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Sample records for differentiated skeletal muscle

  1. Smad7 promotes and enhances skeletal muscle differentiation.

    PubMed

    Kollias, Helen D; Perry, Robert L S; Miyake, Tetsuaki; Aziz, Arif; McDermott, John C

    2006-08-01

    Transforming growth factor beta1 (TGF-beta1) and myostatin signaling, mediated by the same Smad downstream effectors, potently repress skeletal muscle cell differentiation. Smad7 inhibits these cytokine signaling pathways. The role of Smad7 during skeletal muscle cell differentiation was assessed. In these studies, we document that increased expression of Smad7 abrogates myostatin- but not TGF-beta1-mediated repression of myogenesis. Further, constitutive expression of exogenous Smad7 potently enhanced skeletal muscle differentiation and cellular hypertrophy. Conversely, targeting of endogenous Smad7 by small interfering RNA inhibited C2C12 muscle cell differentiation, indicating an essential role for Smad7 during myogenesis. Congruent with a role for Smad7 in myogenesis, we observed that the muscle regulatory factor (MyoD) binds to and transactivates the Smad7 proximal promoter region. Finally, we document that Smad7 directly interacts with MyoD and enhances MyoD transcriptional activity. Thus, Smad7 cooperates with MyoD, creating a positive loop to induce Smad7 expression and to promote MyoD driven myogenesis. Taken together, these data implicate Smad7 as a fundamental regulator of differentiation in skeletal muscle cells.

  2. The role of taurine on skeletal muscle cell differentiation.

    PubMed

    Miyazaki, Teruo; Honda, Akira; Ikegami, Tadashi; Matsuzaki, Yasushi

    2013-01-01

    Taurine abundantly contained in the skeletal muscle has been considered as one of essential factors for the differentiation and growth of skeletal muscles. The previous studies in the taurine transporter knockout mice showed that deficiency of taurine content in the skeletal muscle caused incomplete muscular developments, morphological abnormalities, and exercise abilities. In fetal and neonatal periods, taurine must be an essential amino acid due to no biosynthesis capacity, and therefore, taurine should be endogenously supplied through placenta and maternal milk. In general cell culture condition, taurine contained in the culture medium is absent or few, and therefore, most of cultured cells are in taurine-deficient condition. In the present study, we confirmed, in cultured mouse differentiable myoblast, taurine treatment significantly enhanced the differentiation to myotube in a dose-dependent manner, while these effects were abrogated by inhibitions of taurine transport and Ca(2+) signaling pathway.The present study suggested that exogenous taurine might play a key role on the mature differentiation/growth of the skeletal muscle during development period through Ca(2+) signaling pathway, and therefore, taurine would contribute the muscle recovery after damages.

  3. Differential global gene expression in red and white skeletal muscle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, W. G.; Gordon, S. E.; Carlson, C. J.; Pattison, J. S.; Hamilton, M. T.; Booth, F. W.

    2001-01-01

    The differences in gene expression among the fiber types of skeletal muscle have long fascinated scientists, but for the most part, previous experiments have only reported differences of one or two genes at a time. The evolving technology of global mRNA expression analysis was employed to determine the potential differential expression of approximately 3,000 mRNAs between the white quad (white muscle) and the red soleus muscle (mixed red muscle) of female ICR mice (30-35 g). Microarray analysis identified 49 mRNA sequences that were differentially expressed between white and mixed red skeletal muscle, including newly identified differential expressions between muscle types. For example, the current findings increase the number of known, differentially expressed mRNAs for transcription factors/coregulators by nine and signaling proteins by three. The expanding knowledge of the diversity of mRNA expression between white and mixed red muscle suggests that there could be quite a complex regulation of phenotype between muscles of different fiber types.

  4. Distant cis Regulatory Elements in Human Skeletal Muscle Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    McCord, Rachel Patton; Zhou, Vicky W.; Yuh, Tiffany; Bulyk, Martha L.

    2011-01-01

    Identifying gene regulatory elements and their target genes in human cells remains a significant challenge. Despite increasing evidence of physical interactions between distant regulatory elements and gene promoters in mammalian cells, many studies consider only promoter-proximal regulatory regions. We identify putative cis-regulatory modules (CRMs) in human skeletal muscle differentiation by combining myogenic TF binding data before and after differentiation with histone modification data in myoblasts. CRMs that are distant (>20 kb) from muscle gene promoters are common and are more likely than proximal promoter regions to show differentiation-specific changes in myogenic TF binding. We find that two of these distant CRMs, known to activate transcription in differentiating myoblasts, interact physically with gene promoters (PDLIM3 and ACTA1) during differentiation. Our results highlight the importance of considering distal CRMs in investigations of mammalian gene regulation and support the hypothesis that distant CRM-promoter looping contacts are a general mechanism of gene regulation. PMID:21907276

  5. Angiotensin II induces differential insulin action in rat skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Surapongchai, Juthamard; Prasannarong, Mujalin; Bupha-Intr, Tepmanas; Saengsirisuwan, Vitoon

    2017-03-01

    Angiotensin II (ANGII) is reportedly involved in the development of skeletal muscle insulin resistance. The present investigation evaluated the effects of two ANGII doses on the phenotypic characteristics of insulin resistance syndrome and insulin action and signaling in rat skeletal muscle. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were infused with either saline (SHAM) or ANGII at a commonly used pressor dose (100 ng/kg/min; ANGII-100) or a higher pressor dose (500 ng/kg/min; ANGII-500) via osmotic minipumps for 14 days. We demonstrated that ANGII-100-infused rats exhibited the phenotypic features of non-obese insulin resistance syndrome, including hypertension, impaired glucose tolerance and insulin resistance of glucose uptake in the soleus muscle, whereas ANGII-500-treated rats exhibited diabetes-like symptoms, such as post-prandial hyperglycemia, impaired insulin secretion and hypertriglyceridemia. At the cellular level, insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in the soleus muscle of the ANGII-100 group was 33% lower (P < 0.05) than that in the SHAM group and was associated with increased insulin-stimulated IRS-1 Ser(307) and decreased Akt Ser(473) and AS160 Thr(642) phosphorylation and GLUT-4 expression. However, ANGII-500 infusion did not induce skeletal muscle insulin resistance or impair insulin signaling elements as initially anticipated. Moreover, we found that insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in the ANGII-500 group was accompanied by the enhanced expression of ACE2 and MasR proteins, which are the key elements in the non-classical pathway of the renin-angiotensin system. Collectively, this study demonstrates for the first time that chronic infusion with these two pressor doses of ANGII induced differential metabolic responses at both the systemic and skeletal muscle levels.

  6. A Noninvasive In Vitro Monitoring System Reporting Skeletal Muscle Differentiation.

    PubMed

    Öztürk-Kaloglu, Deniz; Hercher, David; Heher, Philipp; Posa-Markaryan, Katja; Sperger, Simon; Zimmermann, Alice; Wolbank, Susanne; Redl, Heinz; Hacobian, Ara

    2017-01-01

    Monitoring of cell differentiation is a crucial aspect of cell-based therapeutic strategies depending on tissue maturation. In this study, we have developed a noninvasive reporter system to trace murine skeletal muscle differentiation. Either a secreted bioluminescent reporter (Metridia luciferase) or a fluorescent reporter (green fluorescent protein [GFP]) was placed under the control of the truncated muscle creatine kinase (MCK) basal promoter enhanced by variable numbers of upstream MCK E-boxes. The engineered pE3MCK vector, coding a triple tandem of E-Boxes and the truncated MCK promoter, showed twentyfold higher levels of luciferase activation compared with a Cytomegalovirus (CMV) promoter. This newly developed reporter system allowed noninvasive monitoring of myogenic differentiation in a straining bioreactor. Additionally, binding sequences of endogenous microRNAs (miRNAs; seed sequences) that are known to be downregulated in myogenesis were ligated as complementary seed sequences into the reporter vector to reduce nonspecific signal background. The insertion of seed sequences improved the signal-to-noise ratio up to 25% compared with pE3MCK. Due to the highly specific, fast, and convenient expression analysis for cells undergoing myogenic differentiation, this reporter system provides a powerful tool for application in skeletal muscle tissue engineering.

  7. Differential adenosine sensitivity of diaphragm and skeletal muscle arterioles.

    PubMed

    Aaker, Aaron; Laughlin, M H

    2002-09-01

    The hyperemic response in exercising skeletal muscle is dependent on muscle fiber-type composition and fiber recruitment patterns, but the vascular control mechanisms producing exercise hyperemia in skeletal muscle remain poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that arterioles from white, low-oxidative skeletal muscle are less responsive to adenosine-induced dilation than are arterioles from diaphragm (Dia) and red, high-oxidative skeletal muscle. Second-order arterioles (2As) were isolated from the white portion of gastrocnemius muscle (WG; low-oxidative, fast-twitch muscle tissue) and two types of high-oxidative skeletal muscle [Dia and red portion of gastrocnemius muscle (RG)] of rats. Results reveal that 2As from all three types of muscle dilated in response to the endothelium-dependent dilator acetylcholine (WG: 48 +/- 3%, Dia: 51 +/- 3%, RG: 74 +/- 3%). In contrast, adenosine dilated only 2As from WG (48 +/- 4%) and Dia (46 +/- 5%) but not those from RG (5 +/- 5%). Thus adenosine-induced dilator responses differed among 2As of these different types of muscle tissue. However, the results do not support our hypothesis because 2As from Dia and WG dilated in response to adenosine, whereas 2As from RG did not. We conclude that the adenosine responsiveness of 2As from rat skeletal muscle cannot be predicted only by the fiber-type composition or oxidative capacity of the skeletal muscle tissue wherein the arteriole lies.

  8. Skeletal muscle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There are approximately 650-850 muscles in the human body these include skeletal (striated), smooth and cardiac muscle. The approximation is based on what some anatomists consider separate muscle or muscle systems. Muscles are classified based on their anatomy (striated vs. smooth) and if they are v...

  9. Trbp Is Required for Differentiation of Myoblasts and Normal Regeneration of Skeletal Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Jian; Nie, Mao; Liu, Jianming; Hu, Xiaoyun; Ma, Lixin; Deng, Zhong-Liang; Wang, Da-Zhi

    2016-01-01

    Global inactivation of Trbp, a regulator of miRNA pathways, resulted in developmental defects and postnatal lethality in mice. Recently, we showed that cardiac-specific deletion of Trbp caused heart failure. However, its functional role(s) in skeletal muscle has not been characterized. Using a conditional knockout model, we generated mice lacking Trbp in the skeletal muscle. Unexpectedly, skeletal muscle specific Trbp mutant mice appear to be phenotypically normal under normal physiological conditions. However, these mice exhibited impaired muscle regeneration and increased fibrosis in response to cardiotoxin-induced muscle injury, suggesting that Trbp is required for muscle repair. Using cultured myoblast cells we further showed that inhibition of Trbp repressed myoblast differentiation in vitro. The impaired myogenesis is associated with reduced expression of muscle-specific miRNAs, miR-1a and miR-133a. Together, our study demonstrated that Trbp participates in the regulation of muscle differentiation and regeneration. PMID:27159388

  10. Necdin mediates skeletal muscle regeneration by promoting myoblast survival and differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Deponti, Daniela; François, Stéphanie; Baesso, Silvia; Sciorati, Clara; Innocenzi, Anna; Broccoli, Vania; Muscatelli, Françoise; Meneveri, Raffaella; Clementi, Emilio; Cossu, Giulio; Brunelli, Silvia

    2007-01-01

    Regeneration of muscle fibers that are lost during pathological muscle degeneration or after injuries is sustained by the production of new myofibers. An important cell type involved in muscle regeneration is the satellite cell. Necdin is a protein expressed in satellite cell–derived myogenic precursors during perinatal growth. However, its function in myogenesis is not known. We compare transgenic mice that overexpress necdin in skeletal muscle with both wild-type and necdin null mice. After muscle injury the necdin null mice show a considerable defect in muscle healing, whereas mice that overexpress necdin show a substantial increase in myofiber regeneration. We also find that in muscle, necdin increases myogenin expression, accelerates differentiation, and counteracts myoblast apoptosis. Collectively, these data clarify the function and mechanism of necdin in skeletal muscle and show the importance of necdin in muscle regeneration. PMID:17954612

  11. Skeletal muscle pericyte subtypes differ in their differentiation potential.

    PubMed

    Birbrair, Alexander; Zhang, Tan; Wang, Zhong-Min; Messi, Maria Laura; Enikolopov, Grigori N; Mintz, Akiva; Delbono, Osvaldo

    2013-01-01

    Neural progenitor cells have been proposed as a therapy for central nervous system disorders, including neurodegenerative diseases and trauma injuries, however their accessibility is a major limitation. We recently isolated Tuj1+ cells from skeletal muscle culture of Nestin-GFP transgenic mice however whether they form functional neurons in the brain is not yet known. Additionally, their isolation from nontransgenic species and identification of their ancestors is unknown. This gap of knowledge precludes us from studying their role as a valuable alternative to neural progenitors. Here, we identified two pericyte subtypes, type-1 and type-2, using a double transgenic Nestin-GFP/NG2-DsRed mouse and demonstrated that Nestin-GFP+/Tuj1+ cells derive from type-2 Nestin-GFP+/NG2-DsRed+/CD146+ pericytes located in the skeletal muscle interstitium. These cells are bipotential as they generate either Tuj1+ cells when cultured with muscle cells or become "classical" α-SMA+pericytes when cultured alone. In contrast, type-1 Nestin-GFP-/NG2-DsRed+/CD146+ pericytes generate α-SMA+pericytes but not Tuj1+ cells. Interestingly, type-2 pericyte derived Tuj1+ cells retain some pericytic markers (CD146+/PDGFRβ+/NG2+). Given the potential application of Nestin-GFP+/NG2-DsRed+/Tuj1+ cells for cell therapy, we found a surface marker, the nerve growth factor receptor, which is expressed exclusively in these cells and can be used to identify and isolate them from mixed cell populations in nontransgenic species for clinical purposes.

  12. Skeletal Muscle Pericyte Subtypes Differ in their Differentiation Potential

    PubMed Central

    Birbrair, Alexander; Zhang, Tan; Wang, Zhong-Min; Messi, Maria Laura; Enikolopov, Grigori N.; Mintz, Akiva; Delbono, Osvaldo

    2012-01-01

    Neural progenitor cells have been proposed as a therapy for central nervous system disorders, including neurodegenerative diseases and trauma injuries, however their accessibility is a major limitation. We recently isolated Tuj1+ cells from skeletal muscle culture of Nestin-GFP transgenic mice however whether they form functional neurons in the brain is not yet known. Additionally, their isolation from nontransgenic species and identification of their ancestors is unknown. This gap of knowledge precludes us from studying their role as a valuable alternative to neural progenitors. Here, we identified two pericyte subtypes, type-1 and type-2, using a double transgenic Nestin-GFP/NG2-DsRed mouse and demonstrated that Nestin-GFP+/Tuj1+ cells derive from type-2 Nestin-GFP+/NG2-DsRed+/CD146+ pericytes located in the skeletal muscle interstitium. These cells are bipotential as they generate either Tuj1+ cells when cultured with muscle cells or become “classical” α-SMA+ pericytes when cultured alone. In contrast, type-1 Nestin-GFP-/NG2-DsRed+/CD146+ pericytes generate α-SMA+ pericytes but not Tuj1+ cells. Interestingly, type-2 pericyte derived Tuj1+ cells retain some pericytic markers (CD146+/PDGFRβ+/NG2+). Given the potential application of Nestin-GFP+/NG2-DsRed+/Tuj1+ cells for cell therapy, we found a surface marker, the nerve growth factor receptor, which is expressed exclusively in these cells and can be used to identify and isolate them from mixed cell populations in nontransgenic species for clinical purposes. PMID:23128780

  13. Microtubule motors involved in nuclear movement during skeletal muscle differentiation.

    PubMed

    Gache, V; Gomes, E R; Cadot, B

    2017-04-01

    Nuclear positioning is a determining event in several cellular processes, such as fertilization, cell migration, and cell differentiation. The structure and function of muscle cells, which contain hundreds of nuclei, have been shown to rely in part on proper nuclear positioning. Remarkably, in the course of muscle differentiation, nuclear movements along the myotube axis might represent the event required for the even positioning of nuclei in the mature myofiber. Here we analyze nuclear behavior, time in motion, speed, and alignment during myotube differentiation and temporal interference of cytoskeletal microtubule-related motors. Using specific inhibitors, we find that nuclear movement and alignment are microtubule dependent, with 19 microtubule motor proteins implicated in at least one nuclear behavior. We further focus on Kif1c, Kif5b, kif9, kif21b, and Kif1a, which affect nuclear alignment. These results emphasize the different roles of molecular motors in particular mechanisms.

  14. Static magnetic fields enhance skeletal muscle differentiation in vitro by improving myoblast alignment.

    PubMed

    Coletti, Dario; Teodori, Laura; Albertini, Maria C; Rocchi, Marco; Pristerà, Alessandro; Fini, Massimo; Molinaro, Mario; Adamo, Sergio

    2007-10-01

    Static magnetic field (SMF) interacts with mammal skeletal muscle; however, SMF effects on skeletal muscle cells are poorly investigated. The myogenic cell line L6, an in vitro model of muscle development, was used to investigate the effect of a 80 +/- mT SMF generated by a custom-made magnet. SMF promoted myogenic cell differentiation and hypertrophy, i.e., increased accumulation of actin and myosin and formation of large multinucleated myotubes. The elevated number of nuclei per myotube was derived from increased cell fusion efficiency, with no changes in cell proliferation upon SMF exposure. No alterations in myogenin expression, a modulator of myogenesis, occurred upon SMF exposure. SMF induced cells to align in parallel bundles, an orientation conserved throughout differentiation. SMF stimulated formation of actin stress-fiber like structures. SMF rescued muscle differentiation in the presence of TNF, a muscle differentiation inhibitor. We believe this is the first report showing that SMF promotes myogenic differentiation and cell alignment, in the absence of any invasive manipulation. SMF-enhanced parallel orientation of myotubes is relevant to tissue engineering of a highly organized tissue such as skeletal muscle. SMF rescue of muscle differentiation in the presence of TNF may have important therapeutic implications.

  15. Cardiac actin is the major actin gene product in skeletal muscle cell differentiation in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Bains, W; Ponte, P; Blau, H; Kedes, L

    1984-01-01

    We examined the expression of alpha-skeletal, alpha-cardiac, and beta- and gamma-cytoskeletal actin genes in a mouse skeletal muscle cell line (C2C12) during differentiation in vitro. Using isotype-specific cDNA probes, we showed that the alpha-skeletal actin mRNA pool reached only 15% of the level reached in adult skeletal muscle and required several days to attain this peak, which was then stably maintained. However, these cells accumulated a pool of alpha-cardiac actin six times higher than the alpha-skeletal actin mRNA peak within 24 h of the initiation of differentiation. After cells had been cultured for an additional 3 days, this pool declined to 10% of its peak level. In contrast, over 95% of the actin mRNA in adult skeletal muscle coded for alpha-actin. This suggests that C2C12 cells express a pattern of sarcomeric actin genes typical of either muscle development or regeneration and distinct from that seen in mature, adult tissue. Concurrently in the course of differentiation the beta- and gamma-cytoskeletal actin mRNA pools decreased to less than 10% of their levels in proliferating cells. The decreases in beta- and gamma-cytoskeletal actin mRNAs are apparently not coordinately regulated. Images PMID:6493226

  16. PKCε as a novel promoter of skeletal muscle differentiation and regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Di Marcantonio, D; Galli, D; Carubbi, C; Gobbi, G; Queirolo, V; Martini, S; Merighi, S; Vaccarezza, M; Maffulli, N; Sykes, SM; Vitale, M; Mirandola, P

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Satellite cells are muscle resident stem cells and are responsible for muscle regeneration. In this study we investigate the involvement of PKCε during muscle stem cell differentiation in vitro and in vivo. Here, we describe the identification of a previously unrecognized role for the PKCε – HMGA1 signaling axis in myoblast differentiation and regeneration processes. Methods PKCε expression was modulated in the C2C12 cell line and primary murine satellite cells in vitro, as well as in an in vivo model of muscle regeneration. Immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence, RT-PCR and shRNA silencing techniques were used to determine the role of PKCε and HMGA1 in myogenic differentiation. Results PKCε expression increases and subsequently re-localizes to the nucleus during skeletal muscle cell differentiation. In the nucleus, PKCε blocks Hmga1 expression to promote Myogenin and Mrf4 accumulation and myoblast formation. Following in vivo muscle injury, PKCε accumulates in regenerating, centrally-nucleated myofibers. Pharmacological inhibition of PKCε impairs the expression of two crucial markers of muscle differentiation, namely MyoD and Myogenin, during injury induced muscle regeneration. Conclusion This work identifies the PKCε – HMGA1 signaling axis as a positive regulator of skeletal muscle differentiation. PMID:26431586

  17. Smad4 restricts differentiation to promote expansion of satellite cell derived progenitors during skeletal muscle regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Paris, Nicole D; Soroka, Andrew; Klose, Alanna; Liu, Wenxuan; Chakkalakal, Joe V

    2016-01-01

    Skeletal muscle regenerative potential declines with age, in part due to deficiencies in resident stem cells (satellite cells, SCs) and derived myogenic progenitors (MPs); however, the factors responsible for this decline remain obscure. TGFβ superfamily signaling is an inhibitor of myogenic differentiation, with elevated activity in aged skeletal muscle. Surprisingly, we find reduced expression of Smad4, the downstream cofactor for canonical TGFβ superfamily signaling, and the target Id1 in aged SCs and MPs during regeneration. Specific deletion of Smad4 in adult mouse SCs led to increased propensity for terminal myogenic commitment connected to impaired proliferative potential. Furthermore, SC-specific Smad4 disruption compromised adult skeletal muscle regeneration. Finally, loss of Smad4 in aged SCs did not promote aged skeletal muscle regeneration. Therefore, SC-specific reduction of Smad4 is a feature of aged regenerating skeletal muscle and Smad4 is a critical regulator of SC and MP amplification during skeletal muscle regeneration. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.19484.001 PMID:27855784

  18. Skeletal myogenic differentiation of human urine-derived cells as a potential source for skeletal muscle regeneration.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei; Xie, Minkai; Yang, Bin; Bharadwaj, Shantaram; Song, Lujie; Liu, Guihua; Yi, Shanhong; Ye, Gang; Atala, Anthony; Zhang, Yuanyuan

    2017-02-01

    Stem cells are regarded as possible cell therapy candidates for skeletal muscle regeneration. However, invasive harvesting of those cells can cause potential harvest-site morbidity. The goal of this study was to assess whether human urine-derived stem cells (USCs), obtained through non-invasive procedures, can differentiate into skeletal muscle linage cells (Sk-MCs) and potentially be used for skeletal muscle regeneration. In this study, USCs were harvested from six healthy individuals aged 25-55. Expression profiles of cell-surface markers were assessed by flow cytometry. To optimize the myogenic differentiation medium, we selected two from four different types of myogenic differentiation media to induce the USCs. Differentiated USCs were identified with myogenic markers by gene and protein expression. USCs were implanted into the tibialis anterior muscles of nude mice for 1 month. The results showed that USCs displayed surface markers with positive staining for CD24, CD29, CD44, CD73, CD90, CD105, CD117, CD133, CD146, SSEA-4 and STRO-1, and negative staining for CD14, CD31, CD34 and CD45. After myogenic differentiation, a change in morphology was observed from 'rice-grain'-like cells to spindle-shaped cells. The USCs expressed specific Sk-MC transcripts and protein markers (myf5, myoD, myosin, and desmin) after being induced with different myogenic culture media. Implanted cells expressed Sk-MC markers stably in vivo. Our findings suggest that USCs are able to differentiate into the Sk-MC lineage in vitro and after being implanted in vivo. Thus, they might be a potential source for cell injection therapy in the use of skeletal muscle regeneration. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Roles of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan 4 in fibrogenic/adipogenic differentiation in skeletal muscle tissues.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Shiho; Nakano, Shin-Ichi; Nakamura, Katsuyuki; Ozoe, Atsufumi; Chien, Peggie; Yoshihara, Hidehito; Hakuno, Fumihiko; Matsuwaki, Takashi; Saeki, Yasushi; Takahashi, Shin-Ichiro; Yamanouchi, Keitaro; Nishihara, Masugi

    2016-10-01

    Intramuscular adipose tissue and fibrous tissue are observed in some skeletal muscle pathologies such as Duchenne muscular dystrophy and sarcopenia, and affect muscle strength and myogenesis. They originate from common fibrogenic/adipogenic cells in the skeletal muscle. Thus, elucidating the regulatory mechanisms underlying fibrogenic/adipogenic cell differentiation is an important step toward the mediation of these disorders. Previously, we established a highly adipogenic progenitor clone, 2G11, from rat skeletal muscle and showed that basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) is pro-adipogenic in these cells. Here, we demonstrated that 2G11 cells give rise to fibroblasts upon transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 stimulation, indicating that they possess mesenchymal progenitor cells (MPC)-like characteristics. The previously reported MPC marker PDGFRα is expressed in other cell populations. Accordingly, we produced monoclonal antibodies that specifically bind to 2G11 cell surface antigens and identified chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan 4 (CSPG4) as a potential MPC marker. Based on an RNA interference analysis, we found that CSPG4 is involved in both the pro-adipogenic effect of bFGF and in TGF-β-induced alpha smooth muscle actin expression and stress fiber formation. By establishing an additional marker for MPC detection and characterizing its role in fibrogenic/adipogenic differentiation, these results will facilitate the development of effective treatments for skeletal muscle pathologies.

  20. Vitamin D induces myogenic differentiation in skeletal muscle derived stem cells.

    PubMed

    Braga, Melissa; Simmons, Zena; Norris, Keith C; Ferrini, Monica G; Artaza, Jorge N

    2017-04-01

    Skeletal muscle wasting is a serious disorder associated with health conditions such as aging, chronic kidney disease and AIDS. Vitamin D is most widely recognized for its regulation of calcium and phosphate homeostasis in relation to bone development and maintenance. Recently, vitamin D supplementation has been shown to improve muscle performance and reduce the risk of falls in vitamin D deficient older adults. However, little is known of the underlying molecular mechanism(s) or the role it plays in myogenic differentiation. We examined the effect of 1,25-D3 on myogenic cell differentiation in skeletal muscle derived stem cells. Primary cultures of skeletal muscle satellite cells were isolated from the tibialis anterior, soleus and gastrocnemius muscles of 8-week-old C57/BL6 male mice and then treated with 1,25-D3 The efficiency of satellite cells isolation determined by PAX7+ cells was 81%, and they expressed VDR. Incubation of satellite cells with 1,25-D3 induces increased expression of: (i) MYOD, (ii) MYOG, (iii) MYC2, (iv) skeletal muscle fast troponin I and T, (v) MYH1, (vi) IGF1 and 2, (vii) FGF1 and 2, (viii) BMP4, (ix) MMP9 and (x) FST. It also promotes myotube formation and decreases the expression of MSTN. In conclusion, 1,25-D3 promoted a robust myogenic effect on satellite cells responsible for the regeneration of muscle after injury or muscle waste. This study provides a mechanistic justification for vitamin D supplementation in conditions characterized by loss of muscle mass and also in vitamin D deficient older adults with reduced muscle mass and strength, and increased risk of falls.

  1. Mechanical load induces sarcoplasmic wounding and FGF release in differentiated human skeletal muscle cultures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clarke, M. S.; Feeback, D. L.

    1996-01-01

    The transduction mechanism (or mechanisms) responsible for converting a mechanical load into a skeletal muscle growth response are unclear. In this study we have used a mechanically active tissue culture model of differentiated human skeletal muscle cells to investigate the relationship between mechanical load, sarcolemma wounding, fibroblast growth factor release, and skeletal muscle cell growth. Using the Flexcell Strain Unit we demonstrate that as mechanical load increases, so too does the amount of sarcolemma wounding. A similar relationship was also observed between the level of mechanical load inflicted on the cells and the amount of bFGF (FGF2) released into the surrounding medium. In addition, we demonstrate that the muscle cell growth response induced by chronic mechanical loading in culture can be inhibited by the presence of an antibody capable of neutralizing the biological activity of FGF. This study provides direct evidence that mechanically induced, sarcolemma wound-mediated FGF release is an important autocrine mechanism for transducing the stimulus of mechanical load into a skeletal muscle growth response.

  2. A NMR-based metabolomic approach for differentiation of hagfish dental and somatic skeletal muscles.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Kuo-Hsun; Ding, Shangwu; Chen, Yan-Wen; Lee, Che-Hsin; Mok, Hin-Kiu

    2011-09-01

    The hagfish dental muscle is a large and specialized element of the feeding apparatus that helps ingest food. This muscle has enzymatic activities and contractile properties different from the hagfish somatic skeletal muscle. To verify the functional relevance of protein alterations, we examined the metabolomic differentiation of hagfish dental and somatic skeletal muscles using ¹H-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabolomics and multivariate analysis that separated hagfish dental and somatic muscles by principal component analysis and partial least squares for discriminant analysis. Our analysis of assigned metabolites showed that anserine and taurine levels were higher in dental muscle, but creatine, fructose, glucose, glycerate, pyruvate, and succinate levels were higher in somatic muscle. We concluded that the primary energy sources of dental and somatic muscles are related to the citric acid cycle and the anaerobic glycolysis and metabolism of creatine. Thus, ¹H-NMR-based metabolomics can be integrated with the previous proteomic approach to derive biochemical and physiological information about hagfish muscles.

  3. The effect of temperature on proliferation and differentiation of chicken skeletal muscle satellite cells isolated from different muscle types.

    PubMed

    Harding, Rachel L; Halevy, Orna; Yahav, Shlomo; Velleman, Sandra G

    2016-04-01

    Skeletal muscle satellite cells are a muscle stem cell population that mediate posthatch muscle growth and repair. Satellite cells respond differentially to environmental stimuli based upon their fiber-type of origin. The objective of this study was to determine how temperatures below and above the in vitro control of 38°C affected the proliferation and differentiation of satellite cells isolated from the chicken anaerobic pectoralis major (p. major) or mixed fiber biceps femoris (b.femoris) muscles. The satellite cells isolated from the p. major muscle were more sensitive to both cold and hot temperatures compared to the b.femoris satellite cells during both proliferation and differentiation. The expressions of myogenic regulatory transcription factors were also different between satellite cells from different fiber types. MyoD expression, which partially regulates proliferation, was generally expressed at higher levels in p. major satellite cells compared to the b.femoris satellite cells from 33 to 43°C during proliferation and differentiation. Similarly, myogenin expression, which is required for differentiation, was also expressed at higher levels in p. major satellite cells in response to both cold and hot temperatures during proliferation and differentiation than b. femoris satellite cells. These data demonstrate that satellite cells from the anaerobic p. major muscle are more sensitive than satellite cells from the aerobic b. femoris muscle to both hot and cold thermal stress during myogenic proliferation and differentiation.

  4. Differential RNA Expression Profile of Skeletal Muscle Induced by Experimental Autoimmune Myasthenia Gravis in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kaminski, Henry J.; Himuro, Keiichi; Alshaikh, Jumana; Gong, Bendi; Cheng, Georgiana; Kusner, Linda L.

    2016-01-01

    The differential susceptibility of skeletal muscle by myasthenia gravis (MG) is not well understood. We utilized RNA expression profiling of extraocular muscle (EOM), diaphragm (DIA), and extensor digitorum (EDL) of rats with experimental autoimmune MG (EAMG) to evaluate the hypothesis that muscles respond differentially to injury produced by EAMG. EAMG was induced in female Lewis rats by immunization with acetylcholine receptor purified from the electric organ of the Torpedo. Six weeks later after rats had developed weakness and serum antibodies directed against the AChR, animals underwent euthanasia and RNA profiling performed on DIA, EDL, and EOM. Profiling results were validated by qPCR. Across the three muscles between the experiment and control groups, 359 probes (1.16%) with greater than 2-fold changes in expression in 7 of 9 series pairwise comparisons from 31,090 probes were identified with approximately two-thirds being increased. The three muscles shared 16 genes with increased expression and 6 reduced expression. Functional annotation demonstrated that these common expression changes fell predominantly into categories of metabolism, stress response, and signaling. Evaluation of specific gene function indicated that EAMG led to a change to oxidative metabolism. Genes related to muscle regeneration and suppression of immune response were activated. Evidence of a differential immune response among muscles was not evident. Each muscle had a distinct RNA profile but with commonality in gene categories expressed that are focused on muscle repair, moderation of inflammation, and oxidative metabolism. PMID:27891095

  5. The Regulation of Skeletal Muscle Active Hyperemia: The Differential Role of Adenosine in Muscles of Varied Fiber Types

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-04-21

    0.2 Hz and three mnscles ~;timulated to contract at 0.4 Hz during BADA infuston. These m~tabolites were also mea~•1red in two muscles contractin ~ at...APR 1986 2. REPORT TYPE N/A 3. DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE The Regulation of Skeletal Muscle Active Hyperemia: The Differential...Role of Adenosine in Muscles of Varied Fiber Types 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER

  6. Protein-coated poly(L-lactic acid) fibers provide a substrate for differentiation of human skeletal muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Cronin, Elizabeth M; Thurmond, Frederick A; Bassel-Duby, Rhonda; Williams, R Sanders; Wright, Woodring E; Nelson, Kevin D; Garner, Harold R

    2004-06-01

    Tissue engineering represents a potential method for repairing damaged skeletal muscle tissue. Extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins were evaluated for their ability to aid in cell attachment, whereas a poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA) fiber scaffold was tested as a substrate for the differentiation of human skeletal muscle cells. In comparison to uncoated or gelatin-coated PLLA films, cell attachment increased significantly (p < 0.001) on PLLA films coated with ECM gel, fibronectin, or laminin. Myoblasts differentiated into multinucleated myofibers on ECM gel-coated PLLA fibers, and expressed muscle markers such as myosin and alpha-actinin. Oligonucleotide microarray analysis showed similar gene expression profiles for human skeletal muscle cells on ECM gel-coated PLLA fibers as to that observed for myofibers on tissue culture plates. Therefore, PLLA fibers coated with ECM proteins provide a scaffold for the development of skeletal muscle tissue for tissue engineering and cell transplantation applications.

  7. Skeletal muscle Kv7 (KCNQ) channels in myoblast differentiation and proliferation

    SciTech Connect

    Roura-Ferrer, Meritxell; Sole, Laura; Martinez-Marmol, Ramon; Villalonga, Nuria; Felipe, Antonio

    2008-05-16

    Voltage-dependent K{sup +} channels (Kv) are involved in myocyte proliferation and differentiation by triggering changes in membrane potential and regulating cell volume. Since Kv7 channels may participate in these events, the purpose of this study was to investigate whether skeletal muscle Kv7.1 and Kv7.5 were involved during proliferation and myogenesis. Here we report that, while myotube formation did not regulate Kv7 channels, Kv7.5 was up-regulated during cell cycle progression. Although, Kv7.1 mRNA also increased during the G{sub 1}-phase, pharmacological evidence mainly involves Kv7.5 in myoblast growth. Our results indicate that the cell cycle-dependent expression of Kv7.5 is involved in skeletal muscle cell proliferation.

  8. Myogenic differentiation induces taurine transporter in association with taurine-mediated cytoprotection in skeletal muscles.

    PubMed

    Uozumi, Yoriko; Ito, Takashi; Hoshino, Yuki; Mohri, Tomomi; Maeda, Makiko; Takahashi, Kyoko; Fujio, Yasushi; Azuma, Junichi

    2006-03-15

    Skeletal muscle homoeostasis is maintained by a variety of cytoprotective mechanisms. Since ablation of the TauT (taurine transporter) gene results in susceptibility to exercise-induced muscle weakness in vivo, it has been suggested that TauT is essential for skeletal muscle function. However, the regulatory mechanisms of TauT expression remain to be elucidated. In the present study, we demonstrated that TauT was up-regulated during myogenesis in C2C12 cells. Treatment with bFGF (basic fibroblast growth factor), which inhibited muscle differentiation, abrogated myogenic induction of TauT. The promoter activities of TauT were up-regulated during muscle differentiation in C2C12 cells. Database analyses identified an MEF2 (myocyte enhancer binding factor 2) consensus sequence at -844 in the rat TauT gene. Truncation of the promoter region containing the MEF2 site significantly reduced the promoter activity, demonstrating the functional importance of the MEF2 site. Electrophoretic mobility-shift assays confirmed that MEF2 bound to the MEF2 consensus sequence and that DNA-protein complex levels were increased during differentiation. Promoter analyses using mutated promoter-reporter plasmids demonstrated that this site was functional. Importantly, transfection with a MyoD expression vector markedly enhanced TauT promoter activity in the (non-myogenic) 10T1/2 cells. Moreover, co-transfection with an MEF2 expression vector augmented MyoD-induced TauT promoter activity, suggesting that MEF2 is required for full activation of TauT expression. Finally, we examined the effects of taurine on myotube atrophy to clarify the biological significance of the up-regulation of TauT, and demonstrated that taurine attenuated muscle atrophy induced by dexamethasone. TauT expression is regulated under the control of the myogenic programme, and we propose that this is the mechanism for taurine-mediated resistance to muscle atrophy.

  9. Post-mitotic role of nucleostemin as a promoter of skeletal muscle cell differentiation

    SciTech Connect

    Hirai, Hiroyuki; Romanova, Liudmila; Kellner, Steven; Verma, Mayank; Rayner, Samuel; Asakura, Atsushi; Kikyo, Nobuaki

    2010-01-01

    Nucleostemin (NS) is a nucleolar protein abundantly expressed in a variety of proliferating cells and undifferentiated cells. Its known functions include cell cycle regulation and the control of pre-rRNA processing. It also has been proposed that NS has an additional role in undifferentiated cells due to its downregulation during stem cell differentiation and its upregulation during tissue regeneration. Here, however, we demonstrate that skeletal muscle cell differentiation has a unique expression profile of NS in that it is continuously expressed during differentiation. NS was expressed at similar levels in non-proliferating muscle stem cells (satellite cells), rapidly proliferating precursor cells (myoblasts) and post-mitotic terminally differentiated cells (myotubes and myofibers). The sustained expression of NS during terminal differentiation is necessary to support increased protein synthesis during this process. Downregulation of NS inhibited differentiation of myoblasts to myotubes, accompanied by striking downregulation of key myogenic transcription factors, such as myogenin and MyoD. In contrast, upregulation of NS inhibited proliferation and promoted muscle differentiation in a p53-dependent manner. Our findings provide evidence that NS has an unexpected role in post-mitotic terminal differentiation. Importantly, these findings also indicate that, contrary to suggestions in the literature, the expression of NS cannot always be used as a reliable indicator for undifferentiated cells or proliferating cells.

  10. Transcriptional profiling identifies differentially expressed genes in developing turkey skeletal muscle

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Skeletal muscle growth and development from embryo to adult consists of a series of carefully regulated changes in gene expression. Understanding these developmental changes in agriculturally important species is essential to the production of high quality meat products. For example, consumer demand for lean, inexpensive meat products has driven the turkey industry to unprecedented production through intensive genetic selection. However, achievements of increased body weight and muscle mass have been countered by an increased incidence of myopathies and meat quality defects. In a previous study, we developed and validated a turkey skeletal muscle-specific microarray as a tool for functional genomics studies. The goals of the current study were to utilize this microarray to elucidate functional pathways of genes responsible for key events in turkey skeletal muscle development and to compare differences in gene expression between two genetic lines of turkeys. To achieve these goals, skeletal muscle samples were collected at three critical stages in muscle development: 18d embryo (hyperplasia), 1d post-hatch (shift from myoblast-mediated growth to satellite cell-modulated growth by hypertrophy), and 16wk (market age) from two genetic lines: a randombred control line (RBC2) maintained without selection pressure, and a line (F) selected from the RBC2 line for increased 16wk body weight. Array hybridizations were performed in two experiments: Experiment 1 directly compared the developmental stages within genetic line, while Experiment 2 directly compared the two lines within each developmental stage. Results A total of 3474 genes were differentially expressed (false discovery rate; FDR < 0.001) by overall effect of development, while 16 genes were differentially expressed (FDR < 0.10) by overall effect of genetic line. Ingenuity Pathways Analysis was used to group annotated genes into networks, functions, and canonical pathways. The expression of 28 genes

  11. FACS Fractionation and Differentiation of Skeletal-Muscle Resident Multipotent Tie2+ Progenitors.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Arpita A; Goldhamer, David J

    2016-01-01

    The skeletal muscle niche is complex and heterogeneous. Over the past few decades, various groups have reported the existence of multiple adult stem cell populations within this environment. Techniques commonly used to identify and assess the differentiation capacities of these cellular fractions, oftentimes rare populations, include the use of lineage tracers, immunofluorescence and histochemistry, flow cytometry, gene expression assays, and phenotypic analysis in culture or in vivo. In 2012, our lab identified and characterized a skeletal-muscle resident Tie2+ progenitor that exhibits adipogenic, chondrogenic, and osteogenic differentiation potentials (Wosczyna et al., J Bone Miner Res 27:1004-1017, 2012). This Tie2+ progenitor also expresses the markers PDGFRα and Sca-1 which in turn label a population of muscle-resident fibro/adipogenic progenitors (FAPs) (Joe et al., Nat Cell Biol 12:153-163, 2010; Uezumi et al., Nat Cell Biol 12:143-152, 2010), suggesting similar identities or overlap in the two mesenchymal progenitor populations. Our study demonstrated that these Tie2-expressing mesenchymal progenitors contribute robustly to BMP-induced heterotopic ossification (HO) in mice, and therefore could represent a key cellular target for therapeutic intervention in HO treatment (Wosczyna et al., J Bone Miner Res 27:1004-1017, 2012). In this chapter, we provide a detailed description of our updated fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) strategy and describe cell culture methods for differentiation of Tie2+ progenitors to adipogenic and osteogenic fates. This strategy is easily adaptable for the prospective isolation of other rare subpopulations resident in skeletal muscle.

  12. Nitric oxide controls fat deposition in dystrophic skeletal muscle by regulating fibro-adipogenic precursor differentiation.

    PubMed

    Cordani, Nicoletta; Pisa, Viviana; Pozzi, Laura; Sciorati, Clara; Clementi, Emilio

    2014-04-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is an hereditary disease characterized by loss of muscle fibers and their progressive substitution by fat and fibrous tissue. Mesenchymal fibro-adipogenic progenitors (FAPs) expressing the platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha (PDGFRα) are an important source of fibrosis and adipogenesis in dystrophic skeletal muscle. Among the therapies suggested for dystrophy are those based on nitric oxide (NO) donating drugs, the administration of which slows disease progression. NO has been shown to act by enhancing the regenerative potential of the diseased muscle. Whether it acts also by inhibiting fibrosis and adipogenesis was not known. Here, we show in vitro that NO regulates FAP fate through inhibition of their differentiation into adipocytes. In mdx mice, an animal model of DMD, treatment with the NO donating drug molsidomine reduced the number of PDGFRα(+) cells as well as the deposition of both skeletal muscle fat and connective tissues. Inhibition of adipogenesis was due to NO-induced increased expression of miR-27b leading to downregulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors gamma (Pparγ1) expression in a pathway independent of cGMP generation. These findings reveal an additional effect of NO in dystrophic muscle that conceivably synergizes with its known effects on regeneration improvement and explain why NO-based therapies appear effective in the treatment of muscular dystrophy.

  13. MicroRNA-128 regulates the proliferation and differentiation of bovine skeletal muscle satellite cells by repressing Sp1.

    PubMed

    Dai, Yang; Zhang, Wei Ran; Wang, Yi Min; Liu, Xin Feng; Li, Xin; Ding, Xiang Bin; Guo, Hong

    2016-03-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play essential roles in muscle cell proliferation and differentiation. The muscle-specific miRNAs miR-1 and miR-206 have been shown to regulate muscle development and promote myogenic differentiation; however, it is likely that a number of other miRNAs play important roles in regulating myogenesis as well. microRNA-128 (miR-128) has been reported to be highly expressed in brain and skeletal muscle, and we found that miR-128 is also up-regulated during bovine skeletal muscle satellite cell differentiation using microarray analysis and qRT-PCR. However, little is known about the functions of miR-128 in bovine skeletal muscle satellite cell development. In this study, we investigated the biological functions of miR-128 in bovine skeletal muscle cell development. Using a dual-luciferase reporter assay, we confirmed that miR-128 regulates the Sp1 gene. Over-expression of miR-128 reduced Sp1 protein levels and inhibited muscle satellite cell proliferation and differentiation. Inhibition of miR-128 increased Sp1 protein levels and promoted muscle satellite cell differentiation but also suppressed proliferation. Changes in miR-128 and Sp1 expression levels also affected the protein levels of MyoD and CDKN1A. Sp1, an activator of MyoD and a suppressor of CDKN1A, plays an important role in bovine muscle cell proliferation and differentiation. The results of our study reveal a mechanism by which miR-128 regulates bovine skeletal muscle satellite cell proliferation and myogenic differentiation via Sp1.

  14. Human skeletal muscle fibroblasts, but not myogenic cells, readily undergo adipogenic differentiation.

    PubMed

    Agley, Chibeza C; Rowlerson, Anthea M; Velloso, Cristiana P; Lazarus, Norman R; Harridge, Stephen D R

    2013-12-15

    We characterised the adherent cell types isolated from human skeletal muscle by enzymatic digestion, and demonstrated that even at 72 hours after isolation these cultures consisted predominantly of myogenic cells (CD56(+), desmin(+)) and fibroblasts (TE-7(+), collagen VI(+), PDGFRα(+), vimentin(+), fibronectin(+)). To evaluate the behaviour of the cell types obtained, we optimised a double immuno-magnetic cell-sorting method for the separation of myogenic cells from fibroblasts. This procedure gave purities of >96% for myogenic (CD56(+), desmin(+)) cells. The CD56(-) fraction obtained from the first sort was highly enriched in TE-7(+) fibroblasts. Using quantitative analysis of immunofluorescent staining for lipid content, lineage markers and transcription factors, we tested if the purified cell populations could differentiate into adipocytes in response to treatment with either fatty acids or adipocyte-inducing medium. Both treatments caused the fibroblasts to differentiate into adipocytes, as shown by loss of intracellular TE-7, upregulation of the adipogenic transcription factors PPARγ and C/EBPα, and adoption of a lipid-laden adipocyte morphology. By contrast, myogenic cells did not undergo adipogenesis and showed differential regulation of PPARγ and C/EBPα in response to these adipogenic treatments. Our results show that human skeletal muscle fibroblasts are at least bipotent progenitors that can remain as extracellular-matrix-producing cells or differentiate into adipocytes.

  15. Hepatocyte growth factor plays a dual role in regulating skeletal muscle satellite cell proliferation and differentiation.

    PubMed

    Gal-Levi, R; Leshem, Y; Aoki, S; Nakamura, T; Halevy, O

    1998-03-12

    The role of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and its receptor, c-met, in proliferation and differentiation of satellite cells was studied in primary cultures of chicken skeletal muscle satellite cells and a myogenic C2 cell line. HGF mRNA was expressed mainly in the myotubes of both cultures. The addition of conditioned medium derived from those cultures had a scattering effect on the canine kidney epithelial cell line, MDCK. In contrast, c-met mRNA levels decreased during cell differentiation of C2 and primary satellite cells. Application of exogenous HGF to chicken myoblasts resulted in their enhanced DNA synthesis. Among several growth factors, HGF was the first to induce DNA synthesis in quiescent satellite cells, thereby driving them into the cell cycle. Ectopic expression of chicken HGF in primary satellite cells suppressed the activation of muscle-regulatory gene reporter constructs MCK-CAT, MRF4-CAT, MEF2-CAT and 4Rtk-CAT, as well as the gene expression of MyoD and myogenin, and MHC protein expression. Ectopic MyoD reversed HGF's inhibitory effect on MCK transactivation. These data suggest that HGF inhibits cell differentiation by inhibiting the activity of basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH)/E protein heterodimers, thus inhibiting myogenic determination factor activity and subsequent muscle-specific protein expression. During muscle growth and regeneration, HGF plays a dual role in satellite-cell myogenesis, affecting both the proliferation and differentiation of these cells in a paracrine fashion.

  16. The effects of growth hormone on avian skeletal muscle satellite cell proliferation and differentiation.

    PubMed

    Halevy, O; Hodik, V; Mett, A

    1996-01-01

    Growth hormone receptor (GH-R) mRNA was expressed in avian skeletal muscle tissue and satellite cells in culture, and was capable of binding chicken growth hormone (cGH). In the satellite cells, GH-R gene expression was regulated by cGH in a biphasic manner which correlated with the GH effect on cell proliferation: 2-10 ng/ml of the hormone increased GH-R mRNA and DNA synthesis, whereas higher concentrations attenuated these effects. GH induced insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) mRNA, a potential factor for satellite cell proliferation and differentiation. However, GH inhibited the gene expression of myogenin and the expression of muscle-specific proteins in a dose-dependent manner. These results suggest a role of GH for inhibiting satellite cell differentiation in an IGF-I-independent manner. During satellite cell differentiation, both GH-R mRNA expression and cGH binding peaked when cells were still proliferating and beginning to fuse, and then declined as cells fully differentiated. GH-R mRNA expression in muscle tissue and the satellite cell fraction was evaluated during chicken growth. In both fractions, GH-R mRNA peaked at 4 days of age and then declined in correlation with the reduction of muscle regulatory gene expression. Our results are in contrast with previous studies on rat muscle satellite cells, suggesting a difference between mammalian and avian species in the mode of action of GH in these cells. Our notion is that GH, via its own receptor, promotes more satellite cells to proliferate by inhibiting their differentiation, leading to the addition of more nuclei to the growing muscle.

  17. Canonical Wnt signalling regulates nuclear export of Setdb1 during skeletal muscle terminal differentiation.

    PubMed

    Beyer, Sophie; Pontis, Julien; Schirwis, Elija; Battisti, Valentine; Rudolf, Anja; Le Grand, Fabien; Ait-Si-Ali, Slimane

    2016-01-01

    The histone 3 lysine 9 methyltransferase Setdb1 is essential for both stem cell pluripotency and terminal differentiation of different cell types. To shed light on the roles of Setdb1 in these mutually exclusive processes, we used mouse skeletal myoblasts as a model of terminal differentiation. Ex vivo studies on isolated single myofibres showed that Setdb1 is required for adult muscle stem cells expansion following activation. In vitro studies in skeletal myoblasts confirmed that Setdb1 suppresses terminal differentiation. Genomic binding analyses showed a release of Setdb1 from selected target genes upon myoblast terminal differentiation, concomitant to a nuclear export of Setdb1 to the cytoplasm. Both genomic release and cytoplasmic Setdb1 relocalisation during differentiation were dependent on canonical Wnt signalling. Transcriptomic assays in myoblasts unravelled a significant overlap between Setdb1 and Wnt3a regulated genetic programmes. Together, our findings revealed Wnt-dependent subcellular relocalisation of Setdb1 as a novel mechanism regulating Setdb1 functions and myogenesis.

  18. Canonical Wnt signalling regulates nuclear export of Setdb1 during skeletal muscle terminal differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Beyer, Sophie; Pontis, Julien; Schirwis, Elija; Battisti, Valentine; Rudolf, Anja; Le Grand, Fabien; Ait-Si-Ali, Slimane

    2016-01-01

    The histone 3 lysine 9 methyltransferase Setdb1 is essential for both stem cell pluripotency and terminal differentiation of different cell types. To shed light on the roles of Setdb1 in these mutually exclusive processes, we used mouse skeletal myoblasts as a model of terminal differentiation. Ex vivo studies on isolated single myofibres showed that Setdb1 is required for adult muscle stem cells expansion following activation. In vitro studies in skeletal myoblasts confirmed that Setdb1 suppresses terminal differentiation. Genomic binding analyses showed a release of Setdb1 from selected target genes upon myoblast terminal differentiation, concomitant to a nuclear export of Setdb1 to the cytoplasm. Both genomic release and cytoplasmic Setdb1 relocalisation during differentiation were dependent on canonical Wnt signalling. Transcriptomic assays in myoblasts unravelled a significant overlap between Setdb1 and Wnt3a regulated genetic programmes. Together, our findings revealed Wnt-dependent subcellular relocalisation of Setdb1 as a novel mechanism regulating Setdb1 functions and myogenesis. PMID:27790377

  19. Differentiation of mammalian skeletal muscle cells cultured on microcarrier beads in a rotating cell culture system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torgan, C. E.; Burge, S. S.; Collinsworth, A. M.; Truskey, G. A.; Kraus, W. E.

    2000-01-01

    The growth and repair of adult skeletal muscle are due in part to activation of muscle precursor cells, commonly known as satellite cells or myoblasts. These cells are responsive to a variety of environmental cues, including mechanical stimuli. The overall goal of the research is to examine the role of mechanical signalling mechanisms in muscle growth and plasticity through utilisation of cell culture systems where other potential signalling pathways (i.e. chemical and electrical stimuli) are controlled. To explore the effects of decreased mechanical loading on muscle differentiation, mammalian myoblasts are cultured in a bioreactor (rotating cell culture system), a model that has been utilised to simulate microgravity. C2C12 murine myoblasts are cultured on microcarrier beads in a bioreactor and followed throughout differentiation as they form a network of multinucleated myotubes. In comparison with three-dimensional control cultures that consist of myoblasts cultured on microcarrier beads in teflon bags, myoblasts cultured in the bioreactor exhibit an attenuation in differentiation. This is demonstrated by reduced immunohistochemical staining for myogenin and alpha-actinin. Western analysis shows a decrease, in bioreactor cultures compared with control cultures, in levels of the contractile proteins myosin (47% decrease, p < 0.01) and tropomyosin (63% decrease, p < 0.01). Hydrodynamic measurements indicate that the decrease in differentiation may be due, at least in part, to fluid stresses acting on the myotubes. In addition, constraints on aggregate size imposed by the action of fluid forces in the bioreactor affect differentiation. These results may have implications for muscle growth and repair during spaceflight.

  20. Fine regulation of RhoA and Rock is required for skeletal muscle differentiation.

    PubMed

    Castellani, Loriana; Salvati, Erica; Alemà, Stefano; Falcone, Germana

    2006-06-02

    The RhoA GTPase controls a variety of cell functions such as cell motility, cell growth, and gene expression. Previous studies suggested that RhoA mediates signaling inputs that promote skeletal myogenic differentiation. We show here that levels and activity of RhoA protein are down-regulated in both primary avian myoblasts and mouse satellite cells undergoing differentiation, suggesting that a fine regulation of this GTPase is required. In addition, ectopic expression of activated RhoA in primary quail myocytes, but not in mouse myocytes, inhibits accumulation of muscle-specific proteins and cell fusion. By disrupting RhoA signaling with specific inhibitors, we have shown that this GTPase, although required for cell identity in proliferating myoblasts, is not essential for commitment to terminal differentiation and muscle gene expression. Ectopic expression of an activated form of its downstream effector, Rock, impairs differentiation of both avian and mouse myoblasts. Conversely, Rock inhibition with specific inhibitors and small interfering RNA-mediated gene silencing leads to accelerated progression in the lineage and enhanced cell fusion, underscoring a negative regulatory function of Rock in myogenesis. Finally, we have reported that Rock acts independently from RhoA in preventing myoblast exit from the cell cycle and commitment to differentiation and may receive signaling inputs from Raf-1 kinase.

  1. TGF-{beta} receptors, in a Smad-independent manner, are required for terminal skeletal muscle differentiation

    SciTech Connect

    Droguett, Rebeca; Cabello-Verrugio, Claudio; Santander, Cristian; Brandan, Enrique

    2010-09-10

    Skeletal muscle differentiation is strongly inhibited by transforming growth factor type {beta} (TGF-{beta}), although muscle formation as well as regeneration normally occurs in an environment rich in this growth factor. In this study, we evaluated the role of intracellular regulatory Smads proteins as well as TGF-{beta}-receptors (TGF-{beta}-Rs) during skeletal muscle differentiation. We found a decrease of TGF-{beta} signaling during differentiation. This phenomenon is explained by a decline in the levels of the regulatory proteins Smad-2, -3, and -4, a decrease in the phosphorylation of Smad-2 and lost of nuclear translocation of Smad-3 and -4 in response to TGF-{beta}. No change in the levels and inhibitory function of Smad-7 was observed. In contrast, we found that TGF-{beta}-R type I (TGF-{beta}-RI) and type II (TGF-{beta}-RII) increased on the cell surface during skeletal muscle differentiation. To analyze the direct role of the serine/threonine kinase activities of TGF-{beta}-Rs, we used the specific inhibitor SB 431542 and the dominant-negative form of TGF-{beta}-RII lacking the cytoplasmic domain. The TGF-{beta}-Rs were important for successful muscle formation, determined by the induction of myogenin, creatine kinase activity, and myosin. Silencing of Smad-2/3 expression by specific siRNA treatments accelerated myogenin, myosin expression, and myotube formation; although when SB 431542 was present inhibition in myosin induction and myotube formation was observed, suggesting that these last steps of skeletal muscle differentiation require active TGF-{beta}-Rs. These results suggest that both down-regulation of Smad regulatory proteins and cell signaling through the TGF-{beta} receptors independent of Smad proteins are essential for skeletal muscle differentiation.

  2. miR-143 regulates proliferation and differentiation of bovine skeletal muscle satellite cells by targeting IGFBP5.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei Ran; Zhang, Hui Na; Wang, Yi Min; Dai, Yang; Liu, Xin Feng; Li, Xin; Ding, Xiang Bin; Guo, Hong

    2017-03-01

    Development of skeletal muscle is a complicated biological process regulated by various regulation factors and signal pathways. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are novel gene regulators that control muscle cell development. microRNA-143 (miR-143) is highly expressed in skeletal muscle, and we found that miR-143 level is significantly increased during bovine skeletal muscle satellite cells (MSCs) differentiation process through microarray analysis and qRT-PCR detection. However, the function of miR-143 in bovine muscle development remained unclear. In our work, the functions of miR-143 in bovine MSCs myogenic differentiation were investigated. We discovered that IGFBP5 is directly regulated by miR-143 using a dual-luciferase reporter assay. Overexpression of miR-143 led to decreased level of IGFBP5 protein and restrained cell proliferation and differentiation, while downregulation of miR-143 resulted in increased levels of IGFBP5 protein and restrained cell proliferation but improved differentiation. IGFBP5, an important component of IGF signaling pathway, contributes greatly to bovine muscle cell development. A mechanism that miR-143 can regulate the proliferation and differentiation of bovine MSCs through changing expression of IGFBP5 was elucidated by our study.

  3. Apparent elastic modulus and hysteresis of skeletal muscle cells throughout differentiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collinsworth, Amy M.; Zhang, Sarah; Kraus, William E.; Truskey, George A.

    2002-01-01

    The effect of differentiation on the transverse mechanical properties of mammalian myocytes was determined by using atomic force microscopy. The apparent elastic modulus increased from 11.5 +/- 1.3 kPa for undifferentiated myoblasts to 45.3 +/- 4.0 kPa after 8 days of differentiation (P < 0.05). The relative contribution of viscosity, as determined from the normalized hysteresis area, ranged from 0.13 +/- 0.02 to 0.21 +/- 0.03 and did not change throughout differentiation. Myosin expression correlated with the apparent elastic modulus, but neither myosin nor beta-tubulin were associated with hysteresis. Microtubules did not affect mechanical properties because treatment with colchicine did not alter the apparent elastic modulus or hysteresis. Treatment with cytochalasin D or 2,3-butanedione 2-monoxime led to a significant reduction in the apparent elastic modulus but no change in hysteresis. In summary, skeletal muscle cells exhibited viscoelastic behavior that changed during differentiation, yielding an increase in the transverse elastic modulus. Major contributors to changes in the transverse elastic modulus during differentiation were actin and myosin.

  4. TGF-{beta}'s delay skeletal muscle progenitor cell differentiation in an isoform-independent manner

    SciTech Connect

    Schabort, Elske J.; Merwe, Mathilde van der; Loos, Benjamin; Moore, Frances P.; Niesler, Carola U.

    2009-02-01

    Satellite cells are a quiescent heterogenous population of mononuclear stem and progenitor cells which, once activated, differentiate into myotubes and facilitate skeletal muscle repair or growth. The Transforming Growth Factor-{beta} (TGF-{beta}) superfamily members are elevated post-injury and their importance in the regulation of myogenesis and wound healing has been demonstrated both in vitro and in vivo. Most studies suggest a negative role for TGF-{beta} on satellite cell differentiation. However, none have compared the effect of these three isoforms on myogenesis in vitro. This is despite known isoform-specific effects of TGF-{beta}1, -{beta}2 and -{beta}3 on wound repair in other tissues. In the current study we compared the effect of TGF-{beta}1, -{beta}2 and -{beta}3 on proliferation and differentiation of the C2C12 myoblast cell-line. We found that, irrespective of the isoform, TGF-{beta} increased proliferation of C2C12 cells by changing the cellular localisation of PCNA to promote cell division and prevent cell cycle exit. Concomitantly, TGF-{beta}1, -{beta}2 and -{beta}3 delayed myogenic commitment by increasing MyoD degradation and decreasing myogenin expression. Terminal differentiation, as measured by a decrease in myosin heavy chain (MHC) expression, was also delayed. These results demonstrate that TGF-{beta} promotes proliferation and delays differentiation of C2C12 myoblasts in an isoform-independent manner.

  5. Isolation of neural precursor cells from skeletal muscle tissues and their differentiation into neuron-like cells.

    PubMed

    Park, Jung Sik; Kim, Soyeon; Han, Dong Keun; Lee, Ji Youl; Ghil, Sung Ho

    2007-08-31

    Skeletal muscle contains several precursor cells that generate muscle, bone, cartilage and blood cells. Although there are reports that skeletal muscle-derived cells can trans-differentiate into neural-lineage cells, methods for isolating precursor cells, and procedures for successful neural induction have not been fully established. Here, we show that the preplate cell isolation method, which separates cells based on their adhesion characteristics, permits separation of cells possessing neural precursor characteristics from other cells of skeletal muscle tissues. We term these isolated cells skeletal muscle-derived neural precursor cells (SMNPs). The isolated SMNPs constitutively expressed neural stem cell markers. In addition, we describe effective neural induction materials permitting the neuron-like cell differentiation of SMNPs. Treatment with retinoic acid or forskolin facilitated morphological changes in SMNPs; they differentiated into neuron-like cells that possessed specific neuronal markers. These results suggest that the preplate isolation method, and treatment with retinoic acid or forskolin, may provide vital assistance in the use of SMNPs in cell-based therapy of neuronal disease.

  6. Temporal correlation between differentiation factor expression and microRNAs in Holstein bovine skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Miretti, S; Volpe, M G; Martignani, E; Accornero, P; Baratta, M

    2017-02-01

    activation of the myogenic gene program. During the subsequent 4 days of culture in DM, several tested genes, including MRF4, MYOG, MEF2C, TMEM8C, DES and MYH1, showed increased expression (P<0.05), and these levels remained high throughout the culture period investigated. Meanwhile, the expression of genes involved in the differentiation process also miRNA-1, miRNA-133a and miRNA-206 were strongly up-regulated on the 1st day in DM (day 7; P<0.05). Analysis revealed highly significant correlations between myomiRNAs expression and MEF2C, MRF4, TMEM8C, DES and MYH1 gene expression (P<0.001). Knowledge about the transcriptional changes correlating with the growth and differentiation of skeletal muscle fibers could be helpful for developing strategies to improve production performance in livestock.

  7. Osteogenic Differentiation Capacity of In Vitro Cultured Human Skeletal Muscle for Expedited Bone Tissue Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Miao, Chunlei; Zhou, Lulu; Tian, Lufeng; Zhang, Yingjie; Zhang, Wei; Yang, Fanghong; Liu, Tianyi

    2017-01-01

    Expedited bone tissue engineering employs the biological stimuli to harness the intrinsic regenerative potential of skeletal muscle to trigger the reparative process in situ to improve or replace biological functions. When genetically modified with adenovirus mediated BMP2 gene transfer, muscle biopsies from animals have demonstrated success in regenerating bone within rat bony defects. However, it is uncertain whether the human adult skeletal muscle displays an osteogenic potential in vitro when a suitable biological trigger is applied. In present study, human skeletal muscle cultured in a standard osteogenic medium supplemented with dexamethasone demonstrated significant increase in alkaline phosphatase activity approximately 24-fold over control at 2-week time point. More interestingly, measurement of mRNA levels revealed the dramatic results for osteoblast transcripts of alkaline phosphatase, bone sialoproteins, transcription factor CBFA1, collagen type I, and osteocalcin. Calcified mineral deposits were demonstrated on superficial layers of muscle discs after an extended 8-week osteogenic induction. Taken together, these are the first data supporting human skeletal muscle tissue as a promising potential target for expedited bone regeneration, which of the technologies is a valuable method for tissue repair, being not only effective but also inexpensive and clinically expeditious. PMID:28210626

  8. Nuclear translocation of the cytoskeleton-associated protein, smALP, upon induction of skeletal muscle differentiation

    SciTech Connect

    Cambier, Linda; Pomies, Pascal

    2011-06-17

    Highlights: {yields} The cytoskeleton-associated protein, smALP, is expressed in differentiated skeletal muscle. {yields} smALP is translocated from the cytoplasm to the nucleus of C2C12 myoblasts upon induction of myogenesis. {yields} The differentiation-dependent nuclear translocation of smALP occurs in parallel with the nuclear accumulation of myogenin. {yields} The LIM domain of smALP is essential for the nuclear accumulation of the protein. {yields} smALP might act in the nucleus to control some critical aspect of the muscle differentiation process. -- Abstract: The skALP isoform has been shown to play a critical role in actin organization and anchorage within the Z-discs of skeletal muscles, but no data is available on the function of the smALP isoform in skeletal muscle cells. Here, we show that upon induction of differentiation a nuclear translocation of smALP from the cytoplasm to the nucleus of C2C12 myoblasts, concomitant to an up-regulation of the protein expression, occurs in parallel with the nuclear accumulation of myogenin. Moreover, we demonstrate that the LIM domain of smALP is essential for the nuclear translocation of the protein.

  9. Clonal differentiation of skeletal muscle-derived CD34(-)/45(-) stem cells into cardiomyocytes in vivo.

    PubMed

    Tamaki, Tetsuro; Uchiyama, Yoshiyasu; Okada, Yoshinori; Tono, Kayoko; Masuda, Maki; Nitta, Masahiro; Hoshi, Akio; Akatsuka, Akira

    2010-04-01

    The differentiation and/or therapeutic potential of skeletal muscle-derived stem cells for cardiac infarction have been studied extensively for use in cellular cardiomyoplasty, as injured cardiomyocytes exhibit limited regenerative capacity. We previously reported cardio-myogenic differentiation of skeletal muscle-derived CD34+/45(-) (Sk-34) stem cells after therapeutic transplantation. However, the clonal differentiation potential of these cells remains unknown. Here, we show that skeletal muscle-derived CD34(-)/45(-) (Sk-DN) stem cells, which are situated upstream of Sk-34 cells in the same lineage, exhibit clonal differentiation into cardiomyocytes after single cell-derived single-sphere implantation into myocardium. Sk-DN cells were enzymatically isolated from green fluorescent protein (GFP) transgenic mice and purified by flow cytometry, and were then clonally cultured in collagen-based medium with bFGF and EGF after clonal cell sorting. Single cell-derived single-sphere colonies of Sk-DN cells were directly implanted into the wild-type mouse myocardium. At 4 weeks after implantation, donor cells exhibited typical cardiomyocyte structure with the formation of gap-junctions between donor and recipient cells. Expression of specific mRNAs for cardiomyocytes, such as cardiac actin and GATA-4, Nkx2-5, Isl-1, Mef2, and Hand2, were also seen in clonal cell cultures of Sk-DN cells. Cell fusion-independent differentiation was also confirmed by bulk cell transplantation using Cre- and loxP (enhanced GFP)-mice. We conclude that Sk-DN cells can give rise to cardiac muscle cells clonally, and that skeletal muscle includes a practical cell source for cellular cardiomyoplasty.

  10. Poly(C)-binding protein 1 (Pcbp1) regulates skeletal muscle differentiation by modulating microRNA processing in myoblasts.

    PubMed

    Espinoza-Lewis, Ramon A; Yang, Qiumei; Liu, Jianming; Huang, Zhan-Peng; Hu, Xiaoyun; Chen, Daiwen; Wang, Da-Zhi

    2017-04-05

    Control of muscle cell proliferation and differentiation is essential to proper muscle development, function, and regeneration, and numerous transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulators are key to these processes. For example, recent studies have linked microRNAs (miRNAs) to muscle gene expression, development, and disease. The poly(C)-binding protein1 (Pcbp1, hnRNP-E1, or αCP-1) has been reported to bind the 3'UTRs of target genes to regulate mRNA stability and protein translation. However, Pcbp1's biological function in skeletal muscle and general mechanism of action remain largely undetermined. Here, we report that Pcbp1 is a component of the miRNA-processing pathway that regulates miRNA biogenesis. SiRNA-based inhibition of Pcbp1 transcript levels in mouse skeletal muscle myoblasts led to dysregulated cellular proliferation and differentiation. We also found that Pcbp1 null mutant mice exhibit early embryonic lethality, indicating that Pcbp1 is indispensable for embryonic development. Interestingly, hypomorphic Pcbp1 mutant mice displayed defects in muscle growth, a slow- to fast- myofibril switch and in the proliferation of myoblasts and muscle satellite cells. Moreover, Pcbp1 modulated the processing of muscle-enriched miR-1, miR-133, and miR-206 by physically interacting with Argonaute 2 (AGO2) and other miRNA pathway components. Our results therefore link the function of Pcbp1 to the miRNA pathway in skeletal muscle in mice. Future studies could help determine whether human Pbcp1 is involved in disorders such as muscular dystrophy or muscle degeneration.

  11. Nitric oxide availability is increased in contracting skeletal muscle from aged mice, but does not differentially decrease muscle superoxide.

    PubMed

    Pearson, T; McArdle, A; Jackson, M J

    2015-01-01

    Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species have been implicated in the loss of skeletal muscle mass and function that occurs during aging. Nitric oxide (NO) and superoxide are generated by skeletal muscle and where these are generated in proximity their chemical reaction to form peroxynitrite can compete with the superoxide dismutation to hydrogen peroxide. Changes in NO availability may therefore theoretically modify superoxide and peroxynitrite activities in tissues, but published data are contradictory regarding aging effects on muscle NO availability. We hypothesised that an age-related increase in NO generation might increase peroxynitrite generation in muscles from old mice, leading to an increased nitration of muscle proteins and decreased superoxide availability. This was examined using fluorescent probes and an isolated fiber preparation to examine NO content and superoxide in the cytosol and mitochondria of muscle fibers from adult and old mice both at rest and following contractile activity. We also examined the 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NT) and peroxiredoxin 5 (Prx5) content of muscles from mice as markers of peroxynitrite activity. Data indicate that a substantial age-related increase in NO levels occurred in muscle fibers during contractile activity and this was associated with an increase in muscle eNOS. Muscle proteins from old mice also showed an increased 3-NT content. Inhibition of NOS indicated that NO decreased superoxide bioavailability in muscle mitochondria, although this effect was not age related. Thus increased NO in muscles of old mice was associated with an increased 3-NT content that may potentially contribute to age-related degenerative changes in skeletal muscle.

