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Sample records for diffuse macular edema

  1. Diabetic Macular Edema

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lobo, Conceição; Pires, Isabel; Cunha-Vaz, José

    The optical coherence tomography (OCT), a noninvasive and noncontact diagnostic method, was introduced in 1995 for imaging macular diseases. In diabetic macular edema (DME), OCT scans show hyporeflectivity, due to intraretinal and/or subretinal fluid accumulation, related to inner and/or outer blood-retinal barrier breakdown. OCT tomograms may also reveal the presence of hard exudates, as hyperreflective spots with a shadow, in the outer retinal layers, among others. In conclusion, OCT is a particularly valuable diagnostic tool in DME, helpful both in the diagnosis and follow-up procedure.

  2. Intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide: valuation of retinal thickness changes measured by optical coherence tomography in diffuse diabetic macular edema.

    PubMed

    Micelli Ferrari, T; Sborgia, L; Furino, C; Cardascia, N; Ferreri, P; Besozzi, G; Sborgia, C

    2004-01-01

    The authors studied the efficacy of intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide in a case series of patients with diffuse diabetic macular edema without evidence of vitreous-macular traction refractory to laser photocoagulation. Six eyes with clinically diffuse diabetic macular edema that failed to respond to at least two previous sessions of laser photocoagulation were included. The mean age of selected patients was 72.5+/-13.8 years, with a preoperative best-corrected visual acuity reduced to 1.48+/-0.18 logMar and a mean baseline intraocular pressure (IOP) of 15.17+/-2.64 mmHg. The authors also studied macular thickness measured by optical coherence tomography (OCT 2000 scanner, Humphrey Instruments, San Leandro, CA) - in the preoperative period it was 640.8+/-171.1 microm - and the fluorangiographic (Heidelberg Retina Angiograph, Heidelberg Engineering GmbH, Heidelberg, Germany) patterns, which showed pooling in tardy phases and leakage. Mean follow-up was 4 months. In each patient the authors observed a significant improvement, both functionally and anatomically. Mean best-corrected visual acuity increased in the postoperative period to 0.94+/-0.53 logMar. No patient showed decline of visual acuity at the end of follow-up. Base line macular thickness was reduced in the postoperative period to 312.2+/-157.65 microm measured by OCT and fluorangiographic patterns showed a reduction of pooling and of leakage. The most common complications described in the literature were not observed and the increase of mean IOP in the postoperative period to 18.76+/-5.72 mmHg was not significant. Intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide may decrease macular edema and improve visual acuity in eyes with diffuse diabetic macular edema.

  3. [Pathopshysiological mechanisms in macular edema].

    PubMed

    Turlea, Cristian; Zolog, Ileana; Blăjan, Codruta; Roşca, C; Turlea, Magdalena; Munteanu, Mihnea; Boruga, Ovidiu

    2014-01-01

    The treatment of diabetic macular edema has known a fast development in the last 5 years where the transition from laser monotherapy to intravitreal pharmacotherapy is becoming standard practice. Intravitreal injections therapy is in a continuous development with promising positive results. The use of intratvitreal devices in the treatment of macular edema of vascular cause has become a viable alternative also in treating diabetic macular edema. Several clinical studies have revealed the superiority of intravitreal treatment versus laser monotherapy. This article is evaluating and reviewing present and future treatments used to combat diabetic macular edema. [corrected].

  4. Diabetic macular edema.

    PubMed

    Stefánsson, Einar

    2009-07-01

    A variety of treatment options are available for the treatment of diabetic macular edema. They include laser photocoagulation, anti-VEGF drugs, intravitreal steroids, and vitrectomy with or without release of vitreoretinal traction. A full understanding of the physiological mechanisms of these treatment modalities allows sensible combination of treatment options. Retinal photocoagulation has repeatedly been shown to improve retinal oxygenation, as does vitrectomy. Oxygen naturally reduces VEGF production and thereby decreases leakage of plasma proteins from capillaries into the tissue. In addition, vitrectomy allows faster clearance of cytokines, such as VEGF, from the retina into the vitreous cavity. The VEGF-lowering effect of photocoagulation and vitrectomy can be augmented with anti-VEGF drugs and corticosteroids reduce the effect of VEGF on capillary permeability. Starling's law explains vasogenic edema, which is controlled by osmotic and hydrostatic gradients between vessel and tissue. It explains how VEGF-induced vascular permeability causes plasma protein to leak into the tissue interstitial space, thus decreasing the osmotic pressure gradient between vessel and tissue, resulting in water accumulation, i.e. edema. This is reversed by reducing VEGF production, which is achieved with laser treatment; or by removing VEGF with antibodies or vitrectomy; or by reducing the permeability effect with steroids. At the same time, Starling's law takes into account hemodynamic changes that affect the hydrostatic gradient. High arterial blood pressure and hypoxic vasodilatation increase the hydrostatic pressure in the microcirculation, which increases water flux from vessel to tissue and induce edema. Treatment of arterial hypertension or reversal of retinal hypoxia with laser reverses this pathophysiology and reduces edema. Newton's third law explains, that vitreoretinal traction decreases hydrostatic tissue pressure in the retina, increases the pressure gradient

  5. Macular edema: definition and basic concepts.

    PubMed

    Coscas, Gabriel; Cunha-Vaz, José; Soubrane, Gisèle

    2010-01-01

    Macular edema is the result of an accumulation of fluid in the retinal layers around the fovea. It contributes to vision loss by altering the functional cell relationship in the retina and promoting an inflammatory reparative response. Macular edema may be intracellular or extracellular. Intracellular accumulation of fluid, also called cytotoxic edema, is an alteration of the cellular ionic distribution. Extracellular accumulation of fluid, which is more frequent and clinically more relevant, is directly associated with an alteration of the blood-retinal barrier (BRB). The following parameters are relevant for clinical evaluation of macular edema: extent of the macular edema (i.e., the area that shows increased retinal thickness); distribution of the edema in the macular area (i.e., focal versus diffuse macular edema); central foveal involvement (central area 500 microm); fluorescein leakage (evidence of alteration of the BRB or 'open barrier') and intraretinal cysts; signs of ischemia (broken perifoveolar capillary arcade and/or areas of capillary closure); presence or absence of vitreous traction; increase in retinal thickness and cysts in the retina (inner or outer), and chronicity of the edema (i.e., time elapsed since initial diagnosis and response to therapy). It is essential to establish associations and correlations of all the different images obtained, regardless of whether the same or different modalities are used.

  6. Uveitic Macular Edema: Treatment Update

    PubMed Central

    Goldhardt, Raquel; Rosen, Bradley Simon

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this review is to summarize recent developments in the treatment of uveitic macular edema (ME). ME represent a major cause of visual loss in uveitis and adequate management is crucial for the maintenance of useful vision in patients with chronic uveitis. PMID:27347446

  7. [Therapeutic approach in persistent diabetic macular edema].

    PubMed

    Brănişteanu, Daniel; Moraru, Andreea

    2014-01-01

    Terminology of persistent diabetic macular edema has been initially reserved to cases unresponsive to conventional laser photocoagulation according to ETDRS criteria. While knowledge about pathophysiology of macular edema evolved and new drugs became available, the terminology of persistent diabetic macular edema expanded to include resistance to most current therapies. The purpose of this paper is to review medical and surgical options in the treatment of such difficult cases according to literature data and personal experience.

  8. Overview of diabetic macular edema.

    PubMed

    Holekamp, Nancy M

    2016-07-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a rapidly growing epidemic in the United States, and it is expected to affect 592 million individuals within the next 20 years. Diabetic retinopathy (DR) and diabetic macular edema (DME) are the 2 most common ophthalmic complications of DM. DR is the leading cause of blindness among working-age adults around the world, and development of DR is tied to DM disease duration. With the only identifier of early markers of DR being a complete ophthalmic exam, early signs of the disease are asymptomatic. Yearly, or at least every other year, ophthalmic exams are recommended for all patients with DM; but often, individuals with DM have not undergone screening exams and do not have regular eye exams until vision loss has occurred. With spending estimates of $490 million to treat the vision complications of DM, it is clear that DR and DME impose a substantial burden for patients, caregivers, and healthcare systems.

  9. A Quantitative Approach to Predict Differential Effects of Anti-VEGF Treatment on Diffuse and Focal Leakage in Patients with Diabetic Macular Edema: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Allingham, Michael J.; Mukherjee, Dibyendu; Lally, Erin B.; Rabbani, Hossein; Mettu, Priyatham S.; Cousins, Scott W.; Farsiu, Sina

    2017-01-01

    Purpose We use semiautomated segmentation of fluorescein angiography (FA) to determine whether anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) treatment for diabetic macular edema (DME) differentially affects microaneurysm (MA)–associated leakage, termed focal leakage, versus non-MA–associated leakage, termed diffuse leakage. Methods We performed a retrospective study of 29 subjects treated with at least three consecutive injections of anti-VEGF agents for DME (mean 4.6 injections; range, 3–10) who underwent Heidelberg FA before and after anti-VEGF therapy. Inclusion criteria were macula center involving DME and at least 3 consecutive anti-VEGF injections. Exclusion criteria were macular edema due to cause besides DME, anti-VEGF within 3 months of initial FA, concurrent treatment for DME besides anti-VEGF, and macular photocoagulation within 1 year. At each time point, total leakage was semiautomatically segmented using a modified version of our previously published software. Microaneurysms were identified by an expert grader and leakage within a 117 μm radius of each MA was classified as focal leakage. Remaining leakage was classified as diffuse leakage. The absolute and percent changes in total, diffuse, and focal leakage were calculated for each subject. Results Mean pretreatment total leakage was 8.2 mm2 and decreased by a mean of 40.1% (P < 0.0001; 95% confidence interval [CI], [−28.6, −52.5]) following treatment. Diffuse leakage decreased by a mean of 45.5% (P < 0.0001; 95% CI, [−31.3, −59.6]) while focal leakage decreased by 17.9% (P = 0.02; 95% CI, [−1.0, −34.8]). The difference in treatment response between focal and diffuse leakage was statistically significant (P = 0.01). Conclusions Anti-VEGF treatment for DME results in decreased diffuse leakage but had relatively little effect on focal leakage as assessed by FA. This suggests that diffuse leakage may be a marker of VEGF-mediated pathobiology. Patients with predominantly focal leakage

  10. INTRAVITREAL CORTICOSTEROIDS IN DIABETIC MACULAR EDEMA

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Clare; Loewenstein, Anat; Massin, Pascale

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To review the relationship between kinetics, efficacy, and safety of several corticosteroid formulations for the treatment of diabetic macular edema. Methods: Reports of corticosteroid use for the treatment of diabetic macular edema were identified by a literature search, which focused on the pharmacokinetics, efficacy, and safety of these agents in preclinical animal models and clinical trials. Results: Available corticosteroids for diabetic macular edema treatment include intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide, dexamethasone, and fluocinolone acetonide. Because of differences in solubility and bioavailability, various delivery mechanisms are used. Bioerodible delivery systems achieve higher maximum concentrations than nonbioerodible formulations. There is a relationship between visual gains and drug persistence in the intravitreal compartment. Safety effects were more complex; level of intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide exposure is related to development of elevated intraocular pressure and cataract; this does not seem to be the case for dexamethasone, where two different doses showed similar mean intraocular pressure and incidence of cataract surgery. With fluocinolone acetonide, rates of intraocular pressure elevations requiring surgery seem to be dose related; rates of cataract extraction were similar regardless of dose. Conclusion: Available corticosteroids for diabetic macular edema exhibit different pharmacokinetic profiles that impact efficacy and adverse events and should be taken into account when developing individualized treatment plans. PMID:26352555

  11. [Epidemiology and development of macular edema in the diabetic].

    PubMed

    Zghal-Mokni, I; Jeddi, A; Boujemaa, C; Ben Hadj Alouane, W; Gaigi, S; Ayed, S

    2001-12-01

    Macular edema is the first cause of blindness in diabetics. Macular edema is defined by macular thickening or deposits of hard exudates. On 1000 diabetics examined over 2 years, 60 patients had a macular edema of which we retained 38 cases(54 eyes). All the patients had an ophthalmologic examination with a retinal angiography. Laser photocoagulation with green Argon laser was instituted in 50 eyes. 63% had background rethinopathy. Total or partial regression of the edema happened in 84.4%. Laser photocoagulation decrease by the half vision loss risk. Interest of early detection and treatment to decrease blindness incidence of macular edema in diabetics.

  12. Diabetic Retinopathy and Diabetic Macular Edema.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Steven R; Gardner, Thomas W

    2016-01-01

    Diabetic retinopathy and diabetic macular edema result from chronic damage to the neurovascular structures of the retina. The pathophysiology of retinal damage remains uncertain but includes metabolic and neuroinflammatory insults. These mechanisms are addressed by intensive metabolic control of the systemic disease and by the use of ocular anti-inflammatory agents, including vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitors and corticosteroids. Improved understanding of the ocular and systemic mechanisms that underlie diabetic retinopathy will lead to improved means to diagnose and treat retinopathy and better maintain vision.

  13. Management of pseudophakic cystoid macular edema.

    PubMed

    Guo, Suqin; Patel, Shriji; Baumrind, Ben; Johnson, Keegan; Levinsohn, Daniel; Marcus, Edward; Tannen, Brad; Roy, Monique; Bhagat, Neelakshi; Zarbin, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Pseudophakic cystoid macular edema (PCME) is a common complication following cataract surgery. Acute PCME may resolve spontaneously, but some patients will develop chronic macular edema that affects vision and is difficult to treat. This disease was described more than 50 years ago, and there are multiple options for clinical management. We discuss mechanisms, clinical efficacy, and adverse effects of these treatment modalities. Topical non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents and corticosteroids are widely used and, when combined, may have a synergistic effect. Intravitreal corticosteroids and anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) agents have shown promise when topical medications either fail or have had limited effects. Randomized clinical studies evaluating anti-VEGF agents are needed to fully evaluate benefits and risks. When PCME is either refractory to medical therapy or is associated with significant vitreous involvement, pars plana vitrectomy has been shown to improve outcomes, though it is associated with additional risks. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Pseudophakic cystoid macular edema: update 2016

    PubMed Central

    Grzybowski, Andrzej; Sikorski, Bartosz L; Ascaso, Francisco J; Huerva, Valentín

    2016-01-01

    Pseudophakic cystoid macular edema (PCME) is the most common complication of cataract surgery, leading in some cases to a decrease in vision. Although the pathogenesis of PCME is not completely understood, the contribution of postsurgical inflammation is generally accepted. Consequently, anti-inflammatory medicines, including steroids and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, have been postulated as having a role in both the prophylaxis and treatment of PCME. However, the lack of a uniformly accepted PCME definition, conflicting data on some risk factors, and the scarcity of studies comparing the role of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs to steroids in PCME prevention make the problem of PCME one of the puzzles of ophthalmology. This paper presents an updated review on the pathogenesis, risk factors, and use of anti-inflammatory drugs in PCME that reflect current research and practice. PMID:27672316

  15. Update on corticosteroids for diabetic macular edema

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, Stephen G; Scott, Ingrid U; Stewart, Michael W; Flynn, Harry W

    2016-01-01

    Diabetic macular edema (DME) remains an important cause of visual loss. Although anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) agents are generally used as first-line treatments for patients with center-involving DME, there is an important role for corticosteroids as well. Corticosteroids may be especially useful in pseudophakic patients poorly responsive to anti-VEGF therapies, in patients wishing to reduce the number of required injections, and in pregnant patients. Intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide has been used for many years but is not approved for this indication. An extended-release bioerodable dexamethasone delivery system and an extended-release nonbioerodable fluocinolone acetonide insert have both achieved regulatory approval for the treatment of DME. All intravitreal corticosteroids are associated with risks of cataract progression, elevation of intraocular pressure, and endophthalmitis. There is no current consensus regarding the use of corticosteroids, but they are valuable for selected patients with center-involving DME. PMID:27660409

  16. Diabetic Macular Edema: Options for Adjunct Therapy.

    PubMed

    Calvo, Pilar; Abadia, Beatriz; Ferreras, Antonio; Ruiz-Moreno, Oscar; Verdes, Guayente; Pablo, Luis E

    2015-09-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a chronic disease that affects 387 million people worldwide. Diabetic retinopathy (DR), a common complication of DM, is the main cause of blindness in the active population. Diabetic macular edema (DME) may occur at any stage of DR, and is characterized by vascular hyperpermeability accompanied by hard exudates within the macula. Medical and surgical therapies have dramatically reduced the progression of DR, and timely intervention can reduce the risk of severe vision loss by more than 90 %. In 2012, intravitreal ranibizumab became the first antivascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) agent approved for DME and, since then, many reports of the use of ranibizumab for DME have been promising. Randomized, prospective, multicenter clinical trials-most notably, RESOLVE, READ-2, RISE/RIDE, RESTORE, DRCR.net protocol I, and RETAIN-reported improvements in best-corrected visual acuity and decreased central retinal thickness as measured with optical coherence tomography in patients with DME. Similar treatment benefits have also been noted in clinical trials evaluating intravitreal aflibercept and bevacizumab (DAVINCI, VISTA/VIVID, and BOLT) and more recently DRCR.net protocol T. Intravitreal steroids (dexamethasone intravitreal implant and fluocinolone acetonide), particularly in refractory cases, also play a significant role in the management of DME (MEAD/CHAMPLAIN and FAMOUS/FAME studies). In summary, over the last 5 years, blocking VEGF and inflammation has been shown to improve visual outcomes in patients with macular edema due to DM, revolutionizing the treatment of center-involved DME and establishing a new standard of care.

  17. [Physiopathology of macular edema in central vein occlusion].

    PubMed

    Stanca, Horia T; Manea, Georgiana

    2012-01-01

    Retinal Vein Occlusions are vascular diseases affecting the Central Retinal Vein and its branches causing decreased retinal drainage resulting in significant clinical and functional pathological changes. RVO determines the increase of vascular permeability, with edema and hemorrhage and development of collateral vessels in a few weeks. Among the serious consequences of venous occlusion is the installation of macular edema to which depends long-term visual prognosis. Macular Edema is the accumulation of intraretinal serous fluid in the macular area caused by the breakdown of blood-retinal barrier.

  18. Rebound of macular edema after intravitreal bevacizumab therapy in eyes with macular edema secondary to branch retinal vein occlusion.

    PubMed

    Yasuda, Shunsuke; Kondo, Mineo; Kachi, Shu; Ito, Yasuki; Terui, Takayuki; Ueno, Shinji; Terasaki, Hiroko

    2011-06-01

    To determine the incidence of rebound macular edema after intravitreal bevacizumab in eyes with macular edema secondary to branch retinal vein occlusion and to identify the pretreatment factors that were significantly associated with the rebound. The changes in the foveal thickness after the intravitreal bevacizumab (1.25 mg/0.05 mL) were studied in 65 eyes of 65 patients with macular edema secondary to branch retinal vein occlusion. A rebound of macular edema was defined as a ≥110% increase in the foveal thickness or a foveal thickness ratio of ≥110% (foveal thickness at the recurrence/foveal thickness at the baseline × 100). Multivariate logistic regression analyses and subgroup analyses were performed to determine which pretreatment factors were associated with the rebound. Seven of 65 eyes (10.8%) showed a rebound (≥110% of baseline thickness). Subgroup analyses showed that a thinner pretreatment fovea and a shorter interval between symptom onset to the initiation of the intravitreal bevacizumab were significantly associated with a rebound of macular edema (P < 0.01). The interval from symptoms onset to the initiation of treatment was <8 weeks in all 7 eyes with a rebound macular edema. These results suggest that a rebound of macular edema in eyes with branch retinal vein occlusion was more likely to occur when the intravitreal bevacizumab therapy is initiated before the macular edema reaches the maximum level. Rebound of macular edema may be effectively avoided by waiting at least 8 weeks after the onset of symptoms to begin the intravitreal bevacizumab.

  19. Successful treatment of pseudophakic cystoid macular edema with intravitreal bevacizumab.

    PubMed

    Barone, Antonio; Prascina, Francesco; Russo, Vincenzo; Iaculli, Cristiana; Primavera, Vito; Querques, Giuseppe; Stella, Andrea; Delle Noci, Nicola

    2008-07-01

    A 67-year-old woman developed refractory pseudophakic cystoid macular edema (CME) after uneventful phacoemulsification. Three months after an intravitreal injection of bevacizumab (1.25 mg), the CME was completely resolved, with resultant improvement in visual acuity.

  20. Effect of macular edema on optical coherence tomography signal strength.

    PubMed

    Hosseini, Hamid; Razeghinejad, Mohammad Reza; Nowroozizadeh, Sarah; Jafari, Peyman; Ashraf, Hossein

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of macular edema (ME) on Stratus optical coherence tomography (OCT) (Stratus OCT, Carl Zeiss Meditec, Dublin, CA) signal strength (SS). Part 1: Macular OCT was performed in 57 eyes with ME, at 2 different time points with different degrees of ME. The relationships between SS change and change in center point thickness and total macular volume in two scans were examined. Part 2: In 54 eyes with ME, Stratus OCT examinations with macular thickness mapping and retinal nerve fiber layer analysis protocols were performed. The paired values of SS obtained with two scan protocols were compared. The relationship between SS difference between two test protocols with center point thickness and total macular volume was evaluated. Part 1: There was a significant correlation between SS change and the change in center point thickness and total macular volume in 2 consecutive scans. Part 2: Maximum SS obtained during macular OCT examination was significantly less than that obtained during retinal nerve fiber layer OCT. Significant correlations were observed between the difference in SS obtained in two scan protocols and center point thickness as well as total macular volume. Macular edema decreases macular OCT SS. In patients with ME, SS obtained during macular OCT examination was significantly lower than that obtained during retinal nerve fiber layer OCT examination.

  1. Diabetic Macular Edema Pathophysiology: Vasogenic versus Inflammatory

    PubMed Central

    Baget-Bernaldiz, Marc; Pareja-Rios, Alicia; Lopez-Galvez, Maribel; Navarro-Gil, Raul; Verges, Raquel

    2016-01-01

    Diabetic macular edema (DME) can cause blindness in diabetic patients suffering from diabetic retinopathy (DR). DM parameters controls (glycemia, arterial tension, and lipids) are the gold standard for preventing DR and DME. Although the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is known to play a role in the development of DME, the pathological processes leading to the onset of this disease are highly complex and the exact sequence in which they occur is still not completely understood. Angiogenesis and inflammation have been shown to be involved in the pathogenesis of this disease. However, it still remains to be clarified whether angiogenesis following VEGF overexpression is a cause or a consequence of inflammation. This paper provides a review of the data currently available, focusing on VEGF, angiogenesis, and inflammation. Our analysis suggests that angiogenesis and inflammation act interdependently during the development of DME. Knowledge of DME etiology seems to be important in treatments with anti-VEGF or anti-inflammatory drugs. Current diagnostic techniques do not permit us to differentiate between both etiologies. In the future, diagnosing the physiopathology of each patient with DME will help us to select the most effective drug. PMID:27761468

  2. Managed care implications of diabetic macular edema.

    PubMed

    Holekamp, Nancy M

    2016-07-01

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is both the leading cause of blindness among adults aged 20 to 74 in the United States, and the leading ocular complication associated with diabetes mellitus (DM). An estimated 4.4% of adults with DM over 40 years of age have the more advanced form of DR: diabetic macular edema (DME), which significantly increases the risk of blindness. Medical costs for Medicare patients with DME are a third higher than for patients without DME. The majority of these costs stem from other DM-related complications, as DME is a marker for poorly controlled DM overall. Commercially insured patients with DME incur direct and indirect costs up to 75% higher than for those with DR without DME. Early detection, treatment, and improved glycemic control can limit the onset or progression of microvascular complications of DR, including DME, resulting in significant savings for payers. However, there are significant gaps in adherence to national guidelines regarding DM control and early identification of DR. In addition, patients face several barriers to screening. Improving screening for and management of early DR could decrease progression to DME, which would provide significant savings for payers, as well as improve the quality of care and outcomes for patients with DM. Managed care organizations and employers should also consider the cost-effectiveness of currently available treatments for DME: focal laser photocoagulation, vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitors, and intravitreal corticosteroid injections and implants, in their formulary design; they should also identify opportunities to improve patient adherence to treatment.

  3. Dexamethasone intravitreal implant in the treatment of diabetic macular edema

    PubMed Central

    Dugel, Pravin U; Bandello, Francesco; Loewenstein, Anat

    2015-01-01

    Diabetic macular edema (DME) resembles a chronic, low-grade inflammatory reaction, and is characterized by blood–retinal barrier (BRB) breakdown and retinal capillary leakage. Corticosteroids are of therapeutic benefit because of their anti-inflammatory, antiangiogenic, and BRB-stabilizing properties. Delivery modes include periocular and intravitreal (via pars plana) injection. To offset the short intravitreal half-life of corticosteroid solutions (~3 hours) and the need for frequent intravitreal injections, sustained-release intravitreal corticosteroid implants have been developed. Dexamethasone intravitreal implant provides retinal drug delivery for ≤6 months and recently has been approved for use in the treatment of DME. Pooled findings (n=1,048) from two large-scale, randomized Phase III trials indicated that dexamethasone intravitreal implant (0.35 mg and 0.7 mg) administered at ≥6-month intervals produced sustained improvements in best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and macular edema. Significantly more patients showed a ≥15-letter gain in BCVA at 3 years with dexamethasone intravitreal implant 0.35 mg and 0.7 mg than with sham injection (18.4% and 22.2% vs 12.0%). Anatomical assessments showed rapid and sustained reductions in macular edema and slowing of retinopathy progression. Phase II study findings suggest that dexamethasone intravitreal implant is effective in focal, cystoid, and diffuse DME, in vitrectomized eyes, and in combination with laser therapy. Ocular complications of dexamethasone intravitreal implant in Phase III trials included cataract-related events (66.0% in phakic patients), intraocular pressure elevation ≥25 mmHg (29.7%), conjunctival hemorrhage (23.5%), vitreous hemorrhage (10.0%), macular fibrosis (8.3%), conjunctival hyperemia (7.2%), eye pain (6.1%), vitreous detachment (5.8%), and dry eye (5.8%); injection-related complications (eg, retinal tear/detachment, vitreous loss, endophthalmitis) were infrequent (<2

  4. [Detection of cystoid macular edema with orally administered fluorescein].

    PubMed

    Hütz, W; Hessemer, V; Jacobi, K W

    1989-10-01

    To detect cystoid macular edema after extracapsular cataract extraction, the authors used indirect ophthalmoscopy after oral application of fluorescein, rather than intravenous fluorescein angiography. The patients drank 10-20 ml 10% fluorescein sodium in 250 ml orange juice. Ophthalmoscopy was performed 30-45 minutes later using an exciter filter. Twenty-five patients with a tentative clinical diagnosis of cystoid macular edema were examined in this way. In six of them a manifest edema was detected. The results were confirmed by intravenous fluorescein angiography.

  5. Angiographically Documented Macular Ischemia after Single Bevacizumab for Macular Edema Secondary to Central Retinal Vein Occlusion.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyou Ho; Kang, Eui Chun; Koh, Hyoung Jun

    2017-05-01

    This report describes a case of angiographically documented foveal avascular zone (FAZ) enlargement after a single intravitreal injection of bevacizumab for macular edema secondary to central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO). A 71-year-old female was treated with an intravitreal bevacizumab injection for macular edema following CRVO. Despite successfully decreased edema one month after injection, the postinjection best-corrected visual acuity immediately decreased from 20/40 to 20/1000 (Snellen equivalent). The FAZ area increased from 0.37 mm² to 3.11 mm² (8.4-fold increase). While intravitreal anti-vascular endothelial growth factor is effective and should be considered as a first-line treatment for macular edema secondary to CRVO, it may aggravate macular ischemia. © Copyright: Yonsei University College of Medicine 2017.

  6. [Literature review: Diabetic macular edema. Repercussions and treatment].

    PubMed

    Carmona-Moxica, Luis Roberto; Hernández-Núñez, Fabiola

    2015-01-01

    In our country there is a report of prevalence of Diabetes Mellitus in the adult population of a 10%, occupying one of the first causes of morbidity-mortality, also visual and labor incapacity. Macular edema is the first cause of lost vision in the diabetic patient. There are classic methods to detect it, as the examination with biomicroscope, indirect ophthalmoscopy, fluorangiography (FAR), and the new and gold standard method for diagnostic and sequence examination, Ocular Coherence Tomography (OCT). With OCT had been possible the study of distinct types of macular edema, that could represent distinct clinical states, with specific treatments. The protocol of treatment of macular edema, continues changing. The traditional methods as metabolic control and fotocoagulation with Laser now have more options as intravitreal injection of triamcinolone, or antiangiogenic substances, even surgical treatment with vitrectomy. There are many prospective and randomized studies evaluating this methods, so until now is difficult to determine which treatment is the best.

  7. Resolution of macular edema in idiopathic juxtafoveal telangiectasis using PDT.

    PubMed

    Kotoula, Maria G; Chatzoulis, Dimitrios Z; Karabatsas, Constantinos H; Tsiloulis, Aristoteles; Tsironi, Evangelia E

    2009-01-01

    A 57-year-old woman was treated by photodynamic therapy for macular edema due to idiopathic juxtafoveal telangiectasis (presumed type 1A) without subretinal neovascularization. Initial visual acuity of the treated eye was 20/200 and it improved to 20/40 by 3 months after the photodynamic therapy session. Visual acuity remained stable 32 months after the treatment. Color photographs and fundus fluorescein angiography before and after photodynamic therapy revealed regression of hemorrhages, exudates, and fluorescein leakage. Photodynamic therapy has long-term benefits for the patient with idiopathic juxtafoveal telangiectasis, presumed type 1A, because it can improve visual acuity and macular edema.

