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Sample records for diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid dtpa

  1. Solid dispersions of the penta-ethyl ester prodrug of diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA): Formulation design and optimization studies

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yu-Tsai; Di Pasqua, Anthony J.; Zhang, Yong; Sueda, Katsuhiko; Jay, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The penta-ethyl ester prodrug of diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA), which exists as an oily liquid, was incorporated into a solid dispersion for oral administration by the solvent evaporation method using blends of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), Eudragit® RL PO and α-tocopherol. D-optimal mixture design was used to optimize the formulation. Formulations that had a high concentration of both Eudragit® RL PO and α-tocopherol exhibited low water absorption and enhanced stability of the DTPA prodrug. Physicochemical properties of the optimal formulation were evaluated using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). In vitro release of the prodrug was evaluated using the USP Type II apparatus dissolution method. DSC studies indicated that the matrix had an amorphous structure, while FTIR spectrometry showed that DTPA penta-ethyl ester and excipients did not react with each other during formation of the solid dispersion.. Dissolution testing showed that the optimized solid dispersion exhibited a prolonged release profile, which could potentially result in a sustained delivery of DTPA penta-ethyl to enhance bioavailability. In conclusion, DTPA penta-ethyl ester was successfully incorporated into a solid matrix with high drug loading and improved stability compared to prodrug alone. PMID:24047113

  2. Effect of desferrioxamine (DFO) and calcium trinatrium diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) on rat cytomegalovirus replication in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Kloover, J S; Scholz, M; Cinatl, J; Lautenschlager, I; Grauls, G E; Bruggeman, C A

    1999-11-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is a major problem in the immunosuppressed patient. It is thought that besides direct CMV induced cell lysis, immunological damage is part of CMV pathogenesis. New antiviral drugs, which combine immunomodulating and antiviral qualities, could be beneficial. Recently, it has been described that desferrioxamine (DFO) and calcium trinatrium diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) exhibit both properties. In this report the antiviral effects of both compounds against rat CMV (RCMV) are described in vitro and in vivo using a generalised and local infection model. In vitro, both compounds exhibited a significant antiviral effect, DTPA being more potent than DFO. However, in the generalised infection model no effect was seen on mortality, morbidity or presence of virus in internal organs. In rats infected subcutaneously in the hind paw, no effect was seen locally on paw thickness, presence of viral antigens and inflammatory response. In addition, these rats suffered from a generalised infection of low magnitude at 15 days post infection, although both DFO and DTPA were able to lower the level of viral replication. In conclusion, our data indicate that despite in vitro activity, in vivo usage of DFO or DTPA for acute CMV infection is not warranted.

  3. Human biodistribution of [111In]diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid-(DTPA)-D-[Phe1]-octreotide and peroperative detection of endocrine tumors.

    PubMed

    Ohrvall, U; Westlin, J E; Nilsson, S; Wilander, E; Juhlin, C; Rastad, J; Akerström, G

    1995-12-01

    Requisites for preoperative and intraoperative tumor localization with [111In]diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid-D-[Phe1]-octreotide scanning were explored in 23 patients with endocrine tumors (15 carcinoids, 4 insulinomas, and single cases of gastrinoma, medullary thyroid carcinoma, aldosteronoma, and paraganglioma). The patients were subjected to Octreoscan single photon emission computed tomographic examination prior to surgery and well counter investigation of nuclide uptake in tumors and normal tissues sampled at surgery. Somatostatin receptor-positive tumors demonstrated efficient nuclide accumulation with mean tumor:blood radioactivity ratios of 180-370 (for carcinoids and insulinoma), compared with tissue:blood ratios of 302 for spleen, 42 for liver, and < 10-15 in other normal tissues (pancreas, small intestine, and mesenteric fat). Inefficient preoperative visualization of lesions was related to inconspicuous size, as for primary intestinal carcinoids, tiny liver metastases, and a single small insulinoma. High background activity, pronounced tumor fibrosis, and meager accumulation of tracer also interfered with visualization. Tumor deposits in organs with low background activity (such as carcinoid mesenteric metastases and endocrine pancreatic tumors) were generally most readily detected. Intraoperative investigations with hand-held gamma detector probes were disturbed by obvious high background activity. These investigations revealed two preoperatively unrecognized primary intestinal carcinoids, which, however, were both palpable during surgery. These studies, therefore, had little impact on the surgical strategy. PMID:7493348

  4. Decorporation of systemically distributed americium by a novel orally administered diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) formulation in beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Wilson, James P; Cobb, Ronald R; Dungan, Nathanael W; Matthews, Laura L; Eppler, Bärbel; Aiello, Kenneth V; Curtis, Shiro; Boger, Teannetta; Guilmette, Raymond A; Weber, Waylon; Doyle-Eisele, Melanie; Talton, James D

    2015-03-01

    Novel decorporation agents are being developed to protect against radiological accidents and terrorists attacks. Radioactive americium is a significant component of nuclear fallout. Removal of large radioactive materials, such as 241Am, from exposed persons is a subject of significant interest due to the hazards they pose. The objective of this study was to evaluate the dose-related efficacy of daily doses of NanoDTPA™ Capsules for decorporating Am administered intravenously as a soluble citrate complex to male and female beagle dogs. In addition, the efficacy of the NanoDTPA™ Capsules for decorporating 241Am was directly compared to intravenously administered saline and DTPA. Animals received a single IV administration of 241Am(III)-citrate on Day 0. One day after radionuclide administration, one of four different doses of NanoDTPA™ Capsules [1, 2, or 6 capsules d(-1) (30 mg, 60 mg, or 180 mg DTPA) or 2 capsules BID], IV Zn-DTPA (5 mg kg(-1) pentetate zinc trisodium) as a positive control, or IV saline as a placebo were administered. NanoDTPA™ Capsules, IV Zn-DTPA, or IV saline was administered on study days 1-14. Animals were euthanized on day 21. A full necropsy was conducted, and liver, spleen, kidneys, lungs and trachea, tracheobronchial lymph nodes (TBLN), muscle samples (right and left quadriceps), gastrointestinal (GI) tract (stomach plus esophagus, upper and lower intestine), gonads, two femurs, lumbar vertebrae (L1-L4), and all other soft tissue remains were collected. Urinary and fecal excretion profiles were increased approximately 10-fold compared to those for untreated animals. Tissue contents were decreased compared to untreated controls. In particular, liver content was decreased by approximately eightfold compared to untreated animals. The results from this study further demonstrate that oral NanoDTPA™ Capsules are equally efficient compared to IV Zn-DTPA in decorporation of actinides. PMID:25627942

  5. Preparation of alginate beads containing a prodrug of diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yu-Tsai; Di Pasqua, Anthony J.; He, Weiling; Tsai, Tsuimin; Sueda, Katsuhiko; Zhang, Yong; Jay, Michael

    2012-01-01

    A penta-ethyl ester prodrug of the radionuclide decorporation agent diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA), which exists as an oily liquid, was encapsulated in alginate beads by the ionotropic gelation method. An optimal formulation was found by varying initial concentrations of DTPA pentaethyl ester, alginate polymer, Tween 80 surfactant and calcium chloride. All prepared alginate beads were ~1.6 mm in diameter, and the optimal formulation had loading and encapsulation efficiencies of 91.0 ± 1.1 and 72.6 ± 2.2%, respectively, and only 3.2 ± 0.8% water absorption after storage at room temperature in ~80% relative humidity. Moreover, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy showed that DTPA penta-ethyl ester did not react with excipients during formation of the DTPA penta-ethyl ester-containing alginate beads. Release of prodrug from alginate beads was via anomalous transport, and its stability enhanced by encapsulation. Collectively, these data suggest that this solid dosage form may be suitable for oral administration after radionuclide contamination. PMID:23399237

  6. Enhancements in hepatobiliary imaging: the spectrum of gadolinium-ethoxybenzyl diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid usages in hepatobiliary magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Channual, Stephanie; Pahwa, Anokh; Lu, David S; Raman, Steven S

    2016-09-01

    Gadolinium-ethoxybenzyl diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (Gd-EOB-DTPA) is a unique hepatocyte-specific contrast agent approved for clinical use in the United States in 2008. Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MR has shown to improve detection and characterization of hepatic lesions. Gd-EOB-DTPA is now being routinely used in daily clinical practice worldwide. Therefore, it is important for radiologists to be familiar with the potential uses and pitfalls of Gd-EOB-DTPA, which extends beyond the assessment of focal hepatic lesions. The purpose of this article is to review the various usages of Gd-EOB-DTPA in hepatobiliary MR imaging. PMID:27225503

  7. Thermodynamic, spectroscopic, and computational studies of lanthanide complexation with Diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acide: temperature effect and coordination modes

    SciTech Connect

    Guoxin Tian; Leigh R. Martin; Zhiyong Zhang; Linfeng Rao

    2011-04-01

    Stability constants of two DTPA (diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid) complexes with lanthanides (ML2- and MHL-, where M stands for Nd and Eu and L stands for diethylenetriaminepentaacetate) at 10, 25, 40, 55, and 70 degrees C were determined by potentiometry, absorption spectrophotometry, and luminescence spectroscopy. The enthalpies of complexation at 25 degrees C were determined by microcalorimetry. Thermodynamic data show that the complexation of Nd3þ and Eu3þ with DTPA is weakened at higher temperatures, a 10-fold decrease in the stability constants of ML2- and MHL- as the temperature is increased from 10 to 70 degrees C. The effect of temperature is consistent with the exothermic enthalpy of complexation directly measured by microcalorimetry. Results by luminescence spectroscopy and density functional theory (DFT) calculations suggest that DTPA is octa-dentate in both the EuL2- and EuHL- complexes and, for the first time, the coordination mode in the EuHL- complex was clarified by integration of the experimental data and DFT calculations. In the EuHL- complex, the Eu is coordinated by an octa-dentate H(DTPA) ligand and a water molecule, and the protonation occurs on the oxygen of a carboxylate group.

  8. In vitro inhibition of human cytomegalovirus replication by calcium trinatrium diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid.

    PubMed

    Cinatl, J; Hoffmann, F; Cinatl, J; Weber, B; Scholz, M; Rabenau, H; Stieneker, F; Kabickova, H; Blasko, M; Doerr, H W

    1996-06-01

    Desferrioxamine (DFO) has been shown to inhibit human cytomegalovirus (CMV) replication in vitro. In the present study, we compared antiviral effects of DFO in human foreskin fibroblast (HFF) cells against several CMV strains with those of other chelators that interact with iron and other ions from different pools. DFO, a hydrophilic chelator, that may chelate both intracellular and extracellular ions inhibited production of CMV late antigen at 50% effective concentrations (EC50S) ranging from 6.2 to 8.9 microM. EC50S for calcium trinatrium diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (CaDTPA) ranged from 6.1 to 9.9 microM. EC50S for 2,2'-bipyridine (BPD), a hydrophobic chelator, which diffuses into cell membranes ranged from 65 to 72 microM. Concentrations which inhibited BrdU incorporation into cellular DNA by 50% (IC50S) ranged from 8.2 to 12.0 microM (DFO), from 65 to 89 microM (BPD), and from 139 to 249 microM (CaDTPA). CaDTPA was the only chelator which completely inhibited production of infectious virus in HFF and vascular endothelial cells at concentrations which had no significant effects on cellular DNA synthesis and growth. Addition of stoichiometric amounts of Fe3+ in the culture medium of HFF cells completely eliminated antiviral effects of DFO while antiviral effects of CaDTPA and BPD were only moderately affected. Fe2+ and Cu2+ were stronger inhibitors of CaDTPA than Fe3+; however, Mn2+ and Zn2+ completely suppressed antiviral effects of CaDTPA. The results show that CaDTPA is a novel nontoxic inhibitor of CMV replication. The antiviral activity of CaDTPA is suppressed by metal ions with a decreasing potency order of Mn2+/Zn2+ > Fe2+ > Cu2+ > Fe3+.

  9. Separation Nanotechnology of Diethylenetriaminepentaacetic Acid Bonded Magnetic Nanoparticles for Spent Nuclear Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Kaur, Maninder; Johnson, Andrew; Tian, Guoxin; Jiang, Weilin; Rao, Linfeng; Paszczynski, Andrzej; Qiang, You

    2013-01-01

    A nanomagnetic separation method based on Diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) conjugated with magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) is studied for application in spent nuclear fuel separation. The high affinity of DTPA towards actinides aids in separation from the highly acidic medium of nuclear waste. The solubility and magnetization of particles at low pH is protected by encapsulating them in silica layer. Surface functionalization of silica coated particles with polyamines enhances the loading capacity of the chelators on MNPs. The particles were characterized before and after surface modification using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), helium ion microscopy (HIM), Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR) spectrometry, and X-ray diffractometry. The coated and uncoated samples were studied using vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) to understand the change in magnetic properties due to the influence of the surface functionalization. The hydrodynamic size and surface charge of the particles are investigated using Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS). The uptake behavior of Am(III), Pu(IV), U(VI), and Np(V) from 0.1M NaNO3 solution was investigated. The sorption result shows the strong affinity of DTPA towards Am(III) and Pu(IV) by extracting 97% and 80% of actinides, respectively. The high removal efficiency and fast uptake of actinides make the chelator conjugated MNPs an effective method for spent nuclear fuel separation.

  10. Use of /sup 99m/Tc diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid for assessment of renal function in dogs with suspected renal disease

    SciTech Connect

    Krawiec, D.R.; Twardock, A.R.; Badertscher, R.R. II; Daniel, G.B.; Dugan, S.J.

    1988-04-15

    The effectiveness of technetium /sup 99m/-labeled diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (/sup 99m/Tc DTPA) to assess renal function in 13 dogs with suspected renal disease was evaluated. Glomerular filtration rates (actual GFR) were determined on the basis of endogenous creatinine clearance. Predicted GFR were determined by using /sup 99m/Tc DTPA within 72 hours after the determination of creatinine clearance. The percentage of an IV administered dose of /sup 99m/Tc DTPA in the kidneys (percentage dose) was determined. Two equations were used to calculate predicted GFR, which were derived from previously reported linear regression analysis of inulin (In) and creatinine (Cr) GFR vs percentage dose /sup 99m/Tc DTPA in dog kidneys. The correlations of actual GFR vs predicted GFR (In) and actual GFR vs predicted GFR (Cr) were both r = 0.92. The dogs' mean actual GFR was 1.73 +/- 1.35 ml/min/kg. Their mean predicted GFR (In) and predicted GFR (Cr) were 1.92 +/- 1.42 ml/min/kg and 1.85 +/- 1.27 ml/min/kg, respectively. Therefore, /sup 99m/Tc DTPA can be used with high accuracy as an agent to predict GFR in dogs with suspected renal disease. The procedure for determining GFR by use of nuclear medicine was rapid and noninvasive and appeared to induce little stress in the animals evaluated.

  11. Comparative evaluation of glutamate-sensitive radiopharmaceuticals: Technetium-99m-glutamic acid and technetium-99m-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid-bis(glutamate) conjugate for tumor imaging.

    PubMed

    Kakkar, Dipti; Tiwari, Anjani K; Chuttani, Krishna; Kaul, Ankur; Singh, Harpal; Mishra, Anil K

    2010-12-01

    Single-photon emission computed tomography has become a significant imaging modality with huge potential to visualize and provide information of anatomic dysfunctions that are predictive of future diseases. This imaging tool is complimented by radiopharmaceuticals/radiosubstrates that help in imaging specific physiological aspects of the human body. The present study was undertaken to explore the utility of technetium-99m (⁹⁹(m)Tc)-labeled glutamate conjugates for tumor scintigraphy. As part of our efforts to further utilize the application of chelating agents, glutamic acid was conjugated with a multidentate ligand, diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA). The DTPA-glutamate conjugate [DTPA-bis(Glu)] was well characterized by IR, NMR, and mass spectroscopy. The biological activity of glutamic acid was compared with its DTPA conjugate by radiocomplexation with ⁹⁹(m)Tc (labeling efficiency ≥98%). In vivo studies of both the radiolabeled complexes ⁹⁹(m)Tc-Glu and ⁹⁹(m)Tc-DTPA-bis(Glu) were then carried out, followed by gamma scintigraphy in New Zealand albino rabbits. Improved serum stability of ⁹⁹(m)Tc-labeled DTPA conjugate indicated that ⁹⁹(m)Tc remained bound to the conjugate up to 24 hours. Blood clearance showed a relatively slow washout of the DTPA conjugate when compared with the labeled glutamate. Biodistribution characteristics of the conjugate in Balb/c mice revealed that DTPA conjugation of glutamic acid favors less accumulation in the liver and bone and rapid renal clearance. Tumor scintigraphy in mice showed increasing tumor accumulation, stable up to 4 hours. These preliminary studies show that ⁹⁹(m)Tc-DTPA-bis(Glu) can be a useful radiopharmaceutical for diagnostic applications in single-photon emission computed tomography imaging.

  12. Ligand-modified polyelectrolyte-enhanced ultrafiltration with electrostatic attachment of ligands. 2. Use of diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid/cationic polyelectrolyte mixtures to remove both cations and anions from aqueous streams

    SciTech Connect

    Tuncay, M. Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK ); Christian, S.D.; Tucker, E.E.; Taylor, R.W.; Scamehorn, J.F. )

    1994-12-01

    A mixture of a cationic polyelectrolyte, poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) or PDADMAC, and the anionic ligand diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) can be added to aqueous streams as a water-soluble colloid to bind simultaneously divalent cations, such as Cu[sup 2+] and Pb[sup 2+], and anions, such as CrO[sub 4][sup 2[minus

  13. Effect of captopril on 99mTc-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid renograms in two-kidney, one clip hypertension

    SciTech Connect

    Nally, J.V. Jr.; Clarke, H.S. Jr.; Grecos, G.P.; Saunders, M.; Gross, M.L.; Potvin, W.J.; Windham, J.P.

    1986-08-01

    In an effort to improve on the noninvasive detection of renal artery stenosis, we investigated the effect of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition on computer-assisted /sup 99m/Tc-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) renal flow studies in a canine model of two-kidney, one clip hypertension and compared these findings with clearances of inulin and p-aminohippuric acid in the stenotic and contralateral kidney before and after converting enzyme inhibition. The /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA renal flow study with the converting enzyme inhibitor captopril (1.5 mg/kg bolus with 1.5 mg/min infusion) showed an increased sensitivity in the detection of unilateral renal artery stenosis over the use of the /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA study alone. Captopril induced striking alterations that were most evident in the 15-minute /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA renal flow study, in which all nine curves exhibited severely blunted uptake and excretion of the radionuclide. These changes were reversed during a recovery study without converting enzyme inhibition and were not seen when blood pressure was lowered with nitroprusside to a level similar to that observed during converting enzyme inhibition. The changes shown by the /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA study during converting enzyme inhibition correlated with a decrease in the glomerular filtration rate of the stenotic kidney. Captopril infusion significantly decreased the glomerular filtration rate of the stenotic kidney (16.0 +/- 3.1 vs 11.0 +/- 2.5 mg/min, p less than 0.03) but not of the contralateral kidney (32.4 +/- 2.6 vs 28.4 +/- 2.8 mg/min).

  14. Formulation for Tin-.sup.117m /diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acids

    DOEpatents

    Srivastava, Suresh C.; Meinken, George E.

    1999-01-01

    The invention provides improved formulations of .sup.117m Sn (Sn.sup.4+) DTPA which allow higher doses of .sup.117m Sn (Sn.sup.4+) to be administered than were previously possible. Methods for making pharmaceutical compositions comprising .sup.117m Sn (Sn.sup.4+) DTPA in which the amount of unchelated DTPA is minimized are disclosed along with methods of using the improved formlulations, both for palliation of bone pain associated with cancer and for treatment of osseous tumors.

  15. Evaluation of diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid-manganese(II) complexes modified by narrow molecular weight distribution of chitosan oligosaccharides as potential magnetic resonance imaging contrast agents.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yan; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Qi; Dai, Xueqin; Wu, Jingbo

    2011-05-01

    Novel conjugates of narrow molecular weight distribution of chitosan oligosaccharides (CSn; n=6, 8, 11) with manganese-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (Mn-DTPA) as potential magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents were synthesized. The structures were characterized by means of Fourier transform infrared spectra, (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance, size exclusion chromatography and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry. The characterization results showed that Mn-DTPA was successfully linked to aminated CSn by an amide function. The magnetic properties were characterized by in vitro and T(1)-weighted FLASH image experiments. Relaxivities studies indicated that Mn-DTPA-CSn (n=8, 11) provided higher relaxivity, either in aqueous or bovine serum albumin solution (0.725 mM), than commercial contrast agent Gd-DTPA. The stability results showed that Mn-DTPA-CSn in aqueous were stable enough to prevent Mn(II) ions from releasing. The preliminary in vitro and T(1)-weighted FLASH image studies suggested that Mn-DTPA-CSn had the advantage of becoming promising MRI contrast agents.

  16. Process for the manufacture of 117Sn diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acids

    DOEpatents

    Srivastava, Suresh C.; Li, Zizhong; Meinken, George

    2003-01-01

    Novel methods are provided for the manufacture of .sup.117m Sn(Sn.sup.4+) DTPA. The method allows the use of DTPA, a toxic chelating agent, in an approximately 1:1 ratio to .sup.117m Sn(Sn.sup.4+) via either aqueous conditions, or using various organic solvents, such as methylene chloride. A pharmaceutical composition manufactured by the novel method is also provided, as well as methods for treatment of bone tumors and pain associated with bone cancer using the pharmaceutical composition of the invention.

  17. Comparison of the Relative Renal Function Calculated with 99mTc-Diethylenetriaminepentaacetic Acid and 99mTc-Dimercaptosuccinic Acid in Children

    PubMed Central

    Çelik, Tanju; Yalçin, Hülya; Günay, Emel Ceylan; Özen, Aynur; Özer, Cahit

    2014-01-01

    The aim was to compare the relative renal functions measured with technetium-99m dimercaptosuccinic acid (99mTc-DMSA) and technetium-99m diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (99mTc-DTPA) in children with renal diseases. Relative renal function of 128 children who applied to three hospitals from 2009 to 2011 were analyzed retrospectively. The mean value measured with 99mTc-DTPA and 99mTc-DMSA were 51.58 ± 14.95 and 51.96 ± 14.99 for the right kidney, 47.87 ± 15.27 and 47.94 ± 15.17 for the left kidney, respectively. A significant positive correlation was found between the relative renal functions (r = 0.963, P < 0.001). In Bland-Altman plots, the mean difference between two methods was 0.7 and the correlation limits were between 10.1 and-10.8. As a result, although 99mTc-DMSA is accepted as the most reliable method for the determination of relative renal function, 99mTc-DTPA can be another choice for the calculation of relative renal function without a complementary DMSA scan particularly in pediatric patients who require renogram curve and GFR calculations. PMID:25538484

  18. Nucleation of calcium carbonate in presence of citric acid, DTPA, EDTA and pyromellitic acid.

    PubMed

    Westin, K-J; Rasmuson, A C

    2005-02-15

    The influence of four calcium complexing additives, i.e., citric acid (CIT), diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA), ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and pyromellitic acid (PMA), and their concentration on the induction time of calcium carbonate nucleation has been studied. The experiments were performed by rapidly mixing a sodium carbonate solution and a calcium chloride solution of various concentrations. The induction time was obtained by recording the white light absorption of the solution. Chemical speciation was used to estimate the initial thermodynamic driving force of each experiment. The induction time was found to increase with additive concentration. The effect varies from one additive to another. CIT causes the greatest increase in induction time and PMA the least. Using classical nucleation theory the experimental data were evaluated in terms of the interfacial energy. In pure water a value of 37.8 mJ m(-2) was obtained, showing good agreement with other works. CIT, DTPA and EDTA caused a notable increase of the interfacial energy at a concentration of 0.5 mmol l(-1). PMA does not appear to have any effect at all on the interfacial energy. Different mechanisms for the influence of the additives on the measured induction time and on the estimated interfacial energy are discussed. PMID:15589542

  19. Synthesis of diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid conjugated inulin and utility for cellular uptake of liposomes

    SciTech Connect

    Essien, H.; Lai, J.Y.; Hwang, K.J.

    1988-05-01

    The synthesis, binding of radioactive cations, liposomal encapsulation, and biodistribution of the oxidized-inulin reaction product with ethylenediamine and diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (4) are described. The four-step synthesis of the inulin derivative proceeded in a good overall yield of 72%. The complex of the inulin derivative with either /sup 67/Ga3+ or /sup 111/In3+ was stable in vivo and did not readily distribute into tissues, being excreted primarily in urine after intravenous administration to mice. The liposome-entrapped inulin derivative can be loaded with radioactive heavy metal cations by mobile ionophores in high radiochemical yields of 80-91%. Following the intravenous administration of the liposomal encapsulation of the indium-111-labeled inulin derivative, the entrapped compound had a biodistribution characteristic of liposomes and allowed an estimation of the extent of the intracellular uptake of liposomes. The ability of the inulin derivative to chelate many different types of metals will allow the use of this probe for studying subtle differences in tissue distribution resulting from different drug targeting or delivery protocols in the same animal by multiple labeling techniques. Moreover, the chelate-conjugated inulin permits studies of the applications of drug delivery systems in primates or human subjects by noninvasive techniques such as gamma-scintigraphic or nuclear magnetic resonance imaging methods.

  20. Chelation in metal intoxication. XIII. Polyaminocarboxylic acids as chelators in lead poisoning

    SciTech Connect

    Tandon, S.K.; Behari, J.R.; Singh, S.

    1983-01-01

    Diethylene-triaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA), nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA) and hydroxyethylene-diaminetriacetic acid (HEDTA) were investigated for their ability to reduce Pb body burden and to restore altered urinary and blood parameters in Pb-poisoned rats.

  1. Thermodynamic study of the complexation of protactinium(V) with diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid.

    PubMed

    Mendes, Mickaël; Leguay, Sébastien; Le Naour, Claire; Hamadi, Séna; Roques, Jérôme; Moisy, Philippe; Guillaumont, Dominique; Topin, Sylvain; Aupiais, Jean; Den Auwer, Christophe; Hennig, Christoph

    2013-07-01

    The complex formation of protactinium(V) with DTPA was studied at different temperatures (25-50 °C) and ionic strengths (0.1-1 M) with the element at tracer scale. Irrespective of the temperature and ionic strength studied, only one neutral complex with (1:1) stoichiometry was identified from solvent extraction and capillary electrophoresis coupled to ICP-MS (CE-ICP-MS) experiments. Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations revealed that two complexes can be considered: Pa(DTPA) and PaO(H2DTPA). The associated formation constants were determined from solvent extraction data at different ionic strengths and temperatures and then extrapolated to zero ionic strength by SIT methodology. These constants are valid, regardless of complex form, Pa(DTPA) or PaO(H2DTPA). The standard thermodynamic data determined with these extrapolated constants revealed a very stable complex formed energetically by an endothermic contribution which is counter balanced by a strong entropic contribution. Both, the positive enthalpy and entropy energy terms suggest the formation of an inner sphere complex.

  2. Thermodynamic study of the complexation of protactinium(V) with diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid.

    PubMed

    Mendes, Mickaël; Leguay, Sébastien; Le Naour, Claire; Hamadi, Séna; Roques, Jérôme; Moisy, Philippe; Guillaumont, Dominique; Topin, Sylvain; Aupiais, Jean; Den Auwer, Christophe; Hennig, Christoph

    2013-07-01

    The complex formation of protactinium(V) with DTPA was studied at different temperatures (25-50 °C) and ionic strengths (0.1-1 M) with the element at tracer scale. Irrespective of the temperature and ionic strength studied, only one neutral complex with (1:1) stoichiometry was identified from solvent extraction and capillary electrophoresis coupled to ICP-MS (CE-ICP-MS) experiments. Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations revealed that two complexes can be considered: Pa(DTPA) and PaO(H2DTPA). The associated formation constants were determined from solvent extraction data at different ionic strengths and temperatures and then extrapolated to zero ionic strength by SIT methodology. These constants are valid, regardless of complex form, Pa(DTPA) or PaO(H2DTPA). The standard thermodynamic data determined with these extrapolated constants revealed a very stable complex formed energetically by an endothermic contribution which is counter balanced by a strong entropic contribution. Both, the positive enthalpy and entropy energy terms suggest the formation of an inner sphere complex. PMID:23767403

  3. Effectiveness and Toxicity of Several DTPA Broadening Agents for Biological ESR Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaplatin, A. N.; Baker, Kent A.; Kleinhans, F. W.

    1996-03-01

    The effectiveness of a standard ESR broadening agent, potassium trioxalatochromiate (CrOx), for use with the spin-label tempone, was compared to that of diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) containing an ion (Gd, Cr, Mn, Fe) with a large magnetic moment. Signal attenuation, line broadening, toxicity, and cell membrane permeability were compared. As a broadening agent, CrOx was most effective, followed by Fe-DTPA. CrOx proved mildly toxic while Gd-DTPA and Fe-DTPA were virtually nontoxic. The human red blood cell membrane was tested for permeability to Fe- and Gd-DTPA and found to be impermeable to both. In situations where toxicity to cells is critical, the DTPA chelates, particularly Fe-DTPA, may prove an acceptable substitute for CrOx.

  4. Iron(III) diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid complex on polyallylamine functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes: immobilization, direct electrochemistry and electrocatalysis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hailing; Cui, Yanyun; Li, Pan; Zhou, Yiming; Zhu, Xiaoshu; Tang, Yawen; Chen, Yu; Lu, Tianhong

    2013-05-01

    A nonenzymatic iron(III) diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (Fe(III)-DETPA) complex based amperometric sensor for the analytical determination of hydrogen peroxide was developed. By combining the electrostatic interaction between the Fe(III)-DETPA complex and polyallylamine (PAH) functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) as well as the ionotropic crosslinking interaction between PAH and ethylenediamine-tetramethylene phosphonic acid (EDTMP), the electroactive Fe(III)-DETPA complex was successfully incorporated within the MWCNT matrix, and firmly immobilized on the Au substrate electrode. The fabricated electrochemical sensor was characterized with scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and electrochemical methods. The influences of solution pH and ionic strength on the electrochemical sensor were investigated. The prepared electrochemical sensor had a fast response to hydrogen peroxide (<3 s) and an excellent linear range of concentration from 1.25 × 10(-8) to 4.75 × 10(-3) M with a detection limit of 6.3 × 10(-9) M under the optimum conditions.

  5. Spectrophotometric determination and removal of unchelated europium ions from solutions containing Eu-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid chelate-peptide conjugates.

    PubMed

    Elshan, N G R Dayan; Patek, Renata; Vagner, Josef; Mash, Eugene A

    2014-11-01

    Europium chelates conjugated with peptide ligands are routinely used as probes for conducting in vitro binding experiments. The presence of unchelated Eu ions in these formulations gives high background luminescence and can lead to poor results in binding assays. In our experience, the reported methods for purification of these probes do not achieve adequate removal of unchelated metal ions in a reliable manner. In this work, a xylenol orange-based assay for the quantification of unchelated metal ions was streamlined and used to determine levels of metal ion contamination as well as the success of metal ion removal on attempted purification. We compared the use of Empore chelating disks and Chelex 100 resin for the selective removal of unchelated Eu ions from several Eu-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid chelate-peptide conjugates. Both purification methods gave complete and selective removal of the contaminant metal ions. However, Empore chelating disks were found to give much higher recoveries of the probes under the conditions used. Related to the issue of probe recovery, we also describe a significantly more efficient method for the synthesis of one such probe using Rink amide AM resin in place of Tentagel S resin.

  6. Gd-DTPA-loaded polymer-metal complex micelles with high relaxivity for MR cancer imaging.

    PubMed

    Mi, Peng; Cabral, Horacio; Kokuryo, Daisuke; Rafi, Mohammad; Terada, Yasuko; Aoki, Ichio; Saga, Tsuneo; Takehiko, Ishii; Nishiyama, Nobuhiro; Kataoka, Kazunori

    2013-01-01

    Nanodevices for magnetic resonance imaging of cancer were self-assembled to core-shell micellar structures by metal complex formation of K(2)PtCl(6) with diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid gadolinium (III) dihydrogen (Gd-DTPA), a T(1)-contrast agent, and poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly{N-[N'-(2-aminoethyl)-2-aminoethyl]aspartamide} (PEG-b-PAsp(DET)) copolymer in aqueous solution. Gd-DTPA-loaded polymeric micelles (Gd-DTPA/m) showed a hydrodynamic diameter of 45 nm and a core size of 22 nm. Confining Gd-DTPA inside the core of the micelles increased the relaxivity of Gd-DTPA more than 13 times (48 mM(-1) s(-1)). In physiological conditions Gd-DTPA/m sustainedly released Gd-DTPA, while the Pt(IV) complexes remain bound to the polymer. Gd-DTPA/m extended the circulation time in plasma and augmented the tumor accumulation of Gd-DTPA leading to successful contrast enhancement of solid tumors. μ-Synchrotron radiation-X-ray fluorescence results confirmed that Gd-DTPA was delivered to the tumor site by the micelles. Our study provides a facile strategy for incorporating contrast agents, dyes and bioactive molecules into nanodevices for developing safe and efficient drug carriers for clinical application.

  7. Paramagnetic Gd IIIFe III heterobimetallic complexes of DTPA-bis-salicylamide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aime, S.; Botta, M.; Fasano, M.; Terreno, E.

    1993-08-01

    The reaction between DTPA (diethylenetriaminepenta-acetic acid)-anhydride and p-aminosalicylic acid (PAS) affords a novel ligand, [DTPA(PAS) 2], able to form stable heterobimetallic complexes with Gd 3+ and Fe 3+ ions. The lanthanide ion occupies an internal coordination cage formed by three nitrogen atoms, two carboxylate and two carboxoamido groups of the ligand, whereas the outer salicylic moieties form stable chelate rings with Fe III ions. The stoichiometry of the resulting heterobimetallic complexes, established by measurements of water proton relaxation enhancement, is [(H 2O)-Gd-DTPA(PAS) 2] 2-Fe(H 2O) 2 or [(H 2O)-Gd-DTPA(PAS) 2] 3-Fe depending on the pH of the aqueous solution. The individual contributions to the observed relaxation enhancement from Gd 3+ and Fe 3+ paramagnetic ions have been clearly distinguished and analysed.

  8. Species-dependent effective concentration of DTPA in plasma for chelation of 241Am

    PubMed Central

    Sueda, Katsuhiko; Sadgrove, Matthew P.; Jay, Michael; Di Pasqua, Anthony J.

    2013-01-01

    Diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) is a chelating agent that is used to facilitate the elimination of radionuclides, such as americium, from contaminated individuals. Its primary site of action is in the blood, where it competes with various biological ligands, including transferrin and albumin, for the binding of radioactive metals. To evaluate the chelation potential of DTPA under these conditions, the competitive binding of 241Am between DTPA and plasma proteins was studied in rat, beagle and human plasma in vitro. Following incubation of DTPA and 241Am in plasma, the 241Am-bound ligands were fractionated by ultrafiltration and ion-exchange chromatography, and each fraction was assayed for 241Am content by gamma scintillation counting. Dose-response curves of DTPA for 241Am binding were established, and these models were used to calculate the 90% maximal effective concentration, or EC90, of DTPA in each plasma system. The EC90 were determined to be 31.4, 15.9 and 10.0 μM in rat, beagle and human plasma, respectively. These values correspond to plasma concentrations of DTPA that maximize 241Am chelation while minimizing excess DTPA. Based on the pharmacokinetic profile of DTPA in humans, after a standard 30 μmol kg−1 intravenous bolus injection, the plasma concentration of DTPA remains above EC90 for approximately 5.6 h. Likewise, the effective duration of DTPA in rat and beagle were determined to be 0.67 and 1.7 h, respectively. These results suggest that species differences must be considered when translating DTPA efficacy data from animals to humans and offer further insights into improving the current DTPA treatment regimen. PMID:23799506

  9. Speciation studies on DTPA using the complementary nature of electrospray ionization mass spectrometry and time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence.

    PubMed

    Moulin, Christophe; Amekraz, Badia; Steiner, Valerie; Plancque, Gabriel; Ansoborlo, Eric

    2003-09-01

    Decorporation of radionuclides is of continuous interest in order to reduce doses in case of occupational or accidental human exposure. In the present study, insights into the non-covalent interactions that hold the well-known chelating agent DTPA (diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid) with inorganic elements of interest, such as europium and strontium, and their ability to form stable complexes, are investigated with two spectroscopic techniques, i.e., electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) and time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence (TRLIF). First investigations are on DTPA and europium alone and end with a complete study of the Eu-DTPA system. The pH variation allows one to readily investigate whether different species (protonated, hydrolyzed, etc.) exist in the pH range 2-9 and evaluate the stoichiometry and conditional stability constant for the Eu-DTPA complex. Additional experiments by ESI-MS are reported for Sr(II) in interaction with DTPA and EDTA.

  10. 76 FR 51992 - Determination That PENTETATE ZINC TRISODIUM (Zinc Trisodium Diethylenetriaminepentaacetate...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-19

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Determination That PENTETATE ZINC TRISODIUM (Zinc Trisodium... Administration (FDA) has determined that PENTETATE ZINC TRISODIUM (zinc trisodium diethylenetriaminepentaacetate... PENTETATE ZINC TRISODIUM (Zn-DTPA) solution for intravenous or inhalation administration (EQ 1 g base/5...

  11. Selectivity enhancements for the determination of thorium by flow-injection analysis through the formation of the Th-DTPA-HQS fluorescent ternary complex.

    PubMed

    Ye, L; Lucy, C A

    1996-06-01

    Addition of diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) to the fluorescent binary complex of thorium and 8-hydroxyquinoline-5-sulfonic acid (HQS) forms the Th-DTPA-HQS fluorescent ternary complex. The formation of this ternary complex enhances the selectivity for the determination of thorium. Excesses of DTPA and HQS are used as reagents in flow-injection analysis to detect thorium. The excess DTPA effectively masks potentially interfering ions by preventing the formation of fluorescent binary metal-HQS complexes. The presence of lanthanides and transition metals does not interfere with the thorium detection with this method (the ratio of molar intensity for metals to molar intensity for thorium is <0.3% with the exception of lutetium, for which molar intensity ratio is 1.34%). The detection limit for thorium is 12 ng ml(-1).

  12. Concise site-specific synthesis of DTPA-peptide conjugates: application to imaging probes for the chemokine receptor CXCR4.

    PubMed

    Masuda, Ryo; Oishi, Shinya; Ohno, Hiroaki; Kimura, Hiroyuki; Saji, Hideo; Fujii, Nobutaka

    2011-05-15

    Diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) is a useful chelating agent for radionuclides such as (68)Ga, (99m)Tc and (111)In, which are applicable to nuclear medicine imaging. In this study, we established a facile synthetic protocol for the production of mono-DTPA-conjugated peptide probes. A novel monoreactive DTPA precursor reagent was synthesized in two steps using the chemistry of the o-nitrobenzenesulfonyl (Ns) protecting group, and under mild conditions this DTPA precursor was incorporated onto an N(ε)-bromoacetylated Lys of a protected peptide resin. The site-specific DTPA conjugation was facilitated by using a highly acid-labile 4-methyltrityl (Mtt) protecting group for the target site of the bioactive peptide during the solid-phase synthesis. A combination of both techniques yielded peptides with disulfide bonds, such as octreotide and polyphemusin II-derived CXCR4 antagonists. DTPA-peptide conjugates were purified in a single step following cleavage from the resin and disulfide bond formation. This site-specific on-resin construction strategy was used for the design and synthesis of a novel In-DTPA-labeled CXCR4 antagonist, which exhibited highly potent inhibitory activity against SDF-1-CXCR4 binding.

  13. Decorporation of Pu/Am Actinides by Chelation Therapy: New Arguments in Favor of an Intracellular Component of DTPA Action.

    PubMed

    Grémy, Olivier; Laurent, David; Coudert, Sylvie; Griffiths, Nina M; Miccoli, Laurent

    2016-06-01

    Diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) is currently still the only known chelating drug that can be used for decorporation of internalized plutonium (Pu) and americium (Am). It is generally assumed that chelation occurs only in biological fluids, thus preventing Pu/Am deposition in target tissues. We postulate that actinide chelation may also occur inside cells by a mechanism called "intracellular chelation". To test this hypothesis, rats were given DTPA either prior to (termed "prophylactic" treatment) or belatedly after (termed "delayed" treatment) Pu/Am injection. DTPA decorporation efficacy was systematically tested for both plutonium and americium. Both prophylactic and delayed DTPA elicited marked decreases in liver Pu/Am. These results can be explained by chelation within subcellular compartments where DTPA efficacy increased as a function of a favorable intracellular DTPA-to-actinide molar ratio. The efficacy of intracellular chelation of liver actinides decreased with the delay of treatment. This is probably explained by progressive actinide binding to the high-affinity ligand ferritin followed by migration to lysosomes. Intracellular chelation was reduced as the gap between prophylactic treatment and contamination increased. This may be explained by the reduction of the intracellular DTPA pool, which declined exponentially with time. Skeletal Pu/Am was also reduced by prophylactic and delayed DTPA treatments. This decorporation of bone actinides may mainly result from extracellular chelation on bone surfaces. This work provides converging evidence for the involvement of an intracellular component of DTPA action in the decorporation process. These results may help to improve the interpretation of biological data from DTPA-treated contamination cases and could be useful to model DTPA therapy regimens.

  14. Decorporation of Pu/Am Actinides by Chelation Therapy: New Arguments in Favor of an Intracellular Component of DTPA Action.

    PubMed

    Grémy, Olivier; Laurent, David; Coudert, Sylvie; Griffiths, Nina M; Miccoli, Laurent

    2016-06-01

    Diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) is currently still the only known chelating drug that can be used for decorporation of internalized plutonium (Pu) and americium (Am). It is generally assumed that chelation occurs only in biological fluids, thus preventing Pu/Am deposition in target tissues. We postulate that actinide chelation may also occur inside cells by a mechanism called "intracellular chelation". To test this hypothesis, rats were given DTPA either prior to (termed "prophylactic" treatment) or belatedly after (termed "delayed" treatment) Pu/Am injection. DTPA decorporation efficacy was systematically tested for both plutonium and americium. Both prophylactic and delayed DTPA elicited marked decreases in liver Pu/Am. These results can be explained by chelation within subcellular compartments where DTPA efficacy increased as a function of a favorable intracellular DTPA-to-actinide molar ratio. The efficacy of intracellular chelation of liver actinides decreased with the delay of treatment. This is probably explained by progressive actinide binding to the high-affinity ligand ferritin followed by migration to lysosomes. Intracellular chelation was reduced as the gap between prophylactic treatment and contamination increased. This may be explained by the reduction of the intracellular DTPA pool, which declined exponentially with time. Skeletal Pu/Am was also reduced by prophylactic and delayed DTPA treatments. This decorporation of bone actinides may mainly result from extracellular chelation on bone surfaces. This work provides converging evidence for the involvement of an intracellular component of DTPA action in the decorporation process. These results may help to improve the interpretation of biological data from DTPA-treated contamination cases and could be useful to model DTPA therapy regimens. PMID:27195610

  15. Interaction of Gd-DTPA with phosphate and phosphite: toward the reaction intermediate in nephrogenic systemic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Gao, Song; George, Simon J; Zhou, Zhao-Hui

    2016-03-28

    Direct reactions of the MRI contrast agent K2[Gd(DTPA)(H2O)]·5H2O (1) (H5DTPA = diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid) with dipotassium hydrogen phosphate (K2HPO4) or phosphite (K2HPO3) result in the isolation of well-defined Gd-DTPA phosphite K6[Gd2(DTPA)2(HPO3)]·7H2O (2) or phosphate K6[Gd2(DTPA)2(HPO4)]·10H2O (3), respectively. Their lanthanum analogs K4[La2(DTPA)2(H2O)]·8H2O (4), K6[La2(DTPA)2(HPO3)]·7H2O (5) and K6[La2(DTPA)2(HPO4)]·10H2O (6) are used for comparison. The phosphate and phosphite groups are able to substitute the coordinated water molecules in 1 and 4 in a close physiological aqueous solution, and act as bridging ligands to link adjacent Ln(DTPA)(2-) (Ln = Gd and La) into dimeric structures. Solid state and solution (13)C NMR spectra of dimer 4 show complete dissociation into its monomeric species in solution, while no dissociation is observed for lanthanum phosphite 5 and phosphate 6 in solution, which show only one set of (13)C spectra with the largest downfield shifts at 182.0 and 182.3 ppm respectively. Comparisons of the bond distances and spectral data indicate that the interaction between DTPA and central Ln(3+) cations are weakened after the substitutions, which support phosphate substituted Gd-DTPA as an initial intermediate in nephrogenic systemic fibrosis. PMID:26906409

  16. Fabrication and Characterization of Gd-DTPA-Loaded Chitosan-Poly(Acrylic Acid) Nanoparticles for Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Arsalan; Zhang, Chao; Guo, Jian; Hu, Yong; Jiang, Xiqun

    2015-08-01

    Gd-DTPA-loaded chitosan-poly(acrylic acid) nanoparticles (Gd-DTPA@CS-PAA NPs) were formulated based on the reaction system of water-soluble polymer-monomer pairs of acrylic acid in chitosan solution followed by sorption of Gd-DTPA. Morphological investigations revealed the spherical shape of these NPs with about 220 nm particle size. These NPs showed charge reversal characteristic in acidic solution. In vitro and in vivo magnetic characteristics of these NPs were explored to estimate their utilization in targeted enhanced magnetic resonance imaging. Relaxation studies showed that these NPs possessed pH susceptible relaxation properties, which could introduce in vivo-specific distribution of contrast agent. MRI experiment showed that these nanoparticles had better results in contrast enhancement, and the concentration of contrast agent increased in liver and brain with increment in time. Thus, these NPs could maintain in vivo long circulation and high relaxation rate and were suitable agents for magnetic resonance imaging.

  17. [55Co]- and [64Cu]DTPA: new radiopharmaceuticals for quantitative tomocisternography.

    PubMed

    Mazière, B; Stulzaft, O; Verret, J M; Comar, D; Syrota, A

    1983-03-01

    The diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) complexes of the convenient half-life positron emitters 55Co and 64Cu have been prepared for quantitation of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) kinetics in different areas of the brain using positron emission tomography. The radionuclides are prepared by proton bombardment of natural nickel (58Ni(p, alpha)55 Co and 64Ni (p,n)64Cu reactions). The chemical separation of the radionuclides from the target is described, and the production yields, radionuclidic purities and specific activities are given. PMID:6602099

  18. Orally administered DTPA penta-ethyl ester for the decorporation of inhaled 241Am

    PubMed Central

    Sueda, Katsuhiko; Sadgrove, Matthew P.; Huckle, James E.; Leed, Marina G. D.; Weber, Waylon M.; Doyle-Eisele, Melanie; Guilmette, Raymond A.; Jay, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) is an effective decorporation agent to facilitate the elimination of radionuclides from the body, but its permeability-limited oral bioavailability limits its utility in mass-casualty emergencies. To overcome this limitation, a prodrug strategy using the penta-ethyl ester form of DTPA is under investigation. Pharmacokinetic and biodistribution studies were conducted in rats by orally administering [14C]DTPA penta-ethyl ester, and this prodrug and its hydrolysis products were analyzed as a single entity. Compared to a previous reporting of intravenously administered DTPA, the oral administration of this prodrug resulted in a sustained plasma concentration profile with higher plasma exposure and lower clearance. An assessment of the urine composition revealed that the bioactivation was extensive but incomplete, with no detectable levels of the penta- or tetra-ester forms. Tissue distribution at 12 h was limited, with approximately 73% of the administered dose being associated with the gastrointestinal tract. In the efficacy study, rats were exposed to aerosols of 241Am nitrate before receiving a single oral treatment of the prodrug. The urinary excretion of 241Am was found to be 19% higher than with the control. Consistent with prior reports of DTPA, the prodrug was most effective when the treatment delays were minimized. PMID:24619514

  19. Hydrothermally synthesized PEGylated calcium phosphate nanoparticles incorporating Gd-DTPA for contrast enhanced MRI diagnosis of solid tumors.

    PubMed

    Mi, Peng; Kokuryo, Daisuke; Cabral, Horacio; Kumagai, Michiaki; Nomoto, Takahiro; Aoki, Ichio; Terada, Yasuko; Kishimura, Akihiro; Nishiyama, Nobuhiro; Kataoka, Kazunori

    2014-01-28

    Organic-inorganic hybrid nanoparticles with calcium phosphate (CaP) core and PEGylated shell were developed to incorporate magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agent diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid gadolinium (III) (Gd-DTPA) for noninvasive diagnosis of solid tumors. A two-step preparation method was applied to elaborate hybrid nanoparticles with a z-average hydrodynamic diameter about 80nm, neutral surface ξ-potential and high colloidal stability in physiological environments by self-assembly of poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(aspartic acid) block copolymer, Gd-DTPA, and CaP in aqueous solution, followed with hydrothermal treatment. Incorporation into the hybrid nanoparticles allowed Gd-DTPA to show significant enhanced retention ratio in blood circulation, leading to high accumulation in tumor positions due to enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect. Moreover, Gd-DTPA revealed above 6 times increase of relaxivity in the nanoparticle system compared to free form, and eventually, selective and elevated contrast enhancements in the tumor positions were observed. These results indicate the high potential of Gd-DTPA-loaded PEGylated CaP nanoparticles as a novel contrast agent for noninvasive cancer diagnosis. PMID:24211705

  20. Liver fibrosis and Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI: A histopathologic correlation.

    PubMed

    Verloh, Niklas; Utpatel, Kirsten; Haimerl, Michael; Zeman, Florian; Fellner, Claudia; Fichtner-Feigl, Stefan; Teufel, Andreas; Stroszczynski, Christian; Evert, Matthias; Wiggermann, Philipp

    2015-01-01

    Gadolinium ethoxybenzyl-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (Gd-EOB-DTPA) is a hepatocyte-specific MRI contrast agent. Because the hepatic uptake of Gd-EOB-DTPA depends on the integrity of the hepatocyte mass, this uptake can be quantified to assess liver function. We report the relationship between the extent of Gd-EOB-DTPA uptake and the degree of liver fibrosis. T1-weighted volume-interpolated breath-hold examination (VIBE) sequences with fat suppression were acquired before and 20 minutes after contrast injection. Strong correlations of the uptake characteristics of Gd-EOB-DTPA with the relative enhancement (RE) of the liver parenchyma and the grade of fibrosis/cirrhosis, classified using the Ishak scoring system, were observed. The subdivisions between the grades of liver fibrosis based on RE were highly significant for all combinations, and a ROC revealed sensitivities ≥82% and specificities ≥87% for all combinations. MR imaging is a satisfactorily sensitive method for the assessment of liver fibrosis/cirrhosis. PMID:26478097

  1. Effectiveness of DTPA treatments following the injection of particulate plutonium.

    PubMed

    Bruenger, F W; Taylor, D M; Taylor, G N; Lloyd, R D

    1991-11-01

    A limited long-term experiment has been completed in which the chronic toxicity resulting from a single intravenous injection of 31.4 kBq of a poly-disperse 239Pu colloid sol per kg of body weight was tested in Beagle dogs. The Pu deposited mostly in the phagocytic cells of liver, spleen and to a lesser degree in lung and bone marrow. Slow solubilization of the Pu particles by endogenous ligands caused translocation of the nuclide and redeposition mostly as monomeric Pu in the skeleton and in liver hepatocytes. Thus, the deposit behaved as expected from a pulmonary or wound contamination in humans with a moderately soluble depot of Pu such as Class W hot particles. Therefore, this type of deposit provided the basis for a practical model to study the ensuing radiation effects under various experimental conditions. The dogs were divided into three groups of four animals each, and the following conditions were applied: (a) no further treatment was given, allowing free translocation of the Pu to its secondary deposition sites; (b) interception of the Pu translocation by weekly injections of 30 mumol of Ca-DTPA/kg of body weight (Ca-chelate of diethylene-triaminepentaacetic acid); and (c) interception of translocation by daily injections of 30 mumol/kg body weight of Zn-DTPA. For each of the groups (b) and (c), three dogs were used in a lifetime study, and one was sacrificed for nuclide distribution studies. Free translocation and subsequent deposition in the skeleton resulted in the death of each of the non-chelated dogs from osteosarcoma between 1267 and 1594 days after injection. Weekly treatment with Ca-DTPA reduced the total Pu burden significantly, but these dogs also died with osteosarcoma between 1462 and 1783 days. Daily injections with Zn-DTPA reduced the total Pu burden more efficiently than Ca-DTPA and prevented continuous deposition of solubilized Pu on bone surfaces. The mean post-injection survival of these dogs was 3520 days or about 2.1 times that of

  2. Species-dependent chelation of (241)Am by DTPA Di-ethyl ester.

    PubMed

    Huckle, James E; Sadgrove, Matthew P; Mumper, Russell J; Jay, Michael

    2015-04-01

    Diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) is an FDA-approved chelating agent for enhancing the elimination of transuranic elements such as americium from the body. Early access to therapy minimizes deposition of these radionuclides in tissues such as the bone. Due to its poor oral bioavailability, DTPA is administered as an IV injection, delaying access. Therefore, a diethyl-ester analog of DTPA, named C2E2, was synthesized as a means to increase oral absorption. As a hexadentate ligand, it was hypothesized that C2E2 was capable of binding americium directly. Therefore, the protonation constants and americium stability constant for C2E2 were determined by potentiometric titration and a solvent extraction method, respectively. C2E2 was shown to bind americium with a log K of 19.6. The concentrations of C2E2, its metabolite C2E1, and DTPA required to achieve effective binding in rat, beagle, and human plasma were studied in vitro. Dose response curves for each ligand were established, and the 50% maximal effective concentrations were determined for each species. As expected, higher concentrations of C2E2 were required to achieve the same degree of binding as DTPA. The results indicated that chelation in beagle plasma is more representative of the human response than rats. Finally, the pharmacokinetics of C2E2 were investigated in beagles, and the data was fit to a two-compartment model with elimination from the central compartment, along with first-order absorption. Based on the in vitro data, a 100 mg kg dose of C2E2 can be expected to have an effective duration of action of 3.8 h in beagles. PMID:25706138

  3. Species-Dependent Chelation of 241Am by DTPA Di-ethyl Ester

    PubMed Central

    Huckle, James E.; Sadgrove, Matthew P.; Mumper, Russell J.; Jay, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) is an FDA approved chelating agent for enhancing the elimination of transuranic elements such as americium from the body. Early access to therapy minimizes deposition of these radionuclides in tissues such as the bone. Due to its poor oral bioavailability, DTPA is administered as an IV injection, delaying access. Therefore a diethyl-ester analog of DTPA, named C2E2, was synthesized as a means to increase oral absorption. As a hexadentate ligand, it was hypothesized that C2E2 was capable of binding americium directly. Therefore, the protonation constants and americium stability constant for C2E2 were determined by potentiometric titration and a solvent extraction method, respectively. C2E2 was shown to bind americium with a log K of 19.6. The concentrations of C2E2, its metabolite C2E1, and DTPA required to achieve effective binding in rat, beagle, and human plasma were studied in vitro. Dose response curves for each ligand were established and the 50% maximal effective concentrations were determined for each species. As expected, higher concentrations of C2E2 were required to achieve the same degree of binding as DTPA. The results indicated that chelation in beagle plasma is more representative of the human response than rats. Finally, the pharmacokinetics of C2E2 were investigated in beagles and the data was fit to a two-compartment model with elimination from the central compartment, along with first-order absorption. Based on the in vitro data, a 100 mg kg−1 dose of C2E2 can be expected to have an effective duration of action of 3.8 hours in beagles. PMID:25706138

  4. Acute myocardial ischemia and reperfusion: MR imaging with albumin-Gd-DTPA

    SciTech Connect

    Schmiedl, U.; Sievers, R.E.; Brasch, R.C.; Wolfe, C.L.; Chew, W.M.; Ogan, M.D.; Engeseth, H.; Lipton, M.J.; Moseley, M.E.

    1989-02-01

    The utility of a macromolecular, intravascular contrast agent, albumin-gadolinium diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA), for the differentiation of acutely ischemic and reperfused myocardium on magnetic resonance (MR) images was investigated. Regional, reversible myocardial ischemia was produced in rats and confirmed. After reperfusion, flow to the compromised myocardial segment returned to baseline. Normal myocardium could not be differentiated from ischemic myocardium on nonenhanced MR images (n = 12). After 5 minutes of myocardial ischemia and after administration of albumin-Gd-DTPA, the ischemic zone involving the free wall of the left ventricle was characterized by the absence of significant enhancement. Normal myocardium appeared homogeneously enhanced (by 145%). This pattern persisted for up to 1 hour of myocardial ischemia. In six rats that underwent myocardial reperfusion after 5 minutes of ischemia, the normal and reperfused myocardium became isointense. Radiotracer studies with albumin-Gd-153-DTPA confirmed the decreased distribution of contrast agent to the ischemic myocardium, possibly due to decreased blood pool or a blocked primary delivery system in the ischemic myocardium.

  5. Cholesterol-diethylenetriaminepentaacetate complexed with thulium ions integrated into bicelles to increase their magnetic alignability.

    PubMed

    Liebi, Marianne; Kuster, Simon; Kohlbrecher, Joachim; Ishikawa, Takashi; Fischer, Peter; Walde, Peter; Windhab, Erich J

    2013-11-27

    Lanthanides have been used for several decades to increase the magnetic alignability of bicelles. DMPE-DTPA (1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-ethanolamine-diethylenetriaminepentaacetate) is commonly applied to anchor the lanthanides into the bicelles. However, because DMPE-DTPA has the tendency to accumulate at the highly curved edge region of the bicelles and if located there does not contribute to the magnetic orientation energy, we have tested cholesterol-DTPA complexed with thulium ions (Tm(3+)) as an alternative chelator to increase the magnetic alignability. Differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) measurements indicate the successful integration of cholesterol-DTPA into a DMPC (1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine) bilayer. Cryo transmission electron microscopy and small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) measurements show that the disklike structure, that is, bicelles, is maintained if cholesterol-DTPA·Tm(3+) is integrated into a mixture of DMPC, cholesterol, and DMPE-DTPA·Tm(3+). The size of the bicelles is increased compared to the size of the bicelles obtained from mixtures without cholesterol-DTPA·Tm(3+). Magnetic-field-induced birefringence and SANS measurements in a magnetic field show that with addition of cholesterol-DTPA·Tm(3+) the magnetic alignability of these bicelles is significantly increased compared to bicelles composed of DMPC, cholesterol, and DMPE-DTPA·Tm(3+) only.

  6. Variability in soil micronutrients extracted by DTPA and Mehlich-3 at the plot scale in an acidic environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paz-Ferreiro, Jorge; Lado, Marcos; de Abreu, Cleide A.

    2014-05-01

    Land use practices affect soil properties and nutrient supply. Very limited data are available on micronutrient extractability in northwest Spain. The aim of this study was to analyse long-term effects of land use on the concentration, variability and spatial distribution of soil nutrients. To this end, neighboring forest and cultivated stands were compared. The study was carried out in an acid, rich in organic matter soil developed over sediments at the province of Lugo, northwestern of Spain. Adjacent plots with a surface of 100 m2 were marked on regular square grids with 2-m spacing. Fe, Mn, Zn and Cu were extracted both by Mehlich-3 and DTPA solutions and determined by ICP-MS. General soil chemical and physical properties were routinely analyzed. In arable land, microelement concentration ranges were as follows: Fe (100 and 135 mg kg-1), Mn (7.6 and 21.5 mg kg-1), Zn (0.6 and 3.7 mg kg-1), and Cu (0.2 and 0.7 mg kg-1). In forest land, these ranges were: Fe (62 and 309 mg kg-1), Mn (0.2 and 2.1 mg kg-1), Zn (0.2 and 2.9 mg kg-1), and Cu (0.1 and 0.2 mg kg-1). With the exception of Fe-DTPA, microelement concentrations extracted both with DTPA and Mehlich-3 were higher in the cultivated than in the forest stand. Coefficients of variation were higher for the microelement content of the soil under forest. Principal component analysis was performed to evaluate associations between extractable microelements and general physico-chemical properties. At the studied scale, nutrient management was the main factor affecting the agricultural site, whereas soil-plant interactions were probably responsible for the higher variation within the forest site. Patterns of spatial variability of the studied nutrients at the small plot scale also were assessed by geostatistical techniques. Results were discussed in the frame of sustainable land use and organic matter decline with conventional tillage and sustainable land use

  7. Aragonite–calcite–vaterite: A temperature influenced sequential polymorphic transformation of CaCO{sub 3} in the presence of DTPA

    SciTech Connect

    Gopi, Shanmukhaprasad; Subramanian, V.K.; Palanisamy, K.

    2013-05-15

    Highlights: ► Crystallization of CaCO{sub 3} between 60 and 230 °C in the presence of DTPA. ► Formation of exclusive and individual polymorphs at different temperatures. ► Violation of second law of thermodynamics/Ostwald rule of stages has been observed. - Abstract: Calcium carbonate was precipitated from calcium chloride using sodium carbonate in the presence of diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) between 60 and 230 °C. The samples were characterized by FTIR, Raman, XRD and SEM techniques. CaCO{sub 3} with different crystal morphologies such as spherolite/datura pod, dumbbell, peanut, were obtained depending on the experimental conditions. The results showed that pure aragonite, calcite and vaterite were formed at low, moderate and high temperatures respectively. A binary mixture of calcite and vaterite was resulted between 150 and 200 °C. The data suggested an unusual conversion of stable calcite to meta stable vaterite at higher temperature in presence of DTPA. The study revealed a novel methodology for the exclusive/individual preparation of different crystalline polymorphs of CaCO{sub 3}. Formation of pure vaterite above 200 °C divulged the possibility of DTPA as a potential scale inhibitor and boiler sludge conditioner at elevated temperatures.

  8. Gadolinium Ethoxybenzyl Diethylenetriamine Pentaacetic Acid (Gd-EOB-DTPA)-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Multidetector-Row Computed Tomography for the Diagnosis of Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Feng; Liu, Jun; Ouyang, Han

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of this meta-analysis was to compare the diagnostic accuracy of gadolinium ethoxybenzyl diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (Gd-EOB-DTPA)-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and multidetector-row computed tomography (MDCT) for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Medline, Cochrane, EMBASE, and Google Scholar databases were searched until July 4, 2014, using combinations of the following terms: gadoxetic acid disodium, Gd-EOB-DTPA, multidetector CT, contrast-enhanced computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging. Inclusion criteria were as follows: confirmed diagnosis of primary HCC by histopathological examination of a biopsy specimen; comparative study of MRI using Gd-EOB-DTPA and MDCT for diagnosis of HCC; and studies that provided quantitative outcome data. The pooled sensitivity and specificity of the 2 methods were compared, and diagnostic accuracy was assessed with alternative-free response receiver-operating characteristic analysis. Nine studies were included in the meta-analysis, and a total of 1439 lesions were examined. The pooled sensitivity and specificity for 1.5T MRI were 0.95 and 0.96, respectively, for 3.0T MRI were 0.91 and 0.96, respectively, and for MDCT were 0.74 and 0.93, respectively. The pooled diagnostic odds ratio for 1.5T and 3.0T MRI was 242.96, respectively, and that of MDCT was 33.47. To summarize, Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI (1.5T and 3.0T) has better diagnostic accuracy for HCC than MDCT. PMID:26266348

  9. Effect of inspiratory resistance and PEEP on /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA clearance

    SciTech Connect

    O'Brodovich, H.; Coates, G.; Marrin, M.

    1986-05-01

    Experiments were performed to determine the effect of markedly negative pleural pressure (Ppl) or positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) on the pulmonary clearance (k) of technetium-99m-labeled diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (/sup 99m/Tc-DTPA). A submicronic aerosol containing /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA was insufflated into the lungs of anesthetized intubated sheep. In six experiments k was 0.44 +/- 0.46% (SD)/min during the initial 30 min and was unchanged during the subsequent 30-min interval (k = 0.21 +/- 12%/min) when there was markedly increased inspiratory resistance. A 3-mm-diam orifice in the inspiratory tubing created the resistance. It resulted on average in a 13-cmH2O decrease in inspiratory Ppl. In eight additional experiments sheep were exposed to 2, 10, and 15 cmH2O PEEP (20 min at each level). During 2 cmH2O PEEP k = 0.47 +/- 0.15%/min, and clearance increased slightly at 10 cmH2O PEEP (0.76 +/- 0.28%/min, P less than 0.01). When PEEP was increased to 15 cmH2O a marked increase in clearance occurred (k = 1.95 +/- 1.08%/min, P less than 0.001). The experiments demonstrate that markedly negative inspiratory pressures do not accelerate the clearance of /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA from normal lungs. The effect of PEEP on k is nonlinear, with large effects being seen only with very large increases in PEEP.

  10. Diethylentriaminepenta acetic acid glucose conjugates as a cell permeable iron chelator

    PubMed Central

    Mosayebnia, Mona; Shafiee-Ardestani, Mehdi; Pasalar, Parvin; Mashayekhi, Mojgan; Amanlou, Massoud

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To find out whether DTPA-DG complex can enhance clearance of intracellular free iron. Materials and Methods: Diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid-D-deoxy-glucosamine (DTPA-DG) was synthesized and examined for its activity as a cell-permeable iron chelator in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HEPG2) cell line exposed to high concentration of iron sulfate and compared with deferoxamine (DFO), a prototype iron chelator. The effect of DTPA-DG on cell viability was monitored using the 3-(4,5-dimethythiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide MTT assay as well. Results: There was a significant increase of iron level after iron overload induction in HEPG2 cell culture. DTPA-DG presented a remarkable capacity to iron burden reducing with estimated 50% inhibitory concentration value of 65.77 nM. In fact, glycosyl moiety was gained access of DTPA to intracellular iron deposits through glucose transporter systems. Conclusion: DTPA-DG, more potent than DFO to sequester deposits of free iron with no profound toxic effect. The results suggest the potential of DTPA-DG in chelating iron and permitting its excretion from primary organ storage. PMID:24554907

  11. Gd-DTPA-Dopamine-Bisphytanyl Amphiphile: Synthesis, Characterisation and Relaxation Parameters of the Nanoassemblies and Their Potential as MRI Contrast Agents.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Abhishek; Willis, Scott A; Waddington, Lynne J; Stait-Gardner, Tim; de Campo, Liliana; Hwang, Dennis W; Kirby, Nigel; Price, William S; Moghaddam, Minoo J

    2015-09-28

    Here, a new amphiphilic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agent, a Gd(III)-chelated diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid conjugated to two branched alkyl chains via a dopamine spacer, Gd-DTPA-dopamine-bisphytanyl (Gd-DTPA-Dop-Phy), which is readily capable of self-assembling into liposomal nanoassemblies upon dispersion in an aqueous solution, is reported. In vitro relaxivities of the dispersions were found to be much higher than Magnevist, a commercially available contrast agent, at 0.47 T but comparable at 9.40 T. Analysis of variable temperature (17)O NMR transverse relaxation measurements revealed the water exchange of the nanoassemblies to be faster than that previously reported for paramagnetic liposomes. Molecular reorientation dynamics were probed by (1)H NMRD profiles using a classical inner and outer sphere relaxation model and a Lipari-Szabo "model-free" approach. High payloads of Gd(III) ions in the liposomal nanoassemblies made solely from the Gd-DTPA-Dop-Phy amphiphiles, in combination with slow molecular reorientation and fast water exchange makes this novel amphiphile a suitable candidate to be investigated as an advanced MRI contrast agent.

  12. Orally Administered DTPA Di-ethyl Ester for Decorporation of 241Am in dogs: Assessment of Safety and Efficacy in an Inhalation-Contamination Model

    PubMed Central

    Huckle, James E.; Sadgrove, Matthew P.; Pacyniak, Erik; Leed, Marina G. D.; Weber, Waylon M.; Doyle-Eisele, Melanie; Guilmette, Raymond A.; Agha, Bushra J.; Susick, Robert L.; Mumper, Russell J.; Jay, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Currently two injectable products of diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) are U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved for decorporation of 241Am, however, an oral product is considered more amenable in a mass casualty situation. The diethyl ester of DTPA, named C2E2, is being developed as an oral drug for treatment of internal radionuclide contamination. Materials and methods Single dose decorporation efficacy of C2E2 administered 24-hours post contamination was determined in beagle dogs using a 241Am nitrate inhalation contamination model. Single and multiple dose toxicity studies in beagle dogs were performed as part of an initial safety assessment program. In addition, the genotoxic potential of C2E2 was evaluated by the in vitro bacterial reverse mutation Ames test, mammalian cell chromosome aberration cytogenetic assay and an in vivo micronucleus test. Results Oral administration of C2E2 significantly increased 241Am elimination over untreated controls and significantly reduced the retention of 241Am in tissues, especially liver, kidney, lung and bone. Daily dosing of 200 mg/kg/day for 10 days was well tolerated in dogs. C2E2 was found to be neither mutagenic or clastogenic. Conclusions The di-ethyl ester of DTPA (C2E2) was shown to effectively enhance the elimination of 241Am after oral administration in a dog inhalation-contamination model and was well tolerated in toxicity studies. PMID:25912343

  13. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Therapy-Induced Necrosis Using Gadolinium-Chelated Polyglutamic Acids

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, Edward F.; Esparza-Coss, Emilio; Wen Xiaoxia; Ng, Chaan S.; Daniel, Sherita L.; Price, Roger E.; Rivera, Belinda; Charnsangavej, Chusilp; Gelovani, Juri G.; Li Chun . E-mail: cli@di.mdacc.tmc.edu

    2007-07-01

    Purpose: Necrosis is the most common morphologic alteration found in tumors and surrounding normal tissues after radiation therapy or chemotherapy. Accurate measurement of necrosis may provide an early indication of treatment efficacy or associated toxicity. The purpose of this report is to evaluate the selective accumulation of polymeric paramagnetic magnetic resonance (MR) contrast agents-gadolinium p-aminobenzyl-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid-poly(glutamic acid) (L-PG-DTPA-Gd and D-PG-DTPA-Gd)-in necrotic tissue. Methods and Materials: Two different solid tumor models, human Colo-205 xenograft and syngeneic murine OCA-1 ovarian tumors, were used in this study. Necrotic response was induced by treatment with poly(L-glutamic acid)-paclitaxel conjugate (PG-TXL). T{sub 1}-weighted spin-echo images were obtained immediately and up to 4 days after contrast injection and compared with corresponding histologic specimens. Two low-molecular-weight contrast agents, DTPA-Gd and oligomeric(L-glutamic acid)-DTPA-Gd, were used as nonspecific controls. Results: Initially, there was minimal tumor enhancement after injection of either L-PG-DTPA-Gd or D-PG-DTPA-Gd, but rapid enhancement after injection of low-molecular-weight agents. However, polymeric contrast agents, but not low-molecular-weight contrast agents, caused sustained enhancement in regions of tumor necrosis in both tumors treated with PG-TXL and untreated tumors. These data indicate that high molecular weight, rather than in vivo biodegradation, is necessary for the specific localization of polymeric MR contrast agents to necrotic tissue. Moreover, biotinylated L-PG-DTPA-Gd colocalized with macrophages in the tumor necrotic areas, suggesting that selective accumulation of L- and D-PG-DTPA-Gd in necrotic tissue was mediated through residing macrophages. Conclusions: Our data suggest that MR imaging with PG-DTPA-Gd may be a useful technique for noninvasive characterization of treatment-induced necrosis.

  14. Complexation of Curium(III) with DTPA at 10–70 °C: Comparison with Eu(III)–DTPA in Thermodynamics, Luminescence, and Coordination Modes

    SciTech Connect

    Tian, Guoxin; Zhang, Zhiyong; Martin, Leigh R.; Rao, Linfeng

    2015-02-16

    Separation of trivalent actinides (An(III)) from trivalent lanthanides (Ln(III)) is a challenging task because of their nearly identical chemical properties. Diethylenetriaminepentaacetate (DTPA), a key reagent used in the TALSPEAK process that effectively separates An(III) from Ln(III), is believed to play a critical role in the An(III)/Ln(III) separation. However, the underlying principles for the separation based on the difference in the complexation of DTPA with An(III) and Ln(III) remain unclear. In this work, the complexation of DTPA with Cm(III) at 10-70 ºC was investigated by spectrophotometry, luminescence spectroscopy, and microcalorimetry, in conjunction with computational methods. The binding strength, the enthalpy of complexation, the coordination modes, and the luminescence properties are compared between the Cm(III)-DTPA and Eu(III)-DTPA systems. The experimental and computational data have demonstrated that the difference between Cm(III) and Eu(III) in the binding strength with DTPA can be attributed to the stronger covalence bonding between Cm(III) and the nitrogen donors of DTPA.

  15. Complexation of curium(III) with DTPA at 10-70 °C: comparison with Eu(III)-DTPA in thermodynamics, luminescence, and coordination modes.

    PubMed

    Tian, Guoxin; Zhang, Zhiyong; Martin, Leigh R; Rao, Linfeng

    2015-02-16

    Separation of trivalent actinides (An(III)) from trivalent lanthanides (Ln(III)) is a challenging task because of the nearly identical chemical properties of these groups. Diethylenetriaminepentaacetate (DTPA), a key reagent used in the TALSPEAK process that effectively separates An(III) from Ln(III), is believed to play a critical role in the An(III)/Ln(III) separation. However, the underlying principles for the separation based on the difference in the complexation of DTPA with An(III) and Ln(III) remain unclear. In this work, the complexation of DTPA with Cm(III) at 10-70 °C was investigated by spectrophotometry, luminescence spectroscopy, and microcalorimetry, in conjunction with computational methods. The binding strength, the enthalpy of complexation, the coordination modes, and the luminescence properties are compared between the Cm(III)-DTPA and Eu(III)-DTPA systems. The experimental and computational data demonstrated that the difference between Cm(III) and Eu(III) in the binding strength with DTPA can be attributed to the stronger covalence bonding between Cm(III) and the nitrogen donors of DTPA.

