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Sample records for diethylstilbestrol

  1. Diethylstilbestrol (DES) and Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Genetics Services Directory Cancer Prevention Overview Research Diethylstilbestrol (DES) and Cancer On This Page What is DES? ... outlined in the table below. Fertility Problems in DES Daughters ( 7 ) Fertility Complication Hazard Ratio Percent Cumulative ...

  2. Association of Exposure to Diethylstilbestrol During Pregnancy With Multigenerational Neurodevelopmental Deficits.

    PubMed

    Kioumourtzoglou, Marianthi-Anna; Coull, Brent A; O'Reilly, Éilis J; Ascherio, Alberto; Weisskopf, Marc G

    2018-05-21

    Animal evidence suggests that endocrine disruptors affect germline cells and neurodevelopment. However, to date, the third-generation neurodevelopmental outcomes in humans have not been examined. To explore the potential consequences of exposure to diethylstilbestrol or DES across generations-specifically, third-generation neurodevelopment. This cohort study uses self-reported health information, such as exposure to diethylstilbestrol during pregnancy and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) diagnosis, from 47 540 participants enrolled in the ongoing Nurses' Health Study II. The 3 generations analyzed in this study were the participants (F1 generation), their mothers (F0 generation), and their live-born children (F2 generation). Participant- and mother-reported exposure to diethylstilbestrol during pregnancy and physician-diagnosed child ADHD. The total number of women included in this study was 47 540. Of the 47 540 F0 mothers, 861 (1.8%) used diethylstilbestrol and 46 679 (98.2%) did not while pregnant with the F1 participants. Use of diethylstylbestrol by F0 mothers was associated with an increased risk of ADHD among the F2 generation: 7.7% vs 5.2%, adjusted odds ratio (OR), 1.36 (95% CI, 1.10-1.67) and an OR of 1.63 (95% CI, 1.18-2.25) if diethylstilbestrol was taken during the first trimester of pregnancy. No effect modification was observed by the F2 children's sex. This study provides evidence that diethylstilbestrol exposure is associated with multigenerational neurodevelopmental deficits. The doses and potency level of environmental endocrine disruptors to which humans are exposed are lower than those of diethylstilbestrol, but the prevalence of such exposure and the possibility of cumulative action are potentially high and thus warrant consideration.

  3. Switched impulsive control of the endocrine disruptor diethylstilbestrol singular model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zamani, Iman; Shafiee, Masoud; Ibeas, Asier; de la Sen, M.

    2014-12-01

    In this work, a switched and impulsive controller is designed to control the Endocrine Disruptor Diethylstilbestrol mechanism which is usually modeled as a singular system. Then the exponential stabilization property of the proposed switched and impulsive singular model is discussed under matrix inequalities. A design algorithm is given and applied for the physiological process of endocrine disruptor diethylstilbestrol model to illustrate the effectiveness of the results.

  4. Association of diethylstilbestrol exposure in utero with cryptorchidism, testicular hypoplasia and semen abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Gill, W B; Schumacher, G F; Bibbo, M; Straus, F H; Schoenberg, H W

    1979-07-01

    Epididymal cysts and/or hypoplastic testes have been found in 31.5 per cent of 308 men exposed to diethylstilbestrol in utero, compared to 7.8 per cent of 307 placebo-exposed controls. Analyses of the spermatozoa have revealed severe pathological changes (Eliasson score greater than 10) in 134 diethylstilbestrol-exposed men (18 per cent) and 87 placebo-exposed men (8 per cent). Further investigation of the 26 diethylstilbestrol-exposed men with testicular hypoplasia has revealed that 65 per cent had a history of cryptorchidism. Only 1 of the 6 placebo-exposed controls with testicular hypoplasia had a history of testicular maldescent. Although none of our Diekmann's lying-in study group has had carcinoma to date one must keep in mind the reported increased risk of testicular carcinoma in testes that are or were cryptorchid. A 25-year-old man who was not part of the study group was treated recently by us for a testicular carcinoma ( mixed anaplastic seminoma plus embryonal cell carcinoma) and he had a history of diethylstilbestrol exposure in utero and cryptorchidism.

  5. Organizational effects of diethylstilbestrol on brain vasotocin and sexual behavior in male quail.

    PubMed

    Viglietti-Panzica, Carla; Montoncello, Barbara; Mura, Elena; Pessatti, Marzia; Panzica, GianCarlo

    2005-04-15

    In Japanese quail, we previously described a sexual dimorphism of the parvocellular vasotocin system of the limbic region that, as the reproductive behavior, is steroid-sensitive and is organized during embryonic life by the exposure to estradiol. We verified in this study whether diethylstilbestrol, a chemical xenoestrogen, has analogous organizational effects on the vasotocin system of limbic regions and on copulatory behavior of male Japanese quail. We injected in the yolk sac of 3 day-old quail embryos diethylstilbestrol or estradiol benzoate (a treatment which suppresses male copulatory behavior in adulthood and reduces vasotocin innervation), or sesame oil (control). No further hormonal manipulations were performed after hatching. Sexual behavior was recorded in males at the age of 6 weeks. Estradiol- and diethylstilbestrol-treated males exhibited a total suppression of copulatory behavior. After behavioral tests, all males were sacrificed and brain sections processed for vasotocin immunocytochemistry. Significant decrease in the density of vasotocin immunoreactivity was detected in the medial preoptic nucleus, in the bed nucleus of stria terminalis, and in the lateral septum of diethylstilbestrol-treated males. The magnocellular vasotocin neurons were, in contrast, not affected. In conclusion, the present data demonstrate that embryonic treatment with diethylstilbestrol induces a full sex reversal of behavioral phenotype as well as a significant decrease of vasotocin expression in the preoptic-limbic region in male Japanese quail. Therefore, the parvocellular vasotocin system could represent an optimal model to investigate the effects of pollutants on neural circuits controlling reproductive functions.

  6. Clear cell adenocarcinoma of the ovary associated with in utero diethylstilbestrol exposure: case report and clinical overview.

    PubMed

    Dasanu, Constantin A; Herzog, Thomas J

    2009-01-01

    Clear cell adenocarcinoma of the vagina and cervix were previously shown to be tumors occurring in female offspring exposed prenatally to diethylstilbestrol. This report describes the first clinical case of clear cell adenocarcinoma of the ovary linked to early diethylstilbestrol exposure in utero. A 45-year-old woman presented with a self-discovered lump in the lower abdominal quadrant. She underwent surgery and staging that revealed clear cell adenocarcinoma confined to the left ovary. Foci of high-grade squamous neoplastic proliferation, inflammation, and a paratubal cyst were also present on the pathology specimen. Medical records established unequivocally that the patient's mother received diethylstilbestrol therapy throughout the pregnancy. Our case is consistent with clear cell adenocarcinoma, probably related to diethylstilbestrol exposure in utero. It reinforces the need for continued vigilance in individuals prenatally exposed to this drug.

  7. Cervical screening and general physical examination behaviors of women exposed in utero to diethylstilbestrol.

    PubMed

    Camp, Elizabeth A; Coker, Ann L; Troisi, Rebecca; Robboy, Stanley J; Noller, Kenneth L; Goodman, Karen J; Titus-Ernstoff, Linda T; Hatch, Elizabeth E; Herbst, Arthur L; Kaufman, Raymond H; Adam, Ervin

    2008-04-01

    To estimate whether women exposed in utero to diethylstilbestrol (DES) report receiving more cervical and general physical examinations compared to unexposed women. 1994 Diethylstilbestrol Adenosis cohort data are used to assess the degree of recommended compliance of cervical screenings found in 3,140 DES-exposed and 826 unexposed women. Participants were enrolled at 4 sites: Houston, Boston, Rochester, and Los Angeles. Logistic regression modeling was used to analyze mailed questionnaire data, which included reported frequency over the preceding 5 years (1990-1994) of Papanicolaou smears and general physical examinations. Diethylstilbestrol-exposed women exceeded the recommended frequency of Papanicolaou smear screenings [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 2.15, 95% CI (confidence interval) = 1.60-2.88] compared to the unexposed. This association held among those without a history of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (aOR = 1.88, 95% CI = 1.35-2.62). Diethylstilbestrol-exposed women exceeded annual recommendations for physical examinations (aOR = 2.27, 95% CI = 1.16-4.43) among women without a history of chronic disease when compared to unexposed women. Most DES-exposed women are receiving cervical cancer screening at least at recommended intervals, but one third of the women are not receiving annual Papanicolaou smear examinations.

  8. Effects of Diethylstilbestrol in Fathead Minnows: Part 1. Effects on Reproductive Endocrine Function

    EPA Science Inventory

    Diethylstilbestrol (DES), a synthetic nonsteroidal estrogen, was once widely prescribed to prevent miscarriages, and was used as a growth promoter in feed for beef and poultry production. After it was determined that DES caused significant adverse effects in the offspring of mo...

  9. Effects of Diethylstilbestrol in Fathead Minnows: Part 2. Concentrations in Water and Tissues

    EPA Science Inventory

    Diethylstilbestrol (DES), a synthetic nonsteroidal estrogen, was once widely prescribed to prevent miscarriages, and was used as a growth promoter in feed for beef and poultry production. After it was determined that DES caused significant adverse effects in the offspring of mot...

  10. SIX1 Oncoprotein Promotes Abnormal Uterine Basal Cell Development in Mice Exposed Neonatally to Diethylstilbestrol

    EPA Science Inventory

    In a classical model of latent hormonal carcinogenesis, exposing mice on neonatal days 1-5 to the synthetic estrogen diethylstilbestrol (DES; 1 mg/kg/day) results in high incidence of uterine carcinoma. However, the biological mechanisms driving DES-induced carcinogenesis remain ...

  11. The SIX1 oncoprotein mediates aberrant uterine basal cell development following neonatal exposure to diethylstilbestrol

    EPA Science Inventory

    Aberrant cellular differentiation early in life can contribute to increased cancer risk later in life. In a classic model of this effect, female mice exposed neonatally to the synthetic estrogen diethylstilbestrol (DES) have a high incidence of uterine carcinoma. These cancers ar...

  12. The SIX1 Oncoprotein Mediates Aberrant Endometrial Basal Cell Development Following Neonatal Exposure to Diethylstilbestrol

    EPA Science Inventory

    Early-life exposures can disrupt cellular differentiation and contribute to increased cancer risk later in life. In a model of developmental estrogen exposure, female mice exposed on postnatal day (PND) 1-5 to diethylstilbestrol (DES) develop a high incidence of endometrial adeno...

  13. The SIX1 Oncoprotein Mediates Aberrant Uterine Basal Cell Development Following Neonatal Exposure to Diethylstilbestrol.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Aberrant cellular differentiation early in life can contribute to increased cancer risk later in life. In a classic model of this effect, female mice exposed on postnatal day (PND) 1-5 to the synthetic estrogen diethylstilbestrol (DES) have a high incidence of uterine carcinoma. ...

  14. Drug therapy in pregnancy: the lessons of diethylstilbestrol, thalidomide, and bendectin.

    PubMed

    Saunders, E J; Saunders, J A

    1990-01-01

    A pregnant woman and the fetus she carries face health risks from many sources. One risk that requires ongoing vigilance is the use of prescription drugs during pregnancy. The international health care community has been sensitized to the risks of drug use during pregnancy because of three pharmaceuticals that have caused widespread crises for mothers and their offspring. The crises that diethylstilbestrol, thalidomide, and, to a lesser extent, Bendectin have created in the past four decades are reviewed in this article. The lessons these drug crises can teach us are articulated in the belief that similar crises may be averted in the future.

  15. Diethylstilbestrol: Potential health risks for women exposed in utero and their offspring.

    PubMed

    Conlon, J Leocadia

    2017-02-01

    Diethylstilbestrol (DES) is a synthetic estrogen given to pregnant women to prevent miscarriages and preterm labor; the drug was used between 1941 and 1971 in the United States and into the 1980s in other countries. DES exposure is associated with significant long-term health effects, including increased risk for breast cancer, cervical and vaginal clear cell adenocarcinoma, reproductive tract abnormalities, infertility, poor pregnancy outcomes, and early menopause. This article reviews the potential health risks associated with DES exposure, how to assess which patients are at risk, and management recommendations for patients exposed to DES.

  16. Primary non-clear-cell adenocarcinoma of the vagina in a diethylstilbestrol exposed woman.

    PubMed

    Patel, Samit A; Sunde, Jan

    2014-04-01

    A 54-year-old woman with a history of in-utero diethylstilbestrol (DES) exposure, who had a prior hysterectomy for symptomatic leiomyomata and dysmenorrhea, presented for vaginal bleeding. Vaginal biopsies showed a non-clear-cell adenocarcinoma, and the patient was subsequently treated with radiation therapy. We present a case of primary vaginal non-clear-cell adenocarcinoma in a patient with in-utero DES exposure. Continued monitoring of older DES-exposed women for vaginal lesions is warranted because of reported cases of non-clear-cell adenocarcinoma and persistent risk of clear cell adenocarcinoma. Reprint & Copyright © 2014 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  17. Diethylstilbestrol affects the expression of GPER in the gubernaculum testis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xuan; Ke, Song; Chen, Kai-Hong; Li, Jian-Hong; Ma, Lian; Jiang, Xue-Wu

    2015-01-01

    Recent evidence suggested a positive correlation between environmental estrogens (EEs) and high incidence of abnormalities in male urogenital system. EEs are known to cause the abnormalities of testes development and testicular descent. Diethylstilbestrol (DES) is a nonsteroidal synthetic estrogen that disrupts the morphology and proliferation of gubernacular cells, and its nongenomic effects on gubernaculum testis cells may be mediated by G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER). In this study, we detected the expression of GPER in mouse gubernacular testis and investigated the effects of DES on the expression of GPER in gubernaculum testis cells. RT-PCR analysis revealed that GPER mRNA was expressed in the gubernaculum. GPER protein was detected in the parenchymal cells of the gubernaculum early in development. Furthermore, we demonstrate that GPER inhibitor G15 relieved DES-induced inhibition of GPER expression in gubernaculum testis cell, but ER inhibitor ICI 182780 had the converse effects on DES-induced inhibition of GPER expression in these cells. These data suggest that the effects of DES on mouse gubernaculum testis cells are mediated at least partially by the regulation of GPER expression.

  18. Gynaecomastia linked to the intake of a herbal supplement fortified with diethylstilbestrol.

    PubMed

    Toorians, A W F T; Bovee, T F H; De Rooy, J; Stolker, L A A M; Hoogenboom, R L A P

    2010-07-01

    This study reports the findings of a supplement marketed on the Internet for prostate problems. The supplement was orally taken by a 60-year-old man with divergent hormonal levels and who was surgically treated for gynaecomastia: development of abnormally large mammary glands in males. The supplement showed a strong effect in a yeast oestrogen bioassay, expressing a yeast-enhanced green fluorescent protein (yEGFP) upon exposure to oestrogens. Using both nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and a gradient liquid chromatographic time-of-flight mass spectrometric (LC/TOF-MS) method, the response was shown to be caused by very high levels of diethylstilbestrol, known for causing gynaecomastia. The gynaecomastia was most probably caused by this orally taken 'natural' herbal supplement, as the patient's hormonal levels also returned to normal again when stopping the use of it. This case demonstrates that physicians need to be aware of the use of supplements with illegal components that may be responsible for unwanted side-effects.

  19. Homeodomain Transcription Factor Msx-2 Regulates Uterine Progenitor Cell Response to Diethylstilbestrol

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Yan; Lin, Congxing; Zhang, Ivy; Fisher, Alexander V; Dhandha, Maulik; Ma, Liang

    2015-01-01

    The fate of mouse uterine epithelial progenitor cells is determined between postnatal days 5 to 7. Around this critical time window, exposure to an endocrine disruptor, diethylstilbestrol (DES), can profoundly alter uterine cytodifferentiation. We have shown previously that a homeo domain transcription factor MSX-2 plays an important role in DES-responsiveness in the female reproductive tract (FRT). Mutant FRTs exhibited a much more severe phenotype when treated with DES, accompanied by gene expression changes that are dependent on Msx2. To better understand the role that MSX-2 plays in uterine response to DES, we performed global gene expression profiling experiment in mice lacking Msx2 By comparing this result to our previously published microarray data performed on wild-type mice, we extracted common and differentially regulated genes in the two genotypes. In so doing, we identified potential downstream targets of MSX-2, as well as genes whose regulation by DES is modulated through MSX-2. Discovery of these genes will lead to a better understanding of how DES, and possibly other endocrine disruptors, affects reproductive organ development. PMID:26457333

  20. Homeodomain Transcription Factor Msx-2 Regulates Uterine Progenitor Cell Response to Diethylstilbestrol.

    PubMed

    Yin, Yan; Lin, Congxing; Zhang, Ivy; Fisher, Alexander V; Dhandha, Maulik; Ma, Liang

    The fate of mouse uterine epithelial progenitor cells is determined between postnatal days 5 to 7. Around this critical time window, exposure to an endocrine disruptor, diethylstilbestrol (DES), can profoundly alter uterine cytodifferentiation. We have shown previously that a homeo domain transcription factor MSX-2 plays an important role in DES-responsiveness in the female reproductive tract (FRT). Mutant FRTs exhibited a much more severe phenotype when treated with DES, accompanied by gene expression changes that are dependent on Msx2 . To better understand the role that MSX-2 plays in uterine response to DES, we performed global gene expression profiling experiment in mice lacking Msx2 By comparing this result to our previously published microarray data performed on wild-type mice, we extracted common and differentially regulated genes in the two genotypes. In so doing, we identified potential downstream targets of MSX-2, as well as genes whose regulation by DES is modulated through MSX-2. Discovery of these genes will lead to a better understanding of how DES, and possibly other endocrine disruptors, affects reproductive organ development.

  1. [Isolation, identification and characterization of a diethylstilbestrol-degrading bacterial strain Serratia sp].

    PubMed

    Xu, Ran-Fang; Sun, Min-Xia; Liu, Juan; Wang, Hong; Li, Xin; Zhu, Xue-Zhu; Ling, Wan-Ting

    2014-08-01

    Utilizing the diethylstilbestrol (DES)-degrading bacteria to biodegrade DES is a most reliable technique for cleanup of DES pollutants from the environment. However, little information is available heretofore on the isolation of DES-degrading bacteria and their DES removal performance in the environment. A novel bacterium capable of degrading DES was isolated from the activated sludge of a wastewater treatment plant. According to its morphology, physiochemical characteristics, and 16S rDNA sequence analysis, this strain was identified as Serratia sp.. The strain was an aerobic bacterium, and it could degrade 68.3% of DES (50 mg x L(-1)) after culturing for 7 days at 30 degrees C, 150 r x min(-1) in shaking flasks. The optimal conditions for DES biodegradation by the obtained strain were 30 degrees C, 40-60 mg x L(-1) DES, pH 7.0, 5% of inoculation volume, 0 g x L(-1) of added NaCl, and 10 mL of liquid medium volume in 100 mL flask.

  2. Accretion of biopsy specimens of vaginal adenosis from patients exposed in utero to diethylstilbestrol, when transplanted to athymic nude mice.

    PubMed

    Pienkowski, M M; Mann, L C; Rosloniec, E F; Welsch, C W

    1979-03-01

    Vaginal adenosis biopsy specimens from 10 patients exposed in utero to diethylstilbestrol were transplanted for 30 days into athymic (nude) mice. Almost all grafts were recovered, and they had morphologic features closely resembling those of the original biopsy specimens, i.e., cystic, complex, and simple occult glands covered mainly with an endocervical type of epithelium showing extensive squamous metaplasia. Autoradiographic analysis of these grafts after pulse administration of [3H]thymidine into the mice revealed extensive labeling of epithelial cells. These results imply that female athymic (nude) mice are compatible hosts for accretion of the human adenosis.

  3. Cellular and molecular effects of developmental exposure to diethylstilbestrol: implications for other environmental estrogens.

    PubMed Central

    Newbold, R

    1995-01-01

    Concerns have been raised regarding the role of environmental and dietary estrogens as possible contributors to an increased incidence of various abnormalities in estrogen-target tissues of both sexes. These abnormalities include breast cancer, endometriosis, fibroids, and uterine adenocarcinoma in females, as well as alterations in sex differentiation, decreased sperm concentrations, benign prostatic hyperplasia, prostatic cancer, testicular cancer, and reproductive problems in males. Whether these concerns are valid remains to be determined; however, studies with the potent synthetic estrogen diethylstilbestrol (DES) suggest that exogenous estrogen exposure during critical stages of development can result in permanent cellular and molecular alterations in the exposed organism. These alterations manifest themselves in the female and male as structural, functional, or long-term pathological changes including neoplasia. Although DES has potent estrogenic activity, it may be used as a model compound to study the effects of weaker environmental estrogens, many of which may fit into the category of endocrine disruptors. PMID:8593881

  4. Cancer risk in men exposed in utero to diethylstilbestrol.

    PubMed

    Strohsnitter, W C; Noller, K L; Hoover, R N; Robboy, S J; Palmer, J R; Titus-Ernstoff, L; Kaufman, R H; Adam, E; Herbst, A L; Hatch, E E

    2001-04-04

    An association between prenatal diethylstilbestrol (DES) exposure and cancer in men, especially testicular cancer, has been suspected, but findings from case-control studies have been inconsistent. This study was conducted to investigate the association between prenatal DES exposure and cancer risk in men via prospective follow-up. A total of 3613 men whose prenatal DES exposure status was known were followed from 1978 through 1994. The overall and site-specific cancer incidence rates among the DES-exposed men were compared with those of the unexposed men in the study and with population-based rates. The relative rate (RR) was used to assess the strength of the association between prenatal DES exposure and cancer development. All statistical tests were two-sided. Overall cancer rates among DES-exposed men were similar to those among unexposed men (RR = 1.07; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.58 to 1.96) and to national rates (RR = 0.99; 95% CI = 0.65 to 1.44). Testicular cancer may be elevated among DES-exposed men, since the RRs for testicular cancer were 3.05 (95% CI = 0.65 to 22.0) times those of unexposed men in the study and 2.04 (95% CI = 0.82 to 4.20) times those of males in the population-based rates. The higher rate of testicular cancer in the DES-exposed men is, however, also compatible with a chance observation. To date, men exposed to DES in utero do not appear to have an increased risk of most cancers. It remains uncertain, however, whether prenatal DES exposure is associated with testicular cancer.

  5. Ultrasensitive competitive method-based electrochemiluminescence immunosensor for diethylstilbestrol detection based on Ru(bpy)32+ as luminophor encapsulated in metal-organic frameworks UiO-67.

    PubMed

    Dong, Xue; Zhao, Guanhui; Liu, Li; Li, Xuan; Wei, Qin; Cao, Wei

    2018-07-01

    In this work, Ru(bpy) 3 2+ encapsulated in metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) UiO-67 (Ru(bpy) 3 2+ /UiO-67) as luminophor was easily prepared and firstly applied in constructing an electrochemiluminescence (ECL) immunosensor to efficiently estimate diethylstilbestrol (DES). The competitive method-based ECL immunosensor platform was fabricated by amino-silicon dioxide which possesses large surface area. The poriness of UiO-67 was splendid so that Ru(bpy) 3 2+ could be easily encapsulated. Ru(bpy) 3 2+ /UiO-67 with excellent ECL luminescence signal existed large specific surface area for easily labeled with antibodies. DES competed with bovine serum albumin-diethylstilbestrol (BSA-DES) for binding to antibody-specific sites in the constructed immunosensor. However DES was micromolecule, which was easier to bond to antibodies than BSA-DES. The ECL signal was gradually decreases with the increase of the concentration of DES. Under optimal conditions, the proposed immunosensor exhibited a wide linear range from 0.01 pg mL -1 to 50 ng mL -1 with a low detetion limit of 3.27 fg mL -1 (S/N = 3). The novel fabricated immunosensor with interference immunity and high stability may cause an attractive approach for the other targets determination. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Clear Cell Carcinoma of the Uterine Cervix: A Clinical and Pathological Analysis of 47 Patients Without Intrauterine Diethylstilbestrol Exposure.

    PubMed

    Yang, Li; Zheng, Aiwen; Zhang, Xiang; Fang, Xianhua; Sun, Wenyong; Chen, Yaqing

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to summarize the clinical and pathological characteristics and to conduct prognosis analysis of patients who were diagnosed with clear cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix (CCCUC) and without a history of exposure to diethylstilbestrol. We performed a retrospective review of all the patients with CCCUC who were diagnosed and treated at Zhejiang Cancer Hospital between 1998 and 2014. Charts were reviewed for clinical and pathological characteristics, and prognosis analysis was conducted. A total of 47 patients were included. Median age was 52 years. No patient had a history of exposure to diethylstilbestrol. The International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage distribution was 55.3% (n = 26) stage I, 40.4% (n = 19) stage II, 2.1% (n = 1) stage III, and 2.1% (n = 1) stage IV. Forty-two patients (89.4%) underwent radical hysterectomy and pelvic lymphadenectomy. Pathological examination revealed deep cervical stromal invasion (greater than two thirds) in 20 patients (48.4%), pelvic lymph node (PLN) metastasis in 10 patients (23.8%), lymphovascular space involvement in 9 patients (21.4%), and ovarian metastasis in 1 patient (2.4%). Advanced tumor stage (IIB-IV), larger tumor size (>4 cm), and PLN metastasis had negative effects on progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) (P < 0.05). Adjuvant radiation therapy alone or concurrent chemoradiation therapy after radical surgery did not affect PFS or OS in patients with risk factors (P > 0.05). International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage, tumor size, and PLN status were prognostic factors for both PFS and OS in patients with CCCUC. The long-term effects of adjuvant radiation therapy or concurrent chemoradiation therapy may be limited for CCCUC patients with risk factors. Future larger case series or clinical trials are required to confirm these findings.

  7. Neonatal diethylstilbestrol exposure alters the metabolic profile of uterine epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Yan; Lin, Congxing; Veith, G. Michael; Chen, Hong; Dhandha, Maulik; Ma, Liang

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Developmental exposure to diethylstilbestrol (DES) causes reproductive tract malformations, affects fertility and increases the risk of clear cell carcinoma of the vagina and cervix in humans. Previous studies on a well-established mouse DES model demonstrated that it recapitulates many features of the human syndrome, yet the underlying molecular mechanism is far from clear. Using the neonatal DES mouse model, the present study uses global transcript profiling to systematically explore early gene expression changes in individual epithelial and mesenchymal compartments of the neonatal uterus. Over 900 genes show differential expression upon DES treatment in either one or both tissue layers. Interestingly, multiple components of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ)-mediated adipogenesis and lipid metabolism, including PPARγ itself, are targets of DES in the neonatal uterus. Transmission electron microscopy and Oil-Red O staining further demonstrate a dramatic increase in lipid deposition in uterine epithelial cells upon DES exposure. Neonatal DES exposure also perturbs glucose homeostasis in the uterine epithelium. Some of these neonatal DES-induced metabolic changes appear to last into adulthood, suggesting a permanent effect of DES on energy metabolism in uterine epithelial cells. This study extends the list of biological processes that can be regulated by estrogen or DES, and provides a novel perspective for endocrine disruptor-induced reproductive abnormalities. PMID:22679223

  8. Management of breast cancer in patients prenatally exposed to diethylstilbestrol: are we prepared?

    PubMed

    Mano, Max S; Kerr, Janet; Kennedy, James

    2005-10-01

    The use of diethylstilbestrol (DES) for high risk pregnancy has exposed millions of mothers to an increased risk of breast cancer, and also resulted in a generation of women with genital tract abnormalities, such as vaginal adenosis. It is still too early to say that exposure to DES will also result in an increased risk of breast cancer in the offspring, though there is some preliminary evidence to support this. The employment of optimal hormonal therapy (for breast cancer) in this special population may be hampered by the fact that agents with oestrogen agonistic activity (such as tamoxifen) may be contraindicated. Though some of the newer hormonal agents, such as the pure anti-oestrogen Fulvestrant and the aromatase inhibitors, could be considered interesting alternatives for postmenopausal patients, their safety in this population has never been evaluated. Finally, the prevalence prenatal exposure to DES may have been underestimated patients diagnosed with breast cancer, though this information might have major implications in their management. We report on the interesting example of a young woman with a history of vaginal adenosis, who was also diagnosed with early breast cancer.

  9. Center for Disease Control's Diethylstilbestrol Update: a case for effective operationalization of messaging in social marketing practice.

    PubMed

    Mattson, Marifran; Basu, Ambar

    2010-07-01

    The Center for Disease Control's (CDC) Diethylstilbestrol (DES) Update, a campaign to educate people who may have been exposed to the drug DES, is framed on the premises of the social marketing model, namely formative research, audience segmentation, product, price, placement, promotion, and campaign evaluation. More than that, the campaign takes a critical step in extending the social marketing paradigm by highlighting the need to situate the messaging process at the heart of any health communication campaign. This article uses CDC's DES Update as a case study to illustrate an application of a message development tool within social marketing. This tool promotes the operationalization of messaging within health campaigns. Ultimately, the goal of this project is to extend the social marketing model and provide useful theoretical guidance to health campaign practitioners on how to accomplish stellar communication within a social marketing campaign.

  10. Concurrent primaries of vaginal clear cell adenocarcinoma and endometrial adenocarcinoma in a 39-year old woman with in utero diethylstilbestrol exposure.

    PubMed

    Keller, C; Nanda, R; Shannon, R L; Amit, A; Kaplan, A L

    2001-01-01

    Diethylstilbestrol (DES) was used widely in the late 1940s in an attempt to prevent adverse pregnancy outcomes. In 1971 the US Food and Drug Administration proscribed its use for pregnancy support secondary to its association with clear cell adenocarcinoma of the vagina. Several studies in animal models demonstrated an association with endometrial cancer among offspring following in utero DES exposure. To date, there is only one case report of endometrial cancer in women exposed to DES in utero. We present the first case, to our knowledge, of a woman exposed to DES in utero who presented with double primaries of clear cell cancer of the vagina concomitant with endometrial cancer.

  11. Model ecosystem evaluation of the environmental impacts of the veterinary drugs phenothiazine, sulfamethazine, clopidol, and diethylstilbestrol.

    PubMed Central

    Coats, J R; Metcalf, R L; Lu, P Y; Brown, D D; Williams, J F; Hansen, L G

    1976-01-01

    Four veterinary drugs of dissimilar chemical structures were evaluated for environmental stability and penchant for bioaccumulation. The techniques used were (1) a model aquatic ecosystem (3 days) and (2) a model feedlot ecosystem (33 days) in which the drugs were introduced via the excreta of chicks or mice. The model feedlot ecosystem was supported by metabolism cage studies to determine the amount and the form of the drug excreted by the chicks or mice. Considerable quantities of all the drugs were excreted intact or as environmentally short-lived conjugates. Diethylstilbestrol (DES) and Clopidol were the most persistent molecules, but only DES bioaccumulated to any appreciable degree. Phenothiazine was very biodegradable; sulfamethazine was relatively biodegradable and only accumulated in the organisms to very low levels. Data from the aquatic model ecosystem demonstrated a good correlation between the partition coefficients of the drugs and their accumulation in the fish. Images FIGURE 1. PMID:1037611

  12. Sexually disrupting effects of nonylphenol and diethylstilbestrol on male silver carp (Carassius auratus) in aquatic microcosms.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lihua; Lin, Li; Weng, Shaoping; Feng, Zhiqin; Luan, Tiangang

    2008-10-01

    Based on detected nonylphenol (NP) levels in aquaculture water, this study investigated sexually disrupting effects in mature male silver carp (Carassius auratus) exposed to NP and a positive control diethylstilbestrol (DES). The combined evidences of steroid hormone (17beta-estradiol, estrone and testosterone) levels and hispathological pictures showed that NP (10 microg/L) and DES could exert estrogenic effects through indirect mechanisms [i.e. increased estrogens levels (up to two times) and decreased androgen level in serum (down to 20-30%)], which might subsequently induce vitellogenin synthesis in liver. Environmental realistic concentrations of NP might be on the verge of inducing significant estrogenic effects in male silver carps. High amounts of NP and DES might be accumulated in fish serum, and the uptake by fish was possibly responsible for their quick attenuation in experimental tank water. NP and DES might have different metabolic mechanisms, the estrogenic effects of DES were more significant than those of NP.

  13. Diethylstilbestrol-Induced Mouse Hypospadias: “Window of Susceptibility”

    PubMed Central

    Sinclair, Adriane Watkins; Cao, Mei; Baskin, Laurence; Cunha, Gerald R.

    2016-01-01

    Hypospadias, an abnormality affecting the penile urethra, is one of the most prevalent congenital malformations afflicting human males. The morphology of hypospadias is markedly different in humans versus mice reflecting substantial differences in penile development in humans and mice. Estrogens such as diethylstilbestrol (DES) elicit mouse penile malformations, but the types of penile abnormalities differ depending on whether DES treatment is prenatal or neonatal. To define the actual “window of susceptibility” to the adverse effects of DES, pregnant mice and their neonatal pups were injected subcutaneously with 200ng/gbw DES every other day from embryonic day 12 to 18 (DES E12-E18), postnatal day 0 to 10 (DES P0-P10), embryonic day 12 to postnatal day 10 (DES E12 to P10), postnatal day 5 to 15 (DES P5 to P15), and postnatal day 10 to 20 (DES P10 to P20). Aged-matched controls received sesame oil vehicle. After euthanasia at 10, 15, 20 and 60 days, penises were analyzed by gross morphology, histology and morphometry. Penises of all 5 groups of DES-treated mice were reduced in size, which was confirmed by morphometric analysis of internal penile structures. The most profound effects were seen in the DES E12-P10, DES P0-P10, and DES P5-P15 groups, thus defining a DES “programming window”. For all parameters, DES treatment from P10-P20 showed the most mild of effects. Adverse effects of DES on the MUMP cartilage and erectile bodies observed shortly after the last DES injection reverted to normality in the DES P5-P15, but not in the E12-P10 and P0-P10 groups, in which MUMP cartilage and erectile body malformations persisted into adulthood, again emphasizing a “window of susceptibility” in the early neonatal period. PMID:26810244

  14. Prenatal diethylstilbestrol exposure and reproductive hormones in premenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Wise, L A; Troisi, R; Hatch, E E; Titus, L J; Rothman, K J; Harlow, B L

    2015-06-01

    Diethylstilbestrol (DES), a synthetic estrogen widely prescribed to pregnant women in the mid-1900s, is a potent endocrine disruptor. Prenatal DES exposure has been associated with reproductive disorders in women, but little is known about its effects on endogenous hormones. We assessed the association between prenatal DES exposure and reproductive hormones among participants from the Harvard Study of Moods and Cycles (HSMC), a longitudinal study of premenopausal women aged 36-45 years from Massachusetts (1995-1999). Prenatal DES exposure was reported at baseline (43 DES exposed and 782 unexposed). Early follicular-phase concentrations of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH) and estradiol were measured at baseline and every 6 months during 36 months of follow-up. Inhibin B concentrations were measured through 18 months. We used multivariable logistic and repeated-measures linear regression to estimate odds ratios (OR) and percent differences in mean hormone values (β), respectively, comparing DES exposed with unexposed women, adjusted for potential confounders. DES-exposed women had lower mean concentrations of estradiol (pg/ml) (β=-15.6%, 95% confidence interval (CI): -26.5%, -3.2%) and inhibin B (pg/ml) (β=-20.3%, CI: -35.1%, -2.3%), and higher mean concentrations of FSH (IU/I) (β=12.2%, CI: -1.5%, 27.9%) and LH (IU/I) (β=10.4%, CI: -7.2%, 31.3%), than unexposed women. ORs for the association of DES with maximum FSH>10 IU/I and minimum inhibin B<45 pg/ml--indicators of low ovarian reserve--were 1.90 (CI: 0.86, 4.22) and 4.00 (CI: 0.88-18.1), respectively. Prenatal DES exposure was associated with variation in concentrations of FSH, estradiol and inhibin B among women of late reproductive age.

  15. Clear cell adenocarcinoma of cervix in 1-year-old girl without in utero exposure to diethylstilbestrol: an uncommon tumour at an uncommon age and site.

    PubMed

    Arora, Aditi; Rastogi, Anurag; Neyaz, Azfar; Husain, Nuzhat

    2017-03-16

    Adenocarcinoma of cervix constitutes about 10-15% cases of carcinoma cervix. Clear cell variant is even a rarer variant of adenocarcinoma. It rarely occurs in the paediatric age group and a known risk factor is in utero exposure to diethylstilbestrol (DES). We report here a case of primary cervical tumour in a 1-year-old girl, which was initially suspected to be an embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma botryoides. Histopathology with immunohistochemical analysis revealed clear cell adenocarcinoma. There was no maternal history of DES intake during pregnancy. We discuss the histopathological characteristics and clinical course of this unusual tumour. 2017 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  16. Effects of In Utero Exposure to Bisphenol A or Diethylstilbestrol on the Adult Male Reproductive System

    PubMed Central

    LaRocca, Jessica; Boyajian, Alanna; Brown, Caitlin; Smith, Stuart Duncan; Hixon, Mary

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if in utero exposure to Bisphenol A (BPA) induced reproductive tract abnormalities in the adult male testis. Using the C57/Bl6 mouse, we examined sex-organ weights, anogenital distance (AGD), and testis histopathology in adult males exposed in utero via oral gavage to sesame oil, 50 μg/kg BPA, 1,000 μg/kg BPA, or 2 μg/kg diethylstilbestrol (DES) as a positive control from gestational days 10–16. No changes in sperm production or germ cell apoptosis were observed in adult testes following exposure to either chemical. Adult mRNA levels of genes associated with sexual maturation and differentiation, GATA4 and ID2, were significantly lower only in DES-exposed testes. In summary, the data indicate no gross alterations in spermatogenesis following in utero exposure to BPA or DES. At the molecular level, in utero exposure to DES, but not BPA, leads to decreased mRNA expression of genes associated with Sertoli cell differentiation. PMID:21922642

  17. Simultaneous determination of environmental estrogens: Diethylstilbestrol and estradiol using Cu-BTC frameworks-sensitized electrode.

    PubMed

    Ji, Liudi; Wang, Yanying; Wu, Kangbing; Zhang, Weikang

    2016-10-01

    It is quite important to monitor environmental estrogens in a rapid, sensitive, simple and cost-effective manner due to their wide existence and high toxicity. Using 1,3,5-Benzenetricarboxylic acid (H3BTC) as the ligand and copper ions as the center, Cu-BTC frameworks with surface area of 654.6m(2)/g were prepared, and then used to construct a novel electrochemical sensing platform for diethylstilbestrol (DES) and estradiol (E2). On the surface of Cu-BTC frameworks, two oxidation waves at 0.26V and 0.45V are observed for DES and E2, and the oxidation signals are improved greatly. The prepared Cu-BTC frameworks not only enhance the accumulation efficiency of DES and E2, but also improve their electron transfer ability. The influences of pH value, modification amount of Cu-BTC and accumulation time were examined. As a result, a highly-sensitive, rapid and convenient electrochemical method was developed for the simultaneous determination of DES and E2, with detection limit of 2.7nM and 1.1nM. The practical applications manifest this new sensing system is accurate and feasible. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. The endocrine disruptor diethylstilbestrol induces adipocyte differentiation and promotes obesity in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Hao, Chan-Juan; Cheng, Xue-Jia; Xia, Hong-Fei, E-mail: hongfeixia@yahoo.com.cn

    Epidemiology studies indicate that exposure to endocrine disruptors during developmental “window” contributes to adipogenesis and the development of obesity. Implication of endocrine disruptor such as diethylstilbestrol (DES) on adipose tissue development has been poorly investigated. Here we evaluated the effects of DES on adipocyte differentiation in vitro and in vivo, and explored potential mechanism involved in its action. DES induced 3T3-L1 preadipocyte differentiation in a dose-dependent manner, and activated the expression of estrogen receptor (ER) and peroxisome proliferator-acivated receptor (PPAR) γ as well as its target genes required for adipogenesis in vitro. ER mediated the enhancement of DES-induced PPARγ activity.more » Moreover, DES perturbed key regulators of adipogenesis and lipogenic pathway in vivo. In utero exposure to low dose of DES significantly increased body weight, liver weight and fat mass in female offspring at postnatal day (PND) 60. In addition, serum triglyceride and glucose levels were also significantly elevated. These results suggest that perinatal exposure to DES may be expected to increase the incidence of obesity in a sex-dependent manner and can act as a potential chemical stressor for obesity and obesity-related disorders. -- Highlights: ► DES induced adipocyte differentiation in a dose-dependent manner in 3T3-L1 cells. ► DES activated adipogenic critical regulators and markers in vitro and in vivo. ► Perinatal exposure to DES led to the obese phenotype in female offspring. ► DES might be a potential chemical stressor for obesity and obesity-related disorders.« less

  19. Diethylstilbestrol in fish tissue determined through subcritical fluid extraction and with GC-MS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiao, Qinghui; Shi, Nianrong; Feng, Xiaomei; Lu, Jie; Han, Yuqian; Xue, Changhu

    2016-06-01

    As the key point in sex hormone analysis, sample pre-treatment technology has attracted scientists' attention all over the world, and the development trend of sample preparation forwarded to faster and more efficient technologies. Taking economic and environmental concerns into account, subcritical fluid extraction as a faster and more efficient method has stood out as a sample pre-treatment technology. This new extraction technology can overcome the shortcomings of supercritical fluid and achieve higher extraction efficiency at relatively low pressures and temperatures. In this experiment, a simple, sensitive and efficient method has been developed for the determination of diethylstilbestrol (DES) in fish tissue using subcritical 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane (R134a) extraction in combination with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). After extraction, freezing-lipid filtration was utilized to remove fatty co-extract. Further purification steps were performed with C18 and NH2 solid phase extraction (SPE). Finally, the analyte was derived by heptafluorobutyric anhydride (HFBA), followed by GC-MS analysis. Response surface methodology (RSM) was employed to optimizing the extraction condition, and the optimized was as follows: extraction pressure, 4.3 MPa; extraction temperature, 26°C; amount of co-solvent volume, 4.7 mL. Under this condition, at a spiked level of 1, 5, 10 μg kg-1, the mean recovery of DES was more than 90% with relative standard deviations (RSDs) less than 10%. Finally, the developed method has been successfully used to analyzing the real samples.

  20. The Development of Cervical and Vaginal Adenosis as a Result of Diethylstilbestrol Exposure In Utero

    PubMed Central

    Laronda, Monica M.; Unno, Kenji; Butler, Lindsey M.; Kurita, Takeshi

    2012-01-01

    Exposure to exogenous hormones during development can result in permanent health problems. In utero exposure to diethylstilbestrol (DES) is probably the most well documented case in human history. DES, an orally active synthetic estrogen, was believed to prevent adverse pregnancy outcome and thus was routinely given to selected pregnant women from the 1940s to the 1960s. It has been estimated that 5 million pregnant women worldwide were prescribed with DES during this period. In the early 1970s, vaginal clear cell adenocarcinomas (CCACs) were diagnosed in daughters whose mother took DES during pregnancy (known as DES daughters). Follow up studies demonstrated that exposure to DES in utero causes a spectrum of congenital anomalies in female reproductive tracts and CCACs. Among those, cervical and vaginal adenoses are most commonly found, which are believed to be the precursors of CCACs. Transformation related protein 63 (TRP63/p63) marks the cell fate decision of Müllerian duct epithelium (MDE) to become squamous epithelium in the cervix and vagina. DES disrupts the TRP63 expression in mice and induces adenosis lesions in the cervix and vagina. This review describes mouse models can be used to study the development of DES-induced anomalies, focusing on cervical and vaginal adenoses, and discusses its molecular pathogenesis. PMID:22682699

  1. Effects of postnatal administration of diethylstilbestrol on puberty and thyroid function in male rats.

    PubMed

    Shin, Jae-Ho; Kim, Tae Sung; Kang, Il Hyun; Kang, Tae Seok; Moon, Hyun Ju; Han, Soon-Young

    2009-10-01

    To examine the effects of diethylstilbestrol (DES) on male pubertal development and thyroid function, juvenile male Sprague-Dawley rats were given DES daily by oral intubation at doses of 10, 20 and 40 microg/kg/day from postnatal day 33 for 20 days. Prepuce separation was significantly delayed at the dose of 20 microg/kg/day and above in the DES-treated rats. DES treatment induced a significant reduction in the weights of testes, epididymides, the ventral prostate, seminal vesicles plus coagulating glands and fluid, levator ani bulbocavernosus muscles, Cowper's glands and the glans penis. The weights of the liver and adrenals increased in the DES-treated animals. DES caused a dose-dependent reduction in germ cells; in particular the spermatids were mainly affected. The serum levels of testosterone and luteinizing hormone were significantly reduced in the DES-treated groups, but that of estradiol decreased. No differences were observed in the serum thyroxine levels of the control and DES-treated groups. In microscopic observation of the DES-treated animals, degeneration of germ cells and tubular atrophy in the testis were noted, but there were no microscopic changes in the thyroid. These results indicate that DES affected the pubertal development of juvenile male rats and that its mode of action may be related to alterations in hormone levels.

  2. Neonatal exposure to diethylstilbestrol alters expression of DNA methyltransferases and methylation of genomic DNA in the mouse uterus.

    PubMed

    Sato, Koji; Fukata, Hideki; Kogo, Yasushi; Ohgane, Jun; Shiota, Kunio; Mori, Chisato

    2009-01-01

    Perinatal exposure to diethylstilbestrol (DES) can have numerous adverse effects on the reproductive organs later in life, such as vaginal clear-cell adenocarcinoma. Epigenetic processes including DNA methylation may be involved in the mechanisms. We subcutaneously injected DES to neonatal C57BL/6 mice. At days 5, 14, and 30, expressions of DNA methyltransferases (Dnmts) Dnmt1, Dnmt3a, and Dnmt3b, and transcription factors Sp1 and Sp3 were examined. We also performed restriction landmark genomic scanning (RLGS) to detect aberrant DNA methylation. Real-time RT-PCR revealed that expressions of Dnmt1, Dnmt3b, and Sp3 were decreased at day 5 in DES-treated mice, and that those of Dnmt1, Dnmt3a, and Sp1 were also decreased at day 14. RLGS analysis revealed that 5 genomic loci were demethylated, and 5 other loci were methylated by DES treatment. Two loci were cloned, and differential DNA methylation was quantified. Our results indicated that DES altered the expression levels of Dnmts and DNA methylation.

  3. Liquid-phase exfoliated graphene as highly-sensitive sensor for simultaneous determination of endocrine disruptors: diethylstilbestrol and estradiol.

    PubMed

    Hu, Lintong; Cheng, Qin; Chen, Danchao; Ma, Ming; Wu, Kangbing

    2015-01-01

    It is quite important to develop convenient and rapid analytical methods for trace levels of endocrine disruptors because they heavily affect health and reproduction of humans and animals. Herein, graphene was easily prepared via one-step exfoliation using N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone as solvent, and then used to construct an electrochemical sensor for highly-sensitive detection of diethylstilbestrol (DES) and estradiol (E2). On the surface of prepared graphene film, two independent and greatly-increased oxidation waves were observed at 0.28V and 0.49V for DES and E2. The remarkable signal enlargements indicated that the detection sensitivity was improved significantly. The influences of pH value, amount of graphene and accumulation time on the oxidation signals of DES and E2 were discussed. As a result, a highly-sensitive and rapid electrochemical method was newly developed for simultaneous detection of DES and E2. The values of detection limit were evaluated to be 10.87 nM and 4.9 nM for DES and E2. Additionally, this new method was successfully used in lake water samples and the accuracy was satisfactory. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Delayed adverse effects of neonatal exposure to diethylstilbestrol and their dose dependency in female rats.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Midori; Takahashi, Miwa; Inoue, Kaoru; Hayashi, Seigo; Maekawa, Akihiko; Nishikawa, Akiyoshi

    2011-08-01

    Neonatal exposure to estrogenic chemicals causes irreversible complex damage to the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal axis and reproductive system in females. Some lesions are noted after maturation as delayed adverse effects. We investigated the characteristics and dose dependence of delayed effects using female rats neonatally exposed to diethylstilbestrol (DES). Female Donryu rats were subcutaneously injected with a single dose of DES of 0 (control), 0.15, 1.5, 15, 150, or 1,500 µg/kg bw after birth. All except the lowest dose had estrogenic activity in a uterotrophic assay. All rats at 1500 µg/kg and some at 150 µg/kg showed abnormal morphologies in the genital tract, indicating they were androgenized before maturation. Although no morphological abnormalities were noted at 15 µg/kg or lower, onset of persistent estrus was significantly accelerated in the 1.5, 15, and 150 µg/kg groups with dose dependency, and the latest onset was from seventeen to twenty-one weeks of age at 1.5 µg/kg. The neonatal exposure to DES increased uterine adenocarcinoma development only at 150 µg/kg, although uterine anomalies were detected at 1,500 µg/kg. These results indicate that neonatal exposure to DES, which exerts estrogenic activity in vivo, induces delayed adverse effects in female rats in a dose-dependent manner. Early onset of persistent estrus appears to be the most sensitive parameter.

  5. Altered gene expression patterns during the initiation and promotion stages of neonatally diethylstilbestrol-induced hyperplasia/dysplasia/neoplasia in the hamster uterus.