  8. Intravitreal injection of Bevacizumab in diabetic macular edema

    PubMed Central

    Ateeq, Asim; Tahir, Muhammad Ali; Cheema, Alyscia; Dahri, Arif; Tareen, Saifullah

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To assess the effectiveness of intravitreal injection of Bevacizumab in the treatment of diabetic macular edema. Methods: This case series was conducted at Department of Ophthalmology, Jinnah Post Graduate Medical Centre (JPMC), Karachi. The duration of study was six months from May 26, 2011 to November 25, 2011. The study group comprised of 54 patients of the Diabetic Macular Edema (DME). Intravitreal injection of 1.25 mg of bevacizumab (Avastin) was injected 3.5 mm from the limbus under topical anaesthetic drops. Post procedure follow up was scheduled on 1st post procedure day and after one month. Post procedure Optical Coherence tomography (OCT) was performed in all patients 1 week before and 1st month after 1st injection. The results were statistically analyzed through SPSS 17. Results: Out of the 54 Eyes of 54 Patients who were given the Intravitreal injection of Avastin (Bevacizumab), 43 Eyes (79.6%) showed more than ten percent decrease in macular thickness from pre-injection thickness, 10 Eyes (18.5%) showed less than ten percent decrease and 1 Eye (1.9%) showed increase in macular thickness post operatively after one month. Conclusions: Intravitreal injection of Bevacizumab (Avastin) is effective in the treatment of diabetic macular edema. PMID:25674143

  9. Diagnosing and monitoring diabetic macular edema: structural and functional tests.

    PubMed

    Midena, Edoardo; Vujosevic, Stela

    2015-10-01

    Diabetic macular edema remains a major cause of visual impairment in adults despite the use of intensive glycemic control, photocoagulation therapy and new intravitreal drugs in the treatment of this disease. Although early diagnosis and treatment lead to better results, we still have patients who become legally blind. Therefore, better structural and functional characterization of this disease is necessary in order to customize treatment.

  10. Topical nepafenec in eyes with noncentral diabetic macular edema.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Scott M; Almukhtar, Talat H; Baker, Carl W; Glassman, Adam R; Elman, Michael J; Bressler, Neil M; Maker, Manvi P; Jampol, Lee M; Melia, Michele

    2015-05-01

    To evaluate the effect of a topical, nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug, nepafenac 0.1%, in eyes with noncentral diabetic macular edema. Multicenter, double-masked randomized trial. Individuals with good visual acuity and noncentral-involved diabetic macular edema were randomly assigned to nepafenac 0.1% (N = 61) or placebo (nepafenac vehicle, N = 64) 3 times a day for 12 months. The primary outcome was mean change in optical coherence tomography retinal volume at 12 months. Mean baseline retinal volume was 7.8 mm. At 12 months, in the nepafenac and placebo groups respectively, mean change in retinal volume was -0.03 mm and -0.02 mm (treatment group difference: -0.02, 95% confidence interval: -0.27 to 0.23, P = 0.89). Central-involved diabetic macular edema was present in 7 eyes (11%) and 9 eyes (14%) at the 12-month visit (P = 0.79), respectively. No differences in visual acuity outcomes were identified. One study participant developed a corneal melt after using nepafenac in the nonstudy eye, which had a history of severe dry eye. No additional safety concerns were evident. In eyes with noncentral diabetic macular edema and good visual acuity, topical nepafenac 0.1% 3 times daily for 1 year likely does not have a meaningful effect on optical coherence tomography-measured retinal thickness.

  11. Topical Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs for Macular Edema

    PubMed Central

    Parmeggiani, Francesco; Romano, Mario R.; dell'Omo, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are nowadays widely used in ophthalmology to reduce eye inflammation, pain, and cystoid macular edema associated with cataract surgery. Recently, new topical NSAIDs have been approved for topical ophthalmic use, allowing for greater drug penetration into the vitreous. Hence, new therapeutic effects can be achieved, such as reduction of exudation secondary to age-related macular degeneration or diabetic maculopathy. We provide an updated review on the clinical use of NSAIDs for retinal diseases, with a focus on the potential future applications. PMID:24227908

  12. Use of antivascular endothelial growth factor for diabetic macular edema

    PubMed Central

    Karim, Rushmia; Tang, Benjamin

    2010-01-01

    Background Diabetic macular edema (DME) is one of the manifestations of diabetic retinopathy leading to loss of central vision and visual acuity. It manifests itself with swelling around the central part of the retina, the area responsible for sharp vision. Current treatment includes laser therapy and intravitreal steroids with preventative measures including diabetes control. No one treatment has guaranteed control of diabetic macular edema which leads to deteriorating visual acuity, function and quality of life in patients. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) has been shown to be a critical stimulus in the pathogenesis of macular edema secondary to diabetes.1 Antiangiogenic therapy encompassed treatment with anti-VEGF which inhibits VEGF-driven neovascularization hence macular edema leading to decreased visual acuity. Objective For this review, we evaluated the effectiveness of intravitreal anti-VEGF in treating DME. Data sources We identified five trials (n = 525) using electronic databases (Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials [Central], Medline®, and Excerpta Medica Database [EMBASE®]) in October 2008, supplemented by hand searching of reference lists, review articles, and conference abstracts. Methods We included all randomized clinical trials (RCTs) evaluating any form of intravitreal anti-VEGF for treating DME. The main outcome factor was change in best-corrected visual acuity and central macular thickness. One author assessed eligibility, methodological quality, and extracted data. Meta analysis was performed when appropriate. Results We included three trials of adequate methodological quality in our meta-analysis. Patients treated with anti-VEGF showed improvement in visual acuity of −0.17 (95% confidence interval [CI]: −0.23, −0.10) and central macular thickness −84.69 (95% CI: −117.09, −52.30). Patients treated with combined anti-VEGF and intravitreal triamcinolone showed improvement of visual acuity of −0.19 (95% CI:

  13. Association of antiretinal antibodies and cystoid macular edema in patients with retinitis pigmentosa.

    PubMed

    Heckenlively, J R; Jordan, B L; Aptsiauri, N

    1999-05-01

    To report the association of antiretinal antibodies in patients with bilateral cystoid macular edema and retinitis pigmentosa. In a prospective study, 30 consecutive patients with bilateral cystoid macular edema and retinitis pigmentosa were tested for antiretinal antibodies. As control subjects, 30 consecutive patients with retinitis pigmentosa who did not have cystoid macular edema and 50 normal subjects without retinitis pigmentosa or cystoid macular edema were tested for antiretinal antibodies. Laboratory personnel performing the antiretinal antibody testing were masked regarding the diagnosis of each patient. Twenty-seven (90%) of 30 patients with retinitis pigmentosa with cystoid macular edema had antiretinal protein antibody activity, compared with three (6%) of 50 normal controls (P < .001) and only four (13%) of 30 control patients with retinitis pigmentosa (P < .001). We found a significant association between cystoid macular edema and the presence of circulating antiretinal antibodies in patients who presented with retinitis pigmentosa and cystoid macular edema. This study suggests that patients with retinitis pigmentosa with cystoid macular edema may have an autoimmune process that is contributing to the formation of cystoid macular edema in retinitis pigmentosa, but to date, there is no direct evidence that the cystoid macular edema is caused by the antiretinal antibodies.

  14. Soluble Mediators of Diabetic Macular Edema: The Diagnostic Role of Aqueous VEGF and Cytokine Levels in Diabetic Macular Edema

    PubMed Central

    Owen, Leah A.; Hartnett, M. Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Diabetic macular edema (DME) is a significant cause of vision loss and represents an important clinical and public health problem. It is characterized by breakdown of the blood retinal barrier with fluid accumulation in the sub-retinal and intra-retinal spaces. Although several hypotheses exist for the causes of diabetic macular edema, specific molecular mechanisms remain unclear. Current thinking includes the role of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and inflammatory cytokines in vascular permeability. We review studies showing a relationship between elevated aqueous VEGF, monocyte chemoattractant protein -1, interleukin 6, or interleukin 8 in association with DME and as predictors of DME. The presence of mediators in both the angiogenesis and inflammatory pathways data suggest a multifactorial model for the development of DME. Further studies targeting individual cytokine activity will be important to our understanding of the pathogenesis and treatment. PMID:23649946

  15. Spontaneous resolution of macular edema after silicone oil removal

    PubMed Central

    Karahan, Eyyup; Tuncer, Ibrahim; Zengin, Mehmet Ozgur; Kucukerdonmez, Cem; Kaynak, Suleyman

    2014-01-01

    AIM To investigate the macular changes in eyes filled with silicone oil (SO) and course of these changes after SO removal. METHODS A retrospective optical coherence tomography scan review was conducted for twenty-four patients who underwent uncomplicated pars plana vitrectomy with SO tamponade for complex retinal detachments were detected with optical coherence tomography before, and one week, one month and three months after SO removal. RESULTS Mean duration of SO tamponade was 3.6±1.0mo (range: 3-7mo). Cystoid macular edema (CME) was detected in 3 eyes before SO removal. Submacular fluid was represented in 1 eye before silicone SO removal. Resolution of CME and submacular fluid was achieved 1mo after SO removal in all eyes. Mean best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) was 1.15±0.65 (range, hand movement to 0.2) before SO removal in the eyes without macular changes. After SO removal, the mean BCVA values at 1wk and 1 and 3mo, and 0.82±0.23, 0.76±0.21, and 0.70±0.19, all of which were significantly better than baseline (P=0.030, 0.017, 0.006 respectively). In the eyes with macular CME and subretinal fluid the mean BCVA was significantly improved at 3mo after SO removal compared with baseline (P=0.037). CONCLUSION Decreased visual acuity in eyes filled with SO could be caused by macular complications due to SO. CME and subretinal fluid may resolve without any additional macular surgery after SO removal. PMID:25540755

  16. CORRELATION OF OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHIC HYPERREFLECTIVE FOCI WITH VISUAL OUTCOMES IN DIFFERENT PATTERNS OF DIABETIC MACULAR EDEMA.

    PubMed

    Kang, Joon-Won; Chung, Hyewon; Chan Kim, Hyung

    2016-09-01

    To investigate the correlation between the hyperreflective foci (HF) on spectral domain optical coherence tomography at the baseline and visual outcomes after intravitreal bevacizumab injections in different patterns of diabetic macular edema. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 97 eyes (80 patients) with diabetic macular edema that were treated with intravitreal bevacizumab injection. The eyes were categorized into three groups by optical coherence tomographic features: diffuse retinal thickening, cystoid macular edema, and serous retinal detachment. The baseline and final best-corrected visual acuity, foveal thickness, the number of HF, and status of the external limiting membrane and the ellipsoid zone were evaluated and compared among the three groups. The number of HF in all retinal layers was reduced in patients with diabetic macular edema after treatment. In multivariate regression analysis, the final visual acuity was associated with baseline visual acuity (P = 0.004) and number of outer retinal HF (P = 0.004) in the diffuse retinal thickening group, baseline visual acuity (P = 0.002) and number of outer retinal HF (P < 0.001) in the cystoid macular edema group, and baseline number of inner and outer retinal HF (P = 0.041, P = 0.025, respectively) in the serous retinal detachment group. The baseline number of the outer retinal HF was correlated with the final visual acuity, ellipsoid zone disruption length, and external limiting membrane disruption length in all three groups. The number of HF in outer retinal layer on spectral domain optical coherence tomography at baseline might predict the final visual acuity in all three patterns of diabetic macular edema groups.

  17. Utility of hard exudates for the screening of macular edema.

    PubMed

    Litvin, Taras V; Ozawa, Glen Y; Bresnick, George H; Cuadros, Jorge A; Muller, Matthew S; Elsner, Ann E; Gast, Thomas J

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether hard exudates (HEs) within one disc diameter of the foveola is an acceptable criterion for the referral of diabetic patients suspected of clinically significant macular edema (CSME) in a screening setting. One hundred forty-three adults diagnosed as having diabetes mellitus were imaged using a nonmydriatic digital fundus camera at the Alameda County Medical Center in Oakland, CA. Nonstereo fundus images were graded independently for the presence of HE near the center of the macula by two graders according to the EyePACS grading protocol. The patients also received a dilated fundus examination on a separate visit. Clinically significant macular edema was determined during the dilated fundus examination using the criteria set forth by the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study. Subsequently, the sensitivity and specificity of HEs within one disc diameter of the foveola in nonstereo digital images used as a surrogate for the detection of CSME diagnosed by live fundus examination were calculated. The mean (±SD) age of 103 patients included in the analysis was 56 ± 17 years. Clinically significant macular edema was diagnosed in 15.5% of eyes during the dilated examination. For the right eyes, the sensitivity of HEs within one disc diameter from the foveola as a surrogate for detecting CSME was 93.8% for each of the graders; the specificity values were 88.5 and 85.1%. For the left eyes, the sensitivity values were 93.8 and 75% for each of the two graders, respectively; the specificity was 87.4% for both graders. This study supports the use of HE within a disc diameter of the center of the macula in nonstereo digital images for CSME detection in a screening setting.

  18. Volcano like pattern in optical coherence tomography in chronic diabetic macular edema.

    PubMed

    Pai, Sivakami A; Hussain, Nazimul; Hebri, Sudhira P; Lootah, Afra M; Dekhain, Moza A

    2014-04-01

    In this article we herein report an interesting vitreo-macular interface abnormality associated with chronic diabetic cystoid macular edema. It is an observational case study of three diabetic patients examined in the diabetic clinic. All the patients had proliferative diabetic retinopathy with chronic macular edema. A serial cross sectional OCT examination and tracking of both the longitudinal progression of macular thickening and vitreo-macular interface revealed cystoid macular edema with a characteristic hyperreflective vitreous shadow emerging from the vitreofoveal interface. All the patients had dehiscence of inner retinal layers. This particular morphological feature at the vitreo-foveolar interface, which we name as "volcano sign", has not been described earlier. The probable mechanism of such a finding probably could be due to slow progressive leakage of chronic cytoid fluid into the vitreous with condensation of the overlying vitreous. Vitreo-macular traction followed by posterior vitreous detachment probably would have contributed to such a morphological event.

  19. Novel Therapeutic Targets in Diabetic Macular Edema: Beyond VEGF.

    PubMed

    Urias, Elizabeth A; Urias, George A; Monickaraj, Finny; McGuire, Paul; Das, Arup

    2017-10-06

    The leading cause of major vision loss in diabetic persons is diabetic macular edema (DME). The hallmark feature of diabetic retinopathy is the alteration of the blood-retinal barrier (BRB). Inflammation plays a crucial role in DME with involvement of several chemokines and cytokines including vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). VEGF is a potent cytokine and vaso-permeability factor that has been targeted in multiple, large clinical trials. Multiple anti-VEGF drugs are widely used in the treatment of diabetic macular edema (DME) as the first line of treatment, and have been shown to be effective in vision improvement and prevention of vision loss. However, many DME patients do not show complete response to anti-VEGF drugs despite multiple intravitreal injections with these drugs. Also, the effect seems to be transient in those responders, and many patients do not show complete resolution of fluid. This article summarizes the mechanisms other than VEGF, and how these novel factors can be targeted as promising therapies of DME. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Cost-effectiveness of treatment of diabetic macular edema.

    PubMed

    Pershing, Suzann; Enns, Eva A; Matesic, Brian; Owens, Douglas K; Goldhaber-Fiebert, Jeremy D

    2014-01-07

    Macular edema is the most common cause of vision loss among patients with diabetes. To determine the cost-effectiveness of different treatments of diabetic macular edema (DME). Markov model. Published literature and expert opinion. Patients with clinically significant DME. Lifetime. Societal. Laser treatment, intraocular injections of triamcinolone or a vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) inhibitor, or a combination of both. Discounted costs, gains in quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs), and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs). All treatments except laser monotherapy substantially reduced costs, and all treatments except triamcinolone monotherapy increased QALYs. Laser treatment plus a VEGF inhibitor achieved the greatest benefit, gaining 0.56 QALYs at a cost of $6975 for an ICER of $12 410 per QALY compared with laser treatment plus triamcinolone. Monotherapy with a VEGF inhibitor achieved similar outcomes to combination therapy with laser treatment plus a VEGF inhibitor. Laser monotherapy and triamcinolone monotherapy were less effective and more costly than combination therapy. VEGF inhibitor monotherapy was sometimes preferred over laser treatment plus a VEGF inhibitor, depending on the reduction in quality of life with loss of visual acuity. When the VEGF inhibitor bevacizumab was as effective as ranibizumab, it was preferable because of its lower cost. Long-term outcome data for treated and untreated diseases are limited. The most effective treatment of DME is VEGF inhibitor injections with or without laser treatment. This therapy compares favorably with cost-effective interventions for other conditions. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality.

  1. Aflibercept, bevacizumab, or ranibizumab for diabetic macular edema.

    PubMed

    Wells, John A; Glassman, Adam R; Ayala, Allison R; Jampol, Lee M; Aiello, Lloyd Paul; Antoszyk, Andrew N; Arnold-Bush, Bambi; Baker, Carl W; Bressler, Neil M; Browning, David J; Elman, Michael J; Ferris, Frederick L; Friedman, Scott M; Melia, Michele; Pieramici, Dante J; Sun, Jennifer K; Beck, Roy W

    2015-03-26

    The relative efficacy and safety of intravitreous aflibercept, bevacizumab, and ranibizumab in the treatment of diabetic macular edema are unknown. At 89 clinical sites, we randomly assigned 660 adults (mean age, 61±10 years) with diabetic macular edema involving the macular center to receive intravitreous aflibercept at a dose of 2.0 mg (224 participants), bevacizumab at a dose of 1.25 mg (218 participants), or ranibizumab at a dose of 0.3 mg (218 participants). The study drugs were administered as often as every 4 weeks, according to a protocol-specified algorithm. The primary outcome was the mean change in visual acuity at 1 year. From baseline to 1 year, the mean visual-acuity letter score (range, 0 to 100, with higher scores indicating better visual acuity; a score of 85 is approximately 20/20) improved by 13.3 with aflibercept, by 9.7 with bevacizumab, and by 11.2 with ranibizumab. Although the improvement was greater with aflibercept than with the other two drugs (P<0.001 for aflibercept vs. bevacizumab and P=0.03 for aflibercept vs. ranibizumab), it was not clinically meaningful, because the difference was driven by the eyes with worse visual acuity at baseline (P<0.001 for interaction). When the initial visual-acuity letter score was 78 to 69 (equivalent to approximately 20/32 to 20/40) (51% of participants), the mean improvement was 8.0 with aflibercept, 7.5 with bevacizumab, and 8.3 with ranibizumab (P>0.50 for each pairwise comparison). When the initial letter score was less than 69 (approximately 20/50 or worse), the mean improvement was 18.9 with aflibercept, 11.8 with bevacizumab, and 14.2 with ranibizumab (P<0.001 for aflibercept vs. bevacizumab, P=0.003 for aflibercept vs. ranibizumab, and P=0.21 for ranibizumab vs. bevacizumab). There were no significant differences among the study groups in the rates of serious adverse events (P=0.40), hospitalization (P=0.51), death (P=0.72), or major cardiovascular events (P=0.56). Intravitreous aflibercept

  2. Autofluorescence Imaging for Diagnosis and Follow-up of Cystoid Macular Edema

    PubMed Central

    Ebrahimiadib, Nazanin; Riazi-Esfahani, Mohammad

    2012-01-01

    Lipofuscin results from digestion of photoreceptor outer segments by the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and is the principal compound that causes RPE fluorescence during autofluorescence imaging. Absorption of the 488-nanometer blue light by macular pigments, especially by the carotenoids lutein and zeaxanthin, causes normal macular hypo-autofluorescence. Fundus autofluorescence imaging is being increasingly employed in ophthalmic practice to diagnose and monitor patients with a variety of retinal disorders. In macular edema for example, areas of hyper-autofluorescence are usually present which are postulated to be due to dispersion of macular pigments by pockets of intraretinal fluid. For this reason, the masking effect of macular pigments is reduced and the natural autofluorescence of lipofuscin can be observed without interference. In cystic types of macular edema, e.g. cystoid macular edema due to retinal vein occlusion, diabetic macular edema and post cataract surgery, hyper-autofluorescent regions corresponding to cystic spaces of fluid accumulation can be identified. In addition, the amount of hyper-autofluorescence seems to correspond to the severity of edema. Hence, autofluorescence imaging, as a noninvasive technique, can provide valuable information on cystoid macular edema in terms of diagnosis, follow-up and efficacy of treatment. PMID:23264870

  3. Resolution of Severe Macular Edema in Adult Coats' Disease with Intravitreal Triamcinolone and Bevacizumab Injection

    PubMed Central

    Jun, Jong-Hwa; Kim, Kwang-Soo

    2008-01-01

    A 47 year old male patient visited our hospital with the chief complaint of deterioration of the visual acuity in the left eye. The fundus examination revealed thick hard exudates, multiple aneurysms and telangiectasias of the retinal vessels in the posterior pole. Fluorescein angiography demonstrated massive leakage over an area of the aneurysms. Optical coherence tomography (Stratus OCT; Zeiss-Humphrey, Dubin, CA) revealed diffuse and marked thickening of the retina. Laser photocoagulation was performed under the diagnosis of Coats' disease. However, the treatment could not be performed satisfactorily. On the first and 6th weeks, an intravitreal injection of bevacizumab and triamcinolone acetonide was administered, and laser photocoagulation was again attempted. The effectiveness of eachagent on retinal edema was evaluated at the follow-up performed at 1, 2, 5, 7, 10 weeks and 6 months after the injection. At one week after the intravitreal bevacizumab injection, there was no improvement. An intravitreal injection of triamcinolone acetonide was performed 6 weeks after the initial diagnosis,which resulted in a reduction in the thickness of the macular edema. Therefore, laser photocoagulation was performed sufficiently on telangiectasias. The follow-up at 6 months showed a relative increase in the macular edema, but there was reduced leakage from the telangiectasias compared with the previous angiograph. PMID:18784449

  4. Phakic cystoid macular edema secondary to idiopathic macular telangiectasia type 1 responsive to topical anti-inflammatory agents.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Evan N; Gregori, Ninel Z; Goldhardt, Raquel

    2013-03-01

    To report a 65-year-old male patient with bilateral phakic cystoid macular edema secondary to idiopathic macular telangiectasia type 1, with robust response to topical steroidal and non-steroidal agents. Retrospective interventional case report. Chart review. Snellen visual acuity was 20/40 bilaterally. Color fundus photographs showing golden crystalline deposits temporal to the fovea; fluorescein angiography demonstrating telangiectasias with late leakage; and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography revealing intraretinal and subretinal fluid demonstrated findings consistent with idiopathic macular telangiectasia type 1 with bilateral cystoid macular edema. The patient was treated with steroidal and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drops with complete resolution of edema within two months and improved visual acuity. Over the next two years, edema recurred whenever the drops were stopped and disappeared with reinstitution of topical therapy. Topical steroidal and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents may lead to long-term resolution of cystoid macular edema secondary to idiopathic macular telangiectasia type 1.

  5. Improvement of Recalcitrant Diabetic Macular Edema After Peritoneal Dialysis.

    PubMed

    Ong, Sally S; Thomas, Akshay S; Fekrat, Sharon

    2017-10-01

    Nephropathy may be an independent and contributory risk factor for diabetic macular edema (DME). A 69-year-old man who had previously been treated with panretinal laser photocoagulation for proliferative diabetic retinopathy as well as with steroid and anti-vascular endothelial growth factor injections for DME declined additional treatment for the DME, which was worse in the right eye. The DME was observed without further treatment for the next 36 months. Despite well-controlled blood sugar, blood pressure, and lipid levels, the DME remained unchanged. Peritoneal dialysis was started due to end-stage renal disease. Three months after commencing dialysis, the DME improved significantly. [Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging Retina. 2017;48:834-837.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  6. Evidence-Based Treatment of Diabetic Macular Edema.

    PubMed

    Barham, Rasha; El Rami, Hala; Sun, Jennifer K; Silva, Paolo S

    2017-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease that affects 415 million people worldwide. Despite treatment advances, diabetic eye disease remains a leading cause of vision loss worldwide. Diabetic macular edema (DME) is a common cause of vision loss in diabetic patients. The pathophysiology is complex and involves multiple pathways that ultimately lead to central retinal thickening and, if untreated, visual loss. First-line treatment of DME has evolved from focal/grid laser established by the Early Treatment of Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) to intravitreous pharmacologic therapy. Landmark prospective clinical trials examining the effect of intravitreous injections of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) inhibitors in the treatment of DME have demonstrated improved visual outcomes over focal grid laser. This review focuses on the scientific evidence treatment of DME, disease pathophysiology, clinical disease course, current treatment standards, and emerging novel therapeutic approaches.

  7. CLINICAL EVIDENCE OF THE MULTIFACTORIAL NATURE OF DIABETIC MACULAR EDEMA.

    PubMed

    Chakravarthy, Usha; Yang, Yit; Lotery, Andrew; Ghanchi, Faruque; Bailey, Clare; Holz, Frank G; Downey, Louise; Weber, Michel; Eter, Nicole; Dugel, Pravin U

    2017-03-13

    To report functional and morphologic outcomes, based on diabetic macular edema (DME) chronicity and baseline best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), from a subanalysis of the fluocinolone acetonide for macular edema (FAME) trials. Patients were categorized by DME duration (nonchronic [ncDME] or chronic [cDME] DME) and three nonexclusive baseline vision strata. Anatomic and visual acuity VA outcomes of these cohorts were compared with treatment assignment. For all patients with ncDME and cDME who received sham control, 27.8% and 13.4%, respectively, gained ≥15 BCVA letters, whereas 22.3% and 34.0% of 0.2 μg/day fluocinolone acetonide (FAc)-treated patients, respectively, gained ≥15 BCVA letters. Among patients with ncDME who received sham control, as baseline vision decreased, the percentage gaining ≥15 BCVA letters increased; however, among those with cDME, the percentage gaining ≥15 BCVA letters did not change as baseline vision decreased. Conversely, among 0.2 μg/day FAc-treated patients, the percentage gaining ≥15 BCVA letters increased with decreasing baseline vision, regardless of DME chronicity. Anatomical outcomes were similar within treatment arms, regardless of the DME duration. Patients with cDME and poor baseline vision who were exposed to low-dose FAc experienced BCVA improvements that were not observed in a similar group from the sham-control arm. These data support the multifactorial pathogenesis of cDME.This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives License 4.0 (CCBY-NC-ND), where it is permissible to download and share the work provided it is properly cited. The work cannot be changed in any way or used commercially without permission from the journal.

  8. Cost-Effectiveness of Treatment of Diabetic Macular Edema

    PubMed Central

    Pershing, Suzann; Enns, Eva A.; Matesic, Brian; Owens, Douglas K.; Goldhaber-Fiebert, Jeremy D.

    2014-01-01

    Background Macular edema is the most common cause of visual loss among patients with diabetes. Objective To determine the cost-effectiveness of different treatments of diabetic macular edema (DME). Design Markov model. Data Sources Published literature and expert opinion. Target Population Patients with clinically significant DME. Time Horizon Lifetime. Perspective Societal. Intervention Laser treatment, intraocular injections of triamcinolone or a vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) inhibitor, or a combination of both. Outcome Measures Discounted costs, gains in quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs), and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs). Results of Base-Case Analysis All treatments except laser monotherapy substantially reduced costs, and all treatments except triamcinolone monotherapy increased QALYs. Laser treatment plus a VEGF inhibitor achieved the greatest benefit, gaining 0.56 QALYs at a cost of $6975 for an ICER of $12 410 per QALY compared with laser treatment plus triamcinolone. Monotherapy with a VEGF inhibitor achieved similar outcomes to combination therapy with laser treatment plus a VEGF inhibitor. Laser monotherapy and triamcinolone monotherapy were less effective and more costly than combination therapy. Results of Sensitivity Analysis VEGF inhibitor monotherapy was sometimes preferred over laser treatment plus a VEGF inhibitor, depending on the reduction in quality of life with loss of visual acuity. When the VEGF inhibitor bevacizumab was as effective as ranibizumab, it was preferable to because of its lower cost. Limitation Long-term outcome data for treated and untreated diseases are limited. Conclusion The most effective treatment of DME is VEGF inhibitor injections with or without laser treatment. This therapy compares favorably with cost-effective interventions for other conditions. Primary Funding Source Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. PMID:24573663

  9. Intravitreal bevacizumab for persistent macular edema with proliferative diabetic retinopathy.

    PubMed

    Gulkilik, Gokhan; Taskapili, Muhittin; Kocabora, Selim; Muftuoglu, Gulipek; Demirci, Goktug

    2010-12-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of an intravitreal bevacizumab injection on retinal neovascularization and diabetic macular edema (DME) refractory to laser photocoagulation therapy. Thirty-four eyes of 22 patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy and DME refractory to laser photocoagulation therapy received an intravitreal injection of 1.25 mg/0.05 ml of bevazicumab. Changes in mean best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), central macular thickness (CMT), regression of neovascularization over time, and correlation between BCVA and CMT were evaluated. Follow-up visits were at weeks 1, 2 and 4 and months 3 and 6. Mean BCVA was significantly better than baseline only at week 2 (P = 0.036). Mean CMT decreased significantly from baseline at weeks 1, 2, and 4 (P = 0.001). At months 3 and 6, mean CMT increased, albeit insignificantly (P = 0.804 and P = 1.0). The decrease in fluorescein leakage was moderate in all eyes at the end of week 1. At week 2, there was total resolution of fluorescein leakage in 24 (70.5%) eyes and moderate resolution in 10 (29.5%) eyes. At the end of month 3, the fluorescein leakage was fully resolved in 5 (14.7%) eyes, moderately resolved in 24 (70.5%) eyes, and was similar to baseline in 5 (14.7%) eyes. At month 6, the fluorescein leakage was fully resolved in 3 (8.8%) eyes, moderately resolved in 20 (58.8%) eyes, and was similar to baseline in 11 (32.4%) eyes. A moderate but insignificant negative correlation was found between visual acuity and CMT (P > 0.05). Persistence or recurrence of neovascular tissue after panretinal photocoagulation may be attributed to the production of vascular endothelial growth factor by the residual ischemic retina, which also results in persistent or recurrent DME despite macular grid photocoagulation.