  16. The protective effect of amifostine on radiation-induced acute pulmonary toxicity: Detection by {sup 99m}Tc-DTPA transalveolar clearances

    SciTech Connect

    Uzal, Cem . E-mail: cemuzal@yahoo.com; Durmus-Altun, Gulay; Caloglu, Murat; Erguelen, Alev; Altaner, Semsi; Yigitbasi, N. Omer

    2004-10-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine by using {sup 99m}Tc-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) lung scintigraphy whether amifostine given before irradiation protects alveolocapillary integrity in a rabbit model. Methods and materials: Twenty white New Zealand rabbits were randomly divided into 4 groups: (1) control (CONT), (2) amifostine alone (AMF), (3) radiation (RAD), and (4) radiation plus amifostine (RAD+AMF). The AMF and RAD+AMF groups received amifostine. The RAD and RAD+AMF groups were irradiated to the right hemithorax with a single dose of 20 Gy using a {sup 60}Co treatment unit. Amifostine (200 mg/kg) was given i.p. 30 min before irradiation. The {sup 99m}Tc-DTPA radioaerosol study was performed 14 day after irradiation. Results: The mean clearance rate of {sup 99m}Tc-DTPA in control subjects was 140 {+-} 21 min. The highest t{sub 1}/2 value was noted in the RAD group (603 {+-} 105 min, p = 0.001). There were no significant differences between the {sup 99m}Tc-DTPA lung clearance rates of the CONT, RAD+AMF (238 {+-} 24 min), and AMF groups (227 {+-} 54 min). The mean penetration index values of CONT, RAD, AMF, and RAD+AMF are 63% {+-} 1.6%, 63% {+-} 2.5%, 60% {+-} 2.9%, and 63% {+-} 2%, respectively. Conclusions: We concluded that amifostine treatment before the lung irradiation protects the lung alveolocapillary integrity. This study confirms the protective effect of amifostine in an acute phase of radiation lung injury.

  17. Fully automatic region of interest selection in glomerular filtration rate estimation from 99mTc-DTPA renogram.

    PubMed

    Lin, Kun-Ju; Huang, Jia-Yann; Chen, Yung-Sheng

    2011-12-01

    Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is a common accepted standard estimation of renal function. Gamma camera-based methods for estimating renal uptake of (99m)Tc-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) without blood or urine sampling have been widely used. Of these, the method introduced by Gates has been the most common method. Currently, most of gamma cameras are equipped with a commercial program for GFR determination, a semi-quantitative analysis by manually drawing region of interest (ROI) over each kidney. Then, the GFR value can be computed from the scintigraphic determination of (99m)Tc-DTPA uptake within the kidney automatically. Delineating the kidney area is difficult when applying a fixed threshold value. Moreover, hand-drawn ROIs are tedious, time consuming, and dependent highly on operator skill. Thus, we developed a fully automatic renal ROI estimation system based on the temporal changes in intensity counts, intensity-pair distribution image contrast enhancement method, adaptive thresholding, and morphological operations that can locate the kidney area and obtain the GFR value from a (99m)Tc-DTPA renogram. To evaluate the performance of the proposed approach, 30 clinical dynamic renograms were introduced. The fully automatic approach failed in one patient with very poor renal function. Four patients had a unilateral kidney, and the others had bilateral kidneys. The automatic contours from the remaining 54 kidneys were compared with the contours of manual drawing. The 54 kidneys were included for area error and boundary error analyses. There was high correlation between two physicians' manual contours and the contours obtained by our approach. For area error analysis, the mean true positive area overlap is 91%, the mean false negative is 13.4%, and the mean false positive is 9.3%. The boundary error is 1.6 pixels. The GFR calculated using this automatic computer-aided approach is reproducible and may be applied to help nuclear medicine physicians in

  18. MicroSPECT/CT imaging of primary human AML engrafted into the bone marrow and spleen of NOD/SCID mice using 111In-DTPA-NLS-CSL360 radioimmunoconjugates recognizing the CD123+ / CD131- epitope expressed by leukemia stem cells.

    PubMed

    Leyton, Jeffrey V; Williams, Brent; Gao, Catherine; Keating, Armand; Minden, Mark; Reilly, Raymond M

    2014-11-01

    Engraftment of primary human acute myeloid leukemia (AML) specimens into the bone marrow (BM) of NOD/SCID mice has been used to study leukemia biology and new treatments for the disease. CSL360 is a chimeric IgG1 monoclonal antibody that recognizes CD123 (IL-3 receptor α-subchain) expressed in the absence of CD131 (β-subchain), an epitope that is displayed by leukemia stem cells (LSCs). We are studying CSL360 modified with diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) for complexing 111In and 13-mer nuclear translocation sequence (NLS) peptides to enable nuclear importation in LSCs for Auger electron radioimmunotherapy (RIT) of AML. We demonstrate that microSPECT/CT imaging using 111In-DTPA-NLS-CSL360 revealed engraftment of primary human AML specimens into the BM and spleen of NOD/SCID mice. Our results suggest that microSPECT/CT imaging is a powerful tool which enables non-invasive assessment of the engraftment of AML into NOD/SCID mice and in the current study specifically probes an epitope displayed by the LSC subpopulation. The targeting of 111In-DTPA-NLS-CSL360 to sites of AML engraftment in the NOD/SCID mouse model is encouraging for future RIT studies. Ultimately, SPECT imaging could be applied in AML patients to assess the delivery of 111In-DTPA-NLS-CSL360 to sites of leukemia and be combined with Auger electron RIT using the same agent targeting the LSC population as a "theranostic" pair.

  19. Synthesis and Physicochemical Characterization of a Diethyl Ester Prodrug of DTPA and Its Investigation as an Oral Decorporation Agent in Rats.

    PubMed

    Huckle, James E; Sadgrove, Matthew P; Leed, Marina G D; Yang, Yu-Tsai; Mumper, Russell J; Semelka, Richard C; Jay, Michael

    2016-07-01

    The increasing threats of nuclear terrorism have made the development of medical countermeasures a priority for international security. Injectable formulations of diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) have been approved by the FDA; however, an oral formulation is more amenable in a mass casualty situation. Here, the diethyl ester of DTPA, named C2E2, is investigated for potential as an oral treatment for internal radionuclide contamination. C2E2 was synthesized and characterized using NMR, MS, and elemental analysis. The physiochemical properties of solubility, lipophilicity, and stability were investigated in order to predict its oral bioavailability. Finally, an animal efficacy study was conducted in Sprague Dawley rats pre-contaminated by intramuscular injection with (241)Am(NO3)3 to establish effectiveness of the therapy via the oral route. Synthesis of C2E2 yielded a crystalline powder with high solubility and improved lipophilicity over DTPA. The ester was stable in both simulated gastric and intestinal fluids over the anticipated time course of absorption. Capsules containing C2E2 were demonstrated to be stable for 12 months under accelerated stability conditions. After a single dose, C2E2 enhanced the elimination of (241)Am in a dose-dependent manner. Significant improvement was seen in both total (241)Am decorporation and reduction of (241)Am liver and skeletal burden. C2E2 was concluded to be effective when orally administered to (241)Am-contaminated rats. It may therefore have potential for medical countermeasure in treating humans contaminated with (241)Am or other transuranic elements. An oral capsule or powder for reconstitution may be suitable formulations for future development based on the physiochemical properties and anticipated dose required for efficacy. PMID:27106838

  20. Synthesis of 1-(p-isothiocyanatobenzyl) derivatives of DTPA and EDTA. Antibody labeling and tumor-imaging studies

    SciTech Connect

    Brechbiel, M.W.; Gansow, O.A.; Atcher, R.W.; Schlom, J.; Esteban, J.; Simpson, D.E.; Colcher, D.

    1986-07-30

    To investigate the /sup 111/In labeling of tumor-localizing monoclonal antibodies (MoAb), the chelate 1-(p-isothiocyanatobenzyl)diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (p-SCN-Bz-DPTA) (1) and its EDTA analogue (2) have been synthesized. By the use of a MoAb (B72.3) specific for a high molecular weight antigen (TAG-72) on cells of a colorectal carcinoma grown in nude mice, optimal chemical conditions for MoAb conjugation of those ligands and of the dicyclic and isobutylcarboxy carbonic anhydrides of DTPA and subsequent /sup 111/In labeling were determined. All conjugates were shown by a competitive binding assay to retain their specificity and activity in vitro when less than one ligand is protein coupled both prior to and after /sup 111/In labeling. Chemical methods for purification of the MoAb were systematically investigated by injection of purified immunoprotein into athymic mice bearing LS-174T tumors that express the TAG-72 antigen. Tissue distribution studies revealed that simple addition of EDTA to labeled immunoglobulins was ineffective at complexing indium not linked to protein by chelates. Similarly, gel chromatography (Sephadex G-50) was not sufficient; rather, size exclusion HPLC had to be employed to remove unreacted /sup 111/In and aggregated antibody. To compare the relative utility of the four chelates for /sup 111/In diagnostic radioimmunoimaging, scintigraphic images of tumor-bearing mice were obtained and evaluated along with tissue distributions. Results showed that clear images of these solid tissue tumors free of extraneous radiation could be obtained only by using p-SCN-Bz-DTPA purified by HPLC. Methods developed are now being employed in clinical trials for diagnosis of human colorectal cancer. 71 references, 5 figures, 1 table.

  1. The MRI-measured arterial input function resulting from a bolus injection of Gd-DTPA in a rat model of stroke slightly underestimates that of Gd-[14C]DTPA and marginally overestimates the blood-to-brain influx rate constant determined by Patlak plots

    PubMed Central

    Nagaraja, Tavarekere N.; Karki, Kishor; Ewing, James R.; Divine, George W.; Fenstermacher, Joseph D.; Patlak, Clifford S.; Knight, Robert A.

    2009-01-01

    The hypothesis that the arterial input function (AIF) of gadolinium-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (Gd-DTPA) injected by intravenous (iv) bolus and measured by the change in the T1-relaxation rate (ΔR1; R1=1/T1) of superior sagittal sinus blood (AIF-I) approximates the AIF of 14C-labeled Gd-DTPA measured in arterial blood (AIF*) was tested in a rat stroke model (n=13). Contrary to the hypothesis, the initial part of the ΔR1-time curve was underestimated, and the area under the normalized curve for AIF-I was about 15% lower than that for AIF*, the reference AIF. Hypothetical AIF’s for Gd-DTPA (AIF-II) were derived from the AIF* values and averaged to obtain AIF-III. Influx rate constants (Ki) and proton distribution volumes at zero time (Vp+Vo) were estimated with Patlak plots of AIF-I, -II and -III and tissue ΔR1 data. For the regions of interest, the Ki’s estimated with AIF-I were slightly but not significantly higher than those obtained with AIF-II and AIF-III. In contrast, Vp+Vo was significantly higher when calculated with AIF-I. Similar estimates of Ki and Vp+Vo were obtained with AIF-II and AIF-III. In summary, AIF-I underestimated the reference AIF (AIF*); this shortcoming had little effect on the Ki calculated by Patlak plot but produced a significant overestimation of Vp+Vo. PMID:20512853

  2. Calcium and zinc DTPA administration for internal contamination with plutonium-238 and americium-241.

    PubMed

    Kazzi, Ziad N; Heyl, Alexander; Ruprecht, Johann

    2012-08-01

    The accidental or intentional release of plutonium or americium can cause acute and long term adverse health effects if they enter the human body by ingestion, inhalation, or injection. These effects can be prevented by rapid removal of these radionuclides by chelators such as calcium or zinc diethylenetriaminepentaacetate (calcium or zinc DTPA). These compounds have been shown to be efficacious in enhancing the elimination of members of the actinide family particularly plutonium and americium when administered intravenously or by nebulizer. The efficacy and adverse effects profile depend on several factors that include the route of internalization of the actinide, the type, and route time of administration of the chelator, and whether the calcium or zinc salt of DTPA is used. Current and future research efforts should be directed at overcoming limitations associated with the use of these complex drugs by using innovative methods that can enhance their structural and therapeutic properties.

  3. Gadolinium-DTPA enhancement of lung radiation fibrosis

    SciTech Connect

    Werthmuller, W.C.; Schiebler, M.L.; Whaley, R.A.; Mauro, M.A.; McCartney, W.H. )

    1989-11-01

    Gadolinium-diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA) enhancement of radiation-induced apical pulmonary fibrosis was observed in two patients previously treated for breast cancer. In one case the fibrosis was biopsied twice, with no change in its CT appearance over 3 years. Gadolinium-DTPA may enhance benign apical fibrosis after radiation therapy and should not, in and of itself, be used as evidence of recurrent malignancy.

  4. DTPA complexation of bismuth in human blood serum.

    PubMed

    Montavon, G; Le Du, A; Champion, J; Rabung, T; Morgenstern, A

    2012-07-28

    The in vivo(212)Pb/(212)Bi generator is promising for application in targeted alpha therapy (TAT) of cancer. One main limitation of its therapeutic application is due to potential release of (212)Bi from the radioconjugate upon radioactive decay of the mother nuclide (212)Pb, potentially leading to irradiation of healthy tissue. The objective of the present work is to assess whether the chelate CHX-A''-DTPA (N-(2-aminoethyl)-trans-1,2-diaminocyclohexane-N,N',N''-pentaacetic acid) bound to a biological carrier molecule may be able to re-complex released (212)Bi under in vivo conditions to limit its translocation from the target site. CHX-A''-DTPA was bound to bovine gamma globulin (BGG) to mimic a model conjugate and the stability of the Bi-CHX-A''-DTPA-BGG conjugate was studied in blood serum by ultrafiltration. TRLFS experiments using Cm(III) as a fluorescent probe demonstrated that linking CHX-A''-DTPA to BGG does not affect the coordination properties of the ligand. Furthermore, comparable stability constants were observed between Bi(III) and free CHX-A''-DTPA, BGG-bound CHX-A''-DTPA and DTPA. The complexation constants determined between Bi(III) and the chelate molecules are sufficiently high to allow ultra trace amounts of the ligand to efficiently compete with serum transferrin controlling Bi(III) speciation in blood plasma conditions. Nevertheless, CHX-A''-DTPA is not able to complex Bi(III) generated in blood serum because of the strong competition between Bi(III) and Fe(II) for the ligand. In other words, CHX-A''-DTPA is not "selective" enough to limit Bi(iii) release in the body when applying the (212)Pb/(212)Bi in vivo generator. PMID:22678751

  5. An NMR Protonation Study of Metal Diethylenetriaminepentaacetic Acid Complexes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Letkeman, Peter

    1979-01-01

    This experiment is suitable for an integrated laboratory course for senior chemistry majors. It introduces the student to a study of the relative basicity of different proton accepting sites. It serves as an opportunity to learn about nmr techniques and could extend to infrared, as well. (BB)

  6. Chlorophyll-a analogues conjugated with aminobenzyl-DTPA as potential bifunctional agents for magnetic resonance imaging and photodynamic therapy.

    PubMed

    Li, Guolin; Slansky, Adam; Dobhal, Mahabeer P; Goswami, Lalit N; Graham, Andrew; Chen, Yihui; Kanter, Peter; Alberico, Ronald A; Spernyak, Joseph; Morgan, Janet; Mazurchuk, Richard; Oseroff, Allan; Grossman, Zachary; Pandey, Ravindra K

    2005-01-01

    A clinically relevant photosensitizer, 3-devinyl-3-(1-hexyloxyethyl)pyropheophorbide-a (HPPH, a chlorophyll-a derivative), was conjugated with Gd(III)-aminobenzyl-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA), an experimental magnetic resonance (MR) imaging agent. In vivo reflectance spectroscopy confirmed tumor uptake of HPPH-aminobenzyl-Gd(III)-DTPA conjugate was higher than free HPPH administered intraveneously (iv) to C3H mice with subcutaneously (sc) implanted radiation-induced fibrosarcoma (RIF) tumor cells. In other experiments, Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats with sc implanted Ward Colon Carcinoma cells yielded markedly increased MR signal intensities from tumor regions-of-interest (ROIs) 24 h post-iv injection of HPPH-aminobenzyl-Gd(III)-DTPA conjugate as compared to unconjugated HPPH. In both in vitro (RIF tumor cells) and in vivo (mice bearing RIF tumors and rats bearing Ward Colon tumors) the conjugate produced significant increases in tumor conspicuity at 1.5 T and retained therapeutic efficacy following PDT. Also synthesized were a series of novel bifunctional agents containing two Gd(III) atoms per HPPH molecule that remained tumor-avid and PDT-active and yielded improved MR tumor conspicuity compared to their corresponding mono-Gd(III) analogues. Administered iv at a MR imaging dose of 10 micromol/kg, these conjugates produced severe skin phototoxicity. However, by replacing the hexyl group of the pyropheophorbide-a with a tri(ethylene glycol) monomethyl ether (PEG-methyl ether), these conjugates produced remarkable MR tumor enhancement at 8 h post-iv injection, significant tumoricidal activity (80% of mice were tumor-free on day 90), and reduced skin phototoxicity compared to their corresponding hexyl ether analogues. The poor water-solubility characteristic of these conjugates was resolved by incorporation into a liposomal formulation. This paper presents the synthesis of tumor-avid contrast enhancing agents for MR imaging and thus represents an important

  7. Cellular Zn depletion by metal ion chelators (TPEN, DTPA and chelex resin) and its application to osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Young-Eun; Lomeda, Ria-Ann R.; Ryu, Sang-Hoon; Lee, Jong-Hwa; Beattie, John H.

    2007-01-01

    Trace mineral studies involving metal ion chelators have been conducted in investigating the response of gene and protein expressions of certain cell lines but a few had really focused on how these metal ion chelators could affect the availability of important trace minerals such as Zn, Mn, Fe and Cu. The aim of the present study was to investigate the availability of Zn for the treatment of MC3T3-E1 osteoblast-like cells and the availability of some trace minerals in the cell culture media components after using chelexing resin in the FBS and the addition of N,N,N',N'-tetrakis-(2-pyridylmethyl)ethylenediamine (TPEN, membrane-permeable chelator) and diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA, membrane-impermeable chelator) in the treatment medium. Components for the preparation of cell culture medium and Zn-treated medium have been tested for Zn, Mn, Fe and Cu contents by atomic absorption spectrophotometer or inductively coupled plasma spectrophotometer. Also, the expression of bone-related genes (ALP, Runx2, PTH-R, ProCOL I, OPN and OC) was measured on the cellular Zn depletion such as chelexing or TPEN treatment. Results have shown that using the chelexing resin in FBS would significantly decrease the available Zn (p<0.05) (39.4 ± 1.5 µM vs 0.61 ± 10.15 µM) and Mn (p<0.05) (0.74 ± 0.01 µM vs 0.12 ± 0.04 µM). However, levels of Fe and Cu in FBS were not changed by chelexing FBS. The use of TPEN and DTPA as Zn-chelators did not show significant difference on the final concentration of Zn in the treatment medium (0, 3, 6, 9, 12 µM) except for in the addition of higher 15 µM ZnCl2 which showed a significant increase of Zn level in DTPA-chelated treatment medium. Results have shown that both chelators gave the same pattern for the expression of the five bone-related genes between Zn- and Zn+, and TPEN-treated experiments, compared to chelex-treated experiment, showed lower bone-related gene expression, which may imply that TPEN would be a stronger chelator

  8. Chitosan oligosaccharide based Gd-DTPA complex as a potential bimodal magnetic resonance imaging contrast agent.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yan; Cao, Juan; Zhang, Qi; Lu, Zheng-rong; Hua, Ming-qing; Zhang, Xiao-yan; Gao, Hu

    2016-01-01

    A new gadolinium diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA) complex (Gd-DTPA-DMABA-CS11) as a potential bimodal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agent with fluorescence was synthesized. It was synthesized by the incorporation of 4-dimethylaminobenzaldehyde (DMABA) and chitosan oligosaccharide (CSn; n=11) with low polydispersity index to DTPA anhydride and then chelated with gadolinium chloride. The structure was characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), (1)H NMR, elemental analysis and size exclusion chromatography (SEC). MRI measurements in vitro were evaluated. The results indicated that Gd-DTPA-DMABA-CS11 provided higher molar longitudinal relaxivity (r1) (12.95mM(-1)·s(-1)) than that of commercial Gd-DTPA (3.63mM(-1)·s(-1)) at 0.5T. Gd-DTPA-DMABA-CS11 also emitted fluorescence, and the intensity was much stronger than that of Gd-DTPA. Therefore, it can be meanwhile used in fluorescent imaging for improving the sensitivity in clinic diagnosis. Gd-DTPA-DMABA-CS11 as a potential contrast agent is preliminarily stable in vitro. The results of thermodynamic action between Gd-DTPA-DMABA-CS11 and bovine serum albumin (BSA) illustrated that the binding process was exothermic and spontaneous, and the main force was van der Waals' interaction and hydrogen bond. The preliminary study suggested that Gd-DTPA-DMABA-CS11 could be used in both magnetic resonance and fluorescent imaging as a promising bimodal contrast agent.

  9. Spectroscopic studies on interaction of BSA and Eu(III) complexes with H5ph-dtpa and H5dtpa ligands.

    PubMed

    Kong, Deyong; Qin, Cui; Fan, Ping; Li, Bing; Wang, Jun

    2015-04-01

    An novel aromatic aminopolycarboxylic acid ligand, N-(2-N,N-Dicarboxymethylaminophenyl) ethylenediamine-N,N',N'-triacetic acid (H5ph-dtpa), was synthesized by improving experimental method and its corresponding Eu(III) complex, Na2[EuIII(ph-dtpa)(H2O)]·6H2O, was successfully prepared through heat-refluxing method. As a comparison, the Eu(III) complex with diethylenetriamine-N,N,N',N',N″-pentaacetic acid (H5dtpa) ligand, Na2[Eu(III)(dtpa)(H2O)]·6H2O, was also prepared by the same method. And then, the interaction between prepared Eu(III) complexes ([EuIII(dtpa)(H2O)]2- and [EuIII(ph-dtpa)(H2O)]2-) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) in aqueous solution were studied by the combination of ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis), fluorescence and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopies. In addition, the binding sites of Eu(III) complexes ([EuIII(dtpa)(H2O)]2- and [EuIII(ph-dtpa)(H2O)]2-) to BSA molecules were also estimated by synchronous fluorescence. Moreover, the theoretical and experimental results show that the Van der Waals, hydrogen bond and π-π stacking interactions are the mainly impulse to the reaction. The binding distances (r) between Eu(III) complexes ([EuIII(dtpa)(H2O)]2- and [EuIII(ph-dtpa)(H2O)]2-) and BSA were obtained according to Förster's non-radiative energy transfer theory. Also, the determined UV-vis absorption spectroscopy, synchronous fluorescence and circular dichroism (CD) spectra showed that the conformation of BSA could be changed in the presence of Eu(III) complexes. The obtained results can help understand the action mode between rare earth metal complexes of aminopolycarboxylic acid ligands with BSA and they are also expected to provide important information of designs of new inspired drugs.

  10. Comparison of Renal Function between Robot-Assisted and Open Partial Nephrectomy as Determined by Tc 99m-DTPA Renal Scintigraphy

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    We compared postoperative renal function impairment between patients undergoing robot-assisted partial nephrectomy (RAPN) and those undergoing open partial nephrectomy (OPN) by using Tc-99m diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) renal scintigraphy. Patients who underwent partial nephrectomy by a single surgeon between 2007 and 2013 were eligible and were matched by propensity score, based on age, tumor size, exophytic properties of tumor, and location relative to the polar lines. Of the 403 patients who underwent partial nephrectomy, 114 (28%) underwent RAPN and 289 (72%) underwent OPN. Mean follow-up duration was 35.2 months. Following propensity matching, there were no significant differences between the two groups in tumor exophytic properties (P = 0.818) or nephrometry score (P = 0.527). Renal ischemic time (24.4 minutes vs. 17.8 minutes, P < 0.001) was significantly longer in the RAPN group than in the OPN group, while the other characteristics were similar. Multivariate analysis showed that greater preoperative renal unit function (P = 0.011) and nephrometry score (P = 0.041) were independently correlated with a reduction in glomerular filtration rate. The operative method did not correlate with renal function impairment (P = 0.704). Postoperative renal function impairment was similar between patients who underwent OPN and those who underwent RAPN, despite RAPN having a longer ischemic time. PMID:27134496

  11. Influence of DTPA Treatment on Internal Dose Estimates.

    PubMed

    Davesne, Estelle; Blanchardon, Eric; Peleau, Bernadette; Correze, Philippe; Bohand, Sandra; Franck, Didier

    2016-06-01

    In case of internal contamination with plutonium materials, a treatment with diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA) can be administered in order to reduce plutonium body burden and consequently avoid some radiation dose. DTPA intravenous injections or inhalation can start almost immediately after intake, in parallel with urinary and fecal bioassay sampling for dosimetric follow-up. However, urine and feces excretion will be significantly enhanced by the DTPA treatment. As internal dose is calculated from bioassay results, the DTPA effect on excretion has to be taken into account. A common method to correct bioassay data is to divide it by a factor representing the excretion enhancement under DTPA treatment by intravenous injection. Its value may be based on a nominal reference or observed after a break in the treatment. The aim of this study was to estimate the influence of this factor on internal dose by comparing the dose estimated using default or upper and lower values of the enhancement factor for 11 contamination cases. The observed upper and lower values of the enhancement factor were 18.7 and 63.0 for plutonium and 24.9 and 28.8 for americium. For americium, a default factor of 25 is proposed. This work demonstrates that the use of a default DTPA enhancement factor allows the determination of the magnitude of the contamination because dose estimated could vary by a factor of 2 depending on the value of the individual DTPA enhancement factor. In case of significant intake, an individual enhancement factor should be determined to obtain a more reliable dose assessment. PMID:27115221

  12. Biodegradation of novel amino acid derivatives suitable for complexing agents in pulp bleaching applications.

    PubMed

    Metsärinne, Sirpa; Ronkainen, Erja; Tuhkanen, Tuula; Aksela, Reijo; Sillanpää, Mika

    2007-05-01

    The biodegradability of four novel diethanolamine derivative complexing agents was examined by using two biodegradation tests standardised by OECD (301B and 301F). Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) were employed as reference substances. Biodegradation of the new complexing agents was studied both with unacclimated and acclimated inocula as well as by simulating wastewater treatment in sequencing batch reactors (SBRs). These new complexing agents were of technical grade, and therefore, the results are only indicative but these new compounds hold promise for use as complexing agents in the pulp and paper industry. The novel complexing agents were not readily biodegradable but they showed slight biodegradation. Around 10-30% degradation was found in the SBR where degradation was followed by measurement of concentration. Moreover the novel complexing agents did not have any negative impact on reactor performance as measured by chemical oxygen demand reduction. In the standardised biodegradation tests at best around 50% degradation was observed with the acclimated inoculum and in the prolonged test whereas EDTA and DTPA exhibited no biodegradation. The elevated degradation in acclimated sludge indicates that the water treatment plant microbes are capable of decomposing these molecules under favourable conditions. The total concentration of novel complexing agents decreased slightly during biodegradation tests, while the EDTA and DTPA concentrations remained stable. PMID:17346781

  13. New insights into formation of trivalent actinides complexes with DTPA.

    PubMed

    Leguay, Sébastien; Vercouter, Thomas; Topin, Sylvain; Aupiais, Jean; Guillaumont, Dominique; Miguirditchian, Manuel; Moisy, Philippe; Le Naour, Claire

    2012-12-01

    Complexation of trivalent actinides with DTPA (diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid) was studied as a function of pcH and temperature in (Na,H)Cl medium of 0.1 M ionic strength. Formation constants of both complexes AnHDTPA(-) and AnDTPA(2-) (where An stands for Am, Cm, and Cf) were determined by TRLFS, CE-ICP-MS, spectrophotometry, and solvent extraction. The values of formation constants obtained from the different techniques are coherent and consistent with reinterpreted literature data, showing a higher stability of Cf complexes than Am and Cm complexes. The effect of temperature indicates that formation constants of protonated and nonprotonated complexes are exothermic with a high positive entropic contribution. DFT calculations were also performed on the An/DTPA system. Geometry optimizations were conducted on AnDTPA(2-) and AnHDTPA(-) considering all possible protonation sites. For both complexes, one and two water molecules in the first coordination sphere of curium were also considered. DFT calculations indicate that the lowest energy structures correspond to protonation on oxygen that is not involved in An-DTPA bonds and that the structures with two water molecules are not stable.

  14. Tin-117m-labeled stannic (Sn/sup 4 +/) chelate of diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA) for application in diagnosis and therapy

    DOEpatents

    Srivastava, S.C.; Meinken, G.E.; Richards, P.

    1983-08-25

    The radiopharmaceutical reagents of this invention and the class of Tin-117m radiopharmaceuticals are therapeutic and diagnostic agents that incorporate gamma-emitting nuclides that localize in bone after intravenous injection in mammals (mice, rats, dogs, and rabbits). Images reflecting bone structure or function can then be obtained by a scintillation camera that detects the distribution of ionizing radiation emitted by the radioactive agent. Tin-117m-labeled chelates of stannic tin localize almost exclusively in cortical bone. Upon intravenous injection of the reagent, the preferred chelates are phosphonate compounds, preferable, PYP, MDP, EHDP, and DTPA. This class of reagents is therapeutically and diagnostically useful in skeletal scintigraphy and for the radiotherapy of bone tumors and other disorders.

  15. A new approach to quantification of DTPA incorporation into monoclonal antibodies (MoAbs) labeled by the cyclic anhydride DTPA method

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, T.S.T.; Ng, A.K.; Fawwaz, R.A.; Alsedairy, S.; Alderson, P.O.

    1985-05-01

    A method for determining the ratio of DTPA molecules attached per molecule of Ab was developed and used to examine the immunoreactivity of different Abs as a function of the amount of incorporated DTPA. The bicyclic anhydride of DTPA(2-C-14)acetic acid (BADTPA-C-14) was synthesized by reacting DTPA(2-C-14)acetic acid (1mCi/mmo1) and acetic anhydride. BADTPA-C-14 then was reacted with a MoAb to a melanoma associated antigen (MA) and to a MoAb to human HLA class II antigen (HLA) at 2mg/m1 of MoAb concentration, at MoAb to BADTPA-C-14 ratios (mmo1/mmo1) of l:1, 1:10, 1:00, l:200. The conjugate was dialyzed exhaustively against HEPES at pH 7.0. The MoAb concentration was measured at 280mm of uv; the DTPA/MoAb ratio was calculated based on the specific activity of BADTPA-C-14, and the immunoreactivity was assessed by direct cell-binding to melanoma, the HLA antigen and control (lymphoma) cells. Percent binding to the lymphoid cell line was less than 3%. The authors' results demonstrated a method for directly determining the number of DTPA molecules attached to a MOAb, and demonstrated variations in immunoreactivity as the number of DTPA groups per MoAb is altered.

  16. Bifunctional DTPA-type ligand

    SciTech Connect

    Gansow, O.A.; Brechbiel, M.W.

    1990-03-26

    The subject matter of the invention relates to bifunctional cyclohexyl DTPA ligands and methods of using these compounds. Specifically, such ligands are useful for radiolabeling proteins with radioactive metals, and can consequently be utilized with respect to radioimmunoimaging and/or radioimmunotherapy.

  17. The efficiency of a DTPA-based solvent in the dissolution of barium sulfate scale deposits

    SciTech Connect

    Putnis, A.; Putnis, C.V.; Paul, J.M.

    1995-11-01

    This paper describes kinetic experiments to determine the rate at which Ba ions are mobilized from crystalline barium sulfate into aqueous solution by a solvent in which the active ingredient is a strong chelating agent for Ba ions (DTPA -- diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid). The experiments define the temperature dependence and hence the activation energy of the dissolution process, the surface area dependence and most importantly the dependence on the concentration of the DTPA in solution. In a 0.05M DTPA solution the dissolution rate of barium sulfate is highly temperature dependent with an activation energy of {approximately}45 kJ/mol. This value suggests that the rate is controlled by the desorption of a BA-DTPA surface complex. Surface complexation is further identified as the key to barium sulfate dissolution by the observation that over the concentration range 0.5M to 0.05M DTPA the initial dissolution rate is inversely related to the DTPA concentration. The activation energy remains unaltered but the absolute dissolution rate is increased. In other words, a 0.05M DTPA solution is more efficient as a solvent than a 0.5M solution. This unexpected result is interpreted in terms of a passivation of the barium sulfate surface by the formation of a surface complex layer at high DTPA concentrations.

  18. Effects of sustained exercise on pulmonary clearance of aerosolized sup 99m Tc-DTPA

    SciTech Connect

    Lorino, A.M.; Meignan, M.; Bouissou, P.; Atlan, G. )

    1989-11-01

    The effects of intensive prolonged exercise on the pulmonary clearance rate of aerosolized {sup 99m}Tc-labeled diethylenetriaminepentaacetate ({sup 99m}Tc-DTPA) and pulmonary mechanics were studied in seven healthy nonsmoking volunteers. {sup 99m}Tc-DTPA clearance and pulmonary mechanics (lung volumes and compliance) were assessed before and after 75 min of constant-load exercise performed on a treadmill, corresponding to 75% of maximal O{sub 2} uptake. Because both clearance measurements were made in similar conditions of pulmonary blood flow, respiratory rate, and tidal volume, changes in clearance rate can be assumed to represent changes of alveolar epithelial permeability. After exercise, total, apical, and basal clearance were significantly increased (P less than 0.01, 0.05, and 0.05, respectively) and the increases in total clearance and tidal volume observed during exercise were significantly correlated (P less than 0.05). In contrast, no significant change was found in pulmonary mechanics. These results show that prolonged intensive exercise induces an increase in epithelial permeability, which appears to be related to the mechanical effects of sustained increased ventilation. Because no change was evidenced in pulmonary volumes or in lung elasticity, our results suggest that this increase may result from alteration of the intercellular tight junctions rather than from a surfactant deficiency.

  19. Tracheal blood flow and luminal clearance of [sup 99m][Tc]-DTPA in sheep

    SciTech Connect

    Hanafi, Z.; Corfield, D.R.; Webber, S.E.; Widdicombe, J.G. )

    1992-10-01

    Tracheal blood flow and [sup 99m][Tc]-labeled diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA) clearance were measured in the sheep trachea in vivo. The tracheal arteries were isolated and perfused. An isolated segment of tracheal lumen was filled with Krebs-Henseleit solution containing [sup 99m][Tc]-DTPA, and radioactivity was measured in blood from a catheterized tracheal vein. Infusions at constant pressure of methacholine (n=5), albuterol (n=6), and histamine (n=5) increased arterial inflow and venous outflow but decreased [sup 99m][Tc]-DTPA output and concentration. Phenylephrine (n=9) decreased arterial inflow and venous outflow but increased [sup 99m][Tc]-DTPA output and concentration. When the tracheal arteries were initially perfused at constant flow and the flow rate was then changed, 50% increases in flow (n=5) increased perfusion pressure and venous outflow but decreased [sup 99m][Tc]-DTPA output and concentration. Decreases in flow of 50% (n=3) and 100% (n=10) decreased perfusion pressure and venous outflow but increased [sup 99m][Tc]-DTPA output and concentration. Infusion of the same drugs at constant flow produced significant changes in perfusion pressure but no significant changes in venous outflow or, except for histamine, in [sup 99m][Tc]-DTPA output. Thus [sup 99m][Tc]-DTPA output was inversely related to both mechanically and drug-induced changes in tracheal blood flow but, except for histamine, was not directly affected by the drugs. The results may be due to redistribution of blood between collateral circuits and altered interstitial fluid volume affecting [sup 99m][Tc]-DTPA transport across the interstitium. 24 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. Combining octyl(phenyl)-N,N-diisobutyl-carbamoylmethylphosphine oxide and bis-(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid extractants for recovering transuranic elements from irradiated nuclear fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Lumetta, Gregg J.; Carter, Jennifer C.; Gelis, Artem V.; Vandegrift, George F.

    2009-10-14

    Advanced concepts for closing the nuclear fuel cycle include separating Am and Cm from other fuel components. Separating these elements from the lanthanide elements at an industrial scale remains a significant technical challenge. We describe here a chemical system in which a neutral extractant--octyl(phenyl)-N,N-diisobutyl-carbamoylmethyl-phosphine oxide (CMPO)--is combined with an acidic extractant--bis-(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid (HDEHP)--to form a single process solvent (with dodecane as the diluent) for separating Am and Cm from the other components of irradiated nuclear fuel. Continuous variation experiments in which the relative CMPO and HDEHP concentrations are varied indicate a synergistic relationship between the two extractants in the extraction of Am from buffered diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) solutions. A solvent mixture consisting or 0.1 M CMPO + 1 M HDEHP in dodecane offers acceptable extraction efficiency for the trivalent lanthanides and actinides from 1 M HNO3 while maintaining good lanthanide/actinide separation factors in the stripping regime (buffered DTPA solutions with pH 3.5 to 4). Using citrate buffer instead of lactate buffer results in improved lanthanide/actinide separation factors.

  1. 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) degradation promoted by nanoparticulate zerovalent iron (nZVI) in aerobic suspensions.

    PubMed

    Correia de Velosa, Adriana; Pupo Nogueira, Raquel F

    2013-05-30

    Reactive species generated by Fe(0) oxidation promoted by O2 (catalyzed or not by ligands) are able to degrade contaminant compounds like the herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid. The degradation of 2,4-D was influenced by the concentrations of zero valent iron (ZVI) and different ligands, as well as by pH. In the absence of ligands, the highest 2,4-D degradation rate was obtained at pH 3, while the highest percentage degradation (50%) was achieved at pH 5 after 120 min of reaction. Among the ligands studied (DTPA, EDTA, glycine, oxalate, and citrate), only ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) significantly enhanced oxidation of 2,4-D. This increase in oxidation was observed at all pH values tested (including neutral to alkaline conditions), indicating the feasibility of the technique for treatment of contaminated water. In the presence of EDTA, the oxidation rate was greater at pH 3 than at pH 5 or 7. Increasing the EDTA concentration increased the rate and percentage of 2,4-D degradation, however increasing the Fe(0) concentration resulted in the opposite behavior. It was found that degradation of EDTA and 2,4-D occurred simultaneously, and that the new methodology avoided any 2,4-D removal by adsorption/coprecipitation.

  2. DISTRIBUTION OF LANTHANIDE AND ACTINIDE ELEMENTS BETWEEN BIS-(2-ETHYLHEXYL)PHOSPHORIC ACID AND BUFFERED LACTATE SOLUTIONS CONTAINING SELECTED COMPLEXANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Rudisill, Tracy S.; Diprete, David P.; Thompson, Major C.

    2013-04-15

    With the renewed interest in the closure of the nuclear fuel cycle, the TALSPEAK process is being considered for the separation of Am and Cm from the lanthanide fission products in a next generation reprocessing plant. However, an efficient separation requires tight control of the pH which likely will be difficult to achieve on a large scale. To address this issue, we measured the distribution of lanthanide and actinide elements between aqueous and organic phases in the presence of complexants which were potentially less sensitive to pH control than the diethylenetriaminepentaacetic (DTPA) used in the process. To perform the extractions, a rapid and accurate method was developed for measuring distribution coefficients based on the preparation of lanthanide tracers in the Savannah River National Laboratory neutron activation analysis facility. The complexants tested included aceto-, benzo-, and salicylhydroxamic acids, N,N,N',N'-tetrakis(2-pyridylmethyl)ethylenediamine (TPEN), and ammonium thiocyanate (NH{sub 4}SCN). The hydroxamic acids were the least effective of the complexants tested. The separation factors for TPEN and NH{sub 4}SCN were higher, especially for the heaviest lanthanides in the series; however, no conditions were identified which resulted in separations factors which consistently approached those measured for the use of DTPA.

  3. Synthesis and evaluation of novel polysaccharide-Gd-DTPA compounds as contrast agent for MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Guoying; Feng, Jianghua; Jing, Fengying; Pei, Fengkui; Liu, Maili

    2003-09-01

    Macromolecular conjugates of two kinds of natural polysaccharides, that from Panax quinquefolium linn (PQPS) and Ganoderma applanatum pat (GAPS), with gadolinium-diethylenetriaminepenta-acetic acid (Gd-DTPA) have been synthesized and characterized by means of FTIR, elementary analysis and ICP-AES. Their stability was investigated by competition study with Ca 2+, EDTA (ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid) and DTPA. Polysaccharide-bound complexes exhibit T1 relaxivities of 1.5-1.7 times that of Gd-DTPA in D 2O at 25°C and 9.4 T. MR imaging of Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats showed remarkable enhancement in rat liver and kidney after i.v. injection of these two complexes: liver parenchyma 60.9±5.6%, 57.8±7.4% at 65-85 min; kidney 144.9±14.5%, 199.9±25.4% at 10-30 min for PQPS-Gd-DTPA, GAPS-Gd-DTPA at gadolinium dose of 0.083 and 0.082 mmol/kg, respectively. Our preliminary in vivo and in vitro study indicates that the two kinds of polysaccharide-bound complexes are potential tissue-specific contrast agents for MRI.

  4. An Evaluation of the Chelating Agent EDDS for Marigold Production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aminopolycarboxylic acid (APCA) ligands (chelating agents) like ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) are commonly used in soluble fertilizers to supply copper (Cu), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), and/or zinc (Zn) to plants. The offsite runoff and contamina...

  5. Thermodynamic stability and kinetic inertness of a Gd-DTPA bisamide complex grafted onto gold nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Mogilireddy, Vijetha; Déchamps-Olivier, Isabelle; Alric, Christophe; Laurent, Gautier; Laurent, Sophie; Vander Elst, Luce; Muller, Robert; Bazzi, Rana; Roux, Stéphane; Tillement, Olivier; Chuburu, Françoise

    2015-01-01

    Gold nanoparticles coated by gadolinium (III) chelates (Au@DTDTPA) where DTDTPA is a dithiolated bisamide derivative of diethylenetriamine-N,N,N',N'',N''-pentaacetic acid (DTPA), constituted contrast agents for both X-ray computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. In an MRI context, highly stable Gd(3+) complexes are needed for in vivo applications. Thus, knowledge of the thermodynamic stability and kinetic inertness of these chelates, when grafted onto gold nanoparticles, is crucial since bisamide DTPA chelates are usually less suited for Gd(3+) coordination than DTPA. Therefore, these parameters were evaluated by means of potentiometric titrations and relaxivity measurements. The results showed that, when the chelates were grafted onto the nanoparticle, not only their thermodynamic stability but also their kinetic inertness were improved. These positive effects were correlated to the chelate packing at the nanoparticle surface that stabilized the corresponding Gd(3+) complexes and greatly enhanced their kinetic inertness.

  6. Diglycolamic acid modified silica gel for the separation of hazardous trivalent metal ions from aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Suneesh, A S; Syamala, K V; Venkatesan, K A; Antony, M P; Vasudeva Rao, P R

    2015-01-15

    The surface of the silica gel was modified with diglycolamic acid moieties and the product (Si-DGAH) was characterized by elemental analysis, TG-DTA, (1)H and (29)Si NMR and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The adsorption behavior of hazardous americium (III) and europium (III) in Si-DGAH was studied from aqueous nitric acid medium to examine the feasibility using the modified silica for the separation of Am(III) and Eu(III) from aqueous wastes. In this context, the effect of various parameters such as the duration of equilibration, and concentrations of europium, nitric acid, sodium nitrate and diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) in aqueous phase, on the distribution coefficient (K(d)) of Am(III) and Eu(III) was investigated. The distribution coefficient of ∼10(3) mL/g (>99.9% extraction) was obtained for both Am(III) and Eu(III) at pH 3, and the K(d) values decreased with increase in the concentration of nitric acid. Rapid kinetics of extraction in the initial stages of equilibration, followed by the establishment of equilibrium occurred within 30 min. The extraction data were fitted into Langmuir adsorption model and the apparent europium extraction capacity was determined. Europium loading capacity of the sorbent was determined at various feed pH by column method. The study indicated the possibility of using diglycolamic acid-modified silica for the separation of Eu(III) and Am(III) from aqueous wastes. PMID:25454425

  7. ( sup 111 In-DTPA-D-Phe sup 1 )-octreotide, a potential radiopharmaceutical for imaging of somatostatin receptor-positive tumors: Synthesis, radiolabeling and in vitro validation

    SciTech Connect

    Bakker, W.H.; Albert, R.; Bruns, C.; Breeman, W.A.P.; Hofland, L.J.; Marbach, P.; Pless, J.; Pralet, D.; Stolz, B.; Koper, J.W.; Lamberts, S.W.J.; Visser, T.J.; Krenning, E.P. Sandoz Pharma AG, Basel )

    1991-01-01

    As starting material for a potentially convenient radiopharmaceutical, a diethylenetriaminopentaacetic acid (DTPA) conjugated derivative of octreotide (SMS 201-995) was prepared. This peptide, (DTPA-D-Phe{sup 1})-octreotide (SDZ 215-811) binds more than 95% of added {sup 111}In in an easy, single-step labeling procedure without necessity of further purification. The specific somatostatin-like biologic effect of these analogues was proven by the inhibition of growth hormone secretion by cultured rat pituitary cells in a dose-dependent fashion by octreotide, (DTPA-D-Phe{sup 1})-octreotide and non-radioactive ({sup 115}In-DTPA-D-Phe{sup 1})-octreotide. The binding of ({sup 111}In-DTPA-D-Phe{sup 1})-octreotide to rat brain cortex membranes proved to be displaced similarly by natural somatosatin as well as by octreotide, suggesting specific binding of ({sup 111}In-DTPA-D-Phe{sup 1})-octreotide to somatostatin receptors. The binding of the indium-labeled compound showed a somewhat lower affinity when compared with the iodinated (Tyr{sup 3})-octreotide, but indium-labeled (DTPA-D-Phe{sup 1})-octreotide still binds with nanomolar affinity. In conjunction with in vivo studies, these results suggest that ({sup 111}In-DTPA-D-Phe{sup 1})-octreotide is a promising radiopharmaceutical for scintigraphic imaging of somatostatin receptor-positive tumors.

  8. The influence of humic acids on the phytoextraction of cadmium from soil.

    PubMed

    Evangelou, Michael W H; Daghan, Hatice; Schaeffer, Andreas

    2004-10-01

    Cadmium poses a major environmental and human health threat because of its constant release through anthropogenic activities. A need, therefore, exists for cost-effective remediation procedures. Phytoremediation, the use of plants to extract contaminants from soils and groundwater, has revealed great potential. However, it is limited by the fact that plants need time, nutrient supply and, moreover, have a limited metal uptake capacity. Synthetic chelators have shown positive effects in enhancing heavy metal extraction through phytoremediation, but they have also revealed a vast number of negative side-effects. The objective of this research was to investigate the use of humic acids as an alternative to synthetic chelators. Humic acids were applied to a cadmium-contaminated soil at various dosages, and the uptake of cadmium into Nicotiana tabacum SR-1 was determined in relation to the amounts of total and bioavailable cadmium in the soil. It was found that the theoretical bioavailability of cadmium, as determined by diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) extraction, did not change, but its plant uptake was enhanced significantly, in some cases up to 65%. Humic acids added at a rate of 2 g kg(-1) soil increased the cadmium concentration in the shoots from 30.9 to 39.9 mg kg(-1). A possible reason for this enhancement is the decrease in pH, resulting in higher cadmium availability. Another possibility taken into account is that plants may take up cadmium complexes with humic acid fragments, which result from microbiological degradation or, self-dissociation.

  9. COMBINING NEUTRAL AND ACIDIC EXTRACTANTS FOR RECOVERING TRANSURANIC ELEMENTS FROM NUCLEAR FUEL

    SciTech Connect

    Lumetta, Gregg J.; Neiner, Doinita; Sinkov, Sergey I.; Carter, Jennifer C.; Braley, Jenifer C.; Latesky, Stanley; Gelis, Artem V.; Tkac, Peter; Vandegrift, George F.

    2011-10-03

    We have been investigating a solvent extraction system that combines a neutral extractant--octyl(phenyl)-N,N-diisobutyl-carbamoylmethylphosphine oxide (CMPO)--with an acidic extractant--bis(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid (HDEHP)--to form a single process solvent for separating Am and Cm from the other components of irradiated nuclear fuel. It was originally hypothesized that the extraction chemistry of CMPO would dominate under conditions of high acidity (> 1 M HNO3), resulting in co-extraction of the transuranic and lanthanide elements into the organic phase. Contacting the loaded solvent with a solution of diethylenetriaminepentaacetate (DTPA) buffered with lactic or citric acid at pH {approx}3 to 4 would result in a condition in which the HDEHP chemistry dominates. Although the data somewhat support this hypothesis, it is clear that there are interactions between the two extractants such that they do not act independently in the extraction and stripping regimes. We report here studies directed at determining the nature and extent of interaction between CMPO and HDEHP, the synergistic behavior of CMPO and HDEHP in the extraction of americium and neodymium, and progress towards determining the thermodynamics of this extraction system. Neodymium and americium behave similarly in the combined solvent system, with a significant synergy between CMPO and HDEHP in the extraction of both of these trivalent elements from lactate-buffered DTPA solutions. In contrast, a much weaker synergistic behaviour is observed for europium. Thus, investigations into the fundamental chemistry involved in this system have focused on the neodymium extraction. The extraction of neodymium has been systematically investigated, individually varying the HDEHP concentration, the CMPO concentration, or the aqueous phase composition. Thermodynamic modeling of the neodymium extraction system has been initiated. Interactions between CMPO and HDEHP in the organic phase must be taken into account in

  10. Heavy metal uptake and leaching from polluted soil using permeable barrier in DTPA-assisted phytoextraction.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Shulan; Shen, Zhiping; Duo, Lian

    2015-04-01

    Application of sewage sludge (SS) in agriculture is an alternative technique of disposing this waste. But unreasonable application of SS leads to excessive accumulation of heavy metals in soils. A column experiment was conducted to test the availability of heavy metals to Lolium perenne grown in SS-treated soils following diethylene triamine penta acetic acid (DTPA) application at rates of 0, 10 and 20 mmol kg(-1) soil. In order to prevent metal leaching in DTPA-assisted phytoextraction process, a horizontal permeable barrier was placed below the treated soil, and its effectiveness was also assessed. Results showed that DTPA addition significantly increased metal uptake by L. perenne shoots and metal leaching. Permeable barriers increased metal concentrations in plant shoots and effectively decreased metal leaching from the treated soil. Heavy metals in SS-treated soils could be gradually removed by harvesting L. perenne many times in 1 year and adding low dosage of DTPA days before each harvest.

  11. Biodistribution of Ru-97-labeled DTPA, DMSA and transferrin. [Diagnostic potential

    SciTech Connect

    Som, P; Oster, Z H; Fairchild, R G; Atkins, H L; Brill, A B; Gil, M C; Srivastava, S C; Meinken, G E; Goldman, A G; Richards, P

    1980-01-01

    Ruthenium-97 is being produced at the Brookhaven Linac Isotope Producer (BLIP). The favorable physical properties of Ru-97 and chemical reactivity of ruthenium offer a potential for using this isotope to label compounds useful for delayed scanning. Diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA), 2,3-Dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA), and Transferrin (TF) were labeled with Ru-97-chloride. Ru-97-DTPA and In-111-DTPA, injected intravenously, showed similar organ distribution, kinetics, and more than 80% excretion by 0.5 h. Ru-97-DTPA and In-111-DTPA injected into the cisterna magna of dogs showed similar kinetics in brain, blood, and urinary bladder. The energy deposited by 1 mCi In-111-DTPA is twice that from 1 mCi Ru-97-DTPA. High quality camera images of the CSF space in the dog were obtained with both isotopes. Ru-97-DMSA was prepared with and without the addition of SnCl/sub 2/.2H/sub 2/O. Tin-free DMSA was rapidly excreted via the kidneys, whereas for maximum cortical deposition, the tin-containing preparation was superior. This compound is suitable for delayed imaging of both normal and impaired kidneys. Tissue distribution studies were performed in abscess-bearing rats with Ru-97-transferrin. Although blood levels were higher than with Ga-67-citrate, the abscess had twice as much Ru-97-TF as Ga-67-citrate and the Ru-97 muscle activity was one-third that of Ga-67. Imaging of abscess-bearing rabbits with Ru-97-TF visualized the abscesses as early as 1/2 hr after injection. Since the initial images visualize the abscess so clearly and since the TF portion of the compound binds to the abscess, Tc-99m-TF is being studied for the same purpose. Ru-97-labeled compounds are a promising replacement for In-111 and possibly also for Ga-67 compounds with the advantages of lower radiation dose and high quality image. (ERB)

  12. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Acute Reperfused Myocardial Infarction: Intraindividual Comparison of ECIII-60 and Gd-DTPA in a Swine Model

    SciTech Connect

    Jin Jiyang; Teng Gaojun; Feng Yi; Wu Yanping; Jin Qindi; Wang Yu; Wang Zhen; Lu Qin; Jiang Yibo; Wang Shengqi; Chen Feng; Marchal, Guy; Ni Yicheng

    2007-04-15

    Purpose. To compare a necrosis-avid contrast agent (NACA) bis-Gd-DTPA-pamoic acid derivative (ECIII-60) after intracoronary delivery with an extracellular agent Gd-DTPA after intravenous injection on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in a swine model of acute reperfused myocardial infarction (MI). Methods. Eight pigs underwent 90 min of transcatheter coronary balloon occlusion and 60 min of reperfusion. After intravenous injection of Gd-DTPA at a dose of 0.2 mmol/kg, all pigs were scanned with T1-weighted MRI until the delayed enhancement of MI disappeared. Then they were intracoronarily infused with ECIII-60 at 0.0025 mmol/kg and imaged for 5 hr. Signal intensity, infarct-over-normal contrast ratio and relative infarct size were quantified, compared, and correlated with the results of postmortem MRI and triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) histochemical staining. Results. A contrast ratio over 3.0 was induced by both Gd-DTPA and ECIII-60. However, while the delayed enhancement with Gd-DTPA virtually vanished in 1 hr, ECIII-60 at an 80x smaller dose depicted the MI accurately over 5 hr as proven by ex vivo MRI and TTC staining. Conclusion. Both Gd-DTPA and ECIII-60 strongly enhanced acute MI. Comparing with fading contrast in a narrow time window with intravenous Gd-DTPA, intracoronary ECIII-60 persistently demarcated the acute MI, indicating a potential method for postprocedural assessment of myocardial viability after coronary interventions.

  13. Acceleration of Natural-Abundance Solid-State MAS NMR Measurements on Bone by Paramagnetic Relaxation from Gadolinium-DTPA

    PubMed Central

    Mroue, Kamal H.; Zhang, Rongchun; Zhu, Peizhi; McNerny, Erin; Kohn, David H.; Morris, Michael D.; Ramamoorthy, Ayyalusamy

    2014-01-01

    Reducing the data collection time without affecting the signal intensity and spectral resolution is one of the major challenges for the widespread application of multidimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, especially in experiments conducted on complex heterogeneous biological systems such as bone. In most of these experiments, the NMR data collection time is ultimately governed by the proton spin-lattice relaxation times (T1). For over two decades, gadolinium(III)-DTPA (Gd-DTPA, DTPA = Diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid) has been one of the most widely used contrast-enhancement agents in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In this study, we demonstrate that Gd-DTPA can also be effectively used to enhance the longitudinal relaxation rates of protons in solid-state NMR experiments conducted on bone without significant line-broadening and chemical-shift-perturbation side effects. Using bovine cortical bone samples incubated in different concentrations of Gd-DTPA complex, the 1H T1 values were calculated from data collected by 1H spin-inversion recovery method detected in natural-abundance 13C cross-polarization magic angle spinning (CPMAS) NMR experiments. Our results reveal that the 1H T1 values can be successfully reduced by a factor of 3.5 using as low as 10 mM Gd-DTPA without reducing the spectral resolution and thus enabling faster data acquisition of the 13C CPMAS spectra. These results obtained from 13C-detected CPMAS experiments were further confirmed using 1H-detected ultrafast MAS experiments on Gd-DTPA doped bone samples. This approach considerably improves the signal-to-noise ratio per unit time of NMR experiments applied to bone samples by reducing the experimental time required to acquire the same number of scans. PMID:24881032

  14. Scavenging of free-radical metabolites of aniline xenobiotics and drugs by amino acid derivatives: toxicological implications of radical-transfer reactions.

    PubMed

    Michail, Karim; Baghdasarian, Argishti; Narwaley, Malyaj; Aljuhani, Naif; Siraki, Arno G

    2013-12-16

    We investigated a novel scavenging mechanism of arylamine free radicals by poly- and monoaminocarboxylates. Free radicals of arylamine xenobiotics and drugs did not react with oxygen in peroxidase-catalyzed reactions; however, they showed marked oxygen uptake in the presence of an aminocarboxylate. These free-radical intermediates were identified using the spin trap 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline-N-oxide (DMPO) and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectrometry. Diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA), a polyaminocarboxylate, caused a concentration-dependent attenuation of N-centered radicals produced by the peroxidative metabolism of arylamines with the subsequent formation of secondary aliphatic carbon-centered radicals stemming from the cosubstrate molecule. Analogously, N,N-dimethylglycine (DMG) and N-methyliminodiacetate (MIDA), but not iminodiacetic acid (IDA), demonstrated a similar scavenging effect of arylamine-derived free radicals in a horseradish peroxidase/H2O2 system. Using human promyelocytic leukemia (HL-60) cell lysate as a model of human neutrophils, DTPA, MIDA, and DMG readily reduced anilinium cation radicals derived from the arylamines and gave rise to the corresponding carbon radicals. The rate of peroxidase-triggered polymerization of aniline was studied as a measure of nitrogen-radical scavenging. Although, IDA had no effect on the rate of aniline polymerization, this was almost nullified in the presence of DTPA and MIDA at half of the molar concentration of the aniline substrate, whereas a 20 molar excess of DMPO caused only a partial inhibition. Furthermore, the yield of formaldehyde, a specific reaction endproduct of the oxidation of aminocarboxylates by aniline free-radical metabolites, was quantitatively determined. Azobenzene, a specific reaction product of peroxidase-catalyzed free-radical dimerization of aniline, was fully abrogated in the presence of DTPA, as confirmed by GC/MS. Under aerobic conditions, a radical-transfer reaction

  15. Plutonium-DTPA Model Application with USTUR Case 0269.

    PubMed

    Konzen, Kevin; Brey, Richard; Miller, Scott

    2016-01-01

    A plutonium-DTPA (Pu-DTPA) biokinetic model was introduced that had originated from the study of a plutonium-contaminated wound. This work evaluated the extension of the Pu-DTPA model to United States Transuranium and Uranium Registry (USTUR) Case 0269 involving an acute inhalation of a plutonium nitrate aerosol. Chelation was administered intermittently for the first 7 mo as Ca-EDTA, mostly through intravenous injection, with Ca-DTPA treatments administered approximately 2.5 y post intake. Urine and fecal bioassays were collected following intake for several years. Tissues were collected and analyzed for plutonium content approximately 38 y post intake. This work employed the Pu-DTPA model for predicting the urine and fecal bioassay and final tissue quantity at autopsy. The Pu-DTPA model was integrated with two separate plutonium systemic models (i.e., ICRP Publication 67 and its proposed modification). This work illustrated that the Pu-DTPA model was useful for predicting urine and fecal bioassay, including final tissue quantity, 38 y post intake.

  16. Permeability of ferret trachea in vitro to {sup 99m}{Tc}-DTPA and [{sup 14}C]antipyrine

    SciTech Connect

    Hanafi, Z.; Webber, S.E.; Widdicombe, J.G.

    1994-09-01

    Platelet-activating factor (PAF) and vasoactive drugs were tested on permeability of ferret trachea in vitro by measuring fluxes of {sup 99m}{Tc}-diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid ({sup 99m}{Tc}-DTPA; hydrophilic) and [{sup 14}C]antipyrine ([{sup 14}C]AP; lipophilic) across the tracheal wall. Tracheae were bathed on both sides with Krebs-Henseleit buffer, with luminal buffer containing either {sup 99m}{Tc}-DTPA or [{sup 14}C]AP. Luminal and abluminal radioactivities, potential difference, and tracheal smooth muscle tone were measured. Baseline {sup 99m}{Tc}-DTPA and [{sup 14}C]AP permeability coefficients were - 4.7 {+-} 0.6 (SE) x 10{sup {minus}7} and -2.2 {+-} 0.1 x 10{sup {minus}5} cm/s, respectively. PAF (10 {mu}M) increased permeability to {sup 99m}{Tc}-DTPA to -35.3 {+-} 7.6 x 10{sup {minus}7} cm/s (P < 0.05), but permeability to [{sup 14}C]AP did not change, suggesting that paracellular but not transcellular transport was affected. Abluminal and luminal applications of methacholine (MCh, 20 {mu}M), phenylephrine (PE, 100 {mu}M), and albuterol (Alb, 100 {mu}M) caused no change in permeability to {sup 99m}{Tc}-DTPA before or after exposure to luminal PAF, but abluminal histamine (Hist, 10 {mu}M) significantly increased permeability. Abluminal Hist decreased permeability to [{sup 14}C]AP before and after exposure to PAF. MCh, PE, and Hist increased smooth muscle tone; Alb and PAF had no effect. Thus, only PAF and Hist altered permeability to {sup 99m}{Tc}-DTPA, and MCh, PE, and Hist changed smooth muscle tone. Tracheal permeability changes were greater for the hydrophilic than for the lipophilic agent. 37 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Coupling Gd-DTPA with a bispecific, recombinant protein anti-EGFR-iRGD complex improves tumor targeting in MRI

    PubMed Central

    XIN, XIAOYAN; SHA, HUIZI; SHEN, JINGTAO; ZHANG, BING; ZHU, BIN; LIU, BAORUI

    2016-01-01

    Recombinant anti-epidermal growth factor receptor-internalizing arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (anti-EGFR single-domain antibody fused with iRGD peptide) protein efficiently targets the EGFR extracellular domain and integrin αvβ/β5, and shows a high penetration into cells. Thus, this protein may improve penetration of conjugated drugs into the deep zone of gastric cancer multicellular 3D spheroids. In the present study, a novel tumor-targeting contrast agent for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was developed, by coupling gadolinium-diethylene triamine pentaacetate (Gd-DTPA) with the bispecific recombinant anti-EGFR-iRGD protein. The anti-EGFR-iRGD protein was extracted from Escherichia coli and Gd was loaded onto the recombinant protein by chelation using DTPA anhydride. Single-targeting agent anti-EGFR-DTPA-Gd, which served as the control, was also prepared. The results of the present study showed that anti-EGFR-iRGD-DTPA-Gd exhibited no significant cyto toxicity to human gastric carcinoma cells (BGC-823) under the experimental conditions used. Compared with a conventional contrast agent (Magnevist), anti-EGFR-iRGD-DTPA-Gd showed higher T1 relaxivity (10.157/mM/sec at 3T) and better tumor-targeting ability. In addition, the signal intensity and the area under curve for the enhanced signal time in tumor, in vivo, were stronger than Gd-DTPA alone or the anti-EGFR-Gd control. Thus, Gd-labelled anti-EGFR-iRGD has potential as a tumor-targeting contrast agent for improved MRI. PMID:27035336

  18. Development of the Plutonium-DTPA Biokinetic Model.

    PubMed

    Konzen, Kevin; Brey, Richard

    2015-06-01

    Estimating radionuclide intakes from bioassays following chelation treatment presents a challenge to the dosimetrist due to the observed excretion enhancement of the particular radionuclide of concern where no standard biokinetic model exists. This document provides a Pu-DTPA biokinetic model that may be used for making such determination for plutonium intakes. The Pu-DTPA biokinetic model is intended to supplement the standard recommended biokinetic models. The model was used to evaluate several chelation strategies that resulted in providing recommendations for effective treatment. These recommendations supported early treatment for soluble particle inhalations and an initial 3-day series of DTPA treatments for wounds. Several late chelation strategies were also compared where reduced treatment frequencies proved to be as effective as multiple treatments. The Pu-DTPA biokinetic model can be used to assist in estimating initial intakes of transuranic radionuclides and for studying the effects of different treatment strategies.

  19. Development of the Plutonium-DTPA biokinetic model

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Konzen, Kevin; Brey, Richard

    2015-06-01

    Estimating radionuclide intakes from bioassays following chelation treatment presents a challenge to the dosimetrist due to the observed excretion enhancement of the particular radionuclide of concern, where no standard biokinetic model exists. This document provides a Pu-DTPA biokinetic model that may be used for making such determination for plutonium intakes. The Pu-DTPA biokinetic model is intended to supplement the standard recommended biokinetic models. The model was used to evaluate several chelation strategies that resulted in providing recommendations for effective treatment. These recommendations supported early treatment for soluble particle inhalations and an initial 3-day treatment series of DTPA treatments for wounds.more » Several late chelation strategies were also compared where reduced treatment frequencies proved to be as effective as multiple treatments. Furthermore, the Pu-DTPA biokinetic model can be used to assist in estimating initial intakes of transuranic radionuclides, and for studying the effects of different treatment strategies.« less

  20. Development of the Plutonium-DTPA biokinetic model

    SciTech Connect

    Konzen, Kevin; Brey, Richard

    2015-06-01

    Estimating radionuclide intakes from bioassays following chelation treatment presents a challenge to the dosimetrist due to the observed excretion enhancement of the particular radionuclide of concern, where no standard biokinetic model exists. This document provides a Pu-DTPA biokinetic model that may be used for making such determination for plutonium intakes. The Pu-DTPA biokinetic model is intended to supplement the standard recommended biokinetic models. The model was used to evaluate several chelation strategies that resulted in providing recommendations for effective treatment. These recommendations supported early treatment for soluble particle inhalations and an initial 3-day treatment series of DTPA treatments for wounds. Several late chelation strategies were also compared where reduced treatment frequencies proved to be as effective as multiple treatments. Furthermore, the Pu-DTPA biokinetic model can be used to assist in estimating initial intakes of transuranic radionuclides, and for studying the effects of different treatment strategies.

  1. Nile Red Loaded PLGA Nanoparticles Surface Modified with Gd-DTPA for Potential Dual-Modal Imaging.

    PubMed

    Li, Qinqin; Li, Chenglin; Tong, Weijun

    2016-06-01

    Here, a novel poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA)-based nanoparticles (NPs) for magnetic resonance (MR) and fluorescence imaging was developed for cell imaging. PLGA NPs loaded with fluorescent dye Nile red (NR) and surface-coated with poly(ethyleneimine) (PEI) were produced in a single step nanoprecipitation process. Diethylenetriamine pentaacetic dianhydride (DTPA) was conjugated to PLGA/NR@PEI NPs through amidation reaction between -COOH of DTPA and -NH2 of PEI, which can chelate gadolinium (Gd3+) as an MR imaging contrast agent. The PLGA/NR@PEI-DTPA-Gd NPs exhibited a uniform particle size of -200 nm and were stable in culture medium. These NPs had a high T relaxivity (R1) of 28.36 mM(-1)S(-1). They did not introduce serious cytotoxicity against A549 lung cancer cells. Furthermore, fluorescence and MR imaging studies on A549 lung cancer cells in vitro revealed that PLGA/NR@PEI-DTPA-Gd NPs can serve as an efficient fluorescence/MR dual-modality imaging nanoprobe. PMID:27427598

  2. Potential Role of Tc-99m DTPA Diuretic Renal Scan in the Diagnosis of Calyceal Diverticulum in Children

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Chun-Chen; Shih, Bing-Fu; Shih, Shin-Lin; Tsai, Jeng-Daw

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The aim of the study was to assess the usefulness of Technetium-99m diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (Tc-99m DTPA) diuretic scan to diagnose calyceal diverticulum (CD). From January 2000 to June 2014, children with evidence of renal cystic lesions of undetermined diagnosis on ultrasound were enrolled. Computed tomography urography (CTU) and Tc-99m DTPA diuretic scan were performed to characterize the precise anatomy. The diagnosis of CD depended on visualization of a renal cystic lesion with filling of contrast material or radiotracer from the collecting system on CTU or diuretic renal scan. Children who had positive findings of CD on 1 or both imaging studies were selected and analyzed. Both CTU and Tc-99m DTPA diuretic renal scan were performed in 39 children. A total of 9 (23.1 %) children with CD were diagnosed. All 9 children had positive diagnosis of CD on diuretic renal scan. Only 6 (66.7%) children could be diagnosed by CTU, and CD was missed by CTU in 3 subjects. The differential renal functions in patients with CD were 46% to 55%. The time of radiotracer appearance in the CD ranged from the 8th to the 24th minute. Seven patients had persistent accumulation of radiotracer in their CD at the end of the study. Tc-99m DTPA diuretic renal scan seems to be more sensitive than CTU in diagnosing CD. The possible reasons of higher sensitivity are discussed. Additional advantages that Tc-99m DTPA diuretic renal scan provides include the following: continuous monitoring, less radiation doses, and information on renal function, making it an attractive alternative to CTU for diagnosis of CD. PMID:26091475

  3. Potential Role of Tc-99m DTPA Diuretic Renal Scan in the Diagnosis of Calyceal Diverticulum in Children

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Chun-Chen; Shih, Bing-Fu; Shih, Shin-Lin; Tsai, Jeng-Daw

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The aim of the study was to assess the usefulness of Technetium-99m diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (Tc-99m DTPA) diuretic scan to diagnose calyceal diverticulum (CD). From January 2000 to June 2014, children with evidence of renal cystic lesions of undetermined diagnosis on ultrasound were enrolled. Computed tomography urography (CTU) and Tc-99m DTPA diuretic scan were performed to characterize the precise anatomy. The diagnosis of CD depended on visualization of a renal cystic lesion with filling of contrast material or radiotracer from the collecting system on CTU or diuretic renal scan. Children who had positive findings of CD on 1 or both imaging studies were selected and analyzed. Both CTU and Tc-99m DTPA diuretic renal scan were performed in 39 children. A total of 9 (23.1 %) children with CD were diagnosed. All 9 children had positive diagnosis of CD on diuretic renal scan. Only 6 (66.7%) children could be diagnosed by CTU, and CD was missed by CTU in 3 subjects. The differential renal functions in patients with CD were 46% to 55%. The time of radiotracer appearance in the CD ranged from the 8th to the 24th minute. Seven patients had persistent accumulation of radiotracer in their CD at the end of the study. Tc-99m DTPA diuretic renal scan seems to be more sensitive than CTU in diagnosing CD. The possible reasons of higher sensitivity are discussed. Additional advantages that Tc-99m DTPA diuretic renal scan provides include the following: continuous monitoring, less radiation doses, and information on renal function, making it an attractive alternative to CTU for diagnosis of CD.

  4. Evaluation of the efficiency of DTPA and other new chelating agents for removing neptunium from target organs.

    PubMed

    Paquet, F; Metivier, H; Poncy, J L; Burgada, R; Bailly, T

    1997-05-01

    Diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA) has been tested with 8 other new chelators for neptunium decorporation after systemic contamination in the rat. The ligands were injected intravenously at a dosage of 30 mumol kg-1 and the animals killed 24 h later. The results show that none of the chelators tested was efficient in removing significant amounts of the radionuclide from the body. In order to understand why these chelators were ineffective, in vitro approaches have since been developed in which high concentrations of DTPA were added to Np-bearing ligands in the blood, liver and skeleton. The main conclusions were that under our experimental conditions neptunium was not chelatable after its organ deposition.

  5. Cerebrospinal fluid flow abnormalities in patients with neoplastic meningitis. An evaluation using /sup 111/In-DTPA ventriculography

    SciTech Connect

    Grossman, S.A.; Trump, D.L.; Chen, D.C.; Thompson, G.; Camargo, E.E.

    1982-11-01

    Cerebrospinal fluid flow dynamics were evaluated by /sup 111/In-diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (/sup 111/In-DTPA) ventriculography in 27 patients with neoplastic meningitis. Nineteen patients (70 percent) had evidence of cerebrospinal fluid flow disturbances. These occurred as ventricular outlet obstructions, abnormalities of flow in the spinal canal, or flow distrubances over the cortical convexities. Tumor histology, physical examination, cerebrospinal fluid analysis, myelograms, and computerized axial tomographic scans were not sufficient to predict cerebrospinal fluid flow patterns. These data indicate that cerebrospinal fluid flow abnormalities are common in patients with neoplastic meningitis and that /sup 111/In-DTPA cerebrospinal fluid flow imaging is useful in characterizing these abnormalities. This technique provides insight into the distribution of intraventricularly administered chemotherapy and may provide explanations for treatment failure and drug-induced neurotoxicity in patients with neoplastic meningitis.

  6. Leaching and efficiency of six organic zinc fertilizers applied to navy bean crop grown in a weakly acidic soil of Spain.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, D; Novillo, J; Rico, M I; Alvarez, J M

    2008-05-14

    Zinc contamination of groundwater from fertilizers applied to pulse crops is a potential problem, but the use of different types of organic chelates can minimize the contamination potential while still adequately feeding the crops. The objective of this study was to compare the leaching, distribution in fractions and availability, and relative effectiveness of Zn from six organic Zn fertilizers (zinc-ethylenediaminetetraacetate- N-2-hydroxyethylethylenediaminetriacetate (Zn-EDTA-HEDTA), Zn-HEDTA, zinc- S, S'-ethylenediaminedisuccinate (Zn- S, S-EDDS), zinc-polyhydroxyphenylcarboxylate, Zn-EDTA, and zinc-ethylenediaminedi(2-hydroxy-5-sulfophenylacetate) (Zn-EDDHSA)) applied to a navy bean ( Phaseolus vulgaris, L.) crop cultivated by applying different Zn levels, in a weakly acidic soil under greenhouse conditions. Zinc soil behavior was evaluated by diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid-triethanolamine (DTPA-TEA), DTPA-ammonium bicarbonate (DTPA-AB), Mehlich-3, and BaCl 2 extractions and sequential fractionation. In all the fertilizer treatments, the percentage of labile Zn that remained in the soil was high with respect to the quantity of Zn applied, with values respectively ranging from 42 to 80% for Zn-EDDHSA and Zn-EDTA sources. A positive correlation with a high level of significance existed between the micronutrient concentration in the navy bean crop (total and soluble) and labile Zn fractions, available Zn, and easily leachable Zn ( r ranged from 0.89 to 0.95, P < 0.0001). The relatively high quantity of total Zn leached by applying Zn-EDTA and Zn-S,S-EDDS sources (11.9 and 6.0%, respectively, for the rate 10 mg of Zn kg(-1) of soil) poses a potential pollution risk for neighboring waters. It would seem recommendable to apply Zn-HEDTA or Zn-EDDHSA sources, even applied at the low rate (5 mg of Zn kg(-1) of soil), because they produced available Zn concentrations in the soil that were above the critical concentration and also produced high Zn concentrations in

  7. Synthesis, DTPA coupling and radio labeling of cationic aminodextran

    SciTech Connect

    Subramanian, G.; McAfee, J.G.; Schneider, R.F.; Zapf-Longo, C.; Palladino, E.; Lyons, B.J.; Roskopf, M.