  12. Differential Cysteine Labeling and Global Label-Free Proteomics Reveals an Altered Metabolic State in Skeletal Muscle Aging

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms underlying skeletal muscle aging and associated sarcopenia have been linked to an altered oxidative status of redox-sensitive proteins. Reactive oxygen and reactive nitrogen species (ROS/RNS) generated by contracting skeletal muscle are necessary for optimal protein function, signaling, and adaptation. To investigate the redox proteome of aging gastrocnemius muscles from adult and old male mice, we developed a label-free quantitative proteomic approach that includes a differential cysteine labeling step. The approach allows simultaneous identification of up- and downregulated proteins between samples in addition to the identification and relative quantification of the reversible oxidation state of susceptible redox cysteine residues. Results from muscles of adult and old mice indicate significant changes in the content of chaperone, glucose metabolism, and cytoskeletal regulatory proteins, including Protein DJ-1, cAMP-dependent protein kinase type II, 78 kDa glucose regulated protein, and a reduction in the number of redox-responsive proteins identified in muscle of old mice. Results demonstrate skeletal muscle aging causes a reduction in redox-sensitive proteins involved in the generation of precursor metabolites and energy metabolism, indicating a loss in the flexibility of the redox energy response. Data is available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD001054. PMID:25181601

  13. Differential cysteine labeling and global label-free proteomics reveals an altered metabolic state in skeletal muscle aging.

    PubMed

    McDonagh, Brian; Sakellariou, Giorgos K; Smith, Neil T; Brownridge, Philip; Jackson, Malcolm J

    2014-11-07

    The molecular mechanisms underlying skeletal muscle aging and associated sarcopenia have been linked to an altered oxidative status of redox-sensitive proteins. Reactive oxygen and reactive nitrogen species (ROS/RNS) generated by contracting skeletal muscle are necessary for optimal protein function, signaling, and adaptation. To investigate the redox proteome of aging gastrocnemius muscles from adult and old male mice, we developed a label-free quantitative proteomic approach that includes a differential cysteine labeling step. The approach allows simultaneous identification of up- and downregulated proteins between samples in addition to the identification and relative quantification of the reversible oxidation state of susceptible redox cysteine residues. Results from muscles of adult and old mice indicate significant changes in the content of chaperone, glucose metabolism, and cytoskeletal regulatory proteins, including Protein DJ-1, cAMP-dependent protein kinase type II, 78 kDa glucose regulated protein, and a reduction in the number of redox-responsive proteins identified in muscle of old mice. Results demonstrate skeletal muscle aging causes a reduction in redox-sensitive proteins involved in the generation of precursor metabolites and energy metabolism, indicating a loss in the flexibility of the redox energy response. Data is available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD001054.

  14. Effects of HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors on growth and differentiation of cultured rat skeletal muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Veerkamp, J H; Smit, J W; Benders, A A; Oosterhof, A

    1996-04-12

    HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors have been associated with skeletal muscle myopathy, ranging from asymptomatic elevations of serum creatine kinase (CK) activity to rhabdomyolysis. In this study, we assessed the effects of addition of different concentrations of simvastatin and pravastatin on growth and differentiation of cultured primary rat skeletal muscle cells. Protein concentrations, CK activity and percentage CK-MM, which is a parameter for maturation, were determined. Effects were generally stronger if inhibitors were added to both growth and differentiation medium rather than only to differentiation medium. Addition of 25 microM pravastatin caused only a decrease of CK activity. Addition of 1-5 microM simvastatin resulted in a decrease of protein concentration, CK activity and percentage CK-MM, whereas 25 microM simvastatin resulted in cell death. Addition of mevalonic acid or cholesterol could not prevent the effects of 1 microM simvastatin. In addition, 1 microM simvastatin did not influence the cholesterol and phospholipid content of the cells. Superfusion of cultured cells with simvastatin concentrations of 10 microM and higher caused a transient increase of the cytoplasmic calcium concentration followed by an apparent second rise and cell puncture. The results indicate that HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors may affect skeletal muscle cell regeneration in vivo by a direct toxic effect on growth and differentiation.

  15. Down-regulation of an ankyrin repeat-containing protein, V-1, during skeletal muscle differentiation and its re-expression in the regenerative process of muscular dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Furukawa, Yuko; Hashimoto, Naohiro; Yamakuni, Tohru; Ishida, Yukisato; Kato, Chieko; Ogashiwa, Masayo; Kobayashi, Masumi; Kobayashi, Takayoshi; Nonaka, Ikuya; Mizusawa, Hidehiro; Song, Si Young

    2003-01-01

    Using Western blot analysis and immunohistochemical methods, we examined the expression of V-1, a member of the ankyrin repeat-containing protein family, during differentiation and regeneration of skeletal muscle. The expression of V-1 was high in cultured myoblasts and decreased during their differentiation into myotubes, while high expression was maintained when muscle differentiation was inhibited by treatment with basic fibroblast growth factor. Down-regulation of V-1 also occurred during in vivo muscle differentiation from embryonic to postnatal stages, reaching an undetectable level in mature skeletal muscle. In contrast, strong V-1 immunoreactivity was detected again in myoblasts and regenerating muscle fibers with a small diameter, which were observed in Duchenne muscular dystrophy and its animal model, mdx mouse. Thus, it seems that V-1 is a good marker for early stage of muscle regeneration and changes of its expression suggest that V-1 plays a role in prenatal muscle differentiation and postnatal muscle regeneration.

  16. Skeletal muscle-derived progenitors capable of differentiating into cardiomyocytes proliferate through myostatin-independent TGF-{beta} family signaling

    SciTech Connect

    Nomura, Tetsuya; Ueyama, Tomomi; Ashihara, Eishi; Tateishi, Kento; Asada, Satoshi; Nakajima, Norio; Isodono, Koji; Takahashi, Tomosaburo; Matsubara, Hiroaki Oh, Hidemasa

    2008-01-25

    The existence of skeletal muscle-derived stem cells (MDSCs) has been suggested in mammals; however, the signaling pathways controlling MDSC proliferation remain largely unknown. Here we report the isolation of myosphere-derived progenitor cells (MDPCs) that can give rise to beating cardiomyocytes from adult skeletal muscle. We identified that follistatin, an antagonist of TGF-{beta} family members, was predominantly expressed in MDPCs, whereas myostatin was mainly expressed in myogenic cells and mature skeletal muscle. Although follistatin enhanced the replicative growth of MDPCs through Smad2/3 inactivation and cell cycle progression, disruption of myostatin did not increase the MDPC proliferation. By contrast, inhibition of activin A (ActA) or growth differentiation factor 11 (GDF11) signaling dramatically increased MDPC proliferation via down-regulation of p21 and increases in the levels of cdk2/4 and cyclin D1. Thus, follistatin may be an effective progenitor-enhancing agent neutralizing ActA and GDF11 signaling to regulate the growth of MDPCs in skeletal muscle.

  17. miR-431 promotes differentiation and regeneration of old skeletal muscle by targeting Smad4

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kwang-Pyo; Shin, Yeo Jin; Panda, Amaresh C.; Abdelmohsen, Kotb; Kim, Ji Young; Lee, Seung-Min; Bahn, Young Jae; Choi, Jeong Yi; Kwon, Eun-Soo; Baek, Su-Jin; Kim, Seon-Young; Gorospe, Myriam; Kwon, Ki-Sun

    2015-01-01

    The myogenic capacity of myoblasts decreases in skeletal muscle with age. In addition to environmental factors, intrinsic factors are important for maintaining the regenerative potential of muscle progenitor cells, but their identities are largely unknown. Here, comparative analysis of microRNA (miRNA) expression profiles in young and old myoblasts uncovered miR-431 as a novel miRNA showing markedly reduced abundance in aged myoblasts. Importantly, elevating miR-431 improved the myogenic capacity of old myoblasts, while inhibiting endogenous miR-431 lowered myogenesis. Bioinformatic and biochemical analyses revealed that miR-431 directly interacted with the 3′ untranslated region (UTR) of Smad4 mRNA, which encodes one of the downstream effectors of TGF-β signaling. In keeping with the low levels of miR-431 in old myoblasts, SMAD4 levels increased in this myoblast population. Interestingly, in an in vivo model of muscle regeneration following cardiotoxin injury, ectopic miR-431 injection greatly improved muscle regeneration and reduced SMAD4 levels. Consistent with the finding that the mouse miR-431 seed sequence in the Smad4 3′ UTR is conserved in the human SMAD4 3′ UTR, inhibition of miR-431 also repressed the myogenic capacity of human skeletal myoblasts. Taken together, our results suggest that the age-associated miR-431 plays a key role in maintaining the myogenic ability of skeletal muscle with age. PMID:26215566

  18. Akirin2 regulates proliferation and differentiation of porcine skeletal muscle satellite cells via ERK1/2 and NFATc1 signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaoling; Luo, Yanliu; Huang, Zhiqing; Jia, Gang; Liu, Guangmang; Zhao, Hua

    2017-03-22

    Akirin2, a novel nuclear factor, plays an important role in myogenesis. To investigate the role of Akirin2 in proliferation and differentiation of porcine skeletal muscle satellite cells, Akirin2 overexpression and Akirin2 silence technologies were employed. Our results showed that overexpression of Akirin2 markedly enhanced the proliferation and differentiation of porcine skeletal muscle satellite cells, whereas silencing of Akirin2 got the opposite results. Furthermore, our results showed that Akirin2 affected proliferation and differentiation of porcine skeletal muscle satellite cells through extracellular-signal regulated kinase-1/2 (ERK1/2) and NFATc1 signaling pathways. These results indicate that Akirin2 can effectively promote skeletal muscle satellite cells proliferation and differentiation, acting through ERK1/2- and NFATc1-dependent mechanisms.

  19. Akirin2 regulates proliferation and differentiation of porcine skeletal muscle satellite cells via ERK1/2 and NFATc1 signaling pathways

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiaoling; Luo, Yanliu; Huang, Zhiqing; Jia, Gang; Liu, Guangmang; Zhao, Hua

    2017-01-01

    Akirin2, a novel nuclear factor, plays an important role in myogenesis. To investigate the role of Akirin2 in proliferation and differentiation of porcine skeletal muscle satellite cells, Akirin2 overexpression and Akirin2 silence technologies were employed. Our results showed that overexpression of Akirin2 markedly enhanced the proliferation and differentiation of porcine skeletal muscle satellite cells, whereas silencing of Akirin2 got the opposite results. Furthermore, our results showed that Akirin2 affected proliferation and differentiation of porcine skeletal muscle satellite cells through extracellular-signal regulated kinase-1/2 (ERK1/2) and NFATc1 signaling pathways. These results indicate that Akirin2 can effectively promote skeletal muscle satellite cells proliferation and differentiation, acting through ERK1/2- and NFATc1-dependent mechanisms. PMID:28327665

  20. Differential Expression of NADPH Oxidases Depends on Skeletal Muscle Fiber Type in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Loureiro, Adriano César Carneiro; do Rêgo-Monteiro, Igor Coutinho; Louzada, Ruy A.; Ortenzi, Victor Hugo; de Aguiar, Angélica Ponte; de Abreu, Ewerton Sousa; Cavalcanti-de-Albuquerque, João Paulo Albuquerque; Hecht, Fabio; de Oliveira, Ariclécio Cunha; Ceccatto, Vânia Marilande; Fortunato, Rodrigo S.

    2016-01-01

    NADPH oxidases (NOX) are important sources of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in skeletal muscle, being involved in excitation-contraction coupling. Thus, we aimed to investigate if NOX activity and expression in skeletal muscle are fiber type specific and the possible contribution of this difference to cellular oxidative stress. Oxygen consumption rate, NOX activity and mRNA levels, and the activity of catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), and superoxide dismutase (SOD), as well as the reactive protein thiol levels, were measured in the soleus (SOL), red gastrocnemius (RG), and white gastrocnemius (WG) muscles of rats. RG showed higher oxygen consumption flow than SOL and WG, while SOL had higher oxygen consumption than WG. SOL showed higher NOX activity, as well as NOX2 and NOX4 mRNA levels, antioxidant enzymatic activities, and reactive protein thiol contents when compared to WG and RG. NOX activity and NOX4 mRNA levels as well as antioxidant enzymatic activities were higher in RG than in WG. Physical exercise increased NOX activity in SOL and RG, specifically NOX2 mRNA levels in RG and NOX4 mRNA levels in SOL. In conclusion, we demonstrated that NOX activity and expression differ according to the skeletal muscle fiber type, as well as antioxidant defense. PMID:27847553

  1. Differential Expression of NADPH Oxidases Depends on Skeletal Muscle Fiber Type in Rats.

    PubMed

    Loureiro, Adriano César Carneiro; do Rêgo-Monteiro, Igor Coutinho; Louzada, Ruy A; Ortenzi, Victor Hugo; de Aguiar, Angélica Ponte; de Abreu, Ewerton Sousa; Cavalcanti-de-Albuquerque, João Paulo Albuquerque; Hecht, Fabio; de Oliveira, Ariclécio Cunha; Ceccatto, Vânia Marilande; Fortunato, Rodrigo S; Carvalho, Denise P

    2016-01-01

    NADPH oxidases (NOX) are important sources of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in skeletal muscle, being involved in excitation-contraction coupling. Thus, we aimed to investigate if NOX activity and expression in skeletal muscle are fiber type specific and the possible contribution of this difference to cellular oxidative stress. Oxygen consumption rate, NOX activity and mRNA levels, and the activity of catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), and superoxide dismutase (SOD), as well as the reactive protein thiol levels, were measured in the soleus (SOL), red gastrocnemius (RG), and white gastrocnemius (WG) muscles of rats. RG showed higher oxygen consumption flow than SOL and WG, while SOL had higher oxygen consumption than WG. SOL showed higher NOX activity, as well as NOX2 and NOX4 mRNA levels, antioxidant enzymatic activities, and reactive protein thiol contents when compared to WG and RG. NOX activity and NOX4 mRNA levels as well as antioxidant enzymatic activities were higher in RG than in WG. Physical exercise increased NOX activity in SOL and RG, specifically NOX2 mRNA levels in RG and NOX4 mRNA levels in SOL. In conclusion, we demonstrated that NOX activity and expression differ according to the skeletal muscle fiber type, as well as antioxidant defense.

  2. Quantitatively differentiating microstructural variations of skeletal muscle tissues by multispectral Mueller matrix imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Yang; He, Honghui; He, Chao; Ma, Hui

    2016-10-01

    Polarized light is sensitive to the microstructures of biological tissues and can be used to detect physiological changes. Meanwhile, spectral features of the scattered light can also provide abundant microstructural information of tissues. In this paper, we take the backscattering polarization Mueller matrix images of bovine skeletal muscle tissues during the 24-hour experimental time, and analyze their multispectral behavior using quantitative Mueller matrix parameters. In the processes of rigor mortis and proteolysis of muscle samples, multispectral frequency distribution histograms (FDHs) of the Mueller matrix elements can reveal rich qualitative structural information. In addition, we analyze the temporal variations of the sample using the multispectral Mueller matrix transformation (MMT) parameters. The experimental results indicate that the different stages of rigor mortis and proteolysis for bovine skeletal muscle samples can be judged by these MMT parameters. The results presented in this work show that combining with the multispectral technique, the FDHs and MMT parameters can characterize the microstructural variation features of skeletal muscle tissues. The techniques have the potential to be used as tools for quantitative assessment of meat qualities in food industry.

  3. Differential microRNA Expression in Fast- and Slow-Twitch Skeletal Muscle of Piaractus mesopotamicus during Growth

    PubMed Central

    Duran, Bruno Oliveira da Silva; Fernandez, Geysson Javier; Mareco, Edson Assunção; Moraes, Leonardo Nazario; Salomão, Rondinelle Artur Simões; Gutierrez de Paula, Tassiana; Santos, Vander Bruno; Carvalho, Robson Francisco; Dal-Pai-Silvca, Maeli

    2015-01-01

    Pacu (Piaractus mesopotamicus) is a Brazilian fish with a high economic value in pisciculture due to its rusticity and fast growth. Postnatal growth of skeletal muscle in fish occurs by hyperplasia and/or hypertrophy, processes that are dependent on the proliferation and differentiation of myoblasts. A class of small noncoding RNAs, known as microRNAs (miRNAs), represses the expression of target mRNAs, and many studies have demonstrated that miR-1, miR-133, miR-206 and miR-499 regulate different processes in skeletal muscle through the mRNA silencing of hdac4 (histone deacetylase 4), srf (serum response factor), pax7 (paired box 7) and sox6 ((sex determining region Y)-box 6), respectively. The aim of our work was to evaluate the expression of these miRNAs and their putative target mRNAs in fast- and slow-twitch skeletal muscle of pacu during growth. We used pacus in three different development stages: larval (aged 30 days), juvenile (aged 90 days and 150 days) and adult (aged 2 years). To complement our study, we also performed a pacu myoblast cell culture, which allowed us to investigate miRNA expression in the progression from myoblast proliferation to differentiation. Our results revealed an inverse correlation between the expression of the miRNAs and their target mRNAs, and there was evidence that miR-1 and miR-206 may regulate the differentiation of myoblasts, whereas miR-133 may regulate the proliferation of these cells. miR-499 was highly expressed in slow-twitch muscle, which suggests its involvement in the specification of the slow phenotype in muscle fibers. The expression of these miRNAs exhibited variations between different development stages and between distinct muscle twitch phenotypes. This work provides the first identification of miRNA expression profiles in pacu skeletal muscle and suggests an important role of these molecules in muscle growth and in the maintenance of the muscle phenotype. PMID:26529415

  4. Signaling pathways controlling skeletal muscle mass.

    PubMed

    Egerman, Marc A; Glass, David J

    2014-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms underlying skeletal muscle maintenance involve interplay between multiple signaling pathways. Under normal physiological conditions, a network of interconnected signals serves to control and coordinate hypertrophic and atrophic messages, culminating in a delicate balance between muscle protein synthesis and proteolysis. Loss of skeletal muscle mass, termed "atrophy", is a diagnostic feature of cachexia seen in settings of cancer, heart disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, kidney disease, and burns. Cachexia increases the likelihood of death from these already serious diseases. Recent studies have further defined the pathways leading to gain and loss of skeletal muscle as well as the signaling events that induce differentiation and post-injury regeneration, which are also essential for the maintenance of skeletal muscle mass. In this review, we summarize and discuss the relevant recent literature demonstrating these previously undiscovered mediators governing anabolism and catabolism of skeletal muscle.

  5. Signaling pathways controlling skeletal muscle mass

    PubMed Central

    Egerman, Marc A.

    2014-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms underlying skeletal muscle maintenance involve interplay between multiple signaling pathways. Under normal physiological conditions, a network of interconnected signals serves to control and coordinate hypertrophic and atrophic messages, culminating in a delicate balance between muscle protein synthesis and proteolysis. Loss of skeletal muscle mass, termed “atrophy”, is a diagnostic feature of cachexia seen in settings of cancer, heart disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, kidney disease, and burns. Cachexia increases the likelihood of death from these already serious diseases. Recent studies have further defined the pathways leading to gain and loss of skeletal muscle as well as the signaling events that induce differentiation and post-injury regeneration, which are also essential for the maintenance of skeletal muscle mass. In this review, we summarize and discuss the relevant recent literature demonstrating these previously undiscovered mediators governing anabolism and catabolism of skeletal muscle. PMID:24237131

  6. BRE facilitates skeletal muscle regeneration by promoting satellite cell motility and differentiation.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Lihai; Lee, Kenneth Ka Ho

    2016-01-06

    The function of the Bre gene in satellite cells was investigated during skeletal muscle regeneration. The tibialis anterior leg muscle was experimentally injured in Bre knockout mutant (BRE-KO) mice. It was established that the accompanying muscle regeneration was impaired as compared with their normal wild-type counterparts (BRE-WT). There were significantly fewer pax7(+) satellite cells and smaller newly formed myofibers present in the injury sites of BRE-KO mice. Bre was required for satellite cell fusion and myofiber formation. The cell fusion index and average length of newly-formed BRE-KO myofibers were found to be significantly reduced as compared with BRE-WT myofibers. It is well established that satellite cells are highly invasive which confers on them the homing ability to reach the muscle injury sites. Hence, we tracked the migratory behavior of these cells using time-lapse microscopy. Image analysis revealed no difference in directionality of movement between BRE-KO and BRE-WT satellite cells but there was a significant decrease in the velocity of BRE-KO cell movement. Moreover, chemotactic migration assays indicated that BRE-KO satellite cells were significantly less responsive to chemoattractant SDF-1α than BRE-WT satellite cells. We also established that BRE normally protects CXCR4 from SDF-1α-induced degradation. In sum, BRE facilitates skeletal muscle regeneration by enhancing satellite cell motility, homing and fusion.

  7. Small leucine zipper protein (sLZIP) negatively regulates skeletal muscle differentiation via interaction with α-actinin-4.

    PubMed

    An, Hyoung-Tae; Kim, Jeonghan; Yoo, Seungmin; Ko, Jesang

    2014-02-21

    The small leucine zipper protein (sLZIP) plays a role in transcriptional regulation in various types of cells. However, the role of sLZIP in myogenesis is unknown. We identified α-actinin-4 (ACTN4) as a sLZIP-binding protein. ACTN4 functions as a transcriptional regulator of myocyte enhancer factor (MEF)2, which plays a critical role in expression of muscle-specific genes during skeletal muscle differentiation. We found that ACTN4 translocates to the nucleus, induces myogenic gene expression, and promotes myotube formation during myogenesis. The myogenic process is controlled by an association between myogenic factors and MEF2 transcription factors. ACTN4 increased expression of muscle-specific proteins via interaction with MEF2. However, sLZIP decreased myogenic gene expression and myotube formation during myogenesis via disruption of the association between ACTN4 and MEF2. ACTN4 increased the promoter activities of myogenic genes, whereas sLZIP abrogated the effect of ACTN4 on transcriptional activation of myogenic genes in myoblasts. The C terminus of sLZIP is required for interaction with the C terminus of ACTN4, based on deletion mutant analysis, and sLZIP plays a role in regulation of MEF2 transactivation via interaction with ACTN4. Our results indicate that sLZIP negatively regulates skeletal muscle differentiation via interaction with ACTN4 and that sLZIP can be used as a therapeutic target molecule for treatment of muscle hypertrophy and associated diseases.

  8. Differential activation of sympathetic discharge to skin and skeletal muscle in humans.

    PubMed

    Vissing, S F

    1997-01-01

    The present work provides insight into the relative contribution of different mechanisms in regulating sympathetic discharge to skin and skeletal muscle in humans. Activation of sympathetic nerve activity during common behaviours such as orthostasis and exercise was shown to be highly selective, depending on the specific sympathetic outflow under study. Regarding orthostasis, data from experiments in this thesis revoked the concept that cardiopulmonary afferents only regulate muscle vascular resistance in the forearm, not in the leg. Also the concept that the cutaneous circulation is under baroreceptor control has been challenged. Unloading cardiopulmonary afferents with lower body negative pressure elicited intensity dependent increases in peroneal sympathetic discharge to skeletal muscle, and increases in forearm and calf vascular resistances. Therefore, it was concluded that cardiopulmonary afferents regulate vascular resistance in skeletal muscle of both forearm and calf, suggesting an important role for these afferents in the reflex adjustments to upright posture. In contrast to muscle sympathetic nerve activity, baroreceptor deactivation with lower body negative pressure had no effect on skin sympathetic nerve activity or skin vascular resistance. However, assumption of upright posture increased skin vascular resistance, this increase was abolished when increased vascular transmural pressure was avoided by elevating the arm. Local cutaneous nerve blockade, but not blockade of efferent sympathetic nerve traffic, abolished the vasoconstrictor response to upright posture. Based on these experiments, it was concluded that baroreceptor afferents do not regulate sympathetic vasoconstrictor outflow to the cutaneous circulation. During upright posture at normothermia cutaneous vasoconstriction is mainly driven by a local reflex. To explain activation of sympathetic outflow during exercise two theories have been proposed. One is that a "central motor command" signal

  9. Differential skeletal muscle proteome of high- and low-active mice

    PubMed Central

    Dangott, Lawrence J.; Schmitt, Emily E.; Vellers, Heather L.; Lightfoot, J. Timothy

    2014-01-01

    Physical inactivity contributes to cardiovascular disease, type II diabetes, obesity, and some types of cancer. While the literature is clear that there is genetic regulation of physical activity with existing gene knockout data suggesting that skeletal muscle mechanisms contribute to the regulation of activity, actual differences in end-protein expression between high- and low-active mice have not been investigated. This study used two-dimensional differential gel electrophoresis coupled with mass spectrometry to evaluate the proteomic differences between high-active (C57L/J) and low-active (C3H/HeJ) mice in the soleus and extensor digitorum longus (EDL). Furthermore, vivo-morpholinos were used to transiently knockdown candidate proteins to confirm their involvement in physical activity regulation. Proteins with higher expression patterns generally fell into the calcium-regulating and Krebs (TCA) cycle pathways in the high-active mice (e.g., annexin A6, P = 0.0031; calsequestrin 1; P = 0.000025), while the overexpressed proteins in the low-active mice generally fell into cytoskeletal structure- and electron transport chain-related pathways (e.g., ATPase, P = 0.031; NADH dehydrogenase, P = 0.027). Transient knockdown of annexin A6 and calsequestrin 1 protein of high-active mice with vivo-morpholinos resulted in decreased physical activity levels (P = 0.001). These data suggest that high- and low-active mice have unique protein expression patterns and that each pattern contributes to the peripheral capability to be either high- or low-active, suggesting that different specific mechanisms regulate activity leading to the high- or low-activity status of the animal. PMID:24505100

  10. Single fiber analyses of glycogen-related proteins reveal their differential association with glycogen in rat skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Robyn M; Xu, Hongyang; Latchman, Heidy; Larkins, Noni T; Gooley, Paul R; Stapleton, David I

    2012-12-01

    To understand how glycogen affects skeletal muscle physiology, we examined enzymes essential for muscle glycogen synthesis and degradation using single fibers from quiescent and stimulated rat skeletal muscle. Presenting a shift in paradigm, we show these proteins are differentially associated with glycogen granules. Protein diffusibility and/or abundance of glycogenin, glycogen branching enzyme (GBE), debranching enzyme (GDE), phosphorylase (GP), and synthase (GS) were examined in fibers isolated from rat fast-twitch extensor digitorum longus (EDL) and slow-twitch soleus (SOL) muscle. GDE and GP proteins were more abundant (~10- to 100-fold) in fibers from EDL compared with SOL muscle. GS and glycogenin proteins were similar between muscles while GBE had an approximately fourfold greater abundance in SOL muscle. Mechanically skinned fibers exposed to physiological buffer for 10 min showed ~70% total pools of GBE and GP were diffusible (nonbound), whereas GDE and GS were considerably less diffusible. Intense in vitro stimulation, sufficient to elicit a ~50% decrease in intracellular glycogen, increased diffusibility of GDE, GP, and GS (~15-60%) and decreased GBE diffusibility (~20%). Amylase treatment, which breaks α-1,4 linkages of glycogen, indicated differential diffusibilities and hence glycogen associations of GDE and GS. Membrane solubilization (1% Triton-X-100) allowed a small additional amount of GDE and GS to diffuse from fibers, suggesting the majority of nonglycogen-associated GDE/GS is associated with myofibrillar/contractile network of muscle rather than membranes. Given differences in enzymes required for glycogen metabolism, the current findings suggest glycogen particles have fiber-type-dependent structures. The greater catabolic potential of glycogen breakdown in fast-twitch fibers may account for different contraction induced rates of glycogen utilization.

  11. Differential effects of endurance training and creatine depletion on regional mitochondrial adaptations in rat skeletal muscle.

    PubMed Central

    Roussel, D; Lhenry, F; Ecochard, L; Sempore, B; Rouanet, J L; Favier, R

    2000-01-01

    To examine the combined effects of 2-week endurance training and 3-week feeding with beta-guanidinopropionic acid (GPA) on regional adaptability of skeletal muscle mitochondria, intermyofibrillar mitochondria (IFM) and subsarcolemmal mitochondria (SSM) were isolated from quadriceps muscles of sedentary control, trained control, sedentary GPA-fed and trained GPA-fed rats. Mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation was assessed polarographically by using pyruvate plus malate, succinate (plus rotenone), and ascorbate plus N,N,N',N'-tetramethyl-p-phenylenediamine (TMPD) (plus antimycin) as respiratory substrates. Assays of cytochrome c oxidase and F(1)-ATPase activities were also performed. In sedentary control rats, IFM exhibited a higher oxidative capacity than SSM, whereas F(1)-ATPase activities were similar. Training increased the oxidative phosphorylation capacity of mitochondria with both pyruvate plus malate and ascorbate plus TMPD as substrates, with no differences between IFM and SSM. In contrast, the GPA diet mainly improved the overall SSM oxidative phosphorylation capacity, irrespective of the substrate used. Finally, the superimposition of training to feeding with GPA strongly increased both oxidase and enzymic activities in SSM, whereas no cumulative effects were found in IFM mitochondria. It therefore seems that endurance training and feeding with GPA, which are both known to alter the energetic status of the muscle cell, might mediate distinct biochemical adaptations in regional skeletal muscle mitochondria. PMID:10947970

  12. Imaging of skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Goodwin, Douglas W

    2011-05-01

    Various diagnostic imaging techniques such as sonography, computed tomography, scintigraphy, radiography, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have made possible the noninvasive evaluation of skeletal muscle injury and disease. Although these different modalities have roles to play, MRI is especially sensitive in the diagnosis of muscle disorders and injury and has proved to be useful in determining the extent of disease, in directing interventions, and in monitoring the response to therapies. This article describes how magnetic resonance images are formed and how the signal intensities in T1- and T2-weighted images may be used for diagnosis of the above-mentioned conditions and injuries.

  13. RNA-seq based detection of differentially expressed genes in the skeletal muscle of Duroc pigs with distinct lipid profiles

    PubMed Central

    Cardoso, T. F.; Cánovas, A.; Canela-Xandri, O.; González-Prendes, R.; Amills, M.; Quintanilla, R.

    2017-01-01

    We have used a RNA-seq approach to investigate differential expression in the skeletal muscle of swine (N = 52) with divergent lipid profiles i.e. HIGH (increased intramuscular fat and muscle saturated and monounsaturated fatty acid contents, higher serum lipid concentrations and fatness) and LOW pigs (leaner and with an increased muscle polyunsaturated fatty acid content). The number of mRNAs and non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) expressed in the porcine gluteus medius muscle were 18,104 and 1,558, respectively. At the nominal level of significance (P-value ≤ 0.05), we detected 1,430 mRNA and 12 non-coding RNA (ncRNA) transcripts as differentially expressed (DE) in the gluteus medius muscle of HIGH vs LOW pigs. This smaller contribution of ncRNAs to differential expression may have biological and technical reasons. We performed a second analysis, that was more stringent (P-value ≤ 0.01 and fold-change ≥ 1.5), and only 96 and 0 mRNA-and ncRNA-encoding genes happened to be DE, respectively. The subset of DE mRNA genes was enriched in pathways related with lipid (lipogenesis and triacylglycerol degradation) and glucose metabolism. Moreover, HIGH pigs showed a more lipogenic profile than their LOW counterparts. PMID:28195222

  14. Combined small-cell carcinoma of the lung with quadripartite differentiation of epithelial, neuroendocrine, skeletal muscle, and myofibroblastic type.

    PubMed

    Pelosi, Giuseppe; Sonzogni, Angelica; Galetta, Domenico; Perrone, Federica; Braidotti, Paola; Manzotti, Michela; Fabbri, Alessandra; Spaggiari, Lorenzo; Veronesi, Giulia; Viale, Giuseppe

    2011-04-01

    The combined variant of small-cell lung carcinoma (SCLC) refers to the variable admixture of small cell and non-small cell carcinoma, whereas the association with sarcoma or sarcoma-like elements is exceedingly rare. A 76-year-old Caucasian man underwent right upper lobectomy with regional lymphadenectomy because of a symptomatic 7 cm-sized tumor mass. Formalin fixed-paraffin embedded material was used to highlight several differentiation cell lineages by means of immunohistochemistry, electron microscopy, and mutational assay. The tumor was discovered as being IIB stage (pT2b pN1(1/51) pM0) and featured biphasic appearance with close intermingling of SCLC (40%) and collagen-rich spindle cell sarcoma (60%). Epithelial (cytokeratins, TTF-1), neural (neurofilaments, GFAP), endocrine (chromogranin, synaptophysin, CD56), and skeletal muscle (desmin, sarcomeric actin, myogenin) markers were variably co-expressed by SCLC elements, whereas mesenchymal (vimentin), smooth muscle (actin, myosin, H-caldesmon, calponin), fibroblastic (CD10), and, more focally, skeletal muscle (desmin, sarcomeric actin and myogenin) markers were highlighted in the spindle cell sarcoma elements. TP53 codon V274F mutation in exon 8 was shared by either cell component. After undergoing adjuvant chemotherapy, the patient is currently alive and well at the 40-month follow-up. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of combined SCLC with quadripartite differentiation of epithelial, neuroendocrine, skeletal muscle, and myofibroblastic type, somewhere at the level of the same individual tumor cells. This tumor had probably derived for clonal evolution of a p53-mutated common ancestor lesion.

  15. Dietary L-arginine supplementation differentially regulates expression of lipid-metabolic genes in porcine adipose tissue and skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Tan, Bie; Yin, Yulong; Liu, Zhiqiang; Tang, Wenjie; Xu, Haijun; Kong, Xiangfeng; Li, Xinguo; Yao, Kang; Gu, Wanting; Smith, Stephen B; Wu, Guoyao

    2011-05-01

    Obesity is a major health crisis worldwide and new treatments are needed to fight this epidemic. Using the swine model, we recently reported that dietary L-arginine (Arg) supplementation promotes muscle gain and reduces body-fat accretion. The present study tested the hypothesis that Arg regulates expression of key genes involved in lipid metabolism in skeletal muscle and white adipose tissue. Sixteen 110-day-old barrows were fed for 60 days a corn- and soybean-meal-based diet supplemented with 1.0% Arg or 2.05% L-alanine (isonitrogenous control). Blood samples, longissimus dorsi muscle and overlying subcutaneous adipose tissue were obtained from 170-day-old pigs for biochemical studies. Serum concentrations of leptin, alanine and glutamine were lower, but those for Arg and proline were higher in Arg-supplemented pigs than in control pigs. The percentage of oleic acid was higher but that of stearic acid and linoleic acid was lower in muscle of Arg-supplemented pigs, compared with control pigs. Dietary Arg supplementation increased mRNA levels for fatty acid synthase in muscle, while decreasing those for lipoprotein lipase, glucose transporter-4, and acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase-α in adipose tissue. Additionally, mRNA levels for hormone sensitive lipase were higher in adipose tissue of Arg-supplemented pigs compared with control pigs. These results indicate that Arg differentially regulates expression of fat-metabolic genes in skeletal muscle and white adipose tissue, therefore favoring lipogenesis in muscle but lipolysis in adipose tissue. Our novel findings provide a biochemical basis for explaining the beneficial effect of Arg in improving the metabolic profile in mammals (including obese humans).

  16. A Differential Role for CD248 (Endosialin) in PDGF-Mediated Skeletal Muscle Angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Maynard, William D.; May, Philippa; Barone, Francesca; Croft, Adam P.; Egginton, Stuart; Buckley, Christopher D.

    2014-01-01

    CD248 (Endosialin) is a type 1 membrane protein involved in developmental and pathological angiogenesis through its expression on pericytes and regulation of PDGFRβ signalling. Here we explore the function of CD248 in skeletal muscle angiogenesis. Two distinct forms of capillary growth (splitting and sprouting) can be induced separately by increasing microcirculatory shear stress (chronic vasodilator treatment) or by inducing functional overload (extirpation of a synergistic muscle). We show that CD248 is present on pericytes in muscle and that CD248-/- mice have a specific defect in capillary sprouting. In contrast, splitting angiogenesis is independent of CD248 expression. Endothelial cells respond to pro-sprouting angiogenic stimulus by up-regulating gene expression for HIF1α, angiopoietin 2 and its receptor TEK, PDGF-B and its receptor PDGFRβ; this response did not occur following a pro-splitting angiogenic stimulus. In wildtype mice, defective sprouting angiogenesis could be mimicked by blocking PDGFRβ signalling using the tyrosine kinase inhibitor Imatinib mesylate. We conclude that CD248 is required for PDGFRβ-dependant capillary sprouting but not splitting angiogenesis, and identify a new role for CD248 expressed on pericytes in the early stages of physiological angiogenesis during muscle remodelling. PMID:25243742

  17. Adapted physical exercise enhances activation and differentiation potential of satellite cells in the skeletal muscle of old mice.

    PubMed

    Cisterna, Barbara; Giagnacovo, Marzia; Costanzo, Manuela; Fattoretti, Patrizia; Zancanaro, Carlo; Pellicciari, Carlo; Malatesta, Manuela

    2016-05-01

    During ageing, a progressive loss of skeletal muscle mass and a decrease in muscle strength and endurance take place, in the condition termed sarcopenia. The mechanisms of sarcopenia are complex and still unclear; however, it is known that muscle atrophy is associated with a decline in the number and/or efficiency of satellite cells, the main contributors to muscle regeneration. Physical exercise proved beneficial in sarcopenia; however, knowledge of the effect of adapted physical exercise on the myogenic properties of satellite cells in aged muscles is limited. In this study the amount and activation state of satellite cells as well as their proliferation and differentiation potential were assessed in situ by morphology, morphometry and immunocytochemistry at light and transmission electron microscopy on 28-month-old mice submitted to adapted aerobic physical exercise on a treadmill. Sedentary age-matched mice served as controls, and sedentary adult mice were used as a reference for an unperturbed control at an age when the capability of muscle regeneration is still high. The effect of physical exercise in aged muscles was further analysed by comparing the myogenic potential of satellite cells isolated from old running and old sedentary mice using an in vitro system that allows observation of the differentiation process under controlled experimental conditions. The results of this ex vivo and in vitro study demonstrated that adapted physical exercise increases the number and activation of satellite cells as well as their capability to differentiate into structurally and functionally correct myotubes (even though the age-related impairment in myotube formation is not fully reversed): this evidence further supports adapted physical exercise as a powerful, non-pharmacological approach to counteract sarcopenia and the age-related deterioration of satellite cell capabilities even at very advanced age.

  18. Effect of TCEA3 on the differentiation of bovine skeletal muscle satellite cells.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yue; Tong, Hui-Li; Li, Shu-Feng; Yan, Yun-Qin

    2017-03-18

    Bovine muscle-derived satellite cells (MDSCs) are important for animal growth. In this study, the effect of transcription elongation factor A3 (TCEA3) on bovine MDSC differentiation was investigated. Western blotting, immunofluorescence assays, and cytoplasmic and nuclear protein isolation and purification techniques were used to determine the expression pattern and protein localization of TCEA3 in bovine MDSCs during in vitro differentiation. TCEA3 expression was upregulated using the CRISPR/Cas9 technique to study its effects on MDSC differentiation in vitro. TCEA3 expression gradually increased during the in vitro differentiation of bovine MDSCs and peaked on the 5th day of differentiation. TCEA3 was mainly localized in the cytoplasm of bovine MDSCs, and its expression was not detected in the nucleus. The level of TCEA3 was relatively higher in myotubes at a higher degree of differentiation than during early differentiation. After transfection with a TCEA3-activating plasmid vector (TCEA3 overexpression) for 24 h, the myotube fusion rate, number of myotubes, and expression levels of the muscle differentiation-related loci myogenin (MYOG) and myosin heavy chain 3 (MYH3) increased significantly during the in vitro differentiation of bovine MDSCs. After transfection with a TCEA3-inhibiting plasmid vector for 24 h, the myotube fusion rate, number of myotubes, and expression levels of MYOG and MYH3 decreased significantly. Our results indicated, for the first time, that TCEA3 promotes the differentiation of bovine MDSCs and have implications for meat production and animal rearing.

  19. Mechanotransduction in skeletal muscle

    PubMed Central

    Burkholder, Thomas J.

    2007-01-01

    Mechanical signals are critical to the development and maintenance of skeletal muscle, but the mechanisms that convert these shape changes to biochemical signals is not known. When a deformation is imposed on a muscle, changes in cellular and molecular conformations link the mechanical forces with biochemical signals, and the close integration of mechanical signals with electrical, metabolic, and hormonal signaling may disguise the aspect of the response that is specific to the mechanical forces. The mechanically induced conformational change may directly activate downstream signaling and may trigger messenger systems to activate signaling indirectly. Major effectors of mechanotransduction include the ubiquitous mitogen activated protein kinase (MAP) and phosphatidylinositol-3’ kinase (PI-3K), which have well described receptor dependent cascades, but the chain of events leading from mechanical stimulation to biochemical cascade is not clear. This review will discuss the mechanics of biological deformation, loading of cellular and molecular structures, and some of the principal signaling mechanisms associated with mechanotransduction. PMID:17127292

  20. Early-age heat exposure affects skeletal muscle satellite cell proliferation and differentiation in chicks.

    PubMed

    Halevy, O; Krispin, A; Leshem, Y; McMurtry, J P; Yahav, S

    2001-07-01

    Exposure of young chicks to thermal conditioning (TC; i.e., 37 degrees C for 24 h) resulted in significantly improved body and muscle growth at a later age. We hypothesized that TC causes an increase in satellite cell proliferation, necessary for further muscle hypertrophy. An immediate increase was observed in satellite cell DNA synthesis in culture and in vivo in response to TC of 3-day-old chicks to levels that were significantly higher than those of control chicks. This was accompanied by a marked induction of insulin-like growth factor-I (IFG-I), but not hepatocyte growth factor in the breast muscle. No significant difference between treatments in plasma IGF-I levels was observed. A marked elevation in muscle regulatory factors on day 5, followed by a decline in cell proliferation on day 6 together with continuous high levels of IGF-I in the TC chick muscle may indicate accelerated cell differentiation. These data suggest a central role for IGF-I in the immediate stimulation of satellite cell myogenic processes in response to heat exposure.

  1. Skeletal Muscle Tissue Engineering: Methods to Form Skeletal Myotubes and Their Applications

    PubMed Central

    Ostrovidov, Serge; Hosseini, Vahid; Ahadian, Samad; Fujie, Toshinori; Parthiban, Selvakumar Prakash; Ramalingam, Murugan; Bae, Hojae; Kaji, Hirokazu

    2014-01-01

    Skeletal muscle tissue engineering (SMTE) aims to repair or regenerate defective skeletal muscle tissue lost by traumatic injury, tumor ablation, or muscular disease. However, two decades after the introduction of SMTE, the engineering of functional skeletal muscle in the laboratory still remains a great challenge, and numerous techniques for growing functional muscle tissues are constantly being developed. This article reviews the recent findings regarding the methodology and various technical aspects of SMTE, including cell alignment and differentiation. We describe the structure and organization of muscle and discuss the methods for myoblast alignment cultured in vitro. To better understand muscle formation and to enhance the engineering of skeletal muscle, we also address the molecular basics of myogenesis and discuss different methods to induce myoblast differentiation into myotubes. We then provide an overview of different coculture systems involving skeletal muscle cells, and highlight major applications of engineered skeletal muscle tissues. Finally, potential challenges and future research directions for SMTE are outlined. PMID:24320971

  2. Spontaneous and specific myogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells on polyethylene glycol-linked multi-walled carbon nanotube films for skeletal muscle engineering.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Chunyan; Andersen, Henrik; Ozyilmaz, Barbaros; Ramaprabhu, Sundara; Pastorin, Giorgia; Ho, Han Kiat

    2015-11-21

    This study explored the influence of polyethylene glycol-linked multi-walled carbon nanotube (PEG-CNT) films on skeletal myogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). PEG-CNT films were prepared with nanoscale surface roughness, orderly arrangement of PEG-CNTs, high hydrophilicity and high mechanical strength. Notably, PEG-CNT films alone could direct the skeletal myogenic differentiation of hMSCs in the absence of myogenic induction factors. The quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) showed that the non-induced hMSCs plated on the PEG-CNT films, compared to the negative control, presented significant up-regulation of general myogenic markers including early commitment markers of myoblast differentiation protein-1 (MyoD) and desmin, as well as a late phase marker of myosin heavy chain-2 (MHC). Corresponding protein analysis by immunoblot assays corroborated these results. Skeletal muscle-specific markers, fast skeletal troponin-C (TnC) and ryanodine receptor-1 (Ryr) were also significantly increased in the non-induced hMSCs on PEG-CNT films by RT-PCR. For these cells, the commitment to specific skeletal myoblasts was further proved by the absence of enhanced adipogenic, chondrogenic and osteogenic markers. This study elucidated that PEG-CNT films supported a dedicated differentiation of hMSCs into a skeletal myogenic lineage and can work as a promising material towards skeletal muscle injury repair.

  3. Temporal analysis of reciprocal miRNA-mRNA expression patterns predicts regulatory networks during differentiation in human skeletal muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Sjögren, Rasmus J O; Egan, Brendan; Katayama, Mutsumi; Zierath, Juleen R; Krook, Anna

    2015-03-01

    microRNAs (miRNAs) are short noncoding RNAs that regulate gene expression through posttranscriptional repression of target genes. miRNAs exert a fundamental level of control over many developmental processes, but their role in the differentiation and development of skeletal muscle from myogenic progenitor cells in humans remains incompletely understood. Using primary cultures established from human skeletal muscle satellite cells, we performed microarray profiling of miRNA expression during differentiation of myoblasts (day 0) into myotubes at 48 h intervals (day 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10). Based on a time-course analysis, we identified 44 miRNAs with altered expression [false discovery rate (FDR) < 5%, fold change > ±1.2] during differentiation, including the marked upregulation of the canonical myogenic miRNAs miR-1, miR-133a, miR-133b, and miR-206. Microarray profiling of mRNA expression at day 0, 4, and 10 identified 842 and 949 genes differentially expressed (FDR < 10%) at day 4 and 10, respectively. At day 10, 42% of altered transcripts demonstrated reciprocal expression patterns in relation to the directional change of their in silico predicted regulatory miRNAs based on analysis using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis microRNA Target Filter. Bioinformatic analysis predicted networks of regulation during differentiation including myomiRs miR-1/206 and miR-133a/b, miRNAs previously established in differentiation including miR-26 and miR-30, and novel miRNAs regulated during differentiation of human skeletal muscle cells such as miR-138-5p and miR-20a. These reciprocal expression patterns may represent new regulatory nodes in human skeletal muscle cell differentiation. This analysis serves as a reference point for future studies of human skeletal muscle differentiation and development in healthy and disease states.

  4. Subtilisin-like proprotein convertase PACE4 is required for skeletal muscle differentiation.

    PubMed

    Yuasa, Keizo; Masuda, Tetsuya; Yoshikawa, Chihiro; Nagahama, Masami; Matsuda, Yoshiko; Tsuji, Akihiko

    2009-09-01

    Most growth factors stimulate myoblast proliferation and prevent differentiation, whereas insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) promote myoblast differentiation through the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway. Subtilisin-like proprotein convertases (SPCs) are involved in cell growth and differentiation via activation of pro-growth factors. However, the role of SPCs in myogenesis remains poorly understood. Here we show that PACE4, a member of the SPC family, plays a critical role in myogenic differentiation of C2C12 cells. PACE4 mRNA levels increased markedly during myogenesis, whereas the expression of other member of SPC family, furin and PC6, remained unchanged. The expression pattern of pro-IGF-II, which is processed extracellularly by SPCs, was similar to that of PACE4. The expression of shRNA targeting PACE4, but not furin, suppressed the expression of the muscle-specific myosin light chain (MLC). Interestingly, reduced expression of MLC was restored following treatment with recombinant mature IGF-II. Finally, we demonstrated that the PI3K inhibitor LY294002 blocked the induction of PACE4 mRNA, a result not observed when another myogenic differentiation inhibitor, SB203580 (p38 MAP kinase inhibitor), was employed, indicating the presence of a positive feedback loop regulating PACE4 expression. These results suggest that PACE4 plays an important role in myogenic differentiation through its association with the IGF-II pathway.

  5. Differential effects of mutant SOD1 on protein structure of skeletal muscle and spinal cord of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: role of chaperone network.

    PubMed

    Wei, Rochelle; Bhattacharya, Arunabh; Hamilton, Ryan T; Jernigan, Amanda L; Chaudhuri, Asish R

    2013-08-16

    Protein misfolding is considered to be a potential contributing factor for motor neuron and muscle loss in diseases like Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Several independent studies have demonstrated using over-expressed mutated Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase (mSOD1) transgenic mouse models which mimic familial ALS (f-ALS), that both muscle and motor neurons undergo degeneration during disease progression. However, it is unknown whether protein conformation of skeletal muscle and spinal cord is equally or differentially affected by mSOD1-induced toxicity. It is also unclear whether heat shock proteins (Hsp's) differentially modulate skeletal muscle and spinal cord protein structure during ALS disease progression. We report three intriguing observations utilizing the f-ALS mouse model and cell-free in vitro system; (i) muscle proteins are equally sensitive to misfolding as spinal cord proteins despite the presence of low level of soluble and absence of insoluble G93A protein aggregate, unlike in spinal cord, (ii) Hsp's levels are lower in muscle compared to spinal cord at any stage of the disease, and (iii) G93ASOD1 enzyme-induced toxicity selectively affects muscle protein conformation over spinal cord proteins. Together, these findings strongly suggest that differential chaperone levels between skeletal muscle and spinal cord may be a critical determinant for G93A-induced protein misfolding in ALS.

  6. A KAP1 phosphorylation switch controls MyoD function during skeletal muscle differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Kulwant; Cassano, Marco; Planet, Evarist; Sebastian, Soji; Jang, Suk Min; Sohi, Gurjeev; Faralli, Hervé; Choi, Jinmi; Youn, Hong-Duk

    2015-01-01

    The transcriptional activator MyoD serves as a master controller of myogenesis. Often in partnership with Mef2 (myocyte enhancer factor 2), MyoD binds to the promoters of hundreds of muscle genes in proliferating myoblasts yet activates these targets only upon receiving cues that launch differentiation. What regulates this off/on switch of MyoD function has been incompletely understood, although it is known to reflect the action of chromatin modifiers. Here, we identify KAP1 (KRAB [Krüppel-like associated box]-associated protein 1)/TRIM28 (tripartite motif protein 28) as a key regulator of MyoD function. In myoblasts, KAP1 is present with MyoD and Mef2 at many muscle genes, where it acts as a scaffold to recruit not only coactivators such as p300 and LSD1 but also corepressors such as G9a and HDAC1 (histone deacetylase 1), with promoter silencing as the net outcome. Upon differentiation, MSK1-mediated phosphorylation of KAP1 releases the corepressors from the scaffold, unleashing transcriptional activation by MyoD/Mef2 and their positive cofactors. Thus, our results reveal KAP1 as a previously unappreciated interpreter of cell signaling, which modulates the ability of MyoD to drive myogenesis. PMID:25737281

  7. A KAP1 phosphorylation switch controls MyoD function during skeletal muscle differentiation.

    PubMed

    Singh, Kulwant; Cassano, Marco; Planet, Evarist; Sebastian, Soji; Jang, Suk Min; Sohi, Gurjeev; Faralli, Hervé; Choi, Jinmi; Youn, Hong-Duk; Dilworth, F Jeffrey; Trono, Didier

    2015-03-01

    The transcriptional activator MyoD serves as a master controller of myogenesis. Often in partnership with Mef2 (myocyte enhancer factor 2), MyoD binds to the promoters of hundreds of muscle genes in proliferating myoblasts yet activates these targets only upon receiving cues that launch differentiation. What regulates this off/on switch of MyoD function has been incompletely understood, although it is known to reflect the action of chromatin modifiers. Here, we identify KAP1 (KRAB [Krüppel-like associated box]-associated protein 1)/TRIM28 (tripartite motif protein 28) as a key regulator of MyoD function. In myoblasts, KAP1 is present with MyoD and Mef2 at many muscle genes, where it acts as a scaffold to recruit not only coactivators such as p300 and LSD1 but also corepressors such as G9a and HDAC1 (histone deacetylase 1), with promoter silencing as the net outcome. Upon differentiation, MSK1-mediated phosphorylation of KAP1 releases the corepressors from the scaffold, unleashing transcriptional activation by MyoD/Mef2 and their positive cofactors. Thus, our results reveal KAP1 as a previously unappreciated interpreter of cell signaling, which modulates the ability of MyoD to drive myogenesis.

  8. Identification of genes showing differential expression profile associated with growth rate in skeletal muscle tissue of Landrace weanling pig.

    PubMed

    Komatsu, Yuuta; Sukegawa, Shin; Yamashita, Mai; Katsuda, Naoki; Tong, Bin; Ohta, Takeshi; Kose, Hiroyuki; Yamada, Takahisa

    2016-06-01

    Suppression subtractive hybridization was used to identify genes showing differential expression profile associated with growth rate in skeletal muscle tissue of Landrace weanling pig. Two subtracted cDNA populations were generated from musculus longissimus muscle tissues of selected pigs with extreme expected breeding values at the age of 100 kg. Three upregulated genes (EEF1A2, TSG101 and TTN) and six downregulated genes (ATP5B, ATP5C1, COQ3, HADHA, MYH1 and MYH7) in pig with genetic propensity for higher growth rate were identified by sequence analysis of 12 differentially expressed clones selected by differential screening following the generation of the subtracted cDNA population. Real-time PCR analysis confirmed difference in expression profiles of the identified genes in musculus longissimus muscle tissues between the two Landrace weanling pig groups with divergent genetic propensity for growth rate. Further, differential expression of the identified genes except for the TTN was validated by Western blot analysis. Additionally, the eight genes other than the ATP5C1 colocalized with the same chromosomal positions as QTLs that have been previously identified for growth rate traits. Finally, the changes of expression predicted from gene function suggested association of upregulation of expression of the EEF1A2, TSG101 and TTN genes and downregulation of the ATP5B, ATP5C1, COQ3, HADHA, MYH1 and MYH7 gene expression with increased growth rate. The identified genes will provide an important insight in understanding the molecular mechanism underlying growth rate in Landrace pig breed.

  9. Expression and subcellular localization of myogenic regulatory factors during the differentiation of skeletal muscle C2C12 myoblasts.

    PubMed

    Ferri, Paola; Barbieri, Elena; Burattini, Sabrina; Guescini, Michele; D'Emilio, Alessandra; Biagiotti, Laura; Del Grande, Paolo; De Luca, Antonio; Stocchi, Vilberto; Falcieri, Elisabetta

    2009-12-15

    It is known that the MyoD family members (MyoD, Myf5, myogenin, and MRF4) play a pivotal role in the complex mechanism of skeletal muscle cell differentiation. However, fragmentary information on transcription factor-specific regulation is available and data on their post-transcriptional and post-translational behavior are still missing. In this work, we combined mRNA and protein expression analysis with their subcellular localization. Each myogenic regulator factor (MRF) revealed a specific mRNA trend and a protein quantitative analysis not overlapping, suggesting the presence of post-transcriptional mechanisms. In addition, each MRF showed a specific behavior in situ, characterized by a differentiation stage-dependent localization suggestive of a post-translational regulation also. Consistently with their transcriptional activity, immunogold electron microscopy data revealed MRFs distribution in interchromatin domains. Our results showed a MyoD and Myf5 contrasting expression profile in proliferating myoblasts, as well as myogenin and MRF4 opposite distribution in the terminally differentiated myotubes. Interestingly, MRFs expression and subcellular localization analysis during C2C12 cell differentiation stages showed two main MRFs regulation mechanisms: (i) the protein half-life regulation to modulate the differentiation stage-dependent transcriptional activity and (ii) the cytoplasmic retention, as a translocation process, to inhibit the transcriptional activity. Therefore, our results exhibit that MRFs nucleo-cytoplasmic trafficking is involved in muscle differentiation and suggest that, besides the MRFs expression level, also MRFs subcellular localization, related to their functional activity, plays a key role as a regulatory step in transcriptional control mechanisms.

  10. COORDINATED DEVELOPMENT OF THE SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM AND T SYSTEM DURING POSTNATAL DIFFERENTIATION OF RAT SKELETAL MUSCLE

    PubMed Central

    Schiaffino, S.; Margreth, A.

    1969-01-01

    An electron microscope study has been carried out on rat psoas muscle, during the early postnatal stages of development. Among the several subcellular components, the sarcotubular system undergoes the most striking modifications during this period. In muscle fibers of the newborn rat, junctional contacts between the T system and the SR are sparse and are, mostly, longitudinally or obliquely oriented. The T tubules do not penetrate deeply into the muscle cell, as indicated by the predominantly peripheral location of the triads and the persistence, at these stages of development, of a highly branched subsarcolemmal system of tubules. Diadic associations of junctional SR elements with the plasma membrane are also occasionally observed. The early SR elaborations incompletely delineate the myofibrils, at both the A- and I-band level. Longitudinal sections show irregularly oriented SR tubules, running continuously over successive sarcomeres. Flattened junctional cisterns filled with granular material are sparse and laterally interconnected, at circumscribed sites, with the SR tubules. Between 1 and 2 wk postpartum, transversal triadic contacts are extensively established, at the A-I band level, and the SR network differentiates into two portions in register with the A and I band, respectively. At 10–15 days after birth, the SR provides a transversely continuous double sheet around the myofibrils at the I-band level, whereas it forms a single discontinuous layer at the A-band level. The relationship that these morphological modifications of the sarcotubular system may bear to previously described biochemical and physiological changes of rat muscle fibers after birth is discussed. PMID:5814005

  11. Generalized Model of a Skeletal Muscle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shil'ko, S. V.; Chernous, D. A.; Bondarenko, K. K.

    2016-01-01

    A new phenomenological model of a skeletal muscle consisting of a contractile and two nonlinear viscoelastic elements is proposed. The corresponding system of differential equations of the model is obtained, which allows one to derive time-dependent relations between the axial stress and the longitudinal strain in passive and activated states of the muscle. Methods for determining the viscoelastic and functional characteristics of the muscle as input parameters of the equations mentioned above are developed. These methods are based on the joint application of known experimental relations for a single muscle fiber and the results of muscle indentation in vivo on a "Miometer UT 98-01" device.

  12. p66(ShcA) and oxidative stress modulate myogenic differentiation and skeletal muscle regeneration after hind limb ischemia.

    PubMed

    Zaccagnini, Germana; Martelli, Fabio; Magenta, Alessandra; Cencioni, Chiara; Fasanaro, Pasquale; Nicoletti, Carmine; Biglioli, Paolo; Pelicci, Pier Giuseppe; Capogrossi, Maurizio C

    2007-10-26

    Oxidative stress plays a pivotal role in ischemic injury, and p66(ShcA)ko mice exhibit both lower oxidative stress and decreased tissue damage following hind limb ischemia. Thus, it was investigated whether tissue regeneration following acute hind limb ischemia was altered in p66(ShcA)ko mice. Upon femoral artery dissection, muscle regeneration started earlier and was completed faster than in wild-type (WT) control. Moreover, faster regeneration was associated with decreased oxidative stress. Unlike ischemia, cardiotoxin injury induced similar skeletal muscle damage in both genotypes. However, p66(ShcA)ko mice regenerated faster, in agreement with the regenerative advantage upon ischemia. Since no difference between p66(ShcA)wt and knock-out (ko) mice was found in blood perfusion recovery after ischemia, satellite cells (SCs), a resident population of myogenic progenitors, were examined. Similar SCs numbers were present in WT and ko mice. However, in vitro cultured p66(ShcA)ko SCs displayed lower oxidative stress levels and higher proliferation rate and differentiated faster than WT. Furthermore, when exposed to sublethal H(2)O(2) doses, p66(ShcA)ko SCs were resistant to H(2)O(2)-induced inhibition of differentiation. Finally, myogenic conversion induced by MyoD overexpression was more efficient in p66(ShcA)ko fibroblasts compared with WT. The present work demonstrates that oxidative stress and p66(ShcA) play a crucial role in the regenerative pathways activated by acute ischemia.

  13. Transcription Factor EGR1 Promotes Differentiation of Bovine Skeletal Muscle Satellite Cells by Regulating MyoG Gene Expression.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Weiwei; Tong, Huili; Zhang, Ziheng; Shao, Shuli; Liu, Dan; Li, Shufeng; Yan, Yunqin

    2017-03-03

    The transcription factor, early growth response 1 (EGR1), has important roles in various cell types in response to different stimuli. EGR1 is thought to be involved in differentiation of bovine skeletal muscle-derived satellite cells (MDSCs); however, the precise effects of EGR1 on differentiation of MDSCs and its mechanism of action remain unknown. In the present study, a time course of EGR1 expression and the effects of EGR1 on MDSC differentiation were determined. The results demonstrated that the expression of EGR1 mRNA and protein increased significantly in differentiating MDSCs relative to that in proliferating cells. Over-expression of the EGR1 gene in MDSCs promoted their differentiation and inhibited proliferation. Conversely, knock-down of EGR1 inhibited differentiation of MDSCs and promoted their proliferation, indicating that EGR1 promotes MDSC differentiation. Moreover, over-expression of EGR1 in MDSCs increased the expression of MyoG mRNA and protein, whereas its knock-down had the opposite effect. Furthermore, ChIP-PCR analyses demonstrated that EGR1 could bind directly to its putative binding site within the promoter region of MyoG, and determination of ERG1 subcellular localization in MDSCs demonstrated that it could relocate to the nucleus, indicating MyoG is likely an EGR1 target gene whose expression is positively regulated by this transcription factor. In conclusion, EGR1 can promote MDSC differentiation through positive regulation of MyoG gene expression. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  14. PPARγ as a molecular target of EPA anti-inflammatory activity during TNF-α-impaired skeletal muscle cell differentiation.

    PubMed

    Magee, Peter; Pearson, Stephen; Whittingham-Dowd, Jayde; Allen, Jeremy

    2012-11-01

    Activated skeletal muscle satellite cells facilitate muscle repair or growth through proliferation, differentiation and fusion into new or existing myotubes. Elevated levels of the proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) impair this process and are documented to have significant roles in muscle pathology. Recent evidence shows that the ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) can block TNF-mediated suppression of progenitor cell differentiation, but the nature of this activity and its significance for local regulation of inflammation are not known. In the current study, we examined differentiation of the C2C12 myoblast line during treatment with TNF-α and EPA and measured the expression, activation and inhibition of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ), as several studies have shown its involvement in mediating EPA activity and the inhibition of nuclear factor (NF)-κB inflammatory gene activation. We found that TNF-α treatment increased NF-κB activity and reduced expression and activation of PPARγ, resulting in impaired myotube formation. EPA treatment attenuated these effects of TNF-α and was associated with up-regulation of PPARγ. Furthermore, EPA inhibited TNF-α-mediated transcription and secretion of interleukin (IL)-6, a key target gene of TNF-mediated NF-κB transcriptional activity. Pretreatment with a PPARγ selective antagonist inhibited some of the actions of EPA but was only partially effective in reversing inhibition of IL-6 production. These results show that EPA activity was associated with altered expression and activation of PPARγ, but exerted through both PPARγ-dependent and PPARγ-independent pathways leading to suppression of the proinflammatory cellular microenvironment.

  15. Training differentially regulates elastin level and proteolysis in skeletal and heart muscles and aorta in healthy rats

    PubMed Central

    Gilbert, Anna; Wyczalkowska-Tomasik, Aleksandra; Zendzian-Piotrowska, Malgorzata; Czarkowska-Paczek, Bozena

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Exercise induces changes in muscle fibers and the extracellular matrix that may depend on elastin content and the activity of proteolytic enzymes. We investigated the influence of endurance training on the gene expression and protein content and/or activity of elastin, elastase, cathepsin K, and plasmin in skeletal and heart muscles and in the aorta. Healthy rats were randomly divided into untrained (n=10) and trained (n=10; 6 weeks of endurance training with increasing load) groups. Gene expression was evaluated via qRT-PCR. Elastin content was measured via enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and enzyme activity was measured fluorometrically. Elastin content was significantly higher in skeletal (P=0.0014) and heart muscle (P=0.000022) from trained rats versus untrained rats, but not in the aorta. Although mRNA levels in skeletal muscle did not differ between groups, the activities of elastase (P=0.0434), cathepsin K (P=0.0343) and plasmin (P=0.000046) were higher in trained rats. The levels of cathepsin K (P=0.0288) and plasminogen (P=0.0005) mRNA were higher in heart muscle from trained rats, but enzyme activity was not. Enzyme activity in the aorta did not differ between groups. Increased elastin content in muscles may result in better adaption to exercise, as may remodeling of the extracellular matrix in skeletal muscle. PMID:27069251

  16. Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha and Insulin-Like Growth Factor 1 Induced Modifications of the Gene Expression Kinetics of Differentiating Skeletal Muscle Cells

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Swanhild U.; Krebs, Stefan; Thirion, Christian; Blum, Helmut; Krause, Sabine; Pfaffl, Michael W.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction TNF-α levels are increased during muscle wasting and chronic muscle degeneration and regeneration processes, which are characteristic for primary muscle disorders. Pathologically increased TNF-α levels have a negative effect on muscle cell differentiation efficiency, while IGF1 can have a positive effect; therefore, we intended to elucidate the impact of TNF-α and IGF1 on gene expression during the early stages of skeletal muscle cell differentiation. Methodology/Principal Findings This study presents gene expression data of the murine skeletal muscle cells PMI28 during myogenic differentiation or differentiation with TNF-α or IGF1 exposure at 0 h, 4 h, 12 h, 24 h, and 72 h after induction. Our study detected significant coregulation of gene sets involved in myoblast differentiation or in the response to TNF-α. Gene expression data revealed a time- and treatment-dependent regulation of signaling pathways, which are prominent in myogenic differentiation. We identified enrichment of pathways, which have not been specifically linked to myoblast differentiation such as doublecortin-like kinase pathway associations as well as enrichment of specific semaphorin isoforms. Moreover to the best of our knowledge, this is the first description of a specific inverse regulation of the following genes in myoblast differentiation and response to TNF-α: Aknad1, Cmbl, Sepp1, Ndst4, Tecrl, Unc13c, Spats2l, Lix1, Csdc2, Cpa1, Parm1, Serpinb2, Aspn, Fibin, Slc40a1, Nrk, and Mybpc1. We identified a gene subset (Nfkbia, Nfkb2, Mmp9, Mef2c, Gpx, and Pgam2), which is robustly regulated by TNF-α across independent myogenic differentiation studies. Conclusions This is the largest dataset revealing the impact of TNF-α or IGF1 treatment on gene expression kinetics of early in vitro skeletal myoblast differentiation. We identified novel mRNAs, which have not yet been associated with skeletal muscle differentiation or response to TNF-α. Results of this study may facilitate

  17. Collagen and Stretch Modulate Autocrine Secretion of Insulin-like Growth Factor-1 and Insulin-like Growth Factor Binding Proteins from Differentiated Skeletal Muscle Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perrone, Carmen E.; Fenwick-Smith, Daniela; Vandenburgh, Herman H.

    1995-01-01

    Stretch-induced skeletal muscle growth may involve increased autocrine secretion of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) since IGF-1 is a potent growth factor for skeletal muscle hypertrophy, and stretch elevates IGF-1 mRNA levels in vivo. In tissue cultures of differentiated avian pectoralis skeletal muscle cells, nanomolar concentrations of exogenous IGF-1 stimulated growth in mechanically stretched but not static cultures. These cultures released up to 100 pg of endogenously produced IGF-1/micro-g of protein/day, as well as three major IGF binding proteins of 31, 36, and 43 kilodaltons (kDa). IGF-1 was secreted from both myofibers and fibroblasts coexisting in the muscle cultures. Repetitive stretch/relaxation of the differentiated skeletal muscle cells stimulated the acute release of IGF-1 during the first 4 h after initiating mechanical activity, but caused no increase in the long-term secretion over 24-72 h of IGF-1, or its binding proteins. Varying the intensity and frequency of stretch had no effect on the long-term efflux of IGF-1. In contrast to stretch, embedding the differentiated muscle cells in a three-dimensional collagen (Type I) matrix resulted in a 2-5-fold increase in long-term IGF-1 efflux over 24-72 h. Collagen also caused a 2-5-fold increase in the release of the IGF binding proteins. Thus, both the extracellular matrix protein type I collagen and stretch stimulate the autocrine secretion of IGF-1, but with different time kinetics. This endogenously produced growth factor may be important for the growth response of skeletal myofibers to both types of external stimuli.

  18. Regulation of Nucleocytoplasmic Transport in Skeletal Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Monica N.; Corbett, Anita H.; Pavlath, Grace K.

    2015-01-01

    Proper skeletal muscle function is dependent on spatial and temporal control of gene expression in multinucleated myofibers. In addition, satellite cells, which are tissue-specific stem cells that contribute critically to repair and maintenance of skeletal muscle, are also required for normal muscle physiology. Gene expression in both myofibers and satellite cells is dependent upon nuclear proteins that require facilitated nuclear transport. A unique challenge for myofibers is controlling the transcriptional activity of hundreds of nuclei in a common cytoplasm yet achieving nuclear selectivity in transcription at specific locations such as neuromuscular synapses and myotendinous junctions. Nucleocytoplasmic transport of macromolecular cargoes is regulated by a complex interplay among various components of the nuclear transport machinery, namely nuclear pore complexes, nuclear envelope proteins, and various soluble transport receptors. The focus of this review is to highlight what is known about the nuclear transport machinery and its regulation in skeletal muscle and to consider the unique challenges that multinucleated muscle cells as well as satellite cells encounter in regulating nucleocytoplasmic transport during cell differentiation and tissue adaptation. Understanding how regulated nucleocytoplasmic transport controls gene expression in skeletal muscle may lead to further insights into the mechanisms contributing to muscle growth and maintenance throughout the lifespan of an individual. PMID:21621074

  19. Vestigial-like 2 acts downstream of MyoD activation and is associated with skeletal muscle differentiation in chick myogenesis.

    PubMed

    Bonnet, Aline; Dai, Fangping; Brand-Saberi, Beate; Duprez, Delphine

    2010-01-01

    The co-factor Vestigial-like 2 (Vgl-2), in association with the Scalloped/Tef/Tead transcription factors, has been identified as a component of the myogenic program in the C2C12 cell line. In order to understand Vgl-2 function in embryonic muscle formation, we analysed Vgl-2 expression and regulation during chick embryonic development. Vgl-2 expression was associated with all known sites of skeletal muscle formation, including those in the head, trunk and limb. Vgl-2 was expressed after the myogenic factor MyoD, regardless of the site of myogenesis. Analysis of Vgl-2 regulation by Notch signalling showed that Vgl-2 expression was down-regulated by Delta1-activated Notch, similarly to the muscle differentiation genes MyoD, Myogenin,Desmin, and Mef2c, while the expression of the muscle progenitor markers such as Myf5, Six1 and FgfR4 was not modified. Moreover, we established that the Myogenic Regulatory Factors (MRFs) associated with skeletal muscle differentiation (MyoD, Myogenin and Mrf4) were sufficient to activate Vgl-2 expression, while Myf5 was not able to do so. The Vgl-2 endogenous expression, the similar regulation of Vgl-2 and that of MyoD and Myogenin by Notch signalling, and the positive regulation of Vgl-2 by these MRFs suggest that Vgl-2 acts downstream of MyoD activation and is associated with the differentiation step in embryonic skeletal myogenesis.