    PubMed

    Hendry, William J; Hariri, Hussam Y; Alwis, Imala D; Gunewardena, Sumedha S; Hendry, Isabel R

    2014-12-01

    Neonatal treatment of hamsters with diethylstilbestrol (DES) induces uterine hyperplasia/dysplasia/neoplasia (endometrial adenocarcinoma) in adult animals. We subsequently determined that the neonatal DES exposure event directly and permanently disrupts the developing hamster uterus (initiation stage) so that it responds abnormally when it is stimulated with estrogen in adulthood (promotion stage). To identify candidate molecular elements involved in progression of the disruption/neoplastic process, we performed: (1) immunoblot analyses and (2) microarray profiling (Affymetrix Gene Chip System) on sets of uterine protein and RNA extracts, respectively, and (3) immunohistochemical analysis on uterine sections; all from both initiation stage and promotion stage groups of animals. Here we report that: (1) progression of the neonatal DES-induced hyperplasia/dysplasia/neoplasia phenomenon in the hamster uterus involves a wide spectrum of specific gene expression alterations and (2) the gene products involved and their manner of altered expression differ dramatically during the initiation vs. promotion stages of the phenomenon. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Detection of chromosomal aberrations by fluorescence in situ hybridization in cervicovaginal biopsies from women exposed to diethylstilbestrol in utero.

    PubMed

    Hajek, R A; King, D W; Hernández-Valero, M A; Kaufman, R H; Liang, J C; Chilton, J A; Edwards, C L; Wharton, J T; Jones, L A

    2006-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies have associated estrogens with human neoplasms such as those in the endometrium, cervix, vagina, breast, and liver. Perinatal exposure to natural (17beta-estradiol [17beta-E(2)]) and synthetic (diethylstilbestrol [DES]) estrogens induces neoplastic changes in humans and rodents. Previous studies demonstrated that neonatal 17beta-E(2) treatment of mice results in increased nuclear DNA content of cervicovaginal epithelium that precedes histologically evident neoplasia. In order to determine whether this effect was associated with chromosomal changes in humans, the frequencies of trisomy of chromosomes 1, 7, 11, and 17 were evaluated by the fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) technique in cervicovaginal tissue from 19 DES-exposed and 19 control women. The trisomic frequencies were significantly elevated in 4 of the 19 (21%) DES-exposed patients. One patient presented with trisomy of chromosomes 1, 7, and 11, while trisomy of chromosome 7 was observed in one patient. There were two patients with trisomy of chromosome 1. Trisomy of chromosomes 1, 7, 11, and 17 was not observed in the cervicovaginal tissue taken from control patients. These data suggest that DES-induced chromosomal trisomy may be an early event in the development of cervicovaginal neoplasia in humans.

  7. Adverse health outcomes in women exposed in utero to diethylstilbestrol.

    PubMed

    Hoover, Robert N; Hyer, Marianne; Pfeiffer, Ruth M; Adam, Ervin; Bond, Brian; Cheville, Andrea L; Colton, Theodore; Hartge, Patricia; Hatch, Elizabeth E; Herbst, Arthur L; Karlan, Beth Y; Kaufman, Raymond; Noller, Kenneth L; Palmer, Julie R; Robboy, Stanley J; Saal, Robert C; Strohsnitter, William; Titus-Ernstoff, Linda; Troisi, Rebecca

    2011-10-06

    Before 1971, several million women were exposed in utero to diethylstilbestrol (DES) given to their mothers to prevent pregnancy complications. Several adverse outcomes have been linked to such exposure, but their cumulative effects are not well understood. We combined data from three studies initiated in the 1970s with continued long-term follow-up of 4653 women exposed in utero to DES and 1927 unexposed controls. We assessed the risks of 12 adverse outcomes linked to DES exposure, including cumulative risks to 45 years of age for reproductive outcomes and to 55 years of age for other outcomes, and their relationships to the baseline presence or absence of vaginal epithelial changes, which are correlated with a higher dose of, and earlier exposure to, DES in utero. Cumulative risks in women exposed to DES, as compared with those not exposed, were as follows: for infertility, 33.3% vs. 15.5% (hazard ratio, 2.37; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.05 to 2.75); spontaneous abortion, 50.3% vs. 38.6% (hazard ratio, 1.64; 95% CI, 1.42 to 1.88); preterm delivery, 53.3% vs. 17.8% (hazard ratio, 4.68; 95% CI, 3.74 to 5.86); loss of second-trimester pregnancy, 16.4% vs. 1.7% (hazard ratio, 3.77; 95% CI, 2.56 to 5.54); ectopic pregnancy, 14.6% vs. 2.9% (hazard ratio, 3.72; 95% CI, 2.58 to 5.38); preeclampsia, 26.4% vs. 13.7% (hazard ratio 1.42; 95% CI, 1.07 to 1.89); stillbirth, 8.9% vs. 2.6% (hazard ratio, 2.45; 95% CI, 1.33 to 4.54); early menopause, 5.1% vs. 1.7% (hazard ratio, 2.35; 95% CI, 1.67 to 3.31); grade 2 or higher cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, 6.9% vs. 3.4% (hazard ratio, 2.28; 95% CI, 1.59 to 3.27); and breast cancer at 40 years of age or older, 3.9% vs. 2.2% (hazard ratio, 1.82; 95% CI, 1.04 to 3.18). For most outcomes, the risks among exposed women were higher for those with vaginal epithelial changes than for those without such changes. In utero exposure of women to DES is associated with a high lifetime risk of a broad spectrum of adverse health outcomes

  8. Hypermethylation of Homeobox A10 by in Utero Diethylstilbestrol Exposure: An Epigenetic Mechanism for Altered Developmental Programming

    PubMed Central

    Bromer, Jason G.; Wu, Jie; Zhou, Yuping; Taylor, Hugh S.

    2009-01-01

    Diethylstilbestrol (DES) is a nonsteroidal estrogen that induces developmental anomalies of the female reproductive tract. The homeobox gene HOXA10 controls uterine organogenesis, and its expression is altered after in utero DES exposure. We hypothesized that an epigenetic mechanism underlies DES-mediated alterations in HOXA10 expression. We analyzed the expression pattern and methylation profile of HOXA10 after DES exposure. Expression of HOXA10 is increased in human endometrial cells after DES exposure, whereas Hoxa10 expression is repressed and shifted caudally from its normal location in mice exposed in utero. Cytosine guanine dinucleotide methylation frequency in the Hoxa10 intron was higher in DES-exposed offspring compared with controls (P = 0.017). The methylation level of Hoxa10 was also higher in the caudal portion of the uterus after DES exposure at the promoter and intron (P < 0.01). These changes were accompanied by increased expression of DNA methyltransferases 1 and 3b. No changes in methylation were observed after in vitro or adult DES exposure. DES has a dual mechanism of action as an endocrine disruptor; DES functions as a classical estrogen and directly stimulates HOXA10 expression with short-term exposure, however, in utero exposure results in hypermethylation of the HOXA10 gene and long-term altered HOXA10 expression. We identify hypermethylation as a novel mechanism of DES-induced altered developmental programming. PMID:19299448

  9. [Reproductive performance of DES-exposed-female progeny. Consequences of diethylstilbestrol in women whose mothers ingested the substance during pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Veridiano, N P; Delke, I; Rogers, J; Tancer, M L

    1982-05-01

    Between October 1973-October 1979, 613 women who had been exposed to diethylstilbestrol (DES) in utero were observed at the Brookdale Medical Center; 106 of these patients were observed for problems related to pregnancy. Most patients were between 17-27 years of age, and 39% were unmarried; 70 were in their 1st pregnancy. Results of the 1st pregnancy were 52 induced abortions, 3 pregnancies still ongoing at the time of the study; of the remaining 51 pregnancies, 32 terminated in delivery; there was a 37% of fetal wastage, mostly due to early delivery. 36 of the original 106 patients had a 2nd pregnancy; in this group there were 7 abortions and only 22 deliveries. 11 patients had a 3rd pregnancy, and 5 a 4th pregnancy; these patients were able to bring their pregnancy to term. In total there were 159 pregnancies, and a high percentage of fetal loss, mostly between the 13th and 28th week of pregnancy. It is well known that many women who have been exposed to DES in utero present modifications of the aspect, shape, and size of the uterine cavity, which causes difficulties in bringing a pregnancy to term. The article reviews the published literature on the subject.

  10. Diallyl sulfide inhibits diethylstilbestrol-induced lipid peroxidation in breast tissue of female ACI rats: implications in breast cancer prevention.

    PubMed

    Gued, Lisa R; Thomas, Ronald D; Green, Mario

    2003-01-01

    Diallyl sulfide (DAS) is a component of garlic and prevents cancer in several animal models in various organs. The chemopreventive effects of DAS are attributed to modulation of enzymes to alter the bioactivation of xenobiotics. Diethylstilbestrol (DES) is a synthetic estrogen that causes breast cancer in female ACI rats subsequent to metabolism with concurrent free radical production. This study assessed the effect of DAS on DES-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) using lipid peroxidation as an empirical endpoint. We have demonstrated that acute exposure to DES results in a significant increase in lipid hydroperoxides (LPH) in breast tissue and DAS attenuated DES-induced LPH concentrations. Two-week exposure to DES caused significant increases in LPH concentrations in breast and liver tissues. DES-induced LPH concentrations were decreased by coadministration of DAS at this time point. There were no statistical differences in the concentrations of LPH in breast and liver tissues of rats treated for 4/6 weeks with DAS/DES. These results demonstrate that DAS inhibits the production of ROS which suggests that DAS effectively inhibits DES bioactivation in female ACI rats which may have implications for chemopreventive intervention strategies. Our results suggest that garlic consumption might be useful for the prevention of human breast cancers.

  11. Factors Associated with a Lack of Pap Smear Utilization in Women Exposed In Utero to Diethylstilbestrol

    PubMed Central

    Camp, Elizabeth A.; Prehn, Angela W.; Shen, Ji; Herbst, Arthur L.; Strohsnitter, William C.; Hobday, Christopher D.; Robboy, Stanley J.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: Women in the1940s–1960s were prescribed diethylstilbestrol (DES), a nonsteroidal estrogen, to prevent miscarriages, but the practice was terminated after it was discovered that the daughters so exposed in utero were at increased risk for developing clear cell adenocarcinoma (CCA) of the vagina or cervix at early ages. Pap smear screening is one of the principal methods used to identify tumor development and is necessary in this group of women to maintain their health. Currently, little is known about the factors associated with nonutilization of this screening tool in this high-risk population of women. Methods: National cohort data from the National Cancer Institute (NCI) DES Combined Cohort Follow-up Study during 1994, 1997, 2001, and 2006 were used to determine which factors were associated with Pap smear screening nonutilization in 2006 among DES-exposed and unexposed women. Self-reported questionnaire data from 2,861 DES-exposed and 1,027 unexposed women were analyzed using binary logistic regression models. Results: DES exposure, not having a previous gynecologic dysplasia diagnosis, lack of insurance, originating cohort, increasing age, and previous screening behavior were all factors associated with not reporting a Pap smear examination in the 2006 questionnaire, although college education reduced nonutilization. Conclusions: Understanding which factors are associated with not acquiring a screening exam can help clinicians better identify which DES-exposed women are at risk for nonutilization and possibly tailor their standard of care to aid in the early detection of cervical and vaginal adenocarcinomas in this high-risk group. PMID:25768943

  12. Urogenital teratogenicity of synthetic and natural estrogens in the rat: diethylstilbestrol and estradiol

    SciTech Connect

    Henry, E.C.

    1984-01-01

    Diethylstilbestrol (DES), a synthetic estrogen and a carcinogen, is a potent urogenital teratogen in humans and rodents. The natural estrogen, estradiol (E/sub 2/), induces malformations in rats only at a maternal toxic dose. This difference in potency could result from differences in fetal sensitivity, or in the distribution and/or metabolism of the two compounds. The current studies tested the hypothesis that the teratogenicity of DES is mediated by its estrogenic activity (rather than its metabolic activation). The two estrogens were directly compared by injecting them into day 19 fetuses, bypassing any maternal modifying factors. Both DES (0.1, 1 or 10more » ..mu..g/fetus) and E/sub 2/ (10 or 100 ..mu..g/fetus) caused dose-related incidences of urogenital malformations (diagnosed at 6-7 weeks), but DES was 10- to 100-fold more potent. Between 24 h and 9 days after DES or E/sub 2/ exposure, histologic evidence of estrogenic stimulation was observed, including premature myometrial growth and differentiation, and vaginal epithelial thickening. Thus, DES and E/sub 2/ act directly in the fetus, to produce similar teratogenic effects, without maternal mediation. Following both maternal and fetal administration of /sup 14/C-DES or /sup 3/H-E/sub 2/, the /sup 14/C (from DES) was concentrated in fetal tissues, whereas /sup 3/H (from E/sub 2/) was retained in fetal plasma (protein-bound). Fetal genital tract contained the largest proportion of unchanged E/sub 2/ (74%) or DES (86%). It was concluded that (1) the teratogenicity of DES reflects its estrogenic activity in the fetus; (2) the fetus is sensitive to a brief exposure to estrogens, including LY and (3) the synthetic estrogen is more potent that estradiol because of its greater availability to fetal genital tissues: protein binding and rapid metabolism reduce the teratogenicity of the natural estrogen.« less

  13. Removal and Biodegradation of 17β-Estradiol and Diethylstilbestrol by the Freshwater Microalgae Raphidocelis subcapitata

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Qi; Sun, Kaifeng; Sun, Dong; Wu, Xiaoqing; Duan, Shunshan

    2018-01-01

    Natural steroidal and synthetic non-steroidal estrogens such as 17β-estradiol (E2) and diethylstilbestrol (DES) have been found in natural water, which can potentially endanger public health and aquatic ecosystems. The removal and biodegradation of E2 and DES by Raphidocelis subcapitata were studied in bacteria-free cultures exposed to single and mixture treatments at different concentrations for 96 h. The results showed that R. subcapitata exhibited a rapid and strong ability to remove E2 and DES in both single and mixture treatments by biodegradation. At the end of 96 h, the removal percentage of single E2 and DES achieved 82.0%, 80.4%, 74.6% and 89.9%, 73.4%, 54.1% in 0.1, 0.5, and 1.5 mg·L−1, respectively. With the exception of the 0.1 mg·L−1 treatment at 96 h, the removal capacity of E2 was more efficient than that of DES by R. subcapitata. Furthermore, the removal percentage of mixture E2 and DES achieved 88.5%, 82.9%, 84.3% and 87.2%, 71.8%, 51.1% in 0.1, 0.5, and 1.5 mg·L−1, respectively. The removal percentage of mixed E2 was significantly higher than that of the single E2. The presence of DES could accelerate the removal of E2 from the mixture treatments in equal concentrations. In addition, the removal was mainly attributed to the biodegradation or biotransformation process by the microalgae cells rather than simple sorption and accumulation in the cells. The microalgae R. subcapitata demonstrated a high capability for the removal of the E2 and DES indicating future prospects for its application. PMID:29510598

  14. Menarche, menopause, years of menstruation, and the incidence of osteoporosis: the influence of prenatal exposure to diethylstilbestrol.

    PubMed

    Parker, Samantha E; Troisi, Rebecca; Wise, Lauren A; Palmer, Julie R; Titus-Ernstoff, Linda; Strohsnitter, William C; Hatch, Elizabeth E

    2014-02-01

    Estrogen is critical for bone formation and growth in women. Estrogen exposures occur throughout life, including prenatally, and change with reproductive events, such as menarche and menopause. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between age at menarche, age at menopause, and years of menstruation with incidence of osteoporosis and assess the impact of prenatal exposure to diethylstilbestrol (DES), a synthetic estrogen, on such associations. Participants were 5573 women in the National Cancer Institute Combined Cohort Study of DES (1994-2006). Data on reproductive history and medical conditions were collected through questionnaires at baseline in 1994 and subsequently in 1997, 2001, and 2006. Age-stratified Cox regression models were used to calculate multivariable incidence rate ratios (IRRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Effect measure modification by prenatal DES exposure was assessed using cubic restricted spline regression models. Osteoporosis was the main outcome measure. The IRRs for osteoporosis incidence with age at menarche less than 11 years and age at menopause of 50 years or younger were 0.82 (CI 0.59, 1.14) and 0.61 (CI 0.40, 0.92), respectively. Fewer than 25 years of menstruation was associated with an increased incidence of osteoporosis (IRR 1.80; CI 1.14, 2.86) compared with 35 years or more of menstruation. Associations were stronger among women who had not been prenatally exposed to DES. Our data support the hypothesis that lifetime cumulative exposure to estrogens is protective against osteoporosis. Furthermore, prenatal exposure to estrogen appears to modify these associations, although the mechanism by which this occurs is unknown.

  15. Diethylstilbestrol (DES)-stimulated hormonal toxicity is mediated by ERα alteration of target gene methylation patterns and epigenetic modifiers (DNMT3A, MBD2, and HDAC2) in the mouse seminal vesicle.

    PubMed

    Li, Yin; Hamilton, Katherine J; Lai, Anne Y; Burns, Katherine A; Li, Leping; Wade, Paul A; Korach, Kenneth S

    2014-03-01

    Diethylstilbestrol (DES) is a synthetic estrogen associated with adverse effects on reproductive organs. DES-induced toxicity of the mouse seminal vesicle (SV) is mediated by estrogen receptor α (ERα), which alters expression of seminal vesicle secretory protein IV (Svs4) and lactoferrin (Ltf) genes. We examined a role for nuclear receptor activity in association with DNA methylation and altered gene expression. We used the neonatal DES exposure mouse model to examine DNA methylation patterns via bisulfite conversion sequencing in SVs of wild-type (WT) and ERα-knockout (αERKO) mice. The DNA methylation status at four specific CpGs (-160, -237, -306, and -367) in the Svs4 gene promoter changed during mouse development from methylated to unmethylated, and DES prevented this change at 10 weeks of age in WT SV. At two specific CpGs (-449 and -459) of the Ltf gene promoter, DES altered the methylation status from methylated to unmethylated. Alterations in DNA methylation of Svs4 and Ltf were not observed in αERKO SVs, suggesting that changes of methylation status at these CpGs are ERα dependent. The methylation status was associated with the level of gene expression. In addition, gene expression of three epigenetic modifiers-DNMT3A, MBD2, and HDAC2-increased in the SV of DES-exposed WT mice. DES-induced hormonal toxicity resulted from altered gene expression of Svs4 and Ltf associated with changes in DNA methylation that were mediated by ERα. Alterations in gene expression of DNMT3A, MBD2, and HDAC2 in DES-exposed male mice may be involved in mediating the changes in methylation status in the SV. Li Y, Hamilton KJ, Lai AY, Burns KA, Li L, Wade PA, Korach KS. 2014. Diethylstilbestrol (DES)-stimulated hormonal toxicity is mediated by ERα alteration of target gene methylation patterns and epigenetic modifiers (DNMT3A, MBD2, and HDAC2) in the mouse seminal vesicle. Environ Health Perspect 122:262-268; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1307351.

  16. Altered Gene Expression Patterns During the Initiation and Promotion Stages of Neonatally Diethylstilbestrol-Induced Hyperplasia/Dysplasia/Neoplasia in the Hamster Uterus

    PubMed Central

    Hendry, William J.; Hariri, Hussam Y.; Alwis, Imala D.; Gunewardena, Sumedha S.; Hendry, Isabel R.

    2014-01-01

    Neonatal treatment of hamsters with diethylstilbestrol (DES) induces uterine hyperplasia/dysplasia/neoplasia (endometrial adenocarcinoma) in adult animals. We subsequently determined that the neonatal DES exposure event directly and permanently disrupts the developing hamster uterus (initiation stage) so that it responds abnormally when it is stimulated with estrogen in adulthood (promotion stage). To identify candidate molecular elements involved in progression of the disruption/neoplastic process, we performed: 1) immunoblot analyses and 2) microarray profiling (Affymetrix Gene Chip System) on sets of uterine protein and RNA extracts, respectively, and 3) immunohistochemical analysis on uterine sections; all from both initiation stage and promotion stage groups of animals. Here we report that: 1) progression of the neonatal DES-induced hyperplasia/dysplasia/neoplasia phenomenon in the hamster uterus involves a wide spectrum of specific gene expression alterations and 2) the gene products involved and their manner of altered expression differ dramatically during the initiation vs. promotion stages of the phenomenon. Particularly interesting changes included members in the functional categories of nuclear receptors (progesterone receptor), cell-cell interactions (E-cadherin, connexins), cytokine action (IRF-1, Stat5A), growth factor action (IRS-1), extracellular matrix component (tenascin-C), transcription factors (Nrf2, Sp1), and multi-functional nuclear protein (SAFB1). PMID:25242112

  17. Liver X receptors interfere with the deleterious effect of diethylstilbestrol on testicular physiology

    SciTech Connect

    Oumeddour, Abdelkader; CNRS, UMR 6293, GReD, F-63171 Aubiere; INSERM, UMR 1103, GReD, F-63171 Aubiere

    Highlights: • Part of the neonatal effect of DES on testis needs the presence of Lxrα/β. • Some DES-induced pathways are blocked in Lxr-deficient mice. • Lxr-deficient mice analysis defines DES-target genes protected by Lxr. - Abstract: Liver X receptors LXRα (NR1H3) and LXRβ (NR1H2) are transcription factors belonging to the nuclear receptor superfamily, activated by specific oxysterols, oxidized derivatives of cholesterol. These receptors are involved in the regulation of testis physiology. Lxr-deficient mice pointed to the physiological roles of these nuclear receptors in steroid synthesis, lipid homeostasis and germ cell apoptosis and proliferation. Diethylstilbestrol (DES) is a synthetic estrogenmore » considered as an endocrine disruptor that affects the functions of the testis. Various lines of evidences have made a clear link between estrogens, their nuclear receptors ERα (NR3A1) and ERβ (NR3A2), and Lxrα/β. As LXR activity could also be regulated by the nuclear receptor small heterodimer partner (SHP, NR0A2) and DES could act through SHP, we wondered whether LXR could be targeted by estrogen-like endocrine disruptors such as DES. For that purpose, wild-type and Lxr-deficient mice were daily treated with 0.75 μg DES from days 1 to 5 after birth. The effects of DES were investigated at 10 or 45 days of age. We demonstrated that DES induced a decrease of the body mass at 10 days only in the Lxr-deficient mice suggesting a protective effect of Lxr. We defined three categories of DES-target genes in testis: those whose accumulation is independent of Lxr; those whose accumulation is enhanced by the lack of both Lxrα/β; those whose accumulation is repressed by the absence of Lxrα/β. Lipid accumulation is also modified by neonatal DES injection. Lxr-deficient mice present different lipid profiles, demonstrating that DES could have its effects in part due to Lxrα/β. Altogether, our study shows that both nuclear receptors Lxrα and Lxrβ are

  18. The in vitro effect of nonylphenol, propranolol, and diethylstilbestrol on quality parameters and oxidative stress in sterlet (Acipenser ruthenus) spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Shaliutina, Olena; Shaliutina-Kolešová, Anna; Lebeda, Ievgen; Rodina, Marek; Gazo, Ievgeniia

    2017-09-01

    The sturgeon is a highly endangered fish mostly due to over-fishing, habitat destruction, and water pollution. Nonylphenol (NP), propranolol (PN), and diethylstilbestrol (DES) are multifunctional xenobiotic compounds used in a variety of commercial and industrial products. The mechanism by which these xenobiotic compounds interfere with fish reproduction is not fully elucidated. This study assessed the effect of NP, PN, and DES on motility parameters, membrane integrity, and oxidative/antioxidant status in sterlet Acispenser ruthenus spermatozoa. Spermatozoa were incubated with several concentrations of target substances for 1h. Motility rate and velocity of spermatozoa decreased in the presence of xenobiotics in a dose-dependent manner compared with controls. A significant decrease in membrane integrity was recorded with exposure to 5μM of NP, 25μM of PN, and 50μM of DES. After 1h exposure at higher tested concentrations NP (5-25μM), PN (25-100μM), and DES (50-200μM), oxidative stress was apparent, as reflected by significantly higher levels of protein and lipid oxidation and significantly greater superoxide dismutase activity. The results demonstrated that NP, PN, and DES can induce reactive oxygen species stress in fish spermatozoa, which could impair sperm quality and the antioxidant defence system and decrease the percentage of intact sperm cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Analysis of the Effect of Estrogen/Androgen Perturbation on Penile Development in Transgenic and Diethylstilbestrol-Treated Mice

    PubMed Central

    BLASCHKO, SARAH D.; MAHAWONG, PHITSANU; FERRETTI, MAX; CUNHA, TRISTAN J.; SINCLAIR, ADRIANE; WANG, HONG; SCHLOMER, BRUCE J.; RISBRIDGER, GAIL; BASKIN, LAURENCE S.; CUNHA, GERALD R.

    2013-01-01

    Because both androgens and estrogens have been implicated in penile morphogenesis, we evaluated penile morphology in transgenic mice with known imbalance of androgen and estrogen signaling using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), histology, and immunohistochemistry of androgen and estrogen receptors α/β. Penises of adult wild-type, estrogen receptor-α knockout (αERKO), estrogen receptor-β knockout (βERKO), aromatase knockout (Arom-KO), and aromatase overexpression (Arom+) mice were evaluated, as well as adult mice treated with diethylstilbestrol (DES) from birth to day 10. Adult penises were examined because the adult pattern is the endpoint of development. The urethral orifice is formed by fusion of the MUMP (male urogenital mating protuberance) with the MUMP ridge, which consists of several processes fused to each other and to the MUMP. Similarly, the internal prepuce is completed ventrally by fusion of a ventral cleft. In adult murine penises the stromal processes that form the MUMP ridge are separated from their neighbors by clefts. αERKO, βERKO, and Arom-KO mice have penises with a MUMP ridge clefting pattern similar to that of wild-type mice. In contrast, Arom+ mice and neonatally DES-treated mice exhibit profound malformations of the MUMP, MUMP ridge clefting pattern, and internal prepuce. Abnormalities observed in Arom+ and neonatally DES-treated mice correlate with the expression of estrogen receptor-beta (ERβ) in the affected structures. This study demonstrates that formation of the urethal orifice and internal prepuce is due to fusion of separate epithelial-surfaced mesenchymal elements, a process dependent upon both androgen and estrogen signaling, in which ERβ signaling is strongly implicated. PMID:23653160

  20. Menarche, Menopause, Years of Menstruation, and the Incidence of Osteoporosis: The Influence of Prenatal Exposure to Diethylstilbestrol

    PubMed Central

    Troisi, Rebecca; Wise, Lauren A.; Palmer, Julie R.; Titus-Ernstoff, Linda; Strohsnitter, William C.; Hatch, Elizabeth E.

    2014-01-01

    Context: Estrogen is critical for bone formation and growth in women. Estrogen exposures occur throughout life, including prenatally, and change with reproductive events, such as menarche and menopause. Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate the association between age at menarche, age at menopause, and years of menstruation with incidence of osteoporosis and assess the impact of prenatal exposure to diethylstilbestrol (DES), a synthetic estrogen, on such associations. Design, Setting, and Participants: Participants were 5573 women in the National Cancer Institute Combined Cohort Study of DES (1994–2006). Data on reproductive history and medical conditions were collected through questionnaires at baseline in 1994 and subsequently in 1997, 2001, and 2006. Age-stratified Cox regression models were used to calculate multivariable incidence rate ratios (IRRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Effect measure modification by prenatal DES exposure was assessed using cubic restricted spline regression models. Main Outcome Measure: Osteoporosis was the main outcome measure. Results: The IRRs for osteoporosis incidence with age at menarche less than 11 years and age at menopause of 50 years or younger were 0.82 (CI 0.59, 1.14) and 0.61 (CI 0.40, 0.92), respectively. Fewer than 25 years of menstruation was associated with an increased incidence of osteoporosis (IRR 1.80; CI 1.14, 2.86) compared with 35 years or more of menstruation. Associations were stronger among women who had not been prenatally exposed to DES. Conclusions: Our data support the hypothesis that lifetime cumulative exposure to estrogens is protective against osteoporosis. Furthermore, prenatal exposure to estrogen appears to modify these associations, although the mechanism by which this occurs is unknown. PMID:24248183

  1. Diethylstilbestrol Exposure in Neonatal Mice Induces Changes in the Adulthood in the Immune Response to Taenia crassiceps without Modifications of Parasite Loads

    PubMed Central

    Nava-Castro, Karen E.; Morales-Montor, Jorge; Ortega-Hernando, Alejandra; Camacho-Arroyo, Ignacio

    2014-01-01

    Industrial growth has increased the exposition to endocrine disruptor compounds (EDC's), which are exogenous agents with agonist or antagonist action of endogenous steroid hormones that may affect the course of parasite infections. We wanted to determine if the exposure to diethylstilbestrol (DES), an estrogen agonist, to both male and female mice affected the immune response and their susceptibility to T. crassiceps cysticercosis. In all infected groups, females showed higher parasite loads than males, and neonatal DES administration did not modify this pattern. In the spleen, noninfected mice showed sex-related differences in the percentage of the CD8+ subpopulation, but DES decreased the percentage of CD3+, CD19+, and CD8+ subpopulations in infected mice. In the mesenteric lymphatic node (MNL), DES showed a dimorphic effect in the percentage of CD19+ cells. Regarding estrogen receptor alpha (ER-α) expression, DES treatment induced a reduction in the expression of this receptor in both noninfected female and male mice in the spleen, which was decreased only in males in CD3+ and CD8+ lymphocytes in MNL cell subpopulations. Our study is the first one to demonstrate that DES neonatal treatment in male and female mice affects the immune cell percentage, without effect on the susceptibility to T. crassiceps cysticercosis. PMID:25243144

  2. Comparative effects of neonatal diethylstilbestrol on external genitalia development in adult males of two mouse strains with differential estrogen sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Mahawong, Phitsanu; Sinclair, Adriane; Li, Yi; Schlomer, Bruce; Rodriguez, Esequiel; Ferretti, Max M.; Liu, Baomai; Baskin, Laurence S.; Cunha, Gerald R.

    2014-01-01

    The effect of neonatal exposure to diethylstilbestrol (DES), a potent synthetic estrogen, was examined to evaluate whether the CD-1 (estrogen insensitive, outbred) and C57 (estrogen sensitive, inbred) mouse strains differ in their response to estrogen disruption of male ExG differentiation. CD-1 and C57BL/6 litters were injected with sesame oil or DES (200 ng/g/5μl in sesame oil vehicle) every other day from birth to day 10. Animals were sacrificed at the following time points: birth, 5, 10 and 60 days postnatal. Neonatally DES-treated mice from both strains had many ExG abnormalities that included the following: (a) severe truncation of the prepuce and glans penis, (b) an abnormal urethral meatus, (c) ventral tethering of the penis, (d) reduced os penis length and glans width, (e) impaired differentiation of cartilage, (f) absence of urethral flaps, and (g) impaired differentiation of erectile bodies. Adverse effects of DES correlated with the expression of estrogen receptors within the affected tissues. While the effects of DES were similar in the more estrogen-sensitive C57BL/6 mice versus the less estrogen-sensitive CD-1 mice, the severity of DES effects was consistently greater in C57BL/6 mice. We suggest that many of the effects of DES, including the induction of hypospadias, are due to impaired growth and tissue fusion events during development. PMID:25449353

  3. Altered microRNA expression patterns during the initiation and promotion stages of neonatal diethylstilbestrol-induced dysplasia/neoplasia in the hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) uterus.

    PubMed

    Padmanabhan, Ramesh; Hendry, Isabel R; Knapp, Jennifer R; Shuai, Bin; Hendry, William J

    2017-10-01

    Treatment of Syrian hamsters on the day of birth with the prototypical endocrine disruptor and synthetic estrogen, diethylstilbestrol (DES), leads to 100% occurrence of uterine hyperplasia/dysplasia in adulthood, a large proportion of which progress to neoplasia (endometrial adenocarcinoma). Consistent with our prior gene expression analyses at the mRNA and protein levels, we now report (based on microarray, real-time polymerase chain reaction, and in situ hybridization analyses) that progression of the neonatal DES-induced dysplasia/neoplasia phenomenon in the hamster uterus also includes a spectrum of microRNA expression alterations (at both the whole-organ and cell-specific level) that differ during the initiation (upregulated miR-21, 200a, 200b, 200c, 29a, 29b, 429, 141; downregulated miR-181a) and promotion (downregulated miR-133a) stages of the phenomenon. The biological processes targeted by those differentially expressed miRNAs include pathways in cancer and adherens junction, plus regulation of the cell cycle, apoptosis, and miRNA functions, all of which are consistent with our model system phenotype. These findings underscore the need for continued efforts to identify and assess both the classical genetic and the more recently recognized epigenetic mechanisms that truly drive this and other endocrine disruption phenomena.

  4. Developmental Exposure to Diethylstilbestrol Alters Uterine Gene Expression That May Be Associated With Uterine Neoplasia Later in Life

    PubMed Central

    Newbold, Retha R.; Jefferson, Wendy N.; Grissom, Sherry F.; Padilla-Banks, Elizabeth; Snyder, Ryan J.; Lobenhofer, Edward K.

    2008-01-01

    Previously, we described a mouse model where the well-known reproductive carcinogen with estrogenic activity, diethylstilbestrol (DES), caused uterine adenocarcinoma following neonatal treatment. Tumor incidence was dose-dependent reaching >90% by 18 mo following neonatal treatment with 1000 μg/kg/d of DES. These tumors followed the initiation/promotion model of hormonal carcinogenesis with developmental exposure as initiator, and exposure to ovarian hormones at puberty as the promoter. To identify molecular pathways involved in DES-initiation events, uterine gene expression profiles were examined in prepubertal mice exposed to DES (1, 10, or 1000 μg/kg/d) on days 1–5 and compared to controls. Of more than 20 000 transcripts, approximately 3% were differentially expressed in at least one DES treatment group compared to controls; some transcripts demonstrated dose–responsiveness. Assessment of gene ontology annotation revealed alterations in genes associated with cell growth, differentiation, and adhesion. When expression profiles were compared to published studies of uteri from 5-d-old DES-treated mice, or adult mice treated with 17β estradiol, similarities were seen suggesting persistent differential expression of estrogen responsive genes following developmental DES exposure. Moreover, several altered genes were identified in human uterine adenocarcinomas. Four altered genes [lactotransferrin (Ltf), transforming growth factor beta inducible (Tgfb1), cyclin D1 (Ccnd1), and secreted frizzled-related protein 4 (Sfrp4)], selected for real-time RT-PCR analysis, correlated well with the directionality of the microarray data. These data suggested altered gene expression profiles observed 2 wk after treatment ceased, were established at the time of developmental exposure and maybe related to the initiation events resulting in carcinogenesis. PMID:17394237

  5. Developmental exposure to diethylstilbestrol alters uterine gene expression that may be associated with uterine neoplasia later in life.

    PubMed

    Newbold, Retha R; Jefferson, Wendy N; Grissom, Sherry F; Padilla-Banks, Elizabeth; Snyder, Ryan J; Lobenhofer, Edward K

    2007-09-01

    Previously, we described a mouse model where the well-known reproductive carcinogen with estrogenic activity, diethylstilbestrol (DES), caused uterine adenocarcinoma following neonatal treatment. Tumor incidence was dose-dependent reaching >90% by 18 mo following neonatal treatment with 1000 microg/kg/d of DES. These tumors followed the initiation/promotion model of hormonal carcinogenesis with developmental exposure as initiator, and exposure to ovarian hormones at puberty as the promoter. To identify molecular pathways involved in DES-initiation events, uterine gene expression profiles were examined in prepubertal mice exposed to DES (1, 10, or 1000 microg/kg/d) on days 1-5 and compared to controls. Of more than 20 000 transcripts, approximately 3% were differentially expressed in at least one DES treatment group compared to controls; some transcripts demonstrated dose-responsiveness. Assessment of gene ontology annotation revealed alterations in genes associated with cell growth, differentiation, and adhesion. When expression profiles were compared to published studies of uteri from 5-d-old DES-treated mice, or adult mice treated with 17beta estradiol, similarities were seen suggesting persistent differential expression of estrogen responsive genes following developmental DES exposure. Moreover, several altered genes were identified in human uterine adenocarcinomas. Four altered genes [lactotransferrin (Ltf), transforming growth factor beta inducible (Tgfb1), cyclin D1 (Ccnd1), and secreted frizzled-related protein 4 (Sfrp4)], selected for real-time RT-PCR analysis, correlated well with the directionality of the microarray data. These data suggested altered gene expression profiles observed 2 wk after treatment ceased, were established at the time of developmental exposure and maybe related to the initiation events resulting in carcinogenesis. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. Modeling of three dimensional structure of human alpha-fetoprotein complexed with diethylstilbestrol: docking and molecular dynamics simulation study.

    PubMed

    Terentiev, Alexander A; Moldogazieva, Nurbubu T; Levtsova, Olga V; Maximenko, Dmitry M; Borozdenko, Denis A; Shaitan, Konstantin V

    2012-04-01

    It has been long experimentally demonstrated that human alpha-fetoprotein (HAFP) has an ability to bind immobilized estrogens with the most efficiency for synthetic estrogen analog - diethylstilbestrol (DES). However, the question remains why the human AFP (HAFP), unlike rodent AFP, cannot bind free estrogens. Moreover, despite the fact that AFP was first discovered more than 50 years ago and is presently recognized as a "golden standard" among onco-biomarkers, its three-dimensional (3D) structure has not been experimentally solved yet. In this work using MODELLER program, we generated 3D model of HAFP on the basis of homology with human serum albumin (HSA) and Vitamin D-binding protein (VTDB) with subsequent molecular docking of DES to the model structure and molecular dynamics (MD) simulation study of the complex obtained. The model constructed has U-shaped structure in which a cavity may be distinguished. In this cavity the putative estrogen-binding site is localized. Validation by RMSD calculation and with the use of PROCHECK program showed good quality of the model and stability of extended region of four alpha-helical structures that contains putative hormone-binding residues. Data extracted from MD simulation trajectory allow proposing two types of interactions between amino acid residues of HAFP and DES molecule: (1) hydrogen bonding with involvement of residues S445, R452, and E551; (2) hydrophobic interactions with participation of L138, M448, and M548 residues. A suggestion is made that immobilization of the hormone using a long spacer provides delivery of the estrogen molecule to the binding site and, thereby, facilitates interaction between HAFP and the hormone.

  7. Diethylstilbestrol induces vaginal adenosis by disrupting SMAD/RUNX1-mediated cell fate decision in the Müllerian duct epithelium.

    PubMed

    Laronda, Monica M; Unno, Kenji; Ishi, Kazutomo; Serna, Vanida A; Butler, Lindsey M; Mills, Alea A; Orvis, Grant D; Behringer, Richard R; Deng, Chuxia; Sinha, Satrajit; Kurita, Takeshi

    2013-09-01

    Women exposed to diethylstilbestrol (DES) in utero frequently develop vaginal adenosis, from which clear cell adenocarcinoma can arise. Despite decades of extensive investigation, the molecular pathogenesis of DES-associated vaginal adenosis remains elusive. Here we report that DES induces vaginal adenosis by inhibiting the BMP4/Activin A-regulated vaginal cell fate decision through a downregulation of RUNX1. BMP4 and Activin A produced by vaginal mesenchyme synergistically activated the expression of ΔNp63, thus deciding vaginal epithelial cell fate in the Müllerian duct epithelial cells (MDECs) via direct binding of SMADs on the highly conserved 5' sequence of ΔNp63. Therefore, mice in which Smad4 was deleted in MDECs failed to express ΔNp63 in vaginal epithelium and developed adenosis. This SMAD-dependent ΔNp63 activation required RUNX1, a binding partner of SMADs. Conditional deletion of Runx1 in the MDECs induced adenosis in the cranial portion of vagina, which mimicked the effect of developmental DES-exposure. Furthermore, neonatal DES exposure downregulated RUNX1 in the fornix of the vagina, where DES-associated adenosis is frequently found. This observation strongly suggests that the downregulation of RUNX1 is the cause of vaginal adenosis. However, once cell fate was determined, the BMP/Activin-SMAD/RUNX1 signaling pathway became dispensable for the maintenance of ΔNp63 expression in vaginal epithelium. Instead, the activity of the ΔNp63 locus in vaginal epithelium was maintained by a ΔNp63-dependent mechanism. This is the first demonstration of a molecular mechanism through which developmental chemical exposure causes precancerous lesions by altering cell fate. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Diethylstilbestrol induces vaginal adenosis by disrupting SMAD/RUNX1-mediated cell fate decision in the Müllerian duct epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Laronda, Monica M.; Unno, Kenji; Ishi, Kazutomo; Serna, Vanida A.; Butler, Lindsey M.; Mills, Alea A.; Orvis, Grant D.; Behringer, Richard R.; Deng, Chuxia; Sinha, Satrajit; Kurita, Takeshi

    2013-01-01

    Women exposed to diethylstilbestrol (DES) in utero frequently develop vaginal adenosis, from which clear cell adenocarcinoma can arise. Despite decades of extensive investigation, the molecular pathogenesis of DES-associated vaginal adenosis remains elusive. Here we report that DES induces vaginal adenosis by inhibiting the BMP4/Activin A-regulated vaginal cell fate decision through a downregulation of RUNX1. BMP4 and Activin A produced by vaginal mesenchyme synergistically activated the expression of ΔNp63, thus deciding vaginal epithelial cell fate in the Müllerian duct epithelial cells (MDECs) via direct binding of SMADs on the highly conserved 5′sequence of ΔNp63. Therefore, mice in which Smad4 was deleted in MDECs failed to express ΔNp63 in vaginal epithelium and developed adenosis. This SMAD-dependent ΔNp63 activation required RUNX1, a binding partner of SMADs. Conditional deletion of Runx1 in the MDECs induced adenosis in the cranial portion of vagina, which mimicked the effect of developmental DES-exposure. Furthermore, neonatal DES exposure downregulated RUNX1 in the fornix of the vagina, where DES-associated adenosis is frequently found. This observation strongly suggests that the downregulation of RUNX1 is the cause of vaginal adenosis. However, once cell fate was determined, the BMP/Activin-SMAD/RUNX1 signaling pathway became dispensable for the maintenance of ΔNp63 expression in vaginal epithelium. Instead, the activity of the ΔNp63 locus in vaginal epithelium was maintained by a ΔNp63-dependent mechanism. This is the first demonstration of a molecular mechanism through which developmental chemical exposure causes precancerous lesions by altering cell fate. PMID:23830984

  9. In vitro effects of diethylstilbestrol, genistein, 4-tert-butylphenol, and 4-tert-octylphenol on steroidogenic activity of isolated immature rat ovarian follicles

    SciTech Connect

    Myllymaeki, Sari; Haavisto, Tapio; Vainio, Minna

    2005-04-01

    Isolated rat ovarian follicles grow and produce steroid hormones in vitro and so provide a good model for studying the effects of hormonally active compounds on follicular steroidogenesis. We have evaluated the effects of diethylstilbestrol (DES), genistein (GEN) and two alkylphenols, 4-tert-butylphenol (BP) and 4-tert-octylphenol (OP) on the growth, survival, and steroid hormone and cAMP production by isolated 14-day-old rat (Sprague-Dawley) ovarian follicles. During a 5-day culture, FSH was obligatory for follicle growth and increased estradiol and testosterone secretion in a dose-dependent manner. DES (10{sup -6} M) caused the strongest decline in estradiol and testosterone levels but did not havemore » detectable effects on either cAMP production or aromatase enzyme activity. GEN caused a prominent decrease in cAMP and testosterone levels without significant changes in secreted estradiol. The latter, apparently, was due to a dose-dependent stimulation of aromatase enzyme activity in the presence of genistein. Both BP and OP decreased estradiol and testosterone secretion in a dose-dependent manner while no effect on aromatase activity was observed. OP, unlike BP, decreased forskolin-induced cAMP levels. Xenoestrogens at the used concentrations did not interfere with the growth and survival of the follicles. The results indicate that isolated ovarian follicles representing intact morphological and functional units offer a sensitive model system for elucidating the female-specific reproductive effects of environmental chemicals.« less

  10. Diethylstilbestrol activates CatSper and disturbs progesterone actions in human spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Zou, Qian-Xing; Peng, Zhen; Zhao, Qing; Chen, Hou-Yang; Cheng, Yi-Min; Liu, Qing; He, Yuan-Qiao; Weng, Shi-Qi; Wang, Hua-Feng; Wang, Tao; Zheng, Li-Ping; Luo, Tao

    2017-02-01

    Is diethylstilbestrol (DES), a prototypical endocrine-disrupting chemical (EDC), able to induce physiological changes in human spermatozoa and affect progesterone actions? DES promoted Ca 2+ flux into human spermatozoa by activating the cation channel of sperm (CatSper) and suppressed progesterone-induced Ca 2+ signaling, tyrosine phosphorylation and sperm functions. DES significantly impairs the male reproductive system both in fetal and postnatal exposure. Although various EDCs affect human spermatozoa in a non-genomic manner, the effect of DES on human spermatozoa remains unknown. Sperm samples from normozoospermic donors were exposed in vitro to a range of DES concentrations with or without progesterone at 37°C in a 5% CO 2 incubator to mimic the putative exposure to this toxicant in seminal plasma and the female reproductive tract fluids. The incubation time varied according to the experimental protocols. All experiments were repeated at least five times using different individual sperm samples. Human sperm intracellular calcium concentrations ([Ca 2+ ] i ) were monitored with a multimode plate reader following sperm loading with Ca 2+ indicator Fluo-4 AM, and the whole-cell patch-clamp technique was performed to record CatSper and alkalinization-activated sperm K + channel (KSper) currents. Sperm viability and motility parameters were assessed by an eosin-nigrosin staining kit and a computer-assisted semen analysis system, respectively. The ability of sperm to penetrate into viscous media was examined by penetration into 1% methylcellulose. The sperm acrosome reaction was measured using chlortetracycline staining. The level of tyrosine phosphorylation was determined by western blot assay. DES exposure rapidly increased human sperm [Ca 2+ ] i dose dependently and even at an environmentally relevant concentration (100 pM). The elevation of [Ca 2+ ] i was derived from extracellular Ca 2+ influx and mainly mediated by CatSper. Although DES did not affect sperm

  11. Maternal obesogenic diet induces endometrial hyperplasia, an early hallmark of endometrial cancer, in a diethylstilbestrol mouse model.

    PubMed

    Owuor, Theresa O; Reid, Michaela; Reschke, Lauren; Hagemann, Ian; Greco, Suellen; Modi, Zeel; Moley, Kelle H

    2018-01-01

    Thirty-eight percent of US adult women are obese, meaning that more children are now born of overweight and obese mothers, leading to an increase in predisposition to several adult onset diseases. To explore this phenomenon, we developed a maternal obesity animal model by feeding mice a diet composed of high fat/ high sugar (HF/HS) and assessed both maternal diet and offspring diet on the development of endometrial cancer (ECa). We show that maternal diet by itself did not lead to ECa initiation in wildtype offspring of the C57Bl/6J mouse strain. While offspring fed a HF/HS post-weaning diet resulted in poor metabolic health and decreased uterine weight (regardless of maternal diet), it did not lead to ECa. We also investigated the effects of the maternal obesogenic diet on ECa development in a Diethylstilbestrol (DES) carcinogenesis mouse model. All mice injected with DES had reproductive tract lesions including decreased number of glands, condensed and hyalinized endometrial stroma, and fibrosis and increased collagen deposition that in some mice extended into the myometrium resulting in extensive disruption and loss of the inner and outer muscular layers. Fifty percent of DES mice that were exposed to maternal HF/HS diet developed several features indicative of the initial stages of carcinogenesis including focal glandular and atypical endometrial hyperplasia versus 0% of their Chow counterparts. There was an increase in phospho-Akt expression in DES mice exposed to maternal HF/HS diet, a regulator of persistent proliferation in the endometrium, and no difference in total Akt, phospho-PTEN and total PTEN expression. In summary, maternal HF/HS diet exposure induces endometrial hyperplasia and other precancerous phenotypes in mice treated with DES. This study suggests that maternal obesity alone is not sufficient for the development of ECa, but has an additive effect in the presence of a secondary insult such as DES.

  12. Prostate enlargement in mice due to fetal exposure to low doses of estradiol or diethylstilbestrol and opposite effects at high doses

    PubMed Central

    Saal, Frederick S. vom; Timms, Barry G.; Montano, Monica M.; Palanza, Paola; Thayer, Kristina A.; Nagel, Susan C.; Dhar, Minati D.; Ganjam, V. K.; Parmigiani, Stefano; Welshons, Wade V.