    1984-01-01

    In glomerular diseases, the normal anionic charge of the basement membrane is lost at an early stage. Glomerular damage in rats has been detected more readily with cationic dextrans than with inulin. Hence, the authors attempted to demonstrate this phenomenon in vivo in rats with labeled cationic dextran. Aminated Dextran (AMDEX) was prepared by treating Dextran(mol. wt approx. = 15k) with sodium methoxide followed by a bromethylamine HBr in DMSO resulting in 10-25 aminogroups per mole. DTPA cyclic dianhydride was coupled to AMDEX using a weight ratio of 1:10 in 0.2 - 1.0 ml 0.42 M Hepes buffer at pH 7.4. Free DTPA was removed by gel filtration (Sephadex P6DG) or by using Centricon-10 (AMICON) centrifugal microconcentrators. AMDEX coupled with DTPA was labeled with Indium-111 in 0.25 M acetate buffer. Labeling yields were >90% by gel chromatography and electrophoresis (pH8.2 Barbitol buffer). AMEXDTPA was labeled also by ligand exchange with Tc-99m-Sn-citrate at neutral pH with a labeling yield of 30%. On electrophoresis, all the labeled samples retained their cationic character. The distribution of purified In-111 AMDEX, was compared with simultaneously IV injected Tc-99m DTPA in rats. The 2 hour urinary excretion, and renal clearance (calculated from the biexponential plasma clearance) were slower (70 to 80%) than those of DTPA, due to the larger molecular size of AMDEX. By 1 hr., 5% of the administered activity was retained in each kidney, probably due to adherence to anionic binding sites.

  8. Exercise increases the lung clearance of inhaled technetium-99m DTPA

    SciTech Connect

    Meignan, M.; Rosso, J.; Leveau, J.; Katz, A.; Cinotti, L.; Madelaine, G.; Galle, P.

    1986-02-01

    The regional lung clearance of a deposited aerosol of (/sup 99m/Tc) diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid was successively computed at rest and at exercise in seven nonsmoking volunteers in upright posture. The subjects were seated on a bicycle with their backs against a gamma camera. At rest there was a gradient of clearance from the apex to the base of the lung, the apical clearance being significantly higher. At exercise this regional gradient was enhanced by a large and significant increase of the apical clearances (3.40 +/- 0.63% min-1 s.d. compared with 1.82 +/- 0.75% min-1 s.d. at rest, n = 7, p less than 0.01). By contrast the changes of the basal clearances were slight and unsignificant (1.46 +/- 0.71% min-1 s.d. compared with 1.40 +/- 0.82% min-1 s.d.). This increase of the apical lung clearance could be attributed primarily to the increase of apical blood flow induced by exercise and to the subsequent increase of the permeability surface area product.

  9. 99mTc-DTPA aerosol for same-day post-perfusion ventilation imaging: results of a multicentre study.

    PubMed

    Köhn, H; Mostbeck, A; Bachmayr, S; Eber, O; Galvan, G; Holm, C; König, B; Lind, P; Markt, B; Ogris, E

    1993-01-01

    A multicentre study was performed in an attempt to evaluate a submicronic technetium-99m diethylene triamine penta-acetic acid aerosol generated by a newly developed delivery system, the aerosol production equipment (APE nebulizer), for same-day post-perfusion ventilation imaging in patients with clinically suspected pulmonary embolism. Quantitative comparison between the DTPA aerosol and krypton gas demonstrated a close correlation with respect to regional pulmonary distribution of activity and peripheral lung penetration (n = 14, r = 0.94, P < 0.001 and r = 0.75, P < 0.0025, respectively). In 169 consecutive patients, DTPA aerosol images performed immediately following perfusion (inhalation scan I) were compared to those carried out on the next day (inhalation scan II) with respect to image quality and assessment of perfusion-ventilation matches or mismatches. Agreement between inhalation scans I and II with respect to perfusion defects matched or mismatched to ventilation was found in 166/169 (98%) studies. The image quality of inhalation scan I was equal to that of scan II in 72%; inhalation scan I was superior in 11% of cases, while scan II was superior in 17%. This submicronic 99mTc-labelled DTPA aerosol is well suited for fast same-day post-perfusion ventilation imaging in patients with clinical suspicion of pulmonary embolism.

  10. On the use of speciation techniques and ab initio modelling to understand tetravalent actinide behavior in a biological medium: An(IV)DTPA case.

    PubMed

    Aupiais, J; Bonin, L; Den Auwer, C; Moisy, P; Siberchicot, B; Topin, S

    2016-03-01

    In the case of an accidental nuclear event, contamination of human bodies by actinide elements may occur. Such elements have the particularity to exhibit both radiological and chemical toxicities that may induce severe damages at several levels, depending on the biokinetics of the element. In order to eliminate the actinide elements before they are stored in target organs (liver, kidneys, or bone, depending on the element), sequestering agents must be quickly injected. However, to date, there is still no ideal sequestering agent, despite the recent interest in this topic due to contamination concerns. DTPA (diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid) is currently generating interest for the development of oral or alternative self-administrable forms. Although biokinetics data are mostly available, molecular scale characterization of actinide-DTPA complexes is still scarce. Nevertheless, strong interest is growing in the characterization of An(IV)DTPA(-) complexes at the molecular level because this opens the way for predicting the stability constants of unknown systems or even for developing new analytical strategies aimed at better and more selective decorporation. For this purpose, Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (EXAFS) and Ab Initio Molecular Dynamics (AIMD) investigations were undertaken and compared with capillary electrophoresis (CE) used in a very unusual way. Indeed, it is commonly believed that CE is incapable of extracting structural information. In capillary electrophoresis, the electrophoretic mobility of an ion is a function of its charge and size. Despite very similar ratios, partial separations between An(IV)DTPA(-) species (An(IV) = Th, U, Np, Pu) were obtained. A linear relationship between the electrophoretic mobility and the actinide--oxygen distance calculated by AIMD was evidenced. As an example, the interpolated U-O distances in U(IV)DTPA(-) from CE-ICPMS experiments, EXAFS, AIMD, and the relationship between the stability constants and

  11. Anti-diphtheria antibody seroprotection rates are similar 10 years after vaccination with dTpa or DTPa using a mathematical model.

    PubMed

    Cheuvart, Brigitte; Burgess, Margaret; Zepp, Fred; Mertsola, Jussi; Wolter, Joanne; Schuerman, Lode

    2004-12-01

    The reduced antigen content diphtheria, tetanus and pertussis (dTpa) vaccine (Boostrixtrade mark) has been shown to induce a strong booster response to all the vaccine components in 4-6 year olds. However, anti-diphtheria antibody levels were observed to be lower when compared to the "full strength" paediatric DTPa vaccine. To assess the impact of this difference on long-term protection, a mathematical model was developed to predict diphtheria antibody decay over time. The model was based on a linear decrease in log-transformed antibody concentrations after the first year post-vaccination. When applied to data collected 3.5 years after vaccination of 4-6 year olds with either DTPa or dTpa, the model predicted that 10 years post-vaccination, 98.6% of subjects vaccinated with dTpa were likely to remain seroprotected against diphtheria, compared to 99.6% vaccinated with DTPa. Therefore, the difference observed in diphtheria antibody geometric mean concentrations 1 month after booster vaccination at 4-6 years with dTpa or DTPa is unlikely to be of clinical relevance 10 years later at the time of the adolescent booster.

  12. Gd-DTPA Adsorption on Chitosan/Magnetite Nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pylypchuk, Ie. V.; Kołodyńska, D.; Kozioł, M.; Gorbyk, P. P.

    2016-03-01

    The synthesis of the chitosan/magnetite nanocomposites is presented. Composites were prepared by co-precipitation of iron(II) and iron(III) salts by aqueous ammonia in the 0.1 % chitosan solution. It was shown that magnetite synthesis in the chitosan medium does not affect the magnetite crystal structure. The thermal analysis data showed 4.6 % of mass concentration of chitosan in the hybrid chitosan/magnetite composite. In the concentration range of initial Gd-DTPA solution up to 0.4 mmol/L, addition of chitosan to magnetite increases the adsorption capacity and affinity to Gd-DTPA complex. The Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption models were applied to describe adsorption processes. Nanocomposites were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), differential thermal analysis (DTA), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and specific surface area determination (ASAP) methods.

  13. Analysis of pharmacokinetics of Gd-DTPA for dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Taheri, Saeid; Shah, N Jon; Rosenberg, Gary A

    2016-09-01

    The pharmacokinetics (PK) of the contrast agent Gd-DTPA administered intravenously (i.v.) for contrast-enhanced MR imaging (DCE-MRI) is an important factor for quantitative data acquisition. We studied the effect of various initial bolus doses on the PK of Gd-DTPA and analyzed population PK of a lower dose for intra-subject variations in DCE-MRI. First, fifteen subjects (23-85years, M/F) were randomly divided into four groups for DCE-MRI with different Gd-DTPA dose: group-I, 0.1mmol/kg, n=4; group-II, 0.05mmol/kg, n=4; group-III, 0.025mmol/kg, n=4; and group-IV, 0.0125mmol/kg, n=3. Sequential fast T1 mapping sequence, after a bolus i.v. Gd-DTPA administered, and a linear T1-[Gd-DTPA] relationship were used to estimate the PK of Gd-DTPA. Secondly, MR-acquired PKs of Gd-DTPA from 58 subjects (28-80years, M/F) were collected retrospectively, from an ongoing study of the brain using DCE-MRI with Gd-DTPA at 0.025mmol/kg, to statistically analyze population PK of Gd-DTPA. We found that the PK of Gd-DTPA (i.v. 0.025mmol/kg) had a half-life of 37.3±6.6min, and was a better fit into a linear T1-[Gd-DTPA] relationship than higher doses (up to 0.1mmol/kg). The area under the curve (AUC) for 0.025mmol/kg was 3.37±0.46, which was a quarter of AUC of 0.1mmol/kg. In population analysis, a dose of 0.025mmol/kg of Gd-DTPA provided less than 5% subject-dependent variation in the PK of Gd-DTPA. Administration of 0.025mmol/kg Gd-DTPA enabled us to estimate [Gd-DTPA] from T1 by using a linear relationship that has a lower estimation error compared to a non-linear relationship. DCE-MRI with a quarter dose of Gd-DTPA is more sensitive to detect changes in [Gd-DTPA].

  14. Analysis of Pharmacokinetics of Gd-DTPA for Dynamic Contrast-enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Taheri, Saeid; Jon Shah, N.; Rosenberg, Gary A.

    2016-01-01

    The pharmacokinetics (PK) of the contrast agent Gd-DTPA administered intravenously (i.v.) for contrast-enhanced MR imaging (DCE-MRI) is an important factor for quantitative data acquisition. We studied the effect of various initial bolus doses on the PK of Gd-DTPA and analyzed population PK of a lower dose for intra-subject variations in DCE-MRI. First, fifteen subjects (23–85 years, M/F) were randomly divided into four groups for DCE-MRI with different Gd-DTPA dose: group-I, 0.1mmol/kg, n=4; group-II, 0.05 mmol/kg, n=4; group-III, 0.025mmol/kg, n=4; and group-IV, 0.0125 mmol/kg, n=3. Sequential fast T1 mapping sequence, after a bolus i.v. Gd-DTPA administered, and a linear T1-[Gd-DTPA] relationship were used to estimate the PK of Gd-DTPA. Secondly, MR-acquired PK of Gd-DTPA from 58 subjects (28–80 years, M/F) were collected retrospectively, from an ongoing study of the brain using DCE-MRI with Gd-DTPA at 0.025 mmol/kg, to statistically analyze population PK of Gd-DTPA. We found that the PK of Gd-DTPA (i.v. 0.025 mmol/kg) had a half-life of 37.3 ± 6.6 mins, and was a better fit into a linear T1-[Gd-DTPA] relationship than higher doses (up to 0.1 mmol/kg). The area under the curve (AUC) for 0.025 mmol/kg was 3.37± 0.46, which was a quarter of AUC of 0.1 mmol/kg. In population analysis, a dose of 0.025 mmol/kg of Gd-DTPA provided less than 5% subject-dependent variation in the PK of Gd-DTPA. Administration of 0.025 mmol/kg Gd-DTPA enable us to estimate [Gd-DTPA] from T1 by using a linear relationship that has a lower estimation error compared to a non-linear relationship. DCE-MRI with a quarter dose of Gd-DTPA is more sensitive to detect changes in [Gd-DTPA]. PMID:27109487

  15. Clearance of Tc-99m DTPA in hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis: concise communication

    SciTech Connect

    Wainer, E.; Boner, G.; Lubin, E.; Rosenfeld, J.B.

    1981-09-01

    The clearance of Tc-99m DTPA was studied in 14 patients undergoing hemodialysis (HD) or peritoneal dialysis (PD). Mean Tc-99m DTPA clearance during HD was 37.8% +/- 10.1 of creatinine clearance. Mean Tc-99m DTPA clearance in PD was 65.1% +/- 10.3 of creatinine clearance. Tc-99m DTPA, with a larger molecular weight than that of creatinine, is cleared relatively better during PD than during HD. Thus Tc-99m DTPA may be used in the assessment of the effectiveness of different dialytic treatments for substances of similar molecular weight. In addition, our study shows that clearance of DTPA both in HD and PD is sufficiently high to allow the removal of this chelating agent in patients with renal failure.

  16. MR imaging with Gd-DTPA in lesions of the head and neck.

    PubMed

    Vogl, T h; Dresel, S; Juergens, M; Assal, J; Lissner, J

    1993-08-01

    The diagnostic value of MR in the head and neck with special emphasis on the contrast medium Gd-DTPA will be demonstrated. A total of 1,260 patients underwent MR with different pulse sequences plain and with Gd-DTPA. The sequences were analyzed and compared with CT. Due to the different pattern of enhancement the contrast medium helped in differentiating malignant and benign tumors from other processes like cysts and inflammatory changes. Except lesions with small bony erosion and inflammatory changes of the salivary glands MR with Gd-DTPA proved to be diagnostically advantageous in all cases. Gd-DTPA improved the delineation of tumor margins. MR in combination with Gd-DTPA offers a lot of new advantages for diagnosing lesions of the head and neck. However, due to the prolonged examination time and the lack of noninvasiveness the use of Gd-DTPA has to be considered critical for every single area of the head and neck.

  17. USTUR WHOLE BODY CASE 0269: DEMONSTRATING EFFECTIVENESS OF I.V. CA-DTPA FOR PU

    SciTech Connect

    James, Anthony C.; Sasser , Lyle B.; Stuit, Dorothy B.; Glover, Samuel E.; Carbaugh, Eugene H.

    2008-01-28

    This whole body donation case (USTUR Registrant) involved a single acute inhalation of an acidic Pu(NO3)4 solution in the form of an aerosol ‘mist.’ Chelation treatment with i.v. Ca-EDTA was initiated on the day of the intake, and continued intermittently over 6 months. After 2½ years with no further treatment, a course of i.v. Ca-DTPA was administered. A total of 400 measurements of 239+240Pu excreted in urine were recorded; starting on the first day (both before and during the initial Ca-EDTA chelation), and continuing for 37 years. This sampling included all intervals of chelation. In addition, 91 measurements of 239+240Pu-in-feces were recorded over this whole period. The Registrant died about 38 years after the intake, at age 79 y, with extensive carcinomatosis secondary to adenocarcinoma of the prostate gland. At autopsy, all major soft tissue organs were harvested for radiochemical analyses of their 238Pu, 239+240Pu and 241Am content. Also, all types of bone (comprising about half the skeleton) were harvested for radiochemical analyses, as well as samples of skin, subcutaneous fat and muscle. This comprehensive dataset has been applied to derive ‘chelation-enhanced’ transfer rates in the ICRP Publication 67 plutonium biokinetic model, representing the behaviour of blood-borne and tissue-incorporated plutonium during intervals of therapy. The resulting model of the separate effects of i.v. Ca-EDTA and Ca-DTPA chelation shows that the therapy administered in this case succeeded in reducing substantially the long-term burden of plutonium in all body organs, except for the lungs. The calculated reductions in organ content at the time of death are approximately 40% for the liver, 60% for other soft tissues (muscle, skin, glands, etc.), 50% for the kidneys, and 50% for the skeleton. Essentially all of the substantial reduction in skeletal burden occurred in trabecular bone. This modeling exercise demonstrated that 3-y-delayed Ca-DTPA therapy was as

  18. Gd-DTPA T1 relaxivity in brain tissue obtained by convection-enhanced delivery, magnetic resonance imaging and emission spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haar, Peter J.; Broaddus, William C.; Chen, Zhi-jian; Fatouros, Panos P.; Gillies, George T.; Corwin, Frank D.

    2010-06-01

    A common approach to quantify gadolinium (Gd) contrast agents involves measuring the post-contrast change in T1 rate and then using the constant T1 relaxivity R to determine the contrast agent concentration. Because this method is fast and non-invasive, it could be potentially valuable in many areas of brain research. However, to accurately measure contrast agent concentrations in the brain, the T1 relaxivity R of the specific agent must be accurately known. Furthermore, the macromolecular content and compartmentalization of the brain extracellular space (ECS) are expected to significantly alter R from values measured in aqueous solutions. In this study, the T1 relaxivity R of gadolinium-diethylene-triamine penta-acetic acid (Gd-DTPA) was measured following direct interstitial infusions of three different contrast agent concentrations to the parenchyma of rat brains. Changes in magnetic resonance (MR) T1 values were compared to brain slice concentrations determined with inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) to determine R in 15 rats. Additionally, samples of cerebrospinal fluid, blood and urine were analyzed to evaluate possible Gd-DTPA clearance from the brain. The T1 relaxivity R of Gd-DTPA in the brain ECS was measured to be 5.35 (mM s)-1 in a 2.4 T field. This value is considerably higher than estimations used in studies by other groups. Measurements of brain Gd-DTPA tissue concentrations using MRI and ICP-AES demonstrated a high degree of coincidence. Clearance of Gd-DTPA was minimal at the time point immediately after infusion. These results suggest that the environment of the brain does in fact significantly affect Gd T1 relaxivity, and that MRI can accurately measure contrast agent concentrations when this relaxivity is well characterized.

  19. Spontaneous perforation of the ureter diagnosed on technetium 99m DTPA excretory urography

    SciTech Connect

    Barasch, E.; Kashdan, B.; Rathore, A.

    1988-01-01

    A case of nontraumatic rupture of the ureter secondary to a nonopaque calculus is presented. Because of the inherent high image contrast caused by the leak of technetium 99m-DTPA-labeled urine, the technetium 99m-DTPA excretory urogram is seen as an alternative to the intravenous urogram or contrast-enhanced computed tomography in selected cases of suspected ureteral rupture.

  20. An Evaluation of the Chelating Agent EDDS for Floriculture Crop Production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aminopolycarboxylic acid (APCA) ligands (chelating agents) like ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) are commonly used in soluble fertilizers to supply copper (Cu), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), and/or zinc (Zn) to plants. When complexed with Fe, EDTA and...

  1. Iron-[S,S']-EDDS (FeEDDS) Chelate as an Iron Source for Horticultural Crop Production: Marigold Growth and Nutrition, Spectral Properties, and Photodegradation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aminopolycarboxylic acid (APCA) complexones, commonly referred to as ligands or chelating agents, like ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) are commonly used in soluble fertilizers to supply copper (Cu), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), and/or zinc (Zn) to p...

  2. Respiratory clearance of 99mTc-DTPA and pulmonary involvement in sarcoidosis

    SciTech Connect

    Dusser, D.J.; Collignon, M.A.; Stanislas-Leguern, G.; Barritault, L.G.; Chretien, J.; Huchon, G.J.

    1986-09-01

    To investigate the relationships between the respiratory epithelial clearance of micronic aerosolized /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA (RC-DTPA) and pulmonary function, serum angiotensin-converting enzyme (SACE), and lymphocytic alveolitis in patients with sarcoidosis, RC-DTPA was measured in 49 nonsmokers with pulmonary sarcoidosis and 38 normal nonsmokers. Pulmonary involvement was evaluated on chest roentgenograms (type O = normal, type I = hilar adenopathies, type II = hilar adenopathies associated with parenchymal shadows, type III = parenchymal shadows without adenopathy) and by pulmonary function tests. Serum angiotensin-converting enzyme was determined, and a bronchoalveolar lavage was performed for alveolar lymphocyte differential counting (Ly%). RC-DTPA was increased (greater than or equal to 1.96%/min) in 12 of 31 patients with type II or III involvement but was normal in all 18 patients with type O or I involvement (p = 0.002). Patients with increased RC-DTPA had low FVC, TLC, FEV1, and resting Pao2 (p less than 0.05); resting and exercise AaPo2 were increased (p less than 0.05), but RC-DTPA correlated negatively with FEV1 (p less than 0.01), Pao2 at rest (p less than 0.005), and DLCO (p less than 0.05) and positively with resting and exercise AaPO2 (p less than 0.01). In patients with increased RC-DTPA (42 +/- 17%), Ly% did not differ from Ly% in patients with normal RC-DTPA (34 +/- 16%). SACE was increased in patients with increased RC-DTPA (56 +/- 26 U/ml versus 38 +/- 16 U/ml; p = 0.007) and correlated positively with RC-DTPA (p less than 0.001).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  3. Effect of gadolinium-DTPA on the magnetic relaxation times of normal and infarcted myocardium. [Dogs

    SciTech Connect

    Wesbey, G.E.; Higgins, C.B.; McNamara, M.T.; Engelstad, B.L.; Lipton, M.J.; Sievers, R.; Ehman, R.L.; Lovin, J.; Brasch, R.C.

    1984-10-01

    Acute myocardial infarctions were produced in 11 dogs by ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery. Twenty-four hours after ligation Gd-DTPA was injected intravenously, followed by cardiectomy either 90 seconds (3 dogs) or 5 minutes (5 dogs) later. The remaining 3 dogs had cardiectomy without injection of Gd-DTPA at 24 hours after coronary occlusion. The 3 dogs that did not receive Gd-DTPA had longer T1 and T2 relaxation times in infarcted myocardium than in normal myocardium. The T1 and T2 relaxation times of normal myocardium at 90 seconds postinjection of Gd-DTPA were significantly shorter than those of the normal myocardium of animals that did not receive Gd-DTPA. At five minutes postinjection, significantly greater T1 shortening was exhibited in the infarcted myocardium compared with adjacent normal myocardium in the dogs injected with Gd-DTPA. Thus, Gd-DTPA has differential and time-varying effects on relaxation times of normal and infarcted myocardium.

  4. Investigations on the Ga(III) Complex of EOB-DTPA and Its 68Ga Radiolabeled Analogue.

    PubMed

    Greiser, Julia; Niksch, Tobias; Weigand, Wolfgang; Freesmeyer, Martin

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate a method for the isolation of EOB-DTPA (3,6,9-triaza-3,6,9-tris(carboxymethyl)-4-(ethoxybenzyl)-undecanedioic acid) from its Gd(III) complex and protocols for the preparation of its novel non-radioactive, i.e., natural Ga(III) as well as radioactive (68)Ga complex. The ligand as well as the Ga(III) complex were characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, mass spectrometry and elemental analysis. (68)Ga was obtained by a standard elution method from a (68)Ge/(68)Ga generator. Experiments to evaluate the (68)Ga-labeling efficiency of EOB-DTPA at pH 3.8-4.0 were performed. Established analysis techniques radio TLC (thin layer chromatography) and radio HPLC (high performance liquid chromatography) were used to determine the radiochemical purity of the tracer. As a first investigation of the (68)Ga tracers' lipophilicity the n-octanol/water distribution coefficient of (68)Ga species present in a pH 7.4 solution was determined by an extraction method. In vitro stability measurements of the tracer in various media at physiological pH were performed, revealing different rates of decomposition. PMID:27584545

  5. A comparison of booster immunisation with a combination DTPa-IPV vaccine or DTPa plus IPV in separate injections when co-administered with MMR, at age 4-6 years.

    PubMed

    Marshall, H; Nolan, T; Roberton, D; Richmond, P; Lambert, S; Jacquet, J M; Schuerman, L

    2006-08-28

    This study evaluated GSK's combined DTPa-IPV vaccine (Infanrix-IPV) given as a fifth consecutive acellular pertussis booster dose in conjunction with the second dose of MMR vaccine (Priorix) in children aged 4-6 years. The immunogenicity and reactogenicity of this vaccine regimen was compared with separate injections of DTPa and IPV when given concomitantly with MMR. A cohort of 362 children previously primed with four doses of DTPa and OPV, and a single dose of MMR were randomized to receive either DTPa-IPV+MMR (N=181) or DTPa+IPV+MMR (N=181). Antibody concentrations were measured prior to and 1 month after the booster dose. After immunisation all subjects from both groups had seroprotective antibody levels against diphtheria, tetanus and the three poliovirus serotypes, > or = 96% showed vaccine response to PT, FHA and PRN, all were seropositive to mumps and rubella, and all but one subject were seropositive to measles. Immunogenicity results for each component antigen were similar for DTPa-IPV and separately co-administered DTPa and IPV. Local reactions were common with 24.0% and 31.1% of children experiencing swelling >50mm at the DTPa-IPV and DTPa injection sites, respectively. The DTPa-IPV combination did not increase the incidence or intensity of adverse events compared with separately administered DTPa+IPV. The response to the concomitantly administered MMR vaccine was similar in the two groups and similar to previously reported responses for a second dose of MMR. This combined DTPa-IPV vaccine has a similar reactogenicity profile to DTPa, is immunogenic when given as a booster dose at 4-6 years of age, and has no impact on the immunogenicity of a co-administered second dose of MMR vaccine.

  6. Decorporation of inhaled americium-241 dioxide and nitrate from hamsters using ZnDTPA and Puchel.

    PubMed

    Stradling, G N; Stather, J W; Sumner, S A; Moody, J C; Strong, J C

    1984-06-01

    Accidental intakes of 241AmO2 and 241Am(NO3)3 can be treated with some success by inhalation of ZnDTPA . The main advantage of this method of treatment is that it can be self-administered very soon after an accidental intake, and it is effective for reducing the lung content of Am at doses about 10 times less than those usually used intravenously. Otherwise the efficacy of injected ZnDTPA is superior since in addition to removing 241Am from the lungs it can deplete appreciably the systemic deposit of the nuclide. There appears to be no advantage in using the lipophilic form of DTPA code-named Puchel , since following the inhalation or injection of the compound decorporation is not significantly increased relative to ZnDTPA . PMID:6724941

  7. Reversal of effects of intra peritoneally administered beryllium nitrate by tiron and CaNa3DTPA alone or in combination with alpha-tocopherol.

    PubMed

    Nirala, Satendra Kumar; Bhadauria, Monika; Upadhyay, Anil Kumar; Mathur, Ramesh; Mathur, Asha

    2009-12-01

    To evaluate therapeutic efficacy of chelating agents tiron (Sodium-4,5-dihydroxy-1,3-benzene disulphonate) and CaNa3DTPA (Calcium trisodium diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid) in presence of alpha-tocopherol against beryllium induced toxicity, adult female albino rats were exposed to beryllium nitrate for 28 days followed by therapy with tiron (471 mg/kg, i.p.) and CaNa3DTPA (35 mg/kg, i.p.) alone and in combination with alpha-tocopherol (25 mg/kg, p.o.). Results revealed non-significant fall in haemoglobin and total serum protein content while significant fall in blood sugar level and activity of serum alkaline phosphatase. On the other hand, significant rise in the activity of serum transaminases and LDH was noticed after beryllium administration. Significant increase in total and esterified cholesterol was found in liver and kidney after toxicity. Significant increase in lipid peroxidation and decreased level of reduced glutathione in both the organs showed oxidative stress due to beryllium exposure. Histopathological and ultrastructural observations of liver and kidney revealed lesions due to beryllium toxicity followed by recovery due to combined therapy. CaNa3DTPA showed moderate therapeutic efficacy; however, its effectiveness was enhanced with alpha-tocopherol to some extent. Tiron in combination with alpha-tocopherol exerted statistically more beneficial effects in reversal of beryllium induced biochemical, histopathological and ultrastructural alterations.

  8. Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging with Gd-EOB-DTPA for the Evaluation of Liver Fibrosis Induced by Carbon Tetrachloride in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wei; Kong, Xiang; Wang, Zhen J.; Luo, Song; Huang, Wei; Zhang, Long Jiang

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the utility of dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) with Gadolinium ethoxybenzyl diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (Gd-EOB-DTPA) for detecting liver fibrosis induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) in rats. Methods This study was approved by the institutional animal care and use committee. Liver fibrosis in rats was induced by intraperitoneal injection of 1 mL/kg 50% CCl4 twice a week for 4-13 weeks. Control rats were injected with saline. Liver fibrosis was graded using the Metaviar score: no fibrosis (F0), mild fibrosis (F1-F2) and advanced fibrosis (F3-F4). DCE-MRI with Gd-EOB-DTPA was performed for all rats. Ktrans, Kep, Ve and iAUC of the liver parenchyma were measured. Relative enhancement (RE) value of the liver was calculated on T1-weighted images at 15, 20 and 25 min after Gd-EOB-DTPA administration. Results Thirty-five rats were included: no fibrosis (n=13), mild fibrosis (n=11) and advanced fibrosis (n=11). Ktrans and iAUC values were highest in advanced fibrosis group and lowest in no fibrosis group (P<0.05). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) for fibrosis (stages F1 and greater) were 0.773 and 0.882 for Ktrans and iAUC, respectively. AUROC for advanced fibrosis were 0.835 and 0.867 for Ktrans and iAUC, respectively. Kep and RE values were not able to differentiate fibrosis stages (all P>0.05). Conclusion Ktrans and iAUC obtained from DCE-MRI with Gd-EOB-DTPA are useful for the detection and staging of rat liver fibrosis induced by CCl4. PMID:26076199

  9. Thermodynamic and kinetic study of scandium(III) complexes of DTPA and DOTA: a step toward scandium radiopharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Pniok, Miroslav; Kubíček, Vojtěch; Havlíčková, Jana; Kotek, Jan; Sabatie-Gogová, Andrea; Plutnar, Jan; Huclier-Markai, Sandrine; Hermann, Petr

    2014-06-23

    Diethylenetriamine-N,N,N',N'',N''-pentaacetic acid (DTPA) and 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid (DOTA) scandium(III) complexes were investigated in the solution and solid state. Three (45)Sc NMR spectroscopic references suitable for aqueous solutions were suggested: 0.1 M Sc(ClO4)3 in 1 M aq. HClO4 (δSc =0.0 ppm), 0.1 M ScCl3 in 1 M aq. HCl (δSc =1.75 ppm) and 0.01 M [Sc(ox)4](5-) (ox(2-) = oxalato) in 1 M aq. K2C2O4 (δSc =8.31 ppm). In solution, [Sc(dtpa)](2-) complex (δSc = 83 ppm, Δν = 770 Hz) has a rather symmetric ligand field unlike highly unsymmetrical donor atom arrangement in [Sc(dota)](-) anion (δSc = 100 ppm, Δν = 4300 Hz). The solid-state structure of K8[Sc2(ox)7]⋅13 H2O contains two [Sc(ox)3](3-) units bridged by twice "side-on" coordinated oxalate anion with Sc(3+) ion in a dodecahedral O8 arrangement. Structures of [Sc(dtpa)](2-) and [Sc(dota)](-) in [(Hguanidine)]2[Sc(dtpa)]⋅3 H2O and K[Sc(dota)][H6 dota]Cl2⋅4 H2O, respectively, are analogous to those of trivalent lanthanide complexes with the same ligands. The [Sc(dota)](-) unit exhibits twisted square-antiprismatic arrangement without an axial ligand (TSA' isomer) and [Sc(dota)](-) and (H6 dota)(2+) units are bridged by a K(+) cation. A surprisingly high value of the last DOTA dissociation constant (pKa =12.9) was determined by potentiometry and confirmed by using NMR spectroscopy. Stability constants of scandium(III) complexes (log KScL 27.43 and 30.79 for DTPA and DOTA, respectively) were determined from potentiometric and (45)Sc NMR spectroscopic data. Both complexes are fully formed even below pH 2. Complexation of DOTA with the Sc(3+) ion is much faster than with trivalent lanthanides. Proton-assisted decomplexation of the [Sc(dota)](-) complex (τ1/2 =45 h; 1 M aq. HCl, 25 °C) is much slower than that for [Ln(dota)](-) complexes. Therefore, DOTA and its derivatives seem to be very suitable ligands for scandium

  10. Acute myocardial ischemia: magnetic resonance contrast enhancement with gadolinium-DTPA. [Dogs

    SciTech Connect

    McNamara, M.T.; Higgins, C.B.; Ehman, R.L.; Revel, D.; Sievers, R.; Brasch, R.C.

    1984-10-01

    Gadolinium-DTPA (Gd-DTPA) was used to improve the diagnostic utility of magnetic resonance (MR) in detecting early ischemia, before the onset of infarction. Following one minute of left anterior descending coronary artery occlusion, 9 dogs were intraveneously injected with either 0.5 mM/kg of Gd-DTPA (6 dogs) or normal saline (3 dogs). There was no visible difference in intensity or alterations in magnetic relaxation times between normal and ischemic myocardium in the control (saline-injected) animals. The Gd-DTPA-injected dogs had a well-defined segment of high intensity representing the ischemic myocardium in the anterior wall of the left ventricle. Both T1 and T2 were significantly shortened in the normal myocardium of the Gd-DTPA animals, but relatively greater T2 relaxation rate enhancement resulted in reduced intensity of normal myocardium, thus increasing contrast with ischemic myocardium. It is concluded that Gd-DTPA has the potential to expand the sensitivity and diagnostic utility of MR in the study of occlusive coronary artery disease.

  11. Design and functionalities of the MADOR® software suite for dose-reduction management after DTPA therapy.

    PubMed

    Leprince, B; Fritsch, P; Bérard, P; Roméo, P-H

    2016-03-01

    A software suite on biokinetics of radionuclides and internal dosimetry intended for the occupational health practitioners of nuclear industry and for expert opinions has been developed under Borland C++ Builder™. These computing tools allow physicians to improve the dosimetric follow-up of workers in agreement with the French regulations and to manage new internal contaminations by radionuclides such as Pu and/or Am after diethylene triamine penta-acetic acid treatments. In this paper, the concept and functionalities of the first two computing tools of this MADOR(®) suite are described. The release 0.0 is the forensic application, which allows calculating the derived recording levels for intake by inhalation or ingestion of the main radioisotopes encountered in occupational environment. Indeed, these reference values of activity are convenient to interpret rapidly the bioassay measurements and make decisions as part of medical monitoring. The release 1.0 addresses the effect of DTPA treatments on Pu/Am biokinetics and the dose benefit. The forensic results of the MADOR(®) suite were validated by comparison with reference data.

  12. Dual pathway clearance of /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA from the bronchial mucosa

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, W.D.; Ilowite, J.S.

    1989-05-01

    Many studies have reported clearance rates of 99mTc-DTPA from the alveolar epithelial surface, but few have measured clearance of this solute from the bronchial mucosa. Those that have attempted such measurements have discounted the possibility that 99mTc-DTPA may be removed from the bronchial airways by mucocilliary transport as well as by absorption through the epithelium. This study was designed to better approximate the rate of 99mTc-DTPA absorption across the bronchial epithelium by correcting the measurements of total 99mTc-DTPA clearance for mucus transport. On two separate study days, each normal, nonsmoking subject (n = 8) breathed an aqueous aerosol (2.0 microns MMAD, sigma g = 2.0) containing 99mTc bound to DTPA or human serum ablumin (HSA) (a relatively nonpermeable solute that is cleared only by mucus transport over the period of measured clearance) while seated in front of a gamma camera. Breathing pattern was standardized to produce a similar central deposition of particles on both study days. From measurements of retention versus time over a 1-h period, exponential rate constants (Ktot and Km) were determined for the clearance of 99mTc-DTPA and 99mTc-HSA, respectively. By modeling the airways as a single compartment with two possible routes of clearance, we determined the permeability rate constant, Kp, as Ktot minus Km. Results showed that mucus clearance (Km) accounted for two thirds of the total rate of 99mTc-DTPA clearance (Ktot) (mean Ktot = 0.00985, Km = 0.00698, and Kp = 0.00287/min).

  13. Use of ammonium bicarbonate DTPA soil test to evaluate elemental availability and toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Soltanpour, P.N.

    1985-01-01

    The literature published on the use of the Soltanpour and Schwab Ammonium Bicarbonate-DTPA (AB-DTPA) soil test shows that it can be used to determine availability and toxicity indices for many elements. It has been shown to be an effective test for measuring the availability indices of P, K, Zn, Fe, Mn, Mo, Pb, Ni, Cd and Se. Theoretically, it can also be used to determine the availability indices for S, Cu and As. The AB-DTPA test can predict toxicity of B as well as the standard hot water test, although within the non-toxic range of B, it is not as effective as the hot water test. The hot water test alone predicts B availability well, but the AB-DTPA B test result requires inclusion of soil water pH, organic matter and clay contents in a regression equation for predicting B availability. This test is not suitable for determination of exchangeable plus soluble Ca and Mg (high levels), as these precipitate as carbonates during extraction. The AB-DTPA test procedure with analysis by an inductively-coupled plasma spectrometer for simultaneous determination of elements, makes soil and overburden testing very efficient.

  14. Decorporation approach following rat lung contamination with a moderately soluble compound of plutonium using local and systemic Ca-DTPA combined chelation.

    PubMed

    Grémy, Olivier; Tsapis, Nicolas; Bruel, Sylvie; Renault, Daniel; Van der Meeren, Anne

    2012-09-01

    Decorporation efficacy of prompt pulmonary delivery of DTPA dry powder was assessed following lung contamination with plutonium nitrate and compared to an intravenous injection of DTPA solution and a combined administration of both DTPA compounds. In addition, efficacy of a delayed treatment was assessed. In case of either early or late administration, insufflated DTPA was more efficient than intravenously injected DTPA in reducing the plutonium lung burden due to its high local concentration. Prompt treatment with DTPA powder was also more effective in limiting extrapulmonary deposits by removing the early transportable fraction of plutonium from lungs prior its absorption into blood. Translocation of DTPA from lungs to blood may also contribute to the decrease in extrapulmonary retention, as shown by reduced liver deposit after delayed pulmonary administration of DTPA. Efficacy of DTPA dry powder was further increased by the combined intravenous administration of DTPA solution for reducing extrapulmonary deposits of plutonium and promoting its urinary excretion. According to our results, the most effective treatment protocol for plutonium decorporation was the early pulmonary delivery of DTPA powder supplemented by an intravenous injection of DTPA solution. Following inhalation of plutonium as nitrate chemical form, this combined chelation therapy should provide a more effective method of treatment than conventional intravenous injection alone. At later stages following lung contamination, pulmonary administration of DTPA should also be considered as the treatment of choice for decreasing the lung burden.

  15. Simplified structure of a new model to describe urinary excretion of plutonium after systemic, liver or pulmonary contamination of rats associated with Ca-DTPA treatments.

    PubMed

    Fritsch, P; Sérandour, A L; Grémy, O; Phan, G; Tsapis, N; Abram, M C; Renault, D; Fattal, E; Benech, H; Deverre, J R; Poncy, J L

    2009-06-01

    This study validates, by targeted experiments, several modeling hypotheses for interpretation of urinary excretion of plutonium after Ca-DTPA treatments. Different formulations and doses of Ca-DTPA were administered to rats before or after systemic, liver or lung contamination with various chemical forms of plutonium. The biokinetics of plutonium was also characterized after i.v. injection of Pu-DTPA. Once formed, Pu-DTPA complexes are stable in most biological environments. Pu-DTPA present in circulating fluids is rapidly excreted in the urine, but 2-3% is retained, mainly in soft tissues, and is then excreted slowly in the urine after transfer to blood. Potentially, all intracellular monoatomic forms of plutonium could be decorporated after DTPA internalization involving slow urinary excretion of Pu-DTPA with half-lives varying from 2.5 to 6 days as a function of tissue retention. The ratio of fast to slow urinary excretion of Pu-DTPA depends on both plutonium contamination and Ca-DTPA treatment. Fast urinary excretion of Pu-DTPA corresponds to extracellular decorporation that occurs beyond a threshold of the free DTPA concentration in circulating fluids. Slow excretion corresponds mostly to intracellular decorporation and depends on the amount of intracellular DTPA. From these results, the structure of a simplified model is proposed for interpretation of data obtained with Ca-DTPA treatments after systemic, wound or pulmonary contamination by plutonium.

  16. An efficient optical-electrochemical dual probe for highly sensitive recognition of dopamine based on terbium complex functionalized reduced graphene oxide.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zhan; Wang, Qianming

    2014-05-01

    A novel organic-inorganic hybrid sensor based on diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) modified reduced graphene oxide (RGO-DTPA) chelated with terbium ions allows detection of dopamine (DA) through an emission enhancement effect. Its luminescence, peaking at 545 nm, has been improved by a factor of 25 in the presence of DA (detection limit = 80 nM). In addition, this covalently bonded terbium complex functionalized reduced graphene oxide (RGO-DTPA-Tb) can be successfully assembled on a glassy carbon electrode. The assay performed through differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) yielded obvious peak separation between DA and excessive amounts of the interfering ascorbic acid (AA).

  17. Lung function declines in patients with pulmonary sarcoidosis and increased respiratory epithelial permeability to sup 99m Tc-DTPA

    SciTech Connect

    Chinet, T.; Dusser, D.; Labrune, S.; Collignon, M.A.; Chretien, J.; Huchon, G.J. )

    1990-02-01

    Respiratory epithelial clearance of {sup 99m}Tc-DTPA (RC-Tc-DTPA) and pulmonary function tests (PFT) were determined at intervals of 6 or 12 months in 37 untreated, nonsmoking patients with sarcoidosis over a period of 6 to 36 months. PFT included the measurements of total lung capacity (TLC), vital capacity (VC), FEV1, and diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide. No difference was found between the respiratory clearance of {sup 113m}In-DTPA (2.25 +/- 1.00%/min) and RC-Tc-DTPA (2.29 +/- 1.11%/min) in eight patients with pulmonary sarcoidosis. Pulmonary function decreased 15% or more in at least 2 function tests during 11 follow-up periods, but it remained stable during 47 follow-up periods. In patients whose lung function deteriorated, RC-Tc-DTPA increased to 3.51 +/- 1.55%/min; in contrast, in patients whose lung function remained stable, regardless of the initial values, RC-Tc-DTPA was normal (1.00 +/- 0.50%/min; p less than 0.001). In eight patients who were treated with corticosteroids, RC-Tc-DTPA decreased from 3.48 +/- 1.31%/min to 1.56 +/- 0.64%/min (p less than 0.001), and PFT improved. We conclude that in nonsmokers with pulmonary sarcoidosis, increased RC-Tc-DTPA is not related to dissociation of 99mTc from DTPA, RC-Tc-DTPA is increased when pulmonary function decreases, and, when increased, RC-Tc-DTPA decreases with corticosteroid therapy.

  18. Spatial variability of soil total and DTPA-extractable cadmium caused by long-term application of phosphate fertilizers, crop rotation, and soil characteristics.

    PubMed

    Jafarnejadi, A R; Sayyad, Gh; Homaee, M; Davamei, A H

    2013-05-01

    Increasing cadmium (Cd) accumulation in agricultural soils is undesirable due to its hazardous influences on human health. Thus, having more information on spatial variability of Cd and factors effective to increase its content on the cultivated soils is very important. Phosphate fertilizers are main contamination source of cadmium (Cd) in cultivated soils. Also, crop rotation is a critical management practice which can alter soil Cd content. This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of long-term consumption of the phosphate fertilizers, crop rotations, and soil characteristics on spatial variability of two soil Cd species (i.e., total and diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA) extractable) in agricultural soils. The study was conducted in wheat farms of Khuzestan Province, Iran. Long-term (27-year period (1980 to 2006)) data including the rate and the type of phosphate fertilizers application, the respective area, and the rotation type of different regions were used. Afterwards, soil Cd content (total or DTPA extractable) and its spatial variability in study area (400,000 ha) were determined by sampling from soils of 255 fields. The results showed that the consumption rate of di-ammonium phosphate fertilizer have been varied enormously in the period study. The application rate of phosphorus fertilizers was very high in some subregions with have extensive agricultural activities (more than 95 kg/ha). The average and maximum contents of total Cd in the study region were obtained as 1.47 and 2.19 mg/kg and DTPA-extractable Cd as 0.084 and 0.35 mg/kg, respectively. The spatial variability of Cd indicated that total and DTPA-extractable Cd contents were over 0.8 and 0.1 mg/kg in 95 and 25 % of samples, respectively. The spherical model enjoys the best fitting and lowest error rate to appraise the Cd content. Comparing the phosphate fertilizer consumption rate with spatial variability of the soil cadmium (both total and DTPA extractable) revealed the high

  19. A Drug-Repositioning Screening Identifies Pentetic Acid as a Potential Therapeutic Agent for Suppressing the Elastase-Mediated Virulence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Gi, Mia; Jeong, Junhui; Lee, Keehoon; Lee, Kang-Mu; Toyofuku, Masanori; Yong, Dong Eun

    2014-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a Gram-negative bacterium of clinical significance, produces elastase as a predominant exoprotease. Here, we screened a library of chemical compounds currently used for human medication and identified diethylene triamine penta-acetic acid (DTPA, pentetic acid) as an agent that suppresses the production of elastase. Elastase activity found in the prototype P. aeruginosa strain PAO1 was significantly decreased when grown with a concentration as low as 20 μM DTPA. Supplementation with Zn2+ or Mn2+ ions restored the suppressive effect of DTPA, suggesting that the DTPA-mediated decrease in elastase activity is associated with ion-chelating activity. In DTPA-treated PAO1 cells, transcription of the elastase-encoding lasB gene and levels of the Pseudomonas quinolone signal (PQS), a molecule that mediates P. aeruginosa quorum sensing (QS), were significantly downregulated, reflecting the potential involvement of the PQS QS system in DTPA-mediated elastase suppression. Biofilm formation was also decreased by DTPA treatment. When A549 alveolar type II-like adenocarcinoma cells were infected with PAO1 cells in the presence of DTPA, A549 cell viability was substantially increased. Furthermore, the intranasal delivery of DTPA to PAO1-infected mice alleviated the pathogenic effects of PAO1 cells in the animals. Together, our results revealed a novel function for a known molecule that may help treat P. aeruginosa airway infection. PMID:25246397

  20. Description of focal liver lesions with Gd-EOB-DTPA enhanced MRI

    PubMed Central

    CARAIANI, COSMIN-NICOLAE; DAN, MARIAN; FENESAN, DIANA-IOANA; BADEA, RADU

    2015-01-01

    Imaging procedures play a fundamental role in the therapeutic management of focal liver lesions. The goals of imaging are to detect and correctly characterize focal liver lesions. This review highlights the performances of newer, liver-specific, contrast media in the diagnosis of focal liver lesions, particularly Gd-EOB-DTPA (Primovist), the most frequently used liver specific contrast media. It has been shown, in different papers, that Gd-EOB-DTPA has better performances compared to either triphasic contrast enhanced computed tomography or dynamic MRI in both detection and characterization of hepatocellular carcinoma on the cirrhotic liver. Therefore liver MRI with Primovist is considered, in many centers, the “state-of-the-art” imaging examination of the liver before surgery or liver transplantation. Gd-EOB-DTPA is also useful in the differential diagnosis of benign hypervascular focal liver lesions such as adenomas or focal nodular hyperplasias. PMID:26733231

  1. Evaluation of Gd-DTPA-monophytanyl and phytantriol nanoassemblies as potential MRI contrast agents.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Abhishek; de Campo, Liliana; Rehmanjan, Beenish; Willis, Scott A; Waddington, Lynne J; Stait-Gardner, Tim; Kirby, Nigel; Price, William S; Moghaddam, Minoo J

    2015-02-01

    Supramolecular self-assembling amphiphiles have been widely used in drug delivery and diagnostic imaging. In this report, we present the self-assembly of Gd (III) chelated DTPA-monophytanyl (Gd-DTPA-MP) amphiphiles incorporated within phytantriol (PT), an inverse bicontinuous cubic phase forming matrix at various compositions. The dispersed colloidal nanoassemblies were evaluated as potential MRI contrast agents at various magnetic field strengths. The homogeneous incorporation of Gd-DTPA-MP in PT was confirmed by polarized optical microscopy (POM) and synchrotron small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) of the bulk phases of the mixtures. The liquid crystalline nanostructures, morphology, and the size distribution of the nanoassemblies were studied by SAXS, cryogenic transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM), and dynamic light scattering (DLS). The dispersions with up to 2 mol % of Gd-DTPA-MP in PT retained inverse cubosomal nanoassemblies, whereas the rest of the dispersions transformed to liposomal nanoassemblies. In vitro relaxivity studies were performed on all the dispersions at 0.54, 9.40, and 11.74 T and compared to Magnevist, a commercially available contrast agent. All the dispersions showed much higher relaxivities compared to Magnevist at both low and high magnetic field strengths. Image contrast of the nanoassemblies was also found to be much better than Magnevist at the same Gd concentration at 11.74 T. Moreover, the Gd-DTPA-MP/PT dispersions showed improved relaxivities over the pure Gd-DTPA-MP dispersion at high magnetic fields. These stable colloidal nanoassemblies have high potential to be used as combined delivery matrices for diagnostics and therapeutics.

  2. Gd-EOB-DTPA-Enhanced MR Imaging of the Liver: The Effect on T2 Relaxation Times and Apparent Diffusion Coefficient (ADC)

    PubMed Central

    Cieszanowski, Andrzej; Podgórska, Joanna; Rosiak, Grzegorz; Maj, Edyta; Grudziński, Ireneusz P.; Kaczyński, Bartosz; Szeszkowski, Wojciech; Milczarek, Krzysztof; Rowiński, Olgierd

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background To investigate the effect of gadoxetic acid disodium (Gd-EOB-DTPA) on T2 relaxation times and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values of the liver and focal liver lesions on a 1.5-T system. Material/Methods Magnetic resonance (MR) studies of 50 patients with 35 liver lesions were retrospectively analyzed. All examinations were performed at 1.5T and included T2-weighted turbo spin-echo (TSE) and diffusion-weighted (DW) images acquired before and after intravenous administration of Gd-EOB-DTPA. To assess the effect of this hepatobiliary contrast agent on T2-weighted TSE images and DW images T2 relaxation times and ADC values of the liver and FLLs were calculated and compared pre- and post-injection. Results The mean T2 relaxation times of the liver and focal hepatic lesions were lower on enhanced than on unenhanced T2-weighted TSE images (decrease of 2.7% and 3.6% respectively), although these differences were not statistically significant. The mean ADC values of the liver showed statistically significant decrease (of 4.6%) on contrast-enhanced DW images, compared to unenhanced images (P>0.05). The mean ADC value of liver lesions was lower on enhanced than on unenhanced DW images, but this difference (of 2.9%) did not reach statistical significance. Conclusions The mean T2 relaxation times of the liver and focal liver lesions as well as the mean ADC values of liver lesions were not significantly different before and after administration of Gd-EOB-DTPA. Therefore, acquisition of T2-weighted and DW images between the dynamic contrast-enhanced examination and hepatobiliary phase is feasible and time-saving. PMID:27026795

  3. Vesicoureteral Reflux Detected with 99mTc-DTPA Renal Scintigraphy during Evaluation of Renal Function

    PubMed Central

    Manevska, Nevena; Stojanoski, Sinisa; Majstorov, Venjamin; Pop-Gjorcheva, Daniela; Zdraveska, Nikolina; Kuzmanovska, Dafina

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Radionuclide techniques, as direct radionuclide cystography and 99mTc-DMSA scintigraphy, have been used in evaluation of vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) and reflux nephropathy (RN) in children. Dynamic 99mTc-DTPA scintigraphy is reserved for evaluation of differential renal function and obstruction in children, where hydronephrosis is detected by ultrasonography (US) pre- or postnatally. CASE REPORT: Six year old boy was prenatally diagnosed with bilateral hydronephrosis. Postnatal, severe bilateral VUR was detected by voiding urethrocytography. US and 99mTc-DTPA scintigraphy performed in the first month of life showed small left kidney that participated with 2% in the global renal function. Bilateral cutaneous ureterostomy has been performed in order to obtain good renal drainage and promote optimal renal growth. Twelve months later, classic antireflux procedure was done. Control 99mTc-DTPA scintigraphy, 5 ys after antireflux surgery, revealed persisting radioactivity during the diuretic phase, in the left kidney that indicated antireflux procedure failure with VUR reappearance. CONCLUSION: 99mTc-DTPA scintigraphy is the first method of choice for long-term monitoring of individual kidney function in children with VUR and other congenital urinary tract anomalies. Additionally, it can be used as indirect radionuclide cystography when rising of radioactivity in the kidney region, during the diuretic phase can indicate presence of VUR. PMID:27275347

  4. Treatment of actinide exposures: a review of Ca-DTPA injections inside CEA-COGEMA plants.

    PubMed

    Grappin, Louise; Berard, Philippe; Menetrier, Florence; Carbone, Lise; Courtay, Catherine; Castagnet, Xavier; Le Goff, Jean-Pierre; Neron, Marie-Odile; Piechowski, Jean

    2007-01-01

    Calcium diethylenetriamine pentacetate (Ca-DTPA) has been used for medical treatment of plutonium and americium contaminations in the CEA and COGEMA plants from 1970 to 2003. This paper is a survey of the injections Ca-DTPA administered as a chelating molecule and it will be a part of the authorisation process for Ca-DTPA by intravenous administration. Out of 1158 injections administered to 469 persons, 548 events of possible or confirmed contamination were reported. These employees were followed by occupational physicians according to the current French regulations. These incidents took place at work, were most often minor, not requiring follow-up treatment. The authors present (1) a synthesis of the most recent findings. Due to its short biological half-time and its limited action in the blood, Ca-DTPA does not chelate with plutonium and americium as soon as these elements are deposited in the target organs. It justifies an early treatment, even in cases of suspected contamination followed by additional injections if necessary (2) data concerning these 1158 injections (route of contamination, dosage, adverse effects, etc.) The authors also investigated a study on the efficacy of the product on a group of persons having received five or more injections. These results were compared with the efficacy estimated theoretically. Dosages and therapeutic schemes were proposed based on these observations. This synthesis is the result of a collective work having mobilised the occupational medicine departments, the medical laboratories inside a working group CEA-COGEMA-SPRA.

  5. Treatment of actinide exposures: a review of Ca-DTPA injections inside CEA-COGEMA plants.

    PubMed

    Grappin, Louise; Berard, Philippe; Menetrier, Florence; Carbone, Lise; Courtay, Catherine; Castagnet, Xavier; Le Goff, Jean-Pierre; Neron, Marie-Odile; Piechowski, Jean

    2007-01-01

    Calcium diethylenetriamine pentacetate (Ca-DTPA) has been used for medical treatment of plutonium and americium contaminations in the CEA and COGEMA plants from 1970 to 2003. This paper is a survey of the injections Ca-DTPA administered as a chelating molecule and it will be a part of the authorisation process for Ca-DTPA by intravenous administration. Out of 1158 injections administered to 469 persons, 548 events of possible or confirmed contamination were reported. These employees were followed by occupational physicians according to the current French regulations. These incidents took place at work, were most often minor, not requiring follow-up treatment. The authors present (1) a synthesis of the most recent findings. Due to its short biological half-time and its limited action in the blood, Ca-DTPA does not chelate with plutonium and americium as soon as these elements are deposited in the target organs. It justifies an early treatment, even in cases of suspected contamination followed by additional injections if necessary (2) data concerning these 1158 injections (route of contamination, dosage, adverse effects, etc.) The authors also investigated a study on the efficacy of the product on a group of persons having received five or more injections. These results were compared with the efficacy estimated theoretically. Dosages and therapeutic schemes were proposed based on these observations. This synthesis is the result of a collective work having mobilised the occupational medicine departments, the medical laboratories inside a working group CEA-COGEMA-SPRA. PMID:17940101

  6. Ureteroenteric Fistula Revealed by 99mTc-DTPA Renal Scan.

    PubMed

    Hou, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Weifang; Zhang, Yanyan

    2016-10-01

    A 55-year-old woman with a history of cervical carcinoma, status post hysterectomy and radiation therapy 8 years prior, presented worsening back pain for 9 months. The patient underwent a Tc-DTPA renal scan, which showed that a vertically linear tracer distribution was seen alongside the right ureter. Ureteroenteric fistula was confirmed and repaired by surgery. PMID:27454590

  7. Explorations of TALSPEAK chemistry in extraction chromatography: Comparisons of TTHA with DTPA and HDEHP with HEH[EHP

    SciTech Connect

    Braley, Jenifer C.; McAlister, Daniel; Horwitz, E. P.; Nash, Kenneth L.

    2013-03-01

    An advanced nuclear fuel cycle includes a reprocessing stage for the group separation of the lanthanides from the trivalent actinides. The TALSPEAK (Trivalent Actinide - Lanthanide Separation by Phosphorus reagent Extraction from Aqueous Komplexes) solvent extraction process provides the An3+/Ln3+ separation through the use of an organic lanthanide extractant (bis-2-ethyl(hexyl) phosphoric acid, HDEHP) and an aqueous actinide-selective holdback reagent (diethylenetriamine-N,N,N’,N’’,N’’-pentaacetic acid, DTPA). Organic phase interactions in TALSPEAK have proven sufficiently complex that, even with substantial research effort, a descriptive thermodynamic model has yet to be developed. If one were to consider an extraction chromatographic (EXC) version of TALSPEAK, the presence of concentrated extractant on the resin surface should augment the multifaceted organic phase chemistry. This study examines the previously unexplored impact of each aqueous phase TALSPEAK component (holdback reagent, carboxylic acid buffer, and pH) on the chemistry of the EXC system. The presence of alternative reagents, 2-ethyl(hexyl) phosphonic acid mono-2-ethyl(hexyl) ester acid (HEH[EHP]) and triethylenetetramine-N,N,N’,N’’,N’’’,N’’’-hexaacetic acid (TTHA) are also considered. Results indicate the concentrated extractant appears to enhance solid-phase reactions that most likely involve water, lactate and sodium. The presumed water, lactate and sodium partitioning consumes resin capacity sufficiently that the weaker hold-back reagent under TALSPEAK aqueous conditions (pH ~ 3.6), TTHA, provides preferential Am3+/Ln3+ separations performance. If a TALSPEAK-EXC process were to be developed, a resin with solvent diluted extractant or covalently bound functional groups may be preferential to reduce the complexity of the solid-phase chemistry.

  8. Self-Assembled Monolayers of Dithiophosphinic Acids on Gold

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    San Juan, Ronan Roca

    This dissertation reports the synthesis of derivatives of dithiophosphinic acids (R1R2DTPAs), and the formation and characterization of DTPA SAMs on gold to build a knowledge base on their nature of binding, organization of the alkyl chains and electrochemical barrier properties. The binding of DTPA molecules on gold depends on the morphology of the gold film: They bind in a mixed monodentate and bidentate modes on standard as-deposited (As-Dep) gold, while they fully chelate on smoother template-stripped (TS) gold. Chapter 2 focuses on van der Waals interactions of various alkyl chain lengths of symmetrical R2DTPA SAMs, which increase with increasing chain lengths similar to those of the analogous n-alkanethiol SAMs, but with alkyl chains that are generally less dense than those of n-alkanethiol SAMs. Chapter 3 addresses why the DTPA compounds do not chelate on the standard As-Dep gold by comparing (C16)2DTPA SAM to (C16 )2DDP SAM. Here, side chain crystallinity stabilizes DTPA SAM structure at the expense of chelation of the DTPA molecules, which leads to a mixture of bidentate and monodentate DTPA molecules, whereas the increased flexibility of the chains in DDP due to the oxygen atoms retains chelation of the DDP molecules. Chapter 4 focuses on the SAMs formed from RlongRshort DTPAs, which shows that the length of the short chain spacer affects SAM packing density and thickness. The SAMs of these molecules also show homogeneous mixing of Rlong and Rshort chains. Chapter 5 investigates PhRDTPA SAMs in preparation for molecular junction studies. The chelation of PhRDTPA molecules on TS gold allows the PhRDTPAs to act as molecular alligator clips. The length of the alkyl chains controls the density of the phenyl group and they fill in the voids between adsorbates to prevent electrical shorting. Finally, Chapter 6 incorporates OH tail group(s) to control the wettability of DTPA SAMs. The presence of OH groups in DTPAs forms hydrophilic SAMs. The symmetrical OH

  9. Magnetic nanoparticles modified with DTPA-AMC-rare earth for fluorescent and magnetic resonance dual mode imaging.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zengchen; Li, Bo; Wang, Baodui; Yang, Zhengyin; Wang, Qin; Li, Tianrong; Qin, Dongdong; Li, Yong; Wang, Mingfang; Yan, Mihui

    2012-07-28

    In the present study, we report new water-soluble cell fluorescence imaging and contrast agents that are based on DTPA-AMC(7-amino-4-methyl coumarin)-Eu(3+) and DTPA-AMC(7-amino-4-methyl coumarin)-Gd(3+) compounds conjugated to Fe(3)O(4) NPs via a PEG-NH(2) linker. The novel Fe(3)O(4) NP-conjugates present two main advantages for cell fluorescence labelling: water solubility and targeting ability. The in vitro experiments demonstrate that water-soluble Fe(3)O(4) NPs-DBI-PEG-NH-DTPA-AMC(7-amino-4-methyl coumarin)-Eu(3+) has excellent cell permeating activity. Moreover, the relaxation rate test of Fe(3)O(4) NPs-DBI-PEG-NH-DTPA-AMC(7-amino-4-methyl coumarin)-Gd(3+) shows a higher T1 relaxation effect than traditional DTPA-Gd(3+) MRI agents. According to in vivo liver MRI experiments, better contrast of the liver was achieved after addition of Fe(3)O(4) NPs-DBI-PEG-NH-DTPA-AMC(7-amino-4-methyl coumarin)-Gd(3+). The results will provide a significant guide for researchers exploring the biomedical applications of superparamagnetic Fe(3)O(4) NPs.

  10. [Gd-DTPA-supported magnetic resonance tomographic perfusion follow-up of shockwave-treated tumors].

    PubMed

    Naegele, M; Goetz, A E; Gamarra, F; Lumper, W; Conzen, P F; Hahn, D; Brendel, W; Lissner, J

    1989-05-01

    The signal characteristics of 14 shockwave-treated and 14 solid control tumors were studied before and after injection of Gd-DTPA in an animal model. T1-weighted images of shockwave-treated tumors documented no significant signal intensity increase after contrast media injection in comparison with the untreated control tumors. The reduction of perfusion in shockwave-treated tumors can be documented in vivo by the signal intensity changes of the tumors after contrast media injection.

  11. [DTPA-99mTc in pediatric renal disease (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Abós Olivares, M D; Banzo Marraco, J; Teijeiro Vidal, J; Mateo Navarro, A; Carreras Delgado, J L; García López, F

    1980-01-01

    99MTc is an ideal nuclide for Pediatric use. Combined with DTPA is an adequate agent for renal studies. 15 patients with ages ranging from eight days to eleven years were studied (10 patients with congenital malformation and five with renal tumour). The dosimetric advantages, the obtention with a single nuclide dose of multiple images and the diagnostic usefulness in congenital malformation and renal tumour suggest their use. PMID:7369638

  12. A case of bronchial carcinoid: diagnosis and follow-up with 111In-DTPA-octreotide.

    PubMed

    Orsolon, P; Bagni, B; Basadonna, P; Geatti, O; Talmassons, G; Guerra, U P

    1995-12-01

    Scintigraphy with radiolabelled analogue of somatostatin is highly sensitive in detecting carcinoid tumors especially if performed with Single Photon Computed Tomography (SPECT). In this report we describe our experience with 111In-DTPA-Octreotide in a female patient affected by a small asymptomatic intrabronchial carcinoid demonstrated by CT scan and bronchial endoscopy performed after recurrent left pneumonias. Planar views and SPECT images, using 111In-DTPA-Octreotide, were collected before and four hours after the first endoscopic laser resection. All groups of SPECT images were positive in the left parahilar region but at a different degree. Scans performed after resection showed a low degree of uptake which was considered to be probably secondary to local swelling; CT scan was negative. Follow up endoscopic biopsy repeated at six months, showed a relapse always in the same site; CT scan of the thorax was again negative. 111In-DTPA-Octreotide images obtained at twelve months were positive always in the left parahilar region, CT scan was negative but another biopsy was not possible. Therefore it was suspected a relapse of the carcinoid which was probably growing only through the bronchial wall without spreading towards the bronchial lumen and/or the lung parenchima. In this occasion, it was also thought that images collected four hours after resection could be positive not only for swelling but for a relapse as well. In every scintigraphic session, SPECT images presented higher quality than planar. This case suggests that 111In-DTPA-Octreotide SPECT is a non-invasive diagnostic technique which could be applied as a follow-up tool especially to patients with no-secreting carcinoid neoplasm and/or with negative or doubtful endoscopic and radiological investigations.

  13. The behavior and importance of lactic acid complexation in Talspeak extraction systems

    SciTech Connect

    Grimes, Travis S.; Nilsson, Mikael; Nash, Kenneth L.

    2008-07-01

    Advanced partitioning of spent nuclear fuel in the UREX +la process relies on the TALSPEAK process for separation of fission-product lanthanides from trivalent actinides. The classic TALSPEAK utilizes an aqueous medium of both lactic acid and diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid and the extraction reagent di(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid in an aromatic diluent. In this study, the specific role of lactic acid and the complexes involved in the extraction of the trivalent actinides and lanthanides have been investigated using {sup 14}C-labeled lactic acid. Our results show that lactic acid partitions between the phases in a complex fashion. (authors)

  14. Evaluation of the viability of /sup 111/In-abeled DTPA coupled to fibrinogen

    SciTech Connect

    Layne, W.W.; Hnatowich, D.J.; Doherty, P.W.; Childs, R.L.; Lanteigne, D.; Ansell, J.

    1982-07-01

    In earlier work, DTPA has been covalently coupled to albumin via the cyclic anhydride of DTPA. Using fibrinogen, we have studied the effect of such coupling on protein viability by both an in vitro and an in vivo assay. Clotting time remained identical to that of the native protein whether the anhydride-to-protein molar ratio was 1:1 or 5:1. In vivo studies were done in dogs, with human fibrinogen labeled with /sup 125/I and /sup 111/In. Throughout 130 hr, blood clearances for the two tracers agreed whether with 1:1 or 5:1 coupling. In a dog model with a thrombogenic catheter, the clot-to-blood ratios for the two radiotracers agreed within experimental error. Finally, 1:1-coupled canine fibrinogen, labeled with /sup 111/In, was administered to dogs with a catheter in a jugular vein, and scintigrams at 24 hr clearly showed clotting along the length of the catheter. We conclude that fibrinogen, coupled to DTPA, retains its viability, behaving like radioiodinated fibrinogen in vivo, and /sup 111/In labeled fibrinogen looks promising as a clinical diagnostic agent.

  15. Clearance of Tc-99m DTPA aerosol from coal miners' lungs

    SciTech Connect

    Susskind, H.; Brill, A.B.; Harold, W.H.

    1985-07-01

    Alterations in regional epithelial permeability were assessed in 22 retired West Virginia coal miners' lungs by measuring the clearance of inhaled 0.5-..mu..m Tc-99m DTPA aerosol. Activity was measured in both lungs and in regions of interest placed over the lung periphery in the apical, middle, and basal portions of each lung. Clearance rates (T/sub 1/2/) for 5 nonsmokers, 8 ex-smokers, and 9 smokers were significantly faster than for comparable subjects measured elsewhere, who were not coal miners. Regional apex-to-base distributions of DTPA were measured as a function of clearance time and compared with regional ventilation and perfusion. Regional, as well as overall lung clearance curves of 8 smokers and 4 ex-smokers had two components, with overall T/sub 1/2/ of <7 min for the faster one. No correlations were found between T/sub 1/2/ and DLCO or with P(A-a)O/sub 2/. The results of our study suggest that measurement of DTPA clearance is a potentially useful noninvasive technique to assess lung injury in miners exposed to coal dust. 14 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Evaluation of technetium-99m DTPA for localization of site of acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding

    SciTech Connect

    Abdel-Dayem, H.M.; Mahajan, K.K.; Ericsson, S.; Nawaz, K.; Owunwanne, A.; Kouris, K.; Higazy, E.; Awdeh, M.

    1986-11-01

    Intravenous Tc-99m DTPA was evaluated in 34 patients with active upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Active bleeding was detected in 25 patients: nine in the stomach, 12 in the duodenum, and four from esophageal varices. No active bleeding was seen in nine patients (two gastric ulcers and seven duodenal ulcers). Results were correlated with endoscopic and/or surgical findings. All completely correlated except: 1) one case of esophageal varices in which there was disagreement on the site, 2) three cases of duodenal ulcers that were not bleeding on endoscopy but showed mild oozing on delayed images and 3) one case of gastric ulcer, in which no bleeding was detected in the Tc-99m DTPA study, but was found to be bleeding at surgery 24 hours later. The Tc-99m DTPA study is a reliable method for localization of upper gastrointestinal bleeding with an agreement ratio of 85%. This method also can be used safely for follow-up of patients with intermittent bleeding. It is less invasive than endoscopy, is easily repeatable, and has the same accuracy.

  17. Gadolinium diethylenetriaminopentaacetic acid-loaded chitosan microspheres for gadolinium neutron-capture therapy.

    PubMed

    Saha, Tapan Kumar; Ichikawa, Hideki; Fukumori, Yoshinobu

    2006-12-11

    In order to provide a suitable device that would contain water-soluble drugs, highly water-soluble gadolinium diethylenetriaminopentaacetic acid-loaded chitosan microspheres (CMS-Gd-DTPA) were prepared by the emulsion method using glutaraldehyde as a cross-linker and Span 80 as a surfactant for gadolinium neutron-capture therapy of cancer. The gadolinium content and the mass median diameter of CMS-Gd-DTPA were estimated. The size and morphology of the CMS-Gd-DTPA were strongly influenced by the initial applied weight ratio of Gd-DTPA:chitosan. FTIR spectra showed that the electrostatic interaction between chitosan and Gd-DTPA accelerated the formation of gadolinium-enriched chitosan microspheres. Sufficient amounts of glutaraldehyde and Span 80 were necessary for producing discrete CMS-Gd-DTPA. The CMS-Gd-DTPA having a mass median diameter 11.7microm and 11.6% of gadolinium could be used in Gd-NCT following intratumoral injection. PMID:17045253

  18. A simple and inexpensive system for controlling body temperature in small animal experiments using MRI and the effect of body temperature on the hepatic kinetics of Gd-EOB-DTPA.

    PubMed

    Murase, Kenya; Assanai, Purapan; Takata, Hiroshige; Saito, Shigeyoshi; Nishiura, Motoko

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a simple and inexpensive system for controlling body temperature in small animal experiments using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and to investigate the effect of body temperature on the kinetic behavior of gadolinium ethoxybenzyl diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (Gd-EOB-DTPA) in the liver. In our temperature-control system, body temperature was controlled using a feedback-regulated heated or cooled air flow generated by two Futon dryers. The switches of the two Futon dryers were controlled using a digital temperature controller, in which the rectal temperature of a mouse measured by an optical fiber thermometer was used as the input. In experimental studies, male ICR mice aged 8weeks old were used and allocated into 5 groups (39-, 36-, 33-, 30-, and 27-degree groups, n=10), in which the body temperature was maintained at 39 °C, 36 °C, 33 °C, 30 °C, and 27 °C, respectively, using our system. The dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) data were acquired with an MRI system for animal experiments equipped with a 1.5-Tesla permanent magnet, for approximately 43min, after the injection of Gd-EOB-DTPA into the tail vein. After correction of the image shift due to the temperature-dependent drift of the Larmor frequency using the gradient-based image registration method with robust estimation of displacement parameters, the kinetic behavior of Gd-EOB-DTPA was analyzed using an empirical mathematical model. With the use of this approach, the upper limit of the relative enhancement (A), the rates of contrast uptake (α) and washout (β), the parameter related to the slope of early uptake (q), the area under the curve (AUC), the maximum relative enhancement (REmax), the time to REmax (Tmax), and the elimination half-life of the contrast agent (T1/2) were calculated. The body temperature of mice could be controlled well by use of our system. Although there were no significant differences in α, AUC, and q among groups, there

  19. Detection of diffuse glomerular lesions in rats: II. Comparison of indium-111 cationic small macromolecules with technetium-99m DTPA

    SciTech Connect

    McAfee, J.G.; Thomas, F.D.; Subramanian, G.; Schneider, R.D.; Lyons, B.; Roskopf, M.; Zapf-Longo, C.; Whaley, D.

    1986-04-01

    Dextrans with average molecular weights of 5000, 10,000, and 17,500 and inulin were rendered cationic by amination with 2-bromoethylamine hydrobromide. After limited coupling with DTPA cyclic dianhydride, they were labeled with 111In. A good correlation was found between their early renal uptake quantitated by camera-computer techniques and their renal clearance from multiple plasma samples in rats with glomerular damage induced by puromycin aminonucleoside and controls. However, there was poor correlation between the early renal uptake of these agents and the clearance of simultaneously injected (/sup 99m/Tc)DTPA. The 2-hr organ distribution and urinary excretion of these agents were compared with the corresponding values of DTPA. The differences in clearance between rats with glomerular damage and controls were greater with aminated dextran (mol wt 5000) than with DTPA, confirming previous work with infusions of nonradioactive charged dextrans and neutral inulin. The cationic dextrans appear to reflect the presence or absence of the normal anionic charge of the glomerular membrane as well as changes in filtration rate. Aminated inulin did not differentiate between controls and rats with glomerular disease any better than DTPA, probably because the number of amino groups conjugated was insufficient to produce the charge effect.

