, controlled, non-inferiority study in Romania (November 2010–December 2012), healthy infants were randomized 3:3:3:1:1:1 to prophylactically receive immediate, delayed or no ibuprofen (IIBU, DIBU, NIBU) or paracetamol (IPARA, DPARA, NPARA) after each of 3 primary doses (PHiD-CV at age 3/4/5 months co-administered with DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib at 3/5 and DTPa-IPV/Hib at 4 months) or booster dose (PHiD-CV and DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib; 12–15 months). Non-inferiority of immune response one month post-primary vaccination in terms of percentage of infants with anti-pneumococcal antibody concentrations ≥0.2 µg/mL (primary objective) was demonstrated if the upper limit (UL) of the 98.25% confidence interval of difference between groups (NIBU vs IIBU, NIBU vs DIBU) was <10% for ≥7/10 serotypes. Immunogenicity and reactogenicity/safety were evaluated, including confirmatory analysis of difference in fever incidences post-primary vaccination in IBU or DIBU group compared to NIBU. Of 850 infants randomized, 812 were included in the total vaccinated cohort. Non-inferiority was demonstrated for both comparisons (UL was <10% for 9/10 vaccine serotypes; exceptions: 6B [NIBU], 23F [IIBU]). However, fever incidence post-primary vaccination in the IIBU and DIBU groups did not indicate a statistically significant reduction. Prophylactic administration (immediate or delayed) of paracetamol decreased fever incidence but seemed to reduce immune response to PHiD-CV, except when given only at booster. Twenty-seven serious adverse events were reported for 15 children; all resolved and were not vaccination-related. PMID:27541270

  4. Mefenamic Acid

    MedlinePlus

    ... as mefenamic acid may cause ulcers, bleeding, or holes in the stomach or intestine. These problems may ... like coffee grounds, blood in the stool, or black and tarry stools.Keep all appointments with your ...

  5. Acid Rain

    MedlinePlus

    ... EPA Is Doing Acid Rain Program Cross-State Air Pollution Rule Progress Reports Educational Resources Kid's Site for ... Monitoring National Atmospheric Deposition Program (NADP) Exit Interstate Air Pollution Transport Contact Us to ask a question, provide ...

  6. Folic Acid

    MedlinePlus

    ... folic acid can hide signs that you lack vitamin B12, which can cause nerve damage. 10 Do I ... Rosenberg, I.H., et al. (2007). Folate and vitamin B12 status in relation to anemia, macrocytosis and cognitive ...

  7. Acid Precipitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Likens, Gene E.

    1976-01-01

    Discusses the fact that the acidity of rain and snow falling on parts of the U.S. and Europe has been rising. The reasons are still not entirely clear and the consequences have yet to be well evaluated. (MLH)

  8. Acidic precipitation

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, H.C.

    1987-01-01

    At the International Symposium on Acidic Precipitation, over 400 papers were presented, and nearly 200 of them are included here. They provide an overview of the present state of the art of acid rain research. The Conference focused on atmospheric science (monitoring, source-receptor relationships), aquatic effects (marine eutrophication, lake acidification, impacts on plant and fish populations), and terrestrial effects (forest decline, soil acidification, etc.).

  9. Metal-Chelating Polymers (MCPs) with Zwitterionic Pendant Groups Complexed to Trastuzumab Exhibit Decreased Liver Accumulation Compared to Polyanionic MCP Immunoconjugates.

    PubMed

    Liu, Peng; Boyle, Amanda J; Lu, Yijie; Adams, Jarrett; Chi, Yuechuan; Reilly, Raymond M; Winnik, Mitchell A

    2015-11-09

    Metal-chelating polymers (MCPs) can amplify the radioactivity delivered to cancer cells by monoclonal antibodies or their Fab fragments. We focus on trastuzumab (tmAb), which is used to target cancer cells that overexpress human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2). We report the synthesis and characterization of a biotin (Bi) end-capped MCP, Bi-PAm(DET-DTPA)36, a polyacrylamide with diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) groups attached as monoamides to the polymer backbone by diethylenetriamine (DET) pendant groups. We compared its behavior in vivo and in vitro to a similar MCP with ethylenediamine (EDA) pendant groups (Bi-PAm(EDA-DTPA)40). These polymers were complexed to a streptavidin-modified Fab fragment of tmAb, then labeled with (111)In to specifically deliver multiple copies of (111)In to HER2+ cancer cells. Upon decay, (111)In emits γ-rays that can be used in single-photon emission computed tomography radioimaging, as well as Auger electrons that cause lethal double strand breakage of DNA. Our previous studies in Balb/c mice showed that radioimmunoconjugates (RICs) containing the Bi-PAm(EDA-DTPA)40 polymer had extremely short blood circulation time and high liver uptake and were, thus, unsuitable for in vivo studies. The polymer Bi-PAm(EDA-DTPA)40 carries negative charges on each pendant group at neutral pH and a net charge of (-1) on each pendant group when saturated with stable In(3+). To test our hypothesis that charge associated with the polymer repeat unit is a key factor affecting its biodistribution profile, we examined the biodistribution of RICs containing Bi-PAm(DET-DTPA)36. While this polymer is also negatively charged at neutral pH, it becomes a zwitterionic MCP upon saturation of the DTPA groups with stable In(3+) ions. In both nontumor bearing Balb/c mice and athymic mice implanted with HER2+ SKOV-3 human ovarian cancer tumors, we show that the zwitterionic MCP has improved biodistribution, higher blood levels of radioactivity

  10. DISTRIBUTION OF ACTINIDES BETWEEN THE AQUEOUS AND ORGANIC PHASES IN THE TALSPEAK PROCESS

    SciTech Connect

    Rudisill, T.; Kyser, E.

    2010-09-02

    the actinide's valence. Since our plans included the measurement of Pu(III) distribution coefficients using a Np(V) solution containing small amounts of {sup 238}Pu, it was necessary to demonstrate that the desired oxidation states of Np and Pu are produced and could be stabilized in a buffered lactate solution containing diethylenetriaminepentaacetic (DTPA). The stability of Np(V) and Pu(III) in lactic acid/DTPA solutions was evaluated by ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy. To perform the evaluation, Np and Pu were added to solutions containing either hydroxylamine nitrate (HAN) or ferrous sulfamate (FS) as the reductant and nominally 1.5 M lactic acid/0.05 M DTPA. The pH of the solution was subsequently adjusted to nominally 2.8 as would be performed in the TALSPEAK process. In the valence adjustment study, we found that it was necessary to reduce Pu to Pu(III) prior to combining with the lactic acid and DTPA. The Pu reduction was performed using either HAN or FS. When FS was used, Np was reduced to Np(IV). The spectroscopic studies showed that Np(V) and Pu(III) are not stable in lactic acid/DTPA solutions. The stability of Np(IV)- and Pu(IV)-DTPA complexes are much greater than the stability of the Np(V)- and Pu(III)-DTPA complexes, and as a result, Np is slowly reduced to Np(IV) and Pu is slowly oxidized to Pu(IV) due to the reduced activity of the more stable complexes. When Np(V) was added to a solution containing a 1.5 M lactic acid/ammonium lactate buffer and 0.05 M DTPA, approximately 50% of the Np was reduced to Np(IV) in the first day. The fraction of Np(V) in the solution continued to diminish with time and was essentially reduced to Np(IV) after one week. When Pu(III) was added to a lactic acid/DTPA solution of the same composition, the spectrum recorded following at least two days after preparation of the solution continued to show some sign of Pu(III). The Pu(III) was completely oxidized to Pu(IV) after 3-4 days. The UV-vis spectroscopy

  11. Modified Differential Renal Function Measurement Revised by Renal Cross Sectional Area in Children with Ureteropelvic Junction Obstruction

    PubMed Central

    Nam, Jong Kil; Chung, Moon Kee

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Diuretic 99mTc-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (Tc-DTPA) renal scans may show false-negative or false-positive results in children with ureteropelvic junction obstruction (UPJO). We evaluated whether modified differential renal function (DRF) revised by the renal cross-sectional area on imaging study may be a more valuable predictor than conventional DRF on a renal scan for deciding on a proper interventional time. Materials and Methods Between September 2001 and January 2008, we reviewed the diuretic renal scan results of 29 pediatric patients who underwent pyeloplasty due to unilateral UPJO. Diuretic renal scans using the standard 99mTc-DTPA protocol and imaging studies for renal unit measurement area were done. Conventional DRF measurement and modified calculation of DRF per unit area were done. Conventional DRF was classified into group I (below 40%) and group II (above 40%). Results The mean age of all patients was 42.6±52.6 months (range, 3-198 months). The mean cross-sectional areas of the UPJO kidney and of the normal contralateral kidney were 62.1±29.2 cm2 and 41.3±22.5 cm2, respectively (p<0.01). The conventional and modified DRF of the UPJO kidney were 45.2±9.2% and 35.2±9.5%, respectively (p<0.01). Thirteen children (62%) in group II (n=21) were classified in group I by the modified DRF measurement. Conclusions The modified DRF measurement calculated according to cross-sectional area showed fewer false-negative results and may be a valuable method for deciding on pyeloplasty under equivocal circumstances. PMID:20428431

  12. Uptake, distribution, and velocity of organically complexed plutonium in corn (Zea mays).

    PubMed

    Thompson, Shannon W; Molz, Fred J; Fjeld, Robert A; Kaplan, Daniel I

    2012-10-01

    Lysimeter experiments and associated simulations suggested that Pu moved into and through plants that invaded field lysimeters during an 11-year study at the Savannah River Site. However, probable plant uptake and transport mechanisms were not well defined, so more detailed study is needed. Therefore, experiments were performed to examine movement, distribution, and velocity of soluble, complexed Pu in corn. Corn was grown and exposed to Pu using a "long root" system in which the primary root extended through a soil pot and into a hydroponic container. To maintain solubility, Pu was complexed with the bacterial siderophore DFOB (Desferrioxamine B) or the chelating agent DTPA (diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid). Corn plants were exposed to nutrient solutions containing Pu for periods of 10 min to 10 d. Analysis of root and shoot tissues permitted concentration measurement and calculation of uptake velocity and Pu retardation in corn. Results showed that depending on exposure time, 98.3-95.9% of Pu entering the plant was retained in the roots external to the xylem, and that 1.7-4.1% of Pu entered the shoots (shoot fraction increased with exposure time). Corn Pu uptake was 2-4 times greater as Pu(DFOB) than as Pu(2)(DTPA)(3). Pu(DFOB) solution entered the root xylem and moved 1.74 m h(-1) or greater upward, which is more than a million times faster than Pu(III/IV) downward movement through soil during the lysimeter study. The Pu(DFOB) xylem retardation factor was estimated to be 3.7-11, allowing for rapid upward Pu transport and potential environmental release.

  13. Role of calculated glomerular filtration rate using percutaneous nephrostomy creatinine clearance in the era of radionuclide scintigraphy

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Sunil Raghunath; Pawar, Prakash Wamanrao; Savalia, Abhishek Jaysukhbhai; Mundhe, Shankar Tanaji; Narwade, Sayalee Suryabhan; Tamhankar, Ashwin Sunil

    2017-01-01

    Context: Gates method tends to over-estimate glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in borderline functioning kidneys. We study the role of calculated GFR in these cases in decision-making regarding performing kidney-sparing surgery or nephrectomy. Aims: The aim of this study is to find the correlation between GFR calculated by percutaneous nephrostomy (PCN) urine creatinine clearance in obstructed kidneys and GFR by radionuclide scintigraphy. It also studies the role of this calculated GFR in borderline functioning kidneys. Settings and Design: Single tertiary care center; retrospective. Materials and Methods: A total of 46 patients in whom PCN was inserted as an emergency measure in an obstructed kidney and for whom diethylene-triamine-penta-acetic acid/ethylene-di-cysteine (DTPA/EC) scan was also done (Gates method) were analyzed retrospectively. PCN creatinine clearance was calculated for 3 consecutive days, and the mean value was used. Statistical Analysis Used: Pearson's correlational analysis; Chi-square test. Results: Overall strong correlation was found between the two GFR values (Pearson's r = 0.540692, P < 0.001). Totally 26 patients (56.52%) had comparable GFR values (P > 0.05). Among the 36 patients with borderline functioning kidneys, DTPA/EC scan significantly over-estimated GFR in one-third of the patients. The management plan was changed in 7 out of those patients (46.67%), with nephrectomy performed in all instead of kidney-sparing procedure. When the highest value of calculated GFR was compared, 28 patients had comparable GFRs (60.87%). Conclusions: GFR based on radionuclide scintigraphy may be insufficient for evaluation of residual renal function to determine the management of obstructed kidney with borderline function. For adequate decision-making, other factors including creatinine clearance via PCN should also be considered. Gates method tends to overestimate GFR as compared to calculated creatinine clearance at low GFR levels. PMID:28216932

  14. Assessment of Hypoxia in Human Cervical Carcinoma Xenografts by Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Ellingsen, Christine; Egeland, Tormod A.M.; Gulliksrud, Kristine M.Sc.; Gaustad, Jon-Vidar; Mathiesen, Berit; Rofstad, Einar K.

    2009-03-01

    Purpose: Patients with advanced cervical cancer and highly hypoxic primary tumors show increased frequency of locoregional treatment failure and poor disease-free and overall survival rates. The potential usefulness of gadolinium-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (Gd-DTPA)-based dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) in assessing tumor hypoxia noninvasively was investigated in the present preclinical study. Methods and Materials: CK-160 and TS-415 human cervical carcinoma xenografts transplanted intramuscularly (i.m.) or subcutaneously (s.c.) in BALB/c nu/nu mice were subjected to DCE-MRI and measurement of fraction of radiobiologically hypoxic cells. Tumor images of K{sup trans} (the volume transfer constant of Gd-DTPA) and v{sub e} (the extracellular volume fraction of the imaged tissue) were produced by pharmacokinetic analysis of the DCE-MRI data. Fraction of radiobiologically hypoxic cells was measured by using the paired survival curve method. Results: Fraction of radiobiologically hypoxic cells differed significantly among the four tumor groups. The mean values {+-} SE were determined to be 44% {+-} 7% (i.m. CK-160), 77% {+-} 10% (s.c. CK-160), 23% {+-} 5% (i.m. TS-415), and 52% {+-} 6% (s.c. TS-415). The four tumor groups differed significantly also in K{sup trans}, and there was an unambiguous inverse relationship between K{sup trans} and fraction of radiobiologically hypoxic cells. On the other hand, significant differences among the groups in v{sub e} could not be detected. Conclusions: The study supports the clinical development of DCE-MRI as a method for assessing the extent of hypoxia in carcinoma of the cervix.

  15. Convection enhanced delivery of different molecular weight tracers of gadolinium-tagged polylysine.

    PubMed

    Hardy, Peter A; Keeley, Dan; Schorn, Greg; Forman, Eric; Ai, Yi; Venugopalan, Ramakrishna; Zhang, Zhiming; Bradley, Luke H

    2013-09-30

    Convection enhanced delivery (CED) is a powerful method of circumventing the blood-brain barrier (BBB) to deliver therapeutic compounds directly to the CNS. While inferring the CED distribution of a therapeutic compound by imaging a magnetic resonance (MR)-sensitive tracer has many advantages, however how the compound distribution is affected by the features of the delivery system, its target tissue, and its molecular properties, such as its binding characteristics, charge, and molecular weight (MW) are not fully understood. We used MR imaging of gadolinium diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (Gd-DTPA)-tagged polylysine compounds of various MW, in vitro and in vivo, to measure the dependence of compounds MW on CED distribution. For the in vitro studies, the correlation between volume of distribution (Vd) as a function of MW was determined by measuring the T1 of the infused tracers, into 0.6% agarose gels through a multiport catheter. The compounds distributed in the gels inversely proportional to their MW, consistent with convection and unobstructed diffusion through a porous media. For the in vivo studies, Gd-DTPA tagged compounds were infused into the non-human primate putamen, via an implanted multiport catheter connected to a MedStream™ pump, programmed to deliver a predetermined volume with alternating on-off periods to take advantage of the convective and diffusive contributions to Vd. Unlike the gel studies, the higher MW polylysine-tracer infusions did not freely distribute from the multiport catheter in the putamen, suggesting that distribution was impeded by other properties that should also be considered in future tracer design and CED infusion protocols.

  16. Arbuscular mycorrhizae alleviate negative effects of zinc oxide nanoparticle and zinc accumulation in maize plants--A soil microcosm experiment.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fayuan; Liu, Xueqin; Shi, Zhaoyong; Tong, Ruijian; Adams, Catharine A; Shi, Xiaojun

    2016-03-01

    ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) are considered an emerging contaminant when in high concentration, and their effects on crops and soil microorganisms pose new concerns and challenges. Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi (AMF) form mutualistic symbioses with most vascular plants, and putatively contribute to reducing nanotoxicity in plants. Here, we studied the interactions between ZnO NPs and maize plants inoculated with or without AMF in ZnO NPs-spiked soil. ZnO NPs had no significant adverse effects at 400 mg/kg, but inhibited both maize growth and AM colonization at concentrations at and above 800 mg/kg. Sufficient addition of ZnO NPs decreased plant mineral nutrient acquisition, photosynthetic pigment concentrations, and root activity. Furthermore, ZnO NPs caused Zn concentrations in plants to increase in a dose-dependent pattern. As the ZnO NPs dose increased, we also found a positive correlation with soil diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA)-extractable Zn. However, AM inoculation significantly alleviated the negative effects induced by ZnO NPs: inoculated-plants experienced increased growth, nutrient uptake, photosynthetic pigment content, and SOD activity in leaves. Mycorrhizal plants also exhibited decreased ROS accumulation, Zn concentrations and bioconcentration factor (BCF), and lower soil DTPA-extractable Zn concentrations at high ZnO NPs doses. Our results demonstrate that, at high contamination levels, ZnO NPs cause toxicity to AM symbiosis, but AMF help alleviate ZnO NPs-induced phytotoxicity by decreasing Zn bioavailability and accumulation, Zn partitioning to shoots, and ROS production, and by increasing mineral nutrients and antioxidant capacity. AMF may play beneficial roles in alleviating the negative effects and environmental risks posed by ZnO NPs in agroecosystems.