  10. [Transmissing electron microscopy of the vitreo-macular border in clinically significant diabetic macular edema].

    PubMed

    Synek, S; Pác, L; Synková, M

    2007-09-01

    The authors examined samples of the epimacular tissue in clinically significant macular edema by means of the transmissing electron microscopy. They did not found morphological differences between samples from patients already treated by means of laser photocoagulation before the pars plana vitrectomy and those without the laser treatment. Findings may be divided into three groups: (1) the inner limiting membrane (ILM) covered with collagen vitreous fibers, (2) cells' elements of the fibroblasts category, and (3) fibrous astrocytes in the vitreous cortex constituting one- or multilayer cellular membranes.

  11. CONGENITAL MACROVESSEL ASSOCIATED WITH CYSTOID MACULAR EDEMA AND AN IPSILATERAL INTRACRANIAL VENOUS MALFORMATION

    PubMed Central

    Sanfilippo, Christian J.

    2015-01-01

    Background/Purpose: To report a case of congenital retinal macrovessel associated with cystoid macular edema and an ipsilateral intracranial venous malformation. Methods: Case report. Results: A 58-year-old woman with decreased vision was found to have a congenital retinal venous macrovessel associated with cystoid macular edema because of tributary venous occlusion. The patient underwent neuroimaging and an ipsilateral venous malformation of the frontal lobe was discovered. Conclusion: Congenital retinal macrovessel can occasionally be complicated by vascular occlusion and macular edema. The authors report a case of congenital retinal macrovessel associated with an intracranial venous malformation. Clinicians should be aware of this potential association, and further studies are warranted. PMID:26421894

  12. Pearl necklace sign in diabetic macular edema: Evaluation and significance.

    PubMed

    Ajay, Kshirasagar; Mason, Fiona; Gonglore, Bipin; Bhatnagar, Ajay

    2016-11-01

    (1) The purpose of this study was to describe significance and prevalence of the newly reported pearl necklace spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SDOCT) sign, in diabetic macular edema (DMO), (2) to track the course of this sign over a period of at least 10 months. The pearl necklace SDOCT sign refers to hyperreflective dots in a contiguous ring around the inner wall of cystoid spaces in the retina, recently described for the first time in 21 eyes with chronic exudative maculopathy. A retrospective analysis was performed of SDOCT images of all patients presenting to the DMO referral clinic of a tertiary eye care center, over a period of 24 months. Images of patients displaying this sign were sequentially analyzed for at least 10 months to track the course of the sign. Thirty-five eyes of 267 patients (13.1%) were found to display the pearl necklace sign. Twenty-eight eyes responded to intravitreal ranibizumab treatment with resolution of edema. In 21 eyes, the dots coalesced to form a clump, visible in the infrared fundus photograph as hard exudates; in seven eyes, dots disappeared without leaving visible exudates. In three eyes, the sign was seen in subfoveal cystoid spaces, with subsequent development of hard exudates, and drop in visual acuity of 20 letters or more. Pearl necklace SDOCT sign is not infrequent in DMO. This sign is a precursor to hard exudates in the majority of cases. If this sign is seen subfoveally, drop in visual acuity can be expected, despite treatment.

  13. EFFECT OF INTERNAL LIMITING MEMBRANE PEELING ON LONG-TERM VISUAL OUTCOMES FOR DIABETIC MACULAR EDEMA.

    PubMed

    Kumagai, Kazuyuki; Hangai, Masanori; Ogino, Nobuchika; Larson, Eric

    2015-07-01

    To evaluate the effect of internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling on the long-term visual outcomes in eyes with diffuse, nontractional diabetic macular edema. One hundred and sixteen eyes of 58 patients with the same degree of diabetic macular edema in both eyes underwent pars plana vitrectomy with the creation of a posterior vitreous detachment in both eyes. Internal limiting membrane peeling was performed in one randomly selected eye (ILM-off group), and ILM peeling was not performed (ILM-on group) in the fellow eye. The postoperative follow-up period ranged from 12 months to 161 months (average, 80.4 months). In the ILM-off group, the mean best-corrected visual acuity in logMAR units (Snellen equivalent) increased from 0.55 ± 0.31 (20/71) before surgery to 0.35 ± 0.35 (20/45) at 1 year (P < 0.0001) and 0.46 ± 0.43 (20/59) at the final visit (P = 0.058). In the ILM-on group, the mean best-corrected visual acuity increased from 0.55 ± 0.41 (20/71) before surgery to 0.43 ± 0.38 (20/54) at 1 year (P = 0.010) and 0.44 ± 0.45 (20/56) at the final visit (P = 0.043). The differences in the best-corrected visual acuity between the two groups were not significant at any time point. Pars plana vitrectomy with or without ILM peeling improves the long-term visual acuity of nontractional diabetic macular edema. Internal limiting membrane peeling does not affect the postoperative best-corrected visual acuity significantly.

  14. Fluorescein angiography versus optical coherence tomography for diagnosis of uveitic macular edema.

    PubMed

    Kempen, John H; Sugar, Elizabeth A; Jaffe, Glenn J; Acharya, Nisha R; Dunn, James P; Elner, Susan G; Lightman, Susan L; Thorne, Jennifer E; Vitale, Albert T; Altaweel, Michael M

    2013-09-01

    To evaluate agreement between fluorescein angiography (FA) and optical coherence tomography (OCT) results for diagnosis of macular edema in patients with uveitis. Multicenter cross-sectional study. Four hundred seventy-nine eyes with uveitis from 255 patients. The macular status of dilated eyes with intermediate uveitis, posterior uveitis, or panuveitis was assessed via Stratus-3 OCT and FA. To evaluate agreement between the diagnostic approaches, κ statistics were used. Macular thickening (MT; center point thickness, ≥ 240 μm per reading center grading of OCT images) and macular leakage (ML; central subfield fluorescein leakage, ≥ 0.44 disc areas per reading center grading of FA images), and agreement between these outcomes in diagnosing macular edema. Optical coherence tomography (90.4%) more frequently returned usable information regarding macular edema than FA (77%) or biomicroscopy (76%). Agreement in diagnosis of MT and ML (κ = 0.44) was moderate. Macular leakage was present in 40% of cases free of MT, whereas MT was present in 34% of cases without ML. Biomicroscopic evaluation for macular edema failed to detect 40% and 45% of cases of MT and ML, respectively, and diagnosed 17% and 17% of cases with macular edema that did not have MT or ML, respectively; these results may underestimate biomicroscopic errors (ophthalmologists were not explicitly masked to OCT and FA results). Among eyes free of ML, phakic eyes without cataract rarely (4%) had MT. No factors were found that effectively ruled out ML when MT was absent. Optical coherence tomography and FA offered only moderate agreement regarding macular edema status in uveitis cases, probably because what they measure (MT and ML) are related but nonidentical macular pathologic characteristics. Given its lower cost, greater safety, and greater likelihood of obtaining usable information, OCT may be the best initial test for evaluation of suspected macular edema. However, given that ML cannot be ruled out if

  15. Macular Edema After Cataract Surgery In Eyes Without Pre-operative Central-involved Diabetic Macular Edema

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Carl W.; Almukhtar, Talat; Bressler, Neil M.; Glassman, Adam R.; Grover, Sandeep; Kim, Stephen J.; Murtha, Timothy J.; Rauser, Michael E.; Stockdale, Cynthia

    2014-01-01

    Objective To estimate the incidence of central-involved macular edema (ME)16 weeks following cataract surgery in eyes with diabetic retinopathy (DR) without definite central-involved diabetic macular edema (DME) preoperatively. Methods In a multicenter, prospective, observational study, participants (N = 293) with DR without definite OCT central subfield (CSF) thickening underwent cataract surgery. The primary outcome was development of central-involved ME defined as; (1) OCT CSF thickness ≥ 250μm (time domain) or ≥ 310μm (spectral domain) with ≥1 step increase in logOCT CSF thickness pre-operative to the 16-week visit; (2) ≥2-step increase in logOCT CSF pre-operative to 16-week visit; or (3) non-topical treatment for ME received before the 16-week visit with either of the OCT criteria met at the time of treatment. Results Median participant age was 64 years with median visual acuity letter score of 69 (Snellen equivalent 20/40). Forty-four percent of eyes had history of prior treatment for DME. Sixteen weeks postoperatively, central-involved ME was noted in 0% (95%CI: 0-20%) of 17 eyes with no pre-operative DME. Of eyes with non-central involved DME, 10% (95%CI: 5-18%) of 97 eyes without central involved DME and 12% (95%CI: 7-19%) of 147 eyes with possible central involved DME at baseline progressed to central-involved ME. History of DME treatment was significantly associated with central-involved ME development (P<0.001). Conclusion In eyes with DR without concurrent central-involved DME, presence of non-central DME immediately prior to cataract surgery, or history of DME treatment, may increase risk of developing central-involved ME 16 weeks after cataract extraction. PMID:23599174

  16. The clinical utility of aflibercept for diabetic macular edema.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Michael W

    2015-01-01

    The treatment of center-involving diabetic macular edema (DME) has improved because of the proven efficacy of drugs that inhibit the effects of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). The newest anti-VEGF drug, aflibercept, has recently been approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of center-involving DME and for diabetic retinopathy in eyes with DME. In the pivotal Phase III VISTA and VIVID trials, intravitreal aflibercept 2 mg injections every 4 or 8 weeks (after 5 monthly loading doses) produced superior gains in BCVA compared to laser/sham injections. In the Diabetic Retinopathy Clinical Research Network Protocol T trial, which featured monthly anti-VEGF monotherapy for 6 months, followed by monthly pro re nata anti-VEGF injections with laser rescue therapy from months 6 through 12, aflibercept 2 mg monthly was superior to bevacizumab 1.25 mg and ranibizumab 0.5 mg in eyes with BCVA of 20/50 or worse (aflibercept versus bevacizumab: P<0.001; aflibercept versus ranibizumab: P=0.003), but the three regimens were comparable for eyes with VA of 20/40 or better. Only in the 20/50 or worse subgroup did aflibercept achieve clinical superiority (>5 letter difference) to bevacizumab. Each treatment regimen led to significant macular thinning, with aflibercept being superior to bevacizumab in both visual acuity subgroups (P<0.001 for each), but it was not statistically superior to ranibizumab in either group. In diabetic patients, aflibercept has an excellent safety profile that does not appear to differ from laser/sham or other VEGF inhibitory drugs.

  17. Indocyanine Green Angiography-Guided Focal Laser Photocoagulation for Diabetic Macular Edema.

    PubMed

    Ogura, Shuntaro; Yasukawa, Tsutomu; Kato, Aki; Kuwayama, Soichiro; Hamada, Satoshi; Hirano, Yoshio; Uemura, Akiyoshi; Yoshida, Munenori; Ogura, Yuichiro

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the usefulness of indocyanine green angiography (ICGA) to detect leaking spots and the effectiveness of ICGA-guided focal laser photocoagulation in eyes with diabetic macular edema (DME). Ten eyes (8 patients) with diffuse DME diagnosed using fluorescein angiography (FA) and refractory to a sub-Tenon injection of triamcinolone acetonide (STTA), grid laser photocoagulation, or both were enrolled. FA and ICGA were performed using the Heidelberg Retina Angiograph 2. Hyperfluorescent spots on early-phase FA and on early- and late-phase ICGA were superimposed onto the macular thickness map measured by optical coherence tomography (OCT) and counted to calculate the spot density in the area with or without macular edema (ME). ICGA-guided focal laser photocoagulation was carried out. In 7 eyes, STTA was simultaneously performed. The central macular thickness (CRT) and macular volume (MV) were measured by OCT. On early-phase FA, 4.8 ± 2.3 and 2.3 ± 1.5 hyperfluorescent spots/disk area were observed inside and outside the ME, respectively. In contrast, the spot density was significantly decreased to 1.8 ± 0.9 inside the ME and was only 0.3 ± 0.4 outside the ME on late-phase ICGA (p < 0.01). The mean follow-up period after ICGA-guided photocoagulation was 19.0 months. The mean best-corrected visual acuity improved significantly from 0.77 ± 0.34 logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution at baseline to 0.52 ± 0.37 at the last visit (p < 0.01). Both CRT and MV significantly decreased (p < 0.01). Recurrence of DME was observed in 4 eyes: 3 eyes were treatable only with STTA and 1 required additional ICGA-guided laser photocoagulation. ICGA may be useful to detect leaking spots responsible for DME, enabling less invasive focal laser photocoagulation even in some of the eyes with diffuse DME. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. [Unilateral cystoid macular edema induced by citalopram--a case report].

    PubMed

    Alexík, M

    2011-10-01

    Citamopram is an antidepressant drug with fatigue, sleep disorders, appetite changes and visual impairment being the most common side effects. We are not aware of any published cases of cystoid macular edema following medication of this drug. We present a case of 55 year old woman with medical history of depression placed on Citalopram medication who noticed deterioration of right eye vision. Best corrected visual acuity was 20/120, ophthalmic coherence tomography and fluorescein angiography revealed cystoid macular edema. Two months following drug withdrawal edema disappeared and best corrected visual acuity improved to 20/32. Due to lack of other probable causes of edema and quick disappearance following drug withdrawal it is plausible to think of Citalopram as causative factor of cystoid macular edema in this patient.

  19. Strong topical steroid, NSAID, and carbonic anhydrase inhibitor cocktail for treatment of cystoid macular edema

    PubMed Central

    Asahi, Masumi G; Bobarnac Dogaru, Gabriela L; Onishi, Spencer M; Gallemore, Ron P

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To report the combination cocktail of strong steroid, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), and carbonic anhydrase inhibitor drops for treatment of cystoid macular edema. Methods This is a retrospective case series of patients with cystoid macular edema managed with a topical combination of strong steroid (difluprednate), NSAID, and carbonic anhydrase inhibitor drops. The patients were followed with optical coherence tomography and fluorescein angiography. Results In our six cases, resolution of the cystic edema with improvement in visual acuity was achieved with the use of a combination cocktail of drops. Leakage on fluorescein angiography and cystic edema on optical coherence tomography both responded to treatment with the topical cocktail of drops. Conclusion A topical cocktail of strong steroid, NSAID, and carbonic anhydrase inhibitor drops are effective for managing cystoid macular edema. Further studies comparing this combination with more invasive treatments should be undertaken to determine the efficacy of this cocktail over other treatment options. PMID:26664246

  20. Restoration of photoreceptors in eyes with diabetic macular edema.

    PubMed

    Muftuoglu, Ilkay K; Unsal, Erkan; Ozturker, Zeynep K

    2017-08-30

    To show the prognostic value of foveal microstructures using optical coherence tomography (OCT) for the restoration of inner segment/outer segment (IS/OS) junction layer following resolution of diabetic macular edema (DME). Forty-one eyes of 39 patients with IS/OS damage at the time of DME that showed complete resolution of DME were included. Eyes were divided into 2 groups based on the IS/OS integrity at final visit, when edema was completely resolved: always damage group (damage at baseline and at final visit) and initial damage group (damage only at baseline). The OCT characteristics including the extent of the IS/OS damage, central subfield thickness (CST), maximum retinal thickness (MRT), presence or absence of subretinal fluid, duration of diabetic retinopathy, and duration of DME were studied. The integrity of IS/OS was evaluated at baseline and at last follow-up as percentage (0%-100%). Forty-four percent of eyes (18 eyes) achieved complete restoration of IS/OS after resolution of DME. There was no significant difference in CST or MRT during DME between the 2 groups. The always damage group had more IS/OS damage at baseline visit (23.6% ± 6.4% vs 10.7% ± 3.4%, p = 0.043) with a longer duration of DME (p = 0.025). Despite a borderline significance in visual acuity between the 2 groups at baseline (p = 0.05), the always damage group ended up with worse vision at last follow-up (p<0.001). Patients with shorter duration of DME and less baseline IS/OS damage were more likely to have intact (restored) IS/OS after resolution of DME.

  1. Interventions for the treatment of uveitic macular edema: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Karim, Rushmia; Sykakis, Evripidis; Lightman, Susan; Fraser-Bell, Samantha

    2013-01-01

    Background Uveitic macular edema is the major cause of reduced vision in eyes with uveitis. Objectives To assess the effectiveness of interventions in the treatment of uveitic macular edema. Search strategy Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Medline, and Embase. There were no language or data restrictions in the search for trials. The databases were last searched on December 1, 2011. Reference lists of included trials were searched. Archives of Ophthalmology, Ophthalmology, Retina, the British Journal of Ophthalmology, and the New England Journal of Medicine were searched for clinical trials and reviews. Selection criteria Participants of any age and sex with any type of uveitic macular edema were included. Early, chronic, refractory, or secondary uveitic macular edema were included. We included trials that compared any interventions of any dose and duration, including comparison with another treatment, sham treatment, or no treatment. Data collection and analysis Best-corrected visual acuity and central macular thickness were the primary outcome measures. Secondary outcome data including adverse effects were collected. Conclusion More results from randomized controlled trials with long follow-up periods are needed for interventions for uveitic macular edema to assist in determining the overall long-term benefit of different treatments. The only intervention with sufficiently robust randomized controlled trials for a meta-analysis was acetazolamide, which was shown to be ineffective in improving vision in eyes with uveitic macular edema, and is clinically now rarely used. Interventions showing promise in this disease include dexamethasone implants, immunomodulatory drugs and anti-vascular endothelial growth-factor agents. When macular edema has become refractory after multiple interventions, pars plana vitrectomy could be considered. The disease pathophysiology is uncertain and the course of disease unpredictable. As there are no clear guidelines from

  2. Comparison of Modified-ETDRS and Mild Macular Grid Laser Photocoagulation Strategies for Diabetic Macular Edema

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Purpose To compare two laser photocoagulation techniques for treatment of diabetic macular edema (DME): modified-ETDRS direct/grid photocoagulation (mETDRS) and a, potentially milder, but potentially more extensive, mild macular grid (MMG) laser technique in which small mild burns are placed throughout the macula, whether or not edema is present, and microaneurysms are not treated directly. Methods 263 subjects (mean age 59 years) with previously untreated DME were randomly assigned to receive laser photocoagulation by mETDRS (N=162 eyes) or MMG (N=161 eyes) technique. Visual acuity, fundus photographs and OCT measurements were obtained at baseline and after 3.5, 8, and 12 months. Treatment was repeated if DME persisted. Main Outcome Measure Change in OCT measures at 12-months follow up. Results From baseline to 12 months, among eyes with baseline central subfield thickness ≥ 250 microns, central subfield thickening decreased by an average of 88 microns in the mETDRS group and decreased by 49 microns in the MMG group (adjusted mean difference: 33 microns, 95% confidence interval 5 to 61 microns, P=0.02). Weighted inner zone thickening by OCT decreased by 42 and 28 microns, respectively (adjusted mean difference: 14 microns, 95% confidence interval 1 to 27 microns, P=0.04), maximum retinal thickening (maximum of the central and four inner subfields) decreased by 66 and 39 microns, respectively (adjusted mean difference: 27 microns, 95% confidence interval 6 to 47 microns, P=0.01), and retinal volume decreased by 0.8 and 0.4 mm3, respectively (adjusted mean difference: 0.3 mm3, 95% confidence interval 0.02 to 0.53 mm3, P=0.03). At 12 months, the mean change in visual acuity was 0 letters in the mETDRS group and 2 letters worse in the MMG group (adjusted mean difference: 2 letters, 95% confidence interval −0.5 to 5 letters, P=0.10). Conclusions At 12 months after treatment, the MMG technique is less effective at reducing OCT measured retinal thickening than the

  3. Automatic segmentation of microcystic macular edema in OCT

    PubMed Central

    Lang, Andrew; Carass, Aaron; Swingle, Emily K.; Al-Louzi, Omar; Bhargava, Pavan; Saidha, Shiv; Ying, Howard S.; Calabresi, Peter A.; Prince, Jerry L.

    2014-01-01

    Microcystic macular edema (MME) manifests as small, hyporeflective cystic areas within the retina. For reasons that are still largely unknown, a small proportion of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) develop MME—predominantly in the inner nuclear layer. These cystoid spaces, denoted pseudocysts, can be imaged using optical coherence tomography (OCT) where they appear as small, discrete, low intensity areas with high contrast to the surrounding tissue. The ability to automatically segment these pseudocysts would enable a more detailed study of MME than has been previously possible. Although larger pseudocysts often appear quite clearly in the OCT images, the multi-frame averaging performed by the Spectralis scanner adds a significant amount of variability to the appearance of smaller pseudocysts. Thus, simple segmentation methods only incorporating intensity information do not perform well. In this work, we propose to use a random forest classifier to classify the MME pixels. An assortment of both intensity and spatial features are used to aid the classification. Using a cross-validation evaluation strategy with manual delineation as ground truth, our method is able to correctly identify 79% of pseudocysts with a precision of 85%. Finally, we constructed a classifier from the output of our algorithm to distinguish clinically identified MME from non-MME subjects yielding an accuracy of 92%. PMID:25657884

  4. Bevacizumab for the management of diabetic macular edema

    PubMed Central

    Stefanini, Francisco Rosa; Arevalo, J Fernando; Maia, Maurício

    2013-01-01

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a leading cause of vision loss in the working-age population and is relatedto 1%-5% of cases of blindness worldwide. Diabetic macular edema (DME) is the most frequent cause of DR vision loss and is an important public health problem. Recent studies have implicated vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in DR and DME pathogenesis, as well as provided evidence of the benefits of anti-VEGF agents for the management of such conditions. Despite the benefits of intravitreal ranibizumab injection for the management of DME, the cost-effectiveness of intravitreal bevacizumab therapy has gained increasing interest in the scientific community. This review summarizes the studies examining bevacizumab for the management of DME, focusing on the efficacy and duration of the clinical benefits of decreasing DME and the improvement of best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA). There is strong evidence that intravitreal bevacizumab injection therapy has a good cost-effective profile in the management of DME and may be associated with laser photocoagulation; however, its clinical superiority in terms of the duration of DME regression and the improvement of BCVA compared with intravitreal ranibizumab and other intravitreal anti-VEGF therapies remains unclear and deserves further investigation. PMID:23593532

  5. Clinical evaluation of microcystic macular edema in patients with glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Murata, N; Togano, T; Miyamoto, D; Ochiai, S; Fukuchi, T

    2016-11-01

    PurposeTo investigate the prevalence of microcystic macular edema (MME) in patients with glaucoma and the relationship between glaucomatous visual field defects and MME.Patients and methodsWe analyzed 636 eyes of 341 glaucoma patients who underwent spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). MME was defined as vacuoles observed in the inner nuclear layer (INL) on SD-OCT. Quantitative assessment of MME area was performed using en-face imaging obtained swept-source OCT (SS-OCT) and Adobe Photoshop CS6 Extended software. These values were compared with the visual field results with the Humphrey field analyzer.ResultsMME was observed in 1.6% of eyes. The visual field mean deviation (MD), pattern standard deviation (PSD) and visual acuity was significantly worse (P= 0.023, P=0.037, and P=0.018, respectively) in eyes with MME. The average MME area was 2.38±1.43%. There was no significant correlation between visual field deficits and MME area.ConclusionsThe MME detection rate based on general inspection was 1.6%. MME in glaucomatous eyes were associated with worse MD, PSD, and visual acuity. Further research is needed to increase the number of cases to allow for more detailed analysis.

  6. Fluocinolone acetonide for the treatment of diabetic macular edema.

    PubMed

    Veritti, Daniele; Sarao, Valentina; Diplotti, Laura; Samassa, Francesco; Lanzetta, Paolo

    2017-10-01

    Fluocinolone acetonide intravitreal implant is a non-erodible implant approved for the treatment of diabetic macular edema (DME) insufficiently responsive to available therapies. Areas covered: The injectable intravitreal implant releases fluocinolone acetonide at an average rate of 0.2 µg/day for at least 36 months. The two pooled pivotal FAME trials showed that, in patients with DME previously treated with laser photocoagulation, fluocinolone acetonide intravitreal implant was more beneficial than sham injection when looking at the proportion of patients with an improvement from baseline in visual acuity of more than 15 letters at 24 months and at 36 months. Cataract (82%) and intraocular pressure (IOP) elevation (37%) were the most common adverse events. Raised IOP was mostly treated with IOP-lowering medications, with <5% of eyes requiring incisional IOP-lowering surgery. FAME trial program results are confirmed by a series of real-world studies in eyes with chronic/recalcitrant DME. Expert opinion: data indicate that fluocinolone acetonide intravitreal implant is a useful second-line option for the treatment of DME.

  7. [Association of epiretinal membranes with macular edema in pars planitis].

    PubMed

    Salcedo-Villanueva, G; Arellanes-García, L; Fromow-Guerra, J; Hernández-Quintela, E

    2014-01-01

    Pars planitis (PP) is a form of intermediate uveitis that manifests with several posterior segment complications, including cystoid macular edema (CME) and epiretinal membrane formation (ERM). On the presence of CME the patient is usually treated with anti-inflammatory and/or immunosuppressive drugs. However the presence of CME may coexist with ERM formation, and therefore the treatment could be different. To determine the association between ERM and CME in PP. Case control series. The charts of patients diagnosed with PP were retrospectively reviewed. All patients had fluorescein angiogram (FA) and spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). Presence of ERM was determined by SD-OCT, while CME was determined by FA. Contingency tables were used to determine the risk of developing CME with ERM. 31 eyes presented ERM. 16 eyes presented CME. Relative risk to have CME and ERM was 0.971, with a P value of 0.77 (χ(2)). There is no association between ERM formation and the development of CME. There is no evidence to suggest a surgical approach as first line of treatment with the presence of ERM in PP. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  8. Pharmacologic therapies for diabetic retinopathy and diabetic macular edema.

    PubMed

    Rechtman, Ehud; Harris, Alon; Garzozi, Hanna J; Ciulla, Thomas A

    2007-12-01

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR) and diabetic macular edema (DME) are leading causes of blindness in the working-aged population of most developed countries. The increasing number of persons with diabetes worldwide suggests that DR/DME will continue to be major contributors to vision loss and associated functional impairment for years to come. Early detection of retinopathy in persons with diabetes is critical in preventing visual loss, but current methods of screening fail to identify a sizable number of high-risk patients. The control of diabetes-associated metabolic abnormalities (ie, hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, and hypertension) is also important in preserving visual function, as these conditions have been identified as risk factors for both the development and progression of DR/DME. The non-pharmacologic interventions for DR/DME, laser photocoagulation and vitrectomy, only target advanced stages of disease. Several biochemical mechanisms, including increased vascular endothelial growth factor production, protein kinase C beta activation, oxidative stress, and accumulation of intracellular sorbitol and advanced glycosylation end products, may contribute to the vascular disruptions that characterize DR/DME. The inhibition of these pathways holds the promise of the intervention for diabetic retinopathy with higher success rate and also at earlier, non-sight-threatening stages.

  9. Diabetic Macular Edema: From Old Concepts to New Therapeutic Avenues.

    PubMed

    Mansour, Ahmad M; Pulido, Jose S; Arevalo, J Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Diabetic macular edema (DME) is a significant cause of blindness in the working population and is currently challenging to treat. Current interventions include focal laser or intravitreal injections. This article outlines a new treatment protocol based on the theory that peripheral ischemia is the precursor to angiogenesis, which will ultimately gather its momentum at the fovea. Extreme peripheral light laser panretinal photocoagulation (PRP) back to the equator reduces excessive production of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in the eye. This decreases VEGF-induced DME and provides long-term protection against the development of neovascularization. Initial exacerbation of DME often accompanies PRP. Therefore, injections of anti-VEGF agents (with or without dexamethasone implants) initially can forestall worsening of DME and prevent loss of vision. However, on the other hand, applying peripheral PRP and intraocular injections can induce posterior vitreous detachment (PVD). This could help release vitreomacular adhesions (VMA) and vitreomacular traction (VMT), thereby decreasing DME severity and improving the response to intravitreal injections. In the current approach, peripheral retinal photocoagulation should stop the drive for VEGF release; moreover, laser ablation should produce secondary, accidental, and beneficial PVD. This approach precludes focal laser therapy and paves the path for prolonged intervals between anti-VEGF therapy.

  10. Microcystic macular edema detection in retina OCT images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swingle, Emily K.; Lang, Andrew; Carass, Aaron; Ying, Howard S.; Calabresi, Peter A.; Prince, Jerry L.