  20. Use of paramagnetic chelated metal derivatives of polysaccharides and spin-labeled polysaccharides as contrast agents in magnetic resonance imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Bligh, S.W.; Harding, C.T.; Sadler, P.J.; Bulman, R.A.; Bydder, G.M.; Pennock, J.M.; Kelly, J.D.; Latham, I.A.; Marriott, J.A. )

    1991-02-01

    Soluble and insoluble polysaccharides were derivatized with diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) and/or spin-labeled with 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl (TEMPO). Polysaccharides derivatized with DTPA were prepared via cyanogen bromide activation, coupling to a diamine linker, and to DTPA anhydride. Spin-labeled polysaccharides were also prepared via cyanogen bromide activation. The extent of derivatization for dextran (18 kDa) was about 120 glucose units per DTPA, and for cellulose and starch about 15-30 units per DTPA. For spin-labeled polysaccharides, the average loading ranged from 1 nitroxide per 16 glucose units for starch to 181 for dextran (82 kDa). These derivatized paramagnetic polysaccharides were shown to be more effective relaxants than the small paramagnetic molecules alone. Both soluble and insoluble polysaccharide-linker-DTPA-Gd(3) complexes were effectively cleared from the body (rats) after oral administration. After intravenous administration, the biodistribution of dextran-linker-DTPA-Gd(3) complexes differed significantly from that of GdDTPA. Reduction of the nitroxide by ascorbic acid was retarded in the polysaccharide derivatives, particularly in starch derivatized with both nitroxide and linker-DTPA-Cu(2). These agents showed contrast enhancement in the gastrointestinal tract of rabbits.

  1. Functional fecal retention visualized by (111)In-DTPA colon transit scintigraphy.

    PubMed

    Infante, Jose Rafael; Rayo, Juan I; Serrano, Justo; Dominguez, Maria L; Garcia, Lucia; Moreno, Manuel

    2015-06-01

    Constipation is an extremely common problem in children, varying from mild and short-lived to severe and chronic. Chronic constipation is a serious childhood condition and requires further investigation, including blood test, colonoscopy, radio-opaque marker study, and/or scintigraphy. We present small bowel and colon transit scintigraphy of a 14-year-old girl with history of chronic constipation, abdominal pain, weight loss, and poor response to medical treatment. After oral administration of In-DTPA in water, planar and SPECT/CT images showed normal small bowel transit time and functional fecal retention in colon transit study. PMID:25706788

  2. Evaluation of (177)Lu-CHX-A''-DTPA-Bevacizumab as a radioimmunotherapy agent targeting VEGF expressing cancers.

    PubMed

    Kameswaran, Mythili; Pandey, Usha; Gamre, Naresh; Vimalnath, K V; Sarma, Haladhar Dev; Dash, Ashutosh

    2016-08-01

    This study aimed at the preparation and evaluation of (177)Lu-CHX-A''-DTPA-Bevacizumab for targeting VEGF over-expressing cancers. Bevacizumab conjugated to p-NCS-Bn-CHX-A''-DTPA was radiolabeled with (177)Lu. The radioimmunoconjugate characterized by SE-HPLC exhibited radiochemical purity of 98.0±0.6%. In vitro stability was retained upto 4 days at 37°C. In vitro cell binding studies showed good uptake by VEGF expressing U937 tumor cells. Biodistribution studies in melanoma model showed significant uptake and retention of (177)Lu-CHX-A''-DTPA-Bevacizumab in tumor with reduction in uptake in presence of cold Bevacizumab confirming its specificity to VEGF. PMID:27258216

  3. Evaluation of (177)Lu-CHX-A''-DTPA-Bevacizumab as a radioimmunotherapy agent targeting VEGF expressing cancers.

    PubMed

    Kameswaran, Mythili; Pandey, Usha; Gamre, Naresh; Vimalnath, K V; Sarma, Haladhar Dev; Dash, Ashutosh

    2016-08-01

    This study aimed at the preparation and evaluation of (177)Lu-CHX-A''-DTPA-Bevacizumab for targeting VEGF over-expressing cancers. Bevacizumab conjugated to p-NCS-Bn-CHX-A''-DTPA was radiolabeled with (177)Lu. The radioimmunoconjugate characterized by SE-HPLC exhibited radiochemical purity of 98.0±0.6%. In vitro stability was retained upto 4 days at 37°C. In vitro cell binding studies showed good uptake by VEGF expressing U937 tumor cells. Biodistribution studies in melanoma model showed significant uptake and retention of (177)Lu-CHX-A''-DTPA-Bevacizumab in tumor with reduction in uptake in presence of cold Bevacizumab confirming its specificity to VEGF.

  4. Radionuclide studies of chronic schistosomal uropathy. [/sup 99m/Tc-DTPA; /sup 131/I-hippuran

    SciTech Connect

    Lamki, L.M.; Lamki, N.

    1981-08-01

    Fifty patients with chronic urinary tract schistosomiasis were studied with /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA. All had a flow study, sequential analog imaging, and digital imaging for 25 to 35 min (20-sec frames). Time-activity curves (DTPA renograms) were extracted; 12 patients had /sup 131/I-Hippuran probe renograms as well. Renal changes included diminished perfusion and structural abnormalities ranging from minor calyceal dilatation to overt hydronephrosis. Ureteral changes included dilatation, tortuosity, and kinking. Marked distortion of the ureterovesical junction was seen in some patients due to periureteral and perivesicular fibrosis, which is a major factor in upper urinary tract damage. Renograms showed varying obstruction and parenchymal damage. Nuclear medicine complements excretory urography and is sometimes preferable for visualization of the ureters. After the initial urogram, sequential DTPA scanning and renography are sufficient for follow-up.

  5. Effect of background region of interest and time-interval selection on glomerular filtration ratio estimation by percentage dose uptake of (99m)Tc-DTPA in comparison with (51)Cr-EDTA clearance in healthy cats.

    PubMed

    Debruyn, Katrien; Vandermeulen, Eva; Saunders, Jimmy H; Dobbeleir, André A; Ham, Hamphrey R; Peremans, Kathelijne

    2013-08-01

    Evaluation of glomerular function is a useful part of the diagnostic approach in animals suspected of having renal disease. Time-interval and background region of interest (bg ROI) selection are determining factors when calculating the glomerular filtration ratio (GFR) based on percentage uptake of (99m)technetium-labelled diethylene triamine penta-acetic acid ((99m)Tc-DTPA). Therefore, three different time intervals (60-120 s, 120-180 s, 60-180 s) and three different bg ROIs (C-shape, caudolateral, cranial + caudal) were investigated. In addition, global GFRs based on percentage dose uptake of (99m)Tc-DTPA for the different time-intervals and bg ROIs were compared with the global GFR based on (51)chromium-ethylene diaminic tetra-acetic acid ((51)Cr-EDTA) plasma clearance in nine healthy European domestic shorthair cats. Paired Student's t-tests and linear regression analysis were used to analyse the data. Different time intervals seemed to cause significant variation (P <0.01) in absolute GFR values, regardless of the choice of bg ROI. Significant differences (P <0.01) between bg ROIs were only observed in the 120-180s time interval between the C-shape and cranial + caudal bg ROI, and between the caudolateral and cranial + caudal bg ROI. The caudolateral bg ROI in the 60-180 s time interval showed the highest correlation coefficient (r = 0.882) between (99m)Tc-DTPA and (51)Cr-EDTA, although a significant difference (P <0.05) was present between both techniques. PMID:23349527

  6. Preparation and immunoreactivity of high specific activity indium-111-DTPA labeled monoclonal antibody (MoAb) using ultrapure indium-111

    SciTech Connect

    Zoghbi, S.S.; Neumann, R.D.; Gottschalk, A.

    1986-10-01

    The preparation of high-specific activity /sup 111/In-DTPA-MoAb without increasing the number of DTPA molecules per Ab was investigated. Instant thin layer chromatography was used to assay the relationship between labeling efficiencies and specific activities. With ultrapurified /sup 111/In, the specific activity of the radiolabeled MoAb approached the expected theoretic maximum of 100 muCi/microgram. The bioactivity of such high-specific activity preparation showed no degradation as measured by in vitro cell binding assay.

  7. Biotransformation Capacity of Carboxylesterase in Skin and Keratinocytes for the Penta-Ethyl Ester Prodrug of DTPA.

    PubMed

    Fu, Jing; Sadgrove, Matthew; Marson, Lesley; Jay, Michael

    2016-08-01

    The penta-ethyl ester prodrug of the chelating agent diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA), referred to as C2E5, effectively accelerated clearance of americium after transdermal delivery. Carboxylesterases (CESs) play important roles in facilitating C2E5 hydrolysis. However, whether CESs in human skin hydrolyze C2E5 remains unknown. We evaluated the gene and protein expression of CESs in distinctive human epidermal cell lines: HEKa, HEKn, HaCaT, and A431. The substrates p-nitrophenyl acetate (pNPA) and 4-nitrophenyl valerate (4-NPV) were used to access esterase and CES activity. C2E5 hydrolysis was measured by radiometric high-performance liquid chromatography after incubation of [(14)C]C2E5 with supernatant fractions after centrifugation at 9000g (S9) prepared from skin cell lines. CES-specific inhibitors were used to access metabolism in human skin S9 fractions with analysis by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. We identified the human carboxylesterase 1 and 2 (CES1 and CES2) bands in a Western blot. The gene expression of these enzymes was supported by a real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). pNPA and 4-NPV assays demonstrated esterase and CES activity in all the cell lines that were comparable to human skin S9 fractions. The prodrug C2E5 was hydrolyzed by skin S9 fractions, resulting in a primary metabolite, C2E4. In human skin S9 fractions, inhibition of C2E5 hydrolysis was greatest with a pan-CES inhibitor (benzil). CES1 inhibition (troglitazone) was greater than CES2 (loperamide), suggesting a primary metabolic role for CES1. These results indicate that human keratinocyte cell lines are useful for the evaluation of human cutaneous metabolism and absorption of ester-based prodrugs. However, keratinocytes from skin provide a small contribution to the overall metabolism of C2E5. PMID:27130352

  8. Redistribution of renal blood flow after SWL evaluated by Gd-DTPA-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Mostafavi, M R; Chavez, D R; Cannillo, J; Saltzman, B; Prasad, P V

    1998-02-01

    Extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (SWL) is currently accepted as an effective noninvasive treatment for a wide variety of urinary tract calculi. However, the bioeffects of high-energy shockwaves on renal parenchyma have yet to be fully elucidated. The objective of this study was to measure the acute changes in regional renal hemodynamics associated with SWL utilizing dynamic gadolinium-DTPA-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Seven patients who underwent SWL for renal calculi had an MRI study within 4 hours after the treatment. To assess renal hemodynamics, a bolus of Gd DTPA (0.03 mmol/kg) was administered, and dynamic contrast enhanced images was obtained. Regions of interest (ROI) were defined over the cortex and medulla to obtain signal intensity-v-time curves. The contralateral kidney in each patient was used as the control. The initial slope of the contrast-enhanced signal intensity-v-time curve was used as a measure of the perfusion index (PI). In six patients, perfusion imaging showed a consistent trend of decreased cortical flow (29+/-8%) and a concomitant increase in medullary flow (34+/-14%) in the region of the kidney that was targeted with SWL in six patients (86%). This study shows that renal hemodynamics are modified by SWL. We hypothesize that this change represents a shunting of flow from cortex to medulla in an attempt to prevent ischemia of the medulla.

  9. Transmetallation of Gd-DTPA by Fe3+, Cu2+ and Zn2+ in water: batch experiments and coagulation-flocculation simulations.

    PubMed

    Rabiet, Marion; Letouzet, Marine; Hassanzadeh, Sepideh; Simon, Stéphane

    2014-01-01

    The study investigates the stability of gadolinium-DTPA complex in presence of competing metallic ions, Fe(3+), Cu(2+) and Zn(2+) using batch experiments and coagulation-flocculation simulations. High performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection was used for simultaneous analysis of chelate gadolinium (Gd-DTPA) and free Gd(III) ion in water. It was shown that Cu(2+) has a strong affinity for DTPA and could lead to a complete release of Gd(3+). Fe(3+) appeared also to compete strongly with Gd(3+) for DTPA binding since up to 80% of Gd-complex was dissociated under iron excess condition. Finally, zinc had a lower influence on Gd speciation: only 15% of Gd(3+) was released with addition of a 5-fold excess of Zn(2+). During coagulation-flocculation simulation, Fe(3+) was able to displace about 27% of Gd-DTPA, and no adsorption was observed onto flocs.

  10. Effect of DTPA on concentration ratios of /sup 237/Np and /sup 244/Cm in vegetative parts of bush bean and barley

    SciTech Connect

    Romney, E.M.; Wallace, A.; Mueller, R.T.; Cha, J.W.; Wood, R.A.

    1981-07-01

    We grew bush beans, barley, and rice in two different soils in a glasshouse with /sup 237/Np or /sup 244/Cm mixed into separate containers of the soil. The chelating agent DTPA at 100 ..mu..g/g soil was added to half of the containers. The concentration ratio (CR) for /sup 237/Np without DTPA was two orders of magnitude higher than for /sup 244/Cm without DTPA for all three plant species. The DTPA increased the CR of /sup 244/Cm by two to three orders of magnitude, but had no influence on that for /sup 237/Np. In bush beans, both /sup 237/Np and /sup 244/Cm CRs were higher in primary leaves than in trifoliate leaves, which were higher than for stems. The CRs for bush beans were generally higher for both /sup 237/Np and /sup 244/Cm than for either barley or rice, especially without DTPA.

  11. Metal ion coordination, conditional stability constants, and solution behavior of chelating surfactant metal complexes.

    PubMed

    Svanedal, Ida; Boija, Susanne; Almesåker, Ann; Persson, Gerd; Andersson, Fredrik; Hedenström, Erik; Bylund, Dan; Norgren, Magnus; Edlund, Håkan

    2014-04-29

    Coordination complexes of some divalent metal ions with the DTPA (diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid)-based chelating surfactant 2-dodecyldiethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (4-C12-DTPA) have been examined in terms of chelation and solution behavior. The headgroup of 4-C12-DTPA contains eight donor atoms that can participate in the coordination of a metal ion. Conditional stability constants for five transition metal complexes with 4-C12-DTPA were determined by competition measurements between 4-C12-DTPA and DTPA, using electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). Small differences in the relative strength between the coordination complexes of DTPA and 4-C12-DTPA indicated that the hydrocarbon tail only affected the chelating ability of the headgroup to a limited extent. The coordination of Cu(2+) ions was investigated in particular, using UV-visible spectroscopy. By constructing Job's plots, it was found that 4-C12-DTPA could coordinate up to two Cu(2+) ions. Surface tension measurements and NMR diffusometry showed that the coordination of metal ions affected the solution behavior of 4-C12-DTPA, but there were no specific trends between the studied divalent metal complexes. Generally, the effects of the metal ion coordination could be linked to the neutralization of the headgroup charge of 4-C12-DTPA, and the resulting reduced electrostatic repulsions between adjacent surfactants in micelles and monolayers. The pH vs concentration plots, on the other hand, showed a distinct difference between 4-C12-DTPA complexes of the alkaline earth metals and the transition metals. This was explained by the difference in coordination between the two groups of metal ions, as predicted by the hard and soft acid and base (HSAB) theory.

  12. Metal ion coordination, conditional stability constants, and solution behavior of chelating surfactant metal complexes.

    PubMed

    Svanedal, Ida; Boija, Susanne; Almesåker, Ann; Persson, Gerd; Andersson, Fredrik; Hedenström, Erik; Bylund, Dan; Norgren, Magnus; Edlund, Håkan

    2014-04-29

    Coordination complexes of some divalent metal ions with the DTPA (diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid)-based chelating surfactant 2-dodecyldiethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (4-C12-DTPA) have been examined in terms of chelation and solution behavior. The headgroup of 4-C12-DTPA contains eight donor atoms that can participate in the coordination of a metal ion. Conditional stability constants for five transition metal complexes with 4-C12-DTPA were determined by competition measurements between 4-C12-DTPA and DTPA, using electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). Small differences in the relative strength between the coordination complexes of DTPA and 4-C12-DTPA indicated that the hydrocarbon tail only affected the chelating ability of the headgroup to a limited extent. The coordination of Cu(2+) ions was investigated in particular, using UV-visible spectroscopy. By constructing Job's plots, it was found that 4-C12-DTPA could coordinate up to two Cu(2+) ions. Surface tension measurements and NMR diffusometry showed that the coordination of metal ions affected the solution behavior of 4-C12-DTPA, but there were no specific trends between the studied divalent metal complexes. Generally, the effects of the metal ion coordination could be linked to the neutralization of the headgroup charge of 4-C12-DTPA, and the resulting reduced electrostatic repulsions between adjacent surfactants in micelles and monolayers. The pH vs concentration plots, on the other hand, showed a distinct difference between 4-C12-DTPA complexes of the alkaline earth metals and the transition metals. This was explained by the difference in coordination between the two groups of metal ions, as predicted by the hard and soft acid and base (HSAB) theory. PMID:24702119

  13. Utility of radioisotopic filtration markers in chronic renal insufficiency: Simultaneous comparison of sup 125 I-iothalamate, sup 169 Yb-DTPA, sup 99m Tc-DTPA, and inulin. The Modification of Diet in Renal Disease Study

    SciTech Connect

    Perrone, R.D.; Steinman, T.I.; Beck, G.J.; Skibinski, C.I.; Royal, H.D.; Lawlor, M.; Hunsicker, L.G. )

    1990-09-01

    Assessment of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) with inulin is cumbersome and time-consuming. Radioisotopic filtration markers have been studied as filtration markers because they can be used without continuous intravenous (IV) infusion and because analysis is relatively simple. Although the clearances of 99mTc-DTPA, 169Yb-DTPA, and 125I-iothalamate have each been compared with inulin, rarely has the comparability of radioisotopic filtration markers been directly evaluated in the same subject. To this purpose, we determined the renal clearance of inulin administered by continuous infusion and the above radioisotopic filtration markers administered as bolus injections, simultaneously in four subjects with normal renal function and 16 subjects with renal insufficiency. Subjects were studied twice in order to assess within-study and between-study variability. Unlabeled iothalamate was infused during the second half of each study to assess its effect on clearances. We found that renal clearance of 125I-iothalamate and 169Yb-DTPA significantly exceeded clearance of inulin in patients with renal insufficiency, but only by several mL.min-1.1.73m-2. Overestimation of inulin clearance by radioisotopic filtration markers was found in all normal subjects. No differences between markers were found in the coefficient of variation of clearances either between periods on a given study day (within-day variability) or between the two study days (between-day variability). The true test variability between days did not correlate with within-test variability. We conclude that the renal clearance of 99mTc-DTPA, 169Yb-DTPA, or 125I-iothalamate administered as a single IV or subcutaneous injection can be used to accurately measure GFR in subjects with renal insufficiency; use of the single injection technique may overestimate GFR in normal subjects.

  14. Urine excretion of inhaled technetium-99m-DTPA: an alternative method to assess lung epithelial transport.

    PubMed

    Köhn, H; König, B; Klech, H; Pohl, W; Mostbeck, A

    1990-04-01

    Technetium-99m DTPA clearance (99mTc-DTPA) clearance measured by a gamma camera or a scintillation probe not only reflects epithelial transport, but is also influenced by an unknown amount of mucociliary clearance depending on particle size and aerosol deposition. This is confirmed by factor analysis of dynamic inhalation studies. Assessment of epithelial absorption by urinary excretion of inhaled 99mTc-DTPA is largely independent of aerosol lung deposition. Twenty-four-hour excretion reflects the amount of aerosol cleared by absorption, while two-hour excretion is a quantitative measure of the aerosol absorption rate from the epithelium into blood. Urinary 99mTc-DTPA excretion of two aerosols with different particle size correlated significantly (p less than 0.001) with analysis of lung clearance curves. A very similar regression in the form of a cumulative exponential function was found with both aerosols. Two-hour urine values of nonsmokers differed significantly from those of smokers or patients with active interstitial or infectious lung disease. This alternative procedure is suited as a bedside test and holds promise for patient monitoring and follow-up.

  15. Pneumocystis pneumonia increases the clearance rate of inhaled /sup 99m/Tc DTPA from lung to blood

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, D.K.; Higenbottam, T.W.

    1985-10-01

    Despite no radiographic change, a patient with Pneumocystis pneumonia showed increased clearance of inhaled /sup 99m/Tc DTPA from lung to blood. Gas transfer for carbon monoxide was also reduced, but improved with treatment. This was paralleled by serial increase in the t1/2 LB.

  16. Use of gadolinium diethylene triamine penta-acetic acid, as measured by ELISA, in the determination of glomerular filtration rates in cats.

    PubMed

    Sox, Erika M; Chiotti, Ruthanne; Goldstein, Richard E

    2010-10-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate a commercially available assay for gadolinium diethylene triamine penta-acetic acid (Gd-DTPA) for use in estimating glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in cats (Gd-DTPA GFR) with a wide range of GFRs. Eighteen adult cats (11 healthy and seven with chronic kidney disease) were included. Plasma concentrations of Gd-DTPA following intravenous injection were measured with an ELISA kit (FIT-GFR). Results for Gd-DTPA GFR were compared with simultaneously obtained values for plasma clearance of iohexol (iohexol GFR), plasma blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine concentrations. A negative correlation existed between iohexol GFR and plasma concentrations of BUN and creatinine. A positive correlation existed between Gd-DTPA GFR and iohexol GFR. There was no correlation between Gd-DTPA GFR and plasma concentrations of BUN and creatinine. In this study plasma clearance of Gd-DTPA assayed by FIT-GFR did not appear to provide a sufficiently accurate estimation of GFR in cats when compared with plasma clearance of iohexol, and plasma concentrations of BUN and creatinine. PMID:20724186

  17. Indications for /sup 99m/technetium dimercapto-succinic acid scan in children

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, I.

    1987-03-01

    The /sup 99m/technetium dimercapto-succinic acid scan provides an image of functional renal parenchyma. This static scan has specific indications and cannot be used simply in place of a /sup 99m/technetium diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid scan. The major clinical indications for this investigation are the detection and/or evaluation of a renal scar, the small or absent kidney, an occult duplex system, certain renal masses, systemic hypertension or suspected vasculitis. The physiology of the /sup 99m/technetium dimercapto-succinic acid scan is reviewed briefly.

  18. Synthesis and biological assessment of folate-accepted developer (99m)Tc-DTPA-folate-polymer.

    PubMed

    Chen, Fei; Shao, Kejing; Zhu, Bao; Jiang, Mengjun

    2016-05-15

    A novel cancer-targetable folate-poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (PFDH) copolymer containing DTPA segment was prepared by conventional chemical synthesis and labeled with (99m)Tc subsequently. The (99m)Tc-labled PFDH could be produced easily with high radiochemical yield of 91% and radiochemical purity of 95%. The LogP octanol-water value for the (99m)Tc-labled PFDH was -2.19 and the radiotracer was stable in phosphate-buffered saline and human serum for 2h (>95% in PBS or ∼90% in human serum). To investigate (99m)Tc-labled PFDH tumor targeting, the in vitro and in vivo stability, cell uptake, in vivo biodistribution, and SPECT imaging were evaluated, respectively. These preliminary results strongly suggest that the novel folate conjugated dendrimer maybe developed to be potential for delivery of therapeutic radionuclides.

  19. Ozone-induced changes in the pulmonary clearance of (99m)Tc-DTPA in man

    SciTech Connect

    Kehrl, H.R.; Vincent, L.M.; Kowalsky, R.J.; Horstman, D.H.; O'Neil, J.J.

    1988-05-01

    Ozone is a respiratory irritant that has been shown in animals to increase the premeability of the respiratory epithelium. In the study the authors have recently reported that respiratory epithelial permeability was similarly affected in eight healthy non-smoking young men exposed to ozone (ARRD, 135 (1987) 1124-8). Permeability was evaluated by determining the pulmonary clearance of inhaled aerosolized 99mTc-DTPA with sequential posterior lung imaging by a computer-assisted gamma camera. In a randomized crossover design, 16 young men were exposed for 2 h to purified air and 0.4 ppm ozone while performing intermittent high intensity treadmill exercise; forced vital capacity (FVC) was measured before and at the end of exposures. The results demonstrate that ozone exposure increased respiratory epithelial permeability. Such an increase may be a manifestation of direct ozone-induced epithelial-cell injury, lung inflammation, or both.

  20. Exercise increases the lung clearance of inhaled Tc-99m DTPA

    SciTech Connect

    Meignan, M.; Rosso, J.; Cinotti, L.; Galle, P.

    1985-05-01

    It has been suggested that blood flow have little effect on the lung clearance of Tc-99m DTPA which depends on the alveolar distension. However an increase of pulmonary blood flow, induces a recruitment of new vascular areas which can enhance this clearance. To assess this hypothesis the pulmonary apical and basal clearances of a sumicronic aerosol of Tc-99m DTPA were studied at rest and at exercise in seven non smoking volunteers in upright posture. As a matter of fact exercising upright is known to increase primarily the apical blood flow. After inhalation the subjects were seated on a bicycle their back against a gamma camera which was linked to a computer. The lung radioactivity was registered successively during a resting and an exercising period. At rest there was a gradient of clearance from the apex to the base of the lung, the apical clearance being significantly higher. At exercise (50 Watts, 60 c. min /sup -1/, 7 min.) this regional gradient was enhanced by a large and significant increase of the apical clearances (0.0340 min /sup -1/ +-0.0063 SD versus 0.00183 min /sup -1/ +- 0.074 SD at rest, n = 7, p < 0.01). By contrast the changes of the basal clearances were slight and unsignificant (0.0146 min /sup -1/ +- 0.0062 SD versus 0.0140 min /sup -1/ +- 0.0082 SD). Since exercise induces little distension of the apical alveoli but drastically enhances the apical blood flow, the observed increase of the apical lung clearance could be primarily attributed to the recruitment of new capillaries induced by exercise in the apices. This led to an increase of the surface area permeability product.

  1. Paramagnetic perfluorocarbon-filled albumin-(Gd-DTPA) microbubbles for the induction of focused-ultrasound-induced blood-brain barrier opening and concurrent MR and ultrasound imaging.

    PubMed

    Liao, Ai-Ho; Liu, Hao-Li; Su, Chia-Hao; Hua, Mu-Yi; Yang, Hung-Wei; Weng, Yu-Ting; Hsu, Po-Hung; Huang, Sheng-Min; Wu, Shih-Yen; Wang, Hsin-Ell; Yen, Tzu-Chen; Li, Pai-Chi

    2012-05-01

    This paper presents new albumin-shelled Gd-DTPA microbubbles (MBs) that can concurrently serve as a dual-modality contrast agent for ultrasound (US) imaging and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging to assist blood-brain barrier (BBB) opening and detect intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) during focused ultrasound brain drug delivery. Perfluorocarbon-filled albumin-(Gd-DTPA) MBs were prepared with a mean diameter of 2320 nm and concentration of 2.903×10(9) MBs ml(-1) using albumin-(Gd-DTPA) and by sonication with perfluorocarbon (C(3)F(8)) gas. The albumin-(Gd-DTPA) MBs were then centrifuged and the procedure was repeated until the free Gd(3+) ions were eliminated (which were detected by the xylenol orange sodium salt solution). The albumin-(Gd-DTPA) MBs were also characterized and evaluated both in vitro and in vivo by US and MR imaging. Focused US was used with the albumin-(Gd-DTPA) MBs to induce disruption of the BBB in 18 rats. BBB disruption was confirmed with contrast-enhanced T(1)-weighted turbo-spin-echo sequence MR imaging. Heavy T(2)*-weighted 3D fast low-angle shot sequence MR imaging was used to detect ICH. In vitro US imaging experiments showed that albumin-(Gd-DTPA) MBs can significantly enhance the US contrast in T(1)-, T(2)- and T(2)*-weighted MR images. The r(1) and r(2) relaxivities for Gd-DTPA were 7.69 and 21.35 s(-1)mM(-1), respectively, indicating that the MBs represent a positive contrast agent in T(1)-weighted images. In vivo MR imaging experiments on 18 rats showed that focused US combined with albumin-(Gd-DTPA) MBs can be used to both induce disruption of the BBB and detect ICH. To compare the signal intensity change between pure BBB opening and BBB opening accompanying ICH, albumin-(Gd-DTPA) MB imaging can provide a ratio of 5.14 with significant difference (p = 0.026), whereas Gd-DTPA imaging only provides a ratio of 2.13 and without significant difference (p = 0.108). The results indicate that albumin-(Gd-DTPA) MBs have potential as a US/MR dual

  2. Paramagnetic perfluorocarbon-filled albumin-(Gd-DTPA) microbubbles for the induction of focused-ultrasound-induced blood-brain barrier opening and concurrent MR and ultrasound imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Ai-Ho; Liu, Hao-Li; Su, Chia-Hao; Hua, Mu-Yi; Yang, Hung-Wei; Weng, Yu-Ting; Hsu, Po-Hung; Huang, Sheng-Min; Wu, Shih-Yen; Wang, Hsin-Ell; Yen, Tzu-Chen; Li, Pai-Chi

    2012-05-01

    This paper presents new albumin-shelled Gd-DTPA microbubbles (MBs) that can concurrently serve as a dual-modality contrast agent for ultrasound (US) imaging and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging to assist blood-brain barrier (BBB) opening and detect intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) during focused ultrasound brain drug delivery. Perfluorocarbon-filled albumin-(Gd-DTPA) MBs were prepared with a mean diameter of 2320 nm and concentration of 2.903×109 MBs ml-1 using albumin-(Gd-DTPA) and by sonication with perfluorocarbon (C3F8) gas. The albumin-(Gd-DTPA) MBs were then centrifuged and the procedure was repeated until the free Gd3+ ions were eliminated (which were detected by the xylenol orange sodium salt solution). The albumin-(Gd-DTPA) MBs were also characterized and evaluated both in vitro and in vivo by US and MR imaging. Focused US was used with the albumin-(Gd-DTPA) MBs to induce disruption of the BBB in 18 rats. BBB disruption was confirmed with contrast-enhanced T1-weighted turbo-spin-echo sequence MR imaging. Heavy T2*-weighted 3D fast low-angle shot sequence MR imaging was used to detect ICH. In vitro US imaging experiments showed that albumin-(Gd-DTPA) MBs can significantly enhance the US contrast in T1-, T2- and T2*-weighted MR images. The r1 and r2 relaxivities for Gd-DTPA were 7.69 and 21.35 s-1mM-1, respectively, indicating that the MBs represent a positive contrast agent in T1-weighted images. In vivo MR imaging experiments on 18 rats showed that focused US combined with albumin-(Gd-DTPA) MBs can be used to both induce disruption of the BBB and detect ICH. To compare the signal intensity change between pure BBB opening and BBB opening accompanying ICH, albumin-(Gd-DTPA) MB imaging can provide a ratio of 5.14 with significant difference (p = 0.026), whereas Gd-DTPA imaging only provides a ratio of 2.13 and without significant difference (p = 0.108). The results indicate that albumin-(Gd-DTPA) MBs have potential as a US/MR dual-modality contrast agent for

  3. Effect of various concentrations of DTPA chelating agent in soil on uptake and distribution of /sup 241/Am in bush bean plants

    SciTech Connect

    Wallace, A.; Romney, E.M.; Mueller, R.T.

    1981-07-01

    We grew bush bean plants in pots containing Yolo loam soil in a glasshouse for 15 days with a uniformly applied level of /sup 241/Am in soil and with various concentrations of DTPA applied to the soil. The objective was to demonstrate that the effects assigned to this chelating agent on uptake of /sup 241/Am by plants will vary with concentration of the chelating agent. On a concentration basis, the DTPA resulted in transport of much more /sup 241/Am into primary leaves than into trifoliate leaves. The ratio of /sup 241/Am in primary leaves to that in trifoliate leaves increased with increasing concentration of DTPA. The concentration ratios in each plant part also increased with increasing DTPA.

  4. The Impact of Gd-Eob-Dtpa-Enhanced MR Cholangiography in Biliary Diseases: Comparison with T2-Weighted MR Cholangiopancreatography

    PubMed Central

    Özmen, Evrim; Algın, Oktay; Evrimler, Şehnaz; Arslan, Halil

    2016-01-01

    Background: Contrast enhanced magnetic resonance cholangiography is a novel technique and promising method in demonstrating biliary tree anatomy and evaluating biliary disorders. However, to date, there are a limited number of studies that have focused on the impact of this technique. Aims: We aimed to evaluate the additional role of contrast enhanced MR cholangiography (MRC) and compare contrast enhanced MRC with T2-weighted (w) magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) in the diagnosis of biliary disorders. Study Design: Diagnostic accuracy study. Methods: The T2w-MRCP and contrast enhanced MRC sequences of 31 patients whose gold standard test results were available were scored visually for the existence of pathological findings with regard to any of the biliary diseases. Gadolinium ethoxybenzyl diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (Gd-EOB-DTPA) was used as the contrast agent. The correlation values were determined according to the statistical analysis made from those scores and the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy values of each sequence were detected as well. Results: We detected that the correlation values with gold standard methods of contrast enhanced MRC sequences were significantly higher than the ones of T2w-MRCP sequences. The correlation ratios of T2w-MRCP sequences were between 26 and 34%, while those for contrast enhanced MRC sequences were between 81 and 83% for the first reader and the correlation ratios of T2w-MRCP sequences were between 10 and 61%, whereas those of contrast enhanced MRC were between 79 and 81% for the second reader The mean sensitivity, specificity and accuracy values of T2w-MRCP sequences were 14.3–42.5%, 85–89.2% and 59.3–72.5%, respectively, while the mean sensitivity, specificity and accuracy values of contrast enhanced MRC sequences were 100%, 86.7% and 93.2–93.3%, respectively. Conclusion: We suggest that obtaining of contrast enhanced MRC sequences in addition to the T2w-MRCP can be useful in the

  5. Initial clinical evaluation of radiolabeled MX-DTPA humanized BrE-3 antibody in patients with advanced breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Kramer, E L; Liebes, L; Wasserheit, C; Noz, M E; Blank, E W; Zabalegui, A; Melamed, J; Furmanski, P; Peterson, J A; Ceriani, R L

    1998-07-01

    To evaluate radiometal-labeled humanized BrE-3 (huBrE-3) monoclonal antibody as a radioimmunolocalization and therapeutic agent in breast cancer patients, tumor localization, pharmacokinetics, radiation dosimetry, and immunogenicity of (111)In-labeled combined 1-p-isothiocyanatobenzyl 3-methyl- and 1-p-isothiocyanatobenzyl 4-methyldiethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (MX-DTPA) huBrE-3 were studied. Seven women with BrE-3 antigen-positive, metastatic breast carcinoma underwent (111)In huBrE-3 infusion (5 mCi; 50 mg), followed by serial gamma camera imaging and plasma sampling. Region of interest analysis of images was used to make radiation absorbed dose estimates for (111)In huBrE-3. Data were extrapolated to 90Y huBrE-3. Human anti-human antibody (HAHA) response was measured in serum samples obtained up to 3 months after infusion. Patients tolerated infusions well. Seventy-six percent of 105 known sites of disease were identified on planar and single-photon emission computed tomography scans. For six of seven patients, a biexponential model fit the plasma time-activity curve best with an average T1/2alpha=10.6+/-8.5 (SD) h and average T1/2beta=114.2+/-39.2 h. Radiation absorbed dose estimates for (111)In huBrE-3 for whole body averaged 0.53+/-.08 rads/mCi. Dose estimates for 90Y huBrE-3 for marrow averaged 8.4+/-11.9 rads/mCi, and for tumors, 70+/-31.5 rads/mCi. Liver radioactivity uptake averaged 19.7+/-8.8% injected dose at 24 h after infusion, translating into an average radiation absorbed dose 21.1+/-12 rads/90Y mCi administered. Only one of seven patients demonstrated a low level of HAHA response. Although the plasma half-lives are longer and marrow dose higher for radiolabeled huBrE-3 compared with the murine construct, the excellent tumor localization, good tumor dosimetry, and low immunogenicity support the use of 90Y-huBrE-3 antibody for radioimmunotherapy of breast cancer.

  6. Comparison of triple dose versus standard dose gadolinium-DTPA for detection of MRI enhancing lesions in patients with primary progressive multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed Central

    Filippi, M; Campi, A; Martinelli, V; Colombo, B; Yousry, T; Canal, N; Scotti, G; Comi, G

    1995-01-01

    This study was performed to evaluate whether a triple dose of gadolinium-DTPA (Gd-DTPA) increases the sensitivity of brain MRI for detecting enhancing lesions in patients with primary progressive multiple sclerosis (PPMS). T1 weighted brain MRI was obtained for 10 patients with PPMS in two sessions. In the first session, one scan was obtained five to seven minutes after the injection of 0.1 mmol/kg Gd-DTPA (standard dose). In the second session, six to 24 hours later, one scan before and two scans five to seven minutes and one hour after the injection of 0.3 mmol/kg Gd-DTPA (triple dose) were obtained. Four enhancing lesions were detected in two patients when the standard dose of Gd-DTPA was used. The numbers of enhancing lesions increased to 13 and the numbers of patients with such lesions to five when the triple dose of Gd-DTPA was used and to 14 and six in the one hour delayed scans. The mean contrast ratio for enhancing lesions detected with the triple dose of Gd-DTPA was higher than those for lesions present in both the standard dose (P < 0.0009) and the one hour delayed scans (P = 0.04). These data indicate that with a triple dose of Gd-DTPA many more enhancing lesions can be detected in patients with PPMS. This is important both for planning clinical trials and for detecting the presence of inflammation in vivo in the lesions of such patients. Images PMID:8530944

  7. Formation of self-assembled monolayers with homogeneously mixed, loosely packed alkyl groups using unsymmetrical dialkyldithiophosphinic acids.

    PubMed

    San Juan, Ronan R; Carmichael, Tricia Breen

    2012-12-21

    We report the formation and characterization of self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) formed from unsymmetrical dialkyldithiophosphinic acid (R(1)R(2)DTPA) adsorbates [CH(3)(CH(2))(n)][CH(3)(CH(2))(15)]P(S)SH (n = 5, 9) on gold substrates. These SAMs were characterized using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, reflection-absorption infrared spectroscopy, contact angle goniometry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and atomic force microscopy. Unsymmetrical R(1)R(2)DTPA SAMs contain mixtures of bidentate and monodentate adsorbates, similar to SAMs formed from analogous symmetrical R(2)DTPAs. In unsymmetrical R(1)R(2)DTPA SAMs, however, the short alkyl substituent of the R(1)R(2)DTPA adsorbates enforces spacing between the long hexadecyl substituents, which disrupts van der Waals interactions and causes the hexadecyl groups to be loosely packed and disordered. The structure of the SAM depends on the length of the short alkyl substituent: The hexyl chains in the C(6)C(16)DTPA SAM are not long enough to stabilize the alkyl zone close to the substrate, leading to highly disordered SAMs with a low molecular packing density in which the hexadecyl chains lie down to fill the gaps between adjacent adsorbates. In contrast, the additional van der Waals interactions provided by the decyl chains of the C(10)C(16)DTPA SAM enable dense molecular packing in the alkyl zone close to the substrate. The structure of the SAM consists of a zone close to the substrate composed of a packed alkyl layer, with hexadecyl chains protruding above to form a loosely packed, disordered alkyl layer. Regardless of the structural differences between the C(6)C(16)DTPA and C(10)C(16)DTPA SAMs, both SAMs exhibit homogeneous mixing of the alkyl chains within the SAM, demonstrating that binding two different chains to a single headgroup is an effective method to prevent phase segregation.

  8. A novel contrast agent with rare earth-doped up-conversion luminescence and Gd-DTPA magnetic resonance properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Qing; Wei, Daixu; Cheng, Jiejun; Xu, Jianrong; Zhu, Jun

    2012-08-01

    The magnetic-luminescent multifunctional nanoparticles based on Gd-DTPA and NaYF4:Yb, Er were successfully synthesized by the conjugation of activated DTPA and silica-coated/surface-aminolated NaYF4:Yb, Er nanoparticles through EDC/NHS coupling chemistry. The as-prepared products were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering, energy dispersive X-ray analysis, and fourier transform infrared spectrometry. The room-temperature upconversion luminescent spectra and T1-weighted maps of the obtained nanoparticles were carried out by 980 nm NIR light excitation and a 3T MR imaging scanner, respectively. The results indicated that the as-synthesized multifunctional nanoparticles with small size, highly solubility in water, and both high MR relaxivities and upconversion luminescence may have potential usage for MR imaging in future.

  9. [Does intravenous gadolinium-DTPA administration have advantages in magnetic resonance imaging of acute injuries or chronic damage to the knee joint?].

    PubMed

    Jerosch, J; Castro, W H; Müller, U; Assheuer, J

    1994-12-01

    79 patients with acute or chronic lesions of the knee were evaluated by MRI prior to and after application of Gd-DTPA. The MRI examination was performed by a 1.0 tesla imager with SE as well as FEDIF sequences. These MR studies were compared prior to and after intravenous Gd-DTPA application, focusing on the visibility and the definition of a possible lesion, and scored with a 3-point score. Statistic analysis and case analysis revealed that in patients with meniscus degeneration without a tear, Gd application yields no additional diagnostic information. However, in patients with meniscus tears Gd-DTPA significantly facilitates the definition of the lesion. Furthermore, Gd-DTPA makes differentiation possible between the synovial fluid and the synovial membrane. Whereas in cases with capsule or collateral ligament tears Gd-DTPA facilitates the documentation of the lesion, we found no advantage in using Gd-DPTA in patients with ACL tears. In patients with chondropathia patellae Gd-DTPA application supports the visualization of the secondary synovial reaction.

  10. Aqueous complexation of thorium(IV), uranium(IV), neptunium(IV), plutonium(III/IV), and cerium(III/IV) with DTPA.

    PubMed

    Brown, M Alex; Paulenova, Alena; Gelis, Artem V

    2012-07-16

    Aqueous complexation of Th(IV), U(IV), Np(IV), Pu(III/IV), and Ce(III/IV) with DTPA was studied by potentiometry, absorption spectrophotometry, and cyclic voltammetry at 1 M ionic strength and 25 °C. The stability constants for the 1:1 complex of each trivalent and tetravalent metal were calculated. From the potentiometric data, we report stability constant values for Ce(III)DTPA, Ce(III)HDTPA, and Th(IV)DTPA of log β(101) = 20.01 ± 0.02, log β(111) = 22.0 ± 0.2, and log β(101) = 29.6 ± 1, respectively. From the absorption spectrophotometry data, we report stability constant values for U(IV)DTPA, Np(IV)DTPA, and Pu(IV)DTPA of log β(101) = 31.8 ± 0.1, 32.3 ± 0.1, and 33.67 ± 0.02, respectively. From the cyclic voltammetry data, we report stability constant values for Ce(IV) and Pu(III) of log β(101) = 34.04 ± 0.04 and 20.58 ± 0.04, respectively. The values obtained in this work are compared and discussed with respect to the ionic radius of each cationic metal.

  11. Regional evaluation of renal dynamics in post transplant kidneys with Tc-99m DTPA and scinti-camera

    SciTech Connect

    Suzuki, T.; Akuta, K.; Aoki, S.; Furunishi, H.; Yamazaki, T.; Yamazaki, T.; Nakane, Y.; Pak, K.

    1984-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to analyze the regional renal dynamic process (renal perfusion, accumulation and clearance) using Tc-99m DTPA and assess for the regional renal indices from this analysis early to detect acute tubular necrosis and acute rejection of post transplant kidneys. The subjects were 6 normal donors and 10 post renal transplant patients. Tc-99m DTPA (20 mCi) was injected into the vein by a bolus, and its activity change in the kidney was measured by a scintillation camera, and stored each 1 sec. for 20 sec. following each 15 sec. for 20 min. in the computer, to calculate the renal functional indices: the perfusion index, the blood flow mean transit time, the accumulation rate and the clearance rate in the cortex, medulla and pelvis, whose R.O.I. regions were separated in the early and late scinti-images. The accumulation ratio, a new parameter, which is the second upslope part of Tc-99m DTPA renogram, and the clearance rate were calculated from H/A method. The authors made the functional images of these indices to estimate their regional distribution. The accumulation rate and the clearance rate only in the cortex were markedly decreased in the acute tubular necrosis and the rejection, which functional images showed irregular distributions. It was possible to evaluate the renal perfusion with Tc-99m DTPA, separated from the renal accumulation and clearance process. The authors' method gave the assessment of the regional renal disorders with the functional images; the renal disorders in acute tubular necrosis and acute rejection exist mainly in the cortex.

  12. Investigation of the solution properties of the transuranium elements. Progress report, July 1, 1980-June 30, 1982. [Nitriloacetate, iminodiacetate, ethylenediaminetetraacetate, diethylenetriaminepentaacetate

    SciTech Connect

    Ensor, D.D.; Shah, A.H.

    1982-01-01

    This report summarizes the progress of our program for the period July 1, 1980 to June 30, 1982 in determining the fundamental solution properties of the transuranium elements. The use of LaF/sub 3/ as the precipitating matrix for the determination of Tb(III) by selective laser excitation has been demonstrated. This technique has been applied to the determination of Cm(III) in aqueous solutions with a detection limit of at least 1 x 10/sup -12/ mole %. The modification of the extraction characteristics of HDNNS by the addition of hydrophobic carboxylic acids has been investigated. Results indicate the inclusion of these compounds in the micelle formed by HDNNS will alter the distribution of trivalent metal ions. The thermodynamic parameters (..delta..G, ..delta..H, and ..delta..S) for the complexation of a series of aminopolycarboxylates with trivalent actinides have been measured. Comparison of ..delta..G values for the trivalent actinides with data for the trivalent lanthanides shows little difference; however, the measured ..delta..H and ..delta..S values for the two families is quite different. The data for the aminopolycarboxylate system have been interpreted as indicating the loss of one additional water molecule per carboxylate group from the actinide ions during complexation when compared with the lanthanide ions.

  13. The determination of relative renal function in a pediatric population using Tc-99m DTPA and Tc-99m DMSA

    SciTech Connect

    Rosen, P.R.; Kuruc, A.; Treves, S.T.

    1985-05-01

    Three methods for evaluating relative renal function in a pediatric population were compared. The clinical and nuclear medicine data of 73 patients were reviewed. Pertinent data included patient age, serum creatinine and the referral diagnosis (reflux, hypertension, obstructive uropathy). Time activity curves for renal regions of interest (ROI) were obtained by renography with Tc-99m DTPA, and deconvolved by an externally detected blood pool curve Furosemide was then administered to evaluate the renal collecting system (if indicated). This was followed by DMSA administration. Relative function was determined in 3 ways: 1) Accumulated renal DTPA activity 60-120 sec. following injection. 2) Amplitude of the tubular phase of the deconvolved renal curve and, 3) Accumulated Tc-99m DMSA activity in renal ROI 4 or 24 hrs. post-injection. Regression analysis revealed: 1) The basic relationship of relative functional data obtained by all three methods was not affected by creatinine, age or other factors. 2) The relationship between the three methods is linear and highly correlated. 3) The DMSA values may be predicted from either method of analyzing the DTPA study using appropriate predictor equations. The authors conclude that Tc-99m DMSA, due to its higher cost and more radiation exposure should not be used for the routine evaluation of relative renal function.

  14. The effect of x rays, DTPA, and aspirin on the absorption of plutonium from the gastrointestinal tract of rats

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, M.F.; Gorham, L.S.; Miller, B.M.

    1983-04-01

    To measure the effect of radiation on plutonium transport, rats that were exposed to 250-kVp X rays were given /sup 238/Pu 3 days afterwards by either gavage or injection into a ligated segment of the duodenum. In a second group of experiments, rats were either injected intraduodenally with /sup 238/Pu-DTPA or administered the chelate intravenously and the /sup 238/Pu by gavage. In a third experiment, rats that had been gavaged with 200 or 400 mg/kg/day of aspirin for 2 days were injected intragastrically with /sup 238/Pu nitrate. Results of the first experiment showed a dose-dependent increase in /sup 238/Pu absorption between 800 and 1500 rad of lower-body X irradiation. Intravenous or intraduodenal injections of DTPA caused a marked increase in /sup 238/Pu absorption but resulted in decreased plutonium deposition in the skeleton and liver. Retention of /sup 238/Pu in the skeleton of rats given aspirin was double that of controls, but the effect on plutonium absorption was less marked than that of DTPA.

  15. Case Study: Three Acute 241Am Inhalation Exposures with DTPA Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Carbaugh, Eugene H.; Lynch, Timothy P.; Cannon, Curt; Lewis, Loren L.

    2010-10-01

    Three workers incurred inhalation exposures to 241Am oxide as a result of waste sorting and compaction activities. The magnitudes of the exposures were not fully recognized until the following day when an in vivo chest count identified a significant lung deposition of 241Am in a male worker, and DTPA chelation therapy was initiated. Two additional workers (one female and one male) were then identified as sufficiently exposed to also warrant therapy. In vivo bioassay measurements were performed over the ensuing 6 months to quantify the 241Am activity in the lungs, liver, and skeleton. Urine and fecal samples were collected and showed readily detectable 241Am. Clinical lab tests and medical evaluations all showed normal results. There were no significant adverse clinical health effects from the therapy. The estimated 241Am inhalation intakes for the three workers were 1800 Bq, 630 Bq, and 150 Bq. Lung retention showed somewhat longer pulmonary clearance half-times than standard inhalation class W or absorption Type M assumptions. The three underwent slightly different therapy regimes, with therapy effectiveness factors (defined as the ratio of the reference doses without therapy relative to the final assessed doses) of 4.65, 1.93, and 1.67, respectively.

  16. [The MRT of scaphoid pseudarthrosis with Gd-DTPA. Its staging and clinical correlation].

    PubMed

    Vogl, T J; Beutel, F; Wilhelm, K; Tempka, A; Schedel, H; Haas, R; Felix, R

    1994-11-01

    During a period of two years, 134 patients with pseudo-arthrosis of the scaphoid were examined by conventional radiography and by MRI in the course of a prospective study. The aim of the study was to define radiological staging using contrast enhanced MRI in order to improve the prognostic criteria. All MRI examinations were carried out with a 1.5 tesla scanner (SP63) using a surface coil and T1 weighted spin echo sequences in sagittal and frontal projection and frontal FLASH T2 sequences and axial spin echo T2 sequences. The T1 weighted SE sequences in frontal projection were carried out before and after iv contrast (0.1 mmol Gd-DTPA/kg KG). All sequences were compared with conventional radiographs and the operative findings. Eight patients in stage 0 showed high signal intensity of both fragments in T1 weighted SE sequences and at surgery there was good vascularisation. In 22 cases there was reduced signal intensity in at least one fragment (stage I). 45 patients with scaphoid pseudo-arthrosis showed complete signal loss but marked contrast uptake with still vital nuclei at surgery (stage II). In 22 patients, there was no increase in signal intensity after contrast and complete loss of vitality of the fragments at surgery. Staging was not possible in 37 patients because of previous operative intervention. The use of contrast enhanced MRI provides additional information compared with conventional radiography or plain MRI. PMID:7948999

  17. PET imaging of tumor angiogenesis in mice with VEGF-A-targeted (86)Y-CHX-A″-DTPA-bevacizumab.

    PubMed

    Nayak, Tapan K; Garmestani, Kayhan; Baidoo, Kwamena E; Milenic, Diane E; Brechbiel, Martin W

    2011-02-15

    Bevacizumab is a humanized monoclonal antibody that binds to tumor-secreted vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A and inhibits tumor angiogenesis. In 2004, the antibody was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of metastatic colorectal carcinoma in combination with chemotherapy. This report describes the preclinical evaluation of a radioimmunoconjugate, (86)Y-CHX-A″-DTPA-bevacizumab, for potential use in Positron Emission Tomography (PET) imaging of VEGF-A tumor angiogenesis and as a surrogate marker for (90)Y-based radioimmunotherapy. Bevacizumab was conjugated to CHX-A″-DTPA and radiolabeled with (86)Y. In vivo biodistribution and PET imaging studies were performed on mice bearing VEGF-A-secreting human colorectal (LS-174T), human ovarian (SKOV-3) and VEGF-A-negative human mesothelioma (MSTO-211H) xenografts. Biodistribution and PET imaging studies demonstrated highly specific tumor uptake of the radioimmunoconjugate. In mice bearing VEGF-A-secreting LS-174T, SKOV-3 and VEGF-A-negative MSTO-211H tumors, the tumor uptake at 3 days postinjection was 13.6 ± 1.5, 17.4 ± 1.7 and 6.8 ± 0.7 % ID/g, respectively. The corresponding tumor uptake in mice coinjected with 0.05 mg cold bevacizumab were 5.8 ± 1.3, 8.9 ± 1.9 and 7.4 ± 1.0 % ID/g, respectively at the same time point, demonstrating specific blockage of the target in VEGF-A-secreting tumors. The LS-174T and SKOV3 tumors were clearly visualized by PET imaging after injecting 1.8-2.0 MBq (86)Y-CHX-A″-DTPA-bevacizumab. Organ uptake quantified by PET closely correlated (r(2) = 0.87, p = 0.64, n = 18) to values determined by biodistribution studies. This preclinical study demonstrates the potential of the radioimmunoconjugate, (86)Y-CHX-A″-DTPA-bevacizumab, for noninvasive assessment of the VEGF-A tumor angiogenesis status and as a surrogate marker for (90)Y-CHX-A″-DTPA-bevacizumab radioimmunotherapy.

  18. Long-circulating gadolinium-encapsulated liposomes for potential application in tumor neutron capture therapy.

    PubMed

    Le, Uyen M; Cui, Zhengrong

    2006-04-01

    Gadolinium neutron capture therapy (Gd-NCT) is a promising cancer therapy modality. One of the key factors for a successful Gd-NCT is to deliver and maintain a sufficient amount of Gd in tumor tissues during neutron irradiation. We proposed to prepare a Gd delivery system by complexing a Gd-containing compound, diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (Gd-DTPA), with a polycationic peptide, poly-L-lysine (pLL), and then encapsulate the complexed Gd-DTPA into PEGylated liposomes. Complexation of Gd-DTPA with pLL not only enhanced the encapsulation efficiency of Gd-DTPA in liposomes, but also significantly limited the release of Gd-DTPA from the liposomes. A Gd-DTPA-encapsulated liposome formulation that contained 6.8+/-0.3 mg/mL of pure encapsulated Gd was prepared. The blood half-life of the Gd encapsulated into the liposome formulation was estimated to be about 24 h in healthy tumor-free mice. About 12 h after the Gd-encapsulated liposomes were intravenously injected into mice with pre-established model tumors, the Gd content in the tumors reached an average of 159 microg/g of wet tumor tissue. This Gd-DTPA encapsulated liposome may be used to deliver Gd into solid tumors for NCT and tumor imaging. PMID:16457973

  19. Diagnosis of symptomatic disc by magnetic resonance imaging: T2-weighted and gadolinium-DTPA-enhanced T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Hiroyuki; Fujiwara, Atsushi; Tamai, Kazuya; Kobayashi, Naoki; Saiki, Kazuhiko; Saotome, Koichi

    2002-06-01

    Although radial tear of the annulus fibrosus can be detected on T2-weighted and Gd-DTPA-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) images, the association between the annular tear on MR images and the symptomatic discs is unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between T2-weighted, gadolinium-DTPA-enhanced MR images and pain response through discography in patients with chronic low back pain. A total of 56 lumbar discs from 23 patients with chronic low back pain (13 to 47 years old) underwent MR imaging (T2-weighted, gadolinium-DTPA-enhanced MR images) followed by provocative discography. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of T2-weighted and gadolinium-DTPA-enhanced MR images in detecting the symptomatic discs were calculated. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of T2-weighted images in detecting the symptomatic disc were 94%, 71%, 59%, and 97%, respectively. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of gadolinium-DTPA-enhanced images were 71%, 75%, 56%, and 86%, respectively. The high sensitivity and the high negative predictive value of T2-weighted MR imaging in detecting the symptomatic disc indicated that MR imaging can be a useful screening tool in avoiding unnecessary discography in patients with chronic low back pain.

  20. Real-time tracking of dissociation of hyperpolarized 89Y-DTPA: a model for degradation of open-chain Gd3+ MRI contrast agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferguson, Sarah; Niedbalski, Peter; Parish, Christopher; Kiswandhi, Andhika; Kovacs, Zoltan; Lumata, Lloyd

    Gadolinium (Gd) complexes are widely used relaxation-based clinical contrast agents in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Gd-based MRI contrast agents with open-chain ligand such as Gd-DTPA, commercially known as magnevist, are less stable compared to Gd complexes with macrocyclic ligands such as GdDOTA (Dotarem). The dissociation of Gd-DPTA into Gd ion and DTPA ligand under certain biological conditions such as high zinc levels can potentially cause kidney damage. Since Gd is paramagnetic, direct NMR detection of the Gd-DTPA dissociation is quite challenging due to ultra-short relaxation times. In this work, we have investigated Y-DTPA as a model for Gd-DPTA dissociation under high zinc content solutions. Using dissolution dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP), the 89Y NMR signal is amplified by several thousand-fold. Due to the the relatively long T1 relaxation time of 89Y which translates to hyperpolarization lifetime of several minutes, the dissociation of Y-DTPA can be tracked in real-time by hyperpolarized 89Y NMR spectroscopy. Dissociation kinetic rates and implications on the degradation of open-chain Gd3+ MRI contrast agents will be discussed. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Defense Award Number W81XWH-14-1-0048 and by the Robert A. Welch Foundation research Grant Number AT-1877.

  1. The DyP-type peroxidase DtpA is a Tat-substrate required for GlxA maturation and morphogenesis in Streptomyces

    PubMed Central

    Petrus, Marloes L. C.; Chaplin, Amanda K.; Worrall, Jonathan A. R.; van Wezel, Gilles P.

    2016-01-01

    The filamentous bacterium Streptomyces lividans depends on the radical copper oxidase GlxA for the formation of reproductive aerial structures and, in liquid environments, for the formation of pellets. Incorporation of copper into the active site is essential for the formation of a cross-linked tyrosyl-cysteine cofactor, which is needed for enzymatic activity. In this study, we show a crucial link between GlxA maturation and a group of copper-related proteins including the chaperone Sco and a novel DyP-type peroxidase hereinafter called DtpA. Under copper-limiting conditions, the sco and dtpA deletion mutants are blocked in aerial growth and pellet formation, similarly to a glxA mutant. Western blot analysis showed that GlxA maturation is perturbed in the sco and dtpA mutants, but both maturation and morphology can by rescued by increasing the bioavailability of copper. DtpA acts as a peroxidase in the presence of GlxA and is a substrate for the twin-arginine translocation (Tat) translocation pathway. In agreement, the maturation status of GlxA is also perturbed in tat mutants, which can be compensated for by the addition of copper, thereby partially restoring their morphological defects. Our data support a model wherein a copper-trafficking pathway and Tat-dependent secretion of DtpA link to the GlxA-dependent morphogenesis pathway. PMID:26740586

  2. Comparison of Gadofluorine-M and Gd-DTPA for Non-Invasive Staging of Atherosclerotic Plaque Stability Using MRI

    PubMed Central

    Ronald, John A.; Chen, Yuanxin; Belisle, Andre J.-L.; Hamilton, Amanda M.; Rogers, Kem A.; Hegele, Robert A.; Misselwitz, Bernd; Rutt, Brian K.

    2009-01-01

    Background Inflammation and neovascularization play critical roles in the stability of atherosclerotic plaques. Whole-body quantitative assessment of these plaque features may improve patient risk-stratification for life-threatening thromboembolic events and direct appropriate intervention. Here we determined the utility of the MR contrast agent Gadofluorine-M (GdF) for staging plaque stability and compared this to the conventional agent Gd-DTPA. Methods and Results 5 control and 7 atherosclerotic rabbits were sequentially imaged following administration of Gd-DTPA (0.2 mmol/kg) and GdF (0.1 mmol/kg) using a T1-weighted pulse sequence on a 3T MRI scanner. Diseased aortic wall could be distinguished from normal wall based on wall-to-muscle contrast-to-noise values following GdF administration. RAM-11 (macrophages) and CD-31 (endothelial cells) immunostaining of MR-matched histological sections revealed that GdF accumulation was related to the degree of inflammation at the surface of plaques and the extent of core neovascularization. Importantly, an MR measure of GdF accumulation at both 1 and 24 hours post-injection, but not Gd-DTPA at peak enhancement, was shown to correlate with a quantitative histological morphology index related to these two plaque features. Conclusions GdF-enhanced MRI of atherosclerotic plaques allows non-invasive quantitative information about plaque composition to be acquired at multiple time points post-injection (within 1 and up to 24 hours post-injection). This dramatically widens the imaging window for assessing plaque stability that is currently attainable with clinically approved MR agents, therefore opening the possibility of whole-body (including coronary) detection of unstable plaques in the future and potentially improved mitigation of cataclysmic cardiovascular events. PMID:19808597

  3. [Scintigraphy of pulmonary ventilation with 99mTc-DTPA radio-aerosol. I. Semiotics of the static images].

    PubMed

    Maini, C L; Bonetti, M G; Giordano, A; Pistelli, R; Antonelli Incalzi, R; Vecchioli, A; Galli, G

    1986-04-01

    Papers on deposition pattern analyses of radio-aerosol lung scans are few and not easy to interpret as there is a general lack of technical standardization and the number of patients studied is not large. Moreover these reports have been generally obtained with non-hydrosoluble radioaerosols. In the present study 43 patients underwent conventional pulmonary function testing and lung scanning using small droplet (equal or less than 2 microns) polydisperse 99mTc-DTPA radioaerosol produced with the "Settling Bag System"--Medi 400 (Sorin). The scans were analysed by two methods: a semiquantitative method proposed by Taplin (SQT); an original simpler semiquantitative method (SQM). Correlations of SQT and SQM with FEV1 and MEF75 resulted highly significant (p less than 0,001). SQM proved to be superior to SQT as far as reproducibility is concerned. The following conclusions can be drawn: small particle 99mTc-DTPA aerosol can be easily and cheaply produced by a commercial device; such a radioaerosol is well suited for the evaluation of small and large airways patency, as reflected by MEF75 and FEV1 respectively, with a diagnostic yield comparable to non-hydrosoluble radioaerosols; the original semiquantitative description of the deposition patterns proposed and validated in this study is quite easy to implement and it yields a high correlation with pulmonary function tests; moreover such an approach does not require digital data processing; the sensitivity of 99mTc-DTPA for the diagnosis of bronchial obstruction is very high and superior to routine pulmonary function tests; in addition the ventilation scan allows the topographical localization of the obstructions themselves.

  4. A feasibility study evaluating the relationship between dose and focal liver reaction in stereotactic ablative radiotherapy for liver cancer based on intensity change of Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced magnetic resonance images

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Sang Hoon; Yu, Jeong Il; Lim, Do Hoon; Han, Youngyih

    2016-01-01

    Purpose In order to evaluate the relationship between the dose to the liver parenchyma and focal liver reaction (FLR) after stereotactic ablative body radiotherapy (SABR), we suggest a novel method using a three-dimensional dose distribution and change in signal intensity of gadoxetate disodium-gadolinium ethoxybenzyl diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (Gd-EOB-DTPA)-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) hepatobiliary phase images. Materials and Methods In our method, change of the signal intensity between the pretreatment and follow-up hepatobiliary phase images of Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI was calculated and then threshold dose (TD) for developing FLR was obtained from correlation of dose with the change of the signal intensity. For validation of the method, TDs for six patients, who had been treated for liver cancer with SABR with 45–60 Gy in 3 fractions, were calculated using the method, and we evaluated concordance between volume enclosed by isodose of TD by the method and volume identified as FLR by a physician. Results The dose to normal liver was correlated with change in signal intensity between pretreatment and follow-up MRI with a median R2 of 0.935 (range, 0.748 to 0.985). The median TD by the method was 23.5 Gy (range, 18.3 to 39.4 Gy). The median value of concordance was 84.5% (range, 44.7% to 95.9%). Conclusion Our method is capable of providing a quantitative evaluation of the relationship between dose and intensity changes on follow-up MRI, as well as determining individual TD for developing FLR. We expect our method to provide better information about the individual relationship between dose and FLR in radiotherapy for liver cancer. PMID:27104169

  5. Cigarette smoke induced changes in rat pulmonary clearance of 99mTcDTPA. A comparison of particulate and gas phases.

    PubMed

    Minty, B D; Royston, D

    1985-12-01

    The rat model was developed to study the effects of cigarette smoke on pulmonary clearance of 99mTcDTPA. The method developed was sufficiently noninvasive to allow frequent repeat measurements to be made with a high degree of reproducibility. Animals exposed twice daily to 90 puffs of dilute whole cigarette smoke for 7 days showed an increase in 99mTcDTPA clearance from the lung which returned to normal within 3 wk of stopping exposure. Filtration of the smoke to remove all the particulate matter abolished the changes.

  6. Functional Hyperbranched Polylysine as Potential Contrast Agent Probes for Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    PubMed

    Zu, Guangyue; Liu, Min; Zhang, Kunchi; Hong, Shanni; Dong, Jingjin; Cao, Yi; Jiang, Bin; Luo, Liqiang; Pei, Renjun

    2016-06-13

    Researchers have never stopped questing contrast agents with high resolution and safety to overcome the drawbacks of small-molecule contrast agents in clinic. Herein, we reported the synthesis of gadolinium-based hyperbranched polylysine (HBPLL-DTPA-Gd), which was prepared by thermal polymerization of l-lysine via one-step polycondensation. After conjugating with folic acid, its potential application as MRI contrast agent was then evaluated. This contrast agent had no obvious cytotoxicity as verified by WST assay and H&E analysis. Compared to Gd(III)-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (Gd-DTPA) (r1 = 4.3 mM(-1) s(-1)), the FA-HBPLL-DTPA-Gd exhibited much higher longitudinal relaxivity value (r1 = 13.44 mM(-1) s(-1)), up to 3 times higher than Gd-DTPA. The FA-HBPLL-DTPA-Gd showed significant signal intensity enhancement in the tumor region at various time points and provided a long time window for MR examination. The results illustrate that FA-HBPLL-DTPA-Gd will be a potential candidate for tumor-targeted MRI. PMID:27187578

  7. The effects of repeated parenteral administration of chelating agents on the distribution and excretion of uranium

    SciTech Connect

    Domingo, J.L.; Ortega, A.; Llobet, J.M.; Paternain, J.L.; Corbella, J.

    1989-04-01

    The effects of repeated ip administration of gallic acid, 4,5-dihydroxy-1,3-benzenedisulfonic acid (Tiron), diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA), and 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-AS) on the distribution and excretion of uranium were assessed in male Swiss mice. Only Tiron significantly increased the amount of uranium excreted into urine and feces. A significant decrease in the concentration of uranium in liver, spleen and bone was observed after administration of Tiron, whereas injection of gallic acid or DTPA resulted in a significant decrease in the concentration of the metal in the liver. The results show that Tiron was consistently the most effective chelator of those tested in the treatment of uranium poisoning after repeated daily administration of the metal.

  8. Bioreducible polyethylenimine nanoparticles for the efficient delivery of nucleic acids.

    PubMed

    Bansal, Ruby; Tayal, Shweta; Gupta, K C; Kumar, Pradeep

    2015-03-14

    Recently, non-viral vectors for nucleic acid delivery have received considerable attention. Among the various non-viral vectors, branched polyethylenimine (bPEI, 25 kDa) has been one of the most widely used carrier systems due to its high transfection efficiency, however, it imparts high cytotoxicity. In this study, we have crosslinked bPEI with a bioreducible linker, 3,3'-dithiodipropionic acid (DTPA), via electrostatic interactions to obtain DTPA crosslinked bPEI (DP) nanoparticles. The crosslinking significantly reduced the cytotoxicity of the nanoparticles. To arrive at the best formulation in terms of nucleic acid transfection, a series of DP nanoparticles were prepared by varying the percentage of crosslinking. The dual action of DTPA, i.e. partial blocking of the charge density as well as crosslinking to convert bPEI into its nanoparticles, did not alter the pDNA condensation ability of the so-formed nanoparticles, rather the strategy favoured the unpackaging of the complexes inside the cells improving the release of pDNA, which resulted in a higher transfection efficiency. All the formulations carried nucleic acids inside the cells and exhibited significantly higher transfection efficiencies than native bPEI and the commercial transfection reagent, Lipofectamine™. Sequential siRNA delivery displayed significant suppression in the target gene expression. All together, the evaluation of the delivery systems demonstrates that the newly synthesized DP NPs are quite promising as non-viral gene carriers.

  9. Bioreducible polyethylenimine nanoparticles for the efficient delivery of nucleic acids.

    PubMed

    Bansal, Ruby; Tayal, Shweta; Gupta, K C; Kumar, Pradeep

    2015-03-14

    Recently, non-viral vectors for nucleic acid delivery have received considerable attention. Among the various non-viral vectors, branched polyethylenimine (bPEI, 25 kDa) has been one of the most widely used carrier systems due to its high transfection efficiency, however, it imparts high cytotoxicity. In this study, we have crosslinked bPEI with a bioreducible linker, 3,3'-dithiodipropionic acid (DTPA), via electrostatic interactions to obtain DTPA crosslinked bPEI (DP) nanoparticles. The crosslinking significantly reduced the cytotoxicity of the nanoparticles. To arrive at the best formulation in terms of nucleic acid transfection, a series of DP nanoparticles were prepared by varying the percentage of crosslinking. The dual action of DTPA, i.e. partial blocking of the charge density as well as crosslinking to convert bPEI into its nanoparticles, did not alter the pDNA condensation ability of the so-formed nanoparticles, rather the strategy favoured the unpackaging of the complexes inside the cells improving the release of pDNA, which resulted in a higher transfection efficiency. All the formulations carried nucleic acids inside the cells and exhibited significantly higher transfection efficiencies than native bPEI and the commercial transfection reagent, Lipofectamine™. Sequential siRNA delivery displayed significant suppression in the target gene expression. All together, the evaluation of the delivery systems demonstrates that the newly synthesized DP NPs are quite promising as non-viral gene carriers. PMID:25633362

  10. Consensus Report of the 4th International Forum for Gadolinium-Ethoxybenzyl-Diethylenetriamine Pentaacetic Acid Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Zech, Christoph J; Bolondi, Luigi; Jonas, Eduard; Kim, Myeong-Jin; Matsui, Osamu; Merkle, Elmar M.; Sakamoto, Michiie; Choi, Byung Ihn

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports on issues relating to the optimal use of gadolinium-ethoxybenzyl-diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid magnetic resonance imaging (Gd-EOB-DTPA MR imaging) together with the generation of consensus statements from a working group meeting, which was held in Seoul, Korea (2010). Gd-EOB-DTPA has been shown to improve the detection and characterization of liver lesions, and the information provided by the hepatobiliary phase is proving particularly useful in differential diagnoses and in the characterization of small lesions (around 1-1.5 cm). Discussion also focused on advances in the role of organic anion-transporting polypeptide 8 (OATP8) transporters. Gd-EOB-DTPA is also emerging as a promising tool for functional analysis, enabling the calculation of post-surgical liver function in the remaining segments. Updates to current algorithms were also discussed. PMID:21852900

  11. The correlation between effective renal plasma flow (ERPF) and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) with renal scintigraphy 99mTc-DTPA study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratnasari, D.; Nazir, F.; Toresano, L. O. H. Z.; Pawiro, S. A.; Soejoko, D. S.

    2016-03-01

    The prevalence of chronic renal diseases in Indonesia has an increasing annual trend, because it is frequently unrecognized and often co-exists with other disease. GFR and ERPF are parameters currently utilized to estimate renal function at routine renal scintigraphy 99m-Tc DTPA study. This study used 99m-Tc DTPA to measure GFR and ERPF. The purpose of this study was to find the correlation between ERPF and GFR, for ERPF analysis with Schlegel's method, and GFR analysis with Gate's method, as well as to find correction factor between both variables. Analysis of renal scintigraphy has been performed at Department of Nuclear Medicine Pertamina Center Hospital to thirty patient images acquired from 2014 to 2015 which were analyzed retrospectively data, using gamma camera dual head with counting method from renal scintigraphy 99m-Tc DTPA study. The calculation was executed by means of both display and manual calculation. Pearson's statistical analysis resulted on Positive Correlation for all data, with ERPF and GFR (display) showing Strongly Positive Correlation (r = 0.82; p- value < 0.05). Standard deviation was found to be 27.58 and 107.64 for GFR and ERPF (display), respectively. Our result indicated that the use of 99mTc-DTPA measure ERPF was not recommended.

  12. Highly stabilized gadolinium chelates functionalized on metal nanoparticles as magnetic resonance imaging contrast agent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siddiqui, Talha S.

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a non-invasive method for imaging and diagnosing tissue damage, organ function and the vascular system. Magnevist(TM) a complex of diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) and Gd3+ is a clinically approved contrast agent for MRI. A derivative of DTPA was formed by the addition of two cysteine groups (DTPA-L-Cys) through amide linkage. The Gd complex of this ligand bonds with the silver surfaces through the cysteine thiols. GdDTPA-L-Cys was bound to ˜10nm diameter Ag nanoparticles for use as a multifunctional MRI contrast agent. The ligand and complex were characterized by 1H and 13C NMR, ESI-MS and IR spectroscopy. The silver construct was characterized by TEM, TGA and UV-Vis absorption spectra. The per metal complex r1 relaxivity of GdDTPA-L-Cys{Ag} greater than that of Magnavist(TM) with the same molarity for both compounds. The synthesis of a DTPA derivative is described that allows it to bind to silver or gold nanoparticles through a single thiol linkage (DTPASH). The resulting Gd complex, GdDTPASH, was bound to Ag nanoparticles to create a single monolayer on the surface. The construct was further stabilized in buffered solution with the addition of a thiolated PEG chain. The highly stabilized nanoparticle construct delivers a high payload of Gd compelex and is an effective T1 brightening agent. The production of this type of construct opens the way for engineered multimodal MRI contrast agents.