  20. Spontaneous and specific myogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells on polyethylene glycol-linked multi-walled carbon nanotube films for skeletal muscle engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Chunyan; Andersen, Henrik; Ozyilmaz, Barbaros; Ramaprabhu, Sundara; Pastorin, Giorgia; Ho, Han Kiat

    2015-10-01

    This study explored the influence of polyethylene glycol-linked multi-walled carbon nanotube (PEG-CNT) films on skeletal myogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). PEG-CNT films were prepared with nanoscale surface roughness, orderly arrangement of PEG-CNTs, high hydrophilicity and high mechanical strength. Notably, PEG-CNT films alone could direct the skeletal myogenic differentiation of hMSCs in the absence of myogenic induction factors. The quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) showed that the non-induced hMSCs plated on the PEG-CNT films, compared to the negative control, presented significant up-regulation of general myogenic markers including early commitment markers of myoblast differentiation protein-1 (MyoD) and desmin, as well as a late phase marker of myosin heavy chain-2 (MHC). Corresponding protein analysis by immunoblot assays corroborated these results. Skeletal muscle-specific markers, fast skeletal troponin-C (TnC) and ryanodine receptor-1 (Ryr) were also significantly increased in the non-induced hMSCs on PEG-CNT films by RT-PCR. For these cells, the commitment to specific skeletal myoblasts was further proved by the absence of enhanced adipogenic, chondrogenic and osteogenic markers. This study elucidated that PEG-CNT films supported a dedicated differentiation of hMSCs into a skeletal myogenic lineage and can work as a promising material towards skeletal muscle injury repair.This study explored the influence of polyethylene glycol-linked multi-walled carbon nanotube (PEG-CNT) films on skeletal myogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). PEG-CNT films were prepared with nanoscale surface roughness, orderly arrangement of PEG-CNTs, high hydrophilicity and high mechanical strength. Notably, PEG-CNT films alone could direct the skeletal myogenic differentiation of hMSCs in the absence of myogenic induction factors. The quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) showed

  1. Skeletal Muscle Hypertrophy after Aerobic Exercise Training

    PubMed Central

    Konopka, Adam R.; Harber, Matthew P.

    2014-01-01

    Current dogma suggests aerobic exercise training has minimal effect on skeletal muscle size. We and others have demonstrated that aerobic exercise acutely and chronically alters protein metabolism and induces skeletal muscle hypertrophy. These findings promote an antithesis to the status quo by providing novel perspective on skeletal muscle mass regulation and insight into exercise-countermeasures for populations prone to muscle loss. PMID:24508740

  2. YAP-Mediated Mechanotransduction in Skeletal Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Martina; Rikeit, Paul; Knaus, Petra; Coirault, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Skeletal muscle is not only translating chemical energy into mechanical work, it is also a highly adaptive and regenerative tissue whose architecture and functionality is determined by its mechanical and physical environment. Processing intra- and extracellular mechanical signaling cues contributes to the regulation of cell growth, survival, migration and differentiation. Yes-associated Protein (YAP), a transcriptional coactivator downstream of the Hippo pathway and its paralog, the transcriptional co-activator with PDZ-binding motif (TAZ), were recently found to play a key role in mechanotransduction in various tissues including skeletal muscle. Furthermore, YAP/TAZ modulate myogenesis and muscle regeneration and abnormal YAP activity has been reported in muscular dystrophy and rhabdomyosarcoma. Here, we summarize the current knowledge of mechanosensing and -signaling in striated muscle. We highlight the role of YAP signaling and discuss the different routes and hypotheses of its regulation in the context of mechanotransduction. PMID:26909043

  3. Growth factor involvement in tension-induced skeletal muscle growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vandenburgh, Herman W.

    1987-01-01

    New muscle tissue culture techniques were developed to grow embryonic skeletal myofibers which are able to differentiate into more adultlike myofibers. Studies on mechanical simulation of cultured muscle cell growth will now be more directly applicable to mechanically-induced growth in adult muscle, and lead to better models for understanding muscle tissue atrophy caused by disuse in the microgravity of space.

  4. Repairing skeletal muscle: regenerative potential of skeletal muscle stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Tedesco, Francesco Saverio; Dellavalle, Arianna; Diaz-Manera, Jordi; Messina, Graziella; Cossu, Giulio

    2010-01-01

    Skeletal muscle damaged by injury or by degenerative diseases such as muscular dystrophy is able to regenerate new muscle fibers. Regeneration mainly depends upon satellite cells, myogenic progenitors localized between the basal lamina and the muscle fiber membrane. However, other cell types outside the basal lamina, such as pericytes, also have myogenic potency. Here, we discuss the main properties of satellite cells and other myogenic progenitors as well as recent efforts to obtain myogenic cells from pluripotent stem cells for patient-tailored cell therapy. Clinical trials utilizing these cells to treat muscular dystrophies, heart failure, and stress urinary incontinence are also briefly outlined. PMID:20051632

  5. Skeletal muscle alterations in chronic heart failure: differential effects on quadriceps and diaphragm

    PubMed Central

    Mangner, Norman; Weikert, Bettina; Bowen, T Scott; Sandri, Marcus; Höllriegel, Robert; Erbs, Sandra; Hambrecht, Rainer; Schuler, Gerhard; Linke, Axel; Gielen, Stephan; Adams, Volker

    2015-01-01

    Background Chronic heart failure (CHF) results in limb and respiratory muscle weakness, which contributes to exercise intolerance and increased morbidity and mortality, yet the molecular mechanisms remain poorly understood. Therefore, we aimed to compare parameters of antioxidative capacity, energy metabolism, and catabolic/anabolic balance in diaphragm and quadriceps muscle in an animal model of CHF. Methods Ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery (n = 13) or sham operation (n = 11) was performed on Wistar Kyoto rats. After 12 weeks, echocardiography and invasive determination of maximal rates of left ventricular (LV) pressure change were performed. Antioxidative and metabolic enzyme activities and expression of catabolic/anabolic markers were assessed in quadriceps and diaphragm muscle. Results Ligated rats developed CHF (i.e. severe LV dilatation, reduced LV ejection fraction, and impaired maximal rates of LV pressure change; P < 0.001). There was a divergent response for antioxidant enzymes between the diaphragm and quadriceps in CHF rats, with glutathione peroxidase and manganese superoxide dismutase activity increased in the diaphragm but reduced in the quadriceps relative to shams (P < 0.01). Metabolic enzymes were unaltered in the diaphragm, but cytochrome c oxidase activity (P < 0.01) decreased and lactate dehydrogenase activity (P < 0.05) increased in the quadriceps of CHF animals. Protein expression of the E3 ligase muscle ring finger 1 and proteasome activity were increased (P < 0.05) in both the diaphragm and quadriceps in CHF rats compared with shams. Conclusion Chronic heart failure induced divergent antioxidative and metabolic but similar catabolic responses between the diaphragm and quadriceps. Despite the quadriceps demonstrating significant impairments in CHF, apparent beneficial adaptations of an increased antioxidative capacity were induced in the diaphragm. Nevertheless, muscle ring finger 1 and

  6. MicroRNA-1 and microRNA-206 improve differentiation potential of human satellite cells: a novel approach for tissue engineering of skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Koning, Merel; Werker, Paul M N; van der Schaft, Daisy W J; Bank, Ruud A; Harmsen, Martin C

    2012-05-01

    Innovative strategies based on regenerative medicine, in particular tissue engineering of skeletal muscle, are promising for treatment of patients with skeletal muscle damage. However, the efficiency of satellite cell differentiation in vitro is suboptimal. MicroRNAs are involved in the regulation of cell proliferation and differentiation. We hypothesized that transient overexpression of microRNA-1 or microRNA-206 enhances the differentiation potential of human satellite cells by downregulation quiescent satellite cell regulators, thereby increasing myogenic regulator factors. To investigate this, we isolated and cultured human satellite cells from muscle biopsies. First, through immunofluorescent analysis and quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), we showed that in satellite cell cultures, low Pax7 expression is related to high MyoD expression on differentiation, and, subsequently, more extensive sarcomere formation, that is, muscle differentiation, was detected. Second, using qRT-PCR, we showed that microRNA-1 and microRNA-206 are robustly induced in differentiating satellite cells. Finally, a gain-of-function approach was used to investigate microRNA-1 and microRNA-206 potential in human satellite cells to improve differentiation potential. As a proof of concept, this was also investigated in a three-dimensional bioartificial muscle construct. After transfection with microRNA-1, the number of Pax7 expressing cells decreased compared with the microRNA-scrambled control. In differentiated satellite cell cultures transfected with either microRNA-1 or microRNA-206, the number of MyoD expressing cells increased, and α-sarcomeric actin and myosin expression increased compared with microRNA-scrambled control cultures. In addition, in a three-dimensional bioartificial muscle construct, an increase in MyoD expression occurred. Therefore, we conclude that microRNA-1 and microRNA-206 can improve human satellite cell differentiation. It

  7. Tissue engineering skeletal muscle for orthopaedic applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Payumo, Francis C.; Kim, Hyun D.; Sherling, Michael A.; Smith, Lee P.; Powell, Courtney; Wang, Xiao; Keeping, Hugh S.; Valentini, Robert F.; Vandenburgh, Herman H.

    2002-01-01

    With current technology, tissue-engineered skeletal muscle analogues (bioartificial muscles) generate too little active force to be clinically useful in orthopaedic applications. They have been engineered genetically with numerous transgenes (growth hormone, insulinlike growth factor-1, erythropoietin, vascular endothelial growth factor), and have been shown to deliver these therapeutic proteins either locally or systemically for months in vivo. Bone morphogenetic proteins belonging to the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily are osteoinductive molecules that drive the differentiation pathway of mesenchymal cells toward the chondroblastic or osteoblastic lineage, and stimulate bone formation in vivo. To determine whether skeletal muscle cells endogenously expressing bone morphogenetic proteins might serve as a vehicle for systemic bone morphogenetic protein delivery in vivo, proliferating skeletal myoblasts (C2C12) were transduced with a replication defective retrovirus containing the gene for recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-6 (C2BMP-6). The C2BMP-6 cells constitutively expressed recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-6 and synthesized bioactive recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-6, based on increased alkaline phosphatase activity in coincubated mesenchymal cells. C2BMP-6 cells did not secrete soluble, bioactive recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-6, but retained the bioactivity in the cell layer. Therefore, genetically-engineered skeletal muscle cells might serve as a platform for long-term delivery of osteoinductive bone morphogenetic proteins locally.

  8. Differential expression of genes and proteins between electric organ and skeletal muscle in the mormyrid electric fish Brienomyrus brachyistius

    PubMed Central

    Gallant, Jason R.; Hopkins, Carl D.; Deitcher, David L.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Electric organs (EOs) have evolved independently in vertebrates six times from skeletal muscle (SM). The transcriptional changes accompanying this developmental transformation are not presently well understood. Mormyrids and gymnotiforms are two highly convergent groups of weakly electric fish that have independently evolved EOs: while much is known about development and gene expression in gymnotiforms, very little is known about development and gene expression in mormyrids. This lack of data limits prospects for comparative work. We report here on the characterization of 28 differentially expressed genes between SM and EO tissues in the mormyrid Brienomyrus brachyistius, which were identified using suppressive subtractive hybridization (SSH). Forward and reverse SSH was performed on tissue samples of EO and SM resulting in one cDNA library enriched with mRNAs expressed in EO, and a second library representing mRNAs unique to SM. Nineteen expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were identified in EO and nine were identified in SM using BLAST searching of Danio rerio sequences available in NCBI databases. We confirmed differential expression of all 28 ESTs using RT-PCR. In EO, these ESTs represent four classes of proteins: (1) ion pumps, including the α- and β-subunits of Na+/K+-ATPase, and a plasma membrane Ca2+-ATPase; (2) Ca2+-binding protein S100, several parvalbumin paralogs, calcyclin-binding protein and neurogranin; (3) sarcomeric proteins troponin I, myosin heavy chain and actin-related protein complex subunit 3 (Arcp3); and (4) the transcription factors enhancer of rudimentary homolog (ERH) and myocyte enhancer factor 2A (MEF2A). Immunohistochemistry and western blotting were used to demonstrate the translation of seven proteins (myosin heavy chain, Na+/K+-ATPase, plasma membrane Ca2+-ATPase, MEF2, troponin and parvalbumin) and their cellular localization in EO and SM. Our findings suggest that mormyrids express several paralogs of muscle-specific genes

  9. Treatment of Skeletal Muscle Injury: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Baoge, L.; Van Den Steen, E.; Rimbaut, S.; Philips, N.; Witvrouw, E.; Almqvist, K. F.; Vanderstraeten, G.; Vanden Bossche, L. C.

    2012-01-01

    Skeletal muscle injuries are the most common sports-related injuries and present a challenge in primary care and sports medicine. Most types of muscle injuries would follow three stages: the acute inflammatory and degenerative phase, the repair phase and the remodeling phase. Present conservative treatment includes RICE (rest, ice, compression, elevation), nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and physical therapy. However, if use improper, NSAIDs may suppress an essential inflammatory phase in the healing of injured skeletal muscle. Furthermore, it remains controversial whether or not they have adverse effects on the healing process or on the tensile strength. However, several growth factors might promote the regeneration of injured skeletal muscle, many novel treatments have involved on enhancing complete functional recovery. Exogenous growth factors have been shown to regulate satellite cell proliferation, differentiation and fusion in myotubes in vivo and in vitro, TGF-β1 antagonists behave as inhibitors of TGF-β1. They prevent collagen deposition and block formation of muscle fibrosis, so that a complete functional recovery can be achieved. PMID:24977084

  10. Plectin isoform P1b and P1d deficiencies differentially affect mitochondrial morphology and function in skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Winter, Lilli; Kuznetsov, Andrey V; Grimm, Michael; Zeöld, Anikó; Fischer, Irmgard; Wiche, Gerhard

    2015-08-15

    Plectin, a versatile 500-kDa cytolinker protein, is essential for muscle fiber integrity and function. The most common disease caused by mutations in the human plectin gene, epidermolysis bullosa simplex with muscular dystrophy (EBS-MD), is characterized by severe skin blistering and progressive muscular dystrophy. Besides displaying pathological desmin-positive protein aggregates and degenerative changes in the myofibrillar apparatus, skeletal muscle specimens of EBS-MD patients and plectin-deficient mice are characterized by massive mitochondrial alterations. In this study, we demonstrate that structural and functional alterations of mitochondria are a primary aftermath of plectin deficiency in muscle, contributing to myofiber degeneration. We found that in skeletal muscle of conditional plectin knockout mice (MCK-Cre/cKO), mitochondrial content was reduced, and mitochondria were aggregated in sarcoplasmic and subsarcolemmal regions and were no longer associated with Z-disks. Additionally, decreased mitochondrial citrate synthase activity, respiratory function and altered adenosine diphosphate kinetics were characteristic of plectin-deficient muscles. To analyze a mechanistic link between plectin deficiency and mitochondrial alterations, we comparatively assessed mitochondrial morphology and function in whole muscle and teased muscle fibers of wild-type, MCK-Cre/cKO and plectin isoform-specific knockout mice that were lacking just one isoform (either P1b or P1d) while expressing all others. Monitoring morphological alterations of mitochondria, an isoform P1b-specific phenotype affecting the mitochondrial fusion-fission machinery and manifesting with upregulated mitochondrial fusion-associated protein mitofusin-2 could be identified. Our results show that the depletion of distinct plectin isoforms affects mitochondrial network organization and function in different ways.

  11. Differential epigenetic and transcriptional response of the skeletal muscle carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1B (CPT1B) gene to lipid exposure with obesity.

    PubMed

    Maples, Jill M; Brault, Jeffrey J; Witczak, Carol A; Park, Sanghee; Hubal, Monica J; Weber, Todd M; Houmard, Joseph A; Shewchuk, Brian M

    2015-08-15

    The ability to increase fatty acid oxidation (FAO) in response to dietary lipid is impaired in the skeletal muscle of obese individuals, which is associated with a failure to coordinately upregulate genes involved with FAO. While the molecular mechanisms contributing to this metabolic inflexibility are not evident, a possible candidate is carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1B (CPT1B), which is a rate-limiting step in FAO. The present study was undertaken to determine if the differential response of skeletal muscle CPT1B gene transcription to lipid between lean and severely obese subjects is linked to epigenetic modifications (DNA methylation and histone acetylation) that impact transcriptional activation. In primary human skeletal muscle cultures the expression of CPT1B was blunted in severely obese women compared with their lean counterparts in response to lipid, which was accompanied by changes in CpG methylation, H3/H4 histone acetylation, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-δ and hepatocyte nuclear factor 4α transcription factor occupancy at the CPT1B promoter. Methylation of specific CpG sites in the CPT1B promoter that correlated with CPT1B transcript level blocked the binding of the transcription factor upstream stimulatory factor, suggesting a potential causal mechanism. These findings indicate that epigenetic modifications may play important roles in the regulation of CPT1B in response to a physiologically relevant lipid mixture in human skeletal muscle, a major site of fatty acid catabolism, and that differential DNA methylation may underlie the depressed expression of CPT1B in response to lipid, contributing to the metabolic inflexibility associated with severe obesity.

  12. Lipid exposure elicits differential responses in gene expression and DNA methylation in primary human skeletal muscle cells from severely obese women.

    PubMed

    Maples, Jill M; Brault, Jeffrey J; Shewchuk, Brian M; Witczak, Carol A; Zou, Kai; Rowland, Naomi; Hubal, Monica J; Weber, Todd M; Houmard, Joseph A

    2015-05-01

    The skeletal muscle of obese individuals exhibits an impaired ability to increase the expression of genes linked with fatty acid oxidation (FAO) upon lipid exposure. The present study determined if this response could be attributed to differential DNA methylation signatures. RNA and DNA were isolated from primary human skeletal muscle cells (HSkMC) from lean and severely obese women following lipid incubation. mRNA expression and DNA methylation were quantified for genes that globally regulate FAO [PPARγ coactivator (PGC-1α), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), nuclear respiratory factors (NRFs)]. With lipid oversupply, increases in NRF-1, NRF-2, PPARα, and PPARδ expression were dampened in skeletal muscle from severely obese compared with lean women. The expression of genes downstream of the PPARs and NRFs also exhibited a pattern of not increasing as robustly upon lipid exposure with obesity. Increases in CpG methylation near the transcription start site with lipid oversupply were positively related to PPARδ expression; increases in methylation with lipid were depressed in HSkMC from severely obese women. With severe obesity, there is an impaired ability to upregulate global transcriptional regulators of FAO in response to lipid exposure. Transient changes in DNA methylation patterns and differences in the methylation signature with severe obesity may play a role in the transcriptional regulation of PPARδ in response to lipid. The persistence of differential responses to lipid in HSkMC derived from lean and obese subjects supports the possibility of stable epigenetic programming of skeletal muscle cells by the respective environments.

  13. Growth factor involvement in tension-induced skeletal muscle growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vandenburgh, H. H.

    1987-01-01

    Muscle tissue culture techniques were developed to grow skeletal myofibers which differentiate into more adult-like myofibers. Mechanical simulation studies of these muscle cells in a newly developed mechanical cell simulator can now be performed to study growth processes in skeletal muscle. Conditions in the mechanical cell simulator were defined where mechanical activity can either prevent muscle wasting or stimulate muscle growth. The role of endogenous and exogenous growth factors in tension-induced muscle growth is being investigated under the defined conditions of tissue culture.

  14. Identification of the STAC3 gene as a skeletal muscle-specifically expressed gene and a novel regulator of satellite cell differentiation in cattle.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Y; Cong, X; Wang, A; Jiang, H

    2014-08-01

    Recent studies in mice and zebrafish suggest that the unannotated Src homology 3 and cysteine rich domain 3 (STAC3) gene plays an important role in skeletal muscle development and contraction. The objective of this study was to determine the tissue specificity of the bovine STAC3 gene and its potential role in the proliferation and differentiation of bovine satellite cells. The STAC3 mRNA was detected only in skeletal muscle among 18 bovine tissues examined by reverse transcription PCR. Western blotting revealed the expression of STAC3 protein in bovine skeletal muscle and the absence of it in 6 bovine tissues analyzed. Transfection of the bovine satellite cells with a pool of 2 STAC3 small interfering RNA (siRNA) caused a 90% reduction in STAC3 mRNA. Cell proliferation assays revealed that STAC3 knockdown had no effect on the proliferation rate of bovine satellite cells. Approximately 60% of bovine satellite cells transfected with STAC3 siRNA formed myotubes by 72 h of differentiation, whereas that percentage was 40% for those transfected with negative control siRNA (P < 0.05). At 24, 48, and 72 h of differentiation, bovine satellite cells transfected with STAC3 siRNA had greater mRNA expression of myogenin, myosin heavy chain 3, and myosin heavy chain 7, markers of myotubes, than those transfected with negative control siRNA (P < 0.05). These results suggest that the STAC3 gene is a negative regulator of the differentiation and fusion of bovine satellite cells into myotubes. However, STAC3 expression was increased during the differentiation of bovine satellite cells into myotubes. This suggests that STAC3 might have different functions in bovine myotubes than in bovine satellite cells.

  15. Identification of Small Molecules Which Induce Skeletal Muscle Differentiation in Embryonic Stem Cells via Activation of the Wnt and Inhibition of Smad2/3 and Sonic Hedgehog Pathways.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyunwoo; Haller, Corinne; Manneville, Carole; Doll, Thierry; Fruh, Isabelle; Keller, Caroline Gubser; Richards, Shola M; Ibig-Rehm, Yvonne; Patoor, Maude; Goette, Marjo; Bouchez, Laure C; Mueller, Matthias

    2016-02-01

    The multilineage differentiation capacity of mouse and human embryonic stem (ES) cells offers a testing platform for small molecules that mediate mammalian lineage determination and cellular specialization. Here we report the identification of two small molecules which drives mouse 129 ES cell differentiation to skeletal muscle with high efficiency without any genetic modification. Mouse embryoid bodies (EBs) were used to screen a library of 1,000 small molecules to identify compounds capable of inducing high levels of Pax3 mRNA. Stimulation of EBs with SMIs (skeletal muscle inducer, SMI1 and SMI2) from the screen resulted in a high percentage of intensively twitching skeletal muscle fibers 3 weeks after induction. Gene expression profiling studies that were carried out for mode of actions analysis showed that SMIs activated genes regulated by the Wnt pathway and inhibited expression of Smad2/3 and Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) target genes. A combination of three small molecules known to modulate these three pathways acted similarly to the SMIs found here, driving ES cells from 129 as well as Balb/c and C57Bl/6 to skeletal muscle. Taken together, these data demonstrate that the SMI drives ES cells to skeletal muscle via concerted activation of the Wnt pathway, and inhibition of Smad2/3 signaling and Shh pathways. This provides important developmental biological information about skeletal muscle differentiation from embryonic stem cells and may lead to the development of new therapeutics for muscle disease.

  16. Skeletal muscle satellite cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schultz, E.; McCormick, K. M.

    1994-01-01

    Evidence now suggests that satellite cells constitute a class of myogenic cells that differ distinctly from other embryonic myoblasts. Satellite cells arise from somites and first appear as a distinct myoblast type well before birth. Satellite cells from different muscles cannot be functionally distinguished from one another and are able to provide nuclei to all fibers without regard to phenotype. Thus, it is difficult to ascribe any significant function to establishing or stabilizing fiber type, even during regeneration. Within a muscle, satellite cells exhibit marked heterogeneity with respect to their proliferative behavior. The satellite cell population on a fiber can be partitioned into those that function as stem cells and those which are readily available for fusion. Recent studies have shown that the cells are not simply spindle shaped, but are very diverse in their morphology and have multiple branches emanating from the poles of the cells. This finding is consistent with other studies indicating that the cells have the capacity for extensive migration within, and perhaps between, muscles. Complexity of cell shape usually reflects increased cytoplasmic volume and organelles including a well developed Golgi, and is usually associated with growing postnatal muscle or muscles undergoing some form of induced adaptive change or repair. The appearance of activated satellite cells suggests some function of the cells in the adaptive process through elaboration and secretion of a product. Significant advances have been made in determining the potential secretion products that satellite cells make. The manner in which satellite cell proliferative and fusion behavior is controlled has also been studied. There seems to be little doubt that cellcell coupling is not how satellite cells and myofibers communicate. Rather satellite cell regulation is through a number of potential growth factors that arise from a number of sources. Critical to the understanding of this form

  17. Aging of skeletal muscle fibers.

    PubMed

    Miljkovic, Natasa; Lim, Jae-Young; Miljkovic, Iva; Frontera, Walter R

    2015-04-01

    Aging has become an important topic for scientific research because life expectancy and the number of men and women in older age groups have increased dramatically in the last century. This is true in most countries of the world including the Republic of Korea and the United States. From a rehabilitation perspective, the most important associated issue is a progressive decline in functional capacity and independence. Sarcopenia is partly responsible for this decline. Many changes underlying the loss of muscle mass and force-generating capacity of skeletal muscle can be understood at the cellular and molecular levels. Muscle size and architecture are both altered with advanced adult age. Further, changes in myofibers include impairments in several physiological domains including muscle fiber activation, excitation-contraction coupling, actin-myosin cross-bridge interaction, energy production, and repair and regeneration. A thorough understanding of these alterations can lead to the design of improved preventative and rehabilitative interventions, such as personalized exercise training programs.

  18. 3D Cell Printing of Functional Skeletal Muscle Constructs Using Skeletal Muscle-Derived Bioink.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yeong-Jin; Kim, Taek Gyoung; Jeong, Jonghyeon; Yi, Hee-Gyeong; Park, Ji Won; Hwang, Woonbong; Cho, Dong-Woo

    2016-10-01

    Engineered skeletal muscle tissues that mimic the structure and function of native muscle have been considered as an alternative strategy for the treatment of various muscular diseases and injuries. Here, it is demonstrated that 3D cell-printing of decellularized skeletal muscle extracellular matrix (mdECM)-based bioink facilitates the fabrication of functional skeletal muscle constructs. The cellular alignment and the shape of the tissue constructs are controlled by 3D cell-printing technology. mdECM bioink provides the 3D cell-printed muscle constructs with a myogenic environment that supports high viability and contractility as well as myotube formation, differentiation, and maturation. More interestingly, the preservation of agrin is confirmed in the mdECM, and significant increases in the formation of acetylcholine receptor clusters are exhibited in the 3D cell-printed muscle constructs. In conclusion, mdECM bioink and 3D cell-printing technology facilitate the mimicking of both the structural and functional properties of native muscle and hold great promise for producing clinically relevant engineered muscle for the treatment of muscular injuries.

  19. Effects of aestivation on skeletal muscle performance.

    PubMed

    James, Rob S

    2010-01-01

    Fitness, ecology, and behaviour of vertebrates are dependent upon locomotor performance. Locomotor performance can be constrained by underlying intrinsic skeletal muscle properties. Skeletal muscle is a highly plastic tissue undergoing phenotypic change in response to alteration in environment. Clinical and experimental models of muscle disuse cause decreases in skeletal muscle size and mechanical performance. However, in natural models of skeletal muscle disuse, both atrophy and changes in mechanical properties are more limited. Aestivation in frogs can cause decreases in muscle cross-sectional area and changes in some enzyme activities, with effects varying among muscles. However, long-term aestivation causes limited changes in muscle mechanics during simulated sprint or endurance type activities. Therefore, at least in frogs, there is maintenance of skeletal muscle performance during prolonged periods of aestivation, allowing avoidance of harsh environmental conditions without compromising the locomotor capacity to perform fitness-related activities when favourable environmental conditions return.

  20. Taurine and skeletal muscle disorders.

    PubMed

    Conte Camerino, Diana; Tricarico, Domenico; Pierno, Sabata; Desaphy, Jean-François; Liantonio, Antonella; Pusch, Michael; Burdi, Rosa; Camerino, Claudia; Fraysse, Bodvael; De Luca, Annamaria

    2004-01-01

    Taurine is abundantly present in skeletal muscle. We give evidence that this amino acid exerts both short-term and long-term actions in the control of ion channel function and calcium homeostasis in striated fibers. Short-term actions can be estimated as the ability of this amino acid to acutely modulate both ion channel gating and the function of the structures involved in calcium handling. Long-term effects can be disclosed in situations of tissue taurine depletion and are likely related to the ability of the intracellular taurine to control transducing pathways as well as homeostatic and osmotic equilibrium in the tissue. The two activities are strictly linked because the intracellular level of taurine modulates the sensitivity of skeletal muscle to the exogenous application of taurine. Myopathies in which ion channels are directly or indirectly involved, as well as inherited or acquired pathologies characterized by metabolic alterations and change in calcium homeostasis, are often correlated with change in muscle taurine concentration and consequently with an enhanced therapeutic activity of this amino acid. We discuss both in vivo and in vitro evidence that taurine, through its ability to control sarcolemmal excitability and muscle contractility, can prove beneficial effects in many muscle dysfunctions.

  1. Role of skeletal muscle proteoglycans during myogenesis.

    PubMed

    Brandan, Enrique; Gutierrez, Jaime

    2013-08-08

    Skeletal muscle formation during development and the adult mammal consists of a highly organised and regulated the sequence of cellular processes intending to form or repair muscle tissue. This sequence includes, cell proliferation, migration, and differentiation. Proteoglycans (PGs), macromolecules formed by a core protein and glycosaminoglycan chains (GAGs) present a great diversity of functions explained by their capacity to interact with different ligands and receptors forming part of their signalling complex and/or protecting them from proteolytic cleavage. Particularly attractive is the function of the different types of PGs present at the neuromuscular junction (NMJ). This review is focussed on the advances reached to understand the role of PGs during myogenesis and skeletal muscular dystrophies.

  2. Amino Acid Sensing in Skeletal Muscle.

    PubMed

    Moro, Tatiana; Ebert, Scott M; Adams, Christopher M; Rasmussen, Blake B

    2016-11-01

    Aging impairs skeletal muscle protein synthesis, leading to muscle weakness and atrophy. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain poorly understood. Here, we review evidence that mammalian/mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1)-mediated and activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4)-mediated amino acid (AA) sensing pathways, triggered by impaired AA delivery to aged skeletal muscle, may play important roles in skeletal muscle aging. Interventions that alleviate age-related impairments in muscle protein synthesis, strength, and/or muscle mass appear to do so by reversing age-related changes in skeletal muscle AA delivery, mTORC1 activity, and/or ATF4 activity. An improved understanding of the mechanisms and roles of AA sensing pathways in skeletal muscle may lead to evidence-based strategies to attenuate sarcopenia.

  3. Skeletal muscle patch engineering on synthetic and acellular human skeletal muscle originated scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Ay, Birol; Karaoz, Erdal; Kesemenli, Cumhur C; Kenar, Halime

    2017-03-01

    The reconstruction of skeletal muscle tissue is currently performed by transplanting a muscle tissue graft from local or distant sites of the patient's body, but this practice leads to donor site morbidity in case of large defects. With the aim of providing an alternative treatment approach, skeletal muscle tissue formation potential of human myoblasts and human menstrual blood derived mesenchymal stem cells (hMB-MSCs) on synthetic [poly(l-lactide-co-caprolactone), 70:30] scaffolds with oriented microfibers, human muscle extracellular matrix (ECM), and their hybrids was investigated in this study. The reactive muscle ECM pieces were chemically crosslinked to the synthetic scaffolds to produce the hybrids. Cell proliferation assay WST-1, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and immunostaining were carried out after culturing the cells on the scaffolds. The ECM and the synthetic scaffolds were effective in promoting spontaneous myotube formation from human myoblasts. Anisotropic muscle patch formation was more successful when human myoblasts were grown on the synthetic scaffolds. Nonetheless, spontaneous differentiation could not be induced in hMB-MSCs on any type of the scaffolds. Human myoblast-synthetic scaffold combination is promising as a skeletal muscle patch, and can be improved further to serve as a fast integrating functional patch by introducing vascular and neuronal networks to the structure. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 105A: 879-890, 2017.

  4. Satellite cells: the architects of skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Chang, Natasha C; Rudnicki, Michael A

    2014-01-01

    The outstanding regenerative capacity of skeletal muscle is attributed to the resident muscle stem cell termed satellite cell. Satellite cells are essential for skeletal muscle regeneration as they ultimately provide the myogenic precursors that rebuild damaged muscle tissue. Satellite cells characteristically are a heterogeneous population of stem cells and committed progenitor cells. Delineation of cellular hierarchy and understanding how lineage fate choices are determined within the satellite cell population will be invaluable for the advancement of muscle regenerative therapies.

  5. Nonionizing radiation as a noninvasive strategy in regenerative medicine: the effect of Ca(2+)-ICR on mouse skeletal muscle cell growth and differentiation.

    PubMed

    De Carlo, Flavia; Ledda, Mario; Pozzi, Deleana; Pierimarchi, Pasquale; Zonfrillo, Manuela; Giuliani, Livio; D'Emilia, Enrico; Foletti, Alberto; Scorretti, Riccardo; Grimaldi, Settimio; Lisi, Antonella

    2012-11-01

    Controlling cell differentiation and proliferation with minimal manipulation is one of the most important goals for cell therapy in clinical applications. In this work, we evaluated the hypothesis that the exposure of myoblast cells (C2C12) to nonionizing radiation (tuned at an extremely low-frequency electromagnetic field at calcium-ion cyclotron frequency of 13.75 Hz) may drive their differentiation toward a myogenic phenotype. C2C12 cells exposed to calcium-ion cyclotron resonance (Ca(2+)-ICR) showed a decrease in cellular growth and an increase in the G(0)/G(1) phase. Severe modifications in the shape and morphology and a change in the actin distribution were revealed by the phalloidin fluorescence analysis. A significant upregulation at transcriptional and translational levels of muscle differentiation markers such as myogenin (MYOG), muscle creatine kinase (MCK), and alpha skeletal muscle actin (ASMA) was observed in exposed C2C12 cells. Moreover, the pretreatment with nifedipine (an L-type voltage-gated Ca(2+) channel blocker) led to a reduction of the Ca(2+)-ICR effect. Consequently, it induced a downregulation of the MYOG, MCK, and ASMA mRNA expression affecting adversely the differentiation process. Therefore, our data suggest that Ca(2+)-ICR exposure can upregulate C2C12 differentiation. Although further studies are needed, these results may have important implications in myodegenerative pathology therapies.

  6. [Regeneration capacity of skeletal muscle].

    PubMed

    Wernig, A

    2003-07-01

    The organotypic stem cell of skeletal muscle has previously been known as satellite cell. They allow muscle fiber growth during ontogenesis, enable fiber hypertrophy and are responsible for the very efficient repair of muscle fibers. This efficient apparatus is to some degree counterbalanced by an enormous use of the satellite cell pool: fiber atrophy probably is accompanied by loss of myonuclei such that every reversal of atrophy is bound to use new myonuclei i.e. satellite cells. How often in life does this occur? Hard to say. Moreover, the potent repair capacity is challenged by an unexpected vulnerability of skeletal muscle fibers: Passive stretching of contracted muscles may cause multiple "microdamage," disruption of contractile elements or tiny areas of true necrosis (focal necrosis). How often does this happen? Well, for many of us at least once per year when we go up and down mountains during vacation time, followed by sour muscles. Others may decide to change his/her (locomotor) behaviour by severe onset of jogging; it may happen that they suffer kidney failure on Monday due to muscle microdamage and the transfer of myoproteins into the serum over weekend. Also 20 minutes of stepping up and down something like a chair will do: There is a remarkable increase in kreatin kinase and other muscle derived proteins which lasts for days and is bound to reflect some muscle damage. How about sportsmen and worker who repeatedly use their muscles in such a way? We don't have answers yet to most of these questions, but considerable amount of information has been collected over the last years both in animal and--less--in human. What is common in all cases of growth and repair is the proliferation of the satellite cells and their consequent incorporation and fusion with the parent fiber. This way focal damage is repaired often without visible reminders. We would run out of satellite cells were they not stem cells: After division one daughter remains a satellite cell

  7. Differential effects of leucine on translation initiation factor activation and protein synthesis in skeletal muscle, renal and adipose tissues of neonatal pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In adult rats, protein synthesis in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue increases in response to pharmacological doses of leucine (Leu) administered orally. In neonatal pigs, a physiological increase in plasma leucine stimulates protein synthesis in skeletal muscle without increasing hepatic protein...

  8. Differential epigenetic modifications of histones at the myosin heavy chain genes in fast and slow skeletal muscle fibers and in response to muscle unloading.

    PubMed

    Pandorf, Clay E; Haddad, Fadia; Wright, Carola; Bodell, Paul W; Baldwin, Kenneth M

    2009-07-01

    Recent advances in chromatin biology have enhanced our understanding of gene regulation. It is now widely appreciated that gene regulation is dependent upon post-translational modifications to the histones which package genes in the nucleus of cells. Active genes are known to be associated with acetylation of histones (H3ac) and trimethylation of lysine 4 in histone H3 (H3K4me3). Using chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP), we examined histone modifications at the myosin heavy chain (MHC) genes expressed in fast vs. slow fiber-type skeletal muscle, and in a model of muscle unloading, which results in a shift to fast MHC gene expression in slow muscles. Both H3ac and H3K4me3 varied directly with the transcriptional activity of the MHC genes in fast fiber-type plantaris and slow fiber-type soleus. During MHC transitions with muscle unloading, histone H3 at the type I MHC becomes de-acetylated in correspondence with down-regulation of that gene, while upregulation of the fast type IIx and IIb MHCs occurs in conjunction with enhanced H3ac in those MHCs. Enrichment of H3K4me3 is also increased at the type IIx and IIb MHCs when these genes are induced with muscle unloading. Downregulation of IIa MHC, however, was not associated with corresponding loss of H3ac or H3K4me3. These observations demonstrate the feasibility of using the ChIP assay to understand the native chromatin environment in adult skeletal muscle, and also suggest that the transcriptional state of types I, IIx and IIb MHC genes are sensitive to histone modifications both in different muscle fiber-types and in response to altered loading states.

  9. Redox Control of Skeletal Muscle Regeneration.

    PubMed

    Le Moal, Emmeran; Pialoux, Vincent; Juban, Gaëtan; Groussard, Carole; Zouhal, Hassane; Chazaud, Bénédicte; Mounier, Rémi

    2017-02-06

    Skeletal muscle shows high plasticity in response to external demand. Moreover, adult skeletal muscle is capable of complete regeneration after injury, due to the properties of muscle stem cells (MuSCs), the satellite cells, which follow a tightly regulated myogenic program to generate both new myofibers and new MuSCs for further needs. Although reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) have long been associated with skeletal muscle physiology, their implication in the cell and molecular processes at work during muscle regeneration is more recent. This review focuses on redox regulation during skeletal muscle regeneration. An overview of the basics of ROS/RNS and antioxidant chemistry and biology occurring in skeletal muscle is first provided. Then, the comprehensive knowledge on redox regulation of MuSCs and their surrounding cell partners (macrophages, endothelial cells) during skeletal muscle regeneration is presented in normal muscle and in specific physiological (exercise-induced muscle damage, aging) and pathological (muscular dystrophies) contexts. Recent advances in the comprehension of these processes has led to the development of therapeutic assays using antioxidant supplementation, which result in inconsistent efficiency, underlying the need for new tools that are aimed at precisely deciphering and targeting ROS networks. This review should provide an overall insight of the redox regulation of skeletal muscle regeneration while highlighting the limits of the use of nonspecific antioxidants to improve muscle function. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 00, 000-000.

  10. Expression of androgen receptor target genes in skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Rana, Kesha; Lee, Nicole K L; Zajac, Jeffrey D; MacLean, Helen E

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to determine the mechanisms of the anabolic actions of androgens in skeletal muscle by investigating potential androgen receptor (AR)-regulated genes in in vitro and in vivo models. The expression of the myogenic regulatory factor myogenin was significantly decreased in skeletal muscle from testosterone-treated orchidectomized male mice compared to control orchidectomized males, and was increased in muscle from male AR knockout mice that lacked DNA binding activity (AR(ΔZF2)) versus wildtype mice, demonstrating that myogenin is repressed by the androgen/AR pathway. The ubiquitin ligase Fbxo32 was repressed by 12 h dihydrotestosterone treatment in human skeletal muscle cell myoblasts, and c-Myc expression was decreased in testosterone-treated orchidectomized male muscle compared to control orchidectomized male muscle, and increased in AR(∆ZF2) muscle. The expression of a group of genes that regulate the transition from myoblast proliferation to differentiation, Tceal7 , p57(Kip2), Igf2 and calcineurin Aa, was increased in AR(∆ZF2) muscle, and the expression of all but p57(Kip2) was also decreased in testosterone-treated orchidectomized male muscle compared to control orchidectomized male muscle. We conclude that in males, androgens act via the AR in part to promote peak muscle mass by maintaining myoblasts in the proliferative state and delaying the transition to differentiation during muscle growth and development, and by suppressing ubiquitin ligase-mediated atrophy pathways to preserve muscle mass in adult muscle.

  11. Time course and side-by-side analysis of mesodermal, pre-myogenic, myogenic and differentiated cell markers in the chicken model for skeletal muscle formation

    PubMed Central

    Berti, Federica; Nogueira, Júlia Meireles; Wöhrle, Svenja; Sobreira, Débora Rodrigues; Hawrot, Katarzyna; Dietrich, Susanne

    2015-01-01

    The chicken is a well-established model for amniote (including human) skeletal muscle formation because the developmental anatomy of chicken skeletal muscle matches that of mammals. The accessibility of the chicken in the egg as well as the sequencing of its genome and novel molecular techniques have raised the profile of this model. Over the years, a number of regulatory and marker genes have been identified that are suited to monitor the progress of skeletal myogenesis both in wildtype and in experimental embryos. However, in the various studies, differing markers at different stages of development have been used. Moreover, contradictory results on the hierarchy of regulatory factors are now emerging, and clearly, factors need to be able to cooperate. Thus, a reference paper describing in detail and side-by-side the time course of marker gene expression during avian myogenesis is needed. We comparatively analysed onset and expression patterns of the key markers for the chicken immature paraxial mesoderm, for muscle-competent cells, for cells committed to myogenesis and for cells entering terminal differentiation. We performed this analysis from stages when the first paraxial mesoderm is being laid down to the stage when mesoderm formation comes to a conclusion. Our data show that, although the sequence of marker gene expression is the same at the various stages of development, the timing of the expression onset is quite different. Moreover, marker gene expression in myogenic cells being deployed from the dorsomedial and ventrolateral lips of the dermomyotome is different from those being deployed from the rostrocaudal lips, suggesting different molecular programs. Furthermore, expression of Myosin Heavy Chain genes is overlapping but different along the length of a myotube. Finally, Mef2c is the most likely partner of Mrf proteins, and, in contrast to the mouse and more alike frog and zebrafish fish, chicken Mrf4 is co-expressed with MyoG as cells enter terminal

  12. Understanding Age-Related Changes in Skeletal Muscle Metabolism: Differences Between Females and Males.

    PubMed

    Gheller, Brandon J F; Riddle, Emily S; Lem, Melinda R; Thalacker-Mercer, Anna E

    2016-07-17

    Skeletal muscle is the largest metabolic organ system in the human body. As such, metabolic dysfunction occurring in skeletal muscle impacts whole-body nutrient homeostasis. Macronutrient metabolism changes within the skeletal muscle with aging, and these changes are associated in part with age-related skeletal muscle remodeling. Moreover, age-related changes in skeletal muscle metabolism are affected differentially between males and females and are likely driven by changes in sex hormones. Intrinsic and extrinsic factors impact observed age-related changes and sex-related differences in skeletal muscle metabolism. Despite some support for sex-specific differences in skeletal muscle metabolism with aging, more research is necessary to identify underlying differences in mechanisms. Understanding sex-specific aging skeletal muscle will assist with the development of therapies to attenuate adverse metabolic and functional outcomes.

  13. Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) inhibits skeletal muscle cell differentiation: a role for the bHLH protein twist and the cdk inhibitor p27.

    PubMed

    Leshem, Y; Spicer, D B; Gal-Levi, R; Halevy, O

    2000-07-01

    Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) plays a crucial role in regulating the differentiation of both fetal and adult skeletal myoblasts. This study aimed at defining the intracellular factors that mediate the effect of HGF on adult myoblast differentiation. HGF increased Twist expression while decreasing p27(kip1) protein levels and not affecting the induction of p21(Cip1/Waf1) in satellite cells. Like HGF, overexpression of Twist did not affect p21 expression while inhibiting muscle-specific proteins. Both ectopic Twist-antisense (Twist-AS) and p27 partially rescued the effects of HGF on bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation and myosin heavy chain (MHC) expression in muscle satellite cells; the two plasmids together effected full rescue, suggesting that HGF independently regulates these two factors to mediate its effects. Ectopic p27 promoted differentiation in the presence of HGF by blocking the induction of Twist. Using Twist-AS to lower Twist levels restored the HGF-dependent reduction of p27 and MHC. In the presence of ectopic HGF, satellite cells formed thin mononuclear myotubes. Neither ectopic p27, Twist-AS, or their combination reversed this change in cell morphology, suggesting that HGF acts through additional mediators to inhibit downstream events during myogenesis. Taken together, the results suggest that the effects of HGF on muscle cell proliferation and differentiation are mediated through changes in the expression levels of the myogenic-inhibitory basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) protein Twist and the cell-cycle inhibitor p27.

  14. The nanofibrous PAN-PANi scaffold as an efficient substrate for skeletal muscle differentiation using satellite cells.

    PubMed

    Hosseinzadeh, Simzar; Mahmoudifard, Matin; Mohamadyar-Toupkanlou, Farzaneh; Dodel, Masomeh; Hajarizadeh, Atena; Adabi, Mahdi; Soleimani, Masoud

    2016-07-01

    Among polymers, polyaniline (PANi) has been introduced as a good candidate for muscle regeneration due to high conductivity and also biocompatibility. Herein, for the first time, we report the use of electrospun nanofibrous membrane of PAN-PANi as efficient scaffold for muscle regeneration. The prepared PAN-PANi electrospun nanofibrous membrane was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Attenuated total reflectance fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) and tensile examination. The softer scaffolds of non-composite electrospun nanofibrous PAN govern a higher rate of cell growth in spite of lower differentiation value. On the other hand, PAN-PANi electrospun nanofibrous membrane exposed high cell proliferation and also differentiation value. Thank to the conductive property and higher Young's modulus of composite type due to the employment of PANi, satellite cells were induced into more matured form as analyzed by Real-Time PCR. On the other hand, grafting of composite nanofibrous electrospun scaffold with gelatin increased the surface stiffness directing satellite cells into lower cell proliferation and highest value of differentiation. Our results for first time showed the significant role of combination between conductivity, mechanical property and surface modification of PAN-PANi electrospun nanofibers and provid new insights into most biocompatible scaffolds for muscle tissue engineering. The schematic figure conveys the effective combination of conductive and surface stiffness on muscle tissue engineering.

  15. Satellite Cells and Skeletal Muscle Regeneration.

    PubMed

    Dumont, Nicolas A; Bentzinger, C Florian; Sincennes, Marie-Claude; Rudnicki, Michael A

    2015-07-01

    Skeletal muscles are essential for vital functions such as movement, postural support, breathing, and thermogenesis. Muscle tissue is largely composed of long, postmitotic multinucleated fibers. The life-long maintenance of muscle tissue is mediated by satellite cells, lying in close proximity to the muscle fibers. Muscle satellite cells are a heterogeneous population with a small subset of muscle stem cells, termed satellite stem cells. Under homeostatic conditions all satellite cells are poised for activation by stimuli such as physical trauma or growth signals. After activation, satellite stem cells undergo symmetric divisions to expand their number or asymmetric divisions to give rise to cohorts of committed satellite cells and thus progenitors. Myogenic progenitors proliferate, and eventually differentiate through fusion with each other or to damaged fibers to reconstitute fiber integrity and function. In the recent years, research has begun to unravel the intrinsic and extrinsic mechanisms controlling satellite cell behavior. Nonetheless, an understanding of the complex cellular and molecular interactions of satellite cells with their dynamic microenvironment remains a major challenge, especially in pathological conditions. The goal of this review is to comprehensively summarize the current knowledge on satellite cell characteristics, functions, and behavior in muscle regeneration and in pathological conditions.

  16. Regulatory T cells and skeletal muscle regeneration.

    PubMed

    Schiaffino, Stefano; Pereira, Marcelo G; Ciciliot, Stefano; Rovere-Querini, Patrizia

    2017-02-01

    Skeletal muscle regeneration results from the activation and differentiation of myogenic stem cells, called satellite cells, located beneath the basal lamina of the muscle fibers. Inflammatory and immune cells have a crucial role in the regeneration process. Acute muscle injury causes an immediate transient wave of neutrophils followed by a more persistent infiltration of M1 (proinflammatory) and M2 (anti-inflammatory/proregenerative) macrophages. New studies show that injured muscle is also infiltrated by a specialized population of regulatory T (Treg) cells, which control both the inflammatory response, by promoting the M1-to-M2 switch, and the activation of satellite cells. Treg cells accumulate in injured muscle in response to specific cytokines, such as IL-33, and promote muscle growth by releasing growth factors, such as amphiregulin. Muscle repair during aging is impaired due to reduced number of Treg cells and can be enhanced by IL-33 supplementation. Migration of Treg cells could also contribute to explain the effect of heterochronic parabiosis, whereby muscle regeneration of aged mice can be improved by a parabiotically linked young partners. In mdx dystrophin-deficient mice, a model of human Duchenne muscular dystrophy, muscle injury, and inflammation is mitigated by expansion of the Treg-cell population but exacerbated by Treg-cell depletion. These findings support the notion that immunological mechanisms are not only essential in the response to pathogenic microbes and tumor cells but also have a wider homeostatic role in tissue repair, and open new perspectives for boosting muscle growth in chronic muscle disease and during aging.

  17. Biophysical Stimulation for Engineering Functional Skeletal Muscle.

    PubMed

    Somers, Sarah; Spector, Alexander; DiGirolamo, Douglas; Grayson, Warren L

    2017-04-12

    Tissue engineering is a promising therapeutic strategy to regenerate skeletal muscle. However, ex vivo cultivation methods typically result in a low differentiation efficiency of stem cells as well as grafts that resemble the native tissues morphologically, but lack contractile function. The application of biomimetic tensile strain provides a potent stimulus for enhancing myogenic differentiation and engineering functional skeletal muscle grafts. We reviewed integrin-dependent mechanisms that potentially link mechanotransduction pathways to the upregulation of myogenic genes. Yet, gaps in our understanding make it challenging to use these pathways to theoretically determine optimal ex vivo strain regimens. A multitude of strain protocols have been applied to in vitro cultures for the cultivation of myogenic progenitors (adipose- and bone marrow-derived stem cells & satellite cells) and transformed murine myoblasts, C2C12s. Strain regimen are characterized by orientation, amplitude, and time-dependent factors (effective frequency, duration, and the rest period between successive strain cycles). Analysis of published data has identified possible minimum/maximum values for these parameters and suggests that uniaxial strains may be more potent than biaxial strains possibly because they more closely mimic physiologic strain profiles. The application of these biophysical stimuli for engineering 3D skeletal muscle grafts is non-trivial and typically requires custom-designed bioreactors used in combination with biomaterial scaffolds. Consideration of the physical properties of these scaffolds is critical for effective transmission of the applied strains to encapsulated cells. Taken together, these studies demonstrate that biomimetic tensile strain generally results in improved myogenic outcomes in myogenic progenitors and differentiated myoblasts. However, for 3D systems, the optimization of the strain regimen may require the entire system - cells, biomaterials, and

  18. A MyoD-generated feed-forward circuit temporally patterns gene expression during skeletal muscle differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Penn, Bennett H.; Bergstrom, Donald A.; Dilworth, F. Jeffrey; Bengal, Eyal; Tapscott, Stephen J.

    2004-01-01

    The development and differentiation of distinct cell types is achieved through the sequential expression of subsets of genes; yet, the molecular mechanisms that temporally pattern gene expression remain largely unknown. In skeletal myogenesis, gene expression is initiated by MyoD and includes the expression of specific Mef2 isoforms and activation of the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. Here, we show that p38 activity facilitates MyoD and Mef2 binding at a subset of late-activated promoters, and the binding of Mef2D recruits Pol II. Most importantly, expression of late-activated genes can be shifted to the early stages of differentiation by precocious activation of p38 and expression of Mef2D, demonstrating that a MyoD-mediated feed-forward circuit temporally patterns gene expression. PMID:15466486

  19. Sympathetic actions on the skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Roatta, Silvestro; Farina, Dario

    2010-01-01

    The sympathetic nervous system (SNS) modulates several functions in skeletal muscle fibers, including metabolism, ionic transport across the membrane, and contractility. These actions, together with the sympathetic control of other organ systems, support intense motor activity. However, some SNS actions on skeletal muscles may not always be functionally advantageous. Implications for motor control and sport performance are discussed.

  20. Proteomic profiling of skeletal muscle plasticity.

    PubMed

    Ohlendieck, Kay

    2011-10-01

    One of the most striking physiological features of skeletal muscle tissues are their enormous capacity to adapt to changed functional demands. Muscle plasticity has been extensively studied by histological, biochemical, physiological and genetic methods over the last few decades. With the recent emergence of high-throughput and large-scale proteomic techniques, mass spectrometry-based surveys have also been applied to the global analysis of the skeletal muscle protein complement during physiological modifications and pathophysiological alterations. This review outlines and discusses the impact of recent proteomic profiling studies of skeletal muscle transitions, including the effects of chronic electro-stimulation, physical exercise, denervation, disuse atrophy, hypoxia, myotonia, motor neuron disease and age-related fibre type shifting. This includes studies on the human skeletal muscle proteome, animal models of muscle plasticity and major neuromuscular pathologies. The biomedical importance of establishing reliable biomarker signatures for the various molecular and cellular transition phases involved in muscle transformation is critically examined.

  1. Cyclin D3 critically regulates the balance between self-renewal and differentiation in skeletal muscle stem cells.

    PubMed

    De Luca, Giulia; Ferretti, Roberta; Bruschi, Marco; Mezzaroma, Eleonora; Caruso, Maurizia

    2013-11-01

    Satellite cells are mitotically quiescent myogenic stem cells resident beneath the basal lamina surrounding adult muscle myofibers. In response to injury, multiple extrinsic signals drive the entry of satellite cells into the cell cycle and then to proliferation, differentiation, and self-renewal of their downstream progeny. Because satellite cells must endure for a lifetime, their cell cycle activity must be carefully controlled to coordinate proliferative expansion and self-renewal with the onset of the differentiation program. In this study, we find that cyclin D3, a member of the family of mitogen-activated D-type cyclins, is critically required for proper developmental progression of myogenic progenitors. Using a cyclin D3-knockout mouse we determined that cyclin D3 deficiency leads to reduced myofiber size and impaired establishment of the satellite cell population within the adult muscle. Cyclin D3-null myogenic progenitors, studied ex vivo on isolated myofibers and in vitro, displayed impaired cell cycle progression, increased differentiation potential, and reduced self-renewal capability. Similarly, silencing of cyclin D3 in C2 myoblasts caused anticipated exit from the cell cycle and precocious onset of terminal differentiation. After induced muscle damage, cyclin D3-null myogenic progenitors exhibited proliferation deficits, a precocious ability to form newly generated myofibers and a reduced capability to repopulate the satellite cell niche at later stages of the regeneration process. These results indicate that cyclin D3 plays a cell-autonomous and nonredundant function in regulating the dynamic balance between proliferation, differentiation, and self-renewal that normally establishes an appropriate pool size of adult satellite cells.

  2. Glucose deprivation attenuates sortilin levels in skeletal muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Ariga, Miyako; Yoneyama, Yosuke; Fukushima, Toshiaki; Ishiuchi, Yuri; Ishii, Takayuki; Sato, Hitoshi; Hakuno, Fumihiko; Nedachi, Taku; Takahashi, Shin-Ichiro

    2017-03-31

    In skeletal muscle, sortilin plays a predominant role in the sorting of glucose transporter 4 (Glut4), thereby controlling glucose uptake. Moreover, our previous study suggested that the sortilin expression levels are also implicated in myogenesis. Despite the importance of sortilin in skeletal muscle, however, the regulation of sortilin expression has not been completely understood. In the present study, we analyzed if the sortilin expression is regulated by glucose in C2C12 myocytes and rat skeletal muscles in vivo. Sortilin protein expression was elevated upon C2C12 cell differentiation and was further enhanced in the presence of a high concentration of glucose. The gene expression and protein degradation of sortilin were not affected by glucose. On the other hand, rapamycin partially reduced sortilin induction by a high concentration of glucose, which suggested that sortilin translation could be regulated by glucose, at least in part. We also examined if the sortilin regulation by glucose was also observed in skeletal muscles that were obtained from fed or fasted rats. Sortilin expression in both gastrocnemius and extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle was significantly decreased by 17-18h of starvation. On the other hand, pathological levels of high blood glucose did not alter the sortilin expression in rat skeletal muscle. Overall, the present study suggests that sortilin protein levels are reduced under hypoglycemic conditions by post-transcriptional control in skeletal muscles.

  3. Skeletal muscle dedifferentiation during salamander limb regeneration.

    PubMed

    Wang, Heng; Simon, András

    2016-10-01

    Salamanders can regenerate entire limbs throughout their life. A critical step during limb regeneration is formation of a blastema, which gives rise to the new extremity. Salamander limb regeneration has historically been tightly linked to the term dedifferentiation, however, with refined research tools it is important to revisit the definition of dedifferentiation in the context. To what extent do differentiated cells revert their differentiated phenotypes? To what extent do progeny from differentiated cells cross lineage boundaries during regeneration? How do cell cycle plasticity and lineage plasticity relate to each other? What is the relationship between dedifferentiation of specialized cells and activation of tissue resident stem cells in terms of their contribution to the new limb? Here we highlight these problems through the case of skeletal muscle.

  4. MiR-206 Attenuates Denervation-Induced Skeletal Muscle Atrophy in Rats Through Regulation of Satellite Cell Differentiation via TGF-β1, Smad3, and HDAC4 Signaling.

    PubMed

    Huang, Qiang Kai; Qiao, Hu-Yuan; Fu, Ming-Huan; Li, Gang; Li, Wen-Bin; Chen, Zhi; Wei, Jian; Liang, Bing-Sheng

    2016-04-07

    BACKGROUND Denervation-induced skeletal muscle atrophy results in significant biochemical and physiological changes potentially leading to devastating outcomes including increased mortality. Effective treatments for skeletal muscle diseases are currently not available. Muscle-specific miRNAs, such as miR-206, play an important role in the regulation of muscle regeneration. The aim of the present study was to examine the beneficial effects of miR-206 treatment during the early changes in skeletal muscle atrophy, and to study the underlying signaling pathways in a rat skeletal muscle atrophy model. MATERIAL AND METHODS The rat denervation-induced skeletal muscle atrophy model was established. miRNA-206 was overexpressed with or without TGF-β1 inhibitor in the rats. The mRNA and protein expression of HDAC4, TGF-β1, and Smad3 was determined by real-time PCR and western blot. The gastrocnemius muscle cross-sectional area and relative muscle mass were measured. MyoD1, TGF-β1, and Pax7 were determined by immunohistochemical staining. RESULTS After sciatic nerve surgical transection, basic muscle characteristics, such as relative muscle weight, deteriorated continuously during a 2-week period. Injection of miR-206 (30 μg/rat) attenuated morphological and physiological deterioration of muscle characteristics, prevented fibrosis effectively, and inhibited the expression of TGF-β1 and HDAC4 as assessed 2 weeks after denervation. Moreover, miR-206 treatment increased the number of differentiating (MyoD1+/Pax7+) satellite cells, thereby protecting denervated muscles from atrophy. Interestingly, the ability of miR-206 to govern HDAC4 expression and to attenuate muscle atrophy was weakened after pharmacological blockage of the TGF-b1/Smad3 axis. CONCLUSIONS TGF-β1/Smad3 signaling pathway is one of the crucial signaling pathways by which miR-206 counteracts skeletal muscle atrophy by affecting proliferation and differentiation of satellite cells. miR-206 may be a potential

  5. Channelopathies of skeletal muscle excitability

    PubMed Central

    Cannon, Stephen C.

    2016-01-01

    Familial disorders of skeletal muscle excitability were initially described early in the last century and are now known to be caused by mutations of voltage-gated ion channels. The clinical manifestations are often striking, with an inability to relax after voluntary contraction (myotonia) or transient attacks of severe weakness (periodic paralysis). An essential feature of these disorders is fluctuation of symptoms that are strongly impacted by environmental triggers such as exercise, temperature, or serum K+ levels. These phenomena have intrigued physiologists for decades, and in the past 25 years the molecular lesions underlying these disorders have been identified and mechanistic studies are providing insights for therapeutic strategies of disease modification. These familial disorders of muscle fiber excitability are “channelopathies” caused by mutations of a chloride channel (ClC-1), sodium channel (NaV1.4), calcium channel (CaV1.1) and several potassium channels (Kir2.1, Kir2.6, Kir3.4). This review provides a synthesis of the mechanistic connections between functional defects of mutant ion channels, their impact on muscle excitability, how these changes cause clinical phenotypes, and approaches toward therapeutics. PMID:25880512

  6. [Molecular mechanisms of skeletal muscle hypertrophy].

    PubMed

    Astratenkova, I V; Rogozkin, V A

    2014-06-01

    Enzymes Akt, AMPK, mTOR, S6K and PGC-1a coactivator take part in skeletal muscles in the regulation of synthesis of proteins. The expression of these proteins is regulated by growth factors, hormones, nutrients, mechanical loading and leads to an increase in muscle mass and skeletal muscle hypertrophy. The review presents the results of studies published in the past four years, which expand knowledge on the effects of various factors on protein synthesis in skeletal muscle. The attention is focused on the achievements that reveal and clarify the signaling pathways involved in the regulation of protein synthesis in skeletal muscle. The central place is taken by mTOR enzyme which controls and regulates the main stages of the cascade of reactions of muscle proteins providing synthesis in the conditions of human life. coactivator PGC-1a.

  7. Bex1 knock out mice show altered skeletal muscle regeneration

    SciTech Connect

    Koo, Jae Hyung Smiley, Mark A.; Lovering, Richard M.; Margolis, Frank L.

    2007-11-16

    Bex1 and Calmodulin (CaM) are upregulated during skeletal muscle regeneration. We confirm this finding and demonstrate the novel finding that they interact in a calcium-dependent manner. To study the role of Bex1 and its interaction with CaM in skeletal muscle regeneration, we generated Bex1 knock out (Bex1-KO) mice. These mice appeared to develop normally and are fertile, but displayed a functional deficit in exercise performance compared to wild type (WT) mice. After intramuscular injection of cardiotoxin, which causes extensive and reproducible myotrauma followed by recovery, regenerating muscles of Bex1-KO mice exhibited elevated and prolonged cell proliferation, as well as delayed cell differentiation, compared to WT mice. Thus, our results provide the first evidence that Bex1-KO mice show altered muscle regeneration, and allow us to propose that the interaction of Bex1 with Ca{sup 2+}/CaM may be involved in skeletal muscle regeneration.

  8. Skeletal muscle-smooth muscle interaction: an unusual myoelastic system.

    PubMed

    Hikida, R S; Peterson, W J

    1983-09-01

    The serratus superficialis metapatagialis (SSM) of pigeons is a skeletal muscle with unusual properties. It lies between the ribs and the trailing edge of the wing, where it is attached to the skin by a system of smooth muscles having elastic tendons. Wing movements during flight induce marked changes in this muscle's length. The SSM inserts onto the deep fascia, and at its termination the skeletal muscle contains large numbers of microtubules. Many myofibrils attach to leptomeric organelles, which then attach to the terminal end of the skeletal muscle fiber. The deep fascia next connects to the dermis of the skin by bundles of smooth muscles that have elastic tendons at both ends. This system allows large movements of the muscle while preventing its fibers from overstretching. The movements and presumed forces acting at this muscle make the presence of sensory receptors such as muscle spindles unlikely. Spindles are absent in this muscle.

  9. A conserved MADS-box phosphorylation motif regulates differentiation and mitochondrial function in skeletal, cardiac, and smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Mughal, W; Nguyen, L; Pustylnik, S; da Silva Rosa, S C; Piotrowski, S; Chapman, D; Du, M; Alli, N S; Grigull, J; Halayko, A J; Aliani, M; Topham, M K; Epand, R M; Hatch, G M; Pereira, T J; Kereliuk, S; McDermott, J C; Rampitsch, C; Dolinsky, V W; Gordon, J W

    2015-10-29

    Exposure to metabolic disease during fetal development alters cellular differentiation and perturbs metabolic homeostasis, but the underlying molecular regulators of this phenomenon in muscle cells are not completely understood. To address this, we undertook a computational approach to identify cooperating partners of the myocyte enhancer factor-2 (MEF2) family of transcription factors, known regulators of muscle differentiation and metabolic function. We demonstrate that MEF2 and the serum response factor (SRF) collaboratively regulate the expression of numerous muscle-specific genes, including microRNA-133a (miR-133a). Using tandem mass spectrometry techniques, we identify a conserved phosphorylation motif within the MEF2 and SRF Mcm1 Agamous Deficiens SRF (MADS)-box that regulates miR-133a expression and mitochondrial function in response to a lipotoxic signal. Furthermore, reconstitution of MEF2 function by expression of a neutralizing mutation in this identified phosphorylation motif restores miR-133a expression and mitochondrial membrane potential during lipotoxicity. Mechanistically, we demonstrate that miR-133a regulates mitochondrial function through translational inhibition of a mitophagy and cell death modulating protein, called Nix. Finally, we show that rodents exposed to gestational diabetes during fetal development display muscle diacylglycerol accumulation, concurrent with insulin resistance, reduced miR-133a, and elevated Nix expression, as young adult rats. Given the diverse roles of miR-133a and Nix in regulating mitochondrial function, and proliferation in certain cancers, dysregulation of this genetic pathway may have broad implications involving insulin resistance, cardiovascular disease, and cancer biology.

  10. Angiopoietin-1 enhances skeletal muscle regeneration in mice.

    PubMed

    Mofarrahi, Mahroo; McClung, Joseph M; Kontos, Christopher D; Davis, Elaine C; Tappuni, Bassman; Moroz, Nicolay; Pickett, Amy E; Huck, Laurent; Harel, Sharon; Danialou, Gawiyou; Hussain, Sabah N A

    2015-04-01

    Activation of muscle progenitor cell myogenesis and endothelial cell angiogenesis is critical for the recovery of skeletal muscle from injury. Angiopoietin-1 (Ang-1), a ligand of Tie-2 receptors, enhances angiogenesis and skeletal muscle satellite cell survival; however, its role in skeletal muscle regeneration after injury is unknown. We assessed the effects of Ang-1 on fiber regeneration, myogenesis, and angiogenesis in injured skeletal muscle (tibialis anterior, TA) in mice. We also assessed endogenous Ang-1 levels and localization in intact and injured TA muscles. TA fiber injury was triggered by cardiotoxin injection. Endogenous Ang-1 mRNA levels immediately decreased in response to cardiotoxin then increased during the 2 wk. Ang-1 protein was expressed in satellite cells, both in noninjured and recovering TA muscles. Positive Ang-1 staining was present in blood vessels but not in nerve fibers. Four days after the initiation of injury, injection of adenoviral Ang-1 into injured muscles resulted in significant increases in in situ TA muscle contractility, muscle fiber regeneration, and capillary density. In cultured human skeletal myoblasts, recombinant Ang-1 protein increased survival, proliferation, migration, and differentiation into myotubes. The latter effect was associated with significant upregulation of the expression of the myogenic regulatory factors MyoD and Myogenin and certain genes involved in cell cycle regulation. We conclude that Ang-1 strongly enhances skeletal muscle regeneration in response to fiber injury and that this effect is mediated through induction of the myogenesis program in muscle progenitor cells and the angiogenesis program in endothelial cells.

  11. Historical Perspectives: plasticity of mammalian skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Pette, D

    2001-03-01

    More than 40 years ago, the nerve cross-union experiment of Buller, Eccles, and Eccles provided compelling evidence for the essential role of innervation in determining the properties of mammalian skeletal muscle fibers. Moreover, this experiment revealed that terminally differentiated muscle fibers are not inalterable but are highly versatile entities capable of changing their phenotype from fast to slow or slow to fast. With the use of various experimental models, numerous studies have since confirmed and extended the notion of muscle plasticity. Together, these studies demonstrated that motoneuron-specific impulse patterns, neuromuscular activity, and mechanical loading play important roles in both the maintenance and transition of muscle fiber phenotypes. Depending on the type, intensity, and duration of changes in any of these factors, muscle fibers adjust their phenotype to meet the altered functional demands. Fiber-type transitions resulting from multiple qualitative and quantitative changes in gene expression occur sequentially in a regular order within a spectrum of pure and hybrid fiber types.

  12. Satellite cells in human skeletal muscle plasticity.

    PubMed

    Snijders, Tim; Nederveen, Joshua P; McKay, Bryon R; Joanisse, Sophie; Verdijk, Lex B; van Loon, Luc J C; Parise, Gianni

    2015-01-01

    Skeletal muscle satellite cells are considered to play a crucial role in muscle fiber maintenance, repair and remodeling. Our knowledge of the role of satellite cells in muscle fiber adaptation has traditionally relied on in vitro cell and in vivo animal models. Over the past decade, a genuine effort has been made to translate these results to humans under physiological conditions. Findings from in vivo human studies suggest that satellite cells play a key role in skeletal muscle fiber repair/remodeling in response to exercise. Mounting evidence indicates that aging has a profound impact on the regulation of satellite cells in human skeletal muscle. Yet, the precise role of satellite cells in the development of muscle fiber atrophy with age remains unresolved. This review seeks to integrate recent results from in vivo human studies on satellite cell function in muscle fiber repair/remodeling in the wider context of satellite cell biology whose literature is largely based on animal and cell models.

  13. Skeletal Muscle myomiR Are Differentially Expressed by Endurance Exercise Mode and Combined Essential Amino Acid and Carbohydrate Supplementation

    PubMed Central

    Margolis, Lee M.; McClung, Holly L.; Murphy, Nancy E.; Carrigan, Christopher T.; Pasiakos, Stefan M.

    2017-01-01

    Skeletal muscle microRNAs (myomiR) expression is modulated by exercise, however, the influence of endurance exercise mode, combined with essential amino acid and carbohydrate (EAA+CHO) supplementation are not well defined. This study determined the effects of weighted versus non-weighted endurance exercise, with or without EAA+CHO ingestion on myomiR expression and their association with muscle protein synthesis (MPS). Twenty five adults performed 90 min of metabolically-matched (2.2 VO2 L·m−1) load carriage (LC; performed on a treadmill wearing a vest equal to 30% of individual body mass) or cycle ergometry (CE) exercise, during which EAA+CHO (10 g EAA and 46 g CHO) or non-nutritive control (CON) drinks were consumed. Expression of myomiR (RT-qPCR) were determined at rest (PRE), immediately post-exercise (POST), and 3 h into recovery (REC). Muscle protein synthesis (2H5-phenylalanine) was measured during exercise and recovery. Relative to PRE, POST, and REC expression of miR-1-3p, miR-206, miR-208a-5, and miR-499 was lower (P < 0.05) for LC compared to CE, regardless of dietary treatment. Independent of exercise mode, miR-1-3p and miR-208a-5p expression were lower (P < 0.05) after ingesting EAA+CHO compared to CON. Expression of miR-206 was highest for CE-CON than any other treatment (exercise-by-drink, P < 0.05). Common targets of differing myomiR were identified as markers within mTORC1 signaling, and miR-206 and miR-499 were inversely associated with MPS rates immediately post-exercise. These findings suggest the alterations in myomiR expression between exercise mode and EAA+CHO intake may in part be due to differing MPS modulation immediately post-exercise. PMID:28386239

  14. Lipid droplet dynamics in skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Bosma, Madeleen

    2016-01-15

    The skeletal muscle is subjected to high mechanical and energetic demands. Lipid droplets are an important source of energy substrates for the working muscle. Muscle cells contain a variety of lipid droplets, which are fundamentally smaller than those found in adipocytes. This translates into a greater lipid droplet surface area serving as the interface for intracellular lipid metabolism. The skeletal muscle has a high plasticity, it is subjected to major remodeling following training and detraining. This coincides with adaptations in lipid droplet characteristics and dynamics. The majority of lipid droplets in skeletal muscle are located in the subsarcolemmal region or in-between the myofibrils, in close vicinity to mitochondria. The vastly organized nature of skeletal muscle fibers limits organelle mobility. The high metabolic rate and substrate turnover in skeletal muscle demands a strict coordination of intramyocellular lipid metabolism and LD dynamics, in which lipid droplet coat proteins play an important role. This review provides insights into the characteristics, diversity and dynamics of skeletal muscle lipid droplets.