    2014-03-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a powerful imaging tool that is particularly useful for exploring retinal abnormalities in ophthalmological diseases. Recently, it has been used to track changes in the eye associated with neurological diseases such as multiple sclerosis (MS) where certain tissue layer thicknesses have been associated with disease progression. A small percentage of MS patients also exhibit what has been called microcystic macular edema (MME), where uid collections that are thought to be pseudocysts appear in the inner nuclear layer. Very little is known about the cause of this condition so it is important to be able to identify precisely where these pseudocysts occur within the retina. This identi cation would be an important rst step towards furthering our understanding. In this work, we present a detection algorithm to nd these pseudocysts and to report on their spatial distribution. Our approach uses a random forest classi er trained on manual segmentation data to classify each voxel as pseudocyst or not. Despite having a small sample size of ve subjects, the algorithm correctly identi es 84.6% of pseudocysts as compared to manual delineation. Finally, using our method, we show that the spatial distribution of pseudocysts within the macula are generally contained within an annulus around the fovea.

  11. Evidence-based review of diabetic macular edema management: Consensus statement on Indian treatment guidelines

    PubMed Central

    Das, Taraprasad; Aurora, Ajay; Chhablani, Jay; Giridhar, Anantharaman; Kumar, Atul; Raman, Rajiv; Nagpal, Manish; Narayanan, Raja; Natarajan, Sundaram; Ramasamay, Kim; Tyagi, Mudit; Verma, Lalit

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to review the current evidence and design a diabetic macular edema (DME) management guideline specific for India. The published DME guidelines from different organizations and publications were weighed against the practice trends in India. This included the recently approved drugs. DME management consisted of control of diabetes and other associated systemic conditions, such as hypertension and hyperlipidemia, and specific therapy to reduce macular edema. Quantification of macular edema is precisely made with the optical coherence tomography and treatment options include retinal laser, intravitreal anti-vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGF), and implantable dexamethasone. Specific use of these modalities depends on the presenting vision and extent of macular involvement. Invariable eyes with center-involving macular edema benefit from intravitreal anti-VEGF or dexamethasone implant therapy, and eyes with macular edema not involving the macula center benefit from retinal laser. The results are illustrated with adequate case studies and frequently asked questions. This guideline prepared on the current published evidence is meant as a guideline for the treating physicians. PMID:26953019

  12. Diabetic macular edema, retinopathy and age-related macular degeneration as inflammatory conditions

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Diabetic macular edema (DME) and diabetic retinopathy (DR) are complications affecting about 25% of all patients with long-standing type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus and are a major cause of significant decrease in vision and quality of life. Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is not uncommon, and diabetes mellitus affects the incidence and progression of AMD through altering hemodynamics, increasing oxidative stress, accumulating advanced glycation end products, etc. Recent studies suggest that DME, DR and AMD are inflammatory conditions characterized by a breakdown of the blood-retinal barrier, inflammatory processes and an increase in vascular permeability. Key factors that seem to have a dominant role in DME, DR and AMD are angiotensin II, prostaglandins and the vascular endothelial growth factor and a deficiency of anti-inflammatory bioactive lipids. The imbalance between pro- and anti-inflammatory eicosanoids and enhanced production of pro-angiogenic factors may initiate the onset and progression of DME, DR and AMD. This implies that bioactive lipids that possess anti-inflammatory actions and suppress the production of angiogenic factors could be employed in the prevention and management of DME, DR and AMD. PMID:27695506

  13. Diabetic macular edema, retinopathy and age-related macular degeneration as inflammatory conditions.

    PubMed

    Das, Undurti N

    2016-10-01

    Diabetic macular edema (DME) and diabetic retinopathy (DR) are complications affecting about 25% of all patients with long-standing type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus and are a major cause of significant decrease in vision and quality of life. Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is not uncommon, and diabetes mellitus affects the incidence and progression of AMD through altering hemodynamics, increasing oxidative stress, accumulating advanced glycation end products, etc. Recent studies suggest that DME, DR and AMD are inflammatory conditions characterized by a breakdown of the blood-retinal barrier, inflammatory processes and an increase in vascular permeability. Key factors that seem to have a dominant role in DME, DR and AMD are angiotensin II, prostaglandins and the vascular endothelial growth factor and a deficiency of anti-inflammatory bioactive lipids. The imbalance between pro- and anti-inflammatory eicosanoids and enhanced production of pro-angiogenic factors may initiate the onset and progression of DME, DR and AMD. This implies that bioactive lipids that possess anti-inflammatory actions and suppress the production of angiogenic factors could be employed in the prevention and management of DME, DR and AMD.

  14. Costs and Quality of Life in Diabetic Macular Edema: Canadian Burden of Diabetic Macular Edema Observational Study (C-REALITY)

    PubMed Central

    Gonder, John R.; Walker, Valery M.; Barbeau, Martin; Zaour, Nancy; Zachau, Bryan H.; Hartje, James R.; Li, Ruihong

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To characterize the economic and quality of life burden of diabetic macular edema (DME) in Canadian patients. Patients and Methods. 145 patients with DME were followed for 6 months with monthly telephone interviews and medical chart reviews at months 0, 3, and 6. Visual acuity in the worst-seeing eye was assessed at months 0 and 6. DME-related healthcare costs were determined over 6 months, and vision-related (National Eye Institute Visual Functioning Questionnaire) and generic (EQ-5D) quality of life was assessed at months 0, 3, and 6. Results. Mean age of patients was 63.7 years: 52% were male and 72% had bilateral DME. At baseline, visual acuity was categorized as normal/mild loss for 63.4% of patients, moderate loss for 10.4%, and severe loss/nearly blind for 26.2%. Mean 6-month DME-related costs/patient were as follows: all patients (n = 135), $2,092; normal/mild loss (n = 88), $1,776; moderate loss (n = 13), $1,845; and severe loss/nearly blind (n = 34), $3,007. Composite scores for vision-related quality of life declined with increasing visual acuity loss; generic quality of life scores were highest for moderate loss and lowest for severe loss/nearly blind. Conclusions. DME-related costs in the Canadian healthcare system are substantial. Costs increased and vision-related quality of life declined with increasing visual acuity severity. PMID:24795818

  15. Vitrectomy for center-involved diabetic macular edema

    PubMed Central

    Browning, David J; Lee, Chong; Stewart, Michael W; Landers, Maurice B

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To determine the effect of vitrectomy for center-involved diabetic macular edema (CI-DME). Methods This was a retrospective study of 53 eyes of 45 patients who had vitrectomy for CI-DME and were followed up for at least 12 months. Charts were reviewed for visual acuity (VA), central subfield mean thickness measured by optical coherence tomography, presurgical and postsurgical interventions for CI-DME, and number of office visits in the first 12 months after surgery. Preoperative spectral domain optical coherence tomography was performed on 38 patients, and they were graded for ellipsoid zone (EZ) intactness by three independent graders with assessment of agreement between graders using intraclass correlation coefficients and Bland–Altman analysis. Results The median VA improved from 20/100 (interquartile range [IQR], 20/63–20/200) at baseline to 20/63 (IQR, 20/32–20/125) at 12 months. The median central subfield mean thickness improved from 505 μm (IQR, 389–597 μm) at baseline to 279 μm (IQR, 246–339 μm) at 12 months. Intergrader agreement for EZ intactness was moderate (intraclass correlation coefficients 0.4294–0.6356). There was no relationship between preoperative intactness of the EZ and the 12-month change in VA. Conclusion Vitrectomy consistently thins the macula in CI-DME and, on average, leads to clinically significant improvement in VA comparable in size to that reported with serial intravitreal anti-vascular endothelial growth factor injections. A large, comparative, prospective, randomized clinical trial of these two treatments is needed to determine which is more effective and cost-effective. PMID:27175056

  16. Combination of Anti-VEGF and Laser Photocoagulation for Diabetic Macular Edema: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Arumi, Jose; Boixadera, Anna

    2017-01-01

    Diabetic macular edema (DME) is the most common cause of vision loss in diabetic patients. Thirty years ago, the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) demonstrated that focal/grid laser photocoagulation reduces moderate vision loss from DME by 50% or more; thus, macular photocoagulation became the gold standard treatment for DME. However, with the development of anti-VEGF drugs (bevacizumab, ranibizumab, and aflibercept), better outcomes were obtained in terms of visual acuity gain and decrease in macular thickness in some studies when antiangiogenic drugs were administered in monotherapy. Macular laser therapy may still play an important role as an adjuvant treatment because it is able to improve macular thickness outcomes and reduce the number of injections needed. Here, we review some of the clinical trials that have assessed the efficacy of macular laser treatment, either as part of the treatment protocol or as rescue therapy. PMID:28348882

  17. Combination of Anti-VEGF and Laser Photocoagulation for Diabetic Macular Edema: A Review.

    PubMed

    Distefano, Laura N; Garcia-Arumi, Jose; Martinez-Castillo, Vicente; Boixadera, Anna

    2017-01-01

    Diabetic macular edema (DME) is the most common cause of vision loss in diabetic patients. Thirty years ago, the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) demonstrated that focal/grid laser photocoagulation reduces moderate vision loss from DME by 50% or more; thus, macular photocoagulation became the gold standard treatment for DME. However, with the development of anti-VEGF drugs (bevacizumab, ranibizumab, and aflibercept), better outcomes were obtained in terms of visual acuity gain and decrease in macular thickness in some studies when antiangiogenic drugs were administered in monotherapy. Macular laser therapy may still play an important role as an adjuvant treatment because it is able to improve macular thickness outcomes and reduce the number of injections needed. Here, we review some of the clinical trials that have assessed the efficacy of macular laser treatment, either as part of the treatment protocol or as rescue therapy.

  18. Aqueous cytokine levels are associated with reduced macular thickness after intravitreal ranibizumab for diabetic macular edema

    PubMed Central

    Kato, Satoshi; Araki, Fumiyuki; Ueta, Takashi; Miyaji, Tempei; Yamaguchi, Takuhiro

    2017-01-01

    Purpose It is controversial whether the administration of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor drugs for diabetic macular edema (DME) affects intraocular inflammatory cytokines. In this study, we measured cytokine concentration in aqueous humor before and after intravitreal injection of ranibizumab (IVR). The aim was to determine changes in cytokine concentration and their effects on DME reduction. Methods Twelve patients (13 eyes) with DME received two IVR (0.5 mg) with a 1 month interval, and a total of 26 aqueous humor samples were obtained. Macular thickness was measured with an optical coherence tomography (OCT) using thickness-map mode with an Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) 9-zone grid that was divided into two zones: a central circle with a diameter of 1 mm (zone1); and an outer circle with a diameter of 6 mm (zone2). Results The concentration of eotaxin-1 in aqueous humor samples decreased significantly after IVR. Baseline cytokine concentration was associated with IVR-induced DME reduction. In zone1, higher baseline concentration of interferon-induced protein (IP)-10, and in zone 2, higher baseline concentration of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, IP-10, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) α; and lower baseline concentration of eotaxin-1, interleukin (IL)-5, and IL-8 were associated with improved DME. Cytokine changes were associated with IVR-induced DME reduction. In zone1, lower concentration of IP-10 compared to baseline or higher concentration of macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP) -α, and in zone 2, lower concentration of IL-5 compared to baseline, IL-8, and IP-10 or higher concentration of eotaxin-1 and MIP-1β were associated with improved DME. Conclusions These findings suggest that ranibizumab affects the concentration of cytokines in aqueous humor. Various cytokines contribute to a decrease in retinal thickness, both in the center of the macula and in a larger area of the retina. PMID:28346545

  19. Long-term effectiveness of ranibizumab for age-related macular degeneration and diabetic macular edema

    PubMed Central

    Fong, Angie HC; Lai, Timothy YY

    2013-01-01

    Neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and diabetic macular edema (DME) are major causes of visual impairment in the elderly population worldwide. With the aging population, the prevalence of neovascular AMD and DME has increased substantially over the recent years. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) has been implicated as playing an important role in the pathogenesis of both neovascular AMD and DME. Since its introduction in 2006, ranibizumab, a recombinant, humanized, monoclonal antibody fragment against all isoforms of VEGF-A, has revolutionized the treatment of neovascular AMD and DME. The efficacy and safety of ranibizumab in neovascular AMD has been demonstrated in the ANCHOR and MARINA trials. Further studies including the PIER, PrONTO, and SUSTAIN trials have also evaluated the optimal dosing regimen of ranibizumab in neovascular AMD. The CATT and IVAN trials compared the safety and efficacy of ranibizumab with off-label use of bevacizumab. Studies such as SUSTAIN and HORIZON have shown that ranibizumab has a good safety profile and is well tolerated for over 4 years with very few serious ocular and systemic adverse events. For DME, Phase II RESOLVE study and Phase III RISE and RIDE studies have demonstrated superiority of ranibizumab treatment in improving vision over placebo controls. Phase II READ and Phase III RESOLVE and REVEAL studies have shown that ranibizumab is more effective both as monotherapy and in combination with laser compared with laser monotherapy. The 3-year results from the DRCRnet protocol I study found that ranibizumab with deferred laser resulted in better long-term visual outcome compared with ranibizumab with prompt laser. This review summarizes various important clinical trials on the long-term efficacy and safety of ranibizumab in the treatment of neovascular AMD and DME. The pharmacological properties of ranibizumab, its cost effectiveness, and impact on quality of life will also be discussed. PMID:23766636

  20. Long-term effectiveness of ranibizumab for age-related macular degeneration and diabetic macular edema.

    PubMed

    Fong, Angie H C; Lai, Timothy Y Y

    2013-01-01

    Neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and diabetic macular edema (DME) are major causes of visual impairment in the elderly population worldwide. With the aging population, the prevalence of neovascular AMD and DME has increased substantially over the recent years. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) has been implicated as playing an important role in the pathogenesis of both neovascular AMD and DME. Since its introduction in 2006, ranibizumab, a recombinant, humanized, monoclonal antibody fragment against all isoforms of VEGF-A, has revolutionized the treatment of neovascular AMD and DME. The efficacy and safety of ranibizumab in neovascular AMD has been demonstrated in the ANCHOR and MARINA trials. Further studies including the PIER, PrONTO, and SUSTAIN trials have also evaluated the optimal dosing regimen of ranibizumab in neovascular AMD. The CATT and IVAN trials compared the safety and efficacy of ranibizumab with off-label use of bevacizumab. Studies such as SUSTAIN and HORIZON have shown that ranibizumab has a good safety profile and is well tolerated for over 4 years with very few serious ocular and systemic adverse events. For DME, Phase II RESOLVE study and Phase III RISE and RIDE studies have demonstrated superiority of ranibizumab treatment in improving vision over placebo controls. Phase II READ and Phase III RESOLVE and REVEAL studies have shown that ranibizumab is more effective both as monotherapy and in combination with laser compared with laser monotherapy. The 3-year results from the DRCRnet protocol I study found that ranibizumab with deferred laser resulted in better long-term visual outcome compared with ranibizumab with prompt laser. This review summarizes various important clinical trials on the long-term efficacy and safety of ranibizumab in the treatment of neovascular AMD and DME. The pharmacological properties of ranibizumab, its cost effectiveness, and impact on quality of life will also be discussed.

  1. Peripheral blood metabolic and inflammatory factors as biomarkers to ocular findings in diabetic macular edema

    PubMed Central

    Sala-Puigdollers, Anna; Matas, Jessica; Vinagre, Irene; Ríos, José; Adán, Alfredo

    2017-01-01

    Aims To study the association between peripheral blood metabolic and inflammatory factors and presence of diabetic macular edema (DME) and its related anatomic features in type 2 diabetic mellitus (T2DM) patients. Material and methods Observational cross-sectional study on a proof of concept basis. Seventy-six T2DM included patients were divided based on the presence (n = 58) or absence of DME (n = 18) according to optical coherence tomography (OCT). Ultra-widefield fluorescein angiography (UWFA) was performed in DME patients. Fasting peripheral blood sample testing included glycemia, glycated hemoglobin, creatinin and lipid levels among others. Serum levels of a broad panel of cytokines and inflammatory mediators were also analysed. OCT findings included central subfoveal thickness, diffuse retinal thickness (DRT), cystoid macular edema (CME), serous retinal detachment and epirretinal membrane. UWFA items included pattern of DME, presence of peripheral retinal ischemia and enlarged foveal avascular zone (FAZ). Results Metabolic and inflammatory factors did not statistically differ between groups. However, several inflammatory mediators did associate to certain ocular items of DME cases: IL-6 was significantly higher in patients with DRT (p = 0.044), IL-10 was decreased in patients with CME (p = 0.012), and higher IL-8 (p = 0.031) and VEGF levels (p = 0.031) were observed in patients with enlarged FAZ. Conclusion Inflammatory and metabolic peripheral blood factors in T2DM may not be differentially associated to DME when compared to non-DME cases. However, some OCT and UWFA features of DME such as DRT, CME and enlarged FAZ may be associated to certain systemic inflammatory mediators. PMID:28328965

  2. Peripheral blood metabolic and inflammatory factors as biomarkers to ocular findings in diabetic macular edema.

    PubMed

    Figueras-Roca, Marc; Molins, Blanca; Sala-Puigdollers, Anna; Matas, Jessica; Vinagre, Irene; Ríos, José; Adán, Alfredo

    2017-01-01

    To study the association between peripheral blood metabolic and inflammatory factors and presence of diabetic macular edema (DME) and its related anatomic features in type 2 diabetic mellitus (T2DM) patients. Observational cross-sectional study on a proof of concept basis. Seventy-six T2DM included patients were divided based on the presence (n = 58) or absence of DME (n = 18) according to optical coherence tomography (OCT). Ultra-widefield fluorescein angiography (UWFA) was performed in DME patients. Fasting peripheral blood sample testing included glycemia, glycated hemoglobin, creatinin and lipid levels among others. Serum levels of a broad panel of cytokines and inflammatory mediators were also analysed. OCT findings included central subfoveal thickness, diffuse retinal thickness (DRT), cystoid macular edema (CME), serous retinal detachment and epirretinal membrane. UWFA items included pattern of DME, presence of peripheral retinal ischemia and enlarged foveal avascular zone (FAZ). Metabolic and inflammatory factors did not statistically differ between groups. However, several inflammatory mediators did associate to certain ocular items of DME cases: IL-6 was significantly higher in patients with DRT (p = 0.044), IL-10 was decreased in patients with CME (p = 0.012), and higher IL-8 (p = 0.031) and VEGF levels (p = 0.031) were observed in patients with enlarged FAZ. Inflammatory and metabolic peripheral blood factors in T2DM may not be differentially associated to DME when compared to non-DME cases. However, some OCT and UWFA features of DME such as DRT, CME and enlarged FAZ may be associated to certain systemic inflammatory mediators.

  3. Macular edema in central retinal vein occlusion: correlation between optical coherence tomography, angiography and visual acuity.

    PubMed

    Martinet, Virginie; Guigui, Benjamin; Glacet-Bernard, Agnès; Zourdani, Alain; Coscas, Gabriel; Soubrane, Gisèle; Souied, Eric H

    2012-08-01

    To analyze the characteristics and the course of macular edema secondary to central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO) using optical coherence tomography (OCT) and to determine correlations between clinical, tomographic and angiographic data, in particular including retinal ischemia. In this retrospective study, 53 consecutive patients with CRVO were included. At each follow-up visit, patients underwent complete ophthalmological examination, including best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and OCT. Fluorescein angiography was performed at baseline and on demand during follow-up. 243 OCTs were analyzed. Mean age was 61 years and mean follow-up 13 months. The first structural change, observed very early after the onset of the occlusion, was a diffuse increase at the level of the outer nuclear layer without change at the level of the inner retina. This early change seemed characteristic of retinal vein occlusion. Cystoid spaces were subsequently observed in all retinal layers and were combined with serous retinal detachment in 51 %. During the first 6 months, central retinal thickness was higher in ischemic CRVO (mean, 691 μm) than in non-ischemic CRVO (mean, 440 μm, p < 0.01). In eyes with foveal thickness (central retinal thickness without subretinal fluid) of 700 μm or greater, peripheral ischemia was present in 69 % of eyes, final BCVA was 20/200 or less in 75 % and never reached 20/40 during follow-up. The integrity of the junction of the photoreceptors' inner and outer segments was correlated with a better prognosis (p < 0.05). Foveal thickness was inversely correlated to BCVA at each visit and could have a prognostic value. OCT examination in CRVO revealed useful data for the diagnosis of CRVO and its prognosis. The largest macular edemas seemed to be the hallmark of ischemic CRVO.

  4. Interobserver Agreement in Detecting Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography Features of Diabetic Macular Edema

    PubMed Central

    Heng, Ling Zhi; Pefianaki, Maria; Hykin, Philip; Patel, Praveen J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate interobserver agreement for the detection of spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SDOCT) features of diabetic macular edema (DME). Method Cross-sectional study in which 2 retinal specialists evaluated SDOCT scans from eyes receiving treatment for DME. Scans from 50 eyes with DME of 39 patients were graded for features of DME including intra-retinal fluid (IRF), diffuse retinal oedema (DRE), hyper-reflective foci (HRF), subretinal fluid (SRF), macular fluid and vitreomacular traction (VMT). Features were graded as present or absent at zones involving the fovea, 1mm from the fovea and the whole scan of 49 line scans. Analysis was performed using cross-tabulations for percentage concordance and kappa values (κ). Results In the 2950 line scans analysed, there was an increase in percentage concordance for DRE and HRF when moving from a foveal line scan, 1mm zone and then to a whole scan analysis (88% vs 94% vs 96%) and (88% vs 94% vs 94%) respectively with κ ranging from substantial to almost perfect. Percentage concordance for SRF was 96% at all 3 regions analysed, whilst IRF was 96% at fovea and 98% at higher number of line-scans analysed. Concordance for MF was 100% at fovea and 98% at 1mm zone and whole scan with almost perfect and substantial κ respectively. κ agreement was substantial for VMT at all regions analysed. Conclusion We report a high level of interobserver agreement in the detection of SDOCT features of DME. This finding is important as detection of macular fluid is used to guide retreatment with anti-angiogenic agents. PMID:25996150

  5. Anti-vascular endothelial growth factor therapy for diabetic macular edema

    PubMed Central

    Hopkins, J. Jill; Sorof, Jonathan; Ehrlich, Jason S.

    2013-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a serious health problem that affects over 350 million individuals worldwide. Diabetic retinopathy (DR), which is the most common microvascular complication of diabetes, is the leading cause of new cases of blindness in working-aged adults. Diabetic macular edema (DME) is an advanced, vision-limiting complication of DR that affects nearly 30% of patients who have had diabetes for at least 20 years and is responsible for much of the vision loss due to DR. The historic standard of care for DME has been macular laser photocoagulation, which has been shown to stabilize vision and reduce the rate of further vision loss by 50%; however, macular laser leads to significant vision recovery in only 15% of treated patients. Mechanisms contributing to the microvascular damage in DR and DME include the direct toxic effects of hyperglycemia, sustained alterations in cell signaling pathways, and chronic microvascular inflammation with leukocyte-mediated injury. Chronic retinal microvascular damage results in elevation of intraocular levels of vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF), a potent, diffusible, endothelial-specific mitogen that mediates many important physiologic processes, including but not limited to the development and permeability of the vasculature. The identification of VEGF as an important pathophysiologic mediator of DME suggested that anti-VEGF therapy delivered to the eye might lead to improved visual outcomes in this disease. To date, four different inhibitors of VEGF, each administered by intraocular injection, have been tested in prospective, randomized phase II or phase III clinical trials in patients with DME. The results from these trials demonstrate that treatment with anti-VEGF agents results in substantially improved visual and anatomic outcomes compared with laser photocoagulation, and avoid the ocular side effects associated with laser treatment. Thus, anti-VEGF therapy has become the preferred treatment option for the

  6. STRUCTURAL-FUNCTIONAL CORRELATION IN PATIENTS WITH DIABETIC MACULAR EDEMA.

    PubMed

    Edington, Magdalena; Sachdev, Amun; Morjaria, Rupal; Chong, Victor

    2017-05-01

    Previous studies have shown that patients with diabetic macular edema (DME) with relatively good visual acuity can have slow reading speed. The aim of this study was to evaluate the structural-functional correlation in a cohort of patients with DME and to assess whether the central four retinal points on microperimetry (MP4) could be used as a potentially faster and more reliable method of assessing retinal function in patients with DME than reading speed. The study was performed on patients with clinically significant DME. The best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) was recorded with letter counting on a modified ETDRS chart, the maximal reading speed (MRS) was recorded with MNREAD, the retinal sensitivity (MP28 and MP4) was measured with Optos OCT/ Scanning Laser Ophthalmoscopy and the central subfield thickness was measured by Heidelberg Spectralis Spectral Domain Optical Coherent Topography. Of 100 eyes analyzed, 76 eyes were included in the study. The mean BCVA was 76.5 letters (Snellen equivalent 6/18), the mean MRS was 156.8 words per minute, the mean MP4 was 9.81 dB per point, and the mean central subfield thickness was 309.3 microns. It was found that faster MRS is correlated with younger age (P = 0.001), better BCVA (P < 0.0001), and better retinal sensitivity (P < 0.0001) for both MP28 and MP4, but not with central subfield thickness (P = 0.66). Central subfield thickness is correlated with MP28 (P = 0.05) but not with age (P = 0.812), BCVA (P = 0.113), or MP4 (P = 0.485). After correction for age and BCVA, MRS is still correlated with MP28 (P = 0.001) and MP4 (P = 0.015). Patients with DME can have reduced reading speed despite good visual acuity. Maximal reading speed is often reported to be difficult to perform, inconsistent, and affected by language and educational level. However, in this study, the authors found that the central MP4 points are quick and easy to test in most of the patients, and are highly correlated with MRS. Microperimetry might

  7. Intravitreal bevacizumab treatment for refractory diabetic macular edema.

    PubMed

    Yuksel, Erdem; Ozdek, Sengul; Yuksel, Nılay; Hasanreisoglu, Berati

    2013-12-01

    To evaluate the effect of intravitreal bevacizumab (IVB) on visual function and retinal thickness in patients with refractory diabetic macular edema (DME). Eyes with DME treated with IVB which were resistant to different previous treatments were enrolled in this retrospective, non-randomized series study. Each patient underwent a complete ophthalmic examination including best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), slit-lamp examination, intraocular pressure measurement, fundus examination, retinal thickness measurement with optic coherence tomography at baseline and at each visit. Digital fundus fluorescein angiography was performed at baseline for each patient. A total of 71 eyes of 59 patients (36 male and 23 female) were included in the study. All eyes had focal laser photocoagulation (71 eyes, 100 %) and had one other additional treatment including an intravitreal (23 eyes, 32 %) or subtenon (18 eyes, 25 %) injection of triamcinolone acetonide. The mean follow-up period was 9.79 ± 8.6 months and the mean number of IVB treatments was 2.01 ± 1.06 (min-max, 1-4). Mean logMAR BCVA was 0.88 ± 0.4 at baseline, 0.78 ± 0.4 at 4 weeks and 0.79 ± 0.4 at the last visit (p = 0.036). The mean central foveal thickness was 515.4 ± 150.3 μm at baseline which significantly decreased to 367.01 ± 166.6 μm at 4 weeks (p = 0.0001) and 338.1 ± 159.7 μm at the last visit (p = 0.0001). Sixteen percent of the eyes did not respond to IVB treatment. IVB treatment for refractory DME seems to be effective and safe and repeated treatments are necessary for a significant portion of the cases.

  8. Aphakic cystoid macular edema and the operating microscope: is there a connection?

    PubMed Central

    Iliff, W J

    1985-01-01

    The literature documenting the phototoxic effect of relatively low intensity light on the retina and the suggestions by several authors that this might influence the development of cystoid macular edema in the aphakic and pseudophakic patient is reviewed. In particular, the possibility that the operating microscope may be a factor has been emphasized. A study is presented, designed to investigate the possibility that the operating microscope is a factor important in the development of cystoid macular edema. No correlation was found. The need for further investigation into other phototoxic effects from the light of the operating microscope is stressed. PMID:3832535

  9. Widening use of dexamethasone implant for the treatment of macular edema.

    PubMed

    Bonfiglio, Vincenza; Reibaldi, Michele; Fallico, Matteo; Russo, Andrea; Pizzo, Alessandra; Fichera, Stefano; Rapisarda, Carlo; Macchi, Iacopo; Avitabile, Teresio; Longo, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    Sustained-release intravitreal 0.7 mg dexamethasone (DEX) implant is approved in Europe for the treatment of macular edema related to diabetic retinopathy, branch retinal vein occlusion, central retinal vein occlusion, and non-infectious uveitis. The implant is formulated in a biodegradable copolymer to release the active ingredient within the vitreous chamber for up to 6 months after an intravitreal injection, allowing a prolonged interval of efficacy between injections with a good safety profile. Various other ocular pathologies with inflammatory etiopathogeneses associated with macular edema have been treated by DEX implant, including neovascular age-related macular degeneration, Irvine-Gass syndrome, vasoproliferative retinal tumors, retinal telangiectasia, Coats' disease, radiation maculopathy, retinitis pigmentosa, and macular edema secondary to scleral buckling and pars plana vitrectomy. We undertook a review to provide a comprehensive collection of all of the diseases that benefit from the use of the sustained-release DEX implant, alone or in combination with concomitant therapies. A MEDLINE search revealed lack of randomized controlled trials related to these indications. Therefore we included and analyzed all available studies (retrospective and prospective, comparative and non-comparative, randomized and nonrandomized, single center and multicenter, and case report). There are reports in the literature of the use of DEX implant across a range of macular edema-related pathologies, with their clinical experience supporting the use of DEX implant on a case-by-case basis with the aim of improving patient outcomes in many macular pathologies. As many of the reported macular pathologies are difficult to treat, a new treatment option that has a beneficial influence on the clinical course of the disease may be useful in clinical practice.

  10. Comparative Effectiveness of Three Prophylactic Strategies to Prevent Clinical Macular Edema Following Phacoemulsification Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Shorstein, Neal H.; Liu, Liyan; Waxman, Michael D.; Herrinton, Lisa J.