    1997-01-01

    On the basis of results of studies using high doses of estrogens, exposure to estrogen during fetal life is known to inhibit prostate development. However, it is recognized in endocrinology that low concentrations of a hormone can stimulate a tissue, while high concentrations can have the opposite effect. We report here that a 50% increase in free-serum estradiol in male mouse fetuses (released by a maternal Silastic estradiol implant) induced a 40% increase in the number of developing prostatic glands during fetal life; subsequently, in adulthood, the number of prostatic androgen receptors per cell was permanently increased by 2-fold, and the prostate was enlarged by 30% (due to hyperplasia) relative to untreated males. However, as the free serum estradiol concentration in male fetuses was increased from 2- to 8-fold, adult prostate weight decreased relative to males exposed to the 50% increase in estradiol. As a model for fetal exposure to man-made estrogens, pregnant mice were fed diethylstilbestrol (DES) from gestation days 11 to 17. Relative to controls, DES doses of 0.02, 0.2, and 2.0 ng per g of body weight per day increased adult prostate weight, whereas a 200-ng-per-g dose decreased adult prostate weight in male offspring. Our findings suggest that a small increase in estrogen may modulate the action of androgen in regulating prostate differentiation, resulting in a permanent increase in prostatic androgen receptors and prostate size. For both estradiol and DES, prostate weight first increased then decreased with dose, resulting in an inverted-U dose-response relationship. PMID:9050904

  13. Incidence rates and risks of diethylstilbestrol-related clear-cell adenocarcinoma of the vagina and cervix: Update after 40-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Huo, Dezheng; Anderson, Diane; Palmer, Julie R; Herbst, Arthur L

    2017-09-01

    Women exposed to diethylstilbestrol (DES) in utero are at increased risk for the development of vaginal and cervical clear cell adenocarcinoma (CCA) at younger age. It is unknown if a second peak will occur in later life, the ages when CCA developed spontaneously in the pre-DES era. The complete epidemiologic curve of CCA has not been reported, yet. We reviewed 720 cases of CCA from the CCA registry at the University of Chicago through 2014. Incidence rates and cumulative risks for CCA were calculated based on white women born in the U.S. from 1948 through 1971. In 420 CCA cases there was documented evidence of prenatal DES exposure. 80% were among those between ages 15 and 31 but some occurred as late as age 55. A small second peak occurred around age 42. The risk of DES-related CCA was highest in the 1951-1956 birth cohort and this birth cohort effect closely correlated with DES prescriptions over time in the U.S. (r=0.98, P=0.005). By age 50, the cumulative risk of CCA was 1 per 750 exposed women. CCA cases without evidence of DES exposure had similar ages, year of diagnosis, and birth cohort patterns as the documented DES-exposed cases, suggesting that some negative cases were exposed. Their inclusion raises the cumulative risk of CCA to 1 per 520. With the largest data available, our results confirmed the association between prenatal DES exposure and clear cell adenocarcinoma. The study also refines the risks of DES-related CCA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Exposure to diethylstilbestrol during pregnancy modulates microRNA expression profile in mothers and fetuses reflecting oncogenic and immunological changes.

    PubMed

    Singh, Narendra P; Abbas, Ikbal K; Menard, Martine; Singh, Udai P; Zhang, Jiajia; Nagarkatti, Prakash; Nagarkatti, Mitzi

    2015-05-01

    Prenatal exposure to diethylstilbestrol (DES) is known to cause an increased susceptibility to a wide array of clinical disorders in humans. Previous studies from our laboratory demonstrated that prenatal exposure to DES induces thymic atrophy and apoptosis in the thymus. In the current study, we investigated if such effects on the thymus result from alterations in the expression of microRNA (miR). To that end, pregnant C57BL/6 mice who were exposed to DES and miR profiles in thymocytes of both the mother and fetuses on postnatal day 3 (gestation day 17) were studied. Of the 609 mouse miRs examined, we noted 59 altered miRs that were common for both mothers and fetuses, whereas 107 altered miRs were specific to mothers only and 101 altered miRs were specific to fetuses only. Upon further analyses in the fetuses, we observed that DES-mediated changes in miR expression may regulate genes involved in important functions, such as apoptosis, autophagy, toxicity, and cancer. Of the miRs that showed decreased expression following DES treatment, miR-18b and miR-23a were found to possess complementary sequences and binding affinity for 3' untranslated regions of the Fas ligand (FasL) and Fas, respectively. Transfection studies confirmed that DES-mediated downregulation of miR-18b and miR-23a led to increased FasL and Fas expression. These data demonstrated that prenatal DES exposure can cause alterations in miRs, leading to changes in the gene expression, specifically, miR-mediated increased expression in FasL and Fas causing apoptosis and thymic atrophy. Copyright © 2015 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  15. Diethylstilbestrol can effectively accelerate estradiol-17-O-glucuronidation, while potently inhibiting estradiol-3-O-glucuronidation

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Liangliang; Xiao, Ling; Xia, Yangliu

    This in vitro study investigates the effects of diethylstilbestrol (DES), a widely used toxic synthetic estrogen, on estradiol-3- and 17-O- (E2-3/17-O) glucuronidation, via culturing human liver microsomes (HLMs) or recombinant UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) with DES and E2. DES can potently inhibit E2-3-O-glucuronidation in HLM, a probe reaction for UGT1A1. Kinetic assays indicate that the inhibition follows a competitive inhibition mechanism, with the Ki value of 2.1 ± 0.3 μM, which is less than the possible in vivo level. In contrast to the inhibition on E2-3-O-glucuronidation, the acceleration is observed on E2-17-O-glucuronidation in HLM, in which cholestatic E2-17-O-glucuronide is generated. In themore » presence of DES (0–6.25 μM), K{sub m} values for E2-17-O-glucuronidation are located in the range of 7.2–7.4 μM, while V{sub max} values range from 0.38 to 1.54 nmol/min/mg. The mechanism behind the activation in HLM is further demonstrated by the fact that DES can efficiently elevate the activity of UGT1A4 in catalyzing E2-17-O-glucuronidation. The presence of DES (2 μM) can elevate V{sub max} from 0.016 to 0.81 nmol/min/mg, while lifting K{sub m} in a much lesser extent from 4.4 to 11 μM. Activation of E2-17-O-glucuronidation is well described by a two binding site model, with K{sub A}, α, and β values of 0.077 ± 0.18 μM, 3.3 ± 1.1 and 104 ± 56, respectively. However, diverse effects of DES towards E2-3/17-O-glucuronidation are not observed in liver microsomes from several common experimental animals. In summary, this study issues new potential toxic mechanisms for DES: potently inhibiting the activity of UGT1A1 and powerfully accelerating the formation of cholestatic E2-17-O-glucuronide by UGT1A4. - Highlights: • E2-3-O-glucuronidation in HLM is inhibited when co-incubated with DES. • E2-17-O-glucuronidation in HLM is stimulated when co-incubated with DES. • Acceleration of E2-17-O-glucuronidationin in HLM by DES is via

  16. DES daughters in France: experts' points of view on the various genital, uterine and obstetric pathologies, and in utero DES exposure.

    PubMed

    Clement, R; Guilbaud, E; Barrios, L; Rougé-Maillart, C; Jousset, N; Rodat, O

    2014-10-01

    Compensation of diethylstilbestrol exposure depends on the judicial system. In France, girls having been exposed to diethylstilbestrol are currently being compensated, and each exposure victim is being evaluated. Fifty-nine expert evaluations were studied to determine the causal relation between exposure to diethylstilbestrol and the pathologies attributable to diethylstilbestrol. The following were taken into consideration: age at the first signs of the pathology; age of the sufferer at the time of evaluation; the pathologies grouped into five categories: fertility disorders - cancers - mishaps during pregnancy - psychosomatic complaints - pathologies of "3rd generation DES victims"; submission of proof of DES exposure; the degree of causality determined (direct, indirect, ruled out). 61% of the cases related to fertility disorders, 28.8% to cancer pathologies (clear-cell adenocarcinoma), 18.6% to mishaps during pregnancy, 8.5% to disorders resulting from preterm delivery, and 3.4% to psychosomatic disorders. Some cases involved a combination of two types of complaints. Indirect causality was determined in 47.1% of the cases involving primary sterility, in 66.7% involving secondary sterility, and in 5 out of 6 cases of total sterility. There is direct causality between in utero diethylstilbestrol exposure and vaginal or cervical clear cell adenocarcinoma. Causality is indirect in the case of disorders linked to prematurity in third generation victims. Causality was determined by the experts on the basis of scientific criteria which attribute the presenting pathologies to diethylstilbestrol exposure. When other risk factors come into play, or when exposure is indirect (third generation), this causality is diminished. © IMechE 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  17. Gestational exposure to diethylstilbestrol alters cardiac structure/function, protein expression and DNA methylation in adult male mice progeny

    SciTech Connect

    Haddad, Rami, E-mail: rami.haddad@mail.mcgill.ca; Division of Experimental Medicine, Department of Medicine, McGill University, 850 Sherbrooke Street, Montréal, Québec, Canada H3A 1A2; Kasneci, Amanda, E-mail: amanda.kasneci@mail.mcgill.ca

    2013-01-01

    Pregnant women, and thus their fetuses, are exposed to many endocrine disruptor compounds (EDCs). Fetal cardiomyocytes express sex hormone receptors making them potentially susceptible to re-programming by estrogenizing EDCs. Diethylstilbestrol (DES) is a proto-typical, non-steroidal estrogen. We hypothesized that changes in adult cardiac structure/function after gestational exposure to the test compound DES would be a proof in principle for the possibility of estrogenizing environmental EDCs to also alter the fetal heart. Vehicle (peanut oil) or DES (0.1, 1.0 and 10.0 μg/kg/da.) was orally delivered to pregnant C57bl/6n dams on gestation days 11.5–14.5. At 3 months, male progeny were left sedentarymore » or were swim trained for 4 weeks. Echocardiography of isoflurane anesthetized mice revealed similar cardiac structure/function in all sedentary mice, but evidence of systolic dysfunction and increased diastolic relaxation after swim training at higher DES doses. The calcium homeostasis proteins, SERCA2a, phospholamban, phospho-serine 16 phospholamban and calsequestrin 2, are important for cardiac contraction and relaxation. Immunoblot analyses of ventricle homogenates showed increased expression of SERCA2a and calsequestrin 2 in DES mice and greater molecular remodeling of these proteins and phospho-serine 16 phospholamban in swim trained DES mice. DES increased cardiac DNA methyltransferase 3a expression and DNA methylation in the CpG island within the calsequestrin 2 promoter in heart. Thus, gestational DES epigenetically altered ventricular DNA, altered cardiac function and expression, and reduced the ability of adult progeny to cardiac remodel when physically challenged. We conclude that gestational exposure to estrogenizing EDCs may impact cardiac structure/function in adult males. -- Highlights: ► Gestational DES changes cardiac SERCA2a and CASQ2 expression. ► Echocardiography identified systolic dysfunction and increased diastolic relaxation.

  18. [The effect of diethylstilbestrol on inducing abdominal cryptorchidism and relevant genetic expression in rats].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lin; Zheng, Xin-min; Zheng, Hang; Yang, Zhi-wei; Li, Shi-wen

    2009-05-01

    To study the effect of diethylstilbestrol (DES) at different doses on transabdominal testicular descent in rats and the expression of INSL3 in the testis and HOXA10 in the gubernaculum. Fifty E13.5 (embryonic day 13.5) pregnant female SD rats were randomly divided into five groups that received a subcutaneous injection of DMSO, 2.5, 5.0, 10.0 and 20.0 mg/kg DES (group A, B, C, D and E), respectively. Male offspring were killed at E19.5, and then fetal mortality, the degree of transabdominal testicular ascent (DTA) was determined by a stereomicroscope. The mRNA expressions of INSL3 in the testis and HOXA10 in the gubernaculum were determined by RT-PCR. The expression of INSL3 protein was determined by Western blotting. Male fetal mortality in group A, B, C, D, and E were 3.57%, 6.90%, 12.00%, 19.23% and 36.36%, respectively, which showed a dose-effect relationship between DES and the male fatal mortality (r=0.999, P<0.01). DTA in group B, C, D and E were (23.7+/-1.7) U, (38.8+/-1.9) U, (49.3+/-1.8) U and (58.6+/-2.1) U that were significantly larger than that in group A [(8.5+/-1.3) U] (q=46.12, 88.53, 120.44 and 141.37, respectively, P<0.01). There was also a dose-effect relationship between DES and DTA. In group B, C, D, and E, the expression of INSL3 mRNA were 0.9570+/-0.1490, 0.6760+/-0.1380, 0.0170+/-0.0040 and 0.0013+/-0.0003, respectively; the expressions of INSL3 protein were 0.8360+/-0.1520, 0.5310+/-0.1070, 0.0140+/-0.0020 and 0.0011+/-0.0003, respectively, which were significantly larger than the expression of INSL3 mRNA (1.801+/-0.126) and INSL3 protein (1.612+/-0.134) in group A (qmRNA=40.4840, 52.4402, 83.1585 and 82.0582, respectively, and qprotein=38.6151, 52.2747, 77.2756 and 76.1983, respectively, P<0.01). The expression of HOXA10 mRNA in group A, B, C, D, and E were 0.945+/-0.125, 0.940+/-0.119, 0.656+/-0.115, 0.544+/-0.118 and 0.463+/-0.114, respectively. Compared with the expression of HOXA10 mRNA in group A, the expression of group B was not

  19. Prenatal Exposure of Mice to Diethylstilbestrol Disrupts T-Cell Differentiation by Regulating Fas/Fas Ligand Expression through Estrogen Receptor Element and Nuclear Factor-κB Motifs

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Narendra P.; Singh, Udai P.; Nagarkatti, Prakash S.

    2012-01-01

    Prenatal exposure to diethylstilbestrol (DES) is known to cause altered immune functions and increased susceptibility to autoimmune disease in humans. In the current study, we investigated the effect of prenatal exposure to DES on thymocyte differentiation involving apoptotic pathways. Prenatal DES exposure caused thymic atrophy, apoptosis, and up-regulation of Fas and Fas ligand (FasL) expression in thymocytes. To examine the mechanism underlying DES-mediated regulation of Fas and FasL, we performed luciferase assays using T cells transfected with luciferase reporter constructs containing full-length Fas or FasL promoters. There was significant luciferase induction in the presence of Fas or FasL promoters after DES exposure. Further analysis demonstrated the presence of several cis-regulatory motifs on both Fas and FasL promoters. When DES-induced transcription factors were analyzed, estrogen receptor element (ERE), nuclear factor κB (NF-κB), nuclear factor of activated T cells (NF-AT), and activator protein-1 motifs on the Fas promoter, as well as ERE, NF-κB, and NF-AT motifs on the FasL promoter, showed binding affinity with the transcription factors. Electrophoretic mobility-shift assays were performed to verify the binding affinity of cis-regulatory motifs of Fas or FasL promoters with transcription factors. There was shift in mobility of probes (ERE or NF-κB2) of both Fas and FasL in the presence of nuclear proteins from DES-treated cells, and the shift was specific to DES because these probes failed to shift their mobility in the presence of nuclear proteins from vehicle-treated cells. Together, the current study demonstrates that prenatal exposure to DES triggers significant alterations in apoptotic molecules expressed on thymocytes, which may affect T-cell differentiation and cause long-term effects on the immune functions. PMID:22888145

  20. Prenatal exposure of mice to diethylstilbestrol disrupts T-cell differentiation by regulating Fas/Fas ligand expression through estrogen receptor element and nuclear factor-κB motifs.

    PubMed

    Singh, Narendra P; Singh, Udai P; Nagarkatti, Prakash S; Nagarkatti, Mitzi

    2012-11-01

    Prenatal exposure to diethylstilbestrol (DES) is known to cause altered immune functions and increased susceptibility to autoimmune disease in humans. In the current study, we investigated the effect of prenatal exposure to DES on thymocyte differentiation involving apoptotic pathways. Prenatal DES exposure caused thymic atrophy, apoptosis, and up-regulation of Fas and Fas ligand (FasL) expression in thymocytes. To examine the mechanism underlying DES-mediated regulation of Fas and FasL, we performed luciferase assays using T cells transfected with luciferase reporter constructs containing full-length Fas or FasL promoters. There was significant luciferase induction in the presence of Fas or FasL promoters after DES exposure. Further analysis demonstrated the presence of several cis-regulatory motifs on both Fas and FasL promoters. When DES-induced transcription factors were analyzed, estrogen receptor element (ERE), nuclear factor κB (NF-κB), nuclear factor of activated T cells (NF-AT), and activator protein-1 motifs on the Fas promoter, as well as ERE, NF-κB, and NF-AT motifs on the FasL promoter, showed binding affinity with the transcription factors. Electrophoretic mobility-shift assays were performed to verify the binding affinity of cis-regulatory motifs of Fas or FasL promoters with transcription factors. There was shift in mobility of probes (ERE or NF-κB2) of both Fas and FasL in the presence of nuclear proteins from DES-treated cells, and the shift was specific to DES because these probes failed to shift their mobility in the presence of nuclear proteins from vehicle-treated cells. Together, the current study demonstrates that prenatal exposure to DES triggers significant alterations in apoptotic molecules expressed on thymocytes, which may affect T-cell differentiation and cause long-term effects on the immune functions.

  1. Abnormal morphology of the penis in male rats exposed neonatally to diethylstilbestrol is associated with altered profile of estrogen receptor-alpha protein, but not of androgen receptor protein: a developmental and immunocytochemical study.

    PubMed

    Goyal, H O; Braden, T D; Williams, C S; Dalvi, P; Mansour, M M; Mansour, M; Williams, J W; Bartol, F F; Wiley, A A; Birch, L; Prins, G S

    2004-05-01

    Objectives of the study were to determine developmental changes in morphology and expression of androgen receptor (AR) and estrogen receptor (ER)alpha in the body of the rat penis exposed neonatally to diethylstilbestrol (DES). Male pups received DES at a dose of 10 microg per rat on alternate days from Postnatal Day 2 to Postnatal Day 12. Controls received olive oil vehicle only. Tissue samples were collected on Days 18 (prepuberty), 41 (puberty), and 120 (adult) of age. DES-induced abnormalities were evident at 18 days of age and included smaller, lighter, and thinner penis, loss of cavernous spaces and associated smooth muscle cells, and increased deposition of fat cells in the corpora cavernosa penis. Fat cells virtually filled the entire area of the corpora cavernosa at puberty and adulthood. Plasma testosterone (T) was reduced to an undetectable level, while LH was unaltered in all treated groups. AR-positive cells were ubiquitous and their profile (incidence and staining intensity) did not differ between control and treated rats of the respective age groups. Conversely, ERalpha-positive cells were limited to the stroma of corpus spongiosus in all age groups of both control and treated rats, but the expression in treated rats at 18 days was up-regulated in stromal cells of corpora cavernosa, coincident with the presence of morphological abnormalities. Hence, this study reports for the first time DES-induced developmental, morphological abnormalities in the body of the penis and suggests that these abnormalities may have resulted from decreased T and/or overexpression of ERalpha.

  2. Prenatal diethylstilbestrol induces malformation of the external genitalia of male and female mice and persistent second-generation developmental abnormalities of the external genitalia in two mouse strains

    PubMed Central

    Mahawong, Phitsanu; Sinclair, Adriane; Li, Yi; Schlomer, Bruce; Rodriguez, Esequiel; Max, Ferretti M.; Liu, Baomei; Baskin, Laurence S.; Cunha, Gerald R.

    2014-01-01

    Potential trans-generational influence of diethylstilbestrol (DES) exposure emerged with reports of effects in grandchildren of DES-treated pregnant women and of reproductive tract tumors in offspring of mice exposed in utero to DES. Accordingly, we examined the trans-generational influence of DES on development of external genitalia (ExG) and compared effects of in utero DES exposure in CD-1 and C57BL/6 mice injected with oil or DES every other day from gestational days 12 to 18. Mice were examined at birth, and on 5 to 120 days postnatal to evaluate ExG malformations. Of 23 adult (≥60 days) prenatally DES-exposed males, features indicative of urethral meatal hypospadias (see text for definitions) ranged from 18 to 100% in prenatally DES-exposed CD-1 males and 31 to 100% in prenatally DES-exposed C57BL/6 males. Thus, the strains differed in the incidence of male urethral hypospadias. Ninety-one percent of DES-exposed CD-1 females and 100% of DES-exposed C57BL/6 females had urethral-vaginal fistula. All DES-exposed CD-1 and C57BL/6 females lacked an os clitoris. None of the prenatally oil-treated CD-1 and C57BL/6 male and female mice had ExG malformations. For the second-generation study, 10 adult CD-1 males and females, from oil- and DES-exposed groups, respectively, were paired with untreated CD-1 mice for 30 days, and their offspring evaluated for ExG malformations. None of the F1 DES-treated females were fertile. Nine of 10 prenatally DES-exposed CD-1 males sired offspring with untreated females, producing 55 male and 42 female pups. Of the F2 DES-lineage adult males, 20% had exposed urethral flaps, a criterion of urethral meatal hypospadias. Five of 42 (11.9%) F2 DES lineage females had urethral-vaginal fistula. In contrast, all F2 oil-lineage males and all oil-lineage females were normal. Thus, prenatal DES exposure induces malformations of ExG in both sexes and strains of mice, and certain malformations are transmitted to the second-generation. PMID

  3. Mal-Development of the Penis and Loss of Fertility in Male Rats Treated Neonatally with Female Contraceptive 17α-Ethinyl Estradiol: A Dose-Response Study and a Comparative Study with a Known Estrogenic Teratogen Diethylstilbestrol

    PubMed Central

    Mathews, Ensa; Braden, Tim D.; Williams, Carol S.; Williams, John W.; Bolden-Tiller, Olga; Goyal, Hari O.

    2009-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to find a minimal dose of 17α-ethinyl estradiol (EE) that is detrimental to the developing penis and fertility and to compare estrogenic effects between EE and diethylstilbestrol (DES). Neonatal rats received EE at 10 ng (1 μg/kg), 100 ng, 1 μg, or 10 μg per pup on alternate days from postnatal days 1 to 11 (dose-response study) or received EE or DES at 100 ng per pup daily from postnatal days 1 to 6 (comparative study). Effects of EE were dose dependent, with ≥ 100-ng dose inducing significant (p < 0.05) reductions in penile length, weight, and diameter. Additionally, the penis was malformed, characterized by underdeveloped os penis and accumulation of fat cells. Fertility was 0% in the ≥ 1-μg groups, in contrast to 60% in the 100-ng group and 100% in the 10-ng and control groups. Animals treated with ≥ 10 ng had significant reductions in the weight of bulbospongious muscle, testis, seminal vesicle, epididymal fat pad, and in epididymal sperm numbers. A comparison of EE and DES effects showed similar reductions in penile weight and length and the weight of bulbospongiosus muscle, testis, seminal vesicle, epididymis, and epididymal fat pad in both adolescent and adult rats. While 5/6 control males sired, only 1/6 in the EE group and 0/6 in the DES group sired. Hence, neonatal exposure to EE at 10 ng (environmentally relevant dose) adversely affects male reproductive organs. A dose ten times higher than this leads to permanently mal-developed penis and infertility. Furthermore, EE and DES exposures show similar level of toxicity to male reproductive organs. PMID:19729556

  4. Induction at high incidence of ductal prostate adenocarcinomas in NBL/Cr and Sprague-Dawley Hsd:SD rats treated with a combination of testosterone and estradiol-17 beta or diethylstilbestrol.

    PubMed

    Bosland, M C; Ford, H; Horton, L

    1995-06-01

    This study determined the incidence of prostate adenocarcinoma following long-term treatment of NBL and Sprague-Dawley rats with estradiol-17 beta or diethylstilbestrol (DES) plus testosterone and it defined the origin of these tumors. NBL and Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with two Silastic tubing implants (i.d. 1.6 mm, o.d. 3.2 mm) containing a 2 cm long filling of testosterone and one implant containing a 1 cm long filling of estradiol-17 beta or DES. Control animals received empty implants. Treated animals were killed when moribund and controls were killed at 91 (NBL) or 75 (Sprague-Dawley) weeks after initiation of treatment and accessory sex glands were sampled for histopathological examination of multiple step sections. Prostatic adenocarcinoma occurred in 100% of NBL rats after treatment with estradiol-17 beta or DES plus testosterone for 44 and 59 weeks (group means) respectively. Adenocarcinoma incidences were lower in Sprague-Dawley rats. The adenocarcinomas were small, microscopic, invasive tumors and they were spatially closely associated with the periurethral ducts of the dorsal, lateral and/or anterior (= coagulating gland) prostate, but never with the ducts of the ventral lobe and seminal vesicles. One adenocarcinoma was of uncertain origin. Duct-acinar dysplastic lesions occurred in the periphery of the dorsal and lateral prostate of all hormone-treated NBL and many Sprague-Dawley rats, but did not appear to give rise to carcinoma. Although some adenocarcinomas were contiguous with dysplastic ducts of the peripheral dorsolateral prostate, the main mass of these neoplasms was located in the periurethral area. Also, most adenocarcinomas were only connected with the periurethral ducts, in which atypical hyperplasia occurred following hormone treatment for 36 weeks or longer. Thus atypical hyperplasia of the periurethral prostate ducts, but not peripheral duct-acinar dysplasia, appeared to be the likely precursor of the induced carcinomas

  5. Breast Cancer Risk in American Women

    MedlinePlus

    ... September 7, 2012. Related Resources BRCA Mutations: Cancer Risk and Genetic Testing Breast Cancer Prevention (PDQ®)–Patient Version Diethylstilbestrol (DES) and Cancer Genetics of Breast and Gynecologic Cancers (PDQ®)–Health Professional Version Mammograms Reproductive History and Cancer Risk ...

  6. SIX1 oncoprotein is necessary for abnormal uterine basal cell development in mice exposed neonatally to DES.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposing female mice on neonatal days 1-5 to the synthetic estrogen diethylstilbestrol (DES) results in high incidence of uterine carcinoma. However, the biological mechanisms driving DES-induced carcinogenesis remain unclear. We previously showed that the sine oculis homeobox ho...

  7. SIX1 oncoprotein is necessary for abnormal uterine basal cell development in mice exposed neonatally to DES

    EPA Science Inventory

    In a classical model of latent hormonal carcinogenesis, exposing female mice on neonatal days 1-5 to the synthetic estrogen diethylstilbestrol (DES; 1 mg/kg/day) results in high incidence of uterine carcinoma. However, the biological mechanisms driving DES-induced carcinogenesis ...

  8. A short-term study investigating the estrogenic potency of diethylstilbesterol in the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Diethylstilbestrol (DES) is a synthetic estrogen that has been banned for use in humans, but still is employed in livestock and aquaculture operations in some parts of the world. Detectable concentrations of DES in effluent and surface waters have been reported to range from slig...

  9. Early-life estrogen exposure and uterine pathogenesis: ?A model for gene-environment interactions

    EPA Science Inventory

    Aberrant cellular differentiation early in life can contribute to increased cancer risk later in life. In a classic model of this effect, female mice exposed on postnatal day (PND) 1-5 to the synthetic estrogen diethylstilbestrol (DES) have a high incidence of uterine carcinoma. ...

  10. Prenatal Estrogens and the Development of Homosexual Orientation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer-Bahlburg, Heino F. L.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Examines the hypothesis that prenatal estrogens contribute to the development of human sexual orientation. Several groups of women with a history of prenatal exposure to diethylstilbestrol (DES) were compared with several samples of control women. Findings showed that more DES-exposed women than controls were rated as bisexual or homosexual,…

  11. Environmental Factors, Epigenetics, and Developmental Origin of Reproductive Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Shuk-Mei; Cheong, Ana; Adgent, Margaret A.; Veevers, Jennifer; Suen, Alisa A.; Tam, Neville N.C.; Leung, Yuet-Kin; Jefferson, Wendy N.; Williams, Carmen J.

    2016-01-01

    Sex-specific differentiation, development, and function of the reproductive system are largely dependent on steroid hormones. For this reason, developmental exposure to estrogenic and anti-androgenic endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) is associated with reproductive dysfunction in adulthood. Human data in support of “Developmental Origins of Health and Disease” (DOHaD) comes from multigenerational studies on offspring of diethylstilbestrol-exposed mothers/grandmothers. Animal data indicate that ovarian reserve, female cycling, adult uterine abnormalities, sperm quality, prostate disease, and mating behavior are susceptible to DOHaD effects induced by EDCs such as bisphenol A, genistein, diethylstilbestrol, p,p′-dichlorodiphenyl-dichloroethylene, phthalates, and polyaromatic hydrocarbons. Mechanisms underlying these EDC effects include direct mimicry of sex steroids or morphogens and interference with epigenomic sculpting during cell and tissue differentiation. Exposure to EDCs is associated with abnormal DNA methylation and other epigenetic modifications, as well as altered expression of genes important for development and function of reproductive tissues. Here we review the literature exploring the connections between developmental exposure to EDCs and adult reproductive dysfunction, and the mechanisms underlying these effects. PMID:27421580

  12. Chemical Risk Assessment: Selected Federal Agencies’ Procedures, Assumptions, and Policies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-08-01

    adverse effects of exposures to hazardous substances or situations. It is a complex but valuable set of tools for federal regulatory agencies, helping...Act DES diethylstilbestrol DOT Department of Transportation ED effective dose EPA Environmental Protection Agency EPCRA Emergency Planning and...ISO International Organization for Standardization LED lowest effective dose LOAEL lowest observed adverse effect level LOEL lowest observed effect

  13. Environmental factors, epigenetics, and developmental origin of reproductive disorders.

    PubMed

    Ho, Shuk-Mei; Cheong, Ana; Adgent, Margaret A; Veevers, Jennifer; Suen, Alisa A; Tam, Neville N C; Leung, Yuet-Kin; Jefferson, Wendy N; Williams, Carmen J

    2017-03-01

    Sex-specific differentiation, development, and function of the reproductive system are largely dependent on steroid hormones. For this reason, developmental exposure to estrogenic and anti-androgenic endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) is associated with reproductive dysfunction in adulthood. Human data in support of "Developmental Origins of Health and Disease" (DOHaD) comes from multigenerational studies on offspring of diethylstilbestrol-exposed mothers/grandmothers. Animal data indicate that ovarian reserve, female cycling, adult uterine abnormalities, sperm quality, prostate disease, and mating behavior are susceptible to DOHaD effects induced by EDCs such as bisphenol A, genistein, diethylstilbestrol, p,p'-dichlorodiphenyl-dichloroethylene, phthalates, and polyaromatic hydrocarbons. Mechanisms underlying these EDC effects include direct mimicry of sex steroids or morphogens and interference with epigenomic sculpting during cell and tissue differentiation. Exposure to EDCs is associated with abnormal DNA methylation and other epigenetic modifications, as well as altered expression of genes important for development and function of reproductive tissues. Here we review the literature exploring the connections between developmental exposure to EDCs and adult reproductive dysfunction, and the mechanisms underlying these effects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. In vivo effects of bisphenol A in laboratory rodent studies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Richter, Catherine A.; Birnbaum, Linda S.; Farabollini, Francesca; Newbold, Retha R.; Rubin, Beverly S.; Talsness, Chris E.; Vandenbergh, John G.; Walser-Kuntz, Debby R.; vom Saal, Frederick S.

    2007-01-01

    Concern is mounting regarding the human health and environmental effects of bisphenol A (BPA), a high-production-volume chemical used in synthesis of plastics. We have reviewed the growing literature on effects of low doses of BPA, below 50 mg/(kg day), in laboratory exposures with mammalian model organisms. Many, but not all, effects of BPA are similar to effects seen in response to the model estrogens diethylstilbestrol and ethinylestradiol. For most effects, the potency of BPA is approximately 10–1000-fold less than that of diethylstilbestrol or ethinylestradiol. Based on our review of the literature, a consensus was reached regarding our level of confidence that particular outcomes occur in response to low dose BPA exposure. We are confident that adult exposure to BPA affects the male reproductive tract, and that long lasting, organizational effects in response to developmental exposure to BPA occur in the brain, the male reproductive system, and metabolic processes. We consider it likely, but requiring further confirmation, that adult exposure to BPA affects the brain, the female reproductive system, and the immune system, and that developmental effects occur in the female reproductive system.

  15. [Vaginal adenosis: A case report and literature review].

    PubMed

    Harimenshi, Jean-Marie; Jean-Jacques, Bastien; Michels, Jean-Jacques

    2016-08-01

    We report a case of vaginal adenosis in a woman of 42years. This is a rare congenital disorder since cessation of use of diethylstilbestrol (DES), usually of benign course, not to ignore in its tubo-endometrial histological form which may progress to atypical adenosis precursor of vaginal clear cell adenocarcinoma in patients exposed in utero to DES. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Estrogens and development

    SciTech Connect

    McLachlan, J.A.; Newbold, R.R.

    1987-11-01

    The normal development of the genital organs of mammals, including humans, is under hormonal control. A role for the female sex hormone estrogen in this process is still unclear. However, exposure of experimental animals or humans to the potent exogenous estrogen, diethylstilbestrol (DES), results in persistent differentiation effects. Since many chemicals in the environment are weakly estrogenic, the possibility of hormonally altered differentiation must be considered.

  17. Off-Label Drugs. Initial Results of a National Survey

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-02-01

    Cisplatin. PlafinoI 4 813391 Aminoglutethimide, Cyradren 4 0 0 Cyclophosphamide. Cyroxan, Neosar M3 3061234 Chlorotrianisene, TACE 1 0 0 Cytarabine ...0 3 61 Amiinoglutethinmide, Cytadren 0 0 0 Cydlophosphamide. Cytoxan. Neosar 14 3D 191 Chlorotnianiene. TACE 0 0 0 Cytarabine . Cytosar- U 459271 54...Cyroxan. Neosar 5W Chiorotrianisene. TACE 0 Cytarabine . Cytosar-U 0 Diethylstilbestrol, Stilphostrol 3 Dacarbazine. DTIC-Dome 0 Estradiol, Estrace 1

  18. Repellent activity of estrogenic compounds toward zoospores of the phytopathogenic fungus Aphanomyces cochlioides.

    PubMed

    Islam, M T; Tahara, S

    2001-01-01

    Screening chemical compounds, we found that a xenoestrogen, bisphenol A, showed potent repellent activity against the zoospores of Aphanomyces cochlioides. Based on this finding, we tested a number of androgenic and estrogenic compounds (e.g. testosterone, progesterone, estradiols, diethylstilbestrol, estrone, estriol, pregnenolone, dienestrol etc.) on the motility behavior of A. cochlioides zoospores. Interestingly, most of the estrogenic compounds exhibited potent repellent activity (1 microg/ml or less by the "particle method") toward the motile zoospores of A. cochlioides. We derivatized some of the estrogens and discussed the relationship between the structure of active molecules and their repellent activity. Apparently, aromatization of the A ring with a free hydroxyl group at C-3 position of a steroidal structure is necessary for higher repellent activity. Interestingly, methylation of diethylstilbestrol (DES) yielded completely different activity i.e. both mono- and di-methyl ethers of DES showed attractant activity. Moreover, the attracted zoospores were encysted and then germinated in the presence of di-methyl ether of DES. The potential usefulness of this repellent test is discussed for the detection of estrogenic activity of naturally occurring compounds, and the possible role of phytoestrogens in host/parasite interactions. So far, this will be the first report of repellent activity of estrogenic compounds toward trivial fungal zoospores.

  19. Effects of 50 Hz magnetic field exposure on the stress marker α-amylase in the rat mammary gland.

    PubMed

    Fedrowitz, Maren; Hass, Ralf; Löscher, Wolfgang

    2012-07-01

    Concerns about adverse health effects of environmental exposure to 50/60 Hz magnetic fields (MF) have initiated numerous studies on laboratory animals with varying outcomes. Previously, we reported that rat strains responded differently to MF regarding mammary cell proliferation and tumor development indicating that (epi)genetic factors might influence MF effects in the breast tissue, yet without any identified mechanism. In the present study, α-amylase, recently introduced as a stress marker in humans, was investigated in the mammary gland of Fischer 344 (F344) and Lewis rats, two strains with distinct stress sensitivity. F344 rats were sham- and MF-exposed (50 Hz, 100 μT) for different time periods, Lewis rats for two weeks. For comparison, diethylstilbestrol was administered at single or repeated doses. α-Amylase activity was significantly enhanced in the F344 mammary glands after 2 and 4 weeks of MF, whereas no reproducible effects were observed in Lewis rats. Diethylstilbestrol increased the α-amylase after repeated dosing. Although α-amylase represents a difficult parameter in animal studies because of its stress sensitivity, it should be considered for investigations in humans and cell cultures as a biomarker for MF susceptibility and a target to examine possible MF mechanisms since α-amylase affects cell growth.

  20. The presence of high-affinity, low-capacity estradiol-17β binding in rainbow trout scale indicates a possible endocrine route for the regulation of scale resorption

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Persson, Petra; Shrimpton, J.M.; McCormick, S.D.; Bjornsson, Bjorn Thrandur

    2000-01-01

    High-affinity, low-capacity estradiol-17β (E2) binding is present in rainbow trout scale. The Kd and Bmax of the scale E2 binding are similar to those of the liver E2 receptor (Kd is 1.6 ± 0.1 and 1.4 ± 0.1 nM, and Bmax is 9.1 ± 1.2 and 23.1 ± 2.2 fmol x mg protein-1, for scale and liver, respectively), but different from those of the high-affinity, low-capacity E2 binding in plasma (Kd is 4.0 ± 0.4 nM and Bmax is 625.4 ± 63.1 fmol x mg protein-1). The E2 binding in scale was displaced by testosterone, but not by diethylstilbestrol. Hence, the ligand binding specificity is different from that of the previously characterized liver E2 receptor, where E2 is displaced by diethylstilbestrol, but not by testosterone. The putative scale E2 receptor thus appears to bind both E2 and testosterone, and it is proposed that the increased scale resorption observed during sexual maturation in both sexes of several salmonid species may be mediated by this receptor. No high-affinity, low-capacity E2 binding could be detected in rainbow trout gill or skin.

  1. One-pot synthesized functionalized mesoporous silica as a reversed-phase sorbent for solid-phase extraction of endocrine disrupting compounds in milks.

    PubMed

    Gañán, Judith; Morante-Zarcero, Sonia; Pérez-Quintanilla, Damián; Marina, María Luisa; Sierra, Isabel

    2016-01-08

    A new procedure for the determination of 12 naturally occurring hormones and some related synthetic chemicals in milk, commonly used as growth promoters in cattle, is reported. The method is based on liquid-liquid extraction followed by solid-phase extraction (SPE) using a new one-pot synthesized ordered mesoporous silica (of the SBA-15 type) functionalized with octadecyl groups (denoted as SBA-15-C18-CO) as reversed-phase sorbent. The analytes were eluted with methanol and then submitted to HPLC with diode array detection. Under optimal conditions, the method quantification limit for the analytes ranged from 0.023 to 1.36μg/mL. The sorbent affored the extraction of estrone, 17β-estradiol, estriol, progesterone, hexestrol, diethylstilbestrol, 4-androstene-3,17-dione, ethinylestradiol, 17α-methyltestosterone, nandrolone, prednisolone and testosterone with mean recoveries ranging from 72% to 105% (except for diethylstilbestrol) with RSD<11%. These results were comparable and, in some cases, even better than those obtained with other extraction methods, therefore SBA-15-C18-CO mesoporous silica possess a high potential as a reversed-phase sorbent for SPE of the 12 mentioned endocrine disrupting compounds in milk samples. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect of ethanolic extract of Lepidium meyenii Walp on serum hormone levels in ovariectomized rats.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yongzhong; Yu, Longjiang; Jin, Wenwen; Ao, Mingzhang

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of long-term ethanol extract of Lepidium meyenii (Maca) on serum hormone levels in ovariectomized (OVX) rats and compare them with the effect of diethylstilbestrol. Fifty female Sprague-Dawley rats were ovariectomized or sham operated. Both sham and OVX control groups (n = 10, respectively) received the vehicle. The remaining OVX rats were oral administrated with ethanol extract of Maca (0.096, or 0.24g/kg; n = 10, respectively) and diethylstilbestrol (0.05 mg/kg; n = 10). The treatment continued for 28 weeks. At week 12 and week 28, the blood of rats was collected and serum hormone levels, including estradiol (E2), testosterone (T) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) were measured by radioimmunoassay. At week 12, the levels of serum E2 were slightly higher in Maca groups than that in OVX group; T levels were significantly decreased; and FSH levels were advanced slightly in Maca groups than that in sham group. After 28 weeks administration, serum E2 levels in Maca-treated animals did not differ significantly from sham control, the low dose of Maca increased serum E2 levels, and Maca prevented increase in serum FSH levels compared with OVX group. Long-term Maca supply modulates endocrine hormone balance in OVX rats, especially it decreases enhanced FSH levels. It is proposed that Maca may become a potential choice for postmenopausal women.

  3. The presence of high-affinity, low-capacity estradiol-17β binding in rainbow trout scale indicates a possible endocrine route for the regulation of scale resorption

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Persson, Petra; Shrimpton, J. Mark; McCormick, Stephen D.; Bjornsson, Bjorn Thrandur

    2000-01-01

    High-affinity, low-capacity estradiol-17β (E2) binding is present in rainbow trout scale. The Kd and Bmax of the scale E2 binding are similar to those of the liver E2 receptor (Kd is 1.6 ± 0.1 and 1.4 ± 0.1 nM, and Bmax is 9.1 ± 1.2 and 23.1 ± 2.2 fmol × mg protein-1, for scale and liver, respectively), but different from those of the high-affinity, low-capacity E2 binding in plasma (Kd is 4.0 ± 0.4 nM and Bmax is 625.4 ± 63.1 fmol × mg protein−1). The E2 binding in scale was displaced by testosterone, but not by diethylstilbestrol. Hence, the ligand binding specificity is different from that of the previously characterized liver E2 receptor, where E2 is displaced by diethylstilbestrol, but not by testosterone. The putative scale E2 receptor thus appears to bind both E2 and testosterone, and it is proposed that the increased scale resorption observed during sexual maturation in both sexes of several salmonid species may be mediated by this receptor. No high-affinity, low-capacity E2 binding could be detected in rainbow trout gill or skin.

  4. Effect of ethanolic extract of Lepidium meyenii Walp on serum hormone levels in ovariectomized rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yongzhong; Yu, Longjiang; Jin, Wenwen; Ao, Mingzhang

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effect of long-term ethanol extract of Lepidium meyenii (Maca) on serum hormone levels in ovariectomized (OVX) rats and compare them with the effect of diethylstilbestrol. Materials and Methods: Fifty female Sprague-Dawley rats were ovariectomized or sham operated. Both sham and OVX control groups (n = 10, respectively) received the vehicle. The remaining OVX rats were oral administrated with ethanol extract of Maca (0.096, or 0.24g/kg; n = 10, respectively) and diethylstilbestrol (0.05 mg/kg; n = 10). The treatment continued for 28 weeks. At week 12 and week 28, the blood of rats was collected and serum hormone levels, including estradiol (E2), testosterone (T) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) were measured by radioimmunoassay. Results: At week 12, the levels of serum E2 were slightly higher in Maca groups than that in OVX group; T levels were significantly decreased; and FSH levels were advanced slightly in Maca groups than that in sham group. After 28 weeks administration, serum E2 levels in Maca-treated animals did not differ significantly from sham control, the low dose of Maca increased serum E2 levels, and Maca prevented increase in serum FSH levels compared with OVX group. Conclusions: Long-term Maca supply modulates endocrine hormone balance in OVX rats, especially it decreases enhanced FSH levels. It is proposed that Maca may become a potential choice for postmenopausal women. PMID:25097281

  5. Competitive advantage and tolerance of selected shochu yeast in barley shochu mash.

    PubMed

    Takashita, Hideharu; Fujihara, Emi; Furutera, Mihoko; Kajiwara, Yasuhiro; Shimoda, Masahiko; Matsuoka, Masayoshi; Ogawa, Takahira; Kawamoto, Seiji; Ono, Kazuhisa

    2013-07-01

    A shochu yeast strain, Saccharomyces cerevisiae BAW-6, was previously isolated from Kagoshima yeast strain Ko, and has since been utilized in shochu production. The BAW-6 strain carries pho3/pho3 homozygous genes in contrast to the heterozygous PHO3/pho3 genes in the parental Ko strain. However, absence of the PHO3 gene per se cannot explain the fermentation superiority of BAW-6. Here, we demonstrate the growth advantage of the BAW-6 strain over the Ko strain by competitive cultivation in barley shochu preparation, where alcohol yield and nihonshudo of the former strain were higher than those of the latter strain. In addition, the maximum growth rate of BAW-6 was less affected than that of Ko by high Brix values of barley koji medium, suggesting that BAW-6 is less sensitive to growth inhibitory compounds derived from barley or barley koji. The tolerance of BAW-6 to growth inhibitory compounds, cerulenin and diethylstilbestrol (an H⁺-ATPase inhibitor), was also higher than that of other yeast strains. Consistent with BAW-6's tolerance to diethylstilbestrol in the presence of 8% ethanol (pH 4.5), H⁺-ATPase activity, but not transcription of its gene, was higher in BAW-6 than in Ko. We conclude that the BAW-6 strain is associated with certain gene alterations other than PHO3, such that it can maintain cellular ion homeostasis under conditions of ethanol stress during the latter phase of fermentation. Copyright © 2013 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Monitoring of estrogens, pesticides and bisphenol A in natural waters and drinking water treatment plants by solid-phase extraction-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Mozaz, Sara; de Alda, Maria J López; Barceló, Damià

    2004-08-06

    A multi-residue analytical method has been developed for the determination of various classes of selected endocrine disruptors. This method allows the simultaneous extraction and quantification of different estrogens (estradiol, estrone, estriol, estradiol-17-glucuronide, estradiol diacetate, estrone-3-sulfate, ethynyl estradiol and diethylstilbestrol), pesticides (atrazine, simazine, desethylatrazine, isoproturon and diuron), and bisphenol A in natural waters. In the method developed, 500 ml of water are preconcentrated on LiChrolut RP-18 cartridges. Further analysis is carried out by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) using atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation (APCI) in the positive ion mode for determination of pesticides and electrospray in the negative ionisation mode for determination of estrogens and bisphenol A. Recoveries for most compounds were between 90 and 119%, except for bisphenol A (81%) and diethylstilbestrol (70%), with relative standard deviations below 20%. Limits of detection ranged between 2 and 15 ng/l. The method was used to study the occurrence of the selected pollutants in surface and groundwater used for abstraction of drinking water in a waterworks and to evaluate the removal efficiency of the different water treatments applied. Water samples from the river, the aquifer, and after each treatment stage (sand filtration, ozonation, activated carbon filtration and post-chlorination) were taken monthly from February to August of 2002. The presence in river water of atrazine, simazine, diuron and bisphenol A were relatively frequent at concentrations usually below 0.1 microg/l. Lower levels, below 0.02 microg/l, were usual for isoproturon. Estrone-3-sulfate and estrone were detected occasionally in the river. Most of the compounds were completely removed during the water treatment, especially after activated carbon filtration.

  7. IN VITRO AND IN VIVO TOXICITY: A COMPARISON OF ACRYLAMIDE, CYCLOPHOSPHAMIDE, CHLORDECONE, AND DIETHYLSTILBESTROL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Four chemicals that had been tested in an in vivo toxicological screen were tested in a Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cytotoxicity assay. Cell density, viability, ATP concentration, rate of protein synthesis, and cellular protein concentration were decreased by exposure to acrylami...

  8. The Role of Hox Genes in Female Reproductive Tract Development, Adult Function, and Fertility.

    PubMed

    Du, Hongling; Taylor, Hugh S

    2015-11-09

    HOX genes convey positional identity that leads to the proper partitioning and adult identity of the female reproductive track. Abnormalities in reproductive tract development can be caused by HOX gene mutations or altered HOX gene expression. Diethylstilbestrol (DES) and other endocrine disruptors cause Müllerian defects by changing HOX gene expression. HOX genes are also essential regulators of adult endometrial development. Regulated HOXA10 and HOXA11 expression is necessary for endometrial receptivity; decreased HOXA10 or HOXA11 expression leads to decreased implantation rates. Alternation of HOXA10 and HOXA11 expression has been identified as a mechanism of the decreased implantation associated with endometriosis, polycystic ovarian syndrome, leiomyoma, polyps, adenomyosis, and hydrosalpinx. Alteration of HOX gene expression causes both uterine developmental abnormalities and impaired adult endometrial development that prevent implantation and lead to female infertility. Copyright © 2016 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  9. Estrogenic activity of constituents from the rhizomes of Rheum undulatum Linné.

    PubMed

    Park, SeonJu; Kim, Yun Na; Kwak, Hee Jae; Jeong, Eun Ju; Kim, Seung Hyun

    2018-02-15

    Stilbenes have been reported to be phytoestrogen compounds owing to its structural similarity to the estrogenic agent diethylstilbestrol. To find new stilbene-derivative phytoestrogens, isolation of stilbene-rich R. undulatum was performed and led to identify six new compounds (1-5 and 28), one newly determined absolute configurations compound (27) together with 21 previously reported compounds (6-26). The structures of compounds were determined on the basis of extensive spectroscopic methods including 1D and 2D NMR and CD spectra data. All the isolated compounds were tested for their estrogenic activities in HepG2 cells transiently transfected with ERα, ERβ and ERE-reporter plasmid. Among them, stilbene-derivatives, piceatannol 3'-O-β-d-xylopyranoside (12), cis-rhaponticin (16) and rhapontigenin 3'-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (17), showed the more potent binding affinity for estrogen receptors than 17β-estrodiol. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Steroidal hormones and other endocrine active compounds in shallow groundwater in nonagricultural areas of Minnesota—Study design, methods, and data, 2009–10

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Erickson, Melinda L.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Minnesota Pollution Control Agency, completed a study on the occurrence of steroidal hormones and other endocrine active compounds in shallow groundwater in nonagricultural areas of Minnesota during 2009–10. This report describes the study design and methods, and presents the data collected on steroidal hormones and other related compounds. Environmental and quality-control samples were collected from 40 wells as part of this study. Samples were analyzed by the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Laboratory for 16 steroidal hormones and 4 other related compounds, of which all but 2 compounds are endocrine active compounds. Most of the water samples did not contain detectable concentrations of any of the 20 compounds analyzed. Water samples from three wells had detectable concentrations of one or more compounds. Bisphenol A was detected in samples from three wells, and trans-diethylstilbestrol was detected in one of the samples in which bisphenol A also was detected.