  13. Tracking of mesenchymal stem cells labeled with gadolinium diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid by 7T magnetic resonance imaging in a model of cerebral ischemia

    PubMed Central

    GENG, KUAN; YANG, ZHONG XIAN; HUANG, DEXIAO; YI, MEIZI; JIA, YANLONG; YAN, GEN; CHENG, XIAOFANG; WU, RENHUA

    2015-01-01

    Progress in the development of stem cell and gene therapy requires repeatable and non-invasive techniques to monitor the survival and integration of stem cells in vivo with a high temporal and spatial resolution. The purpose of the present study was to examine the feasibility of using the standard contrast agent gadolinium diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (Gd-DTPA) to label rat mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) for stem cell tracking. MSCs, obtained from the bilateral femora of rats, were cultured and propagated. The non-liposomal lipid transfection reagent effectene was then used to induce the intracellular uptake of Gd-DTPA. Electron microscopy was used to detect the distribution of Gd-DTPA particles in the MSCs. The labeling efficiency of the Gd-DTPA particles in the MSCs was determined using spectrophotometry, and MTT and trypan blue exclusion assays were used to evaluate the viability and proliferation of the labeled MSCs. T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to observe the labeled cells in vitro and in the rat brain. Gd-DTPA particles were detected inside the MSCs using transmission electron microscopy and a high labeling efficiency was observed. No difference was observed in cell viability or proliferation between the labeled and unlabeled MSCs (P>0.05). In the in vitro T1-weighted MRI and in the rat brain, a high signal intensity was observed in the labeled MSCs. The T1-weighted imaging of the labeled cells revealed a significantly higher signal intensity compared with that of the unlabeled cells (P<0.05) and the T1 values were significantly lower. The function of the labeled MSCs demonstrated no change following Gd-DTPA labeling, with no evident adverse effect on cell viability or proliferation. Therefore, a change in MR signal intensity was detected in vitro and in vivo, suggesting Gd-DTPA can be used to label MSCs for MRI tracking. PMID:25352164

  14. Effect of metal chelators on excretion and tissue levels of essential trace elements

    SciTech Connect

    Tandon, S.K.; Jain, V.K.; Mathur, A.K.

    1984-10-01

    The influence of one, three, and six doses of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA), and triethylenetetramine (TETA) on the urinary excretion of Ca, Cu, Fe, and Zn, and on their levels in liver, kidneys, heart, and serum in rats, was investigated to ascertain their suitability in amelioration of metal intoxication. While excretion of all the essential trace metals examined was enhanced significantly, the tissue and serum levels of some of them either increased or decreased after administration of the chelators. The results suggest depletion of some of the endogenous trace metals from the body and their intertissue redistribution following treatment with these chelating agents.

  15. Differential renal function measured by 99Tcm-DTPA and 99Tcm-DMSA in a complete unilateral renal obstruction rat model.

    PubMed

    van de Wiele, C; Everaert, K; van der Eecken, H; van Haelst, J P; Simons, M; Dierckx, R A

    1997-11-01

    We performed a prospective study to determine whether 99Tcm-DTPA differential renal function (DRF) in the case of acute obstruction in a unipapillary kidney rat model shows a similar pattern of results as 99Tcm-DMSA in a multipapillary kidney model, and to exclude recirculation or a block of tubular transport of DMSA which might explain the discrepancy reported by Kelleher et al. In 15 male and 4 female Wistar rats (weight 300-350 g), 99Tcm-DMSA renal uptake was measured 24 h before complete obstruction of the right ureter, which served as reference values. Twenty-four hours after obstruction, 99Tcm-DTPA (18.5 MBq) renography and 99Tcm-DMSA (111 MBq) non-depth-corrected renal uptake measurements were performed in the 15 male rats; in the 4 female rats, 740 MBq of 99Tcm-DMSA were injected and absolute, non-depth-corrected renal uptake measured at 24, 48 and 72 h. 99Tcm-DMSA DRF of the right kidney ranged from 48 to 55% (mu: 51%; sigma: 2%) before obstruction and from 14 to 35% (mu: 24%; sigma: 6%) after obstruction, whereas 99Tcm-DTPA DRF ranged from 16 to 30% (mu: 25%; sigma: 4%). No significant differences were found between DRF measured by 99Tcm-DMSA and 99Tcm-DTPA (P = 0.18), or between DRF of the obstructed kidney as measured by 99Tcm-DMSA at 24, 48 and 72 h (P > 0.2). Hypothetically, the discrepancy between our findings and those of Kelleher et al. may be due to intratubular pressure. In conclusion, the present findings and those of Kelleher et al. suggest the differences in DRF following complete unilateral renal obstruction, as determined by DTPA and DMSA, are probably species-specific. Furthermore, recirculation and block of tubular transport are unlikely to contribute significantly to differences in DRF as measured by the two radiopharmaceuticals.

  16. Unexpected side products in the conjugation of an amine-derivatized morpholino oligomer with p-isothiocyanate benzyl DTPA and their removal.

    PubMed

    Liu, Guozheng; Dou, Shuping; Liu, Yuxia; Liang, Minmin; Chen, Ling; Cheng, Dengfeng; Greiner, Dale; Rusckowski, Mary; Hnatowich, Donald J

    2011-02-01

    In connection with pretargeting, an amine-derivatized morpholino phosphorodiamidate oligomer (NH(2)-cMORF) was conjugated conventionally with p-isothiocyanate benzyl-DTPA (p-SCN-Bn-DTPA). However, after (111)In radiolabeling, unexpected label instability was observed. To understand this instability, the NH(2)-cMORF and, as control, the native cMORF without the amine were conjugated in the conventional manner. Surprisingly, the (111)In labeling of the native cMORF conjugate was equally effective as that of the NH(2)-cMORF conjugate (>95%) despite the absence of the amine group. Furthermore, heating the radiolabeled NH(2)-cMORF and native cMORF conjugates resulted in a 35% loss and a complete loss of the label, respectively. Since the (111)In labeled DTPA is known to be stable, the instability in both cases must be due to some unstable association of DTPA to the cMORF, presumably unstable association to some endogenous sites in cMORF. Based on this assumption, a postconjugation-prepurification heating step was introduced, and labeling efficiency and stability were again investigated. By introducing the heating step, the side products were dissociated, and after purification and labeling, the NH(2)-cMORF conjugate provided a stable label and high labeling efficiency with no need for postlabeling purification. The biodistribution of this radiolabeled conjugate in normal mice showed significantly lower backgrounds compared with the labeled unstable native cMORF conjugate. In conclusion, the conventional conjugation procedure to attach the p-SCN-Bn-DTPA to NH(2)-cMORF resulted in side product(s) that were responsible for the (111)In label instability. Adding a postconjugation-prepurification heating step dissociated the side products, improved the label stability and lowered tissue backgrounds in mice. PMID:21315270

  17. Biodistribution and pharmacokinetics of111In-DTPA-labelled pegylated liposomes in a human tumour xenograft model: implications for novel targeting strategies

    PubMed Central

    Harrington, K J; Rowlinson-Busza, G; Syrigos, K N; Uster, P S; Abra, R M; Stewart, J S W

    2000-01-01

    The biodistribution and pharmacokinetics of111In-DTPA-labelled pegylated liposomes in tumour-bearing nude mice was studied to examine possible applications of pegylated liposome-targeted anti-cancer therapies. Nude mice received an intravenous injection of 100 μl of111In-DTPA-labelled pegylated liposomes, containing 0.37–0.74 MBq of activity. The t 1/2α and t 1/2β of111In-DTPA-labelled pegylated liposomes were 1.1 and 10.3 h, respectively. Tumour uptake was maximal at 24 h at 5.5 ± 3.0% ID g–1. Significant reticuloendothelial system uptake was demonstrated with 19.3 ± 2.8 and 18.8 ± 4.2% ID g–1at 24 h in the liver and spleen, respectively. Other sites of appreciable deposition were the kidney, skin, female reproductive tract and to a lesser extent the gastrointestinal tract. There was no indication of cumulative deposition of pegylated liposomes in the lung, central nervous system, musculoskeletal system, heart or adrenal glands. In contrast, the t 1/2α and t 1/2β of unencapsulated111In-DTPA were 5 min and 1.1 h, respectively, with no evidence of accumulation in tumour or normal tissues. Incubation of111In-DTPA-labelled pegylated liposomes in human serum for up to 10 days confirmed that they are very stable, with only minor leakage of their contents. The potential applications of pegylated liposomes in the arena of targeted therapy of solid cancers are discussed. © 2000 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10901376

  18. Enhancement of radiopharmaceutical excretion by chemical interventions

    SciTech Connect

    Oster, Z.H.; Som, P.; Brill, A.B.; Sacker, D.F.; Atkins, H.L.

    1982-01-01

    The goal was to find methods of decreasing the radiation dose after radionuclide studies, by giving a compound that will increase the rate of excretion of the radionuclide. Sprague - 1 Dawley rats were given Tc-99m pertechnetate, Ga-67 citrate or Tl-201 chloride intravenously followed at intervals of 1 to 24 hours by one of the following compounds: desferroxamine (DFO), 2,3-dimercapto-1-propanol (BAL), triethylene tetraamine hexaacetic acid (TETHA), stannous tartarate, bleomycin (BLEO), 2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA), diethylene-triaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA), DTPA+SnCl.2H/sub 2/O, dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHB), and ferric-cyanoferrate (IT)(Prussian blue, PB). All the agents except PB are chelators. Some of these agents enhance excretion through the urinary tract (DFO), while most are excreted through the bile. PB was shown to increase Cs excrection through the G.I. tract. (ACR)

  19. Breast-milk radioactivity after a Tc-99m DTPA aerosol/Tc-99m MAA lung study

    SciTech Connect

    Mountford, P.J.; Hall, F.M.; Wells, C.P.; Coakley, A.J.

    1984-10-01

    Measurements were made of the concentration of Tc-99m activity in samples of breast milk following an administration of Tc-99m DTPA aerosol for a lung ventilation image and one of Tc-99m MAA for lung perfusion. The activity was 222 nCi/ml of milk (8.2 kBq/ml) at 2 hr after the MAA injection, and it was found to be excreted exponentially with an effective half-life of 4.6 hr. There was a small incorporation of Tc-99m into breast-milk protein. The authors conclude that the combined use of these two Tc-99m agents did not indicate the interruption of breast feeding beyond 24 hr after administration of the MAA, and that for an aerosol ventiliation study alone, breast feeding need not be interrupted for more than 4 hr after the test.

  20. Gd-Complexes of New Arylpiperazinyl Conjugates of DTPA-Bis(amides): Synthesis, Characterization and Magnetic Relaxation Properties.

    PubMed

    Ba-Salem, Abdullah O; Ullah, Nisar; Shaikh, M Nasiruzzaman; Faiz, Mohamed; Ul-Haq, Zaheer

    2015-01-01

    Two new DTPA-bis(amide) based ligands conjugated with the arylpiperazinyl moiety were synthesized and subsequently transformed into their corresponding Gd(III) complexes 1 and 2 of the type [Gd(L)H2O]·nH2O. The relaxivity (R1) of these complexes was measured, which turned out to be comparable with that of Omniscan®, a commercially available MRI contrast agent. The cytotoxicity studies of these complexes indicated that they are non-toxic, which reveals their potential and physiological suitability as MRI contrast agents. All the synthesized ligands and complexes were characterized with the aid of analytical and spectroscopic methods, including elemental analysis, 1H-NMR, FT-IR, XPS and fast atom bombardment (FAB) mass spectrometry. PMID:25939069

  1. Effect of Temperature on the Protonation of the TALSPEAK Ligands: Lactic and Diethylenetrinitropentaacetic Acids

    SciTech Connect

    Tian, Guoxin; Rao, Linfeng

    2009-10-20

    The protonation reactions of two ligands that play important roles in the TALSPEAK process for the separation of trivalent actinides from lanthanides, lactic acid and diethylenetrinitropentaacetic acid (DTPA), have been studied at variable temperatures. The protonation constants at 10-70 C were determined by titration potentiometry and the protonation enthalpies were determined at 25 C by titration microcalorimetry. The protonation constants remain essentially unchanged (25-70 C) within the experimental uncertainties, indicating that the effect of temperature on the protonation of lactate is insignificant. In contrast, the protonation constants of DTPA (log {beta}H's) generally decrease as the temperature is increased. Results from this study indicate that the effect of temperature on the protonation of DTPA could alter the speciation of metal ions (actinides and lanthanides) in the TALSPEAK system, since lower values of log{beta}H at higher temperatures suggest that the hydrogen ions would compete less strongly with the metal ions for the complexation of DTPA at higher temperatures.

  2. Graphene Oxide and Gadolinium-Chelate Functionalized Poly(lactic acid) Nanocapsules Encapsulating Perfluorooctylbromide for Ultrasound/Magnetic Resonance Bimodal Imaging Guided Photothermal Ablation of Cancer.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhenglin; Ke, Hengte; Wang, Jinrui; Miao, Zhaohua; Yue, Xiuli

    2016-03-01

    This paper successfully fabricated a novel multifunctional theranostic agent (PFOB@PLA/GO/Gd-DTPA NCs) by loading perfluorooctylbromide (PFOB) into poly(lactic acid) (PLA) nanocapsules (NCs) followed by surface functionalization with graphene oxide (GO) and gadolinium-chelate (Gd-DTPA). It was found that the resulting nanoagent could serve as a contrast agent simultaneously to enhance ultrasound (US) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Benefiting from the strong absorption in the near infrared (NIR) region, the nanocapsules could efficiently kill cancer cells under NIR laser irradiation. Thus, such a single theranostic agent with the combination of realtime US imaging and high-resolution MR imaging could achieve great therapeutic effectiveness without systemic damage to the body. In addition, the cytotoxicity assay on HUVEC cells revealed a good biocompatibility of PFOB@PLA/GO/Gd-DTPA NCs, showing that the versatile nanocapsule system may hold great potential as an effective nanoplatform for contrast enhanced imaging guided photothermal therapy.

  3. Alteration of tissue disposition of cadmium by chelating agents. [Mice; rats

    SciTech Connect

    Klaassen, C.D.; Waalkes, M.P.; Cantilena, L.R. Jr.

    1984-03-01

    The effect of several chelating agents (diethyldithiocarbamic acid, DDC; nitrilotriacetic acid, NTA; 2,3-dimercaptopropanol, BAL; d,l-penicillamine, PEN; 2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid, DMSA; ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, EDTA; and diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid, DTPA) on the toxicity, distribution and excretion of cadmium (Cd) was determined in mice. When chelators were administered immediately after Cd, significant increases in survival were noted after treatment with DMSA, EDTA, and DTPA. DTPA, followed by EDTA and then DMSA, were consistently the most effective in decreasing the tissue concentrations of Cd and increasing the excretion of Cd. NTA, BAL, DDC and PEN had no beneficial effects. To determine the role of MT in the acute decrease in chelator efficacy following Cd poisoning, rats were injected IV with Cd followed by DTPA at various times after Cd. Although DTPA reduced Cd content in the various organs when given immediately after Cd, the chelator was ineffective at all later times. Increases in hepatic and renal metallothionein (MT) did not occur until 2 hr after Cd, and did not coincide with the earlier drop in chelator efficacy. Blockade of MT synthesis by actinomycin D failed to eliminate this decreased DTPA effectiveness. Therefore, it appears that MT does not play an important role in the acute decrease in efficacy of chelation therapy for Cd poisoning. The effect of repeated daily administration of chelators on the distribution and excretion of Cd was studied by administering chelators daily for 5 days starting 48 hr after Cd. DTPA, EDTA, DMSA and BAL significantly increased the urinary elimination of Cd. Thus, mobilization of Cd into urine occurs with repeated chelation therapy, which may decrease tissue concentrations of Cd and reduce the toxicity of the metal. 4 references, 15 figures, 2 tables.

  4. [Quantification of separate renal function using Tc 99m DTPA and Tc 99m DMSA. Correlations between individual isotopic data and creatinine clearance].

    PubMed

    Chevet, D; Moisan, A; Le Pogamp, P; Le Cloirec, J; Wehbe, B; Herry, J Y

    1984-01-01

    The purpose of this prospective study (30 controls and 100 renal patients) is to compare one to each other the values of renal function measured with: 1--the DTPA 99mTc , 2--the DMSA 99mTc , and 3--the creatinine clearance. After the control values being established, correlations are done for the whole group (n = 130) between the creatinine clearance, the DTPA 99mTc clearance and the fixation rate of the DMSA 99mTc . The correlations obtained are:--Clcr Versus Cldtpa = 0,91.--Clcr Versus % Dmsa = 0,90. - Cldtpa Versus % Dmsa = 0,93. and indicate the two isotopic tests performed give similar quantitative results than creatinine clearance. Camera and computer allow to measure the separate renal function one by one, the two isotopic test giving similar values for each kidney. The results of these studies give a good concordance with the observed diseases, except for partial renal artery stenosis. The pyelic retention of DMSA 99mTc product, in condition of ureteral compression, gives a potential overestimation of this test and is a matter to debate. The extreme simplicity and facility of DMSA 99mTc procedures make this investigation accessible to any patient and give excellent morphological and functional tests. DTPA 99mTc clearances--global and separate kidney--give a more sensitive approach than DMSA 99mTc does because vascular captation , elimination rates could be focused. DTPA 99mTc procedure is to be used in patients with transplanted kidney, silent IVP kidney, contrast media contraindication or for exploring glomerular clearance without urine collection.

  5. Threshold Doses for Focal Liver Reaction After Stereotactic Ablative Body Radiation Therapy for Small Hepatocellular Carcinoma Depend on Liver Function: Evaluation on Magnetic Resonance Imaging With Gd-EOB-DTPA

    SciTech Connect

    Sanuki, Naoko; Takeda, Atsuya; Oku, Yohei; Eriguchi, Takahisa; Nishimura, Shuichi; Aoki, Yosuke; Mizuno, Tomikazu; Iwabuchi, Shogo; Kunieda, Etsuo

    2014-02-01

    Purpose: Focal liver reaction (FLR) appears on radiographic images after stereotactic ablative body radiation therapy (SABR) in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and chronic liver disease. We investigated the threshold dose (TD) of FLR and possible factors affecting the TD on gadoxetate acid (Gd-EOB-DTPA)-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Methods and Materials: In 50 patients who were treated with SABR for small HCC and followed up by MRI for >6 months, FLR, seen as a hypointense area, was evaluated on the hepatobiliary phase of Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI. The follow-up MRI with the largest extent of FLR was fused to the planning computed tomography (CT) image, and patients with good image fusion concordance were eligible. After delineating the border of the FLR manually, a dose–volume histogram was used to identify the TD for the FLR. Clinical and volumetric factors were analyzed for correlation with the TD. Results: A total of 45 patients were eligible for analysis with a median image fusion concordance of 84.9% (range, 71.6-95.4%). The median duration between SABR and subsequent hepatobiliary phase MRI with the largest extent of FLR was 3 months (range, 1-6 months). The median TD for FLR was 28.0 Gy (range, 22.3-36.4 Gy). On univariate analysis, pre-treatment Child-Pugh (CP) score and platelet count were significantly correlated with the TD. On multiple linear regression analysis, CP score was the only parameter that predicted TD. Median TDs were 30.5 Gy (range, 26.2.3-36.4 Gy) and 25.2 Gy (range, 22.3-27.5 Gy) for patients with CP-A and CP-B disease, respectively. Conclusion: The TD was significantly correlated with baseline liver function. We propose 30 Gy for CP-A disease and 25 Gy for CP-B disease in 5 fractions as TDs for FLR after SABR for patients with HCC and chronic liver disease. Use of these TDs will help to predict potential loss of liver tissue after SABR.

  6. Visual assessment of biliary excretion of Gd-EOB-DTPA in patients with suspected diffuse liver disease – A biopsy-verified prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Norén, Bengt; Dahlström, Nils; Forsgren, Mikael Fredrik; Dahlqvist Leinhard, Olof; Kechagias, Stergios; Almer, Sven; Wirell, Staffan; Smedby, Örjan; Lundberg, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To qualitatively evaluate late dynamic contrast phases, 10, 20 and 30 min, after administration of Gd-EOB-DTPA with regard to biliary excretion in patients presenting with elevated liver enzymes without clinical signs of cirrhosis or hepatic decompensation and to compare the visual assessment of contrast agent excretion with histo-pathological fibrosis stage, contrast uptake parameters and blood tests. Methods 29 patients were prospectively examined using 1.5 T MRI. The visually assessed presence or absence of contrast agent for each of five anatomical regions in randomly reviewed time-series was summarized on a four grade scale for each patient. The scores, including a total visual score, were related to the histo-pathological findings, the quantitative contrast agent uptake parameters, expressed as KHep or LSC_N, and blood tests. Results No relationship between the fibrosis grade or contrast uptake parameters could be established. A negative correlation between the visual assessment and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) was found. Comparing a sub-group of cholestatic patients with fibrosis score and Gd-EOB-DTPA dynamic parameters did not add any additional significant correlation. Conclusions No correlation between visually assessed biliary excretion of Gd-EOB-DTPA and histo-pathological or contrast uptake parameters was found. A negative correlation between the visual assessment and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) was found. PMID:26937432

  7. Effects of lowering the aluminium content of a dTpa vaccine on its immunogenicity and reactogenicity when given as a booster to adolescents.

    PubMed

    Theeten, H; Van Damme, P; Hoppenbrouwers, K; Vandermeulen, C; Leback, E; Sokal, E M; Wolter, J; Schuerman, L

    2005-02-10

    As aluminium in vaccines has been associated with the incidence of local side effects occurring after vaccination, this observer-blind randomised clinical trial was designed to evaluate the effect of lowering the aluminium content of a combined reduced-antigen-content dTpa vaccine on immunogenicity and safety when administered to healthy adolescents aged 10-18 years. A total of 647 subjects were enrolled, 224 (35%) received a dTpa formulation with 0.5 mg aluminium, 209 (32%) a formulation with 0.3 mg aluminium and 214 (33%) a formulation with 0.133 mg aluminium. One month after boostering, all subjects were seroprotected against diphtheria and tetanus toxoids. All subjects were seropositive for anti-FHA and anti-PRN but 4% of the initially seronegatives in both reduced aluminium groups did not seroconvert for anti-PT. Booster responses did not differ significantly between groups for any antibody, but post booster vaccination anti-PT GMC's differed significantly between groups and decreased when vaccine aluminium content decreased. No clear difference between study groups in local or general side effects was demonstrated. The most frequently reported symptoms after vaccination were injection site pain (89.5-90.7%), fatigue (42.1-47.4%) and headache (41.1-45.1%). This study showed that the aluminium content has a specific influence on the immunogenicity of this dTpa vaccine.

  8. Reliability of single kidney glomerular filtration rate measured by a 99mTc-DTPA gamma camera technique

    SciTech Connect

    Rehling, M.; Moller, M.L.; Jensen, J.J.; Thamdrup, B.; Lund, J.O.; Trap-Jensen, J.

    1986-01-01

    The reliability of a previously published method for determination of single kidney glomerular filtration rate (SKGFR) by means of technetium-99m-diethylenetriaminepenta-acetate (99mTc-DTPA) gamma camera renography was evaluated. The day-to-day variation in the calculated SKGFR values was earlier found to be 8.8%. The technique was compared to the simultaneously measured renal clearance of inulin in 19 unilaterally nephrectomized patients with GFR varying from 11 to 76 ml/min. The regression line (y = 1.04 X -2.5) did not differ significantly from the line of identity. The standard error of estimate was 4.3 ml/min. In 17 patients the inter- and intraobserver variation of the calculated SKGFR values was 1.2 ml/min and 1.3 ml/min, respectively. In 21 of 25 healthy subjects studied (age range 27-29 years), total GFR calculated from the renograms was within an established age-dependent normal range of GFR.

  9. The biodistribution and dosimetry of {sup 117m}Sn DTPA with special emphasis on active marrow absorbed doses

    SciTech Connect

    Stubbs, J.; Atkins, H.

    1999-01-01

    {sup 117m}Sn(4+) DTPA is a new radiopharmaceutical for the palliation of pain associated with metastatic bone cancer. Recently, the Phase 2 clinical trials involving 47 patients were completed. These patients received administered activities in the range 6.7--10.6 MBq/kg of body mass. Frequent collections of urine were acquired over the first several hours postadministration and daily cumulative collections were obtained for the next 4--10 days. Anterior/posterior gamma camera images were obtained frequently over the initial 10 days. Radiation dose estimates were calculated for 8 of these patients. Each patient`s biodistribution data were mathematically simulated using a multicompartmental model. The model consisted of the following compartments: central, bone, kidney, other tissues, and cumulative urine. The measured cumulative urine data were used as references for the cumulative urine excretion compartment. The total-body compartment (sum of the bone surfaces, central, kidney, and other tissues compartments) was reference to all activity not excreted in the urine.

  10. Semi-automatic detection of Gd-DTPA-saline filled capsules for colonic transit time assessment in MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrer, Christian; Kirchhoff, Sonja; Keil, Andreas; Kirchhoff, Chlodwig; Mussack, Thomas; Lienemann, Andreas; Reiser, Maximilian; Navab, Nassir

    2008-03-01

    Functional gastrointestinal disorders result in a significant number of consultations in primary care facilities. Chronic constipation and diarrhea are regarded as two of the most common diseases affecting between 2% and 27% of the population in western countries 1-3. Defecatory disorders are most commonly due to dysfunction of the pelvic floor or the anal sphincter. Although an exact differentiation of these pathologies is essential for adequate therapy, diagnosis is still only based on a clinical evaluation1. Regarding quantification of constipation only the ingestion of radio-opaque markers or radioactive isotopes and the consecutive assessment of colonic transit time using X-ray or scintigraphy, respectively, has been feasible in clinical settings 4-8. However, these approaches have several drawbacks such as involving rather inconvenient, time consuming examinations and exposing the patient to ionizing radiation. Therefore, conventional assessment of colonic transit time has not been widely used. Most recently a new technique for the assessment of colonic transit time using MRI and MR-contrast media filled capsules has been introduced 9. However, due to numerous examination dates per patient and corresponding datasets with many images, the evaluation of the image data is relatively time-consuming. The aim of our study was to develop a computer tool to facilitate the detection of the capsules in MRI datasets and thus to shorten the evaluation time. We present a semi-automatic tool which provides an intensity, size 10, and shape-based 11,12 detection of ingested Gd-DTPA-saline filled capsules. After an automatic pre-classification, radiologists may easily correct the results using the application-specific user interface, therefore decreasing the evaluation time significantly.

  11. Tumor characterization in small animals using magnetic resonance-guided dynamic contrast enhanced diffuse optical tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yuting; Thayer, Dave; Nalcioglu, Orhan; Gulsen, Gultekin

    2011-10-01

    We present a magnetic resonance (MR)-guided near-infrared dynamic contrast enhanced diffuse optical tomography (DCE-DOT) system for characterization of tumors using an optical contrast agent (ICG) and a MR contrast agent [Gd-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA)] in a rat model. Both ICG and Gd-DTPA are injected and monitored simultaneously using a combined MRI-DOT system, resulting in accurate co-registration between two imaging modalities. Fisher rats bearing R3230 breast tumor are imaged using this hybrid system. For the first time, enhancement kinetics of the exogenous contrast ICG is recovered from the DCE-DOT data using MR anatomical a priori information. As tumors grow, they undergo necrosis and the tissue transforms from viable to necrotic. The results show that the physiological changes between viable and necrotic tissue can be differentiated more accurately based on the ICG enhancement kinetics when MR anatomical information is utilized.

  12. Novel chelate-induced magnetic alignment of biological membranes.

    PubMed Central

    Prosser, R S; Volkov, V B; Shiyanovskaya, I V

    1998-01-01

    A phospholipid chelate complexed with ytterbium (DMPE-DTPA:Yb3+) is shown to be readily incorporated into a model membrane system, which may then be aligned in a magnetic field such that the average bilayer normal lies along the field. This so-called positively ordered smectic phase, whose lipids consist of less than 1% DMPE-DTPA:Yb3+, is ideally suited to structural studies of membrane proteins by solid-state NMR, low-angle diffraction, and spectroscopic techniques that require oriented samples. The chelate, 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid, which strongly binds the lanthanide ions and serves to orient the membrane in a magnetic field, prevents direct lanthanide-protein interactions and significantly reduces paramagnetic shifts and line broadening. Similar low-spin lanthanide chelates may have applications in field-ordered solution NMR studies of water-soluble proteins and in the design of new magnetically aligned liquid crystalline phases. PMID:9788910

  13. The effect of earthworms on copper fractionation of freshly and long-term polluted soils.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Yoshikazu; Kaneko, Nobuhiro

    2009-09-01

    We investigated the effects of earthworm activity on the bioavailability of Cu in soil. The bioavailable fraction was estimated using sequential extraction, and the results of diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) extraction were analyzed for comparison. Changes in the Cu fraction were compared in Cu-spiked soil (high bioavailability) and long-term polluted field soil (low bioavailability) with approximately equivalent total Cu concentrations. Earthworm activity decreased the bioavailable fraction in the Cu-spiked soil, where earthworm body Cu concentrations did not affect the bioavailable fraction. Soil pH was not a factor in the bioavailability differences between soils with and without earthworms in this study. The bioavailable fraction appears to be more heavily affected by biological and physical mechanisms than by soil pH. The two extraction methods showed different trends; the bioavailable fraction method was better than DTPA extraction, because the former gives clear insight into the aging process of Cu in soil. PMID:19477521

  14. Iron chelates bind nitric oxide and decrease mortality in an experimental model of septic shock.

    PubMed

    Kazmierski, W M; Wolberg, G; Wilson, J G; Smith, S R; Williams, D S; Thorp, H H; Molina, L

    1996-08-20

    The hydroxamic acid siderophore ferrioxamine B [FeIII(HDFB)+] and the iron complex of diethylenetri-aminepentaacetic acid [FeIII(DTPA)2-] protected mice against death by septic shock induced by Corynebacterium parvum + lipopolysaccharide. Although FeIII(DTPA)2- was somewhat more effective than FeIII(HDFB)+, the iron-free ligand H4DFB+ was significantly more effective than DTPA. The hydroxamic acid chelator has a much higher iron affinity than the amine carboxylate, allowing for more efficient formation of the FeIII(HDFB)+ complex upon administration of the iron-free ligand. Electrochemical studies show that FeIII(DTPA)2- binds NO stoichiometrically upon reduction to iron(II) at biologically relevant potentials to form a stable NO adduct. In contrast, FeIII(HDFB)+ is a stable and efficient electrocatalyst for the reduction of NO to N2O at biologically relevant potentials. These results suggest that the mechanism of protection against death by septic shock involves NO scavenging and that particularly effective drugs that operate a low dosages may be designed based on the principle of redox catalysis. These complexes constitute a new family of drugs that rely on the special ability of transition metals to activate small molecules. In addition, the wealth of information available on siderophore chemistry and biology provides an intellectual platform for further development. PMID:8799167

  15. Evaluation of in vivo targeting of andenocarcinomas with In-111-DTPA-B72.3-antibody under treatment with interferon gamma

    SciTech Connect

    Becherer, A.; Raderer, M.; Scheithauer, W.

    1994-05-01

    The monoclonal antibody (mAb) In-111-DTPA-B72.3 directed against the tumor-associated glycoprotein (TAG)-72 has successfully been used for tumor diagnosis and staging, however, for evaluation of liver metastases the sensitivity is poor. Interferon gamma (IFNg) has been reported to increase TAG-72 expression on ascites tumor cells in patients with gastrointestinal adenocarcinomas. This study was undertaken to show a possible influence of IFNg on the diagnostic abilities of imunnoscintigraphy with In-111-DTPA-B72.3. We compared the in vivo targeting in 12 patients (9 males, 3 females, 59{plus_minus}16 years) under IFNg treatment (250 g daily s.c.) with a control group of 17 patients (10 males, 7 females, 66{plus_minus}10 years). In 5 patients (3 males, 2 females, 65{plus_minus}13 years) repeated scanning was performed before and during IFNg treatment. The patients suffered from advanced colorectal, pancreatic or gastric adenocarcinomas and underwent surgery and chemotherapy prior to scintigraphic investigations. In patients without IFNg, primary resp. residual tumors were imaged in 1 of 5 and liver metastases in 9 of 14 patients. In the IFNg-treated patients primary resp. residual tumors were visualized in 1 of 3 and Ever metastases in 8 of 9 patients (89%, vs 64% control group). Contrast of imaging for liver metastases was improved in 2 of 5 patients under treatment with IFNg while no difference in the visualization of primary resp. residual tumors could be realized under IFNg treatment. We conclude that in vivo targeting of TAG-72 with In-111-DTPA-B72.3 mAb may be increased in tumor patients under therapy with IFNg.

  16. DTPA (Diethylenetriamine pentaacetate)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Dictionary Radiation Emergencies & Your Health Possible Health Effects Contamination and Exposure Acute Radiation Syndrome (ARS) Cutaneous Radiation ... Decision Making in Radiation Emergencies Protective Actions Internal Contamination Clinical Reference (ICCR) Application Psychological First Aid in ...

  17. Is 3-Tesla Gd-EOB-DTPA-Enhanced MRI with Diffusion-Weighted Imaging Superior to 64-Slice Contrast-Enhanced CT for the Diagnosis of Hepatocellular Carcinoma?

    PubMed Central

    Maiwald, Bettina; Lobsien, Donald; Kahn, Thomas; Stumpp, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To compare 64-slice contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) with 3-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using Gd-EOB-DTPA for the diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and evaluate the utility of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in this setting. Methods 3-phase-liver-CT was performed in fifty patients (42 male, 8 female) with suspected or proven HCC. The patients were subjected to a 3-Tesla-MRI-examination with Gd-EOB-DTPA and diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) at b-values of 0, 50 and 400 s/mm2. The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC)-value was determined for each lesion detected in DWI. The histopathological report after resection or biopsy of a lesion served as the gold standard, and a surrogate of follow-up or complementary imaging techniques in combination with clinical and paraclinical parameters was used in unresected lesions. Diagnostic accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values were evaluated for each technique. Results MRI detected slightly more lesions that were considered suspicious for HCC per patient compared to CT (2.7 versus 2.3, respectively). ADC-measurements in HCC showed notably heterogeneous values with a median of 1.2±0.5×10−3 mm2/s (range from 0.07±0.1 to 3.0±0.1×10−3 mm2/s). MRI showed similar diagnostic accuracy, sensitivity, and positive and negative predictive values compared to CT (AUC 0.837, sensitivity 92%, PPV 80% and NPV 90% for MRI vs. AUC 0.798, sensitivity 85%, PPV 79% and NPV 82% for CT; not significant). Specificity was 75% for both techniques. Conclusions Our study did not show a statistically significant difference in detection in detection of HCC between MRI and CT. Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI tended to detect more lesions per patient compared to contrast-enhanced CT; therefore, we would recommend this modality as the first-choice imaging method for the detection of HCC and therapeutic decisions. However, contrast-enhanced CT was not inferior in our study, so

  18. Biodistribution and Lymphatic Tracking of the Main Neurotoxin of Micrurus fulvius Venom by Molecular Imaging.

    PubMed

    Vergara, Irene; Castillo, Erick Y; Romero-Piña, Mario E; Torres-Viquez, Itzel; Paniagua, Dayanira; Boyer, Leslie V; Alagón, Alejandro; Medina, Luis Alberto

    2016-04-01

    The venom of the Eastern coral snake Micrurus fulvius can cause respiratory paralysis in the bitten patient, which is attributable to β-neurotoxins (β-NTx). The aim of this work was to study the biodistribution and lymphatic tracking by molecular imaging of the main β-NTx of M. fulvius venom. β-NTx was bioconjugated with the chelator diethylenetriaminepenta-acetic acid (DTPA) and radiolabeled with the radionuclide Gallium-67. Radiolabeling efficiency was 60%-78%; radiochemical purity ≥92%; and stability at 48 h ≥ 85%. The median lethal dose (LD50) and PLA₂ activity of bioconjugated β-NTx decreased 3 and 2.5 times, respectively, in comparison with native β-NTx. The immune recognition by polyclonal antibodies decreased 10 times. Biodistribution of β-NTx-DTPA-(67)Ga in rats showed increased uptake in popliteal, lumbar nodes and kidneys that was not observed with (67)Ga-free. Accumulation in organs at 24 h was less than 1%, except for kidneys, where the average was 3.7%. The inoculation site works as a depot, since 10% of the initial dose of β-NTx-DTPA-(67)Ga remains there for up to 48 h. This work clearly demonstrates the lymphatic system participation in the biodistribution of β-NTx-DTPA-(67)Ga. Our approach could be applied to analyze the role of the lymphatic system in snakebite for a better understanding of envenoming. PMID:27023607

  19. Specific lipase-responsive polymer-coated gadolinium nanoparticles for MR imaging of early acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hong-Wu; Wang, Li-Qin; Xiang, Qing-Feng; Zhong, Qian; Chen, Lu-Ming; Xu, Cai-Xia; Xiang, Xian-Hong; Xu, Bo; Meng, Fei; Wan, Yi-Qian; Deng, David Y B

    2014-01-01

    Currently, available methods for diagnosis of acute pancreatitis (AP) are mainly dependent on serum enzyme analysis and imaging techniques that are too low in sensitivity and specificity to accurately and promptly diagnose AP. The lack of early diagnostic tools highlights the need to search for a highly effective and specific diagnostic method. In this study, we synthesized a conditionally activated, gadolinium-containing, nanoparticle-based MRI nanoprobe as a diagnostic tool for the early identification of AP. Gadolinium diethylenetriaminepentaacetic fatty acid (Gd-DTPA-FA) nanoparticles were synthesized by conjugation of DTPA-FA ligand and gadolinium acetate. Gd-DTPA-FA exhibited low cytotoxicity and excellent biocompatibility when characterized in vitro and in vivo studies. L-arginine induced a gradual increase in the intensity of the T1-weighted MRI signal from 1 h to 36 h in AP rat models. The increase in signal intensity was most significant at 1 h, 6 h and 12 h. These results suggest that the Gd-DTPA-FA as an MRI contrast agent is highly efficient and specific to detect early AP.

  20. Biodistribution and Lymphatic Tracking of the Main Neurotoxin of Micrurus fulvius Venom by Molecular Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Vergara, Irene; Castillo, Erick Y.; Romero-Piña, Mario E.; Torres-Viquez, Itzel; Paniagua, Dayanira; Boyer, Leslie V.; Alagón, Alejandro; Medina, Luis Alberto

    2016-01-01

    The venom of the Eastern coral snake Micrurus fulvius can cause respiratory paralysis in the bitten patient, which is attributable to β-neurotoxins (β-NTx). The aim of this work was to study the biodistribution and lymphatic tracking by molecular imaging of the main β-NTx of M. fulvius venom. β-NTx was bioconjugated with the chelator diethylenetriaminepenta-acetic acid (DTPA) and radiolabeled with the radionuclide Gallium-67. Radiolabeling efficiency was 60%–78%; radiochemical purity ≥92%; and stability at 48 h ≥ 85%. The median lethal dose (LD50) and PLA2 activity of bioconjugated β-NTx decreased 3 and 2.5 times, respectively, in comparison with native β-NTx. The immune recognition by polyclonal antibodies decreased 10 times. Biodistribution of β-NTx-DTPA-67Ga in rats showed increased uptake in popliteal, lumbar nodes and kidneys that was not observed with 67Ga-free. Accumulation in organs at 24 h was less than 1%, except for kidneys, where the average was 3.7%. The inoculation site works as a depot, since 10% of the initial dose of β-NTx-DTPA-67Ga remains there for up to 48 h. This work clearly demonstrates the lymphatic system participation in the biodistribution of β-NTx-DTPA-67Ga. Our approach could be applied to analyze the role of the lymphatic system in snakebite for a better understanding of envenoming. PMID:27023607

  1. Selective Extraction of Heavy and Light Lanthanides from Aqueous Solution by Advanced Magnetic Nanosorbents.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huijin; McDowell, Rocklan G; Martin, Leigh R; Qiang, You

    2016-04-13

    Rare earth elements (REEs) make unique and vital contributions to our current world of technology. Separating and recycling REEs is of great importance to diversify the sources of REEs and advance the efficient use of REE resources when the supply is limited. In light of separation nanotechnology, diethylenetriamine-pentaacetic acid (DTPA) functionalized magnetic nanosorbents have been synthesized and investigated for the highly selective extraction of heavy (Sm-Ho) and light (La-Nd) lanthanides (Ln) from aqueous solutions. The results demonstrated that the separation factor (SF) between heavy-Ln and light-Ln groups reached the maximal value of 11.5 at low pH value of 2.0 in 30 min. For example, the SFs of Gd/La and Dy/La pairs were up to 10 times higher than that reported by other studies. Besides the excellent selectivity, our double-coated magnetic nanoparticles coupled with diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (dMNP-DTPA) nanosorbents are more advantageous in that the Ln(III) sorption was effectively and quickly (in 30 min) achieved in acid solutions with pH values as low as 2.0. Such attributes ensure a stronger adaptability to the harsh environments of REE recycling processes. Displacement phenomena were subsequently observed between the heavy-Ln and light-Ln ions that were coexisting in solution and competing for the same sorption sites, causing the increase in sorption capacity of heavy Ln on the surface of nanosorbents with time. The order of affinity of Ln(III) to DTPA-functionalized magnetic nanosorbents perfectly followed the corresponding stability constants between Ln(III) and nonimmobilized DTPA. Displacement phenomena and lanthanide contraction, as well as the surface nanostructures of DTPA-functionalized nanosorbents, significantly improved the separation factors of heavy-Ln/light-Ln pairs. The Ln(III) interaction with DTPA-functionalized magnetic nanosorbents followed the pseudo-second-order kinetics with a correlation coefficient extremely high and

  2. Mutagenesis induced by targeted alpha therapy using 213Bi-cDTPA-9.2.27 in lacZ transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Allen, Barry J; So, Trina; Abbas Rizvi, Syed M; Song, Emma Y; Fernandez, Harvey R; Lutz-Mann, Louise

    2009-05-01

    Targeted alpha therapy utilizes alpha-emitting radionuclides conjugated to monoclonal antibodies to allow specific irradiation of cancer cells whilst sparing normal, healthy tissues. The mutagenic potential of (213)Bi conjugated to a human melanoma antigen-specific antibody (9.2.27) was examined using an in vivo transgenic mouse model containing multiple copies of a lacZ target gene in every cell, allowing the quantification and comparison of mutagenesis in different organs. Mice received an ip injection of 16.65 MBq of (213)Bi-cDTPA-9.2.27, and were sacrificed at 24 h, 1 w and 4 w post-injection. Pharmacokinetic studies gave the absorbed and effective doses for each organ. The mutant frequency and mutant spectra were analysed for the brain, spleen and kidneys. The brain and spleen did not show significant increases in induced mutation frequencies compared to spontaneous background levels or changes in mutant spectra, these results being independent of p53 status. However, elevated mutation frequencies and persistent size change mutations were observed in the kidneys, but are not significant at the p = 0.05 level. The effect of p53 status was also evident, as p53 heterozygotes displayed higher mutation frequencies than their wild-type counterparts, suggesting a reduction in the p53 gene may lead to an increased susceptibility to mutagenesis. These effects were time dependent and levels returned to those of the controls at 4 w post-irradiation, albeit with a predominant residue of size mutations. These effects were observed at activities very much higher than those expected for the therapy of human patients. As such, the induction of secondary cancer with the (213)Bi-cDTPA-9.2.27 alpha immunoconjugate is not expected to be a significant problem in the clinic. PMID:19337032

  3. Ga-67 vs In-111-DTPA-anti-p97 monoclonal antibody (MoAb) for scintigraphic detection of metastatic melanoma

    SciTech Connect

    Neumann, R.D.; Kirkwood, J.M.; Zoghbi, S.S.; Ernstoff, M.S.; Cornelius, E.A.; Hoffer, P.B.; Gottschalk, A.

    1985-05-01

    The authors have initiated a prospective comparative evaluation of tomographic (Pho/Con) Ga-67 (10 mCi) scintigraphy versus computerized gamma camera radioimmunoscintigraphy using anti-p97 murine MoAb (5 mCi In-111-DTPA conjugated to 1 mg MoAb + 19 mgs ''cold'' MoAb) for detection of metastatic melanoma. To date 9 patients have had both a Ga-67 scan and an anti-p97 MoAb study within a 1 month interval. The 9 patients had 45 known sites of disease greater than 1 cm minimum diameter, located in skin, soft tissue, and/or viscea. In-111-anti-p97 scans were done 72 hrs after i.v. administration of the radiolabeled MoAb mixed together with the ''cold'' carrier MoAb. Ga-67 scans were done 48-72 hrs after injection. MoAb scans detected 30/45 known sites (sensitivity=67%) while the Ga-67 scans found 29/45 of these known sites (sensitivity=64%). Heterogeneity of metastases was evident with the detection of partly overlapping subsets of metastases by the two techniques, i.e. some mets were localized with both techniques while other mets were detected by only one of the two methods. Combined detection with both techniques improved sensitivity from 64-67% to 91%. These preliminary data suggest: 1) comparable sensitivities for Ga-67 and In-111-DTPA anti-p97 scans, 2) heterogeneity of metastases with regard to the localization of these two agents, and 3) improved sensitivity by combining both techniques.

  4. The role of superoxide in xanthine oxidase-induced autooxidation of linoleic acid.

    PubMed

    Thomas, M J; Mehl, K S; Pryor, W A

    1982-07-25

    The effect of hydroxyperoxyoctadecadienoic acid, e.g. 13-hydroperoxy-cis,9,trans-11-octadecadienoic acid, on the autooxidation of linoleic acid induced by superoxide radical was examined in a system containing xanthine oxidase, acetaldehyde, and diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid dissolved in an aqueous phosphate buffer containing 10% ethanol. The superoxide radical is required for autooxidation, as shown by essentially complete inhibition on the addition of superoxide dismutase. Pure linoleic acid was not readily oxidized, but the addition of lipid hydroperoxide markedly stimulated the autooxidation. Addition of 2.8 microM FeCl3 did not produce an increase in the rate of xanthine oxidase-induced autooxidation. Spontaneous autooxidation, a process slower than xanthine oxidase-induced autooxidation, was detectable on the time scale of these observations but was slower than the xanthine oxidase-induced autooxidation. Initiation of linoleic acid autooxidation is postulated to result from a reaction between superoxide and lipid hydroperoxide. The nature of this reaction is uncertain, but it does not appear to depend on iron catalysis. PMID:6282880

  5. Heavy Metal Bioavailability and Bioaccessibility in Soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dean, John Richard

    This chapter considers the use of a variety of approaches to assess either the bioavailability or the bioaccessibility of metals in soil. The bioavailability of metals from soils is considered with respect to a series of single-extraction methods, including the use of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), acetic acid, diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA), ammonium nitrate, calcium chloride and sodium nitrate. Then, a procedure for the recovery of metals using a three-stage sequential extraction protocol is described. Two alternate approaches for assessing the environmental health risk to humans by undertaking in vitro gastrointestinal extraction (also known as the physiologically based extraction test, PBET) are considered. Finally, two acid digestion protocols that allow the pseudo-total metal content of samples to be assessed are provided.

  6. Alteration of tissue disposition of cadmium by chelating agents.

    PubMed Central

    Klaassen, C D; Waalkes, M P; Cantilena, L R

    1984-01-01

    The effect of several chelating agents (diethyldithiocarbamic acid, DDC; nitrilotriacetic acid, NTA; 2,3-dimercaptopropanol, BAL; d,l-penicillamine, PEN; 2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid, DMSA; ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, EDTA; and diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid, DTPA) on the toxicity, distribution and excretion of cadmium (Cd) was determined in mice. When chelators were administered immediately after Cd, significant increases in survival were noted after treatment with DMSA, EDTA, and DTPA. DTPA, followed by EDTA and then DMSA, were consistently the most effective in decreasing the tissue concentrations of Cd and increasing the excretion of Cd. NTA, BAL, DDC and PEN had no beneficial effects. The effects of increasing the time interval between Cd administration and initiation of chelation therapy was determined by using a single administration of DTPA, EDTA, and DMSA. Mice treated immediately after Cd administration excreted approximately 50% of the administered dose of Cd compared to 0.2% in controls. Treatment with chelator at later times significantly increased Cd excretion but the magnitude of the effect was much less than that seen in mice treated immediately after Cd. To determine the role of MT in the acute decrease in chelator efficacy following Cd poisoning, rats were injected IV with Cd followed by DTPA at various times after Cd. Although DTPA reduced Cd content in the various organs when given immediately after Cd, the chelator was ineffective at all later times. Increases in hepatic and renal metallothionein (MT) did not occur until 2 hr after Cd, and did not coincide with the earlier drop in chelator efficacy. Blockade of MT synthesis by actinomycin D failed to eliminate this decreased DTPA effectiveness. Therefore, it appears that MT does not play an important role in the acute decrease in efficacy of chelation therapy for Cd poisoning. The effect of repeated daily administration of chelators on the distribution and excretion of Cd was studied by

  7. Safety and reactogenicity of the combined diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis-inactivated poliovirus-Haemophilus influenzae type b (DTPa-IPV/Hib) vaccine in healthy Vietnamese toddlers: An open-label, phase III study.

    PubMed

    Anh, Dang Duc; Van Der Meeren, Olivier; Karkada, Naveen; Assudani, Deepak; Yu, Ta-Wen; Han, Htay Htay

    2016-03-01

    The introduction of combination vaccines plays a significant role in increasing vaccine acceptance and widening vaccine coverage. Primary vaccination against diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, poliomyelitis and Haemophilus influenza type b (Hib) diseases has been implemented in Vietnam. In this study we evaluated the safety and reactogenicity of combined diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis-inactivated polio (DTPa-IPV)/Hib vaccine when administered as a booster dose in 300 healthy Vietnamese children <2 years of age (mean age: 15.8 months). During the 4-day follow-up period, pain (31.7%) and redness (27.3%) were the most frequent solicited local symptoms. Pain (2%) was also the most frequent grade 3 local symptom. One subject reported 2 serious adverse events that were not causally related to the study vaccine. DTPa-IPV/Hib conjugate vaccine was well tolerated as a booster dose in healthy Vietnamese children aged <2 years.

  8. Safety and reactogenicity of the combined diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis-inactivated poliovirus-Haemophilus influenzae type b (DTPa-IPV/Hib) vaccine in healthy Vietnamese toddlers: An open-label, phase III study

    PubMed Central

    Anh, Dang Duc; Van Der Meeren, Olivier; Karkada, Naveen; Assudani, Deepak; Yu, Ta-Wen; Han, Htay Htay

    2016-01-01

    abstract The introduction of combination vaccines plays a significant role in increasing vaccine acceptance and widening vaccine coverage. Primary vaccination against diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, poliomyelitis and Haemophilus influenza type b (Hib) diseases has been implemented in Vietnam. In this study we evaluated the safety and reactogenicity of combined diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis-inactivated polio (DTPa-IPV)/Hib vaccine when administered as a booster dose in 300 healthy Vietnamese children <2 years of age (mean age: 15.8 months). During the 4-day follow-up period, pain (31.7%) and redness (27.3%) were the most frequent solicited local symptoms. Pain (2%) was also the most frequent grade 3 local symptom. One subject reported 2 serious adverse events that were not causally related to the study vaccine. DTPa-IPV/Hib conjugate vaccine was well tolerated as a booster dose in healthy Vietnamese children aged <2 years. PMID:26337197

  9. Azomethine H colorimetric method for determining dissolved boron in water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spencer, R.R.; Erdmann, D.E.

    1979-01-01

    An automated colorimetric method for determining dissolved boron in water is described. The boron is complexed with azomethine H, which is readily available as the condensation product of H acid (8-amino-1-naphthol-3,6-disulfonic acid) and salicylaldehyde. The absorbance of the yellow complex formed is then measured colorimetrically at 410 nm. Interference effects from other dissolved species are minimized by the addition of diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA); however, iron, zinc, and bicarbonate interfere at concentrations above 400 ??g/L, 2000 ??g/L, and 200 mg/L, respectively. The bicarbonate interference can be eliminated by careful acidification of the sample with concentrated HCl to a pH between 5 and 6. Thirty samples per hour can be routinely analyzed over the range of from 10 to 400 ??g/L, boron.

  10. The Actinide-Lanthanide Separation Process

    SciTech Connect

    Lumetta, Gregg J.; Gelis, Artem V.; Carter, Jennifer C.; Niver, Cynthia M.; Smoot, Margaret R.

    2014-02-21

    The Actinide-Lanthanide SEParation (ALSEP) process is described. The process uses an extractant phase consisting of either N,N,N',N'-tetraoctyldiglycolamide (TODGA) or N,N,N',N'-tetra(2 ethylhexyl)diglycolamide (T2EHDGA) combined with 2-ethylhexylphosphonic acid mono-2-ethylhexyl ester (HEH[EHP]). The neutral TODGA or T2EHDGA serves to co-extract the trivalent actinide and lanthanide ions from nitric acid media. Switching the aqueous phase chemistry to a citrate buffered diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) solution at pH 2.5 to 4 results in selective transfer of the actinides to the aqueous phase, thus resulting in separation of these two groups of elements.

  11. Nuclear, chemical, and mechanistic considerations in the use of {sup 117m}Sn(4+)-DTPA relative to {sup 186}Re-HEDP and other agents for bone pain therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Srivastava, S.C.; Meinken, G.E.; Mausner, L.F.; Atkins, H.L.; Cutler, C.; Deutsch, E.

    1994-10-01

    This paper summarizes the results of our mechanistic studies on {sup 117m}Sn(4+){minus} DTPA to determine (i) the effect of oxidation state and specific activity of {sup 117m}Sn, (ii) effect of the addition of calcium, (iii) the nature of chemical species of tin in blood and urine, and (iv) kinetics of uptake and washout of radioactivity from bone relative to technetium, rhenium, and samarium bone agents.

  12. Characterization of radionuclide-chelating agent complexes found in low-level radioactive decontamination waste. Literature review

    SciTech Connect

    Serne, R.J.; Felmy, A.R.; Cantrell, K.J.; Krupka, K.M.; Campbell, J.A.; Bolton, H. Jr.; Fredrickson, J.K.

    1996-03-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission is responsible for regulating the safe land disposal of low-level radioactive wastes that may contain organic chelating agents. Such agents include ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA), picolinic acid, oxalic acid, and citric acid, and can form radionuclide-chelate complexes that may enhance the migration of radionuclides from disposal sites. Data from the available literature indicate that chelates can leach from solidified decontamination wastes in moderate concentration (1--100 ppm) and can potentially complex certain radionuclides in the leachates. In general it appears that both EDTA and DTPA have the potential to mobilize radionuclides from waste disposal sites because such chelates can leach in moderate concentration, form strong radionuclide-chelate complexes, and can be recalcitrant to biodegradation. It also appears that oxalic acid and citric acid will not greatly enhance the mobility of radionuclides from waste disposal sites because these chelates do not appear to leach in high concentration, tend to form relatively weak radionuclide-chelate complexes, and can be readily biodegraded. In the case of picolinic acid, insufficient data are available on adsorption, complexation of key radionuclides (such as the actinides), and biodegradation to make definitive predictions, although the available data indicate that picolinic acid can chelate certain radionuclides in the leachates.

  13. Potential of Vetiveria zizanoides L. Nash for phytoremediation of plutonium ((239)Pu): Chelate assisted uptake and translocation.

    PubMed

    Singh, Shraddha; Fulzele, D P; Kaushik, C P

    2016-10-01

    Plants have demonstrated a great potential to remove toxic elements from soils and solutions and been successfully used for phytoremediation of important radionuclides. Uptake potential of vetiver plants (V. zizanoides) for the remediation of (239)Pu in hydroponic and soil conditions was studied in the present work. High efficiency of V. zizanoides for the removal of (239)Pu was recorded with 66.2% being removed from the hydroponic solution after 30 days. However, remediation of (239)Pu from soil was limited. Remediation of (239)Pu from soil was increased with the addition of chelating agents citric acid (CA) and diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA). Accumulation of (239)Pu was recorded higher in roots than shoots, however its translocation from roots to shoots increased in the presence of chelators in hydroponic as well as soil conditions. DTPA was found more effective than CA showing higher translocation index (TI). Increase in TI was observed 8 and 6 times in the solution and soil respectively when plants were exposed to (239)Pu-DTPA in comparison to only (239)Pu. The present study demonstrates that V. zizanoides plant is a potential plant for phytoremediation of (239)Pu. PMID:27318195

  14. Potential of Vetiveria zizanoides L. Nash for phytoremediation of plutonium ((239)Pu): Chelate assisted uptake and translocation.

    PubMed

    Singh, Shraddha; Fulzele, D P; Kaushik, C P

    2016-10-01

    Plants have demonstrated a great potential to remove toxic elements from soils and solutions and been successfully used for phytoremediation of important radionuclides. Uptake potential of vetiver plants (V. zizanoides) for the remediation of (239)Pu in hydroponic and soil conditions was studied in the present work. High efficiency of V. zizanoides for the removal of (239)Pu was recorded with 66.2% being removed from the hydroponic solution after 30 days. However, remediation of (239)Pu from soil was limited. Remediation of (239)Pu from soil was increased with the addition of chelating agents citric acid (CA) and diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA). Accumulation of (239)Pu was recorded higher in roots than shoots, however its translocation from roots to shoots increased in the presence of chelators in hydroponic as well as soil conditions. DTPA was found more effective than CA showing higher translocation index (TI). Increase in TI was observed 8 and 6 times in the solution and soil respectively when plants were exposed to (239)Pu-DTPA in comparison to only (239)Pu. The present study demonstrates that V. zizanoides plant is a potential plant for phytoremediation of (239)Pu.

  15. Depth and orientational dependencies of MRI T(2) and T(1ρ) sensitivities towards trypsin degradation and Gd-DTPA(2-) presence in articular cartilage at microscopic resolution.

    PubMed

    Wang, Nian; Xia, Yang

    2012-04-01

    Depth and orientational dependencies of microscopic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) T(2) and T(1ρ) sensitivities were studied in native and trypsin-degraded articular cartilage before and after being soaked in 1 mM Gd-DTPA(2-) solution. When the cartilage surface was perpendicular to B(0), a typical laminar appearance was visible in T(2)-weighted images but not in T(1ρ)-weighted images, especially when the spin-lock field was high (2 kHz). At the magic angle (55°) orientation, neither T(2)- nor T(1ρ)-weighted image had a laminar appearance. Trypsin degradation caused a depth- and orientational-dependent T(2) increase (4%-64%) and a more uniform T(1ρ) increase at a sufficiently high spin-lock field (55%-81%). The presence of the Gd ions caused both T(2) and T(1ρ) to decrease significantly in the degraded tissue (6%-38% and 44%-49%, respectively) but less notably in the native tissue (5%-10% and 16%-28%, respectively). A quantity Sensitivity was introduced that combined both the percentage change and the absolute change in the relaxation analysis. An MRI experimental protocol based on two T(1ρ) measurements (without and with the presence of the Gd ions) was proposed to be a new imaging marker for cartilage degradation.

  16. Regional comparison of technetium-99m DTPA aerosol and radioactive gas ventilation (xenon and krypton) studies in patients with suspected pulmonary embolism

    SciTech Connect

    Ramanna, L.; Alderson, P.O.; Waxman, A.D.; Berman, D.S.; Brachman, M.B.; Kroop, S.A.; Goldsmith, M.; Tanasescu, D.E.

    1986-09-01

    The regional distribution of (99mTc)DTPA aerosol was compared with that of /sup 133/Xe (n = 30) and krypton (n = 24) in a group of patients with suspected pulmonary embolism. All patients had an aerosol study using a recently available commercial generator system, a ventilation study with one of the gases, and perfusion imaging. Regional information was assessed visually on xenon, krypton, and aerosol studies independently by considering each lung as three equal-sized zones. In addition, gas ventilation findings peripheral to regions of aerosol turbulence (hot spots) were evaluated. Only 64% of the zones were in complete agreement on xenon and aerosol. Most of the discordance between xenon and aerosol was accounted for by minor degrees of /sup 133/Xe washout retention in zones that appeared normal in the aerosol study. An agreement rate of 85% was noted between 81mKr and aerosol regionally. The regions of discordance between aerosol and gas studies, however, usually were associated with unimpressive perfusion defects that did not change the scintigraphic probability for pulmonary embolism in any patient. Regarding zones of aerosol hyperdeposition, 76% had associated washout abnormalities on xenon; however, there was no correlation between the presence of these abnormalities or perfusion abnormalities. The results confirm the high sensitivity of /sup 133/Xe washout imaging, but suggest that radioaerosol imaging will detect most parenchymal abnormalities associated with perfusion defects of significance.

  17. In vivo application of ( sup 111 In-DTPA-D-Phe sup 1 )-octreotide for detection of somatostatin receptor-positive tumors in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Bakker, W.H.; Krenning, E.P.; Reubi, J.C.; Breeman, W.A.P.; Setyono-Han, B.; de Jong, M.; Kooij, P.P.M.; Bruns, C.; van Hagen, P.M.; Marbach, P.; Visser, T.J.; Pless, J.; Lamberts, S.W.J. Sandoz Research Inst., Berne Dr. Daniel den Hoed Cancer Centre, Rotterdam Sandoz Pharma AG, Basel )

    1991-01-01

    In this study the authors investigated its in vivo application in the visualization of somatostatin receptor-positive tumors in rats. The distribution of the radiopharmaceutical was investigated after intravenous injection in normal rats and in rats bearing the somatostatin receptor-positive rat pancreatic carcinoma CA 20948. Ex vivo autoradiographic studies showed that specific accumulation of radioactivity occurred in somatostatin receptor-containing tissue (anterior pituitary gland). However, in contrast to the adrenals and pituitary, the tracer accumulation in the kidneys was not mediated by somatostatin receptors. Increasing radioactivity over the somatostatin receptor-positive tumors was measured rapidly after injection and the tumors were clearly visualized by gamma camera scintigraphy. In rats pretreated with 1 mg octreotide accumulation of ({sup 111}In-DPTA-D-Phe{sup 1})-octreotide in the tumors was prevented. Because of its relatively long effective half-life, ({sup 111}In-DTPA-D-Phe{sup 1})-octreotide is a radionuclide-coupled somatostatin analogue which can be used to visualize somatostatin receptor-bearing tumors efficiently after 24 hr, when interfering background radioactivity is minimized by renal clearance.

  18. Circulatory kinetics of intravenously injected {sup 238}Pu(IV) citrate and {sup 14}C-CaNa{sub 3}-DTPA in mice: Comparison with rat, dog, and Reference Man

    SciTech Connect

    Durbin, P.W.; Kullgren, B.; Schmidt, C.T.

    1997-02-01

    New ligands for in vivo chelation of Pu(IV) are being synthesized and evaluated in mice for efficacy and toxicity. Biokinetic studies of the new ligands, CaNa{sub 3}-DTPA, and Pu(IV) are major components of those investigations. Young adult female mice were injected intravenously (iv) with {sup 3}H-inulin, {sup 14}C-CaNa{sub 3}-DTPA, or {sup 238}Pu(IV) citrate to provide base- line data for plasma clearance, tissue uptake, and excretion rates and to determine the dilution volume (VOD) and renal clearance rate (RC) of filterable substances. Published plasma clearance data in Reference Man, dog, and rat were collected. Based on combined data for {sup 3}H-inulin and {sup 14}C-CaNa{sub 3}-DTPA, VOD = 17% of body weight and RC = 18 mL kg{sup -1} min{sup -1} for mice. Retention of {sup 14}C-CaNa{sub 3}-DTPA in the four species is proportional to body weight and inversely proportional to RC: Integrals of the retention of {sup 14}C-CaNa{sub 3}-DTPA from R(t) = 1.0 to R(t) = 0.05 are 108, 43, 28, and 10 DF min, respectively, for Reference Man, dog, rat, and mouse. Clearances of iv-injected Pu(IV) citrate from plasma are in the same order: The plasma curve integrals from injection to 1440 min are 840, 640, 280, and 67 DF min, respectively, for Reference Man, dog, rat, and mouse. In mice, a large fraction of newly injected Pu(IV) is rapidly transferred to the interstitial water of bulk soft tissue (excluding liver and kidneys), from which it is cleared at the same rate as from the plasma. Rapid plasma clearance, escape into interstitial water (22%ID at 20 min), significant early urinary excretion (8%ID in 12 h), and prompt deposition in liver and skeleton (complete in 12 h) are evidence of inefficient binding to plasma protein of newly injected Pu(IV) in mice. Slow plasma clearance, little early urinary excretion, and delayed deposition in liver and skeleton reflect more efficient binding of newly injected Pu(IV) in Reference Man and dog. 39 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. Immunogenicity and safety of the 10-valent pneumococcal nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae protein D conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV) co-administered with DTPa vaccine in Japanese children: A randomized, controlled study

    PubMed Central

    Iwata, Satoshi; Kawamura, Naohisa; Kuroki, Haruo; Tokoeda, Yasunobu; Miyazu, Mitsunobu; Iwai, Asayuki; Oishi, Tomohiro; Sato, Tomohide; Suyama, Akari; François, Nancy; Shafi, Fakrudeen; Ruiz-Guiñazú, Javier; Borys, Dorota

    2015-01-01

    This phase III, randomized, open-label, multicenter study (NCT01027845) conducted in Japan assessed the immunogenicity, safety, and reactogenicity of 10-valent pneumococcal nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae protein D conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV, given intramuscularly) co-administered with diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis vaccine (DTPa, given subcutaneously). Infants (N=360 ) were randomized (2:1) to receive either PHiD-CV and DTPa (PHiD-CV group) or DTPa alone (control group) as 3-dose primary vaccination (3–4–5 months of age) and booster vaccination (17–19 months of age). Immune responses were measured before and one month after primary/booster vaccination and adverse events (AEs) were recorded. Post-primary immune responses were non-inferior to those in pivotal/efficacy European or Latin American pneumococcal protein D-conjugate vaccine studies. For each PHiD-CV serotype, at least 92.6% of infants post-primary vaccination and at least 97.7% of children post-booster had pneumococcal antibody concentrations ≥0.2 μg/ml, and at least 95.4% post-primary and at least 98.1% post-booster had opsonophagocytic activity (OPA) titers ≥8 . Geometric mean antibody concentrations and OPA titers (except OPA titer for 6B) were higher post-booster than post-priming for each serotype. All PHiD-CV-vaccinated children had anti-protein D antibody concentrations ≥100 EL.U/ml one month post-primary/booster vaccination and all were seroprotected/seropositive against each DTPa antigen. Redness and irritability were the most common solicited AEs in both groups. Incidences of unsolicited AEs were comparable between groups. Serious AEs were reported for 47 children (28 in PHiD-CV group); none were assessed as vaccine-related. In conclusion, PHiD-CV induced robust immune responses and was well tolerated when co-administered with DTPa in a 3-dose priming plus booster regimen to Japanese children. PMID:25830489

  20. Gd3+-DTPA-Meglumine-Anionic Linear Globular Dendrimer G1: Novel Nanosized Low Toxic Tumor Molecular MR Imaging Agent

    PubMed Central

    Darvish Mohamadi, Tahmineh; Ghalandarlaki, Negar; Mehravi, Bita; Shafiee Ardestani, Mehdi; Yaghmaei, Parichehr

    2013-01-01

    Despite the great efforts in the areas of early diagnosis and treatment of cancer, this disease continues to grow and is still a global killer. Cancer treatment efficiency is relatively high in the early stages of the disease. Therefore, early diagnosis is a key factor in cancer treatment. Among the various diagnostic methods, molecular imaging is one of the fastest and safest ones. Because of its unique characteristics, magnetic resonance imaging has a special position in most researches. To increase the contrast of MR images, many pharmaceuticals have been known and used so far. Gadopentetate (with commercial name Magnevist) is the first magnetic resonance imaging contrast media that has been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration. In this study, gadopentetate was first synthesized and then attached to a tree-like polymer called dendrimer which is formed by polyethylene glycol core and surrounding citric acid groups. Stability studies of the drug were carried out to ensure proper synthesis. Then, the uptake of the drug into liver hepatocellular cell line and the drug cytotoxicity were evaluated. Finally, in vitro and in vivo MR imaging were performed with the new synthetic drug. Based on the findings of this research, connecting gadopentetate to dendrimer surface produces a stronger, safer, and more efficient contrast media. Gd(III)-diethylenetriamine pentaacetate-meglumine-dendrimer drug has the ability to enter cells and does not produce significant cytotoxicity. It also increases the relaxivity of tissue and enhances the MR images contrast. The obtained results confirm the hypothesis that the binding of gadopentetate to citric acid dendrimer produces a new, biodegradable, stable, and strong version of the old contrast media. PMID:23533819

  1. Optical detection of DNA damage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, Kim R.; Apostol, A.; Cembrano, J.

    1999-02-01

    A rapid and sensitive fluorescence assay for oxidative damage to calf thymus DNA is reported. A decrease in the transition temperature for strand separation resulted from exposure of the DNA to the reactive decomposition products of 3- morpholinosydnonimine (SIN-1) (i.e., nitric oxide, superoxide, peroxynitrite, hydrogen peroxide, and hydroxyl radicals). A decrease in melting temperature of 12 degrees Celsius was indicative of oxidative damage including single strand chain breaks. Double stranded (ds) and single stranded (ss) forms of DNA were determined using the indicator dyes ethidium bromide and PicoGreen. The change in DNA 'melting' curves was dependant on the concentration of SIN-1 and was most pronounced at 75 degrees Celsius. This chemically induced damage was significantly inhibited by sodium citrate, tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane (Tris), and diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA), but was unaffected by superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, ethylenediamine tetraacietic acid (EDTA), or deferoxamine. Lowest observable effect level for SIN-1-induced damage was 200 (mu) M.

  2. Path Analyses of Grain P, Zn, Cu, Fe, and Ni in a Biosolids-Amended Dryland Wheat Agroecosystem.

    PubMed

    Barbarick, Kenneth A; Ippolito, James A; McDaniel, Jacob P

    2016-07-01

    Land application of biosolids is an effective means of recycling plant nutrients and is the primary method of biosolids reuse endorsed by the USEPA. One issue concerning biosolids application is the extent of the contribution of biosolids-borne plant nutrients to the overall crop concentration and uptake or removal of these nutrients. We studied the effects of biosolids application on wheat ( L.) grain P, Zn, Cu, Fe, and Ni concentrations and uptake (removal) at two dryland agroecosystem sites from 1993 to 2014. We hypothesized that biosolids would have the greatest impact on wheat grain and uptake compared with ammonium bicarbonate-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (AB-DTPA)-extractable nutrient levels, soil pH, or soil organic C concentrations. We used path analyses in combination with multiple linear regression to differentiate the direct, indirect, and total effects of cumulative biosolids applications, soil AB-DTPA, soil pH, and organic C. Biosolids rates, applied biennially from 1993 to 2014 at the beginning of a wheat-fallow rotation, were 0, 2.24, 4.48, 6.72, 8.96, and 11.2 Mg ha. None of the parameters had significant direct, indirect, or total effects on grain concentrations. Biosolids applications had the greatest positive direct impact compared with AB-DTPA levels, soil pH, or soil organic C on P, Zn, Fe, and Ni uptake (removal), whereas AB-DTPA had the greatest positive direct impact on Cu uptake. Soil AB-DTPA, pH, and organic C directly affected some grain concentrations and cumulative uptake, but no consistent trends were noted. This pathway approach allowed differentiation between causation and simple correlation for the effects of cumulative biosolids applications on wheat P, Zn, Cu, Fe, and Ni cumulative uptake but did not provide these same results for grain concentrations. PMID:27380090

  3. Phytotreatment of sewage sludge contaminated by heavy metals and PAHs by co-planting Sedum alfredii and Alocasia marorrhiza.

    PubMed

    Qiu, J R; Guo, X F; Cai, Q Y; Liu, W; Zhang, M W; Wei, Z B; Wu, Q T

    2014-01-01

    High concentrations of heavy metals and organic pollutants in municipal sewage sludge are key factors limiting its use in agriculture. The objectives of this study were to decrease the heavy metal and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations in sewage sludge by phytotreatment and to determine, in a field experiment, whether co-planting is more effective than using a mono-crop of Sedum alfredii. Four treatments were used in the plot experiment: no sludge, no plants, S. alfredii and co-planting S. alfredii and Alocasia marorrhiza. The results showed that co-planting produced tubers and shoots of A. marorrhiza that were suitable as a safe animal feed and good organic K fertilizer, respectively. Co-planting was more effective than mono-planting at reducing concentrations of total Zn and diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA)-extractable Zn, Cd, and Cu in the sludge. Co-planting decreased the concentrations of DTPA-extractable heavy metals and benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) in the sludge significantly compared with the unplanted sludge. Decreases of 87, 75, 85, 31, and 64% were obtained for B[a]P and DTPA-extractable Zn, Cd, Cu, and Pb, respectively, compared with the fresh sludge. These results indicate that co-planting can reduce significantly the environmental risks associated with heavy metals and B[a]P in sewage sludge for further disposal.

  4. Evaluation of intakes of transuranics influenced by chelation therapy

    SciTech Connect

    LaBone, T.R.

    1994-02-01

    Once an intake of transuranics occurs, there are only three therapeutic procedures available to the physician for reducing the intake and mitigating the dose: excision of material from wounds, removal of material from the lungs with lavage, and chelation therapy. The only chelation agents approved in the United States for the treatment of occupational intakes of transuranics are the zinc and calcium salts of diethylene-triamine-pentaacetic acid, better known as Zn-DTPA and Ca-DTPA. In the past 35 years, approximately 3000 doses of DTPA have been administrated to over 500 individuals who had intakes of transuranics. The drug is considered to be quiet safe and has few side effects. For the internal dosimetrist, perhaps the most important aspects of chelation therapy is that if enhances the excretion rate of a transuranic and perturbs the shape of the urinary excretion curve. These perturbations last for months and are so great that standard urinary excretion models cannot be used to evaluate the intake. We review here a method for evaluating intakes of transuranics influenced by chelation therapy that has been used with some degree of success at the Savannah River Site for over 20 years.

  5. The role of chelation in the treatment of other metal poisonings.

    PubMed

    Smith, Silas W

    2013-12-01

    These proceedings will review the role of chelation in five metals-aluminum, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, and uranium-in order to illustrate various chelation concepts. The process of "chelation" can often be oversimplified, leading to incorrect assumptions and risking patient harm. For chelation to be effective, two critical assumptions must be fulfilled: the presumed "metal toxicity" must correlate with a given body or a particular compartment burden, and reducing this compartmental or the body burden (through chelation) attenuates toxicity. Fulfilling these assumptions requires an established dose-response relationship, a validated, reproducible means of toxicity assessment (clinical, biochemical, or radiographical), and an appropriate assessment mechanisms of body or compartment burden. While a metal might "technically" be capable of chelation (and readily demonstrable in urine or feces), this is an insufficient endpoint. Clinical relevance must be affirmed. Deferoxamine is an accepted chelator for appropriately documented aluminum toxicity. There is a very minimal treatment window in order to address chelation in cadmium toxicity. In acute toxicity, while no definitive chelation benefit is described, succimer (DMSA), diethylenetriaminepentaacetate (DTPA), and potentially ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) have been considered. In chronic toxicity, chelation is unsupported. There is little evidence to suggest that currently available chromium chelators are efficacious. Similarly, scant human evidence exists with which to provide recommendation for cobalt chelation. DTPA has been recommended for cobalt radionuclide chelation, although DMSA, EDTA, and N-acetylcysteine have also been suggested. DTPA is unsupported for uranium chelation. Sodium bicarbonate is currently recommended, although animal evidence is conflicting.