  15. Differential effects of Latrunculin-A on myofibrils in cultures of skeletal muscle cells: insights into mechanisms of myofibrillogenesis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jushuo; Sanger, Jean M; Sanger, Joseph W

    2005-09-01

    To test different models of myofibrillogenesis, we followed live cells expressing Green Fluorescent Proteins ligated to either actin or alpha-actinin and analyzed stress fibers, premyofibrils, and myofibrils in quail myotube cultures. Actin filaments in the three types of fibers were compared by analyzing the effects of Latrunculin-A (Lat-A), a monomeric actin binding macrolide drug (M.W. = 422 Daltons), on stress fibers in fibroblasts and on myofibrils in skeletal myotubes in the same culture. Lat-A, at low concentrations (0.2 microM), induced the loss of stress fibers in fibroblasts within a few hours and within 10 min when Lat-A was increased to 1.0 microM. The effect was reversible with reformation of the stress fibers when the drug was removed. In contrast to the Lat-A induced disassembly of stress fibers in fibroblasts, assembling myofibrils in the skeletal muscle cells were not affected by 1.0-microM concentrations of Lat-A. With increasing concentrations of Lat-A (up to 5 microM), and increasing incubation times, however, the drug induced premyofibrils, the precursors of mature myofibrils, to disassemble and the accumulation of mature myofibrils to be halted. Removal of the drug led to the reformation of premyofibrils and the resumption of myofibrillogenesis in the spreading edges of the myotubes. In contrast, the mature myofibrils in the central shaft of the myotubes were stable in doses of Lat-A as high as 50 microM. The newly assembled mature myofibrils located adjacent to the premyofibrils at the ends and sides of the myotube were intermediate in sensitivity to Lat-A, disassembling when exposed to 10 microM Lat-A for one hour. To determine how a change in the actin filaments during myofibrillogenesis might confer greater resistance to depolymerization by Lat-A, we stained the myotubes with an antibody directed against CapZ, a protein that blocks the release of monomer actin from the barbed ends of actin filaments. CapZ was absent from premyofibrils. It

  16. Developing cardiac and skeletal muscle share fast-skeletal myosin heavy chain and cardiac troponin-I expression.

    PubMed

    Clause, Kelly C; Tchao, Jason; Powell, Mary C; Liu, Li J; Huard, Johnny; Keller, Bradley B; Tobita, Kimimasa

    2012-01-01

    Skeletal muscle derived stem cells (MDSCs) transplanted into injured myocardium can differentiate into fast skeletal muscle specific myosin heavy chain (sk-fMHC) and cardiac specific troponin-I (cTn-I) positive cells sustaining recipient myocardial function. We have recently found that MDSCs differentiate into a cardiomyocyte phenotype within a three-dimensional gel bioreactor. It is generally accepted that terminally differentiated myocardium or skeletal muscle only express cTn-I or sk-fMHC, respectively. Studies have shown the presence of non-cardiac muscle proteins in the developing myocardium or cardiac proteins in pathological skeletal muscle. In the current study, we tested the hypothesis that normal developing myocardium and skeletal muscle transiently share both sk-fMHC and cTn-I proteins. Immunohistochemistry, western blot, and RT-PCR analyses were carried out in embryonic day 13 (ED13) and 20 (ED20), neonatal day 0 (ND0) and 4 (ND4), postnatal day 10 (PND10), and 8 week-old adult female Lewis rat ventricular myocardium and gastrocnemius muscle. Confocal laser microscopy revealed that sk-fMHC was expressed as a typical striated muscle pattern within ED13 ventricular myocardium, and the striated sk-fMHC expression was lost by ND4 and became negative in adult myocardium. cTn-I was not expressed as a typical striated muscle pattern throughout the myocardium until PND10. Western blot and RT-PCR analyses revealed that gene and protein expression patterns of cardiac and skeletal muscle transcription factors and sk-fMHC within ventricular myocardium and skeletal muscle were similar at ED20, and the expression patterns became cardiac or skeletal muscle specific during postnatal development. These findings provide new insight into cardiac muscle development and highlight previously unknown common developmental features of cardiac and skeletal muscle.

  17. Connective tissue cells expressing fibro/adipogenic progenitor markers increase under chronic damage: relevance in fibroblast-myofibroblast differentiation and skeletal muscle fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Contreras, Osvaldo; Rebolledo, Daniela L; Oyarzún, Juan Esteban; Olguín, Hugo C; Brandan, Enrique

    2016-06-01

    Fibrosis occurs in skeletal muscle under various pathophysiological conditions such as Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), a devastating disease characterized by fiber degeneration that results in progressive loss of muscle mass, weakness and increased extracellular matrix (ECM) accumulation. Fibrosis is also observed after skeletal muscle denervation and repeated cycles of damage followed by regeneration. The ECM is synthesized largely by fibroblasts in the muscle connective tissue under normal conditions. Myofibroblasts, cells that express α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), play a role in many tissues affected by fibrosis. In skeletal muscle, fibro/adipogenic progenitors (FAPs) that express cell-surface platelet-derived growth factor receptor-α (PDGFR-α) and the transcription factor Tcf4 seem to be responsible for connective tissue synthesis and are good candidates for the origin of myofibroblasts. We show that cells positive for Tcf4 and PDGFR-α are expressed in skeletal muscle under normal conditions and are increased in various skeletal muscles of mdx mice, a murine model for DMD, wild type muscle after sciatic denervation and muscle subjected to chronic damage. These cells co-label with the myofibroblast marker α-SMA in dystrophic muscle but not in normal tissue. The Tcf4-positive cells lie near macrophages mainly concentrated in dystrophic necrotic-regenerating foci. The close proximity of Tcf4-positive cells to inflammatory cells and their previously described role in muscle regeneration might reflect an active interaction between these cell types and growth factors, possibly resulting in a muscular regenerative or fibrotic condition.

  18. Regulation of skeletal muscle perfusion during exercise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delp, M. D.; Laughlin, M. H.

    1998-01-01

    For exercise to be sustained, it is essential that adequate blood flow be provided to skeletal muscle. The local vascular control mechanisms involved in regulating muscle perfusion during exercise include metabolic control, endothelium-mediated control, propagated responses, myogenic control, and the muscle pump. The primary determinant of muscle perfusion during sustained exercise is the metabolic rate of the muscle. Metabolites from contracting muscle diffuse to resistance arterioles and act directly to induce vasodilation, or indirectly to inhibit noradrenaline release from sympathetic nerve endings and oppose alpha-adrenoreceptor-mediated vasoconstriction. The vascular endothelium also releases vasodilator substances (e.g., prostacyclin and nitric oxide) that are prominent in establishing basal vascular tone, but these substances do not appear to contribute to the exercise hyperemia in muscle. Endothelial and smooth muscle cells may also be involved in propagating vasodilator signals along arterioles to parent and daughter vessels. Myogenic autoregulation does not appear to be involved in the exercise hyperemia in muscle, but the rhythmic propulsion of blood from skeletal muscle veins facilitates venous return to the heart and muscle perfusion. It appears that the primary determinants of sustained exercise hyperemia in skeletal muscle are metabolic vasodilation and increased vascular conductance via the muscle pump. Additionally, sympathetic neural control is important in regulating muscle blood flow during exercise.

  19. Skeletal and cardiac muscle pericytes: Functions and therapeutic potential.

    PubMed

    Murray, Iain R; Baily, James E; Chen, William C W; Dar, Ayelet; Gonzalez, Zaniah N; Jensen, Andrew R; Petrigliano, Frank A; Deb, Arjun; Henderson, Neil C

    2017-03-01

    Pericytes are periendothelial mesenchymal cells residing within the microvasculature. Skeletal muscle and cardiac pericytes are now recognized to fulfill an increasing number of functions in normal tissue homeostasis, including contributing to microvascular function by maintaining vessel stability and regulating capillary flow. In the setting of muscle injury, pericytes contribute to a regenerative microenvironment through release of trophic factors and by modulating local immune responses. In skeletal muscle, pericytes also directly enhance tissue healing by differentiating into myofibers. Conversely, pericytes have also been implicated in the development of disease states, including fibrosis, heterotopic ossication and calcification, atherosclerosis, and tumor angiogenesis. Despite increased recognition of pericyte heterogeneity, it is not yet clear whether specific subsets of pericytes are responsible for individual functions in skeletal and cardiac muscle homeostasis and disease.

  20. Sumoylated α-skeletal muscle actin in the skeletal muscle of adult rats.

    PubMed

    Uda, Munehiro; Kawasaki, Hiroaki; Iizumi, Kyoichi; Shigenaga, Ayako; Baba, Takeshi; Naito, Hisashi; Yoshioka, Toshitada; Yamakura, Fumiyuki

    2015-11-01

    Skeletal muscles are composed of two major muscle fiber types: slow-twitch oxidative fibers and fast-twitch glycolytic fibers. The proteins in these muscle fibers are known to differ in their expression, relative abundance, and post-translational modifications. In this study, we report a previously unreported post-translational modification of α-skeletal muscle actin in the skeletal muscles of adult male F344 rats in vivo. Using two-dimensional electrophoresis (2D-PAGE), we first examined the differences in the protein expression profiles between the soleus and plantaris muscles. We found higher intensity protein spots at approximately 60 kDa and pH 9 on 2D-PAGE for the soleus muscle compared with the plantaris muscle. These spots were identified as α-skeletal muscle actin by liquid chromatography-nanoelectrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry and western blot analyses. In addition, we found that the 60 kDa α-skeletal muscle actin is modified by small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) 1, using 2D-PAGE and western blot analyses. Furthermore, we found that α-skeletal muscle actin with larger molecular weight was localized in the nuclear and cytosol of the skeletal muscle, but not in the myofibrillar fraction by the combination of subcellular fractionation and western blot analyses. These results suggest that α-skeletal muscle actin is modified by SUMO-1 in the skeletal muscles, localized in nuclear and cytosolic fractions, and the extent of this modification is much higher in the slow muscles than in the fast muscles. This is the first study to show the presence of SUMOylated actin in animal tissues.

  1. Space travel directly induces skeletal muscle atrophy.

    PubMed

    Vandenburgh, H; Chromiak, J; Shansky, J; Del Tatto, M; Lemaire, J

    1999-06-01

    Space travel causes rapid and pronounced skeletal muscle wasting in humans that reduces their long-term flight capabilities. To develop effective countermeasures, the basis of this atrophy needs to be better understood. Space travel may cause muscle atrophy indirectly by altering circulating levels of factors such as growth hormone, glucocorticoids, and anabolic steroids and/or by a direct effect on the muscle fibers themselves. To determine whether skeletal muscle cells are directly affected by space travel, tissue-cultured avian skeletal muscle cells were tissue engineered into bioartificial muscles and flown in perfusion bioreactors for 9 to 10 days aboard the Space Transportation System (STS, i.e., Space Shuttle). Significant muscle fiber atrophy occurred due to a decrease in protein synthesis rates without alterations in protein degradation. Return of the muscle cells to Earth stimulated protein synthesis rates of both muscle-specific and extracellular matrix proteins relative to ground controls. These results show for the first time that skeletal muscle fibers are directly responsive to space travel and should be a target for countermeasure development.

  2. Space travel directly induces skeletal muscle atrophy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vandenburgh, H.; Chromiak, J.; Shansky, J.; Del Tatto, M.; Lemaire, J.

    1999-01-01

    Space travel causes rapid and pronounced skeletal muscle wasting in humans that reduces their long-term flight capabilities. To develop effective countermeasures, the basis of this atrophy needs to be better understood. Space travel may cause muscle atrophy indirectly by altering circulating levels of factors such as growth hormone, glucocorticoids, and anabolic steroids and/or by a direct effect on the muscle fibers themselves. To determine whether skeletal muscle cells are directly affected by space travel, tissue-cultured avian skeletal muscle cells were tissue engineered into bioartificial muscles and flown in perfusion bioreactors for 9 to 10 days aboard the Space Transportation System (STS, i.e., Space Shuttle). Significant muscle fiber atrophy occurred due to a decrease in protein synthesis rates without alterations in protein degradation. Return of the muscle cells to Earth stimulated protein synthesis rates of both muscle-specific and extracellular matrix proteins relative to ground controls. These results show for the first time that skeletal muscle fibers are directly responsive to space travel and should be a target for countermeasure development.

  3. Heterogeneous ageing of skeletal muscle microvascular function.

    PubMed

    Muller-Delp, Judy M

    2016-04-15

    The distribution of blood flow to skeletal muscle during exercise is altered with advancing age. Changes in arteriolar function that are muscle specific underlie age-induced changes in blood flow distribution. With advancing age, functional adaptations that occur in resistance arterioles from oxidative muscles differ from those that occur in glycolytic muscles. Age-related adaptations of morphology, as well as changes in both endothelial and vascular smooth muscle signalling, differ in muscle of diverse fibre type. Age-induced endothelial dysfunction has been reported in most skeletal muscle arterioles; however, unique alterations in signalling contribute to the dysfunction in arterioles from oxidative muscles as compared with those from glycolytic muscles. In resistance arterioles from oxidative muscle, loss of nitric oxide signalling contributes significantly to endothelial dysfunction, whereas in resistance arterioles from glycolytic muscle, alterations in both nitric oxide and prostanoid signalling underlie endothelial dysfunction. Similarly, adaptations of the vascular smooth muscle that occur with advancing age are heterogeneous between arterioles from oxidative and glycolytic muscles. In both oxidative and glycolytic muscle, late-life exercise training reverses age-related microvascular dysfunction, and exercise training appears to be particularly effective in reversing endothelial dysfunction. Patterns of microvascular ageing that develop among muscles of diverse fibre type and function may be attributable to changing patterns of physical activity with ageing. Importantly, aerobic exercise training, initiated even at an advanced age, restores muscle blood flow distribution patterns and vascular function in old animals to those seen in their young counterparts.

  4. Isolation and characterization of primary skeletal muscle satellite cells from rats.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yuan; Chen, Sifan; Li, Wenxue; Du, Hongyan; Zhu, Wei

    2012-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to isolate and characterize skeletal muscle satellite cells from rats using tissue block culture method. Specific Pathogen Free (SPF) level Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were used to isolate skeletal muscle satellite cells. Morphology, expression and distribution of α-actin and Desmin within the cytoplasm of skeletal muscle satellite cells were compared with those of C2C12 myoblasts. The results showed that tissue block culturing method achieved robust proliferation and excellent differentiation of skeletal muscle satellite cells. Immunofluorescence and immunohistochemistry results showed that α-actin and Desmin proteins were expressed in the cytoplasm of both skeletal muscle satellite cells and myoblasts. We concluded that tissue block culturing method can obtain highly purified skeletal muscle satellite cells with robust proliferation and excellent differentiation capabilities.

  5. Skeletal muscle weakness in osteogeneis imperfecta mice

    PubMed Central

    Gentry, Bettina A; Ferreira, J. Andries; McCambridge, Amanda J.; Brown, Marybeth; Phillips, Charlotte L.

    2010-01-01

    Exercise intolerance, muscle fatigue and weakness are often-reported, little-investigated concerns of patients with osteogenesis imperfecta (OI). OI is a heritable connective tissue disorder hallmarked by bone fragility resulting primarily from dominant mutations in the proα1(I) or proα2(I) collagen genes and the recently discovered recessive mutations in post-translational modifying proteins of type I collagen. In this study we examined the soleus (S), plantaris (P), gastrocnemius (G), tibialis anterior (TA) and quadriceps (Q) muscles of mice expressing mild (+/oim) and moderately severe (oim/oim) OI for evidence of inherent muscle pathology. In particular, muscle weight, fiber cross-sectional area (CSA), fiber type, fiber histomorphology, fibrillar collagen content, absolute, relative and specific peak tetanic force (Po, Po/mg and Po/CSA respectively) of individual muscles were evaluated. Oim/oim mouse muscles were generally smaller, contained less fibrillar collagen, had decreased Po and an inability to sustain Po for the 300 ms testing duration for specific muscles; +/oim mice had a similar but milder skeletal muscle phenotype. +/oim mice had mild weakness of specific muscles but were less affected than their oim/oim counterparts which demonstrated readily apparent skeletal muscle pathology. Therefore muscle weakness in oim mice reflects inherent skeletal muscle pathology. PMID:20619344

  6. How sex hormones promote skeletal muscle regeneration.

    PubMed

    Velders, Martina; Diel, Patrick

    2013-11-01

    Skeletal muscle regeneration efficiency declines with age for both men and women. This decline impacts on functional capabilities in the elderly and limits their ability to engage in regular physical activity and to maintain independence. Aging is associated with a decline in sex hormone production. Therefore, elucidating the effects of sex hormone substitution on skeletal muscle homeostasis and regeneration after injury or disuse is highly relevant for the aging population, where sarcopenia affects more than 30 % of individuals over 60 years of age. While the anabolic effects of androgens are well known, the effects of estrogens on skeletal muscle anabolism have only been uncovered in recent times. Hence, the purpose of this review is to provide a mechanistic insight into the regulation of skeletal muscle regenerative processes by both androgens and estrogens. Animal studies using estrogen receptor (ER) antagonists and receptor subtype selective agonists have revealed that estrogens act through both genomic and non-genomic pathways to reduce leukocyte invasion and increase satellite cell numbers in regenerating skeletal muscle tissue. Although animal studies have been more conclusive than human studies in establishing a role for sex hormones in the attenuation of muscle damage, data from a number of recent well controlled human studies is presented to support the notion that hormonal therapies and exercise induce added positive effects on functional measures and lean tissue mass. Based on the fact that aging human skeletal muscle retains the ability to adapt to exercise with enhanced satellite cell activation, combining sex hormone therapies with exercise may induce additive effects on satellite cell accretion. There is evidence to suggest that there is a 'window of opportunity' after the onset of a hypogonadal state such as menopause, to initiate a hormonal therapy in order to achieve maximal benefits for skeletal muscle health. Novel receptor subtype selective

  7. Aspects of skeletal muscle modelling.

    PubMed Central

    Epstein, Marcelo; Herzog, Walter

    2003-01-01

    The modelling of skeletal muscle raises a number of philosophical questions, particularly in the realm of the relationship between different possible levels of representation and explanation. After a brief incursion into this area, a list of desiderata is proposed as a guiding principle for the construction of a viable model, including: comprehensiveness, soundness, experimental consistency, predictive ability and refinability. Each of these principles is illustrated by means of simple examples. The presence of internal constraints, such as incompressibility, may lead to counterintuitive results. A one-panel example is exploited to advocate the use of the principle of virtual work as the ideal tool to deal with these situations. The question of stability in the descending limb of the force-length relation is addressed and a purely mechanical analogue is suggested. New experimental results confirm the assumption that fibre stiffness is positive even in the descending limb. The indeterminacy of the force-sharing problem is traditionally resolved by optimizing a, presumably, physically meaningful target function. After presenting some new results in this area, based on a separation theorem, it is suggested that a more fundamental approach to the problem is the abandoning of optimization criteria in favour of an explicit implementation of activation criteria. PMID:14561335

  8. Low-dose benzo(a)pyrene and its epoxide metabolite inhibit myogenic differentiation in human skeletal muscle-derived progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Chen-Yuan; Yen, Yuan-Peng; Tsai, Keh-Sung; Yang, Rong-Sen; Liu, Shing-Hwa

    2014-04-01

    The risk of low birth weights is elevated in prenatal exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), which are ubiquitous environmental pollutants generated from combustion of organic compounds, including cigarette smoke. We hypothesized that benzo(a)pyrene (BaP), a member of PAHs existing in cigarette smoke, may affect the myogenesis to cause low birth weights. We investigated the effects of BaP and its main metabolite, benzo(a)pyrene-7,8-dihydrodiol-9,10-epoxide (BPDE), on the myogenic differentiation of human skeletal muscle-derived progenitor cells (HSMPCs). HSMPCs were isolated by a modified preplate technique and cultured in myogenic differentiation media with or without BaP and BPDE (0.25 and 0.5 μM) for 4 days. The multinucleated myotube formation was morphologically analyzed by hematoxylin and eosin staining. The expressions of myogenic differentiation markers and related signaling proteins were determined by Western blotting. Both BaP and BPDE at the submicromolar concentrations (0.25 and 0.5 μM) dose-dependently repressed HSMPCs myogenic differentiation without obvious cell toxicity. Both BaP and BPDE inhibited the muscle-specific protein expressions (myogenin and myosin heavy chain) and phosphorylation of Akt (a known modulator in myogenesis), which could be significantly reversed by the inhibitors for aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), estrogen receptor (ER), and nuclear factor (NF)-κB. BaP- and BPDE-activated NF-κB-p65 protein phosphorylation could also be attenuated by both AhR and ER inhibitors. The inhibitory effects of BaP and BPDE on myogenesis were reversed after withdrawing BaP exposure, but not after BPDE withdrawal. These results suggest that both BaP and BPDE are capable of inhibiting myogenesis via an AhR- or/and ER-regulated NF-κB/Akt signaling pathway.

  9. Potential of laryngeal muscle regeneration using induced pluripotent stem cell-derived skeletal muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Dirja, Bayu Tirta; Yoshie, Susumu; Ikeda, Masakazu; Imaizumi, Mitsuyoshi; Nakamura, Ryosuke; Otsuki, Koshi; Nomoto, Yukio; Wada, Ikuo; Hazama, Akihiro; Omori, Koichi

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells may be a new potential cell source for laryngeal muscle regeneration in the treatment of vocal fold atrophy after recurrent laryngeal nerve paralysis. Objectives Unilateral vocal fold paralysis can lead to degeneration, atrophy, and loss of force of the thyroarytenoid muscle. At present, there are some treatments such as thyroplasty, arytenoid adduction, and vocal fold injection. However, such treatments cannot restore reduced mass of the thyroarytenoid muscle. iPS cells have been recognized as supplying a potential resource for cell transplantation. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of the use of iPS cells for the regeneration of laryngeal muscle through the evaluation of both in vitro and in vivo experiments. Methods Skeletal muscle cells were generated from tdTomato-labeled iPS cells using embryoid body formation. Differentiation into skeletal muscle cells was analyzed by gene expression and immunocytochemistry. The tdTomato-labeled iPS cell-derived skeletal muscle cells were transplanted into the left atrophied thyroarytenoid muscle. To evaluate the engraftment of these cells after transplantation, immunohistochemistry was performed. Results The tdTomato-labeled iPS cells were successfully differentiated into skeletal muscle cells through an in vitro experiment. These cells survived in the atrophied thyroarytenoid muscle after transplantation.

  10. Skeletal muscle tensile strain dependence: hyperviscoelastic nonlinearity

    PubMed Central

    Wheatley, Benjamin B; Morrow, Duane A; Odegard, Gregory M; Kaufman, Kenton R; Donahue, Tammy L Haut

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Computational modeling of skeletal muscle requires characterization at the tissue level. While most skeletal muscle studies focus on hyperelasticity, the goal of this study was to examine and model the nonlinear behavior of both time-independent and time-dependent properties of skeletal muscle as a function of strain. Materials and Methods Nine tibialis anterior muscles from New Zealand White rabbits were subject to five consecutive stress relaxation cycles of roughly 3% strain. Individual relaxation steps were fit with a three-term linear Prony series. Prony series coefficients and relaxation ratio were assessed for strain dependence using a general linear statistical model. A fully nonlinear constitutive model was employed to capture the strain dependence of both the viscoelastic and instantaneous components. Results Instantaneous modulus (p<0.0005) and mid-range relaxation (p<0.0005) increased significantly with strain level, while relaxation at longer time periods decreased with strain (p<0.0005). Time constants and overall relaxation ratio did not change with strain level (p>0.1). Additionally, the fully nonlinear hyperviscoelastic constitutive model provided an excellent fit to experimental data, while other models which included linear components failed to capture muscle function as accurately. Conclusions Material properties of skeletal muscle are strain-dependent at the tissue level. This strain dependence can be included in computational models of skeletal muscle performance with a fully nonlinear hyperviscoelastic model. PMID:26409235

  11. The benefits of coffee on skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Dirks-Naylor, Amie J

    2015-12-15

    Coffee is consumed worldwide with greater than a billion cups of coffee ingested every day. Epidemiological studies have revealed an association of coffee consumption with reduced incidence of a variety of chronic diseases as well as all-cause mortality. Current research has primarily focused on the effects of coffee or its components on various organ systems such as the cardiovascular system, with relatively little attention on skeletal muscle. Summary of current literature suggests that coffee has beneficial effects on skeletal muscle. Coffee has been shown to induce autophagy, improve insulin sensitivity, stimulate glucose uptake, slow the progression of sarcopenia, and promote the regeneration of injured muscle. Much more research is needed to reveal the full scope of benefits that coffee consumption may exert on skeletal muscle structure and function.

  12. Transcriptomic profiling of TK2 deficient human skeletal muscle suggests a role for the p53 signalling pathway and identifies growth and differentiation factor-15 as a potential novel biomarker for mitochondrial myopathies

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Mutations in the gene encoding thymidine kinase 2 (TK2) result in the myopathic form of mitochondrial DNA depletion syndrome which is a mitochondrial encephalomyopathy presenting in children. In order to unveil some of the mechanisms involved in this pathology and to identify potential biomarkers and therapeutic targets we have investigated the gene expression profile of human skeletal muscle deficient for TK2 using cDNA microarrays. Results We have analysed the whole transcriptome of skeletal muscle from patients with TK2 mutations and compared it to normal muscle and to muscle from patients with other mitochondrial myopathies. We have identified a set of over 700 genes which are differentially expressed in TK2 deficient muscle. Bioinformatics analysis reveals important changes in muscle metabolism, in particular, in glucose and glycogen utilisation, and activation of the starvation response which affects aminoacid and lipid metabolism. We have identified those transcriptional regulators which are likely to be responsible for the observed changes in gene expression. Conclusion Our data point towards the tumor suppressor p53 as the regulator at the centre of a network of genes which are responsible for a coordinated response to TK2 mutations which involves inflammation, activation of muscle cell death by apoptosis and induction of growth and differentiation factor 15 (GDF-15) in muscle and serum. We propose that GDF-15 may represent a potential novel biomarker for mitochondrial dysfunction although further studies are required. PMID:24484525

  13. Denervation and reinnervation of skeletal muscle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mayer, R. F.; Max, S. R.

    1983-01-01

    A review is presented of the physiological and biochemical changes that occur in mammalian skeletal muscle after denervation and reinnervation. These changes are compared with those observed after altered motor function. Also considered is the nature of the trophic influence by which nerves control muscle properties. Topics examined include the membrane and contractile properties of denervated and reinnervated muscle; the cholinergic proteins, such as choline acetyltransferase, acetylcholinesterase, and the acetylcholine receptor; and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase.

  14. Myoglobin Function in Exercising Skeletal Muscle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cole, Randolph P.

    1982-04-01

    Short-term perfusion of the isolated dog gastrocnemius-plantaris muscle with hydrogen peroxide resulted in a decrease in steady-state muscle oxygen consumption and isometric tension generation. Hydrogen peroxide converted intracellular myoglobin to products incapable of combination with oxygen, but had no deleterious effect on neuromuscular transmission or on mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. It is concluded that functional intracellular myoglobin is important in maintaining oxygen consumption and tension generation in exercising skeletal muscle.

  15. Leucine stimulation of skeletal muscle protein synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Layman, D.K.; Grogan, C.K.

    1986-03-01

    Previous work in this laboratory has demonstrated a stimulatory effect of leucine on skeletal muscle protein synthesis measured in vitro during catabolic conditions. Studies in other laboratories have consistently found this effect in diaphragm muscle, however, studies examining effects on nitrogen balance or with in vivo protein synthesis in skeletal muscle are equivocal. This experiment was designed to determine the potential of leucine to stimulate skeletal muscle protein synthesis in vivo. Male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 200 g were fasted for 12 hrs, anesthetized, a jugular cannula inserted, and protein synthesis measured using a primed continuous infusion of /sup 14/C-tyrosine. A plateau in specific activity was reached after 30 to 60 min and maintained for 3 hrs. The leucine dose consisted of a 240 umole priming dose followed by a continuous infusion of 160 umoles/hr. Leucine infusion stimulated protein synthesis in the soleus muscle (28%) and in the red (28%) and white portions (12%) of the gastrocnemius muscle compared with controls infused with only tyrosine. The increased rates of protein synthesis were due to increased incorporation of tyrosine into protein and to decreased specific activity of the free tyrosine pool. These data indicate that infusion of leucine has the potential to stimulate in vivo protein synthesis in skeletal muscles.

  16. Human Skeletal Muscle Health with Spaceflight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trappe, Scott

    2012-07-01

    This lecture will overview the most recent aerobic and resistance exercise programs used by crewmembers while aboard the International Space Station (ISS) for six months and examine its effectiveness for protecting skeletal muscle health. Detailed information on the exercise prescription program, whole muscle size, whole muscle performance, and cellular data obtained from muscle biopsy samples will be presented. Historically, detailed information on the exercise program while in space has not been available. These most recent exercise and muscle physiology findings provide a critical foundation to guide the exercise countermeasure program forward for future long-duration space missions.

  17. Kelch proteins: emerging roles in skeletal muscle development and diseases

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Our understanding of genes that cause skeletal muscle disease has increased tremendously over the past three decades. Advances in approaches to genetics and genomics have aided in the identification of new pathogenic mechanisms in rare genetic disorders and have opened up new avenues for therapeutic interventions by identification of new molecular pathways in muscle disease. Recent studies have identified mutations of several Kelch proteins in skeletal muscle disorders. The Kelch superfamily is one of the largest evolutionary conserved gene families. The 66 known family members all possess a Kelch-repeat containing domain and are implicated in diverse biological functions. In skeletal muscle development, several Kelch family members regulate the processes of proliferation and/or differentiation resulting in normal functioning of mature muscles. Importantly, many Kelch proteins function as substrate-specific adaptors for Cullin E3 ubiquitin ligase (Cul3), a core component of the ubiquitin-proteasome system to regulate the protein turnover. This review discusses the emerging roles of Kelch proteins in skeletal muscle function and disease. PMID:24959344

  18. Molecular regulation of skeletal muscle mass.

    PubMed

    Russell, Aaron P

    2010-03-01

    1. The maintenance of skeletal muscle mass is determined by a fine balance between protein synthesis and protein degradation. Skeletal mass is increased when there is a net gain in protein synthesis, which can occur following progressive exercise training. In contrast, skeletal muscle mass is lost when degradation occurs more rapidly than synthesis and is observed in numerous conditions, including neuromuscular disease, chronic disease, ageing, as well as following limb immobilization or prolonged bed rest due to injury or trauma. 2. Understanding the molecular pathways that regulate skeletal muscle protein synthesis and degradation is vital for identifying potential therapeutic targets that can attenuate muscle atrophy during disease and disuse. 3. The regulation of skeletal mass is complex and involves the precise coordination of several intracellular signalling pathways. The present review focuses on the role and regulation of pathways involving Akt, atrogin-1 and muscle ring finger-1 (MuRF1; atrogenes), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator-1alpha (PGC-1alpha) and striated activator of Rho signalling (STARS), with exercise and disease.

  19. The adipokine leptin increases skeletal muscle mass and significantly alters skeletal muscle miRNA expression profile in aged mice

    SciTech Connect

    Hamrick, Mark W.; Herberg, Samuel; Arounleut, Phonepasong; He, Hong-Zhi; Shiver, Austin; Qi, Rui-Qun; Zhou, Li; Isales, Carlos M.; and others

    2010-09-24

    Research highlights: {yields} Aging is associated with muscle atrophy and loss of muscle mass, known as the sarcopenia of aging. {yields} We demonstrate that age-related muscle atrophy is associated with marked changes in miRNA expression in muscle. {yields} Treating aged mice with the adipokine leptin significantly increased muscle mass and the expression of miRNAs involved in muscle repair. {yields} Recombinant leptin therapy may therefore be a novel approach for treating age-related muscle atrophy. -- Abstract: Age-associated loss of muscle mass, or sarcopenia, contributes directly to frailty and an increased risk of falls and fractures among the elderly. Aged mice and elderly adults both show decreased muscle mass as well as relatively low levels of the fat-derived hormone leptin. Here we demonstrate that loss of muscle mass and myofiber size with aging in mice is associated with significant changes in the expression of specific miRNAs. Aging altered the expression of 57 miRNAs in mouse skeletal muscle, and many of these miRNAs are now reported to be associated specifically with age-related muscle atrophy. These include miR-221, previously identified in studies of myogenesis and muscle development as playing a role in the proliferation and terminal differentiation of myogenic precursors. We also treated aged mice with recombinant leptin, to determine whether leptin therapy could improve muscle mass and alter the miRNA expression profile of aging skeletal muscle. Leptin treatment significantly increased hindlimb muscle mass and extensor digitorum longus fiber size in aged mice. Furthermore, the expression of 37 miRNAs was altered in muscles of leptin-treated mice. In particular, leptin treatment increased the expression of miR-31 and miR-223, miRNAs known to be elevated during muscle regeneration and repair. These findings suggest that aging in skeletal muscle is associated with marked changes in the expression of specific miRNAs, and that nutrient

  20. Palmdelphin promotes myoblast differentiation and muscle regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Nie, Yaping; Chen, Hu; Guo, Cilin; Yuan, Zhuning; Zhou, Xingyu; Zhang, Ying; Zhang, Xumeng; Mo, Delin; Chen, Yaosheng

    2017-01-01

    Differentiation of myoblasts is essential in the development and regeneration of skeletal muscles to form multinucleated, contractile muscle fibers. However, the process of myoblast differentiation in mammals is complicated and requires to be further investigated. In this study, we found Palmdelphin (Palmd), a cytosolic protein, promotes myoblast differentiation. Palmd is predominantly expressed in the cytosol of myoblasts and is gradually up-regulated after differentiation. Knockdown of Palmd by small interfering RNA (siRNA) in C2C12 markedly inhibits myogenic differentiation, suggesting a specific role of Palmd in the morphological changes of myoblast differentiation program. Overexpression of Palmd in C2C12 enhances myogenic differentiation. Remarkably, inhibition of Palmd results in impaired myotube formation during muscle regeneration after injury. These findings reveal a new cytosolic protein that promotes mammalian myoblast differentiation and provide new insights into the molecular regulation of muscle formation. PMID:28148961

  1. Focal adhesion kinase and its role in skeletal muscle

    PubMed Central

    Graham, Zachary A.; Gallagher, Philip M.; Cardozo, Christopher P.

    2015-01-01

    Skeletal muscle has a remarkable ability to respond to different physical stresses. Loading muscle through exercise, either anaerobic or aerobic, can lead to increases in muscle size and function while, conversely, the absence of muscle loading stimulates rapid decreases in size and function. A principal mediator of this load-induced change is focal adhesion kinase (FAK), a downstream non-receptor tyrosine kinase that translates the cytoskeletal stress and strain signals transmitted across the cytoplasmic membrane by integrins to activate multiple anti-apoptotic and cell growth pathways. Changes in FAK expression and phosphorylation have been found to correlate to specific developmental states in myoblast differentiation, muscle fiber formation and muscle size in response to loading and unloading. With the capability to regulate costamere formation, hypertrophy and glucose metabolism, FAK is a molecule with diverse functions that are important in regulating muscle cell health. PMID:26142360

  2. Focal adhesion kinase and its role in skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Graham, Zachary A; Gallagher, Philip M; Cardozo, Christopher P

    2015-10-01

    Skeletal muscle has a remarkable ability to respond to different physical stresses. Loading muscle through exercise, either anaerobic or aerobic, can lead to increases in muscle size and function while, conversely, the absence of muscle loading stimulates rapid decreases in size and function. A principal mediator of this load-induced change is focal adhesion kinase (FAK), a downstream non-receptor tyrosine kinase that translates the cytoskeletal stress and strain signals transmitted across the cytoplasmic membrane by integrins to activate multiple anti-apoptotic and cell growth pathways. Changes in FAK expression and phosphorylation have been found to correlate to specific developmental states in myoblast differentiation, muscle fiber formation and muscle size in response to loading and unloading. With the capability to regulate costamere formation, hypertrophy and glucose metabolism, FAK is a molecule with diverse functions that are important in regulating muscle cell health.

  3. Rat skeletal muscle glycogen degradation pathways reveal differential association of glycogen-related proteins with glycogen granules.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hongyang; Stapleton, David; Murphy, Robyn M

    2015-06-01

    Glycogenin, glycogen-debranching enzyme (GDE) and glycogen phosphorylase (GP) are important enzymes that contribute to glycogen particle metabolism. In Long-Evans Hooded rat whole muscle homogenates prepared from extensor digitorum longus (EDL, fast-twitch) and soleus (SOL, oxidative, predominantly slow twitch), it was necessary to include α-amylase, which releases glucosyl units from glycogen, to detect glycogenin but not GDE or GP. Up to ∼12 % of intramuscular glycogen pool was broken down using either in vitro electrical stimulation or leaving muscle at room temperature >3 h (delayed, post-mortem). Electrical stimulation did not reveal glycogenin unless α-amylase was added, although in post-mortem muscle ∼50 and ∼30 % of glycogenin in EDL and SOL muscles, respectively, was detected compared to the amount detected with α-amylase treatment. Single muscle fibres were dissected from fresh or post-mortem EDL muscles, mechanically skinned to remove surface membrane and the presence of glycogenin, GDE and GP as freely diffusible proteins (i.e. cytoplasmic localization) compared by Western blotting. Diffusibility of glycogenin (∼20 %) and GP (∼60 %) was not different between muscles, although GDE increased from ∼15 % diffusible in fresh muscle to ∼60 % in post-mortem muscle. Under physiologically relevant circumstances, in rat muscle and within detection limits: (1) The total cellular pool of glycogenin is always associated with glycogen granules, (2) GDE is associated with glycogen granules with over half the total pool associated with the outer tiers of glycogen, (3) GP is only ever weakly associated with glycogen granules and (4) addition of α-amylase is necessary in order to detect glycogenin, but not GDE or GP.

  4. Computer-aided mechanogenesis of skeletal muscle organs from single cells in vitro

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanderburgh, Herman H.; Swasdison, Somporn; Karlisch, Patricia

    1991-01-01

    Complex mechanical forces generated in the growing embryo play an important role in organogenesis. Computerized application of similar forces to differentiating skeletal muscle myoblasts in vitro generate three dimensional artificial muscle organs. These organs contain parallel networks of long unbranched myofibers organized into fascicle-like structures. Tendon development is initiated and the muscles are capable of performing directed, functional work. Kinetically engineered organs provide a new method for studying the growth and development of normal and diseased skeletal muscle.

  5. Computer aided mechanogenesis of skeletal muscle organs from single cells in vitro

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vandenburgh, Herman H.; Swasdison, Somporn; Karlisch, Patricia

    1990-01-01

    Complex mechanical forces generated in the growing embryo play an important role in organogenesis. Computerized application of similar forces to differentiating skeletal muscle myoblasts in vitro generate three dimensional artificial muscle organs. These organs contain parallel networks of long unbranched myofibers organized into fascicle-like structures. Tendon development is initiated and the muscles are capable of performing directed, functional work. Kinetically engineered organs provide a new method for studying the growth and development of normal and diseased skeletal muscle.

  6. Lactate oxidation in human skeletal muscle mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Robert A; Meinild, Anne-Kristine; Nordsborg, Nikolai B; Lundby, Carsten

    2013-04-01

    Lactate is an important intermediate metabolite in human bioenergetics and is oxidized in many different tissues including the heart, brain, kidney, adipose tissue, liver, and skeletal muscle. The mechanism(s) explaining the metabolism of lactate in these tissues, however, remains unclear. Here, we analyze the ability of skeletal muscle to respire lactate by using an in situ mitochondrial preparation that leaves the native tubular reticulum and subcellular interactions of the organelle unaltered. Skeletal muscle biopsies were obtained from vastus lateralis muscle in 16 human subjects. Samples were chemically permeabilized with saponin, which selectively perforates the sarcolemma and facilitates the loss of cytosolic content without altering mitochondrial membranes, structure, and subcellular interactions. High-resolution respirometry was performed on permeabilized muscle biopsy preparations. By use of four separate and specific substrate titration protocols, the respirometric analysis revealed that mitochondria were capable of oxidizing lactate in the absence of exogenous LDH. The titration of lactate and NAD(+) into the respiration medium stimulated respiration (P ≤ 0.003). The addition of exogenous LDH failed to increase lactate-stimulated respiration (P = 1.0). The results further demonstrate that human skeletal muscle mitochondria cannot directly oxidize lactate within the mitochondrial matrix. Alternately, these data support previous claims that lactate is converted to pyruvate within the mitochondrial intermembrane space with the pyruvate subsequently taken into the mitochondrial matrix where it enters the TCA cycle and is ultimately oxidized.

  7. Localisation of AMPK γ subunits in cardiac and skeletal muscles.

    PubMed

    Pinter, Katalin; Grignani, Robert T; Watkins, Hugh; Redwood, Charles

    2013-12-01

    The trimeric protein AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is an important sensor of energetic status and cellular stress, and mutations in genes encoding two of the regulatory γ subunits cause inherited disorders of either cardiac or skeletal muscle. AMPKγ2 mutations cause hypertrophic cardiomyopathy with glycogen deposition and conduction abnormalities; mutations in AMPKγ3 result in increased skeletal muscle glycogen. In order to gain further insight into the roles of the different γ subunits in muscle and into possible disease mechanisms, we localised the γ2 and γ3 subunits, along with the more abundant γ1 subunit, by immunofluorescence in cardiomyocytes and skeletal muscle fibres. The predominant cardiac γ2 variant, γ2-3B, gave a striated pattern in cardiomyocytes, aligning with the Z-disk but with punctate staining similar to T-tubule (L-type Ca(2+) channel) and sarcoplasmic reticulum (SERCA2) markers. In skeletal muscle fibres AMPKγ3 localises to the I band, presenting a uniform staining that flanks the Z-disk, also coinciding with the position of Ca(2+) influx in these muscles. The localisation of γ2-3B- and γ3-containing AMPK suggests that these trimers may have similar functions in the different muscles. AMPK containing γ2-3B was detected in oxidative skeletal muscles which had low expression of γ3, confirming that these two regulatory subunits may be co-ordinately regulated in response to metabolic requirements. Compartmentalisation of AMPK complexes is most likely dependent on the regulatory γ subunit and this differential localisation may direct substrate selection and specify particular functional roles.

  8. Gene Regions Responding to Skeletal Muscle Atrophy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Booth, Frank W.

    1997-01-01

    Our stated specific aims for this project were: 1) Identify the region(s) of the mouse IIb myosin heavy chain (MHC) promoter necessary for in vivo expression in mouse fast-twitch muscle, and 2) Identify the region(s) of the mouse IIb MHC promoter responsive to immobilization in mouse slow-twitch muscle in vivo. We sought to address these specific aims by introducing various MHC IIb promoter/reporter gene constructs directly into the tibialis anterior and gastrocnemius muscles of living mice. Although the method of somatic gene transfer into skeletal muscle by direct injection has been successfully used in our laboratory to study the regulation of the skeletal alpha actin gene in chicken skeletal muscle, we had many difficulties utilizing this procedure in the mouse. Because of the small size of the mouse soleus and the difficulty in obtaining consistent results, we elected not to study this muscle as first proposed. Rather, our MHC IIb promoter deletion experiments were performed in the gastrocnemius. Further, we decided to use hindlimb unloading via tail suspension to induce an upregulation of the MHC IIb gene, rather than immobilization of the hindlimbs via plaster casts. This change was made because tail suspension more closely mimics spaceflight, and this procedure in our lab results in a smaller loss of overall body mass than the mouse hindlimb immobilization procedure. This suggests that the stress level during tail suspension is less than during immobilization. This research has provided an important beginning point towards understanding the molecular regulation of the MHC lIb gene in response to unweighting of skeletal muscle Future work will focus on the regulation of MHC IIb mRNA stability in response to altered loading of skeletal muscle

  9. Functional heterogeneity of side population cells in skeletal muscle

    SciTech Connect

    Uezumi, Akiyoshi; Ojima, Koichi; Fukada, So-ichiro; Ikemoto, Madoka; Masuda, Satoru; Miyagoe-Suzuki, Yuko; Takeda, Shin'ichi . E-mail: takeda@ncnp.go.jp

    2006-03-17

    Skeletal muscle regeneration has been exclusively attributed to myogenic precursors, satellite cells. A stem cell-rich fraction referred to as side population (SP) cells also resides in skeletal muscle, but its roles in muscle regeneration remain unclear. We found that muscle SP cells could be subdivided into three sub-fractions using CD31 and CD45 markers. The majority of SP cells in normal non-regenerating muscle expressed CD31 and had endothelial characteristics. However, CD31{sup -}CD45{sup -} SP cells, which are a minor subpopulation in normal muscle, actively proliferated upon muscle injury and expressed not only several regulatory genes for muscle regeneration but also some mesenchymal lineage markers. CD31{sup -}CD45{sup -} SP cells showed the greatest myogenic potential among three SP sub-fractions, but indeed revealed mesenchymal potentials in vitro. These SP cells preferentially differentiated into myofibers after intramuscular transplantation in vivo. Our results revealed the heterogeneity of muscle SP cells and suggest that CD31{sup -}CD45{sup -} SP cells participate in muscle regeneration.

  10. Growth factor involvement in tension-induced skeletal muscle growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vandenburgh, Herman H.

    1993-01-01

    Long-term manned space travel will require a better understanding of skeletal muscle atrophy which results from microgravity. Astronaut strength and dexterity must be maintained for normal mission operations and for emergency situations. Although exercise in space slows the rate of muscle loss, it does not prevent it. A biochemical understanding of how gravity/tension/exercise help to maintain muscle size by altering protein synthesis and/or degradation rate should ultimately allow pharmacological intervention to prevent muscle atrophy in microgravity. The overall objective is to examine some of the basic biochemical processes involved in tension-induced muscle growth. With an experimental in vitro system, the role of exogenous and endogenous muscle growth factors in mechanically stimulated muscle growth are examined. Differentiated avian skeletal myofibers can be 'exercised' in tissue culture using a newly developed dynamic mechanical cell stimulator device which simulates different muscle activity patterns. Patterns of mechanical activity which significantly affect muscle growth and metabolic characteristics were found. Both exogenous and endogenous growth factors are essential for tension-induced muscle growth. Exogenous growth factors found in serum, such as insulin, insulin-like growth factors, and steroids, are important regulators of muscle protein turnover rates and mechanically-induced muscle growth. Endogenous growth factors are synthesized and released into the culture medium when muscle cells are mechanically stimulated. At least one family of mechanically induced endogenous factors, the prostaglandins, help to regulate the rates of protein turnover in muscle cells. Endogenously synthesized IGF-1 is another. The interaction of muscle mechanical activity and these growth factors in the regulation of muscle protein turnover rates with our in vitro model system is studied.

  11. Growth Factors and Tension-Induced Skeletal Muscle Growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vandenburgh, Herman H.

    1994-01-01

    The project investigated biochemical mechanisms to enhance skeletal muscle growth, and developed a computer based mechanical cell stimulator system. The biochemicals investigated in this study were insulin/(Insulin like Growth Factor) IGF-1 and Steroids. In order to analyze which growth factors are essential for stretch-induced muscle growth in vitro, we developed a defined, serum-free medium in which the differentiated, cultured avian muscle fibers could be maintained for extended periods of time. The defined medium (muscle maintenance medium, MM medium) maintains the nitrogen balance of the myofibers for 3 to 7 days, based on myofiber diameter measurements and myosin heavy chain content. Insulin and IGF-1, but not IGF-2, induced pronounced myofiber hypertrophy when added to this medium. In 5 to 7 days, muscle fiber diameters increase by 71 % to 98% compared to untreated controls. Mechanical stimulation of the avian muscle fibers in MM medium increased the sensitivity of the cells to insulin and IGF-1, based on a leftward shift of the insulin dose/response curve for protein synthesis rates. (54). We developed a ligand binding assay for IGF-1 binding proteins and found that the avian skeletal muscle cultures produced three major species of 31, 36 and 43 kD molecular weight (54) Stretch of the myofibers was found to have no significant effect on the efflux of IGF-1 binding proteins, but addition of exogenous collagen stimulated IGF-1 binding protein production 1.5 to 5 fold. Steroid hormones have a profound effect on muscle protein turnover rates in vivo, with the stress-related glucocorticoids inducing rapid skeletal muscle atrophy while androgenic steroids induce skeletal muscle growth. Exercise in humans and animals reduces the catabolic effects of glucocorticoids and may enhance the anabolic effects of androgenic steroids on skeletal muscle. In our continuing work on the involvement of exogenrus growth factors in stretch-induced avian skeletal muscle growth, we

  12. Functional Overload Enhances Satellite Cell Properties in Skeletal Muscle.

    PubMed

    Fujimaki, Shin; Machida, Masanao; Wakabayashi, Tamami; Asashima, Makoto; Takemasa, Tohru; Kuwabara, Tomoko

    2016-01-01

    Skeletal muscle represents a plentiful and accessible source of adult stem cells. Skeletal-muscle-derived stem cells, termed satellite cells, play essential roles in postnatal growth, maintenance, repair, and regeneration of skeletal muscle. Although it is well known that the number of satellite cells increases following physical exercise, functional alterations in satellite cells such as proliferative capacity and differentiation efficiency following exercise and their molecular mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we found that functional overload, which is widely used to model resistance exercise, causes skeletal muscle hypertrophy and converts satellite cells from quiescent state to activated state. Our analysis showed that functional overload induces the expression of MyoD in satellite cells and enhances the proliferative capacity and differentiation potential of these cells. The changes in satellite cell properties coincided with the inactivation of Notch signaling and the activation of Wnt signaling and likely involve modulation by transcription factors of the Sox family. These results indicate the effects of resistance exercise on the regulation of satellite cells and provide insight into the molecular mechanism of satellite cell activation following physical exercise.

  13. Insulin binding to individual rat skeletal muscles

    SciTech Connect

    Koerker, D.J.; Sweet, I.R.; Baskin, D.G. )

    1990-10-01

    Studies of insulin binding to skeletal muscle, performed using sarcolemmal membrane preparations or whole muscle incubations of mixed muscle or typical red (soleus, psoas) or white (extensor digitorum longus (EDL), gastrocnemius) muscle, have suggested that red muscle binds more insulin than white muscle. We have evaluated this hypothesis using cryostat sections of unfixed tissue to measure insulin binding in a broad range of skeletal muscles; many were of similar fiber-type profiles. Insulin binding per square millimeter of skeletal muscle slice was measured by autoradiography and computer-assisted densitometry. We found a 4.5-fold range in specific insulin tracer binding, with heart and predominantly slow-twitch oxidative muscles (SO) at the high end and the predominantly fast-twitch glycolytic (FG) muscles at the low end of the range. This pattern reflects insulin sensitivity. Evaluation of displacement curves for insulin binding yielded linear Scatchard plots. The dissociation constants varied over a ninefold range (0.26-2.06 nM). Binding capacity varied from 12.2 to 82.7 fmol/mm2. Neither binding parameter was correlated with fiber type or insulin sensitivity; e.g., among three muscles of similar fiber-type profile, the EDL had high numbers of low-affinity binding sites, whereas the quadriceps had low numbers of high-affinity sites. In summary, considerable heterogeneity in insulin binding was found among hindlimb muscles of the rat, which can be attributed to heterogeneity in binding affinities and the numbers of binding sites. It can be concluded that a given fiber type is not uniquely associated with a set of insulin binding parameters that result in high or low binding.

  14. Transmission of polarized light in skeletal muscle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shuaib, Ali; Li, Xin; Yao, Gang

    2011-02-01

    Experiments were conducted to study polarized light transmission in fresh bovine skeletal muscle of varying thicknesses. Two-dimensional polarization-sensitive transmission images were acquired and analyzed using a numerical parametric fitting algorithm. The total transmittance intensity and degree-of-polarization were calculated for both central ballistic and surrounding scattering regions. Full Mueller matrix images were derived from the raw polarization images and the polar decomposition algorithm was applied to extract polarization parameters. The results suggest that polarized light propagation through skeletal muscle is affected by strong birefringence, diattenuation, multiple scattering induced depolarization and the sarcomere diffraction effect.

  15. Satellite cells in human skeletal muscle plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Snijders, Tim; Nederveen, Joshua P.; McKay, Bryon R.; Joanisse, Sophie; Verdijk, Lex B.; van Loon, Luc J. C.; Parise, Gianni

    2015-01-01

    Skeletal muscle satellite cells are considered to play a crucial role in muscle fiber maintenance, repair and remodeling. Our knowledge of the role of satellite cells in muscle fiber adaptation has traditionally relied on in vitro cell and in vivo animal models. Over the past decade, a genuine effort has been made to translate these results to humans under physiological conditions. Findings from in vivo human studies suggest that satellite cells play a key role in skeletal muscle fiber repair/remodeling in response to exercise. Mounting evidence indicates that aging has a profound impact on the regulation of satellite cells in human skeletal muscle. Yet, the precise role of satellite cells in the development of muscle fiber atrophy with age remains unresolved. This review seeks to integrate recent results from in vivo human studies on satellite cell function in muscle fiber repair/remodeling in the wider context of satellite cell biology whose literature is largely based on animal and cell models. PMID:26557092

  16. Mechanotransduction pathways in skeletal muscle hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Yamada, André Katayama; Verlengia, Rozangela; Bueno Junior, Carlos Roberto

    2012-02-01

    In the last decade, molecular biology has contributed to define some of the cellular events that trigger skeletal muscle hypertrophy. Recent evidence shows that insulin like growth factor 1/phosphatidyl inositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B (IGF-1/PI3K/Akt) signaling is not the main pathway towards load-induced skeletal muscle hypertrophy. During load-induced skeletal muscle hypertrophy process, activation of mTORC1 does not require classical growth factor signaling. One potential mechanism that would activate mTORC1 is increased synthesis of phosphatidic acid (PA). Despite the huge progress in this field, it is still early to affirm which molecular event induces hypertrophy in response to mechanical overload. Until now, it seems that mTORC1 is the key regulator of load-induced skeletal muscle hypertrophy. On the other hand, how mTORC1 is activated by PA is unclear, and therefore these mechanisms have to be determined in the following years. The understanding of these molecular events may result in promising therapies for the treatment of muscle-wasting diseases. For now, the best approach is a good regime of resistance exercise training. The objective of this point-of-view paper is to highlight mechanotransduction events, with focus on the mechanisms of mTORC1 and PA activation, and the role of IGF-1 on hypertrophy process.

  17. Skeletal muscle atrophy in bioengineered skeletal muscle: a new model system.

    PubMed

    Lee, Peter H U; Vandenburgh, Herman H

    2013-10-01

    Skeletal muscle atrophy has been well characterized in various animal models, and while certain pathways that lead to disuse atrophy and its associated functional deficits have been well studied, available drugs to counteract these deficiencies are limited. An ex vivo tissue-engineered skeletal muscle offers a unique opportunity to study skeletal muscle physiology in a controlled in vitro setting. Primary mouse myoblasts isolated from adult muscle were tissue engineered into bioartificial muscles (BAMs) containing hundreds of aligned postmitotic muscle fibers expressing sarcomeric proteins. When electrically stimulated, BAMs generated measureable active forces within 2-3 days of formation. The maximum isometric tetanic force (Po) increased for ∼3 weeks to 2587±502 μN/BAM and was maintained at this level for greater than 80 days. When BAMs were reduced in length by 25% to 50%, muscle atrophy occurred in as little as 6 days. Length reduction resulted in significant decreases in Po (50.4%), mean myofiber cross-sectional area (21.7%), total protein synthesis rate (22.0%), and noncollagenous protein content (6.9%). No significant changes occurred in either the total metabolic activity or protein degradation rates. This study is the first in vitro demonstration that length reduction alone can induce skeletal muscle atrophy, and establishes a novel in vitro model for the study of skeletal muscle atrophy.

  18. Skeletal muscle oxidative metabolism in an animal model of pulmonary emphysema: formoterol and skeletal muscle dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Sullo, Nikol; Roviezzo, Fiorentina; Matteis, Maria; Spaziano, Giuseppe; Del Gaudio, Stefania; Lombardi, Assunta; Lucattelli, Monica; Polverino, Francesca; Lungarella, Giuseppe; Cirino, Giuseppe; Rossi, Francesco; D'Agostino, Bruno

    2013-02-01

    Skeletal muscle dysfunction is a significant contributor to exercise limitation in pulmonary emphysema. This study investigated skeletal muscle oxidative metabolism before and after aerosol exposure to a long-acting β-agonist (LABA), such as formoterol, in the pallid mouse (B6.Cg-Pldnpa/J), which has a deficiency in serum α(1)-antitrypsin (α(1)-PI) and develops spontaneous pulmonary emphysema. C57 BL/6J and its congener pallid mice of 8-12 and 16 months of age were treated with vehicle or formoterol aerosol challenge for 120 seconds. Morphological and morphometric studies and evaluations of mitochondrial adenosine diphosphate-stimulated respiration and of cytochrome oxidase activity on skeletal muscle were performed. Moreover, the mtDNA content in skeletal muscle and the mediators linked to muscle mitochondrial function and biogenesis, as well as TNF-α and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α), were also evaluated. The lungs of pallid mice at 12 and 16 months of age showed patchy areas of airspace enlargements, with the destruction of alveolar septa. No significant differences were observed in basal values of mitochondrial skeletal muscle oxidative processes between C57 BL/6J and pallid mice. Exposure to LABA significantly improved mitochondrial skeletal muscle oxidative processes in emphysematous mice, where the mtDNA content was significantly higher with respect to 8-month-old pallid mice. This effect was compared with a significant increase of PGC-1α in skeletal muscles of 16-month-old pallid mice, with no significant changes in TNF-α concentrations. In conclusion, in emphysematous mice that showed an increased mtDNA content, exposure to inhaled LABA can improve mitochondrial skeletal muscle oxidative processes. PGC-1α may serve as a possible mediator of this effect.

  19. Oxidative proteome alterations during skeletal muscle ageing.

    PubMed

    Lourenço dos Santos, Sofia; Baraibar, Martin A; Lundberg, Staffan; Eeg-Olofsson, Orvar; Larsson, Lars; Friguet, Bertrand

    2015-08-01

    Sarcopenia corresponds to the degenerative loss of skeletal muscle mass, quality, and strength associated with ageing and leads to a progressive impairment of mobility and quality of life. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in this process are not completely understood. A hallmark of cellular and tissular ageing is the accumulation of oxidatively modified (carbonylated) proteins, leading to a decreased quality of the cellular proteome that could directly impact on normal cellular functions. Although increased oxidative stress has been reported during skeletal muscle ageing, the oxidized protein targets, also referred as to the 'oxi-proteome' or 'carbonylome', have not been characterized yet. To better understand the mechanisms by which these damaged proteins build up and potentially affect muscle function, proteins targeted by these modifications have been identified in human rectus abdominis muscle obtained from young and old healthy donors using a bi-dimensional gel electrophoresis-based proteomic approach coupled with immunodetection of carbonylated proteins. Among evidenced protein spots, 17 were found as increased carbonylated in biopsies from old donors comparing to young counterparts. These proteins are involved in key cellular functions such as cellular morphology and transport, muscle contraction and energy metabolism. Importantly, impairment of these pathways has been described in skeletal muscle during ageing. Functional decline of these proteins due to irreversible oxidation may therefore impact directly on the above-mentioned pathways, hence contributing to the generation of the sarcopenic phenotype.

  20. Oxidative proteome alterations during skeletal muscle ageing

    PubMed Central

    Lourenço dos Santos, Sofia; Baraibar, Martin A.; Lundberg, Staffan; Eeg-Olofsson, Orvar; Larsson, Lars; Friguet, Bertrand

    2015-01-01

    Sarcopenia corresponds to the degenerative loss of skeletal muscle mass, quality, and strength associated with ageing and leads to a progressive impairment of mobility and quality of life. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in this process are not completely understood. A hallmark of cellular and tissular ageing is the accumulation of oxidatively modified (carbonylated) proteins, leading to a decreased quality of the cellular proteome that could directly impact on normal cellular functions. Although increased oxidative stress has been reported during skeletal muscle ageing, the oxidized protein targets, also referred as to the ‘oxi-proteome’ or ‘carbonylome’, have not been characterized yet. To better understand the mechanisms by which these damaged proteins build up and potentially affect muscle function, proteins targeted by these modifications have been identified in human rectus abdominis muscle obtained from young and old healthy donors using a bi-dimensional gel electrophoresis-based proteomic approach coupled with immunodetection of carbonylated proteins. Among evidenced protein spots, 17 were found as increased carbonylated in biopsies from old donors comparing to young counterparts. These proteins are involved in key cellular functions such as cellular morphology and transport, muscle contraction and energy metabolism. Importantly, impairment of these pathways has been described in skeletal muscle during ageing. Functional decline of these proteins due to irreversible oxidation may therefore impact directly on the above-mentioned pathways, hence contributing to the generation of the sarcopenic phenotype. PMID:26073261

  1. Selenium regulates gene expression of selenoprotein W in chicken skeletal muscle system.

    PubMed

    Ruan, Hongfeng; Zhang, Ziwei; Wu, Qiong; Yao, Haidong; Li, Jinlong; Li, Shu; Xu, Shiwen

    2012-01-01

    Selenoprotein W (SelW) is abundantly expressed in skeletal muscles of mammals and necessary for the metabolism of skeletal muscles. However, its expression pattern in skeletal muscle system of birds is still uncovered. Herein, to investigate the distribution of SelW mRNA in chicken skeletal muscle system and its response to different selenium (Se) status, 1-day-old chickens were exposed to various concentrations of Se as sodium selenite in the feed for 35 days. In addition, myoblasts were treated with different concentrations of Se in the medium for 72 h. Then the levels of SelW mRNA in skeletal muscles (wing muscle, pectoral muscle, thigh muscle) and myoblasts were determined on days 1, 15, 25, and 35 and at 0, 24, 48, and 72 h, respectively. The results showed that SelW was detected in all these muscle components and it increased both along with the growth of organism and the differentiation process of myoblasts. The thigh muscle is more responsive to Se intake than the other two skeletal muscle tissues while the optimal Se supplementation for SelW mRNA expression in chicken myoblasts was 10(-7) M. In summary, Se plays important roles in the development of chicken skeletal muscles. To effect optimal SelW gene expression, Se must be provided in the diet and the media in adequate amounts and neither at excessive nor deficient levels.

  2. Skeletal muscle fibre types in the dog.

    PubMed Central

    Latorre, R; Gil, F; Vázquez, J M; Moreno, F; Mascarello, F; Ramirez, G

    1993-01-01

    Using a variety of histochemical methods we have investigated the mATPase reaction of skeletal muscle fibres in the dog. Types I, IIA, IIDog (peculiar to the dog) and IIC fibres were identified. The results reveal that the interpretation of the fibre type composition depends on the methods used. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:8226288

  3. Development of Sensory Receptors in Skeletal Muscle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeSantis, Mark

    2000-01-01

    The two major goals for this project is to (1) examine the hindlimb walking pattern of offspring from the Flight dams as compared with offspring of the ground control groups from initiation of walking up to two months thereafter; and (2) examine skeletal muscle.

  4. 1α,25(OH)2D3-dependent modulation of Akt in proliferating and differentiating C2C12 skeletal muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Buitrago, Claudia G; Arango, Nadia S; Boland, Ricardo L

    2012-04-01

    We previously reported that 1α,25-dihydroxy-vitamin D(3) [1α,25(OH)(2)D(3)] induces non-transcriptional rapid responses through activation of Src and MAPKs in the skeletal muscle cell line C2C12. In the present study we investigated the modulation of Akt by the secosteroid hormone in C2C12 cells at proliferative stage (myoblasts) and at early differentiation stage. In proliferating cells, 1α,25(OH)(2)D(3) activates Akt by phosphorylation in Ser473 in a time-dependent manner (5-60 min). When these cells were pretreated with methyl-beta-cyclodextrin to disrupt caveolae microdomains, hormone-induced activation of Akt was suppressed. Similar results were obtained by siRNA silencing of caveolin-1 expression, further indicating that hormone effects on cell membrane caveolae are required for downstream signaling. PI3K and p38 MAPK, but not ERK1/2, participate in 1α,25(OH)(2)D(3) activation of Akt in myoblasts. The involvement of p38 MAPK in Akt phosphorylation by the hormone probably occurs through MAPK-activated protein kinase 2 (MK2), which is activated by the steroid. In addition, the participation of Src in Akt phosphorylation by 1α,25(OH)(2)D(3) was demonstrated using the inhibitor PP2 and antisense oligodeoxynucleotides that suppress Src expression. We also observed that PI3K participates in hormone-induced proliferation. During the early phase of C2C12 cell differentiation 1α,25(OH)(2)D(3) also increases Akt phosphorylation and activates Src. Of relevance, Src and PI3K are involved in Akt activation and in MHC and myogenin increased expression by 1α,25(OH)(2)D(3). Altogether, these data suggest that 1α,25(OH)(2)D(3) upregulates Akt through Src, PI(3)K, and p38 MAPK to stimulate myogenesis in C2C12 cells.

  5. Molecular mechanism underlying the differential MYF6 expression in postnatal skeletal muscle of Duroc and Pietrain breeds.

    PubMed

    Fan, Huitao; Cinar, Mehmet Ulas; Phatsara, Chirawath; Tesfaye, Dawit; Tholen, Ernst; Looft, Christian; Schellander, Karl

    2011-10-15

    Among modern western pigs, Duroc (high meat fat ratio) and Pietrain (low meat fat ratio) breeds extensively utilized in commercial pork production differ extremely for their muscle phenotypes. The molecular mechanism, especially the epigenetic mechanism, underlying these breed-specific differences is poorly known. Myogenic factor 6 (MYF6) is the most abundantly expressed myogenic factor in adult muscle. Moreover, MYF6 tends to be expressed more highly in muscle tissue of the lean selection line and is supposed to be one promising candidate gene for growth- and meat quality-related traits in adult pigs. Six months old female Duroc and Pietrain pure breed pigs were used in this study. Protein and mRNA levels of MYF6 in loin eye muscle were determined by Western blotting and quantitative Real-time reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR), respectively. The DNA methylation status of the MYF6 5'-regulatory region was determined by bisulfite sequencing PCR (BSP). The global Histone 4 acetylation at lysines 5 (H4K5) and 8 (H4K8) were examined by Western blotting. Pietrain pigs exhibited significant higher expression of MYF6 and hypermethylated E2F1 binding element within MYF6 5'-regulatory region as compared with Duroc pigs. Significant elevation in DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) expression was observed in Pietrain pigs which are in agreement with hypermethylation of MYF6. Histone acetylation level at neither H4K5 nor H4K8 is significant between two breed pigs. Nevertheless, mRNA and protein expression of E2F1 were significantly elevated in the Pietrain breed. It is thus conceivable that the upregulation of MYF6 transcription in postnatal Pietrain pigs is not associated with cis-activation by epigenetic modification of MYF6 5'-regulatory region, but may be attributed to trans-activation through enriched expression of E2F1.

  6. Macrophage colony-stimulating factor-induced macrophage differentiation promotes regrowth in atrophied skeletal muscles and C2C12 myotubes.

    PubMed

    Dumont, Nicolas A; Frenette, Jérôme

    2013-02-01

    Skeletal muscle injury and regeneration are closely associated with an inflammatory reaction that is usually characterized by sequential recruitment of neutrophils and monocytes or macrophages. Selective macrophage depletion models have shown that macrophages are essential for complete regeneration of muscle fibers after freeze injuries, toxin injuries, ischemia-reperfusion, and hindlimb unloading and reloading. Although there is growing evidence that macrophages possess major myogenic capacities, it is not known whether the positive effects of macrophages can be optimized to stimulate muscle regrowth. We used in vivo and in vitro mouse models of atrophy to investigate the effects of stimulating macrophages with macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) on muscle regrowth. When atrophied soleus muscles were injected intramuscularly with M-CSF, we observed a 1.6-fold increase in macrophage density and a faster recovery in muscle force (20%), combined with an increase in muscle fiber diameter (10%), after 7 days of reloading, compared with PBS-injected soleus muscles. Furthermore, coculture of atrophied myotubes with or without bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDM) and/or M-CSF revealed that the combination of BMDMs and M-CSF was required to promote myotube growth (15%). More specifically, M-CSF promoted the anti-inflammatory macrophage phenotype, which in turn decreased protein degradation and MuRF-1 expression by 25% in growing myotubes. These results indicate that specific macrophage subsets can be stimulated to promote muscle cell regrowth after atrophy.

  7. Study of photon migration in skeletal muscle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranasinghesagara, J.; Yao, G.

    2007-09-01

    A clear understanding of how light propagation in muscle is important for developing optical methods for muscle characterization. We investigated photon migration in muscle by imaging the optical reflectance from fresh prerigor skeletal muscles. We found the acquired reflectance patterns can not be described using existing theories. In order to quantify the equi-intensity contours of acquired reflectance images, we developed a numerical fitting function. Using this model, we studied the changes of reflectance profile during stretching and rigor process. The observed unique anisotropic features diminished after rigor completion. These results suggested that muscle sarcomere structures played important roles in modulating light propagation in whole muscle. To explain the observed patterns, we incorporated the sarcomere diffraction in a Monte Carlo model and we showed that the resulting reflectance profiles quantitatively resembled the experimental observation.

  8. Expression of glucocorticoid receptors in the regenerating human skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Filipović, D; Pirkmajer, S; Mis, K; Mars, T; Grubic, Z

    2011-01-01

    Many stress conditions are accompanied by skeletal muscle dysfunction and regeneration, which is essentially a recapitulation of the embryonic development. However, regeneration usually occurs under conditions of hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal gland axis activation and therefore increased glucocorticoid (GC) levels. Glucocorticoid receptor (GR), the main determinant of cellular responsiveness to GCs, exists in two isoforms (GRalpha and GRbeta) in humans. While the role of GRalpha is well characterized, GRbeta remains an elusive player in GC signalling. To elucidate basic characteristics of GC signalling in the regenerating human skeletal muscle we assessed GRalpha and GRbeta expression pattern in cultured human myoblasts and myotubes and their response to 24-hour dexamethasone (DEX) treatment. There was no difference in GRalpha mRNA and protein expression or DEX-mediated GRalpha down-regulation in myoblasts and myotubes. GRbeta mRNA level was very low in myoblasts and remained unaffected by differentiation and/or DEX. GRbeta protein could not be detected. These results indicate that response to GCs is established very early during human skeletal muscle regeneration and that it remains practically unchanged before innervation is established. Very low GRbeta mRNA expression and inability to detect GRbeta protein suggests that GRbeta is not a major player in the early stages of human skeletal muscle regeneration.

  9. Improved Cell Culture Method for Growing Contracting Skeletal Muscle Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marquette, Michele L.; Sognier, Marguerite A.

    2013-01-01

    An improved method for culturing immature muscle cells (myoblasts) into a mature skeletal muscle overcomes some of the notable limitations of prior culture methods. The development of the method is a major advance in tissue engineering in that, for the first time, a cell-based model spontaneously fuses and differentiates into masses of highly aligned, contracting myotubes. This method enables (1) the construction of improved two-dimensional (monolayer) skeletal muscle test beds; (2) development of contracting three-dimensional tissue models; and (3) improved transplantable tissues for biomedical and regenerative medicine applications. With adaptation, this method also offers potential application for production of other tissue types (i.e., bone and cardiac) from corresponding precursor cells.