  11. Uterine adenocarcinoma in mice treated neonatally with genistein.

    PubMed

    Newbold, R R; Banks, E P; Bullock, B; Jefferson, W N

    2001-06-01

    The developing fetus is uniquely sensitive to perturbation with estrogenic chemicals. The carcinogenic effect of prenatal exposure to diethylstilbestrol (DES) is the classic example. Because phytoestrogen use in nutritional and pharmaceutical applications for infants and children is increasing, we investigated the carcinogenic potential of genistein, a naturally occurring plant estrogen in soy, in an experimental animal model previously reported to result in a high incidence of uterine adenocarcinoma after neonatal DES exposure. Outbred female CD-1 mice were treated on days 1-5 with equivalent estrogenic doses of DES (0.001 mg/kg/day) or genistein (50 mg/kg/day). At 18 months, the incidence of uterine adenocarcinoma was 35% for genistein and 31% for DES. These data suggest that genistein is carcinogenic if exposure occurs during critical periods of differentiation. Thus, the use of soy-based infant formulas in the absence of medical necessity and the marketing of soy products designed to appeal to children should be closely examined.

  12. Nonhuman primate models of polycystic ovary syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Abbott, David H; Nicol, Lindsey E; Levine, Jon E; Xu, Ning; Goodarzi, Mark O; Dumesic, Daniel A

    2013-01-01

    With close genomic and phenotypic similarity to humans, nonhuman primate models provide comprehensive epigenetic mimics of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), suggesting early life targeting for prevention. Fetal exposure to testosterone (T), of all nonhuman primate emulations, provides the closest PCOS-like phenotypes, with early-to-mid gestation T-exposed female rhesus monkeys exhibiting adult reproductive, endocrinological and metabolic dysfunctional traits that are co-pathologies of PCOS. Late gestational T exposure, while inducing adult ovarian hyperandrogenism and menstrual abnormalities, has less dysfunctional metabolic accompaniment. Fetal exposures to dihydrotestosterone (DHT) or diethylstilbestrol (DES) suggest androgenic and estrogenic aspects of fetal programming. Neonatal exposure to T produces no PCOS-like outcome, while continuous T treatment of juvenile females causes precocious weight gain and early menarche (high T), or high LH and weight gain (moderate T). Acute T exposure of adult females generates polyfollicular ovaries, while chronic T exposure induces subtle menstrual irregularities without metabolic dysfunction. PMID:23370180

  13. Early Programming of Uterine Tissue by Bisphenol A: Critical Evaluation of Evidence from Animal Exposure Studies

    PubMed Central

    Suvorov, Alexander; Waxman, David J.

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to Bisphenol A (BPA) during the critical window of uterine development has been proposed to program the uterus for increased disease susceptibility based on well-documented effects of the potent xenoestrogen diethylstilbestrol. To investigate this proposal, we reviewed 37 studies of prenatal and/or perinatal BPA exposure in animal models and evaluated evidence for: molecular signatures of early BPA exposure; the development of adverse uterine health effects; and epigenetic changes linked to long-term dysregulation of uterine gene expression and health effects. We found substantial evidence for adult uterine effects of early BPA exposure. In contrast, experimental support for epigenetic actions of early BPA exposure is very limited, and largely consists of effects on Hoxa gene DNA methylation. Critical knowledge gaps were identified, including the need to fully characterize short-term and long-term uterine gene responses, interactions with estrogens and other endogenous hormones, and any long-lasting epigenetic signatures that impact adult disease. PMID:26028543

  14. Childhood cancer: overview of incidence trends and environmental carcinogens.

    PubMed Central

    Zahm, S H; Devesa, S S

    1995-01-01

    An estimated 8000 children 0 to 14 years of age are diagnosed annually with cancer in the United States. Leukemia and brain tumors are the most common childhood malignancies, accounting for 30 and 20% of newly diagnosed cases, respectively. From 1975 to 1978 to 1987 to 1990, cancer among white children increased slightly from 12.8 to 14.1/100,000. Increases are suggested for leukemia, gliomas, and, to a much lesser extent, Wilms' tumor. There are a few well-established environmental causes of childhood cancer such as radiation, chemotherapeutic agents, and diethylstilbestrol. Many other agents such as electromagnetic fields, pesticides, and some parental occupational exposures are suspected of playing roles, but the evidence is not conclusive at this time. Some childhood exposures such as secondhand cigarette smoke may contribute to cancers that develop many years after childhood. For some exposures such as radiation and pesticides data suggest that children may be more susceptible to the carcinogenic effects than similarly exposed adults. PMID:8549470

  15. Exposures to synthetic estrogens at different times during the life, and their effect on breast cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Hilakivi-Clarke, Leena; de Assis, Sonia; Warri, Anni

    2013-03-01

    Women are using estrogens for many purposes, such as to prevent pregnancy or miscarriage, or to treat menopausal symptoms. Estrogens also have been used to treat breast cancer which seems puzzling, since there is convincing evidence to support a link between high lifetime estrogen exposure and increased breast cancer risk. In this review, we discuss the findings that maternal exposure to the synthetic estrogen diethylstilbestrol during pregnancy increases breast cancer risk in both exposed mothers and their daughters. In addition, we review data regarding the use of estrogens in oral contraceptives and as postmenopausal hormone therapy and discuss the opposing effects on breast cancer risk based upon timing of exposure. We place particular emphasis on studies investigating how maternal estrogenic exposures during pregnancy increase breast cancer risk among daughters. New data suggest that these exposures induce epigenetic modifications in the mammary gland and germ cells, thereby causing an inheritable increase in breast cancer risk for multiple generations.

  16. Exposures to Synthetic Estrogens at Different Times During the Life, and Their Effect on Breast Cancer Risk

    PubMed Central

    de Assis, Sonia; Warri, Anni

    2013-01-01

    Women are using estrogens for many purposes, such as to prevent pregnancy or miscarriage, or to treat menopausal symptoms. Estrogens also have been used to treat breast cancer which seems puzzling, since there is convincing evidence to support a link between high lifetime estrogen exposure and increased breast cancer risk. In this review, we discuss the findings that maternal exposure to the synthetic estrogen diethylstilbestrol during pregnancy increases breast cancer risk in both exposed mothers and their daughters. In addition, we review data regarding the use of estrogens in oral contraceptives and as postmenopausal hormone therapy and discuss the opposing effects on breast cancer risk based upon timing of exposure. We place particular emphasis on studies investigating how maternal estrogenic exposures during pregnancy increase breast cancer risk among daughters. New data suggest that these exposures induce epigenetic modifications in the mammary gland and germ cells, thereby causing an inheritable increase in breast cancer risk for multiple generations. PMID:23392570

  17. Transferability and inter-laboratory variability assessment of the in vitro bovine oocyte fertilization test.

    PubMed

    Tessaro, Irene; Modina, Silvia C; Crotti, Gabriella; Franciosi, Federica; Colleoni, Silvia; Lodde, Valentina; Galli, Cesare; Lazzari, Giovanna; Luciano, Alberto M

    2015-01-01

    The dramatic increase in the number of animals required for reproductive toxicity testing imposes the validation of alternative methods to reduce the use of laboratory animals. As we previously demonstrated for in vitro maturation test of bovine oocytes, the present study describes the transferability assessment and the inter-laboratory variability of an in vitro test able to identify chemical effects during the process of bovine oocyte fertilization. Eight chemicals with well-known toxic properties (benzo[a]pyrene, busulfan, cadmium chloride, cycloheximide, diethylstilbestrol, ketoconazole, methylacetoacetate, mifepristone/RU-486) were tested in two well-trained laboratories. The statistical analysis demonstrated no differences in the EC50 values for each chemical in within (inter-runs) and in between-laboratory variability of the proposed test. We therefore conclude that the bovine in vitro fertilization test could advance toward the validation process as alternative in vitro method and become part of an integrated testing strategy in order to predict chemical hazards on mammalian fertility. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. REPRODUCTIVE AND GENOMIC EFFECTS OF GESTATIONAL AND LACTATIONAL EXPOSURE TO DIETHYLSTILBESTROL IN MALE MICE. (R827402)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  19. COMPARISON OF THE ESTROGENIC POTENCIES OF ESTRADIOL, ETHYNYLESTRADIOL, DIETHYLSTILBESTROL, NONYLPHENOL AND METHOXYCHLOR IN VIVO AND IN VITRO

    EPA Science Inventory

    Five natural, pharmaceutical, or xenobiotic chemicals (17b-estradiol, ethynylestradiol, diethystilbestrol, nonylphenol, methoxychlor) were tested in two in vitro (MCF-7 breast tumor cell proliferation [E-screen], yeast estrogen system [YES]), and one in vivo (male sheepshead min...

  20. Use of sub-micron sized resin particles for removal of endocrine disrupting compounds and pharmaceuticals from water and wastewater.

    PubMed

    Murray, Audrey; Örmeci, Banu; Lai, Edward P C

    2017-01-01

    Endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) and pharmaceuticals pose a challenge for water and wastewater treatment because they exist at very low concentrations in the presence of substances at much higher concentrations competing for adsorption sites. Sub-micron sized resin particles (approximately 300nm in diameter) (SMR) were tested to evaluate their potential as a treatment for EDCs including: 17-β estradiol (E2), 17-α ethinylestradiol (EE2), estrone (E1), bisphenol A (BPA), and diethylstilbestrol (DES) as well as 12 pharmaceuticals. SMR were able to remove 98% of spiked E2, 80% of EE2, 87% of BPA, and up to 97% of DES from water. For a 0.5ppm mixture of E2, EE2, E1, BPA and DES, the minimum removal was 24% (E2) and the maximum was 49% (DES). They were also able to remove the pharmaceuticals from deionized water and wastewater. Overall, SMR are a promising advanced treatment for removal of both EDCs and pharmaceuticals. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Semiquinone formation and DNA base damage by toxic quinones and inhibition by N-acetylcysteine (NAC)

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, D.C.; Shibamoto, T.

    1986-03-05

    Toxic, mutagenic, carcinogenic, and teratogenic effects have been reported for some quinones as well as compounds metabolized to quinones. Semiquinone radical formation, thymidine degradation, and protection by NAC were studied in a hypoxanthine/xanthine oxidase (HX/XO) system. Quinone, benzo(a)pyrene-3,6-quinone, danthron, doxorubicin, emodin, juglone, menadione, and moniliformin were tested. Diethylstilbestrolquinone, N-acetylquinoneimine, and benzoquinonediimine, hypothesized toxic metabolites of diethylstilbestrol, acetaminophen and p-phenylenediamine, respectively, were synthesized and studied. Semiquinone radical formation was assessed in a HX/XO system monitoring cytochrome C reduction. Large differences in rates of semiquinone radical formation were noted for different quinones, with V/Vo values ranging from 1.2 to 10.6. DNA basemore » degradation, thymine or thymidine glycol formation, and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) production were measured in a similar system containing thymine, thymidine, calf thymus DNA, or deoxyribose. TBARS formation was observed with deoxyribose, but thymidine degradation without TBARS formation was noted with thymidine. NAC (0.5 to 10 mM) caused dose-dependent inhibition of quinone-induced cytochrome C reduction.« less

  2. Comparison of two thin-film microextractions for the analysis of estrogens in aqueous tea extract and environmental water samples by high performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detection.

    PubMed

    Cai, Pei-Shan; Li, Dan; Chen, Jing; Xiong, Chao-Mei; Ruan, Jin-Lan

    2015-04-15

    Two thin-film microextractions (TFME), octadecylsilane (ODS)-polyacrylonitrile (PAN)-TFME and polar enhanced phase (PEP)-PAN-TFME have been proposed for the analysis of bisphenol-A, diethylstilbestrol and 17β-estradiol in aqueous tea extract and environmental water samples followed by high performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detection. Both thin-films were prepared by spraying. The influencing factors including pH, extraction time, desorption solvent, desorption volume, desorption time, ion strength and reusability were investigated. Under the optimal conditions, the two TFME methods are similar in terms of the analytical performance evaluated by standard addition method. The limits of detection for three estrogens in environmental water and aqueous tea extract matrix ranged from 1.3 to 1.6 and 2.8 to 7.1 ng mL(-1) by the two TFME methods, respectively. Both approaches were applied for the analysis of analytes in real aqueous tea extract and environmental water samples, presenting satisfactory recoveries ranged from 87.3% to 109.4% for the spiked samples. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Inhibitors of Proton Pumping

    PubMed Central

    Bisson, Mary A.

    1986-01-01

    Reported inhibitors of the Characean plasmalemma proton pump were tested for their ability to inhibit the passive H+ conductance which develops in Chara corallina Klein ex Willd. at high pH. Diethylstilbestrol inhibits the proton pump and the passive H+ conductance with about the same time course, at concentrations that have no effect on cytoplasmic streaming. N-Ethylmaleimide, a sulfhydryl reagent which is small and relatively nonpolar, also inhibits both pumping and passive conductance of H+. However, it also inhibits cytoplasmic streaming with about the same time course, and therefore could not be considered a specific ATPase inhibitor. p-Chloromercuribenzene sulfonate (PCMBS), a sulfhydryl reagent which is large and charged and hence less able to penetrate the membrane, does not inhibit pumping or conductance at low concentration. At high concentration, PCMBS sometimes inhibits pumping without affecting H+ conductance, but since streaming is also inhibited, the effect on the pump cannot be said to be specific. 1-Ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)carbodiimide, a water soluble carbodiimide, weakly inhibits both pump and conductance, apparently specifically. PMID:16664807

  4. The xenoestrogens, bisphenol A and para-nonylphenol, decrease the expression of the ABCG2 transporter protein in human term placental explant cultures.

    PubMed

    Sieppi, E; Vähäkangas, K; Rautio, A; Ietta, F; Paulesu, L; Myllynen, P

    2016-07-05

    Many endogenous and xenobiotic compounds are substrates and regulators of human placental ABC transporters. ABCG2 is protecting fetus against foreign chemicals. Environmental xenoestrogens, like bisphenol A (BPA) and p-nonylphenol (p-NP), mimic natural estrogens and can affect hormonal systems. Effects of BPA, p-NP, DES (diethylstilbestrol) and estradiol (E2), on ABCG2 expression were studied using human first trimester and term placental explants. Role of estrogen receptors (ER) in the effects of chemicals was studied by ER antagonist. Term placenta expressed less ABCG2 protein. In term placentas BPA (p < 0.05), p-NP (p < 0.01) and E2 (p < 0.05) decreased the ABCG2 protein expression after 48 h exposure while after 24 h exposure, only E2 decreased the expression (p < 0.05). The chemicals did not affect ABCG2 in first trimester placentas. The ER antagonist affected differently the responses of chemicals. In conclusion, environmental xenoestrogens downregulate placental ABCG2 protein expression depending on gestational age. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Pigmented well-differentiated hepatocellular neoplasm with beta-catenin mutation.

    PubMed

    Souza, Lara Neves; de Martino, Rodrigo Bronze; Thompson, Richard; Strautnieks, Sandra; Heaton, Nigel D; Quaglia, Alberto

    2015-12-01

    According to the most recent WHO classification of hepatocellular adenomas, a small percentage of inflammatory hepatocellular adenomas presents with mutation in the beta-catenin gene and are at higher risk of malignant transformation. It has been recognized that adenoma-like hepatocellular neoplasms with focal atypia, or in unusual clinical context present with similar cytogenetic and immunohistochemistry characteristics to well-differentiated hepatocellular carcinomas. We report a case of a well-differentiated hepatocellular neoplasm with Dubin-Johnson-like pigment displaying histological features overlapping with a beta-catenin mutated inflammatory adenoma and a well-differentiated hepatocellular carcinoma in a non-cirrhotic liver. The patient was a 48-year-old woman, who was asymptomatic, and had a clinical history of intra-uterine exposure to diethylstilbestrol, previous cancers and past oral contraceptive use. The recently proposed term "well-differentiated hepatocellular neoplasm of uncertain malignant potential" should be applied in such cases to highlight the different pathogenesis and risk of malignancy compared to the typical adenomas, and to suggest a careful and customized clinical management.

  6. Dual cloud point extraction coupled with hydrodynamic-electrokinetic two-step injection followed by micellar electrokinetic chromatography for simultaneous determination of trace phenolic estrogens in water samples.

    PubMed

    Wen, Yingying; Li, Jinhua; Liu, Junshen; Lu, Wenhui; Ma, Jiping; Chen, Lingxin

    2013-07-01

    A dual cloud point extraction (dCPE) off-line enrichment procedure coupled with a hydrodynamic-electrokinetic two-step injection online enrichment technique was successfully developed for simultaneous preconcentration of trace phenolic estrogens (hexestrol, dienestrol, and diethylstilbestrol) in water samples followed by micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC) analysis. Several parameters affecting the extraction and online injection conditions were optimized. Under optimal dCPE-two-step injection-MEKC conditions, detection limits of 7.9-8.9 ng/mL and good linearity in the range from 0.05 to 5 μg/mL with correlation coefficients R(2) ≥ 0.9990 were achieved. Satisfactory recoveries ranging from 83 to 108% were obtained with lake and tap water spiked at 0.1 and 0.5 μg/mL, respectively, with relative standard deviations (n = 6) of 1.3-3.1%. This method was demonstrated to be convenient, rapid, cost-effective, and environmentally benign, and could be used as an alternative to existing methods for analyzing trace residues of phenolic estrogens in water samples.

  7. Fish skin as a model membrane: structure and characteristics.

    PubMed

    Konrádsdóttir, Fífa; Loftsson, Thorsteinn; Sigfússon, Sigurdur Dadi

    2009-01-01

    Synthetic and cell-based membranes are frequently used during drug formulation development for the assessment of drug availability. However, most of the currently used membranes do not mimic mucosal membranes well, especially the aqueous mucous layer of the membranes. In this study we evaluated catfish (Anarichas lupus L) skin as a model membrane. Permeation of hydrocortisone, lidocaine hydrochloride, benzocaine, diethylstilbestrol, naproxen, picric acid and sodium nitrate through skin from a freshly caught catfish was determined in Franz diffusion cells. Both lipophilic and hydrophilic molecules permeate through catfish skin via hydrated channels or aqueous pores. No correlation was observed between the octanol/water partition coefficient of the permeating molecules and their permeability coefficient through the skin. Permeation through catfish skin was found to be diffusion controlled. The results suggest that permeation through the fish skin proceeds via a diffusion-controlled process, a process that is similar to drug permeation through the aqueous mucous layer of a mucosal membrane. In addition, the fish skin, with its collagen matrix structure, appears to possess similar properties to the eye sclera.

  8. Evaluation of graphene-based sorbent in the determination of polar environmental contaminants in water by micro-solid phase extraction-high performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Naing, Nyi Nyi; Li, Sam Fong Yau; Lee, Hian Kee

    2016-01-04

    A facile method of extraction using porous membrane protected micro-solid phase extraction (μ-SPE) with a graphene-based sorbent followed by high performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detector was developed. The reduced graphene oxide (r-GO) (1mg), synthesized from graphite oxide, was enclosed in a polypropylene bag representing the μ-SPE device, which was used for the extraction of estrogens such as estrone, 17β-estradiol, 17α-ethynylestradiol and diethylstilbestrol in water. The r-GO obtained was identified and characterized by Fourier transform infrared, transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and thermogravimetric analysis. The sorbent was loaded with sodium dodecyl sulfate by sonication to prevent agglomeration in aqueous solution. With this method, low limits of detection of between 0.24 and 0.52 ng L(-1) were achieved. For estrogen analysis a linear calibration range of 0.01-100 μg L(-1) was obtained, with the coefficients of determination (r(2)) higher than 0.992. This proposed method was successfully applied to determine estrogens in water. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Early membrane events induced by salicylic acid in motor cells of the Mimosa pudica pulvinus.

    PubMed

    Saeedi, Saed; Rocher, Françoise; Bonmort, Janine; Fleurat-Lessard, Pierrette; Roblin, Gabriel

    2013-04-01

    Salicylic acid (o-hydroxy benzoic acid) (SA) induced a rapid dose-dependent membrane hyperpolarization (within seconds) and a modification of the proton secretion (within minutes) of Mimosa pudica pulvinar cells at concentrations higher than 0.1mM. Observations on plasma membrane vesicles isolated from pulvinar tissues showed that SA acted directly at the membrane level through a protonophore action as suggested by the inhibition of the proton gradient and the lack of effect on H(+)-ATPase catalytic activity. Comparative data obtained with protonophores (carbonylcyanide-m-chlorophenylhydrazone and 2,4-dinitrophenol) and inhibitors of ATPases (vanadate, N,N'-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide, and diethylstilbestrol) corroborated this conclusion. Consequently, the collapse of the proton motive force led to an impairment in membrane functioning. This impairment is illustrated by the inhibition of the ion-driven turgor-mediated seismonastic reaction of the pulvinus following SA treatment. SA acted in a specific manner as its biosynthetic precursor benzoic acid induced much milder effects and the m- and p-OH benzoic acid derivatives did not trigger similar characteristic effects. Therefore, SA may be considered both a membrane signal molecule and a metabolic effector following its uptake in the cells.

  10. Induction of uterine adenocarcinoma in CD-1 mice by catechol estrogens.

    PubMed

    Newbold, R R; Liehr, J G

    2000-01-15

    Catechol estrogens may mediate estrogen-induced carcinogenesis because 4-hydroxyestradiol induces DNA damage and renal tumors in hamsters, and this metabolite is formed in the kidney and estrogen target tissues by a specific estrogen 4-hydroxylase. We examined the carcinogenic potential of catechol estrogen in an experimental model previously reported to result in a high incidence of uterine adenocarcinoma after neonatal exposure to diethylstilbestrol. Outbred female CD-1 mice were treated with 2- or 4-hydroxyestradiol, 17beta-estradiol, or 17alpha-ethinyl estradiol on days 1-5 of neonatal life (2 microg/pup/day) and sacrificed at 12 or 18 months of age. Mice treated with 17beta-estradiol or 17a-ethinyl estradiol had a total uterine tumor incidence of 7% or 43%, respectively. 2-Hydroxyestradiol induced tumors in 12% of the mice, but 4-hydroxyestradiol was the most carcinogenic estrogen, with a 66% incidence of uterine adenocarcinoma. Both 2- and 4-hydroxylated catechols were estrogenic and increased uterine wet weights in these neonates. These data demonstrate that both 2- and 4-hydroxyestradiol are carcinogenic metabolites. The high tumor incidence induced by 4-hydroxyestradiol supports the postulated role of this metabolite in hormone-associated cancers.

  11. Icotinib inhibits EGFR signaling and alleviates psoriasis-like symptoms in animal models.

    PubMed

    Tan, Fenlai; Yang, Guiqun; Wang, Yanping; Chen, Haibo; Yu, Bo; Li, He; Guo, Jing; Huang, Xiaoling; Deng, Yifang; Yu, Pengxia; Ding, Lieming

    2018-02-01

    To investigate the effects of icotinib hydrochloride and a derivative cream on epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling and within animal psoriasis models, respectively. The effect of icotinib on EGFR signaling was examined in HaCaT cells, while its effect on angiogenesis was tested in chick embryo chorioallantoic membranes (CAM). The effectiveness of icotinib in treating psoriasis was tested in three psoriasis models, including diethylstilbestrol-treated mouse vaginal epithelial cells, mouse tail granular cell layer formation, and propranolol-induced psoriasis-like features in guinea pig ear skin. Icotinib treatment blocked EGFR signaling and reduced HaCaT cell viability as well as suppressed CAM angiogenesis. Topical application of icotinib ameliorated psoriasis-like histological characteristics in mouse and guinea pig psoriasis models. Icotinib also significantly inhibited mouse vaginal epithelium mitosis, promoted mouse tail squamous epidermal granular layer formation, and reduced the thickness of the horny layer in propranolol treated auricular dorsal surface of guinea pig. We conclude that icotinib can effectively inhibit psoriasis in animal models. Future clinical studies should be conducted to explore the therapeutic effects of icotinb in humans. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. COMPARATIVE ESTROGENICITY OF ESTRADIOL, ETHYNYL ESTRADIOL AND DIETHYLSTILBESTROL IN AN IN VIVO, MALE SHEEPSHEAD MINNOW (CYPRINODON VARIEGATUS), VITELLOGENIN BIOASSAY

    EPA Science Inventory

    An in vivo bioassay for vitellogenin (VTG) synthesis was developed to screen individual chemicals or mixtures of chemicals for potentially estrogenic effects in a marine teleost model. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to quantitate VTG synthesis in male sheep...

  13. Risk Factors for Breast Cancer, Including Occupational Exposures

    PubMed Central

    Meo, Margrethe; Vainio, Harri

    2011-01-01

    The knowledge on the etiology of breast cancer has advanced substantially in recent years, and several etiological factors are now firmly established. However, very few new discoveries have been made in relation to occupational risk factors. The International Agency for Research on Cancer has evaluated over 900 different exposures or agents to-date to determine whether they are carcinogenic to humans. These evaluations are published as a series of Monographs (www.iarc.fr). For breast cancer the following substances have been classified as "carcinogenic to humans" (Group 1): alcoholic beverages, exposure to diethylstilbestrol, estrogen-progestogen contraceptives, estrogen-progestogen hormone replacement therapy and exposure to X-radiation and gamma-radiation (in special populations such as atomic bomb survivors, medical patients, and in-utero exposure). Ethylene oxide is also classified as a Group 1 carcinogen, although the evidence for carcinogenicity in epidemiologic studies, and specifically for the human breast, is limited. The classification "probably carcinogenic to humans" (Group 2A) includes estrogen hormone replacement therapy, tobacco smoking, and shift work involving circadian disruption, including work as a flight attendant. If the association between shift work and breast cancer, the most common female cancer, is confirmed, shift work could become the leading cause of occupational cancer in women. PMID:22953181

  14. Long-term adverse effects of neonatal exposure to bisphenol A on the murine female reproductive tract.

    PubMed

    Newbold, Retha R; Jefferson, Wendy N; Padilla-Banks, Elizabeth

    2007-01-01

    The developing fetus is uniquely sensitive to perturbation by chemicals with hormone-like activity. The adverse effects of prenatal diethylstilbestrol (DES) exposure are a classic example. Since concern has been mounting regarding the human health and environmental effects of bisphenol A (BPA), a high-production-volume chemical with estrogenic activity used in the synthesis of plastics, we investigated its long-term effects in an experimental animal model that was previously shown useful in studying the adverse effects of developmental exposure to DES. Outbred female CD-1 mice were treated on days 1-5 with subcutaneous injections of BPA (10, 100 or 1000 microg/kg/day) dissolved in corn oil or corn oil alone (Control). At 18 months, ovaries and reproductive tract tissues were examined. There was a statistically significant increase in cystic ovaries and cystic endometrial hyperplasia (CEH) in the BPA-100 group as compared to Controls. Progressive proliferative lesion (PPL) of the oviduct and cystic mesonephric (Wolffian) duct remnants were also seen in all of the BPA groups. More severe pathologies of the uterus following neonatal BPA treatment included adenomyosis, leiomyomas, atypical hyperplasia, and stromal polyps. These data suggest that BPA causes long-term adverse effects if exposure occurs during critical periods of differentiation.

  15. Long-term Adverse Effects of Neonatal Exposure to Bisphenol A on the Murine Female Reproductive Tract

    PubMed Central

    Newbold, Retha R.; Jefferson, Wendy N.; Banks, Elizabeth Padilla

    2007-01-01

    The developing fetus is uniquely sensitive to perturbation by chemicals with hormone-like activity. The adverse effects of prenatal diethylstilbestrol (DES) exposure are a classic example. Since concern has been mounting regarding the human health and environmental effects of bisphenol A (BPA), a high-production-volume chemical with estrogenic activity used in the synthesis of plastics, we investigated its long-term effects in an experimental animal model that was previously shown useful in studying the adverse effects of developmental exposure to DES. Outbred female CD-1 mice were treated on days 1-5 with subcutaneous injections of BPA (10, 100 or 1000 μg/kg/day) dissolved in corn oil or corn oil alone (Control). At 18 months, ovaries and reproductive tract tissues were examined. There was a statistically significant increase in cystic ovaries and cystic endometrial hyperplasia (CEH) in the BPA-100 group as compared to Controls. Progressive proliferative lesion (PPL) of the oviduct and cystic mesonephric (Wolffian) duct remnants were also seen in all of the BPA groups. More severe pathologies of the uterus following neonatal BPA treatment included adenomyosis, leiomyomas, atypical hyperplasia, and stromal polyps. These data suggest that BPA causes long-term adverse effects if exposure occurs during critical periods of differentiation. PMID:17804194

  16. [Effects of Liangxue Jiedu Decoction in treating psoriasis in a mouse psoriasis model].

    PubMed

    Gu, Min-Jie; Gao, Shang-Pu; Li, Yong-Mei

    2009-06-01

    To study the effects of Liangxue Jiedu Decoction, a compound traditional Chinese herbal medicine with the function of blood-cooling and detoxicating, in treating psoriasis in mice and to explore its mechanism. (1) Sixty mice were randomly divided into Liangxue Jiedu Decoction group, compound Indigo Naturalis capsule group, acitretin capsule group and normal saline group. Another 10 mice were selected as blank control. After 2-week administration, mice were sacrificed to obtain samples. After hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining, tail scales with granular layers were calculated by an optical microscope. (2) Except for ten mice in blank group, sixty female mice were injected intraperitoneally with diethylstilbestrol once daily. After 3-day injection, mice were randomly divided into four groups and treated as above description. After 2-week treatment, all mice were injected intraperitoneally with colchicine (2 mg/kg), and sacrificed 6 h after the injection. The mitotic rate in virginal epithelium was calculated after HE staining. Compared with normal saline, Liangxue Jiedu Decoction could significantly inhibit the mitosis of mouse vaginal epithelium (P < 0.01) and promote the formation of granular layers in mouse tail-scale epidermis (P < 0.01). The mechanism of Liangxue Jiedu Decoction in treating psoriasis may be related to promoting granular cell growth and inhibiting proliferation of epidermic cells.

  17. A focus group study of DES daughters: implications for health care providers.

    PubMed

    Duke, S S; McGraw, S A; Avis, N E; Sherman, A

    2000-01-01

    A focus group study of women exposed to diethylstilbestrol (DES) in utero (DES daughters) was conducted to gain understanding about exposure to this drug from a patient perspective. Focus group participants reported that learning about their DES exposure was devastating; they experienced strains in their family relationships, emotional shock, a feeling that their health concerns were not appreciated by others and, to some degree, a sense of social isolation. Although many were aware of the need for special gynecological exams and high-risk prenatal care, they were frustrated by what they felt was a lack of reliable and clear information about the effects of DES exposure. Most expressed questions and anxiety about their health. Many found their communication with physicians about their DES exposure unsatisfying. They felt that physicians lacked information about the long-term health effects of DES exposure and as a result did not give them accurate information. Furthermore, they felt that physicians were dismissive of their concerns and often gave what they felt to be false reassurances. Consequently, the women developed an enduring distrust of the medical profession. The results of the study suggest implications for the delivery of health care to DES daughters. Copyright 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Perinatal development of conjugative enzyme systems.

    PubMed Central

    Lucier, G W

    1976-01-01

    The problems and priorities involved in studying the role of conjugagive enzymes in developmental pharmacology are discussed and evaluated. The relative rates of UDP glucuronyltransferase and beta-glucuronidase were studied during perinatal development in hepatic and extrahepatic tissues to determine the net balance of glucuronidation or deglucuronidation at different developmental stages. In general, deglucuronidation predominated over glucuronidation in fetal tissues whereas the converse was evident in adults. 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), an extremely toxic contaminant of some organochlorine compounds, was shown to be a potent inducer of some hepatic and extrahepatic drug-metabolizing enzymes. TCDD, administered during gestation, induced the postnatal activities of p-nitrophenol glucuronyltransferase and benzpyrene hydroxylase in rats. Foster mother experiments revealed that the postnatal induction was caused primarily by newborn exposure to TCDD in the mother's milk. Tissue distribution experiments with TCDD-14C confirmed these findings. Although TCDD induced non-steroid glucuronidation, no significant effects were evident on the postnatal development of steroid glucuronidation. The synthetic estrogen diethylstilbestrol (DES) is metabolized primarily by glucuronidation. The postnatal development of DES glucuronidation, like the steroid pathway, was not affected by gestational TCDD treatment. The fetal distribution of DES and DES-glucuronide, at different stages of development, correlated well with the perinatal development of steroid glucuronyltransferase activity. PMID:829487

  19. Estrogenic Activities of Fatty Acids and a Sterol Isolated from Royal Jelly

    PubMed Central

    Isohama, Yoichiro; Maruyama, Hiroe; Yamada, Yayoi; Narita, Yukio; Ohta, Shozo; Araki, Yoko; Miyata, Takeshi; Mishima, Satoshi

    2008-01-01

    We have previously reported that royal jelly (RJ) from honeybees (Apis mellifera) has weak estrogenic activity mediated by interaction with estrogen receptors that leads to changes in gene expression and cell proliferation. In this study, we isolated four compounds from RJ that exhibit estrogenic activity as evaluated by a ligand-binding assay for the estrogen receptor (ER) β. These compounds were identified as 10-hydroxy-trans-2-decenoic acid, 10-hydroxydecanoic acid, trans-2-decenoic acid and 24-methylenecholesterol. All these compounds inhibited binding of 17β-estradiol to ERβ, although more weakly than diethylstilbestrol or phytoestrogens. However, these compounds had little or no effect on the binding of 17β-estradiol to ERα. Expression assays suggested that these compounds activated ER, as evidenced by enhanced transcription of a reporter gene containing an estrogen-responsive element. Treatment of MCF-7 cells with these compounds enhanced their proliferation, but concomitant treatment with tamoxifen blocked this effect. Exposure of immature rats to these compounds by subcutaneous injection induced mild hypertrophy of the luminal epithelium of the uterus, but was not associated with an increase in uterine weight. These findings provide evidence that these compounds contribute to the estrogenic effect of RJ. PMID:18830443

  20. Nylon 6 electrospun nanofibers mat as effective sorbent for the removal of estrogens: kinetic and thermodynamic studies

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Nylon 6 electrospun nanofibers mat was prepared via electrospinning for the removal of three estrogens, namely, diethylstilbestrol (DES), dienestrol (DS), and hexestrol (HEX) from aqueous solution. Static adsorption as well as the dynamic adsorption was evaluated by means of batch and dynamic disk flow mode, respectively. The kinetic study indicated that the adsorption of the target compounds could be well fitted by the pseudo-second-order equation, suggesting the intra-particle/membrane diffusion process as the rate-limiting step of the adsorption process. The adsorption equilibrium data were all fitted well to the Freundlich isotherm models, with a maximum adsorption capacity values in the range of 97.71 to 208.95 mg/g, which can be compared to or moderately higher than other sorbents published in the literatures. The dynamic disk mode studies indicated that the mean removal yields of three model estrogens were over 95% with a notable smaller amount of adsorbent (4 mg). Thermodynamic study revealed that the adsorption process was exothermic and spontaneous in nature. Desorption results showed that the adsorption capacity can remain up to 80% after seven times usage. It was suggested that Nylon 6 electrospun nanofibers mat has great potential as a novel effective sorbent material for estrogens removal. PMID:25114645

  1. Growth of Normal Mouse Vaginal Epithelial Cells in and on Collagen Gels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iguchi, Taisen; Uchima, Francis-Dean A.; Ostrander, Patricia L.; Bern, Howard A.

    1983-06-01

    Sustained growth in primary culture of vaginal epithelial cells from ovariectomized adult BALB/cCrg1 mice embedded within or seeded on collagen gel matrix was achieved in a serum-free medium composed of Ham's F-12 medium/Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium, 1:1 (vol/vol), supplemented with insulin, bovine serum albumin fraction V, epidermal growth factor, cholera toxin, and transferrin. Three-dimensional growth of vaginal epithelial cells occurred inside the collagen gel matrix. Cell numbers increased 4- to 8-fold in collagen gel and about 4-fold on collagen gel after 9-10 days in culture. The effect of 17β -estradiol (0.00018-180 nM in gel or 0.018-180 nM on gel) and diethylstilbestrol (DES; 0.0186-186 nM in gel) on the growth of vaginal epithelial cells was examined. The addition of estrogen did not enhance the growth of vaginal epithelial cells during this time period either in the complete medium or in a suboptimal medium. Cultures on floating collagen gels in the serum-free medium are composed of 1-3 cell layers with superficial cornification. Estrogen does not appear to be a direct mitogen for vaginal epithelial cells, at least in this system.

  2. Demonstrating the importance of polymer-conjugate conformation in solution on its therapeutic output: Diethylstilbestrol (DES)-polyacetals as prostate cancer treatment.

    PubMed

    Giménez, Vanessa; James, Craig; Armiñán, Ana; Schweins, Ralf; Paul, Alison; Vicent, María J

    2012-04-30

    The design of improved polymeric carriers to be used in the next generation of polymer therapeutics is an ongoing challenge. Biodegradable systems present potential advantages regarding safety benefit apart from the possibility to use higher molecular weight (Mw) carriers allowing PK optimization, by exploiting the enhanced permeability and retention (EPR)-mediated tumor targeting. Within this context, we previously designed pH-responsive polyacetalic systems, tert-polymers, where a drug with the adequate diol-functionality was incorporated within the polymer mainchain. The synthetic, non-steroidal estrogen, diethylstilboestrol (DES) clinically used for the treatment of advanced prostate cancer was chosen as drug. In order to improve the properties of this tert-polymer, novel polyacetalic systems as block-co-polymers, with more defined structure have been obtained. This second generation polyacetals allowed higher drug capacity than the tert-polymer, a biphasic DES release profile at acidic pH and due to its controlled amphiphilic character readily formed micelle-like structures in solution. These features result in an enhancement of conjugate therapeutic value in selected prostate cancer cell models. Exhaustive physico-chemical characterization focusing on nanoconjugate solution behavior and using advanced techniques, such as, pulsed-gradient spin-echo NMR (PGSE-NMR) and small-angle neutron scattering (SANS), has been carried out in order to demonstrate this hypothesis. Clear evidence of significantly different conformation in solution has been obtained for both polyacetals. These results demonstrate that an adequate control on molecular or supramolecular conformation in solution with polymer therapeutics is crucial in order to achieve the desired therapeutic output. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Do endocrine disruptors cause hypospadias?

    PubMed Central

    Botta, Sisir; Cunha, Gerald R.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Endocrine disruptors or environmental agents, disrupt the endocrine system, leading to various adverse effects in humans and animals. Although the phenomenon has been noted historically in the cases of diethylstilbestrol (DES) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), the term “endocrine disruptor” is relatively new. Endocrine disruptors can have a variety of hormonal activities such as estrogenicity or anti-androgenicity. The focus of this review concerns on the induction of hypospadias by exogenous estrogenic endocrine disruptors. This has been a particular clinical concern secondary to reported increased incidence of hypospadias. Herein, the recent literature is reviewed as to whether endocrine disruptors cause hypospadias. Methods A literature search was performed for studies involving both humans and animals. Studies within the past 5 years were reviewed and categorized into basic science, clinical science, epidemiologic, or review studies. Results Forty-three scientific articles were identified. Relevant sentinel articles were also reviewed. Additional pertinent studies were extracted from the reference of the articles that obtained from initial search results. Each article was reviewed and results presented. Overall, there were no studies which definitely stated that endocrine disruptors caused hypospadias. However, there were multiple studies which implicated endocrine disruptors as one component of a multifactorial model for hypospadias. Conclusions Endocrine disruption may be one of the many critical steps in aberrant development that manifests as hypospadias. PMID:26816789

  4. An EM-based semi-parametric mixture model approach to the regression analysis of competing-risks data.

    PubMed

    Ng, S K; McLachlan, G J

    2003-04-15

    We consider a mixture model approach to the regression analysis of competing-risks data. Attention is focused on inference concerning the effects of factors on both the probability of occurrence and the hazard rate conditional on each of the failure types. These two quantities are specified in the mixture model using the logistic model and the proportional hazards model, respectively. We propose a semi-parametric mixture method to estimate the logistic and regression coefficients jointly, whereby the component-baseline hazard functions are completely unspecified. Estimation is based on maximum likelihood on the basis of the full likelihood, implemented via an expectation-conditional maximization (ECM) algorithm. Simulation studies are performed to compare the performance of the proposed semi-parametric method with a fully parametric mixture approach. The results show that when the component-baseline hazard is monotonic increasing, the semi-parametric and fully parametric mixture approaches are comparable for mildly and moderately censored samples. When the component-baseline hazard is not monotonic increasing, the semi-parametric method consistently provides less biased estimates than a fully parametric approach and is comparable in efficiency in the estimation of the parameters for all levels of censoring. The methods are illustrated using a real data set of prostate cancer patients treated with different dosages of the drug diethylstilbestrol. Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Occurrence and removal of phenolic endocrine disrupting chemicals in the water treatment processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lv, Xuemin; Xiao, Sanhua; Zhang, Gang; Jiang, Pu; Tang, Fei

    2016-03-01

    This paper evaluated the occurrence and removal efficiency of four selected phenolic endocrine disrupting chemicals (bisphenol A (BPA), octylphenol (OP), nonylphenol (NP) and diethylstilbestrol (DES)) in two drinking waterworks in Jiangsu province which take source water from Taihu Lake. The recombined yeast estrogen screen (YES) and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) were applied to assess the estrogenicity and detect the estrogens in the samples. The estrogen equivalents (EEQs) ranged from nd (not detected) to 2.96 ng/L, and the estrogenic activities decreased along the processes. Among the 32 samples, DES prevailed in all samples, with concentrations ranging 1.46-12.0 ng/L, BPA, OP and NP were partially detected, with concentrations ranging from nd to 17.73 ng/L, nd to 0.49 ng/L and nd to 3.27 ng/L, respectively. DES was found to be the main contributor to the estrogenicity (99.06%), followed by NP (0.62%), OP (0.23%) and BPA (0.09%). From the observation of treatment efficiency, the advanced treatment processes presented much higher removal ratio in reducing DES, the biodegradation played an important role in removing BPA, ozonation and pre-oxidation showed an effective removal on all the four estrogens; while the conventional ones can also reduce all the four estrogens.

  6. Development of an in vitro test battery for assessing chemical effects on bovine germ cells under the ReProTect umbrella

    SciTech Connect

    Lazzari, Giovanna; Tessaro, Irene; Crotti, Gabriella

    2008-12-15

    Current European legislation for the registration and authorisation of chemicals (REACH) will require a dramatic increase in the use of animals for reproductive toxicity testing. Since one objective of REACH is to use vertebrates only as last resort, the development and validation of alternative methods is urgently needed. For this purpose ReProTect, an integrated research project funded by the European Union, joining together 33 partners with complementary expertise in reproductive toxicology, was designed. The study presented here describes a battery of two tests developed within ReProTect. The objective of these tests is the detection of chemical effects during the processesmore » of oocyte maturation and fertilisation in a bovine model. The corresponding toxicological endpoints are the reaching of metaphase II and the formation of the pronuclei respectively. Fifteen chemicals have been tested (Benzo[a]pyrene, Busulfan, Butylparaben, Cadmium Chloride, Carbendazim, Cycloheximide, Diethylstilbestrol, Genistein, Ionomycin, Ketoconazole, Lindane, Methylacetoacetate, Mifepristone, Nocodazole and DMSO as solvent) demonstrating high intra-laboratory reproducibility of the tests. Furthermore, the responses obtained in both tests, for several substances, had a good correlation with the available in vivo and in vitro data. These tests therefore, could predictably become part of an integrated testing strategy that combines the bovine models with additional in vitro tests, in order to predict chemical hazards on mammalian fertility.« less

  7. Occurrence and removal of phenolic endocrine disrupting chemicals in the water treatment processes

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Xuemin; Xiao, Sanhua; Zhang, Gang; Jiang, Pu; Tang, Fei

    2016-01-01

    This paper evaluated the occurrence and removal efficiency of four selected phenolic endocrine disrupting chemicals (bisphenol A (BPA), octylphenol (OP), nonylphenol (NP) and diethylstilbestrol (DES)) in two drinking waterworks in Jiangsu province which take source water from Taihu Lake. The recombined yeast estrogen screen (YES) and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) were applied to assess the estrogenicity and detect the estrogens in the samples. The estrogen equivalents (EEQs) ranged from nd (not detected) to 2.96 ng/L, and the estrogenic activities decreased along the processes. Among the 32 samples, DES prevailed in all samples, with concentrations ranging 1.46–12.0 ng/L, BPA, OP and NP were partially detected, with concentrations ranging from nd to 17.73 ng/L, nd to 0.49 ng/L and nd to 3.27 ng/L, respectively. DES was found to be the main contributor to the estrogenicity (99.06%), followed by NP (0.62%), OP (0.23%) and BPA (0.09%). From the observation of treatment efficiency, the advanced treatment processes presented much higher removal ratio in reducing DES, the biodegradation played an important role in removing BPA, ozonation and pre-oxidation showed an effective removal on all the four estrogens; while the conventional ones can also reduce all the four estrogens. PMID:26953121

  8. Long non-coding RNA MIAT is estrogen-responsive and promotes estrogen-induced proliferation in ER-positive breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Yuehua; Jiang, Baohong; Wu, Xiaoping; Huang, Qin; Chen, Wenqi; Zhu, Hongbo; Qu, Xiaofei; Xie, Liming; Ma, Xin; Huang, Guo

    2018-05-21

    Estrogen drives the development and progression of estrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancer. However, the detailed mechanism underlying ER-driven carcinogenesis remains unclear despite extensive studies. Previously reports indicated higher expression of long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) myocardial infarction associated transcript (MIAT) in ER-positive breast cancer tissues than in ER-negative tissues. However, the functional relevance of MIAT in ER-positive breast cancer tumorigenesis was poorly understood. Here, we investigated the role of lncRNA MIAT in ER-positive breast cancer cells. MIAT was over-expressed in ER-positive breast cancer tissues and ER-positive breast cancer cell line MCF-7. Activating estrogen signaling by diethylstilbestrol (DES) led to a dose- and time-dependent up-regulation of MIAT in MCF-7 cells that was dependent on ERα, as evidenced by ERα silencing and pharmacological inhibition using ER antagonist ICI 182780. Silencing MIAT decreased DES-induced MCF-7 cell proliferation while overexpressing MIAT increased MCF-7 cell proliferation. Further mechanistic study identified that MIAT was critical for G1 to S phase cell cycle transition. Taken together, these results suggest that lncRNA MIAT is an estrogen-inducible lncRNA and a key regulator in ER-positive breast cancer cell growth. MIAT could serve as a potential biomarker and promising therapeutic target for ER-positive breast cancer. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. [Determination of estrogen residues in drinking water by on-line solid phase extraction based on sol-gel technique coupled with high performance liquid chromatography].

    PubMed

    Li, Longfei; Su, Min; Shi, Xiaolei; Wang, Yana; Wang, Minmin; He, Jinxing

    2014-02-01

    A method for the determination of diethylstilbestrol (DES), hexestrol (HEX) and dienestrol (DS) residues in drinking water was established by on-line solid phase extraction (SPE) coupled with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The material synthesized on the base of sol-gel technology was employed as adsorbent. This material was prepared using 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) as the functional monomer, tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) as the crosslinking agent, and acetic acid as the initiator. The synthesized adsorbent showed outstanding property for the estrogen extraction. The estrogen can be caught effectively from water samples and the extraction can be achieved rapidly. Some important parameters, such as pH of sample solution, eluent solvents, loading flow rate, which might influence extraction efficiency, were optimized. The results indicated that the limit of detection (S/N = 3) of the developed method could reach 0.07-0.13 microg/L under the conditions of pH 7.0 of sample solution, methanol and 1% (v/v) acetic acid aqueous solution as the eluent solvent and the loading flow rate of 2 mL/min. The recoveries of the three estrogens from the water samples at three spiked levels ranged from 82.31% to 99.43% with RSD of 1.61%-7.15%. The method was simple, rapid, and suitable to detect the trace residues of estrogens in drinking water.

  10. The Influence of Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals on the Proliferation of ERα Knockdown-Human Breast Cancer Cell Line MCF-7; New Attempts by RNAi Technology

    PubMed Central

    Miyakoshi, Takashi; Miyajima, Katsuhiro; Takekoshi, Susumu; Osamura, Robert Yoshiyuki

    2009-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a monomer use in manufacturing a wide range of chemical products which include epoxy resins and polycarbonate. It has been reported that BPA increases the cell proliferation activity of human breast cancer MCF-7 cells as well as 17-β estradiol (E2) and diethylstilbestrol (DES). However, BPA induces target genes through ER-dependent and ER-independent manners which are different from the actions induced by E2. Therefore, BPA may be unique in estrogen-dependent cell proliferation compared to other endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). In the present study, to test whether ERα is essential to the BPA-induced proliferation on MCF-7 cells, we suppressed the ERα expression of MCF-7 cells by RNA interference (RNAi). Proliferation effects in the presence of E2, DES and BPA were not observed in ERα-knockdown MCF-7 cells in comparison with control MCF-7. In addition, a marker of proliferative potential, MIB-1 labeling index (LI), showed no change in BPA-treated groups compared with vehicle-treated groups on ERα-knockdown MCF-7 cells. In conclusion, we demonstrated that ERα has a role in BPA-induced cell proliferation as well as E2 and DES. Moreover, this study indicated that the direct knockdown of ERα using RNAi serves as an additional tool to evaluate, in parallel with MCF-7 cell proliferation assay, for potential EDCs. PMID:19492024

  11. Bisphenol A and its methylated congeners inhibit growth and interfere with microtubules in human fibroblasts in vitro.