  6. Biotinylated polyacrylamide-based metal-chelating polymers and their influence on antigen recognition following conjugation to a trastuzumab Fab fragment.

    PubMed

    Liu, Peng; Boyle, Amanda J; Lu, Yijie; Reilly, Raymond M; Winnik, Mitchell A

    2012-09-10

    We report the synthesis and characterization of metal-chelating polymers (MCPs) with a terminal biotin and a polyacrylamide backbone harboring multiple diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) chelating sites. These polymers are conjugated to a streptavidin (SAv)-modified Fab fragment of trastuzumab (tmFab) and subsequently complexed with (111)In through DTPA. Trastuzumab has specific targeting ability toward human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2), which is overexpressed on some types of breast cancer cells and ovarian cancer cells. (111)In can generate Auger electrons which cause lethal DNA double strand breaks. The radioimmunoconjugates (RICs) were designed to target HER2 overexpressing cancer cells and carry multiple copies of (111)In to these cells. The mole maximum specific activities of these polymers were investigated by loading the polymers with (111)In at an increasing (111)In to polymer ratio. The polymers show 55-fold to 138-fold higher maximum specific activity than DTPA modified tmFab-SAv. Moreover, the HER2 immunoreactivities of these RICs were evaluated by measuring their specific binding ability toward HER2 overexpressing SKOV-3 ovarian cancer cells. The results demonstrate that although in the presence of polymer there is increased nonspecific binding, HER2 targeting ability was retained, ensuring the radionuclide delivery ability of these RICs.

  7. Biotinylated polyacrylamide-based metal-chelating polymers and their influence on antigen recognition following conjugation to a trastuzumab Fab fragment.

    PubMed

    Liu, Peng; Boyle, Amanda J; Lu, Yijie; Reilly, Raymond M; Winnik, Mitchell A

    2012-09-10

    We report the synthesis and characterization of metal-chelating polymers (MCPs) with a terminal biotin and a polyacrylamide backbone harboring multiple diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) chelating sites. These polymers are conjugated to a streptavidin (SAv)-modified Fab fragment of trastuzumab (tmFab) and subsequently complexed with (111)In through DTPA. Trastuzumab has specific targeting ability toward human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2), which is overexpressed on some types of breast cancer cells and ovarian cancer cells. (111)In can generate Auger electrons which cause lethal DNA double strand breaks. The radioimmunoconjugates (RICs) were designed to target HER2 overexpressing cancer cells and carry multiple copies of (111)In to these cells. The mole maximum specific activities of these polymers were investigated by loading the polymers with (111)In at an increasing (111)In to polymer ratio. The polymers show 55-fold to 138-fold higher maximum specific activity than DTPA modified tmFab-SAv. Moreover, the HER2 immunoreactivities of these RICs were evaluated by measuring their specific binding ability toward HER2 overexpressing SKOV-3 ovarian cancer cells. The results demonstrate that although in the presence of polymer there is increased nonspecific binding, HER2 targeting ability was retained, ensuring the radionuclide delivery ability of these RICs. PMID:22871127

  8. Water and ion binding around r(UpA)12 and d(TpA)12 oligomers--comparison with RNA and DNA (CpG)12 duplexes.

    PubMed

    Auffinger, P; Westhof, E

    2001-02-01

    The structural and dynamic properties of the water and ion first coordination shell of the r(A-U) and d(A-T) base-pairs embedded within the r(UpA)12 and d(TpA)12 duplexes are described on the basis of two 2.4 ns molecular dynamics simulations performed in a neutralizing aqueous environment with 0.25 M added KCl. The results are compared to previous molecular dynamics simulations of the r(CpG)12 and d(CpG)12 structures performed under similar conditions. It can be concluded that: (i) RNA helices are more rigid than DNA helices of identical sequence, as reflected by the fact that RNA duplexes keep their initial A-form shape while DNA duplexes adopt more sequence-specific shapes. (ii) Around these base-pairs, the water molecules occupy 21 to 22 well-defined hydration sites, some of which are partially occupied by potassium ions. (iii) These hydration sites are occupied by an average of 21.9, 21.0, 20.1, and 19.8 solvent molecules (water and ions) around the r(G=C), r(A-U), d(G=C), and d(A-T) pairs, respectively. (iv) From a dynamic point of view, the stability of the hydration shell is the strongest for the r(G=C) pairs and the weakest for the d(A-T) pairs. (v) For RNA, the observed long-lived hydration patterns are essentially non-sequence dependent and involve water bridges located in the deep groove and linking OR atoms of adjacent phosphate groups. Maximum lifetimes are close to 400 ps. (vi) In contrast, for DNA, long-lived hydration patterns are sequence dependent and located in the minor groove. For d(CpG)12, water bridges linking the (G)N3 and (C)O2 with the O4' atoms of adjacent nucleotides with 400 ps maximum lifetimes are characterized while no such bridges are observed for d(TpA)12. (vii) Potassium ions are observed to bind preferentially to deep/major groove atoms at RpY steps, essentially d(GpC), r(GpC), and r(ApU), by forming ion-bridges between electronegative atoms of adjacent base-pairs. On average, about half an ion is observed per base

  9. In vitro Gd-DTPA relaxometry studies in oxygenated venous human blood and aqueous solution at 3 and 7 T.

    PubMed

    Kalavagunta, Chaitanya; Michaeli, Shalom; Metzger, Gregory J

    2014-01-01

    In vitro T(1) and T(2) (*) relaxivities (r(1) and r(2) (*) ) of Gd-DTPA (GaD) in oxygenated human venous blood (OVB) and aqueous solution (AS) at 3 and 7 T were calculated. GaD concentrations ([GaD]) in OVB and AS were prepared in the range 0-5 mM. All measurements were acquired at 37 ± 2 °C. At both 3 and 7 T, a linear relationship was observed between [GaD] and R(1) in both AS and OVB. At 7 T, r(1) in AS decreased by 7.5% (p = 0.045) while there was a negligible change in OVB. With respect to R(2) (*) , a linear relationship with [GaD] was only observed in AS, while a more complex relationship was observed in OVB; quadratic below and linear above 2 mM at both field strengths. There was a significant increase of over 4-fold in r(2) (*) with GaD in OVB at 7 T (for [GaD] above 2 mM, p <0.01) as compared with 3 T. Furthermore, in comparison to r1 , r2 (*) in AS was less than 2-fold higher at both field strengths while in OVB it was ~20-fold and ~90-fold higher at 3 and 7 T, respectively. This observation emphasizes the importance of r(2) (*) knowledge at high magnetic fields, ≥3 T. The comparison between r(1) and r(2) (*) presented in this work is crucial in the design and optimization of high-field MRI studies making use of paramagnetic contrast agents. This is especially true in multiple compartment systems such as blood, where r(2) (*) dramatically increases while r1 remains relatively constant with increasing magnetic field strength.

  10. Assessing glomerular filtration rate in healthy adult potential kidney donors in Bangladesh: a comparison of various prediction equations with measured glomerular filtration rate by diethylentriamine pentaacetic acid renogram.

    PubMed

    Jahan, F; Chowdhury, M N U; Mahbub, T; Arafat, S M; Jahan, S; Hossain, M; Khan, M F

    2013-08-01

    To ensure that potential kidney donors in Bangladesh have no renal impairment, it is extremely important to have accurate methods for evaluating the glomerular filtration rate (GFR). We evaluated the performance of serum creatinine based GFR in healthy adult potential kidney donors in Bangladesh to compare GFR determined by DTPA with that determined by various prediction equations. In this study GFR in 61 healthy adult potential kidney donors were measured with 99mTc-diethylenetriamine penta-acetic acid (DTPA) renogram. We also estimated GFR using a four variable equation modification of diet in renal disease (MDRD), Cockcroft-Gault creatinine clearance (CGCrCl), Cockcroft-Gault glomerular filtration rate (CG-GFR). The mean age of study population was 34.31 +/- 9.46 years and out of them 65.6% was male. In this study mean mGFR was 85.4 +/- 14.8. Correlation of estimated GFR calculated by CG-CrCl, CG-GFR and MDRD were done with measured GFR DTPA using quartile. Kappa values were also estimated which was found to be 0.104 for (p = 0.151), 0.336 for (p = 0.001) and 0.125 for (p = 0.091) respectively. This indicates there is no association between estimated GFR calculated by CG-CrCl, CG-GFR, MDRD with measured GFR DTPA. These results show poor performance of these equations in evaluation of renal function among healthy population and also raise question regarding validity of these equations for assessment of renal function in chronic kidney disease in our population.

  11. Investigation of the efficacy of 99 mTc-DTPA scintigraphic GFR measurement with Gates method in the detection of cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in comparison with plasma urea and creatinine measurement.

    PubMed

    Özülker, Filiz; Özülker, Tamer; Uzun, Aysun Küçüköz; Özpaçacı, Tevfik

    2011-12-01

    In this study, we investigated the efficacy of 99mTc-DTPA scintigraphic analysis of GFR with the Gates method in comparison with the measurement of plasma urea and creatinine, in the detection of nephrotoxicity occurred in patients treated with cisplatin.Twenty-six male patients with a mean age of 26.73±6.39 years (age range 15-42) who had seminomatous and nonseminomatous testicular carcinoma were included in our study. The patients received cisplatin with a dose of 20 mg/m2 per day for five consecutive days repeated every 21 days. Before starting chemotherapy, immediately after the end of four cycles of chemotherapy and 7 months after the beginning of chemotherapy, plasma urea and creatinine levels were measured and simultaneously scintigraphic GFR estimation using 99 mTc-DTPA with the Gates method was performed. In the measurements done immediately after the chemotherapy, in 18 of the 26 patients GFR levels decreased, in 4 of the 8 remaining patients GFR did not change, and in 4 patients there was an increase in the GFR levels. The changes in the averages of the plasma urea and creatinine levels between measurements done before and after the chemotherapy were not statistically significant. The decrease in the average of the GFR values immediately after chemotherapy, in comparison to the average of GFR values measured before chemotherapy, was found to be statistically significant with paired sample t test analysis (P<0.009 with 95% CI). We concluded that scintigraphic GFR measurement using the Gates method with 99mTc-DTPA is a suitable method in the diagnosis of nephrotoxicity occuring due to cisplatine.

  12. The role of carboxylic acids in TALSQueak separations

    SciTech Connect

    Braley, Jenifer C.; Carter, Jennifer C.; Sinkov, Sergey I.; Nash, Ken L.; Lumetta, Gregg J.

    2012-04-13

    Recent reports have indicated TALSPEAK-type separations chemistry can be improved through the replacement of bis-2-ethyl(hexyl) phosphoric acid (HDEHP) and diethylenetriamine-N,N,N,N,N-pentaacetic acid (DTPA) with the weaker reagents 2-ethyl(hexyl) phosphonic acid mono-2-ethylhexyl ester (HEH[EHP]) and N-(2-hydroxyethyl)ethylenediamine-N,N',N'-triacetic acid (HEDTA), respectively. This modified TALSPEAK has been provided with an adjusted acronym of TALSQueak (Trivalent Actinide Lanthanide Separation using Quicker Extractants and Aqueous Komplexes). Among several benefits, TALSQueak chemistry provides more rapid phase transfer kinetics, is less reliant on carboxylic acids to mediate lanthanide extraction and allows a simplified thermodynamic description of the separations process that generally requires only parameters available in the literature to describe metal transfer. This manuscript focuses on the role of carboxylic acids in aqueous ternary (M-HEDTA-carboxylate) complexes, americium/lanthanide separations, and extraction kinetics. Spectrophotometry (UV-vis) of the Nd hypersensitive band indicates the presence of aqueous ternary species (K111 = 1.83 {+-} 0.01 at 1.0 M ionic strength, Nd(HEDTA) + Lac <-> Nd(HEDTA)Lac). Varying the carboxylic acid does not have a significant impact on Ln/Am separations or extraction kinetics. TALSqueak separations come to equilibrium in five minutes at the conventional operational pH of 3.6 using only 0.1 M total lactate or citrate.

  13. Kit for the preparation of (111)In-labeled pertuzumab injection for imaging response of HER2-positive breast cancer to trastuzumab (Herceptin).

    PubMed

    Lam, Karen; Scollard, Deborah A; Chan, Conrad; Levine, Mark N; Reilly, Raymond M

    2014-10-23

    We previously reported that (111)In-labeled pertuzumab imaged trastuzumab (Herceptin)-mediated changes in HER2 expression preclinically in breast cancer tumors. To advance (111)In-labeled pertuzumab to a Phase I/II clinical trial, a kit was designed for preparing this agent in a form suitable for human administration. Unit-dose kits containing pertuzumab modified with 2-(4-isothiocyanatobenzyl)-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (BzDTPA) were prepared that labeled to high efficiency (>90%) with (111)In and met specifications for pharmaceutical quality. The kits were stable for 4 months and the final radiopharmaceutical was stable for 24h. Imaging studies demonstrated high and specific uptake in HER2-positive tumors in mice using this clinical kit formulation. PMID:25464190

  14. Complexation of Am(III) and Nd(III) by 1,10-Phenanthroline-2,9-Dicarboxylic Acid

    SciTech Connect

    Ogden, Mark D.; Sinkov, Sergey I.; Nilsson, Mikael; Lumetta, Gregg J.; Hancock, Robert D.; Nash, Ken L.

    2013-01-01

    The complexant 1,10-phenanthroline-2,9-dicarboxylic acid (PDA) is a planar tetradentate ligand that is more preorganized for metal complexation than its unconstrained analogue ethylendiiminodiacetic acid (EDDA). Furthermore, the backbone nitrogen atoms of PDA are aromatic, hence are softer than the aliphatic amines of EDDA. It has been hypothesized that PDA will selectively bond to trivalent actinides over lanthanides. In this report, the results of spectrophotometric studies of the complexation of Nd(III) and Am(III) by PDA are reported. Because the complexes are moderately stable, it was necessary to conduct these titrations using competitive equilibrium methods, competitive cation omplexing between PDA and diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid, and competition between ligand protonation and complex formation. Stability constants and ligand protonation constants were determined at 0.1 mol/L ionic strength and at 0.5 mol/L ionic strength nitrate media at 21 ± 1 C. The stability constants are lower than those predicted from first principles and speciation calculations indicate that Am(III) selectivity over Nd(III) is less than that exhibited by 1,10-phenanthroline.

  15. Uptake and translocation of plutonium in two plant species using hydroponics.

    PubMed

    Lee, J H; Hossner, L R; Attrep, M; Kung, K S

    2002-01-01

    This study presents determinations of the uptake and translocation of Pu in Indian mustard (Brassica juncea) and sunflower (Helianthus annuus) from Pu contaminated solution media. The initial activity levels of Pu were 18.50 and 37.00 Bq ml(-1), for Pu-nitrate [239Pu(NO3)4] and for Pu-citrate [239Pu(C6H5O7)+] in nutrient solution. Plutonium-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA: [239Pu-C14H23O10N3] solution was prepared by adding 0, 5, 10, and 50 microg of DTPA ml(-1) with 239Pu(NO3)4 in nutrient solution. Concentration ratios (CR, Pu concentration in dry plant material/Pu concentration in nutrient solution) and transport indices (Tl, Pu content in the shoot/Pu content in the whole plant) were calculated to evaluate Pu uptake and translocation. All experiments were conducted in hydroponic solution in an environmental growth chamber. Plutonium concentration in the plant tissue was increased with increased Pu contamination. Plant tissue Pu concentration for Pu-nitrate and Pu-citrate application was not correlated and may be dependent on plant species. For plants receiving Pu-DTPA, the Pu concentration was increased in the shoots but decreased in the roots resulting in a negative correlation between the Pu concentrations in the plant shoots and roots. The Pu concentration in shoots of Indian mustard was increased for application rates up to 10 microg DTPA ml(-1) and up to 5 microg DTPA ml(-1) for sunflower. Similar trends were observed for the CR of plants compared to the Pu concentration in the shoots and roots, whereas the Tl was increased with increasing DTPA concentration. Plutonium in shoots of Indian mustard was up to 10 times higher than that in shoots of sunflower. The Pu concentration in the apparent free space (AFS) of plant root tissue of sunflower was more affected by concentration of DTPA than that of Indian mustard.

  16. Radionuclide decorporation: matching the biokinetics of actinides by transdermal delivery of pro-chelators.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yong; Sadgrove, Matthew P; Mumper, Russell J; Jay, Michael

    2013-10-01

    The threat of nuclear terrorism by the deliberate detonation of a nuclear weapon or radiological dispersion device ("dirty bomb") has made emergency response planning a priority. The only FDA-approved treatments for contamination with isotopes of the transuranic elements Am, Pu, and Cm are the Ca and Zn salts of diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA). These injectable products are not well suited for use in a mass contamination scenario as they require skilled professionals for their administration and are rapidly cleared from the circulation. To overcome the mismatch in the pharmacokinetics of the DTPA and the biokinetics of these transuranic elements, which are slowly released from contamination sites, the penta-ethyl ester of DTPA (C2E5) was prepared and formulated in a nonaqueous gel for transdermal administration. When gels comprised of 40% C2E5, 40-45% Miglyol® 840, and 15-20% ethyl cellulose were spiked with [(14)C]-C2E5 and applied to rat skin; over 60% of the applied dose was absorbed within a 24-h period. Radioactivity was observed in urinary and fecal excretions for over 3 days after removal of the gel. Using an (241)Am wound contamination model, transdermal C2E5 gels were able to enhance total body elimination and reduce the liver and skeletal burden of (241)Am in a dose-dependent manner. The efficacy achieved by a single 1,000 mg/kg dose to contaminated rats was statistically comparable to intravenous Ca-DTPA at 14 mg/kg. The effectiveness of this treatment, favorable sustained release profile of pro-chelators, and ease of administration support its use following radiological emergencies and for its inclusion in the Strategic National Stockpile.

  17. Biodegradable chelating agents for industrial, domestic, and agricultural applications--a review.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Isabel S S; Neto, Isabel F F; Soares, Helena M V M

    2014-10-01

    Aminopolycarboxylates, like ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA), are chelating agents widely used in several industrial, agricultural, and domestic applications. However, the fact that they are not biodegradable leads to the presence of considerable amounts in aquatic systems, with serious environmental consequences. The replacement of these compounds by biodegradable alternatives has been the object of study in the last three decades. This paper reviews the most relevant studies towards the use of environmentally friendly chelating agents in a large number of applications: oxidative bleaching, detergents and cleaning compositions, scale prevention and reduction, remediation of soils, agriculture, electroplating, waste treatment, and biocides. Nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA), ethylenediaminedisuccinic acid (EDDS), and iminodisuccinic acid (IDS) are the most commonly suggested to replace the nonbiodegradable chelating agents. Depending on the application, the requirements for metal complexation might differ. Metal chelation ability of the most promising compounds [NTA, EDDS, IDS, methylglycinediacetic acid (MGDA), L-glutamic acid N,N-diacetic acid (GLDA), ethylenediamine-N,N'-diglutaric acid (EDDG), ethylenediamine-N,N'-dimalonic acid (EDDM), 3-hydroxy-2,2-iminodisuccinic acid (HIDS), 2-hydroxyethyliminodiacetic acid (HEIDA), pyridine-2,6-dicarboxylic acid (PDA)] with Fe, Mn, Cu, Pb, Cd, Zn, Ca, and Mg was simulated by computer calculations. The advantages or disadvantages of each compound for the most important applications were discussed.

  18. Pulmonary clearance of three aerosolized solutes in oleic acid-induced lung injury

    SciTech Connect

    Huchon, G.J.; Montgomery, A.B.; Lipavsky, A.; Hoeffel, J.M.; Murray, J.F.

    1988-03-01

    We studied the effects of oleic acid (OA) on pulmonary clearance of three aerosolized radioactive solutes: /sup 99m/Tc-diethylenetriamine pentaacetate (/sup 99m/Tc-DTPA), /sup 67/Ga-desferoxamine (/sup 67/Ga-DFOM), and /sup 111/In-transferrin (/sup 111/In-TF). Either 0.09 ml/kg OA or an equivalent volume of 0.9% NaCl (controls) was administered intravenously to 48 anesthetized, paralyzed dogs. Each animal received one aerosolized solute either 60 min after (protocol A) or 30 min before (protocol B) the infusion of OA or NaCl. In protocol A clearances of all three solutes were similar in OA and control animals. In contrast, in protocol B clearances of all three solutes increased significantly during OA infusion; during the next 60 min clearances of /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA and /sup 67/Ga-DFOM returned to control values but 111In-TF remained increased. We conclude that 1) in OA-induced permeability edema pulmonary clearance of aerosolized solutes is increased when the aerosol is delivered 30 min before but not 60 min after injury, and 2) increased clearance persists only for large molecules, presumably because smaller molecules cross injured epithelium quickly and completely. These phenomena are best explained by a nonhomogeneous distribution of OA-induced injury.

  19. Assessment of Phytostabilization Success in Metalliferous Acid Mine Tailings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y.; Root, R. A.; Hammond, C.; Amistadi, M. K.; Maier, R. M.; Chorover, J.

    2014-12-01

    Legacy mine tailings are a significant source of metal(loid)s due to wind and water erosion, especially in the arid southwest, and exposure to fugative dusts presents a health risk to surrounding populations. Compost assisted phytostabilization has been implemented to reduce off site emissions at the Iron King Mine U.S. Superfund Site in central Arizona, concurrent with a greenhouse mesocosm study for detailed study of subsurface mechanisms. Quantification of plant available toxic metal(loid)s in the amended tailings was accessed with a targeted single extraction of diethylenetriaminepentaactic acid (DTPA). Greenhouse mesocosms (1m dia, 0.4 m deep), run in triplicate, mimicked field treatments with: i) tailings only control (TO), ii) tailings plus 15 wt% compost (TC), iii) TC + quailbush seeds (TCA), and iv) TC + buffalo grass seeds (TCB). Core samples collected at 3-month intervals for 1 year were dissected by depth (10 cm each) for analysis. DTPA results indicated that compost treated samples decreased plant availability of Al, As, Cd, Cu, Fe, and Pb but increased Mn and Zn compared with TO. TCB decreased plant available metal(loid)s at all depths, whereas TCA plant available Al, As, Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn increased in the deeper 20-30cm and 30-40 cm relative to TCB. Samples from the greenhouse were compared to tailings from both the field site and tailings impacted soils used to grow vegetables. Mineral transformations and metal complexation, in the pre- and post-extracted tailings were analyzed by synchrotron transmission XRD and FTIR spectroscopy. The temporal change in plant available metal(loid)s in response to phytostabilization indicates mineralogical alteration that improves soil quality by reducing plant available metal(loid)s. These results will aid in the understanding and efficacy of phytostabilization as a means of remediating and reducing toxicity on mine tailings as well as providing information on health risk management in the region.

  20. Increased Uptake of Chelated Copper Ions by Lolium perenne Attributed to Amplified Membrane and Endodermal Damage

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Anthea; Singhal, Naresh

    2015-01-01

    The contributions of mechanisms by which chelators influence metal translocation to plant shoot tissues are analyzed using a combination of numerical modelling and physical experiments. The model distinguishes between apoplastic and symplastic pathways of water and solute movement. It also includes the barrier effects of the endodermis and plasma membrane. Simulations are used to assess transport pathways for free and chelated metals, identifying mechanisms involved in chelate-enhanced phytoextraction. Hypothesized transport mechanisms and parameters specific to amendment treatments are estimated, with simulated results compared to experimental data. Parameter values for each amendment treatment are estimated based on literature and experimental values, and used for model calibration and simulation of amendment influences on solute transport pathways and mechanisms. Modeling indicates that chelation alters the pathways for Cu transport. For free ions, Cu transport to leaf tissue can be described using purely apoplastic or transcellular pathways. For strong chelators (ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA)), transport by the purely apoplastic pathway is insufficient to represent measured Cu transport to leaf tissue. Consistent with experimental observations, increased membrane permeability is required for simulating translocation in EDTA and DTPA treatments. Increasing the membrane permeability is key to enhancing phytoextraction efficiency. PMID:26512647

  1. Using estimates of metal bioavailability in the soil and genetic variation of allozymes to investigate heavy metal tolerance in the earthworm Eisenia fetida (Oligochaeta).

    PubMed

    Voua Otomo, P; Owojori, O J; Reinecke, S A; Daniels, S; Reinecke, A J

    2011-10-01

    In a recent study, we showed that the earthworm species Eisenia fetida, inhabiting an extremely high metal polluted compost heap on a wine farm, did not have elevated body loads of the metals but exhibited genotoxic tolerance when exposed to Cd in the laboratory (Voua Otomo and Reinecke, 2010). To unravel the mechanism behind the surprisingly low metal body burdens on one hand and genotoxic tolerance on the other hand, we investigated the estimated bioavailability of these metals (Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd) using sequential extraction methods with CaCl(2) and di-ethylene-triamine-pentaacetic acid (DTPA) and allozyme polymorphism in this field population, a laboratory control as well as a long-term Cd exposed population. The amounts of mobile (extracted with CaCl(2)) and mobilizable (extracted with DTPA) metals in relation to the total (extracted with nitric acid) metals were all below 0.05% for all four metals, suggesting low availability for uptake. The low availability of these metals could not be explained by physico-chemical properties of soil but by the phenomenon of aging of the metals. There was no difference in allozyme frequency between metal tolerant and non-metal tolerant populations of E. fetida. This suggested that the tolerance found in earlier studies could be a mere physiological adaptation.

  2. New chelating agent for attaching indium-111 to monoclonal antibodies: in vitro and in vivo evaluation.

    PubMed

    Subramanian, R; Colony, J; Shaban, S; Sidrak, H; Haspel, M V; Pomato, N; Hanna, M G; McCabe, R P

    1992-01-01

    111In possesses excellent radiophysical properties suitable for use in immunoscintigraphy of cancerous tissues when attached to an antitumor antibody. However, 111In has a tendency to accumulate in normal tissues such as liver. Instability of the linkage between 111In and antibody may contribute to this problem. To avoid this, we developed a new bifunctional chelating agent, 1,3-bis[N-[N-(2-aminoethyl)-2-aminoethyl]-2-aminoacetamido]-2-(4- isothiocyanatobenzyl)propane-N,N,N',N'',N''',N'''',N''''',N'''''- octaacetic acid (LiLo), that forms a kinetically stable chelate with metal ions such as indium. Using LiLo, indium-111 was conjugated to a human monoclonal antibody, 16.88. Competitive binding analysis revealed that the 16.88-LiLo conjugate is as immunoreactive as the unconjugated native antibody. This conjugate was compared with 111In-16.88, where diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid dianhydride (DTPAa) was used as the chelating agent. In vitro stability studies showed that 111In was more stably bound to 16.88-LiLo than to 16.88-DTPA. Biodistribution studies in athymic mice bearing colorectal tumor xenografts indicated less liver retention with 16.88-LiLo than with 16.88-DTPA. These results demonstrate that LiLo is superior to DTPAa for attachment of 111In to the monoclonal antibodies.

  3. Diagnostic use of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors in radioisotope evaluation of unilateral renal artery stenosis

    SciTech Connect

    Kremer Hovinga, T.K.; de Jong, P.E.; Piers, D.A.; Beekhuis, H.; van der Hem, G.K.; de Zeeuw, D.

    1989-05-01

    Iodine-123 hippurate renography, (/sup 99m/Tc)diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) renography, and (/sup 99m/Tc)dimercapto succinic acid (DMSA) renal scintigraphy were performed before and during angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition in a group of 15 hypertensive patients with angiographically ''significant'' unilateral renal artery stenosis. Visual and quantitative evaluation of the three radioisotope methods before ACE inhibition already disclosed abnormalities suggestive of renal artery stenosis in a high percentage (87%, 60%, and 60%, respectively) in this group of patients, but ACE inhibition further improved the diagnostic yield in all three methods (93%, 86%, and 80%). Iodine-123 hippurate renography was at least as useful as (/sup 99m/Tc)DTPA renography in this respect, while (/sup 99m/Tc)DMSA scintigraphy can be used particularly in segmental stenosis. Despite a large drop in blood pressure after ACE inhibition little adverse reactions were seen and overall renal function was fairly well maintained, the exceptions noted in patients with initially a more impaired renal function.

  4. Influence of soil type on the mobility and bioavailability of chelated zinc.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Jose M

    2007-05-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the distribution, mobility, and relative effectiveness of Zn from Zn-amino acids (Zn-AA) and Zn-DTPA-HEDTA-EDTA (Zn-CH) (DTPA, diethylenetriaminepentaacetate; HEDTA, N-2-hydroxyethyl-ethylenedinitrilotriacetate; and EDTA, ethylenedinitrilotetraacetate) sources by applying different Zn levels to weakly acidic and neutral soils in laboratory (incubation and soil column studies) and greenhouse conditions. The experiments were carried out for 60 days in incubation and column experiments and for 45 days in a greenhouse experiment. The zinc soil behavior was evaluated by DTPA-TEA and Mehlich-3 extractions and sequential speciation. The incubation experiment showed that the highest concentrations of available Zn in weakly acidic soil occurred with Zn-AA treatments, whereas in the neutral soil Zn-CH treatments produced the highest quantities of available Zn. The column experiment showed that in neutral soil, with slow to moderate permeability in the Ap and Bt horizons, only Zn-CH significantly increased the mobility of Zn through the column with respect to the control and the Zn-AA source: 31% of the Zn applied as synthetic chelate was leached from the column. The greenhouse experiment showed that, at different rates of Zn application, the Zn carriers increased Zn uptake by maize (Zea mays L.). The use of applied Zn by maize, or Zn utilization, was greatest when the Zn treatments were Zn-CH (3.3%) at 20 mg kg-1 and Zn-CH (4.9%) at 10 mg kg-1, in weakly acidic and neutral soils, respectively.

  5. Folic Acid

    MedlinePlus

    Folic acid is a B vitamin. It helps the body make healthy new cells. Everyone needs folic acid. For women who may get pregnant, it is really important. Getting enough folic acid before and during pregnancy can prevent major birth ...

  6. Folic Acid

    MedlinePlus

    Folic acid is used to treat or prevent folic acid deficiency. It is a B-complex vitamin needed by ... Folic acid comes in tablets. It usually is taken once a day. Follow the directions on your prescription label ...

  7. Cyclohexyl-triethylenetetraamine hexacetic acid

    DOEpatents

    Mease, Ronnie C.; Srivastava, Suresh C.; Gestin, Jean-Francois

    1992-01-01

    The present invention relates to new rigid chelating structures, to methods for preparing these materials, and to their use in preparing radiometal labeled immunoconjugates. These new chelates include cyclohexyl EDTA monohydride, the trans forms of cyclohexyl DTPA and TTHA, and derivatives of these cyclohexyl polyaminocarboxylate materials.

  8. [Functionalized Metal Chelates Based on Diethylenetriaminetetraacetic Acids for Chemical Modification of Proteins and Small Biomolecules].

    PubMed

    Kuprienko, O S; Dubovskaya, L V; Shabunya, P S; Fatykhava, S A; Sviridov, O V

    2015-01-01

    Bifunctional reagents based on diethylenetriaminetetraacetic acid containing a bound metal ion and a reactive functional group for the interaction with proteins and low-molecular-weight substances have been synthesized. An Amino-derivative of a complexonate was obtained by acylation of monosubstituted diamine with diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid dianhydride followed by deprotection ofthe amino group, purification by anion exchange chromatography and chelation of Eu3+. This metal chelate derivative was used for labeling 17α-hydroxyprogesterone 3-(O-carboxymethyl)oxime and horseradish peroxidase. The enzyme modified with the Eu3+ complexonate at the carbohydrate component and with a cortisol derivative at the polypeptide chain was used in a dissociation-enhanced lanthanide fluorescent immunoassay (DELFIA) as well as in an enzyme immunoassay of the steroid hormone. DELFIA showed that labeled 17α-hydroxyprogesterone retained the affinity for corresponding antibodies. A Eu(3+)-complexonate carboxy-derivative N-succinimide ester was obtained by acylation of the aminochelate with p-phthalic acid di-N-succinimide ester. It was used for modification of amino groups of lysine residues in polypeptide chains of human serum albumin and some immunoglobulins G. Purification of Eu3+ complexonate-protein conjugates by gel-chromatography on a Superose- 12 column allowed to separate the modified proteins from unreacted low molecular weight Eu(3+)-derivatives and to determine a degree of lanthanide inclusion into a protein. The amount of Eu3+ covalently attached to a protein was determined by measuring the fluorescence of a conjugate in the dissociative-enhancement solution. The obtained values correlated well with the results of ICP-MS determination of Eu3+ concentration in a conjugate solution. It was shown that conjugates of monoclonal antibodies obtained by the proposed method possessed the required characteristics of fluorescence intensity, signal-to-noise ratio, sensitivity

  9. Amino acids

    MedlinePlus

    ... amino acids are: histidine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, threonine, tryptophan , and valine. Nonessential amino acids "Nonessential" means that our bodies produce an amino ...

  10. Chicken manure biochar as liming and nutrient source for acid Appalachian soil.

    PubMed

    Hass, Amir; Gonzalez, Javier M; Lima, Isabel M; Godwin, Harry W; Halvorson, Jonathan J; Boyer, Douglas G

    2012-01-01

    Acid weathered soils often require lime and fertilizer application to overcome nutrient deficiencies and metal toxicity to increase soil productivity. Slow-pyrolysis chicken manure biochars, produced at 350 and 700°C with and without subsequent steam activation, were evaluated in an incubation study as soil amendments for a representative acid and highly weathered soil from Appalachia. Biochars were mixed at 5, 10, 20, and 40 g kg into a Gilpin soil (fine-loamy, mixed, active, mesic Typic Hapludult) and incubated in a climate-controlled chamber for 8 wk, along with a nonamended control and soil amended with agronomic dolomitic lime (AgLime). At the end of the incubation, soil pH, nutrient availability (by Mehlich-3 and ammonium bicarbonate diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid [AB-DTPA] extractions), and soil leachate composition were evaluated. Biochar effect on soil pH was process- and rate-dependent. Biochar increased soil pH from 4.8 to 6.6 at the high application rate (40 g kg), but was less effective than AgLime. Biochar produced at 350°C without activation had the least effect on soil pH. Biochar increased soil Mehlich-3 extractable micro- and macronutrients. On the basis of unit element applied, increase in pyrolysis temperature and biochar activation decreased availability of K, P, and S compared to nonactivated biochar produced at 350°C. Activated biochars reduced AB-DTPA extractable Al and Cd more than AgLime. Biochar did not increase NO in leachate, but increased dissolved organic carbon, total N and P, PO, SO, and K at high application rate (40 g kg). Risks of elevated levels of dissolved P may limit chicken manure biochar application rate. Applied at low rates, these biochars provide added nutritional value with low adverse impact on leachate composition. PMID:22751051

  11. Influence of chelating agents on the distribution and excretion of cadmium in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Planas-Bohne, F.; Lehmann, M.

    1983-03-15

    The effects of the chelating agents CaNa2-ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA), CaNa3-diethylenetriaminepentaacetate (DTPA), 2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA), 2,3-dimercaptopropanol (BAL), and 2,3-dimercaptopropane-1-sulfonate (DMPS) and of the lipophilic chelating agents Puchel, Puchel-bisamidocysteineethyl ester (Puch-D), and EDTA-bis-amidocysteineethyl ester (EDTA-D) on the distribution of iv injected Cd were studied in male Sprague-Dawley rats. The chelating agents were injected iv as single doses given 10 sec, 1 hr, or 3 hr after 3 mumol/kg Cd + 115mCd. When the chelating agents were injected within 10 sec after the metal, all agents reduced the total body cadmium burden by varying extents ranging from 3% of that in untreated control rats after 0.01 mmol BAL/kg to 94% following 0.1 mmol DTPA/kg. When given 1 hr after Cd injection, the efficacy of all the agents tested was markedly reduced or abolished; at this time only Puchel and Puch-D provoked significant reductions in the body burden of Cd by 21 and 32%, respectively. When treatment was delayed until 3 hr after Cd injection, only Puch-D was able to reduce the body and liver burden of the metal by 14 and 9%, respectively. Combined treatment with Puchel + DTPA, BAL + DTPA, or BAL + DMPS did not enhance Cd removal to an extent greater than that expected from the equivalent dose of the more effective agent of that pair alone. Repeated administration of DTPA, 20 X 0.1 mmol/kg, during 4 weeks by ip or po administration of the same dose in the drinking water over 4 weeks, was no no more effective than the first dose of the chelating agent alone. Gel chromatographic studies of the distribution of Cd among the proteins of the liver cytosol in treated and untreated animals indicate that neither DTPA nor Puchel was able to release Cd from the metallothionein complex.

  12. Subcellular SIMS imaging of gadolinium isotopes in human glioblastoma cells treated with a gadolinium containing MRI agent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Duane R.; Lorey, Daniel R.; Chandra, Subhash

    2004-06-01

    Neutron capture therapy is an experimental binary radiotherapeutic modality for the treatment of brain tumors such as glioblastoma multiforme. Recently, neutron capture therapy with gadolinium-157 has gained attention, and techniques for studying the subcellular distribution of gadolinium-157 are needed. In this preliminary study, we have been able to image the subcellular distribution of gadolinium-157, as well as the other six naturally abundant isotopes of gadolinium, with SIMS ion microscopy. T98G human glioblastoma cells were treated for 24 h with 25 mg/ml of the metal ion complex diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid Gd(III) dihydrogen salt hydrate (Gd-DTPA). Gd-DTPA is a contrast enhancing agent used for MRI of brain tumors, blood-brain barrier impairment, diseases of the central nervous system, etc. A highly heterogeneous subcellular distribution was observed for gadolinium-157. The nuclei in each cell were distinctly lower in gadolinium-157 than in the cytoplasm. Even within the cytoplasm the gadolinium-157 was heterogeneously distributed. The other six naturally abundant isotopes of gadolinium were imaged from the same cells and exhibited a subcellular distribution consistent with that observed for gadolinium-157. These observations indicate that SIMS ion microscopy may be a viable approach for subcellular studies of gadolinium containing neutron capture therapy drugs and may even play a major role in the development and validation of new gadolinium contrast enhancing agents for diagnostic MRI applications.

  13. Paramagnetic water-soluble metallofullerenes having the highest relaxivity for MRI contrast agents.

    PubMed

    Mikawa, M; Kato, H; Okumura, M; Narazaki, M; Kanazawa, Y; Miwa, N; Shinohara, H

    2001-01-01

    Water-soluble gadolinium (Gd) endohedral metallofullerenes have been synthesized as polyhydroxyl forms (Gd@C(82)(OH)(n)(), Gd-fullerenols) and their paramagnetic properties were evaluated by in vivo as well as in vitro for the novel magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents for next generation. The in vitro water proton relaxivity, R(1) (the effect on 1/T(1)), of Gd-fullerenols is significantly higher (20-folds) than that of the commercial MRI contrast agent, Magnevist (gadolinium-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid, Gd-DTPA) at 1.0 T close to the common field of clinical MRI. This unusually high proton relaxivity of Gd-fullerenols leads to the highest signal enhancement at extremely lower Gd concentration in MRI studies. The strong signal was confirmed in vivo MRI at lung, liver, spleen, and kidney of CDF1 mice after i.v. administration of Gd-fullerenols at a dose of 5 micromol Gd/kg, which was 1/20 of the typical clinical dose (100 micromol Gd/kg) of Gd-DTPA.

  14. Risks and management of radiation exposure.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Loren G

    2013-09-01

    High-energy ionizing radiation is harmful. Low-level exposure sources include background, occupational, and medical diagnostics. Radiation disaster incidents include radioactive substance accidents and nuclear power plant accidents. Terrorism and international conflict could trigger intentional radiation disasters that include radiation dispersion devices (RDD) (a radioactive dirty bomb), deliberate exposure to industrial radioactive substances, nuclear power plant sabotage, and nuclear weapon detonation. Nuclear fissioning events such as nuclear power plant incidents and nuclear weapon detonation release radioactive fallout that include radioactive iodine 131, cesium 137, strontium 90, uranium, plutonium, and many other radioactive isotopes. An RDD dirty bomb is likely to spread only one radioactive substance, with the most likely substance being cesium 137. Cobalt 60 and strontium 90 are other RDD dirty bomb possibilities. In a radiation disaster, stable patients should be decontaminated to minimize further radiation exposure. Potassium iodide (KI) is useful for iodine 131 exposure. Prussian blue (ferric hexacyanoferrate) enhances the fecal excretion of cesium via ion exchange. Ca-DTPA (diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid) and Zn-DTPA form stable ionic complexes with plutonium, americium, and curium, which are excreted in the urine. Amifostine enhances chemical and enzymatic repair of damaged DNA. Acute radiation sickness ranges in severity from mild to lethal, which can be assessed by the nausea/vomiting onset/duration, complete blood cell count findings, and neurologic symptoms. PMID:24201986

  15. Co phytoavailability for tomato in amended calcareous soils.

    PubMed

    Perez-Espinosa, A; Moral, R; Moreno-Caselles, J; Cortés, A; Perez-Murcia, M D; Gómez, I

    2005-04-01

    A plot study was conducted to assess changes in Co phytoavailability for a tomato cultivar grown on an agricultural soil (a Calcic Petrocalcid) amended with sewage sludge, under controlled conditions in South-eastern Spain. The experiment consisted of three main treatment blocks: (A) without organic fertilisation, (B) with addition of 60 tha(-1) and (C) 120 tha(-1) of sewage sludge. For each block (A, B, and C), four levels of Co (0, 50, 100 and 200 mgkg(-1)) were added, as CoCl2. Diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid, DTPA (0.005 M plus triethanolamine), ammonium acetate (1 N at pH 7), and water extractable fractions of the soils were analysed for all the plots. The time dependent Co accumulation in different parts (roots, stems, leaves, and fruits) of the tomato plants was studied. Soil Co seemed to be mainly in non-available forms, according to the low concentrations found in the water and ammonium acetate extracts, compared to DTPA. The gradient of Co accumulation in tomato plants was root > leaf > stem + branches > fruit, with a concentration in the edible parts ranging between 4 and 25 mg kg(-1). The organic amendment enhanced the plant extraction of Co, this effect being more significant with time. Plant extraction efficiency decreased with increasing Co concentration in the soils. Co in fruit showed the best correlation with all the Co extraction pools in the soil. PMID:15588767

  16. Sorption of cadmium by microorganisms in competition with other soil constituents

    SciTech Connect

    Kurek, E.; Czaban, J.; Bollag, J.M.

    1982-05-01

    The fate of cadmium in soil is influenced to a great extent by microbial activity. Microorganisms were compared with abiotic soil components for their ability to sorb Cd from a liquid medium. When the same amount (on a dry weight basis) of bacterial cells (Serratia marcescens and Paracoccus sp.), clay (montmorillonite), or sand was separately incubated in 0.05 M phosphate buffer, pH 7.2, containing 10 ppm of Cd (10 ..mu..g/ml), bacterial cells removed the largest quantity of Cd. Dead cells sorbed much more Cd from the medium than live cells. A comparative study of Cd removal from the medium by seven soil bacteria and four fungi did not indicate appreciable differences. With increasing microbial biomass, the relative efficiency of 0.1 M NaOH as an extractant of sorbed Cd increased, whereas the extraction efficiency of 0.005 M DTPA (diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid) decreased. It appeared that NaOH and DTPA extracted different chemical forms of Cd. This assumption was supported by vastly different correlation coefficients in the relative amount of Cd extracted by the two solvents.

  17. Dissolution of ion exchange resin by hydrogen peroxide

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.C.

    1981-08-01

    The resin dissolution process was conducted successfully in full-scale equipment at the SRL Semiworks. A solution containing 0.001M Fe/sup 2 +/, or Fe/sup 3 +/, and 3 vol % H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ in 0.1M HNO/sub 3/ is sufficient to dissolve up to 40 vol % resin slurry (Dowex 50W-X8). Foaming and pressurization can be eliminated by maintaining the dissolution temperature below 99/sup 0/C. The recommended dissolution temperature range is 85 to 90/sup 0/C. Premixing hydrogen peroxide with all reactants will not create a safety hazard, but operating with a continual feed of hydrogen peroxide is recommended to control the dissolution rate. An air sparging rate of 1.0 to 1.5 scfm will provide sufficient mixing. Spent resin from chemical separation contains DTPA (diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid) residue, and the resin must be washed with 0.1M NH/sub 4/ OH to remove excess DTPA before dissolution. Gamma irradiation of resin up to 4 kW-hr/L did not change the dissolution rate significantly.

  18. Acid Rain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Openshaw, Peter

    1987-01-01

    Provides some background information on acid deposition. Includes a historical perspective, describes some effects of acid precipitation, and discusses acid rain in the United Kingdom. Contains several experiments that deal with the effects of acid rain on water quality and soil. (TW)

  19. Acid rain

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    This report has four parts: they discuss acid rain in relation to acid soils, agriculture, forests, and aquatic ecosystems. Among findings: modern sources of acid deposition from the atmosphere for all the acid soils in the world, nor even chiefly responsible for those of northern U.S. Agriculture has its problems, but acid precipitation is probably not one of them. More research is needed to determine to what extent acid precipitation is responsible for forest declines and for smaller detrimental effects on forest growth where no damage to the foliage is evident. Many lakes and streams are extremely sensitive to added acids.

  20. Lauriston S. Taylor Lecture: the quest for therapeutic actinide chelators.

    PubMed

    Durbin, Patricia W

    2008-11-01

    All of the actinides are radioactive. Taken into the body, they damage and induce cancer in bone and liver, and in the lungs if inhaled, and U(VI) is a chemical kidney poison. Containment of radionuclides is fundamental to radiation protection, but if it is breached accidentally or deliberately, decontamination of exposed persons is needed to reduce the consequences of radionuclide intake. The only known way to reduce the health risks of internally deposited actinides is to accelerate their excretion with chelating agents. Ethylendiaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) were introduced in the 1950's. DTPA is now clinically accepted, but its oral activity is low, it must be injected as a Ca(II) or Zn(II) chelate to avoid toxicity, and it is structurally unsuitable for chelating U(VI) or Np(V). Actinide penetration into the mammalian iron transport and storage systems suggested that actinide ions would form stable complexes with the Fe(III)-binding units found in potent selective natural iron chelators (siderophores). Testing of that biomimetic approach began in the late 1970's with the design, production, and assessment for in vivo Pu(IV) chelation of synthetic multidentate ligands based on the backbone structures and Fe(III)-binding groups of siderophores. New efficacious actinide chelators have emerged from that program, in particular, octadentate 3,4,3-LI(1,2-HOPO) and tetradentate 5-LIO(Me-3,2-HOPO) have potential for clinical acceptance. Both are much more effective than CaNa3-DTPA for decorporation of Pu(IV), Am(III), U(VI), and Np(IV,V), they are orally active, and toxicity is acceptably low at effective dosage.

  1. Extractability of zinc, cadmium, and nickel in soils amended with EDTA

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Zhenbin; Shuman, L.M.

    1996-04-01

    Synthetic chelating agents are produced in large quantities for use in many industrial applications. Certain chelates, such as ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), are persistent in the environment. The presence of EDTA in soil may alter the mobility and transport of Zn, Cd, and Ni in soils because of the formation of water soluble chelates, thus increasing the potential for metal pollution of natural waters. Mobility of metals is related to their extractability. To investigate metal extractability affected by EDTA, Zn, Cd, and Ni were added to a portion of eight Georgia topsoil samples at rates of 75.9, 1.62, and 4.30 mg kg{sup -1}, respectively. Both natural and metal-amended soils were treated with Na{sub 2-}EDTA at rates of 0, 1.0, and 2.0 g kg{sup -1}. After 5 months of incubation, soil samples were extracted with Mehlich-1, DTPA (diethylenetriamine-pentaacetic acid) and 1 M Mg(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}, the latter of which extracts the exchangeable form of metals. Results showed that Zn and Ni in Mehlich-1 and DTPA extractions increased with increasing rates of EDTA. The increase for Cd was not as great as for Zn or Ni. Similar changes were found for the Mg(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} extraction. As a percentage of total metal concentration, the Mehlich-1 and DTPA extractable Zn was greater than Ni in the natural soils, and the order for the metal-amended soils was Cd > Zn > Ni. The results also suggested that EDTA significantly elevated the extractability of Zn and Ni in both natural and metal-amended soils. The order of mobility based on extractability was: Cd > Zn > Ni for metals added to soils, but when EDTA was present, added Ni was more extractable than Zn or Cd. 36 refs., 5 tabs.

  2. Additional Value of Diffusion-weighted MRI to Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced Hepatic MRI for the Detection of Liver Metastasis: the Difference Depending on the Experience of the Radiologists.

    PubMed

    Fukumoto, Wataru; Nakamura, Yuko; Higaki, Toru; Tatsugami, Fuminari; Iida, Makoto; Awai, Kazuo

    2015-06-01

    This retrospective study was to investigate whether adding diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) to Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI (EOB-MRI) improved the detection of liver metastasis in radiology resident and board-certified radiologist groups. It was approved by our institutional review board. We selected 18 patients with 35 liver metastases and 12 patients without liver tumors. Five board-certified radiologists and 5 radiology residents participated in the observer performance study. Each observer first interpreted T1- and T2-weighted-, plain-, arterial phase-, and hepatobiliary phase images and specified the location of the liver metastases. The software subsequently displayed the DWI images simultaneously and all participants repeated the reading. We used Jackknife alternative free-response receiver operating characteristic (JAFROC) analysis to compare the observer performance in detecting liver metastases. The mean values for the area under the curve (AUC) for EOB-MRI without and with DWI were 0.78 ± 0.13 [standard deviation: SD] and 0.87 ± 0.09, respectively, for the radiology residents, and the difference was statistically significant (p = 0.045). For the board- certified radiologists these values were 0.92 ± 0.02 and 0.96 ± 0.01, respectively, and the difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.092). EOB-MRI with DWI significantly improved the performance of radiology residents in the identification of liver metastases.

  3. Additional Value of Diffusion-weighted MRI to Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced Hepatic MRI for the Detection of Liver Metastasis: the Difference Depending on the Experience of the Radiologists.

    PubMed

    Fukumoto, Wataru; Nakamura, Yuko; Higaki, Toru; Tatsugami, Fuminari; Iida, Makoto; Awai, Kazuo

    2015-06-01

    This retrospective study was to investigate whether adding diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) to Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI (EOB-MRI) improved the detection of liver metastasis in radiology resident and board-certified radiologist groups. It was approved by our institutional review board. We selected 18 patients with 35 liver metastases and 12 patients without liver tumors. Five board-certified radiologists and 5 radiology residents participated in the observer performance study. Each observer first interpreted T1- and T2-weighted-, plain-, arterial phase-, and hepatobiliary phase images and specified the location of the liver metastases. The software subsequently displayed the DWI images simultaneously and all participants repeated the reading. We used Jackknife alternative free-response receiver operating characteristic (JAFROC) analysis to compare the observer performance in detecting liver metastases. The mean values for the area under the curve (AUC) for EOB-MRI without and with DWI were 0.78 ± 0.13 [standard deviation: SD] and 0.87 ± 0.09, respectively, for the radiology residents, and the difference was statistically significant (p = 0.045). For the board- certified radiologists these values were 0.92 ± 0.02 and 0.96 ± 0.01, respectively, and the difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.092). EOB-MRI with DWI significantly improved the performance of radiology residents in the identification of liver metastases. PMID:26211220

  4. Aminocaproic Acid

    MedlinePlus

    Aminocaproic acid is used to control bleeding that occurs when blood clots are broken down too quickly. This type ... the baby is ready to be born). Aminocaproic acid is also used to control bleeding in the ...

  5. Ethacrynic Acid

    MedlinePlus

    Ethacrynic acid, a 'water pill,' is used to treat swelling and fluid retention caused by various medical problems. It ... Ethacrynic acid comes as a tablet to take by mouth. It is usually taken once or twice a day ...

  6. Aristolochic Acids

    MedlinePlus

    ... Sciences NIH-HHS www.niehs.nih.gov Aristolochic Acids Key Points Report on Carcinogens Status Known to be human carcinogens Aristolochia Clematitis Aristolochic Acids n Known human carcinogens n Found in certain ...

  7. Obeticholic Acid

    MedlinePlus

    Obeticholic acid is used alone or in combination with ursodiol (Actigall, Urso) to treat primary biliary cholangitis (PBC; a ... were not treated successfully with ursodiol alone. Obeticholic acid is in a class of medications called farnesoid ...

  8. Acid mucopolysaccharides

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003368.htm Acid mucopolysaccharides To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Acid mucopolysaccharides is a test that measures the amount ...

  9. Acidification, heavy metal mobility and nutrient accumulation in the soil-plant system of a revegetated acid mine wasteland.

    PubMed

    Yang, Sheng-Xiang; Liao, Bin; Li, Jin-tian; Guo, Tao; Shu, Wen-Sheng

    2010-08-01

    A revegetation program was established at an extreme acidic and metal-toxic pyrite/copper mine wasteland in Guangdong Province, PR China using a combination of four native grass species and one non-native woody species. It was continued and monitored for 2 y. The emphasis was on acidification, metal mobility and nutrient accumulation in the soil-plant system. Our results showed the following: (i) the acid-forming potential of the mine soils decreased steadily with time, which might be due to plant root-induced changes inhibiting the oxidization of sulphide minerals; (ii) heavy metal extractability (diethylene-triamine-pentaacetic acid-extractable Pb and Zn) in the soils increased with time despite an increase in soil pH, which might be attributed to soil disturbance and plant rhizospheric processes, as well as a consequence of the enhanced metal accumulation in plants over time; and (iii) the vegetation cover increased rapidly with time, and plant development accelerated the accumulation of major nutrients (organic matter, total and ammonium-N, and available P and K). The 2-y field experiment demonstrates that direct seeding/planting of native plant species in combination with lime and manure amelioration is a practical approach to the initial establishment of a self-sustaining vegetation cover on this metalliferous and sulphide-bearing mine wasteland. However, heavy metal accumulation in the soil-plant system should be of great concern, and long-term monitoring of ecological risk must be an integral part of such a restoration scheme. PMID:20580409

  10. Minimal role of metallothionein in decreased chelator efficacy for cadmium.

    PubMed

    Waalkes, M P; Watkins, J B; Klaassen, C D

    1983-05-01

    Chelator efficacy in Cd poisoning drops precipitously if therapy is not commenced almost immediately after exposure. Metallothionein (MT), a low-molecular-weight metal-binding protein with high affinity for Cd, may be important for this phenomenon. To more fully assess this role of MT in the acute drop in chelator efficacy following Cd poisoning, rats were injected iv with radioisotopic Cd (1mg/kg as CdCl2; 50 muCi/kg) followed by diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA; 90 mg/kg ip) at various times (0, 15, 30, 60, and 120 min) after Cd. Ther percentage of the Cd dose remaining in major organs 24 hr following Cd was determined. Although DTPA reduced Cd content in the various organs when given immediately after Cd, the chelator was ineffective at all later times. Increases in hepatic and renal MT did not occur until 2 hr after Cd, and did not coincide with the earlier drop in chelator efficacy. Blockade of MT synthesis by actinomycin D treatment (1.25 mg/kg, 1 hr before Cd) failed to prolong the chelators effectiveness. Furthermore, newborn rats have high levels of hepatic MT which had no effect on the time course of chelator effectiveness since DTPA still decreased Cd organ contents if given immediately following Cd but had no effect if given 2 hr after Cd. Therefore, if appears that MT does not have an important role in the acute decrease in efficacy of chelation therapy for Cd poisoning. The quick onset of chelator ineffectiveness may be due to the rapid uptake of Cd into tissues which makes it relatively unavailable of chelation.

  11. Influence of chelator and near-infrared dye labeling on biocharacteristics of dual-labeled trastuzumab-based imaging agents

    PubMed Central

    Aldrich, Melissa B; Yang, Zhi; Zhou, Nina; Xie, Qing; Liu, Chen; Sevick-Muraca, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of fluorescent dye labeling on the targeting capabilities of 111In- (DTPA)n-trastuzumab-(IRDye 800)m. Methods Trastuzumab-based conjugates were synthesized and conjugated with diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) at molar ratios of 1, 2, 3 and 5 and with a fluorescent dye (IRDye 800CW) at molar ratios of 1, 3 and 5. Immunoreactivity and internalization were assessed on SKBR-3 cells, overexpressing human epidermal growth factor receptor 2. The stability in human serum and phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) was evaluated. The biodistribution of dual-labeled conjugates was compared with that of 111In-(DTPA)2-trastuzumab in a SKBR-3 xenograft model to evaluate the effect of dye-to-protein ratio. Results All trastuzumab-based conjugates exhibited a high level of chemical and optical purity. Flow cytometry results showed that increasing dye-to-protein ratios were associated with decreased immunoreactivity. Stability studies revealed that the conjugate was stable in PBS, while in human serum, increased degradation and protein precipitation were observed with increasing dye-to-protein ratios. At 4 h, the percentages of internalization of dual-labeled conjugates normalized by dye-to-protein ratio (m) were 24.88%±2.10%, 19.99%±0.59%, and 17.47%±1.26% for "m" equal to 1, 3, and 5, respectively. A biodistribution study revealed a progressive decrease in tumor uptake with an increase in the dye-to-protein ratios. The liver, spleen and kidney showed a marked uptake with increased dye-to-protein ratios, particularly in the latter. Conclusions With non-specific-site conjugation of the fluorescent dye with a protein based on imaging agent, the increase in dye-to-protein ratios negatively impacted the immunoreactivity and stability, indicating a reduced tumor uptake. PMID:27478322

  12. Fatty acids - trans fatty acids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The data supporting a negative effect of dietary trans fatty acids on cardiovascular disease risk is consistent. The primary dietary sources of trans fatty acids include partially hydrogenated fat and rudiment fat. The adverse effect of trans fatty acids on plasma lipoprotein profiles is consisten...

  13. Effectiveness of chelation therapy with time after acute uranium intoxication

    SciTech Connect

    Domingo, J.L.; Ortega, A.; Llobet, J.M.; Corbella, J. )

    1990-01-01

    The effect of increasing the time interval between acute uranium exposure and chelation therapy was studied in male Swiss mice. Gallic acid, 4,5-dihydroxy-1,3- benzenedisulfonic acid (Tiron), diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA), and 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-AS) were administered ip at 0, 0.25, 1, 4, and 24 hr after sc injection of 10 mg/kg of uranyl acetate dihydrate. Chelating agents were given at doses equal to one-fourth of their respective LD50 values. Daily elimination of uranium into urine and feces was determined for 4 days after which time the mice were killed, and the concentration of uranium was measured in kidney, spleen, and bone. The excretion of uranium was especially rapid in the first 24 hr. Treatment with Tiron or gallic acid at 0, 0.25, or 1 hr after uranium exposure significantly increased the total excretion of the metal. In kidney and bone, only administration of Tiron at 0, 0.25, or 1 hr after uranium injection, or gallic acid at 1 hr after uranium exposure significantly reduced tissue uranium concentrations. Treatment at later times (4 to 24 hr) did not increase the total excretion of the metal and did not decrease the tissue uranium concentrations 4 days after uranyl acetate administration. The results show that the length of time before initiating chelation therapy for acute uranium intoxication greatly influences the effectiveness of this therapy.

  14. Aspartic acid

    MedlinePlus

    ... Hormone production and release Normal nervous system function Plant sources of aspartic acid include: Legumes such as soybeans, garbanzo beans, and lentils Peanuts, almonds, walnuts, and flaxseeds Animal ...

  15. Antagonists for acute oral cadmium chloride intoxication

    SciTech Connect

    Basinger, M.A.; Jones, M.M.; Holscher, M.A.; Vaughn, W.K.

    1988-01-01

    An examination has been carried out on the relative efficacy of a number of chelating agents when acting as antagonists for oral cadmium chloride intoxication in mice. The compounds were administered orally after the oral administration of cadmium chloride at 1 mmol/kg. Of the compounds examined, several were useful in terms of enhancing survival, but by far the most effective in both enhancing survival and leaving minimal residual levels of cadmium in the liver and the kidney, was meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA). Several polyaminocarboxylic acids also enhanced survival. The most effective of these in reducing liver and kidney levels of cadmium were diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA), trans-1,2-diaminocyclohexane-N,N,N'N'-tetraacetic acid (CDTA), and triethylenetetraminehexaacetic acid (TTHA). D-Penicillamine (DPA) was found to promote survival but also led to kidney cadmium levels higher than those found in the controls. Sodium 2,3-dimercaptopropane-1-sulfonate (DMPS) was as effective in promoting survival as DMSA but left levels of cadmium in the kidney and liver that were approximately four times greater than those found with DMSA.

  16. Pulmonary clearance of radiotracers after positive end-expiratory pressure or acute lung injury

    SciTech Connect

    Barrowcliffe, M.P.; Zanelli, G.D.; Jones, J.G.

    1989-01-01

    In anesthetized rabbits we measured clearance from lung to blood of eight aerosolized technetium-99m-labeled compounds: diethylenetriaminepentaacetate (99mTc-DTPA); cytochrome c; myoglobin; a myoglobin polymer; albumin; and anionic, cationic, and neutral dextrans of equivalent molecular size. We investigated the effect of applying positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) and, on a subsequent occasion, of injecting oleic acid intravenously to produce acute lung injury on the pulmonary clearance rate. Base-line clearance rates were monoexponential and varied with the molecular weights of the radiotracers. For each tracer the rate of clearance was increased a similar degree by either PEEP or oleic acid. However, with PEEP, clearance remained monoexponential, whereas after oleic acid, smaller molecular-weight radiotracers had multiexponential clearance curves. This suggests that after oleic acid the alveolar epithelium breaks down in a nonuniform fashion. We conclude that differentiation of the effect of PEEP from that of severe lung injury caused by oleic acid is not readily accomplished by either increasing the size of the tracer molecule or by varying the molecular charge.

  17. Usnic acid.

    PubMed

    Ingólfsdóttir, K

    2002-12-01

    Since its first isolation in 1844, usnic acid [2,6-diacetyl-7,9-dihydroxy-8,9b-dimethyl-1,3(2H,9bH)-dibenzo-furandione] has become the most extensively studied lichen metabolite and one of the few that is commercially available. Usnic acid is uniquely found in lichens, and is especially abundant in genera such as Alectoria, Cladonia, Usnea, Lecanora, Ramalina and Evernia. Many lichens and extracts containing usnic acid have been utilized for medicinal, perfumery, cosmetic as well as ecological applications. Usnic acid as a pure substance has been formulated in creams, toothpaste, mouthwash, deodorants and sunscreen products, in some cases as an active principle, in others as a preservative. In addition to antimicrobial activity against human and plant pathogens, usnic acid has been shown to exhibit antiviral, antiprotozoal, antiproliferative, anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity. Ecological effects, such as antigrowth, antiherbivore and anti-insect properties, have also been demonstrated. A difference in biological activity has in some cases been observed between the two enantiomeric forms of usnic acid. Recently health food supplements containing usnic acid have been promoted for use in weight reduction, with little scientific support. The emphasis of the current review is on the chemistry and biological activity of usnic acid and its derivatives in addition to rational and ecologically acceptable methods for provision of this natural compound on a large scale.

  18. Acid rain

    SciTech Connect

    Elsworth, S.

    1985-01-01

    This book was written in a concise and readable style for the lay public. It's purpose was to make the public aware of the damage caused by acid rain and to mobilize public opinion to favor the elimination of the causes of acid rain.

  19. Acid rain

    SciTech Connect

    White, J.C. )

    1988-01-01

    This book presents the proceedings of the third annual conference sponsored by the Acid Rain Information Clearinghouse (ARIC). Topics covered include: Legal aspects of the source-receptor relationship: an energy perspective; Scientific uncertainty, agency inaction, and the courts; and Acid rain: the emerging legal framework.

  20. How Acidic Is Carbonic Acid?

    PubMed

    Pines, Dina; Ditkovich, Julia; Mukra, Tzach; Miller, Yifat; Kiefer, Philip M; Daschakraborty, Snehasis; Hynes, James T; Pines, Ehud

    2016-03-10

    Carbonic, lactic, and pyruvic acids have been generated in aqueous solution by the transient protonation of their corresponding conjugate bases by a tailor-made photoacid, the 6-hydroxy-1-sulfonate pyrene sodium salt molecule. A particular goal is to establish the pK(a) of carbonic acid H2CO3. The on-contact proton transfer (PT) reaction rate from the optically excited photoacid to the carboxylic bases was derived, with unprecedented precision, from time-correlated single-photon-counting measurements of the fluorescence lifetime of the photoacid in the presence of the proton acceptors. The time-dependent diffusion-assisted PT rate was analyzed using the Szabo-Collins-Kimball equation with a radiation boundary condition. The on-contact PT rates were found to follow the acidity order of the carboxylic acids: the stronger was the acid, the slower was the PT reaction to its conjugate base. The pK(a) of carbonic acid was found to be 3.49 ± 0.05 using both the Marcus and Kiefer-Hynes free energy correlations. This establishes H2CO3 as being 0.37 pK(a) units stronger and about 1 pK(a) unit weaker, respectively, than the physiologically important lactic and pyruvic acids. The considerable acid strength of intact carbonic acid indicates that it is an important protonation agent under physiological conditions. PMID:26862781

  1. Acid rain

    SciTech Connect

    Sweet, W.

    1980-06-20

    Acid precipitation includes not only rain but also acidified snow, hail and frost, as well as sulfur and nitrogen dust. The principal source of acid precipitation is pollution emitted by power plants and smelters. Sulfur and nitrogen compounds contained in the emissions combine with moisture to form droplets with a high acid content - sometimes as acidic as vinegar. When sufficiently concentrated, these acids can kill fish and damage material structures. Under certain circumstances they may reduce crop and forest yields and cause or aggravate respiratory diseases in humans. During the summer, especially, pollutants tend to collect over the Great Lakes in high pressure systems. Since winds typically are westerly and rotate clockwise around high pressure systems, the pollutants gradually are dispersed throughout the eastern part of the continent.

  2. Asparagusic acid.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Stephen C; Waring, Rosemary H

    2014-01-01

    Asparagusic acid (1,2-dithiolane-4-carboxylic acid) is a simple sulphur-containing 5-membered heterocyclic compound that appears unique to asparagus, though other dithiolane derivatives have been identified in non-food species. This molecule, apparently innocuous toxicologically to man, is the most probable culprit responsible for the curious excretion of odorous urine following asparagus ingestion. The presence of the two adjacent sulphur atoms leads to an enhanced chemical reactivity, endowing it with biological properties including the ability to substitute potentially for α-lipoic acid in α-keto-acid oxidation systems. This brief review collects the scattered data available in the literature concerning asparagusic acid and highlights its properties, intermediary metabolism and exploratory applications.

  3. Acid rain

    SciTech Connect

    Bess, F.D.

    1980-01-01

    The acid rain problem in the northeastern U.S. has been growing in severity and geographical areas affected. Acid rain has damaged, or will result in damage to visibility, physical structures and materials, aquatic life, timber, crops, and soils. The principal causes of acid rain in the northeastern U.S. are sulfur oxide and nitrogen oxide emissions from large power plants and smelters in the Ohio River Valley. Immediate corrective action and appropriate research are needed to reduce acid precipitation. Short-term programs that will define the rate of environmental deterioration, remaining environmental capacity to resist sudden deterioration, mechanisms of acid rain formation, and costs of various control options must be developed. (3 maps, 13 references, 1 table)

  4. Asparagusic acid.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Stephen C; Waring, Rosemary H

    2014-01-01

    Asparagusic acid (1,2-dithiolane-4-carboxylic acid) is a simple sulphur-containing 5-membered heterocyclic compound that appears unique to asparagus, though other dithiolane derivatives have been identified in non-food species. This molecule, apparently innocuous toxicologically to man, is the most probable culprit responsible for the curious excretion of odorous urine following asparagus ingestion. The presence of the two adjacent sulphur atoms leads to an enhanced chemical reactivity, endowing it with biological properties including the ability to substitute potentially for α-lipoic acid in α-keto-acid oxidation systems. This brief review collects the scattered data available in the literature concerning asparagusic acid and highlights its properties, intermediary metabolism and exploratory applications. PMID:24099657

  5. Effect of chelating agents and solubility of cadmium complexes on uptake from soil by Brassica juncea.

    PubMed

    Van Engelen, Debra L; Sharpe-Pedler, Rachel C; Moorhead, Kevin K

    2007-06-01

    Brassica juncea, or Indian mustard, was grown in soil artificially contaminated with either a soluble salt, CdCl(2), at 186mg Cdkg(-1), or alternately an insoluble, basic salt, CdCO(3), at 90mg Cdkg(-1). These experiments study the range of Cd uptake by Indian mustard from conditions of very high Cd concentration in a soluble form to the other extreme with an insoluble Cd salt. After plants were established, four different chelating agents were applied. Chelating agents increased plant uptake of Cd from the CdCl(2) soil but did not significantly increase plant uptake of Cd from the CdCO(3) contaminated soil. Addition of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) increased the plant concentration of Cd by almost 10-fold in soils contaminated with CdCl(2), with a concentration of 1283mg Cdkg(-1) in the dried EDTA-treated plants over a concentration of 131mg Cdkg(-1) in plants without added chelate. However, EDTA increased the aqueous solubility of Cd by 36 times over the soil matrix without added chelator, and thereby, increased the possibility of leaching. Other chelators used in both experiments were ethylenebis(oxyethylenenitrilo)tetraacetic acid, trans-1,2-diaminocyclohexane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid, and diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) increasing Cd in plants to 1240, 962, and 437mg Cdkg(-1), respectively. The other chelating agents increased the solubility of Cd in the leachate but not to the extent of EDTA. Comparing all chelating agents studied, DTPA increased plant uptake in terms of Cd in dried plant concentration most relative to the solubility of complexed Cd in runoff water.

  6. Acid fog

    SciTech Connect

    Hileman, B.

    1983-03-01

    Fog in areas of southern California previously thought to be pollution-free has been shown to have a pH as low as 1.69. It has been found to be most acidic after smoggy days, suggesting that it forms on the aerosol associated with the previously exiting smog. Studies on Whiteface Mountain in the Adirondacks show that fog water is often 10 times as acidic as rainwater. As a result of their studies, California plans to spend $4 million on acid deposition research in the coming year. (JMT)

  7. 76 FR 51991 - Determination That PENTETATE CALCIUM TRISODIUM (Trisodium Calcium Diethylenetriaminepentaacetate...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-19

    ... to 1 Gram Base/5 Milliliters (Equivalent to 200 Milligrams Base/Milliliter), Was Not Withdrawn From..., equivalent to (EQ) 1 gram (g) base/5 milliliters (mL) (EQ 200 milligrams (mg) base/mL) was not withdrawn from... inhalation administration (EQ 1 g base/5 mL (EQ 200 mg base/mL)), if all other legal and...

  8. Dysprosium(III)-diethylenetriaminepentaacetate complexes of aminocyclodextrins as chiral NMR shift reagents.

    PubMed

    Wenzel, T J; Miles, R D; Zomlefer, K; Frederique, D E; Roan, M A; Troughton, J S; Pond, B V; Colby, A L

    2000-01-01

    A metal chelating ligand is bonded to alpha-, beta-, and gamma-cyclodextrin by the reaction of diethylenetraminepentaacetic dianhydride with the corresponding 6-mono- and 2-mono(amine)cyclodextrin. Adding Dy(III) to the cyclodextrin derivatives causes shifts in the (1)H-NMR spectra of substrates such as propranolol, tryptophan, aspartame, carbinoxamine, pheniramine, doxylamine, and 1-anilino-8-naphthalenesulfonate. The Dy(III)-induced shifts enhance the enantiomeric resolution in the NMR spectra of several substrates. Enhancements in enantiomeric resolution using cyclodextrin derivatives with the amine tether are compared to previously described compounds in which the chelating ligand is attached through an ethylenediamine tether. In general, the Dy(III) complex of the 6-beta-derivative with the amine tether is a more effective chiral resolving agent than the complex with the ethylenediamine tether. The opposite trend is observed with the 2-beta-derivatives. The presence of the chelating ligand in the 2-beta-derivative hinders certain substrates from entering the cavity. For cationic substrates, evidence suggests that a cooperative association involving inclusion in the cavity and association with the Dy(III) unit occurs. Enhancements in enantiomeric resolution in the spectrum of tryptophan are greater for the secondary alpha- and gamma-derivatives than the beta-derivative.

  9. Analytical measurement of discrete hydrogen sulfide pools in biological specimens.

    PubMed

    Shen, Xinggui; Peter, Elvis A; Bir, Shyamal; Wang, Rui; Kevil, Christopher G

    Hydrogen sulfide (H₂S) is a ubiquitous gaseous signaling molecule that plays a vital role in numerous cellular functions and has become the focus of many research endeavors, including pharmacotherapeutic manipulation. Among the challenges facing the field is the accurate measurement of biologically active H₂S. We have recently reported that the typically used methylene blue method and its associated results are invalid and do not measure bona fide H₂S. The complexity of analytical H₂S measurement reflects the fact that hydrogen sulfide is a volatile gas and exists in the body in various forms, including a free form, an acid-labile pool, and bound as sulfane sulfur. Here we describe a new protocol to discretely measure specific H₂S pools using the monobromobimane method coupled with RP-HPLC. This new protocol involves selective liberation, trapping, and derivatization of H₂S. Acid-labile H₂S is released by incubating the sample in an acidic solution (pH 2.6) of 100 mM phosphate buffer with 0.1mM diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA), in an enclosed system to contain volatilized H₂S. Volatilized H₂S is then trapped in 100 mM Tris-HCl (pH 9.5, 0.1 mM DTPA) and then reacted with excess monobromobimane. In a separate aliquot, the contribution of the bound sulfane sulfur pool was measured by incubating the sample with 1 mM TCEP (tris(2-carboxyethyl)phosphine hydrochloride), a reducing agent, to reduce disulfide bonds, in 100 mM phosphate buffer (pH 2.6, 0.1 mM DTPA), and H₂S measurement was performed in a manner analogous to the one described above. The acid-labile pool was determined by subtracting the free hydrogen sulfide value from the value obtained by the acid-liberation protocol. The bound sulfane sulfur pool was determined by subtracting the H₂S measurement from the acid-liberation protocol alone compared to that of TCEP plus acidic conditions. In summary, our new method allows very sensitive and accurate measurement of the three primary

  10. Tranexamic Acid

    MedlinePlus

    ... is used to treat heavy bleeding during the menstrual cycle (monthly periods) in women. Tranexamic acid is in ... tablets for more than 5 days in a menstrual cycle or take more than 6 tablets in a ...