  17. Renal scintigraphy in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus: Early glomerular and urologic dysfunction

    SciTech Connect

    Poirier, J.Y.; Moisan, A.; Le Cloirec, J.; Siemen, C.; Yaouanq, J.; Edan, G.; Herry, J.Y. )

    1990-07-01

    Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and renal plasma flow (RPF) were measured by intravenous injection of 99mTc-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) and 131I-Hippuran in 115 insulin-dependent diabetic patients with albumin excretion rates (AER) less than 200 micrograms/min, and in 45 normal subjects. Separate kidney function and urinary elimination were estimated by renography. GFR was increased in the diabetic patients (152 +/- 24 ml/min/1.73 m2 vs. 128 +/- 15) and correlated significantly with RPF (r = 0.5; p less than 10(-9)). No relationship was found between GFR and the duration of diabetes, blood glucose, HbA1c, or AER. Fifty patients were hyperfiltering with RPF and filtration fraction higher than those in the normofiltering group. Slow intrarenal or pyeloureteral elimination, either unilateral or bilateral, was observed in 3 controls and 60 diabetic subjects (24 hyperfiltering; 36 normofiltering) and did not disappear with the patient in the standing position. In these 60 patients, mean age, duration of diabetes, blood glucose, HbA1c, 24 h albumin excretion rate, and frequency of peripheral or autonomic neuropathy did not differ from patients with normal scintigraphy; GFR was lower in the group with slow elimination, but not significantly so. 99mTc-DTPA renal uptake was symmetric in all the controls; asymmetric renal uptake with asymmetric GFR was observed in 13 patients (7 hyperfiltering; 6 normofiltering) and often associated with slower elimination. No evidence for renal stenotic atheroma or parenchymatous disease was found on the angiopyleoureterography. The results suggest that incipient uropathy is a very common phenomenon that occurs irrespective of glomerular dysfunction.

  18. In vivo immunotoxicity of SiO2@(Y0.5Gd0.45Eu0.05)2O3 as dual-modality nanoprobes.

    PubMed

    Tian, Xiumei; Li, Ermao; Yang, Fanwen; Peng, Ye; Zhu, Jixiang; He, Fupo; Chen, Xiaoming

    2014-08-07

    We have successfully synthesized SiO2@(Y0.5Gd0.45Eu0.05)2O3 nanocomposites as a potential dual-modality nanoprobe for molecular imaging in vitro. However, their immunotoxicity assessment in vivo remains unknown. In this article, the in vitro biocompatibility of our dual-modality nanoprobes was assayed in terms of cell viability and apoptosis. In vivo immunotoxicity was investigated by monitoring the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), cluster of differentiation (CD) markers and cytokines in Balb/c mice. The data show that the in vitro biocompatibility was satisfactory. In addition, the immunotoxicity data revealed there are no significant changes in the expression levels of CD11b and CD71 between the nanoprobe group and the Gd in a diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) chelator (Gd-DTPA) group 24 h after injection in Balb/c mice (p>0.05). Importantly, there are significant differences in the expression levels of CD206 and CD25 as well as the secretion of IL-4 and the generation of ROS 24 h after injection (p<0.05). Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images showed that few nanoprobes were localized in the phagosomes of liver and lung. In conclusion, the toxic effects of our nanoprobes may mainly result from the aggregation of particles in phagosomes. This accumulation may damage the microstructure of the cells and generate oxidative stress reactions that further stimulate the immune response. Therefore, it is important to evaluate the in vivo immunotoxicity of these rare earth-based biomaterials at the molecular level before molecular imaging in vivo.

  19. Influence of FeEDDS, FeEDTA, FeDTPA, FeEDDHA, and FeSO4 on Marigold Growth and Nutrition, and Substrate and Runoff Chemistry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objectives of the study were to determine effects of Fe source on plant growth, plant nutrition, substrate chemistry and runoff chemistry. Iron source (FS) treatments consisted of Fe-aminopolycarboxylic acid (APCA) complexones iron ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (FeEDTA), iron [S, S']-ethylenediam...

  20. Acid Rain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bricker, Owen P.; Rice, Karen C.

    1993-01-01

    Acid deposition, or acid rain as it is more commonly referred to, has become a widely publicized environmental issue in the U.S. over the past decade. The term usually conjures up images of fish kills, dying forests, "dead" lakes, and damage to monuments and other historic artifacts. The primary cause of acid deposition is emission of S02 and NOx to the atmosphere during the combustion of fossil fuels. Oxidation of these compounds in the atmosphere forms strong acids - H2SO4 and HNO3 - which are returned to the Earth in rain, snow, fog, cloud water, and as dry deposition.Although acid deposition has only recently been recognized as an environmental problem in the U.S., it is not a new phenomenon (Cogbill & Likens 1974). As early as the middle of the 17th century in England, the deleterious effects of industrial emissions on plants, animals, and humans, and the atmospheric transport of pollutants between England and France had become issues of concern (Evelyn 1661, Graunt 1662). It is interesting that well over three hundred years ago in England, recommendations were made to move industry outside of towns and build higher chimneys to spread the pollution into "distant parts." Increasing the height of smokestacks has helped alleviate local problems, but has exacerbated others. In the U.S. the height of the tallest smokestack has more than doubled, and the average height of smokestacks has tripled since the 1950s (Patrick et al 1981). This trend occurred in most industrialized nations during the 20th century and has had the effect of transforming acid rain from a local urban problem into a problem of global scale.

  1. Acid Rain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bricker, Owen P.; Rice, Karen C.; Dietrich, W.E.; Sposito, Garrison

    1997-01-01

    Acid deposition, or acid rain as it is more commonly referred to, has become a widely publicized environmental issue in the U.S. over the past decade. The term usually conjures up images of fish kills, dying forests, "dead" lakes, and damage to monuments and other historic artifacts. The primary cause of acid deposition is emission of S02 and NOx to the atmosphere during the combustion of fossil fuels. Oxidation of these compounds in the atmosphere forms strong acids - H2SO4 and HNO3 - which are returned to the Earth in rain, snow, fog, cloud water, and as dry deposition.Although acid deposition has only recently been recognized as an environmental problem in the U.S., it is not a new phenomenon (Cogbill & Likens 1974). As early as the middle of the 17th century in England, the deleterious effects of industrial emissions on plants, animals, and humans, and the atmospheric transport of pollutants between England and France had become issues of concern (Evelyn 1661, Graunt 1662). It is interesting that well over three hundred years ago in England, recommendations were made to move industry outside of towns and build higher chimneys to spread the pollution into "distant parts." Increasing the height of smokestacks has helped alleviate local problems, but has exacerbated others. In the U.S. the height of the tallest smokestack has more than doubled, and the average height of smokestacks has tripled since the 1950s (Patrick et al 1981). This trend occurred in most industrialized nations during the 20th century and has had the effect of transforming acid rain from a local urban problem into a problem of global scale.

  2. Salicylic acids

    PubMed Central

    Hayat, Shamsul; Irfan, Mohd; Wani, Arif; Nasser, Alyemeni; Ahmad, Aqil

    2012-01-01

    Salicylic acid is well known phytohormone, emerging recently as a new paradigm of an array of manifestations of growth regulators. The area unleashed yet encompassed the applied agriculture sector to find the roles to strengthen the crops against plethora of abiotic and biotic stresses. The skipped part of integrated picture, however, was the evolutionary insight of salicylic acid to either allow or discard the microbial invasion depending upon various internal factors of two interactants under the prevailing external conditions. The metabolic status that allows the host invasion either as pathogenesis or symbiosis with possible intermediary stages in close systems has been tried to underpin here. PMID:22301975

  3. Effects of organic ligands on fractionation of rare earth elements (REEs) in hydroponic plants: an application to the determination of binding capacities by humic acid for modeling.

    PubMed

    Ding, ShiMing; Liang, Tao; Zhang, ChaoSheng; Yan, JunCai; Zhang, ZiLi

    2006-12-01

    Previous studies have revealed the fractionation processes of rare earth elements (REEs) in hydroponic plants, with a heavy REE (HREE, the elements from Gd to Lu) enrichment in leaves. In this study, effects on the HREE enrichment in soybean leaves with additions of carboxylic acids (acetate, malate, citrate, NTA, EDTA and DTPA) and two soil humic acids (HAs) were investigated. REE speciation in carboxylic acid and HA solutions was simulated using Visual MINTEQ and Model V, respectively. The results showed that the effects caused by carboxylic acids were strongly dependent on the differences between their binding strengths for light REEs (LREEs, the elements from La to Eu) and those for HREEs. A good correlation existed between these effects and the changes of free REE ions in solutions. This relationship was also observed for the HA treatments, provided that the intrinsic equilibrium constants of REEs for cation-proton exchange with HA (i.e., pK(MHA)) in Model V were estimated using a free-energy relationship with the stability constants for REE complexation with lactic acid. It is suggested that this set of pK(MHA) values is more suitable for use in Model V for the simulation of REE complexation with HA.

  4. Selenious acid

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Selenious acid ; CASRN 7783 - 00 - 8 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic E

  5. Dichloroacetic acid

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    EPA 635 / R - 03 / 007 www.epa.gov / iris TOXICOLOGICAL REVIEW OF DICHLOROACETIC ACID ( CAS No . 79 - 43 - 6 ) In Support of Summary Information on the Integrated Risk Information System ( IRIS ) August 2003 U.S . Environmental Protection Agency Washington , DC DISCLAIMER This document has been revi

  6. Trichloroacetic acid

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    EPA / 635 / R - 09 / 003F www.epa.gov / iris TOXICOLOGICAL REVIEW OF TRICHLOROACETIC ACID ( CAS No . 76 - 03 - 9 ) In Support of Summary Information on the Integrated Risk Information System ( IRIS ) September 2011 U.S . Environmental Protection Agency Washington , DC ii DISCLAIMER This document has

  7. Acid rain

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-06-01

    An overview is presented of acid rain and the problems it causes to the environment worldwide. The acidification of lakes and streams is having a dramatic effect on aquatic life. Aluminum, present in virtually all forest soils, leaches out readily under acid conditions and interferes with the gills of all fish, some more seriously than others. There is evidence of major damage to forests in European countries. In the US, the most severe forest damage appears to be in New England, New York's Adirondacks, and the central Appalachians. This small region is part of a larger area of the Northeast and Canada that appears to have more acid rainfall than the rest of the country. It is downwind from major coal burning states, which produce about one quarter of US SO/sub 2/ emissions and one sixth of nitrogen oxide emissions. Uncertainties exist over the causes of forest damage and more research is needed before advocating expensive programs to reduce rain acidity. The President's current budget seeks an expansion of research funds from the current $30 million per year to $120 million.

  8. Benzoic acid

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Benzoic acid ; CASRN 65 - 85 - 0 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Effec

  9. Formic acid

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Formic acid ; CASRN 64 - 18 - 6 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Effect

  10. Acrylic acid

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Acrylic acid ( CASRN 79 - 10 - 7 ) Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Eff

  11. Phosphoric acid

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Phosphoric acid ; CASRN 7664 - 38 - 2 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic

  12. Cacodylic acid

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Cacodylic acid ; CASRN 75 - 60 - 5 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Eff

  13. Azelaic acid.

    PubMed

    Nazzaro-Porro, M

    1987-12-01

    This review is an update on the literature accumulated over the past 10 years following the original observation that azelaic acid, a naturally occurring and nontoxic C9 dicarboxylic acid, possesses significant biologic properties and a potential as a therapeutic agent. These studies have shown that azelaic acid is a reversible inhibitor of tyrosinase and other oxidoreductases in vitro and that it inhibits mitochondrial respiration. It can also inhibit anaerobic glycolysis. Both in vitro and in vivo it has an antimicrobial effect on both aerobic and anaerobic (Propionibacterium acnes) microorganisms. In tissue culture it exerts a dose- and time-dependent cytotoxic effect on malignant melanocytes, associated with mitochondrial damage and inhibition of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) synthesis. Tumoral cell lines not containing tyrosinase are equally affected. Normal cells in culture exposed to the same concentrations of the diacid that are toxic for tumoral cells are in general not damaged. Radioactive azelaic acid has been shown to penetrate tumoral cells at a higher level than normal cells of the corresponding line. Topically applied (a 20% cream), it has been shown to be of therapeutic value in skin disorders of different etiologies. Its beneficial effect on various forms of acne (comedogenic, papulopustular, nodulocystic) has been clearly demonstrated. Particularly important is its action on abnormal melanocytes, which has led to the possibility of obtaining good results on melasma and highly durable therapeutic responses on lentigo maligna. It is also capable of causing regression of cutaneous malignant melanoma, but its role in melanoma therapy remains to be investigated.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  14. The role of Gd-enhanced three-dimensional MRI fast low-angle shot (FLASH) in the evaluation of symptomatic lumbosacral nerve roots.

    PubMed

    Kikkawa, I; Sugimoto, H; Saita, K; Ookami, H; Nakama, S; Hoshino, Y

    2001-01-01

    In the field of lumbar spine disorders, three-dimensional (3-D) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can clearly depict a lumbar nerve root from the distal region to the dorsal root ganglion. In this study, we used a gadolinium-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (Gd-DTPA) enhanced-three-dimensional (3-D) fast low-angle shot (FLASH) sequence when examining lumbosacral disorders. The subjects were 33 patients (14 men and 19 women) in whom lumbosacral neural compression had been diagnosed clinically. Twenty-one patients had lumbar disc herniation, 11 had lumbar spinal stenosis, and 1 had lumbar radiculopathy caused by rheumatoid arthritis. Five subjects with low back pain were also studied as a control group. In all patients and in all 5 of the controls, the dorsal root ganglion of every root was enhanced clearly. There was no root enhancement in the 5 controls. Enhancement of the symptomatic nerve roots, caused by compression, was found in 11 of the 33 patients. All 11 patients had radiculopathy, and muscle weakness was more frequent in patients with enhanced nerve roots than in those without enhancement. There was no enhancement of the cauda equina, even in the patients with cauda syndrome. The enhancement effect may reflect some pathological condition of the compressed nerve root and needs to be studied further.

  15. Real time magnetic resonance guided endomyocardial local delivery

    PubMed Central

    Corti, R; Badimon, J; Mizsei, G; Macaluso, F; Lee, M; Licato, P; Viles-Gonzalez, J F; Fuster, V; Sherman, W

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the feasibility of targeting various areas of left ventricle myocardium under real time magnetic resonance (MR) imaging with a customised injection catheter equipped with a miniaturised coil. Design: A needle injection catheter with a mounted resonant solenoid circuit (coil) at its tip was designed and constructed. A 1.5 T MR scanner with customised real time sequence combined with in-room scan running capabilities was used. With this system, various myocardial areas within the left ventricle were targeted and injected with a gadolinium-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) and Indian ink mixture. Results: Real time sequencing at 10 frames/s allowed clear visualisation of the moving catheter and its transit through the aorta into the ventricle, as well as targeting of all ventricle wall segments without further image enhancement techniques. All injections were visualised by real time MR imaging and verified by gross pathology. Conclusion: The tracking device allowed real time in vivo visualisation of catheters in the aorta and left ventricle as well as precise targeting of myocardial areas. The use of this real time catheter tracking may enable precise and adequate delivery of agents for tissue regeneration. PMID:15710717

  16. Biodegradable human serum albumin nanoparticles as contrast agents for the detection of hepatocellular carcinoma by magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Watcharin, Waralee; Schmithals, Christian; Pleli, Thomas; Köberle, Verena; Korkusuz, Hüdayi; Huebner, Frank; Zeuzem, Stefan; Korf, Hans W; Vogl, Thomas J; Rittmeyer, Claudia; Terfort, Andreas; Piiper, Albrecht; Gelperina, Svetlana; Kreuter, Jörg

    2014-05-01

    Tumor visualization by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and nanoparticle-based contrast agents may improve the imaging of solid tumors such as hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In particular, human serum albumin (HSA) nanoparticles appear to be a suitable carrier due to their safety and feasibility of functionalization. In the present study HSA nanoparticles were conjugated with gadolinium diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (Gd-DTPA) using carbodiimide chemistry. The nanoparticles had a uniform spherical shape and a diameter of 235±19nm. For better optical visualization in vitro and in vivo, the HSA-Gd nanoparticles were additionally labeled with rhodamine 123. As shown by confocal microscopy and flow cytometry analysis, the fluorescent nanoparticles were readily taken up by Huh-7 hepatocellular carcinoma cells. After 24h incubation in blood serum, less than 5% of the Gd(III) was released from the particles, which suggests that this nanoparticulate system may be stable in vivo and, therefore, may serve as potentially safe T1 MRI contrast agent for MRI of hepatocellular carcinoma.