    PubMed

    Lehmann, Leane; Metzler, Manfred

    2004-04-15

    Bisphenol A (BPA), a monomer of polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resins, has previously been reported to induce micronuclei containing whole chromosomes in Chinese hamster V79 cells. In the present study, the aneuploidogenic potential of BPA was investigated in cultured human AG01522C fibroblasts. In contrast to the known aneugens diethylstilbestrol (DES) and 17beta-estradiol, which caused mitotic arrest and the induction of kinetochore-positive micronuclei, BPA did not induce micronuclei and inhibited the proliferation of AG01522C cells in G2 phase and probably also in G1 phase. Fluorescence microscopy of the BPA-treated cells after immunofluorescent staining of microtubules revealed structural abnormalities of the cytoplasmic microtubule complex (CMTC): densely stained rings and loops of tubulin were observed, which increased in number with increasing BPA concentration and were more stable against low temperature than normal microtubules. The mechanisms of the growth inhibition and the interference with microtubules elicited by BPA in AG01522C cells are presently unknown. The formation of rings and loops in the CMTC of AG01522C cells was also observed with two congeners of BPA carrying one and two, respectively, additional methyl groups in ortho-position to the phenolic hydroxyl group at each aromatic ring. However, in contrast to BPA itself, these congeners of BPA behaved "DES-like" by inducing mitotic arrest and kinetochore-positive micronuclei in AG01522C cells.

  12. Association of Intrauterine and Early-Life Exposures With Age at Menopause in the Sister Study

    PubMed Central

    Steiner, Anne Z.; D'Aloisio, Aimee A.; DeRoo, Lisa A.; Sandler, Dale P.; Baird, Donna D.

    2010-01-01

    Oocytes are formed in utero; menopause occurs when the oocyte pool is depleted. The authors hypothesized that early-life events could affect the number of a woman's oocytes and determine age at menopause. To test their hypothesis, the authors conducted a secondary analysis of baseline data from 22,165 participants in the Sister Study (2003–2007) who were aged 35–59 years at enrollment. To estimate the association between early-life events and age at natural menopause, the authors used Cox proportional hazards models to estimate hazard ratios with 95% confidence intervals, adjusting for current age, race/ethnicity, education, childhood family income, and smoking history. Earlier menopause was associated with in-utero diethylstilbestrol exposure (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.45, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.27, 1.65). Suggestive associations included maternal prepregnancy diabetes (HR = 1.33, 95% CI: 0.89, 1.98) and low birth weight (HR = 1.09, 95% CI: 0.99, 1.20). Having a mother aged 35 years or older at birth appeared to be associated with a later age at menopause (HR = 0.95, 95% CI: 0.89, 1.01). Birth order, in-utero smoke exposure, and having been breastfed were not related to age at menopause. In-utero and perinatal events may subsequently influence age at menopause. PMID:20534821

  13. Bisphenol A: an endocrine and metabolic disruptor.

    PubMed

    Fenichel, Patrick; Chevalier, Nicolas; Brucker-Davis, Françoise

    2013-07-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA), initially designed, like diethylstilbestrol, as a synthetic estrogen, has been rapidly and widely used for its cross-linking properties in the manufacture of polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resins. Because of incomplete polymerization and degradation of the polymers by exposure to higher than usual temperatures, BPA leaches out from food and beverage containers, as well as from dental sealants. In humans, free active unconjugated BPA is metabolized by rapid glucurono- or sulfo-conjugation and eliminated via renal clearance. However, exposure to environmental nanomolar concentrations of BPA is ubiquitous and continuous via different routes: oral, air, skin. In rodents, fetal and perinatal exposure to such environmentally relevant doses of BPA has been shown to affect the brain, liver, gut, adipose tissue, endocrine pancreas, mammary gland and reproductive tract and function. Similar concentrations are also able in vitro to impact human malignant breast, prostate, male germ or adipocyte cell lines (with a promoting effect and by interfering with chemotherapy drugs), or to stimulate pancreatic β cell insulin secretion. High levels of BPA have recently been correlated with obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, polycystic ovarian disease or low sperm count. However, before the real impact of BPA on human health can be clearly assessed, prospective longitudinal epidemiological studies are needed as well as characterization of selective biomarkers to verify long-term exposure and selective imprinting. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  14. Using Fenton Oxidation to Simultaneously Remove Different Estrogens from Cow Manure

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Minxia; Xu, Defu; Ji, Yuefei; Liu, Juan; Ling, Wanting; Li, Shunyao; Chen, Mindong

    2016-01-01

    The presence of estrogens in livestock excrement has raised concerns about their potential negative influence on animals and the overall food cycle. This is the first investigation to simultaneously remove estrogens, including estriol (E3), bisphenol A (BPA), diethylstilbestrol (DES), estradiol (E2), and ethinyl estradiol (EE2), from cow manure using a Fenton oxidation technique. Based on the residual concentrations and removal efficiency of estrogens, the Fenton oxidation reaction conditions were optimized as follows: a H2O2 dosage of 2.56 mmol/g, a Fe(II) to H2O2 molar ratio of 0.125 M/M, a solid to water mass ratio of 2 g/mL, an initial pH of 3, and a reaction time of 24 h. Under these conditions, the simultaneous removal efficiencies of E3, BPA, DES, E2, and EE2, with initial concentrations in cow manure of 97.40, 96.54, 100.22, 95.01, and 72.49 mg/kg, were 84.9%, 99.5%, 99.1%, 97.8%, and 84.5%, respectively. We clarified the possible Fenton oxidation reaction mechanisms that governed the degradation of estrogens. We concluded that Fenton oxidation technique could be effective for efficient removal of estrogens in livestock excrement. Results are of great importance for cow manure reuse in agricultural management, and can be used to reduce the threat of environmental estrogens to human health and ecological safety. PMID:27649223

  15. Effect of PCB and DES on rat monoamine oxidase, acetylcholinesterase, testosterone, and estradiol ontogeny

    SciTech Connect

    Vincent, D.R.; Bradshaw, W.S.; Booth, G.M.

    1992-06-01

    Diethylstilbestrol (DES) and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) have been documented as potentially hazardous environmental agents. In utero exposure to DES produces human vaginal adenocarcinoma, male reproductive tract lesions in mice, and has been correlated with personality changes in human males. PCB (Kanechlor) was found to be the major toxin in the {open_quotes}Yusho{close_quotes} rice oil poisoning in Japan in 1968. Other investigators have shown in rats that PCB (Arochlor) causes liver adenofibrosis, thyroid dysfunction, atypical mitochondria, and dilation of both smooth and rough endoplasmic reticulum. Matthews et al. (1978) also reported that 4, 4{prime} chlorinated biphenyl was the most potent inducer ofmore » monooxygenases, irrespective of chlorination at other sites. Although these compounds have been studied extensively in mammals, there is a paucity of data examining their effects when non-fetotoxic amounts are administered chronically and orally during gestation. The present study is part of a larger effort designed to establish a protocol for testing the developmental effects of xenobiotics such as DES and PCB. Levels of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) were measured as an indicator of the integrity of nerve transmission in the central nervous system. Monoamine oxidase (MAO) is a marker for the outer mitochondrial membrane and is an important amine metabolizing enzyme. Testosterone and estradiol are important sex steroids in mammals, and effects upon levels of the two hormones may signal anomalies in development of sex characteristics. 35 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.« less

  16. Molecular imprinted opal closest-packing photonic crystals for the detection of trace 17β-estradiol in aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Sai, Na; Wu, Yuntang; Sun, Zhong; Huang, Guowei; Gao, Zhixian

    2015-11-01

    A novel opal closest-packing (OCP) photonic crystal (PC) was prepared by the introduction of molecular imprinting technique into the OCP PC. This molecular imprinted (MI)-OCP PC was fabricated via a vertical convective self-assembly method using 17β-estradiol (E2) as template molecules for monitoring E2 in aqueous solution. Morphology characterization showed that the MI-OCP PC possessed a highly ordered three-dimensional (3D) periodically-ordered structure, showing the desired structural color. The proposed PC material displayed a reduced reflection intensity when detecting E2 in water environment, because the molecular imprinting recognition events make the optical characteristics of PC change. The Bragg diffraction intensity decreased by 19.864 a.u. with the increase of E2 concentration from 1.5 ng mL(-1) to 364.5 ng mL(-1) within 6 min, whereas there were no obvious peak intensity changes for estriol, estrone, cholesterol, testosterone and diethylstilbestrol, indicating that the MI-OCP PC had selective and rapid response for E2 molecules. The adsorption results showed that the OCP structure and homogeneous layers were created in the MI-OCP PC with higher adsorption capacity. Thus, it was learned the MI-OCP PC is a simple prepared, sensitive, selective, and easy operative material, which shows promising use in routine supervision for residue detection in food and environment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Alteration by prolactin of surface charge and membrane fluidity of rat 13762 mammary ascites tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Zarkower, D A; Plank, L D; Kunze, E; Keith, A; Todd, P; Hymer, W C

    1984-03-01

    Intraperitoneal injection of ovine prolactin (100 micrograms/d) in Fischer 344 rats bearing transplantable 13762 mammary ascites tumor (MAT) cells modifies the surface charge density and membrane fluidity of the tumor cells. In each of five experiments the mean electrophoretic mobility (epm) of MAT cells taken from prolactin-treated rats was significantly lower than that of cells from nonhormone-treated controls. Prolactin concentrations were increased in vivo by (a) direct intraperitoneal injection of ovine prolactin; (b) subcutaneous implantation of diethylstilbestrol-containing silastic capsules to produce pituitary prolactin secreting tumors; or (c) a single subcutaneous injection of polyestradiol phosphate, a long-acting estrogen. In an effort to establish that the prolactin effect was a direct one, two in vivo protocols were used: (a) MAT cells were coincubated with anterior pituitary halves obtained from nontumor-bearing littermates; or (b) rat or ovine prolactin was added to serum-free culture media containing MAT cells. In both protocols, the epm of the prolactin-treated cells was significantly lower. The isoelectric focusing pH of whole cells was increased by prolactin treatment from 4.93 to 5.12, consistent with a reduction in the number of surface carboxyl groups. The fluidity of membranes of treated cells was drastically increased, as measured by spin-label probe rotation rates. These combined results imply that the hormone exerts its effect by stimulating events in the cell that lead to a reduction of the average density of carboxylic acid residues on the tumor cell surface.

  18. Drug and chemical residues in domestic animals.

    PubMed

    Mussman, H C

    1975-02-01

    Given the large number of chemical substances that may find their way into the food supply, a system is needed to monitor their presence. The U. S. Department of Agriculture's Meat and Poultry Inspection Program routinely tests for chemical residues in animals coming to slaughter. Pesticides, heavy metals, growth promotants (hormones and hormonelike agents), and antibiotics are included. Samples are taken statistically so that inferences as to national incidence of residues can be drawn. When a problem is identified, a more selective sampling is designed to help follow up on the initial regulatory action. In testing for pesticides, only DDT and dieldrin are found with any frequency and their levels are decreasing; violative residues of any chlorinated hydrocarbon are generally a result of an industrial accident rather than agricultural usage. Analyses for heavy metals have revealed detectable levels of mercury, lead, and others, but none at levels that are considered a health hazard. Of the hormone or hormonelike substances, only diethylstilbestrol has been a residue problem and its future is uncertain. The most extensive monitoring for veterinary drugs is on the antimicrobials, including sulfonamides, streptomycin, and the tetracycline group of antibiotics that constitute the bulk of the violations; their simultaneous use prophylactically and therapeutically has contributed to the problem in certain cases. A strong, well-designed user education program on proper application of pesticides, chemicals, and veterinary drugs appears to be one method of reducing the incidence of unwanted residues.

  19. Regulation of blood-testis barrier by actin binding proteins and protein kinases

    PubMed Central

    Li, Nan; Tang, Elizabeth I.; Cheng, C. Yan

    2016-01-01

    The blood-testis barrier (BTB) is an important ultrastructure in the testis since the onset of spermatogenesis coincides with the establishment of a functional barrier in rodents and humans. It is also noted that a delay in the assembly of a functional BTB following treatment of neonatal rats with drugs such as diethylstilbestrol or adjudin also delays the first wave of spermiation. While the BTB is one of the tightest blood-tissue barriers, it undergoes extensive remodeling, in particular at stage VIII of the epithelial cycle to facilitate the transport of preleptotene spermatocytes connected in clones across the immunological barrier. Without this timely transport of preleptotene spermatocytes derived from type B spermatogonia, meiosis will be arrested, causing aspermatogenesis. Yet the biology and regulation of the BTB remains largely unexplored since the morphological studies in the 1970s. Recent studies, however, have shed new light on the biology of the BTB. Herein, we critically evaluate some of these findings, illustrating that the Sertoli cell BTB is regulated by actin binding proteins (ABPs), likely supported by non-receptor protein kinases, to modulate the organization of actin microfilament bundles at the site. Furthermore, microtubule (MT)-based cytoskeleton is also working in concert with the actin-based cytoskeleton to confer BTB dynamics. This timely review provides an update on the unique biology and regulation of the BTB based on the latest findings in the field, focusing on the role of ABPs and non-receptor protein kinases. PMID:26628556

  20. Possible relationship between endocrine disrupting chemicals and hormone dependent gynecologic cancers.

    PubMed

    Dogan, Selen; Simsek, Tayup

    2016-07-01

    The effects of the natural and synthetic estrogens have been studied for a long time but the data regarding estrogen related chemicals (endocrine disrupting chemicals, EDCs) and their effects on reproductive system are scarce. EDCs are hormone like agents that are readily present in the environment, which may alter the endocrine system of humans and animals. Approximately 800 chemicals are known or suspected to have the potential to function as EDC. Potential role of EDCs on reproductive disease has gained attention in medical literature in recent years. We hypothesize that exposure to low doses of EDCs in a chronic manner could cause hormone dependent genital cancers including ovarian and endometrial cancer. Long term exposure to low concentrations of EDCs may exert potentiation effect with each other and even with endogenous estrogens and could inhibit enzymes responsible for estrogen metabolism. Exposure time to these EDCs is essential as we have seen from Diethylstilbestrol experience. Dose-response curves of EDCs are also unpredictable. Hence mode of action of EDCs are more complex than previously thought. In the light of these controversies lower doses of EDCs in long term exposure is not harmless. Possibility of this relationship and this hypothesis merit further investigation especially through in vivo studies that could better show the realistic environmental exposure. With the confirmation of our hypothesis, possible EDCs could be identified and eliminated from general use as a public health measure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Estrogen Responsiveness of the TFIID Subunit TAF4B in the Normal Mouse Ovary and in Ovarian Tumors1

    PubMed Central

    Wardell, Jennifer R.; Hodgkinson, Kendra M.; Binder, April K.; Seymour, Kimberly A.; Korach, Kenneth S.; Vanderhyden, Barbara C.; Freiman, Richard N.

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Estrogen signaling in the ovary is a fundamental component of normal ovarian function, and evidence also indicates that excessive estrogen is a risk factor for ovarian cancer. We have previously demonstrated that the gonadally enriched TFIID subunit TAF4B, a paralog of the general transcription factor TAF4A, is required for fertility in mice and for the proliferation of ovarian granulosa cells following hormonal stimulation. However, the relationship between TAF4B and estrogen signaling in the normal ovary or during ovarian tumor initiation and progression has yet to be defined. Herein, we show that Taf4b mRNA and TAF4B protein, but not Taf4a mRNA or TAF4A protein, are increased in whole ovaries and granulosa cells of the ovary after exposure to 17beta-estradiol or the synthetic estrogen diethylstilbestrol and that this response occurs within hours after stimulation. Furthermore, this increase occurs via nuclear estrogen receptors both in vivo and in a mouse granulosa cancer cell line, NT-1. We observe a significant increase in Taf4b mRNA in estrogen-supplemented mouse ovarian tumors, which correlates with diminished survival of these mice. These data highlight the novel response of the general transcription factor TAF4B to estrogen in the normal ovary and during ovarian tumor progression in the mouse, suggesting its potential role in regulating actions downstream of estrogen stimulation. PMID:24068106

  2. Estrogen responsiveness of the TFIID subunit TAF4B in the normal mouse ovary and in ovarian tumors.

    PubMed

    Wardell, Jennifer R; Hodgkinson, Kendra M; Binder, April K; Seymour, Kimberly A; Korach, Kenneth S; Vanderhyden, Barbara C; Freiman, Richard N

    2013-11-01

    Estrogen signaling in the ovary is a fundamental component of normal ovarian function, and evidence also indicates that excessive estrogen is a risk factor for ovarian cancer. We have previously demonstrated that the gonadally enriched TFIID subunit TAF4B, a paralog of the general transcription factor TAF4A, is required for fertility in mice and for the proliferation of ovarian granulosa cells following hormonal stimulation. However, the relationship between TAF4B and estrogen signaling in the normal ovary or during ovarian tumor initiation and progression has yet to be defined. Herein, we show that Taf4b mRNA and TAF4B protein, but not Taf4a mRNA or TAF4A protein, are increased in whole ovaries and granulosa cells of the ovary after exposure to 17beta-estradiol or the synthetic estrogen diethylstilbestrol and that this response occurs within hours after stimulation. Furthermore, this increase occurs via nuclear estrogen receptors both in vivo and in a mouse granulosa cancer cell line, NT-1. We observe a significant increase in Taf4b mRNA in estrogen-supplemented mouse ovarian tumors, which correlates with diminished survival of these mice. These data highlight the novel response of the general transcription factor TAF4B to estrogen in the normal ovary and during ovarian tumor progression in the mouse, suggesting its potential role in regulating actions downstream of estrogen stimulation.

  3. Lysophosphatidic Acid Promotes Cell Migration through STIM1- and Orai1-Mediated Ca2+i Mobilization and NFAT2 Activation

    PubMed Central

    Jans, Ralph; Mottram, Laura; Johnson, Darren L; Brown, Anna M; Sikkink, Stephen; Ross, Kehinde; Reynolds, Nick J

    2013-01-01

    Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) enhances cell migration and promotes wound healing in vivo, but the intracellular signaling pathways regulating these processes remain incompletely understood. Here we investigated the involvement of agonist-induced Ca2+ entry and STIM1 and Orai1 proteins in regulating nuclear factor of activated T cell (NFAT) signaling and LPA-induced keratinocyte cell motility. As monitored by Fluo-4 imaging, stimulation with 10 μℳ LPA in 60 μℳ Ca2+o evoked Ca2+i transients owing to store release, whereas addition of LPA in physiological 1.2 mℳ Ca2+o triggered store release coupled to extracellular Ca2+ entry. Store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE) was blocked by the SOCE inhibitor diethylstilbestrol (DES), STIM1 silencing using RNA interference (RNAi), and expression of dominant/negative Orai1R91W. LPA induced significant NFAT activation as monitored by nuclear translocation of green fluorescent protein-tagged NFAT2 and a luciferase reporter assay, which was impaired by DES, expression of Orai1R91W, and inhibition of calcineurin using cyclosporin A (CsA). By using chemotactic migration assays, LPA-induced cell motility was significantly impaired by STIM1, CsA, and NFAT2 knockdown using RNAi. These data indicate that in conditions relevant to epidermal wound healing, LPA induces SOCE and NFAT activation through Orai1 channels and promotes cell migration through a calcineurin/NFAT2-dependent pathway. PMID:23096711

  4. Estradiol causes the rapid accumulation of cAMP in human prostate.

    PubMed Central

    Nakhla, A M; Khan, M S; Romas, N P; Rosner, W

    1994-01-01

    Androgens are widely acknowledged to be central to the pathogenesis of benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH). However, BPH increases in prevalence as men age, at precisely the stage of life when plasma androgens are decreasing. The decrease in total plasma androgens is amplified by an age-related increase in plasma sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) that results in a relatively greater decrease in free androgens than in total androgens. In addition, estrogens have long been suspected to be important in BPH, but a direct effect on the human prostate has never been demonstrated. We present data that are consistent with a role for estradiol, and for a decrease in androgens and an increase in SHBG, in the pathogenesis of BPH. We show that estradiol, but not dihydrotestosterone, acts in concert with SHBG to produce an 8-fold increase in intracellular cAMP in human BPH tissue. This increase is not blocked by an antiestrogen and is not provoked by an estrogen (diethylstilbestrol) that does not bind to SHBG, thus excluding the classic estrogen receptor as being operative in these events. Conversely, dihydrotestosterone, which blocks the binding of estradiol to SHBG, completely negates the effect of estradiol. Finally, we demonstrate that the SHBG-steroid-responsive second-messenger system is primarily localized to the prostatic stromal cells and not to the prostatic epithelial cells. Thus, we have shown a cell-specific, powerful, nontranscriptional effect of estradiol on the human prostate. PMID:7515502

  5. Drinking Water with Uranium below the U.S. EPA Water Standard Causes Estrogen Receptor–Dependent Responses in Female Mice

    PubMed Central

    Raymond-Whish, Stefanie; Mayer, Loretta P.; O’Neal, Tamara; Martinez, Alisyn; Sellers, Marilee A.; Christian, Patricia J.; Marion, Samuel L.; Begay, Carlyle; Propper, Catherine R.; Hoyer, Patricia B.; Dyer, Cheryl A.

    2007-01-01

    Background The deleterious impact of uranium on human health has been linked to its radioactive and heavy metal–chemical properties. Decades of research has defined the causal relationship between uranium mining/milling and onset of kidney and respiratory diseases 25 years later. Objective We investigated the hypothesis that uranium, similar to other heavy metals such as cadmium, acts like estrogen. Methods In several experiments, we exposed intact, ovariectomized, or pregnant mice to depleted uranium in drinking water [ranging from 0.5 μg/L (0.001 μM) to 28 mg/L (120 μM). Results Mice that drank uranium-containing water exhibited estrogenic responses including selective reduction of primary follicles, increased uterine weight, greater uterine luminal epithelial cell height, accelerated vaginal opening, and persistent presence of cornified vaginal cells. Coincident treatment with the antiestrogen ICI 182,780 blocked these responses to uranium or the synthetic estrogen diethylstilbestrol. In addition, mouse dams that drank uranium-containing water delivered grossly normal pups, but they had significantly fewer primordial follicles than pups whose dams drank control tap water. Conclusions Because of the decades of uranium mining/milling in the Colorado plateau in the Four Corners region of the American Southwest, the uranium concentration and the route of exposure used in these studies are environmentally relevant. Our data support the conclusion that uranium is an endocrine-disrupting chemical and populations exposed to environmental uranium should be followed for increased risk of fertility problems and reproductive cancers. PMID:18087588

  6. Thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1) Analogs ABT-510 and ABT-898 Inhibit Prolactinoma Growth and Recover Active Pituitary Transforming Growth Factor-β1 (TGF-β1)

    PubMed Central

    Recouvreux, M. Victoria; Camilletti, M. Andrea; Rifkin, Daniel B.; Becu-Villalobos, Damasia

    2012-01-01

    Prolactinomas are the most prevalent type of secreting pituitary tumors in humans and generally respond well to a medical therapy with dopamine agonists. However, for patients exhibiting resistance to dopaminergic drugs, alternative treatments are desired. Antiangiogenic strategies might represent a potential therapy for these tumors. Thrombospondin 1 (TSP-1) is a large multifunctional glycoprotein involved in multiple biological processes including angiogenesis, apoptosis, and activation of TGF-β1. Because tumors that overexpress TSP-1 grow more slowly, have fewer metastases, and have decreased angiogenesis, TSP-1 provides a novel target for cancer treatment. ABT-510 and ABT-898 are TSP-1 synthetic analogs that mimic its antiangiogenic action. In the present study, we explored the potential effect of ABT-510 and ABT-898 on experimental prolactinomas induced by chronic diethylstilbestrol (DES) treatment in female rats. We demonstrated that a 2-wk treatment with ABT-510 and ABT-898 counteracted the increase in pituitary size and serum prolactin levels as well as the pituitary proliferation rate induced by DES. These inhibitory effects on tumor growth could be mediated by the antiangiogenic properties of the drugs. We also demonstrated that ABT-510 and ABT-898, in addition to their described antiangiogenic effects, increased active TGF-β1 level in the tumors. We postulate that the recovery of the local cytokine activation participates in the inhibition of lactotrope function. These results place these synthetic TSP-1 analogs as potential alternative or complementary treatments in dopamine agonist-resistant prolactinomas. PMID:22700773

  7. Thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1) analogs ABT-510 and ABT-898 inhibit prolactinoma growth and recover active pituitary transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1).

    PubMed

    Recouvreux, M Victoria; Camilletti, M Andrea; Rifkin, Daniel B; Becu-Villalobos, Damasia; Díaz-Torga, Graciela

    2012-08-01

    Prolactinomas are the most prevalent type of secreting pituitary tumors in humans and generally respond well to a medical therapy with dopamine agonists. However, for patients exhibiting resistance to dopaminergic drugs, alternative treatments are desired. Antiangiogenic strategies might represent a potential therapy for these tumors. Thrombospondin 1 (TSP-1) is a large multifunctional glycoprotein involved in multiple biological processes including angiogenesis, apoptosis, and activation of TGF-β1. Because tumors that overexpress TSP-1 grow more slowly, have fewer metastases, and have decreased angiogenesis, TSP-1 provides a novel target for cancer treatment. ABT-510 and ABT-898 are TSP-1 synthetic analogs that mimic its antiangiogenic action. In the present study, we explored the potential effect of ABT-510 and ABT-898 on experimental prolactinomas induced by chronic diethylstilbestrol (DES) treatment in female rats. We demonstrated that a 2-wk treatment with ABT-510 and ABT-898 counteracted the increase in pituitary size and serum prolactin levels as well as the pituitary proliferation rate induced by DES. These inhibitory effects on tumor growth could be mediated by the antiangiogenic properties of the drugs. We also demonstrated that ABT-510 and ABT-898, in addition to their described antiangiogenic effects, increased active TGF-β1 level in the tumors. We postulate that the recovery of the local cytokine activation participates in the inhibition of lactotrope function. These results place these synthetic TSP-1 analogs as potential alternative or complementary treatments in dopamine agonist-resistant prolactinomas.

  8. Transport systems of Ventricaria ventricosa: asymmetry of the hyper- and hypotonic regulation mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Bisson, M A; Beilby, M J

    2008-01-01

    Hyper- and hypotonic stresses elicit apparently symmetrical responses in the alga Ventricaria. With hypertonic stress, membrane potential difference (PD) between the vacuole and the external medium becomes more positive, conductance at positive PDs (Gmpos) increases and KCl is actively taken up to increase turgor. With hypotonic stress, the membrane PD becomes more negative, conductance at negative PDs (Gmneg) increases and KCl is lost to decrease turgor. We used inhibitors that affect active transport to determine whether agents that inhibit the K(+) pump and hypertonic regulation also inhibit hypotonic regulatory responses. Cells whose turgor pressure was held low by the pressure probe (turgor-clamped) exhibited the same response as cells challenged by hyperosmotic medium, although the response was maintained longer than in osmotically challenged cells, which regulate turgor. The role of active K(+) transport was confirmed by the effects of decreased light, dichlorophenyldimethyl urea and diethylstilbestrol, which induced a uniformly low conductance (quiet state). Cells clamped to high turgor exhibited the same response as cells challenged by hypo-osmotic medium, but the response was similarly transient, making effects of inhibitors hard to determine. Unlike clamped cells, cells challenged by hypo-osmotic medium responded to inhibitors with rapid, transient, negative-going PDs, with decreased Gmneg and increased Gmpos (linearized I-V), achieving the quiet state as PD recovered. These changes are different from those exerted on the pump state, indicating that different transport systems are responsible for turgor regulation in the two cases.

  9. A Rat α-Fetoprotein Binding Activity Prediction Model to Facilitate Assessment of the Endocrine Disruption Potential of Environmental Chemicals.

    PubMed

    Hong, Huixiao; Shen, Jie; Ng, Hui Wen; Sakkiah, Sugunadevi; Ye, Hao; Ge, Weigong; Gong, Ping; Xiao, Wenming; Tong, Weida

    2016-03-25

    Endocrine disruptors such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), diethylstilbestrol (DES) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) are agents that interfere with the endocrine system and cause adverse health effects. Huge public health concern about endocrine disruptors has arisen. One of the mechanisms of endocrine disruption is through binding of endocrine disruptors with the hormone receptors in the target cells. Entrance of endocrine disruptors into target cells is the precondition of endocrine disruption. The binding capability of a chemical with proteins in the blood affects its entrance into the target cells and, thus, is very informative for the assessment of potential endocrine disruption of chemicals. α-fetoprotein is one of the major serum proteins that binds to a variety of chemicals such as estrogens. To better facilitate assessment of endocrine disruption of environmental chemicals, we developed a model for α-fetoprotein binding activity prediction using the novel pattern recognition method (Decision Forest) and the molecular descriptors calculated from two-dimensional structures by Mold² software. The predictive capability of the model has been evaluated through internal validation using 125 training chemicals (average balanced accuracy of 69%) and external validations using 22 chemicals (balanced accuracy of 71%). Prediction confidence analysis revealed the model performed much better at high prediction confidence. Our results indicate that the model is useful (when predictions are in high confidence) in endocrine disruption risk assessment of environmental chemicals though improvement by increasing number of training chemicals is needed.

  10. Facile screening of potential xenoestrogens by an estrogen receptor-based reusable optical biosensor.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lanhua; Zhou, Xiaohong; Lu, Yun; Shan, Didi; Xu, Bi; He, Miao; Shi, Hanchang; Qian, Yi

    2017-11-15

    The apparent increase in hormone-induced cancers and disorders of the reproductive tract has led to a growing demand for new technologies capable of screening xenoestrogens. We reported an estrogen receptor (ER)-based reusable fiber biosensor for facile screening estrogenic compounds in environment. The bioassay is based on the competition of xenoestrogens with 17β-estradiol (E 2 ) for binding to the recombinant receptor of human estrogen receptor α (hERα) protein, leaving E 2 free to bind to fluorophore-labeled anti-E 2 monoclonal antibody. Unbound anti-E 2 antibody then binds to the immobilized E 2 -protein conjugate on the fiber surface, and is detected by fluorescence emission induced by evanescent field. As expected, the stronger estrogenic activity of xenoestrogen would result in the weaker fluorescent signal. Three estrogen-agonist compounds, diethylstilbestrol (DES), 4-n-nonylphenol (NP) and 4-n-octylphenol (OP), were chosen as a paradigm for validation of this assay. The rank order of estrogenic potency determined by this biosensor was DES>OP>NP, which were consistent with the published results in numerous studies. Moreover, the E 2 -protein conjugate modified optical fiber was robust enough for over 300 sensing cycles with the signal recoveries ranging from 90% to 100%. In conclusion, the biosensor is reusable, reliable, portable and amenable to on-line operation, providing a facile, efficient and economical alternative to screen potential xenoestrogens in environment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Self-association and cyclodextrin solubilization of drugs.

    PubMed

    Loftsson, Thorsteinn; Magnúsdóttir, Auethur; Másson, Már; Sigurjónsdóttir, Jóhanna F

    2002-11-01

    Phase-solubility diagrams are frequently used to calculate stoichiometry of drug/cyclodextrin complexes. Linear diagrams (A(L)-type systems) are thought to indicate that the complexes are first order with respect to cyclodextrin and first or higher order with respect to the drug. Positive deviation from linearity (A(P)-type systems) are thought to indicate formation of complexes that are first order with respect to the drug but second or higher order with respect to cyclodextrin. The phase solubility of several different compounds, i.e., cholesterol, ibuprofen, diflunisal, alprazolam, 17beta-estradiol and diethylstilbestrol, and various charged and uncharged cyclodextrins was investigated. Phase-solubility diagrams of cholesterol in aqueous cyclodextrin solutions were all of A(P) type. However, the phase-solubility diagrams obtained with charged cyclodextrins could not be fitted to complexes of second or higher order with respect to cyclodextrin. The phase-solubility diagrams of ibuprofen and diflunisal were of A(L) type with slope greater than unity indicating formation of 2:1 drug/cyclodextrin complexes. However, Job's plots and space filling docking studies indicated that 1:1 complexes were formed. These and other observations show that stoichiometry of drug/cyclodextrin complexes cannot be derived from simple phase-solubility studies. Furthermore, the results indicate that drug/cyclodextrin complexes can self-associate to form water-soluble aggregates, which then can further solubilize the drug through non-inclusion complexation. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc. and the American Pharmaceutical Association J Pharm Sci 91:2307-2316, 2002

  12. Studies on the synergistic effect of androgen on the stimulation of progestin secretion by FSH in cultured rat granulosa cells: progesterone metabolism and the effect of androgens.

    PubMed

    Nimrod, A

    1977-09-01

    Metabolic transformations of progesterone in cultures of granulosa cells from immature hypophysectomized rats treated with diethylstilbestrol were studied in relation to the synergistic action of exogenous androgen and FSH on progestin (progesterone and 20alpha-dihydroprogesterone) accumulation. Androstenedione (Ad; 10 ng/ml) enhanced the sensitivity of rat granulosa cells to this steroidogenic action of FSH, lowering the threshold of the response from greater than 4 ng/ml (FSH alone) to 0.8 ng/ml in the presence of Ad. A synergistic effect with FSH was also shown by various 5alpha-androstane derivatives. They were, however, less effective than the parent delta4-3 keto androstenes. Progesterone underwent extensive 5alpha-reduction during culture, leading to accumulation of endogenous 5alpha-pregnane compounds, and to transformation of labelled progesterone into 5 alpha-reduced radiometabolites. These compounds corresponded in gas-liquid and thin-layer chromatographic behaviour to 3alpha-hydroxy-5alpha-pregnan-20-one, 20alpha-hydroxy-5alpha-pregnan-3-one and 5alpha-pregnane-3alpha,20alpha-diol. The rate of 5alpha-reduction of progestins was not affected by the presence of exogenous Ad (1 microgram/ml), ruling out the possibility that the effect of androgen on progestin accumulation depends on competitive inhibition of 5alpha-reductase. An involvement of androgen of thecal origin in the enhancement of the sensitivity of the FSH-responsive mechanism in granulosa cells is suggested.

  13. Imaging, biodistribution and therapy potential of halogenated tamoxifen analogues.

    PubMed

    Yang, D J; Li, C; Kuang, L R; Price, J E; Buzdar, A U; Tansey, W; Cherif, A; Gretzer, M; Kim, E E; Wallace, S

    1994-01-01

    Tamoxifen binds to estrogen receptors (ERs) and prevents breast cancer cell proliferation. This study is aimed at developing a ligand for imaging ER (+) breast tumors by positron emission tomography (PET) or single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). [18F]-Labeled tamoxifen analogue ([18F]FTX) was prepared in 30-40% yield and [131I]-labeled tamoxifen analogue ([131I]ITX) was prepared in 20-25% yield. In mammary tumor-bearing rats, the biodistribution of [18F]FTX at 2 h showed a tumor uptake value (% injected dose/gram tissue) of 0.41 +/- 0.07; when rats were pretreated with diethylstilbestrol (DES), the value changed to 0.24 +/- 0.017. [131I]ITX at 6 h showed a tumor uptake value of 0.26 +/- 0.166; when rats were pretreated with DES, the value changed to 0.22 +/- 0.044. Priming tumor-bearing rats with estradiol, a tumor uptake value for [131I]ITX was increased to 0.48 +/- 0.107 at 6 h. In the [3H]estradiol receptor assay, tumors had a mean estrogen receptor density of 7.5 fmol/mg of protein. In gamma scintigraphic imaging studies with [131I]ITX, the rabbit uterus uptake can be blocked by pretreatment with DES. Both iodo-tamoxifen and tamoxifen reduced ER(+) breast tumor growth at the dose of 50 micrograms in tumor-bearing mice. The findings indicate that tamoxifen analogue uptake in tumors occurs via an ER-mediated process. Both analogues should have potential for diagnosing functioning ER(+) breast cancer.

  14. In utero exposure to low doses of bisphenol A lead to long-term deleterious effects in the vagina.

    PubMed

    Schönfelder, G; Flick, B; Mayr, E; Talsness, C; Paul, M; Chahoud, I

    2002-01-01

    The origins of the "endocrine disrupter hypothesis" may be traced to reports on adolescent daughters born to women who had taken the highly potent synthetic estrogen, diethylstilbestrol, while pregnant, and who developed a rare form of vaginal cancer and adenocarcinoma. Bisphenol A (BPA) is an estrogenic chemical that is highly employed in the manufacture of a wide range of consumer products. Some observational studies have suggested that the amounts of BPA to which we are exposed could alter the reproductive organs of developing rodents. We examined the influence of BPA at low doses to address the questions of (a) whether in utero exposure affects the vagina of the offspring and (b) which mechanisms cause the toxic effects. Gravid Sprague-Dawley dams were administered either 0.1 (low dose) or 50 mg/kg per day BPA, the no observed effect level, or 0.2 mg/kg per day 17 alpha-ethinyl estradiol by gavage. Striking morphological changes were observed in the vagina of postpubertal offspring leading us to examine vaginal estrogen receptor (ER) expression because BPA binds to the ER alpha, which is important for growth of the vaginal epithelium. We show that the full-length ER alpha is not expressed during estrus in the vagina of female offspring exposed to either dose of BPA when compared to the control group, whereas ER alpha expression does not differ from the control group during the diestrus stage. ER alpha downregulation seems to be responsible for the observed altered vaginal morphology.

  15. In Utero Exposure to Low Doses of Bisphenol A Lead to Long-term Deleterious Effects in the Vagina1

    PubMed Central

    Schönfelder, G; Flick, B; Mayr, E; Talsness, C; Paul, M; Chahoud, I

    2002-01-01

    Abstract The origins of the “endocrine disrupter hypothesis” may be traced to reports on adolescent daughters born to women who had taken the highly potent synthetic estrogen, diethylstilbestrol, while pregnant, and who developed a rare form of vaginal cancer and adenocarcinoma. Bisphenol A (BPA) is an estrogenic chemical that is highly employed in the manufacture of a wide range of consumer products. Some observational studies have suggested that the amounts of BPA to which we are exposed could alter the reproductive organs of developing rodents. We examined the influence of BPA at low doses to address the questions of (a) whether in utero exposure affects the vagina of the offspring and (b) which mechanisms cause the toxic effects. Gravid Sprague-Dawley dams were administered either 0.1 (low dose) or 50 mg/kg per day BPA, the no observed effect level, or 0.2 mg/kg per day 17α-ethinyl estradiol by gavage. Striking morphological changes were observed in the vagina of postpubertal offspring leading us to examine vaginal estrogen receptor (ER) expression because BPA binds to the ERα, which is important for growth of the vaginal epithelium. We show that the full -length ERα is not expressed during estrus in the vagina of female offspring exposed to either dose of BPA when compared to the control group, whereas ERα expression does not differ from the control group during the diestrus stage. ERα downregulation seems to be responsible for the observed altered vaginal morphology. PMID:11896564

  16. Testicular Dysgenesis Syndrome and the Estrogen Hypothesis: A Quantitative Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Olwenn V.; Shialis, Tassos; Lester, John N.; Scrimshaw, Mark D.; Boobis, Alan R.; Voulvoulis, Nikolaos

    2008-01-01

    Background Male reproductive tract abnormalities such as hypospadias and cryptorchidism, and testicular cancer have been proposed to comprise a common syndrome together with impaired spermatogenesis with a common etiology resulting from the disruption of gonadal development during fetal life, the testicular dysgenesis syndrome (TDS). The hypothesis that in utero exposure to estrogenic agents could induce these disorders was first proposed in 1993. The only quantitative summary estimate of the association between prenatal exposure to estrogenic agents and testicular cancer was published over 10 years ago, and other systematic reviews of the association between estrogenic compounds, other than the potent pharmaceutical estrogen diethylstilbestrol (DES), and TDS end points have remained inconclusive. Objectives We conducted a quantitative meta-analysis of the association between the end points related to TDS and prenatal exposure to estrogenic agents. Inclusion in this analysis was based on mechanistic criteria, and the plausibility of an estrogen receptor (ER)-α–mediated mode of action was specifically explored. Results We included in this meta-analysis eight studies investigating the etiology of hypospadias and/or cryptorchidism that had not been identified in previous systematic reviews. Four additional studies of pharmaceutical estrogens yielded a statistically significant updated summary estimate for testicular cancer. Conclusions The doubling of the risk ratios for all three end points investigated after DES exposure is consistent with a shared etiology and the TDS hypothesis but does not constitute evidence of an estrogenic mode of action. Results of the subset analyses point to the existence of unidentified sources of heterogeneity between studies or within the study population. PMID:18288311

  17. Ept7 influences estrogen action in the pituitary gland and body weight of rats.

    PubMed

    Kurz, Scott G; Dennison, Kirsten L; Samanas, Nyssa Becker; Hickman, Maureen Peters; Eckert, Quincy A; Walker, Tiffany L; Cupp, Andrea S; Shull, James D

    2014-06-01

    Estrogens control many aspects of pituitary gland biology, including regulation of lactotroph homeostasis and synthesis and secretion of prolactin. In rat models, these actions are strain specific and heritable, and multiple quantitative trait loci (QTL) have been mapped that impact the responsiveness of the lactotroph to estrogens. One such QTL, Ept7, was mapped to RNO7 in female progeny generated in an intercross between BN rats, in which the lactotroph population is insensitive to estrogens, and ACI rats, which develop lactotroph hyperplasia/adenoma and associated hyperprolactinemia in response to estrogen treatment. The primary objective of this study was to confirm the existence of Ept7 and to quantify the impact of this QTL on responsiveness of the pituitary gland of female and male rats to 17β-estradiol (E2) and diethylstilbestrol (DES), respectively. Secondary objectives were to determine if Ept7 influences the responsiveness of the male reproductive tract to DES and to identify other discernible phenotypes influenced by Ept7. To achieve these objectives, a congenic rat strain that harbors BN alleles across the Ept7 interval on the genetic background of the ACI strain was generated and characterized to define the effect of administered estrogens on the anterior pituitary gland and male reproductive tissues. Data presented herein indicate Ept7 exerts a marked effect on development of lactotroph hyperplasia in response to estrogen treatment, but does not affect atrophy of the male reproductive tissues in response to hormone treatment. Ept7 was also observed to exert gender specific effects on body weight in young adult rats.

  18. Identification of M2 macrophages in anterior pituitary glands of normal rats and rats with estrogen-induced prolactinoma.

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, Ken; Yatabe, Megumi; Tofrizal, Alimuddin; Jindatip, Depicha; Yashiro, Takashi; Nagai, Ryozo

    2017-05-01

    Macrophages are present throughout the anterior pituitary gland. However, the features and function of macrophages in the gland are poorly understood. Recent studies have indicated that there are two main macrophage classes: M1 (classically activated) and M2 (alternatively activated). In this study, we examine whether both M1 and M2 macrophages are present in the anterior pituitary gland of rats. Our findings indicate that macrophages that are positive for CD68 (a pan-macrophage marker) were localized near capillaries in rat anterior pituitary gland. These macrophages were positive for iNOS or mannose receptor (MR), which are markers of M1 and M2 macrophages, respectively. To determine the morphological characteristics of M2 macrophages under pathological conditions, diethylstilbestrol (DES)-treated rats were used as an animal model of prolactinoma. After 2 weeks of DES treatment, a number of MR-immunopositive cells were present in the gland. Immunoelectron microscopy revealed that MR-immunopositive M2 macrophages had many small vesicles and moderately large vacuoles in cytoplasm. Phagosomes were sometimes present in cytoplasm. Interestingly, M2 macrophages in prolactinoma tissues did not usually exhibit distinct changes or differences during the normal, hyperplasia and adenoma stages. This study is the first to confirm that both M1 and M2 macrophages are present in the anterior pituitary gland of rats. Moreover, the number of M2 macrophages was greatly increased in rats with DES-induced prolactinoma. Future studies should attempt to characterize the functional role of M2 macrophages in the gland.

  19. Estrogen-Induced Developmental Disorders of the Rat Penis Involve Both Estrogen Receptor (ESR)- and Androgen Receptor (AR)-Mediated Pathways1

    PubMed Central

    Goyal, H.O.; Braden, T.D.; Williams, C.S.; Williams, J.W.

    2009-01-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that the estrogen receptor (ESR) pathway, androgen receptor (AR) pathway, or both mediate estrogen-induced developmental penile disorders. Rat pups received diethylstilbestrol (DES), with or without the ESR antagonist ICI 182,780 (ICI) or the AR agonist dihydrotestosterone (DHT) or testosterone (T), from Postnatal Days 1 to 6. Testicular T concentration, penile morphology and morphometry, and/or fertility was determined at age 7, 28, or 150 days. DES treatment alone caused 90% reduction in the neonatal intratesticular T surge; this reduction was prevented by ICI coadministration, but not by DHT or T coadministration. Unlike the T surge, coadministration of ICI and coadministration of DHT or T mitigated penile deformities and loss of fertility. Generally, ICI, DHT, or T treatment alone did not alter penile morphology; however, fertility was 20% that of controls in ICI-treated rats vs. 70%–90% in DHT- or T-treated rats. The lower fertility in the rats treated with ICI alone could be due to altered sexual behavior, as these males did not deposit vaginal plugs. In conclusion, observations that both an ESR antagonist and AR agonists prevent penile deformities and infertility suggest that both pathways are involved in estrogen-induced penile disorders. Observations that coadministration of ICI, but not DHT or T, prevents the DES-induced reduction in the neonatal T surge suggest that, although ICI exerts its mitigating effect both at the level of Leydig cells and penile stromal cells, DHT and T do so only at the level of stromal cells. PMID:19420389

  20. Cytotoxic effects and aromatase inhibition by xenobiotic endocrine disrupters alone and in combination.

    PubMed

    Benachour, Nora; Moslemi, Safa; Sipahutar, Herbert; Seralini, Gilles-Eric

    2007-07-15

    Xenobiotics may cause long-term adverse effects in humans, especially at the embryonic level, raising questions about their levels of exposure, combined effects, and crucial endpoints. We are interested in the possible interactions between xenobiotic endocrine disrupters, cellular viability and androgen metabolism. Accordingly, we tested aroclor 1254 (A1254), atrazine (AZ), o,p'-DDT, vinclozolin (VZ), p,p'-DDE, bisphenol A (BPA), chlordecone (CD), nonylphenol (NP), tributylin oxide (TBTO), and diethylstilbestrol (DES) for cellular toxicity against human embryonic 293 cells, and activity against cellular aromatase, but also on placental microsomes and on the purified equine enzyme. Cellular viability was affected in 24 h by all the xenobiotics with a threshold at 50 microM (except for TBTO and DES, 10 microM threshold), and aromatase was inhibited at non-toxic doses. In combination synergism was observed reducing the threshold values of toxicity to 4-10 microM, and aromatase activity by 50% in some cases. In placental microsomes the most active xenobiotics rapidly inhibited microsomal aromatase in a manner independent of NADPH metabolism. Prolonged exposures to low doses in cells generally amplified by 50 times aromatase inhibition. These xenobiotics may act by inhibition of the active site or by allosteric effects on the enzyme. Bioaccumulation is a feature of some xenobiotics, especially chlordecone, DDT and DDE, and low level chronic exposures can also affect cell signaling mechanisms. This new information about the mechanism of action of these xenobiotics will assist in improved molecular design with a view to providing safer compounds for use in the (human) environment.

  1. Early exposure to a low dose of bisphenol A affects socio-sexual behavior of juvenile female rats.

    PubMed

    Porrini, Stefania; Belloni, Virginia; Della Seta, Daniele; Farabollini, Francesca; Giannelli, Giuletta; Dessì-Fulgheri, Francesco

    2005-04-15

    Play behavior is affected by alteration of the hormonal environment during development. In fact, congenital adrenal hyperplasia or early administration of diethylstilbestrol are able to modify female play behavior in mammals. In this research, play behavior of female rats was used to explore the effects of perinatal exposure to low, environmentally relevant dose of bisphenol A (BPA), a xenoestrogen widely diffused in the environment. We used 18 females born to mothers exposed to 40 microg/kg/day BPA during pregnancy and lactation, and 18 control females. The subjects were observed in a heterosexual social situation from 35 to 55 days of age. Six main behaviors were identified by principal component analysis (PCA): exploration, defensive behavior to males, play behavior with males, play behavior with females, low-intensity mating behavior, social grooming. Early administration of BPA was responsible for a significant increase of exploration (including social investigation) (p<0.001), as well as a decrease of play with males (p<0.02) and social grooming (p<0.01) at 45 days of age, indicating a general decrease of playful interactions. In general our results suggest that BPA does not induce a clear masculinization of female behavior, but is able however to defeminize some aspects of female behavior. This result is compatible with the estrogenic properties of BPA, and suggests caution in the use of a chemical that, in the range of human exposure, is able to influence the development of the brain during a critical period, resulting in long-term effects on behavior.

  2. Membrane Transport in Isolated Vesicles from Sugarbeet Taproot 1

    PubMed Central

    Briskin, Donald P.; Thornley, W. Robert; Wyse, Roger E.