  10. Hierarchization of myogenic and adipogenic progenitors within human skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Pisani, Didier F; Clement, Noémie; Loubat, Agnès; Plaisant, Magali; Sacconi, Sabrina; Kurzenne, Jean-Yves; Desnuelle, Claude; Dani, Christian; Dechesne, Claude A

    2010-12-01

    Skeletal muscle cells constitute a heterogeneous population that maintains muscle integrity through a high myogenic regenerative capacity. More unexpectedly, this population is also endowed with an adipogenic potential, even in humans, and intramuscular adipocytes have been found to be present in several disorders. We tested the distribution of myogenic and adipogenic commitments in human muscle-derived cells to decipher the cellular basis of the myoadipogenic balance. Clonal analysis showed that adipogenic progenitors can be separated from myogenic progenitors and, interestingly, from myoadipogenic bipotent progenitors. These progenitors were isolated in the CD34(+) population on the basis of the expression of CD56 and CD15 cell surface markers. In vivo, these different cell types have been found in the interstitial compartment of human muscle. In vitro, we show that the proliferation of bipotent myoadipogenic CD56(+)CD15(+) progenitors gives rise to myogenic CD56(+)CD15(-) progenitors and adipogenic CD56(-)CD15(+) progenitors. A cellular hierarchy of muscle and fat progenitors thus occurs within human muscle. These results provide cellular bases for adipogenic differentiation in human skeletal muscle, which may explain the fat development encountered in different muscle pathological situations.

  11. Skeletal muscle adaptations and muscle genomics of performance horses.

    PubMed

    Rivero, José-Luis L; Hill, Emmeline W

    2016-03-01

    Skeletal muscles in horses are characterised by specific adaptations, which are the result of the natural evolution of the horse as a grazing animal, centuries of selective breeding and the adaptability of this tissue in response to training. These adaptations include an increased muscle mass relative to body weight, a great locomotor efficiency based upon an admirable muscle-tendon architectural design and an adaptable fibre-type composition with intrinsic shortening velocities greater than would be predicted from an animal of comparable body size. Furthermore, equine skeletal muscles have a high mitochondrial volume that permits a higher whole animal aerobic capacity, as well as large intramuscular stores of energy substrates (glycogen in particular). Finally, high buffer and lactate transport capacities preserve muscles against fatigue during anaerobic exercise. Many of these adaptations can improve with training. The publication of the equine genome sequence in 2009 has provided a major advance towards an improved understanding of equine muscle physiology. Equine muscle genomics studies have revealed a number of genes associated with elite physical performance and have also identified changes in structural and metabolic genes following exercise and training. Genes involved in muscle growth, muscle contraction and specific metabolic pathways have been found to be functionally relevant for the early performance evaluation of elite athletic horses. The candidate genes discussed in this review are important for a healthy individual to improve performance. However, muscle performance limiting conditions are widespread in horses and many of these conditions are also genetically influenced.

  12. Oxidative system in aged skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Buonocore, Daniela; Rucci, Sara; Vandoni, Matteo; Negro, Massimo; Marzatico, Fulvio

    2011-07-01

    Aging is an inevitable biological process that is characterized by a general decline in the physiological and biochemical functions of the major systems. In the case of the neuromuscular system, reductions in strength and mobility cause a deterioration in motor performance, impaired mobility and disability. At the cellular level, aging is caused by a progressive decline in mitochondrial function that results in the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). As the level of oxidative stress in skeletal muscle increases with age, the age-process is characterized by an imbalance between an increase in ROS production in the organism, and antioxidant defences as a whole. We have reviewed the literature on oxidative stress in aging human skeletal muscles, and to assesss the impact of differences in physiological factors (sex, fiber composition, muscle type and function).

  13. Pannexin 1 channels in skeletal muscles.

    PubMed

    Cea, Luis A; Riquelme, Manuel A; Vargas, Anibal A; Urrutia, Carolina; Sáez, Juan C

    2014-01-01

    Normal myotubes and adult innervated skeletal myofibers express the glycoprotein pannexin1 (Panx1). Six of them form a "gap junction hemichannel-like" structure that connects the cytoplasm with the extracellular space; here they will be called Panx1 channels. These are poorly selective channels permeable to ions, small metabolic substrate, and signaling molecules. So far little is known about the role of Panx1 channels in muscles but skeletal muscles of Panx1(-/-) mice do not show an evident phenotype. Innervated adult fast and slow skeletal myofibers show Panx1 reactivity in close proximity to dihydropyridine receptors in the sarcolemma of T-tubules. These Panx1 channels are activated by electrical stimulation and extracellular ATP. Panx1 channels play a relevant role in potentiation of muscle contraction because they allow release of ATP and uptake of glucose, two molecules required for this response. In support of this notion, the absence of Panx1 abrogates the potentiation of muscle contraction elicited by repetitive electrical stimulation, which is reversed by exogenously applied ATP. Phosphorylation of Panx1 Thr and Ser residues might be involved in Panx1 channel activation since it is enhanced during potentiation of muscle contraction. Under denervation, Panx1 levels are upregulated and this partially explains the reduction in electrochemical gradient, however its absence does not prevent denervation-induced atrophy but prevents the higher oxidative state. Panx1 also forms functional channels at the cell surface of myotubes and their functional state has been associated with intracellular Ca(2+) signals and regulation of myotube plasticity evoked by electrical stimulation. We proposed that Panx1 channels participate as ATP channels and help to keep a normal oxidative state in skeletal muscles.

  14. Engineered skeletal muscle tissue networks with controllable architecture

    PubMed Central

    Bian, Weining; Bursac, Nenad

    2009-01-01

    The engineering of functional skeletal muscle tissue substitutes holds promise for the treatment of various muscular diseases and injuries. However, no tissue fabrication technology currently exists for the generation of a relatively large and thick bioartificial muscle made of densely packed, uniformly aligned, and differentiated myofibers. In this study, we describe a versatile cell/hydrogel micromolding approach where polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) molds containing an array of elongated posts were used to fabricate relatively large neonatal rat skeletal muscle tissue networks with reproducible and controllable architecture. By combining cell-mediated fibrin gel compaction and precise microfabrication of mold dimensions including the length and height of the PDMS posts, we were able to simultaneously support high cell viability, guide cell alignment along the microfabricated tissue pores, and reproducibly control the overall tissue porosity, size, and thickness. The interconnected muscle bundles within the porous tissue networks were composed of densely packed, aligned, and highly differentiated myofibers. The formed myofibers expressed myogenin, developed abundant cross-striations, and generated spontaneous tissue contractions at the macroscopic spatial scale. The proliferation of non-muscle cells was significantly reduced compared to monolayer cultures. The more complex muscle tissue architectures were fabricated by controlling the spatial distribution and direction of the PDMS posts. PMID:19070360

  15. Rapidly aggravated skeletal muscle metastases from an intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jiyoung; Lee, Sung Wook; Han, Sang Young; Baek, Yang Hyun; Kim, Su Young; Rhyou, Hyo In

    2015-01-01

    We present a rare case of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) with multiple skeletal muscle metastases. The patient was a 55-year-old Asian woman presenting with abdominal pain; abdominal and pelvic computed tomography and magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography revealed an unresectable ICC with hepatic metastasis and metastastatic lymphadenopathy in the porto-caval area. After 3 mo of treatment with palliative radiotherapy and chemotherapy, magnetic resonance imaging of the thoracolumbar spine detected right psoas muscle and paraspinous muscle metastases. We performed an ultrasound-guided percutaneous fine-needle biopsy that confirmed a similar pattern of poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma. The patient treated with palliative chemotherapy and achieved 10 mo of survival. Here we report the first case quickly spread to multiple sites of muscle even though the three-month treatment, compare to the other cases reported muscle metastases at diagnosis. PMID:25684968

  16. Mesodermal iPSC–derived progenitor cells functionally regenerate cardiac and skeletal muscle

    PubMed Central

    Quattrocelli, Mattia; Swinnen, Melissa; Giacomazzi, Giorgia; Camps, Jordi; Barthélemy, Ines; Ceccarelli, Gabriele; Caluwé, Ellen; Grosemans, Hanne; Thorrez, Lieven; Pelizzo, Gloria; Muijtjens, Manja; Verfaillie, Catherine M.; Blot, Stephane; Janssens, Stefan; Sampaolesi, Maurilio

    2015-01-01

    Conditions such as muscular dystrophies (MDs) that affect both cardiac and skeletal muscles would benefit from therapeutic strategies that enable regeneration of both of these striated muscle types. Protocols have been developed to promote induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) to differentiate toward cardiac or skeletal muscle; however, there are currently no strategies to simultaneously target both muscle types. Tissues exhibit specific epigenetic alterations; therefore, source-related lineage biases have the potential to improve iPSC-driven multilineage differentiation. Here, we determined that differential myogenic propensity influences the commitment of isogenic iPSCs and a specifically isolated pool of mesodermal iPSC-derived progenitors (MiPs) toward the striated muscle lineages. Differential myogenic propensity did not influence pluripotency, but did selectively enhance chimerism of MiP-derived tissue in both fetal and adult skeletal muscle. When injected into dystrophic mice, MiPs engrafted and repaired both skeletal and cardiac muscle, reducing functional defects. Similarly, engraftment into dystrophic mice of canine MiPs from dystrophic dogs that had undergone TALEN-mediated correction of the MD-associated mutation also resulted in functional striatal muscle regeneration. Moreover, human MiPs exhibited the same capacity for the dual differentiation observed in murine and canine MiPs. The findings of this study suggest that MiPs should be further explored for combined therapy of cardiac and skeletal muscles. PMID:26571398

  17. Muscle disuse atrophy is not accompanied by changes in skeletal muscle satellite cell content.

    PubMed

    Snijders, Tim; Wall, Benjamin T; Dirks, Marlou L; Senden, Joan M G; Hartgens, Fred; Dolmans, John; Losen, Mario; Verdijk, Lex B; van Loon, Luc J C

    2014-04-01

    Muscle disuse leads to a considerable loss in skeletal muscle mass and strength. However, the cellular mechanisms underlying disuse-induced muscle fibre atrophy remain to be elucidated. Therefore we assessed the effect of muscle disuse on the CSA (cross-sectional area), muscle fibre size, satellite cell content and associated myocellular signalling pathways of the quadriceps muscle. A total of 12 healthy young (24±1 years of age) men were subjected to 2 weeks of one-legged knee immobilization via a full-leg cast. Before and immediately after the immobilization period and after 6 weeks of natural rehabilitation, muscle strength [1RM (one-repetition maximum)], muscle CSA [single slice CT (computed tomography) scan] and muscle fibre type characteristics (muscle biopsies) were assessed. Protein and/or mRNA expression of key genes [i.e. MYOD (myogenic differentiation), MYOG (myogenin) and MSTN (myostatin)] in the satellite cell regulatory pathways were determined using Western blotting and RT-PCR (real-time PCR) analyses respectively. The present study found that quadriceps CSA declined following immobilization by 8±2% (P<0.05). In agreement, both type I and type II muscle fibre size decreased 7±3% and 13±4% respectively (P<0.05). No changes were observed in satellite cell content following immobilization in either type I or type II muscle fibres. Muscle MYOG mRNA expression doubled (P<0.05), whereas MSTN protein expression decreased 30±9% (P<0.05) following immobilization. Muscle mass and strength returned to the baseline values within 6 weeks of recovery without any specific rehabilitative programme. In conclusion, 2 weeks of muscle disuse leads to considerable loss in skeletal muscle mass and strength. The loss in muscle mass was attributed to both type I and type II muscle fibre atrophy, and was not accompanied by a decline in satellite cell content.

  18. Myostatin: a modulator of skeletal-muscle stem cells.

    PubMed

    Walsh, F S; Celeste, A J

    2005-12-01

    Myostatin, or GDF-8 (growth and differentiation factor-8), was first identified through sequence identity with members of the BMP (bone morphogenetic protein)/TGF-beta (transforming growth factor-beta) superfamily. The skeletal-muscle-specific expression pattern of myostatin suggested a role in muscle development. Mice with a targeted deletion of the myostatin gene exhibit a hypermuscular phenotype. In addition, inactivating mutations in the myostatin gene have been identified in 'double muscled' cattle breeds, such as the Belgian Blue and Piedmontese, as well as in a hypermuscular child. These findings define myostatin as a negative regulator of skeletal-muscle development. Myostatin binds with high affinity to the receptor serine threonine kinase ActRIIB (activin type IIB receptor), which initiates signalling through a smad2/3-dependent pathway. In an effort to validate myostatin as a therapeutic target in a post-embryonic setting, a neutralizing antibody was developed by screening for inhibition of myostatin binding to ActRIIB. Administration of this antimyostatin antibody to adult mice resulted in a significant increase in both muscle mass and functional strength. Importantly, similar results were obtained in a murine model of muscular dystrophy, the mdx mouse. Unlike the myostatin-deficient animals, which exhibit both muscle hypertrophy and hyperplasia, the antibody-treated mice demonstrate increased musculature through a hypertrophic mechanism. These results validate myostatin inhibition as a therapeutic approach to muscle wasting diseases such as muscular dystrophy, sarcopenic frailty of the elderly and amylotrophic lateral sclerosis.

  19. Wave biomechanics of the skeletal muscle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudenko, O. V.; Sarvazyan, A. P.

    2006-12-01

    Results of acoustic measurements in skeletal muscle are generalized. It is shown that assessment of the pathologies and functional condition of the muscular system is possible with the use of shear waves. The velocity of these waves in muscles is much smaller than the velocity of sound; therefore, a higher symmetry type is formed for them. In the presence of a preferential direction (along muscle fibers), it is characterized by only two rather than five (as in usual media with the same anisotropy) moduli of elasticity. A covariant form of the corresponding wave equation is presented. It is shown that dissipation properties of skeletal muscles can be controlled by contracting them isometrically. Pulsed loads (shocks) and vibrations are damped differently, depending on their frequency spectrum. Characteristic frequencies on the order of tens and hundreds of hertz are attenuated due to actin-myosin bridges association/dissociation dynamics in the contracted muscle. At higher (kilohertz) frequencies, when the muscle is tensed, viscosity of the tissue increases by a factor of several tens because of the increase in friction experienced by fibrillar structures as they move relative to the surrounding liquid; the tension of the fibers changes the hydrodynamic conditions of the flow around them. Finally, at higher frequencies, the attenuation is associated with the rheological properties of biological molecules, in particular, with their conformational dynamics in the wave field. Models that describe the controlled shock dissipation mechanisms are proposed. Corresponding solutions are found, including those that allow for nonlinear effects.

  20. Differential dependence of store-operated and excitation-coupled Ca2+ entry in skeletal muscle on STIM1 and Orai1

    PubMed Central

    Lyfenko, Alla D; Dirksen, Robert T

    2008-01-01

    In non-excitable cells, agonist-induced depletion of intracellular Ca2+ stores triggers Ca2+ influx via a process termed store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE). In T-lymphocytes, stromal interaction molecule 1 (STIM1) acts as the intra-store Ca2+ sensor and Orai1 functions as the Ca2+-permeable SOCE channel activated by STIM1 following store depletion. Two functionally distinct Ca2+ entry pathways exist in skeletal muscle; one activated by store depletion (SOCE) and a second by sustained/repetitive depolarization that does not require store depletion (excitation-coupled Ca2+ entry, ECCE). However, the role of STIM1 and Orai1 in coordinating SOCE and ECCE activity in skeletal muscle and whether these two Ca2+ entry pathways represent distinct molecular entities or two different activation mechanisms of the same channel complex is unknown. Here we address these issues using siRNA-mediated STIM1 knockdown, dominant-negative Orai1, and permeation-defective Orai1 to determine the role of STIM1 and Orai1 in store-operated and excitation-coupled Ca2+ entry in skeletal myotubes. SOCE and ECCE activity were quantified from both intracellular Ca2+ measurements and Mn2+ quench assays. We found that STIM1 siRNA reduced STIM1 protein by more than 90% and abolished SOCE activity, while expression of siRNA-resistant hSTIM1 fully restored SOCE. SOCE was also abolished by dominant-negative Orai1 (E106Q) and markedly reduced by expression of a permeation-defective Orai1 (E190Q). In contrast, ECCE was unaffected by STIM1 knockdown, E106Q expression or E190Q expression. These results are the first to demonstrate that SOCE in skeletal muscle requires both STIM1 and Orai1 and that SOCE and ECCE represent two distinct molecular entities. PMID:18772199

  1. Generation of skeletal muscle from transplanted embryonic stem cells in dystrophic mice

    SciTech Connect

    Bhagavati, Satyakam . E-mail: satyakamb@hotmail.com; Xu Weimin

    2005-07-29

    Embryonic stem (ES) cells have great therapeutic potential because of their capacity to proliferate extensively and to form any fully differentiated cell of the body, including skeletal muscle cells. Successful generation of skeletal muscle in vivo, however, requires selective induction of the skeletal muscle lineage in cultures of ES cells and following transplantation, integration of appropriately differentiated skeletal muscle cells with recipient muscle. Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), a severe progressive muscle wasting disease due to a mutation in the dystrophin gene and the mdx mouse, an animal model for DMD, are characterized by the absence of the muscle membrane associated protein, dystrophin. Here, we show that co-culturing mouse ES cells with a preparation from mouse muscle enriched for myogenic stem and precursor cells, followed by injection into mdx mice, results occasionally in the formation of normal, vascularized skeletal muscle derived from the transplanted ES cells. Study of this phenomenon should provide valuable insights into skeletal muscle development in vivo from transplanted ES cells.

  2. Substrate stiffness affects skeletal myoblast differentiation in vitro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romanazzo, Sara; Forte, Giancarlo; Ebara, Mitsuhiro; Uto, Koichiro; Pagliari, Stefania; Aoyagi, Takao; Traversa, Enrico; Taniguchi, Akiyoshi

    2012-12-01

    To maximize the therapeutic efficacy of cardiac muscle constructs produced by stem cells and tissue engineering protocols, suitable scaffolds should be designed to recapitulate all the characteristics of native muscle and mimic the microenvironment encountered by cells in vivo. Moreover, so not to interfere with cardiac contractility, the scaffold should be deformable enough to withstand muscle contraction. Recently, it was suggested that the mechanical properties of scaffolds can interfere with stem/progenitor cell functions, and thus careful consideration is required when choosing polymers for targeted applications. In this study, cross-linked poly-ɛ-caprolactone membranes having similar chemical composition and controlled stiffness in a supra-physiological range were challenged with two sources of myoblasts to evaluate the suitability of substrates with different stiffness for cell adhesion, proliferation and differentiation. Furthermore, muscle-specific and non-related feeder layers were prepared on stiff surfaces to reveal the contribution of biological and mechanical cues to skeletal muscle progenitor differentiation. We demonstrated that substrate stiffness does affect myogenic differentiation, meaning that softer substrates can promote differentiation and that a muscle-specific feeder layer can improve the degree of maturation in skeletal muscle stem cells.

  3. Conchotome and needle percutaneous biopsy of skeletal muscle.

    PubMed Central

    Dietrichson, P; Coakley, J; Smith, P E; Griffiths, R D; Helliwell, T R; Edwards, R H

    1987-01-01

    Percutaneous muscle biopsy is an important and acceptable technique in the study of conditions involving human skeletal muscle. A review of 436 conchotome and needle muscle biopsies obtained over 18 months in this centre is presented. Images PMID:3694206

  4. Systemic Regulators of Skeletal Muscle Regeneration in Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Sinha, Indranil; Sakthivel, Dharaniya; Varon, David E.

    2017-01-01

    Skeletal muscle maintenance is a dynamic process and undergoes constant repair and regeneration. However, skeletal muscle regenerative capacity declines in obesity. In this review, we focus on obesity-associated changes in inflammation, metabolism, and impaired insulin signaling, which are pathologically dysregulated and ultimately result in a loss of muscle mass and function. In addition, we examine the relationships between skeletal muscle, liver, and visceral adipose tissue in an obese state. PMID:28261159

  5. Stretching Skeletal Muscle: Chronic Muscle Lengthening through Sarcomerogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Zöllner, Alexander M.; Abilez, Oscar J.; Böl, Markus; Kuhl, Ellen

    2012-01-01

    Skeletal muscle responds to passive overstretch through sarcomerogenesis, the creation and serial deposition of new sarcomere units. Sarcomerogenesis is critical to muscle function: It gradually re-positions the muscle back into its optimal operating regime. Animal models of immobilization, limb lengthening, and tendon transfer have provided significant insight into muscle adaptation in vivo. Yet, to date, there is no mathematical model that allows us to predict how skeletal muscle adapts to mechanical stretch in silico. Here we propose a novel mechanistic model for chronic longitudinal muscle growth in response to passive mechanical stretch. We characterize growth through a single scalar-valued internal variable, the serial sarcomere number. Sarcomerogenesis, the evolution of this variable, is driven by the elastic mechanical stretch. To analyze realistic three-dimensional muscle geometries, we embed our model into a nonlinear finite element framework. In a chronic limb lengthening study with a muscle stretch of 1.14, the model predicts an acute sarcomere lengthening from 3.09m to 3.51m, and a chronic gradual return to the initial sarcomere length within two weeks. Compared to the experiment, the acute model error was 0.00% by design of the model; the chronic model error was 2.13%, which lies within the rage of the experimental standard deviation. Our model explains, from a mechanistic point of view, why gradual multi-step muscle lengthening is less invasive than single-step lengthening. It also explains regional variations in sarcomere length, shorter close to and longer away from the muscle-tendon interface. Once calibrated with a richer data set, our model may help surgeons to prevent muscle overstretch and make informed decisions about optimal stretch increments, stretch timing, and stretch amplitudes. We anticipate our study to open new avenues in orthopedic and reconstructive surgery and enhance treatment for patients with ill proportioned limbs, tendon

  6. Skeletal muscle deiodinase type 2 regulation during illness in mice.

    PubMed

    Kwakkel, J; van Beeren, H C; Ackermans, M T; Platvoet-Ter Schiphorst, M C; Fliers, E; Wiersinga, W M; Boelen, A

    2009-11-01

    We have previously shown that skeletal muscle deiodinase type 2 (D2) mRNA (listed as Dio2 in MGI Database) is upregulated in an animal model of acute illness. However, human studies on the expression of muscle D2 during illness report conflicting data. Therefore, we evaluated the expression of skeletal muscle D2 and D2-regulating factors in two mouse models of illness that differ in timing and severity of illness: 1) turpentine-induced inflammation, and 2) Streptococcus pneumoniae infection. During turpentine-induced inflammation, D2 mRNA and activity increased compared to pair-fed controls, most prominently at day 1 and 2, whereas after S. pneumoniae infection D2 mRNA decreased. We evaluated the association of D2 expression with serum thyroid hormones, (de-)ubiquitinating enzymes ubiquitin-specific peptidase 33 and WD repeat and SOCS box-containing 1 (Wsb1), cytokine expression and activation of inflammatory pathways and cAMP pathway. During chronic inflammation the increased muscle D2 expression is associated with the activation of the cAMP pathway. The normalization of D2 5 days after turpentine injection coincides with increased Wsb1 and tumor necrosis factor alpha expression. Muscle interleukin-1beta (Il1b) expression correlated with decreased D2 mRNA expression after S. pneumoniae infection. In conclusion, muscle D2 expression is differentially regulated during illness, probably related to differences in the inflammatory response and type of pathology. D2 mRNA and activity increases in skeletal muscle during the acute phase of chronic inflammation compared to pair-fed controls probably due to activation of the cAMP pathway. In contrast, muscle D2 mRNA decreases 48 h after a severe bacterial infection, which is associated with local Il1b mRNA expression and might also be due to diminished food-intake.

  7. Exercise and the Skeletal Muscle Epigenome.

    PubMed

    McGee, Sean L; Walder, Ken R

    2017-03-20

    An acute bout of exercise is sufficient to induce changes in skeletal muscle gene expression that are ultimately responsible for the adaptive responses to exercise. Although much research has described the intracellular signaling responses to exercise that are linked to transcriptional regulation, the epigenetic mechanisms involved are only just emerging. This review will provide an overview of epigenetic mechanisms and what is known in the context of exercise. Additionally, we will explore potential interactions between metabolism during exercise and epigenetic regulation, which serves as a framework for potential areas for future research. Finally, we will consider emerging opportunities to pharmacologically manipulate epigenetic regulators and mechanisms to induce aspects of the skeletal muscle exercise adaptive response for therapeutic intervention in various disease states.

  8. Development of Sensory Receptors in Skeletal Muscle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeSantis, Mark

    2000-01-01

    There were two major goals for my project. One was to examine the hindlimb walking pattern of offspring from the Flight dams as compared with offspring of the ground control groups from initiation of walking up to two months thereafter. This initial goal was subsequently modified so that additional developmental measures were taken (e.g. body weight, eye opening) as the progeny developed, and the study period was lengthened to eighty days. Also videotapes taken shortly after the pregnant Flight dams returned to Earth were scored for locomotor activity and compared to those for the Synchronous control dams at the same stage of pregnancy. The second goal was to examine skeletal muscle. Selected hindlimb skeletal muscles were to be identified, weighed, and examined for the presence and integrity of muscle receptors, (both muscle spindles and tendon organs), at the level of the light and electron microscope. Muscles were examined from rats that were at fetal (G20), newborn (postnatal day 1 or P1, where P1 = day of birth), and young adult (approx. P100) stages. At the present time data from only the last group of rats (i.e. P100) has been completely examined.

  9. Muscle RANK is a key regulator of Ca2+ storage, SERCA activity, and function of fast-twitch skeletal muscles.

    PubMed

    Dufresne, Sébastien S; Dumont, Nicolas A; Boulanger-Piette, Antoine; Fajardo, Val A; Gamu, Daniel; Kake-Guena, Sandrine-Aurélie; David, Rares Ovidiu; Bouchard, Patrice; Lavergne, Éliane; Penninger, Josef M; Pape, Paul C; Tupling, A Russell; Frenette, Jérôme

    2016-04-15

    Receptor-activator of nuclear factor-κB (RANK), its ligand RANKL, and the soluble decoy receptor osteoprotegerin are the key regulators of osteoclast differentiation and bone remodeling. Here we show that RANK is also expressed in fully differentiated myotubes and skeletal muscle. Muscle RANK deletion has inotropic effects in denervated, but not in sham, extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles preventing the loss of maximum specific force while promoting muscle atrophy, fatigability, and increased proportion of fast-twitch fibers. In denervated EDL muscles, RANK deletion markedly increased stromal interaction molecule 1 content, a Ca(2+)sensor, and altered activity of the sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase (SERCA) modulating Ca(2+)storage. Muscle RANK deletion had no significant effects on the sham or denervated slow-twitch soleus muscles. These data identify a novel role for RANK as a key regulator of Ca(2+)storage and SERCA activity, ultimately affecting denervated skeletal muscle function.

  10. Low Intensity Exercise Training Improves Skeletal Muscle Regeneration Potential

    PubMed Central

    Pietrangelo, Tiziana; Di Filippo, Ester S.; Mancinelli, Rosa; Doria, Christian; Rotini, Alessio; Fanò-Illic, Giorgio; Fulle, Stefania

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to determine whether 12 days of low-to-moderate exercise training at low altitude (598 m a.s.l.) improves skeletal muscle regeneration in sedentary adult women. Methods: Satellite cells were obtained from the vastus lateralis skeletal muscle of seven women before and after this exercise training at low altitude. They were investigated for differentiation aspects, superoxide anion production, antioxidant enzymes, mitochondrial potential variation after a depolarizing insult, intracellular Ca2+ concentrations, and micro (mi)RNA expression (miR-1, miR-133, miR-206). Results: In these myogenic populations of adult stem cells, those obtained after exercise training, showed increased Fusion Index and intracellular Ca2+ concentrations. This exercise training also generally reduced superoxide anion production in cells (by 12–67%), although not in two women, where there was an increase of ~15% along with a reduced superoxide dismutase activity. miRNA expression showed an exercise-induced epigenetic transcription profile that was specific according to the reduced or increased superoxide anion production of the cells. Conclusions: The present study shows that low-to-moderate exercise training at low altitude improves the regenerative capacity of skeletal muscle in adult women. The differentiation of cells was favored by increased intracellular calcium concentration and increased the fusion index. This low-to-moderate training at low altitude also depicted the epigenetic signature of cells. PMID:26733888

  11. Secretome profiling of primary human skeletal muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Hartwig, Sonja; Raschke, Silja; Knebel, Birgit; Scheler, Mika; Irmler, Martin; Passlack, Waltraud; Muller, Stefan; Hanisch, Franz-Georg; Franz, Thomas; Li, Xinping; Dicken, Hans-Dieter; Eckardt, Kristin; Beckers, Johannes; de Angelis, Martin Hrabe; Weigert, Cora; Häring, Hans-Ulrich; Al-Hasani, Hadi; Ouwens, D Margriet; Eckel, Jürgen; Kotzka, Jorg; Lehr, Stefan

    2014-05-01

    The skeletal muscle is a metabolically active tissue that secretes various proteins. These so-called myokines have been proposed to affect muscle physiology and to exert systemic effects on other tissues and organs. Yet, changes in the secretory profile may participate in the pathophysiology of metabolic diseases. The present study aimed at characterizing the secretome of differentiated primary human skeletal muscle cells (hSkMC) derived from healthy, adult donors combining three different mass spectrometry based non-targeted approaches as well as one antibody based method. This led to the identification of 548 non-redundant proteins in conditioned media from hSkmc. For 501 proteins, significant mRNA expression could be demonstrated. Applying stringent consecutive filtering using SignalP, SecretomeP and ER_retention signal databases, 305 proteins were assigned as potential myokines of which 12 proteins containing a secretory signal peptide were not previously described. This comprehensive profiling study of the human skeletal muscle secretome expands our knowledge of the composition of the human myokinome and may contribute to our understanding of the role of myokines in multiple biological processes. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Biomarkers: A Proteomic Challenge.

  12. Extrarenal potassium adaptation: role of skeletal muscle

    SciTech Connect

    Blachley, J.D.; Crider, B.P.; Johnson, J.H.

    1986-08-01

    Following the ingestion of a high-potassium-content diet for only a few days, the plasma potassium of rats rises only modestly in response to a previously lethal dose of potassium salts. This acquired tolerance, termed potassium adaptation, is principally the result of increased capacity to excrete potassium into the urine. However, a substantial portion of the acute potassium dose is not immediately excreted and is apparently translocated into cells. Previous studies have failed to show an increase in the content of potassium of a variety of tissues from such animals. Using /sup 86/Rb as a potassium analogue, we have shown that the skeletal muscle of potassium-adapted rats takes up significantly greater amounts of potassium in vivo in response to an acute challenge than does that of control animals. Furthermore, the same animals exhibit greater efflux of /sup 86/Rb following the termination of the acute infusion. We have also shown that the Na+-K+-ATPase activity and ouabain-binding capacity of skeletal muscle microsomes are increased by the process of potassium adaptation. We conclude that skeletal muscle is an important participant in potassium adaptation and acts to temporarily buffer acute increases in the extracellular concentration of potassium.

  13. Nonmyogenic cells in skeletal muscle regeneration.

    PubMed

    Paylor, Ben; Natarajan, Anuradha; Zhang, Regan-Heng; Rossi, Fabio

    2011-01-01

    Although classical dogma dictates that satellite cells are the primary cell type involved in skeletal muscle regeneration, alternative cell types such as a variety of inflammatory and stromal cells are also actively involved in this process. A model describing myogenic cells as direct contributors to regeneration and nonmyogenic cells from other developmental sources as important accessories has emerged, with similar systems having been described in numerous other tissues in the body. Increasing evidence supports the notion that inflammatory cells function as supportive accessory cells, and are not merely involved in clearing damage following skeletal muscle injury. Additionally, recent studies have highlighted the role of tissue resident mesenchymal cell populations as playing a central role in regulating regeneration. These "accessory" cell populations are proposed to influence myogenesis via direct cell contact and secretion of paracrine trophic factors. The basic foundations of accessory cell understanding should be recognized as a crucial component to all prospects of regenerative medicine, and this chapter intends to provide a comprehensive background on the current literature describing immune and tissue-resident mesenchymal cells' role in skeletal muscle regeneration.

  14. Peptide Antibody Specific for the Amino Terminus of Skeletal Muscle α -actin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulinski, Jeannette Chloe; Kumar, Santosh; Titani, Koiti; Hauschka, Stephen D.

    1983-03-01

    The NH2-terminal peptide of skeletal muscle α -actin (Sα N peptide), which contains a primary sequence unique to this actin isozyme, was used to prepare an isozyme-specific peptide antibody. Sα N peptide was purified from chicken breast muscle actin by preparative reverse-phase HPLC and was coupled to hemocyanin. This complex was used to immunize rabbits in order to elicit actin antibodies specific for the skeletal muscle α -actin isozyme. The antibody obtained, called Sα N antibody, was reactive with Sα N peptide and with skeletal muscle α -actin as well as with cardiac muscle α -actin. Sα N antibody did not react with either of the actin isozymes present in smooth muscle (smooth muscle α and γ ) or in brain (nonmuscle β and γ ). Sα N antibody was used to detect muscle-specific actin in differentiating mouse and human myoblasts by using immunoblots of myoblast extracts and immunofluorescent staining of fixed cells.

  15. Histopathological changes in skeletal muscle associated with chronic ischaemia.

    PubMed

    Roos, Sara; Fyhr, Ing-Marie; Sunnerhagen, Katharina S; Moslemi, Ali-Reza; Oldfors, Anders; Ullman, Michael

    2016-11-01

    Muscle biopsy is an essential part in the diagnostic workup in patients with suspected neuromuscular disorders. It is therefore important to be aware of morphological alterations that can be caused by systemic factors or natural ageing. Chronic limb ischaemia is frequent in elderly individuals. This study was performed to examine histopathological and mitochondrial changes in muscle in patients with chronic critical limb ischaemia. Muscle biopsy of skeletal muscle of the lower limb of patients with chronic ischaemia leading to amputation was performed and compared with muscle biopsies of healthy, age-matched controls. The histopathological abnormalities included fibrosis, necrosis, atrophy, glycogen depletion, internal nuclei, rimmed vacuoles, fibre type grouping, cytochrome c oxidase deficient fibres, MHC-I upregulation, and signs of microangiopathy. The only alteration found in age-matched controls was a few cytochrome c oxidase deficient fibres. There were also increased levels of multiple mitochondrial DNA deletions in ischaemic muscles compared with controls. Critical limb ischaemia is associated with significant histopathological changes in muscle tissue and also increased levels of mitochondrial DNA deletions. Since the alterations mimic different primary myopathic changes, chronic ischaemia is important to consider as a differential diagnosis in elderly individuals, investigated with muscle biopsy for muscle disease.

  16. GLUT-3 expression in human skeletal muscle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stuart, C. A.; Wen, G.; Peng, B. H.; Popov, V. L.; Hudnall, S. D.; Campbell, G. A.

    2000-01-01

    Muscle biopsy homogenates contain GLUT-3 mRNA and protein. Before these studies, it was unclear where GLUT-3 was located in muscle tissue. In situ hybridization using a midmolecule probe demonstrated GLUT-3 within all muscle fibers. Fluorescent-tagged antibody reacting with affinity-purified antibody directed at the carboxy-terminus demonstrated GLUT-3 protein in all fibers. Slow-twitch muscle fibers, identified by NADH-tetrazolium reductase staining, possessed more GLUT-3 protein than fast-twitch fibers. Electron microscopy using affinity-purified primary antibody and gold particle-tagged second antibody showed that the majority of GLUT-3 was in association with triads and transverse tubules inside the fiber. Strong GLUT-3 signals were seen in association with the few nerves that traversed muscle sections. Electron microscopic evaluation of human peripheral nerve demonstrated GLUT-3 within the axon, with many of the particles related to mitochondria. GLUT-3 protein was found in myelin but not in Schwann cells. GLUT-1 protein was not present in nerve cells, axons, myelin, or Schwann cells but was seen at the surface of the peripheral nerve in the perineurium. These studies demonstrated that GLUT-3 mRNA and protein are expressed throughout normal human skeletal muscle, but the protein is predominantly found in the triads of slow-twitch muscle fibers.

  17. Dorsal root vasodilatation in cat skeletal muscle.

    PubMed Central

    Hilton, S M; Marshall, J M

    1980-01-01

    1. A study has been made, in the cat anaesthetized with chloralose, of the effects of antidromic stimulation of dorsal roots L6-S1 on the blood flow through the gastrocnemius muscle. 2. Stimulation of the peripheral ends of the ligated dorsal roots with current pulses of 0.3-0.5 msec duration and at intensities most effective in activating the smaller afferent fibres, for periods of 15-20 sec, produced a 50-60% increase in muscle vascular conductance which was slow in onset and long outlasted the stimulus. 3. This muscle vasodilatation could be evoked in the paralysed animal and was unaffected by guanethidine or atropine. It was, however, greatly reduced or even abolished by the prostaglandin synthetase inhibitors, indomethacin or acetylsalicylic acid, in doses which had no effect on the dilatation produced by a local injection of acetylcholine or the functional hyperaemia induced by muscle contraction. 4. It is concluded that activity in the smaller myelinated or unmyelinated afferent fibres of skeletal muscle produces an increase in muscle blood flow which is mediated, at least in part, by prostaglandins locally synthesized within the muscle. PMID:7381769

  18. Phosphorylation of human skeletal muscle myosin

    SciTech Connect

    Houston, M.E.; Lingley, M.D.; Stuart, D.S.; Hoffman-Goetz, L.

    1986-03-01

    Phosphorylation of the P-light chains (phosphorylatable light chains) in human skeletal muscle myosin was studied in vitro and in vivo under resting an d contracted conditions. biopsy samples from rested vastus lateralis muscle of male and female subjects were incubated in oxygenated physiological solution at 30/sup 0/C. Samples frozen following a quiescent period showed the presence of only unphosphorylated P-light chains designated LC2f (light chain two of fast myosin) CL2s and LC2s'(light chains two of slow myosin). Treatment with caffeine (10 mM) or direct electrical stimulation resulted in the appearance of three additional bands which were identified as the phosphorylated forms of the P-light chains i.e. LC2f-P, LC2s-P and LC2s'-P. The presence of phosphate was confirmed by prior incubation with (/sup 30/P) orthophosphate. Muscle samples rapidly frozen from resting vastus lateralis muscle revealed the presence of unphosphorylated and phosphorylated P-light chains in approximately equal ratios. Muscle samples rapidly frozen following a maximal 10 second isometric contraction showed virtually only phosphorylated fast and slow P-light chains. These results reveal that the P-light chains in human fast and slow myosin may be rapidly phosphorylated, but the basal level of phosphorylation in rested human muscle considerably exceeds that observed in animal muscles studied in vitro or in situ.

  19. Cardiac and skeletal muscles show molecularly distinct responses to cancer cachexia.

    PubMed

    Shum, Angie M Y; Fung, David C Y; Corley, Susan M; McGill, Max C; Bentley, Nicholas L; Tan, Timothy C; Wilkins, Marc R; Polly, Patsie

    2015-12-01

    Cancer cachexia is a systemic, paraneoplastic syndrome seen in patients with advanced cancer. There is growing interest in the altered muscle pathophysiology experienced by cachectic patients. This study reports the microarray analysis of gene expression in cardiac and skeletal muscle in the colon 26 (C26) carcinoma mouse model of cancer cachexia. A total of 268 genes were found to be differentially expressed in cardiac muscle tissue, compared with nontumor-bearing controls. This was fewer than the 1,533 genes that changed in cachectic skeletal muscle. In addition to different numbers of genes changing, different cellular functions were seen to change in each tissue. The cachectic heart showed signs of inflammation, similar to cachectic skeletal muscle, but did not show the upregulation of ubiquitin-dependent protein catabolic processes or downregulation of genes involved in cellular energetics and muscle regeneration that characterizes skeletal muscle cachexia. Quantitative PCR was used to investigate a subset of inflammatory genes in the cardiac and skeletal muscle of independent cachectic samples; this revealed that B4galt1, C1s, Serpina3n, and Vsig4 were significantly upregulated in cardiac tissue, whereas C1s and Serpina3n were significantly upregulated in skeletal tissue. Our skeletal muscle microarray results were also compared with those from three published microarray studies and found to be consistent in terms of the genes differentially expressed and the functional processes affected. Our study highlights that skeletal and cardiac muscles are affected differently in the C26 mouse model of cachexia and that therapeutic strategies cannot assume that both muscle types will show a similar response.

  20. Mechanical stimulation improves tissue-engineered human skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Powell, Courtney A; Smiley, Beth L; Mills, John; Vandenburgh, Herman H

    2002-11-01

    Human bioartificial muscles (HBAMs) are tissue engineered by suspending muscle cells in collagen/MATRIGEL, casting in a silicone mold containing end attachment sites, and allowing the cells to differentiate for 8 to 16 days. The resulting HBAMs are representative of skeletal muscle in that they contain parallel arrays of postmitotic myofibers; however, they differ in many other morphological characteristics. To engineer improved HBAMs, i.e., more in vivo-like, we developed Mechanical Cell Stimulator (MCS) hardware to apply in vivo-like forces directly to the engineered tissue. A sensitive force transducer attached to the HBAM measured real-time, internally generated, as well as externally applied, forces. The muscle cells generated increasing internal forces during formation which were inhibitable with a cytoskeleton depolymerizer. Repetitive stretch/relaxation for 8 days increased the HBAM elasticity two- to threefold, mean myofiber diameter 12%, and myofiber area percent 40%. This system allows engineering of improved skeletal muscle analogs as well as a nondestructive method to determine passive force and viscoelastic properties of the resulting tissue.

  1. Mechanical stimulation improves tissue-engineered human skeletal muscle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, Courtney A.; Smiley, Beth L.; Mills, John; Vandenburgh, Herman H.

    2002-01-01

    Human bioartificial muscles (HBAMs) are tissue engineered by suspending muscle cells in collagen/MATRIGEL, casting in a silicone mold containing end attachment sites, and allowing the cells to differentiate for 8 to 16 days. The resulting HBAMs are representative of skeletal muscle in that they contain parallel arrays of postmitotic myofibers; however, they differ in many other morphological characteristics. To engineer improved HBAMs, i.e., more in vivo-like, we developed Mechanical Cell Stimulator (MCS) hardware to apply in vivo-like forces directly to the engineered tissue. A sensitive force transducer attached to the HBAM measured real-time, internally generated, as well as externally applied, forces. The muscle cells generated increasing internal forces during formation which were inhibitable with a cytoskeleton depolymerizer. Repetitive stretch/relaxation for 8 days increased the HBAM elasticity two- to threefold, mean myofiber diameter 12%, and myofiber area percent 40%. This system allows engineering of improved skeletal muscle analogs as well as a nondestructive method to determine passive force and viscoelastic properties of the resulting tissue.

  2. Effects of regular exercise training on skeletal muscle contractile function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fitts, Robert H.

    2003-01-01

    Skeletal muscle function is critical to movement and one's ability to perform daily tasks, such as eating and walking. One objective of this article is to review the contractile properties of fast and slow skeletal muscle and single fibers, with particular emphasis on the cellular events that control or rate limit the important mechanical properties. Another important goal of this article is to present the current understanding of how the contractile properties of limb skeletal muscle adapt to programs of regular exercise.

  3. REACTIVE OXYGEN SPECIES: IMPACT ON SKELETAL MUSCLE

    PubMed Central

    Powers, Scott K.; Ji, Li Li; Kavazis, Andreas N.; Jackson, Malcolm J.

    2014-01-01

    It is well established that contracting muscles produce both reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. Although the sources of oxidant production during exercise continue to be debated, growing evidence suggests that mitochondria are not the dominant source. Regardless of the sources of oxidants in contracting muscles, intense and prolonged exercise can result in oxidative damage to both proteins and lipids in the contracting myocytes. Further, oxidants regulate numerous cell signaling pathways and modulate the expression of many genes. This oxidant-mediated change in gene expression involves changes at transcriptional, mRNA stability, and signal transduction levels. Furthermore, numerous products associated with oxidant-modulated genes have been identified and include antioxidant enzymes, stress proteins, and mitochondrial electron transport proteins. Interestingly, low and physiological levels of reactive oxygen species are required for normal force production in skeletal muscle, but high levels of reactive oxygen species result in contractile dysfunction and fatigue. Ongoing research continues to explore the redox-sensitive targets in muscle that are responsible for both redox-regulation of muscle adaptation and oxidant-mediated muscle fatigue. PMID:23737208

  4. Circadian rhythms, the molecular clock, and skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Harfmann, Brianna D; Schroder, Elizabeth A; Esser, Karyn A

    2015-04-01

    Circadian rhythms are the approximate 24-h biological cycles that function to prepare an organism for daily environmental changes. They are driven by the molecular clock, a transcriptional:translational feedback mechanism that in mammals involves the core clock genes Bmal1, Clock, Per1/2, and Cry1/2. The molecular clock is present in virtually all cells of an organism. The central clock in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) has been well studied, but the clocks in the peripheral tissues, such as heart and skeletal muscle, have just begun to be investigated. Skeletal muscle is one of the largest organs in the body, comprising approximately 45% of total body mass. More than 2300 genes in skeletal muscle are expressed in a circadian pattern, and these genes participate in a wide range of functions, including myogenesis, transcription, and metabolism. The circadian rhythms of skeletal muscle can be entrained both indirectly through light input to the SCN and directly through time of feeding and activity. It is critical for the skeletal muscle molecular clock not only to be entrained to the environment but also to be in synchrony with rhythms of other tissues. When circadian rhythms are disrupted, the observed effects on skeletal muscle include fiber-type shifts, altered sarcomeric structure, reduced mitochondrial respiration, and impaired muscle function. Furthermore, there are detrimental effects on metabolic health, including impaired glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity, which skeletal muscle likely contributes to considering it is a key metabolic tissue. These data indicate a critical role for skeletal muscle circadian rhythms for both muscle and systems health. Future research is needed to determine the mechanisms of molecular clock function in skeletal muscle, identify the means by which skeletal muscle entrainment occurs, and provide a stringent comparison of circadian gene expression across the diverse tissue system of skeletal muscle.

  5. Circadian Rhythms, the Molecular Clock, and Skeletal Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Harfmann, Brianna D.; Schroder, Elizabeth A.; Esser, Karyn A.

    2015-01-01

    Circadian rhythms are the approximate 24-h biological cycles that function to prepare an organism for daily environmental changes. They are driven by the molecular clock, a transcriptional:translational feedback mechanism that in mammals involves the core clock genes Bmal1, Clock, Per1/2, and Cry1/2. The molecular clock is present in virtually all cells of an organism. The central clock in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) has been well studied, but the clocks in the peripheral tissues, such as heart and skeletal muscle, have just begun to be investigated. Skeletal muscle is one of the largest organs in the body, comprising approximately 45% of total body mass. More than 2300 genes in skeletal muscle are expressed in a circadian pattern, and these genes participate in a wide range of functions, including myogenesis, transcription, and metabolism. The circadian rhythms of skeletal muscle can be entrained both indirectly through light input to the SCN and directly through time of feeding and activity. It is critical for the skeletal muscle molecular clock not only to be entrained to the environment but also to be in synchrony with rhythms of other tissues. When circadian rhythms are disrupted, the observed effects on skeletal muscle include fiber-type shifts, altered sarcomeric structure, reduced mitochondrial respiration, and impaired muscle function. Furthermore, there are detrimental effects on metabolic health, including impaired glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity, which skeletal muscle likely contributes to considering it is a key metabolic tissue. These data indicate a critical role for skeletal muscle circadian rhythms for both muscle and systems health. Future research is needed to determine the mechanisms of molecular clock function in skeletal muscle, identify the means by which skeletal muscle entrainment occurs, and provide a stringent comparison of circadian gene expression across the diverse tissue system of skeletal muscle. PMID:25512305

  6. Skeletal muscle differentiation and fusion are regulated by the BAR-containing Rho-GTPase-activating protein (Rho-GAP), GRAF1.

    PubMed

    Doherty, Jason T; Lenhart, Kaitlin C; Cameron, Morgan V; Mack, Christopher P; Conlon, Frank L; Taylor, Joan M

    2011-07-22

    Although RhoA activity is necessary for promoting myogenic mesenchymal stem cell fates, recent studies in cultured cells suggest that down-regulation of RhoA activity in specified myoblasts is required for subsequent differentiation and myotube formation. However, whether this phenomenon occurs in vivo and which Rho modifiers control these later events remain unclear. We found that expression of the Rho-GTPase-activating protein, GRAF1, was transiently up-regulated during myogenesis, and studies in C2C12 cells revealed that GRAF1 is necessary and sufficient for mediating RhoA down-regulation and inducing muscle differentiation. Moreover, forced expression of GRAF1 in pre-differentiated myoblasts drives robust muscle fusion by a process that requires GTPase-activating protein-dependent actin remodeling and BAR-dependent membrane binding or sculpting. Moreover, morpholino-based knockdown studies in Xenopus laevis determined that GRAF1 expression is critical for muscle development. GRAF1-depleted embryos exhibited elevated RhoA activity and defective myofibrillogenesis that resulted in progressive muscle degeneration, defective motility, and embryonic lethality. Our results are the first to identify a GTPase-activating protein that regulates muscle maturation and to highlight the functional importance of BAR domains in myotube formation.

  7. Skeletal Muscle Regeneration and Oxidative Stress Are Altered in Chronic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Neal X.; Organ, Jason M.; Zarse, Chad; O’Neill, Kalisha; Conway, Richard G.; Konrad, Robert J.; Bacallao, Robert L.; Allen, Matthew R.; Moe, Sharon M.

    2016-01-01

    Skeletal muscle atrophy and impaired muscle function are associated with lower health-related quality of life, and greater disability and mortality risk in those with chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, the pathogenesis of skeletal dysfunction in CKD is unknown. We used a slow progressing, naturally occurring, CKD rat model (Cy/+ rat) with hormonal abnormalities consistent with clinical presentations of CKD to study skeletal muscle signaling. The CKD rats demonstrated augmented skeletal muscle regeneration with higher activation and differentiation signals in muscle cells (i.e. lower Pax-7; higher MyoD and myogenin RNA expression). However, there was also higher expression of proteolytic markers (Atrogin-1 and MuRF-1) in CKD muscle relative to normal. CKD animals had higher indices of oxidative stress compared to normal, evident by elevated plasma levels of an oxidative stress marker, 8-hydroxy-2' -deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), increased muscle expression of succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) and Nox4 and altered mitochondria morphology. Furthermore, we show significantly higher serum levels of myostatin and expression of myostatin in skeletal muscle of CKD animals compared to normal. Taken together, these data show aberrant regeneration and proteolytic signaling that is associated with oxidative stress and high levels of myostatin in the setting of CKD. These changes likely play a role in the compromised skeletal muscle function that exists in CKD. PMID:27486747

  8. Enrichment and terminal differentiation of striated muscle progenitors in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Becher, Ulrich M.; Breitbach, Martin; Sasse, Philipp; Garbe, Stephan; Ven, Peter F.M. van der; Fuerst, Dieter O.; Fleischmann, Bernd K.

    2009-10-01

    Enrichment and terminal differentiation of mammalian striated muscle cells is severely hampered by fibroblast overgrowth, de-differentiation and/or lack of functional differentiation. Herein we report a new, reproducible and simple method to enrich and terminally differentiate muscle stem cells and progenitors from mice and humans. We show that a single gamma irradiation of muscle cells induces their massive differentiation into structurally and functionally intact myotubes and cardiomyocytes and that these cells can be kept in culture for many weeks. Similar results are also obtained when treating skeletal muscle-derived stem cells and progenitors with Mitomycin C.

  9. Amino acids in healthy aging skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Riddle, Emily S; Stipanuk, Martha H; Thalacker-Mercer, Anna E

    2016-01-01

    Life expectancy in the U.S. and globally continues to increase. Despite increased life expectancy quality of life is not enhanced, and older adults often experience chronic age-related disease and functional disability, including frailty. Additionally, changes in body composition such as the involuntary loss of skeletal muscle mass (i.e. sarcopenia) and subsequent increases in adipose tissue can augment disease and disability in this population. Furthermore, increased oxidative stress and decreased antioxidant concentrations may also lead to metabolic dysfunction in older adults. Specific amino acids, including leucine, cysteine and its derivative taurine, and arginine can play various roles in healthy aging, especially in regards to skeletal muscle health. Leucine and arginine play important roles in muscle protein synthesis and cell growth while cysteine and arginine play important roles in quenching oxidative stress. Evidence suggests that supplemental doses of each of these amino acids may improve the aging phenotype. However, additional research is required to establish the doses required to achieve positive outcomes in humans.

  10. Modeling of the Skeletal Muscle Microcirculation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobitz, Frank; Beth, Christophe; Salado, Jerome

    2004-11-01

    Numerical simulations of blood flow in a microvascular network require extensive modeling. This contribution focuses on the reconstruction of a complete network topology from microscopic images of rat skeletal muscle and skeletal muscle fascia. The bifurcating network is composed of a feeding arterial network, a collecting venous network, and bundles of capillaries. Multiple topologies of each network component are recontructed and statistical properties of the network, such as distributions of vessel diameters, vessel lengths, and branching patters are determined. Particular attention has been paid to venous vessel loops that are observed only in the muscle fascia. The flow in the microvessel network is then computed. In the simulations, the microvessels are distensible by pressure, and the arterioles are actively contractile. The blood has non-Newtonian apparent viscosity. Models of each of these properties have previously been determined and are used in the computations. The method of indefinite admittances is used to compute the flow in the network. The apparent viscosity is computed from the local hematocrit, which is found using a combination of breadth first search and Dykstra's algorithms. The computations allow the determination of additional properties of the network, such as flow velocities, shear stresses, and hematocrit.

  11. Molecular networks in skeletal muscle plasticity.

    PubMed

    Hoppeler, Hans

    2016-01-01

    The skeletal muscle phenotype is subject to considerable malleability depending on use as well as internal and external cues. In humans, low-load endurance-type exercise leads to qualitative changes of muscle tissue characterized by an increase in structures supporting oxygen delivery and consumption, such as capillaries and mitochondria. High-load strength-type exercise leads to growth of muscle fibers dominated by an increase in contractile proteins. In endurance exercise, stress-induced signaling leads to transcriptional upregulation of genes, with Ca(2+) signaling and the energy status of the muscle cells sensed through AMPK being major input determinants. Several interrelated signaling pathways converge on the transcriptional co-activator PGC-1α, perceived to be the coordinator of much of the transcriptional and post-transcriptional processes. Strength training is dominated by a translational upregulation controlled by mTORC1. mTORC1 is mainly regulated by an insulin- and/or growth-factor-dependent signaling cascade as well as mechanical and nutritional cues. Muscle growth is further supported by DNA recruitment through activation and incorporation of satellite cells. In addition, there are several negative regulators of muscle mass. We currently have a good descriptive understanding of the molecular mechanisms controlling the muscle phenotype. The topology of signaling networks seems highly conserved among species, with the signaling outcome being dependent on the particular way individual species make use of the options offered by the multi-nodal networks. As a consequence, muscle structural and functional modifications can be achieved by an almost unlimited combination of inputs and downstream signaling events.

  12. Osmoregulatory processes and skeletal muscle metabolism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boschmann, Michael; Gottschalk, Simone; Adams, Frauke; Luft, Friedrich C.; Jordan, Jens

    Prolonged microgravity during space flight is associated with a decrease in blood and extracellular volume. These changes in water and electrolyte balance might activate catabolic processes which contribute finally to the loss of muscle and bone mass and strength. Recently, we found a prompt increase that energy expenditure by about 30% in both normal and overweight men and women after drinking 500 ml water. This effect is mediated by an increased sympathetic nervous system activity, obviously secondary to stimulation of osmosensitive afferent neurons in the liver, and skeletal muscle is possibly one effector organ. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that this thermogenic response to water is accompanied by a stimulation of aerobic glucose metabolism in skeletal muscle. To this end, 16 young healthy volunteers (8 men) were studied. After an overnight fast (12h), a microdialysis probe was implanted into the right M. quadriceps femoris vastus lateralis and subsequently perfused with Ringer's solution (+50 mM ethanol). After 1h, volunteers were asked to drink 500 ml water (22° C) followed by continuing microdialysis for another 90 min. Dialysates (15 min fractions) were analyzed for [ethanol], [glucose], [lactate], [pyruvate], and [glycerol] in order to assess changes in muscle tissue perfusion (ethanol dilution technique), glycolysis and lipolysis. Blood samples were taken and heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP) were monitored. Neither HR and systolic and diastolic BP, nor plasma [glucose], [lactate], [insulin], and [C peptide] changed significantly after water drinking. Also, tissue perfusion and dialysate [glucose] did not change significantly. However, dialysate [lactate] increased by about 10 and 20% and dialysate [pyruvate] by about 100 and 200% in men and women, respectively. In contrast, dialysate [glycerol] decreased by about 30 and 20% in men and women, respectively. Therefore, drinking of 500 ml water stimulates aerobic glucose metabolism and inhibits

  13. Muscle-derived stem cells isolated as non-adherent population give rise to cardiac, skeletal muscle and neural lineages

    SciTech Connect

    Arsic, Nikola; Mamaeva, Daria; Lamb, Ned J.; Fernandez, Anne

    2008-04-01

    Stem cells with the ability to differentiate in specialized cell types can be extracted from a wide array of adult tissues including skeletal muscle. Here we have analyzed a population of cells isolated from skeletal muscle on the basis of their poor adherence on uncoated or collagen-coated dishes that show multi-lineage differentiation in vitro. When analysed under proliferative conditions, these cells express stem cell surface markers Sca-1 (65%) and Bcrp-1 (80%) but also MyoD (15%), Neuronal {beta} III-tubulin (25%), GFAP (30%) or Nkx2.5 (1%). Although capable of growing as non-attached spheres for months, when given an appropriate matrix, these cells adhere giving rise to skeletal muscle, neuronal and cardiac muscle cell lineages. A similar cell population could not be isolated from either bone marrow or cardiac tissue suggesting their specificity to skeletal muscle. When injected into damaged muscle, these non-adherent muscle-derived cells are retrieved expressing Pax7, in a sublaminar position characterizing satellite cells and participate in forming new myofibers. These data show that a non-adherent stem cell population can be specifically isolated and expanded from skeletal muscle and upon attachment to a matrix spontaneously differentiate into muscle, cardiac and neuronal lineages in vitro. Although competing with resident satellite cells, these cells are shown to significantly contribute to repair of injured muscle in vivo supporting that a similar muscle-derived non-adherent cell population from human muscle may be useful in treatment of neuromuscular disorders.

  14. Strategies for skeletal muscle targeting in drug discovery.

    PubMed

    Ebner, David C; Bialek, Peter; El-Kattan, Ayman F; Ambler, Catherine M; Tu, Meihua

    2015-01-01

    The targeting of drugs to skeletal muscle is an emerging area of research. Driven by the need for new therapies to treat a range of muscle-associated diseases, these strategies aim to provide improved drug exposure at the site of action in skeletal muscle with reduced concentration in other tissues where unwanted side effects could occur. By interacting with muscle-specific cell surface recognition elements, both tissue localization and selective uptake into skeletal muscle cells can be achieved. The design of molecules that are substrates for muscle uptake transporters can provide concentration in m uscle tissue. For example, drug conjugates with carnitine can provide improved muscle uptake via OCTN2 transport. Binding to muscle surface recognition elements followed by endocytosis can allow even large molecules such as antibodies to enter muscle cells. Monoclonal antibody 3E10 demonstrated selective uptake into skeletal muscle in vivo. Hybrid adeno-associated viral vectors have recently shown promise for high skeletal muscle selectivity in gene transfer applications. Delivery technology methods, including electroporation of DNA plasmids, have also been investigated for selective muscle uptake. This review discusses challenges and opportunities for skeletal muscle targeting, highlighting specific examples and areas in need of additional research.

  15. Regulation of exercise-induced lipid metabolism in skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Jordy, Andreas Børsting; Kiens, Bente

    2014-12-01

    Exercise increases the utilization of lipids in muscle. The sources of lipids are long-chain fatty acids taken up from the plasma and fatty acids released from stores of intramuscular triacylglycerol by the action of intramuscular lipases. In the present review, we focus on the role of fatty acid binding proteins, particularly fatty acid translocase/cluster of differentiation 36 (FAT/CD36), in the exercise- and contraction-induced increase in uptake of long-chain fatty acids in muscle. The FAT/CD36 translocates from intracellular depots to the surface membrane upon initiation of exercise/muscle contractions. This occurs independently of AMP-activated protein kinase, and data suggest that Ca(2+)-related signalling is responsible. The FAT/CD36 has an important role; long-chain fatty acid uptake is markedly decreased in FAT/CD36 knockout mice during contractions/exercise compared with wild-type control mice. In skeletal muscle, 98% of the lipase activity is accounted for by adipose triglyceride lipase and hormone-sensitive lipase. Give that inhibition or knockout of hormone-sensitive lipase does not impair lipolysis in muscle during contraction, the data point to an important role of adipose triglyceride lipase in regulation of muscle lipolysis. Although the molecular regulation of the lipases in muscle is not understood, it is speculated that intramuscular lipolysis may be regulated in part by the availability of the plasma concentration of long-chain fatty acids.

  16. Engineered skeletal muscle tissue for soft robotics: fabrication strategies, current applications, and future challenges.

    PubMed

    Duffy, Rebecca M; Feinberg, Adam W

    2014-01-01

    Skeletal muscle is a scalable actuator system used throughout nature from the millimeter to meter length scales and over a wide range of frequencies and force regimes. This adaptability has spurred interest in using engineered skeletal muscle to power soft robotics devices and in biotechnology and medical applications. However, the challenges to doing this are similar to those facing the tissue engineering and regenerative medicine fields; specifically, how do we translate our understanding of myogenesis in vivo to the engineering of muscle constructs in vitro to achieve functional integration with devices. To do this researchers are developing a number of ways to engineer the cellular microenvironment to guide skeletal muscle tissue formation. This includes understanding the role of substrate stiffness and the mechanical environment, engineering the spatial organization of biochemical and physical cues to guide muscle alignment, and developing bioreactors for mechanical and electrical conditioning. Examples of engineered skeletal muscle that can potentially be used in soft robotics include 2D cantilever-based skeletal muscle actuators and 3D skeletal muscle tissues engineered using scaffolds or directed self-organization. Integration into devices has led to basic muscle-powered devices such as grippers and pumps as well as more sophisticated muscle-powered soft robots that walk and swim. Looking forward, current, and future challenges include identifying the best source of muscle precursor cells to expand and differentiate into myotubes, replacing cardiomyocytes with skeletal muscle tissue as the bio-actuator of choice for soft robots, and vascularization and innervation to enable control and nourishment of larger muscle tissue constructs.

  17. Effects of S1P on skeletal muscle repair/regeneration during eccentric contraction.

    PubMed

    Sassoli, Chiara; Formigli, Lucia; Bini, Francesca; Tani, Alessia; Squecco, Roberta; Battistini, Chiara; Zecchi-Orlandini, Sandra; Francini, Fabio; Meacci, Elisabetta

    2011-11-01

    Skeletal muscle regeneration is severely compromised in the case of extended damage. The current challenge is to find factors capable of limiting muscle degeneration and/or potentiating the inherent regenerative program mediated by a specific type of myoblastic cells, the satellite cells. Recent studies from our groups and others have shown that the bioactive lipid, sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P), promotes myoblast differentiation and exerts a trophic action on denervated skeletal muscle fibres. In the present study, we examined the effects of S1P on eccentric contraction (EC)-injured extensor digitorum longus muscle fibres and resident satellite cells. After EC, skeletal muscle showed evidence of structural and biochemical damage along with significant electrophysiological changes, i.e. reduced plasma membrane resistance and resting membrane potential and altered Na(+) and Ca(2+) current amplitude and kinetics. Treatment with exogenous S1P attenuated the EC-induced tissue damage, protecting skeletal muscle fibre from apoptosis, preserving satellite cell viability and affecting extracellular matrix remodelling, through the up-regulation of matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) expression. S1P also promoted satellite cell renewal and differentiation in the damaged muscle. Notably, EC was associated with the activation of sphingosine kinase 1 (SphK1) and with increased endogenous S1P synthesis, further stressing the relevance of S1P in skeletal muscle protection and repair/regeneration. In line with this, the treatment with a selective SphK1 inhibitor during EC, caused an exacerbation of the muscle damage and attenuated MMP-9 expression. Together, these findings are in favour for a role of S1P in skeletal muscle healing and offer new clues for the identification of novel therapeutic approaches to counteract skeletal muscle damage and disease.

  18. FOXO1 delays skeletal muscle regeneration and suppresses myoblast proliferation.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Atsushi; Hatazawa, Yukino; Hirose, Yuma; Ono, Yusuke; Kamei, Yasutomi

    2016-08-01

    Unloading stress, such as bed rest, inhibits the regenerative potential of skeletal muscles; however, the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. FOXO1 expression, which induces the upregulated expression of the cell cycle inhibitors p57 and Gadd45α, is known to be increased in the skeletal muscle under unloading conditions. However, there is no report addressing FOXO1-induced inhibition of myoblast proliferation. Therefore, we induced muscle injury by cardiotoxin in transgenic mice overexpressing FOXO1 in the skeletal muscle (FOXO1-Tg mice) and observed regeneration delay in skeletal muscle mass and cross-sectional area in FOXO1-Tg mice. Increased p57 and Gadd45α mRNA levels, and decreased proliferation capacity were observed in C2C12 myoblasts expressing a tamoxifen-inducible active form of FOXO1. These results suggest that decreased proliferation capacity of myoblasts by FOXO1 disrupts skeletal muscle regeneration under FOXO1-increased conditions, such as unloading.

  19. Satellite-like cells contribute to pax7-dependent skeletal muscle repair in adult zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Berberoglu, Michael A; Gallagher, Thomas L; Morrow, Zachary T; Talbot, Jared C; Hromowyk, Kimberly J; Tenente, Inês M; Langenau, David M; Amacher, Sharon L

    2017-04-15

    Satellite cells, also known as muscle stem cells, are responsible for skeletal muscle growth and repair in mammals. Pax7 and Pax3 transcription factors are established satellite cell markers required for muscle development and regeneration, and there is great interest in identifying additional factors that regulate satellite cell proliferation, differentiation, and/or skeletal muscle regeneration. Due to the powerful regenerative capacity of many zebrafish tissues, even in adults, we are exploring the regenerative potential of adult zebrafish skeletal muscle. Here, we show that adult zebrafish skeletal muscle contains cells similar to mammalian satellite cells. Adult zebrafish satellite-like cells have dense heterochromatin, express Pax7 and Pax3, proliferate in response to injury, and show peak myogenic responses 4-5 days post-injury (dpi). Furthermore, using a pax7a-driven GFP reporter, we present evidence implicating satellite-like cells as a possible source of new muscle. In lieu of central nucleation, which distinguishes regenerating myofibers in mammals, we describe several characteristics that robustly identify newly-forming myofibers from surrounding fibers in injured adult zebrafish muscle. These characteristics include partially overlapping expression in satellite-like cells and regenerating myofibers of two RNA-binding proteins Rbfox2 and Rbfoxl1, known to regulate embryonic muscle development and function. Finally, by analyzing pax7a; pax7b double mutant zebrafish, we show that Pax7 is required for adult skeletal muscle repair, as it is in the mouse.

  20. Impaired skeletal muscle regeneration in the absence of fibrosis during hibernation in 13-lined ground squirrels.

    PubMed

    Andres-Mateos, Eva; Mejias, Rebeca; Soleimani, Arshia; Lin, Brian M; Burks, Tyesha N; Marx, Ruth; Lin, Benjamin; Zellars, Richard C; Zhang, Yonggang; Huso, David L; Marr, Tom G; Leinwand, Leslie A; Merriman, Dana K; Cohn, Ronald D

    2012-01-01

    Skeletal muscle atrophy can occur as a consequence of immobilization and/or starvation in the majority of vertebrates studied. In contrast, hibernating mammals are protected against the loss of muscle mass despite long periods of inactivity and lack of food intake. Resident muscle-specific stem cells (satellite cells) are known to be activated by muscle injury and their activation contributes to the regeneration of muscle, but whether satellite cells play a role in hibernation is unknown. In the hibernating 13-lined ground squirrel we show that muscles ablated of satellite cells were still protected against atrophy, demonstrating that satellite cells are not involved in the maintenance of skeletal muscle during hibernation. Additionally, hibernating skeletal muscle showed extremely slow regeneration in response to injury, due to repression of satellite cell activation and myoblast differentiation caused by a fine-tuned interplay of p21, myostatin, MAPK, and Wnt signaling pathways. Interestingly, despite long periods of inflammation and lack of efficient regeneration, injured skeletal muscle from hibernating animals did not develop fibrosis and was capable of complete recovery when animals emerged naturally from hibernation. We propose that hibernating squirrels represent a new model system that permits evaluation of impaired skeletal muscle remodeling in the absence of formation of tissue fibrosis.

  1. Impaired Skeletal Muscle Regeneration in the Absence of Fibrosis during Hibernation in 13-Lined Ground Squirrels

    PubMed Central

    Soleimani, Arshia; Lin, Brian M.; Burks, Tyesha N.; Marx, Ruth; Lin, Benjamin; Zellars, Richard C.; Zhang, Yonggang; Huso, David L.; Marr, Tom G.; Leinwand, Leslie A.; Merriman, Dana K.; Cohn, Ronald D.

    2012-01-01

    Skeletal muscle atrophy can occur as a consequence of immobilization and/or starvation in the majority of vertebrates studied. In contrast, hibernating mammals are protected against the loss of muscle mass despite long periods of inactivity and lack of food intake. Resident muscle-specific stem cells (satellite cells) are known to be activated by muscle injury and their activation contributes to the regeneration of muscle, but whether satellite cells play a role in hibernation is unknown. In the hibernating 13-lined ground squirrel we show that muscles ablated of satellite cells were still protected against atrophy, demonstrating that satellite cells are not involved in the maintenance of skeletal muscle during hibernation. Additionally, hibernating skeletal muscle showed extremely slow regeneration in response to injury, due to repression of satellite cell activation and myoblast differentiation caused by a fine-tuned interplay of p21, myostatin, MAPK, and Wnt signaling pathways. Interestingly, despite long periods of inflammation and lack of efficient regeneration, injured skeletal muscle from hibernating animals did not develop fibrosis and was capable of complete recovery when animals emerged naturally from hibernation. We propose that hibernating squirrels represent a new model system that permits evaluation of impaired skeletal muscle remodeling in the absence of formation of tissue fibrosis. PMID:23155423

  2. Skeletal muscle responses to unloading in humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dudley, G.; Tesch, P.; Hather, B.; Adams, G.; Buchanan, P.

    1992-01-01

    This study examined the effects of unloading on skeletal muscle structure. Method: Eight subjects walked on crutches for six weeks with a 110 cm elevated sole on the right shoe. This removed weight bearing by the left lower limb. Magnetic resonance imaging of both lower limbs and biopsies of the left m. vastus laterallis (VL) were used to study muscle structure. Results: Unloading decreased (P less than 0.05) muscle cross-sectional areas (CSA) of the knee extensors 16 percent. The knee flexors showed about 1/2 of this response (-7 percent, P less than 0.05). The three vasti muscles each showed decreases (P less than 0.05) of about 15 percent. M. rectus femoris did not change. Mean fiber CSA in VL decreased (P less than 0.05) 14 percent with type 2 and type 1 fibers showing reductions of 15 and 11 percent respectively. The ankle extensors showed a 20 percent decrease (P less than 0.05) in CSA. The reduction for the 'fast' m. gastrocnemius was 27 percent compared to the 18 percent decrease for the 'slow' soleus. Summary: The results suggest that decreases in muscle CSA are determined by the relative change in impact loading history because atrophy was (1) greater in extensor than flexor muscles, (2) at least as great in fast as compared to slow muscles or fibers, and (3) not dependent on single or multi-joint function. They also suggest that the atrophic responses to unloading reported for lower mammals are quantitatively but not qualitatively similar to those of humans.

  3. Emerging Roles of ER Stress and Unfolded Protein Response Pathways in Skeletal Muscle Health and Disease.

    PubMed

    Bohnert, Kyle R; McMillan, Joseph D; Kumar, Ashok

    2017-02-08

    Skeletal muscle is the most abundant tissue in the human body and can adapt its mass as a consequence of physical activity, metabolism, growth factors, and disease conditions. Skeletal muscle contains an extensive network of endoplasmic reticulum (ER), called sarcoplasmic reticulum, which plays an important role in the regulation of proteostasis and calcium homeostasis. In many cell types, environmental and genetic factors that disrupt ER function cause an accumulation of misfolded and unfolded proteins in the ER lumen that ultimately leads to ER stress. To alleviate the stress and restore homeostasis, the ER activates a signaling network called the unfolded protein response (UPR). The UPR has three arms, which regulate protein synthesis and expression of many ER chaperone and regulatory proteins. However, the role of individual UPR pathways in skeletal muscle has just begun to be investigated. Recent studies suggest that UPR pathways play pivotal roles in muscle stem cell homeostasis, myogenic differentiation, and regeneration of injured skeletal muscle. Moreover, markers of ER stress and the UPR are activated in skeletal muscle in diverse conditions such as exercise, denervation, starvation, high fat diet, cancer cachexia, and aging. Accumulating evidence also suggests that ER stress may have important roles in the pathogenesis of inflammatory myopathies and genetic muscle disorders. The purpose of this review article is to discuss the role and potential mechanisms by which ER stress and the individual arms of the UPR regulate skeletal muscle formation, plasticity, and function in various physiological and pathophysiological conditions. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  4. Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 expression by skeletal muscle cells augments myogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Goh, Qingnian; Dearth, Christopher L.; Corbett, Jacob T.; Pierre, Philippe; Chadee, Deborah N.; Pizza, Francis X.

    2015-02-15

    We previously demonstrated that the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) by skeletal muscle cells after muscle overload contributes to ensuing regenerative and hypertrophic processes in skeletal muscle. The objective of the present study is to reveal mechanisms through which skeletal muscle cell expression of ICAM-1 augments regenerative and hypertrophic processes of myogenesis. This was accomplished by genetically engineering C2C12 myoblasts to stably express ICAM-1, and by inhibiting the adhesive and signaling functions of ICAM-1 through the use of a neutralizing antibody or cell penetrating peptide, respectively. Expression of ICAM-1 by cultured skeletal muscle cells augmented myoblast–myoblast adhesion, myotube formation, myonuclear number, myotube alignment, myotube–myotube fusion, and myotube size without influencing the ability of myoblasts to proliferate or differentiate. ICAM-1 augmented myotube formation, myonuclear accretion, and myotube alignment through a mechanism involving adhesion-induced activation of ICAM-1 signaling, as these dependent measures were reduced via antibody and peptide inhibition of ICAM-1. The adhesive and signaling functions of ICAM-1 also facilitated myotube hypertrophy through a mechanism involving myotube–myotube fusion, protein synthesis, and Akt/p70s6k signaling. Our findings demonstrate that ICAM-1 expression by skeletal muscle cells augments myogenesis, and establish a novel mechanism through which the inflammatory response facilitates growth processes in skeletal muscle. - Highlights: • We examined mechanisms through which skeletal muscle cell expression of ICAM-1 facilitates events of in vitro myogenesis. • Expression of ICAM-1 by cultured myoblasts did not influence their ability to proliferate or differentiate. • Skeletal muscle cell expression of ICAM-1 augmented myoblast fusion, myotube alignment, myotube–myotube fusion, and myotube size. • ICAM-1 augmented myogenic processes through

  5. Skeletal muscle myoblasts possess a stretch-responsive local angiotensin signalling system.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Adam P W; Baker, Jeff; De Lisio, Michael; Parise, Gianni

    2011-06-01

    A paucity of information exists regarding the presence of local renin-angiotensin systems (RASs) in skeletal muscle and associated muscle stem cells. Skeletal muscle and muscle stem cells were isolated from C57BL/6 mice and examined for the presence of a local RAS using quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), immunohistochemistry (IHC), Western blotting and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Furthermore, the effect of mechanical stimulation on RAS member gene expression was analysed. Whole skeletal muscle, primary myoblasts and C2C12 derived myoblasts and myotubes differentially expressed members of the RAS including angiotensinogen, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), angiotensin II (Ang II) type 1 (AT(1)) and type 2 (AT(2)). Renin transcripts were never detected, however, mRNA for the 'renin-like' enzyme cathepsin D was observed and Ang I and Ang II were identified in cell culture supernatants from proliferating myoblasts. AT(1) appeared to co-localise with polymerised actin filaments in proliferating myoblasts and was primarily found in the nucleus of terminally differentiated myotubes. Furthermore, mechanical stretch of proliferating and differentiating C2C12 cells differentially induced mRNA expression of angiotensinogen, AT(1) and AT(2). Proliferating and differentiated muscle stem cells possess a local stress-responsive RAS in vitro. The precise function of a local RAS in myoblasts remains unknown. However, evidence presented here suggests that Ang II may be a regulator of skeletal muscle myoblasts.

  6. Acylcarnitines: potential implications for skeletal muscle insulin resistance

    PubMed Central

    Aguer, Céline; McCoin, Colin S.; Knotts, Trina A.; Thrush, A. Brianne; Ono-Moore, Kikumi; McPherson, Ruth; Dent, Robert; Hwang, Daniel H.; Adams, Sean H.; Harper, Mary-Ellen

    2015-01-01

    Insulin resistance may be linked to incomplete fatty acid β-oxidation and the subsequent increase in acylcarnitine species in different tissues including skeletal muscle. It is not known if acylcarnitines participate in muscle insulin resistance or simply reflect dysregulated metabolism. The aims of this study were to determine whether acylcarnitines can elicit muscle insulin resistance and to better understand the link between incomplete muscle fatty acid β-oxidation, oxidative stress, inflammation, and insulin-resistance development. Differentiated C2C12, primary mouse, and human myotubes were treated with acylcarnitines (C4:0, C14:0, C16:0) or with palmitate with or without carnitine acyltransferase inhibition by mildronate. Treatment with C4:0, C14:0, and C16:0 acylcarnitines resulted in 20–30% decrease in insulin response at the level of Akt phosphorylation and/or glucose uptake. Mildronate reversed palmitate-induced insulin resistance concomitant with an ∼25% decrease in short-chain acylcarnitine and acetylcarnitine secretion. Although proinflammatory cytokines were not affected under these conditions, oxidative stress was increased by 2–3 times by short- or long-chain acylcarnitines. Acylcarnitine-induced oxidative stress and insulin resistance were reversed by treatment with antioxidants. Results are consistent with the conclusion that incomplete muscle fatty acid β-oxidation causes acylcarnitine accumulation and associated oxidative stress, raising the possibility that these metabolites play a role in muscle insulin resistance.—Aguer, C., McCoin, C. S., Knotts, T. A., Thrush, A. B., Ono-Moore, K., McPherson, R., Dent, R., Hwang, D. H., Adams, S. H., Harper, M.-E. Acylcarnitines: potential implications for skeletal muscle insulin resistance. PMID:25342132

  7. Structure-function relationship of skeletal muscle provides inspiration for design of new artificial muscle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Yingxin; Zhang, Chi

    2015-03-01

    A variety of actuator technologies have been developed to mimic biological skeletal muscle that generates force in a controlled manner. Force generation process of skeletal muscle involves complicated biophysical and biochemical mechanisms; therefore, it is impossible to replace biological muscle. In biological skeletal muscle tissue, the force generation of a muscle depends not only on the force generation capacity of the muscle fiber, but also on many other important factors, including muscle fiber type, motor unit recruitment, architecture, structure and morphology of skeletal muscle, all of which have significant impact on the force generation of the whole muscle or force transmission from muscle fibers to the tendon. Such factors have often been overlooked, but can be incorporated in artificial muscle design, especially with the discovery of new smart materials and the development of innovative fabrication and manufacturing technologies. A better understanding of the physiology and structure-function relationship of skeletal muscle will therefore benefit the artificial muscle design. In this paper, factors that affect muscle force generation are reviewed. Mathematical models used to model the structure-function relationship of skeletal muscle are reviewed and discussed. We hope the review will provide inspiration for the design of a new generation of artificial muscle by incorporating the structure-function relationship of skeletal muscle into the design of artificial muscle.

  8. Radiofrequency energy loop primes cardiac, neuronal, and skeletal muscle differentiation in mouse embryonic stem cells: a new tool for improving tissue regeneration.

    PubMed

    Maioli, Margherita; Rinaldi, Salvatore; Santaniello, Sara; Castagna, Alessandro; Pigliaru, Gianfranco; Gualini, Sara; Fontani, Vania; Ventura, Carlo

    2012-01-01

    Radiofrequency (RF) waves from Wi-Fi (wireless fidelity) technologies have become ubiquitous, with Internet access spreading into homes, and public areas. The human body harbors multipotent stem cells with various grading of potentiality. Whether stem cells may be affected by Wi-Fi RF energy remains unknown. We exposed mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells to a Radio Electric Asymmetric Conveyer (REAC), an innovative device delivering Wi-Fi RF of 2.4 GHz with its conveyer electrodes immersed into the culture medium. Cell responses were investigated by real-time PCR, Western blot, and confocal microscopy. Single RF burst duration, radiated power, electric and magnetic fields, specific absorption rate, and current density in culture medium were monitored. REAC stimulation primed transcription of genes involved in cardiac (GATA4, Nkx-2.5, and prodynorphin), skeletal muscle (myoD) and neuronal (neurogenin1) commitment, while downregulating the self renewal/pluripotency-associated genes Sox2, Oct4, and Nanog. REAC exposure enhanced the expression of cardiac, skeletal, and neuronal lineage-restricted marker proteins. The number of spontaneously beating ES-derived myocardial cells was also increased. In conclusion, REAC stimulation provided a "physical milieu" optimizing stem cell expression of pluripotentiality and the attainment of three major target lineages for regenerative medicine, without using chemical agonists or vector-mediated gene delivery.

  9. Interactions between Skeletal Muscle Myoblasts and their Extracellular Matrix Revealed by a Serum Free Culture System.

    PubMed

    Chaturvedi, Vishal; Dye, Danielle E; Kinnear, Beverley F; van Kuppevelt, Toin H; Grounds, Miranda D; Coombe, Deirdre R

    2015-01-01

    Decellularisation of skeletal muscle provides a system to study the interactions of myoblasts with muscle extracellular matrix (ECM). This study describes the efficient decellularisation of quadriceps muscle with the retention of matrix components and the use of this matrix for myoblast proliferation and differentiation under serum free culture conditions. Three decellularisation approaches were examined; the most effective was phospholipase A2 treatment, which removed cellular material while maximizing the retention of ECM components. Decellularised muscle matrices were then solubilized and used as substrates for C2C12 mouse myoblast serum free cultures. The muscle matrix supported myoblast proliferation and differentiation equally as well as collagen and fibronectin. Immunofluorescence analyses revealed that myoblasts seeded on muscle matrix and fibronectin differentiated to form long, well-aligned myotubes, while myoblasts seeded on collagen were less organized. qPCR analyses showed a time dependent increase in genes involved in skeletal muscle differentiation and suggested that muscle-derived matrix may stimulate an increased rate of differentiation compared to collagen and fibronectin. Decellularized whole muscle three-dimensional scaffolds also supported cell adhesion and spreading, with myoblasts aligning along specific tracts of matrix proteins within the scaffolds. Thus, under serum free conditions, intact acellular muscle matrices provided cues to direct myoblast adhesion and migration. In addition, myoblasts were shown to rapidly secrete and organise their own matrix glycoproteins to create a localized ECM microenvironment. This serum free culture system has revealed that the correct muscle ECM facilitates more rapid cell organisation and differentiation than single matrix glycoprotein substrates.

  10. Human muscle precursor cells overexpressing PGC-1α enhance early skeletal muscle tissue formation.

    PubMed

    Haralampieva, Deana; Salemi, Souzan; Dinulovic, Ivana; Sulser, Tullio; M Ametamey, Simon; Handschin, Christoph; Eberli, Daniel

    2017-02-03

    Muscle precursor cells (MPCs) are activated satellite cells capable of muscle fiber reconstruction. Therefore, autologous MPC transplantation is envisioned for the treatment of muscle diseases. However, the density of MPCs, as well as their proliferation and differentiation potential gradually decline with age. The goal of this research was to genetically modify human MPCs (hMPCs) to overexpress the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator (PGC-1α), a key regulator of exercise-mediated adaptation, and thereby to enhance early skeletal muscle formation and quality. We were able to confirm the sustained myogenic phenotype of the genetically modified hMPCs. While maintaining their viability and proliferation potential, PGC-1α modified hMPCs showed an enhanced myofiber formation capacity in vitro. Engineered muscle tissues were harvested 1, 2 and 4 weeks after subcutaneous injection of cell-collagen suspensions and histological analysis confirmed the earlier myotube formation in PGC-1α modified samples, predominantly of slow twitch myofibers. Increased contractile protein levels were detected by Western Blot. In summary, by genetically modifying hMPCs to overexpress PGC-1α we were able to promote early muscle fiber formation in vitro and in vivo, with an initial switch to slow type myofibers. Therefore, overexpressing PGC-1α is novel strategy to further enhance skeletal muscle tissue engineering.

  11. Satellite cell proliferation in adult skeletal muscle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Booth, Frank W. (Inventor); Thomason, Donald B. (Inventor); Morrison, Paul R. (Inventor); Stancel, George M. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    Novel methods of retroviral-mediated gene transfer for the in vivo corporation and stable expression of eukaryotic or prokaryotic foreign genes in tissues of living animals is described. More specifically, methods of incorporating foreign genes into mitotically active cells are disclosed. The constitutive and stable expression of E. coli .beta.-galactosidase gene under the promoter control of the Moloney murine leukemia virus long terminal repeat is employed as a particularly preferred embodiment, by way of example, establishes the model upon which the incorporation of a foreign gene into a mitotically-active living eukaryotic tissue is based. Use of the described methods in therapeutic treatments for genetic diseases, such as those muscular degenerative diseases, is also presented. In muscle tissue, the described processes result in genetically-altered satellite cells which proliferate daughter myoblasts which preferentially fuse to form a single undamaged muscle fiber replacing damaged muscle tissue in a treated animal. The retroviral vector, by way of example, includes a dystrophin gene construct for use in treating muscular dystrophy. The present invention also comprises an experimental model utilizable in the study of the physiological regulation of skeletal muscle gene expression in intact animals.

  12. Role of proteoglycans in the regulation of the skeletal muscle fibrotic response.

    PubMed

    Brandan, Enrique; Gutierrez, Jaime

    2013-09-01

    Myogenesis consists of a highly organized and regulated sequence of cellular processes aimed at forming or repairing muscle tissue. Several processes occur during myogenesis, including cell proliferation, migration, and differentiation. Cytokines, proteinases, cell adhesion molecules and growth factors are involved, either activating or inhibiting these events, and are modulated by a group of molecules called proteoglycans (PGs), which play critical roles in skeletal muscle physiology. Particularly interesting are some of the factors responsible for the fibrotic response associated with skeletal muscular dystrophies. Transforming growth factor-β and connective tissue growth factor have gained great attention as factors participating in the fibrotic response in skeletal muscle. This review is focused on the advances achieved in understanding the roles of proteoglycans as modulators of profibrotic growth factors in fibrosis associated with diseases such as skeletal muscle dystrophies.

  13. Skeletal muscle stem cells from animals I. Basic cell biology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Skeletal muscle stem cells from food-producing animals have been of interest to agricultural life scientists seeking to develop a better understanding of the molecular regulation of lean tissue (skeletal muscle protein hypertrophy) and intramuscular fat (marbling) development. Enhanced understanding...

  14. Skeletal muscle satellite cells cultured in simulated microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Molnar, Greg; Hartzell, Charles R.; Schroedl, Nancy A.; Gonda, Steve R.

    1993-01-01

    Satellite cells are postnatal myoblasts responsible for providing additional nuclei to growing or regenerating muscle cells. Satellite cells retain the capacity to proliferate and differentiate in vitro and therefore provide a useful model to study postnatal muscle development. Most culture systems used to study postnatal muscle development are limited by the two-dimensional (2-D) confines of the culture dish. Limiting proliferation and differentiation of satellite cells in 2-D could potentially limit cell-cell contacts important for developing the level of organization in skeletal muscle obtained in vivo. Culturing satellite cells on microcarrier beads suspended in the High-Aspect-Ratio-Vessel (HARV) designed by NASA provides a low shear, three-dimensional (3-D) environment to study muscle development. Primary cultures established from anterior tibialis muscles of growing rats (approximately 200 gm) were used for all studies and were composed of greater than 75 % satellite cells. Different inoculation densities did not affect the proliferative potential of satellite cells in the HARV. Plating efficiency, proliferation, and glucose utilization were compared between 2-D flat culture and 3-D HARV culture. Plating efficiency (cells attached - cells plated x 100) was similar between the two culture systems. Proliferation was reduced in HARV cultures and this reduction was apparent for both satellite cells and non-satellite cells. Furthermore, reduction in proliferation within the HARV could not be attributed to reduced substrate availability since glucose levels in media from HARV and 2-D cell culture were similar. Morphologically, microcarrier beads within the HARVS were joined together by cells into three-dimensional aggregates composed of greater than 10 beads/aggregate. Aggregation of beads did not occur in the absence of cells. Myotubes were often seen on individual beads or spanning the surface of two beads. In summary, proliferation and differentiation of

  15. Resveratrol and SRT1720 Elicit Differential Effects in Metabolic Organs and Modulate Systemic Parameters Independently of Skeletal Muscle Peroxisome Proliferator-activated Receptor γ Co-activator 1α (PGC-1α)*

    PubMed Central

    Svensson, Kristoffer; Schnyder, Svenia; Albert, Verena; Cardel, Bettina; Quagliata, Luca; Terracciano, Luigi M.; Handschin, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    Resveratrol (RSV) and SRT1720 (SRT) elicit beneficial metabolic effects and are postulated to ameliorate obesity and related metabolic complications. The co-activator, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ co-activator 1α (PGC-1α), has emerged as a major downstream effector responsible for metabolic remodeling of muscle and other metabolic tissues in response to RSV or SRT treatment. However, the requirement of PGC-1α in skeletal muscle for the systemic metabolic effects of these compounds has so far not been demonstrated. Using muscle-specific PGC-1α knock-out mice, we show that PGC-1α is necessary for transcriptional induction of mitochondrial genes in muscle with both RSV and SRT treatment. Surprisingly, the beneficial effects of SRT on glucose homeostasis and of both compounds on energy expenditure occur even in the absence of muscle PGC-1α. Moreover, RSV and SRT treatment elicit differential transcriptional effects on genes involved in lipid metabolism and mitochondrial biogenesis in liver and adipose tissue. These findings indicate that RSV and SRT do not induce analogous metabolic effects in vivo. Our results provide important insights into the mechanism, effects, and organ specificity of the caloric restriction mimetics RSV and SRT. These findings are important for the design of future therapeutic interventions aimed at ameliorating obesity and obesity-related metabolic dysfunction. PMID:25987562

  16. Regulation of glucose transport in skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Barnard, R J; Youngren, J F

    1992-11-01

    The entry of glucose into muscle cells is achieved primarily via a carrier-mediated system consisting of protein transport molecules. GLUT-1 transporter isoform is normally found in the sarcolemmal (SL) membrane and is thought to be involved in glucose transport under basal conditions. With insulin stimulation, glucose transport is accelerated by translocating GLUT-4 transporters from an intracellular pool out to the T-tubule and SL membranes. Activation of transporters to increase the turnover number may also be involved, but the evidence is far from conclusive. When insulin binds to its receptor, it autophosphorylates tyrosine and serine residues on the beta-subunit of the receptor. The tyrosine residues are thought to activate tyrosine kinases, which in turn phosphorylate/activate as yet unknown second messengers. Insulin receptor antibodies, however, have been reported to increase glucose transport without increasing kinase activity. Insulin resistance in skeletal muscle is a major characteristic of obesity and diabetes mellitus, especially NIDDM. A decrease in the number of insulin receptors and the ability of insulin to activate receptor tyrosine kinase has been documented in muscle from NIDDM patients. Most studies report no change in the intracellular pool of GLUT-4 transporters available for translocation to the SL. Both the quality and quantity of food consumed can regulate insulin sensitivity. A high-fat, refined sugar diet, similar to the typical U.S. diet, causes insulin resistance when compared with a low-fat, complex-carbohydrate diet. On the other hand, exercise increases insulin sensitivity. After an acute bout of exercise, glucose transport in muscle increases to the same level as with maximum insulin stimulation. Although the number of GLUT-4 transporters in the sarcolemma increases with exercise, neither insulin or its receptor is involved. After an initial acute phase, which may involve calcium as the activator, a secondary phase of increased

  17. PEDF-derived peptide promotes skeletal muscle regeneration through its mitogenic effect on muscle progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Ho, Tsung-Chuan; Chiang, Yi-Pin; Chuang, Chih-Kuang; Chen, Show-Li; Hsieh, Jui-Wen; Lan, Yu-Wen; Tsao, Yeou-Ping

    2015-08-01

    In response injury, intrinsic repair mechanisms are activated in skeletal muscle to replace the damaged muscle fibers with new muscle fibers. The regeneration process starts with the proliferation of satellite cells to give rise to myoblasts, which subsequently differentiate terminally into myofibers. Here, we investigated the promotion effect of pigment epithelial-derived factor (PEDF) on muscle regeneration. We report that PEDF and a synthetic PEDF-derived short peptide (PSP; residues Ser(93)-Leu(112)) induce satellite cell proliferation in vitro and promote muscle regeneration in vivo. Extensively, soleus muscle necrosis was induced in rats by bupivacaine, and an injectable alginate gel was used to release the PSP in the injured muscle. PSP delivery was found to stimulate satellite cell proliferation in damaged muscle and enhance the growth of regenerating myofibers, with complete regeneration of normal muscle mass by 2 wk. In cell culture, PEDF/PSP stimulated C2C12 myoblast proliferation, together with a rise in cyclin D1 expression. PEDF induced the phosphorylation of ERK1/2, Akt, and STAT3 in C2C12 myoblasts. Blocking the activity of ERK, Akt, or STAT3 with pharmacological inhibitors attenuated the effects of PEDF/PSP on the induction of C2C12 cell proliferation and cyclin D1 expression. Moreover, 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine pulse-labeling demonstrated that PEDF/PSP stimulated primary rat satellite cell proliferation in myofibers in vitro. In summary, we report for the first time that PSP is capable of promoting the regeneration of skeletal muscle. The signaling mechanism involves the ERK, AKT, and STAT3 pathways. These results show the potential utility of this PEDF peptide for muscle regeneration.

  18. Acylcarnitines: potential implications for skeletal muscle insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Aguer, Céline; McCoin, Colin S; Knotts, Trina A; Thrush, A Brianne; Ono-Moore, Kikumi; McPherson, Ruth; Dent, Robert; Hwang, Daniel H; Adams, Sean H; Harper, Mary-Ellen

    2015-01-01

    Insulin resistance may be linked to incomplete fatty acid β-oxidation and the subsequent increase in acylcarnitine species in different tissues including skeletal muscle. It is not known if acylcarnitines participate in muscle insulin resistance or simply reflect dysregulated metabolism. The aims of this study were to determine whether acylcarnitines can elicit muscle insulin resistance and to better understand the link between incomplete muscle fatty acid β-oxidation, oxidative stress, inflammation, and insulin-resistance development. Differentiated C2C12, primary mouse, and human myotubes were treated with acylcarnitines (C4:0, C14:0, C16:0) or with palmitate with or without carnitine acyltransferase inhibition by mildronate. Treatment with C4:0, C14:0, and C16:0 acylcarnitines resulted in 20-30% decrease in insulin response at the level of Akt phosphorylation and/or glucose uptake. Mildronate reversed palmitate-induced insulin resistance concomitant with an ∼25% decrease in short-chain acylcarnitine and acetylcarnitine secretion. Although proinflammatory cytokines were not affected under these conditions, oxidative stress was increased by 2-3 times by short- or long-chain acylcarnitines. Acylcarnitine-induced oxidative stress and insulin resistance were reversed by treatment with antioxidants. Results are consistent with the conclusion that incomplete muscle fatty acid β-oxidation causes acylcarnitine accumulation and associated oxidative stress, raising the possibility that these metabolites play a role in muscle insulin resistance.

  19. Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Skeletal Muscle Health.

    PubMed

    Jeromson, Stewart; Gallagher, Iain J; Galloway, Stuart D R; Hamilton, D Lee

    2015-11-19

    Skeletal muscle is a plastic tissue capable of adapting and mal-adapting to physical activity and diet. The response of skeletal muscle to adaptive stimuli, such as exercise, can be modified by the prior nutritional status of the muscle. The influence of nutrition on skeletal muscle has the potential to substantially impact physical function and whole body metabolism. Animal and cell based models show that omega-3 fatty acids, in particular those of marine origin, can influence skeletal muscle metabolism. Furthermore, recent human studies demonstrate that omega-3 fatty acids of marine origin can influence the exercise and nutritional response of skeletal muscle. These studies show that the prior omega-3 status influences not only the metabolic response of muscle to nutrition, but also the functional response to a period of exercise training. Omega-3 fatty acids of marine origin therefore have the potential to alter the trajectory of a number of human diseases including the physical decline associated with aging. We explore the potential molecular mechanisms by which omega-3 fatty acids may act in skeletal muscle, considering the n-3/n-6 ratio, inflammation and lipidomic remodelling as possible mechanisms of action. Finally, we suggest some avenues for further research to clarify how omega-3 fatty acids may be exerting their biological action in skeletal muscle.

  20. A Systematic Review on the Effects of Botanicals on Skeletal Muscle Health in Order to Prevent Sarcopenia

    PubMed Central

    Rondanelli, M.; Miccono, A.; Peroni, G.; Guerriero, F.; Morazzoni, P.; Riva, A.; Guido, D.

    2016-01-01

    We performed a systematic review to evaluate the evidence-based medicine regarding the main botanical extracts and their nutraceutical compounds correlated to skeletal muscle health in order to identify novel strategies that effectively attenuate skeletal muscle loss and enhance muscle function and to improve the quality of life of older subjects. This review contains all eligible studies from 2010 to 2015 and included 57 publications. We focused our attention on effects of botanical extracts on growth and health of muscle and divided these effects into five categories: anti-inflammation, muscle damage prevention, antifatigue, muscle atrophy prevention, and muscle regeneration and differentiation. PMID:27051451

  1. Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1 Expression by Skeletal Muscle Cells Augments Myogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Goh, Qingnian; Dearth, Christopher L.; Corbett, Jacob T.; Pierre, Philippe; Chadee, Deborah N.; Pizza, Francis X.

    2014-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) by skeletal muscle cells after muscle overload contributes to ensuing regenerative and hypertrophic processes in skeletal muscle. The objective of the present study is to reveal mechanisms through which skeletal muscle cell expression of ICAM-1 augments regenerative and hypertrophic processes of myogenesis. This was accomplished by genetically engineering C2C12 myoblasts to stably express ICAM-1, and by inhibiting the adhesive and signaling functions of ICAM-1 through the use of a neutralizing antibody or cell penetrating peptide, respectively. Expression of ICAM-1 by cultured skeletal muscle cells augmented myoblast-myoblast adhesion, myotube formation, myonuclear number, myotube alignment, myotube-myotube fusion, and myotube size without influencing the ability of myoblasts to proliferate or differentiate. ICAM-1 augmented myotube formation, myonuclear accretion, and myotube alignment through a mechanism involving adhesion-induced activation of ICAM-1 signaling, as these dependent measures were reduced via antibody and peptide inhibition of ICAM-1. The adhesive and signaling functions of ICAM-1 also facilitated myotube hypertrophy through a mechanism involving myotube-myotube fusion, protein synthesis, and Akt/p70s6k signaling. Our findings demonstrate that ICAM-1 expression by skeletal muscle cells augments myogenesis, and establish a novel mechanism through which the inflammatory response facilitates growth processes in skeletal muscle. PMID:25281303

  2. Strategies for functional bioscaffold-based skeletal muscle reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Sicari, Brian M.; Dziki, Jenna L.

    2015-01-01

    Tissue engineering and regenerative medicine-based strategies for the reconstruction of functional skeletal muscle tissue have included cellular and acellular approaches. The use of acellular biologic scaffold material as a treatment for volumetric muscle loss (VML) in five patients has recently been reported with a generally favorable outcome. Further studies are necessary for a better understanding of the mechanism(s) behind acellular bioscaffold-mediated skeletal muscle repair, and for combination cell-based/bioscaffold based approaches. The present overview highlights the current thinking on bioscaffold-based remodeling including the associated mechanisms and the future of scaffold-based skeletal muscle reconstruction. PMID:26605302

  3. Expanding roles for AMPK in skeletal muscle plasticity.

    PubMed

    Mounier, Rémi; Théret, Marine; Lantier, Louise; Foretz, Marc; Viollet, Benoit

    2015-06-01

    Skeletal muscle possesses a remarkable plasticity and responds to environmental and physiological challenges by changing its phenotype in terms of size, composition, and metabolic properties. Muscle fibers rapidly adapt to drastic changes in energy demands during exercise through fine-tuning of the balance between catabolic and anabolic processes. One major sensor of energy demand in exercising muscle is AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Recent advances have shed new light on the relevance of AMPK both as a multitask gatekeeper and as an energy regulator in skeletal muscle. Here we summarize recent findings on the function of AMPK in skeletal muscle adaptation to contraction and highlight its role in the regulation of energy metabolism and the control of skeletal muscle regeneration post-injury.

  4. Nrf2 Protects Against TWEAK-mediated Skeletal Muscle Wasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Sawaf, Othman; Fragoulis, Athanassios; Rosen, Christian; Kan, Yuet Wai; Sönmez, Tolga Taha; Pufe, Thomas; Wruck, Christoph Jan

    2014-01-01

    Skeletal muscle (SM) regeneration after injury is impaired by excessive inflammation. Particularly, the inflammatory cytokine tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-like weak inducer of apoptosis (TWEAK) is a potent inducer of skeletal muscle wasting and fibrosis. In this study we investigated the role of Nrf2, a major regulator of oxidative stress defence, in SM ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury and TWEAK induced atrophy. We explored the time-dependent expression of TWEAK after I/R in SM of Nrf2-wildtype (WT) and knockout (KO) mice. Nrf2-KO mice expressed significant higher levels of TWEAK as compared to WT mice. Consequently, Nrf2-KO mice present an insufficient regeneration as compared to Nrf2-WT mice. Moreover, TWEAK stimulation activates Nrf2 in the mouse myoblast cell line C2C12. This Nrf2 activation inhibits TWEAK induced atrophy in C2C12 differentiated myotubes. In summary, we show that Nrf2 protects SM from TWEAK-induced cell death in vitro and that Nrf2-deficient mice therefore have poorer muscle regeneration.

  5. Exercise intensity-dependent regulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor coactivator-1 mRNA abundance is associated with differential activation of upstream signalling kinases in human skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Egan, Brendan; Carson, Brian P; Garcia-Roves, Pablo M; Chibalin, Alexander V; Sarsfield, Fiona M; Barron, Niall; McCaffrey, Noel; Moyna, Niall M; Zierath, Juleen R; O'Gorman, Donal J

    2010-05-15

    Skeletal muscle contraction increases intracellular ATP turnover, calcium flux, and mechanical stress, initiating signal transduction pathways that modulate peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1alpha (PGC-1alpha)-dependent transcriptional programmes. The purpose of this study was to determine if the intensity of exercise regulates PGC-1alpha expression in human skeletal muscle, coincident with activation of signalling cascades known to regulate PGC-1alpha transcription. Eight sedentary males expended 400 kcal (1674 kj) during a single bout of cycle ergometer exercise on two separate occasions at either 40% (LO) or 80% (HI) of . Skeletal muscle biopsies from the m. vastus lateralis were taken at rest and at +0, +3 and +19 h after exercise. Energy expenditure during exercise was similar between trials, but the high intensity bout was shorter in duration (LO, 69.9 +/- 4.0 min; HI, 36.0 +/- 2.2 min, P < 0.05) and had a higher rate of glycogen utilization (P < 0.05). PGC-1alpha mRNA abundance increased in an intensity-dependent manner +3 h after exercise (LO, 3.8-fold; HI, 10.2-fold, P < 0.05). AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) (2.8-fold, P < 0.05) and calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) phosphorylation (84%, P < 0.05) increased immediately after HI but not LO. p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) phosphorylation increased after both trials (2.0-fold, P < 0.05), but phosphorylation of the downstream transcription factor, activating transcription factor-2 (ATF-2), increased only after HI (2.4-fold, P < 0.05). Cyclic-AMP response element binding protein (CREB) phosphorylation was elevated at +3 h after both trials (80%, P < 0.05) and class IIa histone deacetylase (HDAC) phosphorylation increased only after HI (2.0-fold, P < 0.05). In conclusion, exercise intensity regulates PGC-1alpha mRNA abundance in human skeletal muscle in response to a single bout of exercise. This effect is mediated by differential activation of

  6. Differential thiol oxidation of the signaling proteins Akt, PTEN or PP2A determines whether Akt phosphorylation is enhanced or inhibited by oxidative stress in C2C12 myotubes derived from skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Tan, Pearl Lin; Shavlakadze, Tea; Grounds, Miranda D; Arthur, Peter G

    2015-05-01

    Oxidative stress, caused by excess reactive oxygen species (ROS), has been hypothesized to cause or exacerbate skeletal muscle wasting in a number of diseases and chronic conditions. ROS, such as hydrogen peroxide, have the potential to affect signal transduction pathways such as the phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase (PI3 K)/Akt pathway that regulates protein synthesis. Previous studies have found contradictory outcomes for the effect of ROS on the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway, where oxidative stress can either enhance or inhibit Akt phosphorylation. The apparent contradictions could reflect differences in experimental cell types or types of ROS treatments. We replicate both effects in myotubes of cultured skeletal muscle C2C12 cells, and show that increased oxidative stress can either inhibit or enhance Akt phosphorylation. This differential response could be explained: thiol oxidation of Akt, but not the phosphatases PTEN or PP2A, caused a decline in Akt phosphorylation; whereas the thiol oxidation of Akt, PTEN and PP2A increased Akt phosphorylation. These observations indicate that a more complete understanding of the effects of oxidative stress on a signal transduction pathway comes not only from identifying the proteins susceptible to thiol oxidation, but also their relative sensitivity to ROS.

  7. Induction of Acute Skeletal Muscle Regeneration by Cardiotoxin Injection.

    PubMed

    Guardiola, Ombretta; Andolfi, Gennaro; Tirone, Mario; Iavarone, Francescopaolo; Brunelli, Silvia; Minchiotti, Gabriella

    2017-01-01

    Skeletal muscle regeneration is a physiological process that occurs in adult skeletal muscles in response to injury or disease. Acute injury-induced skeletal muscle regeneration is a widely used, powerful model system to study the events involved in muscle regeneration as well as the mechanisms and different players. Indeed, a detailed knowledge of this process is essential for a better understanding of the pathological conditions that lead to skeletal muscle degeneration, and it aids in identifying new targeted therapeutic strategies. The present work describes a detailed and reproducible protocol to induce acute skeletal muscle regeneration in mice through a single intramuscular injection of cardiotoxin (CTX). CTX belongs to the family of snake venom toxins and causes myolysis of myofibers, which eventually triggers the regeneration events. The dynamics of skeletal muscle regeneration is evaluated by histological analysis of muscle sections. The protocol also illustrates the experimental procedures for dissecting, freezing, and cutting the Tibialis Anterior muscle, as well as the routine Hematoxylin & Eosin staining that is widely used for subsequent morphological and morphometric analysis.

  8. Comparison and analysis of Wuding and avian chicken skeletal muscle satellite cells.

    PubMed

    Tong, H Q; Jiang, Z Q; Dou, T F; Li, Q H; Xu, Z Q; Liu, L X; Gu, D H; Rong, H; Huang, Y; Chen, X B; Jois, M; Te Pas, M F W; Ge, C R; Jia, J J

    2016-10-05

    Chicken skeletal muscle satellite cells are located between the basement membrane and the sarcolemma of mature muscle fibers. Avian broilers have been genetically selected based on their high growth velocity and large muscle mass. The Wuding chicken is a famous local chicken in Yunnan Province that undergoes non-selection breeding and is slow growing. In this study, we aimed to explore differences in the proliferation and differentiation properties of satellite cells isolated from the two chicken breeds. Using immunofluorescence, hematoxylin-eosin staining and real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis, we analyzed the in vitro characteristics of proliferating and differentiating satellite cells isolated from the two chicken breeds. The growth curve of satellite cells was S-shaped, and cells from Wuding chickens entered the logarithmic phase and plateau phase 1 day later than those from Avian chicken. The results also showed that the two skeletal muscle satellite cell lines were positive for Pax7, MyoD and IGF-1. The expression of Pax7 followed a downward trend, whereas that of MyoD and IGF-1 first increased and subsequently decreased in cells isolated from the two chickens. These data indicated that the skeletal muscle satellite cells of Avian chicken grow and differentiate faster than did those of Wuding chickens. We suggest that the methods of breeding selection applied to these breeds regulate the characteristics of skeletal muscle satellite cells to influence muscle growth.

  9. An antibody blocking activin type II receptors induces strong skeletal muscle hypertrophy and protects from atrophy.

    PubMed

    Lach-Trifilieff, Estelle; Minetti, Giulia C; Sheppard, KellyAnn; Ibebunjo, Chikwendu; Feige, Jerome N; Hartmann, Steffen; Brachat, Sophie; Rivet, Helene; Koelbing, Claudia; Morvan, Frederic; Hatakeyama, Shinji; Glass, David J

    2014-02-01

    The myostatin/activin type II receptor (ActRII) pathway has been identified to be critical in regulating skeletal muscle size. Several other ligands, including GDF11 and the activins, signal through this pathway, suggesting that the ActRII receptors are major regulatory nodes in the regulation of muscle mass. We have developed a novel, human anti-ActRII antibody (bimagrumab, or BYM338) to prevent binding of ligands to the receptors and thus inhibit downstream signaling. BYM338 enhances differentiation of primary human skeletal myoblasts and counteracts the inhibition of differentiation induced by myostatin or activin A. BYM338 prevents myostatin- or activin A-induced atrophy through inhibition of Smad2/3 phosphorylation, thus sparing the myosin heavy chain from degradation. BYM338 dramatically increases skeletal muscle mass in mice, beyond sole inhibition of myostatin, detected by comparing the antibody with a myostatin inhibitor. A mouse version of the antibody induces enhanced muscle hypertrophy in myostatin mutant mice, further confirming a beneficial effect on muscle growth beyond myostatin inhibition alone through blockade of ActRII ligands. BYM338 protects muscles from glucocorticoid-induced atrophy and weakness via prevention of muscle and tetanic force losses. These data highlight the compelling therapeutic potential of BYM338 for the treatment of skeletal muscle atrophy and weakness in multiple settings.

  10. Alignment of skeletal muscle myoblasts and myotubes using linear micropatterned surfaces ground with abrasives.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Kazunori; Fujita, Hideaki; Nagamori, Eiji

    2009-06-15

    Alignment of cells plays a significant key role in skeletal muscle tissue engineering because skeletal muscle tissue in vivo has a highly organized structure consisting of long parallel multinucleated myotubes formed through differentiation and fusion of myoblasts. In the present study, we developed an easy, simple, and low-cost method for aligning skeletal muscle cells by using surfaces with linear microscale features fabricated by grinding. Iron blocks were ground in one direction with three kinds of abrasives (9 microm diamond suspension, #400 sandpaper, and #150 sandpaper) and then used as molds to make micropatterned polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) substrates (type I, type II, and type III). Observation of the surface topography revealed that the PDMS substrates exhibited different degree of mean roughness (Ra), 0.03 microm for type I, 0.16 microm for type II, and 0.56 microm for type III, respectively. Murine skeletal muscle cell line C2C12 myoblasts were cultured and differentiated on the patterned PDMS substrates, and it was examined whether the alignment of C2C12 myoblasts and myotubes was possible. Although the cell growth and differentiation on the three types of patterned substrates were similar to those on the flat PDMS substrate as a control, the alignment of both C2C12 myoblasts and myotubes was obviously observed on types II and III, but not on type I or the control substrate. These results indicate that surfaces ground with abrasives will be useful for fabricating aligned skeletal muscle tissues.

  11. Muscle Interstitial Cells: A Brief Field Guide to Non-satellite Cell Populations in Skeletal Muscle.

    PubMed

    Tedesco, Francesco Saverio; Moyle, Louise A; Perdiguero, Eusebio

    2017-01-01

    Skeletal muscle regeneration is mainly enabled by a population of adult stem cells known as satellite cells. Satellite cells have been shown to be indispensable for adult skeletal muscle repair and regeneration. In the last two decades, other stem/progenitor cell populations resident in the skeletal muscle interstitium have been identified as "collaborators" of satellite cells during regeneration. They also appear to have a key role in replacing skeletal muscle with adipose, fibrous, or bone tissue in pathological conditions. Here, we review the role and known functions of these different interstitial skeletal muscle cell types and discuss their role in skeletal muscle tissue homeostasis, regeneration, and disease, including their therapeutic potential for cell transplantation protocols.

  12. Exercise and the Regulation of Skeletal Muscle Hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    McGlory, Chris; Phillips, Stuart M

    2015-01-01

    Skeletal muscle is a critical organ serving as the primary site for postprandial glucose disposal and the generation of contractile force. The size of human skeletal muscle mass is dependent upon the temporal relationship between changes in muscle protein synthesis (MPS) and muscle protein breakdown. The aim of this chapter is to review our current understanding of how resistance exercise influences protein turnover with a specific emphasis on the molecular factors regulating MPS. We also will discuss recent data relating to the prescription of resistance exercise to maximize skeletal muscle hypertrophy. Finally, we evaluate the impact of age and periods of disuse on the loss of muscle mass and the controversy surround the etiology of muscle disuse atrophy.

  13. Imaging of skeletal muscle in vitamin D deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Bignotti, Bianca; Cadoni, Angela; Martinoli, Carlo; Tagliafico, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Elderly people are prone to accidental falls and one of the main risk factor is considered muscle weakness. Several studies focused on muscle weakness and muscle morphology changes in the elderly that may be associated with vitamin D deficiency. The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency is higher than previously though representing an important issue for public health and prevention. There is an increased interest in vitamin D effects in skeletal muscle and imaging modalities are particularly involved in this field. In patients with vitamin D deficiency, ultrasound, computed tomography, densitometry and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can efficiently describe changes in muscle morphology and size. Moreover, new imaging modalities, such as MRI spectroscopy, may improve knowledge about the metabolic effects of vitamin D in skeletal muscle. In this narrative review we will discuss the role of skeletal muscle imaging in vitamin D-deficient individuals. The aim of this paper is to improve and encourage the role of radiologists in this field. PMID:24778774

  14. Polyplex nanomicelle promotes hydrodynamic gene introduction to skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Itaka, Keiji; Osada, Kensuke; Morii, Katsue; Kim, Pilhan; Yun, Seok-Hyun; Kataoka, Kazunori

    2010-04-02

    Skeletal muscle is an interesting target for gene therapy. To achieve effective gene introduction in skeletal muscle, a hydrodynamic approach by intravenous injection of plasmid DNA (pDNA) with transient isolation of the limb has attracted attention. In this study, we demonstrated that polyplex nanomicelle, composed of poly(ethyleneglycol) (PEG)-block-polycation and pDNA, showed excellent capacity of gene introduction to skeletal muscle. The evaluation of luciferase expression in the muscle revealed that the nanomicelle provided higher and sustained profiles of transgene expression compared with naked pDNA. Real-time in vivo imaging using a video-rate confocal imaging system suggested that the nanomicelle showed tolerability in the intracellular environment, resulting in the slow but sustained transgene expression. The nanomicelle induced less TNFalpha induction in the muscle than naked pDNA, indicating the safety of nanomicelle-based gene delivery into the skeletal muscle. Moreover, the nanomicelle showed significant tumor growth suppression for almost a month by introducing a pDNA expressing a soluble form of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptor-1 (sFlt-1) to skeletal muscle to obtain anti-angiogenic effect on tumor growth. This feature of sustained effect gives an important advantage of gene therapy, especially on the points of cost effectiveness and high compliance. These results suggest that the hydrodynamic gene introduction to skeletal muscle using polyplex nanomicelle system possesses the potential for effective gene therapy.

  15. Lifting the nebula: novel insights into skeletal muscle contractility.

    PubMed

    Ottenheijm, Coen A C; Granzier, Henk

    2010-10-01

    Nebulin is a giant protein and a constituent of the skeletal muscle sarcomere. The name of this protein refers to its unknown (i.e., nebulous) function. However, recent rapid advances reveal that nebulin plays important roles in the regulation of muscle contraction. When these functions of nebulin are compromised, muscle weakness ensues, as is the case in patients with nemaline myopathy.

  16. Molecular events in skeletal muscle during disuse atrophy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kandarian, Susan C.; Stevenson, Eric J.

    2002-01-01

    This review summarizes the current knowledge of the molecular processes underlying skeletal muscle atrophy due to disuse. Because the processes involved with muscle wasting due to illness are similar to disuse, this literature is used for comparison. Areas that are ripe for further study and that will advance our understanding of muscle atrophy are suggested.

  17. Time course of gene expression during mouse skeletal muscle hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Chaillou, Thomas; Lee, Jonah D; England, Jonathan H; Esser, Karyn A; McCarthy, John J

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to perform a comprehensive transcriptome analysis during skeletal muscle hypertrophy to identify signaling pathways that are operative throughout the hypertrophic response. Global gene expression patterns were determined from microarray results on days 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, and 14 during plantaris muscle hypertrophy induced by synergist ablation in adult mice. Principal component analysis and the number of differentially expressed genes (cutoffs ≥2-fold increase or ≥50% decrease compared with control muscle) revealed three gene expression patterns during overload-induced hypertrophy: early (1 day), intermediate (3, 5, and 7 days), and late (10 and 14 days) patterns. Based on the robust changes in total RNA content and in the number of differentially expressed genes, we focused our attention on the intermediate gene expression pattern. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis revealed a downregulation of genes encoding components of the branched-chain amino acid degradation pathway during hypertrophy. Among these genes, five were predicted by Ingenuity Pathway Analysis or previously shown to be regulated by the transcription factor Kruppel-like factor-15, which was also downregulated during hypertrophy. Moreover, the integrin-linked kinase signaling pathway was activated during hypertrophy, and the downregulation of muscle-specific micro-RNA-1 correlated with the upregulation of five predicted targets associated with the integrin-linked kinase pathway. In conclusion, we identified two novel pathways that may be involved in muscle hypertrophy, as well as two upstream regulators (Kruppel-like factor-15 and micro-RNA-1) that provide targets for future studies investigating the importance of these pathways in muscle hypertrophy.

  18. Identification and Profiling of MicroRNAs from Skeletal Muscle of the Common Carp

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yunchao; Zhang, Xiaofeng; Liang, Yang; Sun, Xiaowen; Teng, Chun-Bo

    2012-01-01

    The common carp is one of the most important cultivated species in the world of freshwater aquaculture. The cultivation of this species is particularly productive due to its high skeletal muscle mass; however, the molecular mechanisms of skeletal muscle development in the common carp remain unknown. It has been shown that a class of non-coding ∼22 nucleotide RNAs called microRNAs (miRNAs) play important roles in vertebrate development. They regulate gene expression through sequence-specific interactions with the 3′ untranslated regions (UTRs) of target mRNAs and thereby cause translational repression or mRNA destabilization. Intriguingly, the role of miRNAs in the skeletal muscle development of the common carp remains unknown. In this study, a small-RNA cDNA library was constructed from the skeletal muscle of the common carp, and Solexa sequencing technology was used to perform high throughput sequencing of the library. Subsequent bioinformatics analysis identified 188 conserved miRNAs and 7 novel miRNAs in the carp skeletal muscle. The miRNA expression profiling showed that, miR-1, miR-133a-3p, and miR-206 were specifically expressed in muscle-containing organs, and that miR-1, miR-21, miR-26a, miR-27a, miR-133a-3p, miR-206, miR-214 and miR-222 were differentially expressed in the process of skeletal muscle development of the common carp. This study provides a first identification and profiling of miRNAs related to the muscle biology of the common carp. Their identification could provide clues leading towards a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms of carp skeletal muscle development. PMID:22303472

  19. Heparan sulfate in skeletal muscle development

    SciTech Connect

    Noonan, D.M.

    1985-01-01

    In this study, chick breast skeletal muscle cells developing in vitro from myoblasts to myotubes were found to synthesize heparan sulfate (HS), chrondroitin-6-sulfate, chrondroitin-4-sulfate, dermatan sulfate, unsulfated chrondroitin and hyaluronic acid in both the substratum attached material (SAM) and the cellular fraction. SAM was found to contain predominantly chrondroitin-6-sulfate and relatively little HS whereas the cellular fraction contained relatively higher levels of HS and lower levels of chrondroitin-6-sulfate. Hyaluronic acid was also a major component in both fractions with the other glycosaminoglycan isomers present as minor components. Muscle derived fibroblast cultures had higher levels of dermatan sulfate in the cell layer and higher levels of HS in the SAM fraction than did muscle cultures. The structure of the proteoglycans were partially characterized in /sup 35/SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/ radio-labeled cultures which indicated an apparent increase in the hydrodynamic size of the cell fraction heparan sulfate proteoglycan (HS PG). Myotubes incorporated /sup 35/SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/ into HS PG at a rate 3 times higher than myoblasts. The turnover rate of HS in the cellular fraction was the same for myoblasts and myotubes, with a t/sub 1/2/ of approximately 5 hours. Fibroblasts in culture synthesized the smallest HS PG, and incorporated /sup 35/SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/ into HS PG at a rate lower than that of myotubes. Studies in which fusion was reversibly inhibited with decreased medium (Ca/sup + +/) closely linked the increased synthesis of cell fraction, but not SAM fraction, HS with myotube formation. However, decreasing medium calcium appeared to cause significant alterations in the metabolism of inorganic sulfate.

  20. Role of autophagy in COPD skeletal muscle dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Sabah N A; Sandri, Marco

    2013-05-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a debilitating disease caused by parenchymal damage and irreversible airflow limitation. In addition to lung dysfunction, patients with COPD develop weight loss, malnutrition, poor exercise performance, and skeletal muscle atrophy. The latter has been attributed to an imbalance between muscle protein synthesis and protein degradation. Several reports have confirmed that enhanced protein degradation and atrophy of limb muscles of COPD patient is mediated in part through activation of the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway and that this activation is triggered by enhanced production of reactive oxygen species. Until recently, the importance of the autophagy-lysosome pathway in protein degradation of skeletal muscles has been largely ignored, however, recent evidence suggests that this pathway is actively involved in recycling of cytosolic proteins, organelles, and protein aggregates in normal skeletal muscles. The protective role of autophagy in the regulation of muscle mass has recently been uncovered in mice with muscle-specific suppression of autophagy. These mice develop severe muscle weakness, atrophy, and decreased muscle contractility. No information is yet available about the involvement of the autophagy in the regulation of skeletal muscle mass in COPD patients. Pilot experiments on vastus lateralis muscle samples suggest that the autophagy-lysosome system is induced in COPD patients compared with control subjects. In this review, we summarize recent progress related to molecular structure, regulation, and roles of the autophagy-lysosome pathway in normal and diseased skeletal muscles. We also speculate about regulation and functional importance of this system in skeletal muscle dysfunction in COPD patients.

  1. Planarian Body-Wall Muscle: Regeneration and Function beyond a Simple Skeletal Support.

    PubMed

    Cebrià, Francesc

    2016-01-01

    The body-wall musculature of adult planarians consists of intricately organized muscle fibers, which after amputation are regenerated rapidly and with great precision through the proliferation and differentiation of pluripotent stem cells. These traits make the planarian body-wall musculature a potentially useful model for the study of cell proliferation, differentiation, and pattern formation. Planarian body-wall muscle shows some ambiguous features common to both skeletal and smooth muscle cells. However, its skeletal nature is implied by the expression of skeletal myosin heavy-chain genes and the myogenic transcription factor myoD. Where and when planarian stem cells become committed to the myogenic lineage during regeneration, how the new muscle cells are integrated into the pre-existing muscle net, and the identity of the molecular pathway controlling the myogenic gene program are key aspects of planarian muscle regeneration that need to be addressed. Expression of the conserved transcription factor myoD has been recently demonstrated in putative myogenic progenitors. Moreover, recent studies suggest that differentiated muscle cells may provide positional information to planarian stem cells during regeneration. Here, I review the limited available knowledge on planarian muscle regeneration.

  2. Planarian Body-Wall Muscle: Regeneration and Function beyond a Simple Skeletal Support

    PubMed Central

    Cebrià, Francesc

    2016-01-01

    The body-wall musculature of adult planarians consists of intricately organized muscle fibers, which after amputation are regenerated rapidly and with great precision through the proliferation and differentiation of pluripotent stem cells. These traits make the planarian body-wall musculature a potentially useful model for the study of cell proliferation, differentiation, and pattern formation. Planarian body-wall muscle shows some ambiguous features common to both skeletal and smooth muscle cells. However, its skeletal nature is implied by the expression of skeletal myosin heavy-chain genes and the myogenic transcription factor myoD. Where and when planarian stem cells become committed to the myogenic lineage during regeneration, how the new muscle cells are integrated into the pre-existing muscle net, and the identity of the molecular pathway controlling the myogenic gene program are key aspects of planarian muscle regeneration that need to be addressed. Expression of the conserved transcription factor myoD has been recently demonstrated in putative myogenic progenitors. Moreover, recent studies suggest that differentiated muscle cells may provide positional information to planarian stem cells during regeneration. Here, I review the limited available knowledge on planarian muscle regeneration. PMID:26904543

  3. Module-based multiscale simulation of angiogenesis in skeletal muscle

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Mathematical modeling of angiogenesis has been gaining momentum as a means to shed new light on the biological complexity underlying blood vessel growth. A variety of computational models have been developed, each focusing on different aspects of the angiogenesis process and occurring at different biological scales, ranging from the molecular to the tissue levels. Integration of models at different scales is a challenging and currently unsolved problem. Results We present an object-oriented module-based computational integration strategy to build a multiscale model of angiogenesis that links currently available models. As an example case, we use this approach to integrate modules representing microvascular blood flow, oxygen transport, vascular endothelial growth factor transport and endothelial cell behavior (sensing, migration and proliferation). Modeling methodologies in these modules include algebraic equations, partial differential equations and agent-based models with complex logical rules. We apply this integrated model to simulate exercise-induced angiogenesis in skeletal muscle. The simulation results compare capillary growth patterns between different exercise conditions for a single bout of exercise. Results demonstrate how the computational infrastructure can effectively integrate multiple modules by coordinating their connectivity and data exchange. Model parameterization offers simulation flexibility and a platform for performing sensitivity analysis. Conclusions This systems biology strategy can be applied to larger scale integration of computational models of angiogenesis in skeletal muscle, or other complex processes in other tissues under physiological and pathological conditions. PMID:21463529

  4. The impact of severe burns on skeletal muscle mitochondrial function.

    PubMed

    Porter, Craig; Herndon, David N; Sidossis, Labros S; Børsheim, Elisabet

    2013-09-01

    Severe burns induce a pathophysiological response that affects almost every physiological system within the body. Inflammation, hypermetabolism, muscle wasting, and insulin resistance are all hallmarks of the pathophysiological response to severe burns, with perturbations in metabolism known to persist for several years post injury. Skeletal muscle is the principal depot of lean tissue within the body and as the primary site of peripheral glucose disposal, plays an important role in metabolic regulation. Following a large burn, skeletal muscle functions as and endogenous amino acid store, providing substrates for more pressing functions, such as the synthesis of acute phase proteins and the deposition of new skin. Subsequently, burn patients become cachectic, which is associated with poor outcomes in terms of metabolic health and functional capacity. While a loss of skeletal muscle contractile proteins per se will no doubt negatively impact functional capacity, detriments in skeletal muscle quality, i.e. a loss in mitochondrial number and/or function may be quantitatively just as important. The goal of this review article is to summarise the current understanding of the impact of thermal trauma on skeletal muscle mitochondrial content and function, to offer direction for future research concerning skeletal muscle mitochondrial function in patients with severe burns, and to renew interest in the role of these organelles in metabolic dysfunction following severe burns.

  5. Dissemination of Walker 256 carcinoma cells to rat skeletal muscle

    SciTech Connect

    Ueoka, H.; Hayashi, K.; Namba, T.; Grob, D.

    1986-03-05

    After injection of 10/sup 6/ Walker 256 carcinoma cells labelled with /sup 125/I-5-iodo-2'-deoxyuridine into the tail vein, peak concentration in skeletal muscle was 46 cells/g at 60 minutes, which was lower than 169202, 1665, 555, 198 and 133 cells/g, respectively, at 30 or 60 minutes in lung, liver, spleen, kidney and heart. Because skeletal muscle constitutes 37.4% of body weight, the total number of tumor cells was 2323 cells, which was much greater than in spleen, kidney and heart with 238, 271, and 85 cells, respectively, and only less than in lung and liver, at 222857 and 11700 cells, respectively. The total number in skeletal muscle became greater than in liver at 4 hours and than in lung at 24 hours. Ten minutes after injection of 7.5 x 10/sup 6/ Walker 256 carcinoma cells into the abdominal aorta of rats, a mean of 31 colony-forming cells were recovered from the gastrocnemius, while 106 cells were recovered from the lung after injection into the tail vein. These results indicate that a large number of viable tumor cells can be arrested in skeletal muscle through circulation. The rare remote metastasis of malignancies into skeletal muscle despite constantly circulating tumor cells does not appear to be due to poor dissemination of tumor cells into muscle but due to unhospitable environment of skeletal muscle.

  6. Skeletal muscle: a brief review of structure and function.

    PubMed

    Frontera, Walter R; Ochala, Julien

    2015-03-01

    Skeletal muscle is one of the most dynamic and plastic tissues of the human body. In humans, skeletal muscle comprises approximately 40% of total body weight and contains 50-75% of all body proteins. In general, muscle mass depends on the balance between protein synthesis and degradation and both processes are sensitive to factors such as nutritional status, hormonal balance, physical activity/exercise, and injury or disease, among others. In this review, we discuss the various domains of muscle structure and function including its cytoskeletal architecture, excitation-contraction coupling, energy metabolism, and force and power generation. We will limit the discussion to human skeletal muscle and emphasize recent scientific literature on single muscle fibers.

  7. Calcium signaling in skeletal muscle development, maintenance and regeneration.

    PubMed

    Tu, Michelle K; Levin, Jacqueline B; Hamilton, Andrew M; Borodinsky, Laura N

    2016-03-01

    Skeletal muscle-specific stem cells are pivotal for tissue development and regeneration. Muscle plasticity, inherent in these processes, is also essential for daily life activities. Great advances and efforts have been made in understanding the function of the skeletal muscle-dedicated stem cells, called muscle satellite cells, and the specific signaling mechanisms that activate them for recruitment in the repair of the injured muscle. Elucidating these signaling mechanisms may contribute to devising therapies for muscular injury or disease. Here we review the studies that have contributed to our understanding of how calcium signaling regulates skeletal muscle development, homeostasis and regeneration, with a focus on the calcium dynamics and calcium-dependent effectors that participate in these processes.

  8. Gene profiling of embryonic skeletal muscle lacking type I ryanodine receptor Ca(2+) release channel.

    PubMed

    Filipova, Dilyana; Walter, Anna M; Gaspar, John A; Brunn, Anna; Linde, Nina F; Ardestani, Mostafa A; Deckert, Martina; Hescheler, Jürgen; Pfitzer, Gabriele; Sachinidis, Agapios; Papadopoulos, Symeon

    2016-02-01

    In mature skeletal muscle, the intracellular Ca(2+) concentration rises dramatically upon membrane depolarization, constituting the link between excitation and contraction. This process requires Ca(2+) release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum via the type 1 ryanodine receptor (RYR1). However, RYR1's potential roles in muscle development remain obscure. We used an established RyR1- null mouse model, dyspedic, to investigate the effects of the absence of a functional RYR1 and, consequently, the lack of RyR1-mediated Ca(2+) signaling, during embryogenesis. Homozygous dyspedic mice die after birth and display small limbs and abnormal skeletal muscle organization. Skeletal muscles from front and hind limbs of dyspedic fetuses (day E18.5) were subjected to microarray analyses, revealing 318 differentially expressed genes. We observed altered expression of multiple transcription factors and members of key signaling pathways. Differential regulation was also observed for genes encoding contractile as well as muscle-specific structural proteins. Additional qRT-PCR analysis revealed altered mRNA levels of the canonical muscle regulatory factors Six1, Six4, Pax7, MyoD, MyoG and MRF4 in mutant muscle, which is in line with the severe developmental retardation seen in dyspedic muscle histology analyses. Taken together, these findings suggest an important non-contractile role of RyR1 or RYR1-mediated Ca(2+) signaling during muscle organ development.

  9. Increased expression of Myosin binding protein H in the skeletal muscle of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients.

    PubMed

    Conti, Antonio; Riva, Nilo; Pesca, Mariasabina; Iannaccone, Sandro; Cannistraci, Carlo V; Corbo, Massimo; Previtali, Stefano C; Quattrini, Angelo; Alessio, Massimo

    2014-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a severe and fatal neurodegenerative disease of still unknown pathogenesis. Recent findings suggest that the skeletal muscle may play an active pathogenetic role. To investigate ALS's pathogenesis and to seek diagnostic markers, we analyzed skeletal muscle biopsies with the differential expression proteomic approach. We studied skeletal muscle biopsies from healthy controls (CN), sporadic ALS (sALS), motor neuropathies (MN) and myopathies (M). Pre-eminently among several differentially expressed proteins, Myosin binding protein H (MyBP-H) expression in ALS samples was anomalously high. MyBP-H is a component of the thick filaments of the skeletal muscle and has strong affinity for myosin, but its function is still unclear. High MyBP-H expression level was associated with abnormal expression of Rho kinase 2 (ROCK2), LIM domain kinase 1 (LIMK1) and cofilin2, that might affect the actin-myosin interaction. We propose that MyBP-H expression level serves, as a putative biomarker in the skeletal muscle, to discriminate ALS from motor neuropathies, and that it signals the onset of dysregulation in actin-myosin interaction; this in turn might contribute to the pathogenesis of ALS.

  10. Skeletal muscle transverse strain during isometric contraction at different lengths.

    PubMed

    van Donkelaar, C C; Willems, P J; Muijtjens, A M; Drost, M R

    1999-08-01

    An important assumption in 2D numerical models of skeletal muscle contraction involves deformation in the third dimension of the included muscle section. The present paper studies the often used plane strain description. Therefore, 3D muscle surface deformation is measured from marker displacements during isometric contractions at various muscle lengths. Longitudinal strains at superficial muscle fibers ( - 14 +/- 2.6% at L0, n = 57) and aponeurosis (0.8 +/- 0.9% at L0) decrease with increasing muscle length. The same holds for transverse muscle surface strains in superficial muscle fibers and aponeurosis, which are comparable at intermediate muscle length, but differ at long and short muscle length. Because transverse strains during isometric contraction change with initial muscle length, it is concluded that the effect of muscle length on muscle deformation cannot be studied in plane strain models. These results do not counteract the use of these models to study deformation in contractions with approximately - 9 % longitudinal muscle fiber strain, as transverse strain in superficial muscle fibers and in aponeurosis tissue is minimal in that case. Aponeurosis surface area change decreases with increasing initial muscle length, but muscle fiber surface area change is - 11%, independent of muscle length. Assuming incompressible muscle material, this means that strain perpendicular to the muscle surface equals 11%. Taking the relationship between transverse and longitudinal muscle fiber strain into account, it is hypothesized that superficial muscle fibers flatten during isometric contractions.

  11. Expression profiling and functional characterization of miR-192 throughout sheep skeletal muscle development

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Qian; Kang, Ye; Wang, Hong-Yang; Guan, Wei-Jun; Li, Xiang-Chen; Jiang, Lin; He, Xiao-Hong; Pu, Ya-Bin; Han, Jian-Lin; Ma, Yue-Hui; Zhao, Qian-Jun

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are evolutionarily conserved, small, non-coding RNAs that have emerged as key regulators of myogenesis. Here, we examined the miRNA expression profiles of developing sheep skeletal muscle using a deep sequencing approach. We detected 2,396 miRNAs in the sheep skeletal muscle tissues. Of these, miR-192 was found to be up-regulated in prenatal skeletal muscle, but was down-regulated postnatally. MiR-192 expression also decreased during the myogenic differentiation of sheep satellite cells (SCs). MiR-192 overexpression significantly attenuated SCs myogenic differentiation but promoted SCs proliferation, whereas miR-192 inhibition enhanced SCs differentiation but suppressed SCs proliferation. We found that miR-192 targeted retinoblastoma 1 (RB1), a known regulator of myogenesis. Furthermore, knockdown of RB1 in cultured cells significantly inhibited SCs myogenic differentiation but accelerated SCs proliferation, confirming the role of RB1 in myogenesis. Taken together, our findings enrich the ovine miRNA database, and outline the miRNA transcriptome of sheep during skeletal muscle development. Moreover, we show that miR-192 affects SCs proliferation and myogenic differentiation via down-regulation of RB1. PMID:27452271

  12. Skeletal muscle injury induced by a pneumatic tourniquet: an enzyme- and immunohistochemical study in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Pedowitz, R A; Fridén, J; Thornell, L E

    1992-03-01

    The pathophysiology of skeletal muscle injury induced by compression beneath pneumatic tourniquets is poorly understood. Tourniquet hemostasis was induced in rabbit hindlimbs for 2 hr with a cuff inflation pressure of either 125 mm Hg (n = 5) or 350 mm Hg (n = 5). Skeletal muscle biopsies, taken 2 days later from tissue beneath and distal to the tourniquet, were frozen and analyzed using enzyme- and immunohistochemical techniques. In the 350 mm Hg tourniquet group, four of 10 thigh muscle samples demonstrated significant regional necrosis (mean 37.3% of the total cross-sectional area). Regional necrosis was not observed in thigh muscles of the 125 mm Hg tourniquet group or in any of the ischemic leg muscles. A topographic pattern of necrosis consistent with the arterial distribution of skeletal muscle suggested pathogenic events during the reperfusion period, such as granulocyte-mediated superoxide radical formation. Extremely large and rounded fibers (histochemically identified as Type IIB fibers) were observed in compressed thigh muscles, indicating differential fiber sensitivity to tourniquet compression and ischemia. The present study demonstrated significant skeletal muscle necrosis after a 2 hr tourniquet applied at a clinically relevant cuff inflation pressure. Recent studies of systemic changes associated with limb "ischemia" should be reassessed in consideration of the confounding effects of tissue compression induced beneath pneumatic tourniquets.

  13. Structure and function of the skeletal muscle extracellular matrix.

    PubMed

    Gillies, Allison R; Lieber, Richard L

    2011-09-01

    The skeletal muscle extracellular matrix (ECM) plays an important role in muscle fiber force transmission, maintenance, and repair. In both injured and diseased states, ECM adapts dramatically, a property that has clinical manifestations and alters muscle function. Here we review the structure, composition, and mechanical properties of skeletal muscle ECM; describe the cells that contribute to the maintenance of the ECM; and, finally, overview changes that occur with pathology. New scanning electron micrographs of ECM structure are also presented with hypotheses about ECM structure–function relationships. Detailed structure–function relationships of the ECM have yet to be defined and, as a result, we propose areas for future study.

  14. Structure and Function of the Skeletal Muscle Extracellular Matrix

    PubMed Central

    Gillies, Allison R.; Lieber, Richard L.

    2011-01-01

    The skeletal muscle extracellular matrix (ECM) plays an important role in muscle fiber force transmission, maintenance, and repair. In both injured and diseased states, ECM adapts dramatically, a property thathas clinical manifestations and alters muscle function. Here, we review the structure, composition, and mechanical properties of skeletal muscle ECM, describe the cells that contribute to the maintenance of the ECM and, finally, overview changes that occur with pathology. New scanning electron micrographs of ECM structure are also presented with hypotheses about ECM structure-function relationships. Detailed structure-function relationships of the ECM have yet to be defined and, as a result, we propose areas for future studies. PMID:21949456

  15. Distraction of skeletal muscle: evolution of a rat model.

    PubMed

    Green, Stuart A; Horton, Eric; Baker, Michael; Utkan, Ali; Caiozzo, Vincent

    2002-10-01

    To better study the effects of limb lengthening on skeletal muscle, the authors developed a rat model that uses a miniature external skeletal fixator applied to the tibia of an adult Sprague-Dawley rat. The mounting and lengthening protocols follow the principles developed by Ilizarov. With the initial version of the fixator, the rats had progressive equinus contractures develop because the calf muscles resisted elongation. By incorporating a footplate in the distraction apparatus, tibial lengthening can be achieved without concomitant equinus.

  16. Diffraction Ellipsometry Studies of Skeletal Muscle Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerr, William Lloyd

    Many of the techniques used to study the structure and contraction mechanism of muscle rely on the interaction of light or other electromagnetic radiation with the muscle. Some of the most important of these techniques are light and electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, spectroscopy of muscle fibers "labelled" with spin or fluorescent probes, visible spectrum diffraction, and transmission birefringence. Chapter I of this dissertation reviews these techniques, focussing on what they have to tell us about muscle structure. In Chapter II, we discuss experiments in which the microstructural features of relaxed, skinned fibers compressed with polyvinylpyrollidone were examined by optical diffraction ellipsometry. The change in polarization state of light after interacting with the muscle is described by the differential field ratio (DFR) and birefringence (Deltan). Compression of single fibers with 0%-21% PVP caused an increase in up to 23% and 31% for DFR and Deltan, respectively. Theoretical modelling suggests that the average S-1 tilt angle may be reduced upon compression of the filament lattice. This is supported by experiments in which S-1 was cleaved with alpha-chymotrypsin. Experiments comparing fibers with intact membranes and skinned fibers compressed to an equivalent lattice spacing showed little difference in DFR or Deltan. Chapter III deals with experiments on contracting, intact fibers. The differential field ratio (DFR) was monitored for tetanically contracting muscle fibers subject to rapid (<0.4 msec) release or stretch. Upon stimulation, DFR decreases 14% from its resting value; the half-time for the decrease leads that of tension rise by 10 msecs. This suggests that the movement of cross -bridges precedes tension development and that the average cross-bridge angle is more perpendicular in the contracting state. Upon rapid release of 0.5% of the fiber length, DFR decreases 9.5% further simultaneous with the length step. Rapid and slow recovery phases

  17. Expression and alternative splicing of N-RAP during mouse skeletal muscle development.

    PubMed

    Lu, Shajia; Borst, Diane E; Horowits, Robert

    2008-12-01

    N-RAP alternative splicing and protein localization were studied in developing skeletal muscle tissue from pre- and postnatal mice and in fusing primary myotubes in culture. Messages encoding N-RAP-s and N-RAP-c, the predominant isoforms of N-RAP detected in adult skeletal muscle and heart, respectively, were present in a 5:1 ratio in skeletal muscle isolated from E16.5 embryos. N-RAP-s mRNA levels increased three-fold over the first 3 weeks of postnatal development, while N-RAP-c mRNA levels remained low. N-RAP alternative splicing during myotube differentiation in culture was similar to the pattern observed in embryonic and neonatal muscle, with N-RAP-s expression increasing and N-RAP-c mRNA levels remaining low. In both developing skeletal muscle and cultured myotubes, N-RAP protein was primarily associated with developing myofibrillar structures containing alpha-actinin, but was not present in mature myofibrils. The results establish that N-RAP-s is the predominant spliced form of N-RAP present throughout skeletal muscle development.

  18. Connexin- and pannexin-based channels in normal skeletal muscles and their possible role in muscle atrophy.

    PubMed

    Cea, Luis A; Riquelme, Manuel A; Cisterna, Bruno A; Puebla, Carlos; Vega, José L; Rovegno, Maximiliano; Sáez, Juan C

    2012-08-01

    Precursor cells of skeletal muscles express connexins 39, 43 and 45 and pannexin1. In these cells, most connexins form two types of membrane channels, gap junction channels and hemichannels, whereas pannexin1 forms only hemichannels. All these channels are low-resistance pathways permeable to ions and small molecules that coordinate developmental events. During late stages of skeletal muscle differentiation, myofibers become innervated and stop expressing connexins but still express pannexin1 hemichannels that are potential pathways for the ATP release required for potentiation of the contraction response. Adult injured muscles undergo regeneration, and connexins are reexpressed and form membrane channels. In vivo, connexin reexpression occurs in undifferentiated cells that form new myofibers, favoring the healing process of injured muscle. However, differentiated myofibers maintained in culture for 48 h or treated with proinflammatory cytokines for less than 3 h also reexpress connexins and only form functional hemichannels at the cell surface. We propose that opening of these hemichannels contributes to drastic changes in electrochemical gradients, including reduction of membrane potential, increases in intracellular free Ca(2+) concentration and release of diverse metabolites (e.g., NAD(+) and ATP) to the extracellular milieu, contributing to multiple metabolic and physiologic alterations that characterize muscles undergoing atrophy in several acquired and genetic human diseases. Consequently, inhibition of connexin hemichannels expressed by injured or denervated skeletal muscles might reduce or prevent deleterious changes triggered by conditions that promote muscle atrophy.

  19. Role of skeletal muscle in ear development.

    PubMed

    Rot, Irena; Baguma-Nibasheka, Mark; Costain, Willard J; Hong, Paul; Tafra, Robert; Mardesic-Brakus, Snjezana; Mrduljas-Djujic, Natasa; Saraga-Babic, Mirna; Kablar, Boris

    2017-03-08

    The current paper is a continuation of our work described in Rot and Kablar, 2010. Here, we show lists of 10 up- and 87 down-regulated genes obtained by a cDNA microarray analysis that compared developing Myf5-/-:Myod-/- (and Mrf4-/-) petrous part of the temporal bone, containing middle and inner ear, to the control, at embryonic day 18.5. Myf5-/-:Myod-/- fetuses entirely lack skeletal myoblasts and muscles. They are unable to move their head, which interferes with the perception of angular acceleration. Previously, we showed that the inner ear areas most affected in Myf5-/-:Myod-/- fetuses were the vestibular cristae ampullaris, sensitive to angular acceleration. Our finding that the type I hair cells were absent in the mutants' cristae was further used here to identify a profile of genes specific to the lacking cell type. Microarrays followed by a detailed consultation of web-accessible mouse databases allowed us to identify 6 candidate genes with a possible role in the development of the inner ear sensory organs: Actc1, Pgam2, Ldb3, Eno3, Hspb7 and Smpx. Additionally, we searched for human homologues of the candidate genes since a number of syndromes in humans have associated inner ear abnormalities. Mutations in one of our candidate genes, Smpx, have been reported as the cause of X-linked deafness in humans. Our current study suggests an epigenetic role that mechanical, and potentially other, stimuli originating from muscle, play in organogenesis, and offers an approach to finding novel genes responsible for altered inner ear phenotypes.

  20. ACTIVATION OF CASPASE-3 IN THE SKELETAL MUSCLE DURING HEMODIALYSIS

    PubMed Central

    Boivin, Michel A; Battah, Shadi I; Dominic, Elizabeth A; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar; Ferrando, Arny; Tzamaloukas, Antonios H; Dwivedi, Rama; Ma, Thomas A; Moseley, Pope; Raj, Dominic SC

    2010-01-01

    Background Muscle atrophy in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) may be due to the activation of apoptotic and proteolytic pathways. Objective We hypothesized that activation of caspase-3 in the skeletal muscle mediates apoptosis and proteolysis during hemodialysis (HD). Materials and Methods Eight ESRD patients were studied before (pre-HD) and during HD and the finding were compared with those from six healthy volunteers. Protein kinetics was determined by primed constant infusion of L-(ring 13C6) Phenylalanine. Results Caspase-3 activity in the skeletal muscle was higher in ESRD patients pre-HD than in controls (24966.0±4023.9 vs. 15293.3±2120.0 units, p<0.01) and increased further during HD (end-HD) (37666.6±4208.3 units) (p<0.001). 14 kDa actin fragments generated by caspase-3 mediated cleavage of actinomyosin was higher in the skeletal muscle pre-HD (68%) and during HD (164%) compared to controls. The abundance of ubiquitinized carboxy-terminal actin fragment was also significantly increased during HD. Skeletal muscle biopsies obtained at the end of HD exhibited augmented apoptosis, which was higher than that observed in pre-HD and control samples (p<0.001). IL-6 content in the soluble fraction of the muscle skeletal muscle was increased significantly during HD. Protein kinetic studies showed that catabolism was higher in ESRD patients during HD compared to pre-HD and control subjects. Muscle protein catabolism was positively associated with caspase-3 activity and skeletal muscle IL-6 content. Conclusion Muscle atrophy in ESRD may be due to IL-6 induced activation of caspase-3 resulting in apoptosis as well as muscle proteolysis during HD. PMID:20636378

  1. Renal function alterations during skeletal muscle disuse in simulated microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tucker, Bryan J.

    1992-01-01

    This project was to examine the alterations in renal functions during skeletal muscle disuse in simulated microgravity. Although this area could cover a wide range of investigative efforts, the limited funding resulted in the selection of two projects. These projects would result in data contributing to an area of research deemed high priority by NASA and would address issues of the alterations in renal response to vasoactive stimuli during conditions of skeletal muscle disuse as well as investigate the contribution of skeletal muscle disuse, conditions normally found in long term human exposure to microgravity, to the balance of fluid and macromolecules within the vasculature versus the interstitium. These two projects selected are as follows: investigate the role of angiotensin 2 on renal function during periods of simulated microgravity and skeletal muscle disuse to determine if the renal response is altered to changes in circulating concentrations of angiotensin 2 compared to appropriate controls; and determine if the shift of fluid balance from vasculature to the interstitium, the two components of extracellular fluid volume, that occur during prolonged exposure to microgravity and skeletal muscle disuse is a result, in part, to alterations in the fluid and macromolecular balance in the peripheral capillary beds, of which the skeletal muscle contains the majority of recruitment capillaries. A recruitment capillary bed would be most sensitive to alterations in Starling forces and fluid and macromolecular permeability.

  2. The Impact of Shiftwork on Skeletal Muscle Health

    PubMed Central

    Aisbett, Brad; Condo, Dominique; Zacharewicz, Evelyn; Lamon, Séverine

    2017-01-01

    (1) Background: About one in four workers undertake shift rosters that fall outside the traditional 7 a.m.–6 p.m. scheduling. Shiftwork alters workers’ exposure to natural and artificial light, sleep patterns, and feeding patterns. When compared to the rest of the working population, shiftworkers are at a greater risk of developing metabolic impairments over time. One fundamental component of metabolic health is skeletal muscle, the largest organ in the body. However, cause-and-effect relationships between shiftwork and skeletal muscle health have not been established; (2) Methods: A critical review of the literature was completed using online databases and reference lists; (3) Results: We propose a conceptual model drawing relationships between typical shiftwork consequences; altered light exposure, sleep patterns, and food and beverage consumption, and drivers of skeletal muscle health—protein intake, resistance training, and hormone release. At present, there is no study investigating the direct effect of shiftwork on skeletal muscle health. Instead, research findings showing that acute consequences of shiftwork negatively influence skeletal muscle homeostasis support the validity of our model; (4) Conclusion: Further research is required to test the potential relationships identified in our review, particularly in shiftwork populations. Part of this testing could include skeletal muscle specific interventions such as targeted protein intake and/or resistance-training. PMID:28282858

  3. Adipokines in Healthy Skeletal Muscle and Metabolic Disease.

    PubMed

    Coles, C A

    2016-01-01

    Adipose tissue not only functions as a reserve to store energy but has become of major interest as an endocrine organ, releasing signalling molecules termed adipokines which impact on other tissues, such as skeletal muscle. Adipocytes, within skeletal muscle and adipose tissue, secrete adipokines to finely maintain the balance between feed intake and energy expenditure. This book chapter focuses on the three adipokines, adiponectin, leptin and IL-6, which have potent effects on skeletal muscle during rest and exercise. Similarly, adiponectin, leptin and IL-6 enhance glucose uptake and increase fatty acid oxidation in skeletal muscle. Fatty acid oxidation is increased through activation of AMPK (adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase signalling) causing phosphorylation and inhibition of ACC (acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase), decreasing availability of malonyl CoA. Leptin and adiponectin also control feed intake via AMPK signalling in the hypothalamus. Adipokines function to maintain energy homeostasis, however, when feed intake exceeds energy expenditure adipokines can become dysregulated causing lipotoxicity in skeletal muscle and metabolic disease can prevail. Cross-talk between adipocytes and skeletal muscle via correct control by adipokines is important in controlling energy homeostasis during rest and exercise and can help prevent metabolic disease.

  4. Regulation of gene expression in vertebrate skeletal muscle

    SciTech Connect

    Carvajal, Jaime J. Rigby, Peter W.J.

    2010-11-01

    During embryonic development the integration of numerous synergistic signalling pathways turns a single cell into a multicellular organism with specialized cell types and highly structured, organized tissues. To achieve this, cells must grow, proliferate, differentiate and die according to their spatiotemporal position. Unravelling the mechanisms by which a cell adopts the correct fate in response to its local environment remains one of the fundamental goals of biological research. In vertebrates skeletal myogenesis is coordinated by the activation of the myogenic regulatory factors (MRFs) in response to signals that are interpreted by their associated regulatory elements in different precursor cells during development. The MRFs trigger a cascade of transcription factors and downstream structural genes, ultimately resulting in the generation of one of the fundamental histotypes. In this review we discuss the regulation of the different MRFs in relation to their position in the myogenic cascade, the changes in the general transcriptional machinery during muscle differentiation and the emerging importance of miRNA regulation in skeletal myogenesis.

  5. Inferring the Skeletal Muscle Developmental Changes of Grazing and Barn-Fed Goats from Gene Expression Data.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jinyu; Jiao, Jinzhen; Tan, Zhi-Liang; He, Zhixiong; Beauchemin, Karen A; Forster, Robert; Han, Xue-Feng; Tang, Shao-Xun; Kang, Jinghe; Zhou, Chuanshe

    2016-09-14

    Thirty-six Xiangdong black goats were used to investigate age-related mRNA and protein expression levels of some genes related to skeletal muscle structural proteins, MRFs and MEF2 family, and skeletal muscle fiber type and composition during skeletal muscle growth under grazing (G) and barn-fed (BF) feeding systems. Goats were slaughtered at six time points selected to reflect developmental changes of skeletal muscle during nonrumination (days 0, 7, and 14), transition (day 42), and rumination phases (days 56 and 70). It was observed that the number of type IIx in the longissimus dorsi was increased quickly while numbers of type IIa and IIb decreased slightly, indicating that these genes were coordinated during the rapid growth and development stages of skeletal muscle. No gene expression was affected (P > 0.05) by feeding system except Myf5 and Myf6. Protein expressions of MYOZ3 and MEF2C were affected (P < 0.05) by age, whereas PGC-1α was linearly decreased in the G group, and only MYOZ3 protein was affected (P < 0.001) by feeding system. Moreover, it was found that PGC-1α and MEF2C proteins may interact with each other in promoting muscle growth. The current results indicate that (1) skeletal muscle growth during days 0-70 after birth is mainly myofiber hypertrophy and differentiation, (2) weaning affects the expression of relevant genes of skeletal muscle structural proteins, skeletal muscle growth, and skeletal muscle fiber type and composition, and (3) nutrition or feeding regimen mainly influences the expression of skeletal muscle growth genes.

  6. MiR-2425-5p targets RAD9A and MYOG to regulate the proliferation and differentiation of bovine skeletal muscle-derived satellite cells.

    PubMed

    Tong, Hui Li; Jiang, Run Ying; Zhang, Wei Wei; Yan, Yun Qin

    2017-03-24

    Our group previously identified miR-2425-5p, a unique bovine miRNA; however, its biological function and regulation in muscle-derived satellite cells (MDSCs) remain unclear. Herein, stem-loop RT-PCR results showed that miR-2425-5p increased during MDSCs proliferation, but decreased during differentiation. Cell proliferation was examined using EdU assays, cyclin B1 (CCNB1) and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) western blot (WB) and flow cytometry analysis. These results showed that miR-2425-5p mimics (miR-2425-M) enhanced MDSCs proliferation, whereas, miR-2425-5p inhibitor (miR-2425-I) had opposite effect. Conversely, cell differentiation studies by desmin (DES) immunofluorescence, myotubes formation, and myosin heavy chain 3 (MYH3) WB analyses revealed that miR-2425-M and miR-2425-I blocked and promoted MDSCs differentiation, respectively. Moreover, luciferase reporter, RT-PCR, and WB assays showed that miR-2425-5p directly targeted the 3'-UTR of RAD9 homolog A (RAD9A) and myogenin (MYOG) to regulate their expression. Rescue experiment showed RAD9A inhibited the proliferation of MDSCs through miR-2425-5p. In addition, we found that miR-2425-5p expression was regulated by its host gene NCK associated protein 5-like (NCKAP5L) rather than being transcribed independently as a separate small RNA. Collectively, these data indicate that miR-2425-5p is a novel regulator of bovine MDSCs proliferation and differentiation and provides further insight into the biological functions of miRNA in this species.

  7. Circadian Rhythms, the Molecular Clock, and Skeletal Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Lefta, Mellani; Wolff, Gretchen; Esser, Karyn A.

    2015-01-01

    Almost all organisms ranging from single cell bacteria to humans exhibit a variety of behavioral, physiological, and biochemical rhythms. In mammals, circadian rhythms control the timing of many physiological processes over a 24-h period, including sleep-wake cycles, body temperature, feeding, and hormone production. This body of research has led to defined characteristics of circadian rhythms based on period length, phase, and amplitude. Underlying circadian behaviors is a molecular clock mechanism found in most, if not all, cell types including skeletal muscle. The mammalian molecular clock is a complex of multiple oscillating networks that are regulated through transcriptional mechanisms, timed protein turnover, and input from small molecules. At this time, very little is known about circadian aspects of skeletal muscle function/metabolism but some progress has been made on understanding the molecular clock in skeletal muscle. The goal of this chapter is to provide the basic terminology and concepts of circadian rhythms with a more detailed review of the current state of knowledge of the molecular clock, with reference to what is known in skeletal muscle. Research has demonstrated that the molecular clock is active in skeletal muscles and that the muscle-specific transcription factor, MyoD, is a direct target of the molecular clock. Skeletal muscle of clock-compromised mice, Bmal1−/− and ClockΔ19 mice, are weak and exhibit significant disruptions in expression of many genes required for adult muscle structure and metabolism. We suggest that the interaction between the molecular clock, MyoD, and metabolic factors, such as PGC-1, provide a potential system of feedback loops that may be critical for both maintenance and adaptation of skeletal muscle. PMID:21621073

  8. Ankyrin repeat and SOCS box protein 15 regulates protein synthesis in skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    McDaneld, T G; Hannon, K; Moody, D E

    2006-06-01

    Ankyrin repeat and SOCS box protein 15 (ASB15) is an Asb family member expressed predominantly in skeletal muscle. We have previously reported that ASB15 mRNA abundance decreases after administration of beta-adrenergic receptor agonists. Because beta-adrenergic receptor agonists are known to stimulate muscle hypertrophy, the objective of this study was to determine whether ASB15 regulates cellular processes that contribute to muscle growth. Stable myoblast C2C12 cells expressing full-length ASB15 (ASB15-FL) and ASB15 lacking the ankyrin repeat (ASB15-Ank) or SOCS box (ASB15-SOCS) motifs were evaluated for changes in proliferation, differentiation, protein synthesis, and protein degradation. Expression of ASB15-FL caused a delay in differentiation, followed by an increase in protein synthesis of approximately 34% (P<0.05). A consistent effect of ASB15 overexpression was observed in vivo, where ectopic expression of ASB15 increased skeletal muscle fiber area (P<0.0001) after 9 days. Expression of ASB15-SOCS altered differentiation of myoblasts, resulting in detachment of cells from culture plates. Expression of ASB15-Ank increased protein degradation by 84 h of differentiation (P<0.05), and in vivo ectopic expression of an ASB15 construct lacking both the ankyrin repeat and SOCS box motifs decreased skeletal muscle fiber area (P<0.0001). Together, these results suggest ASB15 participates in the regulation of protein turnover and muscle cell development by stimulating protein synthesis and regulating differentiation of muscle cells. This is the first study to demonstrate a role for an Asb family member in skeletal muscle growth.

  9. Skeletal muscle degeneration and regeneration in mice and flies.

    PubMed

    Rai, Mamta; Nongthomba, Upendra; Grounds, Miranda D

    2014-01-01

    Many aspects of skeletal muscle biology are remarkably similar between mammals and tiny insects, and experimental models of mice and flies (Drosophila) provide powerful tools to understand factors controlling the growth, maintenance, degeneration (atrophy and necrosis), and regeneration of normal and diseased muscles, with potential applications to the human condition. This review compares the limb muscles of mice and the indirect flight muscles of flies, with respect to the mechanisms of adult myofiber formation, homeostasis, atrophy, hypertrophy, and the response to muscle degeneration, with some comment on myogenic precursor cells and common gene regulatory pathways. There is a striking similarity between the species for events related to muscle atrophy and hypertrophy, without contribution of any myoblast fusion. Since the flight muscles of adult flies lack a population of reserve myogenic cells (equivalent to satellite cells), this indicates that such cells are not required for maintenance of normal muscle function. However, since satellite cells are essential in postnatal mammals for myogenesis and regeneration in response to myofiber necrosis, the extent to which such regeneration might be possible in flight muscles of adult flies remains unclear. Common cellular and molecular pathways for both species are outlined related to neuromuscular disorders and to age-related loss of skeletal muscle mass and function (sarcopenia). The commonality of events related to skeletal muscles in these disparate species (with vast differences in size, growth duration, longevity, and muscle activities) emphasizes the combined value and power of these experimental animal models.

  10. Potential Therapeutic Role of L-Carnitine in Skeletal Muscle Oxidative Stress and Atrophy Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Montesano, Anna; Senesi, Pamela; Luzi, Livio; Benedini, Stefano; Terruzzi, Ileana

    2015-01-01

    The targeting of nutraceutical treatment to skeletal muscle damage is an emerging area of research, driven by the need for new therapies for a range of muscle-associated diseases. L-Carnitine (CARN) is an essential nutrient and plays a key role in mitochondrial β-oxidation and in the ubiquitin-proteasome system regulation. As a dietary supplement to improve athletic performance, CARN has been studied for its potential to enhance β-oxidation. However, CARN effects on myogenesis, mitochondrial activity, and hypertrophy process are not completely elucidated. This in vitro study aims to investigate CARN role on skeletal muscle remodeling, differentiation process, and myotubes formation. We analyzed muscle differentiation and morphological features in C2C12 myoblasts exposed to 5 mM CARN. Our results showed that CARN was able to accelerate C2C12 myotubes formation and induce morphological changes, characterizing the start of hypertrophy process. In addition, CARN improved AKT activation and downstream cellular signaling pathways involved in skeletal muscle atrophy process prevention. Also, CARN positively regulated the pathways involved in oxidative stress defense. In this work, we provide an interesting novel mechanism of the potential therapeutic use of CARN to treat pathological conditions characterized by skeletal muscle morphological and functional impairment, oxidative stress production, and atrophy process in aging. PMID:25838869

  11. Isolation and Culture of Satellite Cells from Mouse Skeletal Muscle.

    PubMed

    Musarò, Antonio; Carosio, Silvia

    2017-01-01

    Skeletal muscle tissue is characterized by a population of quiescent mononucleated myoblasts, localized between the basal lamina and sarcolemma of myofibers, known as satellite cells. Satellite cells play a pivotal role in muscle homeostasis and are the major source of myogenic precursors in mammalian muscle regeneration.This chapter describes protocols for isolation and culturing satellite cells isolated from mouse skeletal muscles. The classical procedure, which will be discussed extensively in this chapter, involves the enzymatic dissociation of skeletal muscles, while the alternative method involves isolation of satellite cells from isolated myofibers in which the satellite cells remain in their in situ position underneath the myofiber basal lamina.In particular, we discuss the technical aspect of satellite cell isolation, the methods necessary to enrich the satellite cell fraction and the culture conditions that optimize proliferation and myotube formation of mouse satellite cells.

  12. Human skeletal muscle-derived stem cells retain stem cell properties after expansion in myosphere culture

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, Yan; Li, Yuan; Chen, Chao; Stoelzel, Katharina; Kaufmann, Andreas M.

    2011-04-15

    Human skeletal muscle contains an accessible adult stem-cell compartment in which differentiated myofibers are maintained and replaced by a self-renewing stem cell pool. Previously, studies using mouse models have established a critical role for resident stem cells in skeletal muscle, but little is known about this paradigm in human muscle. Here, we report the reproducible isolation of a population of cells from human skeletal muscle that is able to proliferate for extended periods of time as floating clusters of rounded cells, termed 'myospheres' or myosphere-derived progenitor cells (MDPCs). The phenotypic characteristics and functional properties of these cells were determined using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), flow cytometry and immunocytochemistry. Our results showed that these cells are clonogenic, express skeletal progenitor cell markers Pax7, ALDH1, Myod, and Desmin and the stem cell markers Nanog, Sox2, and Oct3/4 significantly elevated over controls. They could be maintained proliferatively active in vitro for more than 20 weeks and passaged at least 18 times, despite an average donor-age of 63 years. Individual clones (4.2%) derived from single cells were successfully expanded showing clonogenic potential and sustained proliferation of a subpopulation in the myospheres. Myosphere-derived cells were capable of spontaneous differentiation into myotubes in differentiation media and into other mesodermal cell lineages in induction media. We demonstrate here that direct culture and expansion of stem cells from human skeletal muscle is straightforward and reproducible with the appropriate technique. These cells may provide a viable resource of adult stem cells for future therapies of disease affecting skeletal muscle or mesenchymal lineage derived cell types.

  13. Skeletal muscle mitochondrial health and spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    O’Brien, Laura C; Gorgey, Ashraf S

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondria are the main source of cellular energy production and are dynamic organelles that undergo biogenesis, remodeling, and degradation. Mitochondrial dysfunction is observed in a number of disease states including acute and chronic central or peripheral nervous system injury by traumatic brain injury, spinal cord injury (SCI), and neurodegenerative disease as well as in metabolic disturbances such as insulin resistance, type II diabetes and obesity. Mitochondrial dysfunction is most commonly observed in high energy requiring tissues like the brain and skeletal muscle. In persons with chronic SCI, changes to skeletal muscle may include remarkable atrophy and conversion of muscle fiber type from oxidative to fast glycolytic, combined with increased infiltration of intramuscular adipose tissue. These changes contribute to a proinflammatory environment, glucose intolerance and insulin resistance. The loss of metabolically active muscle combined with inactivity predisposes individuals with SCI to type II diabetes and obesity. The contribution of skeletal muscle mitochondrial density and electron transport chain activity to the development of the aforementioned comorbidities following SCI is unclear. A better understanding of the mechanisms involved in skeletal muscle mitochondrial dynamics is imperative to designing and testing effective treatments for this growing population. The current editorial will review ways to study mitochondrial function and the importance of improving skeletal muscle mitochondrial health in clinical populations with a special focus on chronic SCI. PMID:27795944

  14. Estimation of skeletal muscle mass from body creatine content

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pace, N.; Rahlmann, D. F.

    1982-01-01

    Procedures have been developed for studying the effect of changes in gravitational loading on skeletal muscle mass through measurements of the body creatine content. These procedures were developed for studies of gravitational scale effects in a four-species model, comprising the hamster, rat, guinea pig, and rabbit, which provides a sufficient range of body size for assessment of allometric parameters. Since intracellular muscle creatine concentration varies among species, and with age within a given species, the concentration values for metabolically mature individuals of these four species were established. The creatine content of the carcass, skin, viscera, smooth muscle, and skeletal muscle was determined for each species. In addition, the skeletal muscle mass of the major body components was determined, as well as the total and fat-free masses of the body and carcass, and the percent skeletal muscle in each. It is concluded that these procedures are particularly useful for studying the effect of gravitational loading on the skeletal muscle content of the animal carcass, which is the principal weight-bearing organ of the body.

  15. Mitochondrial energetics is impaired in vivo in aged skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Gouspillou, Gilles; Bourdel-Marchasson, Isabelle; Rouland, Richard; Calmettes, Guillaume; Biran, Marc; Deschodt-Arsac, Véronique; Miraux, Sylvain; Thiaudiere, Eric; Pasdois, Philippe; Detaille, Dominique; Franconi, Jean-Michel; Babot, Marion; Trézéguet, Véronique; Arsac, Laurent; Diolez, Philippe

    2014-02-01

    With aging, most skeletal muscles undergo a progressive loss of mass and strength, a process termed sarcopenia. Aging-related defects in mitochondrial energetics have been proposed to be causally involved in sarcopenia. However, changes in muscle mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation with aging remain a highly controversial issue, creating a pressing need for integrative approaches to determine whether mitochondrial bioenergetics are impaired in aged skeletal muscle. To address this issue, mitochondrial bioenergetics was first investigated in vivo in the gastrocnemius muscle of adult (6 months) and aged (21 months) male Wistar rats by combining a modular control analysis approach with (31) P magnetic resonance spectroscopy measurements of energetic metabolites. Using this innovative approach, we revealed that the in vivo responsiveness ('elasticity') of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation to contraction-induced increase in ATP demand is significantly reduced in aged skeletal muscle, a reduction especially pronounced under low contractile activities. In line with this in vivo aging-related defect in mitochondrial energetics, we found that the mitochondrial affinity for ADP is significantly decreased in mitochondria isolated from aged skeletal muscle. Collectively, the results of this study demonstrate that mitochondrial bioenergetics are effectively altered in vivo in aged skeletal muscle and provide a novel cellular basis for this phenomenon.

  16. In vitro Differentiation of Functional Human Skeletal Myotubes in a Defined System.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xiufang; Greene, Keshel; Akanda, Nesar; Smith, Alec; Stancescu, Maria; Lambert, Stephen; Vandenburgh, Herman; Hickman, James

    2014-01-01

    In vitro human skeletal muscle systems are valuable tools for the study of human muscular development, disease and treatment. However, published in vitro human muscle systems have so far only demonstrated limited differentiation capacities. Advanced differentiation features such as cross-striations and contractility have only been observed in co-cultures with motoneurons. Furthermore, it is commonly regarded that cultured human myotubes do not spontaneously contract, and any contraction has been considered to originate from innervation. This study developed a serum-free culture system in which human skeletal myotubes demonstrated advanced differentiation. Characterization by immunocytochemistry, electrophysiology and analysis of contractile function revealed these major features: A) well defined sarcomeric development, as demonstrated by the presence of cross-striations. B) finely developed excitation-contraction coupling apparatus characterized by the close apposition of dihydropyridine receptors on T-tubules and Ryanodine receptors on sarcoplasmic reticulum membranes. C) spontaneous and electrically controlled contractility. This report not only demonstrates an improved level of differentiation of cultured human skeletal myotubes, but also provides the first published evidence that such myotubes are capable of spontaneous contraction. Use of this functional in vitro human skeletal muscle system would advance studies concerning human skeletal muscle development and physiology, as well as muscle-related disease and therapy.

  17. In vitro Differentiation of Functional Human Skeletal Myotubes in a Defined System

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Xiufang; Greene, Keshel; Akanda, Nesar; Smith, Alec; Stancescu, Maria; Lambert, Stephen; Vandenburgh, Herman; Hickman, James

    2013-01-01

    In vitro human skeletal muscle systems are valuable tools for the study of human muscular development, disease and treatment. However, published in vitro human muscle systems have so far only demonstrated limited differentiation capacities. Advanced differentiation features such as cross-striations and contractility have only been observed in co-cultures with motoneurons. Furthermore, it is commonly regarded that cultured human myotubes do not spontaneously contract, and any contraction has been considered to originate from innervation. This study developed a serum-free culture system in which human skeletal myotubes demonstrated advanced differentiation. Characterization by immunocytochemistry, electrophysiology and analysis of contractile function revealed these major features: A) well defined sarcomeric development, as demonstrated by the presence of cross-striations. B) finely developed excitation-contraction coupling apparatus characterized by the close apposition of dihydropyridine receptors on T-tubules and Ryanodine receptors on sarcoplasmic reticulum membranes. C) spontaneous and electrically controlled contractility. This report not only demonstrates an improved level of differentiation of cultured human skeletal myotubes, but also provides the first published evidence that such myotubes are capable of spontaneous contraction. Use of this functional in vitro human skeletal muscle system would advance studies concerning human skeletal muscle development and physiology, as well as muscle-related disease and therapy. PMID:24516722

  18. Naturally derived and synthetic scaffolds for skeletal muscle reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Matthew T; Dearth, Christopher L; Sonnenberg, Sonya B; Loboa, Elizabeth G; Badylak, Stephen F

    2015-04-01

    Skeletal muscle tissue has an inherent capacity for regeneration following injury. However, severe trauma, such as volumetric muscle loss, overwhelms these natural muscle repair mechanisms prompting the search for a tissue engineering/regenerative medicine approach to promote functional skeletal muscle restoration. A desirable approach involves a bioscaffold that simultaneously acts as an inductive microenvironment and as a cell/drug delivery vehicle to encourage muscle ingrowth. Both biologically active, naturally derived materials (such as extracellular matrix) and carefully engineered synthetic polymers have been developed to provide such a muscle regenerative environment. Next generation naturally derived/synthetic "hybrid materials" would combine the advantageous properties of these materials to create an optimal platform for cell/drug delivery and possess inherent bioactive properties. Advances in scaffolds using muscle tissue engineering are reviewed herein.

  19. No-dependent signaling pathways in unloaded skeletal muscle

    PubMed Central

    Shenkman, Boris S.; Nemirovskaya, Tatiana L.; Lomonosova, Yulia N.

    2015-01-01

    The main focus of the current review is the nitric oxide (NO)-mediated signaling mechanism in unloaded skeletal. Review of the published data describing muscles during physical activity and inactivity demonstrates that NO is an essential trigger of signaling processes, which leads to structural and metabolic changes of the muscle fibers. The experiments with modulation of NO-synthase (NOS) activity during muscle unloading demonstrate the ability of an activated enzyme to stabilize degradation processes and prevent development of muscle atrophy. Various forms of muscle mechanical activity, i.e., plantar afferent stimulation, resistive exercise and passive chronic stretch increase the content of neural NOS (nNOS) and thus may facilitate an increase in NO production. Recent studies demonstrate that NO-synthase participates in the regulation of protein and energy metabolism in skeletal muscle by fine-tuning and stabilizing complex signaling systems which regulate protein synthesis and degradation in the fibers of inactive muscle. PMID:26582991

  20. Specificity of a protein phosphatase inhibitor from rabbit skeletal muscle.

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, P; Nimmo, G A; Antoniw, J F

    1977-01-01

    A hear-stable protein, which is a specific inhibitor of protein phosphatase-III, was purified 700-fold from skeletal muscle by a procedure that involved heat-treatment at 95 degrees C, chromatography on DEAE-cellulose and gel filtration on Sephadex G-100. The final step completely resolved the protein phosphatase inhibitor from the protein inhibitor of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase. The phosphorylase phosphatase, beta-phosphorylase kinase phosphatase, glycogen synthase phosphatase-1 and glycogen synthase phosphatase-2 activities of protein phosphatase-III [Antoniw, J. F., Nimmo, H. G., Yeaman, S. J. & Cohen, P.(1977) Biochem.J. 162, 423-433] were inhibited in a very similar manner by the protein phosphatase inhibitor and at least 95% inhibition was observed at high concentrations of inhibitor. The two forms of protein phosphatase-III, termed IIIA and IIIB, were equally susceptible to the protein phosphatase inhibitor. The protein phosphatase inhibitor was at least 200 times less effective in inhibiting the activity of protein phosphatase-I and protein phosphatase-II. The high degree of specificity of the inhibitor for protein phosphatase-III was used to show that 90% of the phosphorylase phosphatase and glycogen synthase phosphatase activities measured in muscle extracts are catalysed by protein phosphatase-III. Protein phosphatase-III was tightly associated with the protein-glycogen complex that can be isolated from skeletal muscle, whereas the protein phosphatase inhibitor and protein phosphatase-II were not. The results provide further evidence that the enzyme that catalyses the dephosphorylation of the alpha-subunit of phosphorylase kinase (protein phosphatase-II) and the enzyme that catalyses the dephosphorylation of the beta-subunit of phosphorylase kinase (protein phosphatase-III) are distinct. The results suggest that the protein phosphatase inhibitor may be a useful probe for differentiating different classes of protein phosphatases in mammalian

  1. Highly efficient, functional engraftment of skeletal muscle stem cells in dystrophic muscles.

    PubMed

    Cerletti, Massimiliano; Jurga, Sara; Witczak, Carol A; Hirshman, Michael F; Shadrach, Jennifer L; Goodyear, Laurie J; Wagers, Amy J

    2008-07-11

    Satellite cells reside beneath the basal lamina of skeletal muscle fibers and include cells that act as precursors for muscle growth and repair. Although they share a common anatomical localization and typically are considered a homogeneous population, satellite cells actually exhibit substantial heterogeneity. We used cell-surface marker expression to purify from the satellite cell pool a distinct population of skeletal muscle precursors (SMPs) that function as muscle stem cells. When engrafted into muscle of dystrophin-deficient mdx mice, purified SMPs contributed to up to 94% of myofibers, restoring dystrophin expression and significantly improving muscle histology and contractile function. Transplanted SMPs also entered the satellite cell compartment, renewing the endogenous stem cell pool and participating in subsequent rounds of injury repair. Together, these studies indicate the presence in adult skeletal muscle of prospectively isolatable muscle-forming stem cells and directly demonstrate the efficacy of myogenic stem cell transplant for treating muscle degenerative disease.

  2. Action of obestatin in skeletal muscle repair: stem cell expansion, muscle growth, and microenvironment remodeling.

    PubMed

    Gurriarán-Rodríguez, Uxía; Santos-Zas, Icía; González-Sánchez, Jessica; Beiroa, Daniel; Moresi, Viviana; Mosteiro, Carlos S; Lin, Wei; Viñuela, Juan E; Señarís, José; García-Caballero, Tomás; Casanueva, Felipe F; Nogueiras, Rubén; Gallego, Rosalía; Renaud, Jean-Marc; Adamo, Sergio; Pazos, Yolanda; Camiña, Jesús P

    2015-06-01

    The development of therapeutic strategies for skeletal muscle diseases, such as physical injuries and myopathies, depends on the knowledge of regulatory signals that control the myogenic process. The obestatin/GPR39 system operates as an autocrine signal in the regulation of skeletal myogenesis. Using a mouse model of skeletal muscle regeneration after injury and several cellular strategies, we explored the potential use of obestatin as a therapeutic agent for the treatment of trauma-induced muscle injuries. Our results evidenced that the overexpression of the preproghrelin, and thus obestatin, and GPR39 in skeletal muscle increased regeneration after muscle injury. More importantly, the intramuscular injection of obestatin significantly enhanced muscle regeneration by simulating satellite stem cell expansion as well as myofiber hypertrophy through a kinase hierarchy. Added to the myogenic action, the obestatin administration resulted in an increased expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)/vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2) and the consequent microvascularization, with no effect on collagen deposition in skeletal muscle. Furthermore, the potential inhibition of myostatin during obestatin treatment might contribute to its myogenic action improving muscle growth and regeneration. Overall, our data demonstrate successful improvement of muscle regeneration, indicating obestatin is a potential therapeutic agent for skeletal muscle injury and would benefit other myopathies related to muscle regeneration.

  3. Action of Obestatin in Skeletal Muscle Repair: Stem Cell Expansion, Muscle Growth, and Microenvironment Remodeling

    PubMed Central

    Gurriarán-Rodríguez, Uxía; Santos-Zas, Icía; González-Sánchez, Jessica; Beiroa, Daniel; Moresi, Viviana; Mosteiro, Carlos S; Lin, Wei; Viñuela, Juan E; Señarís, José; García-Caballero, Tomás; Casanueva, Felipe F; Nogueiras, Rubén; Gallego, Rosalía; Renaud, Jean-Marc; Adamo, Sergio; Pazos, Yolanda; Camiña, Jesús P

    2015-01-01

    The development of therapeutic strategies for skeletal muscle diseases, such as physical injuries and myopathies, depends on the knowledge of regulatory signals that control the myogenic process. The obestatin/GPR39 system operates as an autocrine signal in the regulation of skeletal myogenesis. Using a mouse model of skeletal muscle regeneration after injury and several cellular strategies, we explored the potential use of obestatin as a therapeutic agent for the treatment of trauma-induced muscle injuries. Our results evidenced that the overexpression of the preproghrelin, and thus obestatin, and GPR39 in skeletal muscle increased regeneration after muscle injury. More importantly, the intramuscular injection of obestatin significantly enhanced muscle regeneration by simulating satellite stem cell expansion as well as myofiber hypertrophy through a kinase hierarchy. Added to the myogenic action, the obestatin administration resulted in an increased expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)/vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2) and the consequent microvascularization, with no effect on collagen deposition in skeletal muscle. Furthermore, the potential inhibition of myostatin during obestatin treatment might contribute to its myogenic action improving muscle growth and regeneration. Overall, our data demonstrate successful improvement of muscle regeneration, indicating obestatin is a potential therapeutic agent for skeletal muscle injury and would benefit other myopathies related to muscle regeneration. PMID:25762009

  4. Lower skeletal muscle mass in male transgenic mice with muscle-specific overexpression of myostatin.

    PubMed

    Reisz-Porszasz, Suzanne; Bhasin, Shalender; Artaza, Jorge N; Shen, Ruoqing; Sinha-Hikim, Indrani; Hogue, Aimee; Fielder, Thomas J; Gonzalez-Cadavid, Nestor F

    2003-10-01

    Mutations in the myostatin gene are associated with hypermuscularity, suggesting that myostatin inhibits skeletal muscle growth. We postulated that increased tissue-specific expression of myostatin protein in skeletal muscle would induce muscle loss. To investigate this hypothesis, we generated transgenic mice that overexpress myostatin protein selectively in the skeletal muscle, with or without ancillary expression in the heart, utilizing cDNA constructs in which a wild-type (MCK/Mst) or mutated muscle creatine kinase (MCK-3E/Mst) promoter was placed upstream of mouse myostatin cDNA. Transgenic mice harboring these MCK promoters linked to enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) expressed the reporter protein only in skeletal and cardiac muscles (MCK) or in skeletal muscle alone (MCK-3E). Seven-week-old animals were genotyped by PCR of tail DNA or by Southern blot analysis of liver DNA. Myostatin mRNA and protein, measured by RT-PCR and Western blot, respectively, were significantly higher in gastrocnemius, quadriceps, and tibialis anterior of MCK/Mst-transgenic mice compared with wild-type mice. Male MCK/Mst-transgenic mice had 18-24% lower hind- and forelimb muscle weight and 18% reduction in quadriceps and gastrocnemius fiber cross-sectional area and myonuclear number (immunohistochemistry) than wild-type male mice. Male transgenic mice with mutated MCK-3E promoter showed similar effects on muscle mass. However, female transgenic mice with either type of MCK promoter did not differ from wild-type controls in either body weight or skeletal muscle mass. In conclusion, increased expression of myostatin in skeletal muscle is associated with lower muscle mass and decreased fiber size and myonuclear number, decreased cardiac muscle mass, and increased fat mass in male mice, consistent with its role as an inhibitor of skeletal muscle mass. The mechanism of gender specificity remains to be clarified.

  5. Bmp signaling at the tips of skeletal muscles regulates the number of fetal muscle progenitors and satellite cells during development.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui; Noulet, Fanny; Edom-Vovard, Frédérique; Tozer, Samuel; Le Grand, Fabien; Duprez, Delphine

    2010-04-20

    Muscle progenitors, labeled by the transcription factor Pax7, are responsible for muscle growth during development. The signals that regulate the muscle progenitor number during myogenesis are unknown. We show, through in vivo analysis, that Bmp signaling is involved in regulating fetal skeletal muscle growth. Ectopic activation of Bmp signaling in chick limbs increases the number of fetal muscle progenitors and fibers, while blocking Bmp signaling reduces their numbers, ultimately leading to small muscles. The Bmp effect that we observed during fetal myogenesis is diametrically opposed to that previously observed during embryonic myogenesis and that deduced from in vitro work. We also show that Bmp signaling regulates the number of satellite cells during development. Finally, we demonstrate that Bmp signaling is active in a subpopulation of fetal progenitors and satellite cells at the extremities of muscles. Overall, our results show that Bmp signaling plays differential roles in embryonic and fetal myogenesis.

  6. Biomimetic Scaffolds for Regeneration of Volumetric Muscle Loss in Skeletal Muscle Injuries

    PubMed Central

    Grasman, Jonathan M.; Zayas, Michelle J.; Page, Ray; Pins, George D.

    2015-01-01

    Skeletal muscle injuries typically result from traumatic incidents such as combat injuries where soft-tissue extremity injuries are present in one of four cases. Further, about 4.5 million reconstructive surgical procedures are performed annually as a result of car accidents, cancer ablation, or cosmetic procedures. These combat- and trauma-induced skeletal muscle injuries are characterized by volumetric muscle loss (VML), which significantly reduces the functionality of the injured muscle. While skeletal muscle has an innate repair mechanism, it is unable to compensate for VML injuries because large amounts of tissue including connective tissue and basement membrane are removed or destroyed. This results in in a significant need to develop off-the-shelf biomimetic scaffolds to direct skeletal muscle regeneration. Here, the structure and organization of native skeletal muscle tissue is described in order to reveal clear design parameters that are necessary for scaffolds to mimic in order to successfully regenerate muscular tissue. We review the literature with respect to the materials and methodologies used to develop scaffolds for skeletal muscle tissue regeneration as well as the limitations of these materials. We further discuss the variety of cell sources and different injury models to provide some context for the multiple approaches used to evaluate these scaffold materials. Recent findings are highlighted to address the state of the field and directions are outlined for future strategies, both in scaffold design and in the use of different injury models to evaluate these materials, for regenerating functional skeletal muscle. PMID:26219862

  7. Potential involvement of dietary advanced glycation end products in impairment of skeletal muscle growth and muscle contractile function in mice.

    PubMed

    Egawa, Tatsuro; Tsuda, Satoshi; Goto, Ayumi; Ohno, Yoshitaka; Yokoyama, Shingo; Goto, Katsumasa; Hayashi, Tatsuya

    2017-01-01

    Diets enriched with advanced glycation end products (AGE) have recently been related to muscle dysfunction processes. However, it remains unclear whether long-term exposure to an AGE-enriched diet impacts physiological characteristics of skeletal muscles. Therefore, we explored the differences in skeletal muscle mass, contractile function and molecular responses between mice receiving a diet high in AGE (H-AGE) and low in AGE (L-AGE) for 16 weeks. There were no significant differences between L-AGE and H-AGE mice with regard to body weight, food intake or epididymal fat pad weight. However, extensor digitorum longus (EDL) and plantaris (PLA) muscle weights in H-AGE mice were lower compared with L-AGE mice. Higher levels of N ε -(carboxymethyl)-l-lysine, a marker for AGE, in EDL muscles of H-AGE mice were observed compared with L-AGE mice. H-AGE mice showed lower muscle strength and endurance in vivo and lower muscle force production of PLA muscle in vitro. mRNA expression levels of myogenic factors including myogenic factor 5 and myogenic differentiation in EDL muscle were lower in H-AGE mice compared with L-AGE mice. The phosphorylation status of 70-kDa ribosomal protein S6 kinase Thr389, an indicator of protein synthesis signalling, was lower in EDL muscle of H-AGE mice than that of L-AGE mice. These findings suggest that long-term exposure to an AGE-enriched diet impairs skeletal muscle growth and muscle contractile function, and that these muscle dysfunctions may be attributed to the inhibition of myogenic potential and protein synthesis.

  8. Biological Approaches to Improve Skeletal Muscle Healing after Injury and Disease

    PubMed Central

    Gharaibeh, Burhan; Chun-Lansinger, Yuri; Hagen, Tanya; Ingham, Sheila Jean McNeill; Wright, Vonda; Fu, Freddie; Huard, Johnny

    2015-01-01

    Skeletal muscle injury and repair are complex processes, including well-coordinated steps of degeneration, inflammation, regeneration, and fibrosis. We have reviewed the recent literature including studies by our group that describe how to modulate the processes of skeletal muscle repair and regeneration. Antiinflammatory drugs that target cyclooxy-genase-2 were found to hamper the skeletal muscle repair process. Muscle regeneration phase can be aided by growth factors, including insulin-like growth factor-1 and nerve growth factor, but these factors are typically short-lived, and thus more effective methods of delivery are needed. Skeletal muscle damage caused by traumatic injury or genetic diseases can benefit from cell therapy; however, the majority of transplanted muscle cells (myoblasts) are unable to survive the immune response and hypoxic conditions. Our group has isolated neonatal skeletal muscle derived stem cells (MDSCs) that appear to repair muscle tissue in a more effective manner than myoblasts, most likely due to their better resistance to oxidative stress. Enhancing antioxidant levels of MDSCs led to improved regenerative potential. It is becoming increasingly clear that stem cells tissue repair by direct differentiation and paracrine effects leading to neovascularization of injured site and chemoattraction of host cells. The factors invoked in paracrine action are still under investigation. Our group has found that angiotensin II receptor blocker (losartan) significantly reduces fibrotic tissue formation and improves repair of murine injured muscle. Based on these data, we have conducted a case study on two hamstring injury patients and found that losartan treatment was well tolerated and possibly improved recovery time. We believe this medication holds great promise to optimize muscle repair in humans. PMID:22457179

  9. Skeletal muscle satellite cells: background and methods for isolation and analysis in a primary culture system.

    PubMed

    Danoviz, Maria Elena; Yablonka-Reuveni, Zipora

    2012-01-01

    Repair of adult skeletal muscle depends on satellite cells, myogenic stem cells located between the basal lamina and the plasmalemma of the myofiber. Standardized protocols for the isolation and culture of satellite cells are key tools for understanding cell autonomous and extrinsic factors that regulate their performance. Knowledge gained from such studies can contribute important insights to developing strategies for the improvement of muscle repair following trauma and in muscle wasting disorders. This chapter provides an introduction to satellite cell biology and further describes the basic protocol used in our laboratory to isolate and culture satellite cells from adult skeletal muscle. The cell culture conditions detailed herein support proliferation and differentiation of satellite cell progeny and the development of reserve cells, which are thought to reflect the in vivo self-renewal ability of satellite cells. Additionally, this chapter describes our standard immunostaining protocol that allows the characterization of satellite cell progeny by the temporal expression of characteristic transcription factors and structural proteins associated with different stages of myogenic progression. Although emphasis is given here to the isolation and characterization of satellite cells from mouse hindlimb muscles, the protocols are suitable for other muscle types (such as diaphragm and extraocular muscles) and for muscles from other species, including chicken and rat. Altogether, the basic protocols described are straightforward and facilitate the study of diverse aspects of skeletal muscle stem cells.

  10. Thyroid Hormone Signaling in Male Mouse Skeletal Muscle Is Largely Independent of D2 in Myocytes

    PubMed Central

    Werneck-de-Castro, Joao P.; Fonseca, Tatiana L.; Ignacio, Daniele L.; Fernandes, Gustavo W.; Andrade-Feraud, Cristina M.; Lartey, Lattoya J.; Ribeiro, Marcelo B.; Ribeiro, Miriam O.; Gereben, Balazs

    2015-01-01

    The type 2 deiodinase (D2) activates the prohormone T4 to T3. D2 is expressed in skeletal muscle (SKM), and its global inactivation (GLOB-D2KO mice) reportedly leads to skeletal muscle hypothyroidism and impaired differentiation. Here floxed Dio2 mice were crossed with mice expressing Cre-recombinase under the myosin light chain 1f (cre-MLC) to disrupt D2 expression in the late developmental stages of skeletal myocytes (SKM-D2KO). This led to a loss of approximately 50% in D2 activity in neonatal and adult SKM-D2KO skeletal muscle and about 75% in isolated SKM-D2KO myocytes. To test the impact of Dio2 disruption, we measured soleus T3 content and found it to be normal. We also looked at the expression of T3-responsive genes in skeletal muscle, ie, myosin heavy chain I, α-actin, myosin light chain, tropomyosin, and serca 1 and 2, which was preserved in neonatal SKM-D2KO hindlimb muscles, at a time that coincides with a peak of D2 activity in control animals. In adult soleus the baseline level of D2 activity was about 6-fold lower, and in the SKM-D2KO soleus, the expression of only one of five T3-responsive genes was reduced. Despite this, adult SKM-D2KO animals performed indistinguishably from controls on a treadmill test, running for approximately 16 minutes and reached a speed of about 23 m/min; muscle strength was about 0.3 mN/m·g body weight in SKM-D2KO and control ankle muscles. In conclusion, there are multiple sources of D2 in the mouse SKM, and its role is limited in postnatal skeletal muscle fibers. PMID:26214036

  11. Gene expression changes controlling distinct adaptations in the heart and skeletal muscle of a hibernating mammal

    PubMed Central

    Vermillion, Katie L.; Anderson, Kyle J.; Hampton, Marshall

    2015-01-01

    Throughout the hibernation season, the thirteen-lined ground squirrel (Ictidomys tridecemlineatus) experiences extreme fluctuations in heart rate, metabolism, oxygen consumption, and body temperature, along with prolonged fasting and immobility. These conditions necessitate different functional requirements for the heart, which maintains contractile function throughout hibernation, and the skeletal muscle, which remains largely inactive. The adaptations used to maintain these contractile organs under such variable conditions serves as a natural model to study a variety of medically relevant conditions including heart failure and disuse atrophy. To better understand how two different muscle tissues maintain function throughout the extreme fluctuations of hibernation we performed Illumina HiSeq 2000 sequencing of cDNAs to compare the transcriptome of heart and skeletal muscle across the circannual cycle. This analysis resulted in the identification of 1,076 and 1,466 differentially expressed genes in heart and skeletal muscle, respectively. In both heart and skeletal muscle we identified a distinct cold-tolerant mechanism utilizing peroxisomal metabolism to make use of elevated levels of unsaturated depot fats. The skeletal muscle transcriptome also shows an early increase in oxidative capacity necessary for the altered fuel utilization and increased oxygen demand of shivering. Expression of the fetal gene expression profile is used to maintain cardiac tissue, either through increasing myocyte size or proliferation of resident cardiomyocytes, while skeletal muscle function and mass are protected through transcriptional regulation of pathways involved in protein turnover. This study provides insight into how two functionally distinct muscles maintain function under the extreme conditions of mammalian hibernation. PMID:25572546

  12. Thyroid Hormone Signaling in Male Mouse Skeletal Muscle Is Largely Independent of D2 in Myocytes.

    PubMed

    Werneck-de-Castro, Joao P; Fonseca, Tatiana L; Ignacio, Daniele L; Fernandes, Gustavo W; Andrade-Feraud, Cristina M; Lartey, Lattoya J; Ribeiro, Marcelo B; Ribeiro, Miriam O; Gereben, Balazs; Bianco, Antonio C

    2015-10-01

    The type 2 deiodinase (D2) activates the prohormone T4 to T3. D2 is expressed in skeletal muscle (SKM), and its global inactivation (GLOB-D2KO mice) reportedly leads to skeletal muscle hypothyroidism and impaired differentiation. Here floxed Dio2 mice were crossed with mice expressing Cre-recombinase under the myosin light chain 1f (cre-MLC) to disrupt D2 expression in the late developmental stages of skeletal myocytes (SKM-D2KO). This led to a loss of approximately 50% in D2 activity in neonatal and adult SKM-D2KO skeletal muscle and about 75% in isolated SKM-D2KO myocytes. To test the impact of Dio2 disruption, we measured soleus T3 content and found it to be normal. We also looked at the expression of T3-responsive genes in skeletal muscle, ie, myosin heavy chain I, α-actin, myosin light chain, tropomyosin, and serca 1 and 2, which was preserved in neonatal SKM-D2KO hindlimb muscles, at a time that coincides with a peak of D2 activity in control animals. In adult soleus the baseline level of D2 activity was about 6-fold lower, and in the SKM-D2KO soleus, the expression of only one of five T3-responsive genes was reduced. Despite this, adult SKM-D2KO animals performed indistinguishably from controls on a treadmill test, running for approximately 16 minutes and reached a speed of about 23 m/min; muscle strength was about 0.3 mN/m·g body weight in SKM-D2KO and control ankle muscles. In conclusion, there are multiple sources of D2 in the mouse SKM, and its role is limited in postnatal skeletal muscle fibers.

  13. Acylcarnitines: potential implications for skeletal muscle insulin resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Insulin resistance is linked to increased acylcarnitine species in a number of tissues including skeletal muscle, due to incomplete fatty acid oxidation (FAO). It is not known if acylcarnitines participate in muscle insulin resistance or simply reflect dysregulated metabolism. The aim of this stud...

  14. Molecular responses to moderate endurance exercise in skeletal muscle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study examined alterations in skeletal-muscle growth and atrophy-related molecular events after a single bout of moderate-intensity endurance exercise. Muscle biopsies were obtained from 10 men (23 +/- 1 yr, body mass 80 +/- 2 kg, and VO(2peak) 45 +/- 1 ml x kg'¹ x min'¹) immediately (0 hr) and...

  15. Physiologic and biochemical aspects of skeletal muscle denervation and reinnervation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Max, S. R.; Mayer, R. F.

    1984-01-01

    Some of the physiologic and biochemical changes that occur in mammalian skeletal muscle following denervation and reinnervation are considered and some comparisons are made with changes observed following altered motor function. The nature of the trophic influence by which nerves control muscle properties are discussed, including the effects of choline acetyltransferase and acetylcholinesterase and the role of the acetylcholine receptor.

  16. Skeletal Muscle as a Peripheral Modifier of Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Robert R.

    1978-01-01

    Discusses how muscle can exert an influence on the behavioral potential of an organism and attempts to refute the "all or none law" by demonstrating that skeletal muscle is not merely a slave of the central nervous system. (Author/MA)

  17. Clonal multipotency of skeletal muscle-derived stem cells between mesodermal and ectodermal lineage.

    PubMed

    Tamaki, Tetsuro; Okada, Yoshinori; Uchiyama, Yoshiyasu; Tono, Kayoko; Masuda, Maki; Wada, Mika; Hoshi, Akio; Ishikawa, Tetsuya; Akatsuka, Akira

    2007-09-01

    The differentiation potential of skeletal muscle-derived stem cells (MDSCs) after in vitro culture and in vivo transplantation has been extensively studied. However, the clonal multipotency of MDSCs has yet to be fully determined. Here, we show that single skeletal muscle-derived CD34-/CD45- (skeletal muscle-derived double negative [Sk-DN]) cells exhibit clonal multipotency that can give rise to myogenic, vasculogenic, and neural cell lineages after in vivo single cell-derived single sphere implantation and in vitro clonal single cell culture. Muscles from green fluorescent protein (GFP) transgenic mice were enzymatically dissociated and sorted based on CD34 and CD45. Sk-DN cells were clone-sorted into a 96-well plate and were cultured in collagen-based medium with basic fibroblast growth factor and epidermal growth factor for 14 days. Individual colony-forming units (CFUs) were then transplanted directly into severely damaged muscle together with 1 x 10(5) competitive carrier Sk-DN cells obtained from wild-type mice muscle expanded for 5 days under the same culture conditions using 35-mm culture dishes. Four weeks after transplantation, implanted GFP+ cells demonstrated differentiation into endothelial, vascular smooth muscle, skeletal muscle, and neural cell (Schwann cell) lineages. This multipotency was also confirmed by expression of mRNA markers for myogenic (MyoD, myf5), neural (Musashi-1, Nestin, neural cell adhesion molecule-1, peripheral myelin protein-22, Nucleostemin), and vascular (alpha-smooth muscle actin, smoothelin, vascular endothelial-cadherin, tyrosine kinase-endothelial) stem cells by clonal (single-cell derived) single-sphere reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Approximately 70% of clonal CFUs exhibited expression of all three cell lineages. These findings support the notion that Sk-DN cells are a useful tool for damaged muscle-related tissue reconstitution by synchronized vasculogenesis, myogenesis, and neurogenesis.

  18. Interactions between Skeletal Muscle Myoblasts and their Extracellular Matrix Revealed by a Serum Free Culture System

    PubMed Central

    Chaturvedi, Vishal; Dye, Danielle E.; Kinnear, Beverley F.; van Kuppevelt, Toin H.; Grounds, Miranda D.; Coombe, Deirdre R.

    2015-01-01

    Decellularisation of skeletal muscle provides a system to study the interactions of myoblasts with muscle extracellular matrix (ECM). This study describes the efficient decellularisation of quadriceps muscle with the retention of matrix components and the use of this matrix for myoblast proliferation and differentiation under serum free culture conditions. Three decellularisation approaches were examined; the most effective was phospholipase A2 treatment, which removed cellular material while maximizing the retention of ECM components. Decellularised muscle matrices were then solubilized and used as substrates for C2C12 mouse myoblast serum free cultures. The muscle matrix supported myoblast proliferation and differentiation equally as well as collagen and fibronectin. Immunofluorescence analyses revealed that myoblasts seeded on muscle matrix and fibronectin differentiated to form long, well-aligned myotubes, while myoblasts seeded on collagen were less organized. qPCR analyses showed a time dependent increase in genes involved in skeletal muscle differentiation and suggested that muscle-derived matrix may stimulate an increased rate of differentiation compared to collagen and fibronectin. Decellularized whole muscle three-dimensional scaffolds also supported cell adhesion and spreading, with myoblasts aligning along specific tracts of matrix proteins within the scaffolds. Thus, under serum free conditions, intact acellular muscle matrices provided cues to direct myoblast adhesion and migration. In addition, myoblasts were shown to rapidly secrete and organise their own matrix glycoproteins to create a localized ECM microenvironment. This serum free culture system has revealed that the correct muscle ECM facilitates more rapid cell organisation and differentiation than single matrix glycoprotein substrates. PMID:26030912

  19. Role of pericytes in skeletal muscle regeneration and fat accumulation.

    PubMed

    Birbrair, Alexander; Zhang, Tan; Wang, Zhong-Min; Messi, Maria Laura; Enikolopov, Grigori N; Mintz, Akiva; Delbono, Osvaldo

    2013-08-15

    Stem cells ensure tissue regeneration, while overgrowth of adipogenic cells may compromise organ recovery and impair function. In myopathies and muscle atrophy associated with aging, fat accumulation increases dysfunction, and after chronic injury, the process of fatty degeneration, in which muscle is replaced by white adipocytes, further compromises tissue function and environment. Some studies suggest that pericytes may contribute to muscle regeneration as well as fat formation. This work reports the presence of two pericyte subpopulations in the skeletal muscle and characterizes their specific roles. Skeletal muscle from Nestin-GFP/NG2-DsRed mice show two types of pericytes, Nestin-GFP-/NG2-DsRed+ (type-1) and Nestin-GFP+/NG2-DsRed+ (type-2), in close proximity to endothelial cells. We also found that both Nestin-GFP-/NG2-DsRed+ and Nestin-GFP+/NG2-DsRed+ cells colocalize with staining of two pericyte markers, PDGFRβ and CD146, but only type-1 pericyte express the adipogenic progenitor marker PDGFRα. Type-2 pericytes participate in muscle regeneration, while type-1 contribute to fat accumulation. Transplantation studies indicate that type-1 pericytes do not form muscle in vivo, but contribute to fat deposition in the skeletal muscle, while type-2 pericytes contribute only to the new muscle formation after injury, but not to the fat accumulation. Our results suggest that type-1 and type-2 pericytes contribute to successful muscle regeneration which results from a balance of myogenic and nonmyogenic cells activation.

  20. Impact of Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA) on Skeletal Muscle Metabolism.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yoo; Kim, Jonggun; Whang, Kwang-Youn; Park, Yeonhwa

    2016-02-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) has garnered special attention as a food bioactive compound that prevents and attenuates obesity. Although most studies on the effects of CLA on obesity have focused on the reduction of body fat, a number of studies have demonstrated that CLA also increases lean body mass and enhances physical performances. It has been suggested that these effects may be due in part to physiological changes in the skeletal muscle, such as changes in the muscle fiber type transformation, alteration of the intracellular signaling pathways in muscle metabolism, or energy metabolism. However, the mode of action for CLA in muscle metabolism is not completely understood. The purpose of this review is to summarize the current knowledge of the effects of CLA on skeletal muscle metabolism. Given that CLA not only reduces body fat, but also improves lean mass, there is great potential for the use of CLA to improve muscle metabolism, which would have a significant health impact.

  1. Mechanically induced alterations in cultured skeletal muscle growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vandenburgh, H. H.; Hatfaludy, S.; Karlisch, P.; Shansky, J.

    1991-01-01

    Model systems are available for mechanically stimulating cultured skeletal muscle cells by passive tensile forces which simulate those found in vivo. When applied to embryonic muscle cells in vitro these forces induce tissue organogenesis, metabolic adaptations, and muscle cell growth. The mechanical stimulation of muscle cell growth correlates with stretch-induced increases in the efflux of prostaglandins PGE2 and PGF2(alpha) in a time and frequency dependent manner. These prostaglandins act as mechanical 'second messengers' regulating skeletal muscle protein turnover rates. Since they also effect bone remodelling in response to tissue loading and unloading, secreted prostaglandins may serve as paracrine growth factors, coordinating the growth rates of muscle and bone in response to external mechanical forces. Cell culture model systems will supplement other models in understanding mechanical transduction processes at the molecular level.

  2. [Acute muscle weakness: differential diagnoses].

    PubMed

    Antoniuk, Sérgio A

    2013-09-06

    Acute muscle weakness, a common disorder in pediatrics, can occur from impairment of any part of the motor unit, including the upper motor neuron, lower motor neuron, peripheral nerve, neuromuscular junction or muscle. It usually manifests itself as an acute or hyperacute motor disorder of progressive or rapidly progressive course. Acute muscle weakness is a neuromuscular emergency, especially if it affects the respiratory or oropharyngeal musculature. The location of the motor weakness and associated neurological signs and symptoms usually indicate the location of the lesion. The onset, speed and clinical evolution, as well as other data from the patient's history, suggest the pathophysiological differential diagnosis. Successful treatment depends on the immediate and correct differential diagnosis. This paper presents the main differential diagnosis of main neuromuscular diseases that cause acute muscle weakness in children.

  3. Muscle development and differentiation in the urodele Ambystoma mexicanum.

    PubMed

    Banfi, Serena; Monti, Laura; Acquati, Francesco; Tettamanti, Gianluca; de Eguileor, Magda; Grimaldi, Annalisa

    2012-05-01

    Muscle differentiation has been widely described in zebrafish and Xenopus, but nothing is known about this process in amphibian urodeles. Both anatomical features and locomotor activity in urodeles are known to show intermediate features between fish and anurans. Therefore, a better understanding of myogenesis in urodeles could be useful to clarify the evolutionary changes that led to the formation of skeletal muscle in the trunk of land vertebrates. We report here a detailed morphological and molecular investigation on several embryonic stages of Ambystoma mexicanum and show that the first differentiating muscle fibers are the slow ones, originating from a myoblast population initially localized close to the notochord that forms a superficial layer on the somitic surface afterwards. Subsequently, fast fibers differentiation ensues. We also identified and cloned A. mexicanum Myf5 as a muscle-specific transcriptional factor likely involved in urodele muscle differentiation.

  4. The role and regulation of erythropoietin (EPO) and its receptor in skeletal muscle: how much do we really know?

    PubMed

    Lamon, Séverine; Russell, Aaron P

    2013-01-01

    Erythropoietin (EPO) primarily activates erythroid cell proliferation and growth and is active in several types of non-hematopoietic cells via its interaction with the EPO-receptor (EPO-R). This review focuses on the role of EPO in skeletal muscle. The EPO-R is expressed in skeletal muscle cells and EPO may promote myoblast differentiation and survival via the activation of the same signaling cascades as in hematopoietic cells, such as STAT5, MAPK and Akt. Inconsistent results exist with respect to the detection of the EPO-R mRNA and protein in muscle cells, tissue and across species and the use of non-specific EPO-R antibodies contributes to this problem. Additionally, the inability to reproducibly detect an activation of the known EPO-induced signaling pathways in skeletal muscle questions the functionality of the EPO-R in muscle in vivo. These equivocal findings make it difficult to distinguish between a direct effect of EPO on skeletal muscle, via the activation of its receptor, and an indirect effect resulting from a better oxygen supply to the muscle. Consequently, the precise role of EPO in skeletal muscle and its regulatory mechanism/s remain to be elucidated. Further studies are required to comprehensively establish the importance of EPO and its function in skeletal muscle health.

  5. The MyomiR network in skeletal muscle plasticity.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, John J

    2011-07-01

    MicroRNA (miRNA) are a class of noncoding RNA involved in regulating gene expression by a posttranscriptional mechanism. Based on work from our laboratory, this review explores the hypothesis that a recently described muscle-specific miRNA, myomiR, network has a central role in the regulation of skeletal muscle plasticity by coordinating changes in fiber type and muscle mass in response to altered contractile activity.

  6. Erythropoietin Does Not Enhance Skeletal Muscle Protein Synthesis Following Exercise in Young and Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Lamon, Séverine; Zacharewicz, Evelyn; Arentson-Lantz, Emily; Gatta, Paul A. Della; Ghobrial, Lobna; Gerlinger-Romero, Frederico; Garnham, Andrew; Paddon-Jones, Douglas; Russell, Aaron P.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Erythropoietin (EPO) is a renal cytokine that is primarily involved in hematopoiesis while also playing a role in non-hematopoietic tissues expressing the EPO-receptor (EPOR). The EPOR is present in human skeletal muscle. In mouse skeletal muscle, EPO stimulation can activate the AKT serine/threonine kinase 1 (AKT) signaling pathway, the main positive regulator of muscle protein synthesis. We hypothesized that a single intravenous EPO injection combined with acute resistance exercise would have a synergistic effect on skeletal muscle protein synthesis via activation of the AKT pathway. Methods: Ten young (24.2 ± 0.9 years) and 10 older (66.6 ± 1.1 years) healthy subjects received a primed, constant infusion of [ring-13C6] L-phenylalanine and a single injection of 10,000 IU epoetin-beta or placebo in a double-blind randomized, cross-over design. 2 h after the injection, the subjects completed an acute bout of leg extension resistance exercise to stimulate skeletal muscle protein synthesis. Results: Significant interaction effects in the phosphorylation levels of the members of the AKT signaling pathway indicated a differential activation of protein synthesis signaling in older subjects when compared to young subjects. However, EPO offered no synergistic effect on vastus lateralis mixed muscle protein synthesis rate in young or older subjects. Conclusions: Despite its ability to activate the AKT pathway in skeletal muscle, an acute EPO injection had no additive or synergistic effect on the exercise-induced activation of muscle protein synthesis or muscle protein synthesis signaling pathways. PMID:27458387

  7. PDLIM7 is a novel target of the ubiquitin ligase Nedd4-1 in skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    D'Cruz, Robert; Plant, Pamela J; Pablo, Lesley A; Lin, Shouzhe; Chackowicz, Joshua; Correa, Judy; Bain, James; Batt, Jane

    2016-02-01

    Skeletal muscle atrophy remains a complication occurring both as a natural response to muscle disuse and as a pathophysiological response to illness such as diabetes mellitus and nerve injury, such as traumatic muscle denervation. The ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) is the predominant proteolytic machinery responsible for atrophy of skeletal muscle, and Nedd4-1 (neural precursor cell-expressed developmentally down-regulated 4-1) is one of a series of E3 ubiquitin ligases identified to mediate inactivity-induced muscle wasting. Targets of Nedd4-1 mediated ubiquitination in skeletal muscle remain poorly understood. In the present study, we identified PDLIM7 (PDZ and LIM domain 7, Enigma), a member of the PDZ-LIM family of proteins, as a novel target of Nedd4-1 in skeletal muscle. The PDZ-LIM family of proteins is known to regulate muscle development and function. We show that Nedd4-1 expression in muscle atrophied by denervation is co-incident with a decrease in PDLIM7 and that PDLIM7 protein levels are stabilized in denervated muscle of Nedd4-1 skeletal muscle-specific knockout mice (SMS-KO). Exogenous PDLIM7 and Nedd4-1 transfected into human embryonic kidney (HEK)293 cells co-immunoprecipitate through binding between the PY motif of PDLIM7 and the second and third WW domains of Nedd4-1 and endogenous PDLIM7 and Nedd4-1 interact in the cytoplasm of differentiated C2C12 myotubes, leading to PDLIM7 ubiquitination. These results identify PDLIM7 as a bona fide skeletal muscle substrate of Nedd4-1 and suggest that this interaction may underlie the progression of skeletal muscle atrophy. This offers a novel therapeutic target that could be potentially used to attenuate muscle atrophy.

  8. Decellularized Human Skeletal Muscle as Biologic Scaffold for Reconstructive Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Porzionato, Andrea; Sfriso, Maria Martina; Pontini, Alex; Macchi, Veronica; Petrelli, Lucia; Pavan, Piero G.; Natali, Arturo N.; Bassetto, Franco; Vindigni, Vincenzo; De Caro, Raffaele

    2015-01-01

    Engineered skeletal muscle tissues have been proposed as potential solutions for volumetric muscle losses, and biologic scaffolds have been obtained by decellularization of animal skeletal muscles. The aim of the present work was to analyse the characteristics of a biologic scaffold obtained by decellularization of human skeletal muscles (also through comparison with rats and rabbits) and to evaluate its integration capability in a rabbit model with an abdominal wall defect. Rat, rabbit and human muscle samples were alternatively decellularized with two protocols: n.1, involving sodium deoxycholate and DNase I; n.2, trypsin-EDTA and Triton X-NH4OH. Protocol 2 proved more effective, removing all cellular material and maintaining the three-dimensional networks of collagen and elastic fibers. Ultrastructural analyses with transmission and scanning electron microscopy confirmed the preservation of collagen, elastic fibres, glycosaminoglycans and proteoglycans. Implantation of human scaffolds in rabbits gave good results in terms of integration, although recellularization by muscle cells was not completely achieved. In conclusion, human skeletal muscles may be effectively decellularized to obtain scaffolds preserving the architecture of the extracellular matrix and showing mechanical properties suitable for implantation/integration. Further analyses will be necessary to verify the suitability of these scaffolds for in vitro recolonization by autologous cells before in vivo implantation. PMID:26140375

  9. Cation pumps in skeletal muscle: potential role in muscle fatigue.

    PubMed

    Green, H J

    1998-03-01

    Two membrane bound pumps in skeletal muscle, the sarcolemma Na+-K+ adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) and the sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase, provide for the maintenance of transmembrane ionic gradients necessary for excitation and activation of the myofibrillar apparatus. The rate at which the pumps are capable of establishing ionic homeostasis depends on the maximal activity of the enzyme and the potential of the metabolic pathways for supplying adenosine triphosphate (ATP). The activity of the Ca2+-ATPase appears to be expressed in a fibre type specific manner with both the amount of the enzyme and the isoform type related to the speed of contraction. In contrast, only minimal differences exist between slow-twitch and fast-twitch fibres in Na+-K+ ATPase activity. Evidence is accumulating that both active transport of Na+ and K+ across the sarcolemma and Ca2+-uptake by the sarcoplasmic reticulum may be impaired in vivo in a task specific manner resulting in loss of contractile function. In contrast to the Ca2+-ATPase, the Na+-K+ ATPase can be rapidly upregulated soon after the onset of a sustained pattern of activity. Similar programmes of activity result in a downregulation of Ca2+-ATPase but at a much later time point. The manner in which the metabolic pathways reorganize following chronic activity to meet the changes in ATP demand by the cation pumps and the degree to which these adaptations are compartmentalized is uncertain.

  10. Circadian clock regulation of skeletal muscle growth and repair

    PubMed Central

    Chatterjee, Somik; Ma, Ke

    2016-01-01

    Accumulating evidence indicates that the circadian clock, a transcriptional/translational feedback circuit that generates ~24-hour oscillations in behavior and physiology, is a key temporal regulatory mechanism involved in many important aspects of muscle physiology. Given the clock as an evolutionarily-conserved time-keeping mechanism that synchronizes internal physiology to environmental cues, locomotor activities initiated by skeletal muscle enable entrainment to the light-dark cycles on earth, thus ensuring organismal survival and fitness. Despite the current understanding of the role of molecular clock in preventing age-related sarcopenia, investigations into the underlying molecular pathways that transmit clock signals to the maintenance of skeletal muscle growth and function are only emerging. In the current review, the importance of the muscle clock in maintaining muscle mass during development, repair and aging, together with its contribution to muscle metabolism, will be discussed. Based on our current understandings of how tissue-intrinsic muscle clock functions in the key aspects muscle physiology, interventions targeting the myogenic-modulatory activities of the clock circuit may offer new avenues for prevention and treatment of muscular diseases. Studies of mechanisms underlying circadian clock function and regulation in skeletal muscle warrant continued efforts. PMID:27540471

  11. Circadian clock regulation of skeletal muscle growth and repair.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Somik; Ma, Ke

    2016-01-01

    Accumulating evidence indicates that the circadian clock, a transcriptional/translational feedback circuit that generates ~24-hour oscillations in behavior and physiology, is a key temporal regulatory mechanism involved in many important aspects of muscle physiology. Given the clock as an evolutionarily-conserved time-keeping mechanism that synchronizes internal physiology to environmental cues, locomotor activities initiated by skeletal muscle enable entrainment to the light-dark cycles on earth, thus ensuring organismal survival and fitness. Despite the current understanding of the role of molecular clock in preventing age-related sarcopenia, investigations into the underlying molecular pathways that transmit clock signals to the maintenance of skeletal muscle growth and function are only emerging. In the current review, the importance of the muscle clock in maintaining muscle mass during development, repair and aging, together with its contribution to muscle metabolism, will be discussed. Based on our current understandings of how tissue-intrinsic muscle clock functions in the key aspects muscle physiology, interventions targeting the myogenic-modulatory activities of the clock circuit may offer new avenues for prevention and treatment of muscular diseases. Studies of mechanisms underlying circadian clock function and regulation in skeletal muscle warrant continued efforts.

  12. Compensatory Hypertrophy of Skeletal Muscle: Contractile Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ianuzzo, C. D.; Chen, V.

    1977-01-01

    Describes an experiment using rats that demonstrates contractile characteristics of normal and hypertrophied muscle. Compensatory hypertrophy of the plantaris muscle is induced by surgical removal of the synergistic gastrocnemium muscle. Includes methods for determination of contractile properties of normal and hypertrophied muscle and…

  13. Hypodynamic and hypokinetic condition of skeletal muscles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katinas, G. S.; Oganov, V. S.; Potapov, A. N.

    1980-01-01

    Data are presented in regard to the effect of unilateral brachial amputation on the physiological characteristics of two functionally different muscles, the brachial muscle (flexor of the brachium) and the medial head of the brachial triceps muscle (extensor of the brachium), which in rats represents a separate muscle. Hypokinesia and hypodynamia were studied.

  14. Reduced passive force in skeletal muscles lacking protein arginylation

    PubMed Central

    Minozzo, Fábio C.; Kalganov, Albert; Cornachione, Anabelle S.; Cheng, Yu-Shu; Leu, Nicolae A.; Han, Xuemei; Saripalli, Chandra; Yates, John R.; Granzier, Henk; Kashina, Anna S.

    2015-01-01

    Arginylation is a posttranslational modification that plays a global role in mammals. Mice lacking the enzyme arginyltransferase in skeletal muscles exhibit reduced contractile forces that have been linked to a reduction in myosin cross-bridge formation. The role of arginylation in passive skeletal myofibril forces has never been investigated. In this study, we used single sarcomere and myofibril measurements and observed that lack of arginylation leads to a pronounced reduction in passive forces in skeletal muscles. Mass spectrometry indicated that skeletal muscle titin, the protein primarily linked to passive force generation, is arginylated on five sites located within the A band, an important area for protein-protein interactions. We propose a mechanism for passive force regulation by arginylation through modulation of protein-protein binding between the titin molecule and the thick filament. Key points are as follows: 1) active and passive forces were decreased in myofibrils and single sarcomeres isolated from muscles lacking arginyl-tRNA-protein transferase (ATE1). 2) Mass spectrometry revealed five sites for arginylation within titin molecules. All sites are located within the A-band portion of titin, an important region for protein-protein interactions. 3) Our data suggest that arginylation of titin is required for proper passive force development in skeletal muscles. PMID:26511365

  15. Hypermethylation: Causes and Consequences in Skeletal Muscle Myopathy.

    PubMed

    Majumder, Avisek; JyotirmayaBehera; Jeremic, Navena; Tyagi, Suresh C

    2016-12-16

    A detrimental consequence of hypermethylation is hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy), that causes oxidative stress, inflammation and matrix degradation, which leads to multi-pathology in different organs. Although, it is well known that hypermethylation leads to overall gene silencing and hypomethylation leads to overall gene activation, the role of such process in skeletal muscle dysfunction during HHcy condition is unclear. In this study, we emphasized the multiple mechanisms including epigenetic alteration by which HHcy causes skeletal muscle myopathy. This review also highlights possible role of methylation, histone modification and RNA interference in skeletal muscle dysfunction during HHcy condition and potential therapeutic molecules, putative challenges, and methodologies to deal with HHcy mediated skeletal muscle dysfunction. We also highlighted that B vitamins (mainly B12 and B6) with folic acid supplementation, could be useful as an adjuvant therapy to reverse these consequences associated with this HHcy conditions in skeletal muscle. However, we would recommend to further study involving long-term trials could help to assess efficacy of the use of these therapeutic agents. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  16. MicroRNA-155 facilitates skeletal muscle regeneration by balancing pro- and anti-inflammatory macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Nie, M; Liu, J; Yang, Q; Seok, H Y; Hu, X; Deng, Z-L; Wang, D-Z

    2016-01-01

    Skeletal muscle has remarkable regeneration capacity and regenerates in response to injury. Muscle regeneration largely relies on muscle stem cells called satellite cells. Satellite cells normally remain quiescent, but in response to injury or exercise they become activated and proliferate, migrate, differentiate, and fuse to form multinucleate myofibers. Interestingly, the inflammatory process following injury and the activation of the myogenic program are highly coordinated, with myeloid cells having a central role in modulating satellite cell activation and regeneration. Here, we show that genetic deletion of microRNA-155 (miR-155) in mice substantially delays muscle regeneration. Surprisingly, miR-155 does not appear to directly regulate the proliferation or differentiation of satellite cells. Instead, miR-155 is highly expressed in myeloid cells, is essential for appropriate activation of myeloid cells, and regulates the balance between pro-inflammatory M1 macrophages and anti-inflammatory M2 macrophages during skeletal muscle regeneration. Mechanistically, we found that miR-155 suppresses SOCS1, a negative regulator of the JAK-STAT signaling pathway, during the initial inflammatory response upon muscle injury. Our findings thus reveal a novel role of miR-155 in regulating initial immune responses during muscle regeneration and provide a novel miRNA target for improving muscle regeneration in degenerative muscle diseases. PMID:27277683

  17. Identification of Differentially Regulated Secretome Components During Skeletal Myogenesis*

    PubMed Central

    Chan, C. Y. X'avia; Masui, Olena; Krakovska, Olga; Belozerov, Vladimir E.; Voisin, Sebastien; Ghanny, Shaun; Chen, Jian; Moyez, Dharsee; Zhu, Peihong; Evans, Kenneth R.; McDermott, John C.; Siu, K. W. Michael

    2011-01-01

    Myogenesis is a well-characterized program of cellular differentiation that is exquisitely sensitive to the extracellular milieu. Systematic characterization of the myogenic secretome (i.e. the ensemble of secreted proteins) is, therefore, warranted for the identification of novel secretome components that regulate both the pluripotency of these progenitor mesenchymal cells, and also their commitment and passage through the differentiation program. Previously, we have successfully identified 26 secreted proteins in the mouse skeletal muscle cell line C2C12 (1). In an effort to attain a more comprehensive picture of the regulation of myogenesis by its extracellular milieu, quantitative profiling employing stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture was implemented in conjunction with two parallel high throughput online reverse phase liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry systems. In summary, 34 secreted proteins were quantified, 30 of which were shown to be differentially expressed during muscle development. Intriguingly, our analysis has revealed several novel up- and down-regulated secretome components that may have critical biological relevance for both the maintenance of pluripotency and the passage of cells through the differentiation program. In particular, the altered regulation of secretome components, including follistatin-like protein-1, osteoglycin, spondin-2, and cytokine-induced apoptosis inhibitor-1, along with constitutively expressed factors, such as fibulin-2, illustrate dynamic changes in the secretome that take place when differentiation to a specific lineage occurs. PMID:21343469

  18. Theoretical analysis of oxygen supply to contracted skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Groebe, K; Thews, G

    1986-01-01

    Honig and collaborators reported striking contradictions in current understanding of O2 supply to working skeletal muscle. Therefore we re-examined the problem by means of a new composite computer simulation. As inclusion of erythrocytic O2 desaturation and oxygen transport and consumption inside the muscle cell into a single model would entail immense numerical difficulties, we broke up the whole process into its several components: O2 desaturation of erythrocytes O2 transport and consumption in muscle fiber capillary transit time characterizing the period of contact between red cell and muscle fiber. "Erythrocyte model" as well as "muscle fiber model" both consist of a central core cylinder surrounded by a concentric diffusion layer representing the extracellular resistance to O2 diffusion (Fig. 1). Resistance layers in both models are to be conceived of as one and the same anatomical structure--even though in each model their shape is adapted to the respective geometry. By means of this overlap region a spatial connexion between both is given, whereas temporal coherence governing O2 fluxes and red cell spacing is derived from capillary transit time. Analysis of individual components is outlined as follows: Assuming axial symmetry of the problem a numerical algorithm was employed to solve the parabolic system of partial differential equations describing red cell O2 desaturation. Hb-O2 reaction kinetics, free and facilitated O2 diffusion in axial and radial directions, and red cell movement in capillary were considered. Resulting time courses of desaturation, which are considerably faster than the ones computed by Honig et al., are given in the following table (see also Fig. 3). (Formula: see text) Furthermore, we studied the respective importance of the several processes included in our model: Omission of longitudinal diffusion increased desaturation time by 15% to 23%, whereas effects of reaction kinetics and axial movement were 5% and 2% respectively. For time

  19. Effect of repeated forearm muscle cooling on the adaptation of skeletal muscle metabolism in humans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wakabayashi, Hitoshi; Nishimura, Takayuki; Wijayanto, Titis; Watanuki, Shigeki; Tochihara, Yutaka

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of repeated cooling of forearm muscle on adaptation in skeletal muscle metabolism. It is hypothesized that repeated decreases of muscle temperature would increase the oxygen consumption in hypothermic skeletal muscle. Sixteen healthy males participated in this study. Their right forearm muscles were locally cooled to 25 °C by cooling pads attached to the skin. This local cooling was repeated eight times on separate days for eight participants (experimental group), whereas eight controls received no cold exposure. To evaluate adaptation in skeletal muscle metabolism, a local cooling test was conducted before and after the repeated cooling period. Change in oxy-hemoglobin content in the flexor digitorum at rest and during a 25-s isometric handgrip (10% maximal voluntary construction) was measured using near-infrared spectroscopy at every 2 °C reduction in forearm muscle temperature. The arterial blood flow was occluded for 15 s by upper arm cuff inflation at rest and during the isometric handgrip. The oxygen consumption in the flexor digitorum muscle was evaluated by a slope of the oxy-hemoglobin change during the arterial occlusion. In the experimental group, resting oxygen consumption in skeletal muscle did not show any difference between pre- and post-intervention, whereas muscle oxygen consumption during the isometric handgrip was significantly higher in post-intervention than in pre-test from thermoneutral baseline to 31 °C muscle temperature (P < 0.05). This result indicated that repeated local muscle cooling might facilitate oxidative metabolism in the skeletal muscle. In summary, skeletal muscle metabolism during submaximal isometric handgrip was facilitated after repeated local muscle cooling.

  20. Effective fiber hypertrophy in satellite cell-depleted skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, John J; Mula, Jyothi; Miyazaki, Mitsunori; Erfani, Rod; Garrison, Kelcye; Farooqui, Amreen B; Srikuea, Ratchakrit; Lawson, Benjamin A; Grimes, Barry; Keller, Charles; Van Zant, Gary; Campbell, Kenneth S; Esser, Karyn A; Dupont-Versteegden, Esther E; Peterson, Charlotte A

    2011-09-01

    An important unresolved question in skeletal muscle plasticity is whether satellite cells are necessary for muscle fiber hypertrophy. To address this issue, a novel mouse strain (Pax7-DTA) was created which enabled the conditional ablation of >90% of satellite cells in mature skeletal muscle following tamoxifen administration. To test the hypothesis that satellite cells are necessary for skeletal muscle hypertrophy, the plantaris muscle of adult Pax7-DTA mice was subjected to mechanical overload by surgical removal of the synergist muscle. Following two weeks of overload, satellite cell-depleted muscle showed the same increases in muscle mass (approximately twofold) and fiber cross-sectional area with hypertrophy as observed in the vehicle-treated group. The typical increase in myonuclei with hypertrophy was absent in satellite cell-depleted fibers, resulting in expansion of the myonuclear domain. Consistent with lack of nuclear addition to enlarged fibers, long-term BrdU labeling showed a significant reduction in the number of BrdU-positive myonuclei in satellite cell-depleted muscle compared with vehicle-treated muscle. Single fiber functional analyses showed no difference in specific force, Ca(2+) sensitivity, rate of cross-bridge cycling and cooperativity between hypertrophied fibers from vehicle and tamoxifen-treated groups. Although a small component of the hypertrophic response, both fiber hyperplasia and regeneration were significantly blunted following satellite cell depletion, indicating a distinct requirement for satellite cells during these processes. These results provide convincing evidence that skeletal muscle fibers are capable of mounting a robust hypertrophic response to mechanical overload that is not dependent on satellite cells.

  1. Relative appendicular skeletal muscle mass is associated with isokinetic muscle strength and balance in healthy collegiate men.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung-Eun; Hong, Ju; Cha, Jun-Youl; Park, Jung-Min; Eun, Denny; Yoo, Jaehyun; Jee, Yong-Seok

    2016-11-01

    There are few studies on the relationship between skeletal muscle mass and balance in the young ages. We investigated the relationship between appendicular skeletal muscle mass, isokinetic muscle strength of lower extremity, and balance among healthy young men using relative skeletal muscle index. Thirty men were grouped according to relative appendicular skeletal muscle mass index: higher skeletal muscle group (n = 15) and lower skeletal muscle group (n = 15). Static and dynamic balance abilities were measured using the following: a test where participants stood on one leg with eyes closed, a modified Clinical Test of Sensory Interaction on Balance (mCTSIB) with eyes open and eyes closed, a stability test, and limits of stability test. The muscle strength of lower extremities was measured with an isokinetic analyser in hip, knee, and ankle joints. Participants with higher appendicular skeletal muscle mass were significantly more stable in maintaining dynamic balance than those with lower appendicular skeletal muscle mass. Moreover, appendicular skeletal muscle mass index was positively correlated with dynamic balance ability. Participants with higher appendicular skeletal muscle mass had stronger strength in the lower extremity, and there were significant differences in the isokinetic torque ratios between groups. From these results, it can be inferred that higher appendicular skeletal muscle mass relates to muscle strength and the alteration in the peak torque ratio of the lower extremity, contributing to the maintenance of balance.

  2. Uncovering the exercise-related proteome signature in skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Padrão, Ana Isabel; Ferreira, Rita; Amado, Francisco; Vitorino, Rui; Duarte, José Alberto

    2016-03-01

    Exercise training has been recommended as a nonpharmacological strategy for the prevention and attenuation of skeletal muscle atrophy in distinct pathophysiological conditions. Despite the well-established phenotypic alterations, the molecular mechanisms underlying exercise-induced skeletal muscle remodeling are poorly characterized. Proteomics based on mass spectrometry have been successfully applied for the characterization of skeletal muscle proteome, representing a pivotal approach for the wide characterization of the molecular networks that lead to skeletal muscle remodeling. Nevertheless, few studies were performed to characterize the exercise-induced proteome remodeling of skeletal muscle, with only six research papers focused on the cross-talk between exercise and pathophysiological conditions. In order to add new insights on the impact of distinct exercise programs on skeletal muscle proteome, molecular network analysis was performed with bioinformatics tools. This analysis highlighted an exercise-related proteome signature characterized by the up-regulation of the capacity for ATP generation, oxygen delivery, antioxidant capacity and regulation of mitochondrial protein synthesis. Chronic endurance training up-regulates the tricarboxylic acid cycle and oxidative phosphorylation system, whereas the release of calcium ion into cytosol and amino acid metabolism are the biological processes up-regulated by a single bout of exercise. Other issues as exercise intensity, load, mode and regimen as well as muscle type also influence the exercise-induced proteome signature. The comprehensive analysis of the molecular networks modulated by exercise training in health and disease, taking in consideration all these variables, might not only support the therapeutic effect of exercise but also highlight novel targets for the development of enhanced pharmacological strategies.

  3. Nrf2-Mediated Regulation of Skeletal Muscle Glycogen Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Yagishita, Yoko; Katsuoka, Fumiki; Kitajima, Yasuo; Nunomiya, Aki; Nagatomi, Ryoichi; Pi, Jingbo; Biswal, Shyam S.

    2016-01-01

    Nrf2 (NF-E2-related factor 2) contributes to the maintenance of glucose homeostasis in vivo. Nrf2 suppresses blood glucose levels by protecting pancreatic β cells from oxidative stress and improving peripheral tissue glucose utilization. To elucidate the molecular mechanisms by which Nrf2 contributes to the maintenance of glucose homeostasis, we generated skeletal muscle (SkM)-specific Keap1 knockout (Keap1MuKO) mice that express abundant Nrf2 in their SkM and then examined Nrf2 target gene expression in that tissue. In Keap1MuKO mice, blood glucose levels were significantly downregulated and the levels of the glycogen branching enzyme (Gbe1) and muscle-type PhKα subunit (Phka1) mRNAs, along with those of the glycogen branching enzyme (GBE) and the phosphorylase b kinase α subunit (PhKα) protein, were significantly upregulated in mouse SkM. Consistent with this result, chemical Nrf2 inducers promoted Gbe1 and Phka1 mRNA expression in both mouse SkM and C2C12 myotubes. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis demonstrated that Nrf2 binds the Gbe1 and Phka1 upstream promoter regions. In Keap1MuKO mice, muscle glycogen content was strongly reduced and forced GBE expression in C2C12 myotubes promoted glucose uptake. Therefore, our results demonstrate that Nrf2 induction in SkM increases GBE and PhKα expression and reduces muscle glycogen content, resulting in improved glucose tolerance. Our results also indicate that Nrf2 differentially regulates glycogen metabolism in SkM and the liver. PMID:27044864

  4. Inhibition of platelet-derived growth factor signaling prevents muscle fiber growth during skeletal muscle hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Sugg, Kristoffer B; Korn, Michael A; Sarver, Dylan C; Markworth, James F; Mendias, Christopher L

    2017-03-01

    The platelet-derived growth factor receptors alpha and beta (PDGFRα and PDGFRβ) mark fibroadipogenic progenitor cells/fibroblasts and pericytes in skeletal muscle, respectively. While the role that these cells play in muscle growth and development has been evaluated, it was not known whether the PDGF receptors activate signaling pathways that control transcriptional and functional changes during skeletal muscle hypertrophy. To evaluate this, we inhibited PDGFR signaling in mice subjected to a synergist ablation muscle growth procedure, and performed analyses 3 and 10 days after induction of hypertrophy. The results from this study indicate that PDGF signaling is required for fiber hypertrophy, extracellular matrix production, and angiogenesis that occur during muscle growth.

  5. Identification of a skeletal muscle-specific regulatory domain in the rat GLUT4/muscle-fat gene.

    PubMed

    Richardson, J M; Pessin, J E

    1993-10-05

    To identify sequences responsible for the muscle-specific expression of the rat GLUT4/muscle-fat gene, we examined the transcriptional regulation of this gene in the differentiating murine C2C12 skeletal muscle cell line. Differentiated myofibers displayed a 4-5-fold increase in GLUT4 mRNA compared with undifferentiated myoblasts which paralleled the conversion from non-muscle beta-actin mRNA to muscle-specific alpha-actin mRNA expression. Transient transfection of progressive 5' and 3' deletions of the GLUT4 5'-flanking DNA identified a 281-base pair region located between -517 and -237 relative to the transcription start site which conferred myotube-specific expression. This region increased reporter activity in the context of the GLUT4 minimal promoter in an orientation-independent manner and, in addition, onto the heterologous thymidine kinase promoter. Myotube-specific expression of both GLUT4 reporter constructs and the endogenous mouse GLUT4 mRNA was also observed to be thyroid hormone-dependent. Further, cotransfection of reporter constructs containing the 281-base pair GLUT4 differentiation-specific enhancer with the thyroid hormone receptor specifically increased luciferase activity in myotubes approximately 12-fold. Thus, these data demonstrate the presence of a proximal skeletal muscle-specific activation domain that is necessary for both myotube-specific GLUT4 expression and thyroid hormone responsiveness.

  6. DNA Transfection of Mammalian Skeletal Muscles using In Vivo Electroporation

    PubMed Central

    DiFranco, Marino; Quinonez, Marbella; Capote, Joana; Vergara, Julio

    2009-01-01

    A growing interest in cell biology is to express transgenically modified forms of essential proteins (e.g. fluorescently tagged constructs and/or mutant variants) in order to investigate their endogenous distribution and functional relevance. An interesting approach that has been implemented to fulfill this objective in fully differentiated cells is the in vivo transfection of plasmids by various methods into specific tissues such as liver1, skeletal muscle2,3, and even the brain4. We present here a detailed description of the steps that must be followed in order to efficiently transfect genetic material into fibers of the flexor digitorum brevis (FDB) and interosseus (IO) muscles of adult mice using an in vivo electroporation approach. The experimental parameters have been optimized so as to maximize the number of muscle fibers transfected while minimizing tissue damages that may impair the quality and quantity of the proteins expressed in individual fibers. We have verified that the implementation of the methodology described in this paper results in a high yield of soluble proteins, i.e. EGFP and ECFP3, calpain, FKBP12, β2a-DHPR, etc. ; structural proteins, i.e. minidystrophin and α-actinin; and membrane proteins, i.e. α1s-DHPR, RyR1, cardiac Na/Ca2+ exchanger , NaV1.4 Na channel, SERCA1, etc., when applied to FDB, IO and other muscles of mice and rats. The efficient expression of some of these proteins has been verified with biochemical3 and functional evidence5. However, by far the most common confirmatory approach used by us are standard fluorescent microscopy and 2-photon laser scanning microscopy (TPLSM), which permit to identify not only the overall expression, but also the detailed intracellular localization, of fluorescently tagged protein constructs. The method could be equally used to transfect plasmids encoding for the expression of proteins of physiological relevance (as shown here), or for interference RNA (siRNA) aiming to suppress the

  7. DNA transfection of mammalian skeletal muscles using in vivo electroporation.

    PubMed

    DiFranco, Marino; Quinonez, Marbella; Capote, Joana; Vergara, Julio

    2009-10-19

    A growing interest in cell biology is to express transgenically modified forms of essential proteins (e.g. fluorescently tagged constructs and/or mutant variants) in order to investigate their endogenous distribution and functional relevance. An interesting approach that has been implemented to fulfill this objective in fully differentiated cells is the in vivo transfection of plasmids by various methods into specific tissues such as liver, skeletal muscle, and even the brain. We present here a detailed description of the steps that must be followed in order to efficiently transfect genetic material into fibers of the flexor digitorum brevis (FDB) and interosseus (IO) muscles of adult mice using an in vivo electroporation approach. The experimental parameters have been optimized so as to maximize the number of muscle fibers transfected while minimizing tissue damages that may impair the quality and quantity of the proteins expressed in individual fibers. We have verified that the implementation of the methodology described in this paper results in a high yield of soluble proteins, i.e. EGFP and ECFP, calpain, FKBP12, beta2a-DHPR, etc. ; structural proteins, i.e. minidystrophin and alpha-actinin; and membrane proteins, i.e. alpha1s-DHPR, RyR1, cardiac Na/Ca(2+) exchanger , NaV1.4 Na channel, SERCA1, etc., when applied to FDB, IO and other muscles of mice and rats. The efficient expression of some of these proteins has been verified with biochemical and functional evidence. However, by far the most common confirmatory approach used by us are standard fluorescent microscopy and 2-photon laser scanning microscopy (TPLSM), which permit to identify not only the overall expression, but also the detailed intracellular localization, of fluorescently tagged protein constructs. The method could be equally used to transfect plasmids encoding for the expression of proteins of physiological relevance (as shown here), or for interference RNA (siRNA) aiming to suppress the

  8. Exercise-Induced Skeletal Muscle Adaptations Alter the Activity of Adipose Progenitor Cells.

    PubMed

    Zeve, Daniel; Millay, Douglas P; Seo, Jin; Graff, Jonathan M

    2016-01-01

    Exercise decreases adiposity and improves metabolic health; however, the physiological and molecular underpinnings of these phenomena remain unknown. Here, we investigate the effect of endurance training on adipose progenitor lineage commitment. Using mice with genetically labeled adipose progenitors, we show that these cells react to exercise by decreasing their proliferation and differentiation potential. Analyses of mouse models that mimic the skeletal muscle adaptation to exercise indicate that muscle, in a non-autonomous manner, regulates adipose progenitor homeostasis, highlighting a role for muscle-derived secreted factors. These findings support a humoral link between skeletal muscle and adipose progenitors and indicate that manipulation of adipose stem cell function may help address obesity and diabetes.

  9. Impaired Adaptive Response to Mechanical Overloading in Dystrophic Skeletal Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Joanne, Pierre; Hourdé, Christophe; Ochala, Julien; Caudéran, Yvain; Medja, Fadia; Vignaud, Alban; Mouisel, Etienne; Hadj-Said, Wahiba; Arandel, Ludovic; Garcia, Luis; Goyenvalle, Aurélie; Mounier, Rémi; Zibroba, Daria; Sakamato, Kei; Butler-Browne, Gillian; Agbulut, Onnik; Ferry, Arnaud

    2012-01-01

    Dystrophin contributes to force transmission and has a protein-scaffolding role for a variety of signaling complexes in skeletal muscle. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that the muscle adaptive response following mechanical overloading (ML) would be decreased in MDX dystrophic muscle lacking dystrophin. We found that the gains in muscle maximal force production and fatigue resistance in response to ML were both reduced in MDX mice as compared to healthy mice. MDX muscle also exhibited decreased cellular and molecular muscle remodeling (hypertrophy and promotion of slower/oxidative fiber type) in response to ML, and altered intracellular signalings involved in muscle growth and maintenance (mTOR, myostatin, follistatin, AMPKα1, REDD1, atrogin-1, Bnip3). Moreover, dystrophin rescue via exon skipping restored the adaptive response to ML. Therefore our results demonstrate that the adaptive response in response to ML is impaired in dystrophic MDX muscle, most likely because of the dystrophin crucial role. PMID:22511986

  10. Localization of 3H-diethylstilbestrol in skeletal muscle

    SciTech Connect

    Gruber, B.; Cohen, L.

    1981-11-01

    The localization of diethylstilbestrol (DES) in skeletal muscle was studied in CF1 mice and perfused rat hindlimbs. There was a slow accumulation of 3H-DES in mouse muscle from 4 to 24 hours following i.p. injection even though plasma DES was decreasing. Twenty-four hours after injection of 50 microCi 3H-DES (714 pmole) mouse gastrocnemius contained 8.9 x 10(-17) mole unaltered 3H-DES per mg muscle. Extrapolating to the entire skeletal muscle mass of the animal, this represents 0.15% of the radioactivity injected. The radioactivity in muscle was completely extracted with 95% ethanol or ether: ethanol (3:1), and both unaltered DES and DES-metabolites were present in the extracts. The fraction of radioactivity due to unaltered DES 4 hours after injection was 0.51 +/- 0.09 in muscle and 0.30 +/- 0.11 in plasma. Significant extrahepatic metabolism of DES was demonstrated in perfused isolated rat hindlimbs by the presence of DES-metabolites in the perfusate. The radioactivity extracted from the perfused muscle itself was unaltered DES. These results indicate that skeletal muscle is an important site of DES localization in rodents.

  11. Comparative Skeletal Muscle Proteomics Using Two-Dimensional Gel Electrophoresis

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Sandra; Dowling, Paul; Ohlendieck, Kay

    2016-01-01

    The pioneering work by Patrick H. O’Farrell established two-dimensional gel electrophoresis as one of the most important high-resolution protein separation techniques of modern biochemistry (Journal of Biological Chemistry 1975, 250, 4007–4021). The application of two-dimensional gel electrophoresis has played a key role in the systematic identification and detailed characterization of the protein constituents of skeletal muscles. Protein changes during myogenesis, muscle maturation, fibre type specification, physiological muscle adaptations and natural muscle aging were studied in depth by the original O’Farrell method or slightly modified gel electrophoretic techniques. Over the last 40 years, the combined usage of isoelectric focusing in the first dimension and sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide slab gel electrophoresis in the second dimension has been successfully employed in several hundred published studies on gel-based skeletal muscle biochemistry. This review focuses on normal and physiologically challenged skeletal muscle tissues and outlines key findings from mass spectrometry-based muscle proteomics, which was instrumental in the identification of several thousand individual protein isoforms following gel electrophoretic separation. These muscle-associated protein species belong to the diverse group of regulatory and contractile proteins of the acto-myosin apparatus that forms the sarcomere, cytoskeletal proteins, metabolic enzymes and transporters, signaling proteins, ion-handling proteins, molecular chaperones and extracellular matrix proteins. PMID:28248237

  12. Comparative Skeletal Muscle Proteomics Using Two-Dimensional Gel Electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Sandra; Dowling, Paul; Ohlendieck, Kay

    2016-09-09

    The pioneering work by Patrick H. O'Farrell established two-dimensional gel electrophoresis as one of the most important high-resolution protein separation techniques of modern biochemistry (Journal of Biological Chemistry1975, 250, 4007-4021). The application of two-dimensional gel electrophoresis has played a key role in the systematic identification and detailed characterization of the protein constituents of skeletal muscles. Protein changes during myogenesis, muscle maturation, fibre type specification, physiological muscle adaptations and natural muscle aging were studied in depth by the original O'Farrell method or slightly modified gel electrophoretic techniques. Over the last 40 years, the combined usage of isoelectric focusing in the first dimension and sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide slab gel electrophoresis in the second dimension has been successfully employed in several hundred published studies on gel-based skeletal muscle biochemistry. This review focuses on normal and physiologically challenged skeletal muscle tissues and outlines key findings from mass spectrometry-based muscle proteomics, which was instrumental in the identification of several thousand individual protein isoforms following gel electrophoretic separation. These muscle-associated protein species belong to the diverse group of regulatory and contractile proteins of the acto-myosin apparatus that forms the sarcomere, cytoskeletal proteins, metabolic enzymes and transporters, signaling proteins, ion-handling proteins, molecular chaperones and extracellular matrix proteins.

  13. Bone marrow mesenchymal cells improve muscle function in a skeletal muscle re-injury model.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Bruno M; Baldanza, Marcelo R; Ribeiro, Karla C; Porto, Anderson; Peçanha, Ramon; Fortes, Fabio S A; Zapata-Sudo, Gisele; Campos-de-Carvalho, Antonio C; Goldenberg, Regina C S; Werneck-de-Castro, João Pedro

    2015-01-01

    Skeletal muscle injury is the most common problem in orthopedic and sports medicine, and severe injury leads to fibrosis and muscle dysfunction. Conventional treatment for successive muscle injury is currently controversial, although new therapies, like cell therapy, seem to be promise. We developed a model of successive injuries in rat to evaluate the therapeutic potential of bone marrow mesenchymal cells (BMMC) injected directly into the injured muscle. Functional and histological assays were performed 14 and 28 days after the injury protocol by isometric tension recording and picrosirius/Hematoxilin & Eosin staining, respectively. We also evaluated the presence and the fate of BMMC on treated muscles; and muscle fiber regeneration. BMMC treatment increased maximal skeletal muscle contraction 14 and 28 days after muscle injury compared to non-treated group (4.5 ± 1.7 vs 2.5 ± 0.98 N/cm2, p<0.05 and 8.4 ± 2.3 vs. 5.7 ± 1.3 N/cm2, p<0.05 respectively). Furthermore, BMMC treatment increased muscle fiber cross-sectional area and the presence of mature muscle fiber 28 days after muscle injury. However, there was no difference in collagen deposition between groups. Immunoassays for cytoskeleton markers of skeletal and smooth muscle cells revealed an apparent integration of the BMMC within the muscle. These data suggest that BMMC transplantation accelerates and improves muscle function recovery in our extensive muscle re-injury model.

  14. Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Cells Improve Muscle Function in a Skeletal Muscle Re-Injury Model

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro, Karla C.; Porto, Anderson; Peçanha, Ramon; Fortes, Fabio S. A.; Zapata-Sudo, Gisele; Campos-de-Carvalho, Antonio C.; Goldenberg, Regina C. S.; Werneck-de-Castro, João Pedro

    2015-01-01

    Skeletal muscle injury is the most common problem in orthopedic and sports medicine, and severe injury leads to fibrosis and muscle dysfunction. Conventional treatment for successive muscle injury is currently controversial, although new therapies, like cell therapy, seem to be promise. We developed a model of successive injuries in rat to evaluate the therapeutic potential of bone marrow mesenchymal cells (BMMC) injected directly into the injured muscle. Functional and histological assays were performed 14 and 28 days after the injury protocol by isometric tension recording and picrosirius/Hematoxilin & Eosin staining, respectively. We also evaluated the presence and the fate of BMMC on treated muscles; and muscle fiber regeneration. BMMC treatment increased maximal skeletal muscle contraction 14 and 28 days after muscle injury compared to non-treated group (4.5 ± 1.7 vs 2.5 ± 0.98 N/cm2, p<0.05 and 8.4 ± 2.3 vs. 5.7 ± 1.3 N/cm2, p<0.05 respectively). Furthermore, BMMC treatment increased muscle fiber cross-sectional area and the presence of mature muscle fiber 28 days after muscle injury. However, there was no difference in collagen deposition between groups. Immunoassays for cytoskeleton markers of skeletal and smooth muscle cells revealed an apparent integration of the BMMC within the muscle. These data suggest that BMMC transplantation accelerates and improves muscle function recovery in our extensive muscle re-injury model. PMID:26039243

  15. Bone and skeletal muscle: neighbors with close ties.

    PubMed

    DiGirolamo, Douglas J; Kiel, Douglas P; Esser, Karyn A

    2013-07-01

    The musculoskeletal system evolved in mammals to perform diverse functions that include locomotion, facilitating breathing, protecting internal organs, and coordinating global energy expenditure. Bone and skeletal muscles involved with locomotion are both derived from somitic mesoderm and accumulate peak tissue mass synchronously, according to genetic information and environmental stimuli. Aging results in the progressive and parallel loss of bone (osteopenia) and skeletal muscle (sarcopenia) with profound consequences for quality of life. Age-associated sarcopenia results in reduced endurance, poor balance, and reduced mobility that predispose elderly individuals to falls, which more frequently result in fracture because of concomitant osteoporosis. Thus, a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying the parallel development and involution of these tissues is critical to developing new and more effective means to combat osteoporosis and sarcopenia in our increasingly aged population. This perspective highlights recent advances in our understanding of mechanisms coupling bone and skeletal muscle mass, and identify critical areas where further work is needed.

  16. Establishment of bipotent progenitor cell clone from rat skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Yousuke; Yada, Erica; Nakano, Shin-ichi; Miyagoe-Suzuki, Yuko; Hosoyama, Tohru; Matsuwaki, Takashi; Yamanouchi, Keitaro; Nishihara, Masugi

    2011-12-01

    The present study describes the isolation, cloning and characterization of adipogenic progenitor cells from rat skeletal muscle. Among the obtained 10 clones, the most highly adipogenic progenitor, 2G11 cells, were further characterized. In addition to their adipogenicity, 2G11 cells retain myogenic potential as revealed by formation of multinucleated myotubes when co-cultured with myoblasts. 2G11 cells were resistant to an inhibitory effect of basic fibroblast growth factor on adipogenesis, while adipogenesis of widely used preadipogenic cell line, 3T3-L1 cells, was suppressed almost completely by the same treatment. In vivo transplantation experiments revealed that 2G11 cells are able to possess both adipogenicity and myogenicity in vivo. These results indicate the presence of bipotent progenitor cells in rat skeletal muscle, and suggest that such cells may contribute to ectopic fat formation in skeletal muscle.

  17. Regulation of skeletal muscle oxidative capacity and muscle mass by SIRT3

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have previously reported that the expression of mitochondrial deacetylase SIRT3 is high in the slow oxidative muscle and that the expression of muscle SIRT3 level is increased by dietary restriction or exercise training. To explore the function of SIRT3 in skeletal muscle, we report here the esta...

  18. Skeletal Muscle Cell Behavior After Physical Agent Treatments.

    PubMed

    Battistelli, Michela; Salucci, Sara; Guescini, Michele; Curzi, Davide; Stocchi, Vilberto; Falcieri, Elisabetta

    2015-01-01

    Apoptosis is essential for skeletal muscle development and homeostasis. It has been frequently involved in several muscle myopathies and sarcopenia, as well as in denervation, in disuse and acute strenuous or eccentric physical exercise. In this work skeletal muscle cell death, induced in vitro by a variety of physical triggers, has been investigated. C2C12 myoblasts and myotubes were exposed to UVB for 30 min, hyperthermia for 1 h at 43 °C, low pH for 3 h, hypothermia for 4h at 0 - 6°C, all followed by 2 - 4 h recovery. Their effects have been analysed by means of morpho- functional and molecular approaches. After UVB radiation, hyperthermia and acidosis, morphological apoptotic features and in situ DNA fragmentation appeared, more evident in myoblasts. Interestingly, apoptotic, non apoptotic and necrotic nuclei could be occasionally observed within the same myotube. Low pH induced apoptosis and necrosis, both characterized by swollen nuclei. In all these experimental conditions, the molecular investigations revealed a caspase pathway involvement in inducing cell death. Differently, hypothermia showed a scant and initial chromatin margination, in the presence of a diffused autophagic component. In this case, in situ DNA fragmentation and caspase activation have not been detected. Myoblasts and myotubes appeared sensitive to physical agents, some of which, induced apoptotic cell death. Moreover, hypothermia exposure seemed to enhance autophagic response, thus representing a way to delay trauma-correlated muscle inflammation. This study permits to highlight skeletal muscle cell behavior in response to physical agents, by adding important information to muscle cell death knowledge. UVB radiation and hyperthermia, usually used in clinical therapy, have also adverse effects on skeletal muscle such as myonuclei loss and cell death, contributing to muscle mass decrease. Acidosis occurs physiologically in muscular fatigue, reducing not only the athlete performance, but

  19. Skeletal muscle atrophy is induced by Fbxw7β via atrogene upregulation.

    PubMed

    Shin, Kyungshin; Ko, Young-Gyu; Jeong, Jaemin; Kwon, Heechung

    2017-02-01

    Muscle atrophy decreases skeletal muscle mass and is induced by inherited cachectic symptoms, genetic disorders, and sarcopenia. However, the molecular pathways associated with the onset of muscle atrophy are still unclear. In this study, we evaluated Fbxw7β, a gene associated with the development of muscle atrophy in vitro and in vivo. Among the three Fbxw7 isoforms, ectopically overexpressed Fbxw7β induced the expression of myogenin and major atrogene markers (atrogin-1 and MuRF-1) and reduced myoblast differentiation. In addition, endogenous expression of Fbxw7β was also upregulated by dexamethasone, which mimics muscle atrophy in vitro, accompanied by induction of myogenin and atrogene expression in primary myoblasts. Functional analysis of Fbxw7β using short hairpin RNA (shRNA) and a dominant-negative mutant (ΔFbox) suggested that Fbxw7β regulated muscle atrophy in vitro and in vivo. In particular, ΔFbox did not reduce the sizes of muscle fibers and did not induce myogenin and atrogene expression in vivo. Therefore, our findings demonstrated, for the first time, that Fbxw7β induced muscle atrophic phenotypes via atrogenes in adult muscle precursor cells and myofibers; this mechanism could be a potential therapeutic target for skeletal muscle atrophy.

  20. Fast skeletal muscle troponin activation increases force of mouse fast skeletal muscle and ameliorates weakness due to nebulin-deficiency.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eun-Jeong; De Winter, Josine M; Buck, Danielle; Jasper, Jeffrey R; Malik, Fady I; Labeit, Siegfried; Ottenheijm, Coen A; Granzier, Henk

    2013-01-01

    The effect of the fast skeletal muscle troponin activator, CK-2066260, on calcium-induced force development was studied in skinned fast skeletal muscle fibers from wildtype (WT) and nebulin deficient (NEB KO) mice. Nebulin is a sarcomeric protein that when absent (NEB KO mouse) or present at low levels (nemaline myopathy (NM) patients with NEB mutations) causes muscle weakness. We studied the effect of fast skeletal troponin activation on WT muscle and tested whether it might be a therapeutic mechanism to increase muscle strength in nebulin deficient muscle. We measured tension-pCa relations with and without added CK-2066260. Maximal active tension in NEB KO tibialis cranialis fibers in the absence of CK-2066260 was ∼60% less than in WT fibers, consistent with earlier work. CK-2066260 shifted the tension-calcium relationship leftwards, with the largest relative increase (up to 8-fold) at low to intermediate calcium levels. This was a general effect that was present in both WT and NEB KO fiber bundles. At pCa levels above ∼6.0 (i.e., calcium concentrations <1 µM), CK-2066260 increased tension of NEB KO fibers to beyond that of WT fibers. Crossbridge cycling kinetics were studied by measuring k(tr) (rate constant of force redevelopment following a rapid shortening/restretch). CK-2066260 greatly increased k(tr) at submaximal activation levels in both WT and NEB KO fiber bundles. We also studied the sarcomere length (SL) dependence of the CK-2066260 effect (SL 2.1 µm and 2.6 µm) and found that in the NEB KO fibers, CK-2066260 had a larger effect on calcium sensitivity at the long SL. We conclude that fast skeletal muscle troponin activation increases force at submaximal activation in both wildtype and NEB KO fiber bundles and, importantly, that this troponin activation is a potential therapeutic mechanism for increasing force in NM and other skeletal muscle diseases with loss of muscle strength.

  1. Functional and biochemical modifications in skeletal muscles from malarial mice.

    PubMed

    Brotto, Marco A P; Marrelli, Mauro T; Brotto, Leticia S; Jacobs-Lorena, Marcelo; Nosek, Thomas M

    2005-05-01

    Although it is well established that patients suffering from malaria experience skeletal muscle problems (contracture, aches, fatigue, weakness), detailed studies have not been performed to investigate changes in the contractile function and biochemical properties of intact and skinned skeletal muscles of mammals infected with malaria. To this end, we investigated such features in the extensor digitorium longus (EDL, fast-twitch, glyocolytic) and in the soleus (SOL, slow-twitch, oxidative) muscles from mice infected with Plasmodium berghei. We first studied maximal tetanic force (T(max)) produced by intact control and malaria-infected muscles before, during and after fatigue. Triton-skinned muscle fibres were isolated from these muscles and used to determine isometric contractile features as well as a basic biochemical profile as analysed by silver-enhanced SDS-PAGE. We found that the T(max) of intact muscles and the maximal Ca2+-activated force (F(max)) of Triton-skinned muscle fibres were reduced by approximately 50% in malarial muscles. In addition, the contractile proteins of Triton-skinned muscle fibres from malarial muscles were significantly less sensitive to Ca2+. Biochemical analysis revealed that there was a significant loss of essential contractile proteins (e.g. troponins and myosin) in Triton-skinned muscle fibres from malarial muscles as compared to controls. The biochemical alterations (i.e., reduction of essential contractile proteins) seem to explain well the functional modifications resolved in both intact muscles and Triton-skinned muscle fibres and may provide a suitable paradigm for the aetiology of muscle symptoms associated with malaria.

  2. Exercise-Induced Skeletal Muscle Damage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, William J.

    1987-01-01

    Eccentric exercise, in which the muscles exert force by lengthening, is associated with delayed onset muscle soreness. How soreness occurs, how recovery proceeds, and what precautions athletes should take are described. (Author/MT)

  3. Substrate kinetics in patients with disorders of skeletal muscle metabolism.

    PubMed

    Ørngreen, Mette Cathrine

    2016-07-01

    The main purpose of the following studies was to investigate pathophysiological mechanisms in fat and carbohydrate metabolism and effect of nutritional interventions in patients with metabolic myopathies and in patients with severe muscle wasting. Yet there is no cure for patients with skeletal muscle disorders. The group of patients is heterozygous and this thesis is focused on patients with metabolic myopathies and low muscle mass due to severe muscle wasting. Disorders of fatty acid oxidation (FAO) are, along with myophosphorylase deficiency (McArdle disease), the most common inborn errors of metabolism leading to recurrent episodes of rhabdomyolysis in adults. Prolonged exercise, fasting, and fever are the main triggering factors for rhabdomyolysis in these conditions, and can be complicated by acute renal failure. Patients with low muscle mass are in risk of loosing their functional skills and depend on a wheel chair and respiratory support. We used nutritional interventions and metabolic studies with stable isotope technique and indirect calorimetry in patients with metabolic myopathies and patients with low muscle mass to get information of the metabolism of the investigated diseases, and to gain knowledge of the biochemical pathways of intermediary metabolism in human skeletal muscle. We have shown that patients with fat metabolism disorders in skeletal muscle affecting the transporting enzyme of fat into the mitochondria (carnitine palmitoyltransferase II deficiency) and affecting the enzyme responsible for breakdown of the long-chain fatty acids (very long chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency) have a normal fatty acid oxidation at rest, but enzyme activity is too low to increase fatty acid oxidation during exercise. Furthermore, these patients benefit from a carbohydrate rich diet. Oppositely is exercise capacity worsened by a fat-rich diet in these patients. The patients also benefit from IV glucose, however, when glucose is given orally just before

  4. Structural alterations of skeletal muscle in copd

    PubMed Central

    Mathur, Sunita; Brooks, Dina; Carvalho, Celso R. F.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a respiratory disease associated with a systemic inflammatory response. Peripheral muscle dysfunction has been well characterized in individuals with COPD and results from a complex interaction between systemic and local factors. Objective: In this narrative review, we will describe muscle wasting in people with COPD, the associated structural changes, muscle regenerative capacity and possible mechanisms for muscle wasting. We will also discuss how structural changes relate to impaired muscle function and mobility in people with COPD. Key Observations: Approximately 30–40% of individuals with COPD experience muscle mass depletion. Furthermore, muscle atrophy is a predictor of physical function and mortality in this population. Associated structural changes include a decreased proportion and size of type-I fibers, reduced oxidative capacity and mitochondrial density mainly in the quadriceps. Observations related to impaired muscle regenerative capacity in individuals with COPD include a lower proportion of central nuclei in the presence or absence of muscle atrophy and decreased maximal telomere length, which has been correlated with reduced muscle cross-sectional area. Potential mechanisms for muscle wasting in COPD may include excessive production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), altered amino acid metabolism and lower expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors-gamma-coactivator 1-alpha mRNA. Despite a moderate relationship between muscle atrophy and function, impairments in oxidative metabolism only seems weakly related to muscle function. Conclusion: This review article demonstrates the cellular modifications in the peripheral muscle of people with COPD and describes the evidence of its relationship to muscle function. Future research will focus on rehabilitation strategies to improve muscle wasting and maximize function. PMID:24678302

  5. Effects of yessotoxin (YTX) on the skeletal muscle: an update.

    PubMed

    Tubaro, A; Bandi, E; Sosa, S; Soranzo, M R; Giangaspero, A; De Ninis, V; Yasumoto, T; Lorenzon, P

    2008-09-01

    Yessotoxins (YTXs) are algal toxins originally included in the diarrheic toxins. After oral intake, YTXs induce only ultra-structural changes (packages of swollen mitochondria) in cardiac cells. The aim of this study was to investigate the possible effects of YTX on the other contractile striated tissue, the skeletal muscle, in vitro and in vivo. In vitro, in skeletal mouse myotubes, YTX (0.01-1.0 microM) influenced cell excitability in a concentration- and time-dependent way. In the in vivo study, transmission electron microscopy analysis did not reveal any ultrastructural alteration of skeletal muscle after acute (1 mg kg(-1)) or repeated (1 and 2mg kg(-1) day(-1), for 7 days) oral administration of YTX to mice. The observation that effects were detected in vitro but not in vivo supports the hypothesis of a low YTX bioavailability to skeletal muscle after oral intake. Therefore, the results seem to exclude a toxic effect in skeletal muscle when YTX is consumed as a food contaminant.

  6. Suppression of macrophage functions impairs skeletal muscle regeneration with severe fibrosis

    SciTech Connect

    Segawa, Masashi; Fukada, So-ichiro Yamamoto, Yukiko; Yahagi, Hiroshi; Kanematsu, Masanori; Sato, Masaki; Ito, Takahito; Uezumi, Akiyoshi; Hayashi, Shin'ichi; Miyagoe-Suzuki, Yuko; Takeda, Shin'ichi; Tsujikawa, Kazutake; Yamamoto, Hiroshi

    2008-10-15

    When damaged, skeletal muscle regenerates. In the early phases of regeneration, inflammatory cells such as neutrophils/granulocytes and macrophages infiltrate damaged muscle tissue. To reveal the roles of macrophages during skeletal muscle regeneration, we injected an antibody, AFS98 that blocks the binding of M-CSF to its receptor into normal mice that received muscle damages. Anti-M-CSF receptor administration suppressed macrophage but not neutrophil infiltration. Histological study indicated that suppression of macrophages function leads to the incomplete muscle regeneration. In addition FACS and immunohistochemical study showed that the acute lack of macrophages delayed proliferation and differentiation of muscle satellite cells in vivo. Furthermore, mice injected with the anti-M-CSF receptor antibody exhibited not only adipogenesis, but also significant collagen deposition, i.e., fibrosis and continuous high expression of connective tissue growth factor. Finally we indicate that these fibrosis markers were strongly enriched in CD90(+) cells that do not include myogenic cells. These results indicate that macrophages directly affect satellite cell proliferation and that a macrophage deficiency severely impairs skeletal muscle regeneration and causes fibrosis.

  7. Skeletal Muscle Laminopathies: A Review of Clinical and Molecular Features

    PubMed Central

    Maggi, Lorenzo; Carboni, Nicola; Bernasconi, Pia

    2016-01-01

    LMNA-related disorders are caused by mutations in the LMNA gene, which encodes for the nuclear envelope proteins, lamin A and C, via alternative splicing. Laminopathies are associated with a wide range of disease phenotypes, including neuromuscular, cardiac, metabolic disorders and premature aging syndromes. The most frequent diseases associated with mutations in the LMNA gene are characterized by skeletal and cardiac muscle involvement. This review will focus on genetics and clinical features of laminopathies affecting primarily skeletal muscle. Although only symptomatic treatment is available for these patients, many achievements have been made in clarifying the pathogenesis and improving the management of these diseases. PMID:27529282

  8. Proteogenomic Analysis of a Hibernating Mammal Indicates Contribution of Skeletal Muscle Physiology to the Hibernation Phenotype.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Kyle J; Vermillion, Katie L; Jagtap, Pratik; Johnson, James E; Griffin, Timothy J; Andrews, Matthew T

    2016-04-01

    Mammalian hibernation is a strategy employed by many species to survive fluctuations in resource availability and environmental conditions. Hibernating mammals endure conditions of dramatically depressed heart rate, body temperature, and oxygen consumption yet do not show the typical pathological response. Because of the high abundance and metabolic cost of skeletal muscle, not only must it adjust to the constraints of hibernation, but also it is positioned to play a more active role in the initiation and maintenance of the hibernation phenotype. In this study, MS/MS proteomic data from thirteen-lined ground squirrel skeletal muscles were searched against a custom database of transcriptomic and genomic protein predictions built using the platform Galaxy-P. This proteogenomic approach allows for a thorough investigation of skeletal muscle protein abundance throughout their circannual cycle. Of the 1563 proteins identified by these methods, 232 were differentially expressed. These data support previously reported physiological transitions, while also offering new insight into specific mechanisms of how their muscles might be reducing nitrogenous waste, preserving mass and function, and signaling to other tissues. Additionally, the combination of proteomic and transcriptomic data provides unique opportunities for estimating post-transcriptional regulation in skeletal muscle throughout the year and improving genomic annotation for this nonmodel organism.

  9. Skeletal Muscle Remodelling as a Function of Disease Progression in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, L.; Jørgensen, L. H.; Bech, R. D.; Frandsen, U.; Schrøder, H. D.

    2016-01-01

    Muscle weakness is considered the pivotal sign of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Knowledge about the skeletal muscle degeneration/regeneration process and the myogenic potential is limited in ALS patients. Therefore, we investigate these processes in a time course perspective by analysing skeletal muscle biopsies from ALS patients collected before and after a 12-week period of normal daily activities and compare these with healthy age-matched control tissue. We do this by evaluating mRNA and protein (immunohistochemical) markers of regeneration, neurodegeneration, myogenesis, cell cycle regulation, and inflammation. Our results show morphological changes indicative of active denervation and reinnervation and an increase in small atrophic fibres. We demonstrate differences between ALS and controls in pathways controlling skeletal muscle homeostasis, cytoskeletal and regenerative markers, neurodegenerative factors, myogenic factors, cell cycle determinants, and inflammatory markers. Our results on Pax7 and MyoD protein expression suggest that proliferation and differentiation of skeletal muscle stem cells are affected in ALS patients, and the myogenic processes cannot overcome the denervation-induced wasting. PMID:27195289

  10. Skeletal muscle metabolism in hypokinetic rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tischler, M. E.

    1984-01-01

    Muscle growth, protein metabolism, and amino acid metabolism were studied in various groups of rats. Certain groups were adrenaliectomized; some rats were suspended while others (the controls) were weight bearing. Results show that: (1) metabolic changes in the extensor digitorum longus muscle of suspended rats are due primarily to increased circulating glucocorticoids; (2) metabolic changes in the soleus muscle due to higher steroid levels are probably potentiated by greater numbers of steroid receptors; and (3) not all metabolic responses of the soleus muscle to unloading are due to the elevated levels of glucocorticoids or the increased sensitivity of this muscle to these hormones.

  11. Systems-based discovery of tomatidine as a natural small molecule inhibitor of skeletal muscle atrophy.

    PubMed

    Dyle, Michael C; Ebert, Scott M; Cook, Daniel P; Kunkel, Steven D; Fox, Daniel K; Bongers, Kale S; Bullard, Steven A; Dierdorff, Jason M; Adams, Christopher M

    2014-05-23

    Skeletal muscle atrophy is a common and debilitating condition that lacks an effective therapy. To address this problem, we used a systems-based discovery strategy to search for a small molecule whose mRNA expression signature negatively correlates to mRNA expression signatures of human skeletal muscle atrophy. This strategy identified a natural small molecule from tomato plants, tomatidine. Using cultured skeletal myotubes from both humans and mice, we found that tomatidine stimulated mTORC1 signaling and anabolism, leading to accumulation of protein and mitochondria, and ultimately, cell growth. Furthermore, in mice, tomatidine increased skeletal muscle mTORC1 signaling, reduced skeletal muscle atrophy, enhanced recovery from skeletal muscle atrophy, stimulated skeletal muscle hypertrophy, and increased strength and exercise capacity. Collectively, these results identify tomatidine as a novel small molecule inhibitor of muscle atrophy. Tomatidine may have utility as a therapeutic agent or lead compound for skeletal muscle atrophy.

  12. Systems-based Discovery of Tomatidine as a Natural Small Molecule Inhibitor of Skeletal Muscle Atrophy*

    PubMed Central

    Dyle, Michael C.; Ebert, Scott M.; Cook, Daniel P.; Kunkel, Steven D.; Fox, Daniel K.; Bongers, Kale S.; Bullard, Steven A.; Dierdorff, Jason M.; Adams, Christopher M.

    2014-01-01

    Skeletal muscle atrophy is a common and debilitating condition that lacks an effective therapy. To address this problem, we used a systems-based discovery strategy to search for a small molecule whose mRNA expression signature negatively correlates to mRNA expression signatures of human skeletal muscle atrophy. This strategy identified a natural small molecule from tomato plants, tomatidine. Using cultured skeletal myotubes from both humans and mice, we found that tomatidine stimulated mTORC1 signaling and anabolism, leading to accumulation of protein and mitochondria, and ultimately, cell growth. Furthermore, in mice, tomatidine increased skeletal muscle mTORC1 signaling, reduced skeletal muscle atrophy, enhanced recovery from skeletal muscle atrophy, stimulated skeletal muscle hypertrophy, and increased strength and exercise capacity. Collectively, these results identify tomatidine as a novel small molecule inhibitor of muscle atrophy. Tomatidine may have utility as a therapeutic agent or lead compound for skeletal muscle atrophy. PMID:24719321

  13. Maternal nutrient restriction affects properties of skeletal muscle in offspring

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Mei J; Ford, Stephen P; Means, Warrie J; Hess, Bret W; Nathanielsz, Peter W; Du, Min

    2006-01-01

    Maternal nutrient restriction (NR) affects fetal development with long-term consequences on postnatal health of offspring, including predisposition to obesity and diabetes. Most studies have been conducted in fetuses in late gestation, and little information is available on the persistent impact of NR from early to mid-gestation on properties of offspring skeletal muscle, which was the aim of this study. Pregnant ewes were subjected to 50% NR from day 28–78 of gestation and allowed to deliver. The longissimus dorsi muscle was sampled from 8-month-old offspring. Maternal NR during early to mid-gestation decreased the number of myofibres in the offspring and increased the ratio of myosin IIb to other isoforms by 17.6 ± 4.9% (P < 0.05) compared with offspring of ad libitum fed ewes. Activity of carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1, a key enzyme controlling fatty acid oxidation, was reduced by 24.7 ± 4.5% (P < 0.05) in skeletal muscle of offspring of NR ewes and would contribute to increased fat accumulation observed in offspring of NR ewes. Intramuscular triglyceride content (IMTG) was increased in skeletal muscle of NR lambs, a finding which may be linked to predisposition to diabetes in offspring of NR mothers, since enhanced IMTG predisposes to insulin resistance in skeletal muscle. Proteomic analysis by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis demonstrated downregulation of several catabolic enzymes in 8-month-old offspring of NR ewes. These data demonstrate that the early to mid-gestation period is important for skeletal muscle development. Impaired muscle development during this stage of gestation affects the number and composition of fibres in offspring which may lead to long-term physiological consequences, including predisposition to obesity and diabetes. PMID:16763001

  14. Maintenance of skeletal muscle intracellular glutamine during standard surgical trauma.

    PubMed

    Kapadia, C R; Colpoys, M F; Jiang, Z M; Johnson, D J; Smith, R J; Wilmore, D W

    1985-01-01

    Skeletal muscle glutamine (GLN) concentration falls following injury and infection. In an attempt to prevent this decline and to characterize its influence on the efflux of amino acid (AA) from skeletal muscle, we administered varying quantities of AA (0,2, and 4 g/kg X day) as saline or AA solutions with or without GLN enrichment to 22 postoperative dogs. Plasma and muscle AA were determined before and 24 hr after standard laparotomy. Hindquarter AA efflux was measured at 6 and 24 hr. Skeletal muscle nitrogen declined in saline controls (69.8 +/- 8.5 vs 52.8 +/- 8.4 mmol/liter; p less than 0.01), largely due to the fall in intracellular GLN (21.48 +/- 3.21 vs 15.86 +/- 3.80; p less than 0.05). Similar alterations were seen in the animals receiving 2 g/kg. However, both intracellular nitrogen and GLN were maintained in animals receiving 4 g/kg, whether the AA solutions contained GLN or not (skeletal muscle nitrogen before 64.3 +/- 8.6 mmol/l vs 65.4 +/- 7.0 after, GLN 19.2 +/- 3.4 vs 19.9 +/- 3.0). Hindquarter AA efflux was reduced in those animals at 6 hr compared with saline-treated animals (-6.52 +/- 1.8 and -7.70 +/- 5.90 vs -19.05 +/- 4.06 mumol/kg X min; p less than 0.05). Intracellular GLN can be maintained during operative stress with adequate nitrogen infusion. Replacing 50% of the balanced AA solution with GLN resulted in equally effective maintenance of intracellular GLN levels and a comparable reduction in skeletal muscle AA efflux. Preservation of normal intracellular GLN levels with adequate AA nutrition may be essential for the conservation of muscle protein.

  15. Cholinergic neurons regulate secretion of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor by skeletal muscle cells in culture.

    PubMed

    Vianney, John-Mary; Spitsbergen, John M

    2011-05-16

    Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) has been identified as a potent survival factor for both central and peripheral neurons. GDNF has been shown to be a potent survival factor for motor neurons during programmed cell death and continuous treatment with GDNF maintains hyperinnervation of skeletal muscle in adulthood. However, little is known about factors regulating normal production of endogenous GDNF in skeletal muscle. This study aimed to examine the role that motor neurons play in regulating GDNF secretion by skeletal muscle. A co-culture of skeletal muscle cells (C2C12) and cholinergic neurons, glioma×neuroblastoma hybrid cells (NG108-15) were used to create nerve-muscle interactions in vitro. Acetylcholine receptors (AChRs) on nerve-myotube co-cultures were blocked with alpha-bungarotoxin (α-BTX). GDNF protein content in cells and in culture medium was analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA) and western blotting. GDNF localization was examined by immunocytochemistry. The nerve-muscle co-culture study indicated that the addition of motor neurons to skeletal muscle cells reduced the secretion of GDNF by skeletal muscle. The results also showed that blocking AChRs with α-BTX reversed the action of neural cells on GDNF secretion by skeletal muscle. Although ELISA results showed no GDNF in differentiated NG108-15 cells grown alone, immunocytochemical analysis showed that GDNF was localized in NG108-15 cells co-cultured with C2C12 myotubes. These results suggest that motor neurons may be regulating their own supply of GDNF secreted by skeletal muscle and that activation of AChRs may be involved in this process.

  16. Altered cross-bridge properties in skeletal muscle dystrophies

    PubMed Central

    Guellich, Aziz; Negroni, Elisa; Decostre, Valérie; Demoule, Alexandre; Coirault, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    Force and motion generated by skeletal muscle ultimately depends on the cyclical interaction of actin with myosin. This mechanical process is regulated by intracellular Ca2+ through the thin filament-associated regulatory proteins i.e.; troponins and tropomyosin. Muscular dystrophies are a group of heterogeneous genetic affections characterized by progressive degeneration and weakness of the skeletal muscle as a consequence of loss of muscle tissue which directly reduces the number of potential myosin cross-bridges involved in force production. Mutations in genes responsible for skeletal muscle dystrophies (MDs) have been shown to modify the function of contractile proteins and cross-bridge interactions. Altered gene expression or RNA splicing or post-translational modifications of contractile proteins such as those related to oxidative stress, may affect cross-bridge function by modifying key proteins of the excitation-contraction coupling. Micro-architectural change in myofilament is another mechanism of altered cross-bridge performance. In this review, we provide an overview about changes in cross-bridge performance in skeletal MDs and discuss their ultimate impacts on striated muscle function. PMID:25352808

  17. Altered cross-bridge properties in skeletal muscle dystrophies.

    PubMed

    Guellich, Aziz; Negroni, Elisa; Decostre, Valérie; Demoule, Alexandre; Coirault, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    Force and motion generated by skeletal muscle ultimately depends on the cyclical interaction of actin with myosin. This mechanical process is regulated by intracellular Ca(2+) through the thin filament-associated regulatory proteins i.e.; troponins and tropomyosin. Muscular dystrophies are a group of heterogeneous genetic affections characterized by progressive degeneration and weakness of the skeletal muscle as a consequence of loss of muscle tissue which directly reduces the number of potential myosin cross-bridges involved in force production. Mutations in genes responsible for skeletal muscle dystrophies (MDs) have been shown to modify the function of contractile proteins and cross-bridge interactions. Altered gene expression or RNA splicing or post-translational modifications of contractile proteins such as those related to oxidative stress, may affect cross-bridge function by modifying key proteins of the excitation-contraction coupling. Micro-architectural change in myofilament is another mechanism of altered cross-bridge performance. In this review, we provide an overview about changes in cross-bridge performance in skeletal MDs and discuss their ultimate impacts on striated muscle function.

  18. Road to exercise mimetics: targeting nuclear receptors in skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Fan, Weiwei; Atkins, Annette R; Yu, Ruth T; Downes, Michael; Evans, Ronald M

    2013-12-01

    Skeletal muscle is the largest organ in the human body and is the major site for energy expenditure. It exhibits remarkable plasticity in response to physiological stimuli such as exercise. Physical exercise remodels skeletal muscle and enhances its capability to burn calories, which has been shown to be beneficial for many clinical conditions including the metabolic syndrome and cancer. Nuclear receptors (NRs) comprise a class of transcription factors found only in metazoans that regulate major biological processes such as reproduction, development, and metabolism. Recent studies have demonstrated crucial roles for NRs and their co-regulators in the regulation of skeletal muscle energy metabolism and exercise-induced muscle remodeling. While nothing can fully replace exercise, development of exercise mimetics that enhance or even substitute for the beneficial effects of physical exercise would be of great benefit. The unique property of NRs that allows modulation by endogenous or synthetic ligands makes them bona fide therapeutic targets. In this review, we present an overview of the current understanding of the role of NRs and their co-regulators in skeletal muscle oxidative metabolism and summarize recent progress in the development of exercise mimetics that target NRs and their co-regulators.

  19. Regulation of skeletal muscle stem cells by fibroblast growth factors.

    PubMed

    Pawlikowski, Bradley; Vogler, Thomas Orion; Gadek, Katherine; Olwin, Bradley B

    2017-03-01

    Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) are essential for self-renewal of skeletal muscle stem cells (satellite cells) and required for maintenance and repair of skeletal muscle. Satellite cells express high levels of FGF receptors 1 and 4, low levels of FGF receptor 3, and little or no detectable FGF receptor 2. Of the multiple FGFs that influence satellite cell function in culture, FGF2 and FGF6 are the only members that regulate satellite cell function in vivo by activating ERK MAPK, p38α/β MAPKs, PI3 kinase, PLCγ and STATs. Regulation of FGF signaling is complex in satellite cells, requiring Syndecan-4, a heparan sulfate proteoglycan, as well as ß1-integrin and fibronectin. During aging, reduced responsiveness to FGF diminishes satellite cell self-renewal, leading to impaired skeletal muscle regeneration and depletion of satellite cells. Mislocalization of ß1-integrin, reductions in fibronectin, and alterations in heparan sulfate content all contribute to reduced FGF responsiveness in satellite cells. How these cell surface proteins regulate satellite cell self-renewal is incompletely understood. Here we summarize the current knowledge, highlighting the role(s) for FGF signaling in skeletal muscle regeneration, satellite cell behavior, and age-induced muscle wasting. Developmental Dynamics, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Characteristics of locomotion, muscle strength, and muscle tissue in regenerating rat skeletal muscles.

    PubMed

    Iwata, Akira; Fuchioka, Satoshi; Hiraoka, Koichi; Masuhara, Mitsuhiko; Kami, Katsuya

    2010-05-01

    Although numerous studies have aimed to elucidate the mechanisms used to repair the structure and function of injured skeletal muscles, it remains unclear how and when movement recovers following damage. We performed a temporal analysis to characterize the changes in movement, muscle function, and muscle structure after muscle injury induced by the drop-mass technique. At each time-point, movement recovery was determined by ankle kinematic analysis of locomotion, and functional recovery was represented by isometric force. As a histological analysis, the cross-sectional area of myotubes was measured to examine structural regeneration. The dorsiflexion angle of the ankle, as assessed by kinematic analysis of locomotion, increased after injury and then returned to control levels by day 14 post-injury. The isometric force returned to normal levels by day 21 post-injury. However, the size of the myotubes did not reach normal levels, even at day 21 post-injury. These results indicate that recovery of locomotion occurs prior to recovery of isometric force and that functional recovery occurs earlier than structural regeneration. Thus, it is suggested that recovery of the movement and function of injured skeletal muscles might be insufficient as markers for estimating the degree of neuromuscular system reconstitution.

  1. Diffusion-Tensor MRI Based Skeletal Muscle Fiber Tracking.

    PubMed

    Damon, Bruce M; Buck, Amanda K W; Ding, Zhaohua

    2011-11-01

    A skeletal muscle's function is strongly influenced by the internal organization and geometric properties of its fibers, a property known as muscle architecture. Diffusion-tensor magnetic resonance imaging-based fiber tracking provides a powerful tool for non-invasive muscle architecture studies, has three-dimensional sensitivity, and uses a fixed frame of reference. Significant advances have been made in muscle fiber tracking technology, including defining seed points for fiber tracking, quantitatively characterizing muscle architecture, implementing denoising procedures, and testing validity and repeatability. Some examples exist of how these data can be integrated with those from other advanced MRI and computational methods to provide novel insights into muscle function. Perspectives are offered regarding future directions in muscle diffusion-tensor imaging, including needs to develop an improved understanding for the microstructural basis for reduced and anisotropic diffusion, establish the best practices for data acquisition and analysis, and integrate fiber tracking with other physiological data.

  2. Human skeletal muscle responses to spaceflight and possible countermeasures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gollnick, Philip D.; Edgerton, V. Reggie; Saltin, Bengt

    1990-01-01

    The current status of knowledge concerning the effects of unweighting skeletal muscle is summarized. The results of both ground-based and space-based animal studies are reviewed which show that there is rapid loss in muscle mass, primarily in slow-twitch muscle, of the rat during unweighting of muscle. There is also a shift in the myosin isoforms with muscles such that slow-twitch muscles take on many of the characteristics of fast-twitch muscles. Ground-based studies in human suggest that programs of electrical stimulation can be developed to simulate normal muscular contractions. Attempts to develop countermeasures to the adverse effects of space travel on muscular functions in humans have not been successful to date.

  3. Parvalbumin gene transfer impairs skeletal muscle contractility in old mice.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Kate T; Ham, Daniel J; Church, Jarrod E; Naim, Timur; Trieu, Jennifer; Williams, David A; Lynch, Gordon S

    2012-08-01

    Sarcopenia is the progressive age-related loss of skeletal muscle mass associated with functional impairments that reduce mobility and quality of life. Overt muscle wasting with sarcopenia is usually preceded by a slowing of the rate of relaxation and a reduction in maximum force production. Parvalbumin (PV) is a cytosolic Ca(2+) buffer thought to facilitate relaxation in muscle. We tested the hypothesis that restoration of PV levels in muscles of old mice would increase the magnitude and hasten relaxation of submaximal and maximal force responses. The tibialis anterior (TA) muscles of young (6 month), adult (13 month), and old (26 month) C57BL/6 mice received electroporation-assisted gene transfer of plasmid encoding PV or empty plasmid (pcDNA3.1). Contractile properties of TA muscles were assessed in situ 14 days after transfer. In old mice, mu