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE To study the relationship of chemoprophylaxis and other factors on the occurrence of acute, clinical postoperative macular edema. DESIGN Retrospective cohort study. The drug regimens consisted of postoperative topical prednisolone acetate (PA) alone or with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (PA+NSAID) or intraoperative subconjunctival injection of 2 mg triamcinolone acetonide (TA) alone. PARTICIPANTS Patients undergoing phacoemulsification at Kaiser Permanente, Diablo Service Area, Northern California, 2007–2013. METHODS Incident macular edema diagnoses recorded 5–120 days after phacoemulsification, with visual acuity 20/40 or worse and evidence of macular thickening by optical coherence tomography were identified. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were obtained from logistic regression analysis, conditioned on the surgeon and adjusted for year, patient age and race, diabetic retinopathy, other ocular comorbidities, systemic comorbidity and posterior capsular rupture. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Incident rates of acute, clinical, postoperative macular edema. RESULTS We confirmed 118 cases among 16,070 cataract surgeries (incidence, 0.73%). Compared with PA alone, the OR for the relationship of macular edema with PA+NSAID was 0.45 (95% CI, 0.21–0.95) and for TA injection was 1.21 (95% CI, 0.48–3.06). The frequency of intraocular pressure spikes ≥30 mm Hg between postoperative days 16 – 45 was 0.6% in the topical PA group, 0.3% for topical PA+NSAID (p=0.13) and 0.8% for TA (p=0.52). African-American race was associated with risk of macular edema (OR, 2.86; 95% CI, 1.41–5.79). CONCLUSIONS Adding prophylactic NSAID to PA was associated with a reduced risk of macular edema with visual acuity 20/40 or worse. Risk and safety of TA injection was similar to PA alone. Further research is needed on the prognostic significance of postoperative macular edema, the role of prophylaxis, risk in African-Americans, and the effectiveness of

  11. Emerging therapies for the treatment of neovascular age-related macular degeneration and diabetic macular edema.

    PubMed

    Emerson, M Vaughn; Lauer, Andreas K

    2007-01-01

    Diabetic macular edema (DME) and choroidal neovascularization (CNV) associated with age-related macular degeneration (AMD) are the leading causes of vision loss in the industrialized world. The mainstay of treatment for both conditions has been thermal laser photocoagulation, while there have been recent advances in the treatment of CNV using photodynamic therapy with verteporfin. While both of these treatments have prevented further vision loss in a subset of patients, vision improvement is rare. Anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A therapy has revolutionized the treatment of both conditions. Pegaptanib, an anti-VEGF aptamer, prevents vision loss in CNV, although the performance is similar to that of photodynamic therapy. Ranibizumab, an antibody fragment, and bevacizumab, a full-length humanized monoclonal antibody against VEGF, have both shown promising results, with improvements in visual acuity in the treatment of both diseases. VEGF trap, a modified soluble VEGF receptor analog, binds VEGF more tightly than all other anti-VEGF therapies, and has also shown promising results in early trials. Other treatment strategies to decrease the effect of VEGF have used small interfering RNA to inhibit VEGF production and VEGF receptor production. Corticosteroids have shown efficacy in controlled trials, including anacortave acetate in the treatment and prevention of CNV, and intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide and the fluocinolone acetonide implant in the treatment of DME. Receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors, such as vatalanib, inhibit downstream effects of VEGF, and have been effective in the treatment of CNV in early studies. Squalamine lactate inhibits plasma membrane ion channels with downstream effects on VEGF, and has shown promising results with systemic administration. Initial results are also encouraging for other growth factors, including pigment epithelium-derived factor administered via an adenoviral vector. Ruboxistaurin, which decreases protein

  12. Macular migration toward the optic disc after inner limiting membrane peeling for diabetic macular edema.

    PubMed

    Yoshikawa, Munemitsu; Murakami, Tomoaki; Nishijima, Kazuaki; Uji, Akihito; Ogino, Ken; Horii, Takahiro; Yoshimura, Nagahisa

    2013-01-21

    To investigate the papillofoveal distance and its association with retinal thickness on optical coherence tomography (OCT) images after vitrectomy for diabetic macular edema (DME). In this retrospective case series, 72 eyes of 57 consecutive patients who underwent vitrectomy for DME were included. Retinal images dissecting the fovea horizontally were obtained using OCT before and after vitrectomy. After identification of the disc margin and the presumed foveal center, the papillofoveal distance was measured on the OCT images. The association of the distance with retinal thickness and peeling of the inner limiting membrane (ILM) was evaluated. The papillofoveal distance was significantly shorter after vitrectomy (3956.1 ± 299.0 μm vs. 3759.6 ± 331.3 μm; P < 0.001), and the shortening was correlated negatively with the total and inner retinal thickness in the temporal subfield (r = -0.29, P = 0.012 and r = -0.34, P = 0.004, respectively). Shortening of the papillofoveal distance was greater in 54 eyes in which ILM peeling was performed compared with 18 eyes in which ILM peeling was not performed (234.7 ± 159.3 μm vs. -9.7 ± 83.5 μm; P < 0.001). No differences were seen in the papillofoveal distance and retinal thickness before and after surgery between eyes with and without preoperative epiretinal membrane or posterior vitreous detachment. The total and inner thicknesses in the temporal subfield were thinner postoperatively in eyes that underwent ILM peeling than those without ILM peeling (P < 0.001 and P < 0.001). The papillofoveal distance on OCT images was shortened and the retina in the temporal subfield was thinner in eyes that underwent ILM peeling to treat DME.

  13. Phacoemulsification with intravitreal bevacizumab injection in diabetic patients with macular edema and cataract.

    PubMed

    Akinci, Arsen; Batman, Cosar; Ozkilic, Ersel; Altinsoy, Ali

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the results of phacoemulsification with intravitreal bevacizumab injection in patients with diabetic clinically significant macular edema and cataract. The records of 31 patients with diabetic clinically significant macular edema and cataract, which would interfere with macular laser photocoagulation, who have undergone phacoemulsification with intravitreal injection of 1.25 mg bevacizumab were retrospectively evaluated. All patients had undergone focal or modified grid laser photocoagulation 1 month after the surgery. All patients were evaluated by spectral optical coherence tomography/optical coherence tomography SLO before and 1 and 3 months after the surgery beyond complete ophthalmologic examination. The best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) levels and central macular thickness (CMT) recorded at the first and third months after the surgery were compared with the initial values. Paired samples t test was used for statistical analysis. The mean initial BCVA was 0.10 +/- 0.04 (range, 0.05-0.2). The mean BCVA at the first and third months after the surgery were 0.47 +/- 0.16 (standard deviation) (range, 0.2-0.5) and 0.51 +/- 0.12 (standard deviation) (range, 0.3-0.6), respectively. The BCVA level recorded at the first and third months after the surgery were significantly higher than the initial BCVA (P = 0.004). The mean initial CMT was 387.5 +/- 109.5 microm. The mean CMT at the first and third months after the surgery were 292.7 +/- 57.2 and 275.5 +/- 40.3. The CMT recorded at the first and third months after the surgery were significantly lower than the initial CMT (P < 0.001, P < 0.001). Phacoemulsification with intravitreal injection of bevacizumab provides improvement in clinically significant macular edema with a gain in BCVA in patients with diabetes with clinically significant macular edema and cataract.

  14. DEXAMETHASONE INTRAVITREAL IMPLANT FOR THE TREATMENT OF RECALCITRANT MACULAR EDEMA AFTER RHEGMATOGENOUS RETINAL DETACHMENT REPAIR.

    PubMed

    Thanos, Aristomenis; Todorich, Bozho; Yonekawa, Yoshihiro; Papakostas, Thanos D; Khundkar, Tahsin; Eliott, Dean; Dass, Ashvani B; Williams, George A; Capone, Antonio; Faia, Lisa J; Wolfe, Jeremy D; Hassan, Tarek S; Ruby, Alan J

    2017-06-15

    To investigate the efficacy of the intravitreal dexamethasone implant as the treatment for recalcitrant macular edema after successful rhegmatogenous retinal detachment repair. A retrospective review of the medical records was performed on 17 consecutive patients (17 eyes) with recalcitrant macular edema associated with rhegmatogenous retinal detachment repair who were treated with a single or multiple injections of an intravitreal dexamethasone 0.7-mg implant (Ozurdex; Allergan Inc) at two centers. Main outcomes of the study were change in logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution visual acuity, measurement of central foveal thickness, and macular cube volume as measured by spectral domain optical coherence tomography and frequency of complications. The mean age was 67 years (range, 51-78 years). All 17 patients received previous topical therapy and 12 of them had previous administration of intravitreal triamcinolone with persistence of macular edema. Baseline mean best-corrected visual acuity was 20/100 (logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution 0.75; range, 0.18-1.3 ±0.37) in the affected eyes. There was a statistically significant improvement in best-corrected visual acuity at 1 month (P < 0.001) and 3 months (P = 0.01). Mean baseline central foveal thickness was 505 μm, and mean macular cube volume was 10.62 mm. There was a statistically significant decrease in central foveal thickness and macular cube volume at 1 month (505-290 μm, P = 0.013 and 10.62-9.13 mm, P < 0.0001) and 3 months (P = 0.01). All patients developed recurrence of macular edema at 3 months, which required retreatment. The average number of implants was 4 (range, 1-14). No adverse effects such as retinal detachment or endophthalmitis occurred. Two patients experienced an increase in intraocular pressure that was controlled with topical therapy. Macular edema that occurs in eyes after successful repair of rhegmatogenous retinal detachment can be chronic and recalcitrant, and may be

  15. Effect of Adding Oral Calcium Dobesilate to Laser Photocoagulation on the Macular Thickness in Patients with Diabetic Macular Edema: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Feghhi, Mostafa; Farrahi, Fereydoun; Abbaspour, Mohammadreza; Takhtaeian, Akbar

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the effect of oral calcium dobesilate (Doxium) on macular thickness in clinically significant macular edema (CSME). Methods: Overall, 71 eyes of 40 patients with non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy and clinically significant macular edema were included. All patients were received laser treatment for macular edema. Coherence optical tomography was used to determine the retinal thickness. Patients were randomized into two groups: group A received three Doxium capsule daily and group B received three placebo capsule daily for six months. Results: The mean macular thickness before and after treatment in the group A was 340 and 257 micrometers respectively (24.5% reduced), and in the group B was 336 micrometers and 263 micrometers respectively (21.5% reduced). Macular thickness significantly decreased after treatment in both groups and the reduction in group A is higher but the difference of reduction between the two groups was not statistically significant (P>0.05). Conclusion: In respect to the effect of adding oral Doxium to Laser Photocoagulation on the macular thickness in patients with diabetic macular edema, this study showed no statistically significant difference between Doxium and placebo. PMID:25436194

  16. Retinal Thickness and Visual Acuity in Diabetic Macular Edema: An Optical Coherence Tomography-Based Study.

    PubMed

    Islam, Farrah

    2016-07-01

    To determine the relationship between foveal (retinal) thickness and visual acuity in diabetic macular edema through optical coherence tomography (OCT) mapping software. Cross-sectional descriptive study. The Retina Clinic of Al-Shifa Trust Eye Hospital, Rawalpindi, from August 2011 to August 2012. Eighty eyes of 68 patients with clinical diagnosis of diabetic macular edema, based on complete ophthalmic examination, were enrolled. The best-corrected visual acuity was recorded on logMar scale. OCTimaging was performed through dilated pupil by experienced operator. Foveal thickness was determined. OCTparameters of macular thickness were analysed with baseline variables including age, duration since diagnosed with diabetes, and visual acuity. The mean visual acuity was 0.81 (0.2 - 1.8) logMar units. The average foveal thickness was 395.09 ±142.26 (183 - 825 µm). There was moderate correlation between foveal thickness and visual acuity (rs= 0.574, p < 0.001), absent in those who had visual acuity worse than 1 logMar. There was a weak positive association between foveal thickness and the duration of diabetes (rs=0.249, p < 0.05). There was, however, no correlation between foveal thickness and age (rs= 0.012, p=0.919). There is a moderate correlation between visual acuity and degree of foveal thickening in diabetic macular edema, hence two cannot be used interchangeably in clinical practice.

  17. Clinical practice pattern in management of diabetic macular edema in Japan: survey results of Japanese retinal specialists.

    PubMed

    Ogura, Yuichiro; Shiraga, Fumio; Terasaki, Hiroko; Ohji, Masahito; Ishida, Susumu; Sakamoto, Taiji; Hirakata, Akito; Ishibashi, Tatsuro

    2017-01-01

    To elucidate the current clinical practice patterns of diabetic macular edema (DME) management by retinal specialists in Japan in the era of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) therapy. Forty-six retinal specialists were administered a survey regarding the pathology and clinical practice of DME. Nearly, half of the specialists (45.2 %) think that the main biochemical factor involved in DME development is the vascular permeability-potentiating action of VEGF-A. Most specialists (70.6 %) use three modalities for detecting DME: optical coherence tomography, fluorescein angiography, and fundus examination. For focal macular edema, focal laser is used as first-line therapy by 70.3 % of specialists, whereas 21.6 % use medical treatment in combination with focal/grid laser. For diffuse macular edema, anti-VEGF therapy is the first choice (72.5 %), irrespective of visual acuity, whereas 17.5 % select off-label sub-Tenon's steroid injections. Vitrectomy is often performed for vitreomacular traction (86.5 %) or when anti-VEGF agent/laser therapy is ineffective (73.2 %). For persistent DME after vitrectomy, anti-VEGF agents (46.3 %) or steroids (intravitreal injections, 14.6 %; sub-Tenon's injections, 36.6 %) are selected. When applying anti-VEGF treatment regimen, most specialists continue loading injections until central retinal thickness stabilized (51.4 %) or both visual acuity and central retinal thickness stabilized (24.3 %). In the maintenance phase, many specialists provide injections with pro re nata (76.3 %), whereas 50.0 % responded that the treat-and-extend regimen is ideal. Our survey presents the current views about the DME management and practice patterns of anti-VEGF therapy by one part of the retinal specialists in Japan, and highlights the differences or gaps between evidence and actual clinical practice.

  18. Pars Plana Vitrectomy with Internal Limiting Membrane Peeling for Nontractional Diabetic Macular Edema.

    PubMed

    Ulrich, Jan Niklas

    2017-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus remains the leading cause of blindness among working age Americans with diabetic macular edema being the most common cause for moderate and severe vision loss. To investigate the anatomical and visual benefits of pars plana vitrectomy with inner limiting membrane peeling in patients with nontractional diabetic macular edema as well as correlation of integrity of outer retinal layers on spectral domain optical coherence tomography to visual outcomes. We retrospectively reviewed the charts of 42 diabetic patients that underwent vitrectomy with internal limiting membrane peeling for nontractional diabetic macula edema. The integrity of outer retinal layers was evaluated and preoperative central macular thickness and visual acuity were compared with data at 1 month, 3 months and 6 months postoperatively. The student t-test was used to compare the groups. 31 eyes were included. While no differences were seen at 1 and 3 months, there was significant improvement of both central macular thickness and visual acuity at the 6 months follow up visit compared to preoperatively (357, 427 microns; p=0.03. 20/49, 20/82; p=0.03) . Patients with intact external limiting membrane and ellipsoid zone had better preoperative vision than patients with outer retinal layer irregularities (20/54, 20/100; p=0.03) and greater visual gains postoperatively (20/33, p<0.001 versus 20/81; p=non-significant). Pars plana vitrectomy with internal limiting membrane peeling can improve retinal anatomy and visual acuity in patients with nontractional diabetic macular edema. Spectral domain optical coherence tomography may help identify patients with potential for visual improvement.

  19. Combination of Navigated Macular Laser Photocoagulation and Anti-VEGF Therapy: Precise Treatment for Macular Edema under Dry Retinal Conditions

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Purpose. To compare the controllability of navigated macular laser photocoagulation (MLP) in dry versus edematous retina and validate that pretreatment diagnostic images can be used as basis for navigated MLP after the macular edema (ME) has been resolved. Materials and Methods. Group 1 was divided into subgroup 1 (dry retina MLP) and subgroup 2 (MLP in ME) for comparisons of laser-burn diameters. In group 2, the areas and locations of ME before an intravitreal injection of anti-VEGF (IVAV) were compared with those of recurrent ME. Results. The average actual diameter as percentage of planned diameter of laser burn in subgroup 1 (11 DME eyes, 6 BRVO eyes) versus subgroup 2 (5 DME eyes, 8 BRVO eyes) was 115.1 ± 9.1% versus 167.2 ± 13.8% (based on retro-mode scanning laser ophthalmoscopy), and 118.1 ± 14.8% versus 176.1 ± 11.6% (based on OCT) (p < 0.001). In group 2 (6 DME eyes, 6 BRVO eyes), difference in mean ME area before IVAV and that in recurrent edema was insignificant (p > 0.05). Conclusion. The controllability of navigated MLP in dry retina is improved compared to edematous retina. This study validates that pretreatment diagnostic images can be used as basis for navigated MLP after the edema has been resolved. PMID:28316837

  20. Transfer learning based classification of optical coherence tomography images with diabetic macular edema and dry age-related macular degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Karri, S. P. K.; Chakraborty, Debjani; Chatterjee, Jyotirmoy

    2017-01-01

    We present an algorithm for identifying retinal pathologies given retinal optical coherence tomography (OCT) images. Our approach fine-tunes a pre-trained convolutional neural network (CNN), GoogLeNet, to improve its prediction capability (compared to random initialization training) and identifies salient responses during prediction to understand learned filter characteristics. We considered a data set containing subjects with diabetic macular edema, or dry age-related macular degeneration, or no pathology. The fine-tuned CNN could effectively identify pathologies in comparison to classical learning. Our algorithm aims to demonstrate that models trained on non-medical images can be fine-tuned for classifying OCT images with limited training data. PMID:28270969

  1. Outcome of Treatment of Uveitic Macular Edema: The Multicenter Uveitis Steroid Treatment Trial 2-Year Results.

    PubMed

    Tomkins-Netzer, Oren; Lightman, Susan; Drye, Lea; Kempen, John; Holland, Gary N; Rao, Narsing A; Stawell, Richard J; Vitale, Albert; Jabs, Douglas A

    2015-11-01

    To evaluate the 2-year outcomes of uveitic macular edema. Longitudinal follow-up of a randomized cohort. At baseline, 148 eyes of 117 patients enrolled in the Multicenter Uveitis Steroid Treatment (MUST) Trial had macular edema, and 134 eyes of 108 patients completed 2-year follow-up. Patients enrolled in the study were randomized to either systemic immunosuppression or intravitreal fluocinolone acetonide implant therapy. Macular edema was defined as thickening of the retina (center point thickness≥240 μm) on time-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) of macula. Improvement in macular edema (≥20% reduction in central point thickness on OCT), resolution of macular edema (normalization of thickness on OCT), and best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA). Between randomization and 2-years' follow-up, 62% and 25% of eyes in the systemic and implant groups, respectively, received at least 1 supplemental regional corticosteroid injection. By 2-years' follow-up, macular edema improved in 71% of eyes and resolved in 60%. There were no differences between treatment groups in the proportion of eyes with macular edema improving (systemic therapy vs. implant, 65% vs. 77%; P=0.20) and resolving (52% vs. 68%; P=0.28), but eyes randomized to implant had more improvement in macular thickness (median decrease of 180 vs. 109 μm in the systemic therapy group; P=0.04). Eyes with baseline fluorescein angiographic leakage were more likely to improve than those without (76% vs. 58%; P=0.03). Overall, there was a mean 5-letter (1 line) improvement in BCVA at 2 years. Mean changes in BCVA from baseline at 2 years by macular edema response status were: resolution, +10 letters; improvement without resolution, +10 letters (P=0.92); little to no change, 6 letters (P=0.19); and worsening, -16 letters (worsening acuity; P=0.0003). About two thirds of eyes with uveitic macular edema were observed to experience improvement in the edema and visual acuity with implant or systemic treatment

  2. Microperimetric changes after intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide injection for macular edema due to central retinal vein occlusion.

    PubMed

    Senturk, Fevzi; Ozdemir, Hakan; Karacorlu, Murat; Karacorlu, Serra Arf; Uysal, Omer

    2010-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide on macular function in cases of macular edema because of central retinal vein occlusion. Twelve eyes of 12 patients with central retinal vein occlusion were included in this study. In each eye, at baseline and 1, 3, and 6 months after intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide injection, logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution visual acuity, macular sensitivity, fixation stability and fixation location by MP-1 microperimetry, and foveal thickness by optical coherence tomography were assessed. Patients' ages ranged from 50 to 75 years (mean +/- SD, 59 +/- 8 years). All patients were classified as nonischemic. At 1, 3, and 6 months, the mean foveal thickness had decreased from 453 +/- 108 microm to 254 +/- 40.3 microm, 297 +/- 90 microm, and 320 +/- 82 microm and the mean retinal sensitivity had increased from 5.5 +/- 3.3 dB to 9.4 +/- 3.5 dB, 7.8 +/- 3.3 dB, and 7.2 +/- 4.2 dB, respectively. At baseline, fixation was stable in one, relatively unstable in six, and unstable in five eyes. However, 6 months after intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide injection, fixation was stable in 8, relatively unstable in 3, and unstable in one. At baseline, in eyes with macular edema, fixation location was predominantly central in 2, poor central in 4, and predominantly eccentric in 6. And 6 months after treatment, fixation location was predominantly central in 8, poor central in 3, and predominantly eccentric in 1. In eyes with macular edema in central retinal vein occlusion, a short-term improvement in retinal sensitivity and fixation properties can be achieved by intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide injection.

  3. Effect of intravitreal bevacizumab on diabetic macular edema with hard exudates

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Sohee; Lee, Won Ki

    2014-01-01

    Background We evaluated the efficacy of intravitreal bevacizumab on diabetic macular edema with subfoveal and perifoveal hard exudates. Materials and methods Eleven eyes (11 patients) exhibiting diabetic macular edema with subfoveal and perifoveal hard exudates were included in this prospective, nonrandomized interventional pilot study. All patients were treated with monthly scheduled intravitreal bevacizumab injections for 6 months. Changes in the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study best corrected visual acuity, amount of hard exudates on fundus photography, and macular edema detected by central subfield thickness on spectral domain optical coherence tomography after six serial injections, were assessed. The amount of hard exudates at each visit was evaluated as pixels in fundus photography, using an Adobe Photoshop program. Results Ten of 11 patients completed follow-up. The mean Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study best corrected visual acuity was 59.9±5.7 letters (Snellen equivalent, 20/63) at baseline evaluation. The best corrected visual acuity exhibited no significant difference at month 6 compared with at baseline (57.9±6.0 letters or 20/70 at month 6; P=0.085). At month 6, mean central subfield thickness decreased from 370.4±56.5 to 334.6±65.0 μm (P=0.009). The mean amount of hard exudates increased from 4467.1±2736.1 to 6592.4±2498.3 pixels at month 6 (P=0.022). No serious adverse events occurred. Conclusion Continuous intravitreal bevacizumab was found to have no benefit in visual acuity and amount of hard exudates, despite the improvement of macular edema at 6 months. PMID:25143708

  4. Intravitreal ziv-aflibercept for macular edema following retinal vein occlusion

    PubMed Central

    Paulose, Remya; Chhablani, Jay; Dedhia, Chintan J; Stewart, Michael W; Mansour, Ahmad M

    2016-01-01

    Aim To report the efficacy of intravitreal ziv-aflibercept injections in eyes with macular edema due to retinal vein occlusions (RVOs). Methods Consecutive patients with persistent or recurrent macular edema (central macula thickness >250 μm) due to RVO were enrolled in this prospective study. Study eyes received intravitreal injections of ziv-aflibercept (1.25 mg/0.05 mL) at baseline. Patients were reassessed monthly for 4 months and given additional injections pro re nata for worsening best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), intraretinal edema or subretinal fluid seen on spectral domain optical coherence tomography, or central macular thickness (CMT) measurements >250 μm. The primary endpoint was improvement in mean CMT at 4 months. Secondary endpoints included improvement in mean BCVA, and ocular and systemic safety signals. Results Nine eyes (five central and four branch RVOs) of nine patients were enrolled. The mean ± standard deviation CMT decreased from 604±199 μm at baseline to 319±115 μm (P=0.001) at 1 month and to 351±205 μm (P=0.026) at 4 months. The mean BCVA did not improve significantly from baseline (1.00 LogMAR) to the 1-month (0.74 LogMAR; P=0.2) and 4-month (0.71 LogMAR; P=0.13) visits. No safety signals were noted. Conclusion In this small prospective study, intravitreal ziv-aflibercept significantly improved mean CMT in eyes with persistent or recurrent macular edema due to RVOs. Prospective, randomized trials comparing ziv-aflibercept with standard pharmacotherapy are needed to better define efficacy and safety. PMID:27703326

  5. Early change of central macular thickness after intravitreous triamcinolone or bevacizumab in diabetic macular edema or retinal vein occlusion.

    PubMed

    Sonoda, Yasushi; Arimura, Noboru; Shimura, Masahiko; Sakamoto, Taiji

    2011-02-01

    To evaluate the immediate changes after intravitreous triamcinolone acetonide or intravitreous bevacizumab in diabetic macular edema (DME). A nonrandomized interventional study. Type 2 diabetic patients were included. Intravitreous triamcinolone acetonide (4 mg) was injected for 22 eyes with DME and IVB (1.25 mg) for 18 eyes with DME. The early time-dependent changes of central macular thickness were evaluated by optical coherence tomography before and from 1 hour to 1 month after intervention. Intravitreous bevacizumab was also tested in patients with retinal vein occlusion as a control of non-DME. Visual acuity was also examined. Compared with the baseline, central macular thickness of eyes with DME decreased significantly 1 hour after intravitreous triamcinolone acetonide (P < 0.05, Wilcoxon signed rank test), while it did not significantly until 24 hours after IVB. The decrease in central macular thickness was observed significantly from 3 hours after IVB in retinal vein occlusion (P < 0.05, Wilcoxon signed rank test), and it was more evident in retinal vein occlusion than DME after IVB. Visual acuity improved significantly in DME with intravitreous triamcinolone acetonide or IVB at 1 month (P < 0.01 and P < 0.05, respectively, Wilcoxon signed rank test). Factors responsive to triamcinolone acetonide, other than vascular endothelial growth factor, might play an important role in pathogenesis of DME compared with retinal vein occlusion. Although no conclusion can be drawn, immediate decrease in central macular thickness after intravitreous triamcinolone acetonide might indicate the possible involvement of a nongenomic pathway of triamcinolone acetonide action.

  6. Study of 27 Aqueous Humor Cytokines in Type 2 Diabetic Patients with or without Macular Edema.

    PubMed

    Dong, Ning; Xu, Bing; Chu, Liqun; Tang, Xin

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the changes in the levels of 27 aqueous humor cytokines between diabetic patients with macular edema (ME) and diabetic patients without ME. Undiluted aqueous humor samples were obtained from 68 consecutive type 2 diabetic patients without ME and 56 consecutive type 2 diabetic patients with ME. The concentrations of 27 cytokines in the aqueous humor samples were measured using a multiplex bead immunoassay. Compared with diabetic patients without ME, diabetic patients with ME had significantly higher concentrations of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IP-10, MCP-1, and VEGF in the aqueous humor. However, the concentrations of IL-10 and IL-12 were significantly lower in the diabetic patients with ME. The aqueous humor levels of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, MCP-1, IP-10, and VEGF were closely correlated with retinal macular thickness, retinal macular volume and the severity of ME. In addition, the aqueous humor levels of IL-10 and IL-12 decreased with increasing the severity of ME. A variety of cytokines associated with inflammation and angiogenesis may contribute to the pathogenesis of diabetic macular edema, and both anti-inflammatory and antiangiogenic agents should be included in the treatment of ME simultaneously.

  7. Inhibition of surgically induced miosis and prevention of postoperative macular edema with nepafenac

    PubMed Central

    Cervantes-Coste, Guadalupe; Sánchez-Castro, Yuriana G; Orozco-Carroll, Mónica; Mendoza-Schuster, Erick; Velasco-Barona, Cecilio

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of prophylactic administration of nepafenac 0.1% in maintaining mydriasis and in preventing postoperative macular edema following cataract surgery. Methods: This was a prospective, randomized, single-masked comparative study in 60 patients undergoing phacoemulsification cataract surgery. Patients were randomized to either the nepafenac or the control group. Nepafenac was administered 3 times daily 1 day before surgery and continued for 6 weeks. The control group received tobramycin-dexamethasone treatment only. Trans-operative mydriasis was measured before surgery, after nuclear emulsification, following cortex aspiration, and at the conclusion of surgery. Macular optical coherence tomography determined central foveal thickness (FT) and total macular volume (TMV) before surgery and at 2 and 6 weeks after surgery. All patients received tobramycin-dexamethasone for 2 weeks after surgery. Results: The difference in mean pupil size, at the end of surgery, between the control group (6.84 ± 0.93 mm) and the nepafenac group (7.91 ± 0.74 mm) was statistically significant (p < 0.001). There were no significant differences in FT values between the two groups at any time point; however, TMV at 2 and at 6 weeks was statistically significantly different (p < 0.001), with higher TMV in the control group. Conclusion: Prophylactic use of nepafenac was effective in reducing macular edema after cataract surgery and in maintaining trans-operative mydriasis. PMID:19668569

  8. Monoscopic versus stereoscopic photography in screening for clinically significant macular edema.

    PubMed

    Welty, Christopher J; Agarwal, Anita; Merin, Lawrence M; Chomsky, Amy

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine whether monoscopic photography could serve as an accurate tool when used to screen for clinically significant macular edema. In a masked randomized fashion, two readers evaluated monoscopic and stereoscopic retinal photographs of 100 eyes. The photographs were evaluated first individually for probable clinically significant macular edema based on the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study criteria and then as stereoscopic pairs. Graders were evaluated for sensitivity and specificity individually and in combination. Individually, reader one had a sensitivity of 0.93 and a specificity of 0.77, and reader two had a sensitivity of 0.88 and a specificity of 0.94. In combination, the readers had a sensitivity of 0.91 and a specificity of 0.86. They correlated on 0.76 of the stereoscopic readings and 0.92 of the monoscopic readings. These results indicate that the use of monoscopic retinal photography may be an accurate screening tool for clinically significant macular edema.