  17. The immobilization of heavy metals in soil by bioaugmentation of a UV-mutant Bacillus subtilis 38 assisted by NovoGro biostimulation and changes of soil microbial community.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ting; Sun, Hongwen; Mao, Hongjun; Zhang, Yanfeng; Wang, Cuiping; Zhang, Zhiyuan; Wang, Baolin; Sun, Lei

    2014-08-15

    Bacillus subtilis 38 (B38) is a mutant species of Bacillus subtilis acquired by UV irradiation with high cadmium tolerance. This study revealed that B38 was a good biosorbent for the adsorption of multiple heavy metals (cadmium, chromium, mercury, and lead). Simultaneous application of B38 and NovoGro (SNB) exhibited a synergetic effect on the immobilization of heavy metals in soil. The heavy metal concentrations in the edible part of the tested plants (lettuce, radish, and soybean) under SNB treatment decreased by 55.4-97.9% compared to the control. Three single extraction methods, diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA), Mehlich 3 (M3), and the first step of the Community Bureau of Reference method (BCR1), showed good predictive capacities for metal bioavailability to leafy, rhizome, and leguminous plant, respectively. The polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) profiles revealed that NovoGro could enhance the proliferation of both exotic B38 and native microbes. Finally, the technology was checked in the field, the reduction in heavy metal concentrations in the edible part of radish was in the range between 30.8% and 96.0% after bioremediation by SNB treatment. This study provides a practical strategy for the remediation of farmland contaminated by multiple heavy metals.

  18. Role of indium-111 white blood cells in inflammatory bowel disease

    SciTech Connect

    Froelich, J.W.; Field, S.A.

    1988-10-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease in patients may be difficult to diagnose because of the complex problems associated with this disease. Radionuclides are able to provide a rapid and effective method of imaging the bowel in patients with active inflammatory bowel disease. In the past, clinical work-ups have included barium x-ray studies and endoscopy. Scarring and fistula formation have made it difficult to determine between the active disease and abscesses that may occur. Gallium-67 (67Ga) has been very useful in imaging patients with inflammatory bowel disease, but the multiple-day imaging procedure has been a limitation for the clinicians when achieving a diagnosis. Recent results with Indium-111 (111In)--labeled WBCs have provided excellent correlation between clinical symptoms and colonoscopy findings in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. This technique has also allowed the differentiation between reoccurring inflammatory bowel disease and abscesses that accompany the disease within a 24-hour time period. The use of intravenous (IV) glucagon has increased the clarity of the images in the small bowel. Technetium 99m (99mTc) diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) has been used in patients with inflammatory bowel disease demonstrating promising results. Investigators feel labelling 99mTc with WBCs will be improved, therefore yielding a greater efficiency, which will have a major impact on imaging patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Imaging patients with inflammatory bowel disease using radionuclides has yielded promising results. This is a significant advancement over barium radiography and endoscopy exams.24 references.

  19. A Polymeric Fastener can Easily Functionalize Liposome Surfaces with Gadolinium for Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Cartney E.; Shkumatov, Artem; Withers, Sarah G.; Glockner, James F.; Misra, Sanjay; Roy, Edward J.; Wong, Chun-Ho; Zimmerman, Steven C.; Kong, Hyunjoon

    2013-01-01

    Common methods of loading magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents into nanoparticles often suffer from challenges related to particle formation, complex chemical modification/purification steps, and reduced contrast efficiency. This study presents a simple, yet advanced process to address these issues by loading gadolinium, an MRI contrast agent, exclusively on a liposome surface using a polymeric fastener. The fastener, so named for its ability to physically link the two functional components together, consisted of chitosan substituted with diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) to chelate gadolinium, as well as octadecyl chains to stabilize the modified chitosan on the liposome surface. The assembly strategy, mimicking the mechanisms by which viruses and proteins naturally anchor to a cell, provided greater T1 relaxivity than liposomes loaded with gadolinium in both the interior and outer leaflet. Gadolinium-coated liposomes were ultimately evaluated in vivo using murine ischemia models to highlight the diagnostic capability of the system. Taken together, this process decouples particle assembly and functionalization, and therefore has considerable potential to enhance imaging quality while alleviating many of the difficulties associated with multifunctional particle fabrication. PMID:24083377

  20. Scintigraphic determination of the effect of metoclopramide and morphine on small intestinal transit time

    SciTech Connect

    Prokop, E.K.; Caride, V.J.; Winchenbach, K.; Troncale, F.J.; McCallum, R.W.

    1988-01-01

    To determine if a scintigraphic method could detect pharmacologic changes in small intestinal transit time (SITT), 10 male volunteers were studied at baseline and after intravenously administered metoclopramide (10 mg) and morphine (8 mg). Five of these volunteers were studied with the hydrogen breath test method for comparison. For each of the scintigraphic studies, the volunteers were positioned supine under a large-field-of-view gamma camera after ingesting an isosmotic lactulose solution containing 99mtechnetium-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA). Data were collected and stored in a computer. Both gastric emptying and SITT were determined. SITT was 81 +/- 11 min (mean +/- S.E.M.; N = 10) during baseline studies, was decreased significantly to 50 +/- 6 min (N = 10; P less than 0.01) after metoclopramide, and was increased significantly to 161 +/- 15 min (N = 8; P less than 0.01) after morphine. Baseline mean values were 86.3 +/- 15 min (N = 15) for the hydrogen breath tests, 47 +/- 8 min (N = 5) for metoclopramide, and 183 +/- 16 min (N = 5) for morphine. For gastric emptying, there was no significant difference in percentage emptying at 1 hr for baseline and metochopramide (82 +/- 5% vs. 88 +/- 4%). Morphine prolonged gastric emptying at 1 hr to 63 +/- 8%. We conclude that the scintigraphic method for measuring SITT permits accurate investigation of the pharmacologic effects on intestinal motility and, in addition, may be a useful research and clinical method for SITT determination.

  1. Synthesis, characterization, and biodistribution studies of (99m)Tc-labeled SBA-16 mesoporous silica nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    de Barros, André Luís Branco; de Oliveira Ferraz, Karina Silva; Dantas, Thais Cristina Soares; Andrade, Gracielle Ferreira; Cardoso, Valbert Nascimento; Sousa, Edésia Martins Barros de

    2015-11-01

    Along with anti-cancer drug delivery researches, many efforts have been done to develop new tracers for diagnostic applications. Based on advances in molecular imaging, nanoparticles can be used to visualize, characterize and measure biological process at molecular and cellular level. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to synthesize, characterize and radiolabeled mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) for in vivo applications. The nanoparticles were synthesized, functionalized with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) and then, anchored with diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA). Particles were physicochemical characterized by elemental analysis (CHN), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and zeta potential, and were morphologically characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), low-angle X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques. Results indicate that functionalization process was successfully achieved. Next, functionalized silica nanoparticles were radiolabeled with technetium-99m showing high radiochemical yields and high radiolabeled stability. These findings allow the use of the particles for in vivo applications. Biodistribution and scintigraphic images were carried out in healthy mice in order to determine the fate of the particles. Results from in vivo experiments showed high uptake by liver, as expected due to phagocytosis. However, particles also showed a significant uptake in the lungs, indicated by high lung-to-non-target tissue ratio. In summary, taking into account the great potential of these silica mesoporous structures to carry molecules this platform could be a good strategy for theranostic purposes.

  2. Improving the relationship between soil characteristics and metal bioavailability by using reactive fractions of soil parameters in calcareous soils.

    PubMed

    de Santiago-Martín, Ana; van Oort, Folkert; González, Concepción; Quintana, José R; Lafuente, Antonio L; Lamy, Isabelle

    2015-01-01

    The contribution of the nature instead of the total content of soil parameters relevant to metal bioavailability in lettuce was tested using a series of low-polluted Mediterranean agricultural calcareous soils offering natural gradients in the content and composition of carbonate, organic, and oxide fractions. Two datasets were compared by canonical ordination based on redundancy analysis: total concentrations (TC dataset) of main soil parameters (constituents, phases, or elements) involved in metal retention and bioavailability; and chemically defined reactive fractions of these parameters (RF dataset). The metal bioavailability patterns were satisfactorily explained only when the RF dataset was used, and the results showed that the proportion of crystalline Fe oxides, dissolved organic C, diethylene-triamine-pentaacetic acid (DTPA)-extractable Cu and Zn, and a labile organic pool accounted for 76% of the variance. In addition, 2 multipollution scenarios by metal spiking were tested that showed better relationships with the RF dataset than with the TC dataset (up to 17% more) and new reactive fractions involved. For Mediterranean calcareous soils, the use of reactive pools of soil parameters rather than their total contents improved the relationships between soil constituents and metal bioavailability. Such pool determinations should be systematically included in studies dealing with bioavailability or risk assessment.

  3. Hydroxycarboxylic acids and salts

    DOEpatents

    Kiely, Donald E; Hash, Kirk R; Kramer-Presta, Kylie; Smith, Tyler N

    2015-02-24

    Compositions which inhibit corrosion and alter the physical properties of concrete (admixtures) are prepared from salt mixtures of hydroxycarboxylic acids, carboxylic acids, and nitric acid. The salt mixtures are prepared by neutralizing acid product mixtures from the oxidation of polyols using nitric acid and oxygen as the oxidizing agents. Nitric acid is removed from the hydroxycarboxylic acids by evaporation and diffusion dialysis.

  4. Acidic domains around nucleic acids.

    PubMed Central

    Lamm, G; Pack, G R

    1990-01-01

    The hydrogen ion concentration in the vicinity of DNA was mapped out within the Poisson-Boltzmann approximation. Experimental conditions were modeled by assuming Na-DNA to be solvated in a buffer solution containing 45 mM Tris and 3 mM Mg cations at pH 7.5. Three regions of high H+ concentration (greater than 10 microM) are predicted: one throughout the minor groove of DNA and two localized in the major groove near N7 of guanine and C5 of cytosine for a G.C base pair. These acidic domains correlate well with the observed covalent binding sites of benzo[a]pyrene epoxide (N2 of guanine) and of aflatoxin B1 epoxide (N7 of guanine), chemical carcinogens that presumably undergo acid catalysis to form highly reactive carbocations that ultimately bind to DNA. It is suggested that these regions of high H+ concentration may also be of concern in understanding interactions involving proteins and noncarcinogenic molecules with or near nucleic acids. PMID:2123348

  5. Speciation analysis of inorganic tin by on-column complexation ion chromatography with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and electrospray mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Huang, Li; Yang, Die; Guo, Xiangquan; Chen, Zuliang

    2014-11-14

    Inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and electrospray mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) were used as complementary methods to identify Sn-pentaacetic acid (DTPA) complex formation. ESI-MS was used to initially confirm the formation of [Sn(DTPA)](3-) and [Sn(DTPA)](1-) and their MS spectra suggest these tin complexes were stable in solution. On-column complexation of tin with DTPA and the separation of [Sn(DTPA)](3-) and [Sn(DTPA)](1-) was performed on anion-exchange chromatography with an mobile phase containing 20mM NH4NO3 and 3mM DTPA at pH 6.0, and the subsequent detection of [Sn(DTPA)](3-) and [Sn(DTPA)](1-) was achieved by ICP-MS. Linear plots were obtained in a concentration range of 1.0-1000 μg L(-1) with detection limits ranging from 0.1 to 0.3 μg L(-1). The developed procedure allows the simultaneous determination of [Sn(DTPA)](3-) and [Sn(DTPA)](1-) in less than 5 min with a RSD between 2.1 and 2.7%. The recoveries of [Sn(DTPA)](3-) and [Sn(DTPA)](1-) were found to be 96.8 and 99.4%, respectively, when the sample was spiked with 20 μg L(-1) standard. Finally, the proposed procedure was used for the determination of tin species in contaminated water.

  6. Folic Acid and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Folic Acid and Pregnancy KidsHealth > For Parents > Folic Acid and ... before conception and during early pregnancy . About Folic Acid Folic acid, sometimes called folate, is a B ...

  7. Understanding Acid Rain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damonte, Kathleen

    2004-01-01

    The term acid rain describes rain, snow, or fog that is more acidic than normal precipitation. To understand what acid rain is, it is first necessary to know what an acid is. Acids can be defined as substances that produce hydrogen ions (H+), when dissolved in water. Scientists indicate how acidic a substance is by a set of numbers called the pH…

  8. New Bioactive Fatty Acids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many oxygenated fatty acids are bioactive compounds. Nocardia cholesterolicum and Flavobacterium DS5 convert oleic acid to 10 hydroxy stearic acid and linoleic acid to 10-hydroxy-12(Z)-octadecanoic acid. Pseudomonas aeruginosa PR3 converts oleic acid to new compounds, 7,10-dihydroxy-8(E)-octadecen...

  9. New bioactive fatty acids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many oxygenated fatty acids are bioactive compounds. Nocardia cholesterolicum and Flavobacterium DS5 convert oleic acid to 10 hydroxy stearic acid and linoleic acid to 10-hydroxy-12(Z)-octadecanoic acid. Pseudomonas aeruginosa PR3 converts oleic acid to the new compounds, 7,10-dihydroxy-8(E)-octad...

  10. Acid rain

    SciTech Connect

    Boyle, R.H.; Boyle, R.A.

    1983-01-01

    Acid rain, says Boyle is a chemical leprosy eating into the face of North America and Europe, perhaps the major ecological problem of our time. Boyle describes the causes and scope of the phenomenon; the effects on man, wildlife, water, and our cultural heritage. He probes the delays of politicians and the frequent self-serving arguments advanced by industry in the face of what scientists have proved. The solutions he offers are to strengthen the Clean Air Act and require emission reductions that can be accomplished by establishing emission standards on a regional or bubble basis, burn low-sulfur coal, install scrubbers at critical plants, and invest in alternative energy sources. 73 references, 1 figure.

  11. Evaluation of separation and determination of phytoavailable and phytotoxic aluminium species fractions in soil, sediment and water samples by five different methods.

    PubMed

    Matús, Peter

    2007-09-01

    The suggested research deals with the separation of phytoavailable and phytotoxic aluminium species fractions in soil, sediment and water samples by five different procedures (single and sequential extractions, membrane filtration, chelating solid phase extraction and kinetic strength discrimination method). The concentrations of Al in studied samples and relevant plant materials were measured by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS), optical emission spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma (ICP OES) and UV/visible (VIS) spectrophotometry. The used separation procedures can be divided into three groups. The first group is consisting of weakly efficient single extraction procedures by H(2)O, dilute acetic acid, nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA), ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA), salicylic acid, ammonium salicylate and 8-hydroxyquinoline, chelating solid phase extraction by resins Iontosorb Oxin and salicyl and kinetic strength discrimination method using 8-hydroxyquinoline which release from the samples only small amounts of phytoavailable and phytotoxic Al by ion-exchange or complexation processes. The more efficient extractions with KCl, NH(4)Cl, CaCl(2), BaCl(2), CuCl(2), LaCl(3), NH(4)F and (NH(4))(2)C(2)O(4) leach approximately the same amounts of phytoavailable Al as the total Al concentrations in plant material (grass Festuca rubra) growing on analysed soils and sediments. The third group of separation procedures contains the most aggressive leaching with Na(4)P(2)O(7), dilute HCl, NH(2)OH.HCl in HNO(3) and H(2)O(2)/ammonium acetate in HNO(3). These extractants release the highest amounts of Al from solid samples, approximately 2-4-fold as the total Al concentrations in relevant plant material and they are unsuitable for purpose of this study.

  12. Predicting bioavailability of metals from sludge-amended soils.

    PubMed

    Golui, Debasis; Datta, S P; Rattan, R K; Dwivedi, B S; Meena, M C

    2014-12-01

    We attempted to develop a protocol for fixing the maximum permissible limit of sludge in agricultural lands based on transfer of metals from sludge-amended soils to human food chain. For this purpose, spinach was grown as a test crop on acid and alkaline soils with graded doses of sludge (0, 1.12, 2.24, 4.48, 8.96, 17.9, 35.8, 71.6, 142 and 285 g kg(-1) of soil) in a pot experiment. Biomass yield of spinach was increased due to sludge application in both acid and alkaline soils. Among the chemical extractants, EDTA extracted the highest amount of metals from sludge-amended soil followed by diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) and CaCl2. Elevated levels of Zn, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Cd and Pb in spinach were observed due to sludge application over control. Application of sludge was more effective in increasing metal content in spinach grown on acid soil than alkaline soil. Solubility-free ion activity model as a function of pH, organic carbon and extractable metal was far more effective in predicting metal uptake by spinach grown on sludge-amended soils as compared to that of chemical extractants. Risk in terms of hazard quotient (HQ) for intake of metals through consumption of spinach by humans grown on sludge-treated soils was computed for different metals separately. In a 90-day pot experiment, safe rates of sludge application were worked out as 4.48 and 71.6 g kg(-1) for acid and alkaline soils, respectively.

  13. [Teichoic acids from lactic acid bacteria].