    1985-01-01

    Sealed membrane vesicles were isolated from homogenates of sugarbeet (Beta vulgaris L.) taproot by a combination of differential centrifugation, extraction with KI, and dextran gradient centrifugation. Relative to the KI-extracted microsomes, the content of plasma membranes, mitochondrial membranes, and Golgi membranes was much reduced in the final vesicle fraction. A component of ATPase activity that was inhibited by nitrate co-enriched with the capacity of the vesicles to form a steady state pH gradient during the purification procedure. This suggests that the nitrate-sensitive ATPase may be involved in driving H+-transport, and this is consistent with the observation that H+-transport, in the final vesicle fraction was inhibited by nitrate. Proton transport in the sugarbeet vesicles was substrate specific for ATP, insensitive to sodium vanadate and oligomycin but was inhibited by diethylstilbestrol and N,N′-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide. The formation of a pH gradient in the vesicles was enhanced by halide ions in the sequence I− > Br− > Cl− while F− was inhibitory. These stimulatory effects occur from both a direct stimulation of the ATPase by anions and a reduction in the vesicle membrane potential. In the presence of Cl−, alkali cations reduce the pH gradient relative to that observed with bis-tris-propane, possibly by H+/alkali cation exchange. Based upon the properties of the H+-transporting vesicles, it is proposed that they are most likely derived from the tonoplast so that this vesicle preparation would represent a convenient system for studying the mechanism of transport at this membrane boundary. PMID:16664342

  3. Modification of mortality and tumorigenesis by tocopherol-mono-glucoside (TMG) administered after X irradiation in mice and rats.

    PubMed

    Ueno, Megumi; Inano, Hiroshi; Onoda, Makoto; Murase, Hironobu; Ikota, Nobuo; Kagiya, Tsutomu V; Anzai, Kazunori

    2009-10-01

    The effects of TMG [2-(alpha-d-glucopyranosyl) methyl-2,5,7,8-tetramethylchroman-6-ol], a water-soluble vitamin E derivative, administered after irradiation on the mortality of X-irradiated mice and on the development of tumors in the mammary and pituitary glands in rats were investigated. When TMG (650 mg/kg) was administered intraperitoneally (i.p.) to C3H mice immediately after whole-body exposure to 7 Gy radiation, the 30-day survival was significantly higher than that of the control mice. The i.p. administration of TMG at 4 h after irradiation significantly improved survival compared to that of the controls, but administration 8 h after irradiation did not have a significant effect. Subcutaneous administration of TMG immediately after irradiation also decreased mortality significantly. When dams of lactating Wister rats were exposed to 1.5 Gy of X rays at day 21 after parturition and were then treated with diethylstilbestrol as a tumor promoter, the incidence of mammary tumors and pituitary tumors was increased compared to that in the nonirradiated control group. The administration of TMG (600 mg/kg, i.p.) after irradiation significantly reduced the incidence of mammary tumors and pituitary tumors. The number of rats that were free of both mammary and pituitary gland tumors was enhanced fourfold by TMG. These results suggest that TMG is effective in preventing radiation-induced bone marrow death in mice and in reducing mammary and pituitary tumors in rats even when it is administered after irradiation.

  4. Testicular dysgenesis syndrome and the estrogen hypothesis: a quantitative meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Martin, Olwenn V; Shialis, Tassos; Lester, John N; Scrimshaw, Mark D; Boobis, Alan R; Voulvoulis, Nikolaos

    2008-02-01

    Male reproductive tract abnormalities such as hypospadias and cryptorchidism, and testicular cancer have been proposed to comprise a common syndrome together with impaired spermatogenesis with a common etiology resulting from the disruption of gonadal development during fetal life, the testicular dysgenesis syndrome (TDS). The hypothesis that in utero exposure to estrogenic agents could induce these disorders was first proposed in 1993. The only quantitative summary estimate of the association between prenatal exposure to estrogenic agents and testicular cancer was published over 10 years ago, and other systematic reviews of the association between estrogenic compounds, other than the potent pharmaceutical estrogen diethylstilbestrol (DES), and TDS end points have remained inconclusive. We conducted a quantitative meta-analysis of the association between the end points related to TDS and prenatal exposure to estrogenic agents. Inclusion in this analysis was based on mechanistic criteria, and the plausibility of an estrogen receptor (ER)-alpha-mediated mode of action was specifically explored. We included in this meta-analysis eight studies investigating the etiology of hypospadias and/or cryptorchidism that had not been identified in previous systematic reviews. Four additional studies of pharmaceutical estrogens yielded a statistically significant updated summary estimate for testicular cancer. The doubling of the risk ratios for all three end points investigated after DES exposure is consistent with a shared etiology and the TDS hypothesis but does not constitute evidence of an estrogenic mode of action. Results of the subset analyses point to the existence of unidentified sources of heterogeneity between studies or within the study population.

  5. Human Teratogens Update 2011: Can We Ensure Safety during Pregnancy?

    PubMed Central

    Rasmussen, Sonja A.

    2015-01-01

    Anniversaries of the identification of three human teratogens (i.e., rubella virus in 1941, thalidomide in 1961, and diethylstilbestrol in 1971) occurred in 2011. These experiences highlight the critical role that scientists with an interest in teratology play in the identification of teratogenic exposures as the basis for developing strategies for prevention of those exposures and the adverse outcomes associated with them. However, an equally important responsibility for teratologists is to evaluate whether medications and vaccines are safe for use during pregnancy so informed decisions about disease treatment and prevention during pregnancy can be made. Several recent studies have examined the safety of medications during pregnancy, including antiviral medications used to treat herpes simplex and zoster, proton pump inhibitors used to treat gastroesophageal reflux, and newer-generation antiepileptic medications used to treat seizures and other conditions. Despite the large numbers of pregnant women included in these studies and the relatively reassuring results, the question of whether these medications are teratogens remains. In addition, certain vaccines are recommended during pregnancy to prevent infections in mothers and infants, but clinical trials to test these vaccines typically exclude pregnant women; thus, evaluation of their safety depends on observational studies. For pregnant women to receive optimal care, we need to define the data needed to determine whether a medication or vaccine is “safe” for use during pregnancy. In the absence of adequate, well-controlled data, it will often be necessary to weigh the benefits of medications or vaccines with potential risks to the embryo or fetus. PMID:22328359

  6. Evaluation of a recombinant yeast cell estrogen screening assay.

    PubMed Central

    Coldham, N G; Dave, M; Sivapathasundaram, S; McDonnell, D P; Connor, C; Sauer, M J

    1997-01-01

    A wide range of chemicals with diverse structures derived from plant and environmental origins are reported to have hormonal activity. The potential for appreciable exposure of humans to such substances prompts the need to develop sensitive screening methods to quantitate and evaluate the risk to the public. Yeast cells transformed with plasmids encoding the human estrogen receptor and an estrogen responsive promoter linked to a reporter gene were evaluated for screening compounds for estrogenic activity. Relative sensitivity to estrogens was evaluated by reference to 17 beta-estradiol (E2) calibration curves derived using the recombinant yeast cells, MCF-7 human breast cancer cells, and a prepubertal mouse uterotrophic bioassay. The recombinant yeast cell bioassay (RCBA) was approximately two and five orders of magnitude more sensitive to E2 than MCF-7 cells and the uterotrophic assay, respectively. The estrogenic potency of 53 chemicals, including steroid hormones, synthetic estrogens, environmental pollutants, and phytoestrogens, was measured using the RCBA. Potency values produced with the RCBA relative to E2 (100) included estrone (9.6), diethylstilbestrol (74.3), tamoxifen (0.0047), alpha-zearalanol (1.3), equol (0.085), 4-nonylphenol (0.005), and butylbenzyl phathalate (0.0004), which were similar to literature values but generally higher than those produced by the uterotrophic assay. Exquisite sensitivity, absence of test compound biotransformation, ease of use, and the possibility of measuring antiestrogenic activity are important attributes that argue for the suitability of the RCBA in screening for potential xenoestrogens to evaluate risk to humans, wildlife, and the environment. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. PMID:9294720

  7. Xenobiotic interaction with and alteration of channel catfish estrogen receptor.

    PubMed

    Nimrod, A C; Benson, W H

    1997-12-01

    In teleostean in vivo studies, the vitellogenin response to environmental estrogens is not completely predicted by mammalian literature. One possible explanation for differences is heterogeneity of the estrogen receptor (ER) structure between species. Therefore, ER from channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) hepatic tissue was characterized by binding affinity for several compounds. Affinity was indirectly measured as potency of the chemical for inhibiting binding of radiolabeled estradiol (E2) to specific binding sites. The order of potency among therapeutic chemicals was ethinylestradiol > unlabeled E2 = diethylstilbestrol > mestranol > tamoxifen > testosterone. Unlabeled E2 had an IC50 of 2.2 nM. Several environmentally relevant chemicals were evaluated in a similar manner and the order of potency established was the o-demethylated metabolite of methoxychlor (MXC) > nonylphenol (NP) > chlordecone > MXC > o,p'-DDT > o,p'-DDE > beta-hexachlorocyclohexane. Demethylated MXC had an IC50 1000-fold greater than that of E2. Of the most potent inhibitors, NP appeared to be a competitive inhibitor for the same binding site as E2, while o-demethylated MXC had a more complex interaction with the receptor protein. ER from nonvitellogenic females was determined to have a Kd value of 1.0 to 1.3 nM. Because E2 has been reported to up-regulate teleostean ER, the hepatic ER population following in vivo xenobiotic exposure was assessed. NP significantly increased ER per milligram hepatic protein almost to the same extent as E2, but did not increase Kd to the same extent as E2.

  8. Human teratogens update 2011: can we ensure safety during pregnancy?

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Sonja A

    2012-03-01

    Anniversaries of the identification of three human teratogens (i.e., rubella virus in 1941, thalidomide in 1961, and diethylstilbestrol in 1971) occurred in 2011. These experiences highlight the critical role that scientists with an interest in teratology play in the identification of teratogenic exposures as the basis for developing strategies for prevention of those exposures and the adverse outcomes associated with them. However, an equally important responsibility for teratologists is to evaluate whether medications and vaccines are safe for use during pregnancy so informed decisions about disease treatment and prevention during pregnancy can be made. Several recent studies have examined the safety of medications during pregnancy, including antiviral medications used to treat herpes simplex and zoster, proton pump inhibitors used to treat gastroesophageal reflux, and newer-generation antiepileptic medications used to treat seizures and other conditions. Despite the large numbers of pregnant women included in these studies and the relatively reassuring results, the question of whether these medications are teratogens remains. In addition, certain vaccines are recommended during pregnancy to prevent infections in mothers and infants, but clinical trials to test these vaccines typically exclude pregnant women; thus, evaluation of their safety depends on observational studies. For pregnant women to receive optimal care, we need to define the data needed to determine whether a medication or vaccine is "safe" for use during pregnancy. In the absence of adequate, well-controlled data, it will often be necessary to weigh the benefits of medications or vaccines with potential risks to the embryo or fetus. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Thin metal organic frameworks coatings by cathodic electrodeposition for solid-phase microextraction and analysis of trace exogenous estrogens in milk.

    PubMed

    Lan, Hangzhen; Pan, Daodong; Sun, Yangying; Guo, Yuxing; Wu, Zhen

    2016-09-21

    Cathodic electrodeposition (CED) has received great attention in metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) synthesis due to its distinguished properties including simplicity, controllability, mild synthesis conditions, and product continuously. Here, we report the fabrication of thin (Et3NH)2Zn3(BDC)4 (E-MOF-5) film coated solid phase microextraction (SPME) fiber by a one-step in situ cathodic electrodeposition strategy. Several etched stainless steel fibers were placed in parallel in order to achieve simultaneously electrochemical polymerization. The influence of different polymerization parameters Et3NHCl concentration and polymerization time were evaluated. The proposed method requires only 20 min for the preparation of E-MOF-5 coating. The optimum coating showed excellent thermal stability and mechanical durability with a long lifetime of more than 120 repetitions SPME operations, and also exhibited higher extraction selectivity and capacity to four estrogens than commonly-used commercial PDMS coating. The limits of detection for the estrogens were 0.17-0.56 ng mL(-1). Fiber-to-fiber reproducibility (n = 8) was in the respective ranges of 3.5%-6.1% relative standard deviation (RSD) for four estrogens for triplicate measurements at 200 ng mL(-1). Finally, the (E-MOF-5) coated fiber was evaluated for ethinylestradiol (EE2), bisphenol A (BPA), diethylstilbestrol (DES), and hexestrol (HEX) extraction in the spiked milk samples. The extraction performance of this new coating was satisfied enough for repeatable use without obvious decline. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Morphology based scoring of chromosomal instability and its correlation with cell viability.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Shubhlata; Bhatia, Alka

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to devise the quantitative scoring system for Chromosomal instability (CIN) based on morphological indicators like MPM, NB, NPB, CS, La and MN in cancer cell line and to correlate it with cell viability and death. Human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cells were treated with drugs like Diethylstilbestrol 0-100μM, Griseofulvin 0-40μg/ml, Vincristine sulphate 0-25μg/ml, Mitomycin C 0-600ng/ml, Bleomycin 0-10μg/ml, Doxorubicin 0-30μg/ml for 24h. Following this, the CIN was assessed by counting the morphological indicators like Micronuclei (MN), Nuclear Buds (NB), Nucleoplasmic bridges, Laggards, Multipolar mitosis and chromatin strings/1000 cells in Giemsa stained smears by light microscopy and by determining the percentage of aneuploid cells by flow cytometry. The cell viability was assessed by MTT assay and percentage of apoptotic cells was determined by flow cytometry. The MN and NB were most frequently seen indicators and main determinants of morphological CIN. However, the morphological CIN score did not show any correlation with cell viability and apoptosis. Aneuploidy however was found to correlate positively with cell viability and NB score in our study (P-value <0.05). The study for the 1st time attempted to develop a scoring system for CIN based on morphological parameters. However, a no correlation was observed between the later and cell viability or apoptosis. More robust techniques to quantify CIN may perhaps be more helpful in exploring the true link between CIN and cell viability in future. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. [Study of combined effects of DES and EV on the proliferation of MCF-7 cells by two experimental designs].

    PubMed

    Liu, Qian; Lei, Bing-Li; An, Jing; Shang, Yu; Zhong, Yu-Fang; Kang, Jia; Wen, Yu

    2013-08-01

    The single toxicity of diethylstilbestrol (DES) and beta-estradiol 17-valerate (EV) and the joint toxicity of their binary mixtures in equiconcentration to the proliferation of MCF-7 cells were investigated, respectively. Additive index (AI) method was adopted to evaluate the joint toxicity effect. At the same time, 3 x 3 factorial experimental design was used to verify the joint toxiciy types derived from equiconcentration of DES and EV. The results show that the EC50 values of single EV and DES for 24, 48 and 72 h are 6.02, 0.40 and 0.33 nmol x L(-1) and 5.90, 6.98 and 2.90 nmol x L(-1), respectively. The EC50 values of the binary mixtures of DES and EV for 24, 48 and 72 h are 2.33, 0.71 and 0.39 nmol x L(-1). The binary joint effects of DES and EV for 24 h were synergistic, and the joint effects of DES and EV for 48 and 72 h were antagonistic. But synergistic and antagonistic effects are not strong; their values can be found close to the values of additive effects. Factorial experiment results show that combined effects of DES and EV to proliferation of MCF-7 cells for 24, 48 and 72 h three exposure periods are additive effect types. The consistent joint combined effect types can be drawn from both factorial experimental design and equiconcentration ratio of DES and EV to the proliferation of MCF-7 cells. However, the factorial experimental design is simpler and more convenient, and can avoid unnecessary mistakes due to the derivation of EC50 values.

  12. [Simultaneous determination of nine estrogens in eel by ultrafast liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry with isotope dilution technique and solid-phase extraction].

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaohong; Yao, Shanshan; Li, Xiaoping; Zhao, Yonggang; Jin, Micong

    2012-11-01

    Developing a rapid and sensitive analytical method based on ultrafast liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UFLC-MS/MS) with solid-phase extraction (SPE) for the simultaneous determination of nine estrogens (dienestrol, diethylstilbestrol, estrone, hexestrol, 17-alpha-estradiol, 17-beta-estradiol, estriol, 17alpha-ethinylestradiol and estradiol valerate) in eel. After the sample was extracted by acetonitrile and cleaned by Waters Oasis HLB solid-phase extraction cartridge, the UFLC separation was performed on a Shim-pack XR-ODS II column (100 mm x 2.0 mm, 2.2 microm) with a linear gradient elution program of methanol solution containing 0.04% ammonia (v/v) and 0.04% ammonia aqueous solution (v/v) as the mobile phase. Electrospray ionization was applied and operated in the negative multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. The quantitation was used by isotope internal standard dilution technique. The results showed that the limits of quantitation (LOQs, S/N(10) were in the range of 0.07-0.4 microg/kg, the calibration curves were in good linearities for the nine analytes in the range of 0.5-50.0 microg/L with the correlative coefficients (r2) more than 0.998, the recoveries were between 81.0% and 110.0% with the relative standard deviations (RSDs) of 1.92%-8.24%. Additional, the mass spectra characterization of the nine estrogens was discussed and the fragmentation pathways were speculated. The developed method is rapid, sensitive, specific and reproducible, and adapts not only to the simultaneous determination of the nine trace estrogens including the epimer of 17-alpha-estradiol and 17-beta-estradiol but also to the identified detection in other fish tissues.

  13. Environmental Estrogens Differentially Engage the Histone Methyltransferase EZH2 to Increase Risk of Uterine Tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    Greathouse, K. Leigh; Bredfeldt, Tiffany; Everitt, Jeffrey I.; Lin, Kevin; Berry, Tia; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Mittelstadt, Megan L.; Ho, Shuk-mei; Walker, Cheryl L.

    2013-01-01

    Environmental exposures during sensitive windows of development can reprogram normal physiological responses and alter disease susceptibility later in life in a process known as developmental reprogramming. For example, exposure to the xenoestrogen diethylstilbestrol (DES) during reproductive tract development can reprogram estrogen-responsive gene expression in the myometrium, resulting in hyper-responsiveness to hormone in the adult uterus and promotion of hormone-dependent uterine leiomyoma. We show here that the environmental estrogens genistein (GEN), a soy phytoestrogen, and the plasticizer bisphenol A (BPA), differ in their pattern of developmental reprogramming and promotion of tumorigenesis (leiomyomas) in the uterus. While both GEN and BPA induce genomic estrogen receptor (ER) signaling in the developing uterus, only GEN induced PI3K/AKT non-genomic ER signaling to the histone methyltransferase Enhancer of Zeste homolog 2 (EZH2). As a result, this “pre-genomic” signaling phosphorylates and represses EZH2, and reduces levels of H3K27 repressive mark in chromatin. Furthermore, only GEN caused estrogen-responsive genes in the adult myometrium to become hyper-responsive to hormone; estrogen-responsive genes were repressed in BPA exposed uteri. Importantly, this pattern of EZH2 engagement to decrease versus increase H3K27 methylation correlated with the effect of these xenoestrogens on tumorigenesis. Developmental reprogramming by GEN promoted development of uterine leiomyomas, increasing tumor incidence and multiplicity, while BPA did not. These data demonstrate that environmental estrogens have distinct non-genomic effects in the developing uterus that determines their ability to engage the epigenetic regulator EZH2, decrease levels of the repressive epigenetic histone H3K27 methyl mark in chromatin during developmental reprogramming, and promote uterine tumorigenesis. PMID:22504913

  14. Prenatal exposure to bisphenol a at environmentally relevant doses adversely affects the murine female reproductive tract later in life.

    PubMed

    Newbold, Retha R; Jefferson, Wendy N; Padilla-Banks, Elizabeth

    2009-06-01

    Exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals during critical developmental periods causes adverse consequences later in life; an example is prenatal exposure to the pharmaceutical diethylstilbestrol (DES). Bisphenol A (BPA), an environmental estrogen used in the synthesis of plastics, is of concern because its chemical structure resembles that of DES, and it is a "high-volume production" chemical with widespread human exposure. In this study we investigated whether prenatal BPA causes long-term adverse effects in female reproductive tissues in an experimental animal model previously shown useful in studying effects of prenatal DES. Timed pregnant CD-1 mice were treated on days 9-16 of gestation with BPA (0.1, 1, 10, 100, or 1,000 mug/kg/day). After delivery, pups were held for 18 months; reproductive tissues were then evaluated. Ovarian cysts were significantly increased in the 1-mug/kg BPA group; ovarian cyst-adenomas were seen in the other three BPA-treated groups but not in corn-oil controls. We observed increased progressive proliferative lesions of the oviduct after BPA treatment, similar to those described in response to DES. Further, although not statistically different from the controls, prominent mesonephric (Wolffian) remnants and squamous metaplasia of the uterus, as well as vaginal adenosis, were present in BPA-treated mice, similar to lesions reported following DES treatment. More severe pathologies observed in some BPA-treated animals included atypical hyperplasia and stromal polyps of the uterus; sarcoma of the uterine cervix; and mammary adenocarcinoma. We did not observe these lesions in controls. These data suggest that BPA causes long-term adverse reproductive and carcinogenic effects if exposure occurs during critical periods of differentiation.

  15. Disseminated intravascular coagulation induced by progesterone in the pregnant rat. Prevention by estogens.

    PubMed

    Stamler, F W

    1977-03-01

    Fatal disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) was induced in female rats by administration of progesterone in late pregnacy. This prevented parturition, with intrauterine fetal death 2 to 4 days past term and subsequent retention of dead fetuses. Concomitantly with or closely following the intrauterine death of their litters, a large proportion of pregnant rats died with histologically evident DIC. Administration of cortisone, heparin, or disoumarin did not prevent DIC, and xi-aminocaproic acid, acetylsalicylic acid, or an onion-rich diet tended to increase its incidence. Antibiotic regimens gave variable results, with significant decrease in DIC only with a combination of two wide-spectrum penicillins. Neomycin and polymyxin had little effect on susceptible Sprague-dawley derived rats, but polymxin caused a significant increase in DIC in a resistant strain of hooded rats. Fatal maternal DIC was completely prevented only by use of natural or synthetic estrogens concurrently with progesterone, although this did not alter the sequence of abnormally prolonged pregnacy with intrauterine fetal death and retention of dead fetuses. Potencies of estrogens varied greatly, but all compounds tested prevented DIC at adequate dosage levels. Diethylstilbestrol, the most potent drug tested, was completely protective at 1 mug daily given subcutaneously. beta-Estradiol was the most effective natural estrogen, giving complete protection with a 10-mug daily subcutaneous injection. Estrogens were much more potent by subcutaneous injection than by oral ingestion, and toxic side effects were sometimes noted with higher levels of the latter. For estrogen therapy to be effective, it was necessary to begin its use before the expected onset of DIC, and in no instance was there evidence of reversal of this process after signs of illness were observed.

  16. Perinatal Exposure to Environmentally Relevant Levels of Bisphenol A Decreases Fertility and Fecundity in CD-1 Mice

    PubMed Central

    Cabaton, Nicolas J.; Wadia, Perinaaz R.; Rubin, Beverly S.; Zalko, Daniel; Schaeberle, Cheryl M.; Askenase, Michael H.; Gadbois, Jennifer L.; Tharp, Andrew P.; Whitt, Gregory S.; Sonnenschein, Carlos; Soto, Ana M.

    2011-01-01

    Background Perinatal exposure to low-doses of bisphenol A (BPA) results in alterations in the ovary, uterus, and mammary glands and in a sexually dimorphic region of the brain known to be important for estrous cyclicity. Objectives We aimed to determine whether perinatal exposure to environmentally relevant doses of BPA alters reproductive capacity. Methods Female CD-1 mice that were exposed to BPA at 0, 25 ng, 250 ng, or 25 μg/kg body weight (BW)/day or diethylstilbestrol (DES) at 10 ng/kg BW/day (positive control) from gestational day 8 through day 16 of lactation were continuously housed with proven breeder males for 32 weeks starting at 2 months of age. At each delivery, pups born to these mating pairs were removed. The cumulative number of pups, number of deliveries, and litter size were recorded. The purity of the BPA used in this and our previous studies was assessed using HPLC, mass spectrometry, and nuclear magnetic resonance. Results The forced breeding experiment revealed a decrease in the cumulative number of pups, observed as a nonmonotonic dose–response effect, and a decline in fertility and fecundity over time in female mice exposed perinatally to BPA. The BPA was 97% pure, with no evidence of contamination by other phenolic compounds. Conclusions Perinatal exposure to BPA leads to a dose-dependent decline in the reproductive capacity of female mice. The effects on the cumulative number of pups are comparable to those previously reported in mice developmentally exposed to DES, a compound well known to impair reproduction in women. This association suggests the possibility that early BPA exposure may also affect reproductive capacity in women. PMID:21126938

  17. Zebrafish embryos as a screen for DNA methylation modifications after compound exposure.

    PubMed

    Bouwmeester, Manon C; Ruiter, Sander; Lommelaars, Tobias; Sippel, Josefine; Hodemaekers, Hennie M; van den Brandhof, Evert-Jan; Pennings, Jeroen L A; Kamstra, Jorke H; Jelinek, Jaroslav; Issa, Jean-Pierre J; Legler, Juliette; van der Ven, Leo T M

    2016-01-15

    Modified epigenetic programming early in life is proposed to underlie the development of an adverse adult phenotype, known as the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD) concept. Several environmental contaminants have been implicated as modifying factors of the developing epigenome. This underlines the need to investigate this newly recognized toxicological risk and systematically screen for the epigenome modifying potential of compounds. In this study, we examined the applicability of the zebrafish embryo as a screening model for DNA methylation modifications. Embryos were exposed from 0 to 72 h post fertilization (hpf) to bisphenol-A (BPA), diethylstilbestrol, 17α-ethynylestradiol, nickel, cadmium, tributyltin, arsenite, perfluoroctanoic acid, valproic acid, flusilazole, 5-azacytidine (5AC) in subtoxic concentrations. Both global and site-specific methylation was examined. Global methylation was only affected by 5AC. Genome wide locus-specific analysis was performed for BPA exposed embryos using Digital Restriction Enzyme Analysis of Methylation (DREAM), which showed minimal wide scale effects on the genome, whereas potential informative markers were not confirmed by pyrosequencing. Site-specific methylation was examined in the promoter regions of three selected genes vasa, vtg1 and cyp19a2, of which vasa (ddx4) was the most responsive. This analysis distinguished estrogenic compounds from metals by direction and sensitivity of the effect compared to embryotoxicity. In conclusion, the zebrafish embryo is a potential screening tool to examine DNA methylation modifications after xenobiotic exposure. The next step is to examine the adult phenotype of exposed embryos and to analyze molecular mechanisms that potentially link epigenetic effects and altered phenotypes, to support the DOHaD hypothesis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. DDT Exposure in Utero and Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    La Merrill, Michele; Krigbaum, Nickilou Y.; Yeh, Gregory; Park, June-Soo; Zimmermann, Lauren; Cirillo, Piera M.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Currently no direct evidence links in utero dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) exposure to human breast cancer. However, in utero exposure to another xenoestrogen, diethylstilbestrol, predicts an increased breast cancer risk. If this finding extends to DDT, it could have far-reaching consequences. Many women were heavily exposed in utero during widespread DDT use in the 1960s. They are now reaching the age of heightened breast cancer risk. DDT exposure persists and use continues in Africa and Asia without clear knowledge of the consequences for the next generation. Hypothesis: In utero exposure to DDT is associated with an increased risk of breast cancer. Design: This was a case-control study nested in a prospective 54-year follow-up of 9300 daughters in the Child Health and Development Studies pregnancy cohort (n = 118 breast cancer cases, diagnosed by age 52 y and 354 controls matched on birth year). Setting and Participants: Kaiser Foundation Health Plan members who received obstetric care in Alameda County, California, from 1959 to 1967, and their adult daughters participated in the study. Main Outcome Measure: Daughters' breast cancer diagnosed by age 52 years as of 2012 was measured. Results: Maternal o,p′-DDT predicted daughters' breast cancer (odds ratio fourth quartile vs first = 3.7, 95% confidence interval 1.5–9.0). Mothers' lipids, weight, race, age, and breast cancer history did not explain the findings. Conclusions: This prospective human study links measured DDT exposure in utero to risk of breast cancer. Experimental studies are essential to confirm results and discover causal mechanisms. Findings support classification of DDT as an endocrine disruptor, a predictor of breast cancer, and a marker of high risk. PMID:26079774

  19. DDT Exposure in Utero and Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Cohn, Barbara A; La Merrill, Michele; Krigbaum, Nickilou Y; Yeh, Gregory; Park, June-Soo; Zimmermann, Lauren; Cirillo, Piera M

    2015-08-01

    Currently no direct evidence links in utero dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) exposure to human breast cancer. However, in utero exposure to another xenoestrogen, diethylstilbestrol, predicts an increased breast cancer risk. If this finding extends to DDT, it could have far-reaching consequences. Many women were heavily exposed in utero during widespread DDT use in the 1960s. They are now reaching the age of heightened breast cancer risk. DDT exposure persists and use continues in Africa and Asia without clear knowledge of the consequences for the next generation. In utero exposure to DDT is associated with an increased risk of breast cancer. This was a case-control study nested in a prospective 54-year follow-up of 9300 daughters in the Child Health and Development Studies pregnancy cohort (n = 118 breast cancer cases, diagnosed by age 52 y and 354 controls matched on birth year). Kaiser Foundation Health Plan members who received obstetric care in Alameda County, California, from 1959 to 1967, and their adult daughters participated in the study. Daughters' breast cancer diagnosed by age 52 years as of 2012 was measured. Maternal o,p'-DDT predicted daughters' breast cancer (odds ratio fourth quartile vs first = 3.7, 95% confidence interval 1.5-9.0). Mothers' lipids, weight, race, age, and breast cancer history did not explain the findings. This prospective human study links measured DDT exposure in utero to risk of breast cancer. Experimental studies are essential to confirm results and discover causal mechanisms. Findings support classification of DDT as an endocrine disruptor, a predictor of breast cancer, and a marker of high risk.

  20. Copper-induced peroxidation of phosphatidylserine-containing liposomes is inhibited by nanomolar concentrations of specific antioxidants.

    PubMed

    Gal, S; Lichtenberg, D; Bor, A; Pinchuk, I

    2007-12-01

    Copper-induced peroxidation of liposomal palmitoyllinoleoyl-phosphatidylcholine (PLPC) is inhibited by alpha-tocopherol at micromolar concentrations. In our previous study we found that when the liposomes contain phosphatidylserine (PS), nanomolar concentrations of Toc were sufficient to inhibit peroxidation. In an attempt to gain understanding of the origin of this extreme antioxidative potency, we tested the antioxidative potency of 36 additional antioxidants and the dependence of their potency on the presence of PS in the liposomes. The results of these studies reveal that only 11 of the tested antioxidants possess similar antioxidative potency to that of Toc. These include trolox, butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), curcumin, nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA), diethylstilbestrol (DES), 2 of the 13 tested flavonoids (luteolin and 7,3',4'-trihydroxyflavone; T-414), alpha-naphthol, 1,5-, 1,6- and 1,7-dihydroxynaphthalenes (DHNs). Propyl gallate (PG), methyl syringate, rosmarinic acid, resveratrol, other flavonoids, as well as beta-naphthol, 1,2-, 1,3-, 1,4-, 2,3-, 2,6-, and 2,7-DHNs were either moderately antioxidative or pro-oxidative. For liposomes made of PLPC (250 microM) and PS (25 microM) the "lag" preceding copper-induced peroxidation (5 microM copper) was doubled upon addition of 30-130nM of the "super-active" antioxidants. We propose that the mechanism responsible for the extreme antioxidative potency against copper-induced peroxidation in PS-containing liposomes involves replenishment of the antioxidant in a ternary PS-copper-antioxidant complex. Based on structure-activity relationship of the 37 tested antioxidants, the "super-antioxidative potency" is attributed to the recycling of relatively stable semiquinone or semiquinone-like radicals.

  1. Fetal Radiation Exposure Induces Testicular Cancer in Genetically Susceptible Mice

    PubMed Central

    Shetty, Gunapala; Comish, Paul B.; Weng, Connie C. Y.; Matin, Angabin; Meistrich, Marvin L.

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of testicular germ cell tumors (TGCT), a common solid tissue malignancy in young men, has been annually increasing at an alarming rate of 3%. Since the majority of testicular cancers are derived from germ cells at the stage of transformation of primordial germ cell (PGC) into gonocytes, the increase has been attributed to maternal/fetal exposures to environmental factors. We examined the effects of an estrogen (diethylstilbestrol, DES), an antiandrogen (flutamide), or radiation on the incidence of testicular germ cell tumors in genetically predisposed 129.MOLF-L1 (L1) congenic mice by exposing them to these agents on days 10.5 and 11.5 of pregnancy. Neither flutamide nor DES produced noticeable increases in testis cancer incidence at 4 weeks of age. In contrast, two doses of 0.8-Gy radiation increased the incidence of TGCT from 45% to 100% in the offspring. The percentage of mice with bilateral tumors, weights of testes with TGCT, and the percentage of tumors that were clearly teratomas were higher in the irradiated mice than in controls, indicating that irradiation induced more aggressive tumors and/or more foci of initiation sites in each testis. This radiation dose did not disrupt spermatogenesis, which was qualitatively normal in tumor-free testes although they were reduced in size. This is the first proof of induction of testicular cancer by an environmental agent and suggests that the male fetus of women exposed to radiation at about 5–6 weeks of pregnancy might have an increased risk of developing testicular cancer. Furthermore, it provides a novel tool for studying the molecular and cellular events of testicular cancer pathogenesis. PMID:22348147

  2. Mouse hypospadias: A critical examination and definition

    PubMed Central

    Sinclair, Adriane Watkins; Cao, Mei; Shen, Joel; Cooke, Paul; Risbridger, Gail; Baskin, Laurence; Cunha, Gerald R.

    2016-01-01

    Hypospadias is a common malformation whose etiology is based upon perturbation of normal penile development. The mouse has been previously used as a model of hypospadias, despite an unacceptably wide range of definitions for this malformation. The current paper presents objective criteria and a definition of mouse hypospadias. Accordingly, diethylstilbestrol (DES) induced penile malformations were examined at 60 days postnatal (P60) in mice treated with DES over the age range of 12 days embryonic to 20 days postnatal (E12 to P20). DES-induced hypospadias involves malformation of the urethral meatus, which is most severe in DES E12-P10, DES P0-P10 and DES P5-P15 groups and less so or absent in the other treatment groups. A frenulum-like ventral tether between the penis and the prepuce was seen in the most severely affected DES-treated mice. Internal penile morphology was also altered in the DES E12-P10, DES P0-P10 and DES P5-P15 groups (with little effect in the other DES treatment groups). Thus, adverse effects of DES are a function of the period of DES treatment and most severe in the P0 to P10 period. In “estrogen mutant mice” (NERKI, βERKO, αERKO and AROM+) hypospadias was only seen in AROM+ male mice having genetically-engineered elevation is serum estrogen. Significantly, mouse hypospadias was only seen distally at and near the urethral meatus where epithelial fusion events are known to take place and never in the penile midshaft, where urethral formation occurs via an entirely different morphogenetic process. PMID:27068029

  3. Characterization of neuroendocrine differentiation in human benign prostate and prostatic adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Aprikian, A G; Cordon-Cardo, C; Fair, W R; Reuter, V E

    1993-06-15

    This report describes an immunohistopathologic analysis characterizing the incidence, pattern of distribution, and hormonal content of neuroendocrine (NE) cells in human benign prostate and prostatic adenocarcinoma. Formaldehyde-fixed, paraffin-embedded material from 15 benign prostates, 31 primary prostatic adenocarcinomas, 16 metastatic lesions, 21 primary tumors treated with short-course diethylstilbestrol (DES), and 10 specimens from hormone-refractory patients were examined. NE cells were identified using silver histochemistry and a panel of immunohistochemical NE markers (chromogranin-A, serotonin, neuron-specific enolase), and specific peptide hormone antibodies. NE cells were identified in all benign prostates. NE cells were identified in 77% of primary untreated adenocarcinomas with no significant differences with respect to pathologic stage. NE cells were found isolated and dispersed in the tumor, composing the minority of malignant cells. Double-labeling and serial section immunohistochemistry demonstrated the coexpression of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in NE cells. In addition to serotonin, some tumors expressed multiple hormone immunoreactivities. NE cells were identified in 56% of metastatic deposits, with a similar pattern of distribution. In DES-treated cases, NE cells were found consistently in the adjacent benign epithelium, whereas 52% of tumors contained NE cells. Hormone-refractory tumors contained NE cells in 60% of cases. This analysis demonstrates that a significant proportion of primary and metastatic prostatic adenocarcinomas contain a subpopulation of NE cells, the expression of which does not appear to be suppressed with androgen ablation and does not correlate with pathologic stage. Furthermore, NE cells coexpress PSA, suggesting a common precursor cell of origin. The elaboration of biogenic amines and neuropeptides suggests that NE cells dispersed in prostatic carcinoma may play a paracrine growth-regulatory role.

  4. Investigations of new lead structures for the design of selective estrogen receptor modulators.

    PubMed

    Gust, R; Keilitz, R; Schmidt, K

    2001-06-07

    Heterocyclic derivatives of (R,S)/(S,R)-1-(2-chloro-4-hydroxyphenyl)-2-(2,6-dichloro-4-hydroxyphenyl)ethylenediamine (L1) were synthesized and tested for estrogen receptor binding. The selection of the heterocycles was based on theoretical consideration. (2R,3S)/(2S,3R)-2-(2-Chloro-4-hydroxyphenyl)-3-(2,6-dichloro-4-hydroxyphenyl)piperazine 2, (4R,5S)/(4S,5R)-4-(2-chloro-4-hydroxyphenyl)-5-(2,6-dichloro-4-hydroxyphenyl)-2-imidazoline 3, and 4-(2-chloro-4-hydroxyphenyl)-5-(2,6-dichloro-4-hydroxyphenyl)imidazole 4 possess a spatial structure with neighboring aromatic rings as is realized in hormonally active [1,2-diphenylethylenediamine]platinum(II) complexes. The 1,2-diphenylethane pharmacophor, however, cannot adapt an antiperiplanar conformation to interact with the estrogen receptor (ER) comparable to synthetic (e.g., diethylstilbestrol (DES)) or steroidal (e.g., estradiol (E2)) estrogens. Due to the different spatial structures, the heterocycles cause only a marginal displacement of E2 from its binding site (relative binding affinity (RBA) < 0.1%). Nevertheless, unequivocally ER mediated gene activation was verified on the MCF-7-2a cell line. Imidazoline 3 as the most active compound reached the maximum effect of E2 (100% activation) in a concentration of 5 x 10(-7) M, while piperazine 2 and imidazole 4 activate luciferase expression only in a small but significant amount of 20% and 27%, respectively. We therefore assigned these heterocyclic compounds to a second class of hormones (type-II-estrogens), which are attached at the ER at different amino acids than DES or E2 (type-I-estrogens).

  5. Mouse hypospadias: A critical examination and definition.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, Adriane Watkins; Cao, Mei; Shen, Joel; Cooke, Paul; Risbridger, Gail; Baskin, Laurence; Cunha, Gerald R

    2016-12-01

    Hypospadias is a common malformation whose etiology is based upon perturbation of normal penile development. The mouse has been previously used as a model of hypospadias, despite an unacceptably wide range of definitions for this malformation. The current paper presents objective criteria and a definition of mouse hypospadias. Accordingly, diethylstilbestrol (DES) induced penile malformations were examined at 60 days postnatal (P60) in mice treated with DES over the age range of 12 days embryonic to 20 days postnatal (E12-P20). DES-induced hypospadias involves malformation of the urethral meatus, which is most severe in DES E12-P10, DES P0-P10 and DES P5-P15 groups, and less so or absent in the other treatment groups. A frenulum-like ventral tether between the penis and the prepuce was seen in the most severely affected DES-treated mice. Internal penile morphology was also altered in the DES E12-P10, DES P0-P10 and DES P5-P15 groups (with little effect in the other DES treatment groups). Thus, adverse effects of DES are a function of the period of DES treatment and most severe in the P0-P10 period. In "estrogen mutant mice" (NERKI, βERKO, αERKO and AROM+) hypospadias was only seen in AROM+ male mice having genetically-engineered elevation is serum estrogen. Significantly, mouse hypospadias was only seen distally at and near the urethral meatus where epithelial fusion events are known to take place and never in the penile midshaft, where urethral formation occurs via an entirely different morphogenetic process. Copyright © 2016 International Society of Differentiation. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. The cannabinoid receptor inverse agonist AM251 regulates the expression of the EGF receptor and its ligands via destabilization of oestrogen-related receptor α protein

    PubMed Central

    Fiori, JL; Sanghvi, M; O'Connell, MP; Krzysik-Walker, SM; Moaddel, R; Bernier, M

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE AM251 is an inverse agonist of the cannabinoid 1 receptor (CB1R) that can exert ‘off-target’ effects in vitro and in CB1R knock-out mice. AM251 is also potent at modulating tumour cell growth, suggesting that growth factor-mediated oncogenic signalling could be regulated by AM251. Since dysregulation of the EGF receptor has been associated with carcinogenesis, we examined AM251 regulation of EGF receptor (EGFR) expression and function. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH The various biological functions of AM251 were measured in CB1R-negative human cancer cells. Pharmacological and genetic approaches were used to validate the data. KEY RESULTS The mRNA levels for EGFR and its associated ligands, including HB-EGF, were induced several fold in PANC-1 and HCT116 cells in response to AM251. This event was associated with enhanced expression of EGFR on the cell surface with concomitant increase in EGF-induced cellular responses in AM251-treated cells. Exposure to XCT790, a synthetic inverse agonist of the orphan nuclear oestrogen-related receptor α (ERRα), also induced EGFR and HB-EGF expression to the same extent as AM251, whereas pretreatment with the ERRα-selective agonist, biochanin A, blunted AM251 actions. AM251 promoted the degradation of ERRα protein without loss of the corresponding mRNA. Knock-down of ERRα by siRNA-based approach led to constitutive induction of EGFR and HB-EGF levels, and eliminated the biological responses of AM251 and XCT790. Finally, AM251 displaced diethylstilbestrol prebound to the ligand-binding domain of ERRα. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS AM251 up-regulates EGFR expression and signalling via a novel non-CB1R-mediated pathway involving destabilization of ERRα protein in selected cancer cell lines. PMID:21449913

  7. Screening of environmental contaminants for ecdysteroid agonist and antagonist activity using the Drosophila melanogaster B(II) cell in vitro assay.

    PubMed

    Dinan, L; Bourne, P; Whiting, P; Dhadialla, T S; Hutchinson, T H

    2001-09-01

    The B(II) bioassay was developed as a rapid and reliable tool for detecting potential insect growth regulators acting as ecdysteroid receptor (ant)agonists. Based on an ecdysteroid-responsive cell line from Drosophila melanogaster, this microplate assay is ideally suited to the evaluation of environmental contaminants as potential endocrine disrupters. Data are presented for about 80 potential environmental contaminants, including industrial chemicals, pesticides, pharmaceuticals, phytoestrogens, and vertebrate steroids, and are compared with data for known (ant)agonists. Apart from androst-4-ene-3,17-dione (a weak antagonist), vertebrate steroids were inactive at concentrations up to 10(-3) M. The vast majority of xenobiotics also showed no (ant)agonist activity. Among the industrial chemicals, antagonistic activity was observed for bisphenol A median effective concentration (EC50) of 1.0 x 10(-4) M and diethylphthalate (EC50 of 2.0 x 10(-3) M). Some organochlorine compounds also showed weak antagonistic activity, including o,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), p,p'-DDE, dieldrin, and lindane (EC50 of 3.0 x 10(-5) M). For lindane, bisphenol A, and diethylphthalate, activity is not associated with impurities in the samples and, for lindane and bisphenol A at least, the compounds are able to compete with ecdysteroids for the ligand binding site on the receptor complex, albeit at concentrations very much higher than those found in the environment. The only pharmaceutical showing any detectable antagonist activity was 17alpha-ethynylestradiol. In the context of recent publications on potential endocrine disruption in marine and freshwater arthropods, these findings suggest that, for some compounds (e.g., diethylstilbestrol), ecdysteroid receptor-mediated responses are unlikely to be involved in producing chronic effects. The B(II) assay has a potentially valuable role to play in distinguishing between endocrine-mediated, which normally occur at submicromolar

  8. Determination of steroid sex hormones in water and urine matrices by stir bar sorptive extraction and liquid chromatography with diode array detection.

    PubMed

    Almeida, C; Nogueira, J M F

    2006-06-16

    In this study, stir bar sorptive extraction and liquid desorption followed by high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection (SBSE-LD-HPLC/DAD) were combined for the simultaneous determination of nine steroid sex hormones (estrone, 17alpha-estradiol, 17beta-estradiol, 17alpha-ethynylestradiol, diethylstilbestrol, mestranol, progesterone, 19-norethisterone and norgestrel) in water and urine matrices. During the method development, it has been demonstrated that equilibrium time, ionic strength and back extraction solvents are the most important parameters to control, for determining the nine-hormones in water matrices, in which stir bars coated with 126 microl of polydimethylsiloxane were used. Assays performed on 30 ml water samples spiked at 10 microg/l levels under optimised experimental conditions, yielded recoveries ranging from 11.1+/-4.9% (17beta-estradiol) to 100.2+/-10.4% (mestranol), showed that the methodology is well described by the octanol-water partition coefficients (K(PDMS/W) approximately K(O/W)) for the latter, while pronounced deviations to the theoretical efficiency (K(PDMS/W) not equal K(O/W)) were observed for the remaining hormones. From calibration studies, a good analytical performance for all hormones was attained, including a suitable precision (2.1-17.1%), low limits of detection (0.3-1.0 microg/l) and an excellent linear dynamic range (1.25-50.0 microg/l). Assays on environmental water and urine matrices showed recovery yields in worthy good agreement with the spiking level (10 microg/l), and suitability for profiling low microg/l levels of natural hormones in urine samples taken from pregnant women. The present methodology is easy, reliable and sensitive at the trace level, only requiring a low sample volume, showing to be a good analytical alternative to routine quality control for environmental and biomedical laboratories.

  9. The association of maternal factors with delayed implantation and the initial rise of urinary human chorionic gonadotrophin

    PubMed Central

    Jukic, A.M.Z.; Weinberg, C.R.; Baird, D.D.; Wilcox, A.J.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND Late implantation and the pattern of early rise in hCG have been associated with early pregnancy loss. We explored factors that might be predictive of these markers of poor embryonic health in spontaneously conceived pregnancies. METHODS Participants in the North Carolina Early Pregnancy Study collected daily first-morning urine specimens while attempting to conceive. Samples were assayed for estrogen and progesterone metabolites (to identify day of ovulation) and hCG (to detect conception). Data were available for 190 pregnancies, 48 of which ended in early loss (within 6 weeks of the last menstrual period). We used logistic regression to identify characteristics associated with late implantation (≥10 days post-ovulation). For pregnancies surviving at least 6 weeks (n= 142), we used linear mixed models to identify factors associated with variations in hCG rise in the first 7 days from detection. RESULTS Later implantation was associated with current maternal smoking [odds ratio (OR): 5.7; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.1–30] and with oocytes that were likely to have been fertilized late in their post-ovulatory lifespan (OR: 5.1; CI: 1.9–16). Older women had a faster rise in hCG (P= 0.01), as did women who had relatively late menarche (P for trend = 0.02). Women exposed in utero to diethylstilbestrol showed an unusual pattern of slow initial hCG rise followed by a fast increase, a pattern significantly different from that of unexposed women (P= 0.002). CONCLUSIONS Although limited by small numbers and infrequent exposures, our analyses suggest that a woman's exposures both early in life and at the time of pregnancy may influence early development of the conceptus. PMID:21292636

  10. Neonatal estrogenic exposure suppresses PTEN-related endometrial carcinogenesis in recombinant mice.

    PubMed

    Begum, Monjura; Tashiro, Hironori; Katabuchi, Hidetaka; Suzuki, Akira; Kurman, Robert J; Okamura, Hitoshi

    2006-03-01

    Human endometrial carcinomas, as well as complex atypical hyperplasias (CAH), are estrogen related and frequently have mutations in the PTEN gene. However, the mutual contribution of estrogen and PTEN mutations to endometrial carcinogenesis in vivo is unknown. To address this issue, we investigated whether neonatal estrogenic treatments augment the incidence of CAH and carcinomas in murine PTEN (mPTEN) heterozygous (+/-) mutant mice, an animal model for endometrial carcinoma. Low doses of diethylstilbestrol (1 ng/g/day), genistein (50 microg/g/day) in phytoestrogens, estriol (E(3)) (4 microg/g/day), and vehicle (ethanol and corn oil) were administered subcutaneously daily to neonatal pups from the 1st to 5th day after birth. At 52 weeks of age, the morphological changes in the endometrium, and uterine expression of Hoxa 10 and Hoxa 11, were evaluated. These Hoxa genes are abdominal B-type homeobox genes, which normally regulate differentiation of the Müllerian duct. The incidence of CAH and adenocarcinomas of the endometrium was significantly decreased by the neonatal estrogenic treatments in the mPTEN+/- mice. Coincidentally, all treatments significantly decreased the stromal cell density, and CAH and adenocarcinomas rarely developed in the epithelium adjacent to the affected endometrial stroma. Moreover, the uterine expression of Hoxa 10 in mice with neonatal genistein and E(3) treatments, and that of Hoxa 11 in mice with all treatments, was significantly lower when compared with vehicle alone. Taken together, neonatal estrogenic exposure induced stromal atrophy and/or hyalinization accompanied by repressed expression of Hoxa 10 and Hoxa 11, and exerted an inhibitory effect on PTEN-related tumorigenesis. These findings provide new insight into the interaction between endometrial epithelium and stroma in endometrial carcinogenesis in vivo.