  9. Retinal vasculitis and cystoid macular edema after body tattooing: a case report.

    PubMed

    Moschos, M M; Guex-Crosier, Y

    2004-05-01

    To report a case of retinal vasculitis occurring after the placement of permanent tattoos. A 21-year-old male was referred to our department with impairment of visual acuity. Permanent tattoos covered the head, body, arms and legs. The patient was examined with ophthalmoscopy, fluorescein angiography, indocyanine green angiography and optical coherence tomography. Systemic medical and laboratory work-up were performed in order to exclude an infectious agent or an inflammatory disease. He had no history of intravenous drug abuse. Our patient presented severe posterior uveitis associated with retinal vasculitis and cystoid macular edema. Laboratory tests ruled out all diseases causing vasculitis. HIV and B, C hepatitis tests were negative. Cystoid macular edema and vasculitis were resolved after immunosuppressive therapy. This is the first description of a retinal vasculitis associated with cystoid macular edema in a completely healthy individual after the placement of permanent tattoos. A phagocytosis of tattoo pigments leading to their lysis is described in the literature as a mechanism causing vasculitis.

  10. Automated detection of exudates and macula for grading of diabetic macular edema.

    PubMed

    Akram, M Usman; Tariq, Anam; Khan, Shoab A; Javed, M Younus

    2014-04-01

    Medical systems based on state of the art image processing and pattern recognition techniques are very common now a day. These systems are of prime interest to provide basic health care facilities to patients and support to doctors. Diabetic macular edema is one of the retinal abnormalities in which diabetic patient suffers from severe vision loss due to affected macula. It affects the central vision of the person and causes total blindness in severe cases. In this article, we propose an intelligent system for detection and grading of macular edema to assist the ophthalmologists in early and automated detection of the disease. The proposed system consists of a novel method for accurate detection of macula using a detailed feature set and Gaussian mixtures model based classifier. We also present a new hybrid classifier as an ensemble of Gaussian mixture model and support vector machine for improved exudate detection even in the presence of other bright lesions which eventually leads to reliable classification of input retinal image in different stages of macular edema. The statistical analysis and comparative evaluation of proposed system with existing methods are performed on publicly available standard retinal image databases. The proposed system has achieved average value of 97.3%, 95.9% and 96.8% for sensitivity, specificity and accuracy respectively on both databases. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Macular edema in underserved diabetic patients: Improving detection by enhancing the optical signature and data analysis techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alhamami, Mastour Abdullah

    Diabetic retinopathy and diabetic macular edema are chief causes of vision loss in working adults. Thus, retinal screening of patients with diabetes has become standard practice in some countries to prevent visual impairment and blindness from diabetic retinopathy. One goal is to improve techniques currently used to diagnose diabetic retinopathy. Another goal is to probe pathophysiological changes seen with imaging methods. Analysis was performed on a novel dataset from more than 2000 underserved adult diabetic patients, who were recruited for a screening study for diabetic eye disease. Data were collected from four county clinics at Alameda Health, Alameda County, CA. Over 90% of patients self-identified as a racial/ethnic identity other than non-Hispanic white. We investigated the prevalence and optical properties of macular edema. In the first study, a retrospective cohort study was performed to compare macular thickness in diabetic patients with and without macular edema to determine the presence of damage to the external limiting membrane or and the relation of damage to the ELM to damage to photoreceptors. In the second study, we investigated whether the information in red light better visualizes cysts in diabetic macular edema, as compared to green light. In the third study, we investigated whether the demographic and blood glucose information predict diabetic macular edema. Three logistic regression analyses were compared. In the fourth study, we examined how different outcome measures of retinal thickness vary with demographic and blood glucose measures, using a trichotomous variable for retinal thickness. The findings point strongly to large individual differences in the development of macular edema, which is difficult to diagnose with the most common methods in dark eyes. Further, while blood glucose was found to be important, there are additional differences in the potential for macular edema that are associated with ethnic group and gender.

  12. Dexamethasone Intravitreal Implant Rescue Treatment for Bevacizumab Refractory Macular Edema Secondary to Branch Retinal Vein Occlusion

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kyou Ho; Kang, Eui Chun

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the prognostic factors and outcomes of dexamethasone intravitreal implant (DEX implant) for intravitreal bevacizumab refractory macular edema secondary to branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO). Methods This was a retrospective, interventional case series. Medical records were reviewed, and a total of 38 eyes that were treated with DEX implant for macular edema secondary to BRVO that did not respond to at least two consecutive intravitreal bevacizumab injections (IBIs) were included. Best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), central subfield macular thickness, and central subfoveal choroidal thickness were evaluated at baseline, 2 months, and 6 months after DEX implantation. Results Patients had undergone an average of 6.32 ± 4.66 prior IBI treatments. The average BCVA improved from 0.53 ± 0.26 to 0.41 ± 0.25 and 0.44 ± 0.23 logarithm of the minimal angle of resolution (logMAR) at 2 and 6 months, respectively (p < 0.001). The average central subfield macular thickness was 504.00 ± 121.54 µm at baseline and changed to 293.21 ± 74.17 µm and 427.28 ± 119.57 µm at 2 and 6 months, respectively (p < 0.001 and p = 0.002). Average central subfoveal choroidal thickness was 237.46 ± 92.21 µm at baseline and changed to 204.75 ± 74.74 µm and 226.86 ± 90.77 µm at 2 and 6 months, respectively (p < 0.001 and p = 0.455). Twenty-two eyes (58%) gained ≥0.1 logMAR at 2 months, while 16 eyes showed no improvement. Low BCVA at symptom presentation, low baseline BCVA, and shorter duration of macular edema were correlated with increased BCVA after treatment. Conclusions The DEX implant improves functional and anatomical outcomes for up to 6 months in about half of the patients treated with IBI refractory macular edema secondary to BRVO, particularly in patients with low initial and baseline BCVA. PMID:28367038

  13. Randomized clinical trial of topical betaxolol for persistent macular edema after vitrectomy and epiretinal membrane removal.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Kaori; Okinami, Satoshi

    2003-08-01

    To report the efficacy and safety of topical betaxolol for treatment of persistent macular edema. Randomized clinical trial. Thirty-seven eyes (37 patients) with best-corrected visual acuity between 20/200 and 20/50 and macular edema that remained for 3 months after vitrectomy and removal of epiretinal membrane were prospectively, randomly assigned to receive betaxolol or placebo. Nineteen eyes of 19 patients received betaxolol twice daily, and 18 eyes of 18 patients received placebo as a randomized comparison group. The patients were followed up for 6 months. This study evaluated the effect of betaxolol on best-corrected visual acuity and area of macular edema, which was digitally measured on serial fluorescein angiogram. Calculations of mean best-corrected visual acuity were based on logarithm of the minimal angle of resolution (logMAR). To assess changes in area of edema, the initial (pretreatment) size of the edema was set to 100%, and all posttreatment measurements were normalized relative to the initial size. Mean best-corrected visual acuity at baseline was 0.216 (20 of 92.6) and 0.244 (20 of 82.0) in the treatment and control group, respectively. Mean area of macular edema was 2.271 +/- 1.629 mm(2) and 2.273 +/- 1.209 mm(2) in the treatment and control group; there was no significant difference. The visual acuity at 6 months after the start of the follow-up was 0.471 (20 of 42.5) in the treatment group and 0.236 (20 of 84.7) in the control group. Mean changes in logMAR of visual acuity for 3- and 6-month follow-up were -0.282 +/- 0.191 and -0.337 +/- 0.197 in the treatment group, and -0.016 +/- 0.186 and +0.015 +/- 0.267 in the control group; a significant difference was found (P <.0001; P <.0001). Areas of macular edema at 6 months after the start of the follow-up were 1.492 +/- 1.357 mm(2) in the treatment group and 2.125 +/- 1.434 mm(2)in the control group. Mean change in area of the edema for 6 months were 76.5% +/- 24.1% and 63.4% +/- 28.3% in the

  14. Factors affecting reading speed in patients with diabetic macular edema treated with laser photocoagulation.

    PubMed

    Pearce, Elizabeth; Sivaprasad, Sobha; Chong, Ngaihang V

    2014-01-01

    To study the factors that may affect reading speed in patients with diabetic macular edema previously treated with laser photocoagulation. Consecutive patients with type II diabetes treated with laser photocoagulation for diabetic macular edema (DME) at least twelve months previously, with best corrected visual acuity of better than 65 letters (approximately 20/40) measured with Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) charts were included in this study. Patients previously treated with pan-retinal photocoagulation, vitrectomy, intravitreal steroid or anti-VEGF therapy were excluded. Any other ocular co-morbidities that may influence reading ability such as cataract, glaucoma or macular degeneration were also excluded. All patients were refracted by a certified examiner, the following measurements were collected: best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), contrast sensitivity with Pelli-Robson chart, reading speed with MNREAD chart, microperimetry with Nidek MP1, and central subfield thickness with Zeiss spectral domain optical coherent topography. The slow reading group had poorer contrast sensitivity (p = 0.001), reduced retinal sensitivity (p = 0.027) and less stable fixation (p = 0.013). Most interestingly the reduced retinal sensitivity findings were driven by the microperimetry value on the right subfield (p = 0.033), (nasal to the fovea in the right eye and temporal to the fovea in the left eye). Multiple linear regression analysis showed that contrast sensitivity is probably the most important factor that affects reading speed (p = 0.001). Reduced retinal sensitivity after laser treatment is associated with reduced reading speed in patients with diabetic macular edema.

  15. Aqueous levels of erythropoietin in acute retinal vein occlusion with macular edema

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Hyun Jin; Kim, Hyung Chan; Moon, Jun Woong

    2014-01-01

    AIM To investigate the aqueous erythropoietin (EPO) levels and associated factors in patients with acute retinal vein occlusion (RVO). METHODS The aqueous EPO level was measured in patients with macular edema (ME) secondary to acute branched retinal vein occlusion (BRVO) or central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO). Aqueous fluid from cataract patients served as the control. We also evaluated whether aqueous level of EPO was associated with factors such as serum EPO level, non-perfusion area, central macular thickness (CMT), and arterio-venous (AV) transit time RESULTS Twenty-seven RVO patients (16 BRVO, 11 CRVO) and 9 control subjects were enrolled in the study. The aqueous EPO level (mU/mL) was higher in RVO (68.2±54.3) than that in the control subjects (12.9±5.9). More specifically, the aqueous EPO level was higher in CRVO (118.9±52.1) than that in BRVO (33.3±10.8). However, no differences were found in serum EPO levels among three groups. CMT in RVO patients had a positive correlation with the aqueous EPO level (r=0.66). Also, in terms of non-perfusion area, the aqueous EPO levels were more elevated in the ischemic subgroup than in the non-ischemic subgroup in both BRVO and CRVO. CONCLUSION Aqueous EPO levels are elevated in patients with macular edema secondary to recent onset RVO. Patients with CRVO have higher EPO levels than those with BRVO. The aqueous EPO level in RVO has a positive correlation with CMT and is associated with non-perfusion area. These results suggest that the aqueous EPO level could be associated with retinal ischemia and may be involved in the pathogenesis of macular edema secondary to RVO. PMID:24967199

  16. Factors Affecting Reading Speed in Patients with Diabetic Macular Edema Treated with Laser Photocoagulation

    PubMed Central

    Pearce, Elizabeth; Sivaprasad, Sobha; Chong, Ngaihang V.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To study the factors that may affect reading speed in patients with diabetic macular edema previously treated with laser photocoagulation. Methods Consecutive patients with type II diabetes treated with laser photocoagulation for diabetic macular edema (DME) at least twelve months previously, with best corrected visual acuity of better than 65 letters (approximately 20/40) measured with Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) charts were included in this study. Patients previously treated with pan-retinal photocoagulation, vitrectomy, intravitreal steroid or anti-VEGF therapy were excluded. Any other ocular co-morbidities that may influence reading ability such as cataract, glaucoma or macular degeneration were also excluded. All patients were refracted by a certified examiner, the following measurements were collected: best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), contrast sensitivity with Pelli-Robson chart, reading speed with MNREAD chart, microperimetry with Nidek MP1, and central subfield thickness with Zeiss spectral domain optical coherent topography. Results The slow reading group had poorer contrast sensitivity (p = 0.001), reduced retinal sensitivity (p = 0.027) and less stable fixation (p = 0.013). Most interestingly the reduced retinal sensitivity findings were driven by the microperimetry value on the right subfield (p = 0.033), (nasal to the fovea in the right eye and temporal to the fovea in the left eye). Multiple linear regression analysis showed that contrast sensitivity is probably the most important factor that affects reading speed (p = 0.001). Conclusion Reduced retinal sensitivity after laser treatment is associated with reduced reading speed in patients with diabetic macular edema. PMID:25265280

  17. Visual outcome of laser treatment in diabetic macular edema: Study from an Urban Diabetes Care Center

    PubMed Central

    Alvi, Rashid; Memon, Muhammad Saleh; Shera, Samad; Mumtaz, Seema N.; Shaikh, Sikander Ali; Fahim, Muhammad Faisal

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine the visual outcome of laser treatment in clinically significant macular edema. Methods: This interventional and qausi experimental study was carried out at Diabetic Association of Pakistan (DAP) during January 2011 and December 2012. Approval was taken from Research Ethical Committee of Isra Postgraduate Institute of Ophthalmology. Records of 925 eyes of 464 patients with “Clinical Significant macular edema” (CSME), treated with laser photocoagulation were analyzed. Best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) at the time of presentation and at the last follow up, minimum of one year and maximum of 45 months was recorded and compared. SPSS version 20.0 was used to analyze the data. Results: Diabetic retinopathy was found in 20.3% (1777) of 8742 diabetic attending DAP Hospital” amongst whom 39.6% (705) had Sight threatening diabetic retinopathy. Laser was advised in 96.4% (680) individuals, accepted by 70.5% (480) individuals. Amongst 960 eyes of 480 patients who accepted laser, 925 eyes had clinically significant macular edema and 35 eyes had PDR who are not included in this study. Amongst 925 eyes with CSME, Grid laser was done in 913 eyes (99%) and focal laser was done in 12 eyes (1%). After a follow up of 12 to 45 months, it was found that best corrected visual acuity had declined in 2.4% (22) eyes, stabilized in 67% (619) eyes and improved in 30.7% (284) eyes. One line improvement on Snellen’s chart was fond in 21.3% (197) eyes, 2 lines in 8% (74) eyes, 3 lines in 1.2% (12) eyes and 4 lines in one (0.1%) eye with p-value of 0.000. Conclusion: Laser therapy is an effective treatment in stabilizing/improving the vision in diabetic macular edema particularly at those centers where only Argon Laser is available and OCF, FFA facilities do not exist. PMID:27882027

  18. Efficacy of single bevacizumab injection as adjuvant therapy to laser photocoagulation in macular edema secondary to branch retinal vein occlusion

    PubMed Central

    Kartasasmita, Arief S; Takarai, Siska; Switania, Astriviani; Enus, Sutarya

    2016-01-01

    Background Macular grid laser photocoagulation remains the standard treatment for macular edema secondary to branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO). One possible strategy for treating macular edema is to inhibit VEGF activity by competitive binding of VEGF with an anti-VEGF antibody, suggesting the therapy option with bevacizumab. However, multiple injections of anti-VEGF may lead to complications and high cost. Purpose The aim of this study was to evaluate the improvement in visual acuity and central macular thickness after combination therapy of laser photocoagulation with single intravitreal bevacizumab injection in macular edema secondary to BRVO. Methods Nineteen patients with macular edema secondary to BRVO were assigned to either the group of nine patients in combination therapy of laser photocoagulation with intravitreal bevacizumab or the group of ten patients in the laser photocoagulation therapy. Complete ophthalmologic examinations were performed just before the therapy and at 1 month following the therapy. Changes in visual acuity were tested with the logarithm of minimum angle of resolution (logMAR), and central macular thickness was measured by optical coherence tomography (OCT). Results Combination therapy of laser photocoagulation and single intravitreal bevacizumab injection resulted in a significantly better visual acuity compared to laser photocoagulation therapy (0.35 versus 0.13 logMAR; P=0.041) and reduced macular thickness by 120.33 µm versus 71.50 µm (P=0.277), although this difference was not significant. Conclusion Laser photocoagulation combined with a single intravitreal bevacizumab has a substantial effect on increasing visual acuity in macular edema secondary to BRVO. PMID:27826179

  19. Intravitreal ranibizumab for macular edema secondary to central retinal vein occlusion.

    PubMed

    Risard, Sarah M; Pieramici, Dante J; Rabena, Melvin D; Basefsky, Jessica C; Avery, Robert L; Castellarin, Alessandro A; Nasir, Ma'an A; See, Robert F; Couvillion, Stephen S

    2011-06-01

    To evaluate the safety and efficacy of intravitreal ranibizumab for macular edema secondary to central retinal vein occlusion. Patients with macular edema secondary to perfused central retinal vein occlusion were enrolled in this ongoing, prospective, open-label study. Treatment was initiated with monthly intravitreal ranibizumab for 3 months. In the first year, additional injections were administered for edema in quarterly intervals as needed (PRN) for Cohort 1 (n = 10) and monthly PRN for Cohort 2 (n = 10). In the second year of treatments, all patients received monthly PRN treatment. Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study best-corrected visual acuity, central retinal thickness, fundus photographs, and fluorescein angiograms were evaluated, and the incidence and severity of adverse events were documented. Mean change in best-corrected visual acuity and central retinal thickness improved during the induction phase in both groups. During the remainder of the first year for Cohort 1, initial gains were lost during quarterly treatment but returned with monthly PRN treatment in the second year. For Cohort 2, improvement in best-corrected visual acuity and central retinal thickness from the induction phase was maintained through Month 24. Nineteen of 20 patients experienced a reduction in intraretinal hemorrhage, optic nerve swelling, and/or venous diameter after treatment. One myocardial infarction, one cerebrovascular accident, and no serious ocular adverse events were reported. Iris neovascularization was developed in none of the eyes. Ranibizumab was well tolerated and associated with a greater reduction in macular edema and improvement in visual acuity in the monthly PRN regimen compared with quarterly treatment. Vision lost during the quarterly PRN injection intervals in the first year of Cohort 1 could be regained by switching to monthly PRN dosing.

  20. [A cost-effectiveness study of dexamethasone implants in macular edema].

    PubMed

    Lozano López, V; Serrano García, M; Mantolán Sarmiento, C; Pareja Ríos, A; Losada Castillo, M J; Cordovés Dorta, L; Quijada Fumero, E; Virgós Aller, T; Bullejos Molina, M

    2015-01-01

    To analyze the cost-effectiveness and benefits of a dexamethasone intravitreal implant (Ozurdex®, Allergan, Irvine, CA, USA.) in its clinically relevant applications. A total of 88 eyes of 86 patients with macular edema of > 300 μm measured by optical coherence tomography (Cirrus Zeiss, Dublin, CA, USA) were included in this two-year retrospective study, with a minimum of 6 months follow-up. The patients were divide into 3 groups: group 1 with macular edema in retinal vein occlusion, group 2 with non-infectious posterior uveitis, and group 3 with diabetic macular edema. The treatment was off-label but supported by the literature. Before implantation, and on days 1, 30, 60, 90 and 180, corrected visual acuity (Snellen), central retinal thickness, intraocular pressure and biomicroscopy were evaluated. The cost-benefit analysis was tabulated by line of visual acuity gained, comparing the main therapeutic alternatives and assessment of the safety profile of the dexamethasone intravitreal implant (Ozurdex®, Allergan, Irvine, CA, USA). The results of this study did not differ from the published studies, in terms of visual acuity improvement in 63.3% of cases, and with central macular thickness improvement in 97% of cases. There were relapses, which occurred after 120 days on average, and the need for retreatment was 40.9%. Increased intraocular pressure >23 mm Hg was among the side effects in 29.54%, and was controlled with topical treatment, except in 1.13% requiring surgical treatment. The development of cataract was 44.7%, and 10.6% required surgery. Treatment results showed less frequent use of Ozurdex® than other treatments for disease control, being a cost saving option. Cost-effectiveness analyses are clinically relevant when applying treatment strategies in patients with macular edema. Dexamethasone intravitreal implant appears to be a safe and efficient therapy. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All

  1. Comparison of Cysts in Red and Green Images for Diabetic Macular Edema.

    PubMed

    Alhamami, Mastour A; Elsner, Ann E; Malinovsky, Victor E; Clark, Christopher A; Haggerty, Bryan P; Ozawa, Glen Y; Cuadros, Jorge A; Baskaran, Karthikeyan; Gast, Thomas J; Litvin, Taras V; Muller, Matthew S; Brahm, Shane G; Young, Stuart B; Miura, Masahiro

    2017-02-01

    To investigate whether cysts in diabetic macular edema are better visualized in the red channel of color fundus camera images, as compared with the green channel, because color fundus camera screening methods that emphasize short-wavelength light may miss cysts in patients with dark fundi or changes to outer blood retinal barrier. Fundus images for diabetic retinopathy photoscreening were acquired for a study with Aeon Imaging, EyePACS, University of California Berkeley, and Indiana University. There were 2047 underserved, adult diabetic patients, of whom over 90% self-identified as a racial/ethnic identify other than non-Hispanic white. Color fundus images at nominally 45 degrees were acquired with a Canon Cr-DGi non-mydriatic camera (Tokyo, Japan) then graded by an EyePACS certified grader. From the 148 patients graded to have clinically significant macular edema by the presence of hard exudates in the central 1500 μm of the fovea, we evaluated macular cysts in 13 patients with cystoid macular edema. Age ranged from 33 to 68 years. Color fundus images were split into red, green, and blue channels with custom Matlab software (Mathworks, Natick, MA). The diameter of a cyst or confluent cysts was quantified in the red-channel and green-channel images separately. Cyst identification gave complete agreement between red-channel images and the standard full-color images. This was not the case for green-channel images, which did not expose cysts visible with standard full-color images in five cases, who had dark fundi. Cysts appeared more numerous and covered a larger area in the red channel (733 ± 604 μm) than in the green channel (349 ± 433 μm, P < .006). Cysts may be underdetected with the present fundus camera methods, particularly when short-wavelength light is emphasized or in patients with dark fundi. Longer wavelength techniques may improve the detection of cysts and provide more information concerning the early stages of diabetic macular edema or the outer

  2. Comparison of Cysts in Red and Green Images for Diabetic Macular Edema

    PubMed Central

    Alhamami, Mastour A.; Elsner, Ann E.; Malinovsky, Victor E.; Clark, Christopher A.; Haggerty, Bryan P.; Ozawa, Glen Y.; Cuadros, Jorge A.; Baskaran, Karthikeyan; Gast, Thomas J.; Litvin, Taras V.; Muller, Matthew S.; Brahm, Shane G.; Young, Stuart B.; Miura, Masahiro

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose To investigate whether cysts in diabetic macular edema are better visualized in the red channel of color fundus camera images, as compared with the green channel, because color fundus camera screening methods that emphasize short-wavelength light may miss cysts in patients with dark fundi or changes to outer blood retinal barrier. Methods Fundus images for diabetic retinopathy photoscreening were acquired for a study with Aeon Imaging, EyePACS, University of California Berkeley, and Indiana University. There were 2047 underserved, adult diabetic patients, of whom over 90% self-identified as a racial/ethnic identify other than non-Hispanic white. Color fundus images at nominally 45 degrees were acquired with a Canon Cr-DGi non-mydriatic camera (Tokyo, Japan) then graded by an EyePACS certified grader. From the 148 patients graded to have clinically significant macular edema by the presence of hard exudates in the central 1500 μm of the fovea, we evaluated macular cysts in 13 patients with cystoid macular edema. Age ranged from 33 to 68 years. Color fundus images were split into red, green, and blue channels with custom Matlab software (Mathworks, Natick, MA). The diameter of a cyst or confluent cysts was quantified in the red-channel and green-channel images separately. Results Cyst identification gave complete agreement between red-channel images and the standard full-color images. This was not the case for green-channel images, which did not expose cysts visible with standard full-color images in five cases, who had dark fundi. Cysts appeared more numerous and covered a larger area in the red channel (733 ± 604 μm) than in the green channel (349 ± 433 μm, P < .006). Conclusions Cysts may be underdetected with the present fundus camera methods, particularly when short-wavelength light is emphasized or in patients with dark fundi. Longer wavelength techniques may improve the detection of cysts and provide more information concerning the early

  3. Consecutive macular edema and visual outcome in branch retinal vein occlusion.

    PubMed

    Baek, Sung Uk; Kwon, Soon Il; Park, In Won; Choi, Kyung Jun

    2014-01-01

    Purposes. The study introduced the concept of "consecutive macular edema" and evaluated the validity of visual outcome in macular edema (ME) secondary to branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO). Methods. Patients were categorized into the gainer group and the nongainer group according to the final visual acuity. We analyzed clinical characteristics involving total and consecutive duration of ME between the two groups. Results. Among the total 71 eyes of 71 patients, intravitreal bevacizumab injection (26 patients), triamcinolone (21), and natural course (33) were enrolled. The consecutive duration of ME was shorter in the gainer group than in the nongainer group (3.33 ± 1.50 and 5.24 ± 2.39 months; P = 0.000). After exclusion of macular ischemia, consecutive duration of ME in gainer group was also significantly shorter than in nongainer group (3.62 ± 1.60 and 6.11 ± 4.20 months; P = 0.010). Conclusions. The duration of ME in the nongainer group was longer than in the gainer group. In particular, the consecutive duration was an important factor in determining the final visual outcome. Clinical Trial Registration. Approval by Hallym University Sacred Heart Hospital Institutional Review Board/Ethics Committee was obtained for this retrospective study.

  4. [Change in Therapy of Neovascular Age-Related Macular Degeneration, Diabetic Maculopathy and Macular Edema after Retinal Vein Occlusion].

    PubMed

    Grüb, Matthias; Lamprakis, Ioannis; Reichel, Christoph

    2017-10-12

    Background Therapy of neovascular age-related macular degeneration, diabetic maculopathy and macular edema after retinal vein occlusion has changed fundamentally since the introduction of anti-VEGF therapy more than 10 years ago. With the technological progress in ocular coherence tomography (OCT) functional criteria have been replaced by more morphological criteria. Contract law and administrative problems have been improved but not solved totally. Patients/Materials and Methods In a retrospective study, 207 eyes of 157 patients who presented between January 2007 and October 2013 with neovascular age-related macular degeneration, diabetic maculopathy or macular edema after retinal vein occlusion were analyzed. Baseline visual acuity (VA) was 0.25 (median). Results After initial anti-VEGF upload, there was a significant increase in VA from 0.25 to 0.32 (p < 0.001). Patients with bad VA profited most (p = 0.004). Patients with more intravitreal injections had a larger increase in VA (p = 0.002). In the mainly VA-controlled group of the first years, VA decreased to 0.05 after one year and 3.49 intravitreal injections in the mean. In the OCT-controlled group of the later years, the initial increase in VA could be held after one year and 5.03 intravitreal anti-VEGF applications in the mean. There was a significant difference in the course of VA between the two groups (p = 0.001). Mean interval between indication and start of therapy was 25.34 days in the early years, and 5.40 days in the later years. Conclusion Mainly VA-based criteria in the anti-VEGF therapy of the early years seem to be inferior to morphological criteria of the later years. Contract law and administrative problems have delayed the time between indication and start of therapy and, thereby, contributed to undersupply and worsening functional results. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  5. Machine learning based detection of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and diabetic macular edema (DME) from optical coherence tomography (OCT) images.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu; Zhang, Yaonan; Yao, Zhaomin; Zhao, Ruixue; Zhou, Fengfeng

    2016-12-01

    Non-lethal macular diseases greatly impact patients' life quality, and will cause vision loss at the late stages. Visual inspection of the optical coherence tomography (OCT) images by the experienced clinicians is the main diagnosis technique. We proposed a computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) model to discriminate age-related macular degeneration (AMD), diabetic macular edema (DME) and healthy macula. The linear configuration pattern (LCP) based features of the OCT images were screened by the Correlation-based Feature Subset (CFS) selection algorithm. And the best model based on the sequential minimal optimization (SMO) algorithm achieved 99.3% in the overall accuracy for the three classes of samples.

  6. Machine learning based detection of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and diabetic macular edema (DME) from optical coherence tomography (OCT) images

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yu; Zhang, Yaonan; Yao, Zhaomin; Zhao, Ruixue; Zhou, Fengfeng

    2016-01-01

    Non-lethal macular diseases greatly impact patients’ life quality, and will cause vision loss at the late stages. Visual inspection of the optical coherence tomography (OCT) images by the experienced clinicians is the main diagnosis technique. We proposed a computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) model to discriminate age-related macular degeneration (AMD), diabetic macular edema (DME) and healthy macula. The linear configuration pattern (LCP) based features of the OCT images were screened by the Correlation-based Feature Subset (CFS) selection algorithm. And the best model based on the sequential minimal optimization (SMO) algorithm achieved 99.3% in the overall accuracy for the three classes of samples. PMID:28018716

  7. Protocol: Effect of intravitreal bevacizumab (avastin) in the treatment of macular edema: A systematic review of randomized controlled trials

    PubMed Central

    Qazi, Hammad A.