    PubMed

    Livins'ka, O P; Harmasheva, I L; Kovalenko, N K

    2012-01-01

    The current view of the structural diversity of teichoic acids and their involvement in the biological activity of lactobacilli has been reviewed. The mechanisms of effects of probiotic lactic acid bacteria, in particular adhesive and immunostimulating functions have been described. The prospects of the use of structure data of teichoic acid in the assessment of intraspecific diversity of lactic acid bacteria have been also reflected.

  14. Organic acids tunably catalyze carbonic acid decomposition.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Manoj; Busch, Daryle H; Subramaniam, Bala; Thompson, Ward H

    2014-07-10

    Density functional theory calculations predict that the gas-phase decomposition of carbonic acid, a high-energy, 1,3-hydrogen atom transfer reaction, can be catalyzed by a monocarboxylic acid or a dicarboxylic acid, including carbonic acid itself. Carboxylic acids are found to be more effective catalysts than water. Among the carboxylic acids, the monocarboxylic acids outperform the dicarboxylic ones wherein the presence of an intramolecular hydrogen bond hampers the hydrogen transfer. Further, the calculations reveal a direct correlation between the catalytic activity of a monocarboxylic acid and its pKa, in contrast to prior assumptions about carboxylic-acid-catalyzed hydrogen-transfer reactions. The catalytic efficacy of a dicarboxylic acid, on the other hand, is significantly affected by the strength of an intramolecular hydrogen bond. Transition-state theory estimates indicate that effective rate constants for the acid-catalyzed decomposition are four orders-of-magnitude larger than those for the water-catalyzed reaction. These results offer new insights into the determinants of general acid catalysis with potentially broad implications.

  15. Plasma amino acids

    MedlinePlus

    Amino acids blood test ... types of methods used to determine the individual amino acid levels in the blood. ... test is done to measure the level of amino acids in the blood. An increased level of a ...

  16. Uric acid - urine

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003616.htm Uric acid urine test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The uric acid urine test measures the level of uric acid ...

  17. Facts about Folic Acid

    MedlinePlus

    ... Information For... Media Policy Makers Facts About Folic Acid Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... of the baby's brain and spine. About folic acid Folic acid is a B vitamin. Our bodies ...

  18. Stomach acid test

    MedlinePlus

    Gastric acid secretion test ... of the cells in the stomach to release acid. The stomach contents are then removed and analyzed. ... 3.5). These numbers are converted to actual acid production in units of milliequivalents per hour in ...

  19. Methylmalonic acid blood test

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003565.htm Methylmalonic acid blood test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The methylmalonic acid blood test measures the amount of methylmalonic acid ...

  20. Uric acid test (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Uric acid urine test is performed to check for the amount of uric acid in urine. Urine is collected over a 24 ... testing. The most common reason for measuring uric acid levels is in the diagnosis or treatment of ...

  1. Fatty Acid Oxidation Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... other health conditions > Fatty acid oxidation disorders Fatty acid oxidation disorders E-mail to a friend Please ... these disorders, go to genetests.org . What fatty acid oxidation disorders are tested for in newborn screening? ...

  2. Acid distribution in phosphoric acid fuel cells

    SciTech Connect

    Okae, I.; Seya, A.; Umemoto, M.

    1996-12-31

    Electrolyte acid distribution among each component of a cell is determined by capillary force when the cell is not in operation, but the distribution under the current load conditions had not been clear so far. Since the loss of electrolyte acid during operation is inevitable, it is necessary to store enough amount of acid in every cell. But it must be under the level of which the acid disturbs the diffusion of reactive gases. Accordingly to know the actual acid distribution during operation in a cell is very important. In this report, we carried out experiments to clarify the distribution using small single cells.

  3. Synthesis and in vivo evaluation of gallium-68-labeled glycine and hippurate conjugates for positron emission tomography renography.

    PubMed

    Pathuri, Gopal; Hedrick, Andria F; January, Spenser E; Galbraith, Wendy K; Awasthi, Vibhudutta; Arnold, Charles D; Cowley, Benjamin D; Gali, Hariprasad

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate four new (68) Ga-labeled 1,4,7,10-cyclododeca-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid (DOTA)/1,4,7-triazacyclononane-1,4,7-triacetic acid derived (NODAGA)-glycine/hippurate conjugates and select a lead candidate for potential application in positron emission tomography (PET) renography. The non-metallated conjugates were synthesized by a solid phase peptide synthesis method. The (68) Ga labeling was achieved by reacting an excess of the non-metallated conjugate with (68) GaCl4 (-) at pH -4.5 and 10-min incubation either at room temperature for NODAGA or 90 °C for DOTA. Radiochemical purity of all (68) Ga conjugates was found to be >98%. (68) Ga-NODAGA-glycine displayed the lowest serum protein binding (0.4%) in vitro among the four (68) Ga conjugates. Biodistribution of (68) Ga conjugates in healthy Sprague Dawley rats at 1-h post-injection revealed an efficient clearance from circulation primarily through the renal-urinary pathway with <0.2% of injected dose per gram remaining in the blood. The kidney/blood and kidney/muscle ratios of (68) Ga-NODAGA-glycine were significantly higher than other (68) Ga conjugates. On the basis of these results, (68) Ga-NODAGA-glycine was selected as the lead candidate. (68) Ga-NODAGA-glycine PET renograms obtained in healthy rats suggest (68) Ga-NODAGA-glycine as a PET alternate of (99m) Tc-Diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA).

  4. Polyion complex micelle MRI contrast agents from poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(l-lysine) block copolymers having Gd-DOTA; preparations and their control of T(1)-relaxivities and blood circulation characteristics.

    PubMed

    Shiraishi, Kouichi; Kawano, Kumi; Maitani, Yoshie; Yokoyama, Masayuki

    2010-12-01

    The current study synthesized macromolecular magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents constituted of the poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(L-lysine) block copolymer (PEG-P(Lys)). A chelate group, 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid (DOTA), was attached to the primary amino group of the block copolymer in desired contents. Gd-DOTA-based macromolecular contrast agents were prepared from PEG-P(Lys) having DOTA (PEG-P(Lys-DOTA) and Gd(III) ions. All of the PEG-P(Lys) block copolymers having gadolinium ions (PEG-P(Lys-DOTA-Gd)) showed higher T(1) relaxivity (per gadolinium), r(1)=5.6-7.3mM(-1)s(-1), than that of a low-molecular-weight gadolinium-chelate, diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid-gadolinium(III) (Gd-DTPA) at 9.4T. The study prepared the polyion complex (PIC) micelles from the amino groups of the lysine units and an oppositely charged polyanion, poly(methacrylic acid) or dextran sulfate, in an aqueous medium. In contrast, the fully DOTA-attached PEG-P(Lys-DOTA-Gd) formed a PIC with a polycation. Compared with partially DOTA-attached cationic PEG-P(Lys-DOTA-Gd), this PIC micelle yielded a forty percent decrease of r(1). This r(1) decrease was considered to result from a change in the accessibility of water molecules to gadolinium ions in the micelles' inner core. The r(1) was decreased upon formation of the PIC micelle, and this change proved that our concept worked in vitro. Blood-circulation characteristics of PIC micelles were controlled by means of changing the molecular weight of the counter anion. The PIC micelles accumulated in tumor tissues, and MRI study showed T1W image of axial slice of tumor area was significantly enhanced at 24h after the injection.

  5. Nanocrystalline Sm{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5}CoO{sub 3−δ} synthesized using a chelating route for use in IT-SOFC cathodes: Microstructure, surface chemistry and electrical conductivity

    SciTech Connect

    Scurtu, Rares; Somacescu, Simona; Calderon-Moreno, Jose Maria; Culita, Daniela; Bulimestru, Ion; Popa, Nelea; Gulea, Aurelian; Osiceanu, Petre

    2014-02-15

    Nanocrystalline Sm{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5}CoO{sub 3−δ} powders were synthesized by a chelating route using different polyfunctional H{sub x}APC acids (APC=aminopolycarboxylate; x=3, 4, 5). Different homologous aminopolycarboxylic acids, namely nitrilotriacetic (H{sub 3}nta), ethylenediaminetetraacetic (H{sub 4}edta), 1,2-cyclohexanediaminetetracetic (H{sub 4}cdta) and diethylenetriaminepentaacetic (H{sub 5}dtpa) acid, were used as chelating agents to combine Sm, Sr, Co elements into a perovskite structure. The effects of the chelating agents on the crystalline structure, porosity, surface chemistry and electrical properties were investigated. The electrical properties of the perovskite-type materials emphasized that their conductivities in the temperature range of interest (600–800 °C) depend on the nature of the precursors as well as on the presence of a residual Co oxide phase as shown by XRD and XPS analysis. The surface chemistry and the surface stoichiometries were determined by XPS revealing a complex chemical behavior of Sr that exhibits a peculiar “surface phase” and “bulk phase” chemistry within the detected volume (<10 nm). - Graphical abstract: Synthesis of nanocrystalline Sm{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5}CoO{sub 3−δ} powders by a chelating route and the investigation of the microstructure, surface chemistry and electrical properties. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Nanocrystalline Sm{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5}CoO{sub 3−δ} obtained by a chelating synthesis route. • Cubic perovskite structures with crystallite sizes ∼23±2 nm. • The porous nature revealed by N{sub 2} adsorption/desorption (BET). • The surface chemistry and the surface stoichiometries highlighted by XPS. • A complex chemical behavior of Sr exhibits a peculiar “surface phase” and “bulk phase” chemistry.

  6. Acid tolerance in amphibians

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, B.A.

    1985-04-01

    Studies of amphibian acid tolerance provide information about the potential effects of acid deposition on amphibian communities. Amphibians as a group appear to be relatively acid tolerant, with many species suffering increased mortality only below pH 4. However, amphibians exhibit much intraspecific variation in acid tolerance, and some species are sensitive to even low levels of acidity. Furthermore, nonlethal effects, including depression of growth rates and increases in developmental abnormalities, can occur at higher pH.

  7. Gas-phase acidities of aspartic acid, glutamic acid, and their amino acid amides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhong; Matus, Myrna H.; Velazquez, Hector Adam; Dixon, David A.; Cassady, Carolyn J.

    2007-09-01

    Gas-phase acidities (GA or [Delta]Gacid) for the two most acidic common amino acids, aspartic acid and glutamic acid, have been determined for the first time. Because of the amide linkage's importance in peptides and as an aid in studying side chain versus main chain deprotonation, aspartic acid amide and glutamic acid amide were also studied. Experimental GA values were measured by proton transfer reactions in an electrospray ionization/Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer. Calculated GAs were obtained by density functional and molecular orbital theory approaches. The best agreement with experiment was found at the G3MP2 level; the MP2/CBS and B3LYP/aug-cc-pVDZ results are 3-4 kcal/mol more acidic than the G3MP2 results. Experiment shows that aspartic acid is more acidic than glutamic acid by ca. 3 kcal/mol whereas the G3MP2 results show a smaller acidity difference of 0.2 kcal/mol. Similarly, aspartic acid amide is experimentally observed to be ca. 2 kcal/mol more acidic than glutamic acid amide whereas the G3MP2 results show a correspondingly smaller energy difference of 0.7 kcal/mol. The computational results clearly show that the anions are all ring-like structures with strong hydrogen bonds between the OH or NH2 groups and the CO2- group from which the proton is removed. The two amino acids are main-chain deprotonated. In addition, use of the COSMO model for the prediction of the free energy differences in aqueous solution gave values in excellent agreement with the most recent experimental values for pKa. Glutamic acid is predicted to be more acidic than aspartic acid in aqueous solution due to differential solvation effects.

  8. Toxicity of adipic acid.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Gerald L

    2002-05-01

    Adipic acid has very low acute toxicity in rats with an LD50 > 5000 mg/kg. Adipic acid produced mild to no skin irritation on intact guinea pig skin as a 50% concentration in propylene glycol; it was not a skin sensitizer. Adipic acid caused mild conjunctival irritation in washed rabbit eyes; in unwashed rabbit eyes, there was mild conjunctival irritation, minimal iritis, but no corneal effects. Adipic acid dust may irritate the mucous membranes of the lungs and nose. In a 2-year feeding study, rats fed adipic acid at concentrations up to 5% in the diet exhibited only weight loss. Adipic acid is not genetically active in a wide variety of assay systems. Adipic acid caused no developmental toxicity in mice, rats, rabbits, or hamsters when administered orally. Adipic acid is partially metabolized in humans; the balance is eliminated unchanged in the urine. Adipic acid is slightly to moderately toxic to fish, daphnia, and algae in acute tests.

  9. Quantity of acid in acid fog

    SciTech Connect

    Deal, W.J.

    1983-07-01

    This communication notes the actual magnitude of the acidity in acidic fog particles and suggests a possible line of inquiry into the health effects of such fog so that it can be determined whether a typical fog is detrimental or beneficial relative to dry air.

  10. Acid Thunder: Acid Rain and Ancient Mesoamerica

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahl, Jonathan D. W.; Berg, Craig A.

    2006-01-01

    Much of Mesoamerica's rich cultural heritage is slowly eroding because of acid rain. Just as water dissolves an Alka-Seltzer tablet, acid rain erodes the limestone surfaces of Mexican archaeological sites at a rate of about one-half millimeter per century (Bravo et al. 2003). A half-millimeter may not seem like much, but at this pace, a few…

  11. Speciation and phytoavailability of cadmium in soil treated with cadmium-contaminated rice straw.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuai; Huang, Dao-You; Zhu, Qi-Hong; Zhu, Han-Hua; Liu, Shou-Long; Luo, Zun-Chang; Cao, Xiao-Ling; Wang, Ji-Yu; Rao, Zhong-Xiu; Shen, Xin

    2015-02-01

    When grown on Cd-contaminated soil, rice typically accumulates considerable Cd in straw, and which may return to the soil after harvest. This work was undertaken to assess the pollution risk of Cd associated to the Cd-contaminated rice straw after incorporating into an uncontaminated soil. With the Cd-contaminated rice straw added at 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 % (w/w), an incubation experiment (28 days) with non-planting and a followed pot experiment sequent with two planting (rice and Chinese cabbage, transplanted after 28-day incubation) were carried out to investigate the changes of soil Cd speciation and phytoavailability. The results indicated that the Cd-contaminated rice straw addition significantly increased soil pH and dissolved organic carbon during the 28-day incubation. For the high availability of Cd in contaminated rice straw, diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) extractable Cd significantly increased, and the percentages of acetic acid extractable and reducible Cd in soil significantly enhanced after the addition of Cd-contaminated rice straw. However, the Cd-contaminated rice straw addition inhibited the rice growth and induced the decrease of Cd in rice grain and straw by 12.8 to 70.2 % and 39.3 to 57.3 %, respectively, whereas the Cd contents increased by 13.9 to 84.1 % in Chinese cabbage that planted after rice harvest. In conclusion, Cd associated with Cd-contaminated rice straw was highly available after incorporating into the soil, and thus the Cd pollution risk via the Cd-contaminated rice straw incorporation should be evaluated in the Cd-contaminated paddy region.

  12. Effects of solution pH and complexing reagents on uranium and thorium desorption under saturated equilibrium conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yug-Yea; Yu, C.

    1992-08-01

    Three contaminated bulk surface soils were used for investigating the effect of solution pH and complexing reagents on uranium and thorium desorption. At a low solution pH, the major chemical species of uranium and thorium, uranyl UO{sub 2}{sup +2}, thorium dihydroxide Th(OH){sub 2}{sup +2}, and thorium hydroxide Th(OH){sup +3}, tend to form complexes with acetates in the solution phase, which increases the fractions of uranium and thorium desorbed into this phase. At a high solution pH, important uranium and thorium species such as uranyl tricarbonate complex UO{sub 2}(CO){sub 3}{sub 3}{sup {minus}4} and thorium tetrahydroxide complex Th(OH){sub 4} tend to resist complexation with acetates. The presence of complexing reagents in solution can release radionuclides such as uranium and/or thorium from the soil to the solution by forming soluble complexes. Sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO{sub 3}) and diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) are strong complex formers that released 38% to 62% of total uranium activity and 78% to 86% of total thorium activity, respectively, from the soil samples investigated. Solutions of 0.1 molar sodium nitrate (NaNO{sub 3}) and 0.1 molar sodium sulfate (Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}) were not effective complex formers with uranium and thorium under the experimental conditions. Fractions of uranium and thorium desorbed by 0.15g/200ml humic acid ranged from 4.62% to 6.17% and 1.59% to 7.09%, respectively. This work demonstrates the importance of a knowledge of solution chemistry in investigating the desorption of radionuclides.

  13. Effects of solution pH and complexing reagents on uranium and thorium desorption under saturated equilibrium conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yug-Yea; Yu, C.