  11. Prenatal Exposure to Bisphenol A at Environmentally Relevant Doses Adversely Affects the Murine Female Reproductive Tract Later in Life

    PubMed Central

    Newbold, Retha R.; Jefferson, Wendy N.; Padilla-Banks, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    Background Exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals during critical developmental periods causes adverse consequences later in life; an example is prenatal exposure to the pharmaceutical diethylstilbestrol (DES). Bisphenol A (BPA), an environmental estrogen used in the synthesis of plastics, is of concern because its chemical structure resembles that of DES, and it is a “high-volume production” chemical with widespread human exposure. Objectives In this study we investigated whether prenatal BPA causes long-term adverse effects in female reproductive tissues in an experimental animal model previously shown useful in studying effects of prenatal DES. Methods Timed pregnant CD-1 mice were treated on days 9–16 of gestation with BPA (0.1, 1, 10, 100, or 1,000 μg/kg/day). After delivery, pups were held for 18 months; reproductive tissues were then evaluated. Results Ovarian cysts were significantly increased in the 1-μg/kg BPA group; ovarian cyst-adenomas were seen in the other three BPA-treated groups but not in corn-oil controls. We observed increased progressive proliferative lesions of the oviduct after BPA treatment, similar to those described in response to DES. Further, although not statistically different from the controls, prominent mesonephric (Wolffian) remnants and squamous metaplasia of the uterus, as well as vaginal adenosis, were present in BPA-treated mice, similar to lesions reported following DES treatment. More severe pathologies observed in some BPA-treated animals included atypical hyperplasia and stromal polyps of the uterus; sarcoma of the uterine cervix; and mammary adenocarcinoma. We did not observe these lesions in controls. Conclusions These data suggest that BPA causes long-term adverse reproductive and carcinogenic effects if exposure occurs during critical periods of differentiation. PMID:19590677

  12. Disseminated intravascular coagulation induced by progesterone in the pregnant rat. Prevention by estogens.

    PubMed Central

    Stamler, F. W.

    1977-01-01

    Fatal disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) was induced in female rats by administration of progesterone in late pregnacy. This prevented parturition, with intrauterine fetal death 2 to 4 days past term and subsequent retention of dead fetuses. Concomitantly with or closely following the intrauterine death of their litters, a large proportion of pregnant rats died with histologically evident DIC. Administration of cortisone, heparin, or disoumarin did not prevent DIC, and xi-aminocaproic acid, acetylsalicylic acid, or an onion-rich diet tended to increase its incidence. Antibiotic regimens gave variable results, with significant decrease in DIC only with a combination of two wide-spectrum penicillins. Neomycin and polymyxin had little effect on susceptible Sprague-dawley derived rats, but polymxin caused a significant increase in DIC in a resistant strain of hooded rats. Fatal maternal DIC was completely prevented only by use of natural or synthetic estrogens concurrently with progesterone, although this did not alter the sequence of abnormally prolonged pregnacy with intrauterine fetal death and retention of dead fetuses. Potencies of estrogens varied greatly, but all compounds tested prevented DIC at adequate dosage levels. Diethylstilbestrol, the most potent drug tested, was completely protective at 1 mug daily given subcutaneously. beta-Estradiol was the most effective natural estrogen, giving complete protection with a 10-mug daily subcutaneous injection. Estrogens were much more potent by subcutaneous injection than by oral ingestion, and toxic side effects were sometimes noted with higher levels of the latter. For estrogen therapy to be effective, it was necessary to begin its use before the expected onset of DIC, and in no instance was there evidence of reversal of this process after signs of illness were observed. Images Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:65916

  13. Bcl-2 protein expression associated with resistance to apoptosis in clear cell adenocarcinomas of the vagina and cervix expressing wild-type p53.

    PubMed

    Waggoner, S E; Baunoch, D A; Anderson, S A; Leigh, F; Zagaja, V G

    1998-09-01

    Clear cell adenocarcinomas (CCAs) of the vagina and cervix are rare tumors that often overexpress wild-type p53. In vitro, expression of protooncogene bcl-2 can block p53-mediated apoptosis. The objective of this study was to determine if bcl-2 is expressed in CCAs and whether this expression is associated with inhibition of apoptosis. Twenty-one paraffin-embedded clear cell adenocarcinomas were immunohistochemically stained for bcl-2 (antibody M 887, Dako, Carpinteria, CA) and DNA fragmentation (ApopTag, Oncor, Gaithersburg, MD), a marker for apoptosis. Fifteen tumors were associated with in utero exposure to diethylstilbestrol (DES). Prior p53 gene analysis had indicated the presence of wild-type p53 in each tumor. Human lymphoid tissue containing bcl-2-expressing lymphocytes and DNase I-exposed CCA tissue sections were used as positive controls for the bcl-2 and apoptosis assays, respectively. Expression of bcl-2 and DNA fragmentation was classified (0 to 3+) according to percentage of positive cells and intensity of staining. Expression of bcl-2 was identified in each CCA examined, and was strongly positive (2+ to 3+) in 18 of 21 samples. Despite the presence of wild-type p53, only 4 of 21 tumors showed evidence of apoptosis as assessed through DNA fragmentation. DNA damage leads to increased intracellular p53 levels. Overexpression of p53 induces apoptosis as a means of protecting organisms from the development of malignancy. CCAs of the vagina and cervix, which contain wild-type p53 genes and often overexpress p53 protein, presumably have evolved mechanisms to avoid p53-induced apoptosis. Our observations are consistent with the hypothesis that overexpression of bcl-2 can inhibit p53-mediated apoptosis and suggest a mechanism by which these rare tumors can arise without mutation of the p53 gene.

  14. Estrogen-Induced Maldevelopment of the Penis Involves Down-Regulation of Myosin Heavy Chain 11 (MYH11) Expression, a Biomarker for Smooth Muscle Cell Differentiation1

    PubMed Central

    Okumu, L.A.; Bruinton, Sequoia; Braden, Tim D.; Simon, Liz; Goyal, Hari O.

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Cavernous smooth muscle cells are essential components in penile erection. In this study, we investigated effects of estrogen exposure on biomarkers for smooth muscle cell differentiation in the penis. Neonatal rats received diethylstilbestrol (DES), with or without the estrogen receptor (ESR) antagonist ICI 182,780 (ICI) or the androgen receptor (AR) agonist dihydrotestosterone (DHT), from Postnatal Days 1 to 6. Tissues were collected at 7, 10, or 21 days of age. The smooth muscle cell biomarker MYH11 was studied in depth because microarray data showed it was significantly down-regulated, along with other biomarkers, in DES treatment. Quantitative real time-PCR and Western blot analyses showed 50%–80% reduction (P ≤ 0.05) in Myh11 expression in DES-treated rats compared to that in controls; and ICI and DHT coadministration mitigated the decrease. Temporally, from 7 to 21 days of age, Myh11 expression was onefold increased (P ≥ 0.05) in DES-treated rats versus threefold increased (P ≤ 0.001) in controls, implying the long-lasting inhibitory effect of DES on smooth muscle cell differentiation. Immunohistochemical localization of smooth muscle alpha actin, another biomarker for smooth muscle cell differentiation, showed fewer cavernous smooth muscle cells in DES-treated animals than in controls. Additionally, DES treatment significantly up-regulated Esr1 mRNA expression and suppressed the neonatal testosterone surge by 90%, which was mitigated by ICI coadministration but not by DHT coadministration. Collectively, results provided evidence that DES treatment in neonatal rats inhibited cavernous smooth muscle cell differentiation, as shown by down-regulation of MYH11 expression at the mRNA and protein levels and by reduced immunohistochemical staining of smooth muscle alpha actin. Both the ESR and the AR pathways probably mediate this effect. PMID:22976277

  15. Structural insights into selective agonist actions of tamoxifen on human estrogen receptor alpha.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Sandipan; Biswas, Pradip Kumar

    2014-08-01

    Tamoxifen-an anti-estrogenic ligand in breast tissues used as a first-line treatment in estrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancers-is associated with the development of resistance followed by resumption of tumor growth in about 30 % of cases. Whether tamoxifen assists in proliferation in such cases or whether any ligand-independent pathway to transcription exists is not fully understood; also, no ERα mutants have been detected so far that could lead to tamoxifen resistance. Using in silico conformational analysis of the ERα ligand binding domain (LBD), in the absence and presence of selective agonist (diethylstilbestrol; DES), antagonist (Faslodex; ICI), and selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM; 4-hydroxy tamoxifen; 4-OHT) ligands, we have elucidated ligand-responsive structural modulations of the ERα-LBD dimer in its agonist and antagonist complexes to address the issue of "tamoxifen resistance". DES and ICI were found to stabilize the dimer in their agonist and antagonist conformations, respectively. The ERα-LBD dimer without the presence of any bound ligand also led to a stable structure in agonist conformation. However, binding of 4-OHT to the antagonist structure led to a flexible conformation allowing the protein to visit conformations populated by agonists as was evident from principal component analysis and radius of gyration plots. Further, the relaxed conformations of the 4-OHT bound protein exhibited a diminished size of the co-repressor binding pocket in the LBD, thus signaling a partial blockage of the co-repressor binding motif. Thus, the ability of 4-OHT-bound ERα-LBD to assume flexible conformations visited by agonists and reduced co-repressor binding surface at the LBD provide crucial structural insights into tamoxifen-resistance that complement our existing understanding.

  16. Selective production of sealed plasma membrane vesicles from red beet (Beta vulgaris L.) storage tissue.

    PubMed

    Giannini, J L; Gildensoph, L H; Briskin, D P

    1987-05-01

    Modification of our previous procedure for the isolation of microsomal membrane vesicles from red beet (Beta vulgaris L.) storage tissue allowed the recovery of sealed membrane vesicles displaying proton transport activity sensitive to both nitrate and orthovanadate. In the absence of a high salt concentration in the homogenization medium, contributions of nitrate-sensitive (tonoplast) and vanadate-sensitive (plasma membrane) proton transport were roughly equal. The addition of 0.25 M KCl to the homogenization medium increased the relative amount of nitrate-inhibited proton transport activity while the addition of 0.25 M KI resulted in proton pumping vesicles displaying inhibition by vanadate but stimulation by nitrate. These effects appeared to result from selective sealing of either plasma membrane or tonoplast membrane vesicles during homogenization in the presence of the two salts. Following centrifugation on linear sucrose gradients it was shown that the nitrate-sensitive, proton-transporting vesicles banded at low density and comigrated with nitrate-sensitive ATPase activity while the vanadate-sensitive, proton-transporting vesicles banded at a much higher density and comigrated with vanadate-sensitive ATPase. The properties of the vanadate-sensitive proton pumping vesicles were further characterized in microsomal membrane fractions produced by homogenization in the presence of 0.25 M KI and centrifugation on discontinuous sucrose density gradients. Proton transport was substrate specific for ATP, displayed a sharp pH optimum at 6.5, and was insensitive to azide but inhibited by N'-N-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide, diethylstilbestrol, and fluoride. The Km of proton transport for Mg:ATP was 0.67 mM and the K0.5 for vanadate inhibition was at about 50 microM. These properties are identical to those displayed by the plasma membrane ATPase and confirm a plasma membrane origin for the vesicles.

  17. Gene expression profiling in Ishikawa cells: A fingerprint for estrogen active compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Boehme, Kathleen; Simon, Stephanie; Mueller, Stefan O.

    2009-04-01

    Several anthropogenous and naturally occurring substances, referred to as estrogen active compounds (EACs), are able to interfere with hormone and in particular estrogen receptor signaling. EACs can either cause adverse health effects in humans and wildlife populations or have beneficial effects on estrogen-dependent diseases. The aim of this study was to examine global gene expression profiles in estrogen receptor (ER)-proficient Ishikawa plus and ER-deficient Ishikawa minus endometrial cancer cells treated with selected well-known EACs (Diethylstilbestrol, Genistein, Zearalenone, Resveratrol, Bisphenol A and o,p'-DDT). We also investigated the effect of the pure antiestrogen ICI 182,780 (ICI) on the expression patterns caused bymore » these compounds. Transcript levels were quantified 24 h after compound treatment using Illumina BeadChip Arrays. We identified 87 genes with similar expression changes in response to all EAC treatments in Ishikawa plus. ICI lowered the magnitude or reversed the expression of these genes, indicating ER dependent regulation. Apart from estrogenic gene regulation, Bisphenol A, o,p'-DDT, Zearalenone, Genistein and Resveratrol displayed similarities to ICI in their expression patterns, suggesting mixed estrogenic/antiestrogenic properties. In particular, the predominant antiestrogenic expression response of Resveratrol could be clearly distinguished from the other test compounds, indicating a distinct mechanism of action. Divergent gene expression patterns of the phytoestrogens, as well as weaker estrogenic gene expression regulation determined for the anthropogenous chemicals Bisphenol A and o,p'-DDT, warrants a careful assessment of potential detrimental and/or beneficial effects of EACs. The characteristic expression fingerprints and the identified subset of putative marker genes can be used for screening chemicals with an unknown mode of action and for predicting their potential to exert endocrine disrupting effects.« less

  18. Polydimethylsiloxane/metal-organic frameworks coated stir bar sorptive extraction coupled to high performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detector for the determination of estrogens in environmental water samples.

    PubMed

    Hu, Cong; He, Man; Chen, Beibei; Zhong, Cheng; Hu, Bin

    2013-10-04

    In this work, three kinds of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), MOF-5, MOF-199 and IRMOF-3, were introduced in stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE) and novel polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)/MOFs (including PDMS/MOF-5, PDMS/MOF-199 and PDMS/IRMOF-3) coated stir bars were prepared by sol-gel technique. These PDMS/MOFs coatings were characterized and critically compared for the extraction of seven target estrogens (17-β-estradiol, dienestrol, diethylstilbestrol, estrone, 4-t-octylphenol, bisphenol-A and 17α-ethynylestradiol) by SBSE, and the results showed that PDMS/IRMOF-3 exhibited highest extraction efficiency. Based on the above facts, a novel method of PDMS/IRMOF-3 coating SBSE-high performance liquid chromatography ultraviolet (HPLC-UV) detection was developed for the determination of seven target estrogens in environmental waters. Several parameters affecting extraction of seven target estrogens by SBSE (PDMS/IRMOF-3) including extraction time, stirring rate, pH, ionic strength, desorption solvent and desorption time were investigated. Under the optimal experimental conditions, the limits of detection (LODs, S/N=3) were found to be in the range of 0.15-0.35 μg/L. The linear range was 2-2,500 μg/L for 17α-ethynylestradiol and 1-2,500 μg/L for other estrogens. The relative standard deviations (RSDs) were in the range of 3.7-9.9% (n=8, c=20 μg/L) and the enrichment factors were from 30.3 to 55.6-fold (theoretical enrichment factor was 100-fold). The proposed method was successfully applied to the analysis of estrogens in environmental water samples, and quantitative recoveries were obtained for the spiking experiments. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. High-affinity binding of (/sup 3/H)estradiol-17 beta by an estrogen receptor in the liver of the turtle

    SciTech Connect

    Ho, S.M.; Fehrer, S.; Yu, M.

    1988-06-01

    Specific (3H)estradiol-17 beta ((3H)E2) binding activity (EBA) with characteristics of an estrogen receptor (ER) was demonstrated in cytosols and nuclear extracts of the female turtle, Chrysemys picta. Three different receptor assays (dextran-coated charcoal assay, hydroxylapatite batch procedure, and DNA-cellulose chromatography) were evaluated in terms of their applicability in analyzing large numbers of samples. For the measurement of cytosolic EBA, the hydroxylapatite batch procedure was found to be the most reliable assay. On the other hand, the dextran-coated charcoal assay was found to be the most appropriate method for the measurement of nuclear EBA. Turtle hepatic EBA binds (3H)E2 with highmore » affinity (cytosolic, 17.4 +/- 2.8 X 10(9) M-1; nuclear, 17.7 +/- 1.9 X 10(9) M-1), limited capacity (cytosolic, 133.7 +/- 4.6 fmol/g tissue; nuclear, 81.1 +/- 9.0 fmol/g tissue), and strict steroid specificity. The EBA bound natural estrogens (E2, estrone, estriol) as well as the nonsteroidal estrogen, diethylstilbestrol, but exhibited little affinity for androgens, progesterone, or corticosterone. The turtle hepatic EBA resembled mammalian and avian ERs in terms of binding characteristics; however, unlike mammalian and avian ERs it was shown to be heat-labile. Incubation at 30 degrees caused rapid loss of (3H)E2 binding activity in both cytosolic and nuclear fractions. The exchange between (3H)E2 and the endogenously bound estrogen was slow at 4 and 15 degrees, but the exchange process was facilitated in the presence of the chaotropic salt, NaSCN. Establishment of quantitation methods for both cytosolic and nuclear forms of EBA will enable future investigation of the mechanism and regulation of estrogen action in the liver of this turtle species.« less

  20. Determination of phenolic endocrine disrupting chemicals and acidic pharmaceuticals in surface water of the Pearl Rivers in South China by gas chromatography-negative chemical ionization-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jian-Liang; Ying, Guang-Guo; Wang, Li; Yang, Ji-Feng; Yang, Xiao-Bing; Yang, Li-Hua; Li, Xu

    2009-01-01

    An analytical method for phenolic endocrine disrupting chemicals and acidic pharmaceuticals in river water was developed using gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) coupled with negative chemical ionization (NCI) technique, and used for the determination of these compounds in the Pearl Rivers (Liuxi, Zhujiang and Shijing Rivers). Derivatization using pentafluorobenzoyl chloride (PFBOCl) and pentafluorobenzyl bromide (PFBBr) before GC-MS analysis were applied and optimized for phenolic compounds and acidic compounds, respectively. The target compounds were analyzed for river waters from the upstream to downstream of the Pearl Rivers. Phenolic compounds 4-tert-octylphenol (4-t-OP), 4-nonylphenol (4-NP), bisphenol-A (BPA), estrone (E1), estradiol (E2) and triclosan (TCS) were detected at trace or low levels in the water samples from Liuxi River and Zhujiang River. Diethylstilbestrol (DES) was not detected in the Pearl Rivers. The highest concentrations of the phenolic compounds were found in Shijing River, and they were 3150 ng/L for 4-t-OP, 11,300 ng/L for 4-NP, 1040 ng/L for BPA, 79 ng/L for E1, 7.7 ng/L for E2 and 355 ng/L for TCS, respectively. Only a few acidic pharmaceuticals were detected at low concentrations in water from Liuxi River and Zhujiang River, but the highest concentrations for the acidic pharmaceuticals were also found in Shijing River. The highest concentrations detected for clofibric acid, ibuprofen, gemfibrozil, naproxen, mefenamic acid and diclofenac were 17 ng/L, 685 ng/L, 19.8 ng/L, 125 ng/L, 24.6 ng/l and 150 ng/L, respectively. The results suggest Liuxi and Zhujiang Rivers are only slightly contaminated and can be used as drinking water sources, but Shijing River is heavily polluted by the wastewater from nearby towns.

  1. Litigation involving DES.

    PubMed

    Rheingold, P D

    1976-01-01

    Focus is on the diethylstilbestrol (DES) litigation which has resulted from the 1971 discovery that this synthetic estrogen can cause cancer in the daughters of women who used the drug during pregnancy in an effort to prevent threatened abortion. Possibly 100 suits are pending at this time in which DES daughters claim injuries. In most of these vaginal or cervical cancer has appeared -- with or without a hysterectomy having been performed. Several women died from cancer. The fact that the use of DES occurred many years ago is the legal hurdle most troublesome to lawyers. The average women coming to a lawyer's office today has a mother who used some form of DES, perhaps in 1955. Few drugstores have records today of the prescriptions which they filled 20 years ago. It has been estimated that over the 1950-1970 period more than 200 different companies manufactured or "tabletized" under their own name DES plus a variety of similar synthetic estrogens promoted for the prevention of threatened abortion. A further hurdle caused by the passage of time is that even the records of the physicians are frequently lost. A final problem created by the age of the cases is statute of limitations. If the actual manufacturer of the DES cannot be identified, this is generally the end of the lawyer's interest in the case. The chance of the plaintiff winning may be increased if the action against all the manufacturers is a class action. Most of the pending DES suits are against the manufacturer and not against the doctor. Thus far no DES case has been tried to completion. Several have been settled by the manufacturers on the eve of the trial, generally for less than the full sum that a cancer victim would expect to receive.

  2. Influences of cinnamic aldehydes on H⁺ extrusion activity and ultrastructure of Candida.

    PubMed

    Shreaz, Sheikh; Bhatia, Rimple; Khan, Neelofar; Muralidhar, Sumathi; Manzoor, Nikhat; Khan, Luqman Ahmad

    2013-02-01

    The antifungal effects of cinnamaldehyde, 4-hydroxy-3-methoxycinnamaldehyde (coniferyl aldehyde) and 3,5-dimethoxy-4-hydroxycinnamaldehyde (sinapaldehyde) were investigated against 65 strains of Candida (six standard, 39 fluconazole-sensitive and 20 fluconazole-resistant). MICs of cinnamaldehyde, coniferyl aldehyde and sinapaldehyde ranged from 100 to 500 µg ml(-1), 100 to 300 µg ml(-1) and 100 to 200 µg ml(-1), respectively. All tested isolates showed a marked sensitivity towards these aldehydes in spot and time-kill assays. Sinapaldehyde was found to be the most effective, followed by coniferyl aldehyde and cinnamaldehyde. At their respective MIC(90) values, the three compounds caused mean inhibition levels of glucose-stimulated H(+)-efflux of 36, 34 and 41 % (cinnamaldehyde), 41, 42 and 47 % (coniferyl aldehyde) and 43, 45 and 51 % (sinapaldehyde) for standard-sensitive, clinical-sensitive and clinical-resistant isolates, respectively. Inhibition levels of H(+)-efflux caused by plasma membrane ATPase inhibitors N,N'-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (100 µM) and diethylstilbestrol (10 µM) were 34, 45 and 44 %, and 57, 39 and 35 %, for standard-sensitive, clinical-sensitive and clinical-resistant isolates, respectively. Intracellular pH (pHi) was found to decrease by 0.34, 0.42 and 0.50 units following incubation with three tested aldehydes from the control pHi of 6.70. Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy analysis was performed on a representative strain, C. albicans 10261, showing alterations in morphology, cell wall, plasma membrane damage and lysis. Haemolytic activity of the three compounds varied from 10 to 15 % at their highest MIC compared to an activity level of 20 % shown by fluconazole at 30 µg ml(-1). In conclusion, this study shows significant activity of cinnamic aldehydes against Candida, including azole-resistant strains, suggesting that these molecules can be developed as antifungals.

  3. Resveratrol, tryptophanum, glycine and vitamin E: a nutraceutical approach to sleep disturbance and irritability in peri- and post-menopause.

    PubMed

    Parazzini, F

    2015-02-01

    The climacteric syndrome is characterized by several symptoms: hot flashes are the most common and reported by about 70% of peri- post-menopausal women. Sleep disorders, particularly decreased sleep quality, and irritability are also commonly reported. There is a clinical and epidemiological relationship between these symptoms. Common biological mechanisms may explain in part the relationship between hot flushes, sleep disorders and irritability. For example, withdrawal of hormones causes change in the serotonin levels. Tryptophan is an essential amino acid. it is the precursor for the serotonin synthesis and is naturally found in food such as turkey, cheese, and nuts. The serotonergic system is implicated in sleep, mood, and hot flashes. Glycine is an amino acid found mainly in protein-rich food such as meat, fish, dairy products, cheese and vegetables. It is an inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system. Studies have shown that glycine can promote a deeper level of sleep. Resveratrol has a similar chemical structure to the diethylstilbestrol and 17-beta estradiol and acts as a phytoestrogen. Resveratrol at doses of 3-10 micromoles inhibited the estradiol-estrogen receptor binding and showed an estrogen-like activity. Vitamin E is found naturally in some food and available as a dietary supplement. It has an antioxidant activity. It has been suggested that the oxidative stress may also play a role in sleep disorders. Some studies have shown protective effect of vitamins E on sleep quality. In conclusion, hot flashes, sleep disturbances and mood disorders may represent a continuum in the climacteric syndrome, which recognize in the hormonal changes and the neurotrasmettitors level alteration a potential common pathway. The nutraceutical approach may be useful in a preventive perspective. Among the large choice of functional food available, the combination of resveratrol, tryptophanum, glycine and vitamin E may represent an interesting opportunity in

  4. ENDOCRINE DISRUPTERS: A REVIEW OF SOME SOURCES, EFFECTS, AND MECHANISMS OF ACTIONS ON BEHAVIOR AND NEUROENDOCRINE SYSTEMS

    PubMed Central

    Frye, C.; Bo, E.; Calamandrei, G.; Calzà, L.; Dessì-Fulgheri, F.; Fernández, M.; Fusani, L.; Kah, O.; Kajta, M.; Le Page, Y.; Patisaul, H.B.; Venerosi, A.; Wojtowicz, A.K.; Panzica, G.C.

    2011-01-01

    Some environmental contaminants interact with hormones and may exert adverse consequences due to their actions as endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). Exposure in people is typically due to contamination of the food chain, inhalation of contaminated house dust, or occupational exposure. EDCs include pesticides and herbicides (such as diphenyl-dichloro-trichloroethane, DDT, or its metabolites), methoxychlor, biocides, heat stabilizers and chemical catalysts (such as tributyltin, TBT), plastic contaminants (e.g. bisphenol A, BPA), pharmaceuticals (i.e. diethylstilbestrol, DES; 17alpha-ethynilestradiol, EE2), or dietary components (such as phytoestrogens). The goal of this review is to address sources, effects and actions of EDCs, with an emphasis on topics discussed at the International Congress on Steroids and the Nervous System. EDCs may alter reproductively-relevant or non-reproductive, sexually-dimorphic behaviors. In addition, EDCs may have significant effects on neurodevelopmental processes, influencing morphology of sexually-dimorphic cerebral circuits. Exposure to EDCs is more dangerous if it occurs during specific “critical periods” of life, such as intrauterine, perinatal, juvenile or puberty periods, when organisms are more sensitive to hormonal disruption, than in other periods. However, exposure to EDCs in adulthood also can alter physiology. Several EDCs are xenoestrogens, may alter serum lipid concentrations, or metabolism enzymes that are necessary for converting cholesterol to steroid hormones, ultimately altering production of E2 and/or other steroids. Finally, many EDCs may have actions via, or independent of, classic actions at cognate steroid receptors. EDCs may have effects through numerous other substrates, such as the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) and retinoid X receptor (RXR), signal transduction pathways, calcium influx, and/or neurotransmitter receptors. Thus, EDCs, from varied

  5. Estrogen and pure antiestrogen fulvestrant (ICI 182 780) augment cell-matrigel adhesion of MCF-7 breast cancer cells through a novel G protein coupled estrogen receptor (GPR30)-to-calpain signaling axis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yan; Li, Zheng; He, Yan; Shang, Dandan; Pan, Jigang; Wang, Hongmei; Chen, Huamei; Zhu, Zhuxia; Wan, Lei; Wang, Xudong

    2014-03-01

    Fulvestrant (ICI 182 780, ICI) has been used in treating patients with hormone-sensitive breast cancer, yet initial or acquired resistance to endocrine therapies frequently arises and, in particular, cancer recurs as metastasis. We demonstrate here that both 17-beta-estradiol (E2) and ICI enhance cell adhesion to matrigel in MCF-7 breast cancer cells, with increased autolysis of calpain 1 (large subunit) and proteolysis of focal adhesion kinase (FAK), indicating calpain activation. Additionally, either E2 or ICI induced down-regulation of estrogen receptor α without affecting G protein coupled estrogen receptor 30 (GPR30) expression. Interestingly, GPR30 agonist G1 triggered calpain 1 autolysis but not calpain 2, whereas ER agonist diethylstilbestrol caused no apparent calpain autolysis. Furthermore, the actions of E2 and ICI on calpain and cell adhesion were tremendously suppressed by G15, or knockdown of GPR30. E2 and ICI also induced phosphorylation of extracellular regulated protein kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2), and suppression of ERK1/2 phosphorylation by U0126 profoundly impeded calpain activation triggered by estrogenic and antiestrogenic stimulations indicating implication of ERK1/2 in the GPR30-mediated action. Lastly, the E2- or ICI-induced cell adhesion was dramatically impaired by calpain-specific inhibitors, ALLN or calpeptin, suggesting requirement of calpain in the GPR30-associated action. These data show that enhanced cell adhesion by E2 and ICI occurs via a novel GPR30-ERK1/2-calpain pathway. Our results indicate that targeting the GPR30 signaling may be a potential strategy to reduce metastasis and improve the efficacy of antiestrogens in treatment of advanced breast cancer. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Activated vitamin D3 and pro-activated vitamin D3 attenuate induction of permanent changes caused by neonatal estrogen exposure in the mouse vagina.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Manabu; Kurosaki, Keiko; Okamura, Naomichi

    2014-01-01

    Exposure of mice to a high dose of estrogens including diethylstilbestrol (DES) during the neonatal period modifies the developmental plan of the genital tract, which leads to various permanent changes in physiology, morphology and gene expression. These changes include development of an abnormal vaginal epithelium lined with hyperplastic mucinous cells accompanied by Tff1 gene expression in mice. Here, the influence of vitamin D on the direct effect of estrogen on the developing mouse vagina was examined. The mid-vagina of neonatal mice was cultured in a serum-free medium containing estradiol-17β (E2) and various concentrations of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D) ex vivo and then was transplanted under the renal capsule of ovariectomized host mice for 35 days. Exposure to E2 alone caused the vaginal tissue to develop estrogen-independent epithelial hyperplasia and to express TFF1 mRNA, while addition of a low nanomolar amount of 1,25(OH)2D added at the same time as E2 to the culture medium attenuated the effects of estrogen. Expression of vitamin D receptor was also evident in the neonatal mouse vagina. Interestingly, addition of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3, a pro-activated form of vitamin D, at the micromolar level was found to be potent in disrupting the developmental effects of E2, while cholecalciferol was not at least at the dose examined. Correspondingly, expression of Cyp27B1, a kidney-specific 25-hydroxyvitamin D hydroxylase, was evident in the neonatal mouse vagina when examined by RT-PCR. In addition, simultaneous administration of 1,25(OH)2D successfully attenuated DES-induced ovary-independent hyperplasia in the vagina in neonatal mice in vivo. Thus, manipulation of vitamin D influenced the harmful effects of estrogens on mouse vaginal development.

  7. Activated Vitamin D3 and Pro-activated Vitamin D3 Attenuate Induction of Permanent Changes Caused by Neonatal Estrogen Exposure in the Mouse Vagina

    PubMed Central

    MATSUDA, Manabu; KUROSAKI, Keiko; OKAMURA, Naomichi

    2014-01-01

    Exposure of mice to a high dose of estrogens including diethylstilbestrol (DES) during the neonatal period modifies the developmental plan of the genital tract, which leads to various permanent changes in physiology, morphology and gene expression. These changes include development of an abnormal vaginal epithelium lined with hyperplastic mucinous cells accompanied by Tff1 gene expression in mice. Here, the influence of vitamin D on the direct effect of estrogen on the developing mouse vagina was examined. The mid-vagina of neonatal mice was cultured in a serum-free medium containing estradiol-17β (E2) and various concentrations of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D) ex vivo and then was transplanted under the renal capsule of ovariectomized host mice for 35 days. Exposure to E2 alone caused the vaginal tissue to develop estrogen-independent epithelial hyperplasia and to express TFF1 mRNA, while addition of a low nanomolar amount of 1,25(OH)2D added at the same time as E2 to the culture medium attenuated the effects of estrogen. Expression of vitamin D receptor was also evident in the neonatal mouse vagina. Interestingly, addition of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3, a pro-activated form of vitamin D, at the micromolar level was found to be potent in disrupting the developmental effects of E2, while cholecalciferol was not at least at the dose examined. Correspondingly, expression of Cyp27B1, a kidney-specific 25-hydroxyvitamin D hydroxylase, was evident in the neonatal mouse vagina when examined by RT-PCR. In addition, simultaneous administration of 1,25(OH)2D successfully attenuated DES-induced ovary-independent hyperplasia in the vagina in neonatal mice in vivo. Thus, manipulation of vitamin D influenced the harmful effects of estrogens on mouse vaginal development. PMID:24769840

  8. On the synergistic action of androgen and FSH on progestin secretion of cultured rat granulosa cells. Cellular and mitochondrial cholesterol metabolism.

    PubMed

    Nimrod, A

    1981-01-01

    The effect of FSH and androgen on the conversion of cholesterol into progesterone by cultured rat granulosa cells (GC) was studied in intact cells or mitochondrial preparations. Culture of GC for immature hypophysectomized diethylstilbestrol-treated rats for 48 h in the presence of ovine FSH (5 microgram/ml) alone, or FSH + testosterone (Te; 0.5 microgram/ml) caused a slight increase in the activity of the mitochondrial marker enzyme succinic dehydrogenase, while Te had no effect. Culture with the hormones for 48 h had no significant effect on the levels of free and esterified cellular cholesterol. GC monolayers after 48 h with or without FSH and Te converted [3H]cholesterol into 4 major metabolites, 3 of which were secreted into the medium and, in thin-layer chromatographic behavior, resembled pregnenolone, progesterone and 20 alpha-dihydroprogesterone. The total amount of the 3 C-21 steroids was higher (p less than 0.01) in FSH- or Te-treated than in control cells, and combined treatment had a synergistic effect. The uptake of labeled cholesterol (4--10%) was significantly higher (p less than 0.01) in cells pretreated with FSH or Te, whereas a combined FSH and Te treatment had an additive effect. Mitochondria isolated from GC monolayers took up cholesterol in a temperature-dependent fashion, but this uptake was not affected by hormonal pretreatment. In the presence of cyanoketone, the mitochondrial fractions activity converted cholesterol into pregnenolone. This activity was enhanced by FSH or Te (p less than 0.01), and further enhancement was observed with FSH + Te; the combined effect appeared to be more than additive (p = 0.05). The results suggest that both FSH and Te enhance the activity of cholesterol side-chain cleavage, but do not affect the transport of cholesterol into the mitochondria. A possible hormonal effect on a pre-mitochondrial step is discussed.

  9. INDUCTION OF GENE EXPRESSION IN SHEEPSHEAD MINNOWS (CYPRINODON VARIEGATUS) TREATED WITH 17B-ESTRADIOL, DIETHYLSTILBESTROL, OR ETHINYLESTRADIOL: THE USE OF MRNA FINGERPRINTS AS AN INDICATOR OF GENE REGULATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The recent interest in hormonally active environmental contaminants has sparked a drive to find sensitive methods to measure their effects on wildlife. A molecular-based assay has been developed to measure the induction of gene expression in sheepshead minnows (Cyprinodon variega...

  10. In utero bisphenol A exposure disrupts germ cell nest breakdown and reduces fertility with age in the mouse

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Wei, E-mail: weiwang2@illinois.edu; Hafner, Katlyn S., E-mail: katlynhafner@gmail.com; Flaws, Jodi A., E-mail: jflaws@illinois.edu

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a known reproductive toxicant in rodents. However, the effects of in utero BPA exposure on early ovarian development and the consequences of such exposure on female reproduction in later reproductive life are unclear. Thus, we determined the effects of in utero BPA exposure during a critical developmental window on germ cell nest breakdown, a process required for establishment of the finite primordial follicle pool, and on female reproduction. Pregnant FVB mice (F0) were orally dosed daily with tocopherol-striped corn oil (vehicle), diethylstilbestrol (DES; 0.05 μg/kg, positive control), or BPA (0.5, 20, and 50 μg/kg) from gestationalmore » day 11 until birth. Ovarian morphology and gene expression profiles then were examined in F1 female offspring on postnatal day (PND) 4 and estrous cyclicity was examined daily after weaning for 30 days. F1 females were also subjected to breeding studies with untreated males at three to nine months. The results indicate that BPA inhibits germ cell nest breakdown via altering expression of selected apoptotic factors. BPA also significantly advances the age of first estrus, shortens the time that the females remain in estrus, and increases the time that the females remain in metestrus and diestrus compared to controls. Further, F1 females exposed to low doses of BPA exhibit various fertility problems and have a significantly higher percentage of dead pups compared to controls. These results indicate that in utero exposure to low doses of BPA during a critical ovarian developmental window interferes with early ovarian development and reduces fertility with age. - Highlights: • In utero BPA exposure inhibits germ cell nest breakdown in female mouse offspring. • In utero BPA exposure alters expression of apoptosis regulators in the ovaries of mouse offspring. • In utero BPA exposure advances first estrus age and alters cyclicity in mouse offspring. • In utero BPA exposure causes various fertility

  11. Zebrafish embryos as a screen for DNA methylation modifications after compound exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Bouwmeester, Manon C.; Ruiter, Sander; Lommelaars, Tobias

    Modified epigenetic programming early in life is proposed to underlie the development of an adverse adult phenotype, known as the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD) concept. Several environmental contaminants have been implicated as modifying factors of the developing epigenome. This underlines the need to investigate this newly recognized toxicological risk and systematically screen for the epigenome modifying potential of compounds. In this study, we examined the applicability of the zebrafish embryo as a screening model for DNA methylation modifications. Embryos were exposed from 0 to 72 h post fertilization (hpf) to bisphenol-A (BPA), diethylstilbestrol, 17α-ethynylestradiol, nickel, cadmium, tributyltin,more » arsenite, perfluoroctanoic acid, valproic acid, flusilazole, 5-azacytidine (5AC) in subtoxic concentrations. Both global and site-specific methylation was examined. Global methylation was only affected by 5AC. Genome wide locus-specific analysis was performed for BPA exposed embryos using Digital Restriction Enzyme Analysis of Methylation (DREAM), which showed minimal wide scale effects on the genome, whereas potential informative markers were not confirmed by pyrosequencing. Site-specific methylation was examined in the promoter regions of three selected genes vasa, vtg1 and cyp19a2, of which vasa (ddx4) was the most responsive. This analysis distinguished estrogenic compounds from metals by direction and sensitivity of the effect compared to embryotoxicity. In conclusion, the zebrafish embryo is a potential screening tool to examine DNA methylation modifications after xenobiotic exposure. The next step is to examine the adult phenotype of exposed embryos and to analyze molecular mechanisms that potentially link epigenetic effects and altered phenotypes, to support the DOHaD hypothesis. - Highlights: • Compound induced effects on DNA methylation in zebrafish embryos • Global methylation not an informative biomarker • Minimal

  12. Intracellular pH in mammalian stages of Trypanosoma cruzi is K+-dependent and regulated by H+-ATPases.

    PubMed

    Van Der Heyden, N; Docampo, R

    2000-02-05

    Regulation of intracellular pH (pHi) was investigated in Trypanosoma cruzi amastigotes and trypomastigotes using 2',7'-bis-(carboxyethyl)-5(and-6)-carboxyfluorescein (BCECF). pHi was determined to be 7.33 +/- 0.08 and 7.35 +/- 0.07 in amastigotes and trypomastigotes, respectively, and there were no significant differences in the regulation of pH, between the two stages. Steady-state pHi, recovery of pHi from acidification, and H+-efflux were all decreased markedly by the H+-ATPase inhibitors N,N'-dicyclohexylcarbodi-imide (DCCD), diethylstilbestrol (DES) and N-ethylmaleimide (NEM) supporting a significant role for a plasma membrane H+-ATPase in the regulation of pHi. pHi was maintained at neutrality over a range of external pH (pHe) from 5-8 in parasites suspended in a buffer containing Na+ and K+ (standard buffer) but was acidified at low pHe in the absence of these cations (choline buffer). The pHi of trypomastigotes decreased significantly when they transformed into amastigotes. The rate of recovery of pHi by acidified parasites was similar in Na+-free buffer and standard buffer but was slower in the absence of K+ (K+-free or choline buffer) and parasites suspended in choline buffer were acidic by 0.25 pH units as compared with controls. Ba2+ and Cs+ decreased the pHi of parasites suspended in standard but not choline buffer suggesting the presence of an inward directed K+ channel. The pHi of amastigotes and trypomastigotes suspended in Cl(-)-free buffer was decreased by 0.13 and 0.2 pH units, respectively, supporting the presence of a chloride conductive channel. No evidence of pH regulation via a Na+/H+ or Cl-/HCO3- exchanger was found. These results are consistent with the presence of a plasma membrane H+-ATPase that regulates pHi and is supported by K+ and Cl- channels.

  13. Endocrine disrupters: a review of some sources, effects, and mechanisms of actions on behaviour and neuroendocrine systems.

    PubMed

    Frye, C A; Bo, E; Calamandrei, G; Calzà, L; Dessì-Fulgheri, F; Fernández, M; Fusani, L; Kah, O; Kajta, M; Le Page, Y; Patisaul, H B; Venerosi, A; Wojtowicz, A K; Panzica, G C

    2012-01-01

    Some environmental contaminants interact with hormones and may exert adverse consequences as a result of their actions as endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). Exposure in people is typically a result of contamination of the food chain, inhalation of contaminated house dust or occupational exposure. EDCs include pesticides and herbicides (such as dichlorodiphenyl trichloroethane or its metabolites), methoxychlor, biocides, heat stabilisers and chemical catalysts (such as tributyltin), plastic contaminants (e.g. bisphenol A), pharmaceuticals (i.e. diethylstilbestrol; 17α-ethinylestradiol) or dietary components (such as phytoestrogens). The goal of this review is to address the sources, effects and actions of EDCs, with an emphasis on topics discussed at the International Congress on Steroids and the Nervous System. EDCs may alter reproductively-relevant or nonreproductive, sexually-dimorphic behaviours. In addition, EDCs may have significant effects on neurodevelopmental processes, influencing the morphology of sexually-dimorphic cerebral circuits. Exposure to EDCs is more dangerous if it occurs during specific 'critical periods' of life, such as intrauterine, perinatal, juvenile or puberty periods, when organisms are more sensitive to hormonal disruption, compared to other periods. However, exposure to EDCs in adulthood can also alter physiology. Several EDCs are xenoestrogens, which can alter serum lipid concentrations or metabolism enzymes that are necessary for converting cholesterol to steroid hormones. This can ultimately alter the production of oestradiol and/or other steroids. Finally, many EDCs may have actions via (or independent of) classic actions at cognate steroid receptors. EDCs may have effects through numerous other substrates, such as the aryl hydrocarbon receptor, the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor and the retinoid X receptor, signal transduction pathways, calcium influx and/or neurotransmitter receptors. Thus, EDCs, from varied

  14. Transplacental Arsenic Carcinogenesis in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Waalkes, Michael P.; Liu, Jie; Diwan, Bhalchandra A.

    2007-01-01

    Our work has focused on the carcinogenic effects of in utero arsenic exposure in mice. Our data show a short period of maternal exposure to inorganic arsenic in the drinking water is an effective, multi-tissue carcinogen in the adult offspring. These studies have been reproduced in three temporally separate studies using two different mouse strains. In these studies pregnant mice were treated with drinking water containing sodium arsenite at up to 85 ppm arsenic from day 8 to 18 of gestation, and the offspring were observed for up to two years. The doses used in all these studies were well tolerated by both the dam and offspring. In C3H mice, two separate studies show male offspring exposed to arsenic in utero developed liver carcinoma and adrenal cortical adenoma in a dose-related fashion during adulthood. Prenatally exposed female C3H offspring show dose-related increases in ovarian tumors and lung carcinoma and in proliferative lesions (tumors plus preneoplastic hyperplasia) of the uterus and oviduct. In addition, prenatal arsenic plus postnatal exposure to the tumor promoter, 12-O-tetradecanoyl phorbol-13-acetate (TPA) in C3H mice produces excess lung tumors in both sexes and liver tumors in females. Male CD1 mice treated with arsenic in utero develop tumors of the liver and adrenal and renal hyperplasia while females develop tumors of urogenital system, ovary, uterus and adrenal and hyperplasia of the oviduct. Additional postnatal treatment with diethylstilbestrol or tamoxifen after prenatal arsenic in CD1 mice induces urinary bladder transitional cell proliferative lesions, including carcinoma and papilloma, and enhances the carcinogenic response in the liver of both sexes. Overall this model has provided convincing evidence that arsenic is a transplacental carcinogen in mice with the ability to target tissues of potential human relevance, such as the urinary bladder, lung and liver. Transplacental carcinogenesis clearly occurs with other agents in humans and

  15. Persistently Altered Epigenetic Marks in the Mouse Uterus After Neonatal Estrogen Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Jefferson, Wendy N.; Chevalier, Dominique M.; Phelps, Jazma Y.; Cantor, Amy M.; Padilla-Banks, Elizabeth; Newbold, Retha R.; Archer, Trevor K.; Kinyamu, H. Karimi

    2013-01-01

    Neonatal exposure to diethylstilbestrol (DES) causes permanent alterations in female reproductive tract gene expression, infertility, and uterine cancer in mice. To determine whether epigenetic mechanisms could explain these phenotypes, we first tested whether DES altered uterine expression of chromatin-modifying proteins. DES treatment significantly reduced expression of methylcytosine dioxygenase TET oncogene family, member 1 (TET1) on postnatal day 5; this decrease was correlated with a subtle decrease in DNA 5-hydroxymethylcytosine in adults. There were also significant reductions in histone methyltransferase enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2), histone lysine acetyltransferase 2A (KAT2A), and histone deacetylases HDAC1, HDAC2, and HDAC3. Uterine chromatin immunoprecipitation was used to analyze the locus-specific association of modified histones with 2 genes, lactoferrin (Ltf) and sine oculis homeobox 1 (Six1), which are permanently upregulated in adults after neonatal DES treatment. Three histone modifications associated with active transcription, histone H3 lysine 9 acetylation (H3K9ac), H3 lysine 4 trimethylation (H3K4me3), and H4 lysine 5 acetylation (H4K5ac) were enriched at specific Ltf promoter regions after DES treatment, but this enrichment was not maintained in adults. H3K9ac, H4K5ac, and H3K4me3 were enriched at Six1 exon 1 immediately after neonatal DES treatment. As adults, DES-treated mice had greater differences in H4K5ac and H3K4me3 occupancy at Six1 exon 1 and new differences in these histone marks at an upstream region. These findings indicate that neonatal DES exposure temporarily alters expression of multiple chromatin-modifying proteins and persistently alters epigenetic marks in the adult uterus at the Six1 locus, suggesting a mechanism for developmental exposures leading to altered reproductive function and increased cancer risk. PMID:24002655

  16. Use of carbon oxysulfide, a structural analog of CO sub 2 , to study active CO sub 2 transport in the cyanobacterium Synechococcus UTEX 625

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, A.G.; Espie, G.S.; Canvin, D.T.