  11. Mefenamic Acid

    MedlinePlus

    ... as mefenamic acid may cause ulcers, bleeding, or holes in the stomach or intestine. These problems may ... like coffee grounds, blood in the stool, or black and tarry stools.Keep all appointments with your ...

  12. Acid Precipitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Likens, Gene E.

    1976-01-01

    Discusses the fact that the acidity of rain and snow falling on parts of the U.S. and Europe has been rising. The reasons are still not entirely clear and the consequences have yet to be well evaluated. (MLH)

  13. Determination of aminopolycarboxylic acids at ultra-trace levels by means of online coupling ion exchange chromatography and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry with indirect detection via their Pd²⁺-complexes.

    PubMed

    Nette, David; Seubert, Andreas

    2015-07-16

    A new indirect IC-ICP-MS method for the determination of aminopolycarboxylic acids in water samples is described. It is based on the addition of an excess of Pd(II) to water samples. The analytes are forced into very strong and negatively charged palladium complexes, separated by ion exchange chromatography and detected by their palladium content, utilizing an on-line coupled ICP-MS. This method is suitable to determine the concentration of 8 aminopolycarboxylic acids (nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA), (2-carboxyethyl) iminodiacetic acid (β-ADA), methylglycinediacetic acid (MGDA), 2-hydroxyethyl) ethylenediamine triacetic acid (HEDTA), diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA), ethylendiamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA), 1,3-diaminopropane tetraacetic acid (1,3-PDTA) and 1,2-diaminopropane tetraacetic acid (1,2-PDTA) at the ng kg(-1) level. The method is faster and easier than the established gas chromatography (GC)-method ISO 16588:2002 and up to two orders of magnitude more sensitive than the ion pair chromatography based method of DIN 38413-8. Analytic performance is superior to ISO 16588:2002 and the comparability is good. PMID:26073818

  14. Acidic precipitation

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, H.C.

    1987-01-01

    At the International Symposium on Acidic Precipitation, over 400 papers were presented, and nearly 200 of them are included here. They provide an overview of the present state of the art of acid rain research. The Conference focused on atmospheric science (monitoring, source-receptor relationships), aquatic effects (marine eutrophication, lake acidification, impacts on plant and fish populations), and terrestrial effects (forest decline, soil acidification, etc.).

  15. Quantitative imaging of cell-permeable magnetic resonance contrast agents using x-ray fluorescence.

    PubMed

    Endres, Paul J; Macrenaris, Keith W; Vogt, Stefan; Allen, Matthew J; Meade, Thomas J

    2006-01-01

    The inability to transduce cellular membranes is a limitation of current magnetic resonance imaging probes used in biologic and clinical settings. This constraint confines contrast agents to extracellular and vascular regions of the body, drastically reducing their viability for investigating processes and cycles in developmental biology. Conversely, a contrast agent with the ability to permeate cell membranes could be used in visualizing cell patterning, cell fate mapping, gene therapy, and, eventually, noninvasive cancer diagnosis. Therefore, we describe the synthesis and quantitative imaging of four contrast agents with the capability to cross cell membranes in sufficient quantity for detection. Each agent is based on the conjugation of a Gd(III) chelator with a cellular transduction moiety. Specifically, we coupled Gd(III)-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid DTPA and Gd(III)-1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid with an 8-amino acid polyarginine oligomer and an amphipathic stilbene molecule, 4-amino-4'-(N,N-dimethylamino)stilbene. The imaging modality that provided the best sensitivity and spatial resolution for direct detection of the contrast agents is synchrotron radiation x-ray fluorescence (SR-XRF). Unlike optical microscopy, SR-XRF provides two-dimensional images with resolution 10(3) better than (153)Gd gamma counting, without altering the agent by organic fluorophore conjugation. The transduction efficiency of the intracellular agents was evaluated by T(1) analysis and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry to determine the efficacy of each chelate-transporter combination. PMID:17150161

  16. Application of sequential extraction analysis to electrokinetic remediation of cadmium, nickel and zinc from contaminated soils.

    PubMed

    Giannis, Apostolos; Pentari, Despina; Wang, Jing-Yuan; Gidarakos, Evangelos

    2010-12-15

    An enhanced electrokinetic process for the removal of cadmium (Cd), nickel (Ni) and zinc (Zn) from contaminated soils was performed. The efficiency of the chelate agents nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA), diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) and diaminocycloexanetetraacetic acid (DCyTA) was examined under constant potential gradient (1.23 V/cm). The results showed that chelates were effective in desorbing metals at a high pH, with metal-chelate anion complexes migrating towards the anode. At low pH, metals existing as dissolved cations migrated towards the cathode. In such conflicting directions, the metals accumulated in the middle of the cell. Speciation of the metals during the electrokinetic experiments was performed to provide an understanding of the distribution of the Cd, Ni and Zn. The results of sequential extraction analysis revealed that the forms of the metals could be altered from one fraction to another due to the variation of physico-chemical conditions throughout the cell, such as pH, redox potential and the chemistry of the electrolyte solution during the electrokinetic treatment. It was found that binding forms of metals were changed from the difficult type to easier extraction type. PMID:20833468

  17. Salicylic acids

    PubMed Central

    Hayat, Shamsul; Irfan, Mohd; Wani, Arif; Nasser, Alyemeni; Ahmad, Aqil

    2012-01-01

    Salicylic acid is well known phytohormone, emerging recently as a new paradigm of an array of manifestations of growth regulators. The area unleashed yet encompassed the applied agriculture sector to find the roles to strengthen the crops against plethora of abiotic and biotic stresses. The skipped part of integrated picture, however, was the evolutionary insight of salicylic acid to either allow or discard the microbial invasion depending upon various internal factors of two interactants under the prevailing external conditions. The metabolic status that allows the host invasion either as pathogenesis or symbiosis with possible intermediary stages in close systems has been tried to underpin here. PMID:22301975

  18. Organic acids inhibit the formation of pyromorphite and Zn-phosphate in phosphorous amended Pb- and Zn-contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Debela, F; Arocena, J M; Thring, R W; Whitcombe, T

    2013-02-15

    Pyromorphite (PY) and some zinc phosphates (Zn-P) are very sparingly soluble minerals and hence can immobilize Pb and Zn in contaminated soils. However, mechanisms leading to the poor efficiency of PY and Zn-P formation in contaminated soils amended with P still remain unclear. We studied the influence of two low molecular weight organic acids (LMWOA) - oxalic acid and citric acid and diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA) - in PY and Zn-P formation in a P-amended contaminated soil. Despite the high levels of metals (∼4% Pb and 21% Zn) in the study soil, the addition of up to 1% inorganic P transformed only up to 37% and 17% of the total Pb and Zn to PY and Zn-P, respectively. Semi-quantitative estimates from a linear combination fitting of X-ray absorption near edge spectra (LC-XANES fitting) showed that the formation of PY decreased from 37% to 3% of the total Pb in the presence of oxalic acid and the addition of 1% P. The reduced PY formation may be associated with the increase in organic-bound Pb from 9% to 54% and decrease in carbonate associated Pb from 42% to 12% with oxalic acid addition as indicated by a chemical sequential extraction (SE) technique. Citric acid seemed to have a less adverse effect in PY formation than oxalic acid. Our data also suggests both oxalic and citric acids have less adverse effects on the efficiency of Zn-P formation. From this study we conclude that the abundance of LMWOA in soil environments can be one factor contributing to the poor efficiency of P amendments practices to effectively immobilize Pb and Zn in metal contaminated soils.

  19. Stearic Acid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Jay A.

    2004-01-01

    A chemical laboratory information profile (CLIP) is presented for the chemical, stearic acid. The profile lists the chemical's physical and harmful characteristics, exposure limits, and symptoms of major exposure, for the benefit of teachers and students, who use the chemical in the laboratory.

  20. Trichloroacetic acid

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Trichloroacetic acid ( TCA ) ; CASRN 76 - 03 - 9 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Nonca

  1. Acrylic acid

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Acrylic acid ( CASRN 79 - 10 - 7 ) Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Eff

  2. Selenious acid

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Selenious acid ; CASRN 7783 - 00 - 8 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic E

  3. Dichloroacetic acid

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Dichloroacetic acid ; CASRN 79 - 43 - 6 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogeni

  4. Cacodylic acid

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Cacodylic acid ; CASRN 75 - 60 - 5 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Eff

  5. Phosphoric acid

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Phosphoric acid ; CASRN 7664 - 38 - 2 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic

  6. Benzoic acid

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Benzoic acid ; CASRN 65 - 85 - 0 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Effec

  7. Formic acid

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Formic acid ; CASRN 64 - 18 - 6 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Effect

  8. [Hyaluronic acid].

    PubMed

    Pomarede, N

    2008-01-01

    Hyaluronic Acid (HA) is now a leader product in esthetic procedures for the treatment of wrinkles and volumes. The structure of HA, its metabolism, its physiological function are foremost breaking down then its use in aesthetic dermatology: steps of injection, possible side effects, benefits and downsides of the use of HA in aesthetic dermatology.

  9. Dissolution kinetics of iron-, manganese-, and copper-containing synthetic hydroxyapatites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sutter, B.; Hossner, L. R.; Ming, D. W.

    2005-01-01

    Micronutrient-substituted synthetic hydroxyapatite (SHA) is being evaluated by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Advanced Life Support (ALS) Program for crop production on long-duration human missions to the International Space Station or for future Lunar or Martian outposts. The stirred-flow technique was utilized to characterize Ca, P, Fe, Mn, and Cu release characteristics from Fe-, Mn-, and Cu-containing SHA in deionized (DI) water, citric acid, and diethylene-triamine-pentaacetic acid (DTPA). Initially, Ca and P release rates decreased rapidly with time and were controlled by a non-SHA calcium phosphate phase(s) with low Ca/P solution molar ratios (0.91-1.51) relative to solid SHA ratios (1.56-1.64). At later times, Ca/P solution molar ratios (1.47-1.79) were near solid SHA ratios and release rates decreased slowly indicating that SHA controlled Ca and P release. Substituted SHA materials had faster dissolution rates relative to unsubstituted SHA. The initial metal release rate order was Mn >> Cu > Fe which followed metal-oxide/phosphate solubility suggesting that poorly crystalline metal-oxides/phosphates were dominating metal release. Similar metal release rates for all substituted SHA (approximately 0.01 cmol kg-1 min-1) at the end of the DTPA experiment indicated that SHA dissolution was supplying the metals into solution and that poorly crystalline metal-oxide/phosphates were not controlling metal release. Results indicate that non-SHA Ca-phosphate phases and poorly crystalline metal-oxide/phosphates will contribute Ca, P, and metals. After these phases have dissolved, substituted SHA will be the source of Ca, P, and metals for plants.

  10. Chemical stabilization of cadmium in acidic soil using alkaline agronomic and industrial by-products.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yao-Tsung; Hsi, Hsing-Cheng; Hseu, Zeng-Yei; Jheng, Shao-Liang

    2013-01-01

    In situ immobilization of heavy metals using reactive or stabilizing materials is a promising solution for soil remediation. Therefore, four agronomic and industrial by-products [wood biochar (WB), crushed oyster shell (OS), blast furnace slag (BFS), and fluidized-bed crystallized calcium (FBCC)] and CaCO3 were added to acidic soil (Cd = 8.71 mg kg(-1)) at the rates of 1%, 2%, and 4% and incubated for 90 d. Chinese cabbage (Brassica chinensis L.) was then planted in the soil to test the Cd uptake. The elevation in soil pH caused by adding the by-products produced a negative charge on the soil surface, which enhanced Cd adsorption. Consequently, the diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA)-extractable Cd content decreased significantly (P < 0.05) in the incubated soil. These results from the sequential extraction procedure indicated that Cd converted from the exchangeable fraction to the carbonate or Fe-Mn oxide fraction. The long-term effectiveness of Cd immobilization caused by applying the 4 by-products was much greater than that caused by applying CaCO3. Plant shoot biomass clearly increased because of the by-product soil amendment. Cd concentration in the shoots was < 10.0 mg kg(-1) following by-product application, as compared to 24 mg kg(-1) for plants growing in unamended soil. PMID:23947715

  11. Hydroxycarboxylic acids and salts

    DOEpatents

    Kiely, Donald E; Hash, Kirk R; Kramer-Presta, Kylie; Smith, Tyler N

    2015-02-24

    Compositions which inhibit corrosion and alter the physical properties of concrete (admixtures) are prepared from salt mixtures of hydroxycarboxylic acids, carboxylic acids, and nitric acid. The salt mixtures are prepared by neutralizing acid product mixtures from the oxidation of polyols using nitric acid and oxygen as the oxidizing agents. Nitric acid is removed from the hydroxycarboxylic acids by evaporation and diffusion dialysis.

  12. Riparian plants on mine runoff in Zimapan, Hidalgo, Mexico: Useful for phytoremediation?

    PubMed

    Carmona-Chit, Eréndira; Carrillo-González, Rogelio; González-Chávez, Ma Del Carmen A; Vibrans, Heike; Yáñez-Espinosa, Laura; Delgado-Alvarado, Adriana

    2016-09-01

    Dispersion and runoff of mine tailings have serious implications for human and ecosystem health in the surroundings of mines. Water, soils and plants were sampled in transects perpendicular to the Santiago stream in Zimapan, Hidalgo, which receives runoff sediments from two acidic and one alkaline mine tailing. Concentrations of potentially toxic elements (PTE) were measured in water, soils (rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere) and plants. Using diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) extractable concentrations of Cu, Zn, Ni, Cd and Pb in rhizosphere soil, the bioconcentration and translocation factors were calculated. Ruderal annuals formed the principal element of the herbaceous vegetation. Accumulation was the most frequent strategy to deal with high concentrations of Zn, Cu, Ni, Cd and Pb. The order of concentration in plant tissue was Zn>Pb>Cu>Ni>Cd. Most plants contained concentrations of PTE considered as phytotoxic and behaved as metal tolerant species. Rorippa nasturtium-aquaticum accumulated particularly high concentrations of Cu. Parietaria pensylvanica and Commelina diffusa, common tropical weeds, behaved as Zn hyperaccumulators and should be studied further. PMID:26939994

  13. Zinc blocks gene expression of mitochondrial aconitase in human prostatic carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Tsui, Ke-Hung; Chang, Phei-Lang; Juang, Horng-Heng

    2006-02-01

    Mitochondrial aconitase (mACON) contains a [4Fe-4S] cluster as the key enzyme for citrate oxidation in the human prostatic epithelial cell. Although there is accumulating evidence indicating that accumulation of high levels of zinc in prostate epithelial cells causes reduced efficiency of citrate oxidation, zinc regulation on the mACON is still not well understood. From in vitro studies, zinc chloride treatment has been developed using humic acid as the carrier (Zn-HA) in human prostatic carcinoma cells, PC-3. Zn-HA treatment (0.1-10 microM) restricts mACON enzymatic activity, which attenuates citrate utility and decreases intracellular ATP levels in PC-3 cells, whereas the effect is blocked by adding the zinc chelator, diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA). Immunoblot, ribonuclease-protection and transient gene-expression assays indicate that Zn-HA treatments inhibit mACON gene expression. Mutation of the putative metal response element (MRE) from CTCGCCTTCA to TGATCCTTCA abolishes Zn-HA inhibition of mACON promoter activity. Our results have demonstrated that zinc possesses a specific regulatory mechanism on the mACON gene, and a biologic function of the putative metal regulatory system in mACON gene transcription has been identified. PMID:16094633

  14. Riparian plants on mine runoff in Zimapan, Hidalgo, Mexico: Useful for phytoremediation?

    PubMed

    Carmona-Chit, Eréndira; Carrillo-González, Rogelio; González-Chávez, Ma Del Carmen A; Vibrans, Heike; Yáñez-Espinosa, Laura; Delgado-Alvarado, Adriana

    2016-09-01

    Dispersion and runoff of mine tailings have serious implications for human and ecosystem health in the surroundings of mines. Water, soils and plants were sampled in transects perpendicular to the Santiago stream in Zimapan, Hidalgo, which receives runoff sediments from two acidic and one alkaline mine tailing. Concentrations of potentially toxic elements (PTE) were measured in water, soils (rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere) and plants. Using diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) extractable concentrations of Cu, Zn, Ni, Cd and Pb in rhizosphere soil, the bioconcentration and translocation factors were calculated. Ruderal annuals formed the principal element of the herbaceous vegetation. Accumulation was the most frequent strategy to deal with high concentrations of Zn, Cu, Ni, Cd and Pb. The order of concentration in plant tissue was Zn>Pb>Cu>Ni>Cd. Most plants contained concentrations of PTE considered as phytotoxic and behaved as metal tolerant species. Rorippa nasturtium-aquaticum accumulated particularly high concentrations of Cu. Parietaria pensylvanica and Commelina diffusa, common tropical weeds, behaved as Zn hyperaccumulators and should be studied further.

  15. Decorporation of aged americium deposits by oral administration of lipophilic polyamino carboxylic acids.

    PubMed

    Bruenger, F W; Kuswik-Rabiega, G; Miller, S C

    1992-01-01

    Several new powerful chelating agents, suitable for the removal of a variety of certain heavy-metal ions from the body by oral application, have been synthesized and tested. Structurally, these compounds are partially lipophilic polyamino carboxylic acids (PACA). They were synthesized in nonaqueous media from triethylenetetramine (TT) by monoalkylation of a primary amino group, followed by exhaustive carboxymethylation of the remaining amino groups using ethyl bromoacetate and subsequent alkaline hydrolysis of the ester. Compounds were characterized using IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, and mass spectrometry. Synthesis and testing of two of these compounds, C12- and C22-triethylenetetraminepentaacetic acid (CnTT), is described in detail. Gel permeation chromatography of a mixture of the PACA and actinide elements have shown these substances to be strong chelating agents similar to EDTA or DTPA. They were capable of removing plutonium from contaminated liver cytosol in vitro. In contrast to their nonlipophilic counterparts EDTA and DTPA, the model substances exhibited appreciable absorption from the intestine and, therefore, can be administered orally. With increasing length of the alkyl chain, the chelons can be directed primarily to the liver, one of the target organs for actinide contamination. In vivo, absorption from the ligated duodenum and jejunum of rats after 2 h was 27% of the amount introduced. Compared to untreated controls, daily feeding of 200 mumol of the chelons (C12TT or C22TT)/kg of body weight to rats for 10 days reduced the whole body Am by 29% and 44%, respectively. Am was eliminated most efficiently from the liver, with a reduction of 71% and 89% (p less than 0.001). However, the skeletal retention also was reduced by 17% and 32% from the femora (p less than 0.001) and 20% and 37% from the carcass for the C12TT and C22TT compounds, respectively. No weight loss or other obvious signs of blood, kidney, liver, or intestinal toxicity were observed after the

  16. Influence of FeEDDS, FeEDTA, FeDTPA, FeEDDHA, and FeSO4 on Marigold Growth and Nutrition, and Substrate and Runoff Chemistry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objectives of the study were to determine effects of Fe source on plant growth, plant nutrition, substrate chemistry and runoff chemistry. Iron source (FS) treatments consisted of Fe-aminopolycarboxylic acid (APCA) complexones iron ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (FeEDTA), iron [S, S']-ethylenediam...

  17. Methylmalonic acid blood test

    MedlinePlus

    ... acid is a substance produced when proteins, called amino acids, in the body break down. The health care ... Cederbaum S, Berry GT. Inborn errors of carbohydrate, ammonia, amino acid, and organic acid metabolism. In: Gleason CA, Devaskar ...

  18. Folic Acid and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Folic Acid and Pregnancy KidsHealth > For Parents > Folic Acid and ... before conception and during early pregnancy . About Folic Acid Folic acid, sometimes called folate, is a B ...

  19. Metal-Chelating Polymers (MCPs) with Zwitterionic Pendant Groups Complexed to Trastuzumab Exhibit Decreased Liver Accumulation Compared to Polyanionic MCP Immunoconjugates.

    PubMed

    Liu, Peng; Boyle, Amanda J; Lu, Yijie; Adams, Jarrett; Chi, Yuechuan; Reilly, Raymond M; Winnik, Mitchell A

    2015-11-01

    Metal-chelating polymers (MCPs) can amplify the radioactivity delivered to cancer cells by monoclonal antibodies or their Fab fragments. We focus on trastuzumab (tmAb), which is used to target cancer cells that overexpress human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2). We report the synthesis and characterization of a biotin (Bi) end-capped MCP, Bi-PAm(DET-DTPA)36, a polyacrylamide with diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) groups attached as monoamides to the polymer backbone by diethylenetriamine (DET) pendant groups. We compared its behavior in vivo and in vitro to a similar MCP with ethylenediamine (EDA) pendant groups (Bi-PAm(EDA-DTPA)40). These polymers were complexed to a streptavidin-modified Fab fragment of tmAb, then labeled with (111)In to specifically deliver multiple copies of (111)In to HER2+ cancer cells. Upon decay, (111)In emits γ-rays that can be used in single-photon emission computed tomography radioimaging, as well as Auger electrons that cause lethal double strand breakage of DNA. Our previous studies in Balb/c mice showed that radioimmunoconjugates (RICs) containing the Bi-PAm(EDA-DTPA)40 polymer had extremely short blood circulation time and high liver uptake and were, thus, unsuitable for in vivo studies. The polymer Bi-PAm(EDA-DTPA)40 carries negative charges on each pendant group at neutral pH and a net charge of (-1) on each pendant group when saturated with stable In(3+). To test our hypothesis that charge associated with the polymer repeat unit is a key factor affecting its biodistribution profile, we examined the biodistribution of RICs containing Bi-PAm(DET-DTPA)36. While this polymer is also negatively charged at neutral pH, it becomes a zwitterionic MCP upon saturation of the DTPA groups with stable In(3+) ions. In both nontumor bearing Balb/c mice and athymic mice implanted with HER2+ SKOV-3 human ovarian cancer tumors, we show that the zwitterionic MCP has improved biodistribution, higher blood levels of radioactivity

  20. Metal-Chelating Polymers (MCPs) with Zwitterionic Pendant Groups Complexed to Trastuzumab Exhibit Decreased Liver Accumulation Compared to Polyanionic MCP Immunoconjugates.

    PubMed

    Liu, Peng; Boyle, Amanda J; Lu, Yijie; Adams, Jarrett; Chi, Yuechuan; Reilly, Raymond M; Winnik, Mitchell A

    2015-11-01

    Metal-chelating polymers (MCPs) can amplify the radioactivity delivered to cancer cells by monoclonal antibodies or their Fab fragments. We focus on trastuzumab (tmAb), which is used to target cancer cells that overexpress human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2). We report the synthesis and characterization of a biotin (Bi) end-capped MCP, Bi-PAm(DET-DTPA)36, a polyacrylamide with diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) groups attached as monoamides to the polymer backbone by diethylenetriamine (DET) pendant groups. We compared its behavior in vivo and in vitro to a similar MCP with ethylenediamine (EDA) pendant groups (Bi-PAm(EDA-DTPA)40). These polymers were complexed to a streptavidin-modified Fab fragment of tmAb, then labeled with (111)In to specifically deliver multiple copies of (111)In to HER2+ cancer cells. Upon decay, (111)In emits γ-rays that can be used in single-photon emission computed tomography radioimaging, as well as Auger electrons that cause lethal double strand breakage of DNA. Our previous studies in Balb/c mice showed that radioimmunoconjugates (RICs) containing the Bi-PAm(EDA-DTPA)40 polymer had extremely short blood circulation time and high liver uptake and were, thus, unsuitable for in vivo studies. The polymer Bi-PAm(EDA-DTPA)40 carries negative charges on each pendant group at neutral pH and a net charge of (-1) on each pendant group when saturated with stable In(3+). To test our hypothesis that charge associated with the polymer repeat unit is a key factor affecting its biodistribution profile, we examined the biodistribution of RICs containing Bi-PAm(DET-DTPA)36. While this polymer is also negatively charged at neutral pH, it becomes a zwitterionic MCP upon saturation of the DTPA groups with stable In(3+) ions. In both nontumor bearing Balb/c mice and athymic mice implanted with HER2+ SKOV-3 human ovarian cancer tumors, we show that the zwitterionic MCP has improved biodistribution, higher blood levels of radioactivity

  1. Arbuscular mycorrhizae alleviate negative effects of zinc oxide nanoparticle and zinc accumulation in maize plants--A soil microcosm experiment.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fayuan; Liu, Xueqin; Shi, Zhaoyong; Tong, Ruijian; Adams, Catharine A; Shi, Xiaojun

    2016-03-01

    ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) are considered an emerging contaminant when in high concentration, and their effects on crops and soil microorganisms pose new concerns and challenges. Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi (AMF) form mutualistic symbioses with most vascular plants, and putatively contribute to reducing nanotoxicity in plants. Here, we studied the interactions between ZnO NPs and maize plants inoculated with or without AMF in ZnO NPs-spiked soil. ZnO NPs had no significant adverse effects at 400 mg/kg, but inhibited both maize growth and AM colonization at concentrations at and above 800 mg/kg. Sufficient addition of ZnO NPs decreased plant mineral nutrient acquisition, photosynthetic pigment concentrations, and root activity. Furthermore, ZnO NPs caused Zn concentrations in plants to increase in a dose-dependent pattern. As the ZnO NPs dose increased, we also found a positive correlation with soil diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA)-extractable Zn. However, AM inoculation significantly alleviated the negative effects induced by ZnO NPs: inoculated-plants experienced increased growth, nutrient uptake, photosynthetic pigment content, and SOD activity in leaves. Mycorrhizal plants also exhibited decreased ROS accumulation, Zn concentrations and bioconcentration factor (BCF), and lower soil DTPA-extractable Zn concentrations at high ZnO NPs doses. Our results demonstrate that, at high contamination levels, ZnO NPs cause toxicity to AM symbiosis, but AMF help alleviate ZnO NPs-induced phytotoxicity by decreasing Zn bioavailability and accumulation, Zn partitioning to shoots, and ROS production, and by increasing mineral nutrients and antioxidant capacity. AMF may play beneficial roles in alleviating the negative effects and environmental risks posed by ZnO NPs in agroecosystems. PMID:26761602

  2. Biosolids affect soil barium in a dryland wheat agroecosystem.

    PubMed

    Ippolito, J A; Barbarick, K A

    2006-01-01

    In December 2003, the USEPA released an amended list of 15 "candidate pollutants for exposure and hazard screening" with regard to biosolids land application, including Ba. Therefore, we decided to monitor soil Ba concentrations from a dryland wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)-fallow agroecosystem experiment. This experiment received 10 biennial biosolids applications (1982-2003) at rates from 0 to 26.8 dry Mg ha(-1) per application year. The study was conducted on a Platner loam (Aridic Paleustoll), approximately 30 km east of Brighton, CO. Total soil Ba, as measured by 4 M HNO(3), increased with increasing biosolids application rate. In the soil-extraction data from 1988 to 2003, however, we observed significant (P < 0.10) linear or exponential declines in ammonium bicarbonate-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (AB-DTPA) extractable Ba concentrations as a function of increasing biosolids application rates. This was observed in 6 of 7 and 3 of 7 yr for the 0- to 20- and 20- to 60-cm soil depths, respectively. Results suggest that while total soil Ba increased as a result of biosolids application with time, the mineral form of Ba was present in forms not extractable with AB-DTPA. Scanning electron microscopy using energy dispersive spectroscopy verified soil Ba-S compounds in the soil surface, probably BaSO(4). Wet chemistry sequential extraction suggested BaCO(3) precipitation was increasing in the soil subsurface. Our research showed that biosolids application may increase total soil Ba, but soil Ba precipitates are insoluble and should not be an environmental concern in similar soils under similar climatic and management conditions. PMID:17071904

  3. Uptake, distribution, and velocity of organically complexed plutonium in corn (Zea mays).

    PubMed

    Thompson, Shannon W; Molz, Fred J; Fjeld, Robert A; Kaplan, Daniel I

    2012-10-01

    Lysimeter experiments and associated simulations suggested that Pu moved into and through plants that invaded field lysimeters during an 11-year study at the Savannah River Site. However, probable plant uptake and transport mechanisms were not well defined, so more detailed study is needed. Therefore, experiments were performed to examine movement, distribution, and velocity of soluble, complexed Pu in corn. Corn was grown and exposed to Pu using a "long root" system in which the primary root extended through a soil pot and into a hydroponic container. To maintain solubility, Pu was complexed with the bacterial siderophore DFOB (Desferrioxamine B) or the chelating agent DTPA (diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid). Corn plants were exposed to nutrient solutions containing Pu for periods of 10 min to 10 d. Analysis of root and shoot tissues permitted concentration measurement and calculation of uptake velocity and Pu retardation in corn. Results showed that depending on exposure time, 98.3-95.9% of Pu entering the plant was retained in the roots external to the xylem, and that 1.7-4.1% of Pu entered the shoots (shoot fraction increased with exposure time). Corn Pu uptake was 2-4 times greater as Pu(DFOB) than as Pu(2)(DTPA)(3). Pu(DFOB) solution entered the root xylem and moved 1.74 m h(-1) or greater upward, which is more than a million times faster than Pu(III/IV) downward movement through soil during the lysimeter study. The Pu(DFOB) xylem retardation factor was estimated to be 3.7-11, allowing for rapid upward Pu transport and potential environmental release.

  4. Evidence suggesting a role for sperm metalloendoprotease activity in penetration of zona-free hamster eggs by human sperm.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Pérez, E; Thomas, P; Meizel, S

    1988-11-01

    It has been reported that metalloendoprotease (MEP) activity is involved in somatic cell membrane fusion events and in the sea urchin sperm acrosome reaction (AR). MEP activity also has been demonstrated in human and other mammalian sperm. The present study was concerned with investigating whether a human sperm MEP is important in membrane events necessary for sperm egg fusion. Ejaculated human sperm were washed, capacitated in vitro, and preincubated with the competitive MEP inhibitors phosphoramidon (50 microM) or CBZ-L-phenylalanine (1 mM), with 100 microM diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA), a heavy metal chelator, or as controls, with the appropriate solvents. The AR was initiated in vitro with preovulatory human follicular fluid and the sperm washed to dilute inhibitors and then coincubated with zona-free golden hamster eggs (zonae and cumuli removed with trypsin and hyaluronidase, respectively). Eggs were washed after 0.5 h, and the number of sperm remaining bound was counted. After 2.5 h further incubation, the eggs were stained with acetolacmoid or acetoorcein and penetration was assayed by counting the number of decondensed sperm heads per egg (penetration index) and the percent of penetrated eggs. The inhibitor treatments did not decrease the percentage of penetrated eggs (range 80-90%), but a significant reduction in the penetration index was observed. Phosphoramidon reduced the penetration index by 45%, CBZ-L-phenylalanine by 57%, and DTPA by 56%. None of the inhibitors decreased the penetration index or the percentage of penetrated eggs when added directly to suspensions of acrosome-reacted sperm and zona-free eggs at the diluted levels that would have been present after washing inhibitor-treated sperm.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  5. In Vivo Immunotoxicity of SiO2@(Y0.5Gd0.45Eu0.05)2O3 as Dual-Modality Nanoprobes

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Xiumei; Li, Ermao; Yang, Fanwen; Peng, Ye; Zhu, Jixiang; He, Fupo; Chen, Xiaoming

    2014-01-01

    We have successfully synthesized SiO2@(Y0.5Gd0.45Eu0.05)2O3 nanocomposites as a potential dual-modality nanoprobe for molecular imaging in vitro. However, their immunotoxicity assessment in vivo remains unknown. In this article, the in vitro biocompatibility of our dual-modality nanoprobes was assayed in terms of cell viability and apoptosis. In vivo immunotoxicity was investigated by monitoring the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), cluster of differentiation (CD) markers and cytokines in Balb/c mice. The data show that the in vitro biocompatibility was satisfactory. In addition, the immunotoxicity data revealed there are no significant changes in the expression levels of CD11b and CD71 between the nanoprobe group and the Gd in a diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) chelator (Gd-DTPA) group 24 h after injection in Balb/c mice (p > 0.05). Importantly, there are significant differences in the expression levels of CD206 and CD25 as well as the secretion of IL-4 and the generation of ROS 24 h after injection (p < 0.05). Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images showed that few nanoprobes were localized in the phagosomes of liver and lung. In conclusion, the toxic effects of our nanoprobes may mainly result from the aggregation of particles in phagosomes. This accumulation may damage the microstructure of the cells and generate oxidative stress reactions that further stimulate the immune response. Therefore, it is important to evaluate the in vivo immunotoxicity of these rare earth-based biomaterials at the molecular level before molecular imaging in vivo. PMID:25105724

  6. Convection enhanced delivery of different molecular weight tracers of gadolinium-tagged polylysine.

    PubMed

    Hardy, Peter A; Keeley, Dan; Schorn, Greg; Forman, Eric; Ai, Yi; Venugopalan, Ramakrishna; Zhang, Zhiming; Bradley, Luke H

    2013-09-30

    Convection enhanced delivery (CED) is a powerful method of circumventing the blood-brain barrier (BBB) to deliver therapeutic compounds directly to the CNS. While inferring the CED distribution of a therapeutic compound by imaging a magnetic resonance (MR)-sensitive tracer has many advantages, however how the compound distribution is affected by the features of the delivery system, its target tissue, and its molecular properties, such as its binding characteristics, charge, and molecular weight (MW) are not fully understood. We used MR imaging of gadolinium diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (Gd-DTPA)-tagged polylysine compounds of various MW, in vitro and in vivo, to measure the dependence of compounds MW on CED distribution. For the in vitro studies, the correlation between volume of distribution (Vd) as a function of MW was determined by measuring the T1 of the infused tracers, into 0.6% agarose gels through a multiport catheter. The compounds distributed in the gels inversely proportional to their MW, consistent with convection and unobstructed diffusion through a porous media. For the in vivo studies, Gd-DTPA tagged compounds were infused into the non-human primate putamen, via an implanted multiport catheter connected to a MedStream™ pump, programmed to deliver a predetermined volume with alternating on-off periods to take advantage of the convective and diffusive contributions to Vd. Unlike the gel studies, the higher MW polylysine-tracer infusions did not freely distribute from the multiport catheter in the putamen, suggesting that distribution was impeded by other properties that should also be considered in future tracer design and CED infusion protocols.

  7. Distribution and fractionation of cadmium, copper, lead, nickel, and zinc in a calcareous sandy soil receiving municipal solid waste.

    PubMed

    Jalali, Mohsen; Arfania, Hamed

    2011-02-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the degree of mobility and fractionation of cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), nickel (Ni), and zinc (Zn) after the addition of municipal solid sewage sludge (MSS) in a sandy calcareous soil. Treatments were (1) soil application of MSS, (2) soil application of enriched municipal solid waste compost (EMSS), and (3) control soil. The MSS application represented a dose of 200 Mg dry weight per hectare. Soil columns were incubated at room temperature for 15 days and irrigated daily with deionized water to make a total of 505 mm. At the end of leaching experiments, soil samples from each column were divided into 14 layers, each being 1 cm down to 10 and 2.5 cm below that and analyzed for diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA)-extractable Cd, Cu, Pb, Ni, and Zn. The fractionation of the heavy metals in the top five layers of the surface soil samples was investigated by the sequential extraction method. All soil layers of the columns receiving MSS and EMSS had significantly higher concentrations of DTPA-extractable heavy metals than control soil. The maximum concentration of heavy metals in treated soil was in the surface layer and declined significantly with depth. Sequential extraction results showed that in the treated soil, a major proportion of Cd, Pb, and Ni was associated with organic matter (OM) and exchangeable (EXCH) fractions, and a major proportion of Cu and Zn was associated with residual (RES) and OM fractions. Based on relative percent, Pb, Cd, and Ni in the EXCH fraction was higher than Cu and Zn in soil leached with MSS and EMSS, suggesting that application of this MSS to a sandy calcareous soil, at the loading rate used here, may pose a risk in terms of groundwater contamination with Pb, Cd, and Ni.

  8. Alveolar epithelial integrity in athletes with exercise-induced hypoxemia.

    PubMed

    Edwards, M R; Hunte, G S; Belzberg, A S; Sheel, A W; Worsley, D F; McKenzie, D C

    2000-10-01

    The effect of incremental exercise to exhaustion on the change in pulmonary clearance rate (k) of aerosolized (99m)Tc-labeled diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid ((99m)Tc-DTPA) and the relationship between k and arterial PO(2) (Pa(O(2))) during heavy work were investigated. Ten male cyclists (age = 25 +/- 2 yr, height = 180.9 +/- 4.0 cm, mass = 80.1 +/- 9.5 kg, maximal O(2) uptake = 5. 25 +/- 0.35 l/min, mean +/- SD) completed a pulmonary clearance test shortly (39 +/- 8 min) after a maximal O(2) uptake test. Resting pulmonary clearance was completed >/=24 h before or after the exercise test. Arterial blood was sampled at rest and at 1-min intervals during exercise. Minimum Pa(O(2)) values and maximum alveolar-arterial PO(2) difference ranged from 73 to 92 Torr and from 30 to 55 Torr, respectively. No significant difference between resting k and postexercise k for the total lung (0.55 +/- 0.20 vs. 0. 57 +/- 0.17 %/min, P > 0.05) was observed. Pearson product-moment correlation indicated no significant linear relationship between change in k for the total lung and minimum Pa(O(2)) (r = -0.26, P > 0.05). These results indicate that, averaged over subjects, pulmonary clearance of (99m)Tc-DTPA after incremental maximal exercise to exhaustion in highly trained male cyclists is unchanged, although the sampling time may have eliminated a transient effect. Lack of a linear relationship between k and minimum Pa(O(2)) during exercise suggests that exercise-induced hypoxemia occurs despite maintenance of alveolar epithelial integrity.

  9. Arbuscular mycorrhizae alleviate negative effects of zinc oxide nanoparticle and zinc accumulation in maize plants--A soil microcosm experiment.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fayuan; Liu, Xueqin; Shi, Zhaoyong; Tong, Ruijian; Adams, Catharine A; Shi, Xiaojun

    2016-03-01

    ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) are considered an emerging contaminant when in high concentration, and their effects on crops and soil microorganisms pose new concerns and challenges. Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi (AMF) form mutualistic symbioses with most vascular plants, and putatively contribute to reducing nanotoxicity in plants. Here, we studied the interactions between ZnO NPs and maize plants inoculated with or without AMF in ZnO NPs-spiked soil. ZnO NPs had no significant adverse effects at 400 mg/kg, but inhibited both maize growth and AM colonization at concentrations at and above 800 mg/kg. Sufficient addition of ZnO NPs decreased plant mineral nutrient acquisition, photosynthetic pigment concentrations, and root activity. Furthermore, ZnO NPs caused Zn concentrations in plants to increase in a dose-dependent pattern. As the ZnO NPs dose increased, we also found a positive correlation with soil diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA)-extractable Zn. However, AM inoculation significantly alleviated the negative effects induced by ZnO NPs: inoculated-plants experienced increased growth, nutrient uptake, photosynthetic pigment content, and SOD activity in leaves. Mycorrhizal plants also exhibited decreased ROS accumulation, Zn concentrations and bioconcentration factor (BCF), and lower soil DTPA-extractable Zn concentrations at high ZnO NPs doses. Our results demonstrate that, at high contamination levels, ZnO NPs cause toxicity to AM symbiosis, but AMF help alleviate ZnO NPs-induced phytotoxicity by decreasing Zn bioavailability and accumulation, Zn partitioning to shoots, and ROS production, and by increasing mineral nutrients and antioxidant capacity. AMF may play beneficial roles in alleviating the negative effects and environmental risks posed by ZnO NPs in agroecosystems.

  10. Renal scintigraphy in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus: Early glomerular and urologic dysfunction

    SciTech Connect

    Poirier, J.Y.; Moisan, A.; Le Cloirec, J.; Siemen, C.; Yaouanq, J.; Edan, G.; Herry, J.Y. )

    1990-07-01

    Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and renal plasma flow (RPF) were measured by intravenous injection of 99mTc-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) and 131I-Hippuran in 115 insulin-dependent diabetic patients with albumin excretion rates (AER) less than 200 micrograms/min, and in 45 normal subjects. Separate kidney function and urinary elimination were estimated by renography. GFR was increased in the diabetic patients (152 +/- 24 ml/min/1.73 m2 vs. 128 +/- 15) and correlated significantly with RPF (r = 0.5; p less than 10(-9)). No relationship was found between GFR and the duration of diabetes, blood glucose, HbA1c, or AER. Fifty patients were hyperfiltering with RPF and filtration fraction higher than those in the normofiltering group. Slow intrarenal or pyeloureteral elimination, either unilateral or bilateral, was observed in 3 controls and 60 diabetic subjects (24 hyperfiltering; 36 normofiltering) and did not disappear with the patient in the standing position. In these 60 patients, mean age, duration of diabetes, blood glucose, HbA1c, 24 h albumin excretion rate, and frequency of peripheral or autonomic neuropathy did not differ from patients with normal scintigraphy; GFR was lower in the group with slow elimination, but not significantly so. 99mTc-DTPA renal uptake was symmetric in all the controls; asymmetric renal uptake with asymmetric GFR was observed in 13 patients (7 hyperfiltering; 6 normofiltering) and often associated with slower elimination. No evidence for renal stenotic atheroma or parenchymatous disease was found on the angiopyleoureterography. The results suggest that incipient uropathy is a very common phenomenon that occurs irrespective of glomerular dysfunction.

  11. DISTRIBUTION OF ACTINIDES BETWEEN THE AQUEOUS AND ORGANIC PHASES IN THE TALSPEAK PROCESS

    SciTech Connect

    Rudisill, T.; Kyser, E.

    2010-09-02

    the actinide's valence. Since our plans included the measurement of Pu(III) distribution coefficients using a Np(V) solution containing small amounts of {sup 238}Pu, it was necessary to demonstrate that the desired oxidation states of Np and Pu are produced and could be stabilized in a buffered lactate solution containing diethylenetriaminepentaacetic (DTPA). The stability of Np(V) and Pu(III) in lactic acid/DTPA solutions was evaluated by ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy. To perform the evaluation, Np and Pu were added to solutions containing either hydroxylamine nitrate (HAN) or ferrous sulfamate (FS) as the reductant and nominally 1.5 M lactic acid/0.05 M DTPA. The pH of the solution was subsequently adjusted to nominally 2.8 as would be performed in the TALSPEAK process. In the valence adjustment study, we found that it was necessary to reduce Pu to Pu(III) prior to combining with the lactic acid and DTPA. The Pu reduction was performed using either HAN or FS. When FS was used, Np was reduced to Np(IV). The spectroscopic studies showed that Np(V) and Pu(III) are not stable in lactic acid/DTPA solutions. The stability of Np(IV)- and Pu(IV)-DTPA complexes are much greater than the stability of the Np(V)- and Pu(III)-DTPA complexes, and as a result, Np is slowly reduced to Np(IV) and Pu is slowly oxidized to Pu(IV) due to the reduced activity of the more stable complexes. When Np(V) was added to a solution containing a 1.5 M lactic acid/ammonium lactate buffer and 0.05 M DTPA, approximately 50% of the Np was reduced to Np(IV) in the first day. The fraction of Np(V) in the solution continued to diminish with time and was essentially reduced to Np(IV) after one week. When Pu(III) was added to a lactic acid/DTPA solution of the same composition, the spectrum recorded following at least two days after preparation of the solution continued to show some sign of Pu(III). The Pu(III) was completely oxidized to Pu(IV) after 3-4 days. The UV-vis spectroscopy

  12. Understanding Acid Rain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damonte, Kathleen

    2004-01-01

    The term acid rain describes rain, snow, or fog that is more acidic than normal precipitation. To understand what acid rain is, it is first necessary to know what an acid is. Acids can be defined as substances that produce hydrogen ions (H+), when dissolved in water. Scientists indicate how acidic a substance is by a set of numbers called the pH…

  13. Free aluminium extraction from various reference materials and acid soils with relation to plant availability.

    PubMed

    Matús, Peter; Kubová, Jana; Bujdos, Marek; Medved', Ján

    2006-12-15

    The single extractions with 15 extractants (agents) (H(2)O, KCl, NH(4)Cl, NH(4)F, CaCl(2), BaCl(2), CuCl(2), LaCl(3), Na(2)S(2)O(4), (NH(4))(2)C(2)O(4), Na(4)P(2)O(7), NTA, EDTA, DTPA, HCl), the optimised BCR (Community Bureau of Reference) three-step sequential extraction procedure (SEP) and the solid phase extraction (SPE) by the chelating ion-exchanger Iontosorb Salicyl (cellulose resin containing covalently bound salicylic acid functional groups) were used for the partitioning of Al in very acid soil samples taken from an area influenced by acid mine solutions. The precision, accuracy and repeatibility for all steps of the optimised BCR SEP were checked on the various reference materials (CRM 483 sewage sludge amended soil, CRM BCR 701 freshwater sediment, SRM 2710 and SRM 2711 Montana soils). Also the new indicative values of the optimised BCR SEP fractional Al concentrations were obtained for these reference materials. The aluminium amounts obtained by the used extraction procedures were valuated and discussed from the aspect of the Al concentration in the plants (grass) growing on the same studied soils. The aluminium toxicity indexes (ATI) calculated for the studied soils, the BaCl(2) and acetic acid soil extracts and the grass stems and roots were used for the assessment of the Al toxicity to the plants. The ATI value was defined as the ratio of the nutrient cations (Ca, Mg, K, Na) concentration sum to the Al concentration. The flame atomic absorption spectrometry (LOQ=0.2mgl(-1)) and the inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (LOQ=0.03mgl(-1)) were used for the aluminium quantification. PMID:18970873

  14. An evaluation of the effectiveness of novel industrial by-products and organic wastes on heavy metal immobilization in Pb-Zn mine tailings.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shengxiang; Cao, Jianbing; Hu, Wenyong; Zhang, Xiaojun; Duan, Chun

    2013-10-01

    The in situ immobilization of heavy metals using various easily obtainable amendments is a cost-effective and practical method in the remediation of contaminated sites. In this study, two novel industrial waste materials (sweet sorghum vinasse and medicinal herb residues), spent mushroom compost and municipal solid wastes were used as amendments to assess their potential value for the in situ immobilization of heavy metals in tailings from a Pb-Zn mine in South China. Our results demonstrate that all three freely-available organic wastes decrease the deionized water (DW)- and diethylene-triamine-pentaacetic acid (DTPA)-extractable metal concentrations, enhance the enzyme activity, reduce the metal concentration in plant tissues, and could be used for the remediation of these Pb-Zn mine tailings metals by immobilization. The municipal solid waste failed to reduce the metal concentration in tailings and plant tissues and therefore would not be a suitable immobilizing agent. The potential value of these materials as immobilizers of heavy metals and their remediation efficacy deserve further studies in large-scale field trials. PMID:24056870

  15. The immobilization of heavy metals in soil by bioaugmentation of a UV-mutant Bacillus subtilis 38 assisted by NovoGro biostimulation and changes of soil microbial community.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ting; Sun, Hongwen; Mao, Hongjun; Zhang, Yanfeng; Wang, Cuiping; Zhang, Zhiyuan; Wang, Baolin; Sun, Lei

    2014-08-15

    Bacillus subtilis 38 (B38) is a mutant species of Bacillus subtilis acquired by UV irradiation with high cadmium tolerance. This study revealed that B38 was a good biosorbent for the adsorption of multiple heavy metals (cadmium, chromium, mercury, and lead). Simultaneous application of B38 and NovoGro (SNB) exhibited a synergetic effect on the immobilization of heavy metals in soil. The heavy metal concentrations in the edible part of the tested plants (lettuce, radish, and soybean) under SNB treatment decreased by 55.4-97.9% compared to the control. Three single extraction methods, diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA), Mehlich 3 (M3), and the first step of the Community Bureau of Reference method (BCR1), showed good predictive capacities for metal bioavailability to leafy, rhizome, and leguminous plant, respectively. The polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) profiles revealed that NovoGro could enhance the proliferation of both exotic B38 and native microbes. Finally, the technology was checked in the field, the reduction in heavy metal concentrations in the edible part of radish was in the range between 30.8% and 96.0% after bioremediation by SNB treatment. This study provides a practical strategy for the remediation of farmland contaminated by multiple heavy metals.

  16. Biodegradable human serum albumin nanoparticles as contrast agents for the detection of hepatocellular carcinoma by magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Watcharin, Waralee; Schmithals, Christian; Pleli, Thomas; Köberle, Verena; Korkusuz, Hüdayi; Huebner, Frank; Zeuzem, Stefan; Korf, Hans W; Vogl, Thomas J; Rittmeyer, Claudia; Terfort, Andreas; Piiper, Albrecht; Gelperina, Svetlana; Kreuter, Jörg

    2014-05-01

    Tumor visualization by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and nanoparticle-based contrast agents may improve the imaging of solid tumors such as hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In particular, human serum albumin (HSA) nanoparticles appear to be a suitable carrier due to their safety and feasibility of functionalization. In the present study HSA nanoparticles were conjugated with gadolinium diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (Gd-DTPA) using carbodiimide chemistry. The nanoparticles had a uniform spherical shape and a diameter of 235±19nm. For better optical visualization in vitro and in vivo, the HSA-Gd nanoparticles were additionally labeled with rhodamine 123. As shown by confocal microscopy and flow cytometry analysis, the fluorescent nanoparticles were readily taken up by Huh-7 hepatocellular carcinoma cells. After 24h incubation in blood serum, less than 5% of the Gd(III) was released from the particles, which suggests that this nanoparticulate system may be stable in vivo and, therefore, may serve as potentially safe T1 MRI contrast agent for MRI of hepatocellular carcinoma.

  17. Synthesis, characterization, and biodistribution studies of (99m)Tc-labeled SBA-16 mesoporous silica nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    de Barros, André Luís Branco; de Oliveira Ferraz, Karina Silva; Dantas, Thais Cristina Soares; Andrade, Gracielle Ferreira; Cardoso, Valbert Nascimento; Sousa, Edésia Martins Barros de

    2015-11-01

    Along with anti-cancer drug delivery researches, many efforts have been done to develop new tracers for diagnostic applications. Based on advances in molecular imaging, nanoparticles can be used to visualize, characterize and measure biological process at molecular and cellular level. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to synthesize, characterize and radiolabeled mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) for in vivo applications. The nanoparticles were synthesized, functionalized with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) and then, anchored with diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA). Particles were physicochemical characterized by elemental analysis (CHN), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and zeta potential, and were morphologically characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), low-angle X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques. Results indicate that functionalization process was successfully achieved. Next, functionalized silica nanoparticles were radiolabeled with technetium-99m showing high radiochemical yields and high radiolabeled stability. These findings allow the use of the particles for in vivo applications. Biodistribution and scintigraphic images were carried out in healthy mice in order to determine the fate of the particles. Results from in vivo experiments showed high uptake by liver, as expected due to phagocytosis. However, particles also showed a significant uptake in the lungs, indicated by high lung-to-non-target tissue ratio. In summary, taking into account the great potential of these silica mesoporous structures to carry molecules this platform could be a good strategy for theranostic purposes.

  18. Synthesis, characterization, and biodistribution studies of (99m)Tc-labeled SBA-16 mesoporous silica nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    de Barros, André Luís Branco; de Oliveira Ferraz, Karina Silva; Dantas, Thais Cristina Soares; Andrade, Gracielle Ferreira; Cardoso, Valbert Nascimento; Sousa, Edésia Martins Barros de

    2015-11-01

    Along with anti-cancer drug delivery researches, many efforts have been done to develop new tracers for diagnostic applications. Based on advances in molecular imaging, nanoparticles can be used to visualize, characterize and measure biological process at molecular and cellular level. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to synthesize, characterize and radiolabeled mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) for in vivo applications. The nanoparticles were synthesized, functionalized with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) and then, anchored with diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA). Particles were physicochemical characterized by elemental analysis (CHN), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and zeta potential, and were morphologically characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), low-angle X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques. Results indicate that functionalization process was successfully achieved. Next, functionalized silica nanoparticles were radiolabeled with technetium-99m showing high radiochemical yields and high radiolabeled stability. These findings allow the use of the particles for in vivo applications. Biodistribution and scintigraphic images were carried out in healthy mice in order to determine the fate of the particles. Results from in vivo experiments showed high uptake by liver, as expected due to phagocytosis. However, particles also showed a significant uptake in the lungs, indicated by high lung-to-non-target tissue ratio. In summary, taking into account the great potential of these silica mesoporous structures to carry molecules this platform could be a good strategy for theranostic purposes. PMID:26249579

  19. Toxicity evaluation of Gd2O3@SiO2 nanoparticles prepared by laser ablation in liquid as MRI contrast agents in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Xiumei; Yang, Fanwen; Yang, Chuan; Peng, Ye; Chen, Dihu; Zhu, Jixiang; He, Fupo; Li, Li; Chen, Xiaoming

    2014-01-01

    Poor toxicity characterization is one obstacle to the clinical deployment of Gd2O3@ SiO2 core-shell nanoparticles (Gd-NPs) for use as magnetic resonance (MR) imaging contrast agents. To date, there is no systematic toxicity data available for Gd-NPs prepared by laser ablation in liquid. In this article, we systematically studied the Gd-NPs’ cytotoxicity, apoptosis in vitro, immunotoxicity, blood circulation half-life, biodistribution and excretion in vivo, as well as pharmacodynamics. The results show the toxicity, and in vivo MR data show that these NPs are a good contrast agent for preclinical applications. No significant differences were found in cell viability, apoptosis, and immunotoxicity between our Gd-NPs and Gd in a DTPA (diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid) chelator. Biodistribution data reveal a greater accumulation of the Gd-NPs in the liver, spleen, lung, and tumor than in the kidney, heart, and brain. Approximately 50% of the Gd is excreted via the hepatobiliary system within 4 weeks. Furthermore, dynamic contrast-enhanced T1-weighted MR images of xenografted murine tumors were obtained after intravenous administration of the Gd-NPs. Collectively, the single step preparation of Gd-NPs by laser ablation in liquid produces particles with satisfactory cytotoxicity, minimal immunotoxicity, and efficient MR contrast. This may lead to their utility as molecular imaging contrast agents in MR imaging for cancer diagnosis. PMID:25187708

  20. Toxicity evaluation of Gd2O3@SiO2 nanoparticles prepared by laser ablation in liquid as MRI contrast agents in vivo.

    PubMed

    Tian, Xiumei; Yang, Fanwen; Yang, Chuan; Peng, Ye; Chen, Dihu; Zhu, Jixiang; He, Fupo; Li, Li; Chen, Xiaoming

    2014-01-01

    Poor toxicity characterization is one obstacle to the clinical deployment of Gd2O3@ SiO2 core-shell nanoparticles (Gd-NPs) for use as magnetic resonance (MR) imaging contrast agents. To date, there is no systematic toxicity data available for Gd-NPs prepared by laser ablation in liquid. In this article, we systematically studied the Gd-NPs' cytotoxicity, apoptosis in vitro, immunotoxicity, blood circulation half-life, biodistribution and excretion in vivo, as well as pharmacodynamics. The results show the toxicity, and in vivo MR data show that these NPs are a good contrast agent for preclinical applications. No significant differences were found in cell viability, apoptosis, and immunotoxicity between our Gd-NPs and Gd in a DTPA (diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid) chelator. Biodistribution data reveal a greater accumulation of the Gd-NPs in the liver, spleen, lung, and tumor than in the kidney, heart, and brain. Approximately 50% of the Gd is excreted via the hepatobiliary system within 4 weeks. Furthermore, dynamic contrast-enhanced T1-weighted MR images of xenografted murine tumors were obtained after intravenous administration of the Gd-NPs. Collectively, the single step preparation of Gd-NPs by laser ablation in liquid produces particles with satisfactory cytotoxicity, minimal immunotoxicity, and efficient MR contrast. This may lead to their utility as molecular imaging contrast agents in MR imaging for cancer diagnosis.

  1. In vitro radiosensitizing effects of ultrasmall gadolinium based particles on tumour cells.

    PubMed

    Mowat, P; Mignot, A; Rima, W; Lux, F; Tillement, O; Roulin, C; Dutreix, M; Bechet, D; Huger, S; Humbert, L; Barberi-Heyob, M; Aloy, M T; Armandy, E; Rodriguez-Lafrasse, C; Le Duc, G; Roux, S; Perriat, P

    2011-09-01

    Since radiotherapy is widely used in cancer treatment, it is essential to develop strategies which lower the irradiation burden while increasing efficacy and become efficient even in radio resistant tumors. Our new strategy is relying on the development of solid hybrid nanoparticles based on rare-earth such as gadolinium. In this paper, we then evidenced that gadolinium-based particles can be designed to enter efficiently into the human glioblastoma cell line U87 in quantities that can be tuned by modifying the incubation conditions. These sub-5 nm particles consist in a core of gadolinium oxide, a shell of polysiloxane and are functionalized by diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA). Although photoelectric effect is maximal in the [10-100 keV] range, such particles were found to possess efficient in-vitro radiosensitizing properties at an energy of 660 keV by using the "single-cell gel electrophoresis comet assay," an assay that measures the number of DNA damage that occurs during irradiation. Even more interesting, the particles have been evidenced by MTT assays to be also efficient radiosensitizers at an energy of 6 MeV for doses comprised between 2 and 8 Gy. The properties of the gadolinium-based particles give promising opening to a particle-assisted radio-therapy by using irradiation systems already installed in the majority of hospitals.

  2. Renal calculi with retrocaval ureter: is percutaneous nephrolithotomy sufficient?

    PubMed

    Prakash, Jai; Raj, Anubhav; Sankhwar, Satyanarayan; Singh, Vishwajeet

    2013-01-01

    A 60-year-old woman presented with complaints of intermittent right flank pain which had begun one year ago. Ultrasonography and intravenous urogram showed right pelvic (15 mm) and inferior calyceal (6 mm) calculi along with suspected retrocaval course of right ureter, which was confirmed by contrast CT scan. Tc-99m diethylene-triamine-penta-acetic acid (DTPA) scan showed normal function and normal drainage of right kidney. Percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) was performed for right renal calculi. Because of curved ureteric course, negotiation of ureteric catheter in pelvis was anticipated to be troublesome, so intraoperative retrograde pyelogram (RGP) was performed to delineate the anatomy. Puncture was performed safely after air contrast pyelography. No complications occurred intraoperatively and postoperatively. On follow-up of up to 1 year patient was asymptomatic and renal scan showed normal function and drainage. So in the presence of retrocaval ureter and associated renal calculi, PCNL is a safe and optimal procedure and in condition of non-obstructive drainage, management of calculi only is adequate.

  3. Stable and high-yielding intrinsic (59) Fe-radiolabeling of the intravenous iron preparations Monofer and Cosmofer.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Andreas I; Severin, Gregory W; Andreasen, Hans B; Rasmussen, Palle H

    2016-07-01

    Commercial iron supplements Monofer(®) and Cosmofer(®) were intrinsically radiolabeled with (59) Fe for the purpose of tracing iron absorption in vivo. Optimized procedures aimed at introducing (59) Fe into the macromolecular construct in a form that was as chemically equivalent to the matrix iron as possible. This was determined by challenging the labeled constructs with diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) followed by separation by size-exclusion and measurements of radioactivity and iron in the eluted fractions. The final procedures were simple and involved heating aqueous dispersions of the supplements in the presence of [(59) Fe]FeCl3 for 24 h at 95 °C for Monofer, and 85 °C for Cosmofer, resulting in radiochemical yields greater than 94%. High performance size exclusion chromatography, UV-VIS spectroscopy, and dynamic light scattering were used to show that the supplements remained unchanged after radiolabeling, underscoring the applicability of the methodology for radiolabeling commercial iron preparations. PMID:27311359

  4. Scintigraphic determination of the effect of metoclopramide and morphine on small intestinal transit time

    SciTech Connect

    Prokop, E.K.; Caride, V.J.; Winchenbach, K.; Troncale, F.J.; McCallum, R.W.

    1988-01-01

    To determine if a scintigraphic method could detect pharmacologic changes in small intestinal transit time (SITT), 10 male volunteers were studied at baseline and after intravenously administered metoclopramide (10 mg) and morphine (8 mg). Five of these volunteers were studied with the hydrogen breath test method for comparison. For each of the scintigraphic studies, the volunteers were positioned supine under a large-field-of-view gamma camera after ingesting an isosmotic lactulose solution containing 99mtechnetium-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA). Data were collected and stored in a computer. Both gastric emptying and SITT were determined. SITT was 81 +/- 11 min (mean +/- S.E.M.; N = 10) during baseline studies, was decreased significantly to 50 +/- 6 min (N = 10; P less than 0.01) after metoclopramide, and was increased significantly to 161 +/- 15 min (N = 8; P less than 0.01) after morphine. Baseline mean values were 86.3 +/- 15 min (N = 15) for the hydrogen breath tests, 47 +/- 8 min (N = 5) for metoclopramide, and 183 +/- 16 min (N = 5) for morphine. For gastric emptying, there was no significant difference in percentage emptying at 1 hr for baseline and metochopramide (82 +/- 5% vs. 88 +/- 4%). Morphine prolonged gastric emptying at 1 hr to 63 +/- 8%. We conclude that the scintigraphic method for measuring SITT permits accurate investigation of the pharmacologic effects on intestinal motility and, in addition, may be a useful research and clinical method for SITT determination.

  5. Extracellular space diffusion analysis in the infant and adult rat striatum using magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shuangfeng; Wang, Yan; Li, Kai; Tang, Xiaolu; Zhang, Kuo; Shi, Chunyan; Han, Hongbin; Peng, Yun

    2016-10-01

    The extracellular space (ECS) in the brain provides an extrasynaptic transfer channel among neurons, axons and glial cells. It is particularly important in the early stage after birth, when angiogenesis is not yet complete and the ECS may provide the main pathway for metabolite transport. However, the characteristics of extracellular transport remain unclear. In this study, a novel magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) method was used to perform real-time visualization and quantification of diffusion in the brain ECS of infant (postnatal day 10 (P10)) and adult rats. Using a modified diffusion equation and the linear relationship between the signal intensity and the gadolinium-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (Gd-DTPA) concentration, diffusion parameters were obtained; these parameters include the effective diffusion coefficient (D*), clearance rate (k'), tortuosity (λ) and the volume fraction of distribution (Vd%). There were significant differences in the diffusion parameters between P10 and adult rats. This finding provides a reference for future treatment of brain diseases using drugs administered via interstitial pathways.

  6. A polymeric fastener can easily functionalize liposome surfaces with gadolinium for enhanced magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Smith, Cartney E; Shkumatov, Artem; Withers, Sarah G; Yang, Binxia; Glockner, James F; Misra, Sanjay; Roy, Edward J; Wong, Chun-Ho; Zimmerman, Steven C; Kong, Hyunjoon

    2013-11-26

    Common methods of loading magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents into nanoparticles often suffer from challenges related to particle formation, complex chemical modification/purification steps, and reduced contrast efficiency. This study presents a simple, yet advanced process to address these issues by loading gadolinium, an MRI contrast agent, exclusively on a liposome surface using a polymeric fastener. The fastener, so named for its ability to physically link the two functional components together, consisted of chitosan substituted with diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) to chelate gadolinium, as well as octadecyl chains to stabilize the modified chitosan on the liposome surface. The assembly strategy, mimicking the mechanisms by which viruses and proteins naturally anchor to a cell, provided greater T1 relaxivity than liposomes loaded with gadolinium in both the interior and outer leaflet. Gadolinium-coated liposomes were ultimately evaluated in vivo using murine ischemia models to highlight the diagnostic capability of the system. Taken together, this process decouples particle assembly and functionalization and, therefore, has considerable potential to enhance imaging quality while alleviating many of the difficulties associated with multifunctional particle fabrication.

  7. Improving the relationship between soil characteristics and metal bioavailability by using reactive fractions of soil parameters in calcareous soils.

    PubMed

    de Santiago-Martín, Ana; van Oort, Folkert; González, Concepción; Quintana, José R; Lafuente, Antonio L; Lamy, Isabelle

    2015-01-01

    The contribution of the nature instead of the total content of soil parameters relevant to metal bioavailability in lettuce was tested using a series of low-polluted Mediterranean agricultural calcareous soils offering natural gradients in the content and composition of carbonate, organic, and oxide fractions. Two datasets were compared by canonical ordination based on redundancy analysis: total concentrations (TC dataset) of main soil parameters (constituents, phases, or elements) involved in metal retention and bioavailability; and chemically defined reactive fractions of these parameters (RF dataset). The metal bioavailability patterns were satisfactorily explained only when the RF dataset was used, and the results showed that the proportion of crystalline Fe oxides, dissolved organic C, diethylene-triamine-pentaacetic acid (DTPA)-extractable Cu and Zn, and a labile organic pool accounted for 76% of the variance. In addition, 2 multipollution scenarios by metal spiking were tested that showed better relationships with the RF dataset than with the TC dataset (up to 17% more) and new reactive fractions involved. For Mediterranean calcareous soils, the use of reactive pools of soil parameters rather than their total contents improved the relationships between soil constituents and metal bioavailability. Such pool determinations should be systematically included in studies dealing with bioavailability or risk assessment.

  8. In Vivo Characterization of a Smart MRI Agent That Displays an Inverse Response to Calcium Concentration

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) that exhibit sensitivity toward specific ions or molecules represent a challenging but attractive direction of research. Here a Gd3+ complex linked to an aminobis(methylenephosphonate) group for chelating Ca2+ was synthesized and investigated. The longitudinal relaxivity (r1) of this complex decreases during the relaxometric titration with Ca2+ from 5.76 to 3.57 mM−1 s−1 upon saturation. The r1 is modulated by changes in the hydration number, which was confirmed by determination of the luminescence emission lifetimes of the analogous Eu3+ complex. The initial in vivo characterization of this responsive contrast agent was performed by means of electrophysiology and MRI experiments. The investigated complex is fully biocompatible, having no observable effect on neuronal function after administration into the brain ventricles or parenchyma. Distribution studies demonstrated that the diffusivity of this agent is significantly lower compared with that of gadolinium−diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (Gd−DTPA). PMID:22778817

  9. Biochar Amendment for Reducing Leachability of Nitro Explosives and Metals from Contaminated Soils and Mine Tailings.

    PubMed

    Oh, Seok-Young; Yoon, Hyun-Su

    2016-05-01

    The mobility and bioavailability of nitro explosives (2,4-dinitrotoluene [DNT], 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene [TNT], and hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine [RDX]) in biochar-amended soils and toxic metals (As, Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn) in biochar-amended mine tailings were investigated via various types of leaching procedures in laboratory-scale batch experiments. The results from the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) and hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPCD) extraction showed that approximately 55 to 95% of the explosives were released from the contaminated soils and would thus be considered as mobile. With the addition of biochar, the extracted concentrations of explosives were reduced to less than 10% of the initial concentrations after 10 d. According to the results from a Korean waste leaching method, the TCLP method, and diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) extraction, adding biochar to mine tailings reduced the extractability and bioavailability of metals. The chemical forms of the metals, types of extractants, pH, and curing period strongly affected the extractability of metals from mine tailings. The results suggest that biochar is a promising immobilizer of explosives and metals in contaminated soils and mine tailings under limited conditions. PMID:27136167

  10. Precipitation: its acidic nature.

    PubMed

    Frohliger, J O; Kane, R

    1975-08-01

    A comparison of the free hydrogen ion concentration and the total hydrogen ion concentration of rain samples shows that rain is a weak acid. The weak acid nature of rain casts doubt on the concepts that the acidity of rain is increasing and that these increases are due to strong acids such as sulfuric acid.

  11. Spectroscopic system for direct lanthanide photoluminescence spectroscopy with nanomolar detection limits.

    PubMed

    Andolina, Christopher M; Holthoff, William G; Page, Phillip M; Mathews, Ryan A; Morrow, Janet R; Bright, Frank V

    2009-05-01

    A new spectroscopic system for direct photoluminescence of lanthanide ions (Ln(III)) through electronic transitions within the 4f(n) manifold is described. The system is based on an injection seeded frequency tripled (lambda = 355 nm) Nd:YAG pump laser coupled with a master oscillator power oscillator (MOPO). The MOPO delivers an average pulse energy of approximately 60 mJ/pulse, is continuously tunable from 425 to 690 nm (Signal) and 735 to 1800 nm (Idler) with a linewidth of <0.2 cm(-1), and has a pulse duration of 10-12 ns. Aqueous solutions containing two polyaminocarboxylate complexes, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA), and Ln(3+) aqua ion for several lanthanides including Eu(III), Tb(III), Dy(III), and Sm(III)) are used as steady-state and time-resolved photoluminescence standards. The versatility of the instrument is demonstrated by excitation scans over a broad visible range for aqueous solutions of complexes of Eu(III), Dy(III), Sm(III), and Tb(III). The Eu(III) excitation band ((7)F(o)-->(5)D(o)) is recorded over a range of complex concentrations that are 1000-fold less than reported previously, including Eu(EDTA) (1.00 nM), Eu(DTPA) (1.00 nM), and Eu(III) aqua ion (50.0 nM). Emission spectra are recorded in the visible range for Ln(III) complexes at pH 6.5 and 1.00 mM. Excited-state lifetimes for the standards were constant as a function of concentration from 10.0 nM to 1.00 mM for Eu(EDTA) and Eu(DTPA) and from 100 nM to 1.00 mM for Eu(III) aqua ion. Photoluminescence lifetimes in H(2)O and D(2)O are recorded and used to calculate the number of bound water molecules for all complexes.

  12. Amino Acid Metabolism Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... defects & other health conditions > Amino acid metabolism disorders Amino acid metabolism disorders E-mail to a friend Please ... baby’s newborn screening may include testing for certain amino acid metabolism disorders. These are rare health conditions that ...

  13. Carbolic acid poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Phenol poisoning; Phenylic acid poisoning; Hydroxybenzene poisoning; Phenic acid poisoning; Benzenol poisoning ... Below are symptoms of carbolic acid poisoning in different parts of the ... urine Decreased urine output No urine output EYES, EARS, ...

  14. Azelaic Acid Topical

    MedlinePlus

    Azelaic acid gel is used to clear the bumps, lesions, and swelling caused by rosacea (a skin disease that ... redness, flushing, and pimples on the face). Azelaic acid cream is used to treat acne. Azelaic acid ...

  15. Uric acid test (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Uric acid urine test is performed to check for the amount of uric acid in urine. Urine is collected over a 24 ... testing. The most common reason for measuring uric acid levels is in the diagnosis or treatment of ...

  16. Facts about Folic Acid

    MedlinePlus

    ... Information For... Media Policy Makers Facts About Folic Acid Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... of the baby's brain and spine. About folic acid Folic acid is a B vitamin. Our bodies ...

  17. Acid Lipase Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Awards Enhancing Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Acid Lipase Disease Information Page Synonym(s): Cholesterol Ester Storage ... Trials Related NINDS Publications and Information What is Acid Lipase Disease ? Acid lipase disease or deficiency occurs ...

  18. Acid distribution in phosphoric acid fuel cells

    SciTech Connect

    Okae, I.; Seya, A.; Umemoto, M.

    1996-12-31

    Electrolyte acid distribution among each component of a cell is determined by capillary force when the cell is not in operation, but the distribution under the current load conditions had not been clear so far. Since the loss of electrolyte acid during operation is inevitable, it is necessary to store enough amount of acid in every cell. But it must be under the level of which the acid disturbs the diffusion of reactive gases. Accordingly to know the actual acid distribution during operation in a cell is very important. In this report, we carried out experiments to clarify the distribution using small single cells.

  19. Speciation analysis of inorganic tin by on-column complexation ion chromatography with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and electrospray mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Huang, Li; Yang, Die; Guo, Xiangquan; Chen, Zuliang

    2014-11-14

    Inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and electrospray mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) were used as complementary methods to identify Sn-pentaacetic acid (DTPA) complex formation. ESI-MS was used to initially confirm the formation of [Sn(DTPA)](3-) and [Sn(DTPA)](1-) and their MS spectra suggest these tin complexes were stable in solution. On-column complexation of tin with DTPA and the separation of [Sn(DTPA)](3-) and [Sn(DTPA)](1-) was performed on anion-exchange chromatography with an mobile phase containing 20mM NH4NO3 and 3mM DTPA at pH 6.0, and the subsequent detection of [Sn(DTPA)](3-) and [Sn(DTPA)](1-) was achieved by ICP-MS. Linear plots were obtained in a concentration range of 1.0-1000 μg L(-1) with detection limits ranging from 0.1 to 0.3 μg L(-1). The developed procedure allows the simultaneous determination of [Sn(DTPA)](3-) and [Sn(DTPA)](1-) in less than 5 min with a RSD between 2.1 and 2.7%. The recoveries of [Sn(DTPA)](3-) and [Sn(DTPA)](1-) were found to be 96.8 and 99.4%, respectively, when the sample was spiked with 20 μg L(-1) standard. Finally, the proposed procedure was used for the determination of tin species in contaminated water.

  20. Acid tolerance in amphibians

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, B.A.

    1985-04-01

    Studies of amphibian acid tolerance provide information about the potential effects of acid deposition on amphibian communities. Amphibians as a group appear to be relatively acid tolerant, with many species suffering increased mortality only below pH 4. However, amphibians exhibit much intraspecific variation in acid tolerance, and some species are sensitive to even low levels of acidity. Furthermore, nonlethal effects, including depression of growth rates and increases in developmental abnormalities, can occur at higher pH.

  1. Bioconversions of ferulic acid, an hydroxycinnamic acid.

    PubMed

    Mathew, Sindhu; Abraham, T Emilia

    2006-01-01

    Ferulic acid is the most abundant hydroxycinnamic acid in the plant world and is ester linked to arabinose, in various plant polysaccharides such as arabinoxylans and pectins. It is a precursor to vanillin, one of the most important aromatic flavor compound used in foods, beverages, pharmaceuticals, and perfumes. This article presents an overview of the various biocatalytic routes, focusing on the relevant biotransformations of ferulic acid using plant sources, microorganisms, and enzymes.

  2. Lead phytoextraction from contaminated soil with high-biomass plant species.

    PubMed

    Shen, Zhen-Guo; Li, Xiang-Dong; Wang, Chun-Chun; Chen, Huai-Man; Chua, Hong

    2002-01-01

    In this study, cabbage [Brassica rapa L. subsp. chinensis (L.) Hanelt cv. Xinza No 1], mung bean [Vigna radiata (L.) R. Wilczek var. radiata cv. VC-3762], and wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Altas 66) were grown in Pb-contaminated soils. Application of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) (3.0 mmol of EDTA/kg soil) to the soil significantly increased the concentrations of Pb in the shoots and roots of all the plants. Lead concentrations in the cabbage shoots reached 5010 and 4620 mg/kg dry matter on Days 7 and 14 after EDTA application, respectively. EDTA was the best in solubilizing soil-bound Pb and enhancing Pb accumulation in the cabbage shoots among various chelates (EDTA, diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid [DTPA], hydroxyethylenediaminetriacetic acid [HEDTA], nitrilotriacetic acid [NTA], and citric acid). Results of the sequential chemical extraction of soil samples showed that the Pb concentrations in the carbonate-specifically adsorbed and Fe-Mn oxide phases were significantly decreased after EDTA treatment. The results indicated that EDTA solubilized Pb mainly from these two phases in the soil. The relative efficiency of EDTA enhancing Pb accumulation in shoots (defined as the ratio of shoot Pb concentration to EDTA concentration applied) was highest when 1.5 or 3.0 mmol EDTA/kg soil was used. Application of EDTA in three separate doses was most effective in enhancing the accumulation of Pb in cabbage shoots and decreased mobility of Pb in soil compared with one- and two-dose application methods. This approach could help to minimize the amount of chelate applied in the field and to reduce the potential risk of soluble Pb movement into ground water.

  3. Predicting bioavailability of metals from sludge-amended soils.

    PubMed

    Golui, Debasis; Datta, S P; Rattan, R K; Dwivedi, B S; Meena, M C

    2014-12-01

    We attempted to develop a protocol for fixing the maximum permissible limit of sludge in agricultural lands based on transfer of metals from sludge-amended soils to human food chain. For this purpose, spinach was grown as a test crop on acid and alkaline soils with graded doses of sludge (0, 1.12, 2.24, 4.48, 8.96, 17.9, 35.8, 71.6, 142 and 285 g kg(-1) of soil) in a pot experiment. Biomass yield of spinach was increased due to sludge application in both acid and alkaline soils. Among the chemical extractants, EDTA extracted the highest amount of metals from sludge-amended soil followed by diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) and CaCl2. Elevated levels of Zn, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Cd and Pb in spinach were observed due to sludge application over control. Application of sludge was more effective in increasing metal content in spinach grown on acid soil than alkaline soil. Solubility-free ion activity model as a function of pH, organic carbon and extractable metal was far more effective in predicting metal uptake by spinach grown on sludge-amended soils as compared to that of chemical extractants. Risk in terms of hazard quotient (HQ) for intake of metals through consumption of spinach by humans grown on sludge-treated soils was computed for different metals separately. In a 90-day pot experiment, safe rates of sludge application were worked out as 4.48 and 71.6 g kg(-1) for acid and alkaline soils, respectively.

  4. [Effects of Three Industrial Organic Wastes as Amendments on Plant Growth and the Biochemical Properties of a Pb/Zn Mine Tailings].

    PubMed

    Peng, Xi-zhu; Yang, Sheng-xiang; Li, Feng-mei; Cao, Jian-bing; Peng, Qing-jing

    2016-01-15

    A field trial was conducted in an abandoned Pb/Zn mine tailings to evaluate the effectiveness of three industrial wastes [sweet sorghum vinasse (SSV), medicinal herb residues (MHR) and spent mushroom compost (SMC)] as organic amendments on plant growth, soil nutrients and enzyme activities, and heavy metal concentrations in plant tissues and the mine tailings. (1) The main findings were as follows: (1) The mean concentrations of diethylene-triamine-pentaacetic acid (DTPA)-extractable Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn in SSV, MHR and SMC treatments decreased by 24.2%-27.3%, 45.7%-48.3%, 18.0%-20.9% and 10.1%-14.2% as compared to the control tailings. When compared to the control tailings, the mean values of organic matter, ammonium-N and available P in SSV, MHR and SMC treatments increased by 2.27-2.32, 12.4-12.8 and 4.04-4.74 times, respectively. Similarly, the addition of SSV, MHR and SMC significantly enhanced soil enzyme activities (dehydrogenase, beta-glucosidase, urease and phosphatase), being 5.51-6.37, 1.72-1.96, 6.32-6.62 and 2.35-2.62 times higher than those in the control tailings. (2) The application of these wastes promoted seed germination and seedling growth. The vegetation cover reached 84%, 79% and 86% at SSV, MHR and SMC subplots. For Lolium perenne and Cynodon dactylon, the addition of SSV, MHR and SMC led to significant increases in the shoot biomass yields with 4.2-5.6 and 15.7-17.3 times greater than those in the tailings. Moreover, the addition of SSV, MHR and SMC significantly reduced the concentrations of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn in the shoots of L. perenne and C. dactylon in comparison with the control tailings. (3) Pearson's correlation coefficients showed that the vegetation cover and biomass were positively correlated with soil nutrient elements and enzyme activities. Significant negative correlations were observed between DTPA-extractable metal concentrations and vegetation cover and biomass. The metal concentrations in plants were positively correlated with

  5. NMR spectroscopic properties (1H at 500 MHz) of deuterated* ribonucleotide-dimers ApU*, GpC*, partially deuterated 2'-deoxyribonucleotide-dimers d(TpA*), d(ApT*), d(GpC*) and their comparison with natural counterparts (1H-NMR window).

    PubMed

    Földesi, A; Nilson, F P; Glemarec, C; Gioeli, C; Chattopadhyaya, J

    1993-02-01

    Pure 1'#,2',3',4'#,5',5''-2H6-ribonucleoside derivatives 10-14, 1'#,2',2'',3',4'#,5',5''-2H7-2'-deoxynucleoside blocks 15-18 and their natural-abundance counterparts were used to assemble partially deuterated ribonucleotide-dimers (* indicates deuteration at 1'#,2',3',4'#,5',5''(2H6)): ApU* 21, GpC* 22 and partially deuterated 2'-deoxyribonucleotide-dimers d(TpA*) 23, d(ApT*) 25, d(GpC*) 26 (* indicates deuteration at 1'#,2',2'',3',4'#,5',5''(2H7)) according to the procedure described by Földesi et al. (Tetrahedron, in press). These five partially deuterated oligonucleotides were subsequently compared with their corresponding natural-abundance counterparts by 500 MHz 1H-NMR spectroscopy to evaluate the actual NMR simplifications achieved in the non-deuterated part (1H-NMR window) as a result of specific deuterium incorporation. Detailed one-dimensional 1H-NMR (500 MHz), two-dimensional correlation spectra (DQF-COSY and TOCSY) and deuterium isotope effect on the chemical shifts of oligonucleotides have been presented.

  6. Acid Thunder: Acid Rain and Ancient Mesoamerica

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahl, Jonathan D. W.; Berg, Craig A.

    2006-01-01

    Much of Mesoamerica's rich cultural heritage is slowly eroding because of acid rain. Just as water dissolves an Alka-Seltzer tablet, acid rain erodes the limestone surfaces of Mexican archaeological sites at a rate of about one-half millimeter per century (Bravo et al. 2003). A half-millimeter may not seem like much, but at this pace, a few…

  7. Quantity of acid in acid fog

    SciTech Connect

    Deal, W.J.

    1983-07-01

    This communication notes the actual magnitude of the acidity in acidic fog particles and suggests a possible line of inquiry into the health effects of such fog so that it can be determined whether a typical fog is detrimental or beneficial relative to dry air.

  8. [Determination of seven biothiols in rice by high performance liquid chromatography-fluorescence detection with pre-column derivatization].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Rong; Cao, Zhaoyun; Mou, Renxiang; Li, Zhengxiang; Chen, Mingxue

    2015-01-01

    A high performance liquid chromatographic method with fluorescence detection and precolumn derivatization (HPLC-FLD) has been developed for the determination of seven biothiols including Cys, GSH, and phytochelatins (PCs: PC2, PC3, PC4, PC5 and PC6) in rice. The samples were ultrasonically extracted with 0.1% trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) containing 6. 3 mmol/L diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA), and then the seven biothiols were derivatized with monobromobimane (mBrB) as derivatization agent in 4-(2-hydroxyethyl)-1-piperazine propanesulfonic acid (HEPPS) buffer solution (pH 8.0). The separation was performed on an Agilent Eclipse Plus C18 column (50 mm x 4.6 mm, 5 microm) with gradient elution of 0.1% TFA solution (the pH value was adjusted to 2.5 with hydrochloric acid) and acetonitrile as mobile phases at a flow rate of 0.8 mL/min. The detection was performed at 380 nm for excitation and 470 nm for emission. The calibration curves of the seven biothiols showed good linearity in the concentration range of 0.7-100.0 mg/L with the correlation coefficients (r2) > or = 0.9991. The limits of detection were 0.03-0.20 mg/L. The recoveries of standard addition were in the range of 89.26%-99.42% with the relative standard deviations (RSDs, n = 6) of 2.05%-5.87%. The method is sensitive, accurate, reproducible and suitable for the simultaneous determination of Cys, GSH, PC2, PC3, PC4, PC5 and PC6 in rice. PMID:25958665

  9. Respiratory clearance of aerosolized radioactive solutes of varying molecular weight

    SciTech Connect

    Huchon, G.J.; Montgomery, A.B.; Lipavsky, A.; Hoeffel, J.M.; Murray, J.F.

    1987-05-01

    To determine the influence of varying molecular weight (mol wt) on respiratory clearance of aerosolized solutes, we studied eight radiopharmaceuticals, each administered to four dogs: sodium /sup 99m/Tc pertechnetate (TcO4), /sup 99m/Tc glucoheptonate ((/sup 99m/Tc)GH), 51Cr-ethylenedinitrotetraacetate ((51Cr)EDTA), /sup 99m/Tc diethylenetriaminepentaacetate ((99mTc) DTPA), /sup 111/In diethylenetriaminepentaacetate ((/sup 111/In)DTPA), /sup 67/Ga desferoxaminemesylate ((/sup 67/Ga)DFOM), /sup 99m/Tc dextran ((/sup 99m/Tc)DX) and /sup 111/In transferrin ((/sup 111/In)TF). After aerosolization (0.8 m MMD, 2.4 GSD), clearance was determined for 30 min and then corrected by intravenous injection for nonairspace radioactivity. In-TF clearance (0.11 +/- 0.10%/min) was lower than TcO4 (6.32 +/- 0.62%/min), (/sup 99m/Tc)GH (1.50 +/- 0.37%/min), (/sup 51/Cr)EDTA (2.38 +/- 1.02%/min), (/sup 99m/Tc)DTPA (3.51 +/- 0.40%/min), (/sup 111/In)DTPA (2.35 +/- 0.42%/min), (/sup 67/Ga) DFOM (1.99 +/- 0.49%/min) and (/sup 99m/Tc)DX (1.81 +/- 0.75%/min) clearances (p less than 0.001). TcO4 clearance was higher than others (p less than 0.001). Technetium binding to DX was unsatisfactory; aerosolization caused unbinding from DTPA. We conclude that respiratory clearance of large mol wt solutes within 30 min is negligible and, that clearance of molecules between 347-5099 daltons differs greatly, suggesting that binding and/or intrapulmonary retention affect transfer.

  10. Lactic acid test

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003507.htm Lactic acid test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Lactic acid is mainly produced in muscle cells and red ...

  11. Omega-6 Fatty Acids

    MedlinePlus

    ... types of fats. Some types are found in vegetable oils, including corn, evening primrose seed, safflower, and soybean ... from studying specific omega-6 fatty acids or plant oils containing omega-6 fatty acids. See the separate ...

  12. Fatty acid analogs

    DOEpatents

    Elmaleh, David R.; Livni, Eli

    1985-01-01

    In one aspect, a radioactively labeled analog of a fatty acid which is capable of being taken up by mammalian tissue and which exhibits an in vivo beta-oxidation rate below that with a corresponding radioactively labeled fatty acid.

  13. Deoxycholic Acid Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Deoxycholic acid injection is used to improve the appearance and profile of moderate to severe submental fat ('double chin'; fatty tissue located under the chin). Deoxycholic acid injection is in a class of medications called ...

  14. Aminocaproic Acid Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Aminocaproic acid injection is used to control bleeding that occurs when blood clots are broken down too quickly. This ... the baby is ready to be born). Aminocaproic acid injection is also used to control bleeding in ...

  15. Zoledronic Acid Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... acid (Reclast) is used to prevent or treat osteoporosis (condition in which the bones become thin and ... Zoledronic acid (Reclast) is also used to treat osteoporosis in men, and to prevent or treat osteoporosis ...

  16. Uric Acid Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Uric Acid Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: Serum Urate; UA Formal name: Uric Acid Related tests: Synovial Fluid Analysis , Kidney Stone Analysis , ...

  17. Methylmalonic Acid Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Methylmalonic Acid Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: MMA Formal name: Methylmalonic Acid Related tests: Vitamin B12 and Folate , Homocysteine , Intrinsic ...

  18. Hydrochloric acid poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Hydrochloric acid is a clear, poisonous liquid. It is highly corrosive, which means it immediately causes severe ... discusses poisoning due to swallowing or breathing in hydrochloric acid. This article is for information only. Do ...

  19. Mixed Acid Oxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, R.A.

    1999-10-26

    Several non-thermal processes have been developed to destroy organic waste compounds using chemicals with high oxidation potentials. These efforts have focused on developing technologies that work at low temperatures, relative to incineration, to overcome many of the regulatory issues associated with obtaining permits for waste incinerators. One such technique with great flexibility is mixed acid oxidation. Mixed acid oxidation, developed at the Savannah River Site, uses a mixture of an oxidant (nitric acid) and a carrier acid (phosphoric acid). The carrier acid acts as a non-volatile holding medium for the somewhat volatile oxidant. The combination of acids allows appreciable amounts of the concentrated oxidant to remain in the carrier acid well above the oxidant''s normal boiling point.

  20. Assessment of the use of industrial by-products for induced reduction of As, and Se potential leachability in an acid soil.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Jordá, M P; Garrido, F; García-González, M T

    2010-03-15

    Four industrial by-products (phosphogypsum, PG; red gypsum, RG; sugar foam, SF and ashes from the combustion of biomass, ACB) were evaluated as possible amendments for reducing the leachability and bioavailability of As and Se in a metalloid-spiked acidic soil. The treatments were applied as single, double and triple amendments and at two different rates. The effectiveness of the treatments was evaluated after a series of leaching experiments using a chelating agent (DTPA solution) or a weak acidification (acetic acid at pH 4.93). The most effective treatments (ACB and RG, both applied at high rate) were identified by means of Cluster Analysis using the leachability indexes. Different sorption mechanisms involved in the overall reduction of metalloid leachability were identified using scanning electron microscopy (SEM-BSE and SEM-EDS). In the ACB-treated samples, Se was found associated to organic matter aggregates and to Fe compounds. In the RG-treated samples, EDS analyses showed that As and Se were associated to Fe/Ti (hydr)oxides phases which are present not only in the by-product as maghemite and rutile, but also in the soil as hematite and goethite. In addition, the application of RG induced the formation of non-crystalline Al-hydroxy polymers with As and Se in their composition.

  1. Plant fatty acid hydroxylases

    DOEpatents

    Somerville, Chris; Broun, Pierre; van de Loo, Frank

    2001-01-01

    This invention relates to plant fatty acyl hydroxylases. Methods to use conserved amino acid or nucleotide sequences to obtain plant fatty acyl hydroxylases are described. Also described is the use of cDNA clones encoding a plant hydroxylase to produce a family of hydroxylated fatty acids in transgenic plants. In addition, the use of genes encoding fatty acid hydroxylases or desaturases to alter the level of lipid fatty acid unsaturation in transgenic plants is described.

  2. PRODUCTION OF TRIFLUOROACETIC ACID

    DOEpatents

    Haworth, W.N.; Stacey, M.

    1949-07-19

    A method is given for the production of improved yields of trifluoroacetic acid. The compound is prepared by oxidizing m-aminobenzotrifluoride with an alkali metal or alkaline earth metal permanganate at a temperature in the range of 80 deg C to 100 deg C while dissolved ln a mixture of water with glacial acetic acid and/or trifluoroacetic acid. Preferably a mixture of water and trifluoroacetic acid ls used as the solvent.

  3. Quantity of acid in acid fog

    SciTech Connect

    Deal, W.J.

    1983-07-01

    The chemical composition of fog particles has become of considerable interest, because of both the possibility of interpreting atmospheric- chemistry processes in fog particles in terms of the principles of aqueous chemistry and the potential health effects of species present in fog particles. The acidity of fog particles has received wide attention. This communication noted the actual magnitude of the excess acidity in acidic fog particles and suggested a possible line of inquiry into the health effects of such fog so that it can be determined whether a typical fog is detrimental or beneficial relative to dry air. (DP)

  4. Acid Rain Study Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunger, Carolyn; And Others

    Acid rain is a complex, worldwide environmental problem. This study guide is intended to aid teachers of grades 4-12 to help their students understand what acid rain is, why it is a problem, and what possible solutions exist. The document contains specific sections on: (1) the various terms used in conjunction with acid rain (such as acid…

  5. The Acid Rain Reader.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stubbs, Harriett S.; And Others

    A topic which is often not sufficiently dealt with in elementary school textbooks is acid rain. This student text is designed to supplement classroom materials on the topic. Discussed are: (1) "Rain"; (2) "Water Cycle"; (3) "Fossil Fuels"; (4) "Air Pollution"; (5) "Superstacks"; (6) "Acid/Neutral/Bases"; (7) "pH Scale"; (8) "Acid Rain"; (9)…

  6. What Is Acid Rain?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Likens, Gene E.

    2004-01-01

    Acid rain is the collective term for any type of acidified precipitation: rain, snow, sleet, and hail, as well as the presence of acidifying gases, particles, cloud water, and fog in the atmosphere. The increased acidity, primarily from sulfuric and nitric acids, is generated as a by-product of the combustion of fossil fuels such as coal and oil.…

  7. [alpha]-Oxocarboxylic Acids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerber, Robert C.; Fernando, Marian S.

    2010-01-01

    Several [alpha]-oxocarboxylic acids play key roles in metabolism in plants and animals. However, there are inconsistencies between the structures as commonly portrayed and the reported acid ionization constants, which result because the acids are predominantly hydrated in aqueous solution; that is, the predominant form is RC(OH)[subscript 2]COOH…

  8. Nucleic acid detection compositions

    DOEpatents

    Prudent, James R.; Hall, Jeff G.; Lyamichev, Victor I.; Brow, Mary Ann; Dahlberg, James L.

    2008-08-05

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.

  9. Cleavage of nucleic acids

    DOEpatents

    Prudent, James R.; Hall, Jeff G.; Lyamichev, Victor I.; Brow, Mary Ann D.; Dahlberg, James E.

    2000-01-01

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.

  10. Nucleic acid detection assays

    DOEpatents

    Prudent, James R.; Hall, Jeff G.; Lyamichev, Victor I.; Brow, Mary Ann; Dahlberg, James E.

    2005-04-05

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.

  11. Cleavage of nucleic acids

    DOEpatents

    Prudent, James R.; Hall, Jeff G.; Lyamichev, Victor L.; Brow, Mary Ann D.; Dahlberg, James E.

    2007-12-11

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.

  12. Cleavage of nucleic acids

    SciTech Connect

    Prudent, James R.; Hall, Jeff G.; Lyamichev, Victor I.; Brow; Mary Ann D.; Dahlberg, James E.

    2010-11-09

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.

  13. Editorial: Acid precipitation

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    This editorial focuses on acid rain and the history of public and governmental response to acid rain. Comments on a book by Gwineth Howell `Acid Rain and Acid Waters` are included. The editor feels that Howells has provide a service to the environmental scientific community, with a textbook useful to a range of people, as well as a call for decision makers to learn from the acid rain issue and use it as a model for more sweeping global environmental issues. A balance is needed among several parameters such as level of evidence, probability that the evidence will lead to a specific direction and the cost to the global community. 1 tab.

  14. [Safety of folic acid].

    PubMed

    Ströhle, Alexander; Wolters, Maike; Hahn, Andreas

    2015-08-01

    Improving dietary folate intake is a central public health goal. However, critical voices have become louder warning of too high intake of folic acid. Safety concerns of a high folic acid exposure are usually limited to synthetic folic acid contained in drugs and food supplements. Against this background, the present article focuses on two matters: (a) How do the absorption and metabolism of synthetic folic acid differ from that of other folates? (b) How has the longterm safety of folic acid to be judged, especially regarding the risk of colorectal cancer, autism, asthma, impaired immune defence, masking vitamin B12 deficiency and interactions with the methotrexate metabolism?

  15. Amino acid analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winitz, M.; Graff, J. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    The process and apparatus for qualitative and quantitative analysis of the amino acid content of a biological sample are presented. The sample is deposited on a cation exchange resin and then is washed with suitable solvents. The amino acids and various cations and organic material with a basic function remain on the resin. The resin is eluted with an acid eluant, and the eluate containing the amino acids is transferred to a reaction vessel where the eluant is removed. Final analysis of the purified acylated amino acid esters is accomplished by gas-liquid chromatographic techniques.

  16. Acidic Ionic Liquids.

    PubMed

    Amarasekara, Ananda S

    2016-05-25

    Ionic liquid with acidic properties is an important branch in the wide ionic liquid field and the aim of this article is to cover all aspects of these acidic ionic liquids, especially focusing on the developments in the last four years. The structural diversity and synthesis of acidic ionic liquids are discussed in the introduction sections of this review. In addition, an unambiguous classification system for various types of acidic ionic liquids is presented in the introduction. The physical properties including acidity, thermo-physical properties, ionic conductivity, spectroscopy, and computational studies on acidic ionic liquids are covered in the next sections. The final section provides a comprehensive review on applications of acidic ionic liquids in a wide array of fields including catalysis, CO2 fixation, ionogel, electrolyte, fuel-cell, membrane, biomass processing, biodiesel synthesis, desulfurization of gasoline/diesel, metal processing, and metal electrodeposition.

  17. Nucleic acid detection kits

    DOEpatents

    Hall, Jeff G.; Lyamichev, Victor I.; Mast, Andrea L.; Brow, Mary Ann; Kwiatkowski, Robert W.; Vavra, Stephanie H.

    2005-03-29

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof. The present invention further relates to methods and devices for the separation of nucleic acid molecules based on charge. The present invention also provides methods for the detection of non-target cleavage products via the formation of a complete and activated protein binding region. The invention further provides sensitive and specific methods for the detection of nucleic acid from various viruses in a sample.

  18. Acidic Ionic Liquids.

    PubMed

    Amarasekara, Ananda S

    2016-05-25

    Ionic liquid with acidic properties is an important branch in the wide ionic liquid field and the aim of this article is to cover all aspects of these acidic ionic liquids, especially focusing on the developments in the last four years. The structural diversity and synthesis of acidic ionic liquids are discussed in the introduction sections of this review. In addition, an unambiguous classification system for various types of acidic ionic liquids is presented in the introduction. The physical properties including acidity, thermo-physical properties, ionic conductivity, spectroscopy, and computational studies on acidic ionic liquids are covered in the next sections. The final section provides a comprehensive review on applications of acidic ionic liquids in a wide array of fields including catalysis, CO2 fixation, ionogel, electrolyte, fuel-cell, membrane, biomass processing, biodiesel synthesis, desulfurization of gasoline/diesel, metal processing, and metal electrodeposition. PMID:27175515

  19. Boric acid and boronic acids inhibition of pigeonpea urease.

    PubMed

    Reddy, K Ravi Charan; Kayastha, Arvind M

    2006-08-01

    Urease from the seeds of pigeonpea was competitively inhibited by boric acid, butylboronic acid, phenylboronic acid, and 4-bromophenylboronic acid; 4-bromophenylboronic acid being the strongest inhibitor, followed by boric acid > butylboronic acid > phenylboronic acid, respectively. Urease inhibition by boric acid is maximal at acidic pH (5.0) and minimal at alkaline pH (10.0), i.e., the trigonal planar B(OH)3 form is a more effective inhibitor than the tetrahedral B(OH)4 -anionic form. Similarly, the anionic form of phenylboronic acid was least inhibiting in nature.

  20. Biotransformation of cinnamic acid, p-coumaric acid, caffeic acid, and ferulic acid by plant cell cultures of Eucalyptus perriniana.

    PubMed

    Katsuragi, Hisashi; Shimoda, Kei; Kubota, Naoji; Nakajima, Nobuyoshi; Hamada, Hatsuyuki; Hamada, Hiroki

    2010-01-01

    Biotransformations of phenylpropanoids such as cinnamic acid, p-coumaric acid, caffeic acid, and ferulic acid were investigated with plant-cultured cells of Eucalyptus perriniana. The plant-cultured cells of E. perriniana converted cinnamic acid into cinnamic acid β-D-glucopyranosyl ester, p-coumaric acid, and 4-O-β-D-glucopyranosylcoumaric acid. p-Coumaric acid was converted into 4-O-β-D-glucopyranosylcoumaric acid, p-coumaric acid β-D-glucopyranosyl ester, 4-O-β-D-glucopyranosylcoumaric acid β-D-glucopyranosyl ester, a new compound, caffeic acid, and 3-O-β-D-glucopyranosylcaffeic acid. On the other hand, incubation of caffeic acid with cultured E. perriniana cells gave 3-O-β-D-glucopyranosylcaffeic acid, 3-O-(6-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl)-β-D-glucopyranosylcaffeic acid, a new compound, 3-O-β-D-glucopyranosylcaffeic acid β-D-glucopyranosyl ester, 4-O-β-D-glucopyranosylcaffeic acid, 4-O-β-D-glucopyranosylcaffeic acid β-D-glucopyranosyl ester, ferulic acid, and 4-O-β-D-glucopyranosylferulic acid. 4-O-β-D-Glucopyranosylferulic acid, ferulic acid β-D-glucopyranosyl ester, and 4-O-β-D-glucopyranosylferulic acid β-D-glucopyranosyl ester were isolated from E. perriniana cells treated with ferulic acid.

  1. Targeted cleavage of HIV RRE RNA by Rev-coupled transition metal chelates.

    PubMed

    Joyner, Jeff C; Cowan, J A

    2011-06-29

    A series of compounds that target reactive metal chelates to the HIV-1 Rev response element (RRE) mRNA have been synthesized. Dissociation constants and chemical reactivity toward HIV RRE RNA have been determined and evaluated in terms of reduction potential, coordination unsaturation, and overall charge associated with the metal-chelate-Rev complex. Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA), diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA), and 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid (DOTA) were linked to a lysine side chain of a Rev-derived peptide by either EDC/NHS or isothiocyanate coupling. The resulting chelate-Rev (EDTA-Rev, DTPA-Rev, NTA-Rev, and DOTA-Rev) conjugates were used to form coordination complexes with Fe(2+), Co(2+), Ni(2+), and Cu(2+) such that the arginine-rich Rev peptide could mediate localization of the metal chelates to the Rev peptide's high-affinity mRNA binding partner, RRE stem loop IIB. Metal complexes of the extended peptides GGH-Rev and KGHK-Rev, which also contain N-terminal peptidic chelators (ATCUN motifs), were studied for comparison. A fluorescence titration assay revealed high-affinity RRE RNA binding by all 22 metal-chelate-Rev species, with K(D) values ranging from ~0.2 to 16 nM, indicating little to no loss of RNA affinity due to the coupling of the metal chelates to the Rev peptide. Dissociation constants for binding at a previously unobserved low-affinity site are also reported. Rates of RNA modification by each metal-chelate-Rev species were determined and varied from ~0.28 to 4.9 nM/min but were optimal for Cu(2+)-NTA-Rev. Metal-chelate reduction potentials were determined and varied from -228 to +1111 mV vs NHE under similar solution conditions, allowing direct comparison of reactivity with redox thermodynamics. Optimal activity was observed when the reduction potential for the metal center was poised between those of the two principal co-reagents for metal-promoted formation of

  2. Polyion complex micelle MRI contrast agents from poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(l-lysine) block copolymers having Gd-DOTA; preparations and their control of T(1)-relaxivities and blood circulation characteristics.

    PubMed

    Shiraishi, Kouichi; Kawano, Kumi; Maitani, Yoshie; Yokoyama, Masayuki

    2010-12-01

    The current study synthesized macromolecular magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents constituted of the poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(L-lysine) block copolymer (PEG-P(Lys)). A chelate group, 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid (DOTA), was attached to the primary amino group of the block copolymer in desired contents. Gd-DOTA-based macromolecular contrast agents were prepared from PEG-P(Lys) having DOTA (PEG-P(Lys-DOTA) and Gd(III) ions. All of the PEG-P(Lys) block copolymers having gadolinium ions (PEG-P(Lys-DOTA-Gd)) showed higher T(1) relaxivity (per gadolinium), r(1)=5.6-7.3mM(-1)s(-1), than that of a low-molecular-weight gadolinium-chelate, diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid-gadolinium(III) (Gd-DTPA) at 9.4T. The study prepared the polyion complex (PIC) micelles from the amino groups of the lysine units and an oppositely charged polyanion, poly(methacrylic acid) or dextran sulfate, in an aqueous medium. In contrast, the fully DOTA-attached PEG-P(Lys-DOTA-Gd) formed a PIC with a polycation. Compared with partially DOTA-attached cationic PEG-P(Lys-DOTA-Gd), this PIC micelle yielded a forty percent decrease of r(1). This r(1) decrease was considered to result from a change in the accessibility of water molecules to gadolinium ions in the micelles' inner core. The r(1) was decreased upon formation of the PIC micelle, and this change proved that our concept worked in vitro. Blood-circulation characteristics of PIC micelles were controlled by means of changing the molecular weight of the counter anion. The PIC micelles accumulated in tumor tissues, and MRI study showed T1W image of axial slice of tumor area was significantly enhanced at 24h after the injection.

  3. Amelioration of nickel phytotoxicity in muck and mineral soils.

    PubMed

    Kukier, U; Chaney, R L

    2001-01-01

    In situ remediation (phytostabilization) is a cost-effective solution for restoring the productivity of metal-contaminated soils and protection of food chains. A pot experiment with wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), oat (Avena sativa L.), and redbeet (Beta vulgaris L.) was conducted to test the ability of limestone and hydrous ferric oxide (HFO) to ameliorate Ni phytotoxicity in two soils contaminated by particulate emissions from a nickel refinery. Quarry muck (Terric Haplohemist; 72% organic matter) contained 2210 mg kg(-1) of total Ni. The mineral soil, Welland silt loam (Typic Epiaquoll), was more contaminated (2930 mg Ni kg(-1)). Both soils were very strongly acidic, allowing the soil Ni to be soluble and phytotoxic. Nickel phytotoxicity of the untreated muck soil was not very pronounced and could be easily confused with symptoms of Mn deficiency that occurred in this soil even with Mn fertilization. Severe nickel phytotoxicity of the untreated mineral soil prevented any growth of redbeet, the most sensitive crop; even wheat, a relatively Ni-resistant species, was severely damaged. White banding indicative of Ni phytotoxicity was present on oat and wheat leaves grown on the acidic mineral soil. Soil Ni extracted with diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) and 0.01 M Sr(NO3)2 was indicative of the ameliorative effect of amendments and correlated well with Ni concentrations in plant shoots. Making soils calcareous was an effective treatment to reduce plant-available Ni and remediate Ni phytotoxicity of these soils to all crops tested. The ameliorative effect of HFO was crop-specific and much less pronounced. PMID:11790001

  4. Nanocrystalline Sm{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5}CoO{sub 3−δ} synthesized using a chelating route for use in IT-SOFC cathodes: Microstructure, surface chemistry and electrical conductivity

    SciTech Connect

    Scurtu, Rares; Somacescu, Simona; Calderon-Moreno, Jose Maria; Culita, Daniela; Bulimestru, Ion; Popa, Nelea; Gulea, Aurelian; Osiceanu, Petre

    2014-02-15

    Nanocrystalline Sm{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5}CoO{sub 3−δ} powders were synthesized by a chelating route using different polyfunctional H{sub x}APC acids (APC=aminopolycarboxylate; x=3, 4, 5). Different homologous aminopolycarboxylic acids, namely nitrilotriacetic (H{sub 3}nta), ethylenediaminetetraacetic (H{sub 4}edta), 1,2-cyclohexanediaminetetracetic (H{sub 4}cdta) and diethylenetriaminepentaacetic (H{sub 5}dtpa) acid, were used as chelating agents to combine Sm, Sr, Co elements into a perovskite structure. The effects of the chelating agents on the crystalline structure, porosity, surface chemistry and electrical properties were investigated. The electrical properties of the perovskite-type materials emphasized that their conductivities in the temperature range of interest (600–800 °C) depend on the nature of the precursors as well as on the presence of a residual Co oxide phase as shown by XRD and XPS analysis. The surface chemistry and the surface stoichiometries were determined by XPS revealing a complex chemical behavior of Sr that exhibits a peculiar “surface phase” and “bulk phase” chemistry within the detected volume (<10 nm). - Graphical abstract: Synthesis of nanocrystalline Sm{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5}CoO{sub 3−δ} powders by a chelating route and the investigation of the microstructure, surface chemistry and electrical properties. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Nanocrystalline Sm{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5}CoO{sub 3−δ} obtained by a chelating synthesis route. • Cubic perovskite structures with crystallite sizes ∼23±2 nm. • The porous nature revealed by N{sub 2} adsorption/desorption (BET). • The surface chemistry and the surface stoichiometries highlighted by XPS. • A complex chemical behavior of Sr exhibits a peculiar “surface phase” and “bulk phase” chemistry.

  5. Process for the preparation of lactic acid and glyceric acid

    DOEpatents

    Jackson, James E [Haslett, MI; Miller, Dennis J [Okemos, MI; Marincean, Simona [Dewitt, MI

    2008-12-02

    Hexose and pentose monosaccharides are degraded to lactic acid and glyceric acid in an aqueous solution in the presence of an excess of a strongly anionic exchange resin, such as AMBERLITE IRN78 and AMBERLITE IRA400. The glyceric acid and lactic acid can be separated from the aqueous solution. Lactic acid and glyceric acid are staple articles of commerce.

  6. Well acidizing compositions and methods

    SciTech Connect

    Swanson, B. L.

    1980-12-23

    Gelled acidic compositions suitable for matrix acidizing or fracture acidizing of subterranean formations are provided comprising water, a water-dispersible polymeric viscosifier such as a polymer of acrylamide, an acid, and a polyphenolic material such as lignite.

  7. Bile acids but not acidic acids induce Barrett's esophagus.

    PubMed

    Sun, Dongfeng; Wang, Xiao; Gai, Zhibo; Song, Xiaoming; Jia, Xinyong; Tian, Hui

    2015-01-01

    Barrett's esophagus (BE) is associated with the development of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC). Bile acids (BAs) refluxing into the esophagus contribute to esophageal injury, which results in BE and subsequent EAC. We developed two animal models to test the role of BAs in the pathogenesis of BE. We surgically generated BA reflux, with or without gastric acid, in rats. In a second experiment, we fed animals separately with BAs and gastric acid. Pathologic changes were examined and the expression of Muc2 and Cdx2 in BE tissue was tested by immunostaining. Inflammatory factors in the plasma, as well as differentiation genes in BE were examined through highly sensitive ELISA and semi-quantitative RT-PCR techniques. We found that BAs are sufficient for the induction of esophagitis and Barrett's-like metaplasia in the esophagus. Overexpression of inflammatory cells, IL-6, and TNF-α was observed both in animals fed with BAs and surgically generated BA reflux. Furthermore, elevated levels of Cdx2, Muc2, Bmp4, Kit19, and Tff2 (differentiation genes in BE) were found in BA-treated rats. In conclusion, BAs, but not gastric acid, are a major causative factor for BE. We confirmed that BAs contribute to the development of BE by inducing the inflammatory response in the esophagus. Inhibiting BAs may be a promising therapy for BE.

  8. Microorganisms for producing organic acids

    DOEpatents

    Pfleger, Brian Frederick; Begemann, Matthew Brett

    2014-09-30

    Organic acid-producing microorganisms and methods of using same. The organic acid-producing microorganisms comprise modifications that reduce or ablate AcsA activity or AcsA homolog activity. The modifications increase tolerance of the microorganisms to such organic acids as 3-hydroxypropionic acid, acrylic acid, propionic acid, lactic acid, and others. Further modifications to the microorganisms increase production of such organic acids as 3-hydroxypropionic acid, lactate, and others. Methods of producing such organic acids as 3-hydroxypropionic acid, lactate, and others with the modified microorganisms are provided. Methods of using acsA or homologs thereof as counter-selectable markers are also provided.

  9. Acid-Base Homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Hamm, L Lee; Nakhoul, Nazih; Hering-Smith, Kathleen S

    2015-12-01

    Acid-base homeostasis and pH regulation are critical for both normal physiology and cell metabolism and function. The importance of this regulation is evidenced by a variety of physiologic derangements that occur when plasma pH is either high or low. The kidneys have the predominant role in regulating the systemic bicarbonate concentration and hence, the metabolic component of acid-base balance. This function of the kidneys has two components: reabsorption of virtually all of the filtered HCO3(-) and production of new bicarbonate to replace that consumed by normal or pathologic acids. This production or generation of new HCO3(-) is done by net acid excretion. Under normal conditions, approximately one-third to one-half of net acid excretion by the kidneys is in the form of titratable acid. The other one-half to two-thirds is the excretion of ammonium. The capacity to excrete ammonium under conditions of acid loads is quantitatively much greater than the capacity to increase titratable acid. Multiple, often redundant pathways and processes exist to regulate these renal functions. Derangements in acid-base homeostasis, however, are common in clinical medicine and can often be related to the systems involved in acid-base transport in the kidneys.

  10. Citric Acid Alternative to Nitric Acid Passivation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, Pattie L. (Compiler)

    2013-01-01

    The Ground Systems Development and Operations GSDO) Program at NASA John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC) has the primary objective of modernizing and transforming the launch and range complex at KSC to benefit current and future NASA programs along with other emerging users. Described as the launch support and infrastructure modernization program in the NASA Authorization Act of 2010, the GSDO Program will develop and implement shared infrastructure and process improvements to provide more flexible, affordable, and responsive capabilities to a multi-user community. In support of the GSDO Program, the purpose of this project is to demonstratevalidate citric acid as a passivation agent for stainless steel. Successful completion of this project will result in citric acid being qualified for use as an environmentally preferable alternative to nitric acid for passivation of stainless steel alloys in NASA and DoD applications.

  11. Enzymatic gallic acid esterification.

    PubMed

    Weetal, H H

    1985-02-01

    Gallic acid esters of n-propyl and amyl alcohols have been produced by enzymatic synthesis in organic solvents using immobilized tannase. Studies indicate that maximum esterification of gallic acid occurs with amyl alcohol. The enzyme shows broad alcohol specificity. However, the enzyme exhibits absolute specificity for the acid portion of the ester. Studies were carried out on K(m), V(max), pH, and temperature optima.

  12. Amino acids and proteins.

    PubMed

    van Goudoever, Johannes B; Vlaardingerbroek, Hester; van den Akker, Chris H; de Groof, Femke; van der Schoor, Sophie R D

    2014-01-01

    Amino acids and protein are key factors for growth. The neonatal period requires the highest intake in life to meet the demands. Those demands include amino acids for growth, but proteins and amino acids also function as signalling molecules and function as neurotransmitters. Often the nutritional requirements are not met, resulting in a postnatal growth restriction. However, current knowledge on adequate levels of both amino acid as well as protein intake can avoid under nutrition in the direct postnatal phase, avoid the need for subsequent catch-up growth and improve later outcome.

  13. USGS Tracks Acid Rain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gordon, John D.; Nilles, Mark A.; Schroder, LeRoy J.

    1995-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has been actively studying acid rain for the past 15 years. When scientists learned that acid rain could harm fish, fear of damage to our natural environment from acid rain concerned the American public. Research by USGS scientists and other groups began to show that the processes resulting in acid rain are very complex. Scientists were puzzled by the fact that in some cases it was difficult to demonstrate that the pollution from automobiles and factories was causing streams or lakes to become more acidic. Further experiments showed how the natural ability of many soils to neutralize acids would reduce the effects of acid rain in some locations--at least as long as the neutralizing ability lasted (Young, 1991). The USGS has played a key role in establishing and maintaining the only nationwide network of acid rain monitoring stations. This program is called the National Atmospheric Deposition Program/National Trends Network (NADP/NTN). Each week, at approximately 220 NADP/NTN sites across the country, rain and snow samples are collected for analysis. NADP/NTN site in Montana. The USGS supports about 72 of these sites. The information gained from monitoring the chemistry of our nation's rain and snow is important for testing the results of pollution control laws on acid rain.

  14. Recovery of organic acids

    DOEpatents

    Verser, Dan W.; Eggeman, Timothy J.

    2011-11-01

    A method is disclosed for the recovery of an organic acid from a dilute salt solution in which the cation of the salt forms an insoluble carbonate salt. A tertiary amine and CO.sub.2 are introduced to the solution to form the insoluble carbonate salt and a complex between the acid and an amine. A water immiscible solvent, such as an alcohol, is added to extract the acid/amine complex from the dilute salt solution to a reaction phase. The reaction phase is continuously dried and a product between the acid and the solvent, such as an ester, is formed.

  15. Recovery of organic acids

    DOEpatents

    Verser, Dan W.; Eggeman, Timothy J.

    2009-10-13

    A method is disclosed for the recovery of an organic acid from a dilute salt solution in which the cation of the salt forms an insoluble carbonate salt. A tertiary amine and CO.sub.2 are introduced to the solution to form the insoluble carbonate salt and a complex between the acid and an amine. A water immiscible solvent, such as an alcohol, is added to extract the acid/amine complex from the dilute salt solution to a reaction phase. The reaction phase is continuously dried and a product between the acid and the solvent, such as an ester, is formed.

  16. Mutant fatty acid desaturase

    DOEpatents

    Shanklin, John; Cahoon, Edgar B.

    2004-02-03

    The present invention relates to a method for producing mutants of a fatty acid desaturase having a substantially increased activity towards fatty acid substrates with chains containing fewer than 18 carbons relative to an unmutagenized precursor desaturase having an 18 carbon atom chain length substrate specificity. The method involves inducing one or more mutations in the nucleic acid sequence encoding the precursor desaturase, transforming the mutated sequence into an unsaturated fatty acid auxotroph cell such as MH13 E. coli, culturing the cells in the absence of supplemental unsaturated fatty acids, thereby selecting for recipient cells which have received and which express a mutant fatty acid desaturase with an elevated specificity for fatty acid substrates having chain lengths of less than 18 carbon atoms. A variety of mutants having 16 or fewer carbon atom chain length substrate specificities are produced by this method. Mutant desaturases produced by this method can be introduced via expression vectors into prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells and can also be used in the production of transgenic plants which may be used to produce specific fatty acid products.

  17. Amino Acid Crossword Puzzle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sims, Paul A.

    2011-01-01

    Learning the 20 standard amino acids is an essential component of an introductory course in biochemistry. Later in the course, the students study metabolism and learn about various catabolic and anabolic pathways involving amino acids. Learning new material or concepts often is easier if one can connect the new material to what one already knows;…

  18. Toxicology of Perfluoroalkyl acids

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Perfluoroalkyl acids(PFAAs) area a family of organic chemicals consisting of a perflurinated carbon backbone (4-12in length) and a acidic functional moiety (Carboxylate or sulfonate). These compounds have excellent surface-tension reducing properties and have numerous industr...

  19. Uric acid - blood

    MedlinePlus

    ... High levels of uric acid can sometimes cause gout or kidney disease. You may have this test if you have had or are about to have certain types of chemotherapy. Rapid weight loss, which may occur with such treatments, can increase the amount of uric acid in ...

  20. Bile acid transporters

    PubMed Central

    Dawson, Paul A.; Lan, Tian; Rao, Anuradha

    2009-01-01

    In liver and intestine, transporters play a critical role in maintaining the enterohepatic circulation and bile acid homeostasis. Over the past two decades, there has been significant progress toward identifying the individual membrane transporters and unraveling their complex regulation. In the liver, bile acids are efficiently transported across the sinusoidal membrane by the Na+ taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide with assistance by members of the organic anion transporting polypeptide family. The bile acids are then secreted in an ATP-dependent fashion across the canalicular membrane by the bile salt export pump. Following their movement with bile into the lumen of the small intestine, bile acids are almost quantitatively reclaimed in the ileum by the apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter. The bile acids are shuttled across the enterocyte to the basolateral membrane and effluxed into the portal circulation by the recently indentified heteromeric organic solute transporter, OSTα-OSTβ. In addition to the hepatocyte and enterocyte, subgroups of these bile acid transporters are expressed by the biliary, renal, and colonic epithelium where they contribute to maintaining bile acid homeostasis and play important cytoprotective roles. This article will review our current understanding of the physiological role and regulation of these important carriers. PMID:19498215

  1. Analysis of Organic Acids.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griswold, John R.; Rauner, Richard A.

    1990-01-01

    Presented are the procedures and a discussion of the results for an experiment in which students select unknown carboxylic acids, determine their melting points, and investigate their solubility behavior in water and ethanol. A table of selected carboxylic acids is included. (CW)

  2. Omega-3 Fatty Acids

    MedlinePlus

    Omega-3 fatty acids are used together with lifestyle changes (diet, weight-loss, exercise) to reduce the amount of triglycerides (a fat-like ... people with very high triglycerides. Omega-3 fatty acids are in a class of medications called antilipemic ...

  3. Toxicology of Perfluoroalkyl Acids*

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are a family of organic chemicals consisting of a perfluorinated carbon backbone (4-12 in length) and an acidic functional moiety (carboxylate or sulfonate). These compounds are chemically stable, have excellent surface-tension reducing properties...

  4. Salicylic Acid Topical

    MedlinePlus

    ... skin blemishes in people who have acne. Topical salicylic acid is also used to treat skin conditions that involve scaling or overgrowth of skin ... water for 15 minutes.Do not apply topical salicylic acid to skin that is broken, red, swollen, irritated, or infected. ...

  5. Chelator induced phytoextraction and in situ soil washing of Cu.

    PubMed

    Kos, Bostjan; Lestan, Domen

    2004-11-01

    In a soil column experiment, we investigated the effect of 5 mmol kg(-1) soil addition of citric acid, ethylenediamine tetraacetate (EDTA), diethylenetriamine-pentaacetate (DTPA) and [S,S]-stereoisomer of ethylenediamine-disuccinate (EDDS) on phytoextraction of Cu from a vineyard soil with 162.6 mg kg(-1) Cu, into the test plant Brassica rapa var. pekinensis. We also examined the use of a horizontal permeable barrier, composed of layers of nutrient enriched sawdust and apatite, for reduction of chelator induced Cu leaching. The addition of all chelators, except citric acid, enhanced Cu mobility and caused leaching of 19.5-23% of initial total Cu from the soil column. However, Cu plant uptake did not increase accordingly; the most effective was the EDDS treatment, in which plant Cu concentration reached 37.8 +/-1.3 mg kg(-1) Cu and increased by 3.3-times over the control treatment. The addition of none of the chelators in the concentration range from 5 to 15 mmol kg(-1) exerted any toxic effect on respiratory soil microorganisms. When EDDS was applied into the columns with horizontal permeable barriers, only 0.53 +/- 0.32% of the initial total Cu was leached. Cu (36.7%) was washed from the 18 cm soil layer above the barrier and accumulated in the barrier. Our results indicate that rather than for a reduction of Cu leaching during rather ineffective chelate induced Cu phytoextraction, horizontal permeable barriers could be more effective in a new remediation technique of controlled in situ soil washing of Cu with biodegradable chelates.

  6. Speciation and phytoavailability of cadmium in soil treated with cadmium-contaminated rice straw.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuai; Huang, Dao-You; Zhu, Qi-Hong; Zhu, Han-Hua; Liu, Shou-Long; Luo, Zun-Chang; Cao, Xiao-Ling; Wang, Ji-Yu; Rao, Zhong-Xiu; Shen, Xin

    2015-02-01

    When grown on Cd-contaminated soil, rice typically accumulates considerable Cd in straw, and which may return to the soil after harvest. This work was undertaken to assess the pollution risk of Cd associated to the Cd-contaminated rice straw after incorporating into an uncontaminated soil. With the Cd-contaminated rice straw added at 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 % (w/w), an incubation experiment (28 days) with non-planting and a followed pot experiment sequent with two planting (rice and Chinese cabbage, transplanted after 28-day incubation) were carried out to investigate the changes of soil Cd speciation and phytoavailability. The results indicated that the Cd-contaminated rice straw addition significantly increased soil pH and dissolved organic carbon during the 28-day incubation. For the high availability of Cd in contaminated rice straw, diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) extractable Cd significantly increased, and the percentages of acetic acid extractable and reducible Cd in soil significantly enhanced after the addition of Cd-contaminated rice straw. However, the Cd-contaminated rice straw addition inhibited the rice growth and induced the decrease of Cd in rice grain and straw by 12.8 to 70.2 % and 39.3 to 57.3 %, respectively, whereas the Cd contents increased by 13.9 to 84.1 % in Chinese cabbage that planted after rice harvest. In conclusion, Cd associated with Cd-contaminated rice straw was highly available after incorporating into the soil, and thus the Cd pollution risk via the Cd-contaminated rice straw incorporation should be evaluated in the Cd-contaminated paddy region.

  7. Uric acid and hypertension.

    PubMed

    Feig, Daniel I

    2011-09-01

    A link between serum uric acid and the development of hypertension was first hypothesized in the 1870s. Although numerous epidemiologic studies in the 1980s and 1990s suggested an association, relatively little attention was paid to it until recently. Animal models have suggested a two-step pathogenesis by which uric acid initially activates the renin angiotensin system and suppresses nitric oxide, leading to uric acid-dependent increase in systemic vascular resistance, followed by a uric acid-mediated vasculopathy, involving renal afferent arterioles, resulting in a late sodium-sensitive hypertension. Initial clinical trials in young patients have supported these mechanisms in young patients but do not yet support pharmacologic reduction of serum uric acid as first-line therapy for hypertension.

  8. Biosynthesis of pulcherriminic acid

    PubMed Central

    MacDonald, J. C.

    1965-01-01

    1. Candida pulcherrima was grown on a complex medium to which various compounds had been added to determine their effect on the biosynthesis of pulcherriminic acid. Most of the pulcherriminic acid synthesized by C. pulcherrima PRL2019 was derived from the l-[1-14C]leucine added to the medium. 2. The cyclic dipeptide of l-leucine (cyclo-l-leucyl-l-leucyl) was shown, by trapping experiments involving cycloleucyl-leucyl isomers, to be synthesized by strain PRL2019. Cyclo-l-leucyl-l-leucyl was derived from l-leucine and was converted into pulcherriminic acid. Cyclo-l-leucyl-l-leucyl was a precursor of pulcherriminic acid in strain PRL2007 also. 3. The results supported the hypothesis that pulcherriminic acid is derived from l-leucine and that cyclo-l-leucyl-l-leucyl is an intermediate in the biosynthesis. PMID:5837792

  9. Factors predicting aggressiveness of non-hypervascular hepatic nodules detected on hepatobiliary phase of gadolinium ethoxybenzyl diethylene-triamine-pentaacetic-acid magnetic resonance imaging

    PubMed Central

    Kanefuji, Tsutomu; Takano, Toru; Suda, Takeshi; Akazawa, Kouhei; Yokoo, Takeshi; Kamimura, Hiroteru; Kamimura, Kenya; Tsuchiya, Atsunori; Takamura, Masaaki; Kawai, Hirokazu; Yamagiwa, Satoshi; Aoyama, Hidefumi; Nomoto, Minoru; Terai, Shuji

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To establish a prognostic formula that distinguishes non-hypervascular hepatic nodules (NHNs) with higher aggressiveness from less hazardous one. METHODS: Seventy-three NHNs were detected in gadolinium ethoxybenzyl diethylene-triamine-pentaacetic-acid magnetic resonance imaging (Gd-EOB-DTPA-MRI) study and confirmed to change 2 mm or more in size and/or to gain hypervascularity. All images were interpreted independently by an experienced, board-certified abdominal radiologist and hepatologist; both knew that the patients were at risk for hepatocellular carcinoma development but were blinded to the clinical information. A formula predicting NHN destiny was developed using a generalized estimating equation model with thirteen explanatory variables: age, gender, background liver diseases, Child-Pugh class, NHN diameter, T1-weighted imaging/T2-weighted imaging detectability, fat deposition, lower signal intensity in arterial phase, lower signal intensity in equilibrium phase, α-fetoprotein, des-γ-carboxy prothrombin, α-fetoprotein-L3, and coexistence of classical hepatocellular carcinoma. The accuracy of the formula was validated in bootstrap samples that were created by resampling of 1000 iterations. RESULTS: During a median follow-up period of 504 d, 73 NHNs with a median diameter of 9 mm (interquartile range: 8-12 mm) grew or shrank by 68.5% (fifty nodules) or 20.5% (fifteen nodules), respectively, whereas hypervascularity developed in 38.4% (twenty eight nodules). In the fifteen shrank nodules, twelve nodules disappeared, while 11.0% (eight nodules) were stable in size but acquired vascularity. A generalized estimating equation analysis selected five explanatories from the thirteen variables as significant factors to predict NHN progression. The estimated regression coefficients were 0.36 for age, 6.51 for lower signal intensity in arterial phase, 8.70 or 6.03 for positivity of hepatitis B virus or hepatitis C virus, 9.37 for des-γ-carboxy prothrombin, and

  10. Total syntheses of cis-cyclopropane fatty acids: dihydromalvalic acid, dihydrosterculic acid, lactobacillic acid, and 9,10-methylenehexadecanoic acid.

    PubMed

    Shah, Sayali; White, Jonathan M; Williams, Spencer J

    2014-12-14

    cis-Cyclopropane fatty acids (cis-CFAs) are widespread constituents of the seed oils of subtropical plants, membrane components of bacteria and protozoa, and the fats and phospholipids of animals. We describe a systematic approach to the synthesis of enantiomeric pairs of four cis-CFAs: cis-9,10-methylenehexadecanoic acid, lactobacillic acid, dihydromalvalic acid, and dihydrosterculic acid. The approach commences with Rh2(OAc)4-catalyzed cyclopropenation of 1-octyne and 1-decyne, and hinges on the preparative scale chromatographic resolution of racemic 2-alkylcycloprop-2-ene-1-carboxylic acids using a homochiral Evan's auxiliary. Saturation of the individual diastereomeric N-cycloprop-2-ene-1-carbonylacyloxazolidines, followed by elaboration to alkylcyclopropylmethylsulfones, allowed Julia-Kocienski olefination with various ω-aldehyde-esters. Finally, saponification and diimide reduction afforded the individual cis-CFA enantiomers. PMID:25321346

  11. Gluconic acid production.

    PubMed

    Anastassiadis, Savas; Morgunov, Igor G

    2007-01-01

    Gluconic acid, the oxidation product of glucose, is a mild neither caustic nor corrosive, non toxic and readily biodegradable organic acid of great interest for many applications. As a multifunctional carbonic acid belonging to the bulk chemicals and due to its physiological and chemical characteristics, gluconic acid itself, its salts (e.g. alkali metal salts, in especially sodium gluconate) and the gluconolactone form have found extensively versatile uses in the chemical, pharmaceutical, food, construction and other industries. Present review article presents the comprehensive information of patent bibliography for the production of gluconic acid and compares the advantages and disadvantages of known processes. Numerous manufacturing processes are described in the international bibliography and patent literature of the last 100 years for the production of gluconic acid from glucose, including chemical and electrochemical catalysis, enzymatic biocatalysis by free or immobilized enzymes in specialized enzyme bioreactors as well as discontinuous and continuous fermentation processes using free growing or immobilized cells of various microorganisms, including bacteria, yeast-like fungi and fungi. Alternatively, new superior fermentation processes have been developed and extensively described for the continuous and discontinuous production of gluconic acid by isolated strains of yeast-like mold Aureobasidium pullulans, offering numerous advantages over the traditional discontinuous fungi processes.

  12. Trans Fatty Acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doyle, Ellin

    1997-09-01

    Fats and their various fatty acid components seem to be a perennial concern of nutritionists and persons concerned with healthful diets. Advice on the consumption of saturated, polyunsaturated, monounsaturated, and total fat bombards us from magazines and newspapers. One of the newer players in this field is the group of trans fatty acids found predominantly in partially hydrogenated fats such as margarines and cooking fats. The controversy concerning dietary trans fatty acids was recently addressed in an American Heart Association (AHA) science advisory (1) and in a position paper from the American Society of Clinical Nutrition/American Institute of Nutrition (ASCN/AIN) (2). Both reports emphasize that the best preventive strategy for reducing risk for cardiovascular disease and some types of cancer is a reduction in total and saturated fats in the diet, but a reduction in the intake of trans fatty acids was also recommended. Although the actual health effects of trans fatty acids remain uncertain, experimental evidence indicates that consumption of trans fatty acids adversely affects serum lipid levels. Since elevated levels of serum cholesterol and triacylglycerols are associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease, it follows that intake of trans fatty acids should be minimized.

  13. Sulfuric Acid on Europa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Frozen sulfuric acid on Jupiter's moon Europa is depicted in this image produced from data gathered by NASA's Galileo spacecraft. The brightest areas, where the yellow is most intense, represent regions of high frozen sulfuric acid concentration. Sulfuric acid is found in battery acid and in Earth's acid rain.

    This image is based on data gathered by Galileo's near infrared mapping spectrometer.

    Europa's leading hemisphere is toward the bottom right, and there are enhanced concentrations of sulfuric acid in the trailing side of Europa (the upper left side of the image). This is the face of Europa that is struck by sulfur ions coming from Jupiter's innermost moon, Io. The long, narrow features that crisscross Europa also show sulfuric acid that may be from sulfurous material extruded in cracks.

    Galileo, launched in 1989, has been orbiting Jupiter and its moons since December 1995. JPL manages the Galileo mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington DC. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA.

  14. Strongly Acidic Auxin Indole-3-Methanesulfonic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Jerry D.; Baldi, Bruce G.; Bialek, Krystyna

    1985-01-01

    A radiochemical synthesis is described for [14C]indole-3-methanesulfonic acid (IMS), a strongly acidic auxin analog. Techniques were developed for fractionation and purification of IMS using normal and reverse phase chromatography. In addition, the utility of both Fourier transform infrared spectrometry and fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry for analysis of IMS has been demonstrated. IMS was shown to be an active auxin, stimulating soybean hypocotyl elongation, bean first internode curvature, and ethylene production. IMS uptake by thin sections of soybean hypocotyl was essentially independent of solution pH and, when applied at a 100 micromolar concentration, IMS exhibited a basipetal polarity in its transport in both corn coleoptile and soybean hypocotyl sections. [14C]IMS should, therefore, be a useful compound to study fundamental processes related to the movement of auxins in plant tissues and organelles. PMID:16664007

  15. Design of a metal primer containing a dithiooctanoate monomer and a phosphonic acid monomer for bonding of prosthetic light-curing resin composite to gold, dental precious and non-precious metal alloys.

    PubMed

    Ikemura, Kunio; Fujii, Toshihide; Negoro, Noriyuki; Endo, Takeshi; Kadoma, Yoshinori

    2011-01-01

    The effect of metal primers on adhesion of a resin composite to dental metal alloys was investigated. Experimental primers containing a dithiooctanoate monomer [10-methacryloyloxydecyl 6,8-dithiooctanoate (10-MDDT) or 6-methacryloyloxyhexyl 6,8-dithiooctanoate (6-MHDT)] and a phosphonic acid monomer [6-methacryloyloxyhexyl phosphonoacetate (6-MHPA) or 6-methacryloyloxyhexyl 3-phosphonopropionate (6-MHPP)] were prepared. After treating Au, Au alloy, Ag alloy, Au-Ag-Pd alloy, and Ni-Cr alloy with the experimental primers, their shear bond strengths (SBSs) with a prosthetic light-curing resin composite (Solidex, Shofu Inc., Japan) were measured after 1-day storage followed by 5,000 thermal cycles. The SBSs between Solidex and the primer-treated metals which were incubated in air at 50°C for 2 months were further measured. Results showed that the SBSs [mean (SD)] of all metal adherends treated with primer DT-PA-1 (5.0 wt% 10-MDDT, 1.0 wt% 6-MHPA) ranged between 31.2 (5.2) and 34.5 (5.8) MPa. The SBSs of the primer-treated metals did not degrade after 2-month incubation at 50°C. Therefore, a combined primer application consisting of a dithiooctanoate monomer and a phosphonic acid monomer provided efficacious bonding to Au as well as precious and non-precious metal alloys.

  16. Understanding acid rain

    SciTech Connect

    Budiansky, S.

    1981-06-01

    The complexities of the phenomenon of acid rain are described. Many factors, including meteorology, geology, chemistry, and biology, all play parts. Varying weather, varying soils, the presence of other pollutants and species differences all act to blur the connections between industrial emissions, acid rain, and environmental damage. Some experts believe that the greatest pH shock to lakes occurs during snow melt and runoff in the spring; others believe that much of the plant damage ascribed to acid rain is actually due to the effects of ozone. Much work needs to be done in the area of sampling. Historical data are lacking and sampling methods are not sufficiently accurate. (JMT)

  17. Understanding Acid Base Disorders.

    PubMed

    Gomez, Hernando; Kellum, John A

    2015-10-01

    The concentration of hydrogen ions is regulated in biologic solutions. There are currently 3 recognized approaches to assess changes in acid base status. First is the traditional Henderson-Hasselbalch approach, also called the physiologic approach, which uses the relationship between HCO3(-) and Pco2; the second is the standard base excess approach based on the Van Slyke equation. The third approach is the quantitative or Stewart approach, which uses the strong ion difference and the total weak acids. This article explores the origins of the current concepts framing the existing methods to analyze acid base balance.

  18. Acid rain and soil.

    PubMed

    vanLoon, G W

    1984-08-01

    A summary of important chemical properties of soil is given and the way in which acid rain may affect these properties is discussed. Acid rain may suppress microbiological decomposition and nitrification processes, thus influencing the nutrient status of soils. It has also been found that soil organic matter is less soluble in more acid solutions. Changed nutrient availability patterns are predicted in a low pH environment and enhanced leaching of essential elements from the soil exchange complex has been observed. Increased solubility of potentially toxic elements such as aluminium may also occur from soils which have been exposed to acidified rainfall.

  19. Disorders of Amino Acid Metabolism

    MedlinePlus

    ... Aspiration Syndrome Additional Content Medical News Disorders of Amino Acid Metabolism By Lee M. Sanders, MD, MPH NOTE: ... Metabolic Disorders Disorders of Carbohydrate Metabolism Disorders of Amino Acid Metabolism Disorders of Lipid Metabolism Amino acids are ...

  20. Pantothenic acid and biotin

    MedlinePlus

    ... well as other nutrients, are provided in the Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) developed by the Food and Nutrition Board ... level that is thought to ensure enough nutrition. Dietary Reference Intakes for pantothenic acid: Age 0 to 6 months: ...

  1. Amino Acid Metabolism Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    Metabolism is the process your body uses to make energy from the food you eat. Food is ... One group of these disorders is amino acid metabolism disorders. They include phenylketonuria (PKU) and maple syrup ...

  2. [Hydrofluoric acid burns].

    PubMed

    Holla, Robin; Gorter, Ramon R; Tenhagen, Mark; Vloemans, A F P M Jos; Breederveld, Roelf S

    2016-01-01

    Hydrofluoric acid is increasingly used as a rust remover and detergent. Dermal contact with hydrofluoric acid results in a chemical burn characterized by severe pain and deep tissue necrosis. It may cause electrolyte imbalances with lethal consequences. It is important to identify high-risk patients. 'High risk' is defined as a total affected body area > 3% or exposure to hydrofluoric acid in a concentration > 50%. We present the cases of three male patients (26, 31, and 39 years old) with hydrofluoric acid burns of varying severity and describe the subsequent treatments. The application of calcium gluconate 2.5% gel to the skin is the cornerstone of the treatment, reducing pain as well as improving wound healing. Nails should be thoroughly inspected and possibly removed if the nail is involved, to ensure proper healing. In high-risk patients, plasma calcium levels should be evaluated and cardiac monitoring is indicated.

  3. Folic acid - test

    MedlinePlus

    ... folic acid before and during pregnancy helps prevent neural tube defects, such as spina bifida. Women who ... take more if they have a history of neural tube defects in earlier pregnancies. Ask your provider ...

  4. Nitric acid poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Symptoms from swallowing nitric acid may include: Abdominal pain - severe Burns to skin or mouth Drooling Fever Mouth pain - severe Rapid drop in blood pressure (shock) Throat swelling, which leads to breathing difficulty ...

  5. [Hydrofluoric acid burns].

    PubMed

    Holla, Robin; Gorter, Ramon R; Tenhagen, Mark; Vloemans, A F P M Jos; Breederveld, Roelf S

    2016-01-01

    Hydrofluoric acid is increasingly used as a rust remover and detergent. Dermal contact with hydrofluoric acid results in a chemical burn characterized by severe pain and deep tissue necrosis. It may cause electrolyte imbalances with lethal consequences. It is important to identify high-risk patients. 'High risk' is defined as a total affected body area > 3% or exposure to hydrofluoric acid in a concentration > 50%. We present the cases of three male patients (26, 31, and 39 years old) with hydrofluoric acid burns of varying severity and describe the subsequent treatments. The application of calcium gluconate 2.5% gel to the skin is the cornerstone of the treatment, reducing pain as well as improving wound healing. Nails should be thoroughly inspected and possibly removed if the nail is involved, to ensure proper healing. In high-risk patients, plasma calcium levels should be evaluated and cardiac monitoring is indicated. PMID:27189091

  6. Difficult Decisions: Acid Rain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, John A.; Slesnick, Irwin L.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses some of the contributing factors and chemical reactions involved in the production of acid rain, its effects, and political issues pertaining to who should pay for the clean up. Supplies questions for consideration and discussion. (RT)

  7. Hyaluronic acid fillers.

    PubMed

    Monheit, Gary D; Coleman, Kyle M

    2006-01-01

    Although hyaluronic acids are a relatively new treatment for facial lines and wrinkles, they have provided numerous advances in the area of cosmetic surgery. This article discusses the inherent properties of hyaluronic acid fillers that make them ideal for treatment of facial lines. It encompasses a review of the current literature on U.S. Food and Drug Administration-approved hyaluronic acid fillers and the role that each of these fillers currently has in facial cosmetics. This article also discusses the potential pitfalls and adverse effects that can be associated with using hyaluronic acids for filling facial lines. Finally, it serves as an overview of current techniques for clinical assessment of patients as well as administration and treatment of facial lines and wrinkles.

  8. Boric acid poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Borax poisoning ... The main symptoms of boric acid poisoning are blue-green vomit, diarrhea, and a bright red rash on the skin. Other symptoms may include: Blisters Collapse Coma Convulsions Drowsiness ...

  9. Stomach acid test

    MedlinePlus

    Gastric acid secretion test ... The test is done after you have not eaten for a while so fluid is all that remains in ... injected into your body. This is done to test the ability of the cells in the stomach ...

  10. Aminolevulinic Acid Topical

    MedlinePlus

    ... under the skin that result from exposure to sunlight and can develop into skin cancer) of the ... acid will make your skin very sensitive to sunlight (likely to get sunburn). Avoid exposure of treated ...

  11. Amino Acids and Chirality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, Jamie E.

    2012-01-01

    Amino acids are among the most heavily studied organic compound class in carbonaceous chondrites. The abundance, distributions, enantiomeric compositions, and stable isotopic ratios of amino acids have been determined in carbonaceous chondrites fi'om a range of classes and petrographic types, with interesting correlations observed between these properties and the class and typc of the chondritcs. In particular, isomeric distributions appear to correlate with parent bodies (chondrite class). In addition, certain chiral amino acids are found in enantiomeric excess in some chondrites. The delivery of these enantiomeric excesses to the early Earth may have contributed to the origin of the homochirality that is central to life on Earth today. This talk will explore the amino acids in carbonaceous chondritcs and their relevance to the origin of life.

  12. (Acid rain workshop)

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, R.S.

    1990-12-05

    The traveler presented a paper entitled Susceptibility of Asian Ecosystems to Soil-Mediated Acid Rain Damage'' at the Second Workshop on Acid Rain in Asia. The workshop was organized by the Asian Institute of Technology (Bangkok, Thailand), Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne, Illinois), and Resource Management Associates (Madison, Wisconsin) and was sponsored by the US Department of Energy, the United Nations Environment Program, the United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, and the World Bank. Papers presented on the first day discussed how the experience gained with acid rain in North America and Europe might be applied to the Asian situation. Papers describing energy use projections, sulfur emissions, and effects of acid rain in several Asian countries were presented on the second day. The remaining time was allotted to discussion, planning, and writing plans for a future research program.

  13. Folic acid in diet

    MedlinePlus

    ... a regular supply of the vitamin in the foods you eat. ... vitamins have been added to the food. Many foods are now fortified with folic acid. Some of these are enriched breads, cereals, flours, ...

  14. Valproic Acid and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... in the treatment of epilepsy, and to treat bipolar disorder and migraines. I have been taking valproic acid ... that women with seizure disorders and women with bipolar disorder might have menstrual problems and difficulty getting pregnant. ...

  15. Citric acid urine test

    MedlinePlus

    ... The test is used to diagnose renal tubular acidosis and evaluate kidney stone disease. Normal Results The ... level of citric acid may mean renal tubular acidosis and a tendency to form calcium kidney stones. ...

  16. Folic Acid Quiz

    MedlinePlus

    ... more easily than natural food folate. Close × Answer: D CORRECT: Folic acid reduces the risk for spina ... g., orange juice and green vegetables). Close × Answer: D CORRECT: Spina bifida and anencephaly are neural tube ...

  17. Hydrofluoric acid poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... your skin or eyes, you may have: Blisters Burns Pain Vision loss Hydrofluoric acid poisoning can have ... urine tests Camera down the throat to see burns in the esophagus and the stomach (endoscopy) Fluids ...

  18. Portable nucleic acid thermocyclers.

    PubMed

    Almassian, David R; Cockrell, Lisa M; Nelson, William M

    2013-11-21

    A nucleic acid thermal cycler is considered to be portable if it is under ten pounds, easily carried by one individual, and battery powered. Nucleic acid amplification includes both polymerase chain reaction (e.g. PCR, RT-PCR) and isothermal amplification (e.g. RPA, HDA, LAMP, NASBA, RCA, ICAN, SMART, SDA). There are valuable applications for portable nucleic acid thermocyclers in fields that include clinical diagnostics, biothreat detection, and veterinary testing. A system that is portable allows for the distributed detection of targets at the point of care and a reduction of the time from sample to answer. The designer of a portable nucleic acid thermocycler must carefully consider both thermal control and the detection of amplification. In addition to thermal control and detection, the designer may consider the integration of a sample preparation subsystem with the nucleic acid thermocycler. There are a variety of technologies that can achieve accurate thermal control and the detection of nucleic acid amplification. Important evaluation criteria for each technology include maturity, power requirements, cost, sensitivity, speed, and manufacturability. Ultimately the needs of a particular market will lead to user requirements that drive the decision between available technologies.

  19. Neutron Nucleic Acid Crystallography.

    PubMed

    Chatake, Toshiyuki

    2016-01-01

    The hydration shells surrounding nucleic acids and hydrogen-bonding networks involving water molecules and nucleic acids are essential interactions for the structural stability and function of nucleic acids. Water molecules in the hydration shells influence various conformations of DNA and RNA by specific hydrogen-bonding networks, which often contribute to the chemical reactivity and molecular recognition of nucleic acids. However, X-ray crystallography could not provide a complete description of structural information with respect to hydrogen bonds. Indeed, X-ray crystallography is a powerful tool for determining the locations of water molecules, i.e., the location of the oxygen atom of H2O; however, it is very difficult to determine the orientation of the water molecules, i.e., the orientation of the two hydrogen atoms of H2O, because X-ray scattering from the hydrogen atom is very small.Neutron crystallography is a specialized tool for determining the positions of hydrogen atoms. Neutrons are not diffracted by electrons, but are diffracted by atomic nuclei; accordingly, neutron scattering lengths of hydrogen and its isotopes are comparable to those of non-hydrogen atoms. Therefore, neutron crystallography can determine both of the locations and orientations of water molecules. This chapter describes the current status of neutron nucleic acid crystallographic research as well as the basic principles of neutron diffraction experiments performed on nucleic acid crystals: materials, crystallization, diffraction experiments, and structure determination. PMID:26227050

  20. Neutron Nucleic Acid Crystallography.

    PubMed

    Chatake, Toshiyuki

    2016-01-01

    The hydration shells surrounding nucleic acids and hydrogen-bonding networks involving water molecules and nucleic acids are essential interactions for the structural stability and function of nucleic acids. Water molecules in the hydration shells influence various conformations of DNA and RNA by specific hydrogen-bonding networks, which often contribute to the chemical reactivity and molecular recognition of nucleic acids. However, X-ray crystallography could not provide a complete description of structural information with respect to hydrogen bonds. Indeed, X-ray crystallography is a powerful tool for determining the locations of water molecules, i.e., the location of the oxygen atom of H2O; however, it is very difficult to determine the orientation of the water molecules, i.e., the orientation of the two hydrogen atoms of H2O, because X-ray scattering from the hydrogen atom is very small.Neutron crystallography is a specialized tool for determining the positions of hydrogen atoms. Neutrons are not diffracted by electrons, but are diffracted by atomic nuclei; accordingly, neutron scattering lengths of hydrogen and its isotopes are comparable to those of non-hydrogen atoms. Therefore, neutron crystallography can determine both of the locations and orientations of water molecules. This chapter describes the current status of neutron nucleic acid crystallographic research as well as the basic principles of neutron diffraction experiments performed on nucleic acid crystals: materials, crystallization, diffraction experiments, and structure determination.