    1992-01-01

    Three contaminated bulk surface soils were used for investigating the effect of solution pH and complexing reagents on uranium and thorium desorption. At a low solution pH, the major chemical species of uranium and thorium, uranyl UO{sub 2}{sup +2}, thorium dihydroxide Th(OH){sub 2}{sup +2}, and thorium hydroxide Th(OH){sup +3}, tend to form complexes with acetates in the solution phase, which increases the fractions of uranium and thorium desorbed into this phase. At a high solution pH, important uranium and thorium species such as uranyl tricarbonate complex UO{sub 2}(CO){sub 3}{sub 3}{sup {minus}4} and thorium tetrahydroxide complex Th(OH){sub 4} tend to resist complexation with acetates. The presence of complexing reagents in solution can release radionuclides such as uranium and/or thorium from the soil to the solution by forming soluble complexes. Sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO{sub 3}) and diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) are strong complex formers that released 38% to 62% of total uranium activity and 78% to 86% of total thorium activity, respectively, from the soil samples investigated. Solutions of 0.1 molar sodium nitrate (NaNO{sub 3}) and 0.1 molar sodium sulfate (Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}) were not effective complex formers with uranium and thorium under the experimental conditions. Fractions of uranium and thorium desorbed by 0.15g/200ml humic acid ranged from 4.62% to 6.17% and 1.59% to 7.09%, respectively. This work demonstrates the importance of a knowledge of solution chemistry in investigating the desorption of radionuclides.

  14. Determination of sequestering agents in cosmetics and synthetic detergents by high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection.

    PubMed

    Kemmei, Tomoko; Kodama, Shuji; Yamamoto, Atsushi; Inoue, Yoshinori; Hayakawa, Kazuichi

    2007-11-09

    Using a fast reversible reaction of aminopolycarboxylic acids (APCAs) into Fe(III)-APCA complexes in the presence of Fe(III) ions, seven kinds of APCAs [nitrilotriacetate (NTA), N-(2-hydroxyethyl)ethylenediamine-triacetate (HEDTA), ethylenediamine-tetraacetate (EDTA), 1,3-propanediamine-tetraacetate (PDTA), diethylenetriamine-pentaacetate (DTPA), 1,2-diaminopropane-tetraacetate (MeEDTA), and O,O'-bis(2-aminoethyl)ethyleneglycol-tetraacetate (GEDTA)] in cosmetics and synthetic detergents were separated on two reversed-phase C30 columns connected in series and detected with ultraviolet detection. Simple pretreatment, consisted of thousand times dilution of samples and addition of 100 microl of the Fe(III) solution containing 10 mM Fe(III) chloride and 0.5 M sulfuric acid to 10 ml of diluted samples, permitted the determination of APCAs in cosmetics and synthetic detergents at concentration level of 0.1 mM, except 0.3 mM for GEDTA. APCAs except GEDTA could be detected at concentration level of 0.03 mM and GEDTA could be detected at concentration level of 0.09 mM. Good recoveries (95-110%) were obtained for each APCA by the standard addition method on two diluted samples with high accuracy (RSD 0.2-9.1%). Three APCAs (EDTA, HEDTA and NTA) were detected in various concentrations in cosmetics and synthetic detergents and the other APCAs were not detected in any of the samples. This method requires no tedious pretreatment and takes only 15 min for one analysis, so it is useful for determination of APCAs.

  15. Fatty acid analogs

    DOEpatents

    Elmaleh, David R.; Livni, Eli

    1985-01-01

    In one aspect, a radioactively labeled analog of a fatty acid which is capable of being taken up by mammalian tissue and which exhibits an in vivo beta-oxidation rate below that with a corresponding radioactively labeled fatty acid.

  16. Omega-3 fatty acids

    PubMed Central

    Schwalfenberg, Gerry

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To examine evidence for the role of omega-3 fatty acids in cardiovascular disease. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE PubMed was searched for articles on the role of omega-3 fatty acids in cardiovascular disease. Level I and II evidence indicates that omega-3 fatty acids are beneficial in improving cardiovascular outcomes. MAIN MESSAGE Dietary intake of omega-3 fatty acids has declined by 80% during the last 100 years, while intake of omega-6 fatty acids has greatly increased. Omega-3 fatty acids are cardioprotective mainly due to beneficial effects on arrhythmias, atherosclerosis, inflammation, and thrombosis. There is also evidence that they improve endothelial function, lower blood pressure, and significantly lower triglycerides. CONCLUSION There is good evidence in the literature that increasing intake of omega-3 fatty acids improves cardiac outcomes. Physicians need to integrate dietary recommendations for consumption of omega-3 fatty acids into their usual cardiovascular care. PMID:16812965

  17. Sulfuric acid poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Sulfuric acid is a very strong chemical that is corrosive. Corrosive means it can cause severe burns and ... or mucous membranes. This article discusses poisoning from sulfuric acid. This article is for information only. Do NOT ...

  18. Lactic acid test

    MedlinePlus

    Lactate test ... test. Exercise can cause a temporary increase in lactic acid levels. ... not getting enough oxygen. Conditions that can increase lactic acid levels include: Heart failure Liver disease Lung disease ...

  19. Folic Acid Quiz

    MedlinePlus

    ... About Us Information For... Media Policy Makers Folic Acid Quiz Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook ... button beside the question. Good Luck! 1. Folic acid is: A a B vitamin B a form ...

  20. Hydrochloric acid poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Hydrochloric acid is a clear, poisonous liquid. It is highly corrosive, which means it immediately causes severe damage, such ... poisoning due to swallowing or breathing in hydrochloric acid. This article is for information only. Do NOT ...

  1. Azelaic Acid Topical

    MedlinePlus

    Azelaic acid gel and foam is used to clear the bumps, lesions, and swelling caused by rosacea (a skin ... redness, flushing, and pimples on the face). Azelaic acid cream is used to treat the pimples and ...

  2. Zoledronic Acid Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Zoledronic acid (Reclast) is used to prevent or treat osteoporosis (condition in which the bones become thin and weak ... of life,' end of regular menstrual periods). Zoledronic acid (Reclast) is also used to treat osteoporosis in ...

  3. Alpha Hydroxy Acids

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cosmetics Home Cosmetics Products & Ingredients Ingredients Alpha Hydroxy Acids Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... for Industry: Labeling for Cosmetics Containing Alpha Hydroxy Acids The following information is intended to answer questions ...

  4. Uric Acid Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... products and services. Advertising & Sponsorship: Policy | Opportunities Uric Acid Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: Serum Urate; UA Formal name: Uric Acid Related tests: Synovial Fluid Analysis , Kidney Stone Analysis , ...

  5. Amino Acid Metabolism Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... breaks the food parts down into sugars and acids, your body's fuel. Your body can use this ... process. One group of these disorders is amino acid metabolism disorders. They include phenylketonuria (PKU) and maple ...

  6. Valproic Acid and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... live chat Live Help Fact Sheets Share Valproic Acid and Pregnancy Wednesday, 01 July 2015 In every ... This sheet talks about whether exposure to valproic acid may increase the risk for birth defects over ...

  7. Aminocaproic Acid Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Aminocaproic acid injection is used to control bleeding that occurs when blood clots are broken down too quickly. This ... the baby is ready to be born). Aminocaproic acid injection is also used to control bleeding in ...

  8. Omega-6 Fatty Acids

    MedlinePlus

    Omega-6 fatty acids are types of fats. Some types are found in vegetable oils, including corn, evening primrose seed, safflower, and soybean oils. Other types of omega-6 fatty acids are found in black currant seed, borage seed, ...

  9. Deoxycholic Acid Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Deoxycholic acid injection is used to improve the appearance and profile of moderate to severe submental fat ('double chin'; fatty tissue located under the chin). Deoxycholic acid injection is in a class of medications called ...

  10. PRODUCTION OF TRIFLUOROACETIC ACID

    DOEpatents

    Haworth, W.N.; Stacey, M.

    1949-07-19

    A method is given for the production of improved yields of trifluoroacetic acid. The compound is prepared by oxidizing m-aminobenzotrifluoride with an alkali metal or alkaline earth metal permanganate at a temperature in the range of 80 deg C to 100 deg C while dissolved ln a mixture of water with glacial acetic acid and/or trifluoroacetic acid. Preferably a mixture of water and trifluoroacetic acid ls used as the solvent.

  11. Refining Lurgi tar acids

    SciTech Connect

    Greco, N.P.

    1984-04-17

    There is disclosed a process for removing tar bases and neutral oils from the Lurgi tar acids by treating the tar acids with aqueous sodium bisulfate to change the tar bases to salts and to hydrolyze the neutral oils to hydrolysis products and distilling the tar acids to obtain refined tar acid as the distillate while the tar base salts and neutral oil hydrolysis products remain as residue.

  12. Plant fatty acid hydroxylases

    DOEpatents

    Somerville, Chris; Broun, Pierre; van de Loo, Frank

    2001-01-01

    This invention relates to plant fatty acyl hydroxylases. Methods to use conserved amino acid or nucleotide sequences to obtain plant fatty acyl hydroxylases are described. Also described is the use of cDNA clones encoding a plant hydroxylase to produce a family of hydroxylated fatty acids in transgenic plants. In addition, the use of genes encoding fatty acid hydroxylases or desaturases to alter the level of lipid fatty acid unsaturation in transgenic plants is described.

  13. 78 FR 20029 - Castor Oil, Polymer With Adipic Acid, Linoleic Acid, Oleic Acid and Ricinoleic Acid; Tolerance...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-03

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 180 Castor Oil, Polymer With Adipic Acid, Linoleic Acid, Oleic Acid and Ricinoleic..., polymer with adipic acid, linoleic acid, oleic acid and ricinoleic acid (CAS Reg. No. 1357486-09- 9) when used as an inert ingredient in a pesticide formulation. Advance Polymer Technology submitted a...

  14. Quantity of acid in acid fog

    SciTech Connect

    Deal, W.J.

    1983-07-01

    The chemical composition of fog particles has become of considerable interest, because of both the possibility of interpreting atmospheric- chemistry processes in fog particles in terms of the principles of aqueous chemistry and the potential health effects of species present in fog particles. The acidity of fog particles has received wide attention. This communication noted the actual magnitude of the excess acidity in acidic fog particles and suggested a possible line of inquiry into the health effects of such fog so that it can be determined whether a typical fog is detrimental or beneficial relative to dry air. (DP)

  15. What Is Acid Rain?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Likens, Gene E.

    2004-01-01

    Acid rain is the collective term for any type of acidified precipitation: rain, snow, sleet, and hail, as well as the presence of acidifying gases, particles, cloud water, and fog in the atmosphere. The increased acidity, primarily from sulfuric and nitric acids, is generated as a by-product of the combustion of fossil fuels such as coal and oil.…

  16. The Acid Rain Reader.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stubbs, Harriett S.; And Others

    A topic which is often not sufficiently dealt with in elementary school textbooks is acid rain. This student text is designed to supplement classroom materials on the topic. Discussed are: (1) "Rain"; (2) "Water Cycle"; (3) "Fossil Fuels"; (4) "Air Pollution"; (5) "Superstacks"; (6) "Acid/Neutral/Bases"; (7) "pH Scale"; (8) "Acid Rain"; (9)…

  17. Acid Rain Study Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunger, Carolyn; And Others

    Acid rain is a complex, worldwide environmental problem. This study guide is intended to aid teachers of grades 4-12 to help their students understand what acid rain is, why it is a problem, and what possible solutions exist. The document contains specific sections on: (1) the various terms used in conjunction with acid rain (such as acid…

  18. Acid Lipase Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Page You are here Home » Disorders » All Disorders Acid Lipase Disease Information Page Acid Lipase Disease Information Page What research is being ... research to understand lipid storage diseases such as acid lipase deficiency. Additional research studies hope to identify ...

  19. [alpha]-Oxocarboxylic Acids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerber, Robert C.; Fernando, Marian S.

    2010-01-01

    Several [alpha]-oxocarboxylic acids play key roles in metabolism in plants and animals. However, there are inconsistencies between the structures as commonly portrayed and the reported acid ionization constants, which result because the acids are predominantly hydrated in aqueous solution; that is, the predominant form is RC(OH)[subscript 2]COOH…

  20. Cleavage of nucleic acids

    DOEpatents

    Prudent, James R.; Hall, Jeff G.; Lyamichev, Victor I.; Brow; Mary Ann D.; Dahlberg, James E.

    2010-11-09

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.

  1. Amino acid analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winitz, M.; Graff, J. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    The process and apparatus for qualitative and quantitative analysis of the amino acid content of a biological sample are presented. The sample is deposited on a cation exchange resin and then is washed with suitable solvents. The amino acids and various cations and organic material with a basic function remain on the resin. The resin is eluted with an acid eluant, and the eluate containing the amino acids is transferred to a reaction vessel where the eluant is removed. Final analysis of the purified acylated amino acid esters is accomplished by gas-liquid chromatographic techniques.

  2. Editorial: Acid precipitation

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    This editorial focuses on acid rain and the history of public and governmental response to acid rain. Comments on a book by Gwineth Howell `Acid Rain and Acid Waters` are included. The editor feels that Howells has provide a service to the environmental scientific community, with a textbook useful to a range of people, as well as a call for decision makers to learn from the acid rain issue and use it as a model for more sweeping global environmental issues. A balance is needed among several parameters such as level of evidence, probability that the evidence will lead to a specific direction and the cost to the global community. 1 tab.

  3. Nucleic acid detection compositions

    DOEpatents

    Prudent, James R.; Hall, Jeff G.; Lyamichev, Victor I.; Brow, Mary Ann; Dahlberg, James L.

    2008-08-05

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.

  4. Nucleic acid detection assays

    DOEpatents

    Prudent, James R.; Hall, Jeff G.; Lyamichev, Victor I.; Brow, Mary Ann; Dahlberg, James E.

    2005-04-05

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.

  5. Cleavage of nucleic acids

    DOEpatents

    Prudent, James R.; Hall, Jeff G.; Lyamichev, Victor L.; Brow, Mary Ann D.; Dahlberg, James E.

    2007-12-11

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.

  6. Nucleic acid detection kits

    DOEpatents

    Hall, Jeff G.; Lyamichev, Victor I.; Mast, Andrea L.; Brow, Mary Ann; Kwiatkowski, Robert W.; Vavra, Stephanie H.

    2005-03-29

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof. The present invention further relates to methods and devices for the separation of nucleic acid molecules based on charge. The present invention also provides methods for the detection of non-target cleavage products via the formation of a complete and activated protein binding region. The invention further provides sensitive and specific methods for the detection of nucleic acid from various viruses in a sample.

  7. [Biosynthesis of adipic acid].

    PubMed

    Han, Li; Chen, Wujiu; Yuan, Fei; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Wang, Qinhong; Ma, Yanhe

    2013-10-01

    Adipic acid is a six-carbon dicarboxylic acid, mainly for the production of polymers such as nylon, chemical fiber and engineering plastics. Its annual demand is close to 3 million tons worldwide. Currently, the industrial production of adipic acid is based on the oxidation of aromatics from non-renewable petroleum resources by chemo-catalytic processes. It is heavily polluted and unsustainable, and the possible alternative method for adipic acid production should be developed. In the past years, with the development of synthetic biology and metabolic engineering, green and clean biotechnological methods for adipic acid production attracted more attention. In this study, the research advances of adipic acid and its precursor production are reviewed, followed by addressing the perspective of the possible new pathways for adipic acid production.

  8. Acidic Ionic Liquids.

    PubMed

    Amarasekara, Ananda S

    2016-05-25

    Ionic liquid with acidic properties is an important branch in the wide ionic liquid field and the aim of this article is to cover all aspects of these acidic ionic liquids, especially focusing on the developments in the last four years. The structural diversity and synthesis of acidic ionic liquids are discussed in the introduction sections of this review. In addition, an unambiguous classification system for various types of acidic ionic liquids is presented in the introduction. The physical properties including acidity, thermo-physical properties, ionic conductivity, spectroscopy, and computational studies on acidic ionic liquids are covered in the next sections. The final section provides a comprehensive review on applications of acidic ionic liquids in a wide array of fields including catalysis, CO2 fixation, ionogel, electrolyte, fuel-cell, membrane, biomass processing, biodiesel synthesis, desulfurization of gasoline/diesel, metal processing, and metal electrodeposition.

  9. Boric acid and boronic acids inhibition of pigeonpea urease.

    PubMed

    Reddy, K Ravi Charan; Kayastha, Arvind M

    2006-08-01

    Urease from the seeds of pigeonpea was competitively inhibited by boric acid, butylboronic acid, phenylboronic acid, and 4-bromophenylboronic acid; 4-bromophenylboronic acid being the strongest inhibitor, followed by boric acid > butylboronic acid > phenylboronic acid, respectively. Urease inhibition by boric acid is maximal at acidic pH (5.0) and minimal at alkaline pH (10.0), i.e., the trigonal planar B(OH)3 form is a more effective inhibitor than the tetrahedral B(OH)4 -anionic form. Similarly, the anionic form of phenylboronic acid was least inhibiting in nature.

  10. Biotransformation of cinnamic acid, p-coumaric acid, caffeic acid, and ferulic acid by plant cell cultures of Eucalyptus perriniana.