    2012-01-01

    Cystoid macular edema (CME) is a relatively common painless condition usually accompanied by blurred vision. The prevalence of CME varied from 5% to 47% depending on cause of pathology. There are several treatments available for ME including intravitreal use of bevacizumab that has been used in different doses in few studies. However, there is still scarcity of data available on the use of bevacizumab for the treatment of ME. A systematic review is needed to provide a foundational base to discuss and synthesize the available information on the effectiveness and safety of intravitreal bevacizumab in macular edema, so that recommendations and policies can be built regarding controversial use of bevacizumab in macular edema. We have planned to perform a systematic review with an objective to compare the effects of a single injection of 1.25 mg intravitreal bevacizumab (avastin) in the improvement of visual acuity, macular edema, and thickness with other interventions/controls for the treatment of macular edema at 3 and 6 months interval using randomized controlled trials. This is only a protocol of the review and we will be conducting a full length review, addressing the issue in future. PMID:23853638

  8. Spectral Domain OCT Documented Resolution of Pseudophakic Cystoid Macular Edema after Intravitreal Triamcinolone

    PubMed Central

    Murthy, Ravi K; Chalam, Kakarla V.

    2010-01-01

    Cystoid macular edema (CME) is an important cause of visual loss after cataract surgery. Treatment is usually with topical anti-inflammatory agents, with anti-vascular endothelial growth factor agents and steroids used intravitreally in resistant cases. Even though time-domain Stratus OCT can quantify the macular thickness, it cannot prognosticate visual outcomes due to the poor resolution of images, especially the outer segment-inner segment junction. Spectral-domain OCT (SD-OCT) by its ability to acquire large number of images in a short span of time provides high resolution cross-sectional images of the retina, which not only highlights the underlying pathological changes, but in addition can prognosticate visual recovery. We describe pre and post SD-OCT features of a case of refractory CME who was treated with intravitreal triamcinolone actetonide. PMID:23861610

  9. Fellow eye effect of unilateral intravitreal bevacizumab injection in eyes with diabetic macular edema.

    PubMed

    Hanhart, J; Tiosano, L; Averbukh, E; Banin, E; Hemo, I; Chowers, I

    2014-06-01

    Anti-vascular endothelial growth factor compounds are routinely used for the treatment of diabetic macular edema (DME). We aim to evaluate for the existence and magnitude of treatment effect on fellow un-injected eyes. A consecutive group of patients with bilateral DME who received unilateral bevacizumab injections was retrospectively evaluated. Data collected included demographics, ophthalmic and systemic findings, and optical coherence tomography (OCT) measurements of macular thickness. Thirty-five patients were evaluated. Mean follow-up was 245 days (range: 30-800), and the mean number of bevacizumab injections was 3.6 (range: 1-11). At end of follow-up, the mean (SD) OCT central subfield thickness reduced by 72 ± 112 micron in the injected eye (from 469 ± 139 to 397 ± 120 micron; P=0.001), while in the non-injected eye it reduced by 49 ± 75 micron (from 380 ± 130 to 331 ± 106 micron; P<0.001). Sixteen injected eyes (45.7%) showed central subfield thickness reduction of ≥50 micron while 10 (28.6%) non-injected eyes showed such thickness reduction. Improved VA following treatment was detected in 14 (40%) injected eyes and in 15 (43%) non-injected eyes. Unilateral bevacizumab injections in patients with bilateral DME are often associated with bilateral response. Anti-vascular endothelial growth factor compounds are routinely used for the treatment of diabetic macular edema (DME). In this retrospective study, we show that unilateral bevacizumab injections often result in reduction of the macular thickness in the fellow un-injected eye.

  10. Efficacy and Safety of Intravitreal Dexamethasone Implants for Treatment of Refractory Diabetic Macular Edema

    PubMed Central

    Eltutar, Kadir; Sultan, Pınar; Erkul, Sezin Ozdogan; Osmanbasoglu, Ozen Ayranci

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the safety and efficacy of intravitreal dexamethasone (IVD) implants in eyes with diabetic macular edema that did not respond to previous treatment. Methods We included 46 eyes of 46 patients in this retrospective study. Each month, we recorded patient visual acuity with logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution using the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study chart, central macular thickness measurements with optical coherence tomography, intraocular pressure (IOP), and posttreatment complication occurrence. Results The mean follow-up time was 8.95 ± 1.33 months (range, 6 to 12). Best-corrected visual acuity improved significantly in the first 4 months after IVD, but no statistically significant change was observed over the following 2 months. Although a statistically significant decrease in central macular thickness was observed in the first 3 months, the change was not statistically significant in the following 3 months. There was a statistically significant increase in IOP in the first 2 months, but no statistically significant change was observed in the following months. IOP was controlled with medication in all patients with elevated IOP. Of the 26 phakic patients, two had cataracts requiring surgery. Conclusions Cases of refractory diabetic macular edema that did not respond to previous treatment, such as anti-vascular endothelial growth factor injections and laser photocoagulation, exhibited improvements in visual acuity and decreases in retinal thickness after IVD implantation. Both functional and anatomical effects were observed in the first 3 months after injection. Repeat injections and frequent examination might be required for continued improvement. Side effects, such as cataracts and elevation of IOP, may require medical or surgical treatment. PMID:28367039

  11. Exam room, chair side evaluation of retinal edema: improving accuracy and precision for identification of subclinical diabetic macular edema.

    PubMed

    Richer, Stuart

    2007-12-01

    Early detection of diabetic macular edema (DME) is important for improving patient outcomes. Currently, the gold standards are slit lamp stereo biomicroscopy examination and fluorescein angiography (FA). Detecting DME with a slit lamp is subjective and can be difficult in the early stages of the disease. FA is invasive and involves discomfort and risk to the patient. A new diagnostic test, the Heidelberg Retina Tomograph (HRT) Retina Module (Heidelberg Engineering, Heidelberg, Germany), is noninvasive, objective, and sensitive to early changes in the retina. It is purported to locate and quantify retinal edema such as DME, independent of retina thickening. Presented are a series of case reports comparing retinal photography, FA, HRT, and ocular coherence tomography (Stratus OCT; Carl Zeiss Meditec, Jena, Germany) results on patients with DME. The purpose is to determine the clinical utility of the HRT for discerning DME compared with clinical stereo biomicroscopy impression and FA. In this representative case series, the author's first stereo biomicroscopy impression, macular photographs, retinal fluorescein angiographs, Stratus OCT images, and HRT Retina Module images from 5 type 2 diabetic patients (3 insulin and 2 non-insulin dependent) with retinopathy are presented. All patients are men, with a mean age of 56.4 (range, 51 to 62). Subjects had diabetes mellitus type 2 for an average of 14.4 years (range, 10 to 22) and were experiencing fluctuations or loss in vision. In all cases, DME was clearly identifiable on FA although sometimes questionable by stereo biomicroscopy. Nonstereo retinal photos and OCT examinations were inconclusive or unremarkable in 4 of 5 cases. The HRT Edema surrogate "e" index and map results showed areas of DME that were very similar to those of the FA images. In this case series, the HRT Retina Module provided useful clinical information on DME patients including the quantification and extent of both subclinical and clinically

  12. Automated framework for intraretinal cystoid macular edema segmentation in three-dimensional optical coherence tomography images with macular hole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Weifang; Zhang, Li; Shi, Fei; Xiang, Dehui; Wang, Lirong; Guo, Jingyun; Yang, Xiaoling; Chen, Haoyu; Chen, Xinjian

    2017-07-01

    Cystoid macular edema (CME) and macular hole (MH) are the leading causes for visual loss in retinal diseases. The volume of the CMEs can be an accurate predictor for visual prognosis. This paper presents an automatic method to segment the CMEs from the abnormal retina with coexistence of MH in three-dimensional-optical coherence tomography images. The proposed framework consists of preprocessing and CMEs segmentation. The preprocessing part includes denoising, intraretinal layers segmentation and flattening, and MH and vessel silhouettes exclusion. In the CMEs segmentation, a three-step strategy is applied. First, an AdaBoost classifier trained with 57 features is employed to generate the initialization results. Second, an automated shape-constrained graph cut algorithm is applied to obtain the refined results. Finally, cyst area information is used to remove false positives (FPs). The method was evaluated on 19 eyes with coexistence of CMEs and MH from 18 subjects. The true positive volume fraction, FP volume fraction, dice similarity coefficient, and accuracy rate for CMEs segmentation were 81.0%±7.8%, 0.80%±0.63%, 80.9%±5.7%, and 99.7%±0.1%, respectively.

  13. Intravitreal Dexamethasone Implant (Ozurdex) for Refractory Macular Edema Secondary to Retinitis Pigmentosa

    PubMed Central

    Örnek, Nurgül; Örnek, Kemal; Erbahçeci, İnci Elif

    2016-01-01

    Macular edema (ME) in retinitis pigmentosa (RP) often impairs central vision dramatically. A 41-year-old woman diagnosed with RP was referred to our outpatient clinic due to severe visual deterioration in both eyes. The patient was treated with topical carbonic anhydrase inhibitors, topical corticosteroids and intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide injections, but her ME recurred. Intravitreal 0.7 mg dexamethasone implant (Ozurdex, Allergan) was administered into both eyes without complications. On the fourth day after both injections, visual acuity improved and ME almost totally resolved. No recurrence was observed at follow-up six months later. PMID:28058154

  14. [Uveal effusion syndrome complicated by anterior ischemic optic neuropathy and cystoid macular edema].

    PubMed

    Kałuzny, Jakub J; Jaworowska-Cieślińska, Iwona; Sikorski, Bartosz; Marszałek, Andrzej

    2012-01-01

    The current paper presents a case of unique presentation of idiopathic uveal effusion syndrome. The 28 years old patient with combined bilateral choroidal and retinal detachment, recurrent in the left eye, underwent surgical procedures. He was treated with lamellar sclerectomy under the scleral flap in both eyes and another sclerectomy in the left eye later on. The apposition of the retina was achieved in both eyes and visual acuity improved significantly. Three months later, the patient developed anterior ischemic optic neuropathy in the right eye. In left eye after cataract phacoemulsification, persisted cystoid macular edema appeared.

  15. The role of aflibercept in the management of diabetic macular edema

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Andrew A; Hong, Thomas; Ewe, Shaun Y; Bahrami, Bobak; Broadhead, Geoffrey K

    2015-01-01

    Diabetic macular edema (DME) represents one of the leading causes of visual impairment in working-age adults. Although there are several proven treatments available for this condition, pharmacotherapy through the use of intravitreal antivascular endothelial growth factor agents has revolutionized the management of DME over the past decade with superior outcomes compared to laser therapy. This review summarizes the pathophysiology and available treatment options for the management of DME, with an emphasis on the efficacy and safety profile of a single particular intravitreal antivascular endothelial growth factor agent, aflibercept. PMID:26273198

  16. Photopic negative response in branch retinal vein occlusion with macular edema.

    PubMed

    Noma, Hidetaka; Mimura, Tatsuya; Kuse, Manami; Yasuda, Kanako; Shimura, Masahiko

    2015-02-01

    In patients with branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO) and macular edema, the relations among full-field electroretinogram (ffERG) parameters and parameters of retinal function or morphology remain uncertain. The objective of this study was to investigate the correlations between parameters of the ffERG, including the photopic negative response (PhNR), and retinal functional or morphological parameters in these patients. In 62 consecutive BRVO patients (mean age: 68.5 ± 10.6 years; 32 women and 30 men), the amplitude and implicit time of the a-wave cone, b-wave cone, 30 Hz flicker, and PhNR were calculated from the ffERG. Microperimetry was employed to measure the macular sensitivity within the central 4°, 10°, and 20° fields, while macular thickness and volume within these fields were measured by optical coherence tomography. Best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) was determined on the logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution scale. The cone b-wave, 30 Hz flicker, and PhNR amplitudes showed a significant correlation with BCVA. In addition, the cone a-wave, cone b-wave, 30 Hz flicker, and PhNR amplitudes all showed a significant correlation with macular sensitivity within the central 4°, 10°, and 20° fields. Only the 30 Hz flicker amplitude showed a significant correlation with the macular thickness and volume within the 4°, 10°, and 20° fields, while the other ERG parameters did not. These findings suggest that PhNR may be a useful ERG parameter for evaluating inner retinal function in BRVO patients.

  17. Angiographic Cystoid Macular Edema and Outcomes in the Comparison of Age-Related Macular Degeneration Treatments Trials.

    PubMed

    Shah, Neepa; Maguire, Maureen G; Martin, Daniel F; Shaffer, James; Ying, Gui-Shuang; Grunwald, Juan E; Toth, Cynthia A; Jaffe, Glenn J; Daniel, Ebenezer

    2016-04-01

    To describe morphologic and visual outcomes in eyes with angiographic cystoid macular edema (CME) treated with ranibizumab or bevacizumab for neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD). Prospective cohort study within a randomized clinical trial. A total of 1185 CATT study subjects. Baseline fluorescein angiography (FA) images of all CATT study eyes were evaluated for CME. Grading of other characteristics on optical coherence tomography (OCT) and photographic images at baseline and during 2-year follow-up was completed by readers at the CATT Reading Centers. Three groups were created on the basis of baseline CME and intraretinal fluid (IRF) status: (1) CME, (2) IRF without CME, (3) neither CME nor IRF. Visual acuity (VA) and total central retinal thickness (CRT) on OCT at baseline, year 1, and year 2. Among 1131 participants with images of sufficient quality for determining CME and IRF at baseline, 92 (8.1%) had CME, 766 (67.7%) had IRF without CME, and 273 (24.1%) had neither. At baseline, eyes with CME had worse mean VA (letters) than eyes with IRF without CME and eyes with neither CME nor IRF (52 vs. 60 vs. 66 letters, P < 0.001); higher mean total CRT (μm) on OCT (514 vs. 472 vs. 404, P < 0.001); and greater hemorrhage, retinal angiomatous proliferation (RAP) lesions, and classic choroidal neovascularization (CNV). All groups showed improvement in VA at follow-up; however, the CME group started and ended with the worst VA among the 3 groups. Central retinal thickness, although higher at baseline for the CME group, was similar at 1 and 2 years follow-up for all groups. More eyes with CME (65.3%) developed scarring during 2 years of follow-up compared with eyes with IRF without CME (43.8%) and eyes with neither CME nor IRF (32.5%; P < 0.001). In CATT, eyes with CME had worse baseline and follow-up VA, although all groups showed similar rates of improvement in VA during 2 years of follow-up. Cystoid macular edema seems to be a marker for poorer visual

  18. Natural Short-term Course of Recurrent Macular Edema Following Intravitreal Bevacizumab Therapy in Branch Retinal Vein Occlusion

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Su Jin; Lee, Tae Gon; Kim, Jong Woo; Cho, Sung Won; Han, Jung Il

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the 3-month natural course of recurrent macular edema secondary to branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO) treated with intravitreal bevacizumab. Methods This retrospective, observational study included 36 eyes with macular edema secondary to BRVO. All patients were initially treated with intravitreal bevacizumab for macular edema. Recurrence of macular edema was either not treated (untreated group) or treated with a single intravitreal bevacizumab injection (treated group). Central foveal thickness (CFT) and best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) were compared at the time of recurrence and 3 months later. Results At the time of recurrence, the mean CFT and logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution BCVA were 484.9 ± 124.1 µm and 0.58 ± 0.26 in the untreated group (n = 19) and 456.3 ± 126.8 µm and 0.51 ± 0.21 in the treated group (n = 17), respectively. Three months later, the mean CFT and BCVA had changed to 493.7 ± 123.9 µm and 0.62 ± 0.29 in the untreated group and 294.7 ± 104.4 µm and 0.40 ± 0.24 in the treated group, respectively. The differences in CFT and BCVA between the two time points were not significant in the untreated group (p = 0.106 and p = 0.687, respectively), whereas statistically significant differences were noted in the treated group (p = 0.002 and p < 0.001, respectively). Conclusions Unlike the first episode of macular edema following BRVO, recurrent macular edema following intravitreal bevacizumab therapy did not spontaneously resolve, suggesting the potential benefit of prompt treatment. PMID:28367036

  19. Natural Short-term Course of Recurrent Macular Edema Following Intravitreal Bevacizumab Therapy in Branch Retinal Vein Occlusion.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Su Jin; Kim, Jae Hui; Lee, Tae Gon; Kim, Jong Woo; Cho, Sung Won; Han, Jung Il

    2017-04-01

    To evaluate the 3-month natural course of recurrent macular edema secondary to branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO) treated with intravitreal bevacizumab. This retrospective, observational study included 36 eyes with macular edema secondary to BRVO. All patients were initially treated with intravitreal bevacizumab for macular edema. Recurrence of macular edema was either not treated (untreated group) or treated with a single intravitreal bevacizumab injection (treated group). Central foveal thickness (CFT) and best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) were compared at the time of recurrence and 3 months later. At the time of recurrence, the mean CFT and logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution BCVA were 484.9 ± 124.1 µm and 0.58 ± 0.26 in the untreated group (n = 19) and 456.3 ± 126.8 µm and 0.51 ± 0.21 in the treated group (n = 17), respectively. Three months later, the mean CFT and BCVA had changed to 493.7 ± 123.9 µm and 0.62 ± 0.29 in the untreated group and 294.7 ± 104.4 µm and 0.40 ± 0.24 in the treated group, respectively. The differences in CFT and BCVA between the two time points were not significant in the untreated group (p = 0.106 and p = 0.687, respectively), whereas statistically significant differences were noted in the treated group (p = 0.002 and p < 0.001, respectively). Unlike the first episode of macular edema following BRVO, recurrent macular edema following intravitreal bevacizumab therapy did not spontaneously resolve, suggesting the potential benefit of prompt treatment.

  20. Clinical effects and safety of treating diabetic macular edema with intravitreal injection of ranibizumab combined with retinal photocoagulation

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Panshi; Qian, Cheng; Wang, Wenzhan; Dong, Yi; Wan, Guangming; Chen, Yue

    2016-01-01

    Background This study was designed to examine the clinical effects of treating diabetic macular edema with an intravitreal injection of ranibizumab in combination with retinal photocoagulation. Methods Sixty-two cases (75 eyes) with confirmed severe proliferative diabetic retinopathy or proliferative diabetic retinopathy in combination with macular edema were randomly divided into the observation group (37 eyes were given an intravitreal injection of ranibizumab combined with retinal photocoagulation) and the control group (38 eyes received retinal photocoagulation only). Vision, fundus condition, central macular thickness, and the macular leakage area were recorded before and after treatment. Results The best-corrected visual acuity and macular leakage area were similar between the observation and control groups (P>0.05). The best-corrected visual acuity in the observation group was higher than that in the control group 3 and 6 months after treatment (P<0.05) and showed a rising tendency. The macular leakage area in the observation group was significantly lower than that in the control group 1 and 3 months after treatment (P<0.05). However, the macular leakage area was similar 6 months after treatment (P>0.05). The central macular thickness of the observation group was lower than that in the control group 1, 3, and 6 months after treatment (P<0.05). The laser energy used in the observation group was also smaller than that in the control group (P<0.05). The intraocular pressure was not significantly different between the groups (P<0.05). No patients in the two groups developed eye or systemic complications, such as glaucoma, cataract, or vitreous hemorrhage during treatment. Conclusion Intravitreal injection of ranibizumab combined with retinal photocoagulation was proven to be effective in treating diabetic macular edema as it improved vision and resulted in fewer complications. PMID:27103811

  1. The Relationship of Central Foveal Thickness to Urinary Iodine Concentration in Retinitis Pigmentosa Patients with or without Cystoid Macular Edema

    PubMed Central

    Sandberg, Michael A.; Pearce, Elizabeth N.; Harper, Shyana; Weigel-DiFranco, Carol; Hart, Lois; Rosner, Bernard; Berson, Eliot L.

    2014-01-01

    Importance Current treatments for cystoid macular edema in retinitis pigmentosa are not always effective, may lead to adverse side effects, and may not restore loss of visual acuity. The present research lays the rationale for evaluating whether an iodine supplement could reduce cystoid macular edema in retinitis pigmentosa. Objective To determine whether central foveal thickness in the presence of cystoid macular edema is related to dietary iodine intake inferred from urinary iodine concentration in non-smoking adults with retinitis pigmentosa. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Institutional referral center. Participants Non-smoking adult patients with retinitis pigmentosa (n = 212, ages 18 to 69 years) with a visual acuity ≥ 20/200 in at least one eye. Main outcome measure The relationship of log central foveal thickness measured by optical coherence tomography to urinary iodine concentration measured from multiple spot samples and represented as a 3-level classification variable (< 100 μg/L, 100 μg/L - 199 μg/L, and ≥ 200 μg/L), assigning greater weight to patients with more reliable urinary iodine concentration estimates. Results Analyses were limited to 199 patients after excluding 11 patients who failed to return urine samples for measuring urinary iodine concentration and 2 outliers for urinary iodine concentration. Thirty-six percent of these patients had cystoid macular edema in one or both eyes. Although log central foveal thickness was inversely related to urinary iodine concentration based on all patients (p = 0.02), regression of log central foveal thickness on urinary iodine concentration separately for patients with and without cystoid macular edema showed a strong inverse significant relationship for the former group (p < 0.001) and no significant relationship for the latter group as tested (p = 0.66). In contrast, we found no significant association between cystoid macular edema prevalence and urinary iodine concentration based on the

  2. Ketorolac therapy for the prevention of acute pseudophakic cystoid macular edema: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, T; Cordero-Coma, M; Gallagher, M J

    2012-02-01

    To assess the effectiveness of ketorolac vs control for prevention of acute pseudophakic cystoid macular edema (CME). The following databases were searched: Medline (1950-June 11, 2011), The Cochrane Library (Issue 2, 2011), and the TRIP Database (up to 11 June 2011), using no language or other limits. Randomized controlled clinical trials (RCTs) were included that consisted of patients with acute pseudophakic cystoid macular edema, those comparing ketorolac with control, and those having at least a minimum follow-up of 28 days. In the four RCTs evaluating ketorolac vs control, treatment with ketorolac significantly reduced the risk of CME development at the end of treatment (≈ 4 weeks) compared to control (P=0.008; 95% confidence interval (0.03-0.58)). When analyzed individually, each individual study was statistically nonsignificant in its findings with the exception of one study. When the pooled relative risk was calculated, the large sample size of this systematic review led to overall statistical significance, which is attributable to the review's large sample size and not to the individual studies themselves. In this systematic review of four RCTs, two of which compared ketorolac with no treatment and two of which evaluated ketorolac vs placebo drops, treatment with ketorolac significantly reduced the risk of developing CME at the end of ≈ 4 weeks of treatment compared with controls. These results, however, should be interpreted with caution considering the paucity of large randomized clinical trials in the literature.

  3. Ketorolac therapy for the prevention of acute pseudophakic cystoid macular edema: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Yilmaz, T; Cordero-Coma, M; Gallagher, M J

    2012-01-01

    To assess the effectiveness of ketorolac vs control for prevention of acute pseudophakic cystoid macular edema (CME). The following databases were searched: Medline (1950–June 11, 2011), The Cochrane Library (Issue 2, 2011), and the TRIP Database (up to 11 June 2011), using no language or other limits. Randomized controlled clinical trials (RCTs) were included that consisted of patients with acute pseudophakic cystoid macular edema, those comparing ketorolac with control, and those having at least a minimum follow-up of 28 days. In the four RCTs evaluating ketorolac vs control, treatment with ketorolac significantly reduced the risk of CME development at the end of treatment (∼4 weeks) compared to control (P=0.008; 95% confidence interval (0.03–0.58)). When analyzed individually, each individual study was statistically nonsignificant in its findings with the exception of one study. When the pooled relative risk was calculated, the large sample size of this systematic review led to overall statistical significance, which is attributable to the review's large sample size and not to the individual studies themselves. In this systematic review of four RCTs, two of which compared ketorolac with no treatment and two of which evaluated ketorolac vs placebo drops, treatment with ketorolac significantly reduced the risk of developing CME at the end of ∼4 weeks of treatment compared with controls. These results, however, should be interpreted with caution considering the paucity of large randomized clinical trials in the literature. PMID:22094296

  4. Optical coherence tomography evaluation of macular edema after intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide in patients with parafoveal telangiectasis.

    PubMed

    Cakir, M; Kapran, Z; Basar, D; Utine, C A; Eroglu, F; Perente, I

    2006-01-01

    Parafoveal telangiectasis (PT) is a developmental or acquired microvascular abnormality of the macula. Leakage of the abnormal parafoveal capillaries leads to macular edema with subsequent decrease in visual acuity. Intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide is recently widely used in the management of intraocular proliferative, edematous, and neovascular diseases. This report presents the evaluation of three cases with PT in whom intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide (IVTA) injection was performed. Fundus fluorescein angiography (FA) and optical coherence tomography (OCT) were used in follow-up of the patients. Following pars plana intravitreal injection of 4 mg of triamcinolone acetonide, the patients had angiographic improvement of the macular edema and minimal decrease in retinal thickness on OCT, accompanied by improvement in visual acuity and subjective visual assessment. The results of the present study on parafoveal capillary telangiectasis suggest that the intravitreal injection of triamcinolone acetonide may be a therapeutic option to increase visual acuity and decrease vascular leakage on FA. Following IVTA procedure, follow-up of these patients with both OCT and FA is important for correct clinical evaluation. Future studies on this method seem to be warranted.

  5. Simultaneous Therapy with Intravitreal Dexamethasone Implant and Bevacizumab for the Treatment of Macular Edema

    PubMed Central

    de ANDRADE, Felipe L.; LOPES, Flavio S.; de ANDRADE, Gabriel C.; PRATA, Tiago S.; MAIA, André

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the safety profile and benefits of a short-term simultaneous treatment regimen combining two drugs—an intravitreal implant of dexamethasone with an intravitreal injection of bevacizumab—in patients with macular edema. This was a retrospective, non-randomized, open-label case series study. Patients were treated between April 2014 and July 2015 and were diagnosed with recurrent macular edema secondary to diabetic retinopathy and retinal vein occlusion. They underwent simultaneous treatment with an intravitreal injection of bevacizumab (1.25 mg) and an intravitreal implant of dexamethasone (0.7 mg). Patients were evaluated at baseline and at each subsequent visit with a complete ophthalmological examination and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) scans. They were examined 24 hours after the treatment, and then followed up after 30 days and 60 days. Twenty patients (representing 20 eyes) were included in the study. At the time of injection (i.e., baseline), the best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) was 0.758 ± 0.42 logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (logMAR). It improved significantly to 0.51 ± 0.33 logMAR at 1 month and to 0.5 ± 0.34 logMAR at 2 months (P ≤ 0.03). The median baseline central macular thickness (CMT) was 542 µm (interquartile range, 466 – 751 µm). The median CMT decreased significantly to 321 µm (interquartile range, 288–381 µm) at 1 month and 310 µm (interquartile range, 286 – 354 µm) at 2 months (P ≤ 0.0002). The mean intraocular pressure (IOP) increased from 14.9 ± 2.29 mmHg (at baseline) to 16.5 ± 2.99 mmHg (P = 0.04) after 2 months. Two (10%) eyes showed cataract progression. There were no other ocular or systemic complications for the duration of this study. Simultaneous therapy combining a dexamethasone implant plus bevacizumab for macular edema may be an attractive treatment regimen with an acceptable safety profile. PMID:28289686

  6. Multimodal retinal imaging of diabetic macular edema: toward new paradigms of pathophysiology.

    PubMed

    Midena, Edoardo; Bini, Silvia

    2016-09-01

    The pathophysiology of diabetic macular edema (DME) is multifactorial and partly still unknown. An increasing body of evidence suggests that neurodegeneration and retinal glial cells activation occur even before the earliest clinical manifestation of diabetic retinal vasculopathy. Nowadays, new non-invasive techniques are available to assess and characterize DME, not only in a quantitative perspective, but also making it possible to understand and quantify the pathogenic processes sustaining fluid accumulation. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) allows documenting not only parameters such as macular volume, central and sectorial retinal thickness, fluid localization, and integrity of retinal layers, but also new still poorly investigated reflectivity aspects. Hyperreflective intraretinal spots (HRS) have been detected on OCT scans through the retinal layers, with a presumptive migration pattern towards the external layers during the occurrence of diabetic retinopathy and DME. These HRS have been hypothesised to represent an in-vivo marker of microglial activation. Autofluorescence of the fundus (FAF) also offers a non-invasive imaging technique of DME. The area of increased FAF correlates with the presence of intraretinal fluid and probably retinal glial activation. Microperimetry allows the measurement of retinal sensitivity by testing specific selected retinal areas. Some studies have shown that increased macular FAF in DME correlates better with visual function assessed with microperimetry than with visual acuity, showing that new imaging and functional techniques may help to elucidate DME pathogenesis and to target therapeutical strategies.

  7. Consecutive Macular Edema and Visual Outcome in Branch Retinal Vein Occlusion

    PubMed Central

    Baek, Sung Uk; Kwon, Soon Il; Park, In Won; Choi, Kyung Jun

    2014-01-01

    Purposes. The study introduced the concept of “consecutive macular edema” and evaluated the validity of visual outcome in macular edema (ME) secondary to branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO). Methods. Patients were categorized into the gainer group and the nongainer group according to the final visual acuity. We analyzed clinical characteristics involving total and consecutive duration of ME between the two groups. Results. Among the total 71 eyes of 71 patients, intravitreal bevacizumab injection (26 patients), triamcinolone (21), and natural course (33) were enrolled. The consecutive duration of ME was shorter in the gainer group than in the nongainer group (3.33 ± 1.50 and 5.24 ± 2.39 months; P = 0.000). After exclusion of macular ischemia, consecutive duration of ME in gainer group was also significantly shorter than in nongainer group (3.62 ± 1.60 and 6.11 ± 4.20 months; P = 0.010). Conclusions. The duration of ME in the nongainer group was longer than in the gainer group. In particular, the consecutive duration was an important factor in determining the final visual outcome. Clinical Trial Registration. Approval by Hallym University Sacred Heart Hospital Institutional Review Board/Ethics Committee was obtained for this retrospective study. PMID:24967098

  8. Bromfenac eyedrops in the treatment of diabetic macular edema: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Pinna, Antonio; Blasetti, Francesco; Ricci, Giuseppe D'Amico; Boscia, Francesco

    2017-05-11

    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of topical bromfenac in patients with newly diagnosed diabetic macular edema (DME). In this pilot study including 17 patients with monocular, newly diagnosed DME, diagnosis of DME was established by the detection of retinal thickening at or within 500 μm of the center of the macula on ophthalmoscopic examination, according to the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study classification. Central macular thickness (CMT) was determined by optical coherence tomography. Bromfenac sodium hydrate 0.9 mg/mL eyedrops were administered in the affected eye twice daily for 30 days. Primary endpoints were changes in best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and CMT at the end of therapy. Topical bromfenac significantly reduced mean CMT, from 465.41 ± 118.47 μm at baseline to 388.88 ± 152.63 μm posttreatment (p = 0.02). There was no significant change in BCVA and differences in mean macular volume fell just short of statistical significance (p = 0.06). Treatment was well-tolerated, and there were no topical or systemic side effects. Topical bromfenac twice daily may play a role in the reduction of DME. These preliminary results warrant further larger multicenter studies to confirm our findings and establish whether topical bromfenac may be of long-term benefit in the treatment of DME.

  9. Intravitreal bevacizumab injections for diabetic macular edema – predictors of response: a retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Lavnish; Bar, Asaf; Tomkins-Netzer, Oren; Yaganti, Satish; Morarji, Jiten; Vouzounis, Panayiotis; Seguin-Greenstein, Sophie; Taylor, Simon R; Lightman, Sue

    2016-01-01

    Background Outcomes of intravitreal antivascular endothelial growth factor injections are variable among patients with diabetic macular edema (DME). The aim of this study was to determine the ocular and systemic predictors of DME response to intravitreal bevacizumab (IVB). Methods Retrospective review over 2 years of 78 eyes from 54 patients. An anatomical response to IVB was defined as a 20% reduction in central macula thickness after the first course (three injections) of IVB. Results Twenty-eight percent of patients had an anatomical response after the first course of IVB. Systemic hypertension (odds ratio, 95% confidence interval: 12.1, 0.7–21) was a statistically significant predictor (P=0.025) of a good response to IVB, whereas previous macular laser was a statistically significant (P=0.0005) predictor of a poor response (0.07, 0.01–0.32). Sixty-eight percent of eyes underwent subsequent treatment for DME after the first course of IVB. The visual acuity gain at 24 months in hypertensive (0.7±3.6 letters) and nonhypertensive (5.2±3.7 letters) patients was not significantly different (P=0.41). Conclusion Hypertension and previous macular laser were positive and negative predictors of response to IVB, respectively. However, long-term visual acuity changes were not significantly different between eyes with and without systemic hypertension. PMID:27799737

  10. Topical bromfenac for prevention and treatment of cystoid macular edema following cataract surgery: a review

    PubMed Central

    Sheppard, John D

    2016-01-01

    Topical nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and corticosteroids, alone or in combination, have historically been used off label in the US to prevent and treat postoperative cystoid macular edema (CME). This literature review presents available data on the use of bromfenac 0.07% or 0.09% to prevent and treat CME following cataract surgery. Bromfenac is an NSAID approved to treat postoperative inflammation and reduce ocular pain following cataract surgery. Few cases of clinical CME were observed with bromfenac use in a total of 19 reviewed studies. There were no significant differences in CME incidence between bromfenac and corticosteroid-treated patients or between bromfenac- and bromfenac plus corticosteroid-treated patients. Bromfenac demonstrated comparable efficacy to other NSAIDs in preventing CME. Compared with corticosteroids, bromfenac alone or plus a corticosteroid showed similar or better efficacy in minimizing changes in retinal thickness and macular volume. In diabetic cataract surgery patients, bromfenac was comparable or superior to corticosteroids for minimizing changes in retinal thickness; also, combination therapy with bromfenac and corticosteroids may be associated with smaller changes in foveal thickness, macular thickness, and macular volume versus monotherapy with either treatment alone in this patient population. In two randomized, double-masked, placebo-controlled clinical trials with bromfenac 0.07%, CME was reported as an adverse event in 0.5% and 1.5% of patients receiving bromfenac and placebo, respectively. In an analysis of four placebo-controlled trials with bromfenac 0.09%, macular edema was reported in 0.7% and 1.4% of patients receiving bromfenac and placebo, respectively. When evaluated as treatment for acute or chronic CME, bromfenac was associated with improvement in visual acuity and reduction in retinal thickness, but few studies are available. Overall, published data suggest that bromfenac is safe and effective when

  11. [Treatment Results of the Diabetic Macular Edema by Means of the PASCAL Laser System].

    PubMed

    Němčanský, J; Studnička, J; Němčanská, S; Šalounová, D; Cholevík, D; Mašek, P

    2015-09-01

    To evaluate functional, anatomical and clinical efficacy, and safety of the pattern scanning laser (PASCAL®) photocoagulation in patients with diabetic macular edema and absence of proliferative diabetic retinopathy. From 2008 to 2013 84 eyes of 58 patients (30 men, 28 women) were treated with pattern laser photocoagulation at the Ophthalmology Department at University Hospital Ostrava. Average age at the baseline visit was 65 years. The inclusion criteria included nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy (84 eyes), focal DME (14 eyes), diffuse exudative DME (70 eyes). All the eyes were "treatment naive". The average duration of diabetes was 18 years, average baseline HbA1c value was 8,4%. Either focal laser photocoagulation or grid photocoagulation was performed with the PASCAL photocoagulator. Best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), central retinal thickness (CRT), fundus photography, biomicroscopy and complications were evaluated during the minimum 12months follow-up period. Statistical analysis using parametrical and nonparametrical tests with p less than 0,05 was done. Mean baseline BCVA was 0,43 logMAR. Values 0,38, 0,37, 0,38 a 0,38 logMAR were observed in the follow-up intervals in the 4th, 6th, 12th and 18th month. In 4 eyes (5%) improvement of more than 3 lines was observed, in 26 eyes (31%) improvement from 0 to 3 lines was observed, in 52 eyes (62%) decrease from 0 to 3 lines was observed and in 2 eyes (2%) decrease of more than 3 lines was observed. Mean baseline CRT was 398 µm, values 370 µm, 362 µm, 349 µm and 338 µm were observed in the follow-up intervals in the 4th, 6th, 12th and 18th month. At the 12th month visit 76 eyes (90%) were stabilized, and in 8 eyes (10%) progression of the disease was observed. No complications were observed during the first 12 monhts follow up. Pattern scanning laser photocoagulation of DME lead to BCVA and clinical stabilization. In addition to this, it lead to decrease of the CRT. The efficacy was comparable to

  12. Factors affecting visual outcomes in patients with diabetic macular edema treated with ranibizumab.

    PubMed

    Channa, R; Sophie, R; Khwaja, A A; Do, D V; Hafiz, G; Nguyen, Q D; Campochiaro, P A

    2014-03-01

    To identify factors associated with visual outcomes in patients with diabetic macular edema (DME) treated with ranibizumab (RBZ) in the Ranibizumab for Edema of the mAcula in Diabetes-Protocol 2 (READ-2) Study. Optical coherence tomography scans, fundus photographs, and fluorescein angiograms (FAs) were graded and along with baseline characteristics were correlated with month (M) 24 visual outcome of best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) ≤20/100 (poor outcome) vs >20/100 (better outcome). Of 101 patients with a M20 visit or beyond, 27 (27%) had BCVA ≤20/100. Comparison of patients with or without poor outcome showed mean baseline BCVA of 16.8 letters (20/125) in the former compared with 30.4 letters (20/63; P<0.001). Mean change in BCVA between baseline and M24 was -2.6 letters in the poor outcome group compared with +9.8 letters (P<0.001). Foveal thickness (FTH) at M24 was 374.1 μm in the poor outcome group compared with 268.8 μm (P<0.01), a difference driven by 14 patients with mean FTH of 450.3 μm. Foveal atrophy occurred in 65% (11/17) in the poor outcome group compared with 17%(12/71, P=0.001). Persistent edema was noted in 52% (14/27) of patients with poor outcome. Laser scars near foveal center were significantly more common in patients with poor outcome who did not have edema vs those who did (78% (7/9) vs 23% (3/13) P=0.03). Poor baseline BCVA (≤20/125) in DME patients predicts poor visual outcome (≤20/100) after 2 years of treatment with RBZ and/or focal/grid laser, often due to foveal atrophy and/or persistent edema.

  13. Incidence and risk factors for cystoid macular edema following scleral buckling.

    PubMed

    Lai, T-T; Huang, J-S; Yeh, P-T

    2016-12-09

    PurposeTo investigate the incidence of cystoid macular edema (CME) after scleral buckling (SB) and verify the possible risk factors of CME.MethodsA retrospective, non-comparative, interventional case series study was conducted. Clinical charts of 130 consecutive patients who were underwent successful SB for primary retinal detachment (RD) from 2009 to 2013 were reviewed. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) was applied to detect CME. Data pertaining to patient demographics, pre- and postoperative visual acuity, surgical procedures, and postoperative OCT findings were recorded. Factors associated with CME were also analyzed.ResultsThe incidence of CME was 9/130 (6.9%). Risk factors for developing CME were older age (non-CME vs CME: 44.8±14.8 vs 57.3±5.3 years, P<0.05), more extensive RD (RD extent by clock hours; non-CME vs CME: 4.61±1.57 vs 5.78±1.39, P<0.05), macular detachment (non-CME vs CME: 51.2 vs 88.9%, P<0.05), and external drainage (non-CME vs CME: 38.8% vs 77.8%, P<0.05). There was no significant difference between patient with and without CME regarding the use of gas tamponade and the lens status. In patients with more extensive RD (macular detachment plus RD of more than 3 clock hours before surgery), 8 of 68 patients had CME after SB and only older age and external drainage factors were associated with CME.ConclusionsThe risk factors associated with CME after SB were older age, more extended RD, macular detachment, and external drainage. External drainage should be used with caution in older patients with more extensive RD.Eye advance online publication, 9 December 2016; doi:10.1038/eye.2016.264.

  14. Macular laser photocoagulation with or without intravitreal triamcinolone pretreatment for diabetic macular edema: a result from five randomized controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiang-Dong; Zhou, Xiao-Dong; Wang, Zhi; Shen, Yong-Ming

    2016-01-01

    To assess possible benefits of intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide (IVTA) injection as pretreatment for macular laser photocoagulation (MLP) in patients with diabetic macular edema (DME). Published randomized controlled trials (RCTs) concerning MLP with or without IVTA pretreatment for DME were retrieved from databases CNKI, Medline, EMbase, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library. A Meta-analysis on eligible studies was conducted using RevMan 5.0 software. Two investigators independently assessed the quality of the trials and extracted data. Main outcome measures included the change in best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), difference in central macular thickness (CMT) and adverse events reporting in particular elevated intraocular pressure within the follow-up period. The results were pooled using weight mean difference (WMD) or odds risk (OR) with their corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI). A fixed- or random-effect model was employed depending on the heterogeneity of the inclusion trials. Finally, five independent RCTs were identified and used for comparing MLP with IVTA pretreatment (131 eyes) with MLP alone (133 eyes, control group). The overall study quality was relatively higher according to the modified Jadad scale. The Meta-analysis showed that MLP with IVTA pretreatment significantly reduced CMT at one, three and six months (P=0.002, 0.0003 and 0.04, respectively), compared with MLP alone. The IVTA pretreatment group showed statistically significant improvements in BCVA at the one-month follow up as compared with the control group (P=0.03). At three- and six-month follow up, there was a beneficial trend towards improving visual acuity in the IVTA pretreatment group without statistical significance between groups (P=0.06 and 0.20, respectively). The incidence of elevation of intraocular pressure was significantly higher in the IVTA pretreatment group than in the control group (P<0.0001). No evidence of publication bias was present according to Begg

  15. Macular laser photocoagulation with or without intravitreal triamcinolone pretreatment for diabetic macular edema: a result from five randomized controlled trials

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiang-Dong; Zhou, Xiao-Dong; Wang, Zhi; Shen, Yong-Ming

    2016-01-01

    AIM To assess possible benefits of intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide (IVTA) injection as pretreatment for macular laser photocoagulation (MLP) in patients with diabetic macular edema (DME). METHODS Published randomized controlled trials (RCTs) concerning MLP with or without IVTA pretreatment for DME were retrieved from databases CNKI, Medline, EMbase, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library. A Meta-analysis on eligible studies was conducted using RevMan 5.0 software. Two investigators independently assessed the quality of the trials and extracted data. Main outcome measures included the change in best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), difference in central macular thickness (CMT) and adverse events reporting in particular elevated intraocular pressure within the follow-up period. The results were pooled using weight mean difference (WMD) or odds risk (OR) with their corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI). A fixed- or random-effect model was employed depending on the heterogeneity of the inclusion trials. RESULTS Finally, five independent RCTs were identified and used for comparing MLP with IVTA pretreatment (131 eyes) with MLP alone (133 eyes, control group). The overall study quality was relatively higher according to the modified Jadad scale. The Meta-analysis showed that MLP with IVTA pretreatment significantly reduced CMT at one, three and six months (P=0.002, 0.0003 and 0.04, respectively), compared with MLP alone. The IVTA pretreatment group showed statistically significant improvements in BCVA at the one-month follow up as compared with the control group (P=0.03). At three- and six-month follow up, there was a beneficial trend towards improving visual acuity in the IVTA pretreatment group without statistical significance between groups (P=0.06 and 0.20, respectively). The incidence of elevation of intraocular pressure was significantly higher in the IVTA pretreatment group than in the control group (P<0.0001). No evidence of publication bias was

  16. Effect of Hemodialysis on Retinal Thickness in Patients with Diabetic Retinopathy, with and without Macular Edema, Using Optical Coherence Tomography.

    PubMed

    Azem, Nur; Spierer, Oriel; Shaked, Meital; Neudorfer, Meira

    2014-01-01

    Background. Effects of hemodialysis (HD) treatment on retinal thickness and macular edema are unclear. Objective. To evaluate changes in retinal thickness using optical coherence tomography (OCT) in end stage renal disease (ESRD) patients with diabetic retinopathy (DR), with and without diabetic macular edema (DME), undergoing HD. Methods. Nonrandomized prospective study. Forty eyes of DR patients with ESRD treated with HD were divided into two groups: patients with macular edema and patients without macular edema. Both eyes were analyzed. Patients underwent an ophthalmic examination including OCT measurements of retinal thickness, blood albumin and hemoglobin A1C levels, blood pressure, and body weight, 30 minutes before and after HD. Results. We found no significant effects of HD on retinal thickness among patients both with and without DME. The former showed a trend towards reduction in retinal thickness in foveal area following HD, while the latter showed an increase. There was no correlation between retinal thickness and mean blood pressure, weight, kinetic model value-Kt/V, glycemic hemoglobin, or albumin levels before and after HD. Conclusions. HD has no significant effect on retinal thickness among patients with or without DME. Further studies on larger cohorts and repeated OCT examinations are needed to confirm the preliminary findings in this study.

  17. SAFETY AND EFFICACY OF INTRAVITREAL DEXAMETHASONE IMPLANTS IN THE MANAGEMENT OF MACULAR EDEMA SECONDARY TO INFECTIOUS UVEITIS.

    PubMed

    Fonollosa, Alex; Llorenç, Victor; Artaraz, Joseba; Jimenez, Beatriz; Ruiz-Arruza, Ioana; Agirrebengoa, Koldo; Cordero-Coma, Miguel; Costales-Mier, Felipe; Adan, Alfredo

    2016-09-01

    To assess the safety and efficacy of intravitreal dexamethasone implants in the treatment of macular edema secondary to infectious uveitis. We retrospectively reviewed clinical records from three uveitis referral units in Spain. The main outcome measures were rate of reactivation of infection, improvements in visual acuity and resolution of macular edema, as measured by optical coherence tomography. We included eight eyes from seven patients with a median age of 64 years (30-75). Etiologies of the infections were Herpes simplex virus-type 1, Varicela-Zoster virus, Treponema pallidum, Brucella mellitensis, Borrelia burgdorferi, Toxoplasma gondii, and cytomegalovirus. Median visual acuity was 20/160 (20/30-20/400) at baseline and 20/70 (20/25-20/200) at the last follow-up visit. Mean macular thickness was 516 μm (115) at baseline and 266.3 μm (40) at the last follow-up visit. Visual acuity improved in 100% of the eyes and none of the eyes showed macular edema at the last follow-up visit. Five patients required reinjections of the implant. Only one patient required antiglaucoma drops for a temporary increase in ocular pressure. There were no cases of reactivation of the infectious ocular disease. Median follow-up time was 18 months. In this small case series of eyes with macular edema secondary to infectious uveitis, treatment with dexamethasone intravitreal implants was not associated with reactivation of the infectious ocular disease. Furthermore, significant improvements in visual acuity and macular thickness were observed in our patients.

  18. Safety of transfoveal subthreshold diode micropulse laser for fovea-involving diabetic macular edema in eyes with good visual acuity.

    PubMed

    Luttrull, Jeffrey K; Sinclair, Stephen H

    2014-10-01

    To determine the safety of transfoveal subthreshold diode micropulse laser for fovea-involving diabetic macular edema. The records of all patients treated with transfoveal subthreshold diode micropulse laser for fovea-involving diabetic macular edema in two retina clinics were reviewed. The eligibility included fovea-involving diabetic macular edema by spectral domain optical coherence tomography and pretreatment visual acuity of 20/40 or better. Thirty-nine eyes of 27 patients aged 50 years to 87 years (mean, 69 years) were included. Postoperative follow-up ranged from 3 months to 36 months (mean, 11 months). Fourteen patients were insulin dependent, and 19 had nonproliferative retinopathy. The preoperative visual acuity was 20/20 (10 eyes), 20/25 (10 eyes), 20/30 (8 eyes), and 20/40 (11 eyes). No eye had evidence of laser-induced macular damage by any imaging means postoperatively. There were no adverse treatment effects. Logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution visual acuity was improved on average of 0.03 units at 4 months to 7 months of follow-up (P = 0.0449, paired t-test) and otherwise stable. The central foveal thickness was improved at 4 months to 7 months (P = 0.05, paired t-test) and 8 months to 12 months, postoperatively (P = 0.04, mixed model accounting). Maximum macular thickness was improved at 4 months to 7 months postoperatively (P = 0.01, paired t-test and mixed model accounting). In a small retrospective series, transfoveal subthreshold diode micropulse laser was safe and effective for the treatment of fovea-involving diabetic macular edema in eyes with good preoperative visual acuity that were not the candidates for conventional photocoagulation or intravitreal injection. Further study is warranted.

  19. Glycerol accumulation in edema formation following diffuse traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Ali, Ahmer; Konakondla, Sanjay; Zwagerman, Nathan T; Peng, Changya; Schafer, Steven; Ding, Jamie Y; Dornbos, David; Sikharam, Chaitanya; Geng, Xiaokun; Guthikonda, Murali; Kreipke, Christian W; Rafols, José A; Ding, Yuchuan

    2012-06-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) induces brain edema via water and glycerol transport channels, called aquaporins (AQPs). The passage of glycerol across brain cellular compartments has been shown during edema. Using a modified impact/head acceleration rodent model of diffuse TBI, we assessed the role of hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)-1alpha in regulating AQP9 expression and glycerol accumulation during the edema formation. Adult (400-425 g) male Sprague-Dawley rats received a closed head injury with a weight drop (450 g, 2-m height) and were allowed to survive up to 48 hours. Some rat groups were administered 2-methoxyestradiol (2ME2, a HIF-1alpha inhibitor) 30 minutes after injury and were euthanized at 4 and 24 hours after injury. Brain edema was measured directly by water content, and glycerol concentration was determined by the Cayman Glycerol Assay. HIF-1alpha and AQP9 protein levels were assessed by Western immunoblotting. This study demonstrated a significant (P<0·05) increase in brain water content at 4-48 hours following impact. Cerebral glycerol was significantly (P<0.05) up-regulated at as early as 1 hour and remained at high levels for up to 48 hours. Similarly, significant (P<0.05) increases in HIF-1alpha and AQP9 protein levels were found at 1 hour and up to 48 hours after injury. Compared to untreated but injured rats, inhibition of HIF-1alpha by 2ME2 significantly (P<0.05) reduced the TBI-induced AQP9 up-regulation. This reduction was temporally associated with significant (P<0.05) decreases in both edema and glycerol accumulation. The data suggested an associated induction of HIF-1alpha, AQP9, and extracellular glycerol accumulation in edema formation following diffuse TBI. The implication of HIF-1alpha and AQP9 underlying TBI-induced edema formation offers possibilities for novel TBI therapies.

  20. Delivery of Intraocular Triamcinolone Acetonide in the Treatment of Macular Edema

    PubMed Central

    Pickrell, Aaron; Harris, Alon; Ngo, Sandra; Amireskandari, Annahita; Stewart, Erin; Siesky, Brent

    2012-01-01

    Macular edema (ME) is one of the eventual outcomes of various intraocular and systemic pathologies. The pathogenesis for ME is not yet entirely understood; however, some of the common risk factors for its development have been identified. While this investigation will not discuss the numerous etiologies of ME in detail, it appraises the two most widely studied delivery modalities of intraocular corticosteroids in the treatment of ME—intravitreal injection (IVI) and sub-Tenon’s infusion (STI). A thorough review of the medical literature was conducted to identify the efficacy and safety of IVI and STI, specifically for the administration of triamcinolone acetonide (TA), in the setting of ME in an attempt to elucidate a preferred steroid delivery modality for treatment of ME. PMID:24300190

  1. Role of implants in the treatment of diabetic macular edema: focus on the dexamethasone intravitreal implant

    PubMed Central

    Cebeci, Zafer; Kir, Nur

    2015-01-01

    Diabetic macular edema (DME) is the leading cause of sight-threatening complication in diabetic patients, and several treatment modalities have been developed and evaluated to treat this pathology. Intravitreal agents, such as anti-vascular endothelial growth factors (anti-VEGF) or corticosteroids, have become more popular in recent years and are widely used for treating DME. Sustained release drugs appear to be mentioned more often nowadays for extending the period of intravitreal activity, and corticosteroids play a key role in inhibiting the inflammatory process in DME. A potent corticosteroid, dexamethasone (Ozurdex®), in the form of an intravitreal implant, has been approved for various ocular etiologies among which DME is also one. This review evaluates the role of implants in the treatment of DME, mainly focusing on the dexamethasone intravitreal implant. PMID:26604809

  2. Smoking as a risk factor for cystoid macular edema complicating intermediate uveitis

    PubMed Central

    Thorne, Jennifer E.; Daniel, Ebenezer; Jabs, Douglas A.; Kedhar, Sanjay R.; Peters, George B.; Dunn, James P.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose To describe risk factors for the presence of cystoid macular edema (CME) among patients presenting with intermediate uveitis. Design Cross-sectional study. Methods Setting: Single-center, academic practice. Study population: 208 patients with intermediate uveitis evaluated from 1984 through September 2006. Procedures: Clinical and demographic data were entered retrospectively into a database and analyzed. Outcome measures: Presence of CME at presentation to our clinic; risk factors for presenting with CME. Results Of the 208 patients, 74% had bilateral intermediate uveitis, yielding 363 affected eyes. 89 patients (43%) had CME in at least one eye at the time of presentation to our clinic. After controlling for potentially confounding variables including demographics, duration of disease, active intraocular inflammation, history of diabetes mellitus or hypertension, and presence of epiretinal membrane, actively smoking at presentation was associated with a 4-fold increased risk of CME at presentation versus never smoking (OR = 3.90, 95% CI: 1.43, 10.66, P = 0.008). Former smoking also appeared to increase the risk CME at presentation in the multivariate analysis, but the result was of borderline statistical significance (OR = 1.97; 95% CI: 0.99, 3.94, P = 0.055). After adjusting for confounding, there was a 4% increased risk of CME at presentation for each cigarette smoked per day (OR = 1.04, 95%CI: 1.01, 10.7, P = 0.005). Conclusions Cystoid macular edema was a common structural ocular complication observed in our cohort. Current smoking was associated with a dose-dependent increased risk of having CME at the time of presentation to our clinic. PMID:18321467

  3. Intravitreal bevacizumab for macular edema secondary to branch retinal vein occlusion.

    PubMed

    Ehlers, Justis P; Decroos, Francis Char; Fekrat, Sharon

    2011-10-01

    To evaluate the effect of intravitreal bevacizumab on the visual and anatomical outcome in eyes with macular edema secondary to branch retinal vein occlusion. A retrospective, consecutive case series identified 53 consecutive patients with a branch retinal vein occlusion treated with intravitreal bevacizumab. Clinical variables were analyzed, including best-corrected visual acuity, angiographic characteristics, central foveal thickness, and complications. Fifty-three eyes were identified with a mean initial best-corrected visual acuity of 20/137 and final best-corrected visual acuity of 20/96 (P = 0.05). The mean final line change was +1.6 lines (95% confidence interval, +0.7 to +2.3; +8 letters [95% confidence interval, +3.5 to 11.5]). At final follow-up, 28% gained ≥ 3 lines, whereas a loss of >3 lines was seen in 6% of eyes. The mean initial central foveal thickness of 425 μm decreased to 289 μm (P < 0.001). Mean number of injections was 2.5, and mean follow-up was 9 months. Eyes treated for ≤ 6 months after the onset of branch retinal vein occlusion showed improved functional outcomes (e.g., final best-corrected visual acuity, mean line change) as compared with those treated with >6 months of symptoms (P < 0.01). Intravitreal bevacizumab appears to be an effective treatment for macular edema secondary to branch retinal vein occlusion in many subjects. Eyes treated with intravitreal bevacizumab showed a significant reduction in central foveal thickness and improvement in visual acuity. Early treatment with intravitreal bevacizumab resulted in a greater improvement in visual acuity compared with delayed treatment.

  4. Nicotine promotes blood retinal barrier damage in a model of human diabetic macular edema.

    PubMed

    Maugeri, Grazia; D'Amico, Agata Grazia; Rasà, Daniela Maria; La Cognata, Valentina; Saccone, Salvatore; Federico, Concetta; Cavallaro, Sebastiano; D'Agata, Velia

    2017-10-01

    More than 1 billion world's population actively smokes tobacco containing the bioactive component nicotine (NT). The biological role of this molecule is mediated through the activation of nicotinic cholinergic receptors, widely distributed in various human tissues including retinal pigmented epithelium. The long-term assumption of NT contributes to several diseases development such as diabetic retinopathy. The major complication of this pathology is the diabetic macular edema (DME), characterized by macular area thinning and blood-retinal barrier (BRB) breakdown. Retinal hyperglycemic/hypoxic microenvironment represents one of the main factors favoring DME progression by eliciting the hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs) expression. The latter induce new vessels formation by stimulating cellular secretion of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). The etiology of DME is multifactorial, but little is known about the risk factors linked to cigarette smoking, in particular to nicotine's contribution. In the present study, we have investigated the NT role in a model, in vitro, of DME, by evaluating its effect on outer BRB permeability and HIFs/VEGF expression following exposure to hyperglycemic/hypoxic insult. Our results have demonstrated that this compound alters outer BRB integrity exposed to high glucose and low oxygen pressure microenvironment by upregulating HIF-1α/HIF-2α, VEGF expression and ERK1/2 phosphorylation. These data have suggested that NT may play a negative role in active smokers affected by DME. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Diabetic macular edema: new concepts in patho-physiology and treatment

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Diabetic macular edema (DME), a serious eye complication caused primarily by hyperglycemia, is one of the major causes of blindness. DME, which is characterized by cystic retinal thickening or lipid deposition, is prone to relapse after successful treatment. DME is a complex pathological process caused by multiple factors, including breakdown of the inner and outer blood-retinal barriers, oxidative stress, and elevated levels of vascular endothelial growth factor which have been demonstrated in both preclinical and clinical studies. Starling’s law theory explains many of the features of DME. Early detection and treatment of DME can prevent vision loss. Current effective interventions for DME include treatment of systemic risk factors, such as elevated blood glucose, blood pressure and dyslipidemia. Ophthalmic treatments include laser photocoagulation, surgery and intraocular pharmacotherapy. New drugs, which are given by intraocular injection, have emerged in recent years to become first line treatment for DME that affects the central macula with loss of vision. Laser photocoagulation is still the gold standard of treatment for DME which does not involve the central macular. This review outlines these new treatments with particular emphasis on the optimal timing of how they are given. PMID:24955234

  6. Lack of Correlation Between Diabetic Macular Edema and Thickness of the Peripapillary Retinal Nerve Fibre Layer