    1989-07-01

    Carbon oxysulfide (carbonyl sulfide, COS) is a close structural analog of CO{sub 2}. Although hydrolysis of COS (to CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}S) does occur at alkaline pH (> 9), at pH 8.0 the rate of hydrolysis is slow enough to allow investigation of COS as a possible substrate and inhibitor of the active CO{sub 2} transport system of Synechococcus UTEX 625. A light-dependent uptake of COS was observed that was inhibited by CO{sub 2} and the ATPase inhibitor diethylstilbestrol. The COS taken up by the cells could not be recovered when the lights were turned off or when acidmore » was added. Bovine erythrocyte carbonic anhydrase catalyzed the stoichiometric hydrolysis of COS to H{sub 2}S. The active transport of CO{sub 2} was inhibited by COS in an apparently competitive manner. When Na{sup +}-dependent HCO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} transport was allowed in the presence of COS, the extracellular (CO{sub 2}) rose considerably above the equilibrium level. This CO{sub 2} appearing in the medium was derived from the dehydration of transported HCO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} and was leaked from the cells. In the presence of COS the return to the cells of this leaked CO{sub 2} was inhibited. These results showed that the Na{sup +}-dependent HCO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} transport was not inhibited by COS, whereas active CO{sub 2} transport was inhibited. The steady state rate of CO{sub 2} fixation was, however, inhibited about 50% in the presence of COS. This inhibition can be at least partially explained by the significant leakage of CO{sub 2} from the cells that occurred when CO{sub 2} uptake was inhibited by COS. Neither CS{sub 2} nor N{sub 2}O acted like COS. It is concluded that COS is an effective and selective inhibitor of active CO{sub 2} transport.« less

  17. Trace analysis of 28 steroids in surface water, wastewater and sludge samples by rapid resolution liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shan; Ying, Guang-Guo; Zhao, Jian-Liang; Chen, Feng; Yang, Bin; Zhou, Li-Jun; Lai, Hua-Jie

    2011-03-11

    A sensitive rapid resolution liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (RRLC-MS/MS) method, combined with solid-phase extraction, ultrasonic extraction and silica gel cartridge cleanup, was developed for 28 steroids including 4 estrogens (estrone (E1), 17β-estradiol (E2), 17α-ethynyl estradiol (EE2), diethylstilbestrol (DES)), 14 androgens (androsta-1,4-diene-3,17-dione (ADD), 17α-trenbolone, 17β-trenbolone, 4-androstene-3,17-dione, 19-nortestoserone, 17β-boldenone, 17α-boldenone, testosterone (T), epi-androsterone (EADR), methyltestosterone (MT), 4-hydroxy-androst-4-ene-17-dione (4-OHA), 5α-dihydrotestosterone (5α-DHT), androsterone (ADR), stanozolol (S)), 5 progestagens (progesterone (P), ethynyl testosterone (ET), 19-norethindrone, norgestrel, medroxyprogesterone (MP)), and 5 glucocorticoids (cortisol, cortisone, prednisone, prednisolone, dexamethasone) in surface water, wastewater and sludge samples. The recoveries of surface water, influents, effluents and sludge samples were 90.6-119.0% (except 5α-DHT was 143%), 44.0-200%, 60.7-123% and 62.6-138%, respectively. The method detection limits for the 28 analytes in surface water, influents, effluents and freeze-dried sludge samples were 0.01-0.24 ng/L, 0.02-1.44 ng/L, 0.01-0.49 ng/L and 0.08-2.06 ng/g, respectively. This method was applied in the determination of the residual steroidal hormones in two surface water of Danshui River, 12 wastewater and 8 sludge samples from two wastewater treatment plants (Meihu and Huiyang WWTPs) in Guangdong (China). Ten analytes were detected in surface water samples with concentrations ranging between 0.4 ng/L (17β-boldenone) and 55.3 ng/L (5α-DHT); twenty analytes in the wastewater samples with concentrations ranging between 0.3 ng/L (P) and 621 ng/L (5α-DHT); and 12 analytes in the sludge samples with concentrations ranging between 1.6 ng/g (E1) and 372 ng/g (EADR). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Targeted functional imaging of estrogen receptors with 99mTc-GAP-EDL.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Nobukazu; Yang, David J; Kohanim, Saady; Oh, Chang-Sok; Yu, Dong-Fang; Azhdarinia, Ali; Kurihara, Hiroaki; Zhang, Xiaochun; Chang, Joe Y; Kim, E Edmund

    2007-03-01

    To evaluate the feasibility of using (99m)Tc-glutamate peptide-estradiol in functional imaging of estrogen receptor-positive [ER(+)] diseases. 3-Aminoethyl estradiol (EDL) was conjugated to glutamate peptide (GAP) to yield GAP-EDL. Cellular uptake studies of (99m)Tc-GAP-EDL were conducted in ER(+) cell lines (MCF-7, 13762 and T47D). To demonstrate whether GAP-EDL increases MAP kinase activation, Western blot analysis of GAP-EDL was performed in 13762 cells. Biodistribution was conducted in nine rats with 13762 breast tumors at 0.5-4 h. Each rat was administered (99m)Tc-GAP-EDL. Two animal models (rats and rabbits) were created to ascertain whether tumor uptake of (99m)Tc-GAP-EDL was via an ER-mediated process. In the tumor model, breast tumor-bearing rats were pretreated with diethylstilbestrol (DES) 1 h prior to receiving (99m)Tc-GAP-EDL. In the endometriosis model, part of the rabbit uterine tissue was dissected and grafted to the peritoneal wall. The rabbit was administered with (99m)Tc-GAP-EDL. There was a 10-40% reduction in uptake of (99m)Tc-GAP-EDL in cells treated with DES or tamoxifen compared with untreated cells. Western blot analysis showed an ERK1/2 phosphorylation process with GAP-EDL. Biodistribution studies showed that tumor uptake and tumor-to-muscle count density ratio in (99m)Tc-GAP-EDL groups were significantly higher than those in (99m)Tc-GAP groups at 4 h. Among (99m)Tc-GAP-EDL groups, region of interest analysis of images showed that tumor-to muscle ratios were decreased in blocking groups. In the endometriosis model, the grafted uterine tissue could be visualized by (99m)Tc-GAP-EDL. Cellular or tumor uptake of (99m)Tc-GAP-EDL occurs via an ER-mediated process. (99m)Tc-GAP-EDL is a useful agent for imaging functional ER(+) disease.

  19. Estrogen and pure antiestrogen fulvestrant (ICI 182 780) augment cell–matrigel adhesion of MCF-7 breast cancer cells through a novel G protein coupled estrogen receptor (GPR30)-to-calpain signaling axis

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Yan; Li, Zheng; He, Yan

    2014-03-01

    Fulvestrant (ICI 182 780, ICI) has been used in treating patients with hormone-sensitive breast cancer, yet initial or acquired resistance to endocrine therapies frequently arises and, in particular, cancer recurs as metastasis. We demonstrate here that both 17-beta-estradiol (E2) and ICI enhance cell adhesion to matrigel in MCF-7 breast cancer cells, with increased autolysis of calpain 1 (large subunit) and proteolysis of focal adhesion kinase (FAK), indicating calpain activation. Additionally, either E2 or ICI induced down-regulation of estrogen receptor α without affecting G protein coupled estrogen receptor 30 (GPR30) expression. Interestingly, GPR30 agonist G1 triggered calpain 1 autolysis but notmore » calpain 2, whereas ER agonist diethylstilbestrol caused no apparent calpain autolysis. Furthermore, the actions of E2 and ICI on calpain and cell adhesion were tremendously suppressed by G15, or knockdown of GPR30. E2 and ICI also induced phosphorylation of extracellular regulated protein kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2), and suppression of ERK1/2 phosphorylation by U0126 profoundly impeded calpain activation triggered by estrogenic and antiestrogenic stimulations indicating implication of ERK1/2 in the GPR30-mediated action. Lastly, the E2- or ICI-induced cell adhesion was dramatically impaired by calpain-specific inhibitors, ALLN or calpeptin, suggesting requirement of calpain in the GPR30-associated action. These data show that enhanced cell adhesion by E2 and ICI occurs via a novel GPR30-ERK1/2-calpain pathway. Our results indicate that targeting the GPR30 signaling may be a potential strategy to reduce metastasis and improve the efficacy of antiestrogens in treatment of advanced breast cancer. - Highlights: • Estrogen and ICI augment adhesion to matrigel with calpain activation in MCF-7 cells. • GPR30 mediates cell–matrigel adhesion and calpain activation via ERK1/2. • Calpain is required in the cell–matrigel adhesion induced by E2 and ICI.« less

  20. SciTech Connect

    Stone, J.P.; Holtsman, S.; Shellabarger, C.J.

    Pellets containing 5 mg (/sup 3/H) diethylstilbestrol (DES) and 15 mg cholesterol were implanted S.C. in 84-day-old female Sprague-Dawley (S-D) and ACl rats. DES was released from the implanted pellets exponentially, and the release was not significantly different in S-D rats than in ACl rats. No mammary tumors developed in any treated or untreated S-D rats. In contrast, 90% of the DES-treated ACl rats developed mammary adenocarcinomas. A significant increase in the weight of the pituitary was noted in DES-treated ACl rats. The pituitarities of the treated ACl rats were 2 to 7 times as heavy as were controls, andmore » plasma prolactin levels were 10 to 40 times higher than in controls. In contrast, the pituitaries of treated S-D rats did not significantly increase in weight, and plasma prolactin levels were only 3 to 5 times higher than controls. The uteri of treated S-D rats were significantly heavier than those of control rats and contained large amounts of fluid. This effect was not seen in ACl rats. Although the release of DES from the implanted pellet was essentially the same in ACl and S-D rats, three distinctive strain differences in response to DES were noted: mammary adenocarcinomas were found only in treated ACl rats; pituitary prolactin-cell adenomas and associated elevated plasma prolactins levels were seen only in treated ACl rats; and pyometritis was induced only in treated S-D rats. Mammary adenocarcinomas and prolactin-cell adenoma responses in the treated ACl rats appear to be correlated with the increasing levels of plasma prolactin. This study demonstrates that the prolonged estrogen treatment of ACl and S-D female rats produces distinctly different mammary and pituitary neoplastic responses. This disparity in neoplastic responses appears to be reflected in the difference of degree to which the hypophysical prolactin cells are stimulated to grow and secrete hormone.« less

  1. Estrogen Modification of Human Glutamate Dehydrogenases Is Linked to Enzyme Activation State*

    PubMed Central

    Borompokas, Nikolas; Papachatzaki, Maria-Martha; Kanavouras, Konstantinos; Mastorodemos, Vasileios; Zaganas, Ioannis; Spanaki, Cleanthe; Plaitakis, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    Mammalian glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) is a housekeeping enzyme central to the metabolism of glutamate. Its activity is potently inhibited by GTP (IC50 = 0.1–0.3 μm) and thought to be controlled by the need of the cell in ATP. Estrogens are also known to inhibit mammalian GDH, but at relatively high concentrations. Because, in addition to this housekeeping human (h) GDH1, humans have acquired via a duplication event an hGDH2 isoform expressed in human cortical astrocytes, we tested here the interaction of estrogens with the two human isoenzymes. The results showed that, under base-line conditions, diethylstilbestrol potently inhibited hGDH2 (IC50 = 0.08 ± 0.01 μm) and with ∼18-fold lower affinity hGDH1 (IC50 = 1.67 ± 0.06 μm; p < 0.001). Similarly, 17β-estradiol showed a ∼18-fold higher affinity for hGDH2 (IC50 = 1.53 ± 0.24 μm) than for hGDH1 (IC50 = 26.94 ± 1.07 μm; p < 0.001). Also, estriol and progesterone were more potent inhibitors of hGDH2 than hGDH1. Structure/function analyses revealed that the evolutionary R443S substitution, which confers low basal activity, was largely responsible for sensitivity of hGDH2 to estrogens. Inhibition of both human GDHs by estrogens was inversely related to their state of activation induced by ADP, with the slope of this correlation being steeper for hGDH2 than for hGDH1. Also, the study of hGDH1 and hGDH2 mutants displaying different states of activation revealed that the affinity of estrogen for these enzymes correlated inversely (R = 0.99; p = 0.0001) with basal catalytic activity. Because astrocytes are known to synthesize estrogens, these hormones, by interacting potently with hGDH2 in its closed state, may contribute to regulation of glutamate metabolism in brain. PMID:20628048

  2. The G protein-coupled receptor GPR30 inhibits proliferation of estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Ariazi, Eric A; Brailoiu, Eugen; Yerrum, Smitha; Shupp, Heather A; Slifker, Michael J; Cunliffe, Heather E; Black, Michael A; Donato, Anne L; Arterburn, Jeffrey B; Oprea, Tudor I; Prossnitz, Eric R; Dun, Nae J; Jordan, V Craig

    2010-02-01

    The G protein-coupled receptor GPR30 binds 17beta-estradiol (E(2)) yet differs from classic estrogen receptors (ERalpha and ERbeta). GPR30 can mediate E(2)-induced nongenomic signaling, but its role in ERalpha-positive breast cancer remains unclear. Gene expression microarray data from five cohorts comprising 1,250 breast carcinomas showed an association between increased GPR30 expression and ERalpha-positive status. We therefore examined GPR30 in estrogenic activities in ER-positive MCF-7 breast cancer cells using G-1 and diethylstilbestrol (DES), ligands that selectively activate GPR30 and ER, respectively, and small interfering RNAs. In expression studies, E(2) and DES, but not G-1, transiently downregulated both ER and GPR30, indicating that this was ER mediated. In Ca(2+) mobilization studies, GPR30, but not ERalpha, mediated E(2)-induced Ca(2+) responses because E(2), 4-hydroxytamoxifen (activates GPR30), and G-1, but not DES, elicited cytosolic Ca(2+) increases not only in MCF-7 cells but also in ER-negative SKBr3 cells. Additionally, in MCF-7 cells, GPR30 depletion blocked E(2)-induced and G-1-induced Ca(2+) mobilization, but ERalpha depletion did not. Interestingly, GPR30-coupled Ca(2+) responses were sustained and inositol triphosphate receptor mediated in ER-positive MCF-7 cells but transitory and ryanodine receptor mediated in ER-negative SKBr3 cells. Proliferation studies involving GPR30 depletion indicated that the role of GPR30 was to promote SKBr3 cell growth but reduce MCF-7 cell growth. Supporting this, G-1 profoundly inhibited MCF-7 cell growth, potentially via p53 and p21 induction. Further, flow cytometry showed that G-1 blocked MCF-7 cell cycle progression at the G(1) phase. Thus, GPR30 antagonizes growth of ERalpha-positive breast cancer and may represent a new target to combat this disease.

  3. Estrogenic compounds inhibit gap junctional intercellular communication in mouse Leydig TM3 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Iwase, Yumiko; Fukata, Hideki; Mori, Chisato

    2006-05-01

    Some estrogenic compounds are reported to cause testicular disorders in humans and/or experimental animals by direct action on Leydig cells. In carcinogenesis and normal development, gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC) plays an essential role in maintaining homeostasis. In this study, we examine the effects of diethylstilbestrol (DES, a synthetic estrogen), 17{beta}-estradiol (E{sub 2}, a natural estrogen), and genistein (GEN, a phytoestrogen) on GJIC between mouse Leydig TM3 cells using Lucifer yellow microinjection. The three compounds tested produced GJIC inhibition in the TM3 cells after 24 h. Gradually, 10 {mu}M DES began to inhibit GJIC for 24 h and this effectmore » was observed until 72 h. On the other hand, both 20 {mu}M E{sub 2} and 25 {mu}M GEN rapidly inhibited GJIC in 6 h and 2 h, respectively. The effects continued until 24 h, but weakened by 72 h. Furthermore, a combined effect at {mu}M level between DES and E{sub 2} on GJIC inhibition was observed, but not between GEN and E{sub 2}. DES and E{sub 2} showed GJIC inhibition at low dose levels (nearly physiological estrogen levels) after 72 h, but GEN did not. DES-induced GJIC inhibition at 10 pM and 10 {mu}M was completely counteracted by ICI 182,780 (ICl), an estrogen receptor antagonist. On the other hand, the inhibitory effects on GJIC with E{sub 2} (10 pM and 20 {mu}M) and GEN (25 {mu}M) were partially blocked by ICI or calphostin C, a protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor, and were completely blocked by the combination of ICI and calphostin C. These results demonstrate that DES inhibits GJIC between Leydig cells via the estrogen receptor (ER), and that E{sub 2} and GEN inhibit GJIC via ER and PKC. These estrogenic compounds may have different individual nongenotoxic mechanism including PKC pathway on testicular carcinogenesis or development.« less

  4. Endocrine disruption screening by protein and gene expression of vitellogenin in freshly isolated and cryopreserved rainbow trout hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Markell, Lauren K; Mingoia, Robert T; Peterson, Heather M; Yao, Jianhong; Waters, Stephanie M; Finn, James P; Nabb, Diane L; Han, Xing

    2014-08-18

    Xenobiotics may activate the estrogen receptor, resulting in alteration of normal endocrine functions in animals and humans. Consequently, this necessitates development of assay end points capable of identifying estrogenic xenobiotics. In the present study, we screened the potential estrogenicity of chemicals via their ability to induce vitellogenin (VTG) expression in cultured primary hepatocytes from male trout. A routine method for VTG detection measures the secretion of the protein by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in freshly isolated trout hepatocytes. However, this lengthy (6 days) culturing procedure requires that hepatocyte isolation is performed each time the assay is run. We optimized this methodology by investigating the utility of cryopreserved hepatocytes, shortening the incubation time, performing a quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) method for VTG quantification, and verifying the model system with reference chemicals 17β-estradiol, estrone, diethylstilbestrol, hexestrol, genistein, and a negative control, corticosterone. To test the performance of both freshly isolated and cryopreserved hepatocytes, mRNA was collected from hepatocytes following 24 h treatment for VTG gene expression analysis, whereas cell culture media was collected for a VTG ELISA 96 h post-treatment. EC50 values were obtained for each reference chemical except for corticosterone, which exhibited no induction of VTG gene or protein level. Our results show linear concordance between ELISA and qPCR detection methods. Although there was approximately 50% reduction in VTG inducibility following cryopreservation, linear concordance of EC50 values was found between freshly isolated and cryopreserved hepatocytes, indicating that cryopreservation does not alter the functional assessment of estrogen receptor activation and therefore VTG expression. These studies demonstrate that qPCR is a sensitive and specific method for detecting VTG gene expression that can be used together

  5. Phytochemical characteristic and uterotonic effect of aqueous extract of Ficus deltoidea leaves in rats uterus.

    PubMed

    Amiera, Z Umi Romaizatul; Nihayah, M; Wahida, I Farah; Rajab, N F

    2014-09-01

    Ficus deltoidea is traditionally consumed by Malay woman to augment labour and hastening parturition. This study was to investigate the phytochemical present and uterotonic activity of F. deltoidea var. Deltoidea (FDD) and F. deltoidea var. Angustifolia (FDA) leaves aqueous extract. FDD and FDA were qualitatively analysed. In uterine contraction activity, adult female Sprague Dawley rats were pretreated with 0.2 mg kg(-1) diethylstilbestrol 24 h to induce oestrus phase. The rats then killed and uterine horns were taken out, cut into two centimetres length and put into organ bath that connected to Powerlab instrument. The uterus separately tested with cumulative concentrations of FDD (10-1280 μg mL(-1)), FDA (10-1280 μg mL(-1)), oxytocin (0.02-0.64 μg mL(-1)) and combination of oxytocin (0.08 μg mL(-1)) with FDD and FDA (10-1280 μg mL(-1)). FDD showed presence of flavonoid, saponin and tannin meanwhile FDA consist of flavonoid, tannin and terpenoid. Result showed FDD, FDA and oxytocin induced a dose-related increase in force of contraction of isolated rat uterus. The maximum uterine contraction (Emax) produced by FDD, FDA and oxytocin were at the concentration 640 μg mL(-1) (EC50, 5.903 ± 0.529 μg mL), 20 μg mL(-1) (EC50, 290.5 ± 0.158 μg mL(-1)) and 0.4 μg mL(-1) (EC50, 0.060 ± 0.011 μg mL(-1)) respectively. Combination effects of oxytocin with FDD and FDA produced Emax at the concentration 80 μg mL(-1) (EC50, 270.3 ± 0.643 μg mL(-1)) and 1280 μg mL(-1) (EC50, 26.83 ± 0.727 μg mL(-1)), respectively. Study indicated F. deltoidea possess contractile effect on uterine contraction. This plant has great potential to develop as natural uterotonic agent in inducing labour and treatment for post-partum haemorrhage.

  6. Clear cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix: clinical characteristics and feasibility of fertility-preserving treatment.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xiang; Jin, Ying; Li, Yan; Huang, Hui-Fang; Wu, Ming; Shen, Keng; Pan, Ling-Ya

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this retrospective study was to analyze the clinical characteristics and prognosis of clear cell adenocarcinoma (CCA) in the post-diethylstilbestrol (DES) era and to evaluate the feasibility of fertility-preserving treatment. The records of 32 patients with CCAs who were treated at Peking Union Medical College Hospital from August 1986 to June 2012 were retrospectively reviewed. Three of the patients had undergone fertility-preserving treatment. The incidence of CCA among cervical adenocarcinomas was 15.2%. The median age was 38 years: 11 patients (34.4%) were diagnosed before 30 years of age and two (6.3%) after 70 years of age. Ten patients (31.2%) were nulliparous. No patient had been exposed to DES. Twenty-nine patients (90.6%) presented with obvious symptoms, and the cervix appeared abnormal in 26 patients (81.3%). Cervical Papanicolaou (Pap) tests were abnormal in all four patients in whom they were performed (three had high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions and one had atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance). The distribution by stage was 56.3% stage I, 34.4% stage II, 6.3% stage III, and 3.1% stage IV. Treatments mainly included surgery for patients with stage I to IIA CCA and radiochemotherapy for patients with advanced CCA. The overall 5-year progression-free survival was 72.2%. Patients with stage I to IIA CCA had better 5-year progression-free survival than did patients with stage IIB to IV CCA (81.5% versus 40.0%, P=0.003). The three patients who had undergone fertility-preserving treatment had no recurrences. CCA may also affect adolescents and children without prior DES exposure, who are often misdiagnosed as having functional uterine bleeding. Radiotherapy appears to be effective for local control but to have no effect on distant recurrences. In our study, the prognosis of patients with early-stage CCA, including those who had undergone fertility-preserving treatment, was not inferior to that of patients with

  7. Influence of exercise on bone remodeling-related hormones and cytokines in ovariectomized rats: a model of postmenopausal osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Li, Lihui; Chen, Xi; Lv, Shuang; Dong, Miaomiao; Zhang, Li; Tu, Jiaheng; Yang, Jie; Zhang, Lingli; Song, Yinan; Xu, Leiting; Zou, Jun

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to explore the effects of exercise on postmenopausal osteoporosis and the mechanisms by which exercise affects bone remodeling. Sixty-three Wistar female rats were randomly divided into five groups: (1) control group, (2) sham-operated group, (3) OVX (Ovariectomy) group, (4) DES-OVX (Diethylstilbestrol-OVX) group, and (5) Ex-OVX (Exercise-OVX) group. The rat osteoporosis model was established through ovariectomy. The Ex-OVX rats were made to run 251.2 meters every day, 6 d/wk for 3 months in a running wheel. Trabecular bone volume (TBV%), total resorption surface (TRS%), trabecular formation surface (TFS%), mineralization rate (MAR), bone cortex mineralization rate (mAR), and osteoid seam width (OSW) were determined by bone histomorphometry. The mRNA and protein levels of interleukin-1β (IL-1β2), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2) were determined by in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry, respectively. Serum levels of estrogen estradiol (E2), calcitonin (CT), osteocalcin (BGP), and parathyroid hormone (PTH) were determined by ELISA assays. The investigation revealed that compared to the control and the sham-operated groups, the OVX group showed significantly lower levels of TBV%, E2, and CT, but much higher levels of TRS%, TFS%, MAR, OSW, BGP, and PTH. The Ex-OVX group showed increased TBV% and serum levels of E2 and CT compared to the OVX group. Ovariectomy also led to a significant increase in IL-1β mRNA and protein levels in the bone marrow and IL-6 and Cox-2 protein levels in tibias. In addition, the Ex-OVX group showed lower levels of IL-1 mRNA and protein, IL-6 mRNA, and Cox-2 mRNA and protein than those in the OVX group. The upshot of the study suggests that exercise can significantly increase bone mass in postmenopausal osteoporosis rat models by inhibiting bone resorption and increasing bone formation, especially in trabecular bones.

  8. The effects of in utero bisphenol A exposure on reproductive capacity in several generations of mice

    SciTech Connect

    Ziv-Gal, Ayelet, E-mail: zivgal1@illinois.edu; Wang, Wei, E-mail: weiwang2@illinois.edu; Zhou, Changqing, E-mail: czhou27@illinois.edu

    In utero bisphenol A (BPA) exposure affects reproductive function in the first generation (F1) of mice; however, not many studies have examined the reproductive effects of BPA exposure on subsequent generations. In this study, pregnant mice (F0) were orally dosed with vehicle, BPA (0.5, 20, and 50 μg/kg/day) or diethylstilbestrol (DES; 0.05 μg/kg/day) daily from gestation day 11 until birth. F1 females were used to generate the F2 generation, and F2 females were used to generate the F3 generation. Breeding studies at the ages of 3, 6, and 9 months were conducted to evaluate reproductive capacity over time. Further, studiesmore » were conducted to evaluate pubertal onset, litter size, and percentage of dead pups; and to calculate pregnancy rate, and mating, fertility, and gestational indices. The results indicate that BPA exposure (0.5 and 50 μg/kg/day) significantly delayed the age at vaginal opening in the F3 generation compared to vehicle control. Both DES (0.05 μg/kg/day) and BPA (50 μg/kg/day) significantly delayed the age at first estrus in the F3 generation compared to vehicle control. BPA exposure reduced gestational index in the F1 and F2 generations compared to control. Further, BPA exposure (0.5 μg/kg/day) compromised the fertility index in the F3 generation compared to control. Finally, in utero BPA exposure reduced the ability of female mice to maintain pregnancies as they aged. Collectively, these data suggest that BPA exposure affects reproductive function in female mice and that some effects may be transgenerational in nature. - Highlights: • In utero BPA delayed vaginal opening in the F3 generation compared to control. • In utero BPA delayed estrus in the F3 generation compared to control. • In utero BPA reduced the ability of F1 and F2 female mice to maintain pregnancies. • In utero BPA compromised the ability of F3 female mice to become pregnant. • Some effects of in utero BPA may be transgenerational in nature.« less

  9. The relevance of chemical interactions with CYP17 enzyme activity: Assessment using a novel in vitro assay

    SciTech Connect

    Roelofs, Maarke J.E., E-mail: m.j.e.roelofs@uu.nl; Center for Health Protection, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment; Piersma, Aldert H.

    The steroidogenic cytochrome P450 17 (CYP17) enzyme produces dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), which is the most abundant circulating endogenous sex steroid precursor. DHEA plays a key role in e.g. sexual functioning and development. To date, no rapid screening assay for effects on CYP17 is available. In this study, a novel assay using porcine adrenal cortex microsomes (PACMs) was described. Effects of twenty-eight suggested endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) on CYP17 activity were compared with effects in the US EPA validated H295R (human adrenocorticocarcinoma cell line) steroidogenesis assay. In the PACM assay DHEA production was higher compared with the H295R assay (4.4 versus 2.2more » nmol/h/mg protein). To determine the additional value of a CYP17 assay, all compounds were also tested for interaction with CYP19 (aromatase) using human placental microsomes (HPMs) and H295R cells. 62.5% of the compounds showed enzyme inhibition in at least one of the microsomal assays. Only the cAMP inducer forskolin induced CYP17 activity, while CYP19 was induced by four test compounds in the H295R assay. These effects remained unnoticed in the PACM and HPM assays. Diethylstilbestrol and tetrabromobisphenol A inhibited CYP17 but not CYP19 activity, indicating different mechanisms for the inhibition of these enzymes. From our results it becomes apparent that CYP17 can be a target for EDCs and that this interaction differs from interactions with CYP19. Our data strongly suggest that research attention should focus on validating a specific assay for CYP17 activity, such as the PACM assay, that can be included in the EDC screening battery. - Highlights: ► DHEA, produced by CYP17, plays a key role in sexual functioning and development. ► No rapid screening assay for effects on CYP17 is available yet. ► A novel assay using porcine adrenal cortex microsomes (PACMs) was described. ► Endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) targeting CYP17 interact differently with CYP19. ► A

  10. Low doses of bisphenol A promote human seminoma cell proliferation by activating PKA and PKG via a membrane G-protein-coupled estrogen receptor.

    PubMed

    Bouskine, Adil; Nebout, Marielle; Brücker-Davis, Françoise; Benahmed, Mohamed; Fenichel, Patrick

    2009-07-01

    Fetal exposure to environmental estrogens may contribute to hypofertility and/or to testicular germ cell cancer. However, many of these xenoestrogens have only a weak affinity for the classical estrogen receptors (ERs,) which is 1,000-fold less potent than the affinity of 17beta-estradiol (E(2)). Thus, several mechanisms have been suggested to explain how they could affect male germ cell proliferation at low environmental relevant concentrations. In this study we aimed to explore the possible promoting effect of bisphenol A (BPA) on human testicular seminoma cells. BPA is a well-recognized estrogenic endocrine disruptor used as a monomer to manufacture poly carbonate plastic and released from resin-lined food or beverage cans or from dental sealants. BPA at very low concentrations (10(-9) to 10(-12) M) similar to those found in human fluids stimulated JKT-1 cell proliferation in vitro. BPA activated both cAMP-dependent protein kinase and cGMP-dependent protein kinase pathways and triggered a rapid (15 min) phosphorylation of the transcription factor cAMP response-element-binding protein (CREB) and the cell cycle regulator retinoblastoma protein (Rb). This nongenomic activation did not involve classical ERs because it could not be reversed by ICI 182780 (an ER antagonist) or reproduced either by E(2) or by diethylstilbestrol (a potent synthetic estrogen), which instead triggered a suppressive effect. This activation was reproduced only by E(2) coupled to bovine serum albumin (BSA), which is unable to enter the cell. As with E(2)-BSA, BPA promoted JKT-1 cell proliferation through a G-protein-coupled nonclassical membrane ER (GPCR) involving a Galpha(s) and a Galpha(i)/Galpha(q) subunit, as shown by the reversible effect observed by the corresponding inhibitors NF449 and pertussis toxin. This GPCR-mediated nongenomic action represents--in addition to the classical ER-mediated effect--a new basis for evaluating xenoestrogens such as BPA that, at low doses and with a

  11. Environmental signaling: from environmental estrogens to endocrine-disrupting chemicals and beyond.

    PubMed

    McLachlan, J A

    2016-07-01

    The landmark report (Herbst et al. 1971) linking prenatal treatment with a synthetic estrogen, diethylstilbestrol (DES), to cancer at puberty in women whose mothers took the drug while pregnant ushered in an era of research on delayed effects of such exposures on functional outcomes in offspring. An animal model developed in our laboratory at the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences confirmed that DES was the carcinogen and exposure to DES caused, as well, functional alterations in the reproductive, endocrine, and immune systems of male and female mice treated in utero. DES was also being used in agriculture and we discovered, at the first meeting on Estrogens in the Environment in 1979 (Estrogens in the Environment, 1980), that many environmental contaminants were also estrogenic. Many laboratories sought to discern the basis for estrogenicity in environmental chemicals and to discover other hormonally active xenobiotics. Our laboratory elucidated how DES and other estrogenic compounds worked by altering differentiation through epigenetic gene imprinting, helping explain the transgenerational effects found in mice and humans. At the Wingspread Conference on the Human-Wildlife Connection in 1991 (Advances in Modern Environmental Toxicology, 1992), we learned that environmental disruption of the endocrine system occurred in many species and phyla, and the term endocrine disruption was introduced. Further findings of transgenerational effects of environmental agents that mimicked or blocked various reproductive hormones and the ubiquity of environmental signals, such as bisphenol A increased concern for human and ecological health. Scientists began to look at other endocrine system aspects, such as cardiovascular and immune function, and other nuclear receptors, with important observations regarding obesity and metabolism. Laboratories, such as ours, are now using stem cells to try to understand the mechanisms by which various environmental signals

  12. The pancreas is altered by in utero androgen exposure: implications for clinical conditions such as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).

    PubMed

    Rae, Mick; Grace, Cathal; Hogg, Kirsten; Wilson, Lisa Marie; McHaffie, Sophie L; Ramaswamy, Seshadri; MacCallum, Janis; Connolly, Fiona; McNeilly, Alan S; Duncan, Colin

    2013-01-01

    Using an ovine model of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), (pregnant ewes injected with testosterone propionate (TP) (100 mg twice weekly) from day (d)62 to d102 of d147 gestation (maternal injection - MI-TP)), we previously reported female offspring with normal glucose tolerance but hyperinsulinemia. We therefore examined insulin signalling and pancreatic morphology in these offspring using quantitative (Q) RT-PCR and western blotting. In addition the fetal pancreatic responses to MI-TP, and androgenic and estrogenic contributions to such responses (direct fetal injection (FI) of TP (20 mg) or diethylstilbestrol (DES) (20 mg) at d62 and d82 gestation) were assessed at d90 gestation. Fetal plasma was assayed for insulin, testosterone and estradiol, pancreatic tissue was cultured, and expression of key β-cell developmental genes was assessed by QRT-PCR. In female d62MI-TP offspring insulin signalling was unaltered but there was a pancreatic phenotype with increased numbers of β-cells (P<0.05). The fetal pancreas expressed androgen receptors in islets and genes involved in β-cell development and function (PDX1, IGF1R, INSR and INS) were up-regulated in female fetuses after d62MI-TP treatment (P<0.05-0.01). In addition the d62MI-TP pancreas showed increased insulin secretion under euglycaemic conditions (P<0.05) in vitro. The same effects were not seen in the male fetal pancreas or when MI-TP was started at d30, before the male programming window. As d62MI-TP increased both fetal plasma testosterone (P<0.05) and estradiol concentrations (P<0.05) we assessed the relative contribution of androgens and estrogens. FI-TP (commencing d62) (not FI-DES treatment) caused elevated basal insulin secretion in vitro and the genes altered by d62MI-TP treatment were similarly altered by FI-TP but not FI-DES. In conclusion, androgen over-exposure alters fetal pancreatic development and β-cell numbers in offspring. These data suggest that that there may be a primary pancreatic

  13. The Pancreas Is Altered by In Utero Androgen Exposure: Implications for Clinical Conditions Such as Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS)

    PubMed Central

    Rae, Mick; Grace, Cathal; Hogg, Kirsten; Wilson, Lisa Marie; McHaffie, Sophie L.; Ramaswamy, Seshadri; MacCallum, Janis; Connolly, Fiona; McNeilly, Alan S.; Duncan, Colin

    2013-01-01

    Using an ovine model of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), (pregnant ewes injected with testosterone propionate (TP) (100 mg twice weekly) from day (d)62 to d102 of d147 gestation (maternal injection – MI-TP)), we previously reported female offspring with normal glucose tolerance but hyperinsulinemia. We therefore examined insulin signalling and pancreatic morphology in these offspring using quantitative (Q) RT-PCR and western blotting. In addition the fetal pancreatic responses to MI-TP, and androgenic and estrogenic contributions to such responses (direct fetal injection (FI) of TP (20 mg) or diethylstilbestrol (DES) (20 mg) at d62 and d82 gestation) were assessed at d90 gestation. Fetal plasma was assayed for insulin, testosterone and estradiol, pancreatic tissue was cultured, and expression of key β-cell developmental genes was assessed by QRT-PCR. In female d62MI-TP offspring insulin signalling was unaltered but there was a pancreatic phenotype with increased numbers of β-cells (P<0.05). The fetal pancreas expressed androgen receptors in islets and genes involved in β-cell development and function (PDX1, IGF1R, INSR and INS) were up-regulated in female fetuses after d62MI-TP treatment (P<0.05–0.01). In addition the d62MI-TP pancreas showed increased insulin secretion under euglycaemic conditions (P<0.05) in vitro. The same effects were not seen in the male fetal pancreas or when MI-TP was started at d30, before the male programming window. As d62MI-TP increased both fetal plasma testosterone (P<0.05) and estradiol concentrations (P<0.05) we assessed the relative contribution of androgens and estrogens. FI-TP (commencing d62) (not FI-DES treatment) caused elevated basal insulin secretion in vitro and the genes altered by d62MI-TP treatment were similarly altered by FI-TP but not FI-DES. In conclusion, androgen over-exposure alters fetal pancreatic development and β-cell numbers in offspring. These data suggest that that there may be a primary pancreatic

  14. Identification, contribution, and estrogenic activity of potential EDCs in a river receiving concentrated livestock effluent in Southern Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yung-Yu; Lin, Yi-Siou; Yen, Chia-Hung; Miaw, Chang-Ling; Chen, Ting-Chien; Wu, Meng-Chun; Hsieh, Chi-Ying

    2018-04-27

    We assessed 22 selected endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) and other emerging, potentially endocrine-active compounds with estrogenic activity from the waters of the Wuluo River, southern Taiwan. This watershed receives high amounts of livestock and untreated household wastewaters. The river is surrounded by concentrated animal feedlot operations (CAFOs). River water samples were analyzed for selected compounds by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), T47D-KBluc reporter gene assay, and E-screen cell proliferation in vitro bioassay. Total concentrations of ∑alkylphenolic compounds (bisphenol A, 4-nonylphenol, t-nonylphenol, octylphenol, nonylphenol mono-ethoxylate, nonylphenol di-ethoxylate) were much higher than ∑estrogens (estrone, 17 β-estradiol, estriol, 17ß-ethynylestradiol, diethylstilbestrol), ∑preservatives (methyl paraben, ethyl paraben, propyl paraben, butyl paraben), ∑UV-filters (benzophenone, methyl benzylidene camphor, benzophenone-3), ∑antimicrobials (triclocarben, triclosan, chloroxylenol), and an insect repellent (diethyltoluamide) over four seasonal sampling periods. The highest concentration was found for bisphenol A with a mean of 302 ng/L. However, its contribution to estrogenic activity was not significant due to its relatively low estrogenic potency. Lower detection rates were found for BP, EE2, TCS, and PCMX, while DES and EP were not detected. E1 and E2 levels in raw water samples were 50% higher than the predicted no-effect concentrations (PNEC) for aquatic organisms of 6 and 2 ng/L, respectively. The potency of estrogenic activity ranged from 11.7 to 190.1 ng/L E2 T47D-Kbluc and 6.63 to 84.5 ng/L E2 E-Screen for extracted samples. Importantly, estrone contributed 50% of the overall activity in 60% and 44% of the samples based on T47D-KBluc and MCF-7 bioassays, followed by 17 ß-estradiol, highlighting the importance of total steroid estrogen loading. This study demonstrates that the estrogenic

  15. Occurrence and removal of endocrine-disrupting chemicals in wastewater treatment plants in the Three Gorges Reservoir area, Chongqing, China.

    PubMed

    Ye, Xin; Guo, Xuesong; Cui, Xing; Zhang, Xian; Zhang, Han; Wang, M K; Qiu, Ling; Chen, Shaohua

    2012-08-01

    Concentrations of six endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs), bisphenol A (BPA), estrone (E(1)), 17β-estradiol (E(2)), estriol (E(3)), 17α-ethynylestradiol (EE(2)) and diethylstilbestrol (DES), were assessed in influents, effluents and excess sludge in ten municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) area, Chongqing, China. Three types of activated sludge treatment processes, oxidation ditch (OD), reversed anaerobic-anoxic-oxic (rA(2)/O) technology and sequential batch reactor (SBR), were used in the surveyed WWTPs. These WWTPs were all combined landfill leachate-sewage treatment plants. All analytes were extracted by solid-phase extraction (SPE) in the dissolved phase and by accelerated solvent-based extraction (ASE) in sludge. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was employed for the analysis of EDCs. Among these EDCs, BPA was the most frequently detected and abundant compound (100.0-10566.7 ng L(-1), 15.5-1210.7 ng L(-1) and 85.0-2470.4 ng g(-1) with respect to the influents, effluents and excess sludge samples). The greatest levels of steroidal estrogens in municipal influents were observed in E(3) which were all >100 ng L(-1), followed by E(1) (42.2-110.7 ng L(-1)) and E(2) (7.4-32.7 ng L(-1)), and in the effluents and sludge were E(1) > E(3) > E(2) which were all <31 ng L(-1) and 105 ng g(-1), respectively. Regarding synthetic estrogens, EE(2) was frequently detected in the influents, occurring below 50 ng L(-1), while DES was not detected at all. A high correlation coefficient was observed between the leachate-sludge ratio and concentrations of influent EDCs, and it was statistically significant (i.e., R > 0.65, P < 0.05), but removal efficiency of the EDCs did not show significant differences with OD, rA(2)/O and SBR processes. Furthermore, modification of treatment technology as well as operational parameters, such as hydraulic retention time (HRT), sludge retention time (SRT) and disinfection process (DP

  16. Sensitivity of the immature rat uterotrophic assay to mixtures of estrogens.

    PubMed Central

    Tinwell, Helen; Ashby, John

    2004-01-01

    We have evaluated whether mixtures of estrogens, present in the mix at doses that are individually inactive in the immature rat uterotrophic assay, can give a uterotrophic response. Seven chemicals were evaluated: nonylphenol, bisphenol A (BPA), methoxychlor, genistein (GEN), estradiol, diethylstilbestrol, and ethinyl estradiol. Dose responses in the uterotrophic assay were constructed for each chemical. The first series of experiments involved evaluating binary mixtures of BPA and GEN at dose levels that gave moderate uterotrophic responses when tested individually. The mixtures generally showed an intermediate or reduced uterotrophic effect compared with when the components of the mixture were tested alone at the dose used in the mixture. The next series of experiments used a multicomponent (complex) mixture of all seven chemicals evaluated at doses that gave either weakly positive or inactive uterotrophic responses when tested individually in the assay. Doses that were nominally equi-uterotrophic ranged over approximately six orders of magnitude for the seven chemicals. Doses of agents that gave a weak uterotrophic response when tested individually gave a marginally enhanced positive response in the assay when tested combined as a mixture. Doses of agents that gave a negative uterotrophic response when tested individually gave a positive response when tested as a mixture. These data indicate that a variety of different estrogen receptor (ER) agonists, present individually at subeffective doses, can act simultaneously to evoke an ER-regulated response. However, translating these findings into the process of environmental hazard assessment will be difficult. The simple addition of the observed, or predicted, activities for the components of a mixture is confirmed here to be inappropriate and to overestimate the actual effect induced by the mixture. Equally, isobole analysis is only suitable for two- or three-component mixtures, and concentration addition requires

  17. Assessment of a robust model protocol with accelerated throughput for a human recombinant full length estrogen receptor-alpha binding assay: protocol optimization and intralaboratory assay performance as initial steps towards validation.

    PubMed

    Freyberger, Alexius; Wilson, Vickie; Weimer, Marc; Tan, Shirlee; Tran, Hoai-Son; Ahr, Hans-Jürgen

    2010-08-01

    Despite about two decades of research in the field of endocrine active compounds, still no validated human recombinant (hr) estrogen receptor-alpha (ERalpha) binding assay is available, although hr-ERalpha is available from several sources. In a joint effort, US EPA and Bayer Schering Pharma with funding from the EU-sponsored 6th framework project, ReProTect, developed a model protocol for such a binding assay. Important features of this assay are the use of a full length hr-ERalpha and performance in a 96-well plate format. A full length hr-ERalpha was chosen, as it was considered to provide the most accurate and human-relevant results, whereas truncated receptors could perform differently. Besides three reference compounds [17beta-estradiol, norethynodrel, dibutylphthalate] nine test compounds with different affinities for the ERalpha [diethylstilbestrol (DES), ethynylestradiol, meso-hexestrol, equol, genistein, o,p'-DDT, nonylphenol, n-butylparaben, and corticosterone] were used to explore the performance of the assay. Three independent experiments per compound were performed on different days, and dilutions of test compounds from deep-frozen stocks, solutions of radiolabeled ligand and receptor preparation were freshly prepared for each experiment. The ERalpha binding properties of reference and test compounds were well detected. As expected dibutylphthalate and corticosterone were non-binders in this assay. In terms of the relative ranking of binding affinities, there was good agreement with published data obtained from experiments using a human recombinant ERalpha ligand binding domain. Irrespective of the chemical nature of the compound, individual IC(50)-values for a given compound varied by not more than a factor of 2.5. Our data demonstrate that the assay was robust and reliably ranked compounds with strong, weak, and no affinity for the ERalpha with high accuracy. It avoids the manipulation and use of animals, i.e., the preparation of uterine cytosol as

  18. Evolutionary origins of the estrogen signaling system: insights from amphioxus

    PubMed Central

    Tarrant, AM; Novillo, A; Yacci, P; Ciaccia, L; Vajda, S; Chuang, G-Y; Kozakov, D; Greytak, SR; Sawyer, S; Hoover, C; Cotter, K

    2011-01-01

    -hydroxytamoxifen, diethylstilbestrol, bisphenol A or genistein. Interestingly, it has been shown that a related gene, the amphioxus “steroid receptor” (SR), can be activated by estrogens and that amphioxus ER can repress this activation. CYP19, ER and SR are all primarily expressed in gonadal tissue, suggesting an ancient paracrine/autocrinesignaling role, but it is not yet known how their expression is regulated and, if estrogen is actually synthesized in amphioxus, whether it has a role in mediating any biological effects. Functional studies are clearly needed to link emerging bioinformatics and in vitro molecular biology results with organismal physiology to develop an understanding of the evolution of estrogen signaling. PMID:21514383

  19. Necessity of re-evaluation of estramustine phosphate sodium (EMP) as a treatment option for first-line monotherapy in advanced prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Kitamura, T

    2001-02-01

    Estramustine phosphate sodium (EMP) was first introduced in the early 1970s for the treatment of prostate cancer, when EMP was supposed to have the dual effect of estrogenic activity and cytotoxicity. For the following decades, it was used mainly in hormone-refractory cases, with a conventional dosage of 4-9 capsules/day, which showed a 30-35% objective response rate. However, a very limited number of cases have been reported that used EMP as a first-line monotherapy in the conventional dosage. One study showed a response rate of 82%, which is at least as effective as conventional estrogen (diethylstilbestrol; DES) monotherapy. Nevertheless, EMP was almost abandoned for the treatment of prostate cancer because of severe adverse side-effects, especially in the cardiovascular system and gastrointestinal tract. Recently, two facts have become evident. First, EMP interferes with cellular microtubule dynamics but does not show alkylating effects. Second, EMP is able to produce a complex with calcium when dairy products are taken concomitantly with EMP, resulting in a decrease in the absorption rate of EMP from the gut. Many clinical trials have been undertaken without warning against concomitant dairy product intake since the introduction of EMP. This fact will jeopardize almost all the clinical trials performed before 1990. It is considered that response rates have been underestimated and better results could have been obtained because side-effects decrease dose-dependently. Low-dose EMP monotherapy (2 capsules/day) has been performed infrequently in previously untreated advanced prostate cancer. The only large trial by the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer in 1984 was biased in selecting patients. Nevertheless, the response rate of EMP is comparable to that of DES. In this study, the adverse side-effects of EMP were less than that of DES. Recently, a study was conducted at the University of Tokyo of 11 patients with advanced prostate cancer on

  20. Municipal wastewater affects adipose deposition in male mice and increases 3T3-L1 cell differentiation

    SciTech Connect

    Biasiotto, Giorgio; Zanella, Isabella; Department of Molecular and Translational Medicine, University of Brescia, Brescia

    Trace concentration of EDs (endocrine disrupting compounds) in water bodies caused by wastewater treatment plant effluents is a recognized problem for the health of aquatic organisms and their potential to affect human health. In this paper we show that continuous exposure of male mice from early development to the adult life (140 days) to unrestricted drinking of wastewater collected from a municipal sewage treatment plant, is associated with an increased adipose deposition and weight gain during adulthood because of altered body homeostasis. In parallel, bisphenol A (BPA) at the administration dose of 5 μg/kg/body weight, shows an increasing effect onmore » total body weight and fat mass. In vitro, a solid phase extract (SPE) of the wastewater (eTW), caused stimulation of 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation at dilutions of 0.4 and 1 % in the final culture medium which contained a concentration of BPA of 40 nM and 90 nM respectively. Pure BPA also promoted adipocytes differentiation at the concentration of 50 and 80 μM. BPA effect in 3T3-L1 cells was associated to the specific activation of the estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) in undifferentiated cells and the estrogen receptor beta (ERβ) in differentiated cells. BPA also activated the Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptor gamma (PPARγ) upregulating a minimal 3XPPARE luciferase reporter and the PPARγ-target promoter of the aP2 gene in adipose cells, while it was not effective in preadipocytes. The pure estrogen receptor agonist diethylstilbestrol (DES) played an opposite action to that of BPA inhibiting PPARγ activity in adipocytes, preventing cell differentiation, activating ERα in preadipocytes and inhibiting ERα and ERβ regulation in adipocytes. The results of this work show that the drinking of chemically-contaminated wastewater promotes fat deposition in male mice and that EDs present in sewage are likely responsible for this effect through a nuclear receptor-mediated mechanism. - Highlights:

  1. Uterine length and fertility outcomes: a cohort study in the IVF population.

    PubMed

    Hawkins, L K; Correia, K F; Srouji, S S; Hornstein, M D; Missmer, S A

    2013-11-01

    What is the relationship between pre-cycle uterine length and IVF outcome (chemical pregnancy, clinical pregnancy, spontaneous abortion and live birth)? Women at extremes of uterine length (<7.0 or >9.0 cm) were less likely to achieve live birth and women with uterine lengths <6.0 cm were also more likely to experience spontaneous abortion. A prospective study of 807 women published in 2000 found that implantation and clinical pregnancy rates were highest in women with uterine lengths between 7.0 and 9.0 cm, though the difference was not significant. The relationship between pre-cycle uterine length and live birth has not been evaluated. A retrospective cohort study of all cycles performed after uterine length measurement at an academic hospital IVF clinic from 2001 to 2012. A total of 8981 fresh cycles were performed in 5120 adult women with normal uterine anatomy. Women with uterine anomalies (unicornuate, bicornuate, septate or uterus exposed to diethylstilbestrol) were excluded and women with fibroids were identified for subanalysis. Uterine length was measured by uterine sounding. Cycles were divided by uterine length into groups: <6.0 cm (very short, n = 76), 6.0-6.9 cm (short, n = 2014), 7.0-7.9 cm (referent, n = 4984), 8.0-8.9 cm (long, n = 1664) and ≥9 cm (very long, n = 243). Multivariate logistic regression (first-cycle analyses) and generalized estimating equations (all-cycle analyses) were adjusted for age, fibroids and ART treatment (assisted hatching, intracytoplasmic sperm injection) to generate relative risk (RR) of cycle outcomes by uterine length. Median uterine length in the IVF population was 7.0 cm (interquartile range 7.0-7.8) and was positively associated with BMI (P < 0.001) and fibroids (P = 0.02). Compared with the referent group, women with uterine lengths <6.0 cm were half as likely to achieve live birth (RR: 0.53; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.35-0.81) and women with lengths of 6.0-6.9 cm were also less likely (RR: 0.91; CI: 0