    PubMed

    Katsuragi, Hisashi; Shimoda, Kei; Kubota, Naoji; Nakajima, Nobuyoshi; Hamada, Hatsuyuki; Hamada, Hiroki

    2010-01-01

    Biotransformations of phenylpropanoids such as cinnamic acid, p-coumaric acid, caffeic acid, and ferulic acid were investigated with plant-cultured cells of Eucalyptus perriniana. The plant-cultured cells of E. perriniana converted cinnamic acid into cinnamic acid β-D-glucopyranosyl ester, p-coumaric acid, and 4-O-β-D-glucopyranosylcoumaric acid. p-Coumaric acid was converted into 4-O-β-D-glucopyranosylcoumaric acid, p-coumaric acid β-D-glucopyranosyl ester, 4-O-β-D-glucopyranosylcoumaric acid β-D-glucopyranosyl ester, a new compound, caffeic acid, and 3-O-β-D-glucopyranosylcaffeic acid. On the other hand, incubation of caffeic acid with cultured E. perriniana cells gave 3-O-β-D-glucopyranosylcaffeic acid, 3-O-(6-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl)-β-D-glucopyranosylcaffeic acid, a new compound, 3-O-β-D-glucopyranosylcaffeic acid β-D-glucopyranosyl ester, 4-O-β-D-glucopyranosylcaffeic acid, 4-O-β-D-glucopyranosylcaffeic acid β-D-glucopyranosyl ester, ferulic acid, and 4-O-β-D-glucopyranosylferulic acid. 4-O-β-D-Glucopyranosylferulic acid, ferulic acid β-D-glucopyranosyl ester, and 4-O-β-D-glucopyranosylferulic acid β-D-glucopyranosyl ester were isolated from E. perriniana cells treated with ferulic acid.

  11. 5-Aminolevulinic acid induces single-strand breaks in plasmid pBR322 DNA in the presence of Fe2+ ions.

    PubMed

    Onuki, J; Medeiros, M H; Bechara, E J; Di Mascio, P

    1994-02-22

    5-Aminolevulinic acid (ALA), a heme precursor accumulated in chemical and inborn porphyrias, has been demonstrated to produce reactive oxygen species upon metal-catalyzed aerobic oxidation and to cause oxidative damage to proteins, liposomes and subcellular structures. Exposure of plasmid pBR322 DNA to ALA (0.01-3 mM) in the presence of 10 microM Fe2+ ions causes DNA single-strand breaks (ssb), revealed by agarose gel electrophoresis as an increase in the proportion of the open circular form (75 +/- 7.5% at 3 mM ALA) at the expense of the supercoiled form. Addition of either anti-oxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (10 micrograms/ml) and catalase (20 micrograms/ml), or a metal chelator (DTPA, 2.5 mM), or a HO. scavenger (mannitol, 100 mM) inhibited the damage (by 30, 45, 55, and 81%, respectively), evidencing the involvement of O2-., H2O2 and HO. (by the Haber-Weiss reaction) in this process. Hydrogen peroxide (100 microM) or Fe2+ (10 microM) alone were of little effect on the extent of DNA ssb. The present data may shed light on the correlation reported between primary liver-cell carcinoma and intermittent acute porphyria.

  12. Adsorption and separation behavior of yttrium and strontium in nitric acid solution by extraction chromatography using a macroporous silica-based adsorbent.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yuanlai; Kim, Seong-Yun; Ito, Tatsuya; Nakazawa, Kasane; Funaki, Yoshihito; Tada, Tsutomu; Hitomi, Keitaro; Ishii, Keizo

    2012-11-09

    To separate (90)Y from the fission product (90)Sr-(90)Y group, a silica-based TODGA/SiO(2)-P adsorbent was prepared by impregnating N,N,N',N'-tetraoctyl-3-oxapentane-1,5-diamide (TODGA) extractant into the macroporous SiO(2)-P support with a mean diameter of 60 μm. The adsorption behavior of Sr(II) and Y(III) onto TODGA/SiO(2)-P adsorbent from HNO(3) solution and their mutual separation were investigated. Under the experimental conditions, this adsorbent showed high adsorption affinity to Y(III) and weak adsorption to Sr(II). It was found that the adsorption process of Y(III) could be expressed by both of Langmuir monomolecular layer adsorption mode and the pseudo-second order model. From the results of stability experiments, it became clear that TODGA/SiO(2)-P adsorbent is stable in 3M HNO(3) solution for 1 month contact time at 298 K. Using a column packed with TODGA/SiO(2)-P adsorbent, Sr(II) and Y(III) were eluted by distilled water and diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA) solution, respectively. The separation of Y(III) from Sr(II)-Y(III) group was achieved successfully.

  13. Process for the preparation of lactic acid and glyceric acid

    DOEpatents

    Jackson, James E [Haslett, MI; Miller, Dennis J [Okemos, MI; Marincean, Simona [Dewitt, MI

    2008-12-02

    Hexose and pentose monosaccharides are degraded to lactic acid and glyceric acid in an aqueous solution in the presence of an excess of a strongly anionic exchange resin, such as AMBERLITE IRN78 and AMBERLITE IRA400. The glyceric acid and lactic acid can be separated from the aqueous solution. Lactic acid and glyceric acid are staple articles of commerce.

  14. Microorganisms for producing organic acids

    DOEpatents

    Pfleger, Brian Frederick; Begemann, Matthew Brett

    2014-09-30

    Organic acid-producing microorganisms and methods of using same. The organic acid-producing microorganisms comprise modifications that reduce or ablate AcsA activity or AcsA homolog activity. The modifications increase tolerance of the microorganisms to such organic acids as 3-hydroxypropionic acid, acrylic acid, propionic acid, lactic acid, and others. Further modifications to the microorganisms increase production of such organic acids as 3-hydroxypropionic acid, lactate, and others. Methods of producing such organic acids as 3-hydroxypropionic acid, lactate, and others with the modified microorganisms are provided. Methods of using acsA or homologs thereof as counter-selectable markers are also provided.

  15. Design of a metal primer containing a dithiooctanoate monomer and a phosphonic acid monomer for bonding of prosthetic light-curing resin composite to gold, dental precious and non-precious metal alloys.

    PubMed

    Ikemura, Kunio; Fujii, Toshihide; Negoro, Noriyuki; Endo, Takeshi; Kadoma, Yoshinori

    2011-01-01

    The effect of metal primers on adhesion of a resin composite to dental metal alloys was investigated. Experimental primers containing a dithiooctanoate monomer [10-methacryloyloxydecyl 6,8-dithiooctanoate (10-MDDT) or 6-methacryloyloxyhexyl 6,8-dithiooctanoate (6-MHDT)] and a phosphonic acid monomer [6-methacryloyloxyhexyl phosphonoacetate (6-MHPA) or 6-methacryloyloxyhexyl 3-phosphonopropionate (6-MHPP)] were prepared. After treating Au, Au alloy, Ag alloy, Au-Ag-Pd alloy, and Ni-Cr alloy with the experimental primers, their shear bond strengths (SBSs) with a prosthetic light-curing resin composite (Solidex, Shofu Inc., Japan) were measured after 1-day storage followed by 5,000 thermal cycles. The SBSs between Solidex and the primer-treated metals which were incubated in air at 50°C for 2 months were further measured. Results showed that the SBSs [mean (SD)] of all metal adherends treated with primer DT-PA-1 (5.0 wt% 10-MDDT, 1.0 wt% 6-MHPA) ranged between 31.2 (5.2) and 34.5 (5.8) MPa. The SBSs of the primer-treated metals did not degrade after 2-month incubation at 50°C. Therefore, a combined primer application consisting of a dithiooctanoate monomer and a phosphonic acid monomer provided efficacious bonding to Au as well as precious and non-precious metal alloys.

  16. Chelating agents used for plutonium and uranium removal in radiation emergency medicine.

    PubMed

    Fukuda, Satoshi

    2005-01-01

    The prospects of using chelating agents for increasing the excretion of actinides are reviewed. The removal of plutonium by chelating agents is of great importance because plutonium is extremely dangerous and induces cancer due to radiation toxicity. Similarly, uranium is a radionuclide, which causes severe renal dysfunction within a short time period due to chemical toxicity. It may also induce cancers such as leukemia and osteosarcoma in cases of long-term internal radiation exposure. Investigations on chelating agents for the removal of plutonium were initiated in the 1960's and 1970's. Diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) is recognized as a chelating agent that accelerates the excretion of plutonium in early treatment after an accident. Thereafter, there has long been an interest in finding new chelating agents with radionuclide removal properties for use in therapy, and many chelating agents such as 3,4,3-LIHOPO and CBMIDA have been studied for their ability to remove plutonium and uranium. Recently, the focus has turned to drugs that have been used successfully in the treatment of a variety of other diseases, for example the iron chelating drug deferiprone or 1,2-dimethyl-3-hydroxypyrid-4-one (L1), which is used in thalassaemia and ethane-1-hydroxy-1,1-bisphosphonate (EHBP), which is used in osteoporosis. Within this context, it is important to examine the clinical use of these two drugs as well as the properties of the experimental chelators 3,4,3-LIHOPO and CBMIDA in order to identify possible uses in the treatment of radiation workers contaminated with plutonium and uranium.

  17. Biomimetic Actinide Chelators: An Update on the Preclinical Development of the Orally Active Hydroxypyridonate Decorporation Agents 3,4,3-LI(1,2-HOPO) and 5-LIO(Me-3,2-HOPO)

    PubMed Central

    Abergel, Rebecca J.; Durbin, Patricia W.; Kullgren, Birgitta; Ebbe, Shirley N.; Xu, Jide; Chang, Polly Y.; Bunin, Deborah I.; Blakely, Eleanor A.; Bjornstad, Kathleen A.; Rosen, Chris J.; Shuh, David K.; Raymond, Kenneth N.

    2010-01-01

    The threat of a dirty bomb or other major radiological contamination presents a danger of large-scale radiation exposure of the population. Because major components of such contamination are likely to be actinides, actinide decorporation treatments that will reduce radiation exposure must be a priority. Current therapies for the treatment of radionuclide contamination are limited and extensive efforts must be dedicated to the development of therapeutic, orally bioavailable, actinide chelators for emergency medical use. Using a biomimetic approach based on the similar biochemical properties of plutonium(IV) and iron(III), siderophore-inspired multidentate hydroxypyridonate ligands have been designed and are unrivaled in terms of actinide-affinity, selectivity and efficiency. A perspective on the preclinical development of two hydroxypyridonate actinide decorporation agents, 3,4,3-LI(1,2-HOPO) and 5-LIO(Me-3,2-HOPO), is presented. The chemical syntheses of both candidate compounds have been optimized for scale-up. Baseline preparation and analytical methods suitable for manufacturing large amounts have been established. Both ligands show much higher actinide-removal efficacy than the currently approved agent, diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA), with different selectivity for the tested isotopes of plutonium, americium, uranium and neptunium. No toxicity is observed in cells derived from three different human tissue sources treated in vitro up to ligand concentrations of 1 mM, and both ligands were well tolerated in rats when orally administered daily at high doses (> 100 μmol kg−1 day−1) over 28 days under good laboratory practice (GLP) guidelines. Both compounds are on an accelerated development pathway towards clinical use. PMID:20699704

  18. Source-dependent variation in hydroxyl radical production by airborne particulate matter

    SciTech Connect

    Marjan Alaghmand; Neil V. Blough

    2007-04-01

    Epidemiological studies suggest exposure to airborne particles is responsible for a wide range of adverse health effects, potentially arising from particle-induced oxidative stress. A highly sensitive fluorescence method was employed to measure the production of hydroxyl radical by a broad range of particle types including urban dust, diesel particulate matter, coal fly ash, kaolinite, and silica. Little or no production of OH was observed in the absence of an added electron donor or H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. In the presence of a biological electron donor (NADPH, 3 mM), the rate of OH production (R{sub OH}) for 3 mg/mL of these particles varied from 23 nM s{sup -1} for diesel particulate matter (SRM 2975) to 0.20 nM s{sup -1} for coal fly ash (SRM 2689). No detectable OH was produced by kaolinite or silica. Hydroxyl radical formation was eliminated under anaerobic conditions and in the presence of catalase, indicating that O{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} are required for its generation. Partial inhibition of OH formation by superoxide dismutase (SOD) was also observed in some cases, suggesting that superoxide is also involved. The metal chelator deferoxamine mesylate (DFX) in most cases suppressed OH formation, but diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) generally enhanced it, implicating metal ion reactions in OH generation as well. The dependence of R{sub OH} on NADPH concentration further implicates particle surface reactions in OH formation. To the authors' knowledge, these measurements provide the first quantitative estimate of ROH for a broad range of particle types. 49 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Vermistabilization of municipal sewage sludge amended with sugarcane trash using epigeic Eisenia fetida (Oligochaeta).

    PubMed

    Suthar, Surindra

    2009-04-15

    Efforts have been made in this study to stabilize the sewage sludge mixed with sugarcane trash in four different proportions: 20% (T(1)); 40% (T(2)); 60% (T(3)) and 80% (T(4)), under laboratory conditions using epigeic earthworm (Oligochaeta) Eisenia fetida. The composting potential of worm was also evaluated in 100% sewage sludge treatment (T(5)). The changes in chemical properties of substrate was measured at the end. The vermicomposted material showed decrease in organic C (4.8-12.7%) and exchangeable K (3.2-15.3%) content, whereas increase in total N (5.9-25.1%) and available P (1.2-10.9%), exchangeable Ca (2.3-10.9%) and exchangeable Mg (4.5-14.0%) contents. Vermicomposting process caused considerable reduction in concentration of diethylene-triaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) extractable metals: Cu (4.98-30.5%), Fe (5.08-12.64%), Mn (3.31-18.0%), Zn (2.52-15.90%) and Pb (2.38-20.0%). E. fetida showed the better growth performances in first three treatments (T(1)-T(3)) possibly due to higher content of organic matter (supplied by bulking agent, i.e. sugarcane trash). The earthworm mortality was higher in vermibeds those contained more sludge proportions. Study revealed that vermicomposting might be an efficient technology to convert negligible municipal sewage sludge into value-added products. The feasibility of earthworms to mitigate the metal toxicity and to enhance the nutrient profile might be useful to convert noxious sludge into useful products, at low-input basis.

  20. Biomimetic actinide chelators: an update on the preclinical development of the orally active hydroxypyridonate decorporation agents 3,4,3-LI(1,2-HOPO) and 5-LIO(Me-3,2-HOPO).

    PubMed

    Abergel, Rebecca J; Durbin, Patricia W; Kullgren, Birgitta; Ebbe, Shirley N; Xu, Jide; Chang, Polly Y; Bunin, Deborah I; Blakely, Eleanor A; Bjornstad, Kathleen A; Rosen, Chris J; Shuh, David K; Raymond, Kenneth N

    2010-09-01

    The threat of a dirty bomb or other major radiological contamination presents a danger of large-scale radiation exposure of the population. Because major components of such contamination are likely to be actinides, actinide decorporation treatments that will reduce radiation exposure must be a priority. Current therapies for the treatment of radionuclide contamination are limited and extensive efforts must be dedicated to the development of therapeutic, orally bioavailable, actinide chelators for emergency medical use. Using a biomimetic approach based on the similar biochemical properties of plutonium(IV) and iron(III), siderophore-inspired multidentate hydroxypyridonate ligands have been designed and are unrivaled in terms of actinide-affinity, selectivity, and efficiency. A perspective on the preclinical development of two hydroxypyridonate actinide decorporation agents, 3,4,3-LI(1,2-HOPO) and 5-LIO(Me-3,2-HOPO), is presented. The chemical syntheses of both candidate compounds have been optimized for scale-up. Baseline preparation and analytical methods suitable for manufacturing large amounts have been established. Both ligands show much higher actinide-removal efficacy than the currently approved agent, diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA), with different selectivity for the tested isotopes of plutonium, americium, uranium and neptunium. No toxicity is observed in cells derived from three different human tissue sources treated in vitro up to ligand concentrations of 1 mM, and both ligands were well tolerated in rats when orally administered daily at high doses (>100 micromol kg d) over 28 d under good laboratory practice guidelines. Both compounds are on an accelerated development pathway towards clinical use.

  1. Biomimetic Actinide Chelators: An Update on the Preclinical Development of the Orally Active Hydroxypyridonate Decorporation Agents 3,4,3-LI(1,2-HOPO) and 5-LIO(Me-3,2-HOPO)

    SciTech Connect

    Durbin, Patricia W.; Kullgren, Birgitta; Ebbe, Shirley N.; Xu, Jide; Chang, Polly Y.; Bunin, Deborah I.; Blakely, Eleanor A.; Bjornstad, Kathleen A.; Rosen, Chris J.; Shuh, David K.; Raymond, Kenneth N.

    2011-07-13

    The threat of a dirty bomb or other major radiological contamination presents a danger of large-scale radiation exposure of the population. Because major components of such contamination are likely to be actinides, actinide decorporation treatments that will reduce radiation exposure must be a priority. Current therapies for the treatment of radionuclide contamination are limited and extensive efforts must be dedicated to the development of therapeutic, orally bioavailable, actinide chelators for emergency medical use. Using a biomimetic approach based on the similar biochemical properties of plutonium(IV) and iron(III), siderophore-inspired multidentate hydroxypyridonate ligands have been designed and are unrivaled in terms of actinide-affinity, selectivity, and efficiency. A perspective on the preclinical development of two hydroxypyridonate actinide decorporation agents, 3,4,3-LI(1,2-HOPO) and 5-LIO(Me-3,2-HOPO), is presented. The chemical syntheses of both candidate compounds have been optimized for scale-up. Baseline preparation and analytical methods suitable for manufacturing large amounts have been established. Both ligands show much higher actinide-removal efficacy than the currently approved agent, diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA), with different selectivity for the tested isotopes of plutonium, americium, uranium and neptunium. No toxicity is observed in cells derived from three different human tissue sources treated in vitro up to ligand concentrations of 1 mM, and both ligands were well tolerated in rats when orally administered daily at high doses (>100 micromol kg d) over 28 d under good laboratory practice guidelines. Both compounds are on an accelerated development pathway towards clinical use.

  2. Solid state 31phosphorus nuclear magnetic resonance of iron-, manganese-, and copper-containing synthetic hydroxyapatites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sutter, B.; Taylor, R. E.; Hossner, L. R.; Ming, D. W.

    2002-01-01

    The incorporation of micronutrients into synthetic hydroxyapatite (SHA) is proposed for slow release of these nutrients to crops in the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Advanced Life Support (ALS) program for Lunar or Martian outposts. Solid state 31P nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) was utilized to examine the paramagnetic effects of Fe3+, Mn2+, and Cu2+ to determine if they were incorporated into the SHA structure. Separate Fe3+, Mn2+, and Cu2+ containing SHA materials along with a transition metal free SHA (pure-SHA) were synthesized using a precipitation method. The proximity (<1 nm) of the transition metals to the 31P nuclei of SHA were apparent when comparing the integrated 31P signal intensities of the pure-SHA (87 arbitrary units g-1) with the Fe-, Mn-, and Cu-SHA materials (37-71 arbitrary units g-1). The lower integrated 31P signal intensities of the Fe-, Mn-, and Cu-SHA materials relative to the pure-SHA suggested that Fe3+, Mn2+, and Cu2+ were incorporated in the SHA structure. Further support for Fe3+, Mn2+, and Cu2+ incorporation was demonstrated by the reduced spin-lattice relaxation constants of the Fe-, Mn-, and Cu-SHA materials (T'=0.075-0.434s) relative to pure-SHA (T1=58.4s). Inversion recovery spectra indicated that Fe3+, Mn2+, and Cu2+ were not homogeneously distributed about the 31P nuclei in the SHA structure. Extraction with diethylene-triamine-penta-acetic acid (DTPA) suggested that between 50 and 80% of the total starting metal concentrations were incorporated in the SHA structure. Iron-, Mn-, and Cu-containing SHA are potential slow release sources of Fe, Mn, and Cu in the ALS cropping system.

  3. Citric Acid Alternative to Nitric Acid Passivation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, Pattie L. (Compiler)

    2013-01-01

    The Ground Systems Development and Operations GSDO) Program at NASA John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC) has the primary objective of modernizing and transforming the launch and range complex at KSC to benefit current and future NASA programs along with other emerging users. Described as the launch support and infrastructure modernization program in the NASA Authorization Act of 2010, the GSDO Program will develop and implement shared infrastructure and process improvements to provide more flexible, affordable, and responsive capabilities to a multi-user community. In support of the GSDO Program, the purpose of this project is to demonstratevalidate citric acid as a passivation agent for stainless steel. Successful completion of this project will result in citric acid being qualified for use as an environmentally preferable alternative to nitric acid for passivation of stainless steel alloys in NASA and DoD applications.

  4. Effect of complexing agent on hydrothermal growth of ZnO crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DiLeo, Liliane; Romano, Dana; Schaeffer, Luther; Gersten, Bonnie; Foster, Catherine; Gelabert, Maria C.

    2004-10-01

    In this study, three multidentate ligands—diethylenetriaminepentaacetate (DTPA), ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA) and tetraethylenepentamine (tetren)—were investigated in the hydrothermal growth of crystals of zinc oxide (ZnO). Aqueous solutions containing zinc-ligand complexes and KOH were hydrothermally reacted and the products examined. Reactants were placed in teflon-lined stainless steel autoclaves and heated to a temperature of 200 °C, generating pressures of approximately 15 atm. Optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy on the resulting products revealed crystals with needle and plate habits, with needle lengths up to approximately 1 mm for EDTA and plate dimensions up to 100 μm for DTPA. When only complexing agent was varied at high pH, needles were observed for all samples, with EDTA yielding the longest (300 μm) and tetren yielding the shortest (20 μm); results were analyzed by considering complex formation constants, qualitative ligand polarity and complex strain. A variable pH study with 2 aminocarboxylic ligands, EDTA and DTPA, yielded mostly needles and dendritic formations for EDTA over the studied pH range (6-14), and plates or needles for DTPA. Results of variable pH products were analyzed by considering concentrations of all zinc-ligand and zinc-hydroxy species as a function of pH.

  5. Recovery of organic acids

    DOEpatents

    Verser, Dan W.; Eggeman, Timothy J.

    2009-10-13

    A method is disclosed for the recovery of an organic acid from a dilute salt solution in which the cation of the salt forms an insoluble carbonate salt. A tertiary amine and CO.sub.2 are introduced to the solution to form the insoluble carbonate salt and a complex between the acid and an amine. A water immiscible solvent, such as an alcohol, is added to extract the acid/amine complex from the dilute salt solution to a reaction phase. The reaction phase is continuously dried and a product between the acid and the solvent, such as an ester, is formed.

  6. Recovery of organic acids

    DOEpatents

    Verser, Dan W [Menlo Park, CA; Eggeman, Timothy J [Lakewood, CO

    2011-11-01

    A method is disclosed for the recovery of an organic acid from a dilute salt solution in which the cation of the salt forms an insoluble carbonate salt. A tertiary amine and CO.sub.2 are introduced to the solution to form the insoluble carbonate salt and a complex between the acid and an amine. A water immiscible solvent, such as an alcohol, is added to extract the acid/amine complex from the dilute salt solution to a reaction phase. The reaction phase is continuously dried and a product between the acid and the solvent, such as an ester, is formed.

  7. USGS Tracks Acid Rain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gordon, John D.; Nilles, Mark A.; Schroder, LeRoy J.

    1995-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has been actively studying acid rain for the past 15 years. When scientists learned that acid rain could harm fish, fear of damage to our natural environment from acid rain concerned the American public. Research by USGS scientists and other groups began to show that the processes resulting in acid rain are very complex. Scientists were puzzled by the fact that in some cases it was difficult to demonstrate that the pollution from automobiles and factories was causing streams or lakes to become more acidic. Further experiments showed how the natural ability of many soils to neutralize acids would reduce the effects of acid rain in some locations--at least as long as the neutralizing ability lasted (Young, 1991). The USGS has played a key role in establishing and maintaining the only nationwide network of acid rain monitoring stations. This program is called the National Atmospheric Deposition Program/National Trends Network (NADP/NTN). Each week, at approximately 220 NADP/NTN sites across the country, rain and snow samples are collected for analysis. NADP/NTN site in Montana. The USGS supports about 72 of these sites. The information gained from monitoring the chemistry of our nation's rain and snow is important for testing the results of pollution control laws on acid rain.

  8. Parenteral Nutrition: Amino Acids.

    PubMed

    Hoffer, Leonard John

    2017-03-10

    There is growing interest in nutrition therapies that deliver a generous amount of protein, but not a toxic amount of energy, to protein-catabolic critically ill patients. Parenteral amino acids can achieve this goal. This article summarizes the biochemical and nutritional principles that guide parenteral amino acid therapy, explains how parenteral amino acid solutions are formulated, and compares the advantages and disadvantages of different parenteral amino acid products with enterally-delivered whole protein products in the context of protein-catabolic critical illness.

  9. Parenteral Nutrition: Amino Acids

    PubMed Central

    Hoffer, Leonard John

    2017-01-01

    There is growing interest in nutrition therapies that deliver a generous amount of protein, but not a toxic amount of energy, to protein-catabolic critically ill patients. Parenteral amino acids can achieve this goal. This article summarizes the biochemical and nutritional principles that guide parenteral amino acid therapy, explains how parenteral amino acid solutions are formulated, and compares the advantages and disadvantages of different parenteral amino acid products with enterally-delivered whole protein products in the context of protein-catabolic critical illness. PMID:28287411

  10. Diterpenoid acids from Grindelia nana.

    PubMed

    Mahmoud, A A; Ahmed, A A; Tanaka, T; Iinuma, M

    2000-03-01

    Two new norditerpenoid acids of the labdane-type (norgrindelic acids), 4,5-dehydro-6-oxo-18-norgrindelic acid (1) and 4beta-hydroxy-6-oxo-19-norgrindelic acid (2), as well as a new grindelic acid derivative, 18-hydroxy-6-oxogrindelic acid (3), were isolated from the aerial parts of Grindelia nana. In addition, the known compounds, 6-oxogrindelic acid, grindelic acid, methyl grindeloate, 7alpha,8alpha-epoxygrindelic acid, and 4alpha-carboxygrindelic acid were also isolated. The structures of the new compounds were characterized on the basis of spectroscopic analysis.

  11. Contributions of superoxide, hydrogen peroxide, and transition metal ions to auto-oxidation of the favism-inducing pyrimidine aglycone, divicine, and its reactions with haemoglobin.

    PubMed

    Winterbourn, C C; Benatti, U; De Flora, A

    1986-06-15

    The influence of O2-, H2O2 and metal ions on the auto-oxidation of divicine, a pyrimidine aglycone, was studied. In air at pH 7.4, the hydroquinonic form oxidized within a few minutes. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) markedly decreased the initial rate, giving a lag phase followed by rapid oxidation. Although catalase or diethylenetriamine-penta-acetic acid (DTPA) alone had little effect, each in the presence of SOD further slowed the initial rate and increased the lag. H2O2 decreased the lag time, as did Cu2+, Fe2+ or haemoglobin. GSH substantially increased the lag phase, but it eventually reacted with the divicine to form a 305 nm-absorbing adduct. These results indicate that an O2(-)-dependent mechanism of divicine auto-oxidation normally predominates. Auto-oxidation can also occur by a mechanism involving H2O2 and transition metal ions or haemoglobin, and if both these reactions are prevented by SOD and DTPA or catalase, a third mechanism, requiring build-up of an autocatalytic intermediate, becomes operative. Oxyhaemoglobin did not react directly with divicine, but reacted with the H2O2 produced by divicine auto-oxidation to give mainly an oxidized derivative presumed to be ferrylhaemoglobin. Divicine was shown to reduce ferylhaemoglobin to methaemoglobin, and this reaction was probably responsible for the acceleratory effect of haemoglobin on divicine oxidation. These results indicate that O2 rather than oxyhaemoglobin is likely to initiate divicine oxidation in the erythrocyte. Haemolytic crises, which are thought to result from this oxidation, occur only sporadically in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficient individuals following ingestion of fava beans. A characteristic of the crises is acute depletion of erythrocyte GSH, and the vulnerability of these cells could relate to the ability of GSH, in combination with SOD, to protect against the autocatalytic mechanism of divicine auto-oxidation. Our demonstration of a variety of auto-oxidation pathways also

  12. Heavy metal pollution in Tianjin, China—its bioavailability prediction and mitigation practice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Hongwen; Wang, Ting; Zhang, Yanfeng; Jiang, Chunxiao; Wang, Jing

    2010-05-01

    Irrigation of sewage water has been applied for agriculture production in Tianjin for over 50 years, for Tianjin is a city lacking water resource. Based on the result of an extensive investigation on heavy metals in the farmland of Tianjin in 2005, 21 samples (including soil and lettuce) were collected from most the polluted areas along the three sewage rivers. Nine of the 21 soil samples exceeded the National Soil Quality Standard for cadmium (0.6 mg/kg) and 7 exceeded the standard for mercury (1.0 mg/kg). However, the heavy metal contents in lettuce did not correlate the heavy metal concentrations in soil. The bioavailability changed with soil properties. The part extracted by diethylene-triaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) and another mixed extraction solvent, M3, were used to predict the bioavailability of heavy metals. The solvent extraction gave good prediction on Cd absorbance in lettuce, with correlative coefficient larger than 0.9. However, it failed for Hg. This may be because Hg is relatively volatile, and the absorption patterns are complex for Hg. To set up a mitigation method for heavy metal pollution in farm land, friendly to agricultural production, in-situ fixing strategy was adopted. Bacillus subtilis and Candida tropicalis were induced by ultraviolet (UV) radiation and HNO2 treatment to get mutated strains that can tolerate and accumulate higher level of cadmium. A strain of B38 from B. subtilis showed the highest Cd tolerance, and was used for further experiment. Though B38 could accumulate Cd from water solution, but it did not fix Cd in soil. This is due to that the amended microorganisms could not propagate well in the polluted soil. Novogro, which is produced from the waste of an enzyme factory, was selected out from several materials to amend together with B38. After the co-amendment of Novogro and B38, the DTPA extractable Cd decreased by 72%, and B38 could propagate efficiently as indicated by DGGE test. Applying conditions, such as amendment

  13. Multimodality Imaging of Gene Transfer with a Receptor-Based Reporter Gene

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ron; Parry, Jesse J.; Akers, Walter J.; Berezin, Mikhail Y.; El Naqa, Issam M.; Achilefu, Samuel; Edwards, W. Barry; Rogers, Buck E.

    2010-01-01

    Gene therapy trials have traditionally used tumor and tissue biopsies for assessing the efficacy of gene transfer. Non-invasive imaging techniques offer a distinct advantage over tissue biopsies in that the magnitude and duration of gene transfer can be monitored repeatedly. Human somatostatin receptor subtype 2 (SSTR2) has been used for the nuclear imaging of gene transfer. To extend this concept, we have developed a somatostatin receptor–enhanced green fluorescent protein fusion construct (SSTR2-EGFP) for nuclear and fluorescent multimodality imaging. Methods An adenovirus containing SSTR2-EGFP (AdSSTR2-EGFP) was constructed and evaluated in vitro and in vivo. SCC-9 human squamous cell carcinoma cells were infected with AdEGFP, AdSSTR2, or AdSSTR2-EGFP for in vitro evaluation by saturation binding, internalization, and fluorescence spectroscopy assays. In vivo biodistribution and nano-SPECT imaging studies were conducted with mice bearing SCC-9 tumor xenografts directly injected with AdSSTR2-EGFP or AdSSTR2 to determine the tumor localization of 111In-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA)-Tyr3-octreotate. Fluorescence imaging was conducted in vivo with mice receiving intratumoral injections of AdSSTR2, AdSSTR2-EGFP, or AdEGFP as well as ex vivo with tissues extracted from mice. Results The similarity between AdSSTR2-EGFP and wild-type AdSSTR2 was demonstrated in vitro by the saturation binding and internalization assays, and the fluorescence emission spectra of cells infected with AdSSTR2-EGFP was almost identical to the spectra of cells infected with wild-type AdEGFP. Biodistribution studies demonstrated that the tumor uptake of 111In-DTPA-Tyr3-octreotate was not significantly different (P > 0.05) when tumors (n = 5) were injected with AdSSTR2 or AdSSTR2-EGFP but was significantly greater than the uptake in control tumors. Fluorescence was observed in tumors injected with AdSSTR2-EGFP and AdEGFP in vivo and ex vivo but not in tumors injected with AdSSTR2

  14. Toxicity of chelated iron (Fe-DTPA) in American cranberry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    American cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) is naturally adapted to environments with high concentrations of soluble iron. Yet, there is a need to further explore iron nutrition in cranberry given concerns of toxicity problems from irrigation with iron-rich water. This study investigated the threat o...

  15. Spotlight on DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib Vaccine (Infanrix hexa).

    PubMed

    Dhillon, Sohita

    2010-10-01

    Infanrix hexa, administered intramuscularly, is a diphtheria, tetanus, acellular pertussis, hepatitis B (HBV), inactivated poliomyelitis and Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) conjugate vaccine, indicated for primary and booster vaccination of infants. Infanrix hexa should be administered as a two- or three-dose primary vaccination course in infants aged < or =6 months, followed by booster vaccination between 11 and 18 months of age, with an interval of at least 6 months between the last dose of primary vaccination and the booster dose. This spotlight reviews the immunogenicity and protective effectiveness, as well as the reactogenicity and safety of Infanrix hexa. Infanrix hexa as primary and booster vaccination was safe and highly immunogenic for all its component toxoids/antigens in infants aged <2 years, regardless of vaccination schedules. Its immunogenicity and safety profiles were generally similar to those of currently available vaccines, the diphtheria, tetanus and acellular pertussis-based pentavalent vaccines plus monovalent HBV or Hib vaccines. In large clinical studies, Infanrix hexa elicited a strong immune response against vaccine toxoids/antigens, as indicated by high seroprotection/seropositivity/vaccine response rates and geometric mean titers. Moreover, antibodies against vaccine toxoids/antigens persisted for up to a mean of approximately 6 years after booster vaccination, and the vaccine induced long-term immune memory against hepatitis B surface antigen and Hib antigen. A strong immune response against Infanrix hexa toxoids/antigens after primary vaccination was also induced in infants who had received a dose of HBV vaccine at birth and in pre-term infants, although the response in the latter group was somewhat lower than that in full-term infants. In addition, when coadministered with other childhood vaccines, the immunogenicity of Infanrix hexa or that of the concomitantly administered vaccine was generally not altered. Hexavalent vaccines, including Infanrix hexa, were protective against invasive Hib disease; Infanrix hexa is also expected to be protective against pertussis. Most solicited local and general symptoms with Infanrix hexa were mild to moderate in intensity and the vaccine was associated with few unsolicited adverse events. Available clinical data from more than 10 years' experience with the vaccine suggest that Infanrix hexa as primary and booster vaccination is a safe and useful option for providing protection against the common childhood diseases of diphtheria, tetanus, poliomyelitis, pertussis, hepatitis B and invasive Hib disease.

  16. Structure of Acid phosphatases.

    PubMed

    Araujo, César L; Vihko, Pirkko T

    2013-01-01

    Acid phosphatases are enzymes that have been studied extensively due to the fact that their dysregulation is associated with pathophysiological conditions. This characteristic has been exploited for the development of diagnostic and therapeutic methods. As an example, prostatic acid phosphatase was the first marker for metastatic prostate cancer diagnosis and the dysregulation of tartrate resistant acid phosphatase is associated with abnormal bone resorption linked to osteoporosis. The pioneering crystallization studies on prostatic acid phosphatase and mammalian tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase conformed significant milestones towards the elucidation of the mechanisms followed by these enzymes (Schneider et al., EMBO J 12:2609-2615, 1993). Acid phosphatases are also found in nonmammalian species such as bacteria, fungi, parasites, and plants, and most of them share structural similarities with mammalian acid phosphatase enzymes. Acid phosphatase (EC 3.1.3.2) enzymes catalyze the hydrolysis of phosphate monoesters following the general equation. Phosphate monoester + H2O -->/<-- alcohol + phosphate. The general classification "acid phosphatase" relies only on the optimum acidic pH for the enzymatic activity in assay conditions using non-physiological substrates. These enzymes accept a wide range of substrates in vitro, ranging from small organic molecules to phosphoproteins, constituting a heterogeneous group of enzymes from the structural point of view. These structural differences account for the divergence in cofactor dependences and behavior against substrates, inhibitors, and activators. In this group only the tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase is a metallo-enzyme whereas the other members do not require metal-ion binding for their catalytic activity. In addition, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase and erythrocytic acid phosphatase are not inhibited by L-(+)-tartrate ion while the prostatic acid phosphatase is tartrate-sensitive. This is an important

  17. Folic Acid and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Lessons? Visit KidsHealth in the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Your Child's Development (Birth to 3 Years) Feeding Your 1- to 3-Month-Old Feeding Your 4- to 7-Month-Old Feeding Your 8- to 12-Month-Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Folic Acid ... > For Parents > Folic Acid and Pregnancy A A A What's ...

  18. Bile acid transporters

    PubMed Central

    Dawson, Paul A.; Lan, Tian; Rao, Anuradha

    2009-01-01

    In liver and intestine, transporters play a critical role in maintaining the enterohepatic circulation and bile acid homeostasis. Over the past two decades, there has been significant progress toward identifying the individual membrane transporters and unraveling their complex regulation. In the liver, bile acids are efficiently transported across the sinusoidal membrane by the Na+ taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide with assistance by members of the organic anion transporting polypeptide family. The bile acids are then secreted in an ATP-dependent fashion across the canalicular membrane by the bile salt export pump. Following their movement with bile into the lumen of the small intestine, bile acids are almost quantitatively reclaimed in the ileum by the apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter. The bile acids are shuttled across the enterocyte to the basolateral membrane and effluxed into the portal circulation by the recently indentified heteromeric organic solute transporter, OSTα-OSTβ. In addition to the hepatocyte and enterocyte, subgroups of these bile acid transporters are expressed by the biliary, renal, and colonic epithelium where they contribute to maintaining bile acid homeostasis and play important cytoprotective roles. This article will review our current understanding of the physiological role and regulation of these important carriers. PMID:19498215

  19. Analysis of Organic Acids.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griswold, John R.; Rauner, Richard A.

    1990-01-01

    Presented are the procedures and a discussion of the results for an experiment in which students select unknown carboxylic acids, determine their melting points, and investigate their solubility behavior in water and ethanol. A table of selected carboxylic acids is included. (CW)

  20. Salicylic Acid Topical

    MedlinePlus

    Propa pH® Peel-Off Acne Mask ... pimples and skin blemishes in people who have acne. Topical salicylic acid is also used to treat ... medications called keratolytic agents. Topical salicylic acid treats acne by reducing swelling and redness and unplugging blocked ...

  1. Toxicology of Perfluoroalkyl Acids*

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are a family of organic chemicals consisting of a perfluorinated carbon backbone (4-12 in length) and an acidic functional moiety (carboxylate or sulfonate). These compounds are chemically stable, have excellent surface-tension reducing properties...

  2. Mutant fatty acid desaturase

    DOEpatents

    Shanklin, John; Cahoon, Edgar B.

    2004-02-03

    The present invention relates to a method for producing mutants of a fatty acid desaturase having a substantially increased activity towards fatty acid substrates with chains containing fewer than 18 carbons relative to an unmutagenized precursor desaturase having an 18 carbon atom chain length substrate specificity. The method involves inducing one or more mutations in the nucleic acid sequence encoding the precursor desaturase, transforming the mutated sequence into an unsaturated fatty acid auxotroph cell such as MH13 E. coli, culturing the cells in the absence of supplemental unsaturated fatty acids, thereby selecting for recipient cells which have received and which express a mutant fatty acid desaturase with an elevated specificity for fatty acid substrates having chain lengths of less than 18 carbon atoms. A variety of mutants having 16 or fewer carbon atom chain length substrate specificities are produced by this method. Mutant desaturases produced by this method can be introduced via expression vectors into prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells and can also be used in the production of transgenic plants which may be used to produce specific fatty acid products.

  3. Omega-3 Fatty Acids

    MedlinePlus

    Omega-3 fatty acids are used together with lifestyle changes (diet, weight-loss, exercise) to reduce the amount of triglycerides (a fat-like ... people with very high triglycerides. Omega-3 fatty acids are in a class of medications called antilipemic ...

  4. Amino Acid Crossword Puzzle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sims, Paul A.

    2011-01-01

    Learning the 20 standard amino acids is an essential component of an introductory course in biochemistry. Later in the course, the students study metabolism and learn about various catabolic and anabolic pathways involving amino acids. Learning new material or concepts often is easier if one can connect the new material to what one already knows;…

  5. Production of shikimic acid.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Saptarshi; Chisti, Yusuf; Banerjee, Uttam C

    2012-01-01

    Shikimic acid is a key intermediate for the synthesis of the antiviral drug oseltamivir (Tamiflu®). Shikimic acid can be produced via chemical synthesis, microbial fermentation and extraction from certain plants. An alternative production route is via biotransformation of the more readily available quinic acid. Much of the current supply of shikimic acid is sourced from the seeds of Chinese star anise (Illicium verum). Supply from star anise seeds has experienced difficulties and is susceptible to vagaries of weather. Star anise tree takes around six-years from planting to bear fruit, but remains productive for long. Extraction and purification from seeds are expensive. Production via fermentation is increasing. Other production methods are too expensive, or insufficiently developed. In the future, production in recombinant microorganisms via fermentation may become established as the preferred route. Methods for producing shikimic acid are reviewed.

  6. Fatty acid production from amino acids and alpha-keto acids by Brevibacterium linens BL2.

    PubMed

    Ganesan, Balasubramanian; Seefeldt, Kimberly; Weimer, Bart C

    2004-11-01

    Low concentrations of branched-chain fatty acids, such as isobutyric and isovaleric acids, develop during the ripening of hard cheeses and contribute to the beneficial flavor profile. Catabolism of amino acids, such as branched-chain amino acids, by bacteria via aminotransferase reactions and alpha-keto acids is one mechanism to generate these flavorful compounds; however, metabolism of alpha-keto acids to flavor-associated compounds is controversial. The objective of this study was to determine the ability of Brevibacterium linens BL2 to produce fatty acids from amino acids and alpha-keto acids and determine the occurrence of the likely genes in the draft genome sequence. BL2 catabolized amino acids to fatty acids only under carbohydrate starvation conditions. The primary fatty acid end products from leucine were isovaleric acid, acetic acid, and propionic acid. In contrast, logarithmic-phase cells of BL2 produced fatty acids from alpha-keto acids only. BL2 also converted alpha-keto acids to branched-chain fatty acids after carbohydrate starvation was achieved. At least 100 genes are potentially involved in five different metabolic pathways. The genome of B. linens ATCC 9174 contained these genes for production and degradation of fatty acids. These data indicate that brevibacteria have the ability to produce fatty acids from amino and alpha-keto acids and that carbon metabolism is important in regulating this event.

  7. Total syntheses of cis-cyclopropane fatty acids: dihydromalvalic acid, dihydrosterculic acid, lactobacillic acid, and 9,10-methylenehexadecanoic acid.

    PubMed

    Shah, Sayali; White, Jonathan M; Williams, Spencer J

    2014-12-14

    cis-Cyclopropane fatty acids (cis-CFAs) are widespread constituents of the seed oils of subtropical plants, membrane components of bacteria and protozoa, and the fats and phospholipids of animals. We describe a systematic approach to the synthesis of enantiomeric pairs of four cis-CFAs: cis-9,10-methylenehexadecanoic acid, lactobacillic acid, dihydromalvalic acid, and dihydrosterculic acid. The approach commences with Rh2(OAc)4-catalyzed cyclopropenation of 1-octyne and 1-decyne, and hinges on the preparative scale chromatographic resolution of racemic 2-alkylcycloprop-2-ene-1-carboxylic acids using a homochiral Evan's auxiliary. Saturation of the individual diastereomeric N-cycloprop-2-ene-1-carbonylacyloxazolidines, followed by elaboration to alkylcyclopropylmethylsulfones, allowed Julia-Kocienski olefination with various ω-aldehyde-esters. Finally, saponification and diimide reduction afforded the individual cis-CFA enantiomers.

  8. Sulfuric Acid on Europa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Frozen sulfuric acid on Jupiter's moon Europa is depicted in this image produced from data gathered by NASA's Galileo spacecraft. The brightest areas, where the yellow is most intense, represent regions of high frozen sulfuric acid concentration. Sulfuric acid is found in battery acid and in Earth's acid rain.

    This image is based on data gathered by Galileo's near infrared mapping spectrometer.

    Europa's leading hemisphere is toward the bottom right, and there are enhanced concentrations of sulfuric acid in the trailing side of Europa (the upper left side of the image). This is the face of Europa that is struck by sulfur ions coming from Jupiter's innermost moon, Io. The long, narrow features that crisscross Europa also show sulfuric acid that may be from sulfurous material extruded in cracks.

    Galileo, launched in 1989, has been orbiting Jupiter and its moons since December 1995. JPL manages the Galileo mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington DC. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA.

  9. Trans Fatty Acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doyle, Ellin

    1997-09-01

    Fats and their various fatty acid components seem to be a perennial concern of nutritionists and persons concerned with healthful diets. Advice on the consumption of saturated, polyunsaturated, monounsaturated, and total fat bombards us from magazines and newspapers. One of the newer players in this field is the group of trans fatty acids found predominantly in partially hydrogenated fats such as margarines and cooking fats. The controversy concerning dietary trans fatty acids was recently addressed in an American Heart Association (AHA) science advisory (1) and in a position paper from the American Society of Clinical Nutrition/American Institute of Nutrition (ASCN/AIN) (2). Both reports emphasize that the best preventive strategy for reducing risk for cardiovascular disease and some types of cancer is a reduction in total and saturated fats in the diet, but a reduction in the intake of trans fatty acids was also recommended. Although the actual health effects of trans fatty acids remain uncertain, experimental evidence indicates that consumption of trans fatty acids adversely affects serum lipid levels. Since elevated levels of serum cholesterol and triacylglycerols are associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease, it follows that intake of trans fatty acids should be minimized.

  10. Gluconic acid production.

    PubMed

    Anastassiadis, Savas; Morgunov, Igor G

    2007-01-01

    Gluconic acid, the oxidation product of glucose, is a mild neither caustic nor corrosive, non toxic and readily biodegradable organic acid of great interest for many applications. As a multifunctional carbonic acid belonging to the bulk chemicals and due to its physiological and chemical characteristics, gluconic acid itself, its salts (e.g. alkali metal salts, in especially sodium gluconate) and the gluconolactone form have found extensively versatile uses in the chemical, pharmaceutical, food, construction and other industries. Present review article presents the comprehensive information of patent bibliography for the production of gluconic acid and compares the advantages and disadvantages of known processes. Numerous manufacturing processes are described in the international bibliography and patent literature of the last 100 years for the production of gluconic acid from glucose, including chemical and electrochemical catalysis, enzymatic biocatalysis by free or immobilized enzymes in specialized enzyme bioreactors as well as discontinuous and continuous fermentation processes using free growing or immobilized cells of various microorganisms, including bacteria, yeast-like fungi and fungi. Alternatively, new superior fermentation processes have been developed and extensively described for the continuous and discontinuous production of gluconic acid by isolated strains of yeast-like mold Aureobasidium pullulans, offering numerous advantages over the traditional discontinuous fungi processes.

  11. Strongly Acidic Auxin Indole-3-Methanesulfonic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Jerry D.; Baldi, Bruce G.; Bialek, Krystyna

    1985-01-01

    A radiochemical synthesis is described for [14C]indole-3-methanesulfonic acid (IMS), a strongly acidic auxin analog. Techniques were developed for fractionation and purification of IMS using normal and reverse phase chromatography. In addition, the utility of both Fourier transform infrared spectrometry and fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry for analysis of IMS has been demonstrated. IMS was shown to be an active auxin, stimulating soybean hypocotyl elongation, bean first internode curvature, and ethylene production. IMS uptake by thin sections of soybean hypocotyl was essentially independent of solution pH and, when applied at a 100 micromolar concentration, IMS exhibited a basipetal polarity in its transport in both corn coleoptile and soybean hypocotyl sections. [14C]IMS should, therefore, be a useful compound to study fundamental processes related to the movement of auxins in plant tissues and organelles. PMID:16664007

  12. Aminolevulinic Acid Topical

    MedlinePlus

    ... under the skin that result from exposure to sunlight and can develop into skin cancer) of the ... acid will make your skin very sensitive to sunlight (likely to get sunburn). Avoid exposure of treated ...

  13. Difficult Decisions: Acid Rain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, John A.; Slesnick, Irwin L.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses some of the contributing factors and chemical reactions involved in the production of acid rain, its effects, and political issues pertaining to who should pay for the clean up. Supplies questions for consideration and discussion. (RT)

  14. Folic acid - test

    MedlinePlus

    ... folic acid before and during pregnancy helps prevent neural tube defects, such as spina bifida. Women who ... take more if they have a history of neural tube defects in earlier pregnancies. Ask your provider ...

  15. Acid soldering flux poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    The harmful substances in soldering fluxes are called hydrocarbons. They include: Ammonium chloride Rosin Hydrochloric acid Zinc ... Lee DC. Hydrocarbons. In: Marx JA, Hockberger RS, Walls RM, et ... Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical Practice . 8th ...

  16. Amoxicillin and Clavulanic Acid

    MedlinePlus

    ... Amoxicillin is in a class of medications called penicillin-like antibiotics. It works by stopping the growth ... allergic to amoxicillin (Amoxil, Trimox, Wymox), clavulanic acid, penicillin, cephalosporins, or any other medications.tell your doctor ...

  17. Amino Acid Metabolism Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... acidemia? In ASA, the body can’t remove ammonia or a substance called argininosuccinic acid from the ... and children include: Breathing problems High levels of ammonia in the bloodIntense headache, especially after a high- ...

  18. [Hydrofluoric acid burns].

    PubMed

    Holla, Robin; Gorter, Ramon R; Tenhagen, Mark; Vloemans, A F P M Jos; Breederveld, Roelf S

    2016-01-01

    Hydrofluoric acid is increasingly used as a rust remover and detergent. Dermal contact with hydrofluoric acid results in a chemical burn characterized by severe pain and deep tissue necrosis. It may cause electrolyte imbalances with lethal consequences. It is important to identify high-risk patients. 'High risk' is defined as a total affected body area > 3% or exposure to hydrofluoric acid in a concentration > 50%. We present the cases of three male patients (26, 31, and 39 years old) with hydrofluoric acid burns of varying severity and describe the subsequent treatments. The application of calcium gluconate 2.5% gel to the skin is the cornerstone of the treatment, reducing pain as well as improving wound healing. Nails should be thoroughly inspected and possibly removed if the nail is involved, to ensure proper healing. In high-risk patients, plasma calcium levels should be evaluated and cardiac monitoring is indicated.

  19. Citric acid urine test

    MedlinePlus

    ... used to diagnose renal tubular acidosis and evaluate kidney stone disease. Normal Results The normal range is 320 ... tubular acidosis and a tendency to form calcium kidney stones. The following may decrease urine citric acid levels: ...

  20. Lead/acid batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bullock, Kathryn R.

    Lead/acid batteries are produced in sizes from less than 1 to 3000 Ah for a wide variety of portable, industrial and automotive applications. Designs include Planté, Fauré or pasted, and tubular electrodes. In addition to the traditional designs which are flooded with sulfuric acid, newer 'valve-regulated" designs have the acid immolibized in a silica gel or absorbed in a porous glass separator. Development is ongoing worldwide to increase the specific power, energy and deep discharge cycle life of this commercially successful system to meet the needs of new applications such as electric vehicles, load leveling, and solar energy storage. The operating principles, current status, technical challenges and commercial impact of the lead/acid battery are reviewed.