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Sample records for differentiated thyroid carcinomas

  1. Etiopathogenesis of Differentiated Thyroid Carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Makazlieva, Tanja; Vaskova, Olivija; Majstorov, Venjamin

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Thyroid malignomas are a heterogeneous group of neoplasm consisting of most frequent differentiated encountered carcinomas, papillary and follicular thyroid carcinoma, then medullary thyroid carcinoma originating from neuroendocrine calcitonin-producing C-cells and rare forms of thyroid lymphomas arising from intrathyroidal lymphatic tissue, thyroid sarcomas and poorly differentiated anaplastic thyroid carcinoma. There are increasing numbers of epidemiological studies and publications that have suggested increased incidence rate of thyroid carcinomas. We have read, analysed and compare available reviews and original articles investigating different etiological factors in the development of thyroid carcinomas through Google Scholar and PubMed Database. DISCUSSION: Aetiology involved in the development of thyroid carcinomas is multifactorial and includes external influences, as well as constitutional predispositions and genetic etiological factors. The actual effect of environmental and constitutional factors is on promoting genetic and epigenetic alterations which result in cell proliferation and oncogenesis. Until now are identified numerous genetic alterations, assumed to have an important role in oncogenesis, with MAPK and PI3K-AKT as crucial signalling networks regulating growth, proliferation, differentiation and cell survival/apoptosis. CONCLUSION: This new molecular insight could have a crucial impact on diagnosis and also on improving and selecting an appropriate treatment to the patients with thyroid malignancies. PMID:27703585

  2. Laryngeal involvement by differentiated thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Zbären, Peter; Nuyens, Michel; Thoeny, Harriet C; Stauffer, Edouard

    2005-07-01

    Invasion of the larynx by differentiated thyroid gland carcinoma is uncommon but causes serious morbidity and mortality when present. The clinicopathologic characteristics of 5 patients in which a total laryngectomy had to be performed for differentiated thyroid carcinoma are analyzed. Special reference is paid to the histologic intralaryngeal tumor spread, which is evaluated on whole-organ section. All patients presented with hoarseness and/or dyspnea. Two patients are alive at 44 and 115 months. One patient died of intercurrent disease 2 months and 2 patients with disease 6 and 14 months after surgery. In all cases, intralaryngeal tumor spread was observed. Invasion of the larynx occurs by direct extension or by posterior tumor growth around the edge of the thyroid cartilage. In rare cases, differentiated thyroid carcinoma can widely infiltrate the larynx, making total laryngectomy unavoidable. The diagnosis of intralaryngeal tumor spread is done by imaging and endoscopy.

  3. Radiofrequency ablation for postsurgical thyroid removal of differentiated thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Xu, Dong; Wang, Lipin; Long, Bin; Ye, Xuemei; Ge, Minghua; Wang, Kejing; Guo, Liang; Li, Linfa

    2016-01-01

    Differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) is the most common endocrine malignancy. Surgical removal with radioactive iodine therapy is recommended for recurrent thyroid carcinoma, and the postsurgical thyroid removal is critical. This study evaluated the clinical values of radiofrequency ablation (RFA) in the postsurgical thyroid removal for DTC. 35 DTC patients who had been treated by subtotal thyroidectomy received RFA for postsurgical thyroid removal. Before and two weeks after RFA, the thyroid was examined by ultrasonography and (99m)TcO4 (-) thyroid imaging, and the serum levels of free triiodothyronine (FT3), free thyroxin (FT4), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and thyroglobulin (Tg) were detected. The efficacy and complications of RFA were evaluated. Results showed that, the postsurgical thyroid removal by RFA was successfully performed in 35 patients, with no significant complication. After RFA, the average largest diameter and volume were significantly decreased in 35 patients (P > 0.05), and no obvious contrast media was observed in ablation area in the majority of patients. After RFA, the serum FT3, FT4 and Tg levels were markedly decreased (P < 0.05), and TSH level was significantly increased (P < 0.05). After RFA, radioiodine concentration in the ablation area was significantly reduced in the majority of patients. The reduction rate of thyroid update was 0.69±0.20%. DTC staging and interval between surgery and RFA had negative correlation (Pearson coefficient = -0.543; P = 0.001), with no obvious correlation among others influential factors. RFA is an effective and safe method for postsurgical thyroid removal of DTC.

  4. Radiofrequency ablation for postsurgical thyroid removal of differentiated thyroid carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Dong; Wang, Lipin; Long, Bin; Ye, Xuemei; Ge, Minghua; Wang, Kejing; Guo, Liang; Li, Linfa

    2016-01-01

    Differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) is the most common endocrine malignancy. Surgical removal with radioactive iodine therapy is recommended for recurrent thyroid carcinoma, and the postsurgical thyroid removal is critical. This study evaluated the clinical values of radiofrequency ablation (RFA) in the postsurgical thyroid removal for DTC. 35 DTC patients who had been treated by subtotal thyroidectomy received RFA for postsurgical thyroid removal. Before and two weeks after RFA, the thyroid was examined by ultrasonography and 99mTcO4 - thyroid imaging, and the serum levels of free triiodothyronine (FT3), free thyroxin (FT4), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and thyroglobulin (Tg) were detected. The efficacy and complications of RFA were evaluated. Results showed that, the postsurgical thyroid removal by RFA was successfully performed in 35 patients, with no significant complication. After RFA, the average largest diameter and volume were significantly decreased in 35 patients (P > 0.05), and no obvious contrast media was observed in ablation area in the majority of patients. After RFA, the serum FT3, FT4 and Tg levels were markedly decreased (P < 0.05), and TSH level was significantly increased (P < 0.05). After RFA, radioiodine concentration in the ablation area was significantly reduced in the majority of patients. The reduction rate of thyroid update was 0.69±0.20%. DTC staging and interval between surgery and RFA had negative correlation (Pearson coefficient = -0.543; P = 0.001), with no obvious correlation among others influential factors. RFA is an effective and safe method for postsurgical thyroid removal of DTC. PMID:27186311

  5. Differentiated thyroid carcinomas in children and adolescents

    SciTech Connect

    Samuel, A.M.; Sharma, S.M. )

    1991-04-15

    An analysis of differentiated thyroid carcinomas in children and adolescents revealed that the incidence was 3.05% of total number of patients with differentiated thyroid cancers in all age groups. There was a female preponderance. The incidence of papillary, follicular and papillary with follicular elements was equal. There were no papillary carcinomas observed in children younger than 10 years. The predominant mode of presentation was a solitary nodule of thyroid and some of them had associated cervical adenopathy. A considerable number presented with only cervical adenopathy. The incidence of nodal metastases was 50% at time of presentation and lung involvement was present in 15% of children at the time of diagnosis. Radioiodine treatment was given in 70% of children. Ablation was achieved in 86% of patients given two doses of radioiodine (200 millicuries). The more resistant cases were those with lung and nodal metastases. There was complete ablation in 100% with only residual thyroid tissue, 83% in those with associated nodal metastases, and 57% in those with lung involvement. Average duration of follow-up was 10.3 years (range, 2 to 19 years). Recurrence rate or relapse was observed in 8.5% and was in the regional nodes. There was no recorded mortality due to the disease.

  6. Current management of differentiated thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Lupoli, Gelsy Arianna; Fonderico, Francesco; Colarusso, Sara; Panico, Annalisa; Cavallo, Annalisa; Di Micco, Lucia; Paglione, Angela; Costa, Luisa; Lupoli, Giovanni

    2005-12-01

    Papillary and follicular thyroid cancers, together termed differentiated thyroid cancers (DTC), comprise the majority of thyroid carcinomas and have an optimal prognosis. Most DTCs appear as asymptomatic thyroid nodules. Fine-needle aspiration (FNA) cytology is the first diagnostic test for a thyroid nodule in a euthyroid patient. Surgery is the primary treatment for thyroid cancers. Most clinicians recommend near-total or total thyroidectomy, and then 131I ablation therapy, since its consequences are minimal and follow-up is facilitated. A total body scan (TBS) is performed 4 to 7 days after 131I treatment. At a later stage, all patients should be treated with L-tiroxine so as to suppress TSH, and must undergo a periodic evaluation of TSH and thyroglobulin (Tg), the most sensitive and specific marker of DTC. After 6-12 months, TBS with 131I is performed, a technique complementary to serum Tg evaluation. For this technique, it is also necessary to have a high serum TSH concentration, obtained by withdrawing thyroxine therapy for 4 to 6 weeks. This standard method induces hypothyroidism. An alternative method to the withdrawal of thyroid hormones in the follow-up of DTC patients is to administer recombinant human TSH (rh-TSH). After the dose of rhTSH, 131I is administered, and then TBS can be performed 48-72 hours later. Currently, several authors have explored the possibility that rh-TSH-stimulated Tg levels may represent the only necessary test to differentiate patients with persistent disease from disease-free patients, without performing a diagnostic TBS.

  7. Recurrent well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Magarey, Matthew J R; Freeman, Jeremy L

    2013-07-01

    The incidence of Well-differentiated Thyroid Carcinoma (WDTC) has been increasing over the past several decades. Consequently, so has the incidence of recurrence, which ranges from 15% to 30%. Factors leading to increased risk of recurrence are well described. However, the impact of local and regional recurrence is not well understood, but distant recurrence dramatically reduces 10-year survival to 50%. Recurrent WDTC has several established options for treatment; Observation, Radioactive Iodine (RAI), Surgery and External Beam Radiotherapy (EBRT). Novel treatments such as radiofrequency ablation (RFA) and percutaneous ultrasound-guided ethanol injection (PUEI) are beginning to gain popularity and have promising early results. A review of the current literature, outcome measurements and a strategy for revision surgery within the central neck compartment are discussed within this manuscript.

  8. Genetic Alterations in Poorly Differentiated and Undifferentiated Thyroid Carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Soares, Paula; Lima, Jorge; Preto, Ana; Castro, Patricia; Vinagre, João; Celestino, Ricardo; Couto, Joana P; Prazeres, Hugo; Eloy, Catarina; Máximo, Valdemar; Sobrinho-Simões, M

    2011-01-01

    Thyroid gland presents a wide spectrum of tumours derived from follicular cells that range from well differentiated, papillary and follicular carcinoma (PTC and FTC, respectively), usually carrying a good prognosis, to the clinically aggressive, poorly differentiated (PDTC) and undifferentiated thyroid carcinoma (UTC). It is usually accepted that PDTC and UTC occur either de novo or progress from a pre-existing well differentiated carcinoma through a multistep process of genetic and epigenetic changes that lead to clonal expansion and neoplastic development. Mutations and epigenetic alterations in PDTC and UTC are far from being totally clarified. Assuming that PDTC and UTC may derive from well differentiated thyroid carcinomas (WDTC), it is expected that some PDTC and UTC would harbour genetic alterations that are typical of PTC and FTC. This is the case for some molecular markers (BRAF and NRAS) that are present in WDTC, PDTC and UTC. Other genes, namely P53, are almost exclusively detected in less differentiated and undifferentiated thyroid tumours, supporting a diagnosis of PDTC or, much more often, UTC. Thyroid-specific rearrangements RET/PTC and PAX8/PPARγ, on the other hand, are rarely found in PDTC and UTC, suggesting that these genetic alterations do not predispose cells to dedifferentiation. In the present review we have summarized the molecular changes associated with the two most aggressive types of thyroid cancer. PMID:22654560

  9. Anaplastic carcinoma following well-differentiated thyroid cancer: etiological considerations.

    PubMed Central

    Kapp, D. S.; LiVolsi, V. A.; Sanders, M. M.

    1982-01-01

    Most cases of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma can be pathologically and often historically associated with the presence of low-grade (differentiated) cancer in the thyroid. That radiation therapy to the differentiated tumor plays an etiologic role in the transformation of a differentiated to an undifferentiated tumor has been suggested. If such therapy can be implicated, is there a difference in risk between external radiotherapy or radioactive iodine? Review of the literature discloses that more anaplastic carcinoma of the thyroid develop in patients without a history of prior radiation than in individuals who have received radiation. We report our recent experience with two patients who demonstrated the sequence of well-differentiated followed by anaplastic thyroid cancer subsequent to radiation and review the question. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 2 FIG. 3 FIG. 4 FIG. 5 PMID:7183024

  10. Approach to and treatment of differentiated thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Pacini, Furio; Castagna, Maria Grazia

    2012-03-01

    Thyroid cancer is the most common endocrine malignancy, although representing fewer than 1% of all human tumors. Differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) includes the papillary and follicular histotypes and their variants, accounting for more than 90% of all thyroid cancers. Given the changing presentation of DTC in the last years, the aim of DTC management is to ensure the most effective but least invasive treatment, and adequate follow-up for a disease that nowadays is mostly cured just with surgery and is rarely fatal. This review addresses the multiple steps of current management, based on previous assumptions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Radioactive Iodine Therapy of Differentiated Thyroid Carcinoma: Redesigning the Paradigm

    PubMed Central

    Goldsmith, Stanley J.

    2017-01-01

    Radioactive iodine therapy has evolved over the past 70 years from treatment of known metastatic thyroid carcinoma to include adjuvant use to decrease the incidence of recurrent disease and to ablation of normal remnant tissue following thyroidectomy, even for minimal tumor involvement. Advances in laboratory testing, development of drugs useful in radioiodine treatment, as well as advances in radiation detection and imaging instrumentation, have progressively improved the utility of radioiodine therapy of differentiated thyroid carcinoma. Guidelines have proliferated and they have become more detailed and complex. This trend is likely to continue as the science and technology involved increases in sophistication and efficacy. PMID:28117291

  12. Tumor aggressiveness risk factors in the differentiated thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Lukas, J; Hitnausova, B; Jiskra, J; Syrucek, M

    2016-01-01

    The differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) is the most frequent malignancy in endocrinology (95%). Our aim was to retrospectively compare risk factors of tumor aggressiveness and history of thyroid disease in patients with conventional DTC and differentiated thyroid microcarcinoma (DTMC). Retrospective analysis of 167 patients after total thyroidectomy with a histologically confirmed DTC, of which 83 patients with conventional DTC (> 1 cm) and 84 with DTMC (≤ 1 cm). The analyzed factors were tumor size, its aggressiveness (i.e. multifocal or bilateral occurrence, angioinvasion, extracapsular growth, presence of cervical lymph node metastases, distant metastases, and early local relapse) and medical history of thyroid diseases. In the DTMC group, there were 80/84 (95.2%) papillary carcinomas compared with 58/83 (69.9%) in the conventional DTC group (p=0.001). Patients with DTMC were significantly older than those with conventional DTC (p=0.006). In the conventional DTC group, there was a significantly higher occurrence of angioinvasion and extracapsular growth (p=0.001), cervical lymph node metastases (p=0.013), relapse (p=0.018), and distant metastases (p=0.007), compared with the DTMC group. In patients with DTMC, there was a significantly lower presence of risk factors of tumor aggressiveness, compared with the conventional DTC group (Tab. 2, Ref. 17).

  13. Hobnail variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma: molecular profiling and comparison to classical papillary thyroid carcinoma, poorly differentiated thyroid carcinoma and anaplastic thyroid carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Teng, Lianghong; Deng, Wanglong; Lu, Junliang; Zhang, Jing; Ren, Xinyu; Duan, Huanli; Chuai, Shannon; Duan, Feidie; Gao, Wei; Lu, Tao; Wu, Huanwen; Liang, Zhiyong

    2017-01-01

    Background As a rare but aggressive papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) variant, the genetic changes of hobnail variant of PTC (HVPTC) are still unclear. Results The prevalence of HVPTC was 1.69% (18/1062) of all PTC diagnosed in our cohort. 73 samples from 55 patients (17 HVPTC, 26 CPTC, 7 PDTC and 5 ATC) were successfully analyzed using targeted NGS with an 18-gene panel. Thirty-seven mutation variant types were identified among 11 genes. BRAF V600E mutation was the most common mutation, which is present in almost all HVPTC samples (16/17, 94%), most CPTC samples (20/26, 77%), and none of the ATC and PDTC samples. TERT promoter mutation (C228T) was identified in 2 ATC and one HVPTC patient. RAS and TP53 mutation are almost exclusively present among ATC and PDTC samples although TP53 mutation was also observed in 3 HVPTC patients. Six different GNAS mutations were identified among 8 CPTC patients (31%) and none of the HVPTC patients. The only patient who died of disease progression harbored concomitant TERT C228T mutation, BRAF V600E mutation and TP53 mutation. Methods HVPTC cases were identified from a group of 1062 consecutive surgical specimens diagnosed as PTC between 2000 and 2010. Targeted next-generation sequencing (NGS) was applied to investigate the mutation spectrum of HVPTC, compared to classical PTC (CPTC), poorly differentiated thyroid carcinoma (PDTC) and anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC). Conclusion As an aggressive variant of PTC, HVPTC has relatively specific molecular features, which is somewhat different from both CPTC and ATC/PDTC and may underlie its relatively aggressive behavior. PMID:28423545

  14. Hobnail variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma: molecular profiling and comparison to classical papillary thyroid carcinoma, poorly differentiated thyroid carcinoma and anaplastic thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Teng, Lianghong; Deng, Wanglong; Lu, Junliang; Zhang, Jing; Ren, Xinyu; Duan, Huanli; Chuai, Shannon; Duan, Feidie; Gao, Wei; Lu, Tao; Wu, Huanwen; Liang, Zhiyong

    2017-03-28

    As a rare but aggressive papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) variant, the genetic changes of hobnail variant of PTC (HVPTC) are still unclear. The prevalence of HVPTC was 1.69% (18/1062) of all PTC diagnosed in our cohort. 73 samples from 55 patients (17 HVPTC, 26 CPTC, 7 PDTC and 5 ATC) were successfully analyzed using targeted NGS with an 18-gene panel. Thirty-seven mutation variant types were identified among 11 genes. BRAF V600E mutation was the most common mutation, which is present in almost all HVPTC samples (16/17, 94%), most CPTC samples (20/26, 77%), and none of the ATC and PDTC samples. TERT promoter mutation (C228T) was identified in 2 ATC and one HVPTC patient. RAS and TP53 mutation are almost exclusively present among ATC and PDTC samples although TP53 mutation was also observed in 3 HVPTC patients. Six different GNAS mutations were identified among 8 CPTC patients (31%) and none of the HVPTC patients. The only patient who died of disease progression harbored concomitant TERT C228T mutation, BRAF V600E mutation and TP53 mutation. HVPTC cases were identified from a group of 1062 consecutive surgical specimens diagnosed as PTC between 2000 and 2010. Targeted next-generation sequencing (NGS) was applied to investigate the mutation spectrum of HVPTC, compared to classical PTC (CPTC), poorly differentiated thyroid carcinoma (PDTC) and anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC). As an aggressive variant of PTC, HVPTC has relatively specific molecular features, which is somewhat different from both CPTC and ATC/PDTC and may underlie its relatively aggressive behavior.

  15. Contemporary Management of Recurrent Nodal Disease in Differentiated Thyroid Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Na’ara, Shorook; Amit, Moran; Fridman, Eran; Gil, Ziv

    2016-01-01

    Differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) comprises over 90% of thyroid tumors and includes papillary and follicular carcinomas. Patients with DTC have an excellent prognosis, with a 10-year survival rate of over 90%. However, the risk of recurrent tumor ranges between 5% and 30% within 10 years of the initial diagnosis. Cervical lymph node disease accounts for the majority of recurrences and in most cases is detected during follow-up by ultrasound or elevated levels of serum thyroglobulin. Recurrent disease is accompanied by increased morbidity. The mainstay of treatment of nodal recurrence is surgical management. We provide an overview of the literature addressing surgical management of recurrent or persistent lymph node disease in patients with DTC. PMID:26886954

  16. Value of distinguishing differentiated thyroid carcinoma by miRNA

    PubMed Central

    XU, JIANLIN; ZHANG, DING; NIU, QIAN; NAN, YONGGANG; SHI, CHANGBEI; ZHAO, HUA; LIANG, XIAOYAN

    2016-01-01

    Current methods for diagnosing thyroid carcinoma are time consuming or expensive. Thus, alternative approaches are required. In the present study, microRNAs (miRNAs) with higher sensitivity and specificity were screened while distinguishing between differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) and subtype papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). A total of 120 cases suspected of having thyroid carcinoma were selected and examined using clinical color Doppler ultrasound, and computed tomography scan at the same time. The tissue specimens were obtained with fine needle aspiration, multiphase biopsy and surgical resection. The expression of miR146b, miR221 and miR222 was detected uisng the RT-quantitative polymerase chain reaction method. The receiver operating characteristic curve was used to obtain the cut-off value. Pathological examination identified 8 cases of normal thyroid tissue; 9 cases of hyperplastic nodules; 12 cases of thyroid adenoma; and 91 cases of thyroid carcinoma, of which 59 cases were DTC, 15 cases were follicular carcinoma and 17 cases were undifferentiated carcinoma. In the thyroid carcinoma, the expression levels of miR146b, miR221 and miR222 were significantly higher than those of other tissues (P<0.05). The expression levels of these miRNAs in the differentiated type were also significantly higher than those in the undifferentiated type (P<0.05). A comparison of the differentiated subunit identified no statistically significant difference (P>0.05). Following diagnosis of DTC, the area under curve (AUC) of miR146b, miR221 and miR222 was 0.832, 0.806 and 0.745, respectively; the cut-off values were 1.346, 1.213 and 1.425, respectively; susceptibility was 72.8, 71.5 and 68.7%, respectively; and specificity was 62.3, 60.9 and 59.3%, respectively. The AUC of the combined miR-146b and −221 following diagnosis of PTC was 0.695; the cut-off values were 1.506 and 1.462, respectively; susceptibility was 78.9%; and specificity was 68.5%. The AUC of the combined mi

  17. Cytomorphologic overlap of differentiated thyroid carcinoma and lung adenocarcinoma and diagnostic value of TTF-1 and TGB on cytologic material.

    PubMed

    Sathiyamoorthy, Srividya; Maleki, Zahra

    2014-01-01

    Thyroid carcinomas and lung adenocarcinoma share cytomorphological features yet have different prognoses. Thyroid Transcription Factor-1 (TTF-1) is an immunohistochemical (IHC) marker used to confirm pulmonary and thyroid carcinoma, while Thyroglobulin (TGB) is expressed by thyroid carcinoma. The cytopathology archive of The Johns Hopkins Hospital was searched for cases of lung adenocarcinoma versus thyroid carcinoma with TTF-1 and TGB IHC. Forty-four cases of lung adenocarcinoma (25) and thyroid carcinoma (19) were retrieved. One was metastatic lung adenocarcinoma to the thyroid and three were metastatic papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) to the lung. The initial interpretation of two cases from bony lesions was metastatic lung adenocarcinoma. In light of additional clinical information and TGB immunostain, the diagnoses of these two cases changed to metastatic thyroid carcinoma. TTF-1 and TGB is a small immunostain panel that can differentiate lung adenocarcinoma from thyroid carcinoma and prevent misdiagnosis and its consequences. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. [Lymph node dissection in non-medullary differentiated thyroid carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Mathonnet, M

    2006-01-01

    Papillary and follicular thyroid carcinomas are the most common form of endocrine carcinomas. Lymph node involvement seems to be a low risk factor for death, but it increases the risk for loco-regional recurrences and distant metastasis. The limits and the key points of the cervical lymph node dissection are described. The sentinel lymph node is used to rarely, so it could limit the lymph dissection. Node-picking has to be avoided. Central lymph node resection is recommended for high-risk patients, as male, patients more than 45 or less than 21 years old, papillary carcinomas greater than 1 cm or follicular carcinoma more than 2 cm in diameter. Lateral lymph node resection is performed when the lymph nodes of the central compartment are involved, more than 3 cm in diameter, and bulked. Prophylactic lymphadenectomy is useless. When thyroid carcinoma is known postoperatively, re-operation depends of the cervical mass and of the results of the radioactive iodine treatment.

  19. [Medullary thyroid carcinoma and other rare types of thyroid carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Obara, Takao

    2007-11-01

    Among 4 major traditional groups of thyroid carcinoma, papillary and follicular carcinomas are most common, and other forms, anaplastic and medullary carcinomas, are relatively rare. The 2003 WHO histological classification of thyroid tumor separated 7 other malignant thyroid tumors into distinct pathological entities, such as poorly differentiated, squamous cell, mucinous carcinomas, carcinoma showing thymus-like differentiation (CASTLE), etc. Although they are also extremely rare, recognition of their clinicopathologic features are very important. In this review, not only diagnostic and therapeutic strategies for the rare forms of thyroid carcinomas, specifically focussed on medullary carcinoma and CASTLE, but also their histogenetic abnormalities were discussed.

  20. Differentiated thyroid carcinoma as a cause of cervical spinal injury.

    PubMed

    Masmiquel, L; Simó, R; Galofré, P; Mesa, J

    1995-01-01

    Cervical cord compression due to local extension of differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) is an extremely rare condition and, to our knowledge, only one case has been reported in the literature. Among 256 patients with DTC treated at our hospital, we have observed 3 cases of spinal injury due to local extension of DTC. A Brown-Séquard syndrome was detected at physical examination in 2 cases. In both patients, cervical cord compression precipitated a fatal event. In the remaining patient, a radiculopathy C5-C7 was observed. Magnetic resonance imaging was very successful in outlining the mass, clearly differentiating the extrinsic invasion from a metastasis, and allowing the surgical possibilities to be evaluated. Poor cervical uptake of 131I was observed on scans performed in two cases, suggesting a certain degree of cell dedifferentiation. We suggest that cervical spinal injury due to local extension of DTC may be an underreported complication of DTC that seems to condition the patient's outcome. Careful neurological examination is warranted in patients with DTC at stages III-IV and magnetic resonance imaging must be performed when spinal injury is suspected.

  1. [Prognosis and long-term results of treatment of patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Sedov, V M; Khmelevskaia, V A

    2011-01-01

    Results of treatment of 67 patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma were analyzed. Pathological changes in the thyroid residue structure were found in 42.3% of patients after subtotal resection of the thyroid gland (SRTG), 38.8% of the total number of patients were given inadequate suppressive therapy. Only 63.4% of women with thyroid carcinoma were found to have pathology of organs of the reproductive system. SRTG is thought to be an unreasonable volume of operative treatment. For the determination of strategy of treatment it is expedient to use the systems of risk assessment of MACIS, TNM, Clinical Class (University of Chicago).

  2. Baseline and lifetime alcohol consumption and risk of differentiated thyroid carcinoma in the EPIC study

    PubMed Central

    Sen, Abhijit; Tsilidis, Konstantinos K; Allen, Naomi E; Rinaldi, Sabina; Appleby, Paul N; Almquist, Martin; Schmidt, Julie A; Dahm, Christina C; Overvad, Kim; Tjønneland, Anne; Rostgaard-Hansen, Agnetha L; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Baglietto, Laura; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Kühn, Tilman; Katze, Verena A; Boeing, Heiner; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Tsironis, Christos; Lagiou, Pagona; Palli, Domenico; Pala, Valeria; Panico, Salvatore; Tumino, Rosario; Vineis, Paolo; Bueno-de-Mesquita, HB(as); Peeters, Petra H; Hjartåker, Anette; Lund, Eiliv; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Quirós, J Ramón; Agudo, Antonio; Sánchez, María- José; Arriola, Larraitz; Gavrila, Diana; Gurrea, Aurelio Barricarte; Tosovic, Ada; Hennings, Joakim; Sandström, Maria; Romieu, Isabelle; Ferrari, Pietro; Zamora-Ros, Raul; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nicholas J; Riboli, Elio; Gunter, Marc; Franceschi, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    Background: Results from several cohort and case–control studies suggest a protective association between current alcohol intake and risk of thyroid carcinoma, but the epidemiological evidence is not completely consistent and several questions remain unanswered. Methods: The association between alcohol consumption at recruitment and over the lifetime and risk of differentiated thyroid carcinoma was examined in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. Among 477 263 eligible participants (70% women), 556 (90% women) were diagnosed with differentiated thyroid carcinoma over a mean follow-up of 11 years. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using multivariable Cox proportional hazards models. Results: Compared with participants consuming 0.1–4.9 g of alcohol per day at recruitment, participants consuming 15 or more grams (approximately 1–1.5 drinks) had a 23% lower risk of differentiated thyroid carcinoma (HR=0.77; 95% CI=0.60–0.98). These findings did not differ greatly when analyses were conducted for lifetime alcohol consumption, although the risk estimates were attenuated and not statistically significant anymore. Similar results were observed by type of alcoholic beverage, by differentiated thyroid carcinoma histology or according to age, sex, smoking status, body mass index and diabetes. Conclusions: Our study provides some support to the hypothesis that moderate alcohol consumption may be associated with a lower risk of papillary and follicular thyroid carcinomas. PMID:26313664

  3. Lenvatinib in Advanced, Radioactive Iodine-Refractory, Differentiated Thyroid Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Yeung, Kay T; Cohen, Ezra E W

    2015-12-15

    Management options are limited for patients with radioactive iodine refractory, locally advanced, or metastatic differentiated thyroid carcinoma. Prior to 2015, sorafenib, a multitargeted tyrosine kinase inhibitor, was the only approved treatment and was associated with a median progression-free survival (PFS) of 11 months and overall response rate (ORR) of 12% in a phase III trial. Lenvatinib, a multikinase inhibitor with high potency against VEGFR and FGFR demonstrated encouraging results in phase II trials. Recently, the pivotal SELECT trial provided the basis for the FDA approval of lenvatinib as a second targeted therapy for these patients. Median PFS of 18.3 months in the lenvatinib group was significantly improved from 3.6 months in the placebo group, with an HR of 0.21 (95% confidence interval, 0.4-0.31; P < 0.0001). ORR was also significantly increased in the lenvatinib arm (64.7%) compared with placebo (1.5%). In this article, we will review the molecular mechanisms of lenvatinib, the data from preclinical studies to the recent phase III clinical trial, and the biomarkers being studied to further guide patient selection and predict treatment response.

  4. Molecular Pathogenesis and Targeted Therapies in Well-Differentiated Thyroid Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Four proto-oncogenes commonly associated with well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma, rearranged during transfection (RET)/papillary thyroid cancer, BRAF, RAS, and PAX8/peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-γ, may carry diagnostic and prognostic significance. These oncogenes can be used to improve the diagnosis and management of well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma. Limited therapeutic options are available for patients with metastatic well-differentiated thyroid cancer, necessitating the development of novel therapies. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)- and RET-directed therapies such as sorafenib, motesanib, and sunitinib have been shown to be the most effective at inducing clinical responses and stabilizing the disease process. Further clinical trials of these therapeutic agents may soon change the management of thyroid cancer. PMID:25309777

  5. Thyroid cancer - medullary carcinoma

    MedlinePlus

    Thyroid - medullary carcinoma; Cancer - thyroid (medullary carcinoma); MTC; Thyroid nodule - medullary ... in children and adults. Unlike other types of thyroid cancer, MTC is less likely to be caused by ...

  6. High prevalence of mutations of the p53 gene in poorly differentiated human thyroid carcinomas.

    PubMed Central

    Fagin, J A; Matsuo, K; Karmakar, A; Chen, D L; Tang, S H; Koeffler, H P

    1993-01-01

    The development and progression of thyroid tumors is signaled by phenotype-specific mutations of genes involved in growth control. Molecular events associated with undifferentiated thyroid cancer are not known. We examined normal, benign, and malignant thyroid tissue for structural abnormalities of the p53 tumor suppressor gene. Mutations were detected by single-strand conformation polymorphisms of PCR-amplified DNA, using primers bracketing the known hot spots on either exons 5, 6, 7, or 8. The prevalence of mutations was as follows: normal thyroid 0/6; follicular adenomas 0/31; papillary carcinomas 0/37; medullary carcinomas 0/2; follicular carcinomas 1/11; anaplastic carcinomas 5/6; thyroid carcinoma cell lines 3/4. Positive cases were confirmed by direct sequencing of the PCR products. All five anaplastic carcinoma tissues and the anaplastic carcinoma cell line ARO had G:C to A:T transitions leading to an Arg to His substitution at codon 273. In both tumors and cell lines, examples of heterozygous and homozygous p53 mutations were identified. The only thyroid carcinoma cell line in which p53 mutations were not detected in exons 5-8 had markedly decreased p53 mRNA levels, suggesting the presence of a structural abnormality of either p53 itself or of some factor controlling its expression. The presence of p53 mutations almost exclusively in poorly differentiated thyroid tumors and thyroid cancer cell lines suggests that inactivation of p53 may confer these neoplasms with aggressive properties, and further loss of differentiated function. Images PMID:8423216

  7. Dosimetry in differentiated thyroid carcinoma (12-1402R)

    SciTech Connect

    Minguez, Pablo; Genolla, Jose; Celeiro, Jose Javier; Fombellida, Jose Cruz

    2013-01-15

    Purpose: The aim of this study has been to perform a dosimetric study in the treatments of differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) performed in our center in order to find a dose-effect correlation. Methods: Thirty patients treated for DTC with 3700 MBq of {sup 131}I have been included in this study. For reasons of radiological protection all of them spent two nights as inpatients. Dose rate at 1 m from all patients was measured approximately 20 and 44 h after the administration of the radioiodine and a whole body scan in the gamma camera was performed approximately 1 week later. With those measurements and by using a model of two compartments the activities in thyroid bed remnants and in the whole body were calculated as a function of time. The integration of both activities yields the corresponding cumulated activities. Absorbed doses to thyroid bed remnants and to the whole body can be calculated following the MIRDOSE method-that is, by multiplying the corresponding cumulated activities by the corresponding S factors. Results: The absorbed doses to thyroid bed remnants calculated in this study fall into a very wide range (13-1161 Gy) and showed the highest correlation factors with the following parameters: the absorbed dose rate to thyroid bed remnants, the cumulated activity in thyroid bed remnants, and the maximum radioiodine uptake in thyroid bed remnants. The absorbed doses to the whole body range from 0.12 to 0.23 Gy. The ablation was successful in all patients, and in spite of the wide range of absorbed doses to thyroid bed remnants obtained, no dose-effect correlation could be obtained. Conclusions: Facing DTC treatments from a dosimetric viewpoint in which a predosimetry to calculate the activity of {sup 131}I to be administered is performed is a subject difficult to handle. This statement is based on the fact that although a very wide range of absorbed doses to thyroid bed remnants was obtained (including several absorbed doses well below some dose

  8. [Comparative rate of regional metastasis of high differentiated carcinoma of the thyroid gland].

    PubMed

    Konstantinova, N N; Evmenova, T D; Drozdova, D É

    2014-01-01

    The rate of metastasis of high differentiated carcinoma of the thyroid glands to the neck lymph nodes was studied in people of Kemerovo Region. The metastatic lesions of pretracheal lymph nodes (VI group) were detected in 49.5% patients with papillary carcinoma and 21.0% of patients with follicular cancer. Metastases in jungular lymph nodes were revealed in 37.3% patients with papillary carcinoma. It was noted that an extension of metastatic lesions of regional lymph nodes was observed in the case of primary tumour foci spread beyond borders of the capsula glandularis in patients with papillary carcinoma. There wasn't such a relation in a case of follicular cancer. Metastases in regional lymph nodes were detected more often (67.6%) in the case of papillary carcinoma in uncontaminated zone of the thyroid gland compared with other thyroid pathology (31.7%).

  9. [An expert system for differential diagnosis of medullary and oxyphilic cell thyroid carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Kirillov, V A; Emel'ianova, O A; Gladyshev, A O

    2014-01-01

    To reveal the quantitative regularities of pathological changes in the nuclei and aggregates of C and B cells and to build an expert system on their basis for the differential diagnosis of medullary and oxyphilic cell thyroid carcinoma. Puncture smears with histologically verified medullary (C cell) carcinoma and oxyphilic cell (B cell) carcinoma were investigated. The nuclei and aggregates of C cells and B cells (Hürthle cells, oncocytes) were morphometrically examined with a computer color image analyzer on the basis of a light microscope and a digital photo camera. The quantitative regularities of the degree of C and B cell aggregation in medullary and oxyphilic cell thyroid carcinoma were found by morphometry. The threshold values for the aggregates in the comparison groups and their weight coefficients formed the basis for the expert system to differentially diagnose medullary and oxyphilic cell carcinoma at the initial stages of patient examination. The clinical trials showed the high efficiency of the developed expert system.

  10. Nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase and SIRT3 expression are increased in well-differentiated thyroid carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Shackelford, Rodney; Hirsh, Sharon; Henry, Katherine; Abdel-Mageed, Asim; Kandil, Emad; Coppola, Domenico

    2013-08-01

    Nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT) catalyzes the rate-limiting step of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)) synthesis. NAMPT expression promotes angiogenesis, DNA synthesis, cell growth and survival, and mitochondrial biogenesis and function. Sirtuin-3 (SIRT3) is an NAD(+)-dependent deacetylase which functions in conjunction with mitochondrial NAMPT to promote cell survival following genotoxic stress. NAMPT expression is increased in several human malignancies, while SIRT3 levels are increased in some malignancies and suppressed in others. Based on this, we hypothesized that NAMPT and SIRT3 expression might be increased in well-differentiated thyroid carcinomas (TCs), follicular carcinomas (FC) and papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTC). Immunohistochemical analysis for NAMPT and SIRT3 staining was performed on these tumors using tissue microarrays. NAMPT and SIRT3 expression was low in benign thyroid tissues, moderately increased in FC, and more highly expressed in PTC. Specifically we observed both NAMPT and SIRT3 to be highly expressed in well-differentiated TCs. The data suggest that mitochondrial alterations play a role in the development and maintenance of well-differentiated TC. Since an effective pharmacological NAMPT inhibitor is currently in clinical use, further studies of NAMPT overexpression in well-differentiated TCs may be useful in selecting patients for NAMPT inhibitor therapy, particularly for metastatic well-differentiated thyroid carcinomas refractory to other treatments.

  11. [PREOPERATIVE DIAGNOSTICS OF THYROID MEDULLARY CARCINOMA WITH EMPHASIS ON CYTOMORPHOLOGICAL FEATURES AND DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS OF PRIMARY AND SECONDARY THYROID TUMORS].

    PubMed

    Katović, Sandra Kojić; Vasilj, Ankica

    2014-12-01

    Medullary thyroid cancer is a rare neuroendocrine neoplasm that arises from the parafollicular C cells that produce calcitonin, a hormone essential for the regulation of calcium metabolism. It accounts for 4%-10% of all thyroid cancers. In most cases (75%-80%), it is sporadic, while in other cases it is part of the multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) syndrome. Most often, medullary thyroid carcinoma is presenting as a solitary nodule. At the time of diagnosis, about half of the patients have enlarged cervical lymph nodes, while a small number of patients have distant metastases in the liver, lungs, bones and brain. If the tumor is hormone active, the patient may have systemic symptoms such as diarrhea or flushing. Ultrasonically, medullary carcinoma usually appears as a hypoechogenic node with marked vascularity and uneven contours that can sometimes contain microcalcifications, and in most cases is located in the upper poles of the thyroid. The sample obtained by fine needle aspiration is usually cellular, tumor cells are disseminated or arranged in poorly cohesive groups. They are most often plasmacytoid, but sometimes can also be spindled. The nuclei are eccentric and chromatin shows features of neuroendocrine tumors. Cytoplasms of tumor cells are abundant, triangular or polygonal, amphophilic, finely granulated and unsharply limited. Background is clean and sometimes amyloid can be found. Depending on the cytologic picture, differential diagnostic problems can be well differentiated thyroid tumors, primarily follicular neoplasm, lymphomas, poorly differentiated insular carcinoma, metastatic small cell carcinoma, mesenchymal tumors or melanoma. In case of differential diagnostic difficulties, of great help is to determine calcitonin immunocytochemically or in aspirate or serum. Medullary carcinoma may show low progression and long-time survival, but can also be a rapidly progressive tumor where survival is measured in months. Good prognostic indicators are

  12. [Comparison of differentiated thyroid carcinoma staging systems in a Spanish population].

    PubMed

    Andía Melero, Víctor Manuel; Martín de Santa-Olalla Llanes, María; Sambo Salas, Marcel; Percovich Hualpa, Juan Carlos; Motilla de la Cámara, Marta; Collado Yurrita, Luis

    2015-04-01

    Differentiated thyroid carcinoma staging is increasingly important due to the current trends to a less intensive therapy in low-risk patients. The TNM system is most widely used, but other systems based on follow-up of several patient cohorts have been developed. When these systems have been applied to other populations, results have been discordant. Our study evaluates the suitability of several differentiated thyroid carcinoma staging systems in a Spanish population. 729 patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma and staging data available were enrolled. Mean follow-up time was 10.8 years. The TNM, EORTC, AMES, Clinical class, MACIS, Ohio, NTCTCS, and Spanish systems were applied to all histological types. The Kaplan-Meier survival curves for each system were analyzed, and compared using the proportion of explained variation (PEV). The demographic and clinical characteristics of our population were similar to those of other Spanish and international cohorts reported. The best systems were NTCTCS, with 74.7% PEV, and TNM (68.3%), followed by the Ohio, MACIS, EORTC, and AMES systems with minimal differences between them, while the least adequate were the Spanish (55.2%) and Clinical class (47.1%) systems. The NTCTCS staging system was found to be better than TNM in our population but, because of its simplicity and greater dissemination, the TNM appears to be recommended for staging of patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma. Copyright © 2014 SEEN. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. Rare metastases of differentiated thyroid carcinoma: pictorial review.

    PubMed

    Song, Hong-Jun; Xue, Yan-Li; Xu, Yan-Hong; Qiu, Zhong-Ling; Luo, Quan-Yong

    2011-10-01

    Differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) is usually indolent with good prognosis and long-term survival. However, DTC distant metastasis is often a grave event and accounts for most of its disease-specific mortality. The major sites of distant metastases are the lung and bone. Metastases to the brain, breast, liver, kidney, muscle, and skin are rare or relatively rare. Nevertheless, recognizing rare metastases from DTC has a significant impact on the clinical decision making and prognosis of patients. (131)I single photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography ((131)I-SPECT/CT) can provide both metabolic and anatomic information about a lesion; therefore, it can better localize and define the (131)I-WBS findings in DTC patients. In this pictorial review, the imaging features of a range of rare metastases from DTC are demonstrated, with a particular emphasis on the (131)I-SPECT/CT diagnostic aspect.

  14. DUSP6/MKP3 is overexpressed in papillary and poorly differentiated thyroid carcinoma and contributes to neoplastic properties of thyroid cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Degl'Innocenti, Debora; Romeo, Paola; Tarantino, Eva; Sensi, Marialuisa; Cassinelli, Giuliana; Catalano, Veronica; Lanzi, Cinzia; Perrone, Federica; Pilotti, Silvana; Seregni, Ettore; Pierotti, Marco A; Greco, Angela; Borrello, Maria Grazia

    2013-02-01

    Thyroid carcinomas derived from follicular cells comprise papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC), follicular thyroid carcinoma, poorly differentiated thyroid carcinoma (PDTC) and undifferentiated anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC). PTC, the most frequent thyroid carcinoma histotype, is associated with gene rearrangements that generate RET/PTC and TRK oncogenes and with BRAF-V600E and RAS gene mutations. These last two genetic lesions are also present in a fraction of PDTCs. The ERK1/2 pathway, downstream of the known oncogenes activated in PTC, has a central role in thyroid carcinogenesis. In this study, we demonstrate that the BRAF-V600E, RET/PTC, and TRK oncogenes upregulate the ERK1/2 pathway's attenuator cytoplasmic dual-phase phosphatase DUSP6/MKP3 in thyroid cells. We also show DUSP6 overexpression at the mRNA and protein levels in all the analysed PTC cell lines. Furthermore, DUSP6 mRNA was significantly higher in PTC and PDTC in comparison with normal thyroid tissues both in expression profile datasets and in patients' surgical samples analysed by real-time RT-PCR. Immunohistochemical and western blot analyses showed that DUSP6 was also overexpressed at the protein level in most PTC and PDTC surgical samples tested, but not in ATC, and revealed a positive correlation trend with ERK1/2 pathway activation. Finally, DUSP6 silencing reduced the neoplastic properties of four PTC cell lines, thus suggesting that DUSP6 may have a pro-tumorigenic role in thyroid carcinogenesis.

  15. Thyroid paraganglioma. Report of 3 cases and description of an immunohistochemical profile useful in the differential diagnosis with medullary thyroid carcinoma, based on complementary DNA array results.

    PubMed

    Castelblanco, Esmeralda; Gallel, Pilar; Ros, Susana; Gatius, Sonia; Valls, Joan; De-Cubas, Aguirre A; Maliszewska, Agnieszka; Yebra-Pimentel, M Teresa; Menarguez, Javier; Gamallo, Carlos; Opocher, Giuseppe; Robledo, Mercedes; Matias-Guiu, Xavier

    2012-07-01

    Thyroid paraganglioma is a rare disorder that sometimes poses problems in differential diagnosis with medullary thyroid carcinoma. So far, differential diagnosis is solved with the help of some markers that are frequently expressed in medullary thyroid carcinoma (thyroid transcription factor 1, calcitonin, and carcinoembryonic antigen). However, some of these markers are not absolutely specific of medullary thyroid carcinoma and may be expressed in other tumors. Here we report 3 new cases of thyroid paraganglioma and describe our strategy to design a diagnostic immunohistochemical battery. First, we performed a comparative analysis of the expression profile of head and neck paragangliomas and medullary thyroid carcinoma, obtained after complementary DNA array analysis of 2 series of fresh-frozen samples of paragangliomas and medullary thyroid carcinoma, respectively. Seven biomarkers showing differential expression were selected (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide dehydrogenase 1 alpha subcomplex, 4-like 2, NDUFA4L2; cytochrome c oxidase subunit IV isoform 2; vesicular monoamine transporter 2; calcitonin gene-related protein/calcitonin; carcinoembryonic antigen; and thyroid transcription factor 1) for immunohistochemical analysis. Two tissue microarrays were constructed from 2 different series of paraffin-embedded samples of paragangliomas and medullary thyroid carcinoma. We provide a classifying rule for differential diagnosis that combines negativity or low staining for calcitonin gene-related protein (histologic score, <10) or calcitonin (histologic score, <50) together with positivity of any of NADH dehydrogenase 1 alpha subcomplex, 4-like 2; cytochrome c oxidase subunit IV isoform 2; or vesicular monoamine transporter 2 to predict paragangliomas, showing a prediction error of 0%. Finally, the immunohistochemical battery was checked in paraffin-embedded blocks from 4 examples of thyroid paraganglioma (1 previously reported case and 3 new cases), showing also a

  16. Pembrolizumab and Lenvatinib in Treating Metastatic or Recurrent Differentiated Thyroid Cancer That Cannot Be Removed by Surgery

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-01-24

    Columnar Cell Variant Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Follicular Variant Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Poorly Differentiated Thyroid Gland Carcinoma; Recurrent Thyroid Gland Carcinoma; Stage III Differentiated Thyroid Gland Carcinoma; Stage III Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage III Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Stage IV Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage IV Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Stage IVA Differentiated Thyroid Gland Carcinoma; Stage IVA Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage IVA Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Stage IVB Differentiated Thyroid Gland Carcinoma; Stage IVB Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage IVB Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Stage IVC Differentiated Thyroid Gland Carcinoma; Stage IVC Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage IVC Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Tall Cell Variant Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Thyroid Gland Oncocytic Follicular Carcinoma

  17. Remarkable response in 2 cases of Advanced Poorly Differentiated Thyroid Carcinoma with liposomal doxorubicin plus cisplatin.

    PubMed

    Yang, Haiyan; Chen, Zhongjian; Wu, Meijuan; Lei, Tao; Yu, Haifeng; Ge, Minghua

    2016-06-02

    Poorly Differentiated Thyroid Carcinoma (PDTC), especially advanced PDTC, is an aggressive disease and displays a much poorer prognosis compared with well differentiated thyroid carcinoma. Surgery is the recommended treatment in the early stage of PDTC, however, no effective treatment modalities are currently available for advanced PDTCMethods: Two advanced PDTC patients with no radioiodine uptake adopted a cytotoxic chemotherapy with liposomal doxorubicin (35 mg/m(2), day 1) plus cisplatin (75 mg/m(2), day1-3) every 3 weeks. Computer tomography (CT) was performed after 6 cycles (case 1) or 5 cycles (case 2) of chemotherapy Our patients achieved remarkable response with one a Complete Remission (CR) and the other a very good Partial Remission (PR)Conclusion: Our findings indicate that liposomal doxorubicin-based chemotherapy regimens might produce response in PDTC patients, and improve their overall survival and quality of life. Hence we believe this result is very important for oncologists in treating PDTC.

  18. Family History of Cancer and Risk of Sporadic Differentiated Thyroid Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Li; Li, Guojun; Wei, Qingyi; El-Naggar, Adel K.; Sturgis, Erich M.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND Thyroid cancer incidence in the United States, particularly in women, has increased dramatically since 1980s. While the causes of thyroid cancer in most patients remain largely unknown, evidence suggests the existence of an inherited predisposition to development of differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC). Therefore, we explored the association between sporadic DTC and family history of cancer. METHODS In a retrospective hospital-based case-control study of prospectively recruited subjects who completed the study questionnaire upon enrollment, unconditional logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) as estimates of the DTC risk associated with first-degree family history of cancer. RESULTS The study included 288 patients with sporadic DTC and 591 cancer-free controls. Family history of thyroid cancer in first-degree relatives was associated with increased DTC risk (adjusted OR = 4.1, 95% CI: 1.7–9.9). All DTC cases in patients with a first-degree family history of thyroid cancer were cases of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) (adjusted OR = 4.6, 95 CI%: 1.9–11.1). Notably, the risk of PTC was highest in subjects with a family history of thyroid cancer in siblings (OR = 7.4, 95% CI: 1.8–30.4). In addition, multifocal primary tumor was more common among PTC patients with first-degree family history of thyroid cancer than among PTC patients with no first-degree family history of thyroid cancer (68.8% vs. 35.5%, p = 0.01). CONCLUSIONS Our study suggests that family history of thyroid cancer in first-degree relatives, particularly in siblings, is associated with an increased risk of sporadic PTC. PMID:21800288

  19. Incidental nodal metastasis of differentiated thyroid carcinoma in neck dissection specimens from head and neck cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Lenzi, R; Marchetti, M; Muscatello, L

    2017-04-01

    Occult differentiated thyroid carcinomas are not uncommon. The initial presentation of a thyroid carcinoma is often detection of a metastatic cervical lymph node. A retrospective review was performed of the medical records of 304 patients who underwent neck dissection between 1996 and 2008 for squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. Ten patients (3.3 per cent) had nodal metastasis originating from papillary thyroid cancer. All of these patients underwent thyroidectomy and post-operative 131iodine radiometabolic therapy. No patient developed a thyroid tumour after surgery. Despite its metastatic spread, thyroid cancer does not affect the overall prognosis of patients who are already being treated for a more aggressive malignancy. However, in otherwise healthy patients, it is worth treating this second malignancy to avoid potential complications related to local disease or metastatic thyroid cancer.

  20. Cribriform-morular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma displaying poorly differentiated features.

    PubMed

    Nakazawa, Tadao; Celestino, Ricardo; Machado, José Carlos; Cameselle-Teijeiro, José Manuel; Vinagre, João; Eloy, Catarina; Benserai, Fátima; Lameche, Samia; Soares, Paula; Sobrinho-Simões, Manuel

    2013-08-01

    Cribriform-morular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma (CMVPTC) usually occurs in the setting of familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) although it can rarely arise sporadically. Poorly differentiated thyroid carcinoma (PDTC) is a follicular cell-derived neoplasm with more aggressive behavior than well-differentiated carcinomas such as CMVPTC. We report the case of a 35-year-old woman without FAP history who presented a left neck mass and complained of back pain. Imagiological examinations revealed a nodule in the left lobe of thyroid and multiple nodular lesions in the bone and lungs suggestive of metastases. The patient was submitted to total thyroidectomy and radioactive iodine. The tumor was composed of CMVPTC and PDTC components that shared the same somatic APC gene mutation (p.Cys520Tyr_fsX534). Besides this mutation, no CTNNB1, BRAF, N-RAS, and H-RAS gene mutations were detected in any of the 2 components. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a sporadic CMVPTC with transformation into PDTC. Although the majority of CMVPTCs carry an indolent clinical outcome, the coexistence of poorly differentiated areas may justify the aggressiveness of the CMVPTC reported here.

  1. Collapsing benign cystic nodules of the thyroid gland: sonographic differentiation from papillary thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Ko, M-S; Jeong, K S; Shong, Y K; Gong, G Y; Baek, J H; Lee, J H

    2012-01-01

    The US features of benign and malignant nodules overlap, and benign thyroid lesions can mimic thyroid malignancy on US. Benign cystic nodules after spontaneous collapse or needle aspiration, can mimic malignant thyroid nodules. Our aim was to evaluate the US features of CBCNs of the thyroid that distinguish such nodules from malignant thyroid nodules. US and clinical findings in 13 patients, each with a single CBCN, were evaluated to determine if they showed >50% cystic content on initial US or CT and >30% decrease in maximum diameter on follow-up US. We compared these findings with those of 26 patients, each with a single surgically confirmed PTMC. US scans were analyzed for internal content, shape, margin, echogenicity, presence of echogenic dots suggesting micro- and macrocalcification, inner isoechoic rim, and low-echoic halo. Six of the 13 (46%) CBCNs were classified as malignant on US due to their marked hypoechogenicity, microcalcification, or spiculated margins. US features that differed between CBCNs and PTMCs were shape (ovoid-to-round versus taller-than-wide, P = .016); margins (ill-defined versus spiculated, P < .000); low-echoic halo (P < .000); inner isoechoic rim (P < .000) with high negative predictive values (100%, 91%, 91%, and 89%, respectively); and clinically acceptable diagnostic accuracy (59%, 80%, 82%, and 85%, respectively). US features helpful for differential diagnosis of CBCNs from PTMCs include shape, margin, and the presence of an inner isoechoic rim and a low-echoic halo. Familiarity with US features suggesting CBCNs may be helpful in reducing unnecessary repeated FNABs.

  2. Differential miRNA expression profiles in variants of papillary thyroid carcinoma and encapsulated follicular thyroid tumours

    PubMed Central

    Sheu, S-Y; Grabellus, F; Schwertheim, S; Worm, K; Broecker-Preuss, M; Schmid, K W

    2009-01-01

    Background: Recent studies showed a significant upregulation of distinct microRNAs (miRNAs) in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). The objective of this study was to explore whether this upregulation could also be assigned to distinct histomorphological variants of PTC, especially the follicular variant and other encapsulated follicular thyroid tumours. Methods: We used total RNA of 113 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues of 50 PTCs ((10 conventional type (PTC-CT), 10 tall cell variants (PTC-TCVs), 30 follicular variants (PTC-FVs)), 10 follicular adenomas (FAs), 10 multinodular goitres (MNGs), 21 follicular thyroid carcinomas and 22 well-differentiated tumours of unknown malignant potential (WDT-UMP) to analyse the miRNA expression pattern of five selected miRNAs (146b, 181b, 21, 221 and 222) using RT–PCR TaqMan miRNA assay to explore the diagnostic utility of this method. Results: The mean values of the expression pattern of all miRNAS in PTCs show a statistically significant difference from those in MNG and FA with fold changes up to 90 for miRNA 146b, P<0.001. No differences in expression pattern could be showed between MNG and FA. The PTC-FVs differ significantly from FA in all five miRNAS, from MNG in three and from WDT-UMP in one miRNA with fold changes between 1.7 and 21.2, but failed to be of diagnostic value regarding individual cases with substantial overlaps. Conclusion: We conclude that analysis of a set of five selected miRNAS distinguish common variants of PTC from FA/MNG but failed to be a useful diagnostic method in individual and doubtful cases, especially in the differential diagnosis of encapsulated follicular thyroid tumours. PMID:20029416

  3. Acute toxicity of adjuvant radiotherapy in locally advanced differentiated thyroid carcinoma. First results of the multicenter study differentiated thyroid carcinoma (MSDS).

    PubMed

    Schuck, Andreas; Biermann, Martin; Pixberg, Michaela K; Müller, Stefan B; Heinecke, Achim; Schober, Otmar; Willich, Normann

    2003-12-01

    The indication for adjuvant postoperative radiotherapy in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) extending beyond the thyroid capsule has been an issue of controversy during the past 2 decades. No randomized studies evaluating the benefit of radiotherapy have been published so far. In the Multicenter Study Differentiated Thyroid Carcinoma (MSDS), a randomization has been performed concerning external-beam radiotherapy in patients with DTC extending beyond the thyroid capsule (pT4 pN0/1/x cM0, TNM classification, 5th edition, 1997) following surgery and radioiodine therapy. Radiation-associated toxicity has been prospectively evaluated. Radiotherapy was performed with 50.4 Gy (pN0) or 54.0 Gy (pN1/x) to the cervical, supraclavicular and upper mediastinal lymph nodes. A total dose of 59.4 Gy (R0 resection) or 66.6 Gy (R1) was used to treat the tumor bed. Conventional fractionation was used with 1.8 Gy/d. At the time of the analysis, 36 patients were randomized or allocated to treatment arm A (with external-beam radiotherapy). Of these, 22 were treated with radiotherapy, and documentation of acute toxicity was available. Toxicity was evaluated prospectively according to the RTOG/EORTC criteria. The maximal acute toxicity observed during radiotherapy was grade I in four patients, grade II in 16 patients, and grade III in two patients (9.1%; 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.1-29.2%). Toxicity was mainly observed at the pharynx, larynx, and skin. In 19 patients, residual toxicity within 100 days following radiotherapy was evaluated. No residual toxicity was observed in two patients. Maximal residual toxicity was grade I in 13 patients and grade II in four. No further grade III toxicity could be observed. The majority of patients experience mild to moderate side effects from adjuvant external-beam radiotherapy. At the first follow-up examination, most side effects have subsided. Acute toxicity is tolerable in these patients.

  4. TERT promoter mutations are a major indicator of poor outcome in differentiated thyroid carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Melo, Miguel; da Rocha, Adriana Gaspar; Vinagre, João; Batista, Rui; Peixoto, Joana; Tavares, Catarina; Celestino, Ricardo; Almeida, Ana; Salgado, Catarina; Eloy, Catarina; Castro, Patrícia; Prazeres, Hugo; Lima, Jorge; Amaro, Teresina; Lobo, Cláudia; Martins, Maria João; Moura, Margarida; Cavaco, Branca; Leite, Valeriano; Cameselle-Teijeiro, José Manuel; Carrilho, Francisco; Carvalheiro, Manuela; Máximo, Valdemar; Sobrinho-Simões, Manuel; Soares, Paula

    2014-05-01

    Telomerase promoter mutations (TERT) were recently described in follicular cell-derived thyroid carcinomas (FCDTC) and seem to be more prevalent in aggressive cancers. We aimed to evaluate the frequency of TERT promoter mutations in thyroid lesions and to investigate the prognostic significance of such mutations in a large cohort of patients with differentiated thyroid carcinomas (DTCs). This was a retrospective observational study. We studied 647 tumors and tumor-like lesions. A total of 469 patients with FCDTC treated and followed in five university hospitals were included. Mean follow-up (±SD) was 7.8 ± 5.8 years. Predictive value of TERT promoter mutations for distant metastasization, disease persistence at the end of follow-up, and disease-specific mortality. TERT promoter mutations were found in 7.5% of papillary carcinomas (PTCs), 17.1% of follicular carcinomas, 29.0% of poorly differentiated carcinomas, and 33.3% of anaplastic thyroid carcinomas. Patients with TERT-mutated tumors were older (P < .001) and had larger tumors (P = .002). In DTCs, TERT promoter mutations were significantly associated with distant metastases (P < .001) and higher stage (P < .001). Patients with DTC harboring TERT promoter mutations were submitted to more radioiodine treatments (P = .009) with higher cumulative dose (P = .004) and to more treatment modalities (P = .001). At the end of follow-up, patients with TERT-mutated DTCs were more prone to have persistent disease (P = .001). TERT promoter mutations were significantly associated with disease-specific mortality [in the whole FCDTC (P < .001)] in DTCs (P < .001), PTCs (P = .001), and follicular carcinomas (P < .001). After adjusting for age at diagnosis and gender, the hazard ratio was 10.35 (95% confidence interval 2.01-53.24; P = .005) in DTC and 23.81 (95% confidence interval 1.36-415.76; P = .03) in PTCs. TERT promoter mutations are an indicator of clinically aggressive tumors, being correlated with worse outcome and

  5. TERT Promoter Mutations Are a Major Indicator of Poor Outcome in Differentiated Thyroid Carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Melo, Miguel; da Rocha, Adriana Gaspar; Vinagre, João; Batista, Rui; Peixoto, Joana; Tavares, Catarina; Celestino, Ricardo; Almeida, Ana; Salgado, Catarina; Eloy, Catarina; Castro, Patrícia; Prazeres, Hugo; Lima, Jorge; Amaro, Teresina; Lobo, Cláudia; Martins, Maria João; Moura, Margarida; Cavaco, Branca; Leite, Valeriano; Cameselle-Teijeiro, José Manuel; Carrilho, Francisco; Carvalheiro, Manuela; Máximo, Valdemar; Sobrinho-Simões, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Context: Telomerase promoter mutations (TERT) were recently described in follicular cell-derived thyroid carcinomas (FCDTC) and seem to be more prevalent in aggressive cancers. Objectives: We aimed to evaluate the frequency of TERT promoter mutations in thyroid lesions and to investigate the prognostic significance of such mutations in a large cohort of patients with differentiated thyroid carcinomas (DTCs). Design: This was a retrospective observational study. Setting and Patients: We studied 647 tumors and tumor-like lesions. A total of 469 patients with FCDTC treated and followed in five university hospitals were included. Mean follow-up (±SD) was 7.8 ± 5.8 years. Main Outcome Measures: Predictive value of TERT promoter mutations for distant metastasization, disease persistence at the end of follow-up, and disease-specific mortality. Results: TERT promoter mutations were found in 7.5% of papillary carcinomas (PTCs), 17.1% of follicular carcinomas, 29.0% of poorly differentiated carcinomas, and 33.3% of anaplastic thyroid carcinomas. Patients with TERT-mutated tumors were older (P < .001) and had larger tumors (P = .002). In DTCs, TERT promoter mutations were significantly associated with distant metastases (P < .001) and higher stage (P < .001). Patients with DTC harboring TERT promoter mutations were submitted to more radioiodine treatments (P = .009) with higher cumulative dose (P = .004) and to more treatment modalities (P = .001). At the end of follow-up, patients with TERT-mutated DTCs were more prone to have persistent disease (P = .001). TERT promoter mutations were significantly associated with disease-specific mortality [in the whole FCDTC (P < .001)] in DTCs (P < .001), PTCs (P = .001), and follicular carcinomas (P < .001). After adjusting for age at diagnosis and gender, the hazard ratio was 10.35 (95% confidence interval 2.01–53.24; P = .005) in DTC and 23.81 (95% confidence interval 1.36–415.76; P = .03) in PTCs. Conclusions: TERT promoter

  6. Likelihood ratio-based differentiation of nodular Hashimoto thyroiditis and papillary thyroid carcinoma in patients with sonographically evident diffuse hashimoto thyroiditis: preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Liang; Xia, Yu; Jiang, Yu-Xin; Dai, Qing; Li, Xiao-Yi

    2012-11-01

    To assess the efficacy of sonography for discriminating nodular Hashimoto thyroiditis from papillary thyroid carcinoma in patients with sonographically evident diffuse Hashimoto thyroiditis. This study included 20 patients with 24 surgically confirmed Hashimoto thyroiditis nodules and 40 patients with 40 papillary thyroid carcinoma nodules; all had sonographically evident diffuse Hashimoto thyroiditis. A retrospective review of the sonograms was performed, and significant benign and malignant sonographic features were selected by univariate and multivariate analyses. The combined likelihood ratio was calculated as the product of each feature's likelihood ratio for papillary thyroid carcinoma. We compared the abilities of the original sonographic features and combined likelihood ratios in diagnosing nodular Hashimoto thyroiditis and papillary thyroid carcinoma by their sensitivity, specificity, and Youden index. The diagnostic capabilities of the sonographic features varied greatly, with Youden indices ranging from 0.175 to 0.700. Compared with single features, combinations of features were unable to improve the Youden indices effectively because the sensitivity and specificity usually changed in opposite directions. For combined likelihood ratios, however, the sensitivity improved greatly without an obvious reduction in specificity, which resulted in the maximum Youden index (0.825). With a combined likelihood ratio greater than 7.00 as the diagnostic criterion for papillary thyroid carcinoma, sensitivity reached 82.5%, whereas specificity remained at 100.0%. With a combined likelihood ratio less than 1.00 for nodular Hashimoto thyroiditis, sensitivity and specificity were 90.0% and 92.5%, respectively. Several sonographic features of nodular Hashimoto thyroiditis and papillary thyroid carcinoma in a background of diffuse Hashimoto thyroiditis were significantly different. The combined likelihood ratio may be superior to original sonographic features for

  7. [Is our approach to thyroid nodules and differentiated thyroid carcinoma in agreement with the American guideline and European consensus?].

    PubMed

    Gómez Sáez, José Manuel

    2010-10-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the approaches of specialists in Spain to patients with thyroid nodules and differentiated thyroid carcinoma and to compare them with the American guideline and European consensus. We performed a cross-sectional study based on a questionnaire addressed to clinical endocrinologists specialized in thyroid cancer and specialists in nuclear medicine throughout Spain. A total of 177 questionnaires were completed, representing an overall response rate of 85%; 74% of responses were from endocrinologists and 24% from physicians active in nuclear medicine; 82% of respondents worked in third-level hospitals, 10% in second level hospitals and the remainder in private practice. Most used ultrasonography and cytology to assess thyroid nodules and collaborated with a group of surgeons expert in thyroid surgery. The majority preferred total or subtotal thyroidectomy in tumors with a diameter of 1 cm or more, and systematic lymph node dissection. Only 43 (24%) preferred prophylactic central lymph node dissection. Eighty-one respondents (45%) would still use whole body scan with ¹³¹I or ¹²³I before ¹³¹I ablation. Follow-up was based on cervical echography and thyroglobulin determination; however, 101 (57%) respondents continued to use diagnostic whole body scan in the follow-up. The approaches of the respondents were mainly in accordance with the guideline and consensus, although some variations were found, especially in the use of whole body scan with ¹³¹I before ablation and in follow-up. Copyright © 2010 SEEN. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  8. Left atrial metastases of poorly differentiated thyroid carcinoma diagnosed by echocardiography and magnetic resonance imaging--case report and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Bertoldi, Eduardo Gehling; Severo, Mateus Dornelles; Scheffel, Rafael Selbach; Foppa, Murilo; de Azevedo, Mirela Jobim; Maia, Ana Luiza

    2012-02-01

    Intracardiac metastases of thyroid carcinoma are a rare event. Their incidence is low in large autopsy series, and antemortem diagnosis is even less common. We present the case of a woman with advanced poorly differentiated thyroid carcinoma who had extensive intracardiac metastases. This case highlights the usefulness of echocardiography and magnetic resonance imaging in the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of cardiac metastases.

  9. Lithium as an adjuvant of iodine-131 uptake when treating patients with well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Pons, F.; Carrio, I.; Estorch, M.; Ginjaume, M.; Pons, J.; Milian, R.

    1987-08-01

    Differences in the I-131 uptake by 14 metastatic lesions from well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma and 12 local remnants of normal thyroid tissue before and after an adjuvant therapy with lithium carbonate, were observed. After the adjuvant treatment and administration of an I-131 tracer dose, a considerable increase of radioiodine uptake in all metastatic lesions was found (P less than 0.001), but only a slight increase was found in 50% of the normal tissue. The response to lithium carbonate by neoplastic tissue seems to be different than that of the normal thyroid tissue, and produces a lengthening of the average I-131 biologic life that could be helpful when treating well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma.

  10. Assessment of female fertility and carconogenesis after iodine-131 therapy for differentiated thyroid carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Dottorini, M.E.; Lomuscio, G.; Mazzucchelli, L.

    1995-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate female fertility, carcinogenic, and genetic effects after treatment with {sup 131}I of differentiated thyroid carcinoma. A total of 814 females of child-bearing age were studied. The fertility of 627 females who received {sup 131}I therapy was compared to 187 untreated females. Birth histories of the children born from these women were registered. The carcinogenic effect was evaluated by comparing the incidence of tumors in 730 patients treated with {sup 131}I with an internal control group, as well as with local population incidence. There was no significant difference in the fertility rate, birth weight and prematurity between the two groups. Only one case of a ventricular septal defect was observed in a child born to a woman treated with {sup 131}I. The overall standardized incidence ratio (SIR) of second tumors was 1.19 (95% CI: 0.76-1.77) in patients treated with {sup 131}I. An elevated SIR was registered for salivary gland tumors and melanoma. No case of leukemia was registered. The risk of long-term effects of {sup 131}I treatment of differentiated thyroid carcinoma is quite low. Iodine-131 may be safely used in treating cases with a high risk of recurrence. 35 refs., 7 tabs.

  11. Long-Term Quality of Life in Adult Survivors of Pediatric Differentiated Thyroid Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Nies, Marloes; Klein Hesselink, Mariëlle S; Huizinga, Gea A; Sulkers, Esther; Brouwers, Adrienne H; Burgerhof, Johannes G M; van Dam, Eveline W C M; Havekes, Bas; van den Heuvel-Eibrink, Marry M; Corssmit, Eleonora P M; Kremer, Leontien C M; Netea-Maier, Romana T; van der Pal, Heleen J H; Peeters, Robin P; Plukker, John T M; Ronckers, Cécile M; van Santen, Hanneke M; Tissing, Wim J E; Links, Thera P; Bocca, Gianni

    2017-04-01

    Little is known about long-term quality of life (QoL) of survivors of pediatric differentiated thyroid carcinoma. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate generic health-related QoL (HRQoL), fatigue, anxiety, and depression in these survivors compared with matched controls, and to evaluate thyroid cancer-specific HRQoL in survivors only. Survivors diagnosed between 1970 and 2013 at age ≤18 years, were included. Exclusion criteria were a follow-up <5 years, attained age <18 years, or diagnosis of DTC as a second malignant neoplasm (SMN). Controls were matched by age, sex, and socioeconomic status. Survivors and controls were asked to complete 3 questionnaires [Short-Form 36 (HRQoL), Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory 20 (fatigue), and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (anxiety/depression)]. Survivors completed a thyroid cancer-specific HRQoL questionnaire. Sixty-seven survivors and 56 controls. Median age of survivors at evaluation was 34.2 years (range, 18.8 to 61.7). Median follow-up was 17.8 years (range, 5.0 to 44.7). On most QoL subscales, scores of survivors and controls did not differ significantly. However, survivors had more physical problems (P = 0.031), role limitations due to physical problems (P = 0.021), and mental fatigue (P = 0.016) than controls. Some thyroid cancer-specific complaints (e.g., sensory complaints and chilliness) were present in survivors. Unemployment and more extensive disease or treatment characteristics were most frequently associated with worse QoL. Overall, long-term QoL in survivors of pediatric DTC was normal. Survivors experienced mild impairment of QoL in some domains (physical problems, mental fatigue, and various thyroid cancer-specific complaints). Factors possibly affecting QoL need further exploration.

  12. The relationship of melanocytic differentiation with prognostic markers in medullary thyroid carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Karaarslan, Serap; Nur Yurum, Fatma; Ebru Pala, Emel; Ortac, Ragip; Husnu Bugdayci, Mehmet

    2015-05-01

    Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) makes up 5-10% of thyroid malignancies. Small cell, squamous, giant cell or melanocytic differentiation can rarely be seen in MTCs. It is important to determine those with the potential to act aggressively such as cases with melanocytic differentiation at the time of diagnosis. A total of 46 MTC cases diagnosed at four different centers between 2002 and 2013 were included in the study. Immunohistochemical (IHC) staining with Melan-A and HMB-45 was performed in all cases. Six of the 46 MTC cases were medullary microcarcinomas and three were multicentric medullary carcinomas. There were 34 females and 12 males with a mean age at onset of 51.4 years and mean tumor diameter of 23.2mm. Lymph node metastasis (LNM) was found in 13 of the 38 cases that had data regarding the lymph nodes. Immunohistochemically, Melan A staining was seen in four cases. HMB45 staining was seen in four cases. A statistically significant relationship was found between LNM and diameter, Melan A expression (p=0.02, p=0.03 respectively) but there was no significant relationship with HMB45 expression (p=0.07). General survival data were present for 35 of the 46 cases. All cases without lymph node metastasis survived (21/21) while 8 of 11 cases with lymph node metastasis survived among cases with survival data; one case that was diffuse-strong positive for both HMB45 and Melan A was lost due to distant organ metastasis six months after the diagnosis. Should the possibility of melanocytic differentiation be evaluated in cases where melanocytic differentiation is not reflected in the morphology (lack of pigment) in MTCs? We did not come across a study on the subject in the English literature. The effect of melanocytic differentiation on the prognosis in MTCs should be investigated in larger series. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  13. Multicenter study differentiated thyroid carcinoma (MSDS). Diminished acceptance of adjuvant external beam radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Biermann, M; Pixberg, M K; Schuck, A; Heinecke, A; Köpcke, W; Schmid, K W; Dralle, H; Willich, N; Schober, O

    2003-12-01

    The Multicenter Study Differentiated Thyroid Carcinoma (MSDS) is an ongoing study in Germany, Austria, and Switzerland on the clinical benefit of adjuvant external beam radiotherapy (RTx) for locally invasive differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) in TNM stages pT4 pN0/1/x M0/x (5th ed. 1997). MSDS was designed as a prospective randomized trial. Patients receive thyroidectomy, radioiodine therapy (RIT) to ablate the thyroid remnant, and TSH-suppressive L-thyroxine therapy with or without RTx after documented elimination of cervical iodine-131 uptake (http://msds-studie.uni-muenster.de). 311 patients were enrolled between January 2000 and March 2003. 279 patients met the trial's inclusion criteria. 45 consented to randomization, of whom 17 were randomized into treatment arm A (RTx) and 18 into arm B (no RTx). Advised by the trial's independent Data Monitoring and Safety Committee, the MSDS steering committee decided to terminate randomization in April 2003 and continue MSDS as a prospective cohort study. 23 of the 234 patients in the observation arm of the trial were prescribed RTx by their physicians. Thus, 14% of the trial cohort were randomized or assigned to receive RTx (in-tention-to-treat analysis). In contrast, at least 44% of all patients with pT4 papillary DTC in Germany in the nation-wide PCES study underwent RTx in 1996 (p <0.001, chi(2)-test). Acceptance of external beam RTx as a treatment modality for DTC has receded to a degree that accrual of a sufficient number of patients for a randomized trial has been impossible. Observation of the trial cohort is continued in order to assess clinical event rates with and without RTx and chronic RTx toxicity.

  14. [Postoperative radioiodine ablation in patients with low risk differentiated thyroid carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Díez, Juan J; Grande, Enrique; Iglesias, Pedro

    2015-01-06

    Most patients with newly diagnosed differentiated thyroid carcinoma have tumors with low risk of mortality and recurrence. Standard therapy has been total or near total thyroidectomy followed by postoperative radioiodine remnant ablation (RRA). Although RRA provides benefits, current clinical guidelines do not recommend it universally, since an increase in disease-free survival or a decrease in mortality in low risk patients has not been demonstrated so far. Advancements in our understanding of the biological behavior of thyroid cancer have been translated into the clinic in a personalized approach to the patients based on their individual risk of recurrence and mortality. Current evidence suggests that RRA is not indicated in most low-risk patients, especially those with papillary carcinomas smaller than 1cm, without extrathyroidal extension, unfavorable histology, lymph node involvement or distant metastases. Follow-up of these patients with serial measurements of serum thyroglobulin and neck ultrasound is adequate. Careful evaluation of all risk factors of clinical relevance will allow a more realistic assessment of each individual patient. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. Decrease in dipeptidyl peptidase IV activity is linked to the efficacy of differentiating compounds in follicular thyroid carcinoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Fröhlich, E; Engel, E; Wahl, R

    2011-05-01

    Metastasized differentiated thyroid carcinoma is treated by surgery followed by radioiodine remnant ablation. The application of differentiating agents is a possibility of increasing the efficacy of radioiodine therapy. We evaluated DPP IV and aminopeptidase N, both linked to malignancy in thyroid carcinoma, and dipeptidyl peptidase II activities in human follicular thyroid carcinoma cell lines upon treatment with retinol, apicidine, and lovastatin as differentiating agents. Decrease of dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP IV) activity may play a role in the differentiating action. In the human cancer cell lines FTC 138 and 238, high DPP IV and low aminopeptidase N activities were recorded. Retinol treatment induced increases in thyroid-specific protein expression [thyroglobulin and sodium-iodide symporter (NIS)], increase in iodide uptake, and decrease in thymidine uptake accompanied by decrease in DPP IV activity. Decreases in DPP IV activities were also seen upon apicidine and lovastatin treatment, which also increased differentiation of the transformed thyrocytes. Our results demonstrate a link between decrease in DPP IV activity and increase in iodide uptake upon stimulation with differentiating agents. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  16. Hashimoto's Thyroiditis and Medullary Carcinoma of Thyroid.

    PubMed

    Dasgupta, S; Chakrabarti, S; Mandal, P K; Das, S

    2014-01-01

    Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) has been found to be associated with lymphoma, papillary carcinoma and Hürthle cell neoplasms of thyroid. In contrast, there are only a few reports of co-existence of HT with medullary carcinoma of thyroid. An overall prevalence of medullary carcinoma of only 0.35% has been reported in HT patients. Such a rare combination is being presented here. A 33 year old female presented with history of goiter for one year. Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) of the swelling revealed cytological features suggestive of medullary carcinoma of thyroid. Histopathological examination of total thyroidectomy specimen revealed Hashimoto's thyroiditis along with medullary carcinoma of thyroid. Although Hashimoto's thyroiditis can uncommonly co-exist with thyroid neoplasm, its association with medullary carcinoma is extremely rare and hence being presented.

  17. Clinicopathologic Features and Treatment Outcomes in Differentiated Thyroid Carcinoma Patients with Concurrent Graves' Disease

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jandee; Nam, Kee Hyun; Chung, Woung Youn; Soh, Euy-Young

    2008-01-01

    The clinical behaviors and treatment outcomes of thyroid carcinomas in patients with Graves' disease is a matter of controversy. This study aimed to identify the clinicopathologic features, treatment outcome, and the indicators for predicting recurrence, and to suggest the optimal extent of surgery in these patients. We retrospectively analyzed data of 58 patients who underwent surgical treatment for differentiated thyroid cancer and concurrent Graves' disease. The follow-up period ranged from 23 to 260 months (mean±standard devuation, 116.8±54.0). In our series, the mean age was 40.8±12.7 yr (range, 15-70), with a male-to-female ratio of 1:6.25. The mean tumor size was 13±9 mm (range, 3-62). The surgical methods included 19 cases of total thyroidectomy, 38 cases of subtotal thyroidectomy, and 1 case of completion total thyroidectomy. Locoregional recurrence occurred in four patients (6.9%). The 10-yr overall survival and disease-free survival of patients were 95.8% and 91.1%, respectively. Age over 45 yr (p=0.031), tumor size over 10 mm (p=0.049), multiplicity (p=0.007), extracapsular invasion (p=0.021), and clinical cancer (p=0.035) were significantly more prevalent in patients with locoregional recurrence than in those without recurrence. We recommend that Graves' disease patients should undergo regular ultrasonography screening for early detection of thyroid carcinoma. We also suggest that the choice of extent of surgery should depend on the diagnostic timing (clinical or incidental) and factors for predicting recurrence. PMID:18955784

  18. Pazopanib Hydrochloride in Treating Patients With Advanced Thyroid Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-01-31

    Recurrent Thyroid Gland Carcinoma; Stage III Differentiated Thyroid Gland Carcinoma; Stage III Thyroid Gland Medullary Carcinoma; Stage IVA Differentiated Thyroid Gland Carcinoma; Stage IVA Thyroid Gland Medullary Carcinoma; Stage IVA Thyroid Gland Undifferentiated (Anaplastic) Carcinoma; Stage IVB Differentiated Thyroid Gland Carcinoma; Stage IVB Thyroid Gland Medullary Carcinoma; Stage IVB Thyroid Gland Undifferentiated (Anaplastic) Carcinoma; Stage IVC Differentiated Thyroid Gland Carcinoma; Stage IVC Thyroid Gland Medullary Carcinoma; Stage IVC Thyroid Gland Undifferentiated (Anaplastic) Carcinoma; Thyroid Gland Undifferentiated (Anaplastic) Carcinoma

  19. Clinicopathological correlations of Bcl-xL and Bax expression in differentiated thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Brocca, M Asunción; Castilla, Carolina; Navarro, Elena; Amaya, M José; Travado, Paulino; Japón, Miguel A; Sáez, Carmen

    2008-02-01

    The Bcl-2 family proteins are essential mediators in the apoptotic process. Our aim was to investigate whether anti-apoptotic Bcl-xL and pro-apoptotic Bax were over-expressed in a large series of differentiated thyroid carcinomas (DTC) and to study their association with tumour presentation at diagnosis and prognosis. We examined the immunohistochemical expression of Bcl-xL and Bax in benign nodular thyroid disease (BNTD) and DTC and their association with clinicopathological parameters. Thyroid tissue samples were collected from an unselected series of patients undergoing surgical resection for DTC (n = 74) or BNTD (n = 15). Among DTC cases, expression of Bcl-xL was found to be high in 43.2% and low or absent in 56.8%. Expression of Bax was high in 75.7% and low or absent in 24.3%. Non-neoplastic thyroid tissue was largely unstained for both proteins. Among BNTD cases, expression of Bcl-xL was high in 13.3% and low or absent in 86.6%. Expression of Bax was high in 14.3% and low or absent in 86.6%. A significant association was found between Bcl-xL expression and the presence of high-risk histological subtype (P < 0.05), and regional lymph node (P < 0.01) and distant metastases (P < 0.01). The association between high Bcl-xL expression levels and a longer time of persistent disease after radioiodine ablation was also significant (P < 0.01). Bcl-xL expression was confirmed as an independent prognostic factor for persistent disease in DTC (relative risk, 2.5; 95% confidence interval, 1.1-5.9; P < 0.05). Immunohistochemical expression of Bcl-xL might be a valuable tool in the prediction of tumour aggressiveness in DTC.

  20. Significance of clearing differentiated thyroid carcinoma lymph node by high-frequency color Doppler ultrasonography

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Bing; Qin, Huadong; Zhang, Bin; Shi, Tiefeng; Li, Chuanle; Liu, Yao; Song, Meiyue

    2017-01-01

    We compared the clinical effects and prognosis of patients receiving lymph node dissection after surgical removal of the thyroid tissues and those not receiving it after the removal. A total of 80 patients diagnosed with differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) by our hospital from March 2012 to March 2014 were successively included in the study. The cases were divided into the control group (n=36 cases) and observation group (n=44 cases), and the two groups underwent total or subtotal resection of the thyroid. In the control group, patients underwent preoperative high-frequency color ultrasonography, and the most suspicious lymph node was removed. In the observation group, patients underwent preoperative high-frequency color ultrasonography, and the surgeons cleared the lymph node of the widest range. Difference in clinical effects and prognosis of the two groups were compared. After nearly a year's follow-up observation, the tumor recurrence rate of the observation group was significantly lower than that of the control group and the survival rate of the observation group was significantly higher than that of the control group (P<0.05). The rate of surgery complications and comparative difference of the two patient groups had no statistical significance (P>0.05). When comparing the data of lymphatic metastasis tested by preoperative high-frequency color ultrasonography with intraoperative diagnosed figures, sensitivity was 97.4%, specificity 33.3%, positive predictive value 90.2% and the negative predictive value 66.7%. In conclusion, removal of the lymph node for DTC patients having undergone thyroid tissue excision with preoperative high-frequency color ultrasonography can be beneficial to improve the effects along with reduction in the recurrence rate. PMID:28123550

  1. Thyroid remnant ablation success and disease outcome in stage III or IV differentiated thyroid carcinoma: recombinant human thyrotropin versus thyroid hormone withdrawal.

    PubMed

    Vallejo Casas, Juan A; Mena Bares, Luisa M; Gálvez Moreno, Maria A; Moreno Ortega, Estefanía; Marlowe, Robert J; Maza Muret, Francisco R; Albalá González, María D

    2016-06-01

    Most publications to date compare outcomes after post-surgical thyroid remnant ablation stimulated by recombinant human thyrotropin (rhTSH) versus thyroid hormone withholding/withdrawal (THW) in low-recurrence risk differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) patients. We sought to perform this comparison in high-risk patients. We retrospectively analyzed ~9-year single-center experience in 70 consecutive adults with initial UICC (Union for International Cancer Control) stage III/IV, M0 DTC undergoing rhTSH-aided (N.=54) or THW-aided (N.=16) high-activity ablation. Endpoints included ablation success and DTC outcome. Assessed ≥1 year post-ablation, ablation success comprised a) no visible scintigraphic thyroid bed uptake or pathological extra-thyroidal uptake; b) undetectable stimulated serum thyroglobulin (Tg) without interfering autoantibodies; c) both criteria. DTC outcome, determined at the latest visit, comprised either 1) "no evidence of disease" (NED): undetectable Tg, negative Tg autoantibodies, negative most recent whole-body scan, no suspicious findings clinically, on neck ultrasonography, or on other imaging; 2) persistent disease: failure to attain NED; or 3) recurrence: loss of NED. After the first ablative activity, ablation success by scintigraphic plus biochemical criteria was 64.8% in rhTSH patients, 56.3% in THW patients (P=NS). After 3.5-year versus 6.2-year median follow-up (P<0.05), DTC outcomes were NED, 85.2%, persistent disease, 13.0%, recurrence, 1.9%, in the rhTSH group and NED, 87.5%, persistent or recurrent disease, 6.3% each, in the THW group (P=NS). In patients with initial stage III/IV, M0 DTC, rhTSH-aided and THW-assisted ablation were associated with comparable remnant eradication or DTC cure rates.

  2. Proliferation, angiogenesis and differentiation related markers in compact and follicular-compact thyroid carcinomas in dogs

    PubMed Central

    Pessina, P.; Castillo, V.A.; César, D.; Sartore, I.; Meikle, A.

    2016-01-01

    Immunohistochemical markers (IGF-1, IGF-1R, VEGF, FGF-2, RARα and RXR) were evaluated in healthy canine thyroid glands (n=8) and in follicular-compact (n=8) and compact thyroid carcinomas (n=8). IGF-1, IGF-1R and VEGF expression was higher in fibroblasts and endothelial cells of compact carcinoma than in healthy glands (P < 0.05). Compared to follicular-compact carcinoma, compact carcinoma had higher IGF-1R expression in fibroblasts, and higher FGF-2 expression in endothelial cells (P < 0.05). RARα expression was higher in endothelial cells of compact carcinoma than in those of other groups (P < 0.05). The upregulation of these proliferation- and angiogenesis-related factors in endothelial cells and/or fibroblasts and not in follicular cells of compact carcinoma compared to healthy glands supports the relevance of stromal cells in cancer progression. PMID:28116249

  3. Proliferation, angiogenesis and differentiation related markers in compact and follicular-compact thyroid carcinomas in dogs.

    PubMed

    Pessina, P; Castillo, V A; César, D; Sartore, I; Meikle, A

    2016-01-01

    Immunohistochemical markers (IGF-1, IGF-1R, VEGF, FGF-2, RARα and RXR) were evaluated in healthy canine thyroid glands (n=8) and in follicular-compact (n=8) and compact thyroid carcinomas (n=8). IGF-1, IGF-1R and VEGF expression was higher in fibroblasts and endothelial cells of compact carcinoma than in healthy glands (P < 0.05). Compared to follicular-compact carcinoma, compact carcinoma had higher IGF-1R expression in fibroblasts, and higher FGF-2 expression in endothelial cells (P < 0.05). RARα expression was higher in endothelial cells of compact carcinoma than in those of other groups (P < 0.05). The upregulation of these proliferation- and angiogenesis-related factors in endothelial cells and/or fibroblasts and not in follicular cells of compact carcinoma compared to healthy glands supports the relevance of stromal cells in cancer progression.

  4. [Treatment and follow up protocol in differentiated thyroid carcinomas of follicular origin].

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Fernando; Limbert, Edward; Marques, Ana Paula; Santos, Ana Paula; Lopes, Carlos; Rodrigues, Elizabete; Borges, Fátima; Carrilho, Francisco; Castro, João Jácome de; Neto, João; Salgado, Lucília; Oliveira, Maria João

    2005-01-01

    Differentiated thyroid carcinoma of follicular origin (DTCFO), although not very frequent, has registered a raising incidence in the last decades. In the majority of the cases, DTCFO is a curable disease when treated and monitored by experienced, multidisciplinary teams. These factors contribute to an increasing number of DTCFO survivors requiring life-long monitoring, due to the possibility of occurrence of recurrences many years after the initial treatment. Several aspects of the treatment and management of these patients are still controversial. The present protocol represents the consensus of the members of the Grupo de Estudo da Tiróide of the Sociedade Portuguesa de Endocrinologia, Diabetes e Metabolismo. It aims to define guidelines, in agreement with the current state of the art and contemplating the necessary adaptations to local constrains, that ensure decreased mortality and protection of patients' quality of life, avoiding unnecessarily aggressive or ineffective treatments, optimizing the use of the available resources.

  5. Identification of Differentially Expressed Kinase and Screening Potential Anticancer Drugs in Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huairong; Gao, Bo; Shi, Bingyin

    2016-01-01

    Aim. We aim to identify protein kinases involved in the pathophysiology of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) in order to provide potential therapeutic targets for kinase inhibitors and unfold possible molecular mechanisms. Materials and Methods. The gene expression profile of GSE27155 was analyzed to identify differentially expressed genes and mapped onto human protein kinases database. Correlation of kinases with PTC was addressed by systematic literature search, GO and KEGG pathway analysis. Results. The functional enrichment analysis indicated that "mitogen-activated protein kinases pathway" expression was extremely enriched, followed by "neurotrophin signaling pathway," "focal adhesion," and "GnRH signaling pathway." MAPK, SRC, PDGFRa, ErbB, and EGFR were significantly regulated to correct these pathways. Kinases investigated by the literature on carcinoma were considered to be potential novel molecular therapeutic target in PTC and application of corresponding kinase inhibitors could be possible therapeutic tool. Conclusion. SRC, MAPK, and EGFR were the most important differentially expressed kinases in PTC. Combined inhibitors may have high efficacy in PTC treatment by targeting these kinases.

  6. Identification of Differentially Expressed Kinase and Screening Potential Anticancer Drugs in Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Huairong

    2016-01-01

    Aim. We aim to identify protein kinases involved in the pathophysiology of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) in order to provide potential therapeutic targets for kinase inhibitors and unfold possible molecular mechanisms. Materials and Methods. The gene expression profile of GSE27155 was analyzed to identify differentially expressed genes and mapped onto human protein kinases database. Correlation of kinases with PTC was addressed by systematic literature search, GO and KEGG pathway analysis. Results. The functional enrichment analysis indicated that “mitogen-activated protein kinases pathway” expression was extremely enriched, followed by “neurotrophin signaling pathway,” “focal adhesion,” and “GnRH signaling pathway.” MAPK, SRC, PDGFRa, ErbB, and EGFR were significantly regulated to correct these pathways. Kinases investigated by the literature on carcinoma were considered to be potential novel molecular therapeutic target in PTC and application of corresponding kinase inhibitors could be possible therapeutic tool. Conclusion. SRC, MAPK, and EGFR were the most important differentially expressed kinases in PTC. Combined inhibitors may have high efficacy in PTC treatment by targeting these kinases. PMID:27703281

  7. Management of differentiated thyroid carcinoma with bone metastasis: a case report and review of the Chinese literature.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei-dong; Liu, Da-ren; Feng, Cheng-cheng; Zhou, Chuan-biao; Zhan, Chen-ni; Que, Ri-sheng; Chen, Li

    2014-12-01

    Differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) is a common malignancy. The general treatments are thyroidectomy of the affected lobe along with lymphadenectomy. However, bone metastasis is rare in DTC compared with other malignancies and the management of metastasis foci is still controversial. Here we present a case of follicular thyroid carcinoma with the 6th cervical vertebra body metastasis successfully treated by total thyroidectomy, cervical corpectomy, and internal fixation, followed by hormone replacement therapy and radioiodine therapy. Eleven additional patients diagnosed as thyroid carcinoma with bone metastasis collected from Chinese literature between January 1996 and December 2013 were also reviewed. The mean age of the 12 patients at presentation was (53.9±9.2) years (rang, 42-72 years) and the male to female ratio was 1:2. Nine cases received total/near-total thyroidectomy or lobectomy while the other three patients refused for personal reasons. The interventions for bone metastasis were one-stage operation (9/12), I(131) adjuvant therapy (3/12), chemotherapy (1/12), and no intervention (1/12). During the follow-up, two patients died of metastatic carcinoma recurrence, one died of multiple organ metastasis, and one with an unknown reason. We conclude that the management of thyroid carcinoma with bone metastasis needs multidisciplinary cooperation. Surgical resection is still the first choice for cure, while the combined one-stage operation on the primary and metastatic sites followed by hormone replacement therapy and radioiodine therapy is an applicable treatment.

  8. Thallium-201 imaging in the follow-up of differentiated thyroid carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Brendel, A.J.; Guyot, M.; Jeandot, R.; Lefort, G.; Manciet, G.

    1988-09-01

    Since thallium-201 imaging has been reported as a potential means of follow-up of patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) during ongoing thyroid suppression therapy, the authors evaluated the diagnostic sensitivity of this procedure in 31 patients known to have metastases or local recurrence. Among 51 tumor sites /sup 201/TI imaging had a detection rate of 45% whereas 84% was noted for imaging with /sup 131/I administered in therapeutic doses. Thus, even though the effectiveness of the two radionuclides is not strictly comparable due to the difference in the administered doses, Thallium imaging cannot be recommended as the only modality for the follow-up of patients with DTC. Six of the eight tumor sites negative with /sup 131/I were positive with /sup 201/TI (especially metastatic cervico-mediastinal lymph nodes). So /sup 201/TI imaging may particularly be helpful in localizing metastases or recurrences in patients with a negative /sup 131/I scan and abnormal levels of serum thyroglobulin.

  9. Functional Variations in the ATM Gene and Susceptibility to Differentiated Thyroid Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Li; Morari, Elaine Cristina; Wei, Qingyi

    2012-01-01

    Context: ATM is critical in response to ionizing radiation-induced DNA damage. Objective: Variations in ATM are hypothesized to affect individual susceptibility to thyroid cancer. Our objective was to evaluate the association between ATM polymorphisms and thyroid cancer risk. Design, Participants, and Methods: Six ATM single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) were genotyped in two independent case-control series including 592 patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) and 885 healthy individuals. An unconditional logistic regression model was applied to calculate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for each SNP with respect to risk of DTC and the combination effect of SNP on cancer risk. Results: The risk-allele frequencies of all the SNP were similar in the two case-control populations. Under a dominant model of inheritance, the G allele of ATM rs189037 exhibited a protective effect against DTC (adjusted OR = 0.8; 95% CI, 0.6–1.0; P = 0.04), and the G allele of rs1800057 was associated with increased risk of DTC (adjusted OR = 1.9; 95% CI, 1.1–3.1; P = 0.02). A protective haplotype (A-G-C-T-C-A) was associated with decreased risk of DTC in non-Hispanic whites (adjusted OR = 0.2; 95% CI, 0.0–0.8; P = 0.03). A significant dose-response relationship was observed between the total number of risk alleles of ATM and DTC risk (P = 0.01). Carriers of a combination of six to seven and eight to 10 risk alleles were at 30% (adjusted OR = 1.3; 95% CI, 1.0–1.7) and 50% (adjusted OR = 1.5; 95% CI, 1.1–2.1) increased risk of DTC, respectively. Conclusion: Individual susceptibility to DTC may be attributable to polymorphisms of ATM, and the associations warrant confirmation in independent studies. PMID:22438227

  10. Testicular function in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma treated with radioiodine

    SciTech Connect

    Pacini, F.; Gasperi, M.; Fugazzola, L.

    1994-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess whether {sup 131}I therapy for differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) can affect endocrine testicular function. Serum follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and testosterone (T) concentrations were measured in 103 patients periodically submitted for radioiodine therapy for residual or metastatic disease. Mean follow-up was 93.7{+-}54 mo (range 10-243 mo). Mean FSH values in {sup 131}I-treated patients tested after their last treatment were 15.3{+-}9.9 mU/ml, significantly higher than those of 19 untreated patients (6.5{+-}3.1 mU/ml). Considering the mean +3 s.d. FSH of untreated subjects as the upper limit of normal range, 36.8% of the patients had an abnormal increase in serum FSH. Longitudinal analysis performed in 21 patients showed that the behavior of FSH in response to {sup 131}I therapy was not universal. Six patients had no change or a slight increase in serum FSH after {sup 131}I administration; eleven patients had a transient increase above normal values 6-12 mo after {sup 131}I treatment, with return to normal levels in subsequent months. The administration of a second dose was followed by a similar increase in FSH levels. Finally, four patients, followed for a long period of time and treated with several {sup 131}I doses, showed a progressive increase in serum FSH, which eventually became permanent. Semen analysis, performed in a small subgroup of patients, showed a consistent reduction in the number of normokinetic sperm. No change was found in serum T levels between treated and untreated patients. The results indicate that {sup 131}I therapy for thyroid carcinoma is associated with transient impairment of testicular germinal cell function. The damage may become permanent for high-radiation activities delivered year after year and might pose a significant risk of infertility. 14 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Pleural epithelioid angiosarcoma with lymphatic differentiation arisen after radiometabolic therapy for thyroid carcinoma: immunohistochemical findings and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Cabibi, Daniela; Pipitone, Giulia; Porcasi, Rossana; Ingrao, Sabrina; Benza, Ignazio; Porrello, Calogero; Cajozzo, Massimo; Giannone, Antonino Giulio

    2017-08-15

    Pleural angiosarcoma is a rare tumor that causes diffuse pleural thickening and effusion, mimicking mesothelioma. Immunohistochemistry is needed to highlight endothelial differentiation. We describe the first case of pleural angiosarcoma with lymphatic differentiation following radiometabolic therapy for thyroid carcinoma. A 50-year-old man showed diffuse pleural thickening and effusion. Nine years earlier, he underwent thyroidectomy and radiometabolic therapy for thyroid carcinoma with lymph node metastases. Histologically, the tumor consisted of a solid proliferation of atypical epithelioid cells and anastomosed vascular spaces, lacking of red blood cells and containing Alcian blue positive material. The tumor showed positive immunostaining for Vimentin, CD31, CK7, D2-40, c-MYC, Ki67, focal positivity for PanCK, and negative immunostaining for Factor VIII, CD34, WT1, CK5/6, Calretinin, EMA, HBME-1, CEA, p63, EpCAM, Bcl-2, TTF1 and Thyroglobulin. CD99 showed a granular/paranuclear pattern of positivity. The histological and immunohistochemical features were consistent with "pleural angiosarcoma with lymphatic differentiation, epithelioid variant". Epithelioid angiosarcoma with lymphatic differentiation is very rare and aggressive. Moreover, the positivity for c-MYC suggests the relationship with radiometabolic therapy. To our knowledge, this is the first case of pleural c-MYC-positive angiosarcoma with lymphatic differentiation reported in the literature and the first one arisen after radiometabolic therapy for thyroid carcinoma.

  12. [Clinical guideline for management of patients with low risk differentiated thyroid carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Díez, Juan José; Oleaga, Amelia; Álvarez-Escolá, Cristina; Martín, Tomás; Galofré, Juan Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Incidence of thyroid cancer is increasing in Spain and worldwide. Overall thyroid cancer survival is very high, and stratification systems to reliably identify patients with worse prognosis have been developed. However, marked differences exist between the different specialists in clinical management of low-risk patients with thyroid carcinoma. Almost half of all papillary thyroid carcinomas are microcarcinomas, and 90% are tumors < 2 cm that have a particularly good prognosis. However, they are usually treated more aggressively than needed, despite the lack of adequate scientific support. Surgery remains the gold standard treatment for these tumors. However, lobectomy may be adequate in most patients, without the need for total thyroidectomy. Similarly, prophylactic lymph node dissection of the central compartment is not required in most cases. This more conservative approach prevents postoperative complications such as hypoparathyroidism or recurrent laryngeal nerve injury. Postoperative radioiodine remnant ablation and strict suppression of serum thyrotropin, although effective for the more aggressive forms of thyroid cancer, have not been shown to be beneficial for the treatment of low risk patients, and may impair their quality of life. This guideline provides recommendations from the task force on thyroid cancer of the Spanish Society of Endocrinology and Nutrition for adequate management of patients with low-risk thyroid cancer. Copyright © 2015 SEEN. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. Reproductive and menstrual factors and risk of differentiated thyroid carcinoma: the EPIC study.

    PubMed

    Zamora-Ros, Raul; Rinaldi, Sabina; Biessy, Carine; Tjønneland, Anne; Halkjaer, Jytte; Fournier, Agnes; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Mesrine, Sylvie; Tikk, Kaja; Fortner, Reneé T; Boeing, Heiner; Förster, Jana; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Papatesta, Eleni-Maria; Masala, Giovanna; Tagliabue, Giovanna; Panico, Salvatore; Tumino, Rosario; Polidoro, Silvia; Peeters, Petra H M; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Lund, Eiliv; Argüelles, Marcial; Agudo, Antonio; Molina-Montes, Esther; Navarro, Carmen; Barricarte, Aurelio; Larrañaga, Nerea; Manjer, Jonas; Almquist, Martin; Sandström, Maria; Hennings, Joakim; Tsilidis, Konstantinos K; Schmidt, Julie A; Khaw, Kay-Thee; Wareham, Nicholas J; Romieu, Isabelle; Byrnes, Graham; Gunter, Marc J; Riboli, Elio; Franceschi, Silvia

    2015-03-01

    Differentiated thyroid carcinoma (TC) is threefold more common in women than in men and, therefore, a role of female hormones in the etiology of differentiated TC has been suggested. We assessed these hypotheses in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. Among 345,157 women (mean age 51) followed for an average of 11 years, 508 differentiated TC cases were identified. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using Cox proportional hazards regression models. No significant associations were observed between differentiated TC risk and number of pregnancies, breast feeding, menopausal status, and age at menarche and at menopause. Significant associations were found with history of infertility problems (HR 1.70; 95% CI 1.12-2.60), a recent pregnancy (HR for ≤ 5 vs. >5 years before recruitment 3.87; 95% CI 1.43-10.46), menopause type (HR for surgical vs. natural menopause: 2.16; 95% CI 1.41-3.31), oral contraceptive (OC) use at recruitment (HR: 0.48; 95% CI 0.25-0.92) and duration of OC use (HR for ≥ 9 vs. ≤ 1 year: 0.66; 95% CI: 0.50-0.89). An increased risk was also found with hormone replacement therapy use at recruitment (HR = 1.30, 95% CI 1.02-1.67), but this was not significant after adjustment for type of menopause (HR = 1.22, 95% CI 0.95-1.57). Overall, our findings do not support a strong role of reproductive and menstrual factors, and female hormone use in the etiology of differentiated TC. The few observed associations may be real or accounted for by increased surveillance in women who had infertility problems, recent pregnancies or underwent surgical menopause.

  14. Association of BRCA1 Functional Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms with Risk of Differentiated Thyroid Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Li; Doan, Phi C.; Wei, Qingyi; Liu, Yanhong; Li, Guojun

    2012-01-01

    Background Breast cancer 1, early onset (BRCA1) is a vital DNA repair gene, and the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of this gene have been studied in diverse cancer types. In this study, we investigated the association between eight common BRCA1 functional SNPs and the risk of differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC). Methods This cancer center-based case–control study included 303 DTC cases and 511 controls. A polymerase chain reaction-based restriction fragment length polymorphism assay was performed for genotyping. Unconditional logistical regression analysis was used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) in single-SNP analysis and haplotype analysis. Results A decreased risk of DTC was found for the A1988G heterozygous AG genotype (adjusted OR=0.63, 95% CI: 0.45–0.87, Bonferroni-adjusted p-value=0.036). AATAATA and ATAA haplotypes that carry C33420T variant allele were associated with reduced papillary thyroid cancer risk (adjusted OR=0.52, 95% CI: 0.33–0.84; adjusted OR=0.62, 95% CI: 0.40–0.95, respectively). Also, having a combination of ≥3 favorable genotypes was associated with a DTC risk reduction (adjusted OR=0.69, 95% CI: 0.50–0.95). The A31875G AG/GG genotype was associated with a 69% reduced risk of multifocal primary tumor in DTC patients (adjusted OR=0.31, 95% CI: 0.12–0.81). Conclusion BRCA1 genetic polymorphisms may play a role in DTC risk, while the possible associations warrant confirmation in independent studies. PMID:22136207

  15. [15 years' results in the treatment of differentiated thyroid carcinoma in a region of endemic goiter].

    PubMed

    Perinetti, H A; Staneloni, L N; Vitale, R

    1990-01-01

    We have evaluated the results of differentiated thyroid carcinoma treatment after 15 years of follow up. The group consisted of 120 cases of papillary type and 144 cases of follicular type; the mean age of the patients was 38.2 years for papillary and 46.5 for the follicular. The ratio men/women was 1/4 for the papillary and 1/3.2 for the follicular. The prognostic factors evaluated included: a) histologic types according to WHO classification, b) clinical stage, c) age and d) sex. The staging of the disease followed the classification suggested by Smendal, stage I: intraglandular disease; stage II: regional lymph node metastases; stage III: invasion of other tissues in the neck or mediastinum and stage IV: distant metastases. The basic treatment was surgery with the use of 131I and thyroid hormone. The results were statistically analyzed with the conventional life table method or chi square. At 15 years the overall survival was 84 +/- 4% for the papillary type and 66 +/- 9% for the follicular type (p = 0.01) (Fig. 1). The patients treated in stage I had a survival of 90 +/- 5%, significantly higher than those in stage II (53 +/- 8%), p less than 0.03. In stage III and IV the small number of patients made it difficult to interpret the results statistically (Fig. 2). The age of the patients appears to be another prognostic factor. The group under 40 years had 85 +/- 5% of survival compared to 59 +/- 4% over 40 years, p less than 0.01 (Fig. 3).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  16. Side effects of rational dose iodine-131 therapy for metastatic well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Van Nostrand, D.; Neutze, J.; Atkins, F.

    1986-10-01

    Benua, Leeper, and others (BEL) have advocated the estimation of radiation exposure to the blood to select a more rational maximum safe dose of radioiodine (dosimetry) to treat metastatic functioning well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma. After adopting the BEL dosimetry approach, we reviewed the immediate (during hospitalization) and intermediate (from discharge up to 3 mo) side effects after our initial 15 therapies in ten patients. The doses ranged from 51 mCi (1887 MBq) to 450 mCi (16.65 GBq). Immediate side effects were observed in 12/15 (80%), are described in detail, and were as follows: gastrointestinal 10/15, salivary 9/15, nonsalivary neck pain, swelling, etc. 2/15, pulmonary 0/15. Intermediate side effects were observed in 10/15 (67%), are described in detail, and were as follows: gastrointestinal 0/15, salivary 3/15, nonsalivary neck pain, swelling, etc. 3/15, nasal complaints 2/15, transient bone marrow suppression 9/10, pulmonary 0/15. No patient required blood transfusions or had complications secondary to reduced blood counts. All patient complaints resolved; however, several patients may have reduced baseline blood counts one year after therapy. No other long-term side effect has been noted but the mean follow-up has been only 15 mo. In our opinion, we have not observed any side effect to date which would contraindicate the continued use and evaluation of the BEL dosimetry approach.

  17. Thyroglobulin levels to follow-up patients with treated differentiated thyroid carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Moser, E.; Braun, S.; Bueell, U.; Kirsch, C.M.; Tosch, U.; Wendt, T.

    1984-01-01

    Serum thyroglobulin (hTg) measurements by commercial radioimmunoassay were performed in the follow-up of 118 patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma undergoing I-131 local and whole-body scans following surgery and I-131 therapy. Patients with positive anti-hTg antibodies (23% of cases) were excluded. In all remaining I-131 accumulating residual, recurrent, or metastatic tumors, hTg levels were elevated (greater than 6.25 ng/ml, minimum detectable value). Twelve patients with neither recurrence nor metastases had elevate hTg levels. Sensitivity and specificity depended on the threshold used for elevate hTg levels. At an hTg-threshold of 6.25 ng/ml sensitivity has 100%, specificity has 82%. As hTg levels were reported to depend on endogenous TSH stimulation, it is not yet advisable to replace I-131 scans totally by hTg determination. After having determined an hTg ''baseline'' below detectable values (less than 6.25 ng/ml), we reduced the number of I-131 scans by half. However, elevated hTg levels were an indication for an I-131 scan. Therefore, on the basis of 23% of our patients who had anti-hTg antibodies the need exists to develop a commercial assay which is independent from antibodies.

  18. Usefulness of PET/CT in the diagnosis of recurrent or metastasized differentiated thyroid carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    LU, CUN-ZHI; CAO, SU-SHENG; WANG, WEI; LIU, JUN; FU, NING; LU, FENG

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the usefulness of the positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) in the detection of recurrence or metastasization of differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) in patients with abnormal thyroglobulin levels and negative findings on the 131I-diagnostic whole-body scanning (dWBS). Fifteen patients with DTC, abnormal thyroglobulin levels, and negative 131I-dWBS findings were scanned using the 18F-FDG PET/CT. Positive diagnosis was based on postoperative histologic findings, and clinical and imaging follow-up results obtained in the subsequent 6 months. In addition, preoperative and postoperative thyroglobulin levels were compared. Using the findings of 18F-FDG PET/CT and data on confirmed positive diagnosis, sensitivity and positive predictive value (PPV) were calculated. Sensitivity and PPV of PET/CT in detecting recurrence or metastasisization of DTC were 93.30 and 91.40%, respectively. Furthermore, postoperative thyroglobulin levels were markedly lower compared to the preoperative levels (respectively, 4.67±1.71 vs. 58.53±18.34 ng/ml; p<0.05). PET/CT scan with 18F-FDG is an informative technique for the detection of recurrent or metastasized DTC in patients with abnormal thyroglobulin levels and negative 131I-dWBS findings. PMID:27073490

  19. Colon carcinoma metastatic to the thyroid gland

    SciTech Connect

    Lester, J.W. Jr.; Carter, M.P.; Berens, S.V.; Long, R.F.; Caplan, G.E.

    1986-09-01

    Metastatic carcinoma to the thyroid gland rarely is encountered in clinical practice; however, autopsy series have shown that it is not a rare occurrence. A case of adenocarcinoma of the colon with metastases to the thyroid is reported. A review of the literature reveals that melanoma, breast, renal, and lung carcinomas are the most frequent tumors to metastasize to the thyroid. Metastatic disease must be considered in the differential diagnosis of cold nodules on radionuclide thyroid scans, particularly in patients with a known primary.

  20. Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma, thyroid lymphoma, and metastasis to thyroid.

    PubMed

    Untch, Brian R; Olson, John A

    2006-07-01

    Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma, thyroid lymphoma, and secondary metastasis to the thyroid gland are uncommon thyroid malignancies. They represent significant challenges for the surgeon owing to difficulties in diagnosis, aggressive biology, and the infrequency of their presentation. An awareness and appreciation of multimodality treatment strategies is essential for their management.

  1. [Therapy concept in differentiated thyroid gland carcinoma--results of 25 years with 257 patients].

    PubMed

    Gemsenjäger, E; Heitz, P U; Martina, B; Schweizer, I

    2000-11-02

    Differentiated thyroid carcinoma is a unique tumour in that a low risk-patient population with a tumour-related death rate of near 0% can be found. Yet in these patients the risk and risk factors of curable recurrences must be considered. The question therefore arises, whether in defined subgroups of low risk-patients a reduced extent of treatment (hemithyroidectomy, total thyroidectomy without 131I ablation) may result in cure without recurrence, including low morbidity of treatment and reduced costs. In a consecutive series of 257 patients suffering from papillary (146) or follicular (111) carcinomas operated by one surgeon over a period of 25 years, a reduced extent of treatment was carried out essentially in subgroups of minimally invasive follicular carcinoma, namely in pT1,2-tumors of young patients, or in those with capsular invasion alone, and in pT1,2 N0 papillary tumors, representing a subgroup of TNM stage I and II tumors. For N-staging selective lymphadenectomy was carried out at the beginning of the study, but elective lymphadenectomy was used since 1996 for papillary carcinoma. Follow-up was 1-25 (mean = 8) years. All excised tumors were examined by one pathologist. 167 (approximately 2/3) of the patients presented with a single nodule, whereas in 1/3 a concomitant benign nodular goiter or an immunothyropathy was found. The percentage of grossly invasive follicular carcinoma decreased during the 25 year period from 41 to 10% of all patients (p < 0.0005), whereas the percentage of papillary cancer rise from 35% to 66% (p < 0.005). Hemithyroidectomy, total thyroidectomy without, and with 131I ablation respectively, were performed in 32%, 24%, and 44% of patients. In papillary carcinoma N1-status was found in 21 (23%)/ 92 patients with selective, and in 18/54 patients (33%) with elective lymphadenectomy, respectively (n.s.). One (0.4%) patient died postoperatively. Permanent hypoparathyroidism occurred in 1.9% (3% for total thyroidectomy), permanent

  2. Tc-99m radio-guided completion thyroidectomy for differentiated thyroid carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Karyağar, Savaş; Karatepe, Oğuzhan; Bender, Ömer; Mulazımoğlu, Mehmet; Özpaçaci, Tevfik; Uyanık, Ercan; Karyağar, Sevda S; Yalçın, Orhan; Özdenkaya, Yaşar

    2010-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study is to investigate whether or not radio-guided surgery has any beneficial effects on completion thyroidectomy (CT) and the associated complication rates. Patients and Methods: Twenty-seven patients were scheduled for CT, for thyroid carcinoma, from December 2004 to June 2005, and were included in the study. All the patients had had initial thyroid surgery in other centers and been referred to our clinic for CT. Operation findings and the effectiveness of Tc-99m radio-guided CT were analyzed. Results: The intraoperative mean ratio of thyroid activity to background activity counted with a gamma probe was 1.3 ± 0.3. Average operation timing was 74 ± 9 minutes. Postoperatively, no residual tissue was detected in any of the patients with ultrasonography and thyroid scintigraphy. In the first postoperative month, serum TSH level was 61 ± 16.4 mIU / L, when preoperatively it was 7.3 ± 3.1 mIU / L (P < 0.001). In the postoperative period, one patient experienced temporary hypoparathyroidism (3.9%). Permanent hypoparathyroidism or recurrent laryngeal nerve damage was not detected in any patient. Conclusion: Tc-99 radio-guided CT is a reliable surgical method, which provides the detection and removal of residual thyroid tissues with minimal complications. PMID:20844663

  3. Thyroid peroxidase (TPO) as a tumor marker in the follow-up of differentiated thyroid carcinomas with surgical and ablative radioiodine therapy. An assessment after evaluation.

    PubMed

    Franke, W G; Zöphel, K; Wunderlich, G; Kühne, A; Schimming, C; Kropp, J; Bredow, J

    1999-01-01

    The clinical significance of serum thyroid peroxidase (TPO) for differentiated thyroid carcinomas(DTA) is estimated differently. In our preliminary studies it was found that TPO presented information extending those that from hTG. For further clarification a prospective follow-up study was performed including 66 female and 14 male total thyroidectomized patients with DTA for the time course of TPO and human thyroglobulin (hTg) in relation to the ablative radioidine therapy (ART). In 34/50 evaluable cases TPO levels showed an approximately analogous time course with hTg. In relation to the extension of residues, some cases presented increasing of TPO and hTG after radioiodine treatment. 6/7 patients suffering from extended postoperative residues with high anti hTg levels but without elevated TPO concentrations showed distinctly elevated TPO values. Therefore, TPO seems to be an indicator for the destruction of normal thyroid cells or thyroid tumor cells. The clinical value of TPO seems to be in the time being limited to DTA due to false negative hTg values. However, it should be possible that TPO can did the evaluation of thyroid specific therapy.

  4. Possible reasons for different pattern disappearance of thyroglobulin and thyroid peroxidase autoantibodies in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma following total thyroidectomy and iodine-131 ablation.

    PubMed

    Thomas, D; Liakos, V; Vassiliou, E; Hatzimarkou, F; Tsatsoulis, A; Kaldrimides, P

    2007-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to reveal some possible factors for the differences between the pattern of disappearance of thyroglobulin autoantibodies (anti-Tg) and thyroid peroxidase autoantibodies (anti-TPO) in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma following thyroidectomy and iodine-131 ablation. Patients with a history of follicular cell derived cancer (papillary, follicular, both papillary and follicular, Hürthle cell) and high pre-operative titers of anti-TPO and/or anti-Tg autoantibodies were retrospectively studied. Thyroglobulin (Tg) levels were measured using radio-immunometric assay (RIA). Anti-Tg and anti-TPO levels during the first 6 yr' follow-up were measured by passive agglutination, during the following 10 yr by ELISA method and during the last 2 yr by chemiluminescence assay. A statistically significant difference was observed between median time (72 months) of disappearance of anti-TPO and median time (39 months) of disappearance of anti-Tg in patients with complete ablation of thyroid tissue, following iodine-131 administration (p=0.0395, Logrank statistic=4.24, Kaplan-Meier method). A statistically significant difference was observed between median time (106 months) of disappearance of anti-TPO and median time (33 months) of disappearance of anti-Tg in patients >45 yr of age (p=0.034) and between median time (111 months) of disappearance of anti-TPO and median time (41 months) of disappearance of anti-Tg in patients with tumor size <2 cm (p=0.0175). We concluded that patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma and pre-surgical elevated titers of both Tg and anti-TPO tend to become earlier anti-Tg seronegative. Although tumor size and age may influence the pattern of thyroid autoantibody reduction, the exact reasons for the different rhythm of autoantibodies decrease must further be evaluated.

  5. Treatment of thyroid follicular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Ríos, Antonio; Rodríguez, José M; Parrilla, Pascual

    2015-12-01

    Differentiated thyroid carcinoma includes 2 different tumor types, papillary (PC) and follicular carcinoma (FC), and although similar, their prognosis is different. FC is uncommon, and this has led to it often being analyzed together with PC, and therefore the true reality of this tumor is difficult to know. As a result, the diagnostic and therapeutic management and the prognostic factors in differentiated carcinoma are more predictive of PC than FC. In this review we analyze the current state of many of the therapeutic aspects of this pathology. The best surgical technique and the usefulness of associated lymphadenectomy is also analyzed. Regarding post-surgical ablation with 131I, the indications, doses and usefulness are discussed. For the remaining therapies we analyze the few indications for radiotherapy and chemotherapy, and of new drugs such as tyrosine kinase inhibitors.

  6. The story of poorly differentiated thyroid carcinoma: From Langhans' description to the Turin proposal via Juan Rosai.

    PubMed

    Volante, Marco; Bussolati, Gianni; Papotti, Mauro

    2016-09-01

    Rosai, reinterpreting Langhans' "proliferating goiter," adopted the term "poorly differentiated carcinoma" for a specific thyroid tumor with insular features 30 years ago. This tumor type is only one of those approached by Dr. Rosai in the thyroid field (a PubMed search as of August 31, 2015 on "Rosai & thyroid" disclosed 73 articles), but seems the most innovative and representative of his heavy contribution to thyroid tumor classification. The diagnostic problems associated with PDTC recognition date back a long time, with a still ongoing debate on the nature of PDTC, its morphological diagnostic features, its clinical significance, and its optimal therapeutic approach. In 2004, PDTC was at last incorporated in the WHO classification of thyroid tumors, but the proposed diagnostic criteria were heterogeneous, controversial, and hardly applicable in the diagnostic practice. A consensus conference held in Turin in 2006 was lead by the authors and Dr. Rosai and confirmed the presence of geographical differences among claimed classical PDTC forms, which were responsible for a poor interobserver reproducibility of the diagnostic criteria. A diagnostic algorithm was therefore designed to define the crucial parameters to categorize PDTC and better stratify these distinctly aggressive tumors.

  7. Significance of MDM2 and P14ARF polymorphisms in susceptibility to differentiated thyroid carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Fenghua; Xu, Li; Wei, Qingyi; Song, Xicheng; Sturgis, Erich M.; Li, Guojun

    2012-01-01

    Background Murine double minute 2 (MDM2) oncoprotein and p14ARF tumor suppressor play pivotal roles in regulating p53 and function in the MAPK pathway, which is frequently mutated in differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC). We hypothesized that functional polymorphisms in the promoters of MDM2 and p14ARF contribute to the inter-individual difference in predisposition to DTC. Methods MDM2-rs2279744, MDM2-rs937283, p14ARF-rs3731217, and p14ARF-rs3088440 were genotyped in 303 patients with DTC and 511 cancer-free controls. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results MDM2-rs2279744 and p14ARF-rs3731217 were associated with a significantly increased risk of DTC (MDM2-rs2279744: TT vs. TG/GG, OR = 1.5, 95% CI, 1.1–2.0; p14ARF-rs3731217: TG/GG vs. TT, OR = 1.7, 95% CI, 1.2–2.3). No association was found for MDM2-rs937283 or p14ARF-rs3088440. Individuals carrying 3–4 risk genotypes of MDM2 and p14ARF had 2.2 times (95% CI, 1.4–3.5) the DTC risk of individuals carrying 0–1 risk genotypes (Ptrend = 0.021). The combined effect of MDM2 and p14ARF on DTC risk was confined to young subjects (≤45 years), non-smokers, non-drinkers, and subjects with a first-degree family history of cancer. These associations were quite similar in strength when cases were restricted to those with papillary thyroid cancer. Conclusion Our results suggest that polymorphisms of MDM2 and p14ARF contribute to the inter-individual difference in susceptibility to DTC, either alone or more likely jointly. The observed associations warrant further confirmation in independent studies. PMID:23218882

  8. Prognostic value of the eighth edition AJCC TNM classification for differentiated thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae Hyuk; Kim, Young Nam; Kim, Hye In; Park, So Young; Choe, Jun-Ho; Kim, Jung-Han; Kim, Jee Soo; Oh, Young Lyun; Hahn, Soo Yeon; Shin, Jung Hee; Kim, Kyunga; Jeong, Jong Gill; Kim, Sun Wook; Chung, Jae Hoon

    2017-08-01

    The prognostic value of the proposed eighth edition of the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) tumor, node, and metastasis (TNM) classification is currently unclear. The aim of the study was to evaluate the prognostic value of the eighth edition of the AJCC TNM classification. We retrospectively assessed 3176 patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) who underwent thyroidectomy at a tertiary Korean hospital from 1996 to 2005. Cancer-specific survival (CSS) was analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier method and compared using the log-rank test. Performance of the eighth edition TNM with respect to prediction of CSS was assessed against the current seventh edition. Upon reclassification according to the eighth edition, 37.6% of patients were down-staged. The proportions of stage I and II tumors increased from 61.9% to 81.1% and from 1.7% to 16.0%, respectively, whereas those of stage III and IVB (formerly IVC in the seventh edition) decreased from 27.6% to 2.3% and 0.8% to 0.5%, respectively. The proportions of variance explained (PVEs) for the ability of the eighth and the seventh edition to predict CSS were 3.9% and 2.9%, respectively. The C-index values were 0.765 (95% confidence interval 0.764-0.766) for the eighth edition and 0.736 (0.735-0.737) for the seventh edition. Our results demonstrate that the eighth edition TNM more accurately predicts CSS for patients with DTC than does the seventh edition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. [Usefulness of ultrasound in the diagnosis and management of well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Camargo, Rosalinda Y A de; Tomimori, Eduardo Kiyoshi

    2007-07-01

    Thyroid nodules are found in the vast majority of the population, but only 5 to 10% are malignant. Ultrasonography of the thyroid, by virtue of being a straightforward, non-invasive method presenting strong correlation with macroscopic aspects of the thyroid gland, is being increasingly used to identify nodules that present a higher risk of malignancy. The presence of certain ultrasonographic characteristics such as hypoechogenicity, microcalcifications, irregular contours and central vascularization on Doppler, increase the risk of the lesion being malignant. Conversely, nodules presenting benign ultrasonographic characteristics such as hyperechogenicity and a mixed sponge-like aspect, and a concordant cytology, have a negative predictive value of 96.6%. It is, thus, important to examine all nodular lesions and to identify suspicious lesions that need biopsy, especially in multinodular glands. Ultrasonography is also highly sensitive in the identification of suspicious cervical lymph nodes during the follow-up of patients with thyroid carcinoma, even when PCI is negative and serum thyroglobulin (Tg) levels are undetectable. Tg measurement in the needle wash-out content is recommended as this has proven to be more sensitive than cytology in the diagnosis of cervical metastasis, especially where there is liquid content, and it is not affected by the presence of anti-Tg antibodies.

  10. Trametinib in Increasing Tumoral Iodine Incorporation in Patients With Recurrent or Metastatic Thyroid Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-01-31

    BRAF Gene Mutation; Poorly Differentiated Thyroid Gland Carcinoma; Recurrent Thyroid Gland Carcinoma; Stage IV Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage IV Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Stage IVA Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage IVA Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Stage IVB Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage IVB Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Stage IVC Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage IVC Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma

  11. Insulin-like growth factor-I and risk of differentiated thyroid carcinoma in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Julie A.; Allen, Naomi E.; Almquist, Martin; Franceschi, Silvia; Rinaldi, Sabina; Tipper, Sarah J.; Tsilidis, Konstantinos K.; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Overvad, Kim; Tjønneland, Anne; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Dossus, Laure; Mesrine, Sylvie; Kaaks, Rudolf; Lukanova, Annekatrin; Boeing, Heiner; Lagiou, Pagona; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Palli, Domenico; Krogh, Vittorio; Panico, Salvatore; Tumino, Rosario; Zanetti, Roberto; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Peeters, Petra H; Lund, Eiliv; Menéndez, Virginia; Agudo, Antonio; Sánchez, María-José; Chirlaque, Maria-Dolores; Ardanaz, Eva; Larrañaga, Nerea; Hennings, Joakim; Sandström, Maria; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nick; Romieu, Isabelle; Gunter, Marc J.; Riboli, Elio; Key, Timothy J.; Travis, Ruth C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Little is known about the causes of thyroid cancer, but insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) might play an important role in its development due to its mitogenic and anti-apoptotic properties. Methods This study prospectively investigated the association between serum IGF-I concentrations and risk of differentiated thyroid carcinoma in a case-control study nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. 345 incident cases of differentiated thyroid carcinoma were individually matched to 735 controls by study centre, sex, and age, date, time, and fasting status at blood collection, follow-up duration, and for women menopausal status, use of exogenous hormones, and phase of menstrual cycle at blood collection. Serum IGF-I concentrations were measured by immunoassay, and risk of differentiated thyroid cancer in relation to IGF-I concentration was estimated using conditional logistic regression. Results There was a positive association between IGF-I concentrations and risk of differentiated thyroid carcinoma: the odds ratio for a doubling in IGF-I concentration was 1.48 (95% confidence interval: 1.06 – 2.08; ptrend = 0.02). The positive association with IGF-I was stable over time between blood collection and cancer diagnosis. Conclusion These findings suggest that IGF-I concentrations may be positively associated with risk of differentiated thyroid carcinoma. Impact This study provides the first prospective evidence of a potential association between circulating IGF-I concentrations and risk of differentiated thyroid carcinoma and may prompt the further investigations needed to confirm the association. PMID:24646451

  12. Papillary Carcinoma in Median Aberrant Thyroid (Ectopic) - Case Report

    PubMed Central

    K, Shashidhar; Deshmane, Vijaya Laxmi; Kumar, Veerendra; Arjunan, Ravi

    2014-01-01

    Median ectopic thyroid may be encountered anywhere from the foramen caecum to the diaphragm. Non lingual median aberrant thyroid (incomplete descent) usually found in the infrahyoid region and malignant transformation in this ectopic thyroid tissue is very rare. We report an extremely rare case of papillary carcinoma in non lingual median aberrant thyroid in a 25-year-old female. The differentiation between a carcinoma arising in the median ectopic thyroid tissue and a metastatic papillary carcinoma from an occult primary in the main thyroid gland is also discussed. PMID:25121039

  13. Extremely Well-Differentiated Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma Resembling Adenomatous Hyperplasia Can Metastasize to the Skull: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Pyo, Ju Yeon; Kim, Jisup; Choi, Sung-eun; Shin, Eunah; Yang, Seok-Woo; Park, Cheong Soo; Kim, Seok-Mo

    2017-01-01

    We describe herein histologic, immunohistochemical, and molecular findings and clinical manifestations of a rare case of an extremely well differentiated papillary thyroid carcinoma (EWD-PTC). Similarly, it is also difficult to diagnose follicular variant papillary thyroid carcinoma (FVPTC), whose diagnosis is still met with controversy. A recently reported entity of well-differentiated tumor of uncertain malignant potential (WDT-UMP) is added to the diagnostic spectrum harboring EWD-PTC and FVPTC. We report this case, because EWD-PTC is different from FVPTC in its papillary architecture, and also from WDT-UMP in its recurrence and metastatic pattern. These morphologically deceptive entities harbored diagnostic difficulties in the past because the diagnosis depended solely on histology. However, they are now diagnosed with more certainty by virtue of immunohistochemical and molecular studies. We experienced a case of EWD-PTC, which had been diagnosed as adenomatous hyperplasia 20 years ago and manifested recurrence with lymph node (LN) metastasis 7 years later. After another 7 years of follow-up, a new thyroid lesion had developed, diagnosed as FVPTC, with LN metastasis of EWD-PTC. One year later, the patient developed metastatic FVPTC in the skull. Immunohistochemically, the EWD-PTC was focally positive for CK19, negative for galectin-3, and focally negative for CD56. Molecular studies revealed BRAF-positivity and K-RAS negativity. The FVPTC in the left thyroid showed both BRAF and K-RAS negativity. In conclusion, EWD-PTC and FVPTC share similar histologic features, but they are different tumors with different molecular biologic and clinical manifestations. A large cohort of EWD-PTC should be included in further study. PMID:27873522

  14. Lenvatinib for the treatment of radioiodine-refractory differentiated thyroid carcinoma: a systematic review and indirect comparison with sorafenib.

    PubMed

    Kawalec, Pawel; Malinowska-Lipień, Iwona; Brzostek, Tomasz; Kózka, Maria

    2016-12-01

    Thyroid carcinoma is the most prevalent endocrine malignancy, with an increasing incidence over the past decades. Treatment of differentiated thyroid cancer consists of surgery followed by radioactive iodine (RAI) ablation of the thyroid remnant, and TSH suppression. Among new therapeutic solutions for patients with advanced RR-DTC stage, the most promising seem to be sorafenib and lenvatinib, up to now considered to be orphan drugs. Areas covered: We performed a systematic review of medical databases to collect all eligible clinical trials referring to the topic of our analysis. Due to the lack of direct clinical trials comparing the drugs we used an adjusted indirect comparison of efficacy and safety of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) by Bucher method. Expert commentary: Lenvatinib and sorafenib are drugs with strong evidence on efficacy in treatment of RR-DTC. Based on the currently available clinical data lenvatinib occurred more efficacious then sorafenib in RR-DTC therapy. Safety profile of the drugs was acceptable and comparative. Kinase inhibitors constitute a substantial progress in treatment of advanced thyroid cancer, have achieved long-lasting response and have improved survival without progress of the disease. In the near future we will deal with a range of therapeutic options for patients.

  15. Regional approaches to the management of patients with advanced, radioactive iodine-refractory differentiated thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Brose, Marcia S; Smit, Johannes; Capdevila, Jaume; Elisei, Rossella; Nutting, Christopher; Pitoia, Fabian; Robinson, Bruce; Schlumberger, Martin; Shong, Young Kee; Takami, Hiroshi

    2012-09-01

    For patients with advanced, radioactive iodine-refractory differentiated thyroid cancer, current treatment guidelines recommend clinical trial enrollment or small-molecule kinase inhibitor therapy. However, details of patient management vary between countries depending on trial availability and national regulatory policies. Insufficient clinical trial data and variable disease characteristics challenge the creation of universal guidelines, and treatment plans often reflect regional influences. A multidisciplinary, multiregional panel of experts met to discuss regional approaches to managing patients with advanced, radioactive iodine-refractory differentiated thyroid cancer and the potential impact of emerging therapies on current treatment strategies. Despite process-oriented regional differences, the decision-making strategies were similar. Multidisciplinary teams used to manage high-risk patients varied in composition across regions, particularly regarding the responsible physician's specialty. Cytotoxic chemotherapy was viewed as limited in clinical benefit, and targeted agents as attractive, based on promising data. Panel members support clinical trial enrollment as the preferred treatment strategy for managing these patients.

  16. Unusual false-positive radioiodine whole-body scans in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Salvatori, M; Saletnich, I; Rufini, V; Troncone, L

    1997-06-01

    Radioiodine whole-body imaging is the most accurate method in the diagnosis of metastases from differentiated thyroid cancer. However, false-positive images rarely occur. The authors report unusual cases of thymic hyperplasia and post-traumatic skull changes mimicking mediastinal, skull, or cerebral metastases. Nonthyroidal causes were diagnosed by other radionuclide studies (bone and brain scintigraphy) and CT scans. Follow-up and undetectable thyroglobulin levels helped confirm the benign cause.

  17. Medullary thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Leboulleux, Sophie; Baudin, Eric; Travagli, Jean-Paul; Schlumberger, Martin

    2004-09-01

    Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) arises from parafollicular or C cells that produce calcitonin (CT), and accounts for 5-10% of all thyroid cancers. MTC is hereditary in about 25% of cases. The discovery of a MTC in a patient has several implications: disease extent should be evaluated, phaeochromocytoma and hyperparathyroidism should be screened for and whether the MTC is sporadic or hereditary should be determined by a direct analysis of the RET proto-oncogene. In this review, pathological characteristics, tumour markers and genetic abnormalities in MTC are discussed. The diagnostic and therapeutic modalities applied to patients with clinical MTC and those identified with preclinical disease through familial screening are also described. Progresses concerning genetics, initial treatment, follow-up, screening and treatment of pheochromocytoma have permitted an improvement in the long-term outcome. However, there is no effective treatment for distant metastases, and new therapeutic modalities are urgently needed.

  18. Pediatric Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Starenki, Dmytro; Park, Jong-In

    Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC), which originates from thyroid parafollicular C cells, accounts for 3 to 5% of thyroid malignancies. MTC occurs either sporadically or in an inherited autosomal dominant manner. Hereditary MTC occurs as a familial MTC or as a part of multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) type 2A and B syndromes. A strong genotype-phenotype correlation has been observed between hereditary MTC and germ-line "gain of function" mutations of the RET proto-oncogene. Most cases of pediatric MTC are hereditary whereas sporadic MTC is rare in children and is usually diagnosed in adults. Therefore, MTC in children is most often diagnosed in the course of a familial genetic investigation. The standard treatment of MTC mainly requires surgery involving total thyroidectomy and central neck node dissection before extrathyroidal extension occurs. To prevent MTC development in hereditary syndromes, prophylactic thyroidectomy is performed in presymptomatic patients. An appropriate age at which the surgery should take place is determined based upon the data from genotyping, serum calcitonin measurements, and ultrasonography. For the treatment of advanced MTC cases, the broad spectrum receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors vandetanib and cabozantinib, which also inhibit RET, are used although they are not always effective.

  19. 68Ga-DOTATOC PET/CT in Patients with Iodine- and 18F-FDG-Negative Differentiated Thyroid Carcinoma and Elevated Serum Thyroglobulin.

    PubMed

    Binse, Ina; Poeppel, Thorsten D; Ruhlmann, Marcus; Ezziddin, Samer; Görges, Rainer; Sabet, Amir; Beiderwellen, Karsten; Bockisch, Andreas; Rosenbaum-Krumme, Sandra J

    2016-10-01

    This study evaluated the impact of (68)Ga-DOTATOC PET/CT in detecting recurrence or metastases in differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) patients with elevated serum thyroglobulin and both negative radioiodine imaging and negative (18)F-FDG PET/CT.

  20. An evaluation of the value of first thyroglobulin determination in the diagnostics of metastases immediately following differentiated thyroid carcinoma surgery.

    PubMed

    Makarewicz, Jacek; Adamczewski, Zbigniew; Rutkowski, Antoni; Mikosiński, Sławomir; Knapska-Kucharska, Małgorzata; Gonerska-Szadkowska, Anna; Oszukowska, Lidia; Karwowska, Anzelmina; Lewiński, Andrzej

    2006-01-01

    Evaluation of the differential value of the first thyroglobulin (Tg) concentration, measured after thyroidectomy (Tx) but before thyroid remnant ablation, in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) as a marker of either metastases or residual cancer (M). Data from 517 patients with DTC after Tx, with follow-up > 1.5 year were analysed retrospectively. Patients in whom either the course of the disease was unclear or interference in the Tg test was possible (a-TgAb [+], Tg recovery < 80%) were excluded from the study. Finally, the data from 247 patients were evaluated (age: 14-79 years; 223 women, 24 men). The results of TSH, thyroid radioiodine uptake (T(up24)), thyroid remnant volume (V) and Tg in patients with diagnosed M (group M1; n = 35) were compared with the same parameters in patients with remission > 1.5 year (group M0; n = 212). The area under the ROC curve was calculated. The clinical decision limit of Tg level to be suggestive of metastases was determined by means of efficiency curve. Groups M0 and M1 did not differ from each other with respect to TSH concentration (median 49.7 mIU/l vs 44.3; p = 0.16) or thyroid remnant volume (1.4 vs 1.1 ml; p = 0.79). However, they did differ with respect to T(up24) (7.6 vs 3.2%; p = 0.01) and Tg (4.5 vs 96.7 ng/ml; p = 0.000000). Area under ROC for Tg was 0.78 +/- 0.05 (mean +/- s.e.m.). The decision limit of Tg for suspected M was determined at 38.1 ng/ml, Tg sensitivity was 0.57 (95%CI 0.39-0.74) and specificity 0.96 (95%CI 0.92-0.98). First thyroglobulin concentration, determined after thyroidectomy but before other treatment, is higher in patients with metastatic DTC than in patients without such metastases. This indicates that Tg level may be used as an early marker of either residual or metastatic DTC (even if thyroid remnants are present).

  1. Curcumin induces G2/M arrest, apoptosis, NF-κB inhibition, and expression of differentiation genes in thyroid carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Schwertheim, Suzan; Wein, Frederik; Lennartz, Klaus; Worm, Karl; Schmid, Kurt Werner; Sheu-Grabellus, Sien-Yi

    2017-07-01

    The therapy of unresectable advanced thyroid carcinomas shows unfavorable outcome. Constitutive nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activation in thyroid carcinomas frequently contributes to therapeutic resistance; the radioiodine therapy often fails due to the loss of differentiated functions in advanced thyroid carcinomas. Curcumin is known for its anticancer properties in a series of cancers, but only few studies have focused on thyroid cancer. Our aim was to evaluate curcumin's molecular mechanisms and to estimate if curcumin could be a new therapeutic option in advanced thyroid cancer. Human thyroid cancer cell lines TPC-1 (papillary), FTC-133 (follicular), and BHT-101 (anaplastic) were treated with curcumin. Using real-time PCR analysis, we investigated microRNA (miRNA) and mRNA expression levels. Cell cycle, Annexin V/PI staining, and caspase-3 activity analysis were performed to detect apoptosis. NF-κB p65 activity and cell proliferation were analyzed using appropriate ELISA-based colorimetric assay kits. Treatment with 50 μM curcumin significantly increased the mRNA expression of the differentiation genes thyroglobulin (TG) and sodium iodide symporter (NIS) in all three cell lines and induced inhibition of cell proliferation, apoptosis, and decrease of NF-κB p65 activity. The miRNA expression analyses showed a significant deregulation of miRNA-200c, -21, -let7c, -26a, and -125b, known to regulate cell differentiation and tumor progression. Curcumin arrested cell growth at the G2/M phase. Curcumin increases the expression of redifferentiation markers and induces G2/M arrest, apoptosis, and downregulation of NF-κB activity in thyroid carcinoma cells. Thus, curcumin appears to be a promising agent to overcome resistance to the conventional cancer therapy.

  2. Incidental carcinoma of the thyroid.

    PubMed

    Pezzolla, Angela; Marzaioli, Rinaldo; Lattarulo, Serafina; Docimo, Giovanni; Conzo, Giovanni; Ciampolillo, Anna; Barile, Graziana; Anelli, Ferdinando Massimiliano; Madaro, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    The diagnosis of incidental thyroid carcinoma in patients submitted to thyroidectomy for a benign disease is quite frequent. A retrospective analysis was performed on 455 patients submitted to surgical intervention in order to establish the incidence of this kind of carcinoma. Two hundred fifty-six patients (56%) were affected by benign disease (176 multinodular goiter, 12 uninodular goiter, 1 Plummer disease and 67 Basedow disease) and 202 (44%) by carcinoma. In 28 of 256 patients (11%), affected by benign disease, occurred a histological diagnosis of thyroid carcinoma, (10 papillary carcinoma, 1 follicular carcinoma, 29 papillary carcinoma follicular variant). In this study it's considered incidental thyroid carcinoma the one occurred in patients who never underwent Fine Needle Aspiration (FNA) and there were no suspicious features in all exams that may suggest the presence of carcinoma. Twenty-three of the 40 incidental carcinoma (57.5%) were microcarcinomas. Ten patients had a sincronous carcinoma. Actually, these patients are still in a follow up program and no recurrency of disease is occasionally observed. This study shows that the only way to put doubts on the real benignity of the disease is the fine needle aspiration; there are no other instruments that could identify the occurrence of the carcinoma. Moreover in the majority of cases the incidental carcinoma is a microcarcinoma, it doesn't reach significant volume, may be not centered by a FNA, but in most cases it's not really biologically aggressive.

  3. Management of well-differentiated thyroid cancer.

    PubMed

    Liao, Selena; Shindo, Maisie

    2012-10-01

    This review provides an overview of current guideline recommendations for the clinical evaluation and surgical management of well-differentiated thyroid cancer, and further examines the evidence for controversial topics such as the minimum degree of primary resection, the role of elective central neck dissection, and the extent of lateral neck dissection. Well-differentiated thyroid cancer comprises the majority of thyroid cancers, about 90%, and includes both papillary and follicular carcinomas. Despite convergence of the medical community in establishing treatment guidelines under the American Thyroid Association, there still remain many areas of disagreement. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Inhibition of miR-146b expression increases radioiodine-sensitivity in poorly differential thyroid carcinoma via positively regulating NIS expression

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Luchuan; Lv, Bin; Chen, Bo; Guan, Ming; Sun, Yongfeng; Li, Haipeng; Zhang, Binbin; Ding, Changyuan; He, Shan; Zeng, Qingdong

    2015-07-10

    Dedifferentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) with the loss of radioiodine uptake (RAIU) is often observed in clinical practice under radioiodine therapy, indicating the challenge for poor prognosis. MicroRNA (miRNA) has emerged as a promising therapeutic target in many diseases; yet, the role of miRNAs in RAIU has not been generally investigated. Based on recent studies about miRNA expression in papillary or follicular thyroid carcinomas, the expression profiles of several thyroid relative miRNAs were investigated in one DTC cell line, derived from normal DTC cells by radioiodine treatment. The top candidate miR-146b, with the most significant overexpression profiles in dedifferentiated cells, was picked up. Further research found that miR-146b could be negatively regulated by histone deacetylase 3 (HDAC3) in normal cells, indicating the correlation between miR-146b and Na{sup +}/I{sup −} symporter (NIS)-mediated RAIU. Fortunately, it was confirmed that miR-146b could regulate NIS expression/activity; what is more important, miR-146b interference would contribute to the recovery of radioiodine-sensitivity in dedifferentiated cells via positively regulating NIS. In the present study, it was concluded that NIS-mediated RAIU could be modulated by miR-146b; accordingly, miR-146b might serve as one of targets to enhance efficacy of radioactive therapy against poorly differential thyroid carcinoma (PDTC). - Highlights: • Significant upregulated miR-146b was picked up from thyroid relative miRNAs in DTC. • MiR-146b was negatively regulated by HDAC3 in normal thyroid carcinoma cells. • NIS activity and expression could be regulated by miR-146b in thyroid carcinoma. • MiR-146b inhibition could recover the decreased radioiodine-sensitivity of DTC cells.

  5. Adequate thyroid-stimulating hormone levels after levothyroxine discontinuation in the follow-up of patients with well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Reyna; Espinosa-de-los-Monteros, Ana Laura; Mendoza, Victoria; Brea, Eduardo; Hernández, Irma; Sosa, Ernesto; Mercado, Moisés

    2002-01-01

    In the follow-up of patients with well-differentiated thyroid carcinomas (WTC), a thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) >or=30 micro U/mL is generally accepted as adequate to perform whole body scans (WBS), determine thyroglobulin (Tg), and administer radioiodine therapeutically. These patients, inevitably rendered hypothyroid, are traditionally switched to T3 for 3-4 weeks prior to withdrawing all thyroid hormones for an additional 2-3 weeks. Neither TSH and Tg elevation dynamics nor WBS characteristics after simply interrupting L-T4 treatment without T3 administration have been evaluated. TSH, total T4 and T3, as well as FT4 were measured weekly after discontinuing L-T4 in 21 subjects (group I) and after thyroidectomy in 10 subjects (group II). WBS and Tg determination was performed upon achievement of TSH >or=30 micro U/mL. By the second week, 42% of group I patients and 70% of group II patients had TSH >or=30 micro U/mL. By the third week, 90% in group I and 100% in group II had achieved this target. Group I patients who needed 4 weeks to increase TSH received a greater cumulative radioiodine dose and had higher Tg levels. Positive WBS were found in eight cases and the incidence of a negative WBS with elevated Tg was significantly higher when evaluation occurred at the second week of L-T4 withdrawal compared to the fourth week. L-T4 interruption is a reasonable alternative to temporary T3 in preparation for radioiodine scanning and treatment.

  6. Prognostic Implications of Lymph Node Yield in Central and Lateral Neck Dissections for Well-Differentiated Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Heaton, Chase M; Chang, Jolie L; Orloff, Lisa A

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between lymph node yield (LNY) from central (CND) and lateral (LND) neck dissections and risk of recurrence in patients undergoing primary surgery for well-differentiated papillary thyroid carcinoma (WDPTC). Clinical data were reviewed from all patients with biopsy-proven WDPTC who underwent primary total thyroidectomy with CND or LND at the authors' institution from 2005 to 2009. Patient demographics and tumor characteristics were obtained, and clinical data with at least five-year follow-up were used. Within the CNDs and LNDs, total number of nodes removed (LNY), total positive nodes removed, and the ratio of positive lymph nodes to LNY were determined. One hundred fifty-two patients were included in the study, with average follow-up of 69 months. Of 125 patients who underwent CND, 20 had central neck disease recurrence. The LNY of patients with central neck recurrence was significantly less than those who had no recurrence (2.5 vs. 10.3; p < 0.0001). Of 71 patients who underwent LND, 23 had ipsilateral lateral neck disease recurrence. The LNY of patients with lateral neck recurrence was significantly less than those who did not recur (10.5 vs. 24.6; p < 0.0001). Higher rates of recurrence were associated with smaller LNY in both groups. For both groups, lower LNY remains predictive of recurrence on multivariate analysis controlling for pT stage, pN stage, American Joint Committee on Cancer stage, and radioactive iodine treatment. Higher LNY in CNDs and LNDs is associated with lower rates of papillary thyroid carcinoma recurrence in the central and lateral neck. To minimize the risk of recurrence and the need for secondary therapy with revision surgery and/or radiation, surgeons should perform thorough, compartment-oriented CNDs and LNDs when nodal surgery is undertaken.

  7. Cabozantinib-S-Malate in Treating Patients With Refractory Thyroid Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-08-21

    Poorly Differentiated Thyroid Gland Carcinoma; Recurrent Thyroid Gland Carcinoma; Stage I Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage I Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Stage II Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage II Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Stage III Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage III Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Stage IVA Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage IVA Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Stage IVB Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage IVB Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Stage IVC Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage IVC Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Tall Cell Variant Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Thyroid Gland Oncocytic Follicular Carcinoma

  8. Long-term results and prognostic factors in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Tubiana, M; Schlumberger, M; Rougier, P; Laplanche, A; Benhamou, E; Gardet, P; Caillou, B; Travagli, J P; Parmentier, C

    1985-02-15

    A multivariate analysis of the prognostic factors was carried out on a series of 546 differentiated thyroid cancers followed for 8 to 40 years. For survival, the highest risk factor was associated with age; tumors diagnosed in patients younger than 45 years had higher relapse-free survival (RFS) and total survival (TS) rates and a slower growth rate. In children, although the RFS and TS at 15 years were high, they decreased later. The second independent prognostic factor was histology. There was no difference between papillary and follicular well-differentiated (FWD) tumors, but follicular moderately differentiated (FMD) had lower TS and RFS. Among FMD cancers, relapses occurred earlier and the interval between relapse and death was shorter. The third factor was sex. Tumors tended to disseminate more in male than in female patients. The survival rate after relapse was the same, however, suggesting that the growth rates are not different. The presence of palpable lymph nodes also had a significant independent impact on both TS and RFS. Patients treated after 1960 have a better outcome than patients treated earlier, although they did not differ in age distribution, histologic characteristics, sex ratio, or incidence of palpable lymph nodes. The distribution of time intervals between treatment and relapse was not compatible with an exponential failure time model but fit with a log-logistic model. Relapses can occur as late as 30 years or more after initial treatment. Elevated levels of circulating thyroglobulin have been observed in about 12% of the patients who had been in complete remission for longer than 20 years.

  9. Study of Immunohistochemical Markers (CK-19, CD-56, Ki-67, p53) in Differentiating Benign and Malignant Solitary Thyroid Nodules with special Reference to Papillary Thyroid Carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Dwivedi, Smriti Sudhanshu; Joshi, Avinash R; Kulkarni, Maithili Mandar; Bhayekar, Pallavi; Jadhav, Amruta; Nayar, Musphera; Kambale, Neelam S

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Solitary Thyroid Nodule (STN) has provoked increased concern owing to higher incidence of malignancy. The inter and intra observer variation in the histomorphological diagnosis of Papillary Thyroid Carcinomas (PTC) may sometimes pose a diagnostic difficulty. Aim This study was undertaken to analyse immunohistochemical (IHC) markers (CK-19, CD-56, p53, Ki-67) to differentiate between benign and malignant surgically resected STN along with their utility in the identification of PTC. Materials and Methods The present cross sectional study was conducted over a period of 4 years. A technique of manual tissue array was employed for cases subjected to IHC. The primary antibodies used were CK-19, CD-56, p53 and Ki-67. Analysis of the expression of IHC markers (p53, Ki-67) to distinguish between benign and malignant STN was done. Evaluation and correlation of expression of IHC markers (CK-19, CD-56) to determine its utility in reaching definitive diagnosis and assessing prognosis of PTC was tried. Results were subjected to statistical analysis. The results were considered to be significant when the p-value <0.05. Results Out of the 160 cases of surgically resected STN specimens, 68 cases were non-neoplastic, 24 cases were benign and 68 cases were of malignant tumours (7 cases of follicular carcinoma (FCa), 61 cases of PTC). CK-19 was found to be a sensitive (83.61%) and a highly specific positive marker (100%) for the diagnosis of PTC. The difference in CD-56 expression between PTC and non-PTC group was found to be highly statistically significant. CD-56 was found to be a sensitive (85.86%) and specific (82.25%) negative marker in differentiating PTC from follicular lesions/neoplasms. The difference in p53 expression between the malignant and non-malignant STN cases was found to be highly statistically significant with a sensitivity and specificity 85.29% and 70.65% respectively. The statistical difference in mean Ki-67 Labeling Index (LI) was found to be

  10. Thyroglobulin fluctuations in patients with iodine-refractory differentiated thyroid carcinoma on lenvatinib treatment - initial experience.

    PubMed

    Werner, R A; Lückerath, K; Schmid, J S; Higuchi, T; Kreissl, M C; Grelle, I; Reiners, C; Buck, A K; Lapa, C

    2016-06-16

    Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) have shown clinical effectiveness in iodine-refractory differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC). The corresponding role of serum thyroglobulin (Tg) in iodine-refractory DTC has not been investigated yet. 9 patients (3 female, 61 ± 8y) with progressive iodine-refractory DTC starting on lenvatinib were considered. Tumor restaging was performed every 2-3 months including contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT, RECIST 1.1). Serum Tg was measured and compared to imaging findings. After treatment initiation, serum Tg levels dropped in all patients with a median reduction of 86.2%. During long-term follow-up (median, 25.2 months), fluctuations in Tg could be observed in 8/9 subjects. According to RECIST, 6/9 subjects achieved a partial response or stable disease with the remaining 3/9 experiencing progressive disease (2/3 with Tg levels rising above baseline). All of the patients with disease progression presented with a preceding continuous rise in serum Tg, whereas tumor marker oscillations in the subjects with controlled disease were only intermittent. Initiation of lenvatinib in iodine-refractory DTC patients is associated with a significant reduction in serum Tg levels as a marker of treatment response. In the course of treatment, transient Tg oscillations are a frequent phenomenon that may not necessarily reflect morphologic tumor progression.

  11. New insights in the treatment of radioiodine refractory differentiated thyroid carcinomas: to lenvatinib and beyond.

    PubMed

    Wang, Emilie; Karedan, Tezo; Perez, Cesar A

    2015-08-01

    During the past two decades, several key somatic mutations associated with development and progression of differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) have been revealed. Historically, the treatment for advanced DTC is challenging after patients become refractory to radioactive iodine. The response to doxorubicin, the only chemotherapy agent approved by the US Food and Drug Administration, is disappointing either as monotherapy or combination therapy. Because of the lack of effective systemic treatment coupled with increased understanding of molecular and cellular pathogenesis, multiple kinase inhibitors (MKIs) as an alternative therapy for the treatment of advanced DTC has generated much interest, enthusiasm, and, most excitingly, promising results. After the encouraging results of these agents in earlier trials, the Food and Drug Administration approved sorafenib for the treatment of locally recurrent, progressive, or metastatic DTC refractory to radioactive iodine treatment based on the results of a multicenter DECISION trial. Sorafenib therefore became the first MKI approved for this indication in more than 20 years. However, even more impressive responses and progression-free survival benefits were seen in the phase III SELECT trial with lenvatinib, giving even higher hopes for the future management of what was considered just a decade ago an orphan disease. Given the role of MKIs, a new era in the treatment of advanced DTC has begun. We review the key therapeutic targets, oncogenic pathways, and promising clinical results of these agents in refractory disease, as well as their roles after failure of first line kinase inhibitors.

  12. BRAF in Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Lanzilotta, Salvatore Giovanni; Grammatica, Luciano; Paradiso, Angelo; Simone, Gianni

    2007-01-01

    Novel genetic findings about papillary thyroid carcinoma identify BRAF gene as a subject of great interest. Involvement of BRAF gene in pathogenesis of PTC, diagnostic value and the putative prognostic significance of its T1799A mutation are summarized in this article. Furthermore, a particular attention is focused to the role of pre-operative detection of BRAF mutation in the FNAB specimens of thyroid nodules and to the use of this gene as target for an effective cancer therapy. PMID:17641411

  13. Primary tumour size is a prognostic parameter in patients suffering from differentiated thyroid carcinoma with extrathyroidal growth: results of the MSDS trial.

    PubMed

    Krämer, Jan Alexander; Schmid, Kurt Werner; Dralle, Henning; Dietlein, Markus; Schicha, Harald; Lerch, Hartmut; Gerss, Joachim; Frankewitsch, Thomas; Schober, Otmar; Riemann, Burkhard

    2010-10-01

    The Multicentre Study Differentiated Thyroid Cancer (MSDS) collective represents a well-defined group of patients with thyroid carcinomas with extrathyroidal extension. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the relationship of the primary tumour size with clinicopathological features as well as the outcome of patients with minimum and extensive extrathyroidal growth (pT3b- and pT4a-tumours; UICC 2002/2003, 6th ed). The tumour diameter was available in 324 out of 351 MSDS patients (244 females, 80 males). Mean age of patients was 47.7±12.0 years (range, 20.1-69.8 years), and the median follow-up was 6.2 years. The relationship between primary tumour size and the following clinicopathological data was investigated: age, gender, histological tumour type (papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTC) versus follicular thyroid carcinomas (FTC)) and UICC/AJCC TNM classification. In addition, the correlation between primary tumour size and event-free and overall survival was assessed. The FTC of our series were significantly larger than PTC (3.46 vs 1.84 cm; P<0.001). Patients suffering from pT3b-tumours presented with significantly smaller tumour size than those with extensive extrathyroidal growth (pT4a-tumours) (1.9 vs 3.0 cm; P<0.01). All patients with distant metastases suffered from tumours >2 cm. Furthermore, event-free and overall survival were significantly correlated with increasing tumour size (P<0.05). Using multivariate analysis, a pT4a-category and a tumour diameter >2 cm remained independent predictors of survival. In patients suffering from differentiated thyroid carcinoma with extrathyroidal growth (pT3b and pT4a), the tumour size is an independent predictor of event-free and overall survival.

  14. Hypercalcitoninemia is not pathognomonic of medullary thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Toledo, Sergio P A; Lourenço, Delmar M; Santos, Marcelo Augusto; Tavares, Marcos R; Toledo, Rodrigo A; Correia-Deur, Joya Emilie de Menezes

    2009-01-01

    Hypercalcitoninemia has frequently been reported as a marker for medullary thyroid carcinoma. Currently, calcitonin measurements are mostly useful in the evaluation of tumor size and progression, and as an index of biochemical improvement of medullary thyroid carcinomas. Although measurement of calcitonin is a highly sensitive method for the detection of medullary thyroid carcinoma, it presents a low specificity for this tumor. Several physiologic and pathologic conditions other than medullary thyroid carcinoma have been associated with increased levels of calcitonin. Several cases of thyroid nodules associated with increased values of calcitonin are not medullary thyroid carcinomas, but rather are related to other conditions, such as hypercalcemias, hypergastrinemias, neuroendocrine tumors, renal insufficiency, papillary and follicular thyroid carcinomas, and goiter. Furthermore, prolonged treatment with omeprazole (>2-4 months), beta-blockers, glucocorticoids and potential secretagogues, have been associated with hypercalcitoninemia. An association between calcitonin levels and chronic auto-immune thyroiditis remains controversial. Patients with calcitonin levels >100 pg/mL have a high risk for medullary thyroid carcinoma (approximately 90%-100%), whereas patients with values from 10 to 100 pg/mL (normal values: <8.5 pg/mL for men, <5.0 pg/mL for women; immunochemiluminometric assay) have a <25% risk for medullary thyroid carcinoma.In multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 (MEN2), RET mutation analysis is the gold-standard for the recommendation of total preventive thyroidectomy to relatives at risk of harboring a germline RET mutation (50%). False-positive calcitonin results within MEN2 families have led to incorrect indications of preventive total thyroidectomy to RET mutation negative relatives. In this review, we focus on the differential diagnosis of hypercalcitoninemia, underlining its importance for the avoidance of misdiagnosis of medullary thyroid carcinoma

  15. Hypercalcitoninemia is not Pathognomonic of Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Toledo, Sergio PA; Lourenço, Delmar M; Santos, Marcelo Augusto; Tavares, Marcos R; Toledo, Rodrigo A; de Menezes Correia-Deur, Joya Emilie

    2009-01-01

    Hypercalcitoninemia has frequently been reported as a marker for medullary thyroid carcinoma. Currently, calcitonin measurements are mostly useful in the evaluation of tumor size and progression, and as an index of biochemical improvement of medullary thyroid carcinomas. Although measurement of calcitonin is a highly sensitive method for the detection of medullary thyroid carcinoma, it presents a low specificity for this tumor. Several physiologic and pathologic conditions other than medullary thyroid carcinoma have been associated with increased levels of calcitonin. Several cases of thyroid nodules associated with increased values of calcitonin are not medullary thyroid carcinomas, but rather are related to other conditions, such as hypercalcemias, hypergastrinemias, neuroendocrine tumors, renal insufficiency, papillary and follicular thyroid carcinomas, and goiter. Furthermore, prolonged treatment with omeprazole (> 2–4 months), beta-blockers, glucocorticoids and potential secretagogues, have been associated with hypercalcitoninemia. An association between calcitonin levels and chronic auto-immune thyroiditis remains controversial. Patients with calcitonin levels >100 pg/mL have a high risk for medullary thyroid carcinoma (~90%–100%), whereas patients with values from 10 to 100 pg/mL (normal values: <8.5 pg/mL for men, < 5.0 pg/mL for women; immunochemiluminometric assay) have a <25% risk for medullary thyroid carcinoma. In multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 (MEN2), RET mutation analysis is the gold-standard for the recommendation of total preventive thyroidectomy to relatives at risk of harboring a germline RET mutation (50%). False-positive calcitonin results within MEN2 families have led to incorrect indications of preventive total thyroidectomy to RET mutation negative relatives. In this review, we focus on the differential diagnosis of hypercalcitoninemia, underlining its importance for the avoidance of misdiagnosis of medullary thyroid carcinoma and

  16. Altered bioavailability due to changes in the formulation of a commercial preparation of levothyroxine in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Olveira, G; Almaraz, M C; Soriguer, F; Garriga, M J; Gonzalez-Romero, S; Tinahones, F; Ruiz de Adana, M S

    1997-06-01

    In July 1995 we began noticing an unusually high rate of elevated TSH levels in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer treated with levothyroxine-specifically the brand Levothroid-becoming more obvious from September 1995. Faced with the possibility that these findings had some relationship to the drug taken, we carried out a prospective study, changing this brand of levothyroxine for another. We studied 58 patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma (50 women and eight men; aged 22-75 years) who were being treated with levothyroxine and who had previously had adequate TSH suppression. Their Levothroid tablets were changed to the same dose of Dexnon tablets, and their clinical and analytical response was evaluated 2 months later. The patients were divided into two groups according to their TSH level at the start of the study: group 1, 42 patients with TSH > 0.2 mU/l (not suppressed) and group 2, 16 patients with TSH < or = 0.2 mU/l (suppressed). After 2 months with Dexnon the TSH levels in group 1 fell significantly (P < 0.0001) also decreasing in group (P < 0.09). The free T4 and free T3 rose significantly in both groups. After the change to Dexnon, 17 patients (40%) in group 1 had suppressed TSH and 26 (62%) had free T4 levels above the upper limit of normal vs none at baseline (P < 0.001). The group 2 patients maintained their inhibited TSH values after treatment with Dexnon, and the free T4 was above the upper limit of normal in 15 (94%) vs 3 (19%) at baseline (P < 0.001). The Levothroid tablets collected from the patients in both groups formed part of those which the manufacturer later withdraw from the market. These batches possessed the correct dosage, but they had been made from 'non-micronized' raw materials from another supplier. The most probable cause of the inadequate TSH suppression in our patients was the reduction in bioavailability in certain batches of Levothroid, although we are unable to rule out the possibility that the results obtained

  17. Primary squamous cell carcinoma of the thyroid arising in Hashimoto's thyroiditis in an adolescent.

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Sosa, Sergio; Rios-Luna, Nina Paola; Tamayo, Bricia del Rosario; Simpson, Karen; Albores-Saavedra, Jorge

    2006-01-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma is a rare thyroid neoplasm that has been described exclusively in adults. We report what appears to be the first example of a primary squamous cell carcinoma of the thyroid gland arising in a background of Hashimoto's thyroiditis in an adolescent female. The tumor was well demarcated, confined to the right thyroid lobe, and did not metastasize, although follow up has been limited. The squamous cell carcinoma was well to moderately differentiated, and the stroma contained an abundant inflammatory infiltrate rich in lymphocytes and eosinophils. The lack of goblet cells, extracellular mucin, and extensive stromal sclerosis excluded the diagnosis of sclerosing mucoepidermoid carcinoma with eosinophilia. Immunohistochemical staining revealed focal expression of cytokeratin 7 and diffuse labeling with cytokeratin AE1/AE3. The squamous cell carcinoma overexpressed p53 protein and showed increased proliferative activity, as evidenced by the high MIB-1 labeling index. In contrast, the tumor did not show immunoreactivity for thyroglobulin or thyroid transcription factor 1.

  18. American Thyroid Association Guidelines on the Management of Thyroid Nodules and Differentiated Thyroid Cancer Task Force Review and Recommendation on the Proposed Renaming of Encapsulated Follicular Variant Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma Without Invasion to Noninvasive Follicular Thyroid Neoplasm with Papillary-Like Nuclear Features.

    PubMed

    Haugen, Bryan R; Sawka, Anna M; Alexander, Erik K; Bible, Keith C; Caturegli, Patrizio; Doherty, Gerard M; Mandel, Susan J; Morris, John C; Nassar, Aziza; Pacini, Furio; Schlumberger, Martin; Schuff, Kathryn; Sherman, Steven I; Somerset, Hilary; Sosa, Julie Ann; Steward, David L; Wartofsky, Leonard; Williams, Michelle D

    2017-04-01

    American Thyroid Association (ATA) leadership asked the ATA Thyroid Nodules and Differentiated Thyroid Cancer Guidelines Task Force to review, comment on, and make recommendations related to the suggested new classification of encapsulated follicular variant papillary thyroid carcinoma (eFVPTC) without capsular or vascular invasion to noninvasive follicular thyroid neoplasm with papillary-like nuclear features (NIFTP). The task force consists of members from the 2015 guidelines task force with the recusal of three members who were authors on the paper under review. Four pathologists and one endocrinologist were added for this specific review. The manuscript proposing the new classification and related literature were assessed. It is recommended that the histopathologic nomenclature for eFVPTC without invasion be reclassified as a NIFTP, given the excellent prognosis of this neoplastic variant. This is a weak recommendation based on moderate-quality evidence. It is also noted that prospective studies are needed to validate the observed patient outcomes (and test performance in predicting thyroid cancer outcomes), as well as implications on patients' psychosocial health and economics.

  19. The effect of thyroid stimulating hormone suppressive therapy on bone geometry in the hip area of patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Moon, Jae Hoon; Jung, Kyong Yeun; Kim, Kyoung Min; Choi, Sung Hee; Lim, Soo; Park, Young Joo; Park, Do Joon; Jang, Hak Chul

    2016-02-01

    Subclinical hyperthyroidism has been reported to increase the fracture risk. However, the effect of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) suppressive therapy on bone geometry in the hip area of patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) is still unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of TSH suppression on bone geometry in the hip area of pre- and postmenopausal women with DTC. We conducted a retrospective cohort study including 99 women with DTC (25 pre- and 74 postmenopausal) who had received TSH suppressive therapy for at least 3years and 297 control subjects (75 and 222, respectively) matched for sex and age. Bone mineral density (BMD) in the spine and hip area and bone geometry at the femoral neck measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) were compared between patients and controls. The association between thyroid hormone and bone parameters was investigated. All analyses of bone parameters were adjusted for age, body mass index, and serum calcium levels. In premenopausal subjects, TSH suppressive therapy was not associated with poor bone parameters. In postmenopausal subjects, patients with DTC undergoing TSH suppression showed lower cross-sectional moment of inertia (CSMI), cross-sectional area, and section modulus and thinner cortical thickness at the femoral neck than those of control subjects, whereas their femoral neck BMD was comparable with controls. Total hip BMD was lower in postmenopausal patients than in controls. CSMI and section modulus at the femoral neck were independently associated with serum free T4 levels in postmenopausal patients. The difference in femoral neck bone geometry between patients and controls was only apparent in postmenopausal DTC patients with free T4 >1.79ng/dL (23.04pmol/l), and not in those with free T4 levels ≤1.79ng/dL (23.04pmol/l). TSH suppression in postmenopausal DTC patients was associated with decreased bone strength by altering bone geometry rather than BMD in the hip area

  20. [Thyroid nodules and differentiated thyroid cancer: Brazilian consensus].

    PubMed

    Maia, Ana Luiza; Ward, Laura S; Carvalho, Gisah A; Graf, Hans; Maciel, Rui M B; Maciel, Léa M Zanini; Rosário, Pedro W; Vaisman, Mario

    2007-07-01

    Thyroid nodules are a common manifestation of thyroid diseases. It is estimated that approximately 10% of adults have palpable thyroid nodules with the frequency increasing throughout life. The major concern on nodule evaluation is the risk of malignancy (5-10%). Differentiated thyroid carcinoma accounts for 90% of all thyroid malignant neoplasias. Although most patients with cancer have a favorable outcome, some individuals present an aggressive form of the disease and poor prognostic despite recent advances in diagnosis and treatment. Here, a set of clinical guidelines for the evaluation and management of patients with thyroid nodules or differentiated thyroid cancer was developed through consensus by 8 member of the Department of Thyroid, Sociedade Brasileira de Endocrinologia e Metabologia. The participants are from different reference medical centers within Brazil, to reflect different practice patterns. Each committee participant was initially assigned to write a section of the document and to submit it to the chairperson, who revised and assembled the sections into a complete draft document, which was then circulated among all committee members for further revision. All committee members further revised and refined the document. The guidelines were developed based on the expert opinion of the committee participants, as well as on previously published information.

  1. Poorly differentiated and anaplastic thyroid carcinomas: chromosomal and oligo-array profile of five new cell lines.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, R F; Roque, L; Krug, T; Leite, V

    2007-04-23

    Information on gene alterations associated to poorly differentiated (PDTC) and anaplastic thyroid carcinomas (ATC) is scarce. Using human cancer cell lines as a tool for gene discovery, we performed a cytogenetic and oligo-array analysis in five new cell lines derived from two PDTC and three ATC. In PDTC we evidenced, as important, the involvement of the MAPK/ERK kinase pathway, and downregulation of a group of suppressor genes that include E-cadherin. In ATC, downregulation of a specific group of oncosuppressor genes was also observed. Our ATC cell lines presented chromosomal markers of gene amplification, and we were able to identify for the first time the nature of the involved amplicon target genes. We found that the main molecular differences between the two cell line types were related to signal transduction pathways, cell adhesion and motility process. TaqMan experiments performed for five amplicon target genes and for two genes, which allowed a clear distinction between ATC and PDTC: CDH13 and PLAU corroborated array results, not only in the cell lines, but also in an additional set of primary 14 PDTC and three ATC. We suggest that our findings may represent new tools for the development of more effective therapies to the hitherto untreatable ATC.

  2. The study of external dose rate and retained body activity of patients receiving 131I therapy for differentiated thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Haiying; Jiao, Ling; Cui, Songye; Wang, Liang; Tan, Jian; Zhang, Guizhi; He, Yajing; Ruan, Shuzhou; Fan, Saijun; Zhang, Wenyi

    2014-10-21

    Radiation safety is an integral part of targeted radionuclide therapy. The aim of this work was to study the external dose rate and retained body activity as functions of time in differentiated thyroid carcinoma patients receiving 131I therapy. Seventy patients were stratified into two groups: the ablation group (A) and the follow-up group (FU). The patients' external dose rate was measured, and simultaneously, their retained body radiation activity was monitored at various time points. The equations of the external dose rate and the retained body activity, described as a function of hours post administration, were fitted. Additionally, the release time for patients was calculated. The reduction in activity in the group receiving a second or subsequent treatment was more rapid than the group receiving only the initial treatment. Most important, an expeditious method was established to indirectly evaluate the retained body activity of patients by measuring the external dose rate with a portable radiation survey meter. By this method, the calculated external dose rate limits are 19.2, 8.85, 5.08 and 2.32 μSv·h-1 at 1, 1.5, 2 and 3 m, respectively, according to a patient's released threshold level of retained body activity <400 MBq. This study is beneficial for radiation safety decision-making.

  3. Additional value of a high sensitive thyroglobulin assay in the follow-up of patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Groen, Andries H; Klein Hesselink, Mariëlle S; Plukker, John T M; Sluiter, Wim J; van der Horst-Schrivers, Anouk N A; Brouwers, Adrienne H; Lentjes, Eef G W M; Muller Kobold, Anneke C; Links, Thera P

    2017-03-01

    Thyroglobulin (Tg) is an excellent tumour marker, as detectable or increasing Tg levels are highly indicative of persistent or recurrent differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC). The clinical value of a highly sensitive (hs)-Tg assay in patients with DTC has not yet been established. The aim of this study was to investigate the additional value of unstimulated hs-Tg measurements (Tg-on) compared to stimulated IRMA-Tg measurements (Tg-off) in the follow-up of patients with DTC. We retrospectively studied patients treated for DTC between 2006 and 2013 and compared hs-Tg and IRMA-Tg measurements. The study group consisted of 99 DTC patients in remission; Tg-on was measured 3 months after remnant ablation and Tg-off 6 months after ablation. In the study group, 44 patients showed a hs-Tg-on <0·15 μg/l (functional sensitivity); of these, 43 had an IRMA-Tg-off measurement <1·0 μg/l, resulting in a negative predictive value of 97·7% and a positive predictive value of 56·4%. The hs-Tg-on measurement is able to predict patients with an IRMA-Tg-off <1·0 μg/l, and therefore decreases the need for Tg stimulation after ablation. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Energy and macronutrient intake and risk of differentiated thyroid carcinoma in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study.

    PubMed

    Zamora-Ros, Raul; Rinaldi, Sabina; Tsilidis, Konstantinos K; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Rostgaard-Hansen, Agnetha Linn; Tjønneland, Anne; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Mesrine, Sylvie; Katzke, Verena A; Kühn, Tilman; Förster, Jana; Boeing, Heiner; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lagiou, Pagona; Klinaki, Eleni; Masala, Giovanna; Sieri, Sabina; Ricceri, Fulvio; Tumino, Rosario; Mattiello, Amalia; Peeters, Petra H M; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B As; Engeset, Dagrun; Skeie, Guri; Argüelles, Marcial; Agudo, Antonio; Sánchez, María-José; Chirlaque, María-Dolores; Barricarte, Aurelio; Chamosa, Saioa; Almquist, Martin; Tosovic, Ada; Hennings, Joakim; Sandström, Maria; Schmidt, Julie A; Khaw, Kay-Thee; Wareham, Nicholas J; Cross, Amanda J; Slimani, Nadia; Byrnes, Graham; Romieu, Isabelle; Riboli, Elio; Franceschi, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    Incidence rates of differentiated thyroid carcinoma (TC) have increased in many countries. Adiposity and dietary risk factors may play a role, but little is known on the influence of energy intake and macronutrient composition. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between TC and the intake of energy, macronutrients, glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. The study included 477,274 middle-age participants (70.2% women) from ten European countries. Dietary data were collected using country-specific validated dietary questionnaires. Total carbohydrates, proteins, fats, saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats (PUFA), starch, sugar, and fiber were computed as g/1,000 kcal. Multivariable Cox regression was used to calculate multivariable adjusted hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) by intake quartile (Q). After a mean follow-up time of 11 years, differentiated TC was diagnosed in 556 participants (90% women). Overall, we found significant associations only with total energy (HRQ4 vs .Q1 , 1.29; 95% CI, 1.00-1.68) and PUFA intakes (HRQ4 vs .Q1 , 0.74; 95% CI, 0.57-0.95). However, the associations with starch and sugar intake and GI were significantly heterogeneous across body mass index (BMI) groups, i.e., positive associations with starch and GI were found in participants with a BMI ≥ 25 and with sugar intake in those with BMI < 25. Moreover, inverse associations with starch and GI were observed in subjects with BMI < 25. In conclusion, our results suggest that high total energy and low PUFA intakes may increase the risk of differentiated TC. Positive associations with starch intake and GI in participants with BMI ≥ 25 suggest that those persons may have a greater insulin response to high starch intake and GI than lean people.

  5. Iodine I-131 With or Without Selumetinib in Treating Patients With Recurrent or Metastatic Thyroid Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-03-15

    Poorly Differentiated Thyroid Gland Carcinoma; Recurrent Thyroid Gland Carcinoma; Stage IVA Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage IVA Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Stage IVB Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage IVB Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Stage IVC Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage IVC Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma

  6. Thyroid cancer - papillary carcinoma

    MedlinePlus

    ... some noncancerous childhood conditions Radiation exposure from nuclear plant disasters Radiation given through a vein (through an IV) during medical tests and treatments does not increase the risk of developing thyroid cancer.

  7. Expression of obestatin and ghrelin in papillary thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Karaoglu, Aziz; Aydin, Suleyman; Dagli, Adile F; Cummings, David E; Ozercan, Ibrahim H; Canatan, Halit; Ozkan, Yusuf

    2009-03-01

    Ghrelin and obestatin are two peptide hormones with opposing roles in the control of appetite: orexigenic and anorexigenic, respectively. Loss of appetite is a common, serious complication of many forms of malignancy. The goals of this study were to investigate: (i) whether there are differences in ghrelin and obestatin peptide expression in thyroid tissues from a series of papillary carcinoma cases and normal controls, and (ii) whether there are correlations between tissue ghrelin and obestatin levels in series of papillary carcinoma cases and normal controls. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that in sections of benign human thyroid tissue, anti-ghrelin antibody reacted with intense staining in colloid-filled follicles. In benign thyroid tissues, colloids displayed plentiful dispersion in comparison with papillary microcarcinomas, whereas colloids in malignant thyroid tissues were uncommon. We found markedly lower tissue ghrelin levels in thyroid tissue of patients with papillary carcinomas, compared with normal thyroid tissues (P = 0.001). Immunohistochemical analysis also showed that obestatin in papillary carcinoma stained positively to various degrees. Obestatin tissue levels in papillary carcinomas tended to be slightly higher than those in normal thyroid tissue, but this was not statistically significant (P = 0.29). We also report that thyroid tissue of patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis produced ghrelin and obestatin at similar levels as in normal thyroid tissue, even though colloid in Hashimoto's disease is scarce. We conclude that depressed expression of ghrelin, but not obestatin, is specific to papillary carcinoma, and this difference might constitute a diagnostic tool to differentiate papillary carcinoma from normal thyroid tissue. We currently do not know how these peptides are regulated and what factors are involved in papillary carcinoma, which inhibit the expression of ghrelin but not obestatin. This issue warrants further studies.

  8. Mandibular metastasis of follicular thyroid carcinoma. Case report.

    PubMed

    Ostrosky, Alejandro; Mareso, Eduardo Arístides; Klurfan, Federico Juan; Gonzalez, Maximiliano Jorge

    2003-01-01

    Thyroid carcinoma mandibular metastasis are not very frequent and the cases described in literature are few. Due to its bloodstream dissemination, most of them are a consequence of the follicular variant of thyroid carcinomas. A case is presented and a review of the clinicopathologic characteristics of the lesion is made, so the oral and maxilofacial surgeon can recognize it, make a correct differential diagnosis with other mandibular radioluciencies and in consequence, carry out an adequate treatment.

  9. Sonographic features of medullary thyroid carcinomas according to tumor size: comparison with papillary thyroid carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Liguang; Chen, Bo; Zhao, Miaoqing; Zhang, Huawei; Liang, Bo

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the differences in sonographic features of medullary thyroid carcinomas according to nodule size and compared with findings for papillary thyroid carcinomas. This study included 38 medullary thyroid carcinoma nodules and 91 papillary thyroid carcinoma nodules, which were confirmed by pathologic examination between May 2008 and September 2013. Nodules were divided into those that were greater than 10 mm (large nodules) and 10 mm or less (small nodules). The differences in sonographic features (composition, echogenicity, margin, calcifications, and shape) between groups were analyzed with a χ(2) test. Large medullary thyroid carcinomas more frequently showed an ovoid-to-round shape and a smooth margin; small medullary thyroid carcinomas more frequently showed a taller-than-wide shape and a spiculated margin; the differences were statistically significant between the groups (P < .05). Compared with papillary thyroid carcinomas, large medullary thyroid carcinomas tended to have an ovoid-to-round shape, a smooth margin, and macrocalcifications and were more frequently diagnosed as indeterminate nodules (P < .05); however, there were no significant differences in the internal composition, calcifications, echogenicity, margin, and shape between small medullary thyroid carcinomas and small papillary thyroid carcinomas (P > .05). Our data indicate that the sonographic features of medullary thyroid carcinomas are associated with tumor size; furthermore, the sonographic features of medullary thyroid carcinomas are similar to those of small papillary thyroid carcinomas but greatly different from those of large papillary thyroid carcinomas. Large medullary thyroid carcinomas are more commonly diagnosed as indeterminate nodules by sonography than large papillary thyroid carcinomas, and fine-needle aspiration biopsy or serum calcitonin measurement may be helpful. © 2015 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  10. Concurrent medullary and papillary carcinoma of thyroid.

    PubMed

    Ateşpare, Altay; Çalış, Aslı Batur; Çelik, Öner; Yener, Neşe; Vural, Çetin

    2015-01-01

    Simultaneous occurrence of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) and medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) in the same thyroid gland is a rare condition. These tumors derive from different cells; PTC originates from follicular cells whereas MTC originates from parafollicular cells. Because of this, the treatment of these tumors also differs. This article describes two rare cases of the simultaneous occurrence of MTC and PTC in the thyroid gland.

  11. Thyroid Langerhans cell histiocytosis and papillary thyroid carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Algarni, Mohammed; Alhakami, Hadi; AlSubayea, Haia; Alfattani, Naif; Guler, Mohammet; Satti, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    A 27-year-old female, married with two children, presented to our clinic with a 1-year history of thyroid swelling and pressure symptoms on lying backward and bilateral cervical lymphadenopathy. The patient was a known case of panhypopituitarism for 5 years. Comprehensive patient evaluation including FNAC with papillary thyroid cancer result then she underwent total thyroidectomy and bilateral neck dissection and final histologic examination confirmed papillary thyroid carcinoma in the background of lymphocytic thyroiditis, associated with Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH). The draining cervical lymph nodes were also involved by LCH and metastatic papillary thyroid carcinoma. Although the association of LCH with papillary thyroid carcinoma in the thyroid has been reported, their co-existence with LCH in the draining lymph nodes is very uncommon. PMID:27867869

  12. Tc-99m-tetrofosmin scintigraphy: an alternative scintigraphic method for following up differentiated thyroid carcinoma--preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Gallowitsch, H J; Kresnik, E; Mikosch, P; Pipam, W; Gomez, I; Lind, P

    1996-12-01

    The usefulness of the myocardial perfusion agent, Tc-99m-tetrofosmin (Myoview) in the follow-up of differentiated thyroid carcinoma was evaluated in a clinical study of 15 patients, primary treated with thyroidectomy and high-dose I-131-therapy (2960-3700 MBq). 12 with suspected recurrence and metastases and three patients without any suspicion and compared with other non-specific tracers like TI-201 and Tc-99m-sestamibi. Twelve patients with elevated thyroglobulin (Tg) levels of more than 10 ng/ml (group A), four of these had negative I-131 scans, and three patients with Tg levels less than 10 ng/ml (group B) were examined under TSH suppressive L-Thyroxine treatment. Whole body scans were taken with Tl-201 (74 MBq: 20 mn post injection), Tc-99m-sestamibi (370 MBq: 20-60 min post injection) and Tc-99m-tetrofosmin (370 MBq: 20-60 min post injection). Tumor/background ratios and optional time/activity analyses (up to 150 min post injection) were evaluated using the region of interest approach. Compared with Tl-201 (T/BG: 1.59, +/- 0.396). Tc-99m-tetrofosmin showed slightly but not significant better T/BG ratios and detection rates (T/BG: 1.76, +/- 0.345). Tc-99m-sestamibi (1.51, +/- 0.31 p = 0.05) showed significantly lower values than Tc-99m-tetrofosmin In the light of these results, scintigraphy with Tc-99m-tetrofosmin seems to be a possibly sensitive imaging modality in the follow-up of DTC with possible advantages concerning T/Bg ratio, background clearance, detection rate and dosimetry compared with Tl-201 and Tc-99m-sestamibi, especially in patients with elevated Tg level and no iodine uptake, but further investigations are needed to confirm our preliminary results.

  13. The effects of thyrotropin-suppressing therapy on bone metabolism in patients with well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mee Kyoung; Yun, Kyung-Jin; Kim, Min-Hee; Lim, Dong-Jun; Kwon, Hyuk-Sang; Song, Ki-Ho; Kang, Moo-Il; Baek, Ki Hyun

    2015-02-01

    Studies on the effects of levothyroxine (LT4) therapy on bone and bone metabolism have yielded conflicting results. This 1-year prospective study examined whether LT4 in patients with well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) is a risk factor for bone mass loss and the subsequent development of osteoporosis. We examined 93 patients with DTC over 12months after initiating LT4 therapy (early postoperative period). We examined another 33 patients on long-term LT4 therapy for DTC (late postoperative period). Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry was performed at baseline and after 1year. The mean bone losses during the early postoperative period in the lumbar spine, femoral neck, and total hip, calculated as the percentage change between levels at baseline and 12months, were -0.88, -1.3 and -0.81%, respectively. Bone loss was more evident in postmenopausal women (lumbar spine -2.1%, femoral neck -2.2%, and hip -2.1%; all P<0.05). We compared the changes in annual bone mineral density (BMD) in postmenopausal women according to calcium/vitamin D supplementation. Bone loss tended to be higher in the postmenopausal women receiving no supplementation. There was no decrease in BMD among patients during the late postoperative period. The mean bone loss was generally greater in the early than in the late postoperative group, and this was significant at the lumbar spine (P=0.041) and femoral neck (P=0.010). TSH-suppressive levothyroxine therapy accelerates bone loss, predominantly in postmenopausal women and exclusively during the early post-thyroidectomy period. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Integrated genomic characterization of papillary thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    2014-10-23

    Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is the most common type of thyroid cancer. Here, we describe the genomic landscape of 496 PTCs. We observed a low frequency of somatic alterations (relative to other carcinomas) and extended the set of known PTC driver alterations to include EIF1AX, PPM1D, and CHEK2 and diverse gene fusions. These discoveries reduced the fraction of PTC cases with unknown oncogenic driver from 25% to 3.5%. Combined analyses of genomic variants, gene expression, and methylation demonstrated that different driver groups lead to different pathologies with distinct signaling and differentiation characteristics. Similarly, we identified distinct molecular subgroups of BRAF-mutant tumors, and multidimensional analyses highlighted a potential involvement of oncomiRs in less-differentiated subgroups. Our results propose a reclassification of thyroid cancers into molecular subtypes that better reflect their underlying signaling and differentiation properties, which has the potential to improve their pathological classification and better inform the management of the disease.

  15. Integrated Genomic Characterization of Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Nishant; Akbani, Rehan; Aksoy, B. Arman; Ally, Adrian; Arachchi, Harindra; Asa, Sylvia L.; Auman, J. Todd; Balasundaram, Miruna; Balu, Saianand; Baylin, Stephen B.; Behera, Madhusmita; Bernard, Brady; Beroukhim, Rameen; Bishop, Justin A.; Black, Aaron D.; Bodenheimer, Tom; Boice, Lori; Bootwalla, Moiz S.; Bowen, Jay; Bowlby, Reanne; Bristow, Christopher A.; Brookens, Robin; Brooks, Denise; Bryant, Robert; Buda, Elizabeth; Butterfield, Yaron S.N.; Carling, Tobias; Carlsen, Rebecca; Carter, Scott L.; Carty, Sally E.; Chan, Timothy A.; Chen, Amy Y.; Cherniack, Andrew D.; Cheung, Dorothy; Chin, Lynda; Cho, Juok; Chu, Andy; Chuah, Eric; Cibulskis, Kristian; Ciriello, Giovanni; Clarke, Amanda; Clayman, Gary L.; Cope, Leslie; Copland, John; Covington, Kyle; Danilova, Ludmila; Davidsen, Tanja; Demchok, John A.; DiCara, Daniel; Dhalla, Noreen; Dhir, Rajiv; Dookran, Sheliann S.; Dresdner, Gideon; Eldridge, Jonathan; Eley, Greg; El-Naggar, Adel K.; Eng, Stephanie; Fagin, James A.; Fennell, Timothy; Ferris, Robert L.; Fisher, Sheila; Frazer, Scott; Frick, Jessica; Gabriel, Stacey B.; Ganly, Ian; Gao, Jianjiong; Garraway, Levi A.; Gastier-Foster, Julie M.; Getz, Gad; Gehlenborg, Nils; Ghossein, Ronald; Gibbs, Richard A.; Giordano, Thomas J.; Gomez-Hernandez, Karen; Grimsby, Jonna; Gross, Benjamin; Guin, Ranabir; Hadjipanayis, Angela; Harper, Hollie A.; Hayes, D. Neil; Heiman, David I.; Herman, James G.; Hoadley, Katherine A.; Hofree, Matan; Holt, Robert A.; Hoyle, Alan P.; Huang, Franklin W.; Huang, Mei; Hutter, Carolyn M.; Ideker, Trey; Iype, Lisa; Jacobsen, Anders; Jefferys, Stuart R.; Jones, Corbin D.; Jones, Steven J.M.; Kasaian, Katayoon; Kebebew, Electron; Khuri, Fadlo R.; Kim, Jaegil; Kramer, Roger; Kreisberg, Richard; Kucherlapati, Raju; Kwiatkowski, David J.; Ladanyi, Marc; Lai, Phillip H.; Laird, Peter W.; Lander, Eric; Lawrence, Michael S.; Lee, Darlene; Lee, Eunjung; Lee, Semin; Lee, William; Leraas, Kristen M.; Lichtenberg, Tara M.; Lichtenstein, Lee; Lin, Pei; Ling, Shiyun; Liu, Jinze; Liu, Wenbin; Liu, Yingchun; LiVolsi, Virginia A.; Lu, Yiling; Ma, Yussanne; Mahadeshwar, Harshad S.; Marra, Marco A.; Mayo, Michael; McFadden, David G.; Meng, Shaowu; Meyerson, Matthew; Mieczkowski, Piotr A.; Miller, Michael; Mills, Gordon; Moore, Richard A.; Mose, Lisle E.; Mungall, Andrew J.; Murray, Bradley A.; Nikiforov, Yuri E.; Noble, Michael S.; Ojesina, Akinyemi I.; Owonikoko, Taofeek K.; Ozenberger, Bradley A.; Pantazi, Angeliki; Parfenov, Michael; Park, Peter J.; Parker, Joel S.; Paull, Evan O.; Pedamallu, Chandra Sekhar; Perou, Charles M.; Prins, Jan F.; Protopopov, Alexei; Ramalingam, Suresh S.; Ramirez, Nilsa C.; Ramirez, Ricardo; Raphael, Benjamin J.; Rathmell, W. Kimryn; Ren, Xiaojia; Reynolds, Sheila M.; Rheinbay, Esther; Ringel, Matthew D.; Rivera, Michael; Roach, Jeffrey; Robertson, A. Gordon; Rosenberg, Mara W.; Rosenthall, Matthew; Sadeghi, Sara; Saksena, Gordon; Sander, Chris; Santoso, Netty; Schein, Jacqueline E.; Schultz, Nikolaus; Schumacher, Steven E.; Seethala, Raja R.; Seidman, Jonathan; Senbabaoglu, Yasin; Seth, Sahil; Sharpe, Samantha; Mills Shaw, Kenna R.; Shen, John P.; Shen, Ronglai; Sherman, Steven; Sheth, Margi; Shi, Yan; Shmulevich, Ilya; Sica, Gabriel L.; Simons, Janae V.; Sipahimalani, Payal; Smallridge, Robert C.; Sofia, Heidi J.; Soloway, Matthew G.; Song, Xingzhi; Sougnez, Carrie; Stewart, Chip; Stojanov, Petar; Stuart, Joshua M.; Tabak, Barbara; Tam, Angela; Tan, Donghui; Tang, Jiabin; Tarnuzzer, Roy; Taylor, Barry S.; Thiessen, Nina; Thorne, Leigh; Thorsson, Vésteinn; Tuttle, R. Michael; Umbricht, Christopher B.; Van Den Berg, David J.; Vandin, Fabio; Veluvolu, Umadevi; Verhaak, Roel G.W.; Vinco, Michelle; Voet, Doug; Walter, Vonn; Wang, Zhining; Waring, Scot; Weinberger, Paul M.; Weinstein, John N.; Weisenberger, Daniel J.; Wheeler, David; Wilkerson, Matthew D.; Wilson, Jocelyn; Williams, Michelle; Winer, Daniel A.; Wise, Lisa; Wu, Junyuan; Xi, Liu; Xu, Andrew W.; Yang, Liming; Yang, Lixing; Zack, Travis I.; Zeiger, Martha A.; Zeng, Dong; Zenklusen, Jean Claude; Zhao, Ni; Zhang, Hailei; Zhang, Jianhua; Zhang, Jiashan (Julia); Zhang, Wei; Zmuda, Erik; Zou., Lihua

    2014-01-01

    Summary Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is the most common type of thyroid cancer. Here, we describe the genomic landscape of 496 PTCs. We observed a low frequency of somatic alterations (relative to other carcinomas) and extended the set of known PTC driver alterations to include EIF1AX, PPM1D and CHEK2 and diverse gene fusions. These discoveries reduced the fraction of PTC cases with unknown oncogenic driver from 25% to 3.5%. Combined analyses of genomic variants, gene expression, and methylation demonstrated that different driver groups lead to different pathologies with distinct signaling and differentiation characteristics. Similarly, we identified distinct molecular subgroups of BRAF-mutant tumors and multidimensional analyses highlighted a potential involvement of oncomiRs in less-differentiated subgroups. Our results propose a reclassification of thyroid cancers into molecular subtypes that better reflect their underlying signaling and differentiation properties, which has the potential to improve their pathological classification and better inform the management of the disease. PMID:25417114

  16. Coexistence of papillary carcinoma and Hashimoto's thyroiditis.

    PubMed

    Matesa-Anić, Dubravka; Matesa, Neven; Dabelić, Nina; Kusić, Zvonko

    2009-03-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the incidence of coexistence of papillary carcinoma and Hashimoto's thyroiditis in cytologic material. Cytologic findings were collected from 10508 patients that underwent ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) of the thyroid. Hashimoto's thyroiditis was found in 2156 (20.5%) and papillary carcinoma in 269 (2.6%) of 10508 patients with FNAC, whereas both Hashimoto's thyroiditis and papillary carcinoma were present in 42 (0.4%) patients. Among patients with FNAC diagnosis of Hashimoto's thyroiditis, the prevalence of papillary carcinoma was 1.9%. Among patients with FNAC diagnosis of papillary carcinoma, the prevalence of Hashimoto's thyroiditis was 15.6%. There was no statistically significant association between the presence of papillary carcinoma and Hashimoto's thyroiditis in patients undergoing FNAC (p=0.0522). In conclusion, in a large series of patients, the incidence of Hashimoto's thyroiditis and papillary carcinoma coexistence in cytologic material was 0.4%. There was no statistically significant relationship between Hashimoto's thyroiditis and papillary carcinoma in cytologic material.

  17. Primary papillary thyroid carcinoma previously treated incompletely with radiofrequency ablation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hoon Yub; Ryu, Woo Sang; Woo, Sang Uk; Son, Gil Soo; Lee, Eun Sook; Lee, Jae Bok; Bae, Jeoung Won

    2010-01-01

    Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) recently has been applied to benign thyroid nodules, mainly for the cosmetic reasons, and limited cases of local recurrences or focal distant metastases of well-differentiated thyroid cancer, in the high-risk reoperative condition or for the palliative purpose. But no report has been made on the RFA for primary thyroid cancer to date. We report on a patient with primary papillary carcinoma of thyroid gland who had undergone RFA before the cytological diagnosis of malignancy, later referred and treated with robotic surgery successfully. We can learn the following lessons from our case; (1) the RFA for operable primary thyroid malignancy should be avoided, because of the possibility of remnant viable cancer and undetectable nodal metastasis, and (2) robotic or endoscopic thyroid surgery may be a feasible operative method for benign or malignant thyroid nodules previously treated with RFA.

  18. Anaplastic giant cell thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Wallin, G; Lundell, G; Tennvall, J

    2004-01-01

    Anaplastic (giant cell) thyroid carcinoma (ATC), is one of the most aggressive malignancies in humans with a median survival time after diagnosis of 3-6 months. Death from ATC was earlier seen because of local growth and suffocation. ATC is uncommon, accounting for less than 5 % of all thyroid carcinomas. The diagnosis can be established by means of multiple fine needle aspiration biopsies, which are neither harmful nor troublesome for the patient. The cytological diagnosis of this high-grade malignant tumour is usually not difficult for a well trained cytologist. The intention to treat patients with ATC is cure, although only few of them survive. The majority of the patients are older than 60 years and treatment must be influenced by their high age. We have by using a combined modality regimen succeeded in achieving local control in most patients. Every effort should be made to control the primary tumour and thereby improve the quality of remaining life and it is important for patients, relatives and the personnel to know that cure is not impossible. Different treatment combinations have been used since 30 years including radiotherapy, cytostatic drugs and surgery, when feasible. In our latest combined regimen, 22 patients were treated with hyper fractionated radiotherapy 1.6Gy x 2 to a total target dose of 46 Gy given preoperatively, 20 mg doxorubicin was administered intravenously once weekly and surgery was carried out 2-3 weeks after the radiotherapy. 17 of these 22 patients were operated upon and none of these 17 patients got a local recurrence. In the future we are awaiting the development of new therapeutic approaches to this aggressive type of carcinoma. Inhibitors of angiogenesis might be useful. Combretastatin has displayed cytotoxicity against ATC cell lines and has had a positive effect on ATC in a patient. Sodium iodide symporter (NIS) genetherapy is also being currently considered for dedifferentiated thyroid carcinomas with the ultimate aim of

  19. Metastatic thyroid carcinoma presenting as malignant pleural effusion: A cytologic review of 5 cases.

    PubMed

    Vyas, Monika; Harigopal, Malini

    2016-12-01

    Malignant pleural effusion can be a manifestation of many malignancies. Involvement of pleural fluid by metatstatic thyroid carcinoma, though reported, is relatively rare. We present 5 cases of metastatic thyroid carcinoma involving the pleural fluid. The diagnosis of thyroid carcinoma in pleural fluid can be particularly challenging as thyroid transcription factor -1 (TTF-1) which is a marker for carcinoma of thyroid origin is also positive in lung adenocarcinomas (which are more frequently associated with pleural effusions) and thyroglobulin (TG) can often be negative in poorly differentiated/analplastic thyroid carcinomas. In our experience, PAX8 is a particularly useful marker in making the distinction. The diagnosis of metastatic thyroid carcinoma in pleural fluid can be challenging and knowledge of the clinical context and supporting immunohistochemical stains is essential for making the right diagnosis. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2016;44:1085-1089. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Papillary thyroid carcinoma with an uncommon spread of hematogenous metastases to the choroid and the skin.

    PubMed

    Bucerius, Jan; Meyka, Susanne; Michael, Bangard; Biersack, Hans-Jürgen; Eter, Nicole

    2008-01-01

    Papillary carcinoma is the most common malignancy of the thyroid gland with initial lymphogenic metastatic spread in many cases. Hematogenous spread may affect the lung, bone and brain. We present a case of hematogenous metastases of papillary thyroid carcinoma both in the choroid and the skin, which are reported in the literature to be rare sites of metastases in primary differentiated thyroid carcinoma. This finding is even more remarkable, as the reported patient presented without any other disseminated hematogenous metastases at the time of diagnosis of both of these metastases. With this background, papillary carcinoma of the thyroid should be considered in the differential diagnosis of choroidal or skin metastasis of unknown origin.

  1. 99mTc-EDDA/HYNIC-TOC in the diagnosis of differentiated thyroid carcinoma refractory to radioiodine treatment.

    PubMed

    Czepczyński, Rafał; Gryczyńska, Maria; Ruchała, Marek

    2016-01-01

    In majority of cases of differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC), the ablative radioiodine treatment shows high efficacy. In a small number of patients, mechanism of selective iodine uptake by the DTC cells is insufficient and alternative methods of diagnosis and treatment are needed. As demonstrated in vitro, DTC cells show expression of somatostatin recep-tors. Radiolabeled somatostatin analogs are widely used in the diagnosis of neuroendocrine tumors. The aim of the study was to evaluate the utility of peptide receptor scintigraphy with the use of 99mTc-EDDA/HYNIC-TOC in the diagnosis of DTC in patients with elevated thyroglobulin concentrations (Tg), negative WBS and no effect of the consecutive radioiodine therapies. Whole body scintigraphy as well as SPECT of neck and chest were performed 3 and 24 h after i.v. administration of 740 MBq 99mTc-EDDA/HYNIC-TOC. The obtained images were compared with other radionuclide and ra-diological imaging methods. Forty-three patients with DTC after surgery and ablative radioiodine treatment with negative WBS and elevated Tg were qualified. Patients' age: 18-83 years (mean 58.0). SRS showed foci of tracer accumulation in 29 cases (67.4%). Sensitivity was 69.0% specificity 78.6%. SRS correctly identified local recurrence in 8 pts., metastatic lymph nodes in 19 pts., lung metastases in 12 pts. and bone metastases in 5 pts. SRS showed high sensitivity in the detection of metastatic lymph nodes (100%) and bone metastases (83.3%) and lung metastases (63.2%). Positive SRS was found in pts. with higher Tg concentrations (130 ± 144 vs. 30 ± 54 ng/ml). Scintigraphy with the use of the studied technetium-99m-labeled somatostatin analog is useful in the evaluation of patients with advanced DTC. It shows relatively good sensitivity and specificity but not high enough to be recommended as a routine imaging method. The role of somatostatin receptor scintigraphy in DTC is complementary to other imaging modalities.

  2. [Significance of simultaneous measurement of serum thyroglobulin and thyroglobulin antibody during the follow-up of patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Lõcsei, Zoltán; Horváth, Dóra; Rácz, Károly; Toldy, Erzsébet

    2011-05-08

    Serum thyroglobulin is an essential marker during the follow-up of patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma. Demonstration of the total absence of thyroglobulin is not possible by immunoanalytic methods if thyroglobulin antibody is present in serum samples that occur in almost 20% of patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma. Therefore, current guidelines recommend estimation of thyroglobulin levels only if quantitative level of thyroglobulin antibody is known. However, normal thyroglobulin antibody level fails to exclude interference with the antibody, because antibody concentration within the normal range may interfere with the thyroglobulin assay. In this respect recommendations are not consistent because they distinguish only occasionally cases with normal and those with non-detectable serum thyroglobulin level. In addition, the possible impact of normal thyroglobulin antibody level on the thyroglobulin assay has not been entirely explored. Authors review literature data and current guidelines on the analytical and preanalytical limitations of the thyroglobulin and thyroglobulin antibody measurements. On the basis of their own studies, authors make recommendation for improvement of the diagnostic accuracy of the thyroglobulin measurement.

  3. Mammary analog secretory carcinoma of thyroid: A case report.

    PubMed

    Rupp, Aaron P; Bocklage, Thèrése J

    2017-01-01

    Mammary analog secretory carcinoma (MASC) is a recently described rare neoplasm that was first reported in the salivary gland with an associated ETV6-NTRK3 fusion. We present a case of MASC involving and presumably arising in the thyroid, which was originally diagnosed as papillary thyroid carcinoma on fine needle aspiration and surgical resection. The later correct diagnosis of MASC was confirmed by immunohistochemistry and molecular studies. The cytopathological features of MASC in the salivary gland are previously described; however, we present the first cytopathological description of MASC arising in the thyroid with the unique feature of prominent nuclear grooves. Differentiating MASC from overlapping features of cytopathologic mimics such as papillary thyroid carcinoma may carry crucial therapeutic implications. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2017;45:45-50. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Hyponatremia after thyroid hormone withdrawal in a patient with papillary thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Jo, Hyo Jin; Kim, Yong Hyun; Shin, Dong Hyun; Kim, Mi Jeoung; Lee, Sang Jin; Jeon, Dong Ok; Im, Sung Gyu; Jang, Sun Kyung; Choi, Jin Young

    2014-03-01

    Hyponatremia is an electrolyte abnormality commonly found in clinical practice. It is important to diagnose the underlying etiology of the hyponatremia and correct it appropriately because severe hyponatremia can cause serious complications and substantially increase the risk of mortality. Although hypothyroidism is known to be a cause of hyponatremia, it is rare that hyponatremia occurs in relation to hypothyroidism induced by thyroid hormone withdrawal in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer. We report a case of a 76-year-old woman with papillary thyroid carcinoma presenting with severe hyponatremia related to hypothyroidism induced by thyroid hormone withdrawal for radio-active iodine whole-body scanning, who was treated by thyroid hormone replacement and hydration. Considering that the incidence of differentiated thyroid cancer is rapidly increasing, physicians should be aware that, although uncommon, hyponatremia can occur in patients undergoing radioiodine therapy or diagnostic testing.

  5. New and emerging therapeutic options for thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Shah, Jatin P; Clayman, Gary L; Wirth, Lori J

    2015-04-01

    The incidence of thyroid cancer has increased in the past few decades. Most patients with follicular cell–derived tumors present with well-differentiated carcinomas, and they have an excellent prognosis following treatment. Between 10% and 15% of tumors will mutate into more aggressive variants, such as tall-cell carcinoma and insular carcinoma. Some patients will present with poorly differentiated carcinomas requiring aggressive surgery and adjuvant therapy. The management plan for patients with thyroid carcinoma is based on the tumor type and prognostic risk factors. There is controversy regarding whether all thyroid cancers require treatment. In most cases, the initial treatment for differentiated thyroid cancers is surgical. Radioactive iodine (RAI) was established as adjuvant therapy more than 50 years ago, but data show that many patients do not respond to this therapy or develop RAI-refractory disease, which is associated with a poor prognosis. Until recently, there were no specific targeted systemic therapies available for patients with RAI-refractory thyroid cancer. The US Food and Drug Administration has recently approved 2 systemic agents for RAI-refractory disease: sorafenib and lenvatinib. These approvals have paved the way for the clinical development of other targeted therapies, with many showing promising results in patients with RAI-refractory disease.

  6. Selective Ablation of Tumor Suppressors in Parafollicular C Cells Elicits Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Song, Hai; Lin, Chuwen; Yao, Erica; Zhang, Kuan; Li, Xiaoling; Wu, Qingzhe; Chuang, Pao-Tien

    2017-03-03

    Among the four different types of thyroid cancer, treatment of medullary thyroid carcinoma poses a major challenge because of its propensity of early metastasis. To further investigate the molecular mechanisms of medullary thyroid carcinoma and discover candidates for targeted therapies, we developed a new mouse model of medullary thyroid carcinoma based on our CGRP(CreER) mouse line. This system enables gene manipulation in parafollicular C cells in the thyroid, the purported cells of origin of medullary thyroid carcinoma. Selective inactivation of tumor suppressors, such as p53, Rb, and Pten, in mature parafollicular C cells via an inducible Cre recombinase from CGRP(CreER) led to development of murine medullary thyroid carcinoma. Loss of Pten accelerated p53/Rb-induced medullary thyroid carcinoma, indicating interactions between pathways controlled by tumor suppressors. Moreover, labeling differentiated parafollicular C cells by CGRP(CreER) allows us to follow their fate during malignant transformation to medullary thyroid tumor. Our findings support a model in which mutational events in differentiated parafollicular C cells result in medullary thyroid carcinoma. Through expression analysis including RNA-Seq, we uncovered major signaling pathways and networks that are perturbed following the removal of tumor suppressors. Taken together, these studies not only increase our molecular understanding of medullary thyroid carcinoma but also offer new candidates for designing targeted therapies or other treatment modalities. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  7. Synchronous papillary thyroid carcinoma and medullary thyroid carcinoma - a pitfall waiting to happen.

    PubMed

    Tang, P Y; Khor, L Y; Takano, A

    2017-08-01

    Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is the most common thyroid carcinoma and is derived from thyroid follicular cells. In contrast, medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) is rare and originates from the parafollicular C-cells. Synchronous occurrence of these two carcinomas is uncommon and occurs as either discrete lesions or as a mixed lesion. The current case report describes a 50-year-old woman with synchronous multiple discrete MTC and PTC with lymph nodes metastasis. Pathologists and treating physicians should be aware of the synchronous coexistence of these entities to avoid possible misdiagnosis.

  8. Effect of the micronutrient iodine in thyroid carcinoma angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Daniell, Kayla; Nucera, Carmelo

    2016-01-01

    Iodide is a micronutrient essential for thyroid hormone production. The uptake and metabolism of iodide by thyrocytes is crucial to proper thyroid function. Iodide ions are drawn into the thyroid follicular cell via the sodium-iodide symporter (NIS) in the cell membrane and become integrated into tyrosyl residues to ultimately form thyroid hormones. We sought to learn how an abnormal concentration of iodide within thyrocyte can have significant effects on the thyroid, specifically the surrounding vascular network. Insufficient levels of iodide can lead to increased expression or activity of several pathways, including vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). The VEGF protein fuel vessel growth (angiogenesis) and therefore enhances the nutrients available to surrounding cells. Alternatively, normal/surplus iodide levels can have inhibitory effects on angiogenesis. Varying levels of iodide in the thyroid can influence thyroid carcinoma cell proliferation and angiogenesis via regulation of the hypoxia inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) and VEGF-dependent pathway. We have reviewed a number of studies to investigate how the effect of iodide on angiogenic and oxidative stress regulation can affect the viability of thyroid carcinoma cells. The various studies outlined give key insights to the role of iodide in thyroid follicles function and vascular growth, generally highlighting that insufficient levels of iodide stimulate pathways resulting in vascular growth, and viceversa normal/surplus iodide levels inhibit such pathways. Intriguingly, TSH and iodine levels differentially regulate the expression levels of angiogenic factors. All cells, including carcinoma cells, increase uptake of blood nutrients, meaning the vascular profile is influential to tumor growth and progression. Importantly, variation in the iodine concentrations also influence BRAFV600E-mediated oncogenic activity and might deregulate tumor proliferation. Although the mechanisms are not well eluted, iodine

  9. The search for preoperative biomarkers for thyroid carcinoma: application of the thyroid circadian clock properties.

    PubMed

    Dibner, Charna; Sadowski, Samira Mercedes; Triponez, Frederic; Philippe, Jacques

    2017-03-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that alterations in the molecular clocks underlying the circadian time-keeping system might be connected to changes in cell cycle, resulting in oncogenic transformation. The hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis is driven by a circadian clock at several levels, with an endocrine feedback loop regulating thyroid-stimulating hormone. Changes in the expression levels of circadian and cell cycle markers may correlate with clinic-pathological characteristics in differentiated follicular thyroid carcinomas. Here we summarize recent advances in exploring complex regulation of the thyroid gland transcriptome and function by the circadian oscillator. We particularly focus on clinical implications of the parallel assessment of the circadian clock, cell-cycle and cell functionality markers in human thyroid tissue, which might help improving preoperative diagnostics of thyroid malignancies.

  10. Differentiated Thyroid Cancer: Management of Patients with Radioiodine Nonresponsive Disease

    PubMed Central

    Busaidy, Naifa Lamki; Cabanillas, Maria E.

    2012-01-01

    Differentiated thyroid carcinoma (papillary and follicular) has a favorable prognosis with an 85% 10-year survival. The patients that recur often require surgery and further radioactive iodine to render them disease-free. Five percent of thyroid cancer patients, however, will eventually succumb to their disease. Metastatic thyroid cancer is treated with radioactive iodine if the metastases are radioiodine avid. Cytotoxic chemotherapies for advanced or metastatic noniodine avid thyroid cancers show no prolonged responses and in general have fallen out of favor. Novel targeted therapies have recently been discovered that have given rise to clinical trials for thyroid cancer. Newer aberrations in molecular pathways and oncogenic mutations in thyroid cancer together with the role of angiogenesis in tumor growth have been central to these discoveries. This paper will focus on the management and treatment of metastatic differentiated thyroid cancers that do not take up radioactive iodine. PMID:22530159

  11. Differential expression of alphaB-crystallin and Hsp27-1 in anaplastic thyroid carcinomas because of tumor-specific alphaB-crystallin gene (CRYAB) silencing

    PubMed Central

    Mineva, Ivelina; Gartner, Wolfgang; Hauser, Peter; Kainz, Alexander; Löffler, Michael; Wolf, Gerhard; Oberbauer, Rainer; Weissel, Michael; Wagner, Ludwig

    2005-01-01

    Expression of the small heat shock protein alphaB-crystallin in differentiated thyroid tumors has been described recently. In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanisms that affect the expression of alphaB-crystallin in benign goiters (n = 7) and highly malignant anaplastic thyroid carcinomas (ATCs) (n = 3). AlphaB-crystallin expression was compared with that of Hsp27-1. Immunoblot and quantitative real-time (RT) polymerase chain reaction revealed marked downregulation of alphaB-crystallin in all the tested ATCs and the ATC-derived cell line C-643 . In contrast, considerable expression of Hsp27-1 in benign and malignant thyroid tissue was demonstrated. Immunofluorescence analysis revealed no relevant topological differences between benign and malignant thyrocytes in the cytoplasmic staining of both proteins. Consistent and marked downregulation of TFCP2L1 was identified as one of the main mechanisms contributing to CRYAB gene silencing in ATCs. In addition, CRYAB gene promoter methylation seems to occur in distinct ATCs. In silico analysis revealed that the differential expression of alphaB-crystallin and Hsp27-1 results from differences between the alphaB-crystallin and Hsp27-1 promoter fragments (712 bp upstream from the transcriptional start site). Biological activity of the analyzed promoter element is confirmed by its heat shock inducibility. In conclusion, we demonstrate downregulation of alphaB-crystallin expression in highly dedifferentiated ATCs because of a tumor-specific transcription factor pattern. The differential expression of alphaB-crystallin and Hsp27-1 indicates functional differences between both proteins. PMID:16184762

  12. Differential expression of alphaB-crystallin and Hsp27-1 in anaplastic thyroid carcinomas because of tumor-specific alphaB-crystallin gene (CRYAB) silencing.

    PubMed

    Mineva, Ivelina; Gartner, Wolfgang; Hauser, Peter; Kainz, Alexander; Löffler, Michael; Wolf, Gerhard; Oberbauer, Rainer; Weissel, Michael; Wagner, Ludwig

    2005-01-01

    Expression of the small heat shock protein alphaB-crystallin in differentiated thyroid tumors has been described recently. In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanisms that affect the expression of alphaB-crystallin in benign goiters (n = 7) and highly malignant anaplastic thyroid carcinomas (ATCs) (n = 3). AlphaB-crystallin expression was compared with that of Hsp27-1. Immunoblot and quantitative real-time (RT) polymerase chain reaction revealed marked downregulation of alphaB-crystallin in all the tested ATCs and the ATC-derived cell line C-643 . In contrast, considerable expression of Hsp27-1 in benign and malignant thyroid tissue was demonstrated. Immunofluorescence analysis revealed no relevant topological differences between benign and malignant thyrocytes in the cytoplasmic staining of both proteins. Consistent and marked downregulation of TFCP2L1 was identified as one of the main mechanisms contributing to CRYAB gene silencing in ATCs. In addition, CRYAB gene promoter methylation seems to occur in distinct ATCs. In silico analysis revealed that the differential expression of alphaB-crystallin and Hsp27-1 results from differences between the alphaB-crystallin and Hsp27-1 promoter fragments (712 bp upstream from the transcriptional start site). Biological activity of the analyzed promoter element is confirmed by its heat shock inducibility. In conclusion, we demonstrate downregulation of alphaB-crystallin expression in highly dedifferentiated ATCs because of a tumor-specific transcription factor pattern. The differential expression of alphaB-crystallin and Hsp27-1 indicates functional differences between both proteins.

  13. Primary thyroid spindle cell tumors: spindle cell variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma?

    PubMed

    Ma, Xiaomei; Xia, Chunyan; Liu, Huimin; Zhu, Weijian

    2015-01-01

    Primary thyroid spindle cell tumors or spindle cell component in the thyroid tumors are very rare. The spindle tumor cells were positive for thyroid papillary carcinoma markers. So these tumors were diagnosed as spindle cell variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). To further delineate clinico-pathological features of primary thyroid spindle cell tumors and discuss differential diagnosis, we reported a 67-year-old man with a mass in the right thyroid without clinical symptom. Microscopy revealed that an encapsulated tumor with lot criss spindle cells arranged in bundles. Nuclear grooves were easy to see and rare displayed pseudoinclusions. Immunohistochemical studied showed that the spindle cells were all strong positive for TTF-1, Pax-8, thyroglobulin. Rare follicular were seen in the periphery of the tumor near the thyroid tissue. The cells formed follicular but the spindle tumor cells were positive for pan-keratins. The pathological diagnosis was primary thyroid spindle cell tumors, suspected spindle cell variant of PTC. Primary thyroid spindle cell tumors were presence and without the unified name. The further reports and more discussion were need about these tumors.

  14. Medullary carcinoma in a lingual thyroid.

    PubMed

    Yaday, S; Singh, I; Singh, J; Aggarwal, N

    2008-03-01

    Total ectopia of thyroid is a rare phenomenon and malignant change in an ectopic thyroid is even rarer. We report a case of medullary carcinoma in a total ectopic lingual thyroid occurring in a 45-year-old woman who presented with dysphagia, plummy voice and a round sessile mass at the base of the tongue. The mass was extirpated using Trotter's midline approach. Upon examination, it was found to be medullary carcinoma in an ectopic thyroid. Permanent substitution therapy with thyroxine secured the euthyroid status of the patient. The embrylogical basis and a review of literature regarding carcinomatous change in an ectopic thyroid are also discussed. There is a need to investigate for an ectopic thyroid, or even total ectopia, in the case of any smooth mass found at the base of the tongue.

  15. Follicular variant papillary thyroid carcinoma with a twist

    PubMed Central

    Nwaeze, Obinna; Obidike, Stephen; Mullen, Dorinda; Aftab, Fuad

    2015-01-01

    Background We report an adnexal lesion, which turned out to be a metastasis to the scalp from a left sided follicular variant papillary thyroid cancer. The patient has had history of right multi-nodular goiter 10 years prior to presentation. Case presentation A 75-year old lady presented with a cutaneous lesion about 1 year post left total thyroidectomy for FVPTC. She underwent surgical excision of the lesion and histology revealed it to be metastases from a thyroid carcinoma. Discussion Cutaneous metastases from thyroid carcinomas are relatively uncommon in clinical practice. A worldwide literature review reveals that follicular carcinoma has a greater preponderance than papillary carcinoma for cutaneous metastasis and that the majority of skin metastases from either papillary or follicular thyroid cancer are localized to the head and neck, with the scalp as the commonest site. Conclusion Skin metastasis from papillary and follicular thyroid carcinoma is an uncommon occurrence and these lesions should be differentiated from primary skin tumors. They are very important to recognize as early recognition can lead to accurate and prompt diagnosis leading to timely treatment. The scalp has been found to be the commonest site of cutaneous metastasis that may appear benign. PMID:25651538

  16. Comparison of mathematical models for red marrow and blood absorbed dose estimation in the radioiodine treatment of advanced differentiated thyroid carcinoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miranti, A.; Giostra, A.; Richetta, E.; Gino, E.; Pellerito, R. E.; Stasi, M.

    2015-02-01

    Metastatic and recurrent differentiated thyroid carcinoma is preferably treated with 131I, whose administered activity is limited by red marrow (RM) toxicity, originally correlated by Benua to a blood absorbed dose higher than 2 Gy. Afterward a variety of dosimetric approaches has been proposed. The aim of this work is to compare the results of the Benua formula with the ones of other three blood and RM absorbed dose formulae. Materials and methods have been borrowed by the dosimetric protocol of the Italian Internal Dosimetry group and adapted to the routine of our centre. Wilcoxon t-tests and percentage differences have been applied for comparison purposes. Results are significantly different (p < 0.05) from each other, with an average percentage difference between Benua versus other results of -22%. The dosimetric formula applied to determine blood or RM absorbed dose may contribute significantly to increase heterogeneity in absorbed dose and dose-response results. Standardization should be a major objective.

  17. Dynamic prediction of the risk of recurrence in patients over 60 years of age with differentiated thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Morosán, Yanina Jimena; Parisi, Carina; Urrutia, María Agustina; Rosmarin, Melanie; Schnitman, Marta; Serrano, Leonardo; Luciani, Wilfrido; Faingold, Cristina; Pitoia, Fabián; Brenta, Gabriela

    2016-08-01

    The reclassification of the risk according to the response to the initial treatment makes the treatment of differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) vary in each individual. As the influence of age on this diagnostic strategy is unknown, we have decided to assess it in adults who are over 60 years of age. Ninety patients with DTC above 60 years old were enrolled, with total thyroidectomy plus radioiodine ablation, negative anti-thyroglobulin antibodies, follow-up ≥ 2 years and with clinical and pathological information to classify the risk of recurrence according to ATA (American Thyroid Association) and reclassify based on the response to initial therapy according to MSKCC (Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center). The structural persistence at the end of the follow-up was the gold standard of our analysis. The structural persistence in ATA low, intermediate and high risk categories was 0, 38, and 100%, respectively. In the intermediate group, none of those with an excellent response to the initial treatment showed structural persistence, whereas 39% of those with an incomplete/indeterminate response showed structural persistence (p < 0.01). The re-stratification according to the response to the initial treatment in patients over 60 years of age with an ATA intermediate risk of recurrence allowed for the distinction of disease-free patients at the end of the follow-up from those with structural persistence and a worse clinical progression.

  18. Chromophobe renal cell carcinoma-like thyroid carcinoma: A novel clinicopathologic entity possibly associated with tuberous sclerosis complex.

    PubMed

    Hirokawa, Mitsuyoshi; Miyauchi, Akira; Kihara, Minoru; Kudo, Takumi; Hashimoto, Yuko; Suzuki, Shinichi; Daa, Tsutomu; Vuong, Huy Gia; Mitsutake, Norisato

    2017-07-06

    We report three cases of chromophobe renal cell carcinoma-like thyroid carcinoma as a novel clinicopathologic entity possibly associated with tuberous sclerosis complex. A 15-year-old female, a 19-year-old male, and a 21-year-old male presented with primary thyroid carcinoma. Two of the patients had associated tuberous sclerosis complex. Macroscopically, the carcinomas showed invasive growth. Histologically, the carcinoma cells showed a trabecular pattern with thin vascular stroma, and were characterized by abundant eosinophilic cytoplasm with perinuclear clearing, a prominent cell border, a wrinkled nuclear membrane, and binucleation, which are all features of chromophobe renal cell carcinoma. Immunohistochemically, the carcinoma cells were positive for thyroglobulin, TTF1, and PAX8, and negative for CD10, calcitonin, and carcinoembryonic antigen. Vascular invasion was visible in all cases, but distant metastasis was not detected during follow-up. The original pathological diagnoses of the three cases were widely invasive follicular thyroid carcinoma, poorly differentiated thyroid carcinoma, and oxyphilic variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma. Thus, the cases were similar to chromophobe renal cell carcinoma associated with tuberous sclerosis complex as they were characterized by histologic findings consistent with chromophobe renal cell carcinoma, occurrence in an adolescent or young adult, and favorable prognosis regardless of the presence of vascular invasion and an infiltrating growth pattern resembling poorly differentiated carcinoma. The etiopathogenesis also seemed to suggest the presence of the tuberous sclerosis complex genetic abnormality.

  19. Gene expression profiling of normal thyroid tissue from patients with thyroid carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Melaccio, Assunta; Di Meo, Giovanna; Trino, Stefania; Mazzoccoli, Carmela; Saltarella, Ilaria; Lamanuzzi, Aurelia; Morano, Annalisa; Gurrado, Angela; Pasculli, Alessandro; Lastilla, Gaetano; Musto, Pellegrino; Reale, Antonia; Dammacco, Franco; Vacca, Angelo; Testini, Mario

    2016-01-01

    Gene expression profiling (GEP) of normal thyroid tissue from 43 patients with thyroid carcinoma, 6 with thyroid adenoma, 42 with multinodular goiter, and 6 with Graves-Basedow disease was carried out with the aim of achieving a better understanding of the genetic mechanisms underlying the role of normal cells surrounding the tumor in the thyroid cancer progression. Unsupervised and supervised analyses were performed to compare samples from neoplastic and non-neoplastic diseases. GEP and subsequent RT-PCR analysis identified 28 differentially expressed genes. Functional assessment revealed that they are involved in tumorigenesis and cancer progression. The distinct GEP is likely to reflect the onset and/or progression of thyroid cancer, its molecular classification, and the identification of new potential prognostic factors, thus allowing to pinpoint selective gene targets with the aim of realizing more precise preoperative diagnostic procedures and novel therapeutic approaches. STATEMENT OF SIGNIFICANCE This study is focused on the gene expression profiling analysis followed by RT-PCR of normal thyroid tissues from patients with neoplastic and non-neoplastic thyroid diseases. Twenty-eight genes were found to be differentially expressed in normal cells surrounding the tumor in the thyroid cancer. The genes dysregulated in normal tissue samples from patients with thyroid tumors may represent new molecular markers, useful for their diagnostic, prognostic and possibly therapeutic implications. PMID:27105534

  20. Second malignancies in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma treated with low and medium activities of radioactive I-131

    PubMed Central

    PICIU, DOINA; PESTEAN, CLAUDIU; BARBUS, ELENA; LARG, MARIA IULIA; PICIU, ANDRA

    2016-01-01

    Background and aim This study aimed at determining whether there is a risk regarding the development of second primary malignancies after patient exposure to the low and medium radioiodine activity used during the treatment of differentiated thyroid cancers (DTC). Methods Second primary malignancies that occurred after DTC were detected in 1,990 patients treated between 1970 and 2003. The mean long-term follow-up period was 182 months. Results Radioiodine I-131was administrated at a mean dose of 63.2 mCi. There were 93 patients with at least one second primary malignancy. The relative risk of development of second malignancy in DTC patients was increased (p<0.0001) for breast, uterine and ovarian cancers compared with the general population. Conclusions The overall risk concerning the development of second primary malignancies was related to the presence of DTC, but not to exposure to the low and medium activities of radioiodine administered as adjuvant therapy. PMID:27547058

  1. BRAF V600E mutation: Differential impact on central lymph node metastasis by tumor size in papillary thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seo Ki; Lee, Jun Ho; Woo, Jung-Woo; Park, Inhye; Choe, Jun-Ho; Kim, Jung-Han; Kim, Jee Soo

    2016-04-01

    The necessity of prophylactic central neck dissection is one of debating issues in the treatment of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). In a previous study, the predictive value of BRAF mutation for lymph node metastasis was only significant in 0.5 to 1.0 cm PTC. Thus, we assess the predictive value of BRAF mutation for central lymph node metastasis according to tumor size. Medical records of 3107 patients with PTC who underwent thyroidectomy with central neck dissection were retrospectively reviewed. BRAF mutation was a predictor for central lymph node metastasis in 2.0 to 4.0 cm PTC (odds ratio [OR] = 3.494; p = .002). Although BRAF mutation was associated with central lymph node metastasis in 0.5 to 1.0 cm PTC in univariate analysis (OR = 1.334; p = .047), this significance was not observed in multivariate analysis (OR = 1.232; p = .163). BRAF mutation was not associated with central lymph node metastasis in other tumor sizes. Prophylactic central neck dissection could be considered in 2.0 to 4.0 cm PTC with positive BRAF mutation. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck 38: E1203-E1209, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Differential expression patterns and clinical significance of estrogen receptor-α and β in papillary thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yanhong; Dong, Wenwu; Li, Jing; Zhang, Hao; Shan, Zhongyan; Teng, Weiping

    2014-05-29

    The incidence of papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) is markedly higher in women than men during the reproductive years. In vitro studies have suggested that estrogen may play an important role in the development and progression of PTC through estrogen receptors (ERs). This study aimed to investigate the expression patterns of the two main ER subtypes, α and β1 (wild-type ERβ), in PTC tissue and their clinical significance. Immunohistochemical staining of thyroid tissue sections was performed to detect ER expression in female patients with PTC (n =89) and nodular thyroid goiter (NTG; n =30) using the Elivision™ plus two-step system. The relationships between ER subtype expression and clinicopathological/biological factors were further analyzed. The positive percentage and expression levels of ERα were significantly higher in female PTC patients of reproductive age (18-45 years old; n =50) than age-matched female NTG patients (n =30), while ERβ1 exhibited the opposite pattern. There was no difference in ERα or ERβ1 expression between female PTC patients of reproductive age and those of advanced reproductive age (>45 years old; n =39). In the female PTC patients of reproductive age, ERα expression level was positively correlated with that of Ki-67, while ERβ1 was negatively correlated with mutant P53. Furthermore, more patients with exclusively nuclear ERα expression had extrathyroidal extension (ETE) as compared with those with extranuclear ERα localization. VEGF expression was significantly decreased in female PTC patients of reproductive age with only nuclear ERβ1 expression when compared with those with extranuclear ERβ1 localization. In PTC patients of advanced reproductive age, neither ERα nor ERβ1 expression showed any correlation with that of Ki-67, mutant P53, VEGF, tumor size, TNM stage, ETE, or lymph node metastases. The differential expression patterns of the two ER subtypes between PTC and NTG indicate that ERα may be a useful

  3. Differential expression patterns and clinical significance of estrogen receptor-α and β in papillary thyroid carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The incidence of papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) is markedly higher in women than men during the reproductive years. In vitro studies have suggested that estrogen may play an important role in the development and progression of PTC through estrogen receptors (ERs). This study aimed to investigate the expression patterns of the two main ER subtypes, α and β1 (wild-type ERβ), in PTC tissue and their clinical significance. Methods Immunohistochemical staining of thyroid tissue sections was performed to detect ER expression in female patients with PTC (n = 89) and nodular thyroid goiter (NTG; n = 30) using the Elivision™ plus two-step system. The relationships between ER subtype expression and clinicopathological/biological factors were further analyzed. Results The positive percentage and expression levels of ERα were significantly higher in female PTC patients of reproductive age (18–45 years old; n = 50) than age-matched female NTG patients (n = 30), while ERβ1 exhibited the opposite pattern. There was no difference in ERα or ERβ1 expression between female PTC patients of reproductive age and those of advanced reproductive age (>45 years old; n = 39). In the female PTC patients of reproductive age, ERα expression level was positively correlated with that of Ki-67, while ERβ1 was negatively correlated with mutant P53. Furthermore, more patients with exclusively nuclear ERα expression had extrathyroidal extension (ETE) as compared with those with extranuclear ERα localization. VEGF expression was significantly decreased in female PTC patients of reproductive age with only nuclear ERβ1 expression when compared with those with extranuclear ERβ1 localization. In PTC patients of advanced reproductive age, neither ERα nor ERβ1 expression showed any correlation with that of Ki-67, mutant P53, VEGF, tumor size, TNM stage, ETE, or lymph node metastases. Conclusions The differential expression patterns of the two ER subtypes between PTC

  4. Bilateral Thyroid and Ultimobranchial Medullary Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Patey, Martine; Flament, Jean Bernard; Caron, Jean; Delisle, Marie Joelle; Delemer, Brigitte; Pluot, Michel

    1996-01-01

    The ultimobranchial bodies in human embryos develop from the fourth and fifth branchial pouch complexes along with thymic and parathyroid tissue. They become incorporated within the lateral thyroid lobes and are believed to be involved in the development of C-cells. We report a case of an unusual bilateral thyroid and neck prelaryngeal medullary carcinoma in a 23-year-old male patient who belongs to a multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2a (MEN type 2a) family with thyroid tumors and pheochromocytomas. The medullary carcinoma was located in an abnormal cystic structure that seems to be a remnant of the ultimobranchial body (UBB) in the neck. Within the contralateral thyroid lobe, the medullary carcinoma was associated with C-cell hyperplasia.

  5. Occult carcinoma of the thyroid gland.

    PubMed

    Arellano, L; Ibarra, A

    1984-09-01

    Ten occult carcinomas of the thyroid gland were found in 274 unselected autopsies at the Pathology Service, Hospital José Joaquín Aguirre, between December 1980 and March 1983. This is the lowest incidence among the most recent published series. The present results suggest that environmental factors play an important role in the etiology of this type of carcinoma.

  6. Functional polymorphisms in the insulin-like binding protein-3 gene may modulate susceptibility to differentiated thyroid carcinoma in Caucasian Americans

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Li; Mugartegui, Liliana; Li, Guojun; Sarlis, Nicholas J.; Wei, Qingyi; Zafereo, Mark E.; Sturgis, Erich M.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose The insulin-like growth factor (IGF) pathway is believed to play a pivotal role in thyroid carcinogenesis. Polymorphisms of IGF-1 and IGF binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) have been associated with modulation of risk for the emergence of assorted common malignancies, but studies of the influence of such polymorphisms on risk of differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) are lacking. Methods In a case-control study of 173 DTC patients, 101 patients with benign thyroid disease, and 401 controls, an unconditional logistical regression model adjusted for age and sex was applied to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the associations between polymorphisms of IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 and DTC risk. Results IGFBP-3 rs2132572 GA/AA genotypes were associated with a decreased risk of DTC (adjusted OR=0.6, 95% CI: 0.4–0.9), particularly multifocal DTC (adjusted OR=0.3, 95% CI: 0.1–0.7). The association with DTC was more evident in subjects with a first-degree family history of cancer (adjusted OR=0.4, 95% CI: 0.2–0.7, Pinteraction=0.013) and nondrinkers (adjusted OR=0.4, 95% CI: 0.2–0.7, Pinteraction=0.028). A 4 SNP haplotype of IGFBP-3 was associated with a decreased risk of DTC (adjusted OR=0.7, 95% CI: 0.5–1.0, P=0.030). Conclusions Our study suggests that polymorphic IGFBP-3 may be involved in susceptibility to DTC. PMID:22415807

  7. Rtfc (4931414P19Rik) Regulates in vitro Thyroid Differentiation and in vivo Thyroid Function

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Yang; Liu, Chang; Zhang, Junxia; Zhang, Mimi; Wen, Wei; Ruan, Xianhui; Li, Dapeng; Zhang, Shuang; Gao, Ming; Chen, Lingyi

    2017-01-01

    Thyroid is a one of the most important endocrine organs. Understanding the molecular mechanism underlying thyroid development and function, as well as thyroid diseases, is beneficial for the clinical treatment of thyroid diseases and tumors. Through genetic linkage analysis and exome sequencing, we previously identified an uncharacterized gene C14orf93 (RTFC, mouse homolog: 4931414P19Rik) as a novel susceptibility gene for familial non-medullary thyroid carcinoma, and demonstrated its function in promoting thyroid tumor. However, the role of RTFC in thyroid development and function remains unexplored. In this study, we found that knockout of Rtfc compromises the in vitro thyroid differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells. In contrast, Rtfc−/− mice are viable and fertile, and the size and the morphology of thyroid are not affected by Rtfc knockout. However, female Rtfc−/− mice, but not male Rtfc−/− mice, display mild hypothyroidism. In summary, our data suggest the roles of Rtfc in in vitro thyroid differentiation of embryonic stem cells, and in vivo thyroid function. PMID:28230092

  8. Rtfc (4931414P19Rik) Regulates in vitro Thyroid Differentiation and in vivo Thyroid Function.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yang; Liu, Chang; Zhang, Junxia; Zhang, Mimi; Wen, Wei; Ruan, Xianhui; Li, Dapeng; Zhang, Shuang; Gao, Ming; Chen, Lingyi

    2017-02-23

    Thyroid is a one of the most important endocrine organs. Understanding the molecular mechanism underlying thyroid development and function, as well as thyroid diseases, is beneficial for the clinical treatment of thyroid diseases and tumors. Through genetic linkage analysis and exome sequencing, we previously identified an uncharacterized gene C14orf93 (RTFC, mouse homolog: 4931414P19Rik) as a novel susceptibility gene for familial non-medullary thyroid carcinoma, and demonstrated its function in promoting thyroid tumor. However, the role of RTFC in thyroid development and function remains unexplored. In this study, we found that knockout of Rtfc compromises the in vitro thyroid differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells. In contrast, Rtfc(-/-) mice are viable and fertile, and the size and the morphology of thyroid are not affected by Rtfc knockout. However, female Rtfc(-/-) mice, but not male Rtfc(-/-) mice, display mild hypothyroidism. In summary, our data suggest the roles of Rtfc in in vitro thyroid differentiation of embryonic stem cells, and in vivo thyroid function.

  9. Metastatic thyroid carcinoma without identifiable primary tumor within the thyroid gland: a retrospective study of a rare phenomenon.

    PubMed

    Xu, Bin; Scognamiglio, Theresa; Cohen, Perry R; Prasad, Manju L; Hasanovic, Adnan; Tuttle, Robert Michael; Katabi, Nora; Ghossein, Ronald A

    2017-07-01

    Metastatic papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) without an identifiable primary tumor despite extensive microscopic examination of the thyroid gland is a rare but true phenomenon.We retrieved 7 of such cases and described in detail the clinical and pathologic features of these tumors. BRAF V600E immunohistochemistry and Sequenom molecular profile were conducted in selected cases. All patients harbored metastatic disease in the central (n=3), lateral (n=3), or both neck compartments (n=1). The histotype of the metastatic disease was PTC (n=5), poorly differentiated thyroid carcinoma in association with a PTC columnar variant (n=1), and anaplastic thyroid carcinoma in association with a PTC tall cell variant (n=1). Fibrosis was present in the thyroid of 5 patients. All patients with PTC were alive without evidence of recurrence. The 76-year-old patient with poorly differentiated thyroid carcinoma did not recur and died of unknown causes. Finally, the patient with anaplastic thyroid carcinoma was alive with distant metastasis at last follow-up. The median follow-up for this cohort was 2.2years (range, 0.8-17). BRAF V600E was detected in 4 of 6 cases by immunohistochemistry. In conclusion, metastatic nodal disease without identifiable thyroid primary is a rare but real phenomenon of unknown mechanisms. Although most tumors are low grade and well differentiated, aggressive behavior due to poorly differentiated or anaplastic carcinoma can happen. Most cases are BRAF(V600E)-positive thyroid tumors. A papillary carcinoma phenotype is found in all reported cases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Thyroid carcinoma associated with familial adenomatous polyposis.

    PubMed

    Cetta, F; Toti, P; Petracci, M; Montalto, G; Disanto, A; Lorè, F; Fusco, A

    1997-09-01

    Thyroid carcinoma is an extracolonic manifestation that is present in about 1% to 2% of patients with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP). Less than 100 cases have been reported in detail. We have investigated the suggestion that FAP associated thyroid carcinoma is significantly different morphologically from both papillary and follicular types and can be considered as a separate entity. Specimens from three patients with FAP associated thyroid tumours, all but one having single nodules, have been analysed. All three patients belonged to an extended kindred (23 siblings in four generations) who had genetic analysis and intensive screening for thyroid nodules. Seven patients had the same APC mutation at codon 1061. Pathological examination revealed a typical papillary carcinoma, encapsulated variant, in all patients, with follicular areas in one case. All thyroid specimens, in addition to histological and immunohistological examinations, were also specifically studied for activation of the RET-PTC oncogene, that seems to be restricted to papillary thyroid carcinoma. Two of the three patients had RET-PTC activation (PTC1 isoform). The findings suggest that the tumours were certainly papillary, at least in the present kindred. Further studies in different families are required for a better understanding of this peculiar tumour and of its biological behaviour.

  11. Anaplastic Transformation in Mandibular Metastases of Follicular Variant of Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma: A Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Ambelil, Manju; Sultana, Sadia; Roy, Suvra; Gonzalez, Maria M

    2016-09-01

    Anaplastic transformation of well-differentiated thyroid carcinomas at distant metastatic sites is a rare condition. Most cases described in the literature have occurred in the thyroid or regional lymph nodes. We report a case of anaplastic transformation of the follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma in mandibular metastases. A 76-year-old female presented with a painful and enlarging mandibular mass. She had been treated in the past for the follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma. A palliative hemi-mandibulectomy was performed. Histology revealed a metastatic papillary thyroid carcinoma, follicular variant, with an unusual finding of solid pleomorphic epithelioid and spindle cell areas, consistent with anaplastic transformation.

  12. External beam radiotherapy in thyroid carcinoma: clinical review and recommendations of the AIRO "Radioterapia Metabolica" Group.

    PubMed

    Mangoni, Monica; Gobitti, Carlo; Autorino, Rosa; Cerizza, Lorenzo; Furlan, Carlo; Mazzarotto, Renzo; Monari, Fabio; Simontacchi, Gabriele; Vianello, Federica; Basso, Michela; Zanirato Rambaldi, Giuseppe; Russi, Elvio; Tagliaferri, Luca

    2017-03-24

    The therapeutic approach to thyroid carcinoma usually involves surgery as initial treatment. The use of external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) is limited to high-risk patients and depends on clinical stage and histologic type. Different behavior patterns and degrees of aggressiveness of thyroid carcinomas require different management for differentiated, medullary, and anaplastic carcinoma. However, the role of EBRT is an issue of debate. Most clinical studies are retrospective and based on single-institution experiences. In this article, we review the main literature and give recommendations for the use of EBRT in thyroid carcinoma on behalf of the "Radioterapia Metabolica" Group of the Italian Radiation Oncology Association.

  13. Coexistence of resistance to thyroid hormone and papillary thyroid carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Igata, Motoyuki; Tsuruzoe, Kaku; Kawashima, Junji; Kukidome, Daisuke; Kondo, Tatsuya; Motoshima, Hiroyuki; Shimoda, Seiya; Furukawa, Noboru; Nishikawa, Takeshi; Miyamura, Nobuhiro

    2016-01-01

    Summary Resistance to thyroid hormone (RTH) is a syndrome of reduced tissue responsiveness to thyroid hormones. RTH is majorly caused by mutations in the thyroid hormone receptor beta (THRB) gene. Recent studies indicated a close association of THRB mutations with human cancers, but the role of THRB mutation in carcinogenesis is still unclear. Here, we report a rare case of RTH with a papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). A 26-year-old woman was referred to our hospital due to a thyroid tumor and hormonal abnormality. She had elevated serum thyroid hormones and non-suppressed TSH levels. Genetic analysis of THRB identified a missense mutation, P452L, leading to a diagnosis of RTH. Ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy of the tumor and lymph nodes enabled the cytological diagnosis of PTC with lymph node metastases. Total thyroidectomy and neck lymph nodes dissection were performed. Following surgery, thyroxine replacement (≥500 μg) was necessary to avoid the symptoms of hypothyroidism and to maintain her TSH levels within the same range as before the operation. During the follow-up, basal thyroglobulin (Tg) levels were around 6 ng/ml and TSH-stimulated Tg levels were between 12 and 20 ng/ml. Up to present, the patient has had no recurrence of PTC. This indicates that these Tg values are consistent with a biochemical incomplete response or an indeterminate response. There is no consensus regarding the management of thyroid carcinoma in patients with RTH, but aggressive treatments such as total thyroidectomy followed by radioiodine (RAI) and TSH suppression therapy are recommended. Learning points There are only a few cases reporting the coexistence of RTH and thyroid carcinoma. Moreover, our case would be the first case presenting one with lymph node metastases. Recent studies indicated a close association of THRB mutations with human cancers, but the role of THRB mutation in carcinogenesis is still unclear. When total thyroidectomy is performed in

  14. Thyroglobulin fluctuations in patients with iodine-refractory differentiated thyroid carcinoma on lenvatinib treatment – initial experience

    PubMed Central

    Werner, R. A.; Lückerath, K.; Schmid, J. S.; Higuchi, T.; Kreissl, M. C.; Grelle, I.; Reiners, C.; Buck, A. K.; Lapa, C.

    2016-01-01

    Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) have shown clinical effectiveness in iodine-refractory differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC). The corresponding role of serum thyroglobulin (Tg) in iodine-refractory DTC has not been investigated yet. 9 patients (3 female, 61 ± 8y) with progressive iodine-refractory DTC starting on lenvatinib were considered. Tumor restaging was performed every 2–3 months including contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT, RECIST 1.1). Serum Tg was measured and compared to imaging findings. After treatment initiation, serum Tg levels dropped in all patients with a median reduction of 86.2%. During long-term follow-up (median, 25.2 months), fluctuations in Tg could be observed in 8/9 subjects. According to RECIST, 6/9 subjects achieved a partial response or stable disease with the remaining 3/9 experiencing progressive disease (2/3 with Tg levels rising above baseline). All of the patients with disease progression presented with a preceding continuous rise in serum Tg, whereas tumor marker oscillations in the subjects with controlled disease were only intermittent. Initiation of lenvatinib in iodine-refractory DTC patients is associated with a significant reduction in serum Tg levels as a marker of treatment response. In the course of treatment, transient Tg oscillations are a frequent phenomenon that may not necessarily reflect morphologic tumor progression. PMID:27306607

  15. Incidental Thyroid Carcinoma Diagnosed after Total Thyroidectomy for Benign Thyroid Diseases: Incidence and Association with Thyroid Disease Type and Laboratory Markers

    PubMed Central

    Askitis, D.; Efremidou, E. I.; Karanikas, M.; Mitrakas, A.; Tripsianis, G.; Polychronidis, A.; Liratzopoulos, N.

    2013-01-01

    Objective. Currently, total thyroidectomy (TT) is widely used to treat benign thyroid diseases and thyroid carcinoma. The differential diagnosis between benign and malignant thyroid disorders and the potential identification of thyroid microcarcinomas with biochemical markers remain controversial. This retrospective study aimed to estimate the prognostic validity of thyroid autoantibodies, thyroglobulin (Tg), and the thyroid disease type in diagnostic approaches regarding the co-existence of incidental thyroid carcinoma (ITC) with benign thyroid diseases. Methods. A cohort of 228 patients was treated with TT for benign thyroid disorders between 2005 and 2010. Thyroid autoantibodies and Tg were preoperatively estimated. Patients were classified according to the preoperative and histologically established diagnoses, and the median values of the biochemical markers were compared between the groups. Results. ITC was detected in 33/228 patients and almost exclusively in the presence of nontoxic thyroid disorders (P = 0.014). There were no statistically significant differences in the median values of the biochemical markers between the benign and malignant groups. There was also no significant association between ITC and chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis. Conclusions. The co-existence of ITC with benign and especially nontoxic thyroid diseases is significant, and treatment of these disorders with TT when indicated can lead to the identification and definitive cure of microcarcinomas. Further studies are required to establish precise markers with prognostic validity for TC diagnosis. PMID:24348554

  16. Synchronous papillary thyroid carcinoma and breast ductal carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Jinjing; Lei, Jianyong; Jiang, Ke; Li, Zhihui; Gong, Rixiang; Zhu, Jingqiang

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: The incidences of both thyroid cancer and breast cancer have been rising in recent years; however, it is very rare to find a single person with both of these cancers. Only a few cases of synchronous thyroid and breast cancer have been published, and even fewer cases have been reported in older patients (>60 years). Case summary: The current study presents a case of synchronous papillary thyroid carcinoma and breast ductal carcinoma in an elderly patient. The patient first underwent a mastectomy and axillary lymphadenectomy in our department, followed by a total thyroidectomy and lymphadenectomy of the left lateral region of the neck 1 month later. Postoperative pathological examination identified invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast and papillary carcinoma of the thyroid. Over almost half a year of follow-up, the patient has exhibited no evidence of recurrence or metastasis, as demonstrated by careful ultrasound examinations. Herein, we not only report this case but also present a systematic review of the causes, diagnosis, and treatment of synchronous breast and thyroid cancer. Conclusion: Although synchronous primary tumors of the thyroid and breast are very rare, they remain a possibility; therefore, more attention should be paid to these cases. PMID:28207532

  17. [Thyroid metastasis due to right colonic carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Rauber, E; Pancrazio, F; Spivach, A; Stanta, G

    1998-12-01

    Clinical evident metastases to the thyroid gland are rarely found antemortem. A case of a 62 year-old man with a history of right colonic carcinoma, who presented a mass in the right lobe of his thyroid gland one year after the removal of a metachronous metastasis in his right lung, is presented. The tumour of the thyroid was found to be metastatic adenocarcinoma from his previous colonic cancer. The clinical finding of metastases to the thyroid gland is rare, particularly from a colorectal primary neoplasm. However, the possibility of a tumour of the thyroid gland representing a secondary malignancy is to be considered in any patient with a prior history of cancer.

  18. Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma accompanied by uncontrollable eosinophilia.

    PubMed

    Shiraishi, Jun; Koyama, Hidenori; Seki, Miwako; Hatayama, Miki; Naka, Mariko; Kurajoh, Masafumi; Okazaki, Hirokazu; Shoji, Takuhito; Moriwaki, Yuji; Yamamoto, Tetsuya; Tsuchida, Yasuaki; Tsukamoto, Yoshitane; Hirota, Seiichi; Onoda, Naoyoshi; Namba, Mitsuyoshi

    2015-01-01

    Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma is a rare disease, and cases associated with eosinophilia are even rarer. We herein report a case of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma accompanied by remarkable and uncontrollable eosinophilia. A 71-year-old man was diagnosed with end-stage anaplastic thyroid carcinoma. Throughout the aggressive clinical course of the cancer, eosinophilia dramatically progressed and became extremely refractory to steroid treatment. We measured the serum levels of hematopoietic cytokines potentially involved in eosinophilia, including granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), interleukin (IL)-3 and IL-5. Although the GM-CSF level was moderately elevated, both the IL-3 and IL-5 levels were within the normal ranges. In this case, the patient's eosinophilia may have been related to his severe dyspnea and was likely responsible for the allergic reaction to the anticancer drug. Therefore, it is essential to elucidate the etiology of eosinophilia in patients with thyroid cancer in order to improve the treatment for patients with anaplastic thyroid carcinoma.

  19. Follicular Thyroid Carcinoma Presenting as Bilateral Cheek Masses

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dong-Wook; Hah, J. Hun; An, Soo-Youn; Chang, Hak

    2013-01-01

    Mandibular metastasis of thyroid carcinoma is extremely rare. We present the case of a 46-year-old woman who had bilateral huge cheek masses that had grown rapidly over several years. Intra-oral mucosal tissue biopsy and imaging work-up including computed tomography scan and magnetic resonance imaging were performed and the initial diagnosis was presumed to be central giant cell granuloma. Incidentally detected thyroid lesions were studied with ultra-sonography guided fine needle aspiration and diagnosed as simple benign nodules. Due to continuous oral bleeding and the locally destructive feature of the lesions, we decided to excise the mass surgically. To avoid functional deficit, a stepwise approach was performed: Firstly, the larger left mass was excised and the mandible was reconstructed with a fibular free flap. The final pathologic diagnosis was follicular thyroid cancer. Postoperative I-131 thyroid scan and whole body positron-emissions-tomography were performed. Right side mass was revealed as a thyroid malignancy. Multiple bony metastases were detected. Since further radioactive iodine therapy was required, additional total thyroidectomy and right side mandibulectomy with fibular free flap reconstruction was performed. The patient also underwent high dose radioactive iodine therapy and palliative extra-beam radiotherapy for the metastatic lumbar lesion. Follicular thyroid carcinoma should be considered as a differential diagnosis for mandibular mass lesions. PMID:23526730

  20. Follicular thyroid carcinoma presenting as bilateral cheek masses.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong-Wook; Hah, J Hun; An, Soo-Youn; Chang, Hak; Kim, Kwang Hyun

    2013-03-01

    Mandibular metastasis of thyroid carcinoma is extremely rare. We present the case of a 46-year-old woman who had bilateral huge cheek masses that had grown rapidly over several years. Intra-oral mucosal tissue biopsy and imaging work-up including computed tomography scan and magnetic resonance imaging were performed and the initial diagnosis was presumed to be central giant cell granuloma. Incidentally detected thyroid lesions were studied with ultra-sonography guided fine needle aspiration and diagnosed as simple benign nodules. Due to continuous oral bleeding and the locally destructive feature of the lesions, we decided to excise the mass surgically. To avoid functional deficit, a stepwise approach was performed: Firstly, the larger left mass was excised and the mandible was reconstructed with a fibular free flap. The final pathologic diagnosis was follicular thyroid cancer. Postoperative I-131 thyroid scan and whole body positron-emissions-tomography were performed. Right side mass was revealed as a thyroid malignancy. Multiple bony metastases were detected. Since further radioactive iodine therapy was required, additional total thyroidectomy and right side mandibulectomy with fibular free flap reconstruction was performed. The patient also underwent high dose radioactive iodine therapy and palliative extra-beam radiotherapy for the metastatic lumbar lesion. Follicular thyroid carcinoma should be considered as a differential diagnosis for mandibular mass lesions.

  1. Ultrasonographic imaging of papillary thyroid carcinoma variants

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Ultrasonography (US) is routinely used to evaluate thyroid nodules. The US features of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC), the most common thyroid malignancy, include hypoechogenicity, spiculated/microlobulated margins, microcalcifications, and a nonparallel orientation. However, many PTC variants have been identified, some of which differ from the classic type of PTC in terms of biological behavior and clinical outcomes. This review describes the US features and clinical implications of the variants of PTC. With the introduction of active surveillance replacing immediate biopsy or surgical treatment of indolent, small PTCs, an understanding of the US characteristics of PTC variants will facilitate the individualized management of patients with PTC. PMID:28222584

  2. Ultrasonographic imaging of papillary thyroid carcinoma variants.

    PubMed

    Shin, Jung Hee

    2017-04-01

    Ultrasonography (US) is routinely used to evaluate thyroid nodules. The US features of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC), the most common thyroid malignancy, include hypoechogenicity, spiculated/microlobulated margins, microcalcifications, and a nonparallel orientation. However, many PTC variants have been identified, some of which differ from the classic type of PTC in terms of biological behavior and clinical outcomes. This review describes the US features and clinical implications of the variants of PTC. With the introduction of active surveillance replacing immediate biopsy or surgical treatment of indolent, small PTCs, an understanding of the US characteristics of PTC variants will facilitate the individualized management of patients with PTC.

  3. Prior irradiation and the development of coexistent differentiated thyroid cancer and hyperparathyroidism

    SciTech Connect

    Prinz, R.A.; Barbato, A.L.; Braithwaite, S.S.; Brooks, M.H.; Lawrence, A.M.; Paloyan, E.

    1982-03-01

    Twelve patients with coexistent well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma and primary hyperparathyoidism were studied to determine the frequency of previous radiation exposure. Eight were found to have received prior irradiation. External radiation was administered to the head and neck region for benign conditions such as tonsillar enlargement, acne, scrofula, and thyroid enlargement. One patient received 131I therapy for carcinoma of the thyroid. The observation that 67% of the patients in this series had previous radiation to the head and neck strongly implicates radiation exposure in the development of coexistent well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma and hyperparathyroidism.

  4. Meningioma with metastasis from follicular carcinoma thyroid.

    PubMed

    Chaturvedi, Sujata; Gupta, Sanjeev; Kumari, Rima

    2010-01-01

    A 45-year-old female presented with loss of vision in the left eye, numbness on left half of face and left-sided hemicrania for two months. On the basis of radiological investigations, provisional diagnosis of basal meningioma was made. Tissue sent for histopathological evaluation revealed a dual tumor-meningioma with metastasis from follicular carcinoma, thyroid. To the best of authors' knowledge, this is the first report of a tumor metastasizing to another tumor, where a follicular carcinoma thyroid metastasized to meningioma.

  5. Role of glutaminyl cyclases in thyroid carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Kehlen, Astrid; Haegele, Monique; Menge, Katja; Gans, Kathrin; Immel, Uta-Dorothee; Hoang-Vu, Cuong; Klonisch, Thomas; Demuth, Hans-Ulrich

    2013-02-01

    CCL2 is a chemokine known to recruit monocytes/macrophages to sites of inflammation. CCL2 is also associated with tumor progression in several cancer types. Recently, we showed that the N-terminus of CCL2 is modified to a pyroglutamate (pE)-residue by both glutaminyl cyclases (QC (QPCT)) and its isoenzyme (isoQC (QPCTL)). The pE-residue increases stability against N-terminal degradation by aminopeptidases. Here, we report an upregulation of QPCT expression in tissues of patients with thyroid carcinomas compared with goiter tissues, whereas QPCTL was not regulated. In thyroid carcinoma cell lines, QPCT gene expression correlates with the mRNA levels of its substrate CCL2. Both QPCT and CCL2 are regulated in a NF-κB-dependent pathway shown by stimulation with TNFa and IL1b as well as by inhibition with the IKK2 inhibitor and RNAi of p50. In the culture supernatant of thyroid carcinoma cells, equal amounts of pECCL2 and total CCL2 were detected by two ELISAs discriminating between total CCL2 and pECCL2, concluding that all CCL2 is secreted as pECCL2. Activation of the CCL2/CCR2 pathway by recombinant CCL2 increased tumor cell migration of FTC238 cells in scratch assays as well as thyroid carcinoma cell-derived CCL2-induced migration of monocytic THP1 cells. Suppression of CCL2 signaling by CCR2 antagonist, IKK2 inhibitor, and QPCT RNAi reduced FTC238 cell growth measured by WST8 proliferation assays. Our results reveal new evidence for a novel role of QC in thyroid carcinomas and provide an intriguing rationale for the use of QC inhibitors as a means of blocking pECCL2 formation and preventing thyroid cancer metastasis.

  6. Homozygous deletion but not mutation of exons 5 and 8 of the fragile histidine triad (FHIT) gene is associated with features of differentiated thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Yin, De-Tao; Wang, Lin; Sun, Jianrei; Yin, Fengyan; Yan, Qingtao; Shen, Ru-Long; Gao, Jian-Xin; He, Gang

    2010-01-01

    The fragile histidine triad (FHIT) gene encompasses the most common human fragile site, FRA3B at 3p14.2, a region that is involved in homozygous deletions in a variety of human tumors. FHIT is considered to be a tumor suppressor gene that is frequently inactivated in various types of cancer. To study the role of the FHIT gene in thyroid tumorigenesis, we looked for homozygous deletions or mutations of exons 5 and 8 of the FHIT gene in 65 cases of differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) and their matched non-cancerous epithelium (NCE), using exon-specific PCR amplification and PCR single strand conformation polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) techniques. In DTC, the incidence of homozygous deletion of exon 5 was 30.8% (20/65), and it was associated with tumor metastasis to lymph nodes (p <0.05). The incidence of homozygous deletion of exon 8 was 29.2% (19/65), and it was associated with the tumor pathological grade, TNM stage, and lymph node metastasis (p <0.05). There was strong correlation between homozygous deletions of exon 5 and exon 8 (p <0.01). No point mutations were observed in either exon 5 or exon 8. These findings suggest that: (a) exons 5 and 8 of FHIT are key target regions of deletion, (b) homozygous deletions of exon 5 and exon 8 may be good biomarkers for the biological behavior of DTC, and (c) point mutation of these exons may not be involved in the inactivation of the FHIT gene in DTC.

  7. Value of post-therapeutic ¹³¹I scintigraphy in stimulated serum thyroglobulin-negative patients with metastatic differentiated thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Shen, Chen-Tian; Wei, Wei-Jun; Qiu, Zhong-Ling; Song, Hong-Jun; Luo, Quan-Yong

    2016-02-01

    Metastatic differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) with positive (131)I scintigraphy, but negative stimulated Tg (sTg) is relatively rare in clinical practice. The clinical characteristics of these patients were analyzed in the current study. A total of 3367 consecutive histologically proven DTC patients were analyzed retrospectively from January 2007 to June 2013. Tg negativity was defined as a sTg level of <2 ng/mL without positive anti-Tg antibody (TgAb level of <100 IU/mL) under thyroid-stimulating hormone stimulation (TSH level of ≥30 mIU/L). Analyses were performed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences, version 20.0 (SPSS, Chicago, IL, USA). Seventy-one patients (median age 45 years, range 17-68 years) were post-therapeutic (131)I-SPECT/CT positive and sTg negative (PTP-TN) constituting 2.1 % of all patients. Of these 71 patients, 2 (2.8 %) had bone metastasis, 11 (15.5 %) had lung metastasis, and 59 (83.1 %) had lymph node metastasis. Fifty-six patients had cervical lymph node metastasis (cLNM), and US was positive in 15 patients (26.8 %), while negative in 41 patients (73.2 %). When compared to patients with concordant positive results for sTg and (131)I scintigraphy, US showed a relatively lower positive rate in the detection of cLNM in PTP-TN patients (28.8 vs. 53.8 %; χ (2) = 6.70; P = 0.01). In conclusion, even with sTg <2 ng/mL, there is a low risk of metastatic DTC. US had limitations in PTP-TN patients, while post-therapy (131)I-SPECT/CT demonstrated an advantage in the detection of functioning metastasis despite low sTg levels in patients with metastatic DTC.

  8. Expression of decoy receptor 3 in diffuse sclerosing variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma: correlation with M2 macrophage differentiation and lymphatic invasion.

    PubMed

    Chang, Wei-Chin; Chen, Jui-Yu; Lee, Chen-Hsen; Yang, An-Hang

    2013-06-01

    The diffuse sclerosing variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma (DSV-PTC) is a unique variant of PTC that is characterized by extensive lymphovascular invasion of tumor cells in a background of lymphocytic thyroiditis. The lymphatic emboli contain tumor cells as well as macrophages, but the recruitment of these macrophages is not well understood. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between the expression of Decoy receptor 3 (DcR3), the recruitment of tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs), and lymphatic invasion in DSV-PTC. We retrospectively examined 14 cases of DSV-PTC using immunohistochemistry studies. The density of TAMs, lymphatic vessel density, lymphatic invasion, tumor emboli area, and DcR3 expression were assessed. Statistical analyses were performed using Fisher's exact test, unpaired t-test, and linear regression. The lymphatic tumor emboli contained a relatively higher density of TAMs than stroma and classical PTC (CPTC) areas. In addition, the number of lymphatic invasions and the size of the tumor emboli area were positively correlated with the number of M2 TAMs. A higher density of M2 TAMs was associated with older patients and larger tumor size. Moreover, DcR3 was expressed only in lymphatic tumor cells and squamous metaplastic tumor cells, but not in macrophages and CPTC. In addition, the preferential expression of DcR3 in tumors was associated with higher levels of M2 TAMs and lymphatic invasion. Despite the fact that the exact relationship between DcR3, M2 macrophages, and lymphatic invasion in DSV-PTC remains to be elucidated, our findings suggest that DcR3 expression in DSV-PTC tumor cells may promote the polarized macrophage differentiation toward the M2 phenotype. This phenomenon may further promote lymphatic invasion of DSV-PTC tumor cells.

  9. Occult multifocal papillary thyroid microcarcinoma presenting as a supraclavicular mass containing anaplastic thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Deutschmann, Michael; Khalil, Moosa; Bhayana, Shelly; Chandarana, Shamir

    2013-04-01

    There are reports in the literature of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma in cervical lymph nodes with evidence of only papillary carcinoma in the thyroid gland. There have been no cases of this clinical scenario with only papillary microcarcinoma in the thyroid gland. We describe the case of a 60-year-old man who initially presented with an enlarged right, level 5, supraclavicular lymph node. Initial fine-needle aspiration demonstrated evidence of papillary thyroid carcinoma. The final pathologic finding in the thyroid gland showed only multiple foci of papillary thyroid microcarcinoma. The index neck mass showed evidence of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma. This is the first instance in the literature in which anaplastic thyroid carcinoma has appeared in metastatic cervical lymph nodes with only a focus of papillary microcarcinoma in the thyroid gland. With this case, we hope to build awareness of this rare finding.

  10. Bradshaw lecture, 1976. Thyroid medullary carcinoma.

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, S.

    1977-01-01

    The main characteristics of medullary carcinoma of the thyroid are its non-follicular histological appearance, resulting from its origin from the parafollicular C cells, its secretion of calcitonin, providing a relatively simple diagnostic test, and its equal sex incidence, in contrast to all other diseases of the thyroid. Sporadic cases are seen and it occurs in familial groups, with autosomal dominant inheritance, when it is associated with phaeochromocytoma and parathyroid hyperplasia to form the second type of multiple endocrine adenomatosis (MEA2). These last features make it necessary in every case of medullary carcinoma of the thyroid to examine other members of the family and to investigate the possibility of concomitant adrenal and parathyroid disease. The priorities of treatment when these are present and the indications for total thyroidectomy are discussed. Images Fig. 1 PMID:20027

  11. Effects of Radioiodine Treatment on Salivary Gland Function in Patients with Differentiated Thyroid Carcinoma: A Prospective Study.

    PubMed

    Klein Hesselink, Esther N; Brouwers, Adrienne H; de Jong, Johan R; van der Horst-Schrivers, Anouk N A; Coppes, Rob P; Lefrandt, Joop D; Jager, Piet L; Vissink, Arjan; Links, Thera P

    2016-11-01

    Complaints of a dry mouth (xerostomia) and sialoadenitis are frequent side effects of radioiodine treatment in differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) patients. However, detailed prospective data on alterations in salivary gland functioning after radioiodine treatment ((131)I) are scarce. Therefore, the primary aim of this study was to prospectively assess the effect of high-activity radioiodine treatment on stimulated whole saliva flow rate. Secondary aims were to study unstimulated whole and stimulated glandular (i.e., parotid and submandibular) saliva flow rate and composition alterations, development of xerostomia, characteristics of patients at risk for salivary gland dysfunction, and whether radioiodine uptake in salivary glands on diagnostic scans correlates to flow rate alterations. In a multicenter prospective study, whole and glandular saliva were collected both before and 5 mo after radioiodine treatment. Furthermore, patients completed the validated xerostomia inventory. Alterations in salivary flow rate, composition, and xerostomia inventory score were analyzed. Salivary gland radioiodine uptake on diagnostic scans was correlated with saliva flow rate changes after radioiodine treatment. Sixty-seven patients (mean age ± SD, 48 ± 17 y; 63% women, 84% underwent ablation therapy) completed both study visits. Stimulated whole saliva flow rate decreased after ablation therapy (from 0.92 [interquartile range, 0.74-1.25] to 0.80 [interquartile range, 0.58-1.18] mL/min, P = 0.003), as well as unstimulated whole- and stimulated glandular flow rates (P < 0.05). The concentration of salivary electrolytes was similar at both study visits, whereas the output of proteins, especially amylase (P < 0.05), was decreased. The subjective feeling of dry mouth increased (P = 0.001). Alterations in saliva flow rate were not associated with semiquantitatively assessed radioiodine uptake in salivary glands on diagnostic scans. For the small cohort of patients undergoing repeated

  12. Radiofrequency Ablation and Percutaneous Ethanol Injection Treatment for Recurrent Local and Distant Well-Differentiated Thyroid Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Monchik, Jack M.; Donatini, Gianluca; Iannuccilli, Jason; Dupuy, Damian E.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To assess the long-term efficacy of radiofrequency ablation (RFA) and percutaneous ethanol (EtOH) injection treatment of local recurrence or focal distant metastases of well-differentiated thyroid cancer (WTC). Background: RFA and EtOH injection techniques are new minimally invasive surgical alternatives for treatment of recurrent WTC. We report our experience and long-term follow-up results using RFA or EtOH ablation in treating local recurrence and distant focal metastases from WTC. Methods: Twenty patients underwent treatment of biopsy-proven recurrent WTC in the neck. Sixteen of these patients had lesions treated by ultrasound-guided RFA (mean size, 17.0 mm; range, 8–40 mm), while 6 had ultrasound-guided EtOH injection treatment (mean size, 11.4 mm; range, 6–15 mm). Four patients underwent RFA treatment of focal distant metastases from WTC. Three of these patients had CT-guided RFA of bone metastases (mean size, 40.0 mm; range, 30–60 mm), and 1 patient underwent RFA for a solitary lung metastasis (size, 27 mm). Patients were then followed with routine ultrasound, 131I whole body scan, and/or serum thyroglobulin levels for recurrence at the treatment site. Results: No recurrent disease was detected at the treatment site in 14 of the 16 patients treated with RFA and in all 6 patients treated with EtOH injection at a mean follow-up of 40.7 and 18.7 months, respectively. Two of the 3 patients treated for bone metastases are free of disease at the treatment site at 44 and 53 months of follow-up, respectively. The patient who underwent RFA for a solitary lung metastasis is free of disease at the treatment site at 10 months of follow-up. No complications were experienced in the group treated by EtOH injection, while 1 minor skin burn and 1 permanent vocal cord paralysis occurred in the RFA treatment group. Conclusions: RFA and EtOH ablation show promise as alternatives to surgical treatment of recurrent WTC in patients with difficult reoperations

  13. Menstrual and reproductive factors in the risk of differentiated thyroid carcinoma in young women in France: a population-based case-control study.

    PubMed

    Xhaard, Constance; Rubino, Carole; Cléro, Enora; Maillard, Stéphane; Ren, Yan; Borson-Chazot, Françoise; Sassolas, Geneviève; Schvartz, Claire; Colonna, Marc; Lacour, Brigitte; Danzon, Arlette; Velten, Michel; Buemi, Antoine; Bailly, Laurent; Mariné Barjoan, Eugènia; Schlumberger, Martin; Orgiazzi, Jacques; Adjadj, Elisabeth; de Vathaire, Florent

    2014-11-15

    The incidence of thyroid cancer has increased in eastern Europe since the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident. Although the radioactive fallout was much less severe and the thyroid radiation dose was much lower in France, a case-control study was initiated in eastern France. The present study included 633 young women who were diagnosed with differentiated thyroid cancer before 35 years of age between 2002 and 2006 and matched with 677 controls. Face-to-face interviews were conducted from 2005 to 2010. Odds ratios were calculated using conditional logistic regressions and were reported in the total group and by histopathological type of cancer ("only papillary" and "excluding microcarcinomas"). The risk of thyroid cancer was higher in women who had a higher number of pregnancies, used a lactation suppressant, or had early menarche. Conversely, breastfeeding, oral contraceptive use, and late age at first pregnancy were associated with a lower risk of thyroid cancer. No association was observed between thyroid cancer and having irregular menstrual cycle, undergoing treatment for menstrual cycle regularity shortly after menarche, having a cessation of menstruation, use of another contraceptive, history of miscarriage or abortion for the first pregnancy, or having had gestational diabetes. This study confirms the role of hormonal and reproductive factors in thyroid cancer, and our results support the fact that exposure to estrogens increases thyroid cancer risk.

  14. Assessment of genetic mutations in the XRCC2 coding region by high resolution melting curve analysis and the risk of differentiated thyroid carcinoma in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Fayaz, Shima; Fard-Esfahani, Pezhman; Fard-Esfahani, Armaghan; Mostafavi, Ehsan; Meshkani, Reza; Mirmiranpour, Hossein; Khaghani, Shahnaz

    2012-01-01

    Homologous recombination (HR) is the major pathway for repairing double strand breaks (DSBs) in eukaryotes and XRCC2 is an essential component of the HR repair machinery. To evaluate the potential role of mutations in gene repair by HR in individuals susceptible to differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) we used high resolution melting (HRM) analysis, a recently introduced method for detecting mutations, to examine the entire XRCC2 coding region in an Iranian population. HRM analysis was used to screen for mutations in three XRCC2 coding regions in 50 patients and 50 controls. There was no variation in the HRM curves obtained from the analysis of exons 1 and 2 in the case and control groups. In exon 3, an Arg188His polymorphism (rs3218536) was detected as a new melting curve group (OR: 1.46; 95%CI: 0.432–4.969; p = 0.38) compared with the normal melting curve. We also found a new Ser150Arg polymorphism in exon 3 of the control group. These findings suggest that genetic variations in the XRCC2 coding region have no potential effects on susceptibility to DTC. However, further studies with larger populations are required to confirm this conclusion. PMID:22481871

  15. Advances in chemotherapy of differentiated epithelial and medullary thyroid cancers.

    PubMed

    Sherman, Steven I

    2009-05-01

    Systemic chemotherapies for advanced or metastatic thyroid carcinomas have been of only limited effectiveness. For patients with differentiated or medullary carcinomas unresponsive to conventional treatments, novel therapies are needed to improve disease outcomes. The PubMed and Google Scholar search engines were used to identify publications and peer-reviewed meeting presentations addressing chemotherapy and targeted therapy for differentiated or medullary carcinoma. Multiple novel therapies primarily targeting angiogenesis have entered clinical trials for metastatic thyroid carcinoma. Partial response rates up to 30% have been reported in single agent studies, but prolonged disease stabilization is more commonly seen. The most successful agents target the vascular endothelial growth factor receptors, with potential targets including the mutant kinases associated with papillary and medullary oncogenesis. Two drugs approved for other malignancies, sorafenib and sunitinib, have had promising preliminary results reported, and are being used selectively for patients who do not qualify for clinical trials. Randomized trials for several agents are underway that may lead to eventual drug approval for thyroid cancer. Treatment for patients with metastatic or advanced thyroid carcinoma now emphasizes clinical trial opportunities for novel agents with considerable promise. Alternative options now exist for use of tyrosine kinase inhibitors that are well tolerated and may prove worthy of regulatory approval for this disease.

  16. STK11 Mutation Identified in Thyroid Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Wei, Shuanzeng; LiVolsi, Virginia A; Brose, Marcia S; Montone, Kathleen T; Morrissette, Jennifer J D; Baloch, Zubair W

    2016-03-01

    Peutz-Jeghers syndrome (PJS) is an autosomal-dominant disorder, in which germline mutation of serine threonine-protein kinase 11 (STK11) is identified in up to 90 % of the patients who meet clinical criteria for PJS. Hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) slides of the tumor were reviewed to confirm areas with at least 25 % of tumor cellularity. Then, the designated area was extracted for genomic DNA. Targeted next-generation sequencing analysis was performed using a 47-gene panel. Case 1 is a 71-year-old man with high grade follicular thyroid carcinoma with clear cell and oncocytic features. The carcinoma showed a missense mutation in TP53 (p.R342G, c.1024C > G) and a 16-nucleotide intronic deletion started next to the 3' of exon 6 (involving the canonical +1 and +2 bases of the splice donor site) in STK11 (p.?, c.862 + 1_862 + 16delGTGGGAGCCTCATCCC). Case 2 is a 76-year-old woman with tall cell variant papillary thyroid carcinoma. The carcinoma demonstrated a missense mutation in BRAF (p.V600E, c.1799T > A) and a missense mutation in STK11 (p.F354L, c.1062C > G). In summary, we present two elderly patients with thyroid carcinoma harboring STK11 mutation without clinical manifestation of PJS. The findings suggest that STK11 may play a role in thyroid carcinoma development.

  17. Painless thyroiditis associated to thyroid carcinoma: role of initial ultrasonography evaluation.

    PubMed

    Valentini, Raisa Bressan; Macedo, Bruno Mussoi de; Izquierdo, Rogério Friedrich; Meyer, Erika Laurini Souza

    2016-04-01

    Even though it is a rare event, most associations of thyroid carcinoma with subacute thyroiditis described in the literature are related to its granulomatous form (Quervain's thyroiditis). We present a patient with subacute lymphocytic thyroiditis (painless thyroiditis) and papillary thyroid cancer that was first suspected in an initial ultrasound evaluation. A 30-year old female patient who was referred to the emergency room due to hyperthyroidism symptoms was diagnosed with painless thyroiditis established by physical examination and laboratory findings. With the presence of a palpable painless thyroid nodule an ultrasound was prescribed and the images revealed a suspicious thyroid nodule, microcalcification focus in the heterogeneous thyroid parenquima and cervical lymphadenopathy. Fine needle aspiration biopsy was taken from this nodule; cytology was assessed for compatibility with papillary thyroid carcinoma. Postsurgical pathology evaluation showed a multicentric papillary carcinoma and lymphocytic infiltration. Subacute thyroiditis, regardless of type, may produce transitory ultrasound changes that obscure the coexistence of papillary carcinoma. Due to this, initial thyroid ultrasound evaluation should be delayed until clinical recovery. We recommended a thyroid ultrasound exam for initial evaluation of painless thyroiditis, particularly in patients with palpable thyroid nodule. Further cytological examination is recommended in cases presenting with suspect thyroid nodule and/or non-nodular hypoechoic (> 1 cm) or heterogeneous areas with microcalcification focus.

  18. Kidney Involvement in Systemic Calcitonin Amyloidosis Associated With Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Koopman, Timco; Niedlich-den Herder, Cindy; Stegeman, Coen A; Links, Thera P; Bijzet, Johan; Hazenberg, Bouke P C; Diepstra, Arjan

    2017-04-01

    A 52-year-old woman with widely disseminated medullary thyroid carcinoma developed nephrotic syndrome and slowly decreasing kidney function. A kidney biopsy was performed to differentiate between malignancy-associated membranous glomerulopathy and tyrosine kinase inhibitor-induced focal segmental glomerulosclerosis. Surprisingly, the biopsy specimen revealed diffuse glomerular deposition of amyloid that was proved to be derived from the calcitonin hormone (Acal), produced by the medullary thyroid carcinoma. This amyloid was also present in an abdominal fat pad biopsy. Although local ACal deposition is a characteristic feature of medullary thyroid carcinoma, the systemic amyloidosis involving the kidney that is presented in this case report has not to our knowledge been described previously and may be the result of long-term high plasma calcitonin levels. Our case illustrates that systemic calcitonin amyloidosis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of proteinuria in patients with medullary thyroid carcinoma.

  19. Primary mucinous carcinoma with rhabdoid cells of the thyroid gland: a case report.

    PubMed

    Matsuo, Mioko; Tuneyoshi, Masazumi; Mine, Mari

    2016-06-10

    Primary mucinous carcinoma of the thyroid gland is a rare disease; only 6 cases of primary mucinous carcinoma of the thyroid have been previously reported. Primary mucinous carcinoma of the thyroid gland with incomplete tumor resection tends to be associated with a poor prognosis, resulting in death within a few months. An early and appropriate diagnosis may contribute to improvement in patient prognosis; however, it is extremely difficult to diagnose primary mucinous carcinoma of the thyroid. We present the seventh reported case of primary mucinous carcinoma in the thyroid gland; moreover, rhabdoid cells were detected, which, to our knowledge, is a novel finding. An 81-year-old Japanese woman was initially diagnosed with a poorly differentiated thyroid carcinoma, and she underwent a hemithyroidectomy. Pathological examination revealed the presence of abundant mucus and agglomeration of large atypical cells. Rhabdoid cells were also seen scattered among the tumor cells. Immunostaining was performed for various markers, and on the basis of these results, we diagnosed the lesion as primary mucinous carcinoma with rhabdoid cells in the thyroid gland. Ten months after surgery, recurrence was noted in the paratracheal lymph nodes; therefore, total resection of the residual thyroid gland and paratracheal lymphadenectomy with thyroid-stimulating hormone suppression were performed. The patient is currently alive and disease-free. The current case is of interest not only because of the rare histological findings, but also because the patient achieved long-term survival following diagnosis of a mucinous carcinoma. We believe this report will be helpful for diagnosing future cases of mucinous carcinoma of the thyroid.

  20. Papillary thyroid carcinoma: does the association with Hashimoto's thyroiditis affect the clinicopathological characteristics of the disease?

    PubMed

    Girardi, Fábio Muradás; Barra, Marinez Bizarro; Zettler, Cláudio Galleano

    2015-01-01

    Papillary carcinoma is the most common malignant thyroid neoplasm. The effect of the concurrent presence of Hashimoto's thyroiditis and papillary thyroid carcinoma remains controversial. To evaluate the association between Hashimoto's thyroiditis and clinicopathological parameters in thyroid papillary carcinoma cases, based on an historical institutional cohort analysis. Cross-sectional study obtained from a historical cohort, including all cases submitted to thyroidectomy for papillary thyroid carcinoma in a single institution during an 11-year period study. A total of 417 patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma were enrolled; 148 (35.4%) also had Hashimoto's thyroiditis. A female predominance among cases associated to Hashimoto's thyroiditis was observed. The thyroid tumor, in cases associated with Hashimoto's thyroiditis, had a smaller mean diameter, lower frequency of extra-thyroid extension, and earlier clinicopathological staging. A high proportion of papillary thyroid carcinoma cases are associated with Hashimoto's thyroiditis. There are associations among these cases with several histopathological factors already recognized for their prognostic value, which by themselves could impact outcomes. Copyright © 2014 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  1. Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma Program | Center for Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma Program Multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) types 2A and 2B are rare genetic diseases, which lead to the development of medullary thyroid cancer, usually in childhood. Surgery is the only standard treatment.

  2. Thyroglobulin in differentiated thyroid cancer.

    PubMed

    Evans, Carol; Tennant, Sarah; Perros, Petros

    2015-04-15

    Identification of differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) is becoming increasingly common. Patients usually have an excellent prognosis. Most undergo total thyroidectomy, radioiodine ablation and treatment with suppressive doses of levothyroxine. Patients require long term follow-up which includes measurement of serum thyroglobulin (Tg). Interpretation of serum Tg requires knowledge of the concurrent thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) concentration, as secretion is TSH dependant, and an awareness of the limitations of the methods used to measure it. These limitations include the heterogeneity of Tg in serum, the ability of assays to recognise forms of Tg secreted by a tumour, assay biases and not least the potential for interference in immunoassays for Tg from endogenous thyroglobulin antibodies (TgAbs) in patient serum. This review considers what the clinician wants to know and how Tg results can be interpreted in light of an awareness of assay limitations.

  3. Serum thyroglobulin, high-resolution ultrasound, and lymph node thyroglobulin in diagnosis of differentiated thyroid carcinoma nodal metastases.

    PubMed

    Snozek, Christine L H; Chambers, Eugene P; Reading, Carl C; Sebo, Thomas J; Sistrunk, J Woody; Singh, Ravinder J; Grebe, Stefan K G

    2007-11-01

    Clinically enlarged cervical lymph nodes in patients with a history of thyroid cancer are usually assessed by fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) followed by cytology with or without tissue core. Thyroglobulin (Tg) is frequently elevated in malignant FNAB needle-wash specimens and may possibly augment or replace cytology. Furthermore, the combination of undetectable serum Tg and an innocuous ultrasound might altogether obviate the need for biopsy. The objectives of the study were to: 1) determine an appropriate diagnostic cutoff for Tg levels in FNAB; 2) assess the diagnostic performance at this cutoff; and 3) compare serum Tg and FNAB needle-wash Tg levels to determine whether serum Tg levels predict positive Tg FNAB. This was a retrospective study of 122 FNAB samples in 88 athyrotic thyroid cancer patients. Fifty of 52 nonmalignant FNAB samples (96.2%) had Tg 1 ng/ml or less. All 70 malignant FNAB had Tg greater than 1 ng/ml. Of 103 specimens with diagnostic cytology, five (4.9%) had discordant Tg results; in four of these FNAB Tg was concordant with the final diagnosis. Eighteen of 19 (94.7%) FNAB with nondiagnostic (n = 16) or absent (n = 3) cytology were correctly classified by FNAB needle-wash Tg. Undetectable (<0.1 ng/ml) serum Tg was associated with a negative diagnosis in 21 of 23 biopsies (91.7%); the two cancer-positive samples were both serum Tg autoantibody positive and classified as suspicious by ultrasonography. Nodal FNAB needle-wash Tg measurements complement cytology in thyroid cancer follow-up and might substitute for it. The combination of unremarkable ultrasonography and an undetectable serum Tg in Tg autoantibody-negative patients might obviate the need for FNAB.

  4. Review of clinical and pathological features of 93 cases of well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma in pediatric age at the Lisbon Centre of the Portuguese Institute of Oncology between 1964 and 2006.

    PubMed

    Silva-Vieira, Margarida; Santos, Rita; Leite, Valeriano; Limbert, Edward

    2015-08-01

    Thyroid carcinoma is the most common endocrine malignancy. In childhood, thyroid carcinoma usually behaves aggressively and relapses frequently. Nevertheless, it has a favorable prognosis. Our aim is to present our experience with pediatric well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma (WDTC) treated at the Portuguese Institute of Oncology in Lisbon (L-PIO), between 1964 and 2006. Review of clinical files of WDTC in≤18-year-old patients selected from the databases of the Endocrinology Service of L-PIO and the South Portugal Regional Cancer Registry (SPCR). 93 cases of WDTC were found. Of these, 70 (75.3%) were girls. The median age was 15 years old (range 5-18) with a median follow-up time of 15.1 years (range 0.2-47.8). The most common histological diagnosis was papillary carcinoma of the classical variant (n=60, 64.5%). Initial staging showed locoregional dissemination in 27 (29.0%) patients and distant metastasis in 16 (17.2%) patients. Median age was lower in patients with distant disease than in patients with locoregional disease or with disease confined to the thyroid (P=0.007). After the initial treatment, 44 (47.3%) patients were in remission and 46 (49.5%) had persistent disease (lost follow-up in 3). Of the disease-free patients after initial treatment, 11 (25.0%) relapsed later. At the last observation, most patients (n=63, 67.7%) showed no evidence of disease. Our study demonstrates that children with distant metastatic disease are younger than children with a less aggressive disease. However, in both groups the response to treatment is favorable and the prognosis is usually excellent. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Evaluating the influence of prophylactic central neck dissection on TNM staging and the recurrence risk stratification of cN0 differentiated thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Lin, Xiaodong; Chen, Xiaoyi; Jiru, Yuan; Du, Jialin; Zhao, Gang; Wu, Zeyu

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the risk factors that were associated with central lymph node metastasis (CLNM) in patients with clinical nodal negative differentiated thyroid carcinoma (cN0 DTC) after prophylactic central neck dissection (pCND). The influence of pCND on TNM staging and recurrence risk stratification (RRS) in patients with cN0 DTC was also evaluated in our study. A total of 153 cN0 DTC patients in Guangdong general hospital who underwent thyroidectomy with pCND from March 2014 to October 2014 were enrolled in this study. The relations of CLNM with clinicopathologic characteristics of cN0 DTC were analyzed by univariate and multivariate logistic regression. The influence of pCND on migration of TNM staging and RRS in cN0 DTC was observed. In the present study, CLNM was found in 42.5% (65 of 153 cases) of patients with cN0 DTC. On univariate analysis, the age less than 45 years old, tumor size more than 2cm, pT staging, and a total number of central lymph nodes dissected more than 3 were significantly associated with CLNM (P<0.05); however, gender, tumors affecting both lobes, multifocality, capsular invasion, and Hashimoto's thyroiditis were not related with CLNM (P>0.05). On multivariate logistic regression, age<45 years (P=0.001) and a total number of central lymph nodes dissected >3 (P=0.002) were significantly associated with CLNM. Because of the identification of CLNM in the implementation of pCND, 15 (9.8%) of 153 cN0 DTC patients were upgraded in TNM staging; all these patients were older than 45 years. Fifty-six patients (36.6%) developed higher RRS (from low to intermediate) after pCND. For younger patients (age<45 years), careful preoperative assessment of the lymph node status must be done; surgeons should consider this risk factor when deciding whether to perform pCND. Thorough lymphadenectomy in the implementation of pCND can avoid residual lymph node metastasis and help to increase the incidence of CLNM. pCND can

  6. Partial Laryngectomy with Cricoid Reconstruction: Thyroid Carcinoma Invading the Larynx

    PubMed Central

    Ozturk, Kerem; Makay, Ozer

    2014-01-01

    Laryngotracheal invasion worsens the prognosis of thyroid cancer and the surgical approach for laryngotracheal invasion is controversial. In this paper, partial full-thickness excision of the cricoid cartilage with supracricoid laryngectomy and reconstruction of existing defect with thyroid cartilage are explained in a patient with papillary thyroid carcinoma invading the thyroid cartilage and cricoid cartilage without intraluminal invasion. Surgical indication should not be established by the site of involvement in thyroid carcinomas invading the larynx, as in primary cancers of the larynx. We think that partial laryngectomy according to the involvement site and the appropriate reconstruction techniques should be used for thyroid cancer invading the larynx. PMID:24660082

  7. Less aggressive disease in patients with primary squamous cell carcinomas of the thyroid gland and coexisting lymphocytic thyroiditis.

    PubMed

    Asik, Mehmet; Binnetoglu, Emine; Sen, Hacer; Gunes, Fahri; Muratli, Asli; Kankaya, Duygu; Uysal, Fatma; Sahin, Mustafa; Ukinc, Kubilay

    2015-01-01

    Primary squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the thyroid gland is extremely rare. Infrequently, primary SCC of the thyroid gland is accompanied by other thyroid diseases such as Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT). Recently, studies have demonstrated that differentiated thyroid cancer with coexisting HT has a better prognosis. However, the prognosis of patients with primary SCC of the thyroid gland and coexistent HT has not been clearly identified. We compared the clinical characteristics and disease stages of patients with primary SCC with and without lymphocytic thyroiditis (LT). We reviewed reports of primary SCC of the thyroid gland published in the English literature. We identified 46 papers that included 17 cases of primary SCC of the thyroid gland with LT and 77 cases of primary SCC of the thyroid gland without LT. Lymph node metastasis and local invasion rates did not differ between these two groups. Distant metastases were absent in patients with LT, and were observed in 13 (16.9%) patients without LT. A greater proportion of patients without LT had advanced stage disease (stage IV A-B-C) than patients with LT (p < 0.05). Patients with primary SCC of the thyroid gland and coexisting LT had lower tumour-node-metastasis stage and frequency of distant metastasis than those without LT. Lymphocytic infiltration in patients with SCC appears to limit tumour growth and distant metastases.

  8. Laryngeal acinic cell carcinoma following thyroid irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Reibel, J.F.; McLean, W.C.; Cantrell, R.W.

    1981-01-01

    Only three examples of acinic cell carcinoma of the larynx or trachea are found in the recent literature. A case of acinic cell carcinoma of the subglottic larynx and trachea was diagnosed and treated at the University of Virginia Medical Center. To our knowledge this is the first such case with a prior history of radiation to the neck. The patient is a 56-year-old woman who was irradiated for hyperthyroidism 46 years ago. When seen she also had parathyroid hyperplasia and multiple thyroid adenomas, conditions that frequently follow irradiation of the thyroid in children. These findings in this case support the concept that radiation may be responsible for inducing this tumor, which otherwise rarely occurs in this location. The use of electron microscopy was extremely useful in the diagnosis of this tumor. She was treated with total laryngectomy and right neck dissection and is now free of disease one year after surgery.

  9. Case of concurrent Riedel's thyroiditis, acute suppurative thyroiditis, and micropapillary carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Hong, Ji Taek; Lee, Jung Hwan; Kim, So Hun; Hong, Seong Bin; Nam, Moonsuk; Kim, Yong Seong; Chu, Young Chae

    2013-03-01

    Riedel's thyroiditis (RT) is a rare chronic inflammatory disease of the thyroid gland. It is characterized by a fibroinflammatory process that partially destroys the gland and extends into adjacent neck structures. Its clinical manifestation can mask an accompanying thyroid neoplasm and can mimic invasive thyroid carcinoma. Therefore, diagnosis can be difficult prior to surgical removal of the thyroid, and histopathologic examination of the thyroid is necessary for a definite diagnosis. The concurrent presence of RT and other thyroid diseases has been reported. However, to our knowledge, the association of RT with acute suppurative thyroiditis and micropapillary carcinoma has not been reported. We report a rare case of concurrent RT, acute suppurative thyroiditis, and micropapillary carcinoma in a 48-year-old patient.

  10. The pathology of preclinical medullary thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Ashworth, Michael

    2004-01-01

    Medullary carcinoma of the thyroid (MTC) occurs sporadically, or in familial forms in familial medullary thyroid carcinoma and multiple endocrine neoplasia types 2A and 2B. In the familial forms it is associated with well-characterized, germline mutations in the RET protooncogene. The mutation sites differ in MEN2A and MEN2B, and MTC develops at an earlier age and is more aggressive in MEN2B. Screening of relatives of affected individuals for such mutations can identify those at risk of developing MTC and total thyroidectomy can be carried out in the first decade of life before the development of clinical disease. Analysis of such removed thyroid glands shows abnormalities of the parafollicular C-cells in almost all cases. The abnormalities range from C-cell hyperplasia, either diffuse or nodular, to microcarcinoma and occasionally frank MTC. The abnormalities are bilateral and affect the upper two thirds of the thyroid lobes. Microcarcinomas may be visible with the naked eye, but often they are identified only on microscopy. Histopathological examination of the entire gland is essential.

  11. Thymic uptake after high-dose I-131 treatment in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma: a brief review of possible causes and management.

    PubMed

    Arce, Manrique Borbón; Molina, Teresa Cambil; Hernández, Tomás Martín; de la Cinta Calvo Morón, María; Herrero, Cristina Hernández; De La Riva Pérez, Pablo Antonio; Montaño, Juan Castro

    2015-01-01

    To report five cases of patients diagnosed with differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) with uptake in the thymic area after high-dose treatment with I-131 and to evaluate the potential causes and therapeutic management. Five cases of young female patients with a mean age of 36.6 years (24-43) who had been treated with a mean dose of 106 mCi of I-131 (100-150 mCi) showing tracer uptake in the thymic area are reported. An I-131 whole-body scan (131I-WBS) was performed 7 days after therapeutic dose administration to each patient. Anterior and posterior planar images, followed by SPECT/CT of the head, neck and superior mediastinum were acquired in all patients. Thyroglobulin levels were measured with and without hormone replacement therapy in all cases. Samples taken from the superior mediastinum were sent to pathology for analysis, which confirmed the presence of thymic tissue. Two patients underwent elective total thymectomy due to the gross characteristics of the gland, local 131-I uptake, and high thyroglobulin levels. The remaining three patients had already undergone thymectomy as part of neck dissection during initial surgery, and no further invasive interventions were therefore performed. Pathological examination revealed no metastases in these five patients. Thymus visualization in young patients after administration of therapeutic doses of I-131 seems to be a more common finding than usually thought. Absence of metastasis in the thymus despite high thyroglobulin levels was confirmed in all cases. Based on these results, we suggest that a more expectant and less aggressive therapeutic approach could be used. We also suggest that I-131 therapy for DTC should be considered in classification of the potential causes of true thymic hyperplasia in the subgroup of patients recovering from a stressor. Copyright © 2013 SEEN. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  12. Mammary analog secretory carcinoma of the thyroid gland: A primary thyroid adenocarcinoma harboring ETV6–NTRK3 fusion

    PubMed Central

    Dogan, Snjezana; Wang, Lu; Ptashkin, Ryan N; Dawson, Robert R; Shah, Jatin P; Sherman, Eric J; Tuttle, R Michael; Fagin, James A; Klimstra, David S; Katabi, Nora; Ghossein, Ronald A

    2016-01-01

    ETV6–NTRK3 fusion was identified in several cancers including the recently described mammary analog secretory carcinoma (MASC) of the salivary glands and a minority of papillary thyroid carcinomas. We describe three cases of primary MASC of the thyroid gland and provide a detailed clinical and pathological characterization of the tumor morphology, immunoprofile, and genetic background. Immunohistochemistry for PAX8, TTF-1, thyroglobulin, mammaglobin, GCDFP-15, S-100 protein, and p63 was used to define the tumor immunophenotype. Fluorescence in situ hybridization for ETV6 rearrangement was performed in three, and the next-generation sequencing assay MSK-IMPACT™ (Memorial Sloan Kettering-Integrated Mutation Profiling of Actionable Cancer Targets) was performed in two cases. Primary MASC of the thyroid occurred in two women and one man, age 47–72 years. All patients presented with high T stage, infiltrative, locally aggressive tumors with extrathyroidal extension. Two cases were associated with well-differentiated papillary thyroid carcinoma. Histologically, they appeared as low-grade tumors, resembling MASC of the salivary glands and labeled positive for mammaglobin, GCDFP-15, S-100 protein, p63, weakly positive for PAX8, and negative for TTF-1 and thyroglobulin. Fluorescence in situ hybridization revealed ETV6 rearrangement in all cases. In two tested cases MSK-IMPACT™ confirmed the presence of ETV6–NTRK3 gene fusion. Two patients had at least two local recurrences, one was alive with disease, and one was alive and free of disease after 14 and 17 years, respectively. The third patient was alive and free of disease after 2 years. MASC of the thyroid is histologically, immunophenotypically, and genetically similar to its salivary gland counterpart. Thyroid MASC can be associated with a well-differentiated papillary thyroid carcinoma component, supporting follicular cell origin. Clinically, these carcinomas may show frequent recurrences but are associated

  13. A case of coexistence of TSH/GH-secreting pituitary tumor and papillary thyroid carcinoma: Challenges in pathogenesis and management.

    PubMed

    Kiatpanabhikul, Phatharaporn; Shuangshoti, Shanop; Chantra, Kraisri; Navicharern, Patpong; Kingpetch, Kanaungnit; Houngngam, Natnicha; Snabboon, Thiti

    2017-03-06

    Co-existence of thyrotropin/growth hormone-secreting pituitary adenoma with differentiated thyroid carcinoma is exceedingly rare, with less than 15 cases having been reported. Its clinical presentation and treatment strategy are challenging. We report a case of pituitary macroadenoma, with clinical syndromes of acromegaly and hyperthyroidism, and a thyroid nodule, with cytologically confirmed to be a papillary thyroid carcinoma. Clinical implications, focusing on the strategy for proper management, and possible pathogenesis were discussed.

  14. Studies for the application of boron neutron capture therapy to the treatment of differentiated thyroid cancer.

    PubMed

    Dagrosa, A; Carpano, M; Perona, M; Thomasz, L; Nievas, S; Cabrini, R; Juvenal, G; Pisarev, M

    2011-12-01

    The aim of these studies was to evaluate the possibility of treating differentiated thyroid cancer by BNCT. These carcinomas are well controlled with surgery followed by therapy with (131)I; however, some patients do not respond to this treatment. BPA uptake was analyzed both in vitro and in nude mice implanted with cell lines of differentiated thyroid carcinoma. The boron intracellular concentration in the different cell lines and the biodistribution studies showed the selectivity of the BPA uptake by this kind of tumor.

  15. Somatostatin receptors and somatostatin content in medullary thyroid carcinomas

    SciTech Connect

    Reubi, J.C.; Chayvialle, J.A.; Franc, B.; Cohen, R.; Calmettes, C.; Modigliani, E. )

    1991-04-01

    Human medullary thyroid carcinomas from 19 patients were analyzed for their content in somatostatin (SRIF) receptors using receptor autoradiography with a SRIF-28 analogue and the SRIF octapeptide (Tyr3)-SMS 201-995 as iodinated radioligands. Four out of 19 cases were SRIF receptor positive with the SRIF octapeptide radioligand. These cases as well as four additional tumors were also positive with the SRIF-28 radioligand 125I-(Leu8, D-Trp22, Tyr25)-SRIF-28. High affinity binding sites pharmacologically specific for bioactive SRIF analogues, specifically located on tumor tissue, were identified. In some cases the SRIF receptors were distributed in a non-homogeneous pattern, with labelling occurring preferentially in highly differentiated tumor regions. Numerous cases were shown to have a high tumoral SRIF content measured by radioimmunoassay or immunohistochemical technique. However, there was no correlation between SRIF receptor status and tumor levels of endogenous SRIF. No correlation was seen between the clinical outcome or the survival of the patients and their tumoral SRIF receptor content. Whereas some medullary thyroid carcinomas seem to be a target for SRIF, the SRIF function in these tumors remains unclear. SRIF receptors in a group of medullary thyroid carcinomas may be useful morphological marker of these tumors and of potential interest for their in vivo localization.

  16. Thyroid carcinoma with extensive tumor thrombus in the atrium.

    PubMed

    Yamagami, Yuko; Tori, Masayuki; Sakaki, Masayuki; Ohtake, Shigeaki; Nakahara, Masaaki; Nakao, Kazuyasu

    2008-11-01

    To our knowledge, only a few cases of thyroid carcinoma with an extensive tumor thrombus in the atrium have been reported in literature. We describe a unique case of papillary carcinoma of the thyroid with extensive tumor thrombus in the atrium. A 74-year-old man consulted our hospital because of thyroid carcinoma with an extensive tumor thrombus in the atrium. Computed tomography (CT) revealed a 2-cm tumor with extensive continuous tumor thrombus in the left jugular vein, innominate vein, superior vena cava, and atrium. The tumor was resected to reduce the risk of sudden death from tumor embolism into the pulmonary arteries. Histologically, the diagnosis was papillary carcinoma of the thyroid. Thyroid carcinoma, especially papillary carcinoma, rarely develops a macroscopic tumor thrombus. Patients with an extensive tumor thrombus generally have poor prognoses and high mortality. This patient has been followed for 7 months after successful operation without recurrence.

  17. Thyroid carcinoma in Graves' disease: A meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Staniforth, Joy U L; Erdirimanne, Senarath; Eslick, Guy D

    2016-03-01

    The incidence of thyroid carcinoma is increasing worldwide. Graves' disease is the most common hyperthyroid disease. Studies have suggested an increased risk of thyroid malignancy in Graves' disease: there has not yet been a meta-analysis to allow quantitative comparison. The purpose of this study was to determine the risk of thyroid carcinoma in Graves' disease, and to gather information on the histological subtypes of carcinoma and the co-existence of thyroid nodules. Several databases and article reference lists were searched. Inclusion criteria included appropriate diagnostic criteria for thyroid conditions and a diagnoses of carcinoma based on histology. 33 studies were selected, all reporting on surgically-resected specimens. The event rate of thyroid carcinoma in Graves' disease was 0.07 (95% CI 0.04 to 0.12). There was no data to allow comparison with patients without hyperthyroid diseases. There was no increase in the odds of developing carcinoma in Graves' disease compared to toxic multinodular goitre and toxic uninodular goitre. 88% of thyroid carcinomas in Graves' disease were papillary, with solitary papillary micro-carcinoma (diameter 10 mm or less) comprising 23% of all detected thyroid carcinomas. Patients with Graves' disease and co-existing thyroid nodules were almost 5 times more likely to be diagnosed with thyroid carcinoma than those without nodules. Thyroid malignancy in Graves' disease requiring surgical treatment should be considered as likely as in other hyperthyroid diseases needing surgical treatment. Clinicians should consider screening selected patients with Graves' disease for nodules whilst being aware of potentially over-diagnosing papillary micro-carcinoma. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Is Hashimoto's thyroiditis a risk factor for medullary thyroid carcinoma? Our experience and a literature review.

    PubMed

    Zayed, Ayman A; Ali, Moaath K Mustafa; Jaber, Omar I; Suleiman, Moh'd J; Ashhab, Ashraf A; Al Shweiat, Wajdi Mohammed; Momani, Munther Suliaman; Shomaf, Maha; AbuRuz, Salah Mohammed

    2015-03-01

    The etiology of medullary thyroid carcinoma remains unknown. The aim of this study was to determine whether there is a significant association between medullary thyroid carcinoma and Hashimoto's thyroiditis in the histopathologic material of thyroidectomized patients. Retrospective cross-sectional study. In this study, we reviewed the medical records of all patients who underwent total thyroidectomy for different thyroid-related complaints between January 2000 and January 2012 at Jordan University Hospital-Amman, Jordan. To highlight relevant previously published studies addressing this topic, a literature search was conducted for English language studies reporting "medullary thyroid carcinoma" or "C-cell hyperplasia" in patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Of the 863 patients with a mean age of 47.2 ± 12.3 years who underwent total thyroidectomy during the study period, 78 (9.04 %) were diagnosed with Hashimoto's thyroiditis, and 15 (1.74 %) had medullary thyroid carcinoma, 3 (20 %) of whom had coexistent Hashimoto's thyroiditis. A total of 683 (79.1 %) patients had benign thyroid disease, 67 (9.8 %) of whom had Hashimoto's thyroiditis. The difference between these rates was not statistically significant (p = 0.19). When examined by gender, 9 females had medullary thyroid carcinoma, 3 (33.3 %) of whom had coexistent Hashimoto's thyroiditis; by contrast, of 560 females with benign thyroid disease, 62 (11.1 %) had Hashimoto's thyroiditis (p = 0.04). Although this study population represents a small and single-institution experience, our results suggest that there might be an association between Hashimoto's thyroiditis and medullary thyroid carcinoma only in female patients who undergo total thyroidectomy.

  19. The added clinical value of 18F-FDG PET/CT in evaluating intratracheal recurrence of differentiated thyroid carcinoma: implications for planning surgery, assessing its completeness, and planning radioiodine therapy.

    PubMed

    Basu, Sandip; Abhyankar, Amit

    2013-12-01

    In selected patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma, (18)F-FDG PET/CT has been shown to have added value. We present 2 clinical examples in the settings of both iodine-concentrating and non-iodine-concentrating lesions with tracheal involvement with special reference to its importance in planning of surgery or radioiodine therapy and assessing completeness of surgery. We believe that the use of PET/CT should be considered on a case-by-case basis and specifically when SPECT/CT is unavailable or has inconclusive findings.

  20. RAMAN spectroscopy imaging improves the diagnosis of papillary thyroid carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Rau, Julietta V.; Graziani, Valerio; Fosca, Marco; Taffon, Chiara; Rocchia, Massimiliano; Crucitti, Pierfilippo; Pozzilli, Paolo; Onetti Muda, Andrea; Caricato, Marco; Crescenzi, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Recent investigations strongly suggest that Raman spectroscopy (RS) can be used as a clinical tool in cancer diagnosis to improve diagnostic accuracy. In this study, we evaluated the efficiency of Raman imaging microscopy to discriminate between healthy and neoplastic thyroid tissue, by analyzing main variants of Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma (PTC), the most common type of thyroid cancer. We performed Raman imaging of large tissue areas (from 100 × 100 μm2 up to 1 × 1 mm2), collecting 38 maps containing about 9000 Raman spectra. Multivariate statistical methods, including Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA), were applied to translate Raman spectra differences between healthy and PTC tissues into diagnostically useful information for a reliable tissue classification. Our study is the first demonstration of specific biochemical features of the PTC profile, characterized by significant presence of carotenoids with respect to the healthy tissue. Moreover, this is the first evidence of Raman spectra differentiation between classical and follicular variant of PTC, discriminated by LDA with high efficiency. The combined histological and Raman microscopy analyses allow clear-cut integration of morphological and biochemical observations, with dramatic improvement of efficiency and reliability in the differential diagnosis of neoplastic thyroid nodules, paving the way to integrative findings for tumorigenesis and novel therapeutic strategies. PMID:27725756

  1. RAMAN spectroscopy imaging improves the diagnosis of papillary thyroid carcinoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rau, Julietta V.; Graziani, Valerio; Fosca, Marco; Taffon, Chiara; Rocchia, Massimiliano; Crucitti, Pierfilippo; Pozzilli, Paolo; Onetti Muda, Andrea; Caricato, Marco; Crescenzi, Anna

    2016-10-01

    Recent investigations strongly suggest that Raman spectroscopy (RS) can be used as a clinical tool in cancer diagnosis to improve diagnostic accuracy. In this study, we evaluated the efficiency of Raman imaging microscopy to discriminate between healthy and neoplastic thyroid tissue, by analyzing main variants of Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma (PTC), the most common type of thyroid cancer. We performed Raman imaging of large tissue areas (from 100 × 100 μm2 up to 1 × 1 mm2), collecting 38 maps containing about 9000 Raman spectra. Multivariate statistical methods, including Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA), were applied to translate Raman spectra differences between healthy and PTC tissues into diagnostically useful information for a reliable tissue classification. Our study is the first demonstration of specific biochemical features of the PTC profile, characterized by significant presence of carotenoids with respect to the healthy tissue. Moreover, this is the first evidence of Raman spectra differentiation between classical and follicular variant of PTC, discriminated by LDA with high efficiency. The combined histological and Raman microscopy analyses allow clear-cut integration of morphological and biochemical observations, with dramatic improvement of efficiency and reliability in the differential diagnosis of neoplastic thyroid nodules, paving the way to integrative findings for tumorigenesis and novel therapeutic strategies.

  2. Association of parathyroid carcinoma and thyroid disorders: A clinical review.

    PubMed

    Campennì, Alfredo; Giovinazzo, Salvatore; Pignata, Salvatore Antonio; Di Mauro, Francesca; Santoro, Domenico; Curtò, Lorenzo; Trimarchi, Francesco; Ruggeri, Rosaria Maddalena; Baldari, Sergio

    2017-04-01

    Parathyroid carcinoma is a rare malignancy, which usually occurs as a sporadic disease, and less frequently in the setting of genetic syndromes. Despite the association of parathyroid and thyroid disorders being quite common, the coexistence of parathyroid carcinoma and thyroid disease is rare. We reviewed the pertinent literature. The terms "parathyroid carcinoma" and "thyroid disease, hyperthyroidism, thyrotoxicosis, hypothyroidism, thyroid nodule(s), Graves' disease, autonomously functioning thyroid nodules" were used both separately and in reciprocal conjunction to search MEDLINE for articles published from January 2007 to March 2016. The search was prompted by the observation of a never reported association of autonomously functioning thyroid nodules and parathyroid carcinoma. Two hundred and twenty-one parathyroid carcinoma patients have been described during the last 10 years. Neck ultrasonography and parathyroid scintigraphy are the most common instrumental studies used in detecting parathyroid lesions. Serum parathyroid hormone and calcium levels are high in the majority of parathyroid carcinoma patients. Only 21 patients with parathyroid carcinoma and thyroid disorders were found. Our patient is the first casual association between parathyroid carcinoma and autonomously functioning thyroid nodules reported in literature and diagnosed using parathyroid and thyroid scintigraphies. Parathyroid carcinoma is a very rare endocrine tumor and association with thyroid disease is not frequent. Parathyroid carcinoma pre-operative diagnosis is often difficult also because available literature data are not homogenous and there is not a common operative guideline. Our case confirms the role of parathyroid scintigraphy, encouraging the association with thyroid scintigraphy, especially in the presence of (multi)-nodular goiter in order to address the most appropriate surgical management.

  3. Prognostic Factors in Differentiated Thyroid Cancer Revisited.

    PubMed

    Glikson, Eran; Alon, Eran; Bedrin, Lev; Talmi, Yoav P

    2017-02-01

    More than 90% of all thyroid cancers are differentiated thyroid carcinomas (DTC) with a 10 year survival rate greater than 90%. The commonly used risk stratification systems for DTC include: European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC), AGES (Age, histologic Grade, Extent of tumor, Size), AMES (Metastasis) and MACIS (Completeness of resection, local Invasion). Other systems are also utilized. Several new factors that may be involved in DTC risk stratification have emerged in recent studies, with other "traditional" factors being challenged. To present recent updates in the literature on new potential prognostic factors for DTC. We conducted a literature review and analysis of publications regarding DTC prognostic factors or risk stratification published in the last 10 years. Several new factors with potential prognostic implications for DTC were noted, including family history, lymph node involvement parameters, positive PET-CT findings, multifocal disease, thyroglobulin level and several molecular markers including BRAF. Increasing age is associated with poorer outcome in DTC; however, recent studies suggest that the cutoff point of 45 years may be contested. Furthermore, several studies have shown contradictory results regarding male gender as a negative prognostic factor, thus questioning its prognostic significance. A number of new factors with potential prognostic implications for DTC have emerged and should be addressed. However, their role and possible inclusion in new staging systems has yet to be determined.

  4. Ribonucleotide reductase large subunit M1 plays a different role in the invasion and metastasis of papillary thyroid carcinoma and undifferentiated thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Fang, Zejun; Song, Rui; Gong, Chaoju; Zhang, Xiaomin; Ren, Guoping; Li, Jinfan; Chen, Yuexia; Qiu, Lanlan; Mei, Lingming; Zhang, Ronghui; Xiang, Xueping; Chen, Xiang; Shao, Jimin

    2016-03-01

    Ribonucleotide reductase (RR) has been reported to be associated with several types of cancer while the expression and role of RR in thyroid carcinoma (TC) has not been investigated. Here, we first examined the expression level of three RR subunit proteins (RRM1, RRM2, and RRM2B) in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) and undifferentiated thyroid carcinoma (UTC) patient samples by immunohistochemistry. The results showed that RRM1 was higher expressed in 95.2 % cancer tissues compared with their adjacent normal tissues in 146 PTC samples. The expression level of RRM1 was positively correlated with T stage, lymph node metastasis (LNM), extrathyroidal invasion (ETI), and TNM stage in PTC patients. However, in 12 UTC samples, RRM1 expression was negatively expressed in six cases. To further determine the biological role of RRM1 in TC, ectopic expression or siRNA-mediated knockdown of RRM1 were carried out in the high-differentiated thyroid carcinoma cell line TPC-1 and the poor-differentiated thyroid carcinoma cell line SW579, respectively. In TPC-1 and SW579 cells, overexpression and siRNA knockdown of RRM1 demonstrated that RRM1 promoted DNA synthesis and proliferation in both cell lines as shown by EdU incorporation and cell viability assays. However, RRM1 enhanced cell migration and invasion in TPC-1 cells but inhibited that in SW579 cells as shown by wound healing and transwell assays. Moreover, we also found that RRM1 promoted PTEN expression and reduced Akt phosphorylation in a RR-activity-independent manner in the low-differentiated TC cells but not in the high-differentiated TC cells. In contrast, RRM2 expression was higher expressed in both PTC and UTC patient samples, consisting with its oncogenic role in other cancers. Therefore, we suggest that RRM1 promotes thyroid carcinoma proliferation as a component of RR but may play a different role in the invasion and metastasis of differently differentiated thyroid carcinomas through a non-RR pathway, which could

  5. Papillary carcinoma in ectopic thyroid detected by Tl-201 scintigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Michigishi, T.; Mizukami, Y.; Mura, T.; Nomura, T.; Watanabe, K.; Tonami, N.; Hisada, K. )

    1991-05-01

    A 37-year-old man with papillary carcinoma in an ectopic thyroid is presented. Excisional biopsy revealed the cervical mass to be a metastasis from thyroid cancer. X-ray, ultrasonography, and computed tomography, however, failed to identify the primary tumor in the thyroid. Incidental TI-201 uptake was noted in the midline of the anterior neck, and a palpable nodule was discovered in this area. Fine needle aspiration cytology demonstrated Class V papillary adenocarcinoma, and subsequent surgery confirmed a papillary carcinoma in the ectopic thyroid. This case suggests the usefulness of TI-201 scintigraphy for the detection of ectopic thyroid malignancy.

  6. Paraneoplastic hypercalcemia in a dog with thyroid carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Lane, Amy E.; Wyatt, Kenneth M.

    2012-01-01

    This case report describes a dog with thyroid carcinoma and paraneoplastic hypercalcemia. Following thyroidectomy the dog became hypocalcemic and required supplementation with calcitriol and calcium carbonate. During the following 2 years, attempts to reduce the supplementation resulted in hypocalcemia. The dog died from renal failure with no evidence of thyroid carcinoma. PMID:23543930

  7. Papillary carcinoma of the thyroid gland in a young child.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Paul C; Rifkin, Matthew D; Price, Anita

    2004-09-01

    The authors present a case of papillary thyroid carcinoma in a 7-year-old boy. Carcinoma of the thyroid gland represents 1.5% of malignancies before the age of 15 years. Sixty-seven percent occur in girls 7 to 12 years of age. The authors present the imaging characteristics and a brief discussion of this rare case.

  8. The Role of Epithelial Mesenchymal Transition Markers in Thyroid Carcinoma Progression

    PubMed Central

    Montemayor-Garcia, Celina; Hardin, Heather; Guo, Zhenying; Larrain, Carolina; Buehler, Darya; Asioli, Sofia; Chen, Herbert; Lloyd, Ricardo V.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the molecular mechanisms involved in thyroid cancer progression may provide targets for more effective treatment of aggressive thyroid cancers. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a major pathologic mechanism in tumor progression and is linked to the acquisition of stem-like properties of cancer cells. We examined expression of ZEB1 which activates EMT by binding to the E-box elements in the E-cadherin promoter, and expression of E-cadherin in normal and neoplastic thyroid tissues in a tissue microarray (TMA) which included 127 neoplasms and 10 normal thyroid specimens. Thyroid follicular adenomas (FA, n=32), follicular thyroid carcinomas (FTC, n=28), and papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTC, n=57) all expressed E-cadherin and were mostly negative for ZEB1 while most anaplastic thyroid carcinomas (ATC, n=10) were negative for E-cadherin, but positive for ZEB1. A validation set of 10 whole sections of ATCs showed 90% of cases positive for ZEB1 and all cases were negative for E-cadherin. Analysis of three cell lines (normal thyroid, NTHY-OR13-1; PTC, TPC-1 and ATC, THJ-21T) showed that the ATC cell line expressed the highest levels of ZEB1 while the normal thyroid cell line expressed the highest levels of E-Cadherin. Quantitative RT-PCR analyses showed that Smad7 mRNA was significantly higher in ATC than in any other group (p<0.05). These results indicate that ATCs show evidence of EMT including decreased expression of E-cadherin and increased expression of ZEB1 compared to well differentiated thyroid carcinomas and that increased expression of Smad7 may be associated with thyroid tumor progression. PMID:24126800

  9. Unusual gastric mucosal infiltration by a medullary thyroid carcinoma: a case report.

    PubMed

    Karrasch, T; Doppl, W; Roller, F C; Schäffler, A; Schäffer, R; Gattenlöhner, S

    2016-07-27

    Medullary thyroid carcinoma accounts for approximately 1 to 2 % of all thyroid carcinoma cases. The most common route of dissemination is to locoregional lymph nodes. Distant metastases commonly affect bones, lungs, and liver. We present a case of a white woman with a 25-year history of medullary thyroid carcinoma on multiple medications including tyrosine kinase inhibitor therapy for the last 11 months, who exhibited unusual diffuse infiltration of advanced stage medullary thyroid carcinoma to her gastric mucosa. A 53-year-old white woman presented with increasing fatigue, loss of appetite, and severe epigastric pain radiating to her back. She had a history of medullary thyroid carcinoma (pT2pN1b), diagnosed 25 years ago and treated by complete thyroidectomy and repeated bilateral cervical lymph node dissection. Medical therapy included octreotide 20 mg every 4 weeks, which was switched to the tyrosine kinase inhibitor vandetanib 300 mg/day 11 months ago when computed tomography scanning revealed progressive mediastinal lymph node and diffuse and symptomatic pulmonary metastases. Of note, she demonstrated macroscopically stable pulmonary and mediastinal lymph node metastases; however, her calcitonin serum levels dramatically increased. Computed tomography scanning revealed a single new intrahepatic lesion (4 mm) as well as multiple (>10) new supraclavicular lesions suggestive of medullary thyroid carcinoma progress. As proven by gastric biopsy and immunohistochemical evaluation, her epigastric pain was explained by a diffuse infiltration of her gastric mucosa by metastatic medullary thyroid carcinoma. Subsequently, she rapidly deteriorated and died. The current case report shows for the first time an unusual metastatic infiltration of the gastric mucosa by medullary thyroid carcinoma. When treating these patients, it is important to include this differential diagnosis during follow-up.

  10. A functioning pleomorphic carcinoma of the thyroid.

    PubMed Central

    Karnauchow, P. N.

    1976-01-01

    A metastasizing functioning pleomorphic carcinoma of the thyroid displayed a morphologic piture ranging from follicular to sarcomatous and carcinoid-like patterns. Spindle-cell elements were believed to be the result of metaplasia of the follicular epithelium. Development of carcinoid-like lesions in the secondary deposits of tumour supported the contention that so-called parafollicular or c-cells may be a phenomenon of metaplasia and not a histologic entity. The tumour was associated with a chromophobe adenoma of the pituitary and a benign schwannoma of the stomach. Clinically the patient did not show any other endocrinologic abnormalities and lived for 4 years from the time of diagnosis of the thyroid tumour. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 2 FIG. 3 FIG. 4 PMID:1277059

  11. Combination of initial stimulation thyroglobulins and staging system by revised ATA guidelines can elaborately discriminate prognosis of patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma after high-dose remnant ablation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min-Hee; Ko, Sun Hee; Bae, Ja-Seong; Lim, Dong-Jun; Baek, Ki-Hyun; Lee, Jong-Min; Kang, Moo-Il; Cha, Bong-Yun

    2012-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate prognostic role of thyroglobulin (Tg) levels at the time of ablation (A-Tg) and stimulation Tg levels at 6-12 months after remnant ablation (S-Tg) combined with revised American Thyroid Association (ATA) guidelines risk stratification. Data of 359 patients (median follow-up duration: 66.3 months) with papillary thyroid carcinoma who had high-dose remnant ablation were analyzed. The cutoff value of A-Tg to predict the persistent/recurrent disease was calculated by receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. In each risk group by ATA guidelines, the association of A-Tg with persistent/recurrent disease was evaluated. The role of A-Tg and ATA risk stratification in each S-Tg group (group with S-Tg <2 ng/mL, 2-10 ng/mL, or >10 ng/mL) was also evaluated. Tg response was determined by the difference between A-Tg and S-Tg with consideration of the dose of radioactive iodine ablation. A-Tg above 5.22 ng/mL was associated with persistent/recurrent disease in all risk groups by ATA guidelines. A-Tg above the cutoff value and ATA risk assessment was related to persistent/recurrent disease in patients with S-Tg 2 to 10 ng/mL (P = 0.003) and S-Tg above 10 ng/mL (P = 0.019). However, no difference in the incidence of persistent/recurrent disease was found according to Tg response. The scoring system made up of A-Tg, S-Tg, and ATA staging showed elaborate discrimination of prognosis. Risk stratification using combined scoring with initial stimulated Tg levels, including A-Tg and S-Tg, and staging system by revised ATA guidelines can effectively predict persistent/recurrent disease in patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma.

  12. Effectiveness of [(124)I]-PET/CT and [(18)F]-FDG-PET/CT for localizing recurrence in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jandee; Nah, Kuk Young; Kim, Ra Mi; Oh, Yeon-Ju; An, Young-Sil; Yoon, Joon-Kee; An, Gwang Il; Choi, Tae Hyun; Cheon, Gi Jeong; Soh, Euy-Young; Chung, Woong Youn

    2012-09-01

    Although the prognosis of patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) is generally encouraging, a diagnostic dilemma is posed when an increasing level of serum thyroglobulin (Tg) is noted, without detection of a recurrent tumor using conventional imaging tools such as the iodine-131 whole-body scanning (the [(131)I] scan) or neck ultrasonography (US). The objective of the present study was to evaluate the diagnostic value of [(124)I]-PET/CT and [(18)F]-FDG-PET/CT in terms of accurate detection of both iodine- and non-iodine-avid recurrence, compared with that of conventional imaging such as the [(131)I] scan or neck ultrasonography (US). Between July 2009 and June 2010, we prospectively studied 19 DTC patients with elevated thyroglobulin levels but who do not show pathological lesions when conventional imaging modalities are used. All involved patients had undergone total thyroidectomy and radioiodine (RI) treatment, and who had been followed-up for a mean of 13 months (range, 6-21 months) after the last RI session. Combined [(18)F]-FDG-PET/CT and [(124)I]-PET/CT data were evaluated for detecting recurrent DTC lesions in study patients and compared with those of other radiological and/or cytological investigations. Nine of 19 patients (47.4%) showed pathological [(18)F]-FDG (5/19, 26.3%) or [(124)I]-PET (4/19, 21.1%) uptake, and were classed as true-positives. Among such patients, disease management was modified in six (66.7%) and disease was restaged in seven (77.8%). In particular, the use of the described imaging combination optimized planning of surgical resection to deal with locoregional recurrence in 21.1% (4/19) of patients, who were shown to be disease-free during follow-up after surgery. Our results indicate that combination of [(18)F]-FDG-PET/CT and [(124)I]-PET/CT affords a valuable diagnostic method that can be used to make therapeutic decisions in patients with DTC who are tumor-free on conventional imaging studies but who have high Tg levels.

  13. Expression of thyroid-specific transcription factors in thyroid carcinoma, contralateral thyroid lobe and healthy thyroid gland in dogs.

    PubMed

    Pessina, P; Castillo, V; Araújo, M; Carriquiry, M; Meikle, A

    2012-08-01

    Thyrotropin receptor (TSH-R), thyroglobulin (Tg), thyroperoxidase (TPO), thyroid specific transcription factor-1 (TTF-1), paired box 8 transcription factor (PAX-8), insulin like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) transcripts were determined by real-time PCR in follicular carcinoma and contralateral (CL) lobes, and healthy thyroid canine glands. Concentrations of TSH-R, PAX-8, and ERα mRNA were not different among groups; the carcinoma group had lower Tg and TPO mRNA than healthy and CL groups, while no differences were found between the two latter groups, suggesting that the carcinoma tissue presents an altered capacity to synthesize thyroid hormones. The transcription factor that promotes thyrocytes proliferation, TTF-1 as well as IGF-1, presented a greater mRNA expression in the CL group, suggesting that the CL lobe may function in a compensatory state. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier India Pvt Ltd.

  14. Accounting for tissue heterogeneity in infrared spectroscopic imaging for accurate diagnosis of thyroid carcinoma subtypes.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Marin, David; Sreedhar, Hari; Varma, Vishal K; Eloy, Catarina; Sobrinho-Simões, Manuel; Kajdacsy-Balla, André; Walsh, Michael J

    2017-07-01

    Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) microscopy was used to image tissue samples from twenty patients diagnosed with thyroid carcinoma. The spectral data were then used to differentiate between follicular thyroid carcinoma and follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma using principle component analysis coupled with linear discriminant analysis and a Naïve Bayesian classifier operating on a set of computed spectral metrics. Classification of patients' disease type was accomplished by using average spectra from a wide region containing follicular cells, colloid, and fibrosis; however, classification of disease state at the pixel level was only possible when the extracted spectra were limited to follicular epithelial cells in the samples, excluding the relatively uninformative areas of fibrosis. The results demonstrate the potential of FT-IR microscopy as a tool to assist in the difficult diagnosis of these subtypes of thyroid cancer, and also highlights the importance of selectively and separately analyzing spectral information from different features of a tissue of interest.

  15. Collision tumor of the thyroid gland: primary squamous cell and papillary thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Warman, Meir; Lipschitz, Noga; Ikher, Sergey; Halperin, Doron

    2011-01-01

    Introduction. Collision tumor of the thyroid gland is defined when independent and histologically distinct tumors coexist within the gland. The presence of both papillary and squamous cell carcinoma in the thyroid gland is unusual. Suggested etiologies include embryonic remanents of squamous epithelium, chronic inflammation, or thyroid malignancies promoting squamous metaplasia. Case Presentation. An elderly patient presented with a rapid enlargement of a long-standing right thyroid nodule. The tumor was locally invasive and unresectable. Pathology revealed the diagnosis of papillary and squamous cell carcinoma of the thyroid gland. Possible primary sites for squamous cell carcinoma in upper aerodigestive tract were excluded. The patient outcome was fatal although palliative chemoradiotherapy. Discussion. Collision tumor of papillary and squamous cell carcinoma of the thyroid gland is a rare entity that may imply bad prognosis, as to the presence of the squamous portion. The best treatment includes resection of the tumor; unfortunately it is not possible in most cases.

  16. The estrogen receptors in the papillary carcinoma of the thyroid gland.

    PubMed

    Vaiman, Michael; Olevson, Youlian; Habler, Liliana; Eviatar, Ephraim; Zehari, Sergei; Sandbank, Judith; Kessler, Alex

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the objective was to evaluate the presence of estrogen receptors alpha and beta (ERalpha and ERbeta) in cases of papillary carcinoma of the thyroid gland and to assess the practicality of this test. Immunohistochemical stains were performed for both ERalpha and ERbeta, for evaluation of immunoreactivity in 90 papillary carcinomas. Three variables were evaluated in each sample: the intensity of the staining both nuclear and cytoplasmatic, and the spread of the stain over the sample. None of the histological samples showed immunoreactivity for ERalpha. Positive immunoreactivity results for ERbeta were found in tissue samples in 66.6% (60 cases). The study shows that ERbeta has no significant specification for differentiation between papillary carcinoma and other malignant lesions of the thyroid, while ERalpha is undetectable in this lesion. The ER testing in cases of papillary carcinoma of the thyroid gland is nonspecific and might be not necessary.

  17. Targeted therapies in advanced differentiated thyroid cancer.

    PubMed

    Carneiro, Raquel M; Carneiro, Benedito A; Agulnik, Mark; Kopp, Peter A; Giles, Francis J

    2015-09-01

    Differentiated thyroid cancer is the most common endocrine malignancy, and its incidence has been rising rapidly over the past 10 years. Although most patients with this disease have an excellent prognosis, a subset develops a more aggressive disease phenotype refractory to conventional therapies. Until recently, there was no effective therapy for these patients. With increasing knowledge of the molecular pathogenesis of thyroid cancer, novel targeted therapies are being developed for this group of patients. Sorafenib and lenvatinib, small-molecule multikinase inhibitors, were approved for the treatment of progressive, symptomatic, radioactive iodine refractory, advanced differentiated thyroid cancer in 2013 and 2015, respectively. This represents a major innovation in the therapy of patients with advanced thyroid cancer. However, these therapies still have many limitations and further research needs to be pursued with the ultimate goal of providing safe and effective personalized therapy for patients with advanced thyroid cancer.

  18. Thyroid cancer in lingual thyroid and thyroglossal duct cyst.

    PubMed

    Sturniolo, Giacomo; Vermiglio, Francesco; Moleti, Mariacarla

    2016-11-04

    Ectopy is the most common embryogenetic defect of the thyroid gland, representing between 48 and 61% of all thyroid dysgeneses. Persistence of thyroid tissue in the context of a thyroglossal duct remnant and lingual thyroid tissue are the most common defects. Although most cases of ectopic thyroid are asymptomatic, any disease affecting the thyroid may potentially involve the ectopic tissue, including malignancies. The prevalence of differentiated thyroid carcinoma in lingual thyroid and thyroglossal duct cyst is around 1% of patients affected with the above thyroid ectopies. We here review the current literature concerning primary thyroid carcinomas originating from thyroid tissue on thyroglossal duct cysts and lingual thyroid.

  19. Incidental cervical metastases from thyroid carcinoma during neck dissection.

    PubMed

    Périé, S; Torti, F; Lefevre, M; Chabbert-Buffet, N; Jafari, A; Lacau St Guily, J

    2016-12-01

    To quantify and discuss the prevalence of unsuspected thyroid lymph node metastases discovered in specimens from neck dissection for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) and discuss the impact on patient management. Retrospective study between May 2004 and January 2007. University hospital. Pathological analysis of cervical lymph node dissection performed during surgery for HNSCC in a total of 349 neck dissections in 266 consecutive patients. Twenty-one patients showed metastatic lymph nodes from thyroid cancer (prevalence 7.9%): 13 cases were metastatic from a papillary thyroid carcinoma and 8 cases from a follicular carcinoma. In 5 of the 21 patients, classical dissection was associated to recurrent nerve dissection and unilateral lobectomy; no thyroid carcinoma was found. Thirteen patients received radiotherapy for HNSCC. Follow-up comprised annual ultrasonographic examination of the neck and thyroid in these 21 patients. Total thyroidectomy was decided on in 5, with discovery of 3 micro-papillary thyroid carcinomas, in a single patient (complementary (131)I treatment). No thyroid carcinomas were found for the other 4 patients. No patients died from thyroid carcinoma during follow-up (mean: 41 months). The prevalence of lymph node metastasis from thyroid carcinoma in cervical lymph node dissection during treatment of HNSCC seems higher (7.9%) than rates reported in the literature (0.3 to 1.6%). This may be due to the histopathological methods employed. Management of patients should be discussed in the light of thyroid ultrasonography and prognosis of HNSCC. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Prognostic and predictive markers in medullary thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Erovic, Boban M; Kim, Dae; Cassol, Clarissa; Goldstein, David P; Irish, Jonathan C; Asa, Sylvia L; Mete, Ozgur

    2012-12-01

    Unlike papillary thyroid carcinoma, medullary thyroid carcinoma is insensitive to adjuvant treatment with radioactive iodine. The clinical management of patients with advanced or metastatic disease remains challenging since no effective systemic adjuvant therapy is available. We aimed to identify markers of aggressive disease and novel drugable protein targets that would provide systemic adjuvant treatment for patients with advanced medullary thyroid carcinoma. We therefore examined morphologic features of aggressive behavior and the expression of 41 proteins involved in apoptosis, cell cycle, angiogenesis, inflammation, cell adhesion, tumor-specific markers, and WNT, SHH, and AKT pathways using tissue microarray from 23 patients with medullary thyroid carcinoma. Protein expression was determined using computerized image analysis software. Statistical analysis was carried out to correlate clinical data with the average score for each marker. Angioinvasion proved to be the most reliable predictor of disease recurrence and death. The rate of angioinvasion was 43 %. All angioinvasive medullary thyroid carcinomas had locoregional and/or distant metastasis; 60 % of angioinvasive medullary thyroid carcinomas developed distant metastasis. We identified expression of several potentially important protein targets such as COX-1/2, Bcl-2a, Gst-π, Gli-1, Gli-2, Gli-3, and Bmi-1 that may be therapeutically targeted in medullary thyroid carcinoma. More importantly, the immunohistochemical profile of SSTRs in medullary thyroid carcinoma may also have clinical relevance for the administration of peptide receptor radionuclide treatment. Successful outcome of clinical trials directed against these novel targets would provide much needed systemic adjuvant treatment for patients with advanced medullary thyroid carcinoma, and our data suggest the possibility of stratifying patients who are likely to require adjuvant therapy before their burden of disease precludes successful

  1. Airway management in anaplastic thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Shaha, Ashok R

    2008-07-01

    In patients who present with advanced anaplastic thyroid cancer, airway management is difficult because of bilateral vocal cord paralysis or tracheal invasion by the tumor. Airway management can be extremely complex in these patients. This is the author's 25 year experience with 30 patients who presented with anaplastic thyroid cancer and acute airway problems. The patients' airway issues developed soon after presentation or a few months after treatment. Ten patients presented with initial symptoms of acute airway distress. All of these patients were treated with tracheostomy or cricothyrotomy. The 10 patients who presented with initial symptoms of acute airway distress died within 4 months. Eight of the remaining 20 patients developed bilateral vocal cord paralysis. Airway management for these patients depended on the extent of distant disease and the family's understanding of the advanced nature of the disease and the palliative efforts. The remaining patients had a palliative and supportive approach. Airway management was the most critical issue in patients who presented with anaplastic thyroid cancer and initial airway distress. Cricothyrotomy was helpful in avoiding acute airway catastrophe. It is important to distinguish between poorly differentiated and anaplastic thyroid cancer and lymphoma for appropriate airway management.

  2. A critical analysis of the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) staging system for differentiated thyroid carcinoma in young patients on the basis of the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) registry.

    PubMed

    Tran Cao, Hop S; Johnston, Lily E; Chang, David C; Bouvet, Michael

    2012-08-01

    Differentiated thyroid carcinomas (DTC) are the only tumors for which age is a determinant of stage in the American Joint Committee on Cancer's (AJCC) staging protocol. In this study, we re-examined the relationship between age, extent of disease, and prognosis by using a large dataset with longer follow-up times. We examined the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) registry data 1973 to 2005 for patients with DTC as their only known malignancy. We used Cox multivariate analyses to generate mortality hazard ratios, controlling for several variables, to evaluate the effects of age and disease extent. We identified 55,402 patients with DTC. Of these, 49,240 had sufficient data to generate a TNM stage on the basis of AJCC guidelines. Within stage II, younger patients (<45 years) have worse outcomes than older patients (P < .001). Younger patients had an 11-fold increase in mortality between stages I and II, whereas there was no difference for older patients. When we uniformly applied the 45-and-older staging protocol to all patients, we found that stages III-IVc had a significantly greater risk of mortality for all patients compared with stage I. The presence of regional and metastatic thyroid cancer bears prognostic significance for all ages. Under current AJCC guidelines, young patients with metastatic thyroid cancer may be understaged. Copyright © 2012 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Encapsulated follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma/noninvasive follicular thyroid neoplasm with papillary-like nuclear features with Spindle Cell Metaplasia: Case report and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Haroon Al Rasheed, Mohamed Rizwan; Acosta, Andres; Tarjan, Gabor

    2017-04-01

    Spindle cell lesions of the thyroid are rare overall, and span a wide clinical spectrum that ranges from spindle cell metaplasia (SCM(1)) to anaplastic carcinoma. Their differentiation is only seldom straightforward, and usually requires the integration of the clinical, histological and immunohistochemical data. Only a handful of publications have described cases of SCM in the thyroid and we add to that literature by reporting a unique case of encapsulated follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma/noninvasive follicular thyroid neoplasm with papillary-like nuclear features with SCM. In addition, we review the literature on the relationship between SCM and different thyroid lesions, summarizing the morphological and immunohistochemical features that aid in its differentiation from more aggressive spindle cell proliferations.

  4. MicroRNA Expression Profiles in Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma, Benign Thyroid Nodules and Healthy Controls

    PubMed Central

    Yoruker, Ebru Esin; Terzioglu, Duygu; Teksoz, Serkan; Uslu, Fatma Ezel; Gezer, Ugur; Dalay, Nejat

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) represent a class of short endogenous non-coding RNAs that negatively regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level in many biological processes, including proliferation, differentiation, stress response and apoptosis. In this study we analyzed a set of seven miRNA molecules in sera of patients with papillary thyroid cancer, multinodular goiter and healthy controls to identify miRNA molecules that may have utility as markers for PTC. MiR-21 serum levels in the preoperative PTC and MG groups were significantly higher than the control group. Likewise, postoperative levels of miR-151-5p, miR-221 and miR-222 were significantly lower in patients with PTC. When serum miRNA levels were evaluated according to stage, postoperative levels of miR-151-5p and miR-222 were significantly lower in patients with advanced stages of the disease. The miRNA levels were also found associated with the size of the primary tumor. Our data imply that specific miRNA molecules which are differentially expressed in thyroid tumors may play role in the development of papillary thyroid carcinoma. PMID:27162538

  5. Value of 18F-FDG PET negativity and Tg suppressibility as markers of prognosis in patients with elevated Tg and 131I-negative differentiated thyroid carcinoma (TENIS syndrome).

    PubMed

    Ranade, Rohit; Kand, Purushottam; Basu, Sandip

    2015-10-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the prognostic value of fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) PET negativity and thyroglobulin (Tg) suppressibility in differentiated thyroid carcinoma patients with elevated Tg and a negative radioiodine scan. The study population was selected from thyroid cancer patients registered at a large tertiary cancer care center for management and consisted of patients with metastatic thyroid cancer with elevated Tg on follow-up, negative 131I whole-body scan and negative 18F-FDG PET/computed tomography (CT) study. Patients with thyroid carcinoma were subjected to a thyroid-stimulating hormone-stimulated assessment on the basis of a 131I whole-body scan, serum Tg level and whole-body 18F-FDG PET/CT scan for evaluation of metastatic disease burden. The same patients were subjected to a follow-up evaluation of serum Tg and whole-body 18F-FDG PET/CT scan under thyroid-stimulating hormone suppression while on thyroxine sodium. Comparison was also made between the findings of 18F-FDG PET/CT in patients demonstrating suppressible Tg. A total of 40 (25 male and 15 female) patients were included in the study. All patients had a negative whole-body 18F-FDG PET/CT study but had stimulated Tg more than 5 ng/dl (range: 5.1-> 250 ng/ml), indicating the presence of disease. The patients demonstrated variable Tg suppressibility and were classified on the basis of the extent of Tg suppressibility (%Tg suppressibility > 90% in 21 patients; %Tg suppressibility 65-90% in 12 patients; and %Tg suppressibility < 65% in five patients; and no suppressibility in two patients). 18F-FDG PET was normal in all of these patients both on stimulation and on suppression. All patients were asymptomatic during this period. No definite correlation could be established between the status of metastasis or the histopathology and suppressibility of Tg. The average follow-up data available were for more than 3 years in 26 patients (two patients had no Tg suppressibility

  6. Thyroid Ultrasonography in Differentiation between Graves' Disease and Hashimoto's Thyroiditis.

    PubMed

    Pishdad, P; Pishdad, G R; Tavanaa, S; Pishdad, R; Jalli, R

    2017-03-01

    Graves' disease and Hashimoto's thyroiditis are the most common causes of hyper and hypothyroidism, respectively. Differentiation of these 2 diseases, if the patient is euthyroid, may sometimes be extremely difficult on the basis of clinical and laboratory findings. The purpose of this study was to determine the sensitivity and specificity of gray scale sonography in differentiation of Graves' disease from Hashimoto's thyroiditis. This study included 149 patients divided into three groups, patients with Graves' disease (34 patients, mean age = 36.8 ± 10.17 years), Patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis (62 patients, mean age = 33.4 ± 12.16 years) and control group (53 healthy people, mean age = 34.74 ± 16.87 years). Members of all groups were referred to a single radiologist for thyroid sonography for evaluation of thyroid echogenicity pattern. A total of 117 women and 32 men were examined by sonography. The most common sonographic pattern in Hashimoto and Graves' was homogenous hypo-echogenicity which was observed in 45.2% and 47.1% of cases, respectively. Peripheral hypo-echogenicity pattern was seen in 40.3% of Hashimoto's group with 100% specificity and 40.3% sensitivity. Central-hypoechogenic pattern was observed in 17.6% of Graves' group with 100% and 17.6% specificity and sensitivity, respectively. Our findings indicate that sonography has high specificity but low sensitivity in the diagnosis of either Graves' disease or Hashimoto's thyroiditis. It is therefore not possible to differentiate between these two diseases using sonography alone. Confirmation by laboratory data is also needed.

  7. Sporadic Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma: Clinical Data From A University Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Correia-Deur, Joya Emilie M.; Toledo, Rodrigo A.; Imazawa, Alice T.; Lourenço, Delmar M.; Ezabella, Marilza C. L.; Tavares, Marcos R.; Toledo, Sergio P. A.

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Medullary thyroid carcinoma may occur in a sporadic (s-medullary thyroid carcinoma, 75%) or in a multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 form (MEN2, 25%). These clinical forms differ in many ways, as s-medullary thyroid carcinoma cases are RET-negative in the germline and are typically diagnosed later than medullary thyroid carcinoma in MEN2 patients. In this study, a set of cases with s-medullary thyroid carcinoma are documented and explored. PURPOSE: To document the phenotypes observed in s-medullary thyroid carcinoma cases from a university group and to attempt to improve earlier diagnosis of s-medullary thyroid carcinoma. Some procedures for diagnostics are also recommended. METHOD: Patients (n=26) with apparent s-medullary thyroid carcinoma were studied. Their clinical data were reviewed and peripheral blood was collected and screened for RET germline mutations. RESULTS: The average age at diagnosis was 43.9 years (± 10.82 SD) and did not differ between males and females. Calcitonin levels were increased in all cases. Three patients presented values that were 100-fold greater than the normal upper limit. Most (61.54%) had values that were 20-fold below this limit. Carcinoembryonic antigen levels were high in 70.6% of cases. There was no significant association between age at diagnosis, basal calcitonin levels or time of disease onset with thyroid tumor size (0.6–15 cm). Routine thyroid cytology yielded disappointing diagnostic accuracy (46.7%) in this set of cases. After total thyroidectomy associated with extensive cervical lymph node resection, calcitonin values remained lower than 5 pg/mL for at least 12 months in eight of the cases (30.8%). Immunocyto- and histochemistry for calcitonin were positive in all analyzed cases. None of the 26 cases presented germline mutations in the classical hotspots of the RET proto-oncogene. CONCLUSION: Our cases were identified late. The basal calcitonin measurements and immunostaining for calcitonin were

  8. Central neck dissection in differentiated thyroid cancer: technical notes.

    PubMed

    Giugliano, G; Proh, M; Gibelli, B; Grosso, E; Tagliabue, M; De Fiori, E; Maffini, F; Chiesa, F; Ansarin, M

    2014-02-01

    Differentiated thyroid cancers may be associated with regional lymph node metastases in 20-50% of cases. The central compartment (VIupper VII levels) is considered to be the first echelon of nodal metastases in all differentiated thyroid carcinomas. The indication for central neck dissection is still debated especially in patients with cN0 disease. For some authors, central neck dissection is recommended for lymph nodes that are suspect preoperatively (either clinically or with ultrasound) and/or for lymph node metastases detected intra-operatively with a positive frozen section. In need of a better definition, we divided the dissection in four different areas to map localization of metastases. In this study, we present the rationale for central neck dissection in the management of differentiated thyroid carcinoma, providing some anatomical reflections on surgical technique, oncological considerations and analysis of complications. Central neck dissection may be limited to the compartments that describe a predictable territory of regional recurrences in order to reduce associated morbidities.

  9. Medullary thyroid carcinoma presenting as a supraglottic mass.

    PubMed

    White, Jeremy; Mohyeldin, Ahmed; Schwartz, Arnold; Bielamowicz, Steven

    2014-01-01

    We report a rare case of medullary thyroid carcinoma that presented as a metastasis to the supraglottic larynx. A 92-year-old man with a 3-month history of voice change and airway obstruction was diagnosed with medullary thyroid carcinoma metastatic to the supraglottis. Excision of the mass, total thyroidectomy, and elective neck dissection were recommended, but the patient declined because of his advanced age. Medullary carcinoma of the thyroid gland is a rare neuroendocrine tumor with a poor prognosis when associated with a distant metastasis. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of a medullary carcinoma of the thyroid presenting as a supraglottic mass. Total thyroidectomy, neck dissection, and surgical excision of the entire tumor comprise the treatment of choice.

  10. Papillary thyroid carcinoma and familial adenomatous polyposis of the colon.

    PubMed

    Donnellan, Kimberly A; Bigler, Steven A; Wein, Richard O

    2009-01-01

    Case report and limited review of the literature on the topic of papillary thyroid carcinoma and familial adenomatous polyposis and its genetic associations. A patient with multiple prior surgeries for colonic polyps, abdominal perineal resection for colorectal cancer, and wedge resection for metastatic adenocarcinoma (consistent with rectal primary) presented with a thyroid mass. Fine-needle aspiration demonstrated papillary thyroid carcinoma. The patient underwent total thyroidectomy. Pathologic examination revealed the cribriform-morular variant of papillary carcinoma that has been reported in patients with familial adenomatous polyposis. Cribriform-morular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma is an uncommon diagnosis known to be associated with familial adenomatous polyposis. Although the incidence is rare, this diagnosis should raise the clinician's suspicions to recommend both colorectal screening and genetic counseling for family members.

  11. Histopathology of C Cells and Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Schmid, Kurt Werner

    2015-01-01

    The human thyroid gland contains less than 0.01-0.1% calcitonin producing and secreting C cells, which in men are almost exclusively situated in an intrafollicular location; the vast majority of C cells are embryologically derived of remnants of the ultimobranchial body and ultimately of the neural crest, a small subset, however, is presumed to originate from endodermal stem cells. Thyroid tumours with C cell differentiation have been named medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC); calcitonin is also produced and secreted by MTC which makes this peptide hormone a very useful serum marker both for early detection and clinical follow-up of patients with MTC. About 70-80% of MTC are sporadic tumours, whereas 20-30% are familial MTC which are autosomal-dominant inherited and caused by germline mutations of the RET proto-oncogene located on chromosome 10. This article summarizes the histological, immunhistochemical and molecular genetic features of C cells, C-cell hyperplasia (CCH) and MTC, emphasizing the role of diagnostic pathology.

  12. Consumption of fruits, vegetables and fruit juices and differentiated thyroid carcinoma risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study.

    PubMed

    Zamora-Ros, Raul; Béraud, Virginie; Franceschi, Silvia; Cayssials, Valerie; Tsilidis, Konstantinos K; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Overvad, Kim; Tjønneland, Anne; Eriksen, Anne K; Bonnet, Fabrice; Affret, Aurélie; Katzke, Verena; Kühn, Tilman; Boeing, Heiner; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Valanou, Elisavet; Karakatsani, Anna; Masala, Giovanna; Grioni, Sara; Santucci de Magistris, Maria; Tumino, Rosario; Ricceri, Fulvio; Skeie, Guri; Parr, Christine L; Merino, Susana; Salamanca-Fernández, Elena; Chirlaque, Maria-Dolores; Ardanaz, Eva; Amiano, Pilar; Almquist, Martin; Drake, Isabel; Hennings, Joakim; Sandström, Maria; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Peeters, Petra H; Khaw, Kay-Thee; Wareham, Nicholas J; Schmidt, Julie A; Perez-Cornago, Aurora; Aune, Dagfinn; Riboli, Elio; Slimani, Nadia; Scalbert, Augustin; Romieu, Isabelle; Agudo, Antonio; Rinaldi, Sabina

    2017-07-08

    Fruit and vegetable (F&V) intake is considered as probably protective against overall cancer risk, but results in previous studies are not consistent for thyroid cancer (TC). The purpose of this study is to examine the association between the consumption of fruits, vegetables, fruit juices and differentiated thyroid cancer risk within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. The EPIC study is a cohort including over half a million participants, recruited between 1991 and 2000. During a mean follow-up of 14 years, 748 incident first primary differentiated TC cases were identified. F&V and fruit juice intakes were assessed through validated country-specific dietary questionnaires. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using Cox regression models adjusted for potential confounding factors. Comparing the highest versus lowest quartile of intake, differentiated TC risk was not associated with intakes of total F&V (HR: 0.89; 95% CI: 0.68-1.15; p-trend = 0.44), vegetables (HR: 0.89; 95% CI: 0.69-1.14; p-trend = 0.56), or fruit (HR: 1.00; 95% CI: 0.79-1.26; p-trend = 0.64). No significant association was observed with any individual type of vegetable or fruit. However, there was a positive borderline trend with fruit juice intake (HR: 1.23; 95% CI: 0.98-1.53; p-trend = 0.06). This study did not find any significant association between F&V intakes and differentiated TC risk; however a positive trend with fruit juice intake was observed, possibly related to its high sugar content. © 2017 UICC.

  13. Chromogranin A and the α -subunit of glycoprotein hormones in medullary thyroid carcinoma and phaeochromocytoma

    PubMed Central

    Guignat, L; Bidart, J M; Nocera, M; Comoy, E; Schlumberger, M; Baudin, E

    2001-01-01

    Using specific immunoradiometric assays, we evaluated the clinical usefulness of chromogranin A and the α-subunit of glycoprotein hormones in neuroendocrine tumours of neuroectodermic origin. The serum α-subunit of glycoprotein hormones was only slightly increased in 2 out of 44 medullary thyroid carcinoma or phaeochromocytoma patients with increased calcitonin or 24-hour urinary metanephrine levels. Serum chromogranin A was increased in 12 of 45 (27%) medullary thyroid carcinoma patients with an elevated calcitonin level and in 4 of 16 medullary thyroid carcinoma patients (25%) with an undetectable calcitonin level, in 5 of 7 phaeochromocytoma patients with increased urinary catecholamine and metabolite excretion, and in 2 of 3 patients with a non-functioning phaeochromocytoma. During follow-up, the course of chromogranin A was found to parallel that of tumour burden and/or 24-hour urinary metanephrine in 5 phaeochromocytoma patients. We conclude that chromogranin A measurement is not recommended for the diagnosis of medullary thyroid carcinoma patients. It may be useful in patients with functioning and non-functioning phaeochromocytomas as a follow-up marker. In neuroendocrine tumour patients with elevated calcitonin secretion, the serum α-subunit of glycoprotein hormone measurement may help differentiate medullary thyroid carcinoma or phaeochromocytoma patients from other endodermal-derived neuroendocrine tumour patients in whom it is frequently elevated. © 2001 Cancer Research Campaign http://www.bjcancer.com PMID:11259096

  14. Medullary thyroid carcinoma metastatic to the pituitary gland: an unusual site of metastasis.

    PubMed

    Williams, Michelle D; Asa, Sylvia L; Fuller, Gregory N

    2008-06-01

    We present a case of metastatic medullary thyroid carcinoma involving the pituitary gland of a 23-year-old woman with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2b who presented with diabetes insipidus and visual loss. The diagnostic features, including cytomorphology and immunohistochemistry, used to differentiate pituitary adenoma from metastatic medullary carcinoma are discussed. Pituitary metastases and tumor-to-tumor metastases in this region are also highlighted.

  15. Mixed primary squamous cell carcinoma, follicular carcinoma, and micropapillary carcinoma of the thyroid gland: A case report.

    PubMed

    Dong, Su; Song, Xue-Song; Chen, Guang; Liu, Jia

    2016-08-01

    Primary squamous cell carcinoma of the thyroid gland is rare, and mixed squamous cell and follicular carcinoma is even rarer still, with only a few cases reported in the literature. The simultaneous presentation of three primary cancers of the thyroid has not been reported previously. Here we report a case of primary squamous cell carcinoma of the thyroid, follicular thyroid carcinoma, and micropapillary thyroid carcinoma. A 62-year-old female patient presented with complaints of pain and a 2-month history of progressively increased swelling in the anterior region of the neck. Fine-needle-aspiration cytology of both lobes indicated the possibility of the presence of a follicular neoplasm. Total thyroidectomy with left-sided modified radical neck dissection was performed. Postoperative pathological examination confirmed the diagnosis of thyroid follicular carcinoma with squamous cell carcinoma and micropapillary carcinoma of the thyroid. Thyroid-stimulating hormone suppressive therapy with l-thyroxine was administered. Radioiodine and radiotherapy also were recommended, but the patient did not complete treatment as scheduled. The patient remained alive more than 9 months after operation. The present case report provides an example of the coexistence of multiple distinct malignancies in the thyroid.

  16. Cerebral edema following iodine-131 therapy for thyroid carcinoma metastatic to the brain

    SciTech Connect

    Datz, F.L.

    1986-05-01

    Brain metastases are rare in well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma but when present they can lead to the patient's death. Iodine-131 therapy for intracerebral thyroid carcinoma metastases causes radiation-induced acute cerebral edema that can lead to CNS complications and even death. We present a case in which a patient with intracerebral /sup 131/I uptake developed seizures, slurred speech, and muscle weakness 12 hr following /sup 131/I therapy. The patient's CT scan, post-therapy, confirmed an intracranial metastasis with a significant amount of surrounding edema. Radiotherapists, when using external beam radiation to treat intracerebral metastases, commonly place these patients on steroids, glycerol, or mannitol prior to instituting therapy, to prevent complications from radiation-induced cerebral edema. This technique could be applied to /sup 131/I therapy of intracranial thyroid carcinoma metastases as well.

  17. Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma in ecuador: analysis of prognostic factors.

    PubMed

    Pacheco-Ojeda, L A; Martínez, A L; Alvarez, M

    2001-01-01

    The highest incidence of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) has been reported in countries with endemic goiter, such as in Ecuador. In this country, ATC is the third most common histologic type of thyroid cancer, following papillary and follicular carcinoma. The aim of this study was to review the clinical presentation and the results of treatment of a large consecutive series of ATC patients treated at the oncological department of a general hospital in Quito, Ecuador. This is a retrospective study of 30 patients diagnosed with ATC at the Social Security Hospital, from 1982 to 1998. Symptomatic rapidly growing neck masses were generally present. All the patients had histological diagnosis of ATC. Two patients with pulmonary metastases and pleural effusion died before treatment could be instituted. Twenty-eight patients received at least one type of treatment: surgery, radiation therapy (RT), or chemotherapy (CT). The two most frequently employed therapeutic modalities were surgery followed by RT and/or CT in 14 patients and surgery alone in 9 patients. Surgery was performed in 23 patients but a complete resection was possible in only 14 patients. RT, postoperatively or alone, was given to 17 patients. Only 5 patients received doses ranging from 4,000 to 5,000 cGy and 4 patients more than 5,000 cGy. CT was administered to 17 patients. Doxorubicin alone was given to 10 patients and different combinations to the remaining patients. Local control was obtained in 8 of 14 complete resections. The prognostic value of the following parameters was studied by univariate analysis: duration of symptoms, size of the tumor, extent of glandular involvement, type of treatment, and surgical margins. A statistically longer survival was found in cases of differentiated carcinoma with areas of ATC or tumor limited to one lobe, those patients who received a complete treatment of chemotherapy, and those patients with tumors smaller than 10 cm and with duration of symptoms longer than 4

  18. Sclerosing mucoepidermoid carcinoma with eosinophilia of thyroid gland in a male patient: a case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Lai, Chi-Yun; Chao, Tzu-Chieh; Lin, Jen-Der; Hsueh, Chuen

    2015-01-01

    Sclerosing mucoepidermoid carcinoma with eosinophilia (SMECE) was first described by Chan et al in 1991. It is characterized by nest or strands of epidermoid tumor cells with squamous differentiation, rare mucous cells, prominent sclerotic stroma, eosinophilic and lymphoplasmacytic infiltration, and a background of chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis in the non-neoplastic thyroid gland. It is important to recognize SMECE of thyroid and differentiate it from squamous cell carcinoma or other neoplasms with squamous differentiation/metaplasia. In published cases, the SMECE of thyroid gland predominantly occurs in women. We report a case of SMECE of thyroid in a 45-year-old male patient. All cases in male patients were Caucasian described in English literature, and our case is the first one in Asian.

  19. Mixed Medullary-follicular-derived carcinomas of the thyroid gland.

    PubMed

    Sadow, Peter M; Hunt, Jennifer L

    2010-07-01

    Tumors of the thyroid are subclassified based on the cell of origin and commonly include follicular-derived tumors and C-cell-derived tumors. The most common follicular-derived tumors are papillary carcinoma and follicular carcinoma, whereas the malignant C-cell-derived tumor is medullary thyroid carcinoma. Rare cases in the literature describe patients who have follicular-derived and C-cell-derived tumors in the same thyroid gland. These can be synchronous but anatomically separate carcinomas, or they can show some mixing of the 2 components. The mixture may be at an interface, as in collision tumors, or can be throughout the entire lesion, as in true mixed medullary-follicular-derived carcinomas. The clinical, histologic, and molecular features of these mixed tumors and the classification guidelines are reviewed.

  20. High-dose radioiodine treatment for differentiated thyroid carcinoma is not associated with change in female fertility or any genetic risk to the offspring

    SciTech Connect

    Bal, Chandrasekhar . E-mail: csbal@hotmail.com; Kumar, Ajay; Tripathi, Madhavi; Chandrashekar, Narayana; Phom, Hentok; Murali, Nadig R.; Chandra, Prem; Pant, Gauri S.

    2005-10-01

    Background: We tried to evaluate the female fertility and genetic risk to the offspring from the exposure to high-dose {sup 131}I by assessing the pregnancy outcomes and health status of the children of female patients with differentiated thyroid cancer who had received therapeutic doses of {sup 131}I. Materials and Methods: From 1967 to 2002, a total of 1,282 women had been treated with {sup 131}I. Of these patients, 692 (54%) were in the reproductive age group (18-45 years). Forty women had a total of 50 pregnancies after high-dose {sup 131}I. Age at presentation ranged from 16 to 36 years (mean, 23 {+-} 4 years). Histopathology was papillary thyroid cancer in 32 cases and follicular thyroid cancer in 8 cases. Results: Single high-dose therapy was given in 30 cases, 2 doses were given in 7 cases, 3 doses were given in 2 cases, and four doses were given in 1 case in which lung metastases had occurred. In 37 patients (92%), disease was successfully ablated before pregnancy. Ovarian absorbed-radiation dose calculated by the MIRD method ranged from 3.5 to 60 cGy (mean, 12 {+-} 11 cGy). The interval between {sup 131}I therapy and pregnancy varied from 7 to 120 months (37.4 {+-} 28.2 months). Three spontaneous abortions occurred in 2 women. Forty-seven babies (20 females and 27 males) were born. Forty-four babies were healthy with normal birth weight and normal developmental milestones. Twenty women delivered their first baby after {sup 131}I therapy. The youngest child in our series is 11 months of age, and the oldest is 8.5 years of age. Conclusions: Female fertility is not affected by high-dose radioiodine treatment, and the therapy does not appear to be associated with any genetic risks to the offspring.

  1. Follicular variant of papillary carcinoma in submandibular ectopic thyroid with no orthotopic thyroid gland.

    PubMed

    Guerrissi, Jorge O

    2012-01-01

    Ectopic thyroid tissue with no orthotopic gland is extremely rare; malign transformation of ectopic thyroid is also an uncommon event, and rarer is the follicular variant of papillary carcinoma. In this clinical report, a case with submandibular ectopic thyroid without orthotropic thyroid gland is presented. Treatment was a complete resection of tumor, and histologic findings reveal follicular variant of papillary carcinoma. The patient had an uneventful postoperative recovery, and a substitution treatment with thyroxine was maintained. Physicians should be aware of the possibility that a lingual, submandibular, or lateral neck swelling could be an ectopic thyroid gland. This entity poses specific diagnostic and therapeutic difficulties, and definitive diagnosis is histologic. Computed tomographic scan, radioactive scan, and ultrasonography are necessary in revealing the presence of normal thyroid gland. Recommended treatment is primarily surgical, sometimes associated with radioiodine I 131 therapy and a substitution treatment with thyroxine.

  2. Isolated skeletal muscle metastatic deposit in a patient with micropapillary carcinoma thyroid identified by 18F FDG PET CT.

    PubMed

    Sarma, Manjit; Sonik, Bhavya; Subramanyam, Padma; Sundaram, Palaniswamy Shanmuga

    2015-03-01

    Micropapillary carcinoma of thyroid is said to be low risk differentiated thyroid malignancy with excellent prognosis. We report the identification of an isolated FDG avid muscle deposit in a treated case of micropapillary carcinoma of the right lobe and widely invasive follicular carcinoma of the left lobe thyroid gland. Patient was found to have an elevated thyroglobulin level with negative iodine scan (TENIS syndrome) on follow up at 6 months. An 18F FDG PET CT (18 fluorine-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission computed tomography) whole body study revealed a solitary FDG avid deltoid muscle deposit which was histopathologically confirmed to be metastatic papillary carcinoma. While follicular carcinoma is known to have distant metastases, this may be the first reported case of solitary skeletal metastases from micropapillary carcinoma of thyroid and probably the second reported skeletal muscle deposit from DTC detected on 18F FDG PET CT done following elevated thyroglobulin level and negative 131 iodine WB scan (TENIS). This case also assumes importance because it demonstrates possibility of metastases even from a micropapillary carcinoma in contrast to American Thyroid Association guidelines (2009) which suggests that micropapillary carcinoma of thyroid does not merit further treatment after a Total Thyroidectomy. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Cystic thyroid mass following I-131 treatment of papillary thyroid carcinoma: An unusual complication

    SciTech Connect

    Morrish, D.W.; Jackson, F.I.; Lalani, Z.H.; Catz, Z.; Sloboda, R. )

    1989-12-01

    Several unusual complications of I-131 therapy for thyroid carcinoma are known. Two patients who developed a further unusual event that consisted of a palpable mass and cystic degeneration are described.

  4. Semiquantitative immunohistochemical marker staining and localization in canine thyroid carcinoma and normal thyroid gland.

    PubMed

    Pessina, P; Castillo, V; Sartore, I; Borrego, J; Meikle, A

    2016-09-01

    Immunoreactive proteins in follicular cells, fibroblasts and endothelial cells were assessed in canine thyroid carcinomas and healthy thyroid glands. No differences were detected in thyrotropin receptor and thyroglobulin staining between cancer and normal tissues, but expression was higher in follicular cells than in fibroblasts. Fibroblast growth factor-2 staining was more intense in healthy follicular cells than in those of carcinomas. Follicular cells in carcinomas presented two- to three-fold greater staining intensity of thyroid transcription factor-1 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen, respectively, than healthy cells, and a similar trend was found for the latter antigen in fibroblasts. Vascular endothelial growth factor staining was more intense in the endothelial cells of tumours than in those of normal tissues. In conclusion, greater expression of factors related to proliferation and angiogenesis was demonstrated in several cell types within thyroid carcinomas compared to healthy tissues, which may represent mechanisms of tumour progression in this disease.

  5. [Advances in Diagnosis and Treatment of Differentiated Thyroid Cancer in Patients Showing Thyroglobulin Elevative and Iodine Scintigraphy Negative].

    PubMed

    Ma, Ningshuai; Li, Suping

    2015-06-01

    Thyroglobulin (Tg) and radioiodine whole body scan (WBS) have been commonly used in follow-up of patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC). Tg is associated with radioiodine uptake in local or distant metastases. In minority of patients, the follow-up scan shows no functioning thyroid tissue, but the serum thyroglobulin is still elevated. Therefore, we review recent developments of diagnosis and treatment of those patients with differentiated thyroid cancer and with thyroglobulin elevation but negative iodine scintigraphy.

  6. Somatostatin receptor expression in non-medullary thyroid carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Pazaitou-Panayiotou, Kalliopi; Tiensuu Janson, Eva; Koletsa, Triantafyllia; Kotoula, Vassiliki; Stridsberg, Mats; Karkavelas, Georgios; Karayannopoulou, Georgia

    2012-01-01

    Peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) is dependent upon binding of radiolabelled peptides to their respective receptor expressing cells. The main objective of this study was to characterize the expression of somatostatin receptor (SSTR) subtypes in non-medullary thyroid cancers in order to be able to recommend the use of PRRT as a treatment option in patients with progressive local or metastatic disease. We constructed tissue microarrays from paraffin blocks prepared from 47 cases of non-medullary thyroid carcinomas and related normal thyroid tissue. Immunohistochemical staining was performed with five different polyclonal SSTR antibodies. SSTR subtypes sst2 and sst3 were expressed in all non-medullary thyroid carcinomas, sst1 and sst5 in 75%, and sst4 in 38%. Coexpression of more than three subtypes was detected in 36 of the 47 cases. The expression of SSTR subtypes in normal thyroid tissue was low or absent. Non-medullary thyroid carcinomas frequently express all SSTR subtypes. This expression provides a basis for further studies with the aim of exploring PRRT as a possible new treatment for iodine-131 refractory metastatic non-medullary thyroid carcinomas.

  7. Papillary carcinoma thyroid with anastomosing channels: An unusual morphology

    PubMed Central

    Dalal, Varsha; Kaur, Manveen; Bansal, Anju

    2017-01-01

    Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is the most common thyroid malignancy, accounting for 70%–80% of all thyroid malignancies. It is biologically indolent and has an excellent prognosis. Variations in histopathologic patterns are known to influence prognosis and often result in a diagnostic dilemma. We report an unusual case of a 35-year-old female with papillary carcinoma of a thyroid isthmus showing anastomosing channels on histopathology, a distinctive pattern that has not been described in PTC. Similar to tumor cells, the lining cells of these channels were also positive for thyroid transcription factor 1, thyroglobulin, and cytokeratin-19 and negative for CD34 and CD31. The diagnosis of PTC should rely on nuclear morphology rather than architecture. Pathologists should be aware of different variants because some of these variants show aggressive behavior and poor outcome. The present report highlights the distinctive pattern of PTC, recognition of which is important to avoid any diagnostic pitfall. PMID:28367032

  8. [Study of Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma from a proband].

    PubMed

    Morlán Herrador, Laura; de Arriba, Antonio; Miguel, Gloria; Ferrera, Marta; Labarta, José I

    2016-12-01

    Thyroid cancer is an uncommon type of cancer, accounting less than 1% of all cancers in adults, and 0.5-3% of all cancers in children. There are four different types: papillary carcinoma (80-90% of cases), follicular (5-10%), medullary (5%) and anaplastic cell (2-3%). Eighty per cent of cases of medullary thyroid cancer are sporadic, but 20% are associated with an inherited syndrome that is divided into three groups: multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1, multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 and familial medullary thyroid carcinoma. The inherited forms are caused by a disruption in the RET oncogene, which is located in the long arm of chromosome 10. A hereditary case of medullary thyroid carcinoma is presented. It was detected because of a familial genetic study. The purpose of the paper is emphasize the importance of the early diagnosis and the intervention of multidisciplinary teams of experts.

  9. Aggressive variants of follicular cell derived thyroid carcinoma; the so called 'real thyroid carcinomas'.

    PubMed

    Baloch, Zubair; LiVolsi, Virginia A; Tondon, Rashmi

    2013-09-01

    The pathological diagnoses and classification schemes for thyroid carcinoma have changed over the past 20 years and continue to do so. New entities have been described and molecular analyses have suggested better characterisation and grouping of certain tumours. Because some of the lesions have been named differently by different authors, clinicians and patients may be confused as to what a specific patient's lesion represents. In this review, we discuss the thyroid tumours of follicular origin which are clinically unusual but important to recognise as their behaviour may be aggressive, they may not respond to radioiodine treatment and they may cause significant mortality. This paper describes these important but rare lesions, their pathological features, important clinicopathological correlations, molecular correlates and prognostic implications.

  10. Drug-induced thyroiditis and papillary carcinoma in a minocycline-pigmented black thyroid gland.

    PubMed

    Tacon, Lyndal; Tan, Charles T K; Alvarado, Raul; Gill, Anthony J; Sywak, Mark; Fulcher, Greg

    2008-07-01

    We describe a 31-year-old woman who had ingested minocycline for 18 months prior to presenting with hyperthyroidism and a palpable thyroid nodule. There was no evidence of Graves' disease or autonomous nodule on thyroid scintigraphy, and a clinical diagnosis of thyroiditis was made. Fine-needle aspiration biopsy of the palpable lesion suggested papillary carcinoma, and the patient underwent a total thyroidectomy. Intraoperatively, the thyroid gland was found to have a striking black discoloration. Subsequent histological examination revealed the accumulation of pigment globules within the apical cytoplasm of the follicular cells, and associated findings of a drug-induced thyroiditis. The tumor nodule showed features of infarction and was felt to represent a necrotic papillary microcarcinoma. We postulate that in addition to causing black thyroid pigmentation, chronic minocycline use in our patient resulted in thyroiditis and subsequent hyperthyroidism. The papillary microcarcinoma was probably a coincidental finding.

  11. Ultrasound findings of diffuse metastasis of gastric signet-ring-cell carcinoma to the thyroid gland.

    PubMed

    Morita, Koji; Sakamoto, Takahiko; Ota, Shuji; Masugi, Hideo; Chikuta, Ikumi; Mashimo, Yamato; Edo, Naoki; Tokairin, Takuo; Seki, Nobuhiko; Ishikawa, Toshio

    2017-01-01

    It has been shown that metastases to the thyroid from extrathyroidal malignancies occur as solitary or multiple nodules, or may involve the whole thyroid gland diffusely. However, diffuse metastasis of gastric cancer to the thyroid is extremely rare. Here, we report a case of a 74-year-old woman with diffuse infiltration of gastric adenocarcinoma (signet-ring-cell carcinoma/poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma) cells in the thyroid. The pathological diagnosis was made based on upper gastrointestinal endoscopy with biopsy and fine-needle aspiration cytology of the thyroid. An 18F-FDG PET/CT revealed multiple lesions with increased uptake, including the bilateral thyroid gland. On thyroid ultrasound examination, diffuse enlargement with internal heterogeneity and hypoechoic reticular lines was observed. On color Doppler imaging, a blood-flow signal was not detected in these hypoechoic lines. These findings were similar to those of diffuse metastases caused by other primary cancers, such as lung cancer, as reported earlier. Therefore, the presence of hypoechoic reticular lines without blood-flow signals is probably common to diffuse thyroid metastasis from any origin and an important diagnostic finding. This is the first report to show detailed ultrasound findings of diffuse gastric cancer metastasis to the thyroid gland using color Doppler.

  12. Extending the Impact of RAC1b Overexpression to Follicular Thyroid Carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Faria, Márcia; Capinha, Liliana; Simões-Pereira, Joana; Bugalho, Maria João; Silva, Ana Luísa

    2016-01-01

    RAC1b is a hyperactive variant of the small GTPase RAC1 known to be a relevant molecular player in different cancers. Previous studies from our group lead to the evidence that its overexpression in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is associated with an unfavorable prognosis. In the present study, we intended to extend the analysis of RAC1b expression to thyroid follicular neoplasms and to seek for clinical correlations. RAC1b expression levels were determined by RT-qPCR in thyroid follicular tumor samples comprising 23 follicular thyroid carcinomas (FTCs) and 33 follicular thyroid adenomas (FTAs). RAC1b was found to be overexpressed in 33% of carcinomas while no RAC1b overexpression was documented among follicular adenomas. Patients with a diagnosis of FTC were divided into two groups based on longitudinal evolution and final outcome. RAC1b overexpression was significantly associated with both the presence of distant metastases (P = 0.01) and poorer clinical outcome (P = 0.01) suggesting that, similarly to that previously found in PTCs, RAC1b overexpression in FTCs is also associated with worse outcomes. Furthermore, the absence of RAC1b overexpression in follicular adenomas hints its potential as a molecular marker likely to contribute, in conjunction with other putative markers, to the preoperative differential diagnosis of thyroid follicular lesions. PMID:27127508

  13. Simultaneous Papillary Carcinoma in Thyroglossal Duct Cyst and Thyroid

    PubMed Central

    Kraft, Adele O.; Berenstein, Cynthia Koeppel; Fonseca, Bernardo; Martorina, Wagner José; de Souza, Andreise Laurian N. R.; Meyer de Moraes, Gustavo; Rajão, Kamilla Maria Araújo Brandão; Sousa, Bárbara Érika Caldeira Araújo

    2017-01-01

    Thyroglossal duct cyst (TDC) is a cystic expansion of a remnant of the thyroglossal duct tract. Carcinomas in the TDC are extremely rare and are usually an incidental finding after the Sistrunk procedure. In this report, an unusual case of a 36-year-old woman with concurrent papillary thyroid carcinoma arising in the TDC and on the thyroid gland is presented, followed by a discussion of the controversies surrounding the possible origins of a papillary carcinoma in the TDC, as well as the current management options. PMID:28270939

  14. A case of metastatic follicular thyroid carcinoma complicated with Graves' disease after total thyroidectomy.

    PubMed

    Aoyama, Mariko; Takizawa, Hiromitsu; Tsuboi, Mitsuhiro; Nakagawa, Yasushi; Tangoku, Akira

    2017-09-05

    Thyroid cancer and Graves' disease may present simultaneously in one patient. The incidence of the development of hyperthyroidism from metastatic differentiated thyroid carcinoma is rare. We herein report a case of metastatic follicular carcinoma complicated with Graves' disease after total thyroidectomy. A 57-year-old woman underwent right hemithyroidectomy for follicular carcinoma. Metastatic lesions appeared in the lungs and skull two years after the first surgery, and remnant thyroidectomy was performed for radioactive iodine-131 (RAI) therapy, during which the TSH receptor antibody (TRAb) was found to be negative. The patient was treated with RAI therapy four times for four years and was receiving levothyroxine suppressive therapy. Although radioiodine uptake was observed in the lesions after the fourth course of RAI therapy, metastatic lesions had progressed. Four years after the second surgery, she had heart palpitations and tremors. Laboratory data revealed hyperthyroidism and positive TRAb. She was diagnosed with Graves' disease and received a fifth course of RAI therapy. 131I scintigraphy after RAI therapy showed strong radioiodine uptake in the metastatic lesions. As a result, the sizes and numbers of metastatic lesions decreased, and thyroid function improved. Metastatic lesions produced thyroid hormone and caused hyperthyroidism. RAI therapy was effective for Graves' disease and thyroid carcinoma.

  15. Calcitonin-Secreting Neuroendocrine Carcinoma of Larynx with Metastasis to Thyroid

    PubMed Central

    LaBryer, Lauren; Sawh, Ravindranauth; McLaurin, Colby; Scofield, R. Hal

    2015-01-01

    Primary neuroendocrine tumors of the larynx are rare, with moderately differentiated neuroendocrine carcinoma (MDNC) being the most frequent histologic type. We report a MDNC in a 57-year-old gentleman with an enlarging right-sided neck mass. Flexible fiberoptic exam revealed a right arytenoid lesion. Histology from excisional biopsy was concerning for medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) versus NET of the larynx. Immunohistochemistry was diffusely positive for calcitonin and CEA and focally positive for TTF-1. Serum calcitonin was elevated. Thyroid ultrasound was unremarkable. The patient underwent laryngectomy, thyroidectomy, and neck dissection. Pathology showed neuroendocrine carcinoma of right arytenoid with positive cervical lymph nodes. A 4 mm deposit of NET was present in right thyroid with adjacent intravascular tumor consistent with thyroidal metastasis from a primary laryngeal NET (MDNC). MDNC and MTC can be microscopically indistinguishable. Both tumors can stain positively for calcitonin and CEA. TTF-1 staining has been useful to help distinguish these tumors as it is strongly and diffusely positive in MTC, but usually negative (or only focally positive) in MDNC. We report the fourth case of primary neuroendocrine carcinoma of the larynx associated with elevated serum calcitonin level and the first such case associated with metastasis to the thyroid. PMID:26491576

  16. Role of ¹⁸F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography in patients affected by differentiated thyroid carcinoma, high thyroglobulin level, and negative ¹³¹I scan: review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Bertagna, Francesco; Biasiotto, Giorgio; Orlando, Emanuela; Bosio, Giovanni; Giubbini, Raffaele

    2010-11-01

    Differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) is a slow-growing tumor that represents 1% of all malignant tumors and is the most frequent endocrine cancer. ¹⁸F-Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (¹⁸F-FDG-PET/CT) imaging is an increasingly important imaging tool in oncology and is still under investigation in numerous studies looking into its efficacy and cost-effectiveness. Despite the fact that ¹⁸F-FDG-PET/CT has been shown to be a powerful and accurate diagnostic tool in patients affected by DTC with high serum thyroglobulin (Tg) levels and negative radioiodine (¹³¹I) total body scan, its definitive role is not completely clear, in particular regarding the role of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and Tg value "cutoff" over which is better to perform the study. In this review, these issues are analyzed to clarify controversial aspects and identify established cornerstones. In particular, the literature analysis suggests that levothyroxine withdrawal is preferable in cases of relatively low Tg levels (<10 ng/ml) and good clinical compliance to hypothyroidism. Moreover, recombinant thyrotropin stimulating hormone (rTSH) could be a preferable alternative in patients clinically unable to tolerate therapy withdrawal. A Tg cutoff level over which to perform the study seems to be 10 ng/ml, a reasonable value maintaining high accuracy in terms of a good compromise between sensitivity and specificity.

  17. A case of mixed medullary and follicular cell carcinoma of the thyroid.

    PubMed

    Ueki, Ikuko; Ando, Takao; Haraguchi, Ai; Horie, Ichiro; Imaizumi, Misa; Hayashi, Tomayoshi; Uga, Tatsuya; Usa, Toshiro; Kawakami, Atsushi

    2011-01-01

    A medullary thyroid carcinoma is a malignant tumor derived from the C-cells of the thyroid. Despite their distinct embryological origin, medullary thyroid carcinomas are exceptionally accompanied by a tumor derived from the follicular cells; this is defined as mixed medullary and follicular cell carcinoma. There have been controversies regarding the origin of this rare mixed thyroid carcinoma questioning whether or not a mixed carcinoma originates from a common cancer stem cell. We present a case of mixed medullary and follicular cell carcinoma in which two thyroid carcinomas were found intermingled in the thyroid as well as in the metastatic cervical lymph nodes. We examined the tumor by immunostaining with thyroglobulin, calcitonin, and thyroid transcription factor-1, and also reviewed the literature and discuss the origin of this rare mixed thyroid carcinoma.

  18. Low expression of long noncoding RNA CASC2 indicates a poor prognosis and promotes tumorigenesis in thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Xiangqing; Zhu, Hua; Chen, Xiangjian

    2017-09-01

    Recently, long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been shown to be linked to regulate different biological processes, such as cell growth, differentiation and tumorigenesis. LncRNAs have been identified to be promising clinical biomarkers in various tumors. Long noncoding RNAs cancer susceptibility candidate 2 (CASC2) has recently been demonstrated to be correlated to tumorigenesis in renal cell carcinoma, lung carcinoma, glioma, and gastric carcinoma. Nevertheless, the research on the biological function and clinical significance of CASC2 in thyroid carcinoma are still unclear. In this research, we focused on the relationship between CASC2 expression and clinicopathological factors in thyroid cancer. We found that the low expression of CASC2 correlated with multifocality and advanced tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) stage. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and multivariate analysis showed that CASC2 expression may be an independent prognostic factor in human thyroid carcinoma. Moreover, the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve of CASC2 indicated that its diagnostic value in thyroid carcinoma. Additionally, overexpression of CASC2 significantly inhibited the proliferation of thyroid carcinoma cells and arrested cell cycle at G0/G1 stage in thyroid cancer cells. Our findings showed that CASC2 may be a potential prognostic marker and therapeutic target. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Microarray profiling of circular RNAs in human papillary thyroid carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Nianchun; Shi, Lixin; Zhang, Qiao; Hu, Ying; Wang, Nanpeng; Ye, Hui

    2017-01-01

    Background Non-coding circular RNAs (circRNAs) have displayed dysregulated expression in several human cancers. Here, we profiled the circRNA expression of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) tumors to improve our understanding of PTC pathogenesis. Methods Microarray profiling was performed on 18 thyroid samples, consisting of six PTC tumors, six matching contralateral normal samples, and six benign thyroid lesions. After low-intensity filtering, hierarchical clustering revealed the circRNA expression patterns. Statistical analysis followed by qRT-PCR validation identified the differential circRNAs. MicroRNA (miRNA) target prediction software identified putative miRNA response elements (MREs), which were used to construct a network map of circRNA-miRNA interactions for the differential circRNAs. Bioinformatics platforms predicted cancer-related circRNA-miRNA associations and putative downstream target genes, respectively. Results A total of 88 circRNAs and 10 circRNAs were significantly upregulated and downregulated, respectively, in PTC tumors relative to normal thyroid tissue, while 129 circRNAs and 226 circRNAs were significantly upregulated and downregulated, respectively, in PTC tumors relative to benign thyroid lesions. A total of 12 upregulated and four downregulated circRNAs were overlapping between the foregoing comparisons. One downregulated circRNA (hsa_circRNA_100395) showed interactive potential with two cancer-related miRNAs (miR-141-3p and miR-200a-3p). From this analysis, we identified several promising cancer-related genes that may be targets of the dysregulated hsa_circRNA_100395/miR-141-3p/miR-200a-3p axis in PTC tumors. Conclusions circRNA dysregulation may play a role in PTC pathogenesis, and several key circRNAs show promise as candidate biomarkers for PTC. The hsa_circRNA_100395/miR-141-3p/ miR-200a-3p axis may be involved in the pathogenesis of PTC. PMID:28288173

  20. [Lenvatinib in radioiodine refractory thyroid carcinomas].

    PubMed

    de la Fouchardiere, Christelle

    2016-11-01

    Differentiated thyroid cancers are usually cured by an appropriate surgery and a radioiodine remnant ablation. If metastases occur, successive radioiodine administrations and/or local treatments can be provided. Nevertheless, some patients will be, or become refractory to radioiodine. In case of significant and rapid progression of metastatic lesions, they will be candidate to kinase inhibitor treatments. Two agents are now approved in this situation: sorafenib and lenvatinib. Lenvatinib (Lenvima(®)) is a tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) targeting the VEGFR1-3, FGFR 1-4, PDGFR-α, RET and c-kit. It received an FDA and EMA approval in February and March 2015 for the treatment of radioiodine refractory thyroid cancers following the SELECT study's results. In this study, patients treated with lenvatinib had a significant increase in progression-free survival (18.3 months vs. 3.6 months; HR=0.21; CI=0.14-0.31, P < 0.001) and response rate (64.8% vs. 1.5% with placebo). The median overall survival was not reached in both groups at the time of data cutoff. In France, lenvatinib was first available within a compassionate use program (ATU) and is now dispended by hospitals because not yet marketed.

  1. Differentiated thyroid tumors: surgical indications.

    PubMed

    Lucchini, R; Monacelli, M; Santoprete, S; Triola, R; Conti, C; Pecoriello, R; Favoriti, P; Di Patrizi, M S; Barillaro, I; Boccolini, A; Avenia, S; D'Ajello, M; Sanguinetti, A; Avenia, N

    2013-01-01

    Thyroid gland tumors represent 1% of malignant tumors. In Italy their incidence is in constant growth. The aggressiveness depends on the histological type. The relative non-aggressive grade of different forms of tumors is the basis for discussing the treatment of choice: total thyroidectomy vs lobectomy with or without lymphadenectomy of the sixth level in the absence of metastasis. Authors report about their experience, and they advocate, given the high percentage of multicentric forms, total thyroidectomy as treatment of choice.

  2. Fine-needle aspiration of primary Langerhans cell histiocytosis of the thyroid gland, a potential mimic of papillary thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Pusztaszeri, Marc P; Sauder, Kenan J; Cibas, Edmund S; Faquin, William C

    2013-01-01

    The clinical presentation of Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) as a primary solitary nodule in the thyroid gland is rare. As a result, there are few reports of its cytologic features in thyroid aspirates where it can pose a diagnostic pitfall. CASE AND CONCLUSION: To foster familiarity with its cytomorphology, we report the fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) findings of 3 specimens from 2 patients with LCH presenting as a solitary thyroid nodule. All aspirates contained numerous dispersed cells with prominent nuclear grooves, and the background showed a mixed pattern of chronic inflammation including scattered eosinophils. The aspirate from patient 1 raised a differential diagnosis that included chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis and a thyroglossal duct cyst, while the aspirate from patient 2 was interpreted as 'suspicious for papillary thyroid carcinoma'. The diagnosis of LCH was confirmed in both patients after lobectomy and immunohistochemical studies that revealed positive reactivity for CD1a and S-100. LCH of the thyroid gland is rare and can pose significant diagnostic challenges, but increased familiarity with its characteristic cytomorphology can help in avoiding diagnostic pitfalls. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Management of hereditary medullary thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Pappa, Theodora; Alevizaki, Maria

    2016-07-01

    Hereditary medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) represents up to one-third of MTC cases and includes multiple endocrine neoplasia syndrome type 2A (and its variant familial MTC) and 2B. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of the disease focusing on the management of hereditary MTC patients, who have already developed tumor, as well as discuss the recommended approach for asymptomatic family members carrying the same mutation. A PubMed search was performed to review recent literature on diagnosis, genetic testing, and surgical and medical management of hereditary MTC. The wide use of genetic testing for RET mutations has markedly influenced the course of hereditary MTC. Prophylactic thyroidectomy of RET carriers at an early age eliminates the risk of developing MTC later in life. Pre-operative staging is a strong prognostic factor in patients, who have developed MTC. The use of recently approved tyrosine kinase inhibitors (vandetanib, cabozantinib) holds promising results for the treatment of unresectable, locally advanced, and progressive metastatic MTC. Genetic testing of the RET gene is a powerful tool in the diagnosis and prognosis of MTC. Ongoing research is expected to add novel treatment options for patients with advanced, progressive disease.

  4. Thyroid hemiagenesis associated with medullary or papillary carcinoma: report of cases.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jianbiao; Gao, Li; Song, Chunyi

    2014-11-01

    Thyroid hemiagenesis is a rare congenital anomaly in which 1 thyroid lobe fails to develop. Co-occurrence of hemiagenesis and thyroid carcinoma is extremely rare. Here, we report 2 cases of thyroid hemiagenesis with carcinoma. The first patient was referred with a left thyroid mass and absent right lobe. The frozen section examination revealed medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC); therefore, a left thyroid lobectomy plus neck dissection was performed. Another patient was referred with a right thyroid mass and absent left lobe. Fine-needle aspiration biopsy was suspicious for papillary carcinoma. The patient underwent right thyroid lobectomy plus neck dissection. The operative findings confirmed hemiagenesis of the right lobe and MTC in the left lobe for the first case, and hemiagenesis of the left lobe and papillary carcinoma in the right lobe for the second case. Our case represents the first reported case of association between thyroid hemiagenesis and MTC. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Coexistent Papillary Carcinoma of Thyroid and Hashimoto’s Thyroiditis – Diagnosis on Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology

    PubMed Central

    Makhdoomi, Rumana; Mustafa, Farhat; Malik, Rais; Bhat, Salma; Alam, Khurshid; Bashir, Humaira; Samoon, Nuzhat; Rasool, Mohsin; Baba, Khalil Mohammed

    2013-01-01

    Hashimoto’s thyroiditis is associated with an increased risk of developing papillary carcinoma of thyroid. We hereby report a case of Hashimoto’s thyroiditis with papillary carcinoma in a 45-year-old ear old female diagnosed on fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) which was later confirmed on histopathological examination .Such an occurrence, when both lesions are picked up on FNAC in a patient with no palpable thyroid nodule is rare. The case is presented here for its rarity. PMID:24348592

  6. [Is immediate prophylactic thyroidectomy indispensable in familiar medullary thyroid carcinoma?].

    PubMed

    Cañizo, A; Fanjul, M; Cerdá, J; Menárguez, J; Parente, A; Laín, A; Carrera, N; Rodríguez-Arnao, M D; Rodríguez-Sánchez, A; Polo, J R; Vázquez, J

    2008-04-01

    To emphasize the importance of genetic studies in family members and early prophylactic thyroidectomy in oncogene mutation carriers in the management of familiar medullary thyroid carcinoma. A retrospective review of families with familiar medullary thyroid carcinoma treated at our center in the last 7 years was performed. We identified a total of 7 families who has isolated prevalences with thyroid malignancies. Forty members of the 7 families were screened for gene RET mutations. Prophylactic total thyroidectomy was performed in every RET mutation gene carriers. In all families the index case were patients with medullary thyroid carcinoma presenting at a mean age of 37.25 years (range 23-42). The RET oncogen mutation was in codon 634 in exon 11 (multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A) in all these patients. Fourteen gene carriers were identified with a mean age of 20 years (range 7-37), eleven of whom had medullary thyroid carcinoma at the time of surgery. Five of the gene carriers were children, with a mean age of 11 years (range 7-16), four of whom had microcarcinoma and one had metastatic carcinoma at the time of surgery. After surgery no hypoparathyroidism or recurrent nerve paralysis were documented. No pediatric patient has presented with phaeochromocytoma or hypoparathyroidism to date Four of the five children have normal calcitonin levels (< 2 pg/ml) and they are free of disease. The one who presented metastatic carcinoma has recurrent disease and is awaiting surgical treatment. Genetic studies of family members related to patients with familiar medullary thyroid carcinoma and RET mutations is indispensable. The RET mutation in codon 634 exon 11 was found to be the most frequent association. Prophylactic thyroidectomy is the only curative treatment and has minimal complications when performed by expert surgeons. Early thyroidectomy is recommended since distant metastatic spread can occur at early age.

  7. [Meta-analysis of the clinical significance of thyroidectomy combined with central neck dissection in differentiated thyroid carcinoma at the first treatment].

    PubMed

    Sun, Ronghao; Li, Chao; Fan, Jinchuan; Liu, Jifeng; Chen, Jianchao; Zhang, Bing

    2014-02-01

    To compare the differences in recurrence rates and surgical complications between thyroidectomy alone and thyroidectomy combined with central neck dissection as initial treatments to differentiated thyroid cancer and evaluate the clinic significance of central neck dissection for these patients. The literatures published in 1998-2013 were searched in Wanfang database, Chongqing VIP database, Chinese Biomedical Literature Database, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Pubmed, Medline and Beijing Kangjian foreign medical journal full text service. According to the inclusion and deletion criteria, 30 articles were included. Of them 26 articles involved in complications, hypocalcemia and recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy as two major complications were involved in 26 articles and 24 articles respectively, and 26 articles involved in recurrence rate. RevMan5.0 software package was used to perform meta-analysis. Total complication rate in experimental group (plus central neck dissection) was 13.08% higher than that in control group (thyroidectomy only), the odds ratio (OR) [95% confidence interval (95%CI)] was 2.32[2.02, 2.67], Z value was 11.80, P < 0.01. Hypocalcemia in the experimental group was 11.80% higher than that in control group, OR value [95%CI] was 2.58[2.21, 3.02], Z was 11.98, P < 0.01. The rates of recurrent laryngeal nerve paralysis were low in both experimental group (5.26%) and control group(3.95%), and OR value [95%CI] was 1.22 [0.94, 1.58], Z was 1.48, P = 0.14. Recurrence rate in experimental group was 2.23% lower than that in control group, OR value [95%CI] was 0.78 [0.63,0.97], Z was 2.35, P = 0.03. Central compartment dissection as initial treatment to differentiated thyroid cancer may reduce the risk of recurrence, but increases the incidence of total complications and hypocalcemia, and has no significant effect on the rate of the recurrent laryngeal nerve paralysis.

  8. Acute exacerbation of Hashimoto thyroiditis mimicking anaplastic carcinoma of the thyroid: A complicated case.

    PubMed

    Kanaya, Hiroaki; Konno, Wataru; Fukami, Satoru; Hirabayashi, Hideki; Haruna, Shin-ichi

    2014-12-01

    The fibrous variant of Hashimoto thyroiditis is uncommon, accounting for approximately 10% of all cases of Hashimoto thyroiditis. We report a case of this variant that behaved like a malignant neoplasm. The patient was a 69-year-old man who presented with a right-sided anterior neck mass that had been rapidly growing for 2 weeks. Fine-needle aspiration cytology revealed clusters of large multinucleated cells suggestive of an anaplastic carcinoma. A week after presentation, we ruled out that possibility when the mass had shrunk slightly. Instead, we diagnosed the patient with an acute exacerbation of Hashimoto thyroiditis on the basis of laboratory findings. We performed a right thyroid lobectomy, including removal of the isthmus, to clarify the pathology and alleviate pressure symptoms. The final diagnosis was the fibrous variant of Hashimoto thyroiditis, with no evidence of malignant changes. Physicians should keep in mind that on rare occasions, Hashimoto thyroiditis mimics a malignant neoplasm.

  9. Differentiated thyroid tumors: surgical indications

    PubMed Central

    LUCCHINI, R.; MONACELLI, M.; SANTOPRETE, S.; TRIOLA, R.; CONTI, C.; PECORIELLO, R.; FAVORITI, P.; DI PATRIZI, M.S.; BARILLARO, I.; BOCCOLINI, A.; AVENIA, S.; D’AJELLO, M.; SANGUINETTI, A.; AVENIA, N.

    2013-01-01

    Summary: Thyroid gland tumors represent 1% of malignant tumors. In Italy their incidence is in constant growth. The aggressiveness depends on the histological type. The relative non-aggressive grade of different forms of tumors is the basis for discussing the treatment of choice: total thyroidectomy vs lobectomy with or without lymphadenectomy of the sixth level in the absence of metastasis. Authors report about their experience, and they advocate, given the high percentage of multicentric forms, total thyroidectomy as treatment of choice. PMID:23837952

  10. [Kartagener syndrome and papillary thyroid carcinoma: an unusual combination].

    PubMed

    Ren, Jingyuan; Wang, Xurui; He, Zhongyin

    2015-11-01

    A case of a papillary thyroid carcinoma in a patient with situs inversus with associated bronchiectasis and chronic sinusitis (Kartagener's syndrome) is reported. A 61-year-old male patient has the symptoms of nasal obstruction. nasal purulent discharge and headache for 2 years. Physical examination: right nasal purulent in right nasal cavity and multiple lychee-like opaque mass in right middle meatus. A nodule, one centimeter in diameter, locates in the upper pole of right thyroid. Evidence of full situs inversus viscerum can be confirmmed by chest radiographs and ultrasound doppler. Pathology: right nasal polyps, the right small papillary thyroid cancer. TEM Tip primary ciliary dyskinesia. Clinical diagnosis: Kartagener syndrome, papillary thyroid carcinoma (T1a N0 M0, I period), chronic sinusitis-nasal polyps.

  11. A Rare Constellation of Hürthle Cell Thyroid Carcinoma and Parathyroid Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Zakerkish, Mehrnoosh; Rajaei, Elham; Dargahi, Mehrdad; Bahadoram, Mohammad

    2015-12-01

    Separate occurrence of thyroid and parathyroid carcinoma in patients is extremely rare, and to the best of our knowledge, only 7 patients with documented parathyroid and papillary thyroid carcinomas have been described formerly in published reports. We report a patient with an extremely unusual clinical presentation of Hürthle cell carcinoma in thyroid and parathyroid carcinoma. The patient displayed a rare presentation of life-threatening hypercalcaemia after total para-thyroidectomy and failed to respond to standard therapy. Our review of available literature yielded insufficient evidence in managing such. When a patient with thyroid cancer is diagnosed, checking for serum calcium is advised. This is considered a useful method for detecting possible incidental parathyroid lesion and screening the probable concealed parathyroid pathology.

  12. Follicular thyroid carcinoma presenting with pathological fracture of the humerus at initial diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Wanding; Cho, WaiSum; Das, Sudip; Conboy, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Differentiated carcinomas of the thyroid gland usually have a good prognosis with prognosis often discussed in terms of 20 year survival. Nevertheless its 10-year-survival rate decreases when accompanied by distant metastasis. Follicular thyroid cancer (FTC) is the second most common thyroid cancer and usually presents with a solitary thyroid nodule with or without cervical lymphadenopathy. Distance metastasis at initial diagnosis is seldom observed with incidence range from 1 to 9%. In cases of bone metastasis, the incidence is only 2–3% and weight-bearing skeleton is preferentially affected. In our case, we present a patient with FTC that metastasized to the upper limb causing severe pain and pathological fracture at the initial presentation. PMID:28108635

  13. Medullary thyroid carcinoma: The third most common thyroid cancer reviewed

    PubMed Central

    STAMATAKOS, MICHAEL; PARASKEVA, PANORAIA; STEFANAKI, CHARIKLEIA; KATSARONIS, PARASKEVAS; LAZARIS, ANDREAS; SAFIOLEAS, KONSTANTINOS; KONTZOGLOU, KONSTANTINOS

    2011-01-01

    Medullary thyroid cancer is a type of thyroid cancer of neuroendocrine origin. It occurs in hereditary and sporadic forms, and its aggressive behavior is associated with the clinical presentation and type of RET mutation. Total thyroidectomy remains the ideal choice of treatment. Early diagnosis and treatment are the fundamental for a 100% cure rate. In this study, we present our experience of 3 cases, along with a complete review of the literature derived from a Pubmed Database search. PMID:22870127

  14. Molecular Markers Involved in Tumorigenesis of Thyroid Carcinoma: Focus on Aggressive Histotypes.

    PubMed

    Penna, Gustavo C; Vaisman, Fernanda; Vaisman, Mario; Sobrinho-Simões, Manuel; Soares, Paula

    2017-02-24

    Thyroid cancer derived from follicular cells (TCDFC) comprises well-differentiated (papillary and follicular) carcinoma, poorly differentiated carcinoma, and anaplastic carcinoma. Papillary thyroid carcinoma is the most common endocrine cancer, and its incidence is steadily increasing. Lethality and aggressiveness of TCDFC is inversely correlated with differentiation degree. In this review, an emphasis has been put on molecular markers involved in tumorigenesis of thyroid carcinoma with a focus on aggressive histotypes and the role of such biomarkers in predicting thyroid cancer outcome. Genetic rearrangements in TCDFC (RET/PTC, PAX8/PPARG) and mutations in RAS, BRAF, TERT promoter (TERTp), TP53, PIK3CA, and AKT1 are discussed. The majority of the studies to date indicate that TERTp mutations can serve as a marker of more aggressive disease in all the subtypes of thyroid carcinoma, being the best current marker of poor prognosis, due to its independent association with distant metastases and increased disease-specific mortality. Some studies suggested that a more accurate prediction of thyroid cancer outcome may be possible through a more extensive genetic analysis. The same is true concerning the identification of other mutations that are only relatively frequent in advanced tumors (e.g., TP53, PIK3CA, or AKT1). A better understanding of the prognostic role of TERTp mutation (together with additional ones like BRAF, RAS, PIK3CA, AKT1, or TP53) and the clarification of their putative role in fine-needle aspiration biopsies are likely to allow, in the future, an early refinement of the stratification risk in patients with well-differentiated carcinomas. It is worth noting that, as with any categorical staging system, the risk evaluation within each category (low, intermediate, and high) varies depending on the specific clinicopathologic features of individual patients and the specific biological behavior of the tumor. Finally, besides the diagnostic and

  15. [Thyroid differenciated carcinoma in children. Study from Normandy].

    PubMed

    Blanchard, D; Choussy, O; Rame, J; Bequigon, A; Dehesdin, D; De Raucourt, D; Bardet, S; Babin, E

    2011-01-01

    Definition of a strategy for the management of thyroid differenciated carcinoma in children. Retrospective cohort study from the Normandy area in France. Analysis of the medical records of 13 children and adolescents (age > 15 years), presenting with thyroid differenciated carcinoma in three Normandy French hospitals from 1994 to 2006, to determine the clinical features and treatment of the disease. X of the patients were male and y were female, with a mean age at presentation of 11 years. Most frequently symptom was solitary nodes in the thyroid gland (69%). Most frequent histological type was papillary cancer (92%). Size of tumor was > 4 cm in 23% of cases. Children had undergone surgery with total thyroidectomy, radio-iodine treatment and suppressive hormonotherapy. We observed 46% post surgery complications. All patients were alive and none developed a recurrence. Thyroid differenciated carcinoma in children and adolescents were more agressif with most frequently metastasis and recurrence than thyroid differenciated carcinoma of adults. Pronostic is good with 90% of survival at 20 years. We propose a coherent plan of treatment: 1. Thyroidectomy with cervical central lymph node dissection (group VI) completed bilateral selected head neck dissection compartments (groups IIa, III, IV) if macroscopic lymph node metastases in lateral cervical compartment. 2. Postoperative radioiodine is done in all tumor > T1N0 and completed with hormonotherapy.

  16. Management of patients with thyroid carcinoma: Application of thallium-201 scintigraphy and magnetic resonance imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Burman, K.D.; Anderson, J.H.; Wartofsky, L.; Mong, D.P.; Jelinek, J.J. )

    1990-12-01

    Thyroid carcinoma has the ability to concentrate radioiodine, an attribute that can be used both for detection of thyroid cells and for treatment. Unfortunately, however, radioiodine uptake is not observed in all patients and a radioiodine scan requires that the patient be rendered hypothyroid for 4-6 wk. In the present study, we analyzed the utility of thallium-201 scanning and the usefulness of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the detection of thyroid cancer. Nineteen patients with thyroid cancer had a total of 24 radioiodine scans, 33 thallium scans, and 10 MRI examinations. Of the 19 patients in the study, 17 had differentiated thyroid carcinoma. In these 17 cases, all paired studies were concordant for the presence (n = 7) or absence (n = 10) of disease. However, in one case (Patient 10), the {sup 201}Tl studies showed far more extensive disease than was observed on the {sup 131}I scan. Thyroid cancer was also detected on seven MRI studies. In summary, thallium and MRI scans are adjunctive techniques to radioiodine scanning that can either confirm the presence of neck bed activity, residual disease or metastatic cancer and may delineate tumor deposits not detected by radioiodine scanning. Thallium may be capable of detecting tumor deposits even while a patient remains euthyroid.

  17. [Clinical and pathological differences between papillary thyroid carcinoma with Graves' disease and papillary thyroid carcinoma with Hashimoto's thyroiditis].

    PubMed

    Xu, D D; Lun, Y; Liu, X; Jiang, H; Song, J B; Duan, Z Q; Xin, S J; Zhang, J

    2017-08-22

    Objective: To explore the clinical and pathological differences between papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) with Graves' disease (GD) and PTC with Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT). Methods: A total of 33 PTC patients with GD and 132 PTC patients with HT in the First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University from January 2009 to December 2015 were enrolled. The clinical and histopathological data were analyzed. Results: The average serum concentration of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) of PTCs with GD was significantly lower than PTCs with HT [0.01 (0, 0.10) mU/L vs 2.28(1.51, 3.14) mU/L, P<0.001]. However, there was no significant difference between the two groups in nodule diameter [(15.7±7.0) mm vs (13.5±7.8)mm, P=0.14], percentage of lymph node metastasis (LNM) [33.3%(11/33) vs 39.4%(52/132), P=0.52], TNM stage Ⅲ-Ⅳ disease [12.1%(4/33) vs 11.4% (15/132), P=1.00], papillary thyroid micro-carcinoma (PTMC) [60.6% (20/33) vs 60.6%(80/132), P=1.00]and classic PTC in all its variant patterns [81.8%(27/33) vs 75.0%(99/132), P=0.36]. The age (P<0.01, OR=0.95, 95%CI: 0.92-0.98) and PTMC (P<0.01, OR=0.30, 95%CI: 0.13-0.67), rather than TSH (P=0.08) were independently correlated with LNM. Recurrence rate of PTC with GD was significantly lower than PTC with HT (log-rank test, P=0.03). In Cox proportional hazards regression model, variant pattern of PTC was independently correlated with recurrence rate (P<0.05). Conclusions: GD with PTC wasn't different from HT concomitant with PTC, except for thyroid function test. In addition, recurrence rate of PTC with GD was lower than that of PTC with HT after controlling TSH in the same level.

  18. Mixed medullary and follicular carcinoma of the thyroid.

    PubMed

    Pfaltz, M; Hedinger, C E; Mühlethaler, J P

    1983-01-01

    We report a case of medullary carcinoma of the thyroid which on light microscopy showed not only the well known arrangement of cells in sheets and nests but also unequivocal follicular structures. These follicular structures are present both in the primary tumor and in lymph node metastases. Immunohistochemical investigations revealed that the cells lining the follicles produce thyroglobulin, whereas the remaining tumor tissue is positive for calcitonin and carcinoembrionic antigen. This case represents a medullary carcinoma of the thyroid with an atypical pattern consisting of both thyroglobulin and calcitonin producing cells.

  19. Hyperfunctioning metastatic follicular thyroid carcinoma in Pendred's syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Abs, R.; Verhelst, J.; Schoofs, E.; De Somer, E. )

    1991-04-15

    A 66-year-old woman with Pendred's syndrome underwent a partial thyroidectomy when she was 17 years old. At the age of 52 years, she had a second thyroid operation because of hyperthyroidism due to a toxic multinodular goiter with a mediastinal extension consisting of several separate nodules. Five years later a hyperfunctioning metastatic follicular carcinoma was diagnosed histologically. After treatment with radioactive iodine, the patient was well. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first description of a metastatic follicular thyroid carcinoma in Pendred's syndrome and the first report of hyperthyroidism occurring after malignant degeneration of a dyshormonogenetic goiter.

  20. p53 constrains progression to anaplastic thyroid carcinoma in a Braf-mutant mouse model of papillary thyroid cancer

    PubMed Central

    McFadden, David G.; Vernon, Amanda; Santiago, Philip M.; Martinez-McFaline, Raul; Bhutkar, Arjun; Crowley, Denise M.; McMahon, Martin; Sadow, Peter M.; Jacks, Tyler

    2014-01-01

    Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) has among the worst prognoses of any solid malignancy. The low incidence of the disease has in part precluded systematic clinical trials and tissue collection, and there has been little progress in developing effective therapies. v-raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B (BRAF) and tumor protein p53 (TP53) mutations cooccur in a high proportion of ATCs, particularly those associated with a precursor papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). To develop an adult-onset model of BRAF-mutant ATC, we generated a thyroid-specific CreER transgenic mouse. We used a Cre-regulated BrafV600E mouse and a conditional Trp53 allelic series to demonstrate that p53 constrains progression from PTC to ATC. Gene expression and immunohistochemical analyses of murine tumors identified the cardinal features of human ATC including loss of differentiation, local invasion, distant metastasis, and rapid lethality. We used small-animal ultrasound imaging to monitor autochthonous tumors and showed that treatment with the selective BRAF inhibitor PLX4720 improved survival but did not lead to tumor regression or suppress signaling through the MAPK pathway. The combination of PLX4720 and the mapk/Erk kinase (MEK) inhibitor PD0325901 more completely suppressed MAPK pathway activation in mouse and human ATC cell lines and improved the structural response and survival of ATC-bearing animals. This model expands the limited repertoire of autochthonous models of clinically aggressive thyroid cancer, and these data suggest that small-molecule MAPK pathway inhibitors hold clinical promise in the treatment of advanced thyroid carcinoma. PMID:24711431

  1. Revised American Thyroid Association Guidelines for the Management of Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Asa, Sylvia L.; Dralle, Henning; Elisei, Rossella; Evans, Douglas B.; Gagel, Robert F.; Lee, Nancy; Machens, Andreas; Moley, Jeffrey F.; Pacini, Furio; Raue, Friedhelm; Frank-Raue, Karin; Robinson, Bruce; Rosenthal, M. Sara; Santoro, Massimo; Schlumberger, Martin; Shah, Manisha; Waguespack, Steven G.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The American Thyroid Association appointed a Task Force of experts to revise the original Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma: Management Guidelines of the American Thyroid Association. Methods: The Task Force identified relevant articles using a systematic PubMed search, supplemented with additional published materials, and then created evidence-based recommendations, which were set in categories using criteria adapted from the United States Preventive Services Task Force Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. The original guidelines provided abundant source material and an excellent organizational structure that served as the basis for the current revised document. Results: The revised guidelines are focused primarily on the diagnosis and treatment of patients with sporadic medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) and hereditary MTC. Conclusions: The Task Force developed 67 evidence-based recommendations to assist clinicians in the care of patients with MTC. The Task Force considers the recommendations to represent current, rational, and optimal medical practice. PMID:25810047

  2. Revised American Thyroid Association guidelines for the management of medullary thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Wells, Samuel A; Asa, Sylvia L; Dralle, Henning; Elisei, Rossella; Evans, Douglas B; Gagel, Robert F; Lee, Nancy; Machens, Andreas; Moley, Jeffrey F; Pacini, Furio; Raue, Friedhelm; Frank-Raue, Karin; Robinson, Bruce; Rosenthal, M Sara; Santoro, Massimo; Schlumberger, Martin; Shah, Manisha; Waguespack, Steven G

    2015-06-01

    The American Thyroid Association appointed a Task Force of experts to revise the original Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma: Management Guidelines of the American Thyroid Association. The Task Force identified relevant articles using a systematic PubMed search, supplemented with additional published materials, and then created evidence-based recommendations, which were set in categories using criteria adapted from the United States Preventive Services Task Force Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. The original guidelines provided abundant source material and an excellent organizational structure that served as the basis for the current revised document. The revised guidelines are focused primarily on the diagnosis and treatment of patients with sporadic medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) and hereditary MTC. The Task Force developed 67 evidence-based recommendations to assist clinicians in the care of patients with MTC. The Task Force considers the recommendations to represent current, rational, and optimal medical practice.

  3. [Which lymphadenectomy in papillary thyroid gland carcinoma?].

    PubMed

    Schweizer, I; Seifert, B; Gemsenjäger, E

    2003-01-01

    The optimal treatment of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is still debated, also with respect to nodal treatment. Retrospective analysis of a personal series of 159 patients with PTC, with respect to nodal disease, follow up 1-27 (mean 8) years. In 42 patients with clinical, macroscopic nodal disease (cN1) a therapeutic lymphadenectomy was performed, with pN1 status in 41 (98%) patients. 117 patients had no clinical or intraoperative suspicion of nodal involvement (cN0), with occult nodal disease in 5/29 (17%) patients undergoing prophylactic (elective) lymphadenectomy, and in 2/88 (2.3%) patients without primary lymphadenectomy (metachronous nodal disease) (p < 0.005). Nodal recurrences were observed (1-5 years after primary treatment for cure) in 5/42 (12%) pN1 and in 3/114 (2.6%) cN0, pN0 tumors (p = 0.009), with unfavourable outcome in 2 and 1 patients, respectively. The 20-year tumor specific survival was 100% in TNM I + II (low risk) patients (including pN1 and N0 tumors); the survival rate was deteriorated by stage pN1 vs. N0 in TNM high risk patients (50% vs. 86%; p = 0.03). The intraoperative macroscopic staging (cN) remains important:--clinical nodal disease warrants a systematic node dissection (microdissection), for preventing (curable or serious) nodal recurrences. Occult nodal disease does not evolve frequently in clinical nodal recurrence. A less radical (and only central) prophylactic lymphadenectomy, avoiding surgical morbidity, may be oncologically adequate. More sensitive detection of nodal positivity (frozen section of sampling tissue or sentinel nodes, immunohistochemistry) appears not rationale. In pN0, cN0 tumors use of prophylactic 131I may represent overtreatment, and follow up controls may be conducted less rigorously.

  4. The History of the Follicular Variant of Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Tallini, Giovanni; Tuttle, R Michael; Ghossein, Ronald A

    2017-01-01

    This review provides historical context to recent developments in the classification of the follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma (FVPTC). The evolution of the diagnostic criteria for papillary thyroid carcinoma is described, clarifying the role of molecular analysis and the impact on patient management. A PubMed search using the terms "follicular variant" and "papillary thyroid carcinoma" covering the years 1960 to 2016 was performed. Additional references were identified through review of the citations of the retrieved articles. The encapsulated/well-demarcated, noninvasive form of FVPTC that occurs annually in 45,000 patients worldwide was thought for 30 years to be a carcinoma. Many studies have shown almost no recurrence in these noninvasive tumors, even in patients treated by surgery alone without radioactive iodine therapy. The categorization of the tumor as outright cancer has led to aggressive forms of treatment, with their side effects, financial costs, and the psychological and social impacts of a cancer diagnosis. Recently, the encapsulated/well-demarcated, noninvasive FVPTC was renamed as noninvasive follicular thyroid neoplasm with papillary-like nuclear features. The new terminology lacks the carcinoma label, enabling clinicians to avoid aggressive therapy. By understanding the history of FVPTC, future classification of tumors will be greatly improved.

  5. Metastatic ductal carcinoma of the breast to the thyroid gland diagnosed with fine needle aspiration: A case report with emphasis on morphologic and immunophenotypic features.

    PubMed

    Magers, Martin J; Dueber, Julie C; Lew, Madelyn; Pang, Judy C; Davenport, Robertson D

    2016-06-01

    Metastases to the thyroid are uncommon [<0.2% of thyroid fine needle aspirations (FNA)]. Of metastases to the thyroid, breast carcinoma is relatively common. The diagnosis of metastasis to the thyroid has important therapeutic and prognostic implications. To our knowledge, a morphologic and immunophenotypic comparison of metastatic ductal carcinoma of the breast and primary thyroid carcinomas has not been reported. Here, we report the case of a 37-year-old female with a history of metastatic ductal carcinoma of the breast (modified Bloom-Richardson grade 2; ER+, PgR+, HER2+) diagnosed 6 years prior. She developed hoarseness, prompting a CT scan. Multiple thyroid nodules were found, including a 1.5 cm hypoechoic, solid, irregularly-shaped nodule. On FNA, cells were arranged singly and in crowded groups, varied in size and degree of pleomorphism, and exhibited rare nuclear grooves, inconspicuous nucleoli, and rare intracytoplasmic lumina with no nuclear pseudoinclusions or colloid (Figs. 1A and B). These findings raised the differential of papillary thyroid carcinoma (Fig. 1C), follicular neoplasm (Fig. 1D), medullary carcinoma (Fig. 1E), parathyroid (Fig. 1F), and metastatic breast carcinoma. Immunostaining for GATA-3 (+), ER (+), PAX-8 (-), and TTF-1 (-) was consistent with metastatic breast carcinoma (Fig. 2). We conclude that metastatic breast carcinoma to the thyroid may morphologically mimic primary thyroid carcinoma on FNA; a panel of immunomarkers, such as GATA-3, hormonal marker(s), PAX-8, and TTF-1, may be useful in some cases. GATA-3 immunostaining for metastatic breast carcinoma was helpful in our case and has not been previously reported in a thyroid metastasis sampled by FNA. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2016;44:530-534. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Recurrence pattern after conservative surgery for papillary thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Kenya; Takenouchi, Shigeo; Mitani, Hiroki; Yoshida, Tuyoshi

    2014-12-01

    Risk-based treatment represents the optimal management strategy for papillary thyroid carcinoma; however, the optimal extent of thyroidectomy and neck dissection remains controversial. This study aims to clarify the pattern of recurrence after conservative surgery in patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma. We retrospectively reviewed 93 patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma treated with conservative surgery. We analyzed recurrence rate, recurrence pattern, risk factors for recurrence, salvage treatment, and disease-free survival (DFS) in patients stratified according to risk. The recurrence rate was significantly lower in the low-risk group compared with the high-risk group (14% vs 34%; p<0.01). The recurrence pattern also differed between the two groups, with ipsilateral lateral neck recurrence being more common in the low-risk group (9%), while contralateral lateral neck recurrence was more common in the high-risk group (18%). Patients with contralateral thyroid lobe metastasis and/or direct contralateral thyroid lobe invasion showed a significantly higher rate of contralateral lateral neck metastasis than patients negative for both these features. The overall 5-year DFS was 81% in all patients. Advanced T and N classification, large primary tumor (≥4cm), extrathyroidal invasion, and high-risk group were significantly associated with poorer 5-year DFS in univariate analysis. Conservative surgery may represent a good treatment option for patients with low-risk papillary thyroid carcinoma. Tumor recurrence patterns differ between risk groups, with contralateral thyroid lobe lesions and direct contralateral lobe invasion being risk factors for contralateral lateral neck recurrence. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Radioiodine therapy of thyroid carcinoma following Pax-8 gene transfer.

    PubMed

    Mu, D; Huang, R; Ma, X; Li, S; Kuang, A

    2012-04-01

    The thyroid transcription factor Pax-8 could bind with the promoter/enhancer of thyroid-specific genes such as thyroglobulin (Tg), thyroperoxidase (TPO) and sodium iodide symporter (NIS), and regulate the expression of these proteins in thyrocyte. Promoting iodide accumulation in tumor cells by re-expression of Pax-8 provides a possible strategy for radioiodine therapy of tumor. Therefore, we investigated the effect of Pax-8 gene transfer on radioiodine therapy of thyroid carcinoma. The human Pax-8 gene was transfected into the human thyroid carcinoma (K1 and F133) cells by the recombinant adenovirus vector. Although the NIS mRNA was not detected, the expression of mRNA and proteins of Tg and TPO in AdPax-8-infected F133 cells were activated by Pax-8. Iodide uptake in thyroid carcinoma cells was reactivated by Pax-8 (increasing 3.3-fold in K1 cells and 5.7-fold in F133 cells). Moreover, Pax-8 promoted iodide organification and the retention time of iodine in Pax-8-expressing cells apparently prolonged in vitro and in vivo (P<0.05). Pax-8-expressing thyroid carcinoma cells were selectively killed by radioiodine. The AdPax-8-infected tumors in vivo clearly visualized in scanning images at 12 h after administration of radioiodine. These results indicate that Pax-8 can promote iodide uptake, and specifically prolong the retention time of iodide in thyroid cancer in vitro and in vivo by promoting the expression of TPO and Tg proteins. Pax-8 gene transfection may lead to effective radioiodine therapy of tumor.

  8. Female Reproductive Factors and Differentiated Thyroid Cancer.

    PubMed

    Moleti, Mariacarla; Sturniolo, Giacomo; Di Mauro, Maria; Russo, Marco; Vermiglio, Francesco

    2017-01-01

    Differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) is markedly more common in women than men, the highest female-to-male ratio being recorded during the reproductive period. This evidence has led to the suggestion that female hormonal and reproductive factors may account for the observed DTC gender disparity. This review focuses on current evidence on the risk of DTC in conjunction with major female reproductive factors, including the impact of pregnancy on DTC occurrence and progression/recurrence. Overall, studies exploring the link between the risk of DTC and menstrual and menopausal factors, oral contraceptives and/or hormone replacement therapy, showed these associations, if any, to be generally weak. Nonetheless, there is some evidence that higher levels of exposure to estrogens during reproductive years may confer an increased risk of DTC. As far as pregnancy is concerned, it is unclear whether a potential association between parity and risk of DTC actually exists, and whether it is enhanced in the short-term following delivery. A possible role for pregnancy-related factors in DTC progression has been recently suggested by some reports, the results of which are consistent with a worse outcome in the short-term of women diagnosed with DTC during gestation compared to non-pregnant control patients. Also, some progression of disease has been described in women with structural evidence of disease prior to pregnancy. However, there seems to be no impact from pregnancy in DTC-related death or overall survival. Several in vitro and animal studies have evaluated the influence of estrogens (E) and estrogen receptors (ERs) on thyroid cell proliferation. Presently available data are indicative of a role of E and ERs in thyroid cancer growth, although considerable discrepancies in respect to ER expression patterns in thyroid cancer tissues actually exist. Further studies providing more direct evidence on the possible role of E and of placental hormones and growth factors on thyroid

  9. Dissecting molecular events in thyroid neoplasia provides evidence for distinct evolution of follicular thyroid adenoma and carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Krause, Kerstin; Prawitt, Susanne; Eszlinger, Markus; Ihling, Christian; Sinz, Andrea; Schierle, Katrin; Gimm, Oliver; Dralle, Henning; Steinert, Frank; Sheu, Sien-Yi; Schmid, Kurt W; Fuhrer, Dagmar

    2011-12-01

    Benign hypofunctional cold thyroid nodules (CTNs) are a frequent scintiscan finding and need to be distinguished from thyroid carcinomas. The origin of CTNs with follicular morphologic features is unresolved. The DNA damage response might act as a physiologic barrier, inhibiting the progression of preneoplastic lesions to neoplasia. We investigated the following in hypofunctional follicular adenoma (FA) and follicular thyroid cancer (FTC): i) the mutation rate of frequently activated oncogenes, ii) the activation of DNA damage response checkpoints, and iii) the differential proteomic pattern between FA and FTC. Both FTC and FA, which did not harbor RAS, phosphoinositide-3-kinase, or PAX/peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-γ mutations, express various proteins in common and others that are more distinctly expressed in FTC rather than in FA or normal thyroid tissue. This finding is in line with the finding of constitutive DNA damage checkpoint activation (p-Chk2, γ-H2AX) and evidence for replicative stress causing genomic instability (increased cyclin E, retinoblastoma, or E2F1 mRNA expression) in FTC but not FA. We discuss the findings of the increased expression of translationally controlled tumor protein, phosphatase 2A inhibitor, and DJ-1 in FTC compared with FA identified by proteomics and their potential implication in follicular thyroid carcinogenesis. Our present findings argue for the definition of FA as a truly benign entity and against progressive development of FA to FTC.

  10. Comparison of the influence of thyroglobulin antibodies on serum thyroglobulin values from two different immunoassays in post surgical differentiated thyroid carcinoma patients.

    PubMed

    Stanojevic, Marijana; Savin, Svetlana; Cvejic, Dubravka; Djukic, Aleksandar; Jeremic, Marija; Zivancević Simonovic, Snezana

    2009-01-01

    Measurement of serum thyroglobulin (Tg) is a highly specific test in the management of patients with differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) after surgical treatment. The aim of our study was to evaluate and compare Tg levels in these patients found by radioimmunoassay (RIA) and immunoradiometric assay (IRMA) and to assess the influence of Tg antibodies (TgAbs) on the values obtained for Tg concentration. Both Tg and TgAb were determined postoperatively in the serum of 71 DTC patients using RIA Tg-PEG (INEP) and Tg IRMA (CIS) for Tg, together with TgAb (CIS) for circulating endogenous anti-TgAbs. The obtained concentrations were evaluated statistically. We found a significant difference of Tg concentrations between paired samples from the IRMA and RIA, although the intermethod comparison yielded satisfactory concordance of the two assays (Spearman correlation coefficient -0.792). Positive TgAb was found in 28.2% of the serum samples analyzed. Spearman rank correlation analysis revealed a significant negative relationship between serum TgAb and Tg level measured by IRMA (P=0.02), but not by RIA (P=0.417). On the other hand, our clinical data revealed that 1/18 and 3/18 patients with proven lymph node metastasis had Tg values below the detection limit by RIA and IRMA assay, respectively. Their sera were TgAb positive. We concluded that RIA was less prone to influence of TgAb than IRMA. As the presence of TgAbs may interfere in Tg measurement irrespective of the method selected for determination, this should be considered during the clinical management of these patients.

  11. The evolution of differentiated thyroid cancer.

    PubMed

    Asa, Sylvia L

    2017-04-01

    Differentiated thyroid tumours of follicular cell derivation have traditionally been classified based on architecture, cytology, or both. The features that distinguish the various entities are controversial and diagnostic criteria are inconsistent and often irreproducible. The complexity of classification schemes has not been substantiated by molecular profiling. In this review, a simplistic approach to the diagnosis of well differentiated thyroid neoplasia is provided to challenge the dogma. The proposed classification matches the molecular profiles of these lesions and simplifies the criteria for diagnosis. This approach can be used to support rational treatment algorithms. Copyright © 2017 Royal College of Pathologists of Australasia. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Use of (177)Lu-dotatate in the treatment of iodine refractory thyroid carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Oliván-Sasot, P; Falgás-Lacueva, M; García-Sánchez, J; Vera-Pinto, V; Olivas-Arroyo, C; Bello-Arques, P

    In a patient with a differentiated thyroid cancer the standard treatment protocol to be followed is surgery, ablation of thyroid remnants with (131)Iodine ((131)I), and TSH suppression. However, the treatment with (131)I is not effective in some cases, and it no longer becomes a therapeutic option due to cell de-differentiation with loss of (131)I uptake. Systemic treatment can be used as other options, although patients are not always responsive; thus, the disease may progress and therapeutic options may run out. Endocrine tumours may express somatostatin receptors,and this characteristic has been used, not only for diagnosis, but also for their treatment through somatostatin analogue labelling with radioactive isotopes. This was the case of a patient suffering from iodine-refractory follicular thyroid carcinoma, with somatostatin receptors expression, treated with (177)Lu-DOTATATE, showing an excellent clinical and analytical response.

  13. Predictors of level V metastasis in well-differentiated thyroid cancer.

    PubMed

    Kupferman, Michael E; Weinstock, Y Etan; Santillan, Alfredo A; Mishra, Anupam; Roberts, Dianna; Clayman, Gary L; Weber, Randal S

    2008-11-01

    Cervical lymphadenectomy is frequently performed in patients with lateral cervical lymph node metastases to improve regional control of disease. However, there is no consensus regarding the appropriate levels of the neck that need to be dissected. Treatment options that have been advocated include the modified radical neck dissection, limited neck dissections, and selective nodal excisions. In particular, the routine dissection of level V remains controversial due to the attendant morbidity to the spinal accessory nerve. To identify clinical and pathological predictors of cervical node metastases to level V in differentiated thyroid carcinoma, we reviewed our experience at The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center for the management of metastatic well-differentiated thyroid cancer. We retrospectively analyzed 70 patients who underwent thyroidectomy and neck dissection for well-differentiated thyroid cancer at M. D. Anderson Cancer Center. In our series, 53% of neck specimens harbored metastatic thyroid carcinoma at level V. Additionally, 13 level V contralateral neck dissections were performed, and 57% were found positive for metastases. The presence of ipsilateral level V metastases was significantly associated with multifocal disease (p <.05), ipsilateral level II (p <.05), III (p <.05), or IV (p <.01) metastases. Furthermore, ipsilateral involvement of level V was associated with contralateral lymph node metastases (p <.05). Age, sex, and size of primary tumor were not found to be associated with level V metastases. Additionally, preoperative imaging was not sensitive for detecting the presence of level V metastases. In our series, cervical metastases from differentiated thyroid carcinoma were commonly present at level V. Patients with multifocal cancer within the thyroid gland, and cervical metastases in the ipsilateral jugular nodes have a higher risk of harboring metastatic disease at level V. We believe that routine dissection of the level V lymph

  14. Cutaneous metastasis from follicular carcinoma of the thyroid gland.

    PubMed

    Caron, P; Moreau-Cabarrot, A; Gorguet, B; Bazex, J

    1993-01-01

    A 65-year-old man with a history of malignant melanoma presented a reddish nodule on the left temporal region of the scalp. Histologic features and immunoperoxidase staining on the skin biopsy specimen confirmed the diagnosis of metastatic thyroid follicular carcinoma. The patient presented recurrences of metastatic skin nodules, lung and bone metastases, and died after a 3-year follow-up.

  15. Post-radiotherapy hypothyroidism in dogs treated for thyroid carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Amores-Fuster, I; Cripps, P; Blackwood, L

    2017-03-01

    Hypothyroidism is a common adverse event after head and neck radiotherapy in human medicine, but uncommonly reported in canine patients. Records of 21 dogs with histologically or cytologically confirmed thyroid carcinoma receiving definitive or hypofractionated radiotherapy were reviewed. Nine cases received 48 Gy in 12 fractions, 10 received 36 Gy in 4 fractions and 2 received 32 Gy in 4 fractions. Seventeen cases had radiotherapy in a post-operative setting. Ten cases developed hypothyroidism (47.6%) after radiotherapy. The development of hypothyroidism was not associated with the radiotherapy protocol used. Median time to diagnosis of hypothyroidism was 6 months (range, 1-13 months). Hypothyroidism is a common side effect following radiotherapy for thyroid carcinomas. Monitoring of thyroid function following radiotherapy is recommended. No specific risk factors have been identified.

  16. Thyroid carcinoma and primary amenorrhea due to Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser syndrome: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction This case report describes an association between an exceptionally rare congenital anomaly and differentiated thyroid carcinoma. Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser syndrome is characterized by vaginal aplasia associated with other Müllerian duct abnormalities. Its penetrance varies, as does the involvement of other organs. The association with thyroid carcinoma appears to be exceptionally rare, and warrants further attention. Case presentation We present the case of a 19-year-old Caucasian woman with amenorrhea and thyroid disease, with an unusually late diagnosis of gynecological abnormality. Management of her amenorrhea included investigation for congenital anomalies, including Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser syndrome. Endocrine evaluation included a detailed analysis of sex hormone levels and thyroid function. The results of a physical examination and neck ultrasonography revealed abnormalities of the thyroid gland, which led to a diagnosis of thyroid cancer. To the best of our knowledge, thyroid cancer has not previously been reported in association with Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser syndrome. However, genetic links between Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser syndrome and thyroid cancer have not been investigated. The association may therefore be coincidental. Conclusions All women with primary amenorrhea should undergo complete investigation of the genital tract and the endocrine axis. Careful examination of the thyroid gland is recommended. PMID:23130807

  17. Thyroid carcinoma and primary amenorrhea due to Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser syndrome: a case report.

    PubMed

    Piciu, Doina; Piciu, Andra; Irimie, Alexandru

    2012-11-06

    This case report describes an association between an exceptionally rare congenital anomaly and differentiated thyroid carcinoma. Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser syndrome is characterized by vaginal aplasia associated with other Müllerian duct abnormalities. Its penetrance varies, as does the involvement of other organs. The association with thyroid carcinoma appears to be exceptionally rare, and warrants further attention. We present the case of a 19-year-old Caucasian woman with amenorrhea and thyroid disease, with an unusually late diagnosis of gynecological abnormality. Management of her amenorrhea included investigation for congenital anomalies, including Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser syndrome. Endocrine evaluation included a detailed analysis of sex hormone levels and thyroid function. The results of a physical examination and neck ultrasonography revealed abnormalities of the thyroid gland, which led to a diagnosis of thyroid cancer. To the best of our knowledge, thyroid cancer has not previously been reported in association with Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser syndrome. However, genetic links between Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser syndrome and thyroid cancer have not been investigated. The association may therefore be coincidental. All women with primary amenorrhea should undergo complete investigation of the genital tract and the endocrine axis. Careful examination of the thyroid gland is recommended.

  18. Hashimoto's thyroiditis and papillary carcinoma in an adolescent girl: A case report

    PubMed Central

    DONG, LI-QUN; SUN, XIAO-MEI; XIANG, CHENG-FA; WU, JIN; YU, PING

    2016-01-01

    Hashimoto's thyroiditis with thyroid cancer in childhood is not as common in the adult population. Hashimoto's thyroiditis is an autoimmune disease associated with autoantibodies, and the association between Hashimoto's thyroiditis and papillary carcinoma of the thyroid remains controversial. The present study reported a 15-year-old adolescent girl with the diagnosis of Hashimoto's thyroiditis with thyroid cancer. With the complexity of the clinical manifestations of Hashimoto's thyroiditis, it can be expressed as not only hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism, but also normal thyroid function. The long-term treatment, and for children with thyroid cancer, early diagnosis is particularly difficult. In the present case, the diagnosis of Hashimoto's thyroiditis is primarily based on clinical manifestations, anti-thyroglobulin antibody and anti-thyroid microsomal antibody. The only diagnostic imaging ultrasound was negative. The present study discussed the possible reason and the identification of this unique case of Hashimoto's thyroiditis with thyroid cancer. PMID:27330783

  19. Hashimoto's thyroiditis and papillary carcinoma in an adolescent girl: A case report.

    PubMed

    Dong, Li-Qun; Sun, Xiao-Mei; Xiang, Cheng-Fa; Wu, Jin; Yu, Ping

    2016-07-01

    Hashimoto's thyroiditis with thyroid cancer in childhood is not as common in the adult population. Hashimoto's thyroiditis is an autoimmune disease associated with autoantibodies, and the association between Hashimoto's thyroiditis and papillary carcinoma of the thyroid remains controversial. The present study reported a 15-year-old adolescent girl with the diagnosis of Hashimoto's thyroiditis with thyroid cancer. With the complexity of the clinical manifestations of Hashimoto's thyroiditis, it can be expressed as not only hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism, but also normal thyroid function. The long-term treatment, and for children with thyroid cancer, early diagnosis is particularly difficult. In the present case, the diagnosis of Hashimoto's thyroiditis is primarily based on clinical manifestations, anti-thyroglobulin antibody and anti-thyroid microsomal antibody. The only diagnostic imaging ultrasound was negative. The present study discussed the possible reason and the identification of this unique case of Hashimoto's thyroiditis with thyroid cancer.

  20. Volcanoes and carcinoma of the thyroid: a possible association.

    PubMed

    Kung, T M; Ng, W L; Gibson, J B

    1981-01-01

    Environmental factors contributing to incidences of thyroid carcinoma are re-evaluated and emphasized in this study. Thyroid cancers appear to occur independent of endemic goiter, based on epidemiologic and histologic evidence. While environmental factors appear to be important, the specific etiologic agent has not yet been identified or suggested. The number of thyroid cancer incidences available from cancer registries are analyzed in an attempt to identify a specific environmental carcinogenic agent. The presence of active volcanoes that produce abundant lava is found to be the common denominator of Iceland and Hawaii, where the incidence of thyroid cancer is outstandingly high. Comparison with other areas with active volcanoes is made. The presence of a carcinogenic agent in the lava is postulated and its possible mode of action on humans through fish products is hypothesized.

  1. Serum osteoprotegerin and soluble receptor activator of nuclear factor kappaB ligand levels in patients with a history of differentiated thyroid carcinoma: a case-controlled cohort study.

    PubMed

    Giusti, Massimo; Cecoli, Francesca; Fazzuoli, Laura; De Franchis, Vincenzina; Ceresola, Enrica; Ferone, Diego; Mussap, Michele; Minuto, Francesco

    2007-05-01

    Overt hyperthyroidism is associated with changes in bone metabolism, whereas the effect of levothyroxine (L-T4) load in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) is controversial. The aim of our study was to evaluate osteoprotegerin (OPG) and soluble receptor activator of nuclear factor kappaB ligand (RANK-L) in patients with DTC with suppressed endogenous thyrotropin due to L-T4 regimen. A cohort of 80 subjects with DTC (68 women and 12 men; age range, 27-81 years) was studied. A cohort of 55 subjects with a history of partial or total surgery for nonmalignant thyroid pathology served as a control group. Groups were matched for sex, age, and body mass index. Per-week dosage of L-T4 was significantly higher in patients with DTC than in controls (P < .001). More elevated free T(4) concentrations (P < .001) and more suppressed thyrotropin and thyroglobulin levels (P < .001) were found in subjects with DTC than in controls. No difference in serum or urinary parameters related to bone metabolism or dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry was noted between the groups. Overall, OPG levels were similar in both groups but were significantly (P = .03) lower in postmenopausal women with DTC than in postmenopausal control women. Only control women showed lower OPG levels in premenopausal than in postmenopausal (P = .002) conditions. Overall, RANK-L levels were significantly higher (P = .03) in subjects with DTC than in controls. In both groups, OPG and RANK-L levels were unrelated to each other. A significant positive correlation was seen between OPG levels and age in both subjects with DTC (P < .001) and controls (P < .001). Serum RANK-L correlated negatively with age in subjects with DTC (P = .05). Although there were several differences in L-T4 dosages, OPG and RANK-L levels were similar in patients with a history of DTC and those with a history of nonmalignant thyroid diseases. The correlation between circulating OPG and RANK-L levels was not significant. The increase

  2. The number of 131I therapy courses needed to achieve complete remission is an indicator of prognosis in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Thies, Elena-Daphne; Tanase, Karina; Maeder, Uwe; Luster, Markus; Buck, Andreas K; Hänscheid, Heribert; Reiners, Christoph; Verburg, Frederik A

    2014-12-01

    To assess the risk of differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) recurrence, DTC-related mortality and life expectancy in relation to the number of courses of (131)I therapy (RIT) and cumulative (131)I activities required to achieve complete remission (CR). The study was a database review of 1,229 patients with DTC, 333 without and 896 with CR (negative TSH-stimulated thyroglobulin and negative (131)I diagnostic whole-body scintigraphy) after one or more courses of RIT. The median follow-up was 9.0 years (range 0.1 - 31.8 years) after CR. Recurrence rates at 5 years, 10 years and the end of follow-up were 1.0 ± 0.3%, 4.0 ± 0.7 % and 6.2 ± 1.1 %, and DTC-related mortality was 0.1 ± 0.1%, 0.5 ± 0.3% and 3.4 ± 1.1%, respectively. Recurrence rates also increased with an increasing number of RIT courses required (p = 0.001). DTC-related mortality increased from four RIT courses. In patients with CR after one RIT course, there were no differences in recurrence or DTC-related mortality rates between low-risk and high-risk patients. In patients requiring two RIT courses these rates remain elevated in high-risk patients. Recurrence and DTC-related mortality rates were only significantly elevated in those requiring a cumulative activity over 22.2 GBq (600 mCi) from multiple RIT courses for CR. Regardless of the number of RIT courses or activity needed, life expectancy was not significantly lowered. If more than one RIT course is needed to achieve CR, higher recurrence and DTC-related mortality rates are observed, especially in high-risk patients. Patients requiring >22.2 GBq (131)I for CR should be followed in the same way as patients in whom CR is never reached as long-term mortality rates are similar.

  3. Association of Arg194Trp, Arg280His and Arg399Gln Polymorphisms in X-ray Repair Cross-Complementing Group 1 Gene and Risk of Differentiated Thyroid Carcinoma in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Fard-Esfahani, Pezhman; Fard-Esfahani, Armaghan; Fayaz, Shima; Ghanbarzadeh, Bahareh; Saidi, Parinaz; Mohabati, Reyhaneh; Bidoki, Seyed Kazem; Majdi, Mina

    2011-01-01

    Background: X-ray repair cross-complementing group 1 (XRCC1) gene is a DNA repair gene and its non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) may influence DNA repair capacity which has been considered as a modifying risk factor for cancer development. Methods: A case-control study was conducted to investigate impact of three frequently studied polymorphisms (Arg194Trp, Arg280His and Arg399Gln) on developing differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC). Results: Increased risks for DTC were shown in homozygous (odds ratio [OR]: 3.66, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.38-35.60) and in dominant trait (OR: 1.22, 95% CI: 1.64-2.32) of Arg194Trp genotype. Also, for Arg280His genotype, an increased risk for DTC was shown in dominant trait (OR: 1.42, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.76-2.68), while a mildly reduction of risk for DTC (OR: 0.77, 95% [CI]: 0.50-1.17) was estimated in dominant Gln genotype of Arg399Gln. Considering combinatory effects of Arg194Trp and Arg280His genotypes on DTC, the calculated OR and 95% CI for being heterozygous for one of Arg194Trp or Arg280His genotypes were 1.57 and 0.90-2.74, respectively. Conclusion: Genotyping of codons 194, 280 and 399 in XRCC1 gene may use in risk assessment of DTC. PMID:21987112

  4. RNA Sequencing Identifies Multiple Fusion Transcripts, Differentially Expressed Genes, and Reduced Expression of Immune Function Genes in BRAF (V600E) Mutant vs BRAF Wild-Type Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Chindris, Ana-Maria; Asmann, Yan W.; Casler, John D.; Serie, Daniel J.; Reddi, Honey V.; Cradic, Kendall W.; Rivera, Michael; Grebe, Stefan K.; Necela, Brian M.; Eberhardt, Norman L.; Carr, Jennifer M.; McIver, Bryan; Copland, John A.; Aubrey Thompson, E.

    2014-01-01

    Context: The BRAF V600E mutation (BRAF-MUT) confers an aggressive phenotype in papillary thyroid carcinoma, but unidentified additional genomic abnormalities may be required for full phenotypic expression. Objective: RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) was performed to identify genes differentially expressed between BRAF-MUT and BRAF wild-type (BRAF-WT) tumors and to correlate changes to patient clinical status. Design: BRAF-MUT and BRAF-WT tumors were identified in patients with T1N0 and T2–3N1 tumors evaluated in a referral medical center. Gene expression levels were determined (RNA-Seq) and fusion transcripts were detected. Multiplexed capture/detection and digital counting of mRNA transcripts (nCounter, NanoString Technologies) validated RNA-Seq data for immune system-related genes. Patients: BRAF-MUT patients included nine women, three men; nine were TNM stage I and three were stage III. Three (25%) had tumor infiltrating lymphocytes. BRAF-WT included five women, three men; all were stage I, and five (62.5%) had tumor infiltrating lymphocytes. Results: RNA-Seq identified 560 of 13 085 genes differentially expressed between BRAF-MUT and BRAF-WT tumors. Approximately 10% of these genes were related to MetaCore immune function pathways; 51 were underexpressed in BRAF-MUT tumors, whereas 4 (HLAG, CXCL14, TIMP1, IL1RAP) were overexpressed. The four most differentially overexpressed immune genes in BRAF-WT tumors (IL1B; CCL19; CCL21; CXCR4) correlated with lymphocyte infiltration. nCounter confirmed the RNA-Seq expression level data. Eleven different high-confidence fusion transcripts were detected (four interchromosomal; seven intrachromosomal) in 13 of 20 tumors. All in-frame fusions were validated by RT-PCR. Conclusion: BRAF-MUT papillary thyroid cancers have reduced expression of immune/inflammatory response genes compared with BRAF-WT tumors and correlate with lymphocyte infiltration. In contrast, HLA-G and CXCL14 are overexpressed in BRAF-MUT tumors. Sixty-five percent

  5. RNA sequencing identifies multiple fusion transcripts, differentially expressed genes, and reduced expression of immune function genes in BRAF (V600E) mutant vs BRAF wild-type papillary thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Smallridge, Robert C; Chindris, Ana-Maria; Asmann, Yan W; Casler, John D; Serie, Daniel J; Reddi, Honey V; Cradic, Kendall W; Rivera, Michael; Grebe, Stefan K; Necela, Brian M; Eberhardt, Norman L; Carr, Jennifer M; McIver, Bryan; Copland, John A; Thompson, E Aubrey

    2014-02-01

    The BRAF V600E mutation (BRAF-MUT) confers an aggressive phenotype in papillary thyroid carcinoma, but unidentified additional genomic abnormalities may be required for full phenotypic expression. RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) was performed to identify genes differentially expressed between BRAF-MUT and BRAF wild-type (BRAF-WT) tumors and to correlate changes to patient clinical status. BRAF-MUT and BRAF-WT tumors were identified in patients with T1N0 and T2-3N1 tumors evaluated in a referral medical center. Gene expression levels were determined (RNA-Seq) and fusion transcripts were detected. Multiplexed capture/detection and digital counting of mRNA transcripts (nCounter, NanoString Technologies) validated RNA-Seq data for immune system-related genes. BRAF-MUT patients included nine women, three men; nine were TNM stage I and three were stage III. Three (25%) had tumor infiltrating lymphocytes. BRAF-WT included five women, three men; all were stage I, and five (62.5%) had tumor infiltrating lymphocytes. RNA-Seq identified 560 of 13 085 genes differentially expressed between BRAF-MUT and BRAF-WT tumors. Approximately 10% of these genes were related to MetaCore immune function pathways; 51 were underexpressed in BRAF-MUT tumors, whereas 4 (HLAG, CXCL14, TIMP1, IL1RAP) were overexpressed. The four most differentially overexpressed immune genes in BRAF-WT tumors (IL1B; CCL19; CCL21; CXCR4) correlated with lymphocyte infiltration. nCounter confirmed the RNA-Seq expression level data. Eleven different high-confidence fusion transcripts were detected (four interchromosomal; seven intrachromosomal) in 13 of 20 tumors. All in-frame fusions were validated by RT-PCR. BRAF-MUT papillary thyroid cancers have reduced expression of immune/inflammatory response genes compared with BRAF-WT tumors and correlate with lymphocyte infiltration. In contrast, HLA-G and CXCL14 are overexpressed in BRAF-MUT tumors. Sixty-five percent of tumors had between one and three fusion transcripts

  6. Thyroid metastasis as initial presentation of clear cell renal carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Ramírez-Plaza, César Pablo; Domínguez-López, Marta Elena; Blanco-Reina, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Metastatic tumors account for 1.4–2.5% of thyroid malignancies. About 25–30% of patients with clear cell renal carcinoma (CCRC) have distant metastasis at the time of diagnosis, being the thyroid gland a rare localization [5%]. Presentation of the case A 62-year woman who underwent a cervical ultrasonography and a PAAF biopsy reporting atypical follicular proliferation with a few intranuclear vacuoles “suggestive” of thyroid papillary cancer in the context of a multinodular goiter was reported. A total thyroidectomy was performed and the histology of a clear cell renal carcinoma (CCRC) was described in four nodules of the thyroid gland. A CT scan was performed and a renal giant right tumor was found. The patient underwent an eventful radical right nephrectomy and the diagnosis of CCRC was confirmed. Discussion Thyroid metastasis (TM) from CCRC are usually apparent in a metachronic context during the follow-up of a treated primary (even many years after) but may sometimes be present at the same time than the primary renal tumor. Our case is exceptional because the TM was the first evidence of the CCRC, which was subsequently diagnosed and treated. Conclusion The possibility of finding of an incidental metastatic tumor in the thyroid gland from a previous unknown and non-diganosed primary (as CCRC in our case was) is rare and account only for less than 1% of malignancies. Nonetheless, the thyroid gland is a frequent site of metastasis and the presence of “de novo” thyroid nodules in oncologic patients must be always considered and studied. PMID:25827295

  7. Thyroid carcinoma presenting as a dural metastasis mimicking a meningioma: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Tazi, El Mehdi; Essadi, Ismail; Errihani, Hassan

    2011-01-01

    Context: Follicular thyroid cancer rarely manifests itself as a distant metastatic lesion. Case Report: We report a case of a 41-year old man presented with a solid mass located in the left temporo-occipital region. The 3D computed tomography showed a large solid mass with high vascularity, skull erosion and supra-infratentorial epidural mass effect. After magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) a suspect diagnosis of meningioma was made. The patient underwent surgery where a soft mass with transverse sinus invasion was encountered; the tumour was successfully resected employing microsurgical techniques. Histological examination revealed a thyroid follicular neoplasm with positive staining for follicular carcinoma in immunohistochemical analysis. Postoperatively levels of thyroid hormones were normal. Treatment was planned for the thyroid gland, patient receiving 6 courses of chemotherapy including paclitaxel. Conclusions: The present case emphasizes that although they are uncommon, dural metastasis can be mistaken for meningiomas. The definitive diagnosis of a meningioma should be established only after the histopathological analysis. Thyroid follicular carcinoma should be included in the differential diagnosis in cases of extrinsic tumoral lesions. PMID:22540062

  8. Follicular thyroid carcinoma metastasis to the facial skeleton: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Varadarajan, Varun V; Pace, Elizabeth K; Patel, Vatsal; Sawhney, Raja; Amdur, Robert J; Dziegielewski, Peter T

    2017-03-28

    Follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC) metastasis to the facial skeleton is exceedingly rare. A case of FTC metastasizing to the mandible is presented and a systematic review of the literature describing thyroid metastasis to the facial skeleton is performed. A 73-year-old female presented with metastatic FTC to the mandible and underwent total thyroidectomy, segmental mandibulectomy, bone impacted fibular free flap reconstruction, and adjuvant radioactive iodine treatment. The PubMed database was searched for literature describing thyroid cancer with facial skeleton metastasis using the key words "thyroid," "cancer," "carcinoma," "metastasis," and "malignancy" with "oral cavity," "maxilla," "mandible," "sinus," "paranasal," and "orbit." Reports that only involved the soft tissues were excluded. Systematic review revealed 59 cases of well-differentiated thyroid cancer with facial skeleton metastasis: 35 mandibular metastases (21 = FTC), 6 maxilla metastases (2 = FTC), 9 orbital metastases (4 = FTC), and 11 paranasal sinus metastases (7 = FTC). Treatment included surgery, RAI, external beam radiotherapy (XRT), or a combination of these modalities. The one, two, and five-year survival rates were 100%, 79%, and 16%, respectively. Facial skeleton metastasis of FTC is a rare clinical challenge. Optimal treatment appears to include total thyroidectomy and resection of involved structures with or without adjuvant treatment.

  9. Aggressive Disease Course of Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma with Focal Undifferentiated Component: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Riaz, Saima; Bashir, Humayun; Hassan, Aamna; Mushtaq, Sajid; Jamshed, Arif; Murtaza, Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    We report an aggressive papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) with focal undifferentiated component in a 32-year-old female. She had limited disease confined within the thyroid gland at diagnosis. Within 12 months of thyroidectomy and radioiodine ablation, thyroglobulin (Tg) levels were elevated. Second radioiodine ablative dose was given, however, stimulated Tg levels showed an upward trend with negative iodine scan within 12 months. An 18F fludeoxyglucose-avid solitary pulmonary nodule that was detected on positron emission tomography/computed tomography scan was resected followed by empiric radioiodine therapy. Within the next 10 months she developed multifocal bone metastases. The multifocal disease was rendered inoperable and treated with external beam radiation. The patient is on follow-up, and the Tg level continues to rise with local disease progression. In a small percentage of patients, PTC behaves as a very aggressive disease despite treatment. Focally undifferentiated thyroid carcinoma is an expression of the extreme end of the spectrum of differentiated thyroid carcinoma. PMID:27751976

  10. Aggressive Disease Course of Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma with Focal Undifferentiated Component: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Riaz, Saima; Bashir, Humayun; Hassan, Aamna; Mushtaq, Sajid; Jamshed, Arif; Murtaza, Ahmad

    2016-10-05

    We report an aggressive papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) with focal undifferentiated component in a 32-year-old female. She had limited disease confined within the thyroid gland at diagnosis. Within 12 months of thyroidectomy and radioiodine ablation, thyroglobulin (Tg) levels were elevated. Second radioiodine ablative dose was given, however, stimulated Tg levels showed an upward trend with negative iodine scan within 12 months. An 18F fludeoxyglucose-avid solitary pulmonary nodule that was detected on positron emission tomography/computed tomography scan was resected followed by empiric radioiodine therapy. Within the next 10 months she developed multifocal bone metastases. The multifocal disease was rendered inoperable and treated with external beam radiation. The patient is on follow-up, and the Tg level continues to rise with local disease progression. In a small percentage of patients, PTC behaves as a very aggressive disease despite treatment. Focally undifferentiated thyroid carcinoma is an expression of the extreme end of the spectrum of differentiated thyroid carcinoma.

  11. Selumetinib in Treating Patients With Papillary Thyroid Cancer That Did Not Respond to Radioactive Iodine

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-12-02

    Recurrent Thyroid Gland Carcinoma; Stage I Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Stage II Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Stage III Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Stage IV Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma

  12. Thyroid Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... The coming of age of ultrasound-guided percutaneous ethanol ablation of selected neck nodal metastases in well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism. 2011;96:2717. Caprelsa (prescribing information). Wilmington, Del.: ...

  13. Coexpression of EpCAM, CD44 Variant Isoforms and Claudin-7 in Anaplastic Thyroid Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Okada, Toshihiro; Nakamura, Teruo; Watanabe, Takayuki; Onoda, Naoyoshi; Ashida, Atsuko; Okuyama, Ryuhei; Ito, Ken-ichi

    2014-01-01

    Background Anaplastic thyroid cancer is considered to be one of the most aggressive human malignancies, and the mean survival time after diagnosis is approximately six months, regardless of treatments. This study aimed to examine how EpCAM and its related molecules are involved in the characteristics of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma. Methodology/Principal Findings Two differentiated thyroid cancer cell lines (TPC-1 and FTC-133), and two anaplastic thyroid cancer cell lines (FRO, ACT-1) were analyzed for expression of CD44 standard isoform (CD44s), CD44 variant isoforms, and EpCAM, and human aldehyde dehydrogenase-1 (ALDH1) enzymatic activity using flow cytometry. CD44s expression was higher in TPC-1 and FTC-133 than in the FRO and ACT-1, whereas ALDH1 activities were higher in FRO and ACT-1 than in TPC-1 and FTC-133. An inverse correlation between CD44s expression and ALDH1 activity was observed in all thyroid cancer cell lines. As for the expressions of CD44 variant isoforms, ACT-1 showed higher and FRO showed moderate CD44v6 expressions, whereas either TPC-1 or FTC-133 showed negative CD44v6 expression. EpCAM expressions in FRO and ACT-1 were higher than those in TPC-1 and FTC-133, and EpCAM expressions inversely correlated with those of CD44s. A positive correlation was observed between EpCAM expression and ALDH1 activity in thyroid cancer cell lines. In the RT-PCR analysis, the expression levels of EpCAM, caludin-7 and ALDH1 in FRO and ATC-1 cells were significantly higher than those in TPC-1 and FTC-133 cells. In clinical specimens of thyroid cancers, nuclear expression of EpCAM and high expression of CD44v6 were detected significantly more frequently in anaplastic carcinomas. Conclusions/Significance Our study suggests the possibility that EpCAM, together with CD44v6 and claudin-7 as well as ALDH1, may be involved in the development of the aggressive phenotype of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma. Our findings may suggest a novel therapeutic strategy for treatment

  14. Evaluation of somatic genomic imbalances in thyroid carcinomas of follicular origin by CGH-based approaches.

    PubMed

    Baldan, Federica; Mio, Catia; Allegri, Lorenzo; Passon, Nadia; Lepore, Saverio M; Russo, Diego; Damante, Giuseppe

    2017-09-07

    Application of distinct technologies of cancer genome analysis has provided important information for the molecular characterization of several human neoplasia, including follicular cell-derived thyroid carcinoma. Among them, comparative genomic hybridization (CGH)-based procedures have been extensively applied to evaluate genomic imbalances present in these tumours, obtaining data leading to an increase in the understanding of their complexity and diversity. In this review, after a brief overview of the most commonly used CGH-based technichs, we will describe the major results deriving from the most influential studies in the literature which used this approach to investigate the genomic aberrations of thyroid cancer cells. In most studies a small number of patients have been analyzed. Deletions and duplications at different chromosomal regions were detected in all investigated cohorts. A higher number of genomic imbalances has been detected in anaplastic or poorly differentiated thyroid carcinomas compared to well differentiated ones. Limitations in the interpretation of the results, as well the potential impact in the clinical practice are discussed. Though a quite heterogeneous picture arises from results so far available, CGH array, combined with other methodologies as well as an accurate clinical management, may offer novel opportunities for a better stratification of thyroid cancer patients.

  15. Thyroid-Like Follicular Carcinoma of the Kidney in a Patient with Skull and Meningeal Metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Liang; Huang, Jiayu; Huang, Luke; Shi, Oumin; Liu, Qiang; Chen, Haige; Xue, Wei; Huang, Yiran

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Thyroid-like follicular carcinoma of the kidney (TLFCK) is an extremely rare subtype of renal cell carcinoma with close resemblance to the well-differentiated thyroid follicular neoplasms. TLFCK has not been included in the 2004 World Health Organization (WHO) classification due to the limited data available. Only 27 cases have been reported in the literature to date. Herein, we report a unique case of TLFCK that presented as a striking skull and meningeal metastasis 5 years after the initial diagnosis; this is the first case of TLFCK with such a novel metastasis pattern. A 68-year-old woman was found to have a right renal lesion using computed tomography (CT) during her regular clinical follow-up visit for bladder cancer, but she exhibited no obvious clinical symptoms. The CT scan showed a 4.4-cm diameter, slightly lobulated soft tissue mass in the right lower kidney, the pathological findings of which showed a TLFCK. Five years later, the patient had progressed to skull and meningeal metastasis. Both the renal tumor and the metastasis lesion were composed almost entirely of follicles with a dense, colloid-like material that resembled thyroid follicular carcinoma. However, no lesion was found in the thyroid gland. The neoplastic epithelial cells were strongly immunoreactive for cytokeratin 7 (and vimentin but negative for thyroid transcription factor-1 and thyroglobulin. This is the first reported case of TLFCK to consist of widespread metastases to the skull and meninges and provides evidence that this rare variant of renal cell carcinoma has uncertain malignant potential and can be more clinically aggressive than previously believed. PMID:27082575

  16. Female Reproductive Factors and Differentiated Thyroid Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Moleti, Mariacarla; Sturniolo, Giacomo; Di Mauro, Maria; Russo, Marco; Vermiglio, Francesco

    2017-01-01

    Differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) is markedly more common in women than men, the highest female-to-male ratio being recorded during the reproductive period. This evidence has led to the suggestion that female hormonal and reproductive factors may account for the observed DTC gender disparity. This review focuses on current evidence on the risk of DTC in conjunction with major female reproductive factors, including the impact of pregnancy on DTC occurrence and progression/recurrence. Overall, studies exploring the link between the risk of DTC and menstrual and menopausal factors, oral contraceptives and/or hormone replacement therapy, showed these associations, if any, to be generally weak. Nonetheless, there is some evidence that higher levels of exposure to estrogens during reproductive years may confer an increased risk of DTC. As far as pregnancy is concerned, it is unclear whether a potential association between parity and risk of DTC actually exists, and whether it is enhanced in the short-term following delivery. A possible role for pregnancy-related factors in DTC progression has been recently suggested by some reports, the results of which are consistent with a worse outcome in the short-term of women diagnosed with DTC during gestation compared to non-pregnant control patients. Also, some progression of disease has been described in women with structural evidence of disease prior to pregnancy. However, there seems to be no impact from pregnancy in DTC-related death or overall survival. Several in vitro and animal studies have evaluated the influence of estrogens (E) and estrogen receptors (ERs) on thyroid cell proliferation. Presently available data are indicative of a role of E and ERs in thyroid cancer growth, although considerable discrepancies in respect to ER expression patterns in thyroid cancer tissues actually exist. Further studies providing more direct evidence on the possible role of E and of placental hormones and growth factors on thyroid

  17. Metastasis of colon cancer to medullary thyroid carcinoma: a case report.

    PubMed

    Yeo, So-Jung; Kim, Kyu-Jin; Kim, Bo-Yeon; Jung, Chan-Hee; Lee, Seung-Won; Kwak, Jeong-Ja; Kim, Chul-Hee; Kang, Sung-Koo; Mok, Ji-Oh

    2014-10-01

    Metastasis to the primary thyroid carcinoma is extremely rare. We report here a case of colonic adenocarcinoma metastasis to medullary thyroid carcinoma in a 53-yr old man with a history of colon cancer. He showed a nodular lesion, suggesting malignancy in the thyroid gland, in a follow-up examination after colon cancer surgery. Fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) of the thyroid gland showed tumor cell clusters, which was suspected to be medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC). The patient underwent a total thyroidectomy. Using several specific immunohistochemical stains, the patient was diagnosed with colonic adenocarcinoma metastasis to MTC. To the best of our knowledge, the present patient is the first case of colonic adenocarcinoma metastasizing to MTC. Although tumor-tumor metastasis to primary thyroid carcinoma is very rare, we still should consider metastasis to the thyroid gland, when a patient with a history of other malignancy presents with a new thyroid finding.

  18. Old and New Insights in the Treatment of Thyroid Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Gasent Blesa, Joan Manel; Grande Pulido, Enrique; Provencio Pulla, Mariano; Alberola Candel, Vicente; Laforga Canales, Juan Bautista; Grimalt Arrom, Miguel; Martin Rico, Patricia

    2010-01-01

    Thyroid cancer is the endocrine tumor that bears the highest incidence with 33 550 new cases per year. It bears an excellent prognosis with a mortality of 1530 patients per year (Jemal et al.; 2007). We have been treating patients with thyroid carcinoma during many years without many innovations. Recently, we have assisted to the development of new agents for the treatment of this disease with unexpected good results. Here we present a review with the old and new methods for the treatment of this disease. PMID:21048836

  19. Recent Updates on the Management of Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) is a rare neuroendocrine tumor derived from the thyroid C cells producing calcitonin. MTC accounts for 0.6% of all thyroid cancers and incidence of MTC increased steadily between 1997 and 2011 in Korea. It occurs either sporadically or in a hereditary form based on germline rearranged during transfection (RET) mutations. MTC can be cured only by complete resection of the thyroid tumor and any loco-regional metastases. The most appropriate treatment is still less clear in patients with residual or recurrent disease after initial surgery or those with distant metastases because most patients even with metastatic disease have indolent courses with slow progression for several years and MTC is not responsive to either radioactive iodine therapy or thyroid-stimulating hormone suppression. Recently, two tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), vandetanib and cabozantinib, are approved for use in patients with advanced, metastatic or progressive MTC. In this review, we summarize the current approach according to revised American Thyroid Association guidelines and recent advances in systemic treatment such as TKIs for patients with persistent or recurrent MTC after surgery. PMID:27586449

  20. An intra-thoracic follicular carcinoma of thyroid: An uncommon presentation.

    PubMed

    Kant, Surya; Srivastava, Anand; Kumar, Rahul; Verma, Ajay Kumar; Mishra, Anand Kumar; Husain, Nuzhat

    2017-01-01

    Follicular carcinoma of thyroid is the second most common type of carcinoma of thyroid, and it may metastasize to bone, lung, brain, and skin. However, the initial presentation of follicular carcinoma of the thyroid as a large intrathoracic mass without any symptoms of thyroid gland enlargement and dysfunction is very rare. We hereby report a case of a 50-year-old male who presented with chief complaints of chest and low back pain. Preliminary evaluation led to the provisional diagnosis of left-sided intrathoracic mass with vertebral metastasis which was suspected to be a case of bronchogenic carcinoma with distant metastasis. Surprisingly, transthoracic biopsy and histopathology revealed metastasis from follicular carcinoma of thyroid. This prompted us for a retrograde evaluation for a primary thyroid malignancy for which an ultrasound and contrast enhanced computed tomography (CECT) of the neck was done which confirmed the presence of a solitary thyroid nodule. Ultrasonography-guided fine-needle aspiration cytology of the nodule revealed follicular carcinoma of thyroid. Histopathological evaluation subsequent to total thyroidectomy revealed follicular carcinoma thyroid, further confirming the diagnosis. The patient was then referred to Department of Nuclear Medicine and Radiotherapy for radionuclide ablation and chemotherapy. We chose to report this case because of its rare presentation as a large intrathoracic mass and the retrograde diagnosis of follicular carcinoma of thyroid. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of such a rare case.

  1. An intra-thoracic follicular carcinoma of thyroid: An uncommon presentation

    PubMed Central

    Kant, Surya; Srivastava, Anand; Kumar, Rahul; Verma, Ajay Kumar; Mishra, Anand Kumar; Husain, Nuzhat

    2017-01-01

    Follicular carcinoma of thyroid is the second most common type of carcinoma of thyroid, and it may metastasize to bone, lung, brain, and skin. However, the initial presentation of follicular carcinoma of the thyroid as a large intrathoracic mass without any symptoms of thyroid gland enlargement and dysfunction is very rare. We hereby report a case of a 50-year-old male who presented with chief complaints of chest and low back pain. Preliminary evaluation led to the provisional diagnosis of left-sided intrathoracic mass with vertebral metastasis which was suspected to be a case of bronchogenic carcinoma with distant metastasis. Surprisingly, transthoracic biopsy and histopathology revealed metastasis from follicular carcinoma of thyroid. This prompted us for a retrograde evaluation for a primary thyroid malignancy for which an ultrasound and contrast enhanced computed tomography (CECT) of the neck was done which confirmed the presence of a solitary thyroid nodule. Ultrasonography-guided fine-needle aspiration cytology of the nodule revealed follicular carcinoma of thyroid. Histopathological evaluation subsequent to total thyroidectomy revealed follicular carcinoma thyroid, further confirming the diagnosis. The patient was then referred to Department of Nuclear Medicine and Radiotherapy for radionuclide ablation and chemotherapy. We chose to report this case because of its rare presentation as a large intrathoracic mass and the retrograde diagnosis of follicular carcinoma of thyroid. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of such a rare case. PMID:28360474

  2. Aflibercept in Treating Patients With Recurrent and/or Metastatic Thyroid Cancer That Did Not Respond to Radioactive Iodine Therapy

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-01-24

    Recurrent Thyroid Gland Carcinoma; Stage III Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage III Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Stage IV Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage IV Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma

  3. TROP-2 expression in papillary thyroid carcinoma: Potential Diagnostic Utility.

    PubMed

    Simms, Anthony; Jacob, Reuben P; Cohen, Cynthia; Siddiqui, Momin T

    2016-01-01

    TROP-2 is a type I transmembrane glycoprotein which is over-expressed in various malignancies, and is related to epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM), also called TROP-1, gp40, and KSA. In this study, we evaluated TROP-2 expression in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) and compared it to other thyroid neoplastic and non-neoplastic lesions. Immunohistochemical (IHC) evaluation for TROP-2 was performed on 137 thyroid fine needle aspiration (FNA) cell blocks (CB) which included classic PTC (64), follicular variant PTC (FVPTC) (10), anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (AC) (2), medullary carcinoma (MC) (8), follicular neoplasms (FN) (8), Hurthle cell neoplasms (HCN) (9), follicular lesion of uncertain significance (FLUS) (12), and benign thyroid nodule (BTN) (24). IHC for TROP-2 expression was also performed on 331 BTN and malignant tumor tissue sections in tissue microarray (TMA). Membranous staining in >5% of tumor cells was considered positive. TROP-2 stained 61 of 64 PTC CB, 7 of 10 FVPTC CB, and 9 of 12 FLUS CB. All other cases were negative for TROP-2. TROP-2 showed a sensitivity of 95.31% and specificity of 89% for classic PTC in FNA CB. In TMA samples, TROP-2 stained 54 of 60 classic PTC cases and hence showed a high sensitivity and specificity. All BTN in CB and TMA were negative. We conclude that TROP-2 is a highly sensitive and specific IHC marker for identifying classic PTC. TROP-2 may play an important role in diagnosing classic PTC, especially in equivocal cases. This study also identifies a strong role for TROP-2 in separating PTC from BTN.

  4. [Tracheal adenoid cystic carcinoma presenting as a thyroid tumor].

    PubMed

    Bahadir, Osman; Imamoğlu, Mehmet; Cobanoğlu, Umit; Korkmaz, Omer

    2006-01-01

    Primary tumors of the trachea are rare. Adenoid cystic carcinoma is the second most common tracheal malignancy and its symptoms are nonspecific. A 66-year-old woman presented with complaints of progressive dyspnea and cough of a two-week duration. She had received asthmatic treatment many times for the past four years. Physical examination revealed a large, firm, nontender, multilobular mass in the thyroid gland. Indirect laryngoscopic examination showed subglottic stenosis. On a plain cervical radiograph, there was narrowing of the tracheal lumen. Emergent tracheotomy was performed and a biopsy was taken from the mass. Histopathologic examination revealed adenoid cystic carcinoma, suggesting a thyroid mass with a tracheal origin. Despite medical treatment, the patient died in the fourth month.

  5. Differential nuclear and cytoplasmic expression of PTEN in normal thyroid tissue, and benign and malignant epithelial thyroid tumors.

    PubMed

    Gimm, O; Perren, A; Weng, L P; Marsh, D J; Yeh, J J; Ziebold, U; Gil, E; Hinze, R; Delbridge, L; Lees, J A; Mutter, G L; Robinson, B G; Komminoth, P; Dralle, H; Eng, C

    2000-05-01

    Germline mutations in PTEN (MMAC1/TEP1) are found in patients with Cowden syndrome, a familial cancer syndrome which is characterized by a high risk of breast and thyroid neoplasia. Although somatic intragenic PTEN mutations have rarely been found in benign and malignant sporadic thyroid tumors, loss of heterozygosity (LOH) has been reported in up to one fourth of follicular thyroid adenomas (FAs) and carcinomas. In this study, we examined PTEN expression in 139 sporadic nonmedullary thyroid tumors (55 FA, 27 follicular thyroid carcinomas, 35 papillary thyroid carcinomas, and 22 undifferentiated thyroid carcinomas) using immunohistochemistry and correlated this to the results of LOH studies. Normal follicular thyroid cells showed a strong to moderate nuclear or nuclear membrane signal although the cytoplasmic staining was less strong. In FAs the neoplastic nuclei had less intense PTEN staining, although the cytoplasmic PTEN-staining intensity did not differ significantly from that observed in normal follicular cells. In thyroid carcinomas as a group, nuclear PTEN immunostaining was mostly weak in comparison with normal thyroid follicular cells and FAs. The cytoplasmic staining was more intense than the nuclear staining in 35 to 49% of carcinomas, depending on the histological type. Among 81 informative tumors assessed for LOH, there seemed to be an associative trend between decreased nuclear and cytoplasmic staining and 10q23 LOH (P = 0.003, P = 0.008, respectively). These data support a role for PTEN in the pathogenesis of follicular thyroid tumors.

  6. [Clinical characteristics of the thyroid follicular carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-Hermosillo, Hugo; Tamez-Peréz, Héctor Eloy; Díaz de León-Gonzaléz, Enrique; Gutiérrez-Hermosillo, Violeta; Avila-Sanchéz, Jair

    2013-01-01

    Introducción: se ha identificado carcinoma folicular en 39 % de los pacientes con nódulos tiroideos cuya citología prequirúrgica ha indicado resultados indeterminados. El propósito de esta investigación fue conocer la prevalencia de esta entidad en un hospital de concentración. Métodos: se buscaron los reportes quirúrgicos con diagnóstico de carcinoma folicular. Se registró tamaño del tumor, sexo y edad del paciente, diagnósticos pre y posquirúrgico y patologías asociadas. Resultados: se diagnosticó carcinoma folicular en 35 pacientes: 30 mujeres (85 %) y cinco hombres (15 %). La edad en los hombres fue de 57 ± 6.6 y de 44 ± 16.9 en las mujeres. Los diagnósticos preoperatorios fueron carcinoma folicular en 14 (40 %), cáncer tiroideo en seis (17.1 %), adenoma folicular en cuatro (11.4 %), bocio en tres (8.5 %), nódulo tiroideo en tres (8.5 %); carcinoma papilar, tumor de tiroides, carcinoma poco diferenciado de tiroides, adenocarcinoma folicular bien diferenciado, cáncer medular en un paciente (2.8 %) cada uno. Las patologías asociadas fueron tiroiditis de Hashimoto y carcinoma papilar contralateral, con dos pacientes cada uno (5.6 %). Conclusiones: la edad de los pacientes y la presentación clínica del carcinoma folicular difirieron de las informadas en otras investigaciones.

  7. The Next Generation of Orthotopic Thyroid Cancer Models: Immunocompetent Orthotopic Mouse Models of BRAFV600E-Positive Papillary and Anaplastic Thyroid Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Vanden Borre, Pierre; McFadden, David G.; Gunda, Viswanath; Sadow, Peter M.; Varmeh, Shohreh; Bernasconi, Maria; Jacks, Tyler

    2014-01-01

    Background: While the development of new treatments for aggressive thyroid cancer has advanced in the last 10 years, progress has trailed headways made with other malignancies. A lack of reliable authenticated human cell lines and reproducible animal models is one major roadblock to preclinical testing of novel therapeutics. Existing xenograft and orthotopic mouse models of aggressive thyroid cancer rely on the implantation of highly passaged human thyroid carcinoma lines in immunodeficient mice. Genetically engineered models of papillary and undifferentiated (anaplastic) thyroid carcinoma (PTC and ATC) are immunocompetent; however, slow and stochastic tumor development hinders high-throughput testing. Novel models of PTC and ATC in which tumors arise rapidly and synchronously in immunocompetent mice would facilitate the investigation of novel therapeutics and approaches. Methods: We characterized and utilized mouse cell lines derived from PTC and ATC tumors arising in genetically engineered mice with thyroid-specific expression of endogenous BrafV600E/WT and deletion of either Trp53 (p53) or Pten. These murine thyroid cancer cells were transduced with luciferase- and GFP-expressing lentivirus and implanted into the thyroid glands of immunocompetent syngeneic B6129SF1/J mice in which the growth characteristics were assessed. Results: Large locally aggressive thyroid tumors form within one week of implantation. Tumors recapitulate their histologic subtype, including well-differentiated PTC and ATC, and exhibit CD3+, CD8+, B220+, and CD163+ immune cell infiltration. Tumor progression can be followed in vivo using luciferase and ex vivo using GFP. Metastatic spread is not detected at early time points. Conclusions: We describe the development of the next generation of murine orthotopic thyroid cancer models. The implantation of genetically defined murine BRAF-mutated PTC and ATC cell lines into syngeneic mice results in rapid and synchronous tumor formation. This

  8. Expression of YY1 in Differentiated Thyroid Cancer.

    PubMed

    Arribas, Jéssica; Castellví, Josep; Marcos, Ricard; Zafón, Carles; Velázquez, Antonia

    2015-05-01

    The transcription factor Yin Yang 1 (YY1) has an important regulatory role in tumorigenesis, but its implication in thyroid cancer has not been yet investigated. In the present study, we have analyzed the expression of YY1 in differentiated thyroid cancer and assessed the association of YY1 expression with clinical features. Expression of YY1 was evaluated in human thyroid cancer cell lines, a series of matched normal/tumor thyroid tissues and in a thyroid cancer tissue microarray, using real-time PCR, Western blot, and/or immunohistochemistry. YY1 was overexpressed in thyroid cancer cells, at transcription and protein levels. A significant increase of YY1 mRNA was also observed in tumor thyroid tissues. Moreover, immunohistochemical analysis of the thyroid cancer tissue microarray revealed that both papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) and follicular thyroid cancer (FTC) present increased YY1 protein levels (48 and 19%, respectively). After stratification by the level of YY1 protein, positive YY1 expression identifies 88% of patients with PTC. The association of YY1 expression with clinicopathological features in PTC and FTC showed that YY1 expression was related with age at diagnosis. Our data indicates for the first time overexpression of YY1 in differentiated thyroid cancer, with YY1 being more frequently overexpressed in the PTC subtype.

  9. Clavicle metastasis from carcinoma thyroid- an atypical skeletal event and a management dilemma.

    PubMed

    Krishnamurthy, Arvind

    2015-09-01

    Bone metastases is a well described event in the natural history of thyroid cancers and has the potential to severely impact the quality of life by causing pain, fractures and spinal cord compression. Follicular thyroid carcinomas have a greater propensity for distal metastasis than papillary and anaplastic thyroid carcinomas. The most common sites of skeletal metastasis among thyroid cancer patients are femur followed by humerus, pelvis, radius, and scapula. Clavicle metastasis at initial presentation is exceedingly rare. Although many studies have examined the various prognostic factors for patients with bony metastases from thyroid cancers, very few have actually evaluated the effects of surgical management. We present an unusual case of metastatic papillary carcinoma thyroid presenting with clavicle metastasis and review the role of surgical management of bone metastases. Clavicular resection as a part of the management of metastatic papillary carcinoma thyroid has, to the best of our knowledge never been reported before.

  10. Detection of human parvovirus B19 in papillary thyroid carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Wang, J H; Zhang, W P; Liu, H X; Wang, D; Li, Y F; Wang, W Q; Wang, L; He, F R; Wang, Z; Yan, Q G; Chen, L W; Huang, G S

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate whether parvovirus B19, a common human pathogen, was also involved in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC), 112 paraffin-embedded thyroid specimens of benign nodules, papillary, medullary and follicular carcinomas, and normal controls were examined for B19 DNA and capsid protein by nested PCR, in situ hybridisation (ISH) and immunohistochemistry (IHC). The expression of the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) was investigated by IHC. The results showed B19 DNA commonly exists in human thyroid tissues; however, there were significant differences between PTC group and normal controls, and between PTC and nonneoplastic adjacent tissues (P<0.001). The presence of viral DNA in PTC neoplastic epithelium was confirmed by laser-capture microdissection and sequencing of nested PCR products. B19 capsid protein in PTC group was significantly higher than that of all the control groups and nonneoplastic adjacent tissues (P⩽0.001). Compared with control groups, the activation of NF-κB in PTC group was significantly increased (P⩽0.02), except for medullary carcinomas, and the activation of NF-κB was correlated with the viral protein presence (P=0.002). Moreover, NF-κB was colocalised with B19 DNA in the neoplastic epithelium of PTC by double staining of IHC and ISH. These results indicate for the first time a possible role of B19 in pathogenesis of PTC. PMID:18212749

  11. Periostin silencing suppresses the aggressive phenotype of thyroid carcinoma cells by suppressing the Akt/thyroid stimulating hormone receptor axis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Min; Gui, Chunyi; Qiu, Shenglong; Tang, Jingdong; Peng, Zhihai

    2017-09-30

    Clinical evidence indicates that high periostin expression correlates with aggressive phenotype in thyroid carcinoma. However, the biological roles of periostin in thyroid carcinoma development and progression are still unclear. In this study, we explored the effects of periostin silencing on thyroid carcinoma cell growth, invasion, and tumorigenesis. We also studied the impact of periostin on the activation of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3-K)/Akt signaling, which is involved in the pathogenesis of thyroid carcinoma. It was found that downregulation of periostin significantly inhibited the proliferation, colony formation, and invasion in both FTC-133 and BCPAP thyroid carcinoma cells. In vivo tumorigenic studies confirmed that periostin depletion retarded the growth of subcutaneous FTC-133 xenograft tumors, which was coupled with a significant decline in the percentage of Ki-67-positive proliferating cells. Western blot analysis demonstrated that periostin downregulation caused a marked inhibition of thyroid stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR) expression and Akt phosphorylation in FTC-133 and BCPAP cells. Co-expression of constitutively active Akt (CA-Akt) significantly reversed periostin-mediated downregulation of TSHR. Most importantly, overexpression of TSHR or CA-Akt rescued FTC-133 cells from periostin-induced growth and invasion suppression. Collectively, periostin regulates thyroid carcinoma growth and progression via the Akt/TSHR axis and represents a promising therapeutic target for this malignancy.

  12. Concurrent Medullary, Papillary, and Follicular Thyroid Carcinomas and Simultaneous Cushing's Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Mazeh, Haggi; Orlev, Amir; Mizrahi, Ido; Gross, David J; Freund, Herbert R

    2015-03-01

    Papillary thyroid carcinoma is the most common thyroid cancer (85%). Follicular thyroid carcinoma is the second most common type of thyroid cancer, accounting for up to 10% of all thyroid cancers. Medullary thyroid carcinoma accounts for only 5-8% of thyroid cancers. Concurrent medullary, follicular, and papillary carcinomas of the thyroid gland are extremely rare and reported scarcely. A 72-year-old male presented with nonspecific neck pain. The workup revealed a nodular thyroid gland with a follicular lesion on fine-needle aspiration. Total thyroidectomy was performed and pathological examination identified a 25-mm follicular carcinoma, two papillary microcarcinomas, and two medullary microcarcinomas. The genetic workup was negative and no other family members were diagnosed with any endocrinopathy. Two months after surgery, the patient was diagnosed with Cushing's syndrome that was treated with laparoscopic left adrenalectomy. On 3-year follow-up, the patient is asymptomatic with no evidence of recurrent disease. We present a rare case of a patient with follicular, papillary, and medullary thyroid carcinoma, and Cushing's syndrome. To date, no known genetic mutation or syndrome can account for this combination of neoplastic thyroid and adrenal pathologies, although future research may prove differently.

  13. Mild persistent hypercalcitoninemia after total thyroidectomy in patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Yokoi, Kazuki; Imai, Tsuneo; Shibata, Arihiro; Hibi, Yatsuka; Kikumori, Toyone; Funahashi, Hiroomi; Nakao, Akimasa

    2003-08-01

    Total thyroidectomy was performed in 455 patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma between 1978 and 1999. Serum calcitonin (CT) was determined preoperatively in all patients using polyclonal antibodies. Among the subjects, 25 patients showed elevated serum calcitonin levels preoperatively. Pathological diagnoses of 18 patients were confirmed as medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) postoperatively. Eight patients were diagnosed as papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) in the final pathological diagnosis without evidence of minimal foci of MTC or C cell hyperplasia, and they showed elevated CT levels preoperatively. Hypercalcitoninemia in 8 patients with PTC continued through out the 24 follow-up months with normal CEA levels. Extrathyroidal CT-producing diseases were all neglected, and precise pathological examination showed negative evidence of minute MTC or C cell hyperplasia in these 8 patients. Serum CT levels were simultaneously determined by a different CT assay kit using the same blood samples in 7 of 8 patients. Serum CT levels were all within normal values in another CT kit applying a different polyclonal antibody, although elevated CT values continued in the routine CT kit. The recognition of polymeric or fragmented CT by polyclonal antibody was thought to be the causative factor for the hypercalcitoninemia after total thyroidectomy in the patients with PTC. Knowledge of the false positive CT determination makes it important to employ different CT assay kits, especially the new generation of two-site immunoassays using two monoclonal antibodies against distinct epitopes of human CT, although the new generation kits are not clinically available in Japan.

  14. A multi-gene approach to differentiate papillary thyroid carcinoma from benign lesions: gene selection using support vector machines with bootstrapping

    PubMed Central

    Fujarewicz, Krzysztof; Jarząb, Michał; Eszlinger, Markus; Krohn, Knut; Paschke, Ralf; Oczko-Wojciechowska, Małgorzata; Wiench, Małgorzata; Kukulska, Aleksandra; Jarząb, Barbara; Świerniak, Andrzej

    2007-01-01

    Selection of novel molecular markers is an important goal of cancer genomics studies. The aim of our analysis was to apply the multivariate bioinformatical tools to rank the genes – potential markers of papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) according to their diagnostic usefulness. We also assessed the accuracy of benign/malignant classification, based on gene expression profiling, for PTC. We analyzed a 180-array dataset (90 HG-U95A and 90 HG-U133A oligonucleotide arrays), which included a collection of 57 PTCs, 61 benign thyroid tumors, and 62 apparently normal tissues. Gene selection was carried out by the support vector machines method with bootstrapping, which allowed us 1) ranking the genes that were most important for classification quality and appeared most frequently in the classifiers (bootstrap-based feature ranking, BBFR); 2) ranking the samples, and thus detecting cases that were most difficult to classify (bootstrap-based outlier detection). The accuracy of PTC diagnosis was 98.5% for a 20-gene classifier, its 95% confidence interval (CI) was 95.9–100%, with the lower limit of CI exceeding 95% already for five genes. Only 5 of 180 samples (2.8%) were misclassified in more than 10% of bootstrap iterations. We specified 43 genes which are most suitable as molecular markers of PTC, among them some well-known PTC markers (MET, fibronectin 1, dipeptidylpeptidase 4, or adenosine A1 receptor) and potential new ones (UDP-galactose-4-epimerase, cadherin 16, gap junction protein 3, sushi, nidogen, and EGF-like domains 1, inhibitor of DNA binding 3, RUNX1, leiomodin 1, F-box protein 9, and tripartite motif-containing 58). The highest ranking gene, metallophosphoesterase domain-containing protein 2, achieved 96.7% of the maximum BBFR score. PMID:17914110

  15. Genomic Dissection of Hurthle Cell Carcinoma Reveals a Unique Class of Thyroid Malignancy

    PubMed Central

    Ganly, Ian; Ricarte Filho, Julio; Eng, Stephanie; Ghossein, Ronald; Morris, Luc G. T.; Liang, Yupu; Socci, Nicholas; Kannan, Kasthuri; Mo, Qianxing; Fagin, James A.

    2013-01-01

    Context: Hurthle cell cancer (HCC) is an understudied cancer with poor prognosis. Objective: Our objective was to elucidate the genomic foundations of HCC. Design and Setting: We conducted a large-scale integrated analysis of mutations, gene expression profiles, and copy number alterations in HCC at a single tertiary-care cancer institution. Methods: Mass spectrometry-based genotyping was used to interrogate hot spot point mutations in the most common thyroid oncogenes: BRAF, RET, NRAS, HRAS, KRAS, PIK3CA, MAP2K1, and AKT1. In addition, common oncogenic fusions of RET and NTRK1 as well as PAX8/PPARγ and AKAP9-BRAF were also assessed by RT-PCR. Global copy number changes and gene expression profiles were determined in the same tumor set as the mutational analyses. Results: We report that the mutational, transcriptional, and copy number profiles of HCC were distinct from those of papillary thyroid cancer and follicular thyroid cancer, indicating HCC to be a unique type of thyroid malignancy. Unsupervised hierarchical clustering of gene expression showed the 3 groups of Hurthle tumors (Hurthle cell adenoma [HA], minimally invasive Hurthle cell carcinoma [HMIN], and widely invasive Hurthle cell carcinoma [HWIDE] clustered separately with a marked difference between HWIDE and HA. Global copy number analysis also indicated distinct subgroups of tumors that may arise as HWIDE and HMIN. Molecular pathways that differentiate HA from HWIDE included the PIK3CA-Akt-mTOR and Wnt/β-catenin pathways, potentially providing a rationale for new targets for this type of malignancy. Conclusions: Our data provide evidence that HCC may be a unique thyroid cancer distinct from papillary and follicular thyroid cancer. PMID:23543667

  16. Papillary thyroid carcinoma shows elevated levels of 2-hydroxyglutarate.

    PubMed

    Rakheja, Dinesh; Boriack, Richard L; Mitui, Midori; Khokhar, Shama; Holt, Shelby A; Kapur, Payal

    2011-04-01

    Elevated levels of D: -2-hydroxyglutarate (D: -2-HG) occur in gliomas and myeloid leukemias associated with mutations of IDH1 and IDH2. L: -2-Hydroxyglutaric aciduria, an inherited metabolic disorder, predisposes to brain tumors. Therefore, we asked whether sporadic cancers, without IDH1 or IDH2 hot-spot mutations, show elevated 2-hydroxyglutarate levels. We retrieved 15 pairs of frozen papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) and adjacent non-neoplastic thyroid, and 14 pairs of hyperplastic nodule (HN) and adjacent non-hyperplastic thyroid. In all lesions, exon 4 sequencing confirmed the absence of known mutations of IDH1 and IDH2. We measured 2-hydroxyglutarate by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Compared to normal thyroid, PTCs had significantly higher D: -2-HG and L: -2-hydroxyglutarate (L: -2-HG) levels, and compared to HNs, PTCs had significantly higher D: -2-HG levels. D: -2-HG/L: -2-HG levels were not significantly different between HNs and normal thyroid. Further studies should clarify if elevated 2-hydroxyglutarate in PTC may be useful as cancer biomarker and evaluate the role of 2-hydroxyglutarate in cancer biology.

  17. Plitidepsin has a cytostatic effect in human undifferentiated (anaplastic) thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Bravo, Susana B; García-Rendueles, María E R; Seoane, Rafael; Dosil, Vanesa; Cameselle-Teijeiro, José; López-Lázaro, Luis; Zalvide, Juan; Barreiro, Francisco; Pombo, Celia M; Alvarez, Clara V

    2005-11-01

    Undifferentiated (anaplastic) thyroid carcinoma is a highly aggressive human cancer with very poor prognosis. Although there have been a few studies of candidate treatments, the fact that it is an infrequent tumor makes it very difficult to design clinical trials. A strong association has been observed between undifferentiated thyroid carcinoma and TP53 mutations in numerous molecular genetic and expression studies. Plitidepsin (Aplidin, PharmaMar, Madrid, Spain) is a novel anticancer compound obtained from a sea tunicate. This compound has been reported to induce apoptosis independently of TP53 status. We investigated the actions of plitidepsin in human thyroid cancer cells. In initial experiments using primary cultured cells from a differentiated (papillary) carcinoma, we found that 100 nmol/L plitidepsin induced apoptosis, whereas lower doses were cytostatic. Because our aim was to study the effects of plitidepsin at clinically relevant concentrations, subsequent experiments were done with a dosage regimen reflecting plasma concentrations observed in previously reported clinical trials: 100 nmol/L for 4 hours, followed by 10 nmol/L for 20 hours (4(100)/20(10) plitidepsin). This plitidepsin dosage regimen blocked the proliferation of a primary undifferentiated/anaplastic thyroid carcinoma culture obtained in our laboratory and of a commercial cell line (8305C) obtained from an undifferentiated thyroid carcinoma; however, it did not induce apoptosis. The proportion of cells in the G(1) phase of the cell cycle was greatly increased and the proportion in the S/G(2)-M phases greatly reduced, suggesting that plitidepsin blocks G(1)-to-S transition. Levels of the cyclin D1/cyclin-dependent kinase 4/p21 complex proteins were decreased and, in line with this, the levels of unphosphorylated Rb1 increased. The decrease in cell cycle proteins correlated with hypoacetylation of histone H3. Finally, we did experiments to assess how rapidly tumor cells return to their initial

  18. Multifocality of thyroid carcinomas: a "privilege" of papillary tumors or not?

    PubMed

    Papageorgiou, M S; Liratzopoulos, N; Efremidou, E I; Karanikas, M; Minipoulos, G; Manolas, K J

    2010-01-01

    To study the frequency of multifocality in well-differentiated non-medullary thyroid carcinomas and correlate it with various epidemiological factors, as well as with patients' survival. A retrospective study was conducted on 80 patients who underwent total thyroidectomy from January 1985 to December 2004 in the First Department of Surgery of University General Hospital of Alexandroupolis, Democritus University of Thrace, Greece, for well-differentiated non-medullary thyroid cancer (papillary and follicular). Patients' medical records and demographics, including age, gender, histological type (papillary, follicular), multiple foci of tumors, overall and specific survival were analyzed. Multifocality was established in 17/80 patients (21,25%). Multifocal tumors were found in 4/20 male patients (20%) and 13/60 female ones (21,67%), percentages which are almost identical. Increased rates of multifocal tumors were found in the age groups of 20-29, 30-39 and 70-79 years old, while low rates were documented in the age groups of 0-9, 10-19 and 60-69 years old. Follicular tumors had a 20% rate, similar to papillary tumors (22,2%), and an impressive multifocal rate of mixed papillary-follicular neoplasms (75%) was found. Finally, survival was not found to be influenced by the multifocality of the tumor, under the prerequisition that total thyroidectomy is applied. Multifocality should not be considered as a "privilege" of papillary thyroid tumors, but as a privilege of thyroid carcinomas in general. If total thyroidectomy is applied in all benign and malignant thyroid diseases, the presence of multiple foci does not affect the prognosis and the survival of the patients.

  19. In vitro evaluation of the therapeutic potential of nevirapine in treatment of human thyroid anaplastic carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Dong, J J; Zhou, Y; Liu, Y T; Zhang, Z W; Zhou, X J; Wang, H J; Liao, L

    2013-05-06

    Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) is a severe thyroid malignancy with poor prognosis, due to its early metastasis and unresponsiveness to both radiation and chemotherapy. Nevirapine, a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor, has been used as a re-differentiation agent to treat cancers in several human cancer models. So far, the effects of nevirapine on human thyroid anaplastic carcinoma cells have not been documented. The aim of this study was to evaluate the therapeutic potential of nevirapine in treatment of human thyroid anaplastic carcinoma. Cell proliferation was determined by methly thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) assay. Cell apoptosis was analyzed by Hoechst 33258 staining. The mRNA expression of NIS and TSHR was determined by real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (real time RT-PCR). Iodine uptake was determined by (125)I radioactivity assay. At all doses (100, 200, 350, 500 μmol/L) tested, nevirapine significantly inhibited cell proliferation after 48 h treatment. At high dose (500 μmol/L), nevirapine significantly increased the percentage of apoptotic cells compared with control (P<0.01). At lower doses (200 μmol/L and 350 μmol/L), nevirapine did not induce cell apoptosis, but up-regulated NIS and THSR mRNA expression in a dose-dependent manner. In FRO cells pre-treated with nevirapine, the increase in NIS expression had no obvious effect on iodine uptake. These findings indicate that nevirapine has an anti-proliferative effect on FRO cells, which correlates with an induction of cell differentiation.

  20. A case of papillary carcinoma in a thyroglossal cyst without a carcinoma in the thyroid gland.

    PubMed

    Albayrak, Yavuz; Albayrak, Fatih; Kaya, Zülküf; Kabalar, Esref; Aylu, Belkiz

    2011-01-01

    The thyroglossal duct cyst is the most common developmental anomaly of the thyroid gland. We present a patient with a papillary thyroid carcinoma diagnosed after surgical resection of a thyroglossal cyst. The 39-year-old patient reported to our hospital due to a swelling of this throat. The results of the ultrasonography were reported as showing multiple nodules in both thyroid lobes, and an ~3-cm diameter image in the submental area, in keeping with lymphadenomegalia. In the fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) evaluation from the nodules in the thyroid, it was observed that the thyrocites with uniform nuclei made up single-layer groups. FNAC from the thyroglossal cyst, a few histiocytes were observed on a ground with a large number of erythrocytes. The patient was subjected to a total thyroidectomy, pyramidal lobe excision, and total excision of the 3-cm diameter soft mass, starting at the tip of the pyramidal lobe. The case was diagnosed as papillary thyroid carcinoma in thyroglossal duct cyst with histopathological and immunohistochemical findings. If the thyroglossal channel cyst had been diagnosed preoperatively, total thyroidectomy and a Sistrunk operation would have been performed. For this reason, repeated FNAC, particularly, if performed under ultrasound guidance, may improve the diagnostic value of FNAC. Thus, in such patients, throat ultrasonography must be carried out in expert hands, thin-needle aspiration biopsy, computerized tomography, and thyroid scintigraphy must be done if necessary, and the necessary treatment protocols carried out after a definite diagnosis. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  1. [Tuberculosis of the thyroid gland mimicking thyroid carcinoma in the elderly].

    PubMed

    Niiya, Tetsuji; Kawamoto, Eriko; Watanabe, Sayaka; Sakao, Hitomi; Manabe, Kenichi; Ogawa, Akiko; Furukawa, Shinya

    2014-01-01

    A 76-year-old woman with a 10-year history of chronic glomerulonephritis was treated at a clinic after presenting with a gradual worsening of the renal function. The patient had no history of tuberculosis. She was subsequently hospitalized for uremic symptoms and treated with internal shunt insertion and dialysis. Thyroid ultrasonography was performed to screen for secondary hyperparathyroidism, which revealed a calcified thyroid mass and cervical lymph node swelling. Fine-needle aspiration biopsy was thus conducted to assess suspected thyroid cancer. The cytological findings showed few follicular epithelial cells, without any signs of malignancy. However, a diagnosis of thyroid cancer continued to be strongly suspected based on the imaging features. Total thyroidectomy and bilateral cervical regional lymph node dissection were therefore performed, and the pathological examination of the thyroidectomy specimen disclosed scattered epithelioid granulomas with caseous necrosis in the entire right lobe as well as the cervical lymph nodes. Based on these findings, the patient was diagnosed with thyroid tuberculosis. As the symptoms and imaging findings of tuberculosis are nonspecific in elderly patients, it is necessary to consider this disease in this population. We therefore propose the inclusion of thyroid tuberculosis in the differential diagnosis of elderly patients who present with malignant thyroid tumors on aspiration biopsy cytology, regardless of whether or not they have a previous history of tuberculosis.

  2. Differentiated and Medullary Thyroid Cancer: Surgical Management of Cervical Lymph Nodes.

    PubMed

    Asimakopoulos, P; Nixon, I J; Shaha, A R

    2017-05-01

    Thyroid cancer metastasises to the central and lateral compartments of the neck frequently and early. The impact of nodal metastases on outcome is affected by the histological subtype of the primary tumour and the patient's age, as well as the size, number and location of those metastases. The impact of extranodal extension has recently been highlighted as an important prognosticating factor. Although clinically evident nodal disease in the lateral neck compartments has a significant impact on both survival and recurrence, microscopic metastases to the central or the lateral neck in well-differentiated thyroid cancer do not significantly affect outcome. Here we discuss the surgical management of neck metastases in well-differentiated and medullary thyroid carcinoma. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Ectopic goitrous submandibular thyroid with goitrous orthotopic thyroid gland.

    PubMed

    Bhardwaj, Avinash Kumar; Mani, Vinayaga; Dixit, Rashmi; Garg, Anju

    2016-01-01

    Ectopic thyroid is a rare developmental anomaly with lingual thyroid accounting for majority of the cases. The presence of ectopic thyroid tissue lateral to the midline is very rare, and very few cases located in the submandibular region have been reported. The simultaneous finding of submandibular ectopic thyroid tissue and a functional orthotopic thyroid gland is even rarer. In the differential diagnosis of an ectopic submandibular thyroid, it is fundamental to exclude a metastasis from well-differentiated thyroid cancer, even when primary thyroid carcinoma is not demonstrable.

  4. Lymph Node Dissection for Differentiated Thyroid Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Mizrachi, Aviram; Shaha, Ashok R.

    2017-01-01

    Lymph node metastases in differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) have a wide spectrum of clinical significance. Several variables are taken under consideration when trying to decide on the optimal management of patients with DTC. Routine prophylactic central and/or lateral lymph node dissection is not advocated with exception of central neck dissection for locally advanced tumors. When regarding recurrent disease, foundations have been laid for clinicians to make accurate decisions as to when to perform surgery and when to continue maintaining the patient’s disease under observation. These complex decisions are determined based upon multiple factors, not only regarding the patient’s disease but also the patient’s comprehension of the procedure and apprehension levels. Nevertheless if the patient and/or clinician are emotionally keen to surgically remove the disease then the procedure should be considered. PMID:28117285

  5. Neoadjuvant Therapy in Differentiated Thyroid Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Le, Valerie H.; Camille, Nadia; Miles, Brett A.; Teng, Marita S.; Genden, Eric M.; Misiukiewicz, Krzysztof J.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. Invasion of differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) into surrounding structures can lead to morbid procedures such as laryngectomy and tracheal resection. In these patients, there is a potential role for neoadjuvant therapy. Methods. We identified three studies involving the treatment of DTC with neoadjuvant chemotherapy: two from Slovenia and one from Japan. Results. These studies demonstrate that in selected situations, neoadjuvant chemotherapy can have a good response and allow for a more complete surgical resection, the treatment of DTC. Additionally, the SELECT trial shows that the targeted therapy lenvatinib is effective in the treatment of DTC and could be useful as neoadjuvant therapy for this disease due to its short time to response. Pazopanib has also demonstrated promise in phase II data. Conclusions. Thus, chemotherapy in the neoadjuvant setting could possibly be useful for managing advanced DTC. Additionally, some of the new tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) hold promise for use in the neoadjuvant setting in DTC. PMID:27747102

  6. Comparison of serum calcitonin and procalcitonin in detecting medullary thyroid carcinoma among patients with thyroid nodules.

    PubMed

    Giovanella, Luca; Verburg, Frederik A; Imperiali, Mauro; Valabrega, Stefano; Trimboli, Pierpaolo; Ceriani, Luca

    2013-07-01

    To prospectively evaluate the role of procalcitonin (PCT) in detecting or excluding medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) among patients with thyroid nodules and increased calcitonin (CT) levels. Fourteen of 1236 patients referred for thyroid nodules had increased serum CT >10 pg/mL. A stimulation test with pentagastrin was done and both CT and PCT were measured after stimulation. All patients underwent thyroid ultrasound, fine-needle cytology and, if indicated, surgery with histological and immunohistochemical examination of the surgical specimens. After follow-up, two MTCs were found. These two patients had basal CT >100 pg/mL and detectable (>0.1 ng/mL) PCT, with 100% sensitivity. Pentagastrin stimulated CT achieved values above 100 pg/mL in two MTCs and in other two cases with no MTC outcome (50% PPV and 83% NPV). On the contrary, all patients with no MTC had both basal and stimulated undetectable PCT (100% PPV and 100% NPV). The addition of basal PCT measurement in patients with thyroid nodule(s) and increased CT may significantly improve accuracy of CT measurement without needing a PG stimulation test.

  7. Papillary carcinoma of thyroid with exuberant nodular fasciitis-like stroma. Report of three cases.

    PubMed

    Chan, J K; Carcangiu, M L; Rosai, J

    1991-03-01

    Three examples of an unusual morphologic variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) are reported. The presence of a prominent stromal component resulted in low-power microscopic appearances resembling fibroadenoma, phyllodes tumor, or fibrocystic disease of the breast in two cases. The carcinomatous component grew in the form of anastomosing narrow tubules, clustered glands, solid sheets with or without squamous differentiation, and/or papillae, and exhibited the typical nuclear features of PTC. The abundant stroma had a nodular fasciitis-like quality and was composed of short fascicles of spindle cells separated by varying amounts of mucoid matrix, collagen, and extravasated red blood cells; this was interpreted as an exuberant mesenchymal reaction to the carcinoma. The importance of recognizing this variant of PTC is that, when one encounters a fibroproliferative lesion of the thyroid, a diligent search should be made for papillary carcinoma. This variant also must be distinguished from the vastly more aggressive papillary carcinomas with anaplastic transformation and the so-called carcinosarcomas.

  8. Metastatic papillary thyroid carcinoma to the nose: report and review of cutaneous metastases of papillary thyroid cancer

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Philip R.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Metastatic papillary thyroid carcinoma typically appears in local lymph nodes. Skin metastases are rare. Purpose: A man with progressive metastatic papillary thyroid carcinoma who developed a cutaneous metastasis on his nose is described. The clinical manifestations of metastatic papillary thyroid carcinoma to skin are reviewed. Methods: PubMed was used to search the following terms, separately and in combination: basal, cancer, carcinoma, cell, cutaneous, kinase, inhibitor, metastases, nose, papillary, rearranged during transfection, receptor, RET, thyroid, tyrosine, vandetanib. Results: Pathologic changes observed on the biopsy of the man’s nose lesion were similar to those of his original cancer. Genomic evaluation of the tumor revealed an aberration involving the rearranged during transfection (RET) receptor tyrosine kinase. The residual tumor was excised. Treatment with vandetanib, a RET inhibitor was initiated; his metastatic disease has been stable, without symptoms or recurrent cutaneous metastasis, for 2 years following the discovery of his metastatic nose tumor. Conclusions: Papillary thyroid carcinoma with skin metastases is rare. Nodules usually appear on the scalp or neck; the thyroidectomy scar is also a common site. Metastatic tumor, albeit infrequently, can present as a nose lesion. The prognosis for patients with cutaneous metastases from papillary thyroid carcinoma is poor. However, with the ability to test the tumor for genomic aberrations, molecular targeted therapies—such as tyrosine kinase inhibitors—may provide extended survival in these individuals. PMID:26693082

  9. [Thyroid nodules: clinical management and differential diagnosis].

    PubMed

    Giovanella, L

    2009-01-21

    Thyroid nodules are common and are frequently benign. The prevalence of thyroid nodules ranges from 3-7% (palpation) to 50% (ultrasonography). Thyroid cancer occurs in 5-10% of nodules. Thyroid ultrasonography (US) is not a screening test but all patients with palpable thyroid nodule should undergo US examination. US-guided fine-needle aspiration citology (FNC) is recommendend for nodules with suspicious features at US examination or when clinical risk factors occur. A radioisotope scan is useful if the TSH is low or suppressed to detect (benign) functioning nodules.

  10. [Cryptogenic and iatrogenic papillary thyroid carcinoma in children and adolescences: comparative study].

    PubMed

    Fridman, M V; Demidchik, Iu E; Papok, V E; Savva, N N; Zborovskaia, A A; Spivak, L V; Schmid, K W

    2011-01-01

    The clinico-morphological investigations of 117 children and adolescences with papillary thyroid carcinoma, surgically treated in the Republic Centre for Thyroid Tumors, Minsk, Belarus in 1995-2009 and dutifully followed-up have been studied. Ninety -five observations of all cases were sporadic, but 22 patients had been treated earlier from other neoplasm (Hodgkin's diseases, malignant lymphoma, leukemia, sarcoma, medulloblastoma). Epidemiologic, clinical and pathological peculiarities of thyroid carcinoma in Belarus were analyzed. A number of features distinguished "cryptogenic" and "iatrogenic" papillary thyroid carcinoma in children and adolescents were found out.

  11. Secretion of Parathyroid Hormone in Patients with Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Deftos, Leonard J.; Parthemore, Jacqueline G.

    1974-01-01

    The secretion of parathyroid hormone (PTH) and calcitonin (CT) was studied in 30 patients with medullary thyroid carcinoma. Most patients with elevated levels of CT were normocalcemic and also had normal basal levels of PTH. Five of six patients with associated hyperparathyroidism were hypercalcemic and had elevated basal PTH levels. Hormone secretion was also studied during infusions with standard and low doses of calcium. PTH unexpectedly increased during 12 of 18 calcium infusions. Such a paradoxical increase in PTH was seen in those patients with the greatest increase in CT and the least increase in calcium during the calcium infusion. Accordingly, increases in PTH concentration during the calcium infusions could be correlated directly with increases in CT and correlated inversely with increases in calcium. These observations suggest that, in some patients with medullary thyroid carcinoma, a further increase in the abnormally elevated CT levels may stimulate PTH secretion. Therefore, at least in acute studies, there may be a functional, as well as a genetic, relationship between the secretion of these two hormones in patients with this thyroid tumor. PMID:4847251

  12. Biochemical results of reoperations for medullary thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Fernandez Vila, Juan Manuel; Peix, Jean L; Mandry, Alexandra C; Mezzadri, Norberto A; Lifante, Jean C

    2007-05-01

    The calcitonin is a sensitive marker for the presence of medullary thyroid carcinoma, therefore, invaluable in the follow-up of patients who have been treated. Biological cure of the medullary thyroid cancer refers to a basal plasma calcitonin of less than 10 ng/l without elevation after stimulation tests. Biochemical results of reoperations for medullary thyroid carcinoma were reviewed from a series of 35 patients who underwent 47 reinterventions. The indications for reoperation were: hypercalcitoninemia with clinical evidence of the disease (32 cases); hypercalcitoninemia after an inadequate primary surgery (6 cases); persistent hypercalcitoninemia with biochemical evidence of the disease (2 cases); liver metastases (1 case); and palliative surgery for relieving symptoms (1 case). Only three patients of the series had biochemical cure after reoperation (patients with an inadequate primary surgery). This study is consistent with the bibliographic reviews supporting that the cervical reoperation, eventually mediastinal, for residual hypercalcitoninemia after primary surgical treatment is indicated when the initial intervention did not follow the French Calcitonin Tumour Study Group (GETC) recommendations or when a specific lesion is evidenced by imaging studies without systemic dissemination.

  13. Loss of estrogen receptor Beta expression in follicular thyroid carcinoma predicts poor outcome.

    PubMed

    Heikkilä, Annukka; Hagström, Jaana; Mäenpää, Hanna; Louhimo, Johanna; Siironen, Päivi; Heiskanen, Ilkka; Haglund, Caj; Arola, Johanna

    2013-04-01

    Well-differentiated follicular thyroid carcinomas (FTCs) usually act indolently, while aggressively acting tumors are difficult to detect early enough. Estrogen receptors (ERs) have prognostic significance in many cancers. Thyroid diseases, including neoplasms, are associated with the female sex. The prognostic significance of ERs in FTCs has not been reported previously. We studied the role of ERα and ERβ in 83 cases of follicular thyroid adenoma (FTA) and 43 FTC cases, including seven cases of poorly differentiated FTC, obtained from the Department of Surgery, Helsinki University Central Hospital between 1990 and 2009. Patient follow-up was conducted until March 2011. Expression of ERα, ERβ, and MIB-1/Ki-67 was investigated by immunohistochemistry and correlated with clinicopathological characteristics, including survival. Two major observations were apparent. First, ERβ expression was significantly higher in FTA than in FTC, and it was a stronger differential diagnostic marker than MIB-1/Ki-67. Second, low ERβ expression correlated with poor survival in FTC. All cancer-specific deaths due to FTC were among low ERβ-score patients. ERβ is a differential marker for malignancy and could thus be used as a preoperative tool. FTC patients with a low ERβ score need more thorough follow-up and may benefit from more aggressive treatment.

  14. Thyroid carcinoma in children and adolescents: presentation, clinical course, and outcome of therapy in 23 children and adolescents in Northern Greece.

    PubMed

    Pazaitou-Panayiotou, Kalliopi; Kaprara, Athina; Boudina, Maria; Georgiou, Eleni; Drimonitis, Apostolos; Vainas, Iraklis; Raptou, Ekaterini; Galaktidou, Grammati

    2005-01-01

    To define clinical presentation, surgical complications, follow-up characteristics, and survival of 23 children and adolescents with thyroid carcinoma. Retrospective analysis of data of 23 children and adolescents with thyroid carcinoma cared for in the Theagenion Cancer Hospital, Thessaloniki. At the time of diagnosis cervical lymph node metastases were present in 18 (78.2%), mediastinal in 2 (8.69%), and pulmonary in 3 patients (13%). Total thyroidectomy was performed in 21 patients, with lymph node dissection in 18 and subtotal thyroidectomy in 2. No significant post-operative complications were observed. Histological examination revealed differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC). Tumor was multifocal in 11 (47.8%) and bilateral in 7 subjects (63.6%). Thyroid capsule invasion, vascular invasion, soft tissue involvement, and parathyroid gland invasion was observed in 12 out of 23 patients (52.1%). All patients received thyroxine suppressive therapy and 21 of them additional therapy with radioactive iodine (131I). During follow-up (5.5 years), 6 out of the 23 patients presented new metastases in the cervical and mediastinal lymph nodes, lungs, and bones. At last follow-up, 11 patients (47.8%) had residual disease but all were alive. Thyroid carcinoma in children and adolescents can be quite aggressive. When a young patient presents thyroid nodule or multinodular goiter or palpable lymph nodes, the existence of thyroid carcinoma must be seriously considered.

  15. LYMPHOCYTIC THYROIDITIS IS ASSOCIATED WITH INCREASED NUMBER OF BENIGN CERVICAL NODES AND FEWER CENTRAL NECK COMPARTMENT METASTATIC LYMPH NODES IN PATIENTS WITH DIFFERENTIATED THYROID CANCER.

    PubMed

    Donangelo, Ines; Walts, Ann E; Bresee, Catherine; Braunstein, Glenn D

    2016-10-01

    Whether or not autoimmune thyroid disease influences the progression of differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) remains controversial. Findings of previous studies are influenced by lead time bias and/or procedure bias selection. These biases can be reduced by studying a single-institution patient population that underwent a similar extent of surgical resection. From a cohort of 660 patients with DTC who underwent thyroidectomy, we retrospectively studied 357 patients who underwent total thyroidectomy and central compartment node dissection (CCND) for DTC between 2003 and 2013. Forty-one percent (140/345) of study patients had lymphocytic thyroiditis (LT), and 30% (91/301) had serum positive for thyroglobulin antibody (TgAb). LT was reported in 78% of the TgAb-positive cases. Sixty percent (213/357) of cases had metastatic thyroid carcinoma in 1 or more neck lymph nodes (55% [198/357] central compartment, and 22% [77/356] lateral compartment). Patients with LT had fewer metastatic cervical lymph nodes than those with no LT (2.7 ± 4.7 vs 3.5 ± 4.8, respectively, P = .0285). Patients with positive TgAb and thyroiditis had a larger number of benign cervical lymph nodes removed than those with negative TgAb or no LT. No significant difference was observed in age, tumor size, multifocality, extrathyroidal extension, vascular invasion, or frequency of cervical lymph node metastasis between TgAb-negative and -positive cases or between cases with and without LT. Lymphocytic thyroiditis is associated with fewer central neck compartment metastatic lymph nodes and a larger number of excised reactive benign cervical lymph nodes. Whether this association indicates a protective role of thyroid autoimmunity in lymph node spreading remains unclear. CCND = central compartment node dissection DTC = differentiated thyroid cancer HT = Hashimoto thyroiditis LT = lymphocytic thyroiditis TgAb = thyroglobulin antibody TPO = thyroid peroxidase.

  16. Metastatic uterine leiomyosarcoma coexisting with papillary carcinoma of the thyroid gland.

    PubMed

    Giannikaki, E; Mantadakis, E; Mamalaki, E; Delides, G; Samonis, G

    2006-01-01

    Metastatic leiomyosarcoma to the thyroid gland has rarely been described. We report a 54-year-old postmenopausal woman with uterine leiomyosarcoma, who presented with a single "cold" nodule in the right thyroid lobe 3 months after hysterectomy. The lesion was identified as a papillary thyroid carcinoma. In a separate area of the thyroid, a 1.2-mm area of a malignant mesenchymal neoplasm with morphologic and immunohistochemical features of leiomyosarcoma existed. Seven months after thyroidectomy the patient developed micronodular lung disease visible on successive chest computed tomography scans, consistent with metastatic disease from the primary uterine leiomyosarcoma that showed very good and prolonged response to chemotherapy. The thyroid papillary carcinoma was likely the recipient of an early and possibly the first metastasis of the patient's uterine leiomyosarcoma. This is the first report of metastatic leiomyosarcoma coexisting with a primary thyroid carcinoma and supports the possibility of a common pathway connecting thyroid gland neoplasms and sarcomas.

  17. Valproic acid induces apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in poorly differentiated thyroid cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Catalano, Maria G; Fortunati, Nicoletta; Pugliese, Mariateresa; Costantino, Lucia; Poli, Roberta; Bosco, Ornella; Boccuzzi, Giuseppe

    2005-03-01

    Poorly differentiated thyroid carcinoma is an aggressive human cancer that is resistant to conventional therapy. Histone deacetylase inhibitors are a promising class of drugs, acting as antiproliferative agents by promoting differentiation, as well as inducing apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. Valproic acid (VPA), a class I selective histone deacetylase inhibitor widely used as an anticonvulsant, promotes differentiation in poorly differentiated thyroid cancer cells by inducing Na(+)/I(-) symporter and increasing iodine uptake. Here, we show that it is also highly effective at suppressing growth in poorly differentiated thyroid cancer cell lines (N-PA and BHT-101). Apoptosis induction and cell cycle arrest are the underlying mechanisms of VPA's effect on cell growth. It induces apoptosis by activating the intrinsic pathway; caspases 3 and 9 are activated but not caspase 8. Cell cycle is selectively arrested in G(1) and is associated with the increased expression of p21 and the reduced expression of cyclin A. Both apoptosis and cell cycle arrest are induced by treatment with 1 mm VPA, a dose that promotes cell redifferentiation and that is slightly above the serum concentration reached in patients treated for epilepsy. These multifaceted properties make VPA of clinical interest as a new approach to treating poorly differentiated thyroid cancer.

  18. Thyroid cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... a family history of thyroid cancer and chronic goiter (enlarged thyroid). There are several types of thyroid ... Read More Anaplastic thyroid cancer Breathing difficulty Cancer Goiter - simple Metastasis Radiation therapy Thyroid cancer - papillary carcinoma ...

  19. Papillary Carcinoma of Thyroid Gland in a Two-year-old Child.

    PubMed

    Uhliarová, B; Hajtman, A

    2016-01-01

    Thyroid nodules are less common among children than among adults. By contrast, thyroid nodules are more often malignant in childhood than in adulthood. In children, 26% of thyroid nodules are malignant, while in adults the corresponding value is 5-10%. Risk factors for developing thyroid nodules in children are female sex, post-pubertal age, previous or co-existing thyroid disease, previous irradiation of the neck, and a family history of thyroid disease. In children younger than 10 years, when no risk factors are present, the incidence rates are practically negligible. A two-year-old girl presented with a right thyroid mass. Laboratory evaluation revealed normal levels of triiodothyronine and thyroid-stimulating hormone. Thyroid ultrasonography revealed a 4.8 × 3.2 × 2.5 cm nonhomogenous nodule. The patient underwent right hemithyroidectomy. The pathology was consistent with papillary thyroid carcinoma; therefore, total thyroidectomy and selective neck dissection were performed. We report a very rare case of papillary thyroid carcinoma in a two-year-old child with no risk factors. The detection of a thyroid nodule in such a young child with no pre-disposing risk factors does not exclude the possibility of thyroid carcinoma and warrants careful evaluation and appropriate therapy.

  20. Thyroid Gland Involvement in Carcinoma Larynx and Hypopharynx-Predictive Factors and Prognostic Significance.

    PubMed

    Iype, Elizabeth Mathew; Jagad, Vijay; Nochikattil, Santhosh Kumar; Varghese, Bipin T; Sebastian, Paul

    2016-02-01

    Intraoperative management of thyroid gland in laryngeal and hypopharyngeal cancer is controversial. The objectives of this study were to determine the incidence of thyroid gland invasion in patients undergoing surgery for laryngeal or hypopharyngeal carcinoma, to assess predictive factors and to assess the prognosis in patients with and without thyroid gland invasion. One hundred and thirty-three patients who underwent surgery for carcinoma larynx and hypopharynx from 2006 to 2010 were reviewed retrospectively. Surgical specimens were examined to determine the incidence of thyroid gland invasion and predictive factors were analysed. The recurrence rate and the survival in patients with and without thyroid gland invasion were also analysed. Out of the 133 patients with carcinoma larynx and hypopharynx who underwent surgery, histological thyroid gland invasion was observed in 28/133 (21%) patients. Significant relationship was found between histological thyroid gland invasion and preoperative evidence of thyroid cartilage erosion by CT scan and also when gross thyroid gland involvement observed during surgery. There is significant association between thyroid gland invasion when there is upper oesophageal or subglottic involvement. After analysing the retrospective data from our study, we would like to suggest that thyroid gland need not be removed routinely in all laryngectomies, unless there is advanced disease with thyroid cartilage erosion and gross thyroid gland involvement or disease with significant subglottic or oesophageal involvement.

  1. Thyroid Gland Involvement in Carcinoma Larynx and Hypopharynx-Predictive Factors and Prognostic Significance

    PubMed Central

    Iype, Elizabeth Mathew; Jagad, Vijay; Varghese, Bipin T.; Sebastian, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Intraoperative management of thyroid gland in laryngeal and hypopharyngeal cancer is controversial. Aim The objectives of this study were to determine the incidence of thyroid gland invasion in patients undergoing surgery for laryngeal or hypopharyngeal carcinoma, to assess predictive factors and to assess the prognosis in patients with and without thyroid gland invasion. Materials and Methods One hundred and thirty-three patients who underwent surgery for carcinoma larynx and hypopharynx from 2006 to 2010 were reviewed retrospectively. Surgical specimens were examined to determine the incidence of thyroid gland invasion and predictive factors were analysed. The recurrence rate and the survival in patients with and without thyroid gland invasion were also analysed. Results Out of the 133 patients with carcinoma larynx and hypopharynx who underwent surgery, histological thyroid gland invasion was observed in 28/133 (21%) patients. Significant relationship was found between histological thyroid gland invasion and preoperative evidence of thyroid cartilage erosion by CT scan and also when gross thyroid gland involvement observed during surgery. There is significant association between thyroid gland invasion when there is upper oesophageal or subglottic involvement. Conclusion After analysing the retrospective data from our study, we would like to suggest that thyroid gland need not be removed routinely in all laryngectomies, unless there is advanced disease with thyroid cartilage erosion and gross thyroid gland involvement or disease with significant subglottic or oesophageal involvement. PMID:27042568

  2. Brain Metastases of Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma with Horner's Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Sung-Hoon; Kim, Sang-Hyo; Lee, Jung-Hwan; Chough, Chung-Kee; Park, Hae-Kwan; Lee, Kyung-Jin; Rha, Hyoung-Kyun

    2014-01-01

    Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is the most common type of thyroid malignancy and has relatively favorable prognosis. Blood-borne metastases of PTC are very rare among the thyroid malignancies. Moreover a case of blood-borne central nervous system metastasized PTC with only unilateral Horner's syndrome, and without any abnormalities in laboratory or physical examinations has not been described before. A 53-year-old female patient had been managed in ophthalmologic clinic due to vague symptoms of right monocular blurred vision with eye dryness for 3 months, but showed no signs of improvement. So it was performed a magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance angiography to evaluate the possibilities of cerebral lesion. And a left frontal mass was incidentally found, and the tumor turned out to be a PTC that had metastasized to brain, regional lymph node, cervical, thoracic spine, and lung. We describe a PTC with extraordinary initial symptoms that metastasized to an unusual site. We recommend that if a papillary thyroid tumor with unusual symptoms or at an advanced stage is found, further investigation should be performed for distant metastasis. PMID:25408940

  3. Brain Metastases of Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma with Horner's Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Cho, Sung-Hoon; Kim, Sang-Hyo; Lee, Jung-Hwan; Joo, Won-Il; Chough, Chung-Kee; Park, Hae-Kwan; Lee, Kyung-Jin; Rha, Hyoung-Kyun

    2014-10-01

    Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is the most common type of thyroid malignancy and has relatively favorable prognosis. Blood-borne metastases of PTC are very rare among the thyroid malignancies. Moreover a case of blood-borne central nervous system metastasized PTC with only unilateral Horner's syndrome, and without any abnormalities in laboratory or physical examinations has not been described before. A 53-year-old female patient had been managed in ophthalmologic clinic due to vague symptoms of right monocular blurred vision with eye dryness for 3 months, but showed no signs of improvement. So it was performed a magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance angiography to evaluate the possibilities of cerebral lesion. And a left frontal mass was incidentally found, and the tumor turned out to be a PTC that had metastasized to brain, regional lymph node, cervical, thoracic spine, and lung. We describe a PTC with extraordinary initial symptoms that metastasized to an unusual site. We recommend that if a papillary thyroid tumor with unusual symptoms or at an advanced stage is found, further investigation should be performed for distant metastasis.

  4. Thyroid-stimulating hormone suppression therapy for differentiated thyroid cancer: The role for a combined T3/T4 approach.

    PubMed

    Fussey, Jonathan Mark; Khan, Habib; Ahsan, Farhan; Prashant, Ravi; Pettit, Laura

    2017-09-27

    In the management of differentiated thyroid carcinoma, surgery with or without postoperative radioiodine, and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) suppression is the standard of care in most patients. Levothyroxine is recommended for long-term TSH suppression. For some patients, this may be difficult to tolerate due to adverse effects, such as impaired cognitive function. This article reviews the evidence for the role of combination treatment with triiodothyronine (T3) and levothyroxine (T4) in these patients. The evidence for combination T3 and T4 treatment comes mainly from studies on hypothyroidism, and research into its use for TSH suppression is limited. Although the evidence base is not strong, there is a small group of patients who may benefit from combination T3 and T4 treatment due to difficulty tolerating thyroxine. Until further evidence is available, a case-by-case approach is recommended. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Mammary Analog Secretory Carcinoma (MASC) Involving the Thyroid Gland: A Report of the First 3 Cases.

    PubMed

    Dettloff, Jennifer; Seethala, Raja R; Stevens, Todd M; Brandwein-Gensler, Margaret; Centeno, Barbara A; Otto, Kristen; Bridge, Julia A; Bishop, Justin A; Leon, Marino E

    2016-07-11

    Salivary gland-type tumors have been rarely described in the thyroid gland. Mammary Analog Secretory Carcinoma (MASC) is a recently defined type of salivary gland carcinoma characterized by a t(12;15)(p13;q25) resulting in an ETV6-NTRK3 fusion gene. We report 3 cases of MASC involving the thyroid gland without clinical evidence of a salivary gland or breast primary; the clinico-pathologic characteristics are reviewed. Assessment for rearrangement of the ETV6 (12p13) locus was conducted by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) on representative FFPE sections using an ETV6 break apart probe (Abbott Molecular, Des Plaines, IL, USA). The patients were two females (52 and 55 years-old) and 1 male (74 years-old). The tumors were poorly circumscribed solid white tan nodules involving the thyroid. Histologically, they were invasive and showed solid, microcystic, cribriform, and tubular growth patterns composed of variably bland polygonal eosinophilic cells with vesicular nuclear chromatin and conspicuous nucleoli. All three cases showed metastasis to lymph nodes; one case showed lateral neck involvement. The tumor cells were positive for S100 and mammaglobin. GATA-3 and PAX-8 were positive in 2 cases, one of which only focally so. All three cases were negative for TTF-1 and thyroglobulin. Rearrangement of the ETV6 locus was confirmed in all cases and a diagnosis of MASC rendered for each case. A site of origin distinct from the thyroid gland was not identified, with a median follow up of 24 months. MASC may rarely involve the thyroid gland. The origin of these lesions is unknown; while an origin from ectopic salivary gland-type cells is entertained, a metastatic origin from an occult primary cannot be definitively excluded at this time. Given the histologic (follicular-like microcystic pattern with colloid-like secretions and papillary pattern), immunophenotypic (PAX-8), and even molecular overlap, MASC can be mistaken for papillary thyroid carcinoma and should be

  6. Paradoxes in thyroid carcinoma treatment: analysis of the SEER database 2010—2013

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Ping; Tian, Shuangming; Li, Jiale; Zhao, Yongfeng; Liu, Wengang; Zhang, Yan; Hu, Zheyu

    2017-01-01

    Thyroid cancer is a common malignant disease with high survival rate (98.1%, 2006-2012, Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) program). In this study, we investigated the treatment paradoxes in thyroid T0 and micro-carcinoma patients. 48,234 thyroid carcinoma patients were identified from 2010 to 2013 in SEER*Stat database (version 8.2.1) released in 2016. Survival analysis showed a significantly lower thyroid carcinoma-specific survival in T0 patients compared with T1–T3 patients. In propensity score analysis, T0 patients had a similar survival curve with T1-T3 patients when lymph node and distant metastasis stages were matched. When all variables, including radiation and surgery treatment, were matched, T0 patients had significantly higher survival compared to T3 patients. These findings suggested that more metastasis and less treatment led to poorer prognosis in T0 patients. Another paradox is about thyroid micro-carcinoma. The survival rate of micro-carcinoma patients was high (4 years survival rate was 99.92%), and more than 99% micro-carcinoma patients received surgery. Interestingly, all the patients who died because of thyroid carcinoma received surgery. Survival analysis showed no difference in survival when patients stratified by surgery or radiation. In conclusion, we suggested paradoxes in thyroid carcinoma treatment: over-treated in micro-carcinoma patients and less-treated in T0 patients. PMID:27861148

  7. Acute myeloid leukemia following radioactive iodine therapy for papillary carcinoma of the thyroid.

    PubMed

    Ankit, Jain; S, Premalata C; S, Saini K; P, Bapsy P; V, Sajeevan K; Singh, Tejinder; Batra, Ullas; Govind, Babu; Dasappa, Lokanatha; Atilli, Suresh; R, Permeshwar

    2009-06-05

    Radioactive iodine (RAI) therapy plays an important role in the management of thyroid malignancies. Leukemia is a very rare complication of radioactive therapy. There are very few case reports with doses below 100 mCi causing leukemia. We report a case of papillary carcinoma of the thyroid treated with 80 mCi RAI who later developed acute myeloid leukemia. Thus, all patients with thyroid carcinoma treated with RAI should undergo periodic hematological examinations irrespective of RAI dose.

  8. [Primary carcinoma of the thyroid growing in thyroglossal duct cyst: presentation of two cases].

    PubMed

    Godlewska, Paulina; Bruszewska, Elzbieta; Kozłowicz-Gudzińska, Izabella; Prokurat, Andrzej I; Chrupek, Małgorzata; Zegadło-Mylik, Maria A; Kluge, Przemysław

    2007-01-01

    Thyroglossal duct remnants (TGDR), most often cysts, are the most common type of developmental abnormalities of the thyroid gland. In about 1 to 2% of TGDR neoplastic transformation occurs. Papillary carcinoma of the thyroid may be encountered in over 90% of such cases. Two cases of primary papillary carcinoma of the thyroid in TGDR in young girls are presented. The diagnostic and therapeutic problems are shared, and up-to-date management guidelines in similar cases are discussed.

  9. Expression of papillary thyroid carcinoma-associated molecular markers and their significance in follicular epithelial dysplasia with papillary thyroid carcinoma-like nuclear alterations in Hashimoto's thyroiditis.

    PubMed

    Ma, Heng; Yan, Jin; Zhang, Chao; Qin, Shenghui; Qin, Lingzhi; Liu, Liwei; Wang, Xi; Li, Naping

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the expression of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC)-associated tumor markers in follicular epithelial dysplasia showing PTC-like nuclear alterations (FED) in Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) and to explore the relationship between HT and PTC. In this study, 43 PTC, 18 HT with FED and 16 peritumoral benign thyroid tissues were immunohistochemically analyzed for CK19, galectin-3, HBME-1, CD56, claudin-1 and NGAL expression. Our research revealed that in HT, the expression of CK19, galectin-3, HBME-1, claudin-1 and NGAL was focal and limited to FED, while CD56 was strongly positive in FED and most Hürthle cells. The stain intensity of CK19, claudin-1 and NGAL in FED decreased compared with PTC, but were significantly higher than that in peritumoral benign thyroid tissues (all P < 0.0125). For galectin-3, HBME-1 and CD56, no statistically significant difference was detected between HT and peritumoral benign thyroid tissues (all P > 0.05). In conclusion, In HT, FED might be a precancerous condition closely associated with PTC development as they have overlaps in cytological and immunomarker profiles, indicating that in patients with HT, under prolonged stimuli from chronic inflammation, part of follicular epithelia may show regeneration, hyperplasia, Hürthle cell metaplasia and dysplasia, eventually malignant transformation. Hence, long term follow-up and regular inspection would be necessary for Hashimoto's thyroiditis with FED.

  10. Prognostic Influence of Clinical and Pathological Factors in Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma: A Study of 53 Cases

    PubMed Central

    Brandão, Lenine G.; Cavalheiro, Beatriz G.; Junqueira, Consuelo R.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES AND INTRODUCTION Medullary thyroid carcinoma, a neoplasia of intermediate prognosis and differentiation, does not always respond predictably to known treatments. This study aimed to correlate the clinical progression of surgically treated patients with clinical and pathological data. METHODS A total of 53 patients were followed for 75 months (mean average) in tertiary-care hospital. The clinical status of patients at the end of the study period was characterized to determine correlations with a range of disease aspects. A value of p < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS Twenty-two patients (41.5%) were alive and disease-free at the end of the follow-up period; twenty-three patients (43.4%) had persistent disease; and eight patients (15.1%) had recurrent disease. Four patients (7.6%) died from medullary thyroid carcinoma with clinical and/or imaging evidence of neoplasia. The following aspects demonstrated statistically significant correlations with the final medical condition: positive initial cervical examination (p = 0.002); neoplastic extensions to the thyroid capsule (p = 0.004) and adjacent tissues (p = 0.034); cervical lymph node metastases (p < 0.001); diameter of neoplasia (p = 0.018); TNM (tumor, node and metastasis) Stage (p = 0.001) and evidence of distant and/or cervical diseases in the absence of a cure (p = 0.011). Through logistic regression, the presence of cervical lymph node metastases was considered an independent variable (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS Clinical and pathological aspects of patients with surgically treated medullary thyroid carcinomas are predictors of disease progression. Specifically, even treated cervical lymph node metastases are significantly correlated with disease progression. PMID:19759878

  11. Medullary thyroid carcinoma with ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormone syndrome.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hong Seok; Kim, Min Joo; Moon, Chae Ho; Yoon, Jong Ho; Ku, Ha Ra; Kang, Geon Wook; Na, Im Il; Lee, Seung-Sook; Lee, Byung-Chul; Park, Young Joo; Kim, Hong Il; Ku, Yun Hyi

    2014-03-01

    Ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) syndrome is caused most frequently by a bronchial carcinoid tumor or by small cell lung cancer. Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) is a rare etiology of ectopic ACTH syndrome. We describe a case of Cushing syndrome due to ectopic ACTH production from MTC in a 48-year-old male. He was diagnosed with MTC 14 years ago and underwent total thyroidectomy, cervical lymph node dissection and a series of metastasectomies. MTC was confirmed by the pathological examination of the thyroid and metastatic mediastinal lymph node tissues. Two years after his last surgery, he developed Cushingoid features, such as moon face and central obesity, accompanied by uncontrolled hypertension and new-onset diabetes. The laboratory results were compatible with ectopic ACTH syndrome. A bilateral adrenalectomy improved the clinical and laboratory findings that were associated with Cushing syndrome. This is the first confirmed case of ectopic ACTH syndrome caused by MTC in Korea.

  12. The Role of Fragile Sites in Sporadic Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Dillon, Laura W.; Lehman, Christine E.; Wang, Yuh-Hwa

    2012-01-01

    The incidence of thyroid cancer is increasing, especially papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC), making it currently the fastest-growing cancer among women. Reasons for this increase remain unclear, but several risk factors including radiation exposure and improved detection techniques have been suggested. Recently, the induction of chromosomal fragile site breakage was found to result in the formation of RET/PTC1 rearrangements, a common cause of PTC. Chromosomal fragile sites are regions of the genome with a high susceptibility to forming DNA breaks and are often associated with cancer. Exposure to a variety of external agents can induce fragile site breakage, which may account for some of the observed increase in PTC. This paper discusses the role of fragile site breakage in PTC development, external fragile site-inducing agents that may be potential risk factors for PTC, and how these factors are especially targeting women. PMID:22762011

  13. Well-Differentiated Thyroid Cancer Neovasculature Expresses Prostate-Specific Membrane Antigen-a Possible Novel Therapeutic Target.

    PubMed

    Moore, Maureen; Panjwani, Suraj; Mathew, Rashmi; Crowley, Michael; Liu, Yi-Fang; Aronova, Anna; Finnerty, Brendan; Zarnegar, Rasa; Fahey, Thomas J; Scognamiglio, Theresa

    2017-08-26

    Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA), a type II transmembrane glycoprotein receptor, is highly expressed in prostate cancer and in the tumor neovasculature of colon, breast, and adrenocortical tumors. Here, we analyzed PSMA expression in the neovasculature of various thyroid cancer subtypes and assessed whether PSMA expression is correlated with aggressive behavior. From a prospectively maintained database, we evaluated 91 samples from 68 patients, including 37 primary differentiated thyroid cancers (DTCs) [11 classic papillary (cPTC), 9 follicular-variant (FvPTC), 11 follicular (FTC), 6 radioactive iodine-refractory (RAIR)], 5 anaplastic (ATC) carcinomas, 9 distant and 12 lymph node metastases, 21 benign thyroid nodules, and 7 normal thyroid specimens. Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue blocks were immunostained for vascular endothelial marker CD31 and PSMA with proper controls. PSMA expression was not detected in normal thyroid tissue. DTC tumors demonstrated a significantly higher PSMA expression, in regard to both intensity and percentage of vessels stained, than benign tumors (p < 0.001). Among the histologic subtypes, cPTC, FTC, and RAIR carcinomas demonstrated the highest percent of moderate to strong PSMA staining. PSMA expression was seen more frequently in specimens from distant metastases (100%) compared with specimens from only lymph node metastases (67%). PSMA is significantly overexpressed in the neovasculature of DTCs compared with normal and benign thyroid nodules specifically with increased expression in RAIR carcinomas and distant metastases. PSMA should be further explored as a novel therapeutic target for metastatic and RAIR carcinomas.

  14. A Case of Primary Mammary Analog Secretory Carcinoma (MASC) of the Thyroid Masquerading as Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma: Potentially More than a One Off.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, S; Shaheen, M; Olson, G; Barry, M; Wu, J; Bocklage, T

    2016-09-01

    We present the second reported mammary analog secretory carcinoma (MASC) apparently arising in the thyroid and propose a potential close relationship to ETV6-NTRK3 fusion papillary thyroid carcinoma. The patient, a 36 year old woman, presented with a neck mass of 1 year's duration. Imaging studies showed a tumor involving most of the thyroid with enlarged regional lymph nodes. FNA biopsy yielded a diagnosis of "papillary thyroid carcinoma". Resection revealed a 4.5 cm infiltrative tumor. Final diagnosis was "papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) consistent with diffuse sclerosing variant" with positive lymph nodes (2+/4) and margins. Histologic features included mixed microcystic, solid, follicular and papillary architecture, prominent nucleoli, abundant nuclear grooves and rare nuclear pseudo-inclusions. Despite radioactive iodine, radiotherapy and multiagent chemotherapy, the patient progressed over 6 years with local recurrence and additional lymph node involvement finally developing widespread distant metastases. Prompted by the breast carcinoma-like histopathology of a metastasis, immunohistochemical staining was performed and revealed strong expression of GATA3 and mammaglobin with no reactivity for thyroglobulin or TTF-1. The original tumor was then tested and showed the same immunoprofile. RT-PCR confirmed the presence of an ETV6-NTRK3 fusion consistent with a diagnosis of MASC. Our patient's clinical, imaging and morphologic features remarkably mimicked papillary thyroid carcinoma. At the molecular level, the ETV6-NTRK3 fusion in this patient involved exons reported in the rare "papillary thyroid carcinoma" with this translocation. Given the immunophenotype of this case, it is possible that at least some ETV6-NTRK3 fusion positive PTC are actually MASC masquerading as papillary thyroid carcinoma.

  15. 2015 American Thyroid Association Management Guidelines for Adult Patients with Thyroid Nodules and Differentiated Thyroid Cancer: The American Thyroid Association Guidelines Task Force on Thyroid Nodules and Differentiated Thyroid Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, Erik K.; Bible, Keith C.; Doherty, Gerard M.; Mandel, Susan J.; Nikiforov, Yuri E.; Pacini, Furio; Randolph, Gregory W.; Sawka, Anna M.; Schlumberger, Martin; Schuff, Kathryn G.; Sherman, Steven I.; Sosa, Julie Ann; Steward, David L.; Tuttle, R. Michael; Wartofsky, Leonard

    2016-01-01

    Background: Thyroid nodules are a common clinical problem, and differentiated thyroid cancer is becoming increasingly prevalent. Since the American Thyroid Association's (ATA's) guidelines for the management of these disorders were revised in 2009, significant scientific advances have occurred in the field. The aim of these guidelines is to inform clinicians, patients, researchers, and health policy makers on published evidence relating to the diagnosis and management of thyroid nodules and differentiated thyroid cancer. Methods: The specific clinical questions addressed in these guidelines were based on prior versions of the guidelines, stakeholder input, and input of task force members. Task force panel members were educated on knowledge synthesis methods, including electronic database searching, review and selection of relevant citations, and critical appraisal of selected studies. Published English language articles on adults were eligible for inclusion. The American College of Physicians Guideline Grading System was used for critical appraisal of evidence and grading strength of recommendations for therapeutic interventions. We developed a similarly formatted system to appraise the quality of such studies and resultant recommendations. The guideline panel had complete editorial independence from the ATA. Competing interests of guideline task force members were regularly updated, managed, and communicated to the ATA and task force members. Results: The revised guidelines for the management of thyroid nodules include recommendations regarding initial evaluation, clinical and ultrasound criteria for fine-needle aspiration biopsy, interpretation of fine-needle aspiration biopsy results, use of molecular markers, and management of benign thyroid nodules. Recommendations regarding the initial management of thyroid cancer include those relating to screening for thyroid cancer, staging and risk assessment, surgical management, radioiodine remnant ablation and therapy

  16. Columnar cell variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma: A diagnostic dilemma in fine-needle aspiration cytology.

    PubMed

    Verma, Ritu; Paul, Paramita

    2016-10-01

    Columnar cell variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is an uncommon variant with an aggressive course as compared to classic papillary carcinoma. Cytologic diagnosis of these tumors is difficult due to absence of characteristic nuclear features of classic pattern of papillary carcinoma. We present a case of columnar cell variant in a young female misdiagnosed on aspiration cytology. A 21-year-old female presented with solitary nodule in the left aspect of thyroid. A diagnosis of medullary thyroid carcinoma was rendered. The resected thyoroidectomy specimen revealed a columnar cell variant of PTC which was further supported by immunohistochemical staining. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2016;44:816-819. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Mucinous carcinoma of the thyroid: A case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Bajja, Mohamed Yahya; Benassila, Fatima Zahra; Abada, Radallah Larbi; Mahtar, Mohamed; Chadli, Asma

    2017-02-01

    We report the case of a primary mucinous carcinoma of the thyroid in a man of 74 who had a 4-cm nodule in the right lobe of the thyroid, with a solido-cystic appearance on ultrasound associated with lymph node metastases. On scintigraphy, the nodule was hot and not extinctive. The patient underwent total thyroidectomy with a ipsilateral right lymph node dissection. The immunohistochemical study showed the negativity of CK 7 and CK 20 and the positivity of thyroglobulin and TTF 1. Postoperatively the rate of blood thyroglobulin 3 months after surgery had collapsed to 0.17ng/ml. The evolution was marked by the appearance of pulmonary metastasis and the patient died 4 months after surgery. Histological study showed the presence of almas of neoplastic cells surrounded by large deposits of extracellular mucin. Primitive mucinous carcinoma of the thyroid is a rare tumor which differential diagnosis is established on the positive immunohistochemistry of thyroglobulin and TTF1 but negative for other markers.

  18. A ‘silent’ skull metastatic follicular thyroid carcinoma mimicking as a benign scalp tumor in a pregnant woman

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Tsung-Chun; Cheng, Yu-Kai; Chen, Tsung-Wei; Hsu, Yung-Chang; Liu, En-Wei

    2017-01-01

    Summary Thyroid cancer with cranial metastasis in a pregnant woman is very rare. In the literature, most cases are diagnosed early from neurogenic signs or symptomatic thyroid gland. Pregnancy also contributes to a hesitation toward early surgical and medical treatments. We reported a scalp tumor in a physically healthy 37-year-old pregnant female with a follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC) with lung, bone and cranial metastasis in initial presentation. Silent neurogenic and physical examinations make an early diagnosis very challenging. Resection of scalp and intracranial tumor, a thyroidectomy, post-operative radioactive iodine therapy and tyrosine kinase inhibitors were employed as treatment. The scalp tumor was confirmed as a metastatic follicular thyroid carcinoma via positive immunoreactivity for thyroglobulin and thyroid transcription factor 1 in tumor cells. Blood examination revealed an elevated thyroglobulin level (>5335 ng/mL). The patient was discharged without any neurological deficit. An asymptomatic scalp tumor in a pregnant woman with a normal thyroid disease history needs differential diagnosis from intracranial origin. Rapid progression and an elevated thyroglobulin level are the indicators that further image study is needed. Aggressive surgical excision of resectable thyroid gland and metastatic tumor are essential for a longer survival rate. There is nothing to indicate that a post-partum operation will worsen prognosis. Learning points: Follicular thyroid cancer with cranial metastasis in initial presentation can be asymptomatic. Follicular thyroid cancer with cranial metastasis in a pregnant woman can be treated after delivery. Rapid enlargement of scalp tumor is indicated for further image study even in a patient without any neurological deficit. PMID:28203373

  19. FAP Associated Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma: A Peculiar Subtype of Familial Nonmedullary Thyroid Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Cetta, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Familial Nonmedullary Thyroid Carcinoma (FNMTC) makes up to 5–10% of all thyroid cancers, also including those FNMTC occurring as a minor component of familial cancer syndromes, such as Familial Adenomatous Polyposis (FAP). We give evidence that this extracolonic manifestation of FAP is determined by the same germline mutation of the APC gene responsible for colonic polyps and cancer but also shows some unusual features (F : M ratio = 80 : 1, absence of LOH for APC in the thyroid tumoral tissue, and indolent biological behaviour, despite frequent multicentricity and lymph nodal involvement), suggesting that the APC gene confers only a generic susceptibility to thyroid cancer, but perhaps other factors, namely, modifier genes, sex-related factors, or environmental factors, are also required for its phenotypic expression. This great variability is against the possibility of classifying all FNMTC as a single entity, not only with a unique or prevalent causative genetic factor, but also with a unique or common biological behavior and a commonly dismal prognosis. A new paradigm is also suggested that could be useful (1) for a proper classification of FAP associated PTC within the larger group of FNMTC and (2) for making inferences to sporadic carcinogenesis, based on the lesson from FAP. PMID:26697262

  20. Multifocal fibrosing thyroiditis and its association with papillary thyroid carcinoma using BRAF pyrosequencing.

    PubMed

    Frank, Renee; Baloch, Zubair W; Gentile, Caren; Watt, Christopher D; LiVolsi, Virginia A

    2014-09-01

    Multifocal fibrosing thyroiditis (MFT) is characterized by numerous foci of fibrosis in a stellate configuration with fibroelastotic and fibroblastic centers entrapping epithelial structures. MFT has been proposed as a risk factor for papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) development. We attempted to identify whether MFT showed such molecular changes and could possibly be related to PTC. We identified seven cases of PTC with MFT in our institutional pathology database and personal consult service of one of the authors (VAL) for the years 1999 to 2012. Areas of PTC, MFT, and normal tissue were selected for BRAF analysis. Macro-dissection, DNA extraction and PCR amplification, and pyrosequencing were performed to detect BRAF mutations in codon 600. All of the MFT lesions and normal thyroid tissue were negative for BRAF mutations. Of the seven PTCs analyzed, five (71 %) were negative for BRAF mutations, while two cases were positive. In our study, none of the MFT lesions harbored BRAF mutations, whereas 29 % (two of seven) PTCs in the same gland were positive. Hence, in this small study, we found no evidence that the MFT lesion is a direct precursor to PTC. It is likely an incidental bystander in the process and a reflection of the background thyroiditis.

  1. Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma Arising in Children and Adolescent Hashimoto's Thyroiditis: Ultrasonographic and Pathologic Findings

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Sun Hye; Hong, Hyun Sook; Lee, Eun Hye; Kwak, Jeong Ja

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. We compared the ultrasonography and pathology features of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) in pediatric and adolescents with Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) with those of non-HT patients. Materials and Methods. Eleven patients who were surgically confirmed to have pediatric or adolescent PTC from 2006 to 2014 were included in this study. We retrospectively analyzed the preoperative ultrasonography and pathology features of PTC arising in HT and non-HT patients. Results. On ultrasonography, thyroid gland was lobulated and enlarged, with many scattered microcalcifications in four of five HT patients. Four of six non-HT patients had suspicious masses with calcifications. The diffuse sclerosing variant of PTC (DSVPTC) was found in three of five HT patients, but none in non-HT patients. Macroscopic or microscopic extrathyroidal extension was evident in all of the HT patients and four of the non-HT patients. Neck lymph node metastases were in all HT patients and five of non-HT patients. Conclusions. Three of five PTCs in pediatric and adolescent HT patients were DSVPTC, whereas all PTCs of the non-HT patients were classic type. On ultrasonography, thyroid gland was diffusely enlarged with scattered microcalcifications in four of five HT patients. All five HT cases had aggressive disease, including extrathyroidal extension and cervical lymph node metastases. PMID:26977145

  2. Co-expression and clinical utility of Snail and N-cadherin in papillary thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiangshan; Shi, Ranran; Zhang, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Papillary thyroid carcinoma is one of the most common subtypes of thyroid cancer and portends a good prognosis. N-cadherin (neural cadherin) is a member of the classical cadherin family and is often overexpressed in many types of cancers. Snail, a kind of zinc finger protein, is a transcriptional repressor which has been intensively studied in mammals. We investigate the immunohistochemical expression of Snail and N-cadherin in papillary thyroid carcinoma tissues and cells and then discuss the clinical value of Snail and N-cadherin expression. Immunohistochemical technique was performed to detect Snail and N-cadherin in 60 cases of papillary thyroid carcinoma and analyzed the relationship between the expression of Snail, N-cadherin, and clinicopathological indicators. Western blot was used to investigate the constitutive and inducible expression of Snail and N-cadherin. In our study, the expression rate of Snail and N-cadherin was 85.0 % (51/60) and 78.3 % (47/60), respectively, in papillary thyroid carcinoma. The expression rate of Snail and N-cadherin in thyroid papillary carcinoma with metastatic lymph nodes was 93.3 and 86.7 %, respectively, while in papillary thyroid carcinoma tissue without lymph node metastasis, the expression rate was 60.0 and 53.3 %, respectively. The positive correlation of Snail and N-cadherin was observed (r = 0.721, p < 0.01). In addition, Western blot further identified the constitutive and inducible expression of Snail and N-cadherin in papillary thyroid carcinoma tissues and cell lines. In conclusion, Snail and N-cadherin are constitutively and inducibly expressed in papillary thyroid carcinoma and may play important roles in the development and metastasis of papillary thyroid carcinoma. Snail and N-cadherin may be used as an effective indicator.

  3. Successful treatment of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma with a combination of oral valproic acid, chemotherapy, radiation and surgery.

    PubMed

    Noguchi, Hitoshi; Yamashita, Hiroto; Murakami, Tsukasa; Hirai, Keisuke; Noguchi, Yasushi; Maruta, Junko; Yokoi, Tadao; Noguchi, Shiro

    2009-01-01

    Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) is the most aggressive of thyroid cancers whose treatment is not yet established and mortality is extremely high. Recent in vitro studies have shown that valproic acid (VA), a newly identified histone deacetilase (HDAC) inhibitor, induces apoptosis, modulates differentiation gene expression of thyroid tumors and enhances the sensitivity of anaplastic cancer cell lines to doxorubicin. We report a case of successful treatment of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma with a combination of oral valproic acid, chemotherapy consisting of cisplatin and doxorubicin, external and intra-operative radiation and surgery. Tumor volume decreased by 50.7% under CT measurement and 44.6% under sonogram measurement over the course of the treatment. No significant rebound of tumor size was observed between each cycle of chemotherapy. Serial cytology performed via fine needle aspiration (FNA) presented a rapidly changing profile of cell types, starting with anaplastic and proceeding through increasingly well differentiated presentations. Only microscopic remnants of ATC cells were found in the histological examination of the resected thyroid. Ga scintigraphy and whole body PET scan six months after surgery revealed no evidence of recurrence or metastasis. As of Nov. 22, 2008, the patient is alive and disease free two years after diagnosis.

  4. A rare case of solitary subcutaneous scalp metastasis from follicular thyroid carcinoma revealed with positron emission tomography/computed tomography: a case report and review.

    PubMed

    Sager, Sait; Yilmaz, Sabire; Doner, Rana Kaya; Niyazoglu, Mutlu; Halac, Metin; Kanmaz, Bedii

    2014-01-01

    Differentiated thyroid cancer frequently metastasizes to regional cervical lymph nodes and in advanced cases metastases can be seen in the lungs and skeleton. Metastases to the skin or subcutaneous tissue are rare. Here we present a 49-year-old female patient with solitary scalp metastasis from follicular thyroid carcinoma FTC which was revealed with positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) imaging. PET showed flourodeoxiglucose avid lesion in the left vertex scalp. Scalp lesion was removed totally and histopathological examination revealed well-differentiated thyroid cancer metastasis.

  5. "Hidden" bone metastasis from thyroid carcinoma: a clinical note.

    PubMed

    Sioka, C; Skarulis, M C; Tulloch-Reid, M K; Heiss, J D; Reynolds, J C

    2014-01-01

    The (131)I-iodide ((131)I) whole-body scan, for thyroid carcinoma is at times difficult to interpret. In a diagnostic whole body (131)I scan of a patient with follicular carcinoma, a posterior skull lesion was partially hidden by overlapping facial structures. On lateral head view, the abnormality was clearly evident. SPECT/CT and MRI showed the lesion originated in the occipital bone and had enlarged into the posterior fossa. The mass was surgically removed and the patient received (131)I therapy for residual tissue. The study demonstrates a pitfall in the reading of two dimensional radioiodine images which can be overcome by SPECT or lateral imaging. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. and SEMNIM. All rights reserved.

  6. ApolipoproteinL1 is expressed in papillary thyroid carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Chidiac, Mounia; Fayyad-Kazan, Mohammad; Daher, Jalil; Poelvoorde, Philippe; Bar, Isabelle; Maenhaut, Carine; Delrée, Paul; Badran, Bassam; Vanhamme, Luc

    2016-07-01

    The apolipoprotein L (apoL) family has not yet been ascribed any definite patho-physiological function although the conserved BH3 protein domain suggests a role in programmed cell death. As repression of the regular apoptotic program is considered a hallmark of tumor progression, we investigated apoL expression in cancer. We show that the levels of one member of the family, apolipoprotein L1 (apoL1) is higher in papillary thyroid carcinoma compared to normal tissue. A combination of qRTPCR, immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization allowed us to ascribe this increase to endogenous overexpression in carcinoma cells. Whether apoL1 plays an instrumental role in refraining cell death is the subject of ongoing molecular biology experiments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. Papillary thyroid carcinoma in three siblings with familial adenomatous polyposis.

    PubMed

    Civitelli, S; Tanzini, G; Cetta, F; Petracci, M; Pacchiarotti, M C; Civitelli, B

    1996-01-01

    The authors report three siblings (two sisters and their aunt, aged 20, 22 and 36, respectively) with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) and papillary thyroid carcinoma. After diagnosis of FAP, a single, non palpable nodule was revealed in each patient by routine screening ultrasonography of the gland. The diagnosis of papillary carcinoma was made by fine-needle-aspiration biopsy of the nodules and confirmed by histologic examination of surgical specimens. A review of the literature reveals about 40 reports of such an association, that is considered not fortuitous. Nevertheless, in this family the association seems to be a distinctive, clinical feature of the syndrome, affecting three out of five members intensively screened for extracolonic lesions.

  8. Nomenclature Revision for Encapsulated Follicular Variant of Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Nikiforov, Yuri E.; Seethala, Raja R.; Tallini, Giovanni; Baloch, Zubair W.; Basolo, Fulvio; Thompson, Lester D. R.; Barletta, Justine A.; Wenig, Bruce M.; Ghuzlan, Abir Al; Kakudo, Kennichi; Giordano, Thomas J.; Alves, Venancio A.; Khanafshar, Elham; Asa, Sylvia L.; El-Naggar, Adel K.; Gooding, William E.; Hodak, Steven P.; Lloyd, Ricardo V.; Maytal, Guy; Mete, Ozgur; Nikiforova, Marina N.; Nosé, Vania; Papotti, Mauro; Poller, David N.; Sadow, Peter M.; Tischler, Arthur S.; Tuttle, R. Michael; Wall, Kathryn B.; LiVolsi, Virginia A.; Randolph, Gregory W.; Ghossein, Ronald A.

    2017-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Although growing evidence points to highly indolent behavior of encapsulated follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma (EFVPTC), most patients with EFVPTC are treated as having conventional thyroid cancer. OBJECTIVE To evaluate clinical outcomes, refine diagnostic criteria, and develop a nomenclature that appropriately reflects the biological and clinical characteristics of EFVPTC. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS International, multidisciplinary, retrospective study of patients with thyroid nodules diagnosed as EFVPTC, including 109 patients with noninvasive EFVPTC observed for 10 to 26 years and 101 patients with invasive EFVPTC observed for 1 to 18 years. Review of digitized histologic slides collected at 13 sites in 5 countries by 24 thyroid pathologists from 7 countries. A series of teleconferences and a face-to-face conference were used to establish consensus diagnostic criteria and develop new nomenclature. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Frequency of adverse outcomes, including death from disease, distant or locoregional metastases, and structural or biochemical recurrence, in patients with noninvasive and invasive EFVPTC diagnosed on the basis of a set of reproducible histopathologic criteria. RESULTS Consensus diagnostic criteria for EFVPTC were developed by 24 thyroid pathologists. All of the 109 patients with noninvasive EFVPTC (67 treated with only lobectomy, none received radioactive iodine ablation) were alive with no evidence of disease at final follow-up (median [range], 13 [10–26] years). An adverse event was seen in 12 of 101 (12%) of the cases of invasive EFVPTC, including 5 patients developing distant metastases, 2 of whom died of disease. Based on the outcome information for noninvasive EFVPTC, the name “noninvasive follicular thyroid neoplasm with papillary-like nuclear features” (NIFTP) was adopted. A simplified diagnostic nuclear scoring scheme was developed and validated, yielding a sensitivity of 98.6% (95% CI, 96.3%

  9. Mutational activation of BRAF is not a major event in sporadic childhood papillary thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Rosenbaum, Eli; Hosler, Gregory; Zahurak, Marianna; Cohen, Yoram; Sidransky, David; Westra, William H

    2005-07-01

    Papillary thyroid carcinoma may encompass a mixed group of neoplasms where divergence in clinical behavior may reflect distinct genetic alterations. For example, young patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma have a better prognosis than affected adults, and their carcinomas are much more likely to harbor chromosomal rearrangements involving the RET proto-oncogene. Mutational activation of the BRAF oncogene has recently been identified as the most common genetic alteration in papillary thyroid carcinoma, but little is known about its frequency as a function of patient age. We tested 20 papillary thyroid carcinomas from young patients ranging from 10 to 17 years of age for the thymine (T) --> adenine (A) missense mutation at nucleotide 1796 in the BRAF gene using a newly developed assay that employs a novel primer extension method (Mutector assay). The prevalence of BRAF mutation was compared with a larger group of papillary thyroid carcinomas from previously tested adult patients (>20 years). BRAF mutations were not common in papillary thyroid carcinomas from young patients compared to their counterparts in adults (20 vs 77%; OR=13.3, 95% confidence interval (CI)=3.4-56.5; P<0.0001), but they become increasingly prevalent with advancing patient age (OR as a function of age at 10-year intervals=1.80 CI=1.33-2.44; P<0.001). Unlike papillary thyroid carcinomas that arise in adults, mutational activation of BRAF is not a major genetic alteration in papillary thyroid carcinomas that arise in young patients. The increasing frequency of BRAF mutations as a function of age could help account for the well documented but poorly understood observation that age is a relevant prognostic indicator for patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma.

  10. Well-differentiated thyroid cancer - are you overtreating your patients?

    PubMed

    Nixon, Iain J

    2016-01-01

    Over the last 50 years there has been a move towards more aggressive therapy for well-differentiated thyroid cancer. In recent times, however, international guidelines have shown some trend back towards a more conservative approach to treating low-risk patients. This review explores how the state of the art in well-differentiated thyroid cancer research has evolved in tandem with improvements in risk-stratification. A focus on the surgical approach to the primary thyroid tumour and the regional lymphatics in addition to the interplay between surgical decision making and the use of radioactive iodine are presented to allow the reader to determine whether they are now overtreating patients with well-differentiated thyroid cancer.

  11. [Follicular cell (papillary and follicular) thyroid carcinoma, genetic inheritance, and molecular diagnostic markers].

    PubMed

    Kazubskaia, T P; Kozlova, V M; Kondrat'eva, T T; Pavlovskaia, A I; Marakhonov, A V; Baranova, A V; Ivanova, N I; Stepanova, A A; Poliakov, A V; Belev, N F; Brzhezovskiĭ, V Zh

    2014-01-01

    To determine the genetic forms of follicular cell thyroid carcinoma (FCTC) (papillary and follicular thyroid carcinoma (PTC and FTC)), to identify criteria to individually predict the development of the same disease for relatives, and to assess the role of molecular markers in the diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment of this disease. One hundred and ninety adult patients aged 20 to 84 years with histologically verified PTC and FTC and 20 children (12 patients with PTC and 8 with benign thyroid tumors) aged 2 to 16 years were examined. To assess the role of the BRAF gene as a molecular marker for thyroid carcinoma, DNA was isolated from the thyroid tumor tissue of 29 patients, which had been obtained by fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) and scraping and swabbing the cytological specimen previously showing an area containing tumor cells. A BRAF c.1799T>A (p.V600E) mutation in the FNAB specimens was tested by allele-specific ligation, followed by PCR amplification. The examinees' families were found to have a segregation of benign thyroid tumor and nontumor diseases (13.6%). Neoplasias of different sites were observed in 15% of the patients' relatives. Multiple primary tumors were detected in 6.1% of the patients and in 25% of the examined children (3/12). PTC was ascertained to accumulate as two clinical forms in the families. One form belongs to familial PTC (FPTC) in which two or three generations of relatives in the family are afflicted by only PTC and have a more severe phenotype of the disease. The other includes an association of FPTC with papillary kidney cancer. Furthermore, FPTC and PTC may be a component of multitumor syndromes, such as multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1, Cowden syndrome, and familial adenomatous polyposis. The familial hereditary forms of FCTC were generally revealed in 4.2% of the patients. BRAF v600E mutations were found in only 3 patients with Stages II and III PTC and were not in all the 12 children with PTC. The found clinical

  12. Aberrant expression of posterior HOX genes in well differentiated histotypes of thyroid cancers.

    PubMed

    Cantile, Monica; Scognamiglio, Giosuè; La Sala, Lucia; La Mantia, Elvira; Scaramuzza, Veronica; Valentino, Elena; Tatangelo, Fabiana; Losito, Simona; Pezzullo, Luciano; Chiofalo, Maria Grazia; Fulciniti, Franco; Franco, Renato; Botti, Gerardo

    2013-11-01

    Molecular etiology of thyroid cancers has been widely studied, and several molecular alterations have been identified mainly associated with follicular and papillary histotypes. However, the molecular bases of the complex pathogenesis of thyroid carcinomas remain poorly understood. HOX genes regulate normal embryonic development, cell differentiation and other critical processes in eukaryotic cell life. Several studies have shown that HOX genes play a role in neoplastic transformation of several human tissues. In particular, the genes belonging to HOX paralogous group 13 seem to hold a relevant role in both tumor development and progression. We have identified a significant prognostic role of HOX D13 in pancreatic cancer and we have recently showed the strong and progressive over-expression of HOX C13 in melanoma metastases and deregulation of HOX B13 expression in bladder cancers. In this study we have investigated, by immunohistochemisty and quantitative Real Time PCR, the HOX paralogous group 13 genes/proteins expression in thyroid cancer evolution and progression, also evaluating its ability to discriminate between main histotypes. Our results showed an aberrant expression, both at gene and protein level, of all members belonging to paralogous group 13 (HOX A13, HOX B13, HOX C13 and HOX D13) in adenoma, papillary and follicular thyroid cancers samples. The data suggest a potential role of HOX paralogous group 13 genes in pathogenesis and differential diagnosis of thyroid cancers.

  13. Differential pattern of integrin receptor expression in differentiated and anaplastic thyroid cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, S; Maschuw, K; Hassan, I; Reckzeh, B; Wunderlich, A; Lingelbach, S; Zielke, A

    2005-09-01

    Adhesion of tumor cells to the extracellular matrix (ECM) is a crucial step for the development of metastatic disease and is mediated by specific integrin receptor molecules (IRM). The pattern of metastatic spread differs substantially among the various histotypes of thyroid cancer (TC). However, IRM have only occasionally been characterized in TC until now. IRM expression was investigated in 10 differentiated (FTC133, 236, 238, HTC, HTC TSHr, XTC, PTC4.0/4.2, TPC1, Kat5) and two anaplastic TC cell lines (ATC, C643, Hth74), primary cultures of normal thyroid tissue (Thy1,3), and thyroid cancer specimens (TCS). Expression of 16 IRM (beta1-4, beta7, alpha1-6, alphaV, alphaIIb, alphaL, alphaM, alphaX) and of four IRM heterodimers (alpha2beta1, alpha5beta1, alphaVbeta3, alphaVbeta5), was analyzed by fluorescent-activated cell sorter (FACS) and immunohistochemical staining. Thyroid tumor cell adhesion to ECM proteins and their IRM expression in response to thyrotropin (TSH) was assessed. Follicular TC cell lines presented high levels of integrins alpha2, alpha3, alpha5, beta1, beta3 and low levels of alpha1, whereas papillary lines expressed a heterogenous pattern of IRM, dominated by alpha5 and beta1. ATC mainly displayed integrins alpha2, alpha3, alpha5, alpha6, beta1 and low levels of alpha1, alpha4 and alphaV. Integrin heterodimers correlated with monomer expression. Evaluation of TCS largely confirmed these results with few exceptions, namely alpha4, alpha6, and beta3. The ability of TC cell lines to adhere to purified ECM proteins correlated with IRM expression. TSH induced TC cell adhesion in a dose-dependent fashion, despite an unchanged array of IRM expression or level of a particular IRM. Thyroid carcinoma cell lines of different histogenetic background display profoundly different patterns of IRM expression that appear to correlate with tumor aggressiveness. In vitro adhesion to ECM proteins and IRM expression concur. Finally, TSH-stimulated adhesion of

  14. The Effects of Hashimoto Thyroiditis on Lymph Node Metastases in Unifocal and Multifocal Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Feng; Shen, Yi Bin; Li, Fu Qiang; Fang, Yun; Hu, Liang; Wu, Yi Jun

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of this study was to investigate the risk factors for central and lateral neck lymph node metastases in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) and multifocal papillary thyroid carcinoma (MPTC), particularly when associated with Hashimoto thyroiditis (HT). A retrospective analysis of 763 consecutive patients who underwent total thyroidectomy with bilateral central neck dissection in the First Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University between October 2011 and October 2014 was conducted. All patients had formal histological diagnoses of HT. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed to identify risk factors of neck lymph node metastases. Our study identified 277 PTC patients with HT and showed comparatively low rates of central lymph node metastases (CLNM) compared with the PTC patients without HT (37.2% versus 54.7%, P < 0.001). There were no statistically significant differences in lateral lymph node metastases (LLNM) (P = 0.656). Neck lymph node metastases were histologically proven in 127 (45.8%) patients with PTC with HT, including 103 CLNM and 24 LLNM. There were no significant differences in LLNM between the MPTC-associated HT and classic MPTC cases; however, a significantly reduced risk of CLNM was observed in the MPTC-associated HT compared with the MPTC cases (35.7% versus 72.4%, respectively, P < 0.001). In the multivariate analysis, HT was identified as an independent alleviating factor for CLNM in all PTC patients (odds ratio, 0.369; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.261 to 0.521; P < 0.001) and in MPTC patients (odds ratio, 0.227; 95% CI, 0.126–0.406; P < 0.001). A cut-off of thyroid peroxidase antibody >140 IU/mL was established as the most sensitive and specific level for the prediction of MPTC based on receiver operating characteristic curve analyses. Thyroid peroxidase antibody, age, tumor size, and multifocality exhibited the ability to predict CLNM in PTC with HT patients with

  15. O-GlcNAcylation enhances anaplastic thyroid carcinoma malignancy.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Y U; Li, Honglun; Li, Jianlin; Li, Jisheng; Gao, Yan; Liu, Baodong

    2016-07-01

    O-linked N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) glycosylation (O-GlcNAcylation), a dynamic post-translational modification of nuclear and cytoplasmic proteins, may have a critical role in the regulation of biological cell processes and human cancer. O-GlcNAcylation is dynamically regulated by O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) and O-GlcNAc hydrolase (OGA). Accumulating evidence suggests that O-GlcNAcylation is involved in a variety of types of human cancer. However, the exact role of O-GlcNAcylation in tumor pathogenesis or progression remains to be established. Computed tomography scans of patients with anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) reveal a rapid growth rate and invasion. The present study demonstrated that O-GlcNAcylation accelerates the progression of ATC. The global O-GlcNAc level of intracellular proteins was increased by overexpression of OGT or downregulation of OGA activity with the specific inhibitor Thiamet-G. By contrast, the global O-GlcNAc level was decreased by silencing of OGT. MTT assay indicated that O-GlcNAcylation significantly promotes cell proliferation. Furthermore, O-GlcNAcylation enhanced cellular biological functions, such as colony formation ability, migration and invasion, of ATC cells in vitro. The findings of the present study suggest that O-GlcNAcylation is associated with malignant properties of thyroid cancer, and may be a potential target for the diagnosis and treatment of thyroid cancer.

  16. [Basal cell carcinoma with matrical differentiation].

    PubMed

    Goldman-Lévy, Gabrielle; Frouin, Eric; Soubeyran, Isabelle; Maury, Géraldine; Guillot, Bernard; Costes, Valérie

    2015-04-01

    Basal cell carcinoma with matrical differentiation is a very rare variant of basal cell carcinoma. To our knowledge, less than 30 cases have been reported. This tumor is composed of basaloid lobules showing a differentiation toward the pilar matrix cells. Recently, it has been demonstrated that beta-catenin would interfer with physiopathogenesis of matrical tumors, in particular pilomatricomas, but also basal cell carcinomas with matrical differentiation. This is a new case, with immunohistochemical and molecular analysis of beta-catenin, in order to explain its histogenesis.

  17. Association of tuberculous thyroiditis and papillary carcinoma of the thyroid: a rare coincidence.

    PubMed

    Errami, Noureddine; Benjellounb, Amine; Hemmaouia, Bouchaib; Nadoura, Karim; Benariba, Fouad

    2014-01-01

    We report the case of a 25 year-old patient with no medical history, admitted to our unit for nodular goiter of the right lobe without clinical or laboratory signs of hyperthyroidism. We carried out a right lobo-isthmectomy revealing the association of tuberculosis and thyroid papillary carcinoma. A left lobectomy has, therefore, been performed in a second stage. The patient underwent a six-month antituberculosis treatment with a good clinical outcome. We discuss this rare association and its best diagnostic and therapeutic support, with a review of the literature.

  18. Comparison between clinical, ultrasound, CT, MRI, and pathology findings in dogs presented for suspected thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Taeymans, Olivier; Penninck, Dominique G; Peters, Rachel M

    2013-01-01

    This study compares clinical, ultrasound, computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and pathology findings in 16 prospectively, and seven retrospectively recruited dogs presented for suspected thyroid carcinoma. Of these, 17 were confirmed thyroid carcinoma, while six were initially misdiagnosed. These included four carotid body tumors, one para-esophageal abscess, and one undifferentiated squamous cell carcinoma. Thyroid carcinomas occurred in older dogs without evidence of sex predilection, and were more often unilateral. All were large, heterogeneous, moderately to strongly vascularized, and most commonly contained areas of dystrophic mineralization and/or fluid accumulations. On MRI, thyroid carcinomas appeared hyperintense compared to surrounding musculature in all imaging sequences used, while on CT they had a lower attenuation value than normal thyroid gland tissue. Histologically confirmed tumor capsule disruption with invasion of the surrounding structures was most commonly detected with MRI. Palpation was not an accurate predictor of locally invasive vs. well-encapsulated masses. Computed tomography had the highest specificity (100%) and MRI had the highest sensitivity (93%) in diagnosing thyroid carcinoma, while ultrasound had considerably lower results. We conclude that ultrasound is adequate for use as a screening tool for dogs with suspected thyroid carcinoma, but recommend either CT or MRI for preoperative diagnosis and staging.

  19. Production of a novel monoclonal antibody, JT-95, which can detect antigen of thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Takeyama, H; Hosoya, T; Sakurai, K; Mori, Y; Watanabe, M; Kisaki, H; Ohno, T

    1996-04-15

    Monoclonal antibody (MAb) JT-95 was produced by immunization of mice with membrane fractions of a human thyroid carcinoma. Immuno-histochemical staining has demonstrated that the antigen recognized by JT-95 is strongly expressed in 95 (95%) of 100 cases of papillary carcinomas and in 3 (75%) of 4 cases of follicular carcinomas. In benign diseases of the thyroid gland, MAb JT-95 reacted with 0 (0%) of 39 adenomas, 1 (4%) of 21 adenomatous goiters, 0 (0%) of 8 hyperthyroidism specimens, and 3 (38%) of 8 chronic thyroiditis specimens. The antigen detected by MAb JT-95 has an apparent Mr 250,000 in thyroid carcinomas. Moreover, circulating antigen in thyroid carcinoma patients was detected by MAb JT-95 in an ELISA and in Western blotting. The circulating antigen has a Mr 105,000. MAb JT-95 conjugated with (131) I was administrated to nude mice bearing a human thyroid carcinoma. JT-95 131I accumulation at the transplanted tumor was visualized by autoradiography with 2.68-14.75-fold higher levels detected at the xenograft compared to that for normal organs. Based on these data, MAb JT-95 may be useful in the diagnosis detection and therapy of thyroid carcinoma.

  20. A case report of thyroid carcinoma confined to ovary and concurrently occult in the thyroid: is conservative treatment always advised?

    PubMed

    Brusca, Nunzia; Del Duca, Susanna Carlotta; Salvatori, Rita; D'Agostini, Antonio; Cannas, Pina; Santaguida, Maria Giulia; Virili, Camilla; Bianchi, Loredana; Gargano, Lucilla; Centanni, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Struma ovarii is an ovarian teratoma, represented in more than 50% by thyroid tissue. Five percent of struma ovarii cases have been proven to be malignant and, as in the thyroid gland, papillary thyroid carcinoma is the most common histotype arising in struma ovarii. Because of the unusual occurrence of this tumor, its management and follow-up after pelvic surgery is still controversial. Usually, total thyroidectomy followed by radioiodine treatment is the choice treatment in metastatic malignant struma ovarii, while these procedures are still controversial in non-metastatic thyroid cancer arising in struma ovarii. We report a female with follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma arising in struma ovarii. After pelvic surgery, thyroid morphofunctional examinations were performed and a single nodular lesion in the left lobe was discovered. The patient underwent total thyroidectomy and histological examination showed a papillary carcinoma. Radioiodine-ablation of residual thyroid tissue was performed and levothyroxine mildly-suppressive treatment was started. A more aggressive treatment should not be denied for malignant struma ovarii without any evidence, even when apparently confined into the ovary. However, in selected cases, aggressive treatment may be advisable to decrease the risk of recurrence and to allow an accurate follow-up.

  1. A Case Report of Thyroid Carcinoma Confined to Ovary and Concurrently Occult in the Thyroid: Is Conservative Treatment Always Advised?

    PubMed Central

    Brusca, Nunzia; Del Duca, Susanna Carlotta; Salvatori, Rita; D’Agostini, Antonio; Cannas, Pina; Santaguida, Maria Giulia; Virili, Camilla; Bianchi, Loredana; Gargano, Lucilla; Centanni, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Struma ovarii is an ovarian teratoma, represented in more than 50% by thyroid tissue. Five percent of struma ovarii cases have been proven to be malignant and, as in the thyroid gland, papillary thyroid carcinoma is the most common histotype arising in struma ovarii. Because of the unusual occurrence of this tumor, its management and follow-up after pelvic surgery is still controversial. Usually, total thyroidectomy followed by radioiodine treatment is the choice treatment in metastatic malignant struma ovarii, while these procedures are still controversial in non-metastatic thyroid cancer arising in struma ovarii. Case Presentation: We report a female with follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma arising in struma ovarii. After pelvic surgery, thyroid morphofunctional examinations were performed and a single nodular lesion in the left lobe was discovered. The patient underwent total thyroidectomy and histological examination showed a papillary carcinoma. Radioiodine-ablation of residual thyroid tissue was performed and levothyroxine mildly-suppressive treatment was started. Conclusions: A more aggressive treatment should not be denied for malignant struma ovarii without any evidence, even when apparently confined into the ovary. However, in selected cases, aggressive treatment may be advisable to decrease the risk of recurrence and to allow an accurate follow-up. PMID:25745492

  2. Cytological aspects of melanotic variant of medullary thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    de Lima, M A; Dias Medeiros, J; Rodrigues Da Cunha, L; de Cássia Caldas Pessôa, R; Silveira Tavares, F; de Fátima Borges, M; Marinho, E O

    2001-03-01

    We had the opportunity to examine a case of fine-needle aspiration (FNA) of a melanotic variant of medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) in a 20-yr-old man. The patient presented a single node, hardened and mobile upon deglutition, in the right lobe of the thyroid, for 9 mo, without symptoms of glandular dysfunction. Calcitonin (138 pg/ml), urinary calcium (177 mg/dl), and the carcinoembryonic antigen (341 ng/ml) were increased. The nodular aspirate, drawn by FNA, was represented by pleomorphic cells, with frequent intranuclear cytoplasmic inclusions, sometimes bi- or multinucleated, with abundant, finely granular cytoplasm, sometimes containing a brown pigment resembling melanin. An immunohistochemical study using monoclonal antibodies (Dako Corp., Carpinteria, CA) showed that the neoplastic cells were intensely and diffusely positive for calcitonin and chromogranin, and focally positive for HMB45. In view of these findings, the case was characterized as a melanotic variant of medullary carcinoma, a rare type of neoplasia, but having a prognosis similar to the classical variant of MTC.

  3. [The anaplastic thyroid carcinoma research consortium of Japan].

    PubMed

    Sugitani, Iwao

    2012-07-01

    Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) is one of the most lethal neoplasia in humans, with a disease-specific mortality rate approaching 100%. ATC is uncommon and represents only 1-2% of all thyroid carcinomas. The aggressive nature and rarity of this disease make it difficult to improve the quality of evidence on it. To date, most existing knowledge of ATC is derived from single-institution studies with limited cohorts and short-term follow-up. To obtain further insights into this "orphan disease," we established the ATC Research Consortium of Japan (ATCCJ) in January 2009 as a multicenter registry that accumulates, analyzes, and reviews all information on ATC available in the country. As of July 2011, the ATCCJ database included 721 cases of ATC from 38 institutions. Using the database, the members of the ATCCJ have performed several retrospective studies, covering prognostic factors, therapeutic strategies, and pathologic features of ATC. Moreover, prospective trials are being planned as multicenter collaborations to determine the most beneficial treatment, with the ultimate purpose of improving the survival rate of patients with ATC.

  4. Comparison with published systems of a new staging system for papillary and follicular thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Wong, Ronnie Meiyi; Bresee, Catherine; Braunstein, Glenn D

    2013-05-01

    Several staging systems exist to estimate the prognosis for patients with thyroid carcinoma. Our goal was to develop a new staging system to predict cancer-specific survival (CSS) and evaluate it against published systems. The Cedars-Sinai Medical Center (CSMC)'s staging system was derived using data from an adjusted analysis of 1622 patients with differentiated thyroid carcinomas (DTCs) from the CSMC Thyroid Cancer Center. Mean follow-up time was 11.8 years. There were 1180 female and 442 male patients with a mean age of 46. Staging systems reviewed include University of Alabama (Birmingham) and M.D. Anderson Cancer Center (UAB-MDACC); the Tumor-Node-Metastasis (TNM) 5th and 7th editions; Memorial Sloan-Kettering (MSK); the National Thyroid Cancer Treatment Cooperative Study (NTCTCS); Ohio State; Clinical Class; Metastases, Age, Completeness of resection, Invasion, and tumor Size (MACIS); Noguchi; and the Yildirim model for predicting outcomes. The proportion of variance explained (PVE) and the C-index were computed to rank and compare each staging system's ability to predict CSS with this patient population. Adjusted hazard ratios revealed that age at surgery of >45 years, the presence of distant metastases, capsular invasion, and vascular invasion were the most significant predictors of CSS in this patient population. The final CSMC risk score consists of low-, moderate-, and high-risk groups. Among the well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma staging systems, the CSMC and NTCTCS ranked highest with PVE values of 5% and 4.3%, respectively, while the NTCTCS and CSMC staging systems were reversed using the C-index (0.77 and 0.76, respectively). The PVE and C-index values were relatively low across all applicable staging systems and varied in each study reviewed. This suggests that no one staging system has been shown to be superior to another across different patient populations with DTC. In the future, additional factors, such as biological markers, added to the

  5. Expression of PACAP and PAC1 Receptor in Normal Human Thyroid Gland and in Thyroid Papillary Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Bardosi, Sebastian; Bardosi, Attila; Nagy, Zsuzsanna; Reglodi, Dora

    2016-10-01

    Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) belongs to the vasoactive intestinal peptide-secretin-glucagon peptide family, isolated first from ovine hypothalamus. The diverse physiological effects of PACAP are known mainly from animal experiments, including several actions in endocrine glands. Alteration of PACAP expression has been shown in several tumors, but changes in expression of PACAP and its specific PAC1 receptor in human thyroid gland pathologies have not yet been investigated. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate expression of PACAP and its PAC1 receptor in human thyroid papillary carcinoma, the most common endocrine malignant tumor. PACAP and PAC1 receptor expressions were investigated from thyroid gland samples of patients with papillary carcinomas. The staining intensity of follicular epithelial cells and thyroid colloid of tumor tissue was compared to that of tumor-free tissue in the same thyroid glands in a semi-quantitative way. Our results reveal that both PACAP(-like) and PAC1 receptor(-like) immunoreactivities are altered in papillary carcinoma. Stronger PACAP immunoreactivity was observed in active follicles. Colloidal PACAP immunostaining was either lacking or very weak, and more tumorous cells displayed strong apical immunoreactivity. Regarding PAC1 receptor, cells of the normal thyroid tissue showed strong granular expression, which was lacking in the tumor cells. The cytoplasm of tumor cells displayed weak, minimal staining, while in a few tumor cells we observed strong PAC1 receptor expression. This pattern was similar to that observed in the PACAP expression, but fewer in number. In summary, we showed alteration of PACAP and PAC1 receptor expression in human thyroid papillary carcinoma, indicating that PACAP regulation is disturbed in tumorous tissue of the thyroid gland. The exact role of PACAP in thyroid tumor growth should be further explored.

  6. Clinical experience of thyroid carcinoma: a study of 178 cases

    PubMed Central

    Devrim, Cetinkaya Dölek; Pelin, Tutuncuoglu A.; Ahmet, Gorgel; Ozgur, Nιflιoglu M.; Mustafa, Harman; Mithat, Bahceci

    2012-01-01

    Aim of the study Thyroid carcinoma is the most common malignancy of endocrine organs. The prognosis varies. Factors such as age, sex, size of the tumor, stage of disease, presence of extrathyroidal spread, and completeness of resection have been found to significantly influence prognosis. We aimed to evaluate clinical features of our patients with thyroid carcinoma, prospectively. Material and methods We evaluated total 178 patients treated between 2010 and 2011 at the Department of Endocrinology, İzmir Atatürk Training Hospital, retrospectively. Data on patients, tumors, and therapeutic approaches were collected. All results are shown as mean ± standard deviation (SD). P values were based on two-sided tests with a cutoff for statistical significance of 0.05 and 95% confidence interval. Results There were no differences between female and male patients according to histopathological subtypes, demographic data and prognostic findings of thyroid cancer. The assessment of tumor size and other prognostic factors revealed that there was a correlation between tumor size and capsular and/or vascular invasion. In the postoperative evaluation we detected a correlation between metastases and vascular invasion and/or capsular invasion but there was no significant relation between focus (solitary/multifocal) and metastases. Conclusion There was no significant difference in terms of gender and age (< 45 years of age and ≥ 45 years of age) among the patient groups (low risk/intermediate risk/high risk). By multiple regression analysis among metastasis and prognostic factors it was observed that vascular invasion and thyroglobulin levels affect development of metastases. PMID:23788883

  7. Hypopharyngeal and Parapharyngeal Space Metastasis of Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Batıoğlu-Karaaltın, Ayşegül; Azizli, Elad; Ersözlü, İlker; Yiğit, Özgür; Cansız, Harun

    2014-01-01

    Background: Carcinoma of the thyroid gland is one of the most commonly encountered endocrine malignancies. Papillary carcinoma is the most common histological type, and its spread is usually lymphatic. About 30–80% patients with papillary carcinoma develop lymphatic metastases. Case Report: We present here the case of a 70-year-old female patient who had undergone total thyroidectomy 10 years previously, with a histological diagnosis of papillary thyroid carcinoma. A neck dissection was performed ten years after the primary operation due to a mass in the parapharyngeal space and hypopharynx. The mass was diagnosed histologically as papillary thyroid cancer metastasis after the operation. Conclusion: Lymphatic and vascular metastases of papillary thyroid carcinoma separately to the parapharyngeal space and hypopharynx have rarely been reported. In our case, both hypopharyngeal and parapharyngeal space involvement were presented, which is a very rare condition. PMID:25207192

  8. The Surgical Approach to Differentiated Thyroid Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Nixon, Iain

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of thyroid cancer is increasing rapidly. A large percentage of new cases identified fall into a low-risk category. As the incidence has increased, clinical experience has confirmed that the majority of patients will have excellent outcomes and that those at risk of doing badly can be reliably identified. Treatment for thyroid cancer is predominantly surgical. The decision about how aggressively this disease should be managed has remained controversial due to the excellent outcomes irrespective of the nature of surgical procedure chosen. This article reviews the developments in our understanding of the biology of thyroid cancer and the evidence that supports the approach to management. PMID:26918146

  9. Validation of dynamic risk stratification in pediatric differentiated thyroid cancer.

    PubMed

    Sohn, Seo Young; Kim, Young Nam; Kim, Hye In; Kim, Tae Hyuk; Kim, Sun Wook; Chung, Jae Hoon

    2017-08-18

    There has been increasing interest in a risk-adopted management strategy known as dynamic risk stratification following the revised American Thyroid Association guidelines for differentiated thyroid cancer. We aimed to evaluate the usefulness of dynamic risk stratification for predicting structural disease in pediatric differentiated thyroid cancer patients. We retrospectively reviewed 130 pediatric differentiated thyroid cancer patients (≤19 years) who were treated between 1996 and 2015 at Samsung Medical Center. Patients were stratified according to three American Thyroid Association initial risk group (low, intermediate, or high risk) and four dynamic risk stratification group (excellent, indeterminate, biochemical incomplete, or structural incomplete). Based on dynamic risk stratification strategy, structural disease was identified 3.9% in the excellent group, 9.7% in the indeterminate group, 76.9% in the biochemical incomplete group, and 100% in the structural incomplete group. The hazard ratios of the structural disease were 18.10 (P < 0.001) in the biochemical incomplete group, and 19.583 (P < 0.001) in the structural incomplete group compared to the excellent group. The prevalence of structural disease also increased as American Thyroid Association initial risk classification increased (5.9% in the low-risk group, 13.6% in the intermediate-risk group, and 45% in the high-risk group). The hazard ratios of structural disease in the high-risk group was 10.296 (P < 0.001) in compared to the low-risk group. Dynamic risk stratification based on patient responses to initial therapy was able to effectively predict the risk of structural disease in a pediatric population, and as a follow-up strategy, may work as well in pediatric differentiated thyroid cancer patients as it does in adult differentiated thyroid cancer patients.

  10. Flow cytometry in the differential diagnostics of Hashimoto's thyroiditis and MALT lymphoma of the thyroid.

    PubMed

    Adamczewski, Zbigniew; Stasiołek, Mariusz; Dedecjus, Marek; Smolewski, Piotr; Lewiński, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    A combination of traditional cytology methods with fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS) analysis of fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) material is considered a powerful diagnostic tool in the differential diagnosis of thyroid lesions suspected of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma (MALT-L). The aim of this study was to demonstrate the FACS-based diagnostic process of thyroid lesions in a clinical situation where ultrasound and cytological examinations did not allow differentiation between Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) and MALT-L. The patients analysed in this study presented significantly different clinical courses of thyroid disease: quickly enlarging painless tumour of the thyroid right lobe in the first case, and chronic HT with palpable tumour in the thyroid isthmus in the second patient. Due to the suspicion of MALT-L resulting from indeterminate ultrasound and FNAB-cytology results, FNAB material was obtained from all the previously examined thyroid lesions and directly subjected to FACS assessment, encompassing κ/λ light chain restriction analysis, as well as measurements of B and T cell surface antigens. The FACS analysis of FNAB material obtained from our patients did not show any definite signs of light chain restriction. Although one of the samples showed a borderline value of κ/λ ratio (κ/λ = 0.31), further immunophenotyping confirmed clonal expansion in none of the examined thyroid regions. Histopathological findings documented the diagnosis of HT in both clinical cases. We believe that FACS represents a useful and reliable complementary diagnostic measure in FNAB-based differential diagnosis of lymphoproliferative thyroid disorders.

  11. The Oncogenic Activity of RET Point Mutants for Follicular Thyroid Cells May Account for the Occurrence of Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma in Patients Affected by Familial Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Melillo, Rosa Marina; Cirafici, Anna Maria; De Falco, Valentina; Bellantoni, Marie; Chiappetta, Gennaro; Fusco, Alfredo; Carlomagno, Francesca; Picascia, Antonella; Tramontano, Donatella; Tallini, Giovanni; Santoro, Massimo

    2004-01-01

    Activating germ-line point mutations in the RET receptor are responsible for multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2-associated medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC), whereas somatic RET rearrangements are prevalent in papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTCs). Some rare kindreds, carrying point mutations in RET, are affected by both cancer types, suggesting that, under specific circumstances, point mutations in RET can drive the generation of PTC. Here we describe a family whose siblings, affected by both PTC and MTC, carried a germ-line point mutation in the RET extracellular domain, converting cysteine 634 into serine. We tested on thyroid follicular cells the transforming activity of RET(C634S), RET(K603Q), another mutant identified in a kindred with both PTC and MTC, RET(C634R) a commonly isolated allele in MEN2A, RET(M918T) responsible for MEN2B and also identified in kindreds with both PTC and MTC, and RET/PTC1 the rearranged oncogene that characterizes bona fide PTC in patients without MTC. We show that the various RET point mutants, but not wild-type RET, scored constitutive kinase activity and exerted mitogenic effects for thyroid PC Cl 3 cells, albeit at significantly lower levels compared to RET/PTC1. The low mitogenic activity of RET point mutants paralleled their reduced kinase activity compared to RET/PTC. Furthermore, RET point mutants maintained a protein domain, the intracellular juxtamembrane domain, that exerted negative effects on the mitogenic activity. In conclusion, RET point mutants can behave as dominant oncogenes for thyroid follicular cells. Their transforming activity, however, is rather modest, providing a possible explanation for the rare association of MTC with PTC. PMID:15277225

  12. Cloning of the human sodium-iodide symporter promoter and characterization in a differentiated human thyroid cell line, KAT-50.

    PubMed

    Venkataraman, G M; Yatin, M; Ain, K B

    1998-01-01

    Elucidation of the regulation of human sodium-iodide symporter (hNIS) gene expression is critical to understanding its effects on iodide concentration abilities of thyroid and thyroid carcinomas. To explore this issue, a 1.2-kb portion of the 5'-flanking region of the hNIS gene was isolated and characterized. Transient transfections with chimeric luciferase-reporter constructs into a differentiated human thyroid cell line, KAT-50, as well as non-thyroidal cells, defined an active promoter with tissue-specificity. Reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction analysis for hNIS mRNA expression in normal human tissues was positive in thyroid, salivary gland, omentum, and gallbladder. KAT-50 cells expressed hNIS mRNA and were capable of thyrotropin-responsive iodide uptake in vitro. Despite the failure to exhibit iodide concentration in clinical anaplastic carcinoma tumors, 4 of 5 cell lines from this cancer phenotype expressed hNIS mRNA. Definition of the active promoter provides further insights and tools to uncover new approaches to use of radioiodine for therapy of thyroid carcinomas.

  13. Induction of TTF-1 or PAX-8 expression on proliferation and tumorigenicity in thyroid carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Dupain, Célia; Ali, Hafiz M; Mouhoub, Tarik Ait; Urbinati, Giorgia; Massaad-Massade, Liliane

    2016-09-01

    TTF-1 and PAX-8 are responsible for thyroid organogenesis and for maintenance of differentiation in thyrocytes. Thus, we hypothesized that the induction of these two transcription factors could affect proliferation and tumorigenicity. Moreover, the ability of various pharmacological agents to modulate expression of the TTF-1 and PAX-8 and their effects on apoptosis were also analysed. For this purpose, cell lines derived from papillary (TPC-1 and BHP 10-3) and anaplastic (ARO) thyroid carcinomas were stably transfected with expression vectors containing TTF-1 or PAX-8 genes. Subsequently, the effects on expression at gene and protein levels, as well as on cell growth, cell cycle, migration and in vivo tumorigenicity were studied. Our results showed that: i) TTF-1 reciprocally induces PAX-8 expression; ii) the basal state of TTF-1 or PAX-8 influences proliferation, migration and tumorigenicity; iii) the induction of TTF-1 acts on cell proliferation more than PAX-8 and mainly affects tumorigenicity; and iv) TTF-1 was found to be more sensitive to epigenetic modulators than PAX-8. Therefore, we postulated that both TTF-1 and PAX-8 when co-expressed have anti-proliferative and anti-tumorigenic properties up to a threshold expression level and beyond that, are able to induce pro-tumorigenic effects. Hence in future, it will be quite interesting to systematically take into account the basal state of expression of TTF-1 and PAX-8. It will also be important to study the two thyroid transcription factors as part of a duo. This could open in the long-term, new therapeutic perspectives for thyroid carcinomas.

  14. A 9 years boy with MEN-2B variant of medullary thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Sattar, M A; Hadi, H I; Ekramuddoula, F M; Hasanuzzaman, S M

    2013-04-01

    To highlight a rare disease like multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN)-2B variant of medullary thyroid carcinoma and to optimize the management option in such cases, we present a nine year old boy with thyroid swelling, cervical lymphadenopathy and thick lips. His calcitonin level was raised. Investigation's results of the boy were as following fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) was medullary carcinoma of thyroid, preoperative calcitonin was >2000pg/ml, post operative histopathological report was medullary carcinoma. Total thyroidectomy with aggressive initial neck surgery may reduce the recurrence and increase better prognosis and survival rate. Calcitonin is used as diagnostic and follow-up marker.

  15. Peace of mind for patients with differentiated thyroid cancer?

    PubMed

    Vrachimis, A; Riemann, B; Gerss, J; Maier, T; Schober, O

    2013-01-01

    Differentiated thyroid carcinomas (DTC) have an excellent prognosis, with 10-year overall survival rates over 90%. In addition, DTC patients benefit from their lifelong medical surveillance. The AIM of the study was to compare the patients' overall survival with that of a matched general population. We have analyzed 1497 consecutive patients with DTC, who underwent radioiodine therapy in Münster, Germany, according to international standards. We classified our patients according to the current 7th edition of the UICC (Union Internationale Contre le Cancer) classification and we compared the overall survival of the patients with the expected survival based on age and sex of the general population as provided by the Federal Statistical Office, Germany. There were no significant differences in overall survival rates between DTC patients of the cohort in stages I to IVa compared to the expected survival based on age and sex of the general population. However, patients in stage IVc showed a significantly worse overall survival rate using the log-rank test (p < 0.0001). Patients with DTC showed excellent overall survival rates in stages I, II, III and IVa. All patients, except for those in stage IVc (M1 ≥ 45 years), had overall survival rates similar to the general population.

  16. Novel therapeutic clues in thyroid carcinomas: The role of targeting cancer stem cells.

    PubMed

    Antonelli, Alessandro; La Motta, Concettina

    2017-06-06

    Thyroid carcinomas (TCs), the most common endocrine tumors, represent the eighth most common cancer diagnosed worldwide in both women and men. To treat these malignancies, several drugs are now available and a number of novel ones have been enrolling in clinical trials, addressing both oncogenic pathways in cancer cells and angiogenic pathways in tumor endothelial cells. However, their use is not devoid of serious toxicities and their efficacy is limited, being dependent on carcinoma typology and the occurrence of acquired resistance. Accordingly, it is time to recast therapeutic strategies against these types of tumors to get to newer and fully effective drugs. In this perspective, latest findings demonstrate that cancer stem cells (CSCs) represent a challenging target to strike. They possess core traits of self-renewal and differentiation, being resistant to the effects of chemotherapy and radiation and playing a key role in mediating metastasis. Therefore, basic molecular elements sustaining both development of thyroid cancer stem cells and their residence in the stemness condition represent a set of innovative and still unexplored targets to address. In this review, a thorough literature survey has been accomplished, to take stock of mechanisms governing thyroid carcinomas and to point out both their currently available treatments and the novel forthcoming ones. Pubmed, Scifinder and ClinicalTrials.gov were exploited as research applications and registry database, respectively. Original articles, reviews, and editorials published within the last ten years, as well as open clinical investigations in the field, were analyzed to suggest new exciting therapeutic opportunities for people affected by TCs. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Viral mediated gene therapy for the management of metastatic thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    DeGroot, Leslie J; Zhang, Rusheng

    2004-09-01

    Thyroid cancers are of special interest in gene therapy, since it is possible to direct gene expression specifically to the thyroid derived cells by using promoters with limited expression, and secondly, because destruction of the normal tissue by introduction of a toxic gene would have no important adverse effect. A variety of methods for gene delivery are available. Adenovirus is a well studied and widely used vector and is useful for targeting genes because it infects many cell types, including differentiated thyroid cancer and medullary thyroid cancer cells. Strategies that have been employed successfully in animal models include adenoviral mediated expression of thymidine kinase under control of a thyroglobulin promoter, similarly expression of the cytokine IL-2, and perhaps most effectively, expression of IL-12. Combinations of vectors expressing thymidine kinase and IL-12 under control of a strong but non-tissue specific CMV promoter effectively destroy a model anaplastic thyroid tumor in Wistar rats. Replicating adenoviruses, in contrast to the non-replicating form commonly used, have also been used to infect tumor cells and express P-53 protein, leading to apoptosis of tumor cells. Medullary thyroid cancer provides a target much like differentiated thyroid cancer because it is possible to address gene expression specifically to the medullary thyroid cells by the use of a modified calcitonin promoter. Animal models of this tumor are available in a mouse and Wag/Rij rat model. In the latter system, treatment with adenoviruses expressing genes under control of the modified calcitonin promoter and expressing thymidine kinase or IL-12 leads to destruction of growing medullary thyroid cancer tumors, destroy distant tumors after injection in one tumor, and cause induction of long lasting immunity to subsequent tumor development in the animals. There are many ongoing studies of gene therapy in humans using various genes such as thymidine kinase, IL-2, and now IL

  18. Association of urothelial carcinoma of the renal pelvis with papillary and medullary thyroid carcinomas. A new sporadic neoplastic syndrome?

    PubMed

    Albores-Saavedra, Jorge; Dorantes-Heredia, Rita; Chablé-Montero, Fredy; Córdova-Ramón, Juan Carlos; Henson, Donald E

    2014-10-01

    We describe 2 adult women (72 and 54 years), 1 with a low-grade noninvasive papillary urothelial carcinoma of the renal pelvis, who 14 years later developed a papillary carcinoma in 1 thyroid lobe and a medullary carcinoma in the contralateral lobe. Both neoplasms were similar in size and appeared symmetrical. Despite its small size, the medullary carcinoma metastasized in multiple cervical lymph nodes. The second patient had a high-grade invasive papillary urothelial carcinoma of the renal pelvis that infiltrated the renal parenchyma and metastasized in one of the lungs. Five months later, a papillary carcinoma was discovered in the thyroid gland. The 2 papillary thyroid carcinomas were of the follicular variant. Adjacent to 1 papillary carcinoma, there was a dominant nodule of a colloid and adenomatous goiter. The medullary carcinoma contained stromal amyloid and was immunoreactive for calcitonin and carcinoembryonic antigen. There was no C-cell hyperplasia (medullary carcinoma in situ). The 2 patients are alive, 1 is living with pulmonary metastasis from the high-grade urothelial carcinoma. Twelve cases of this neoplastic association were registered in the Survey, Epidemiology, and End Results Program from 1980 to 2009. We believe that the combination of these unusual neoplasms in the same patient may represent a new sporadic neoplastic syndrome. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis and BRAF V600E in papillary thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seo Ki; Woo, Jung-Woo; Lee, Jun Ho; Park, Inhye; Choe, Jun-Ho; Kim, Jung-Han; Kim, Jee Soo

    2016-01-01

    It has been reported that papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) with chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis (CLT) is less associated with extrathyroidal extension (ETE), advanced tumor stage and lymph node (LN) metastasis. Other studies have suggested that concurrent CLT could antagonize PTC progression, even in BRAF-positive patients. Since the clinical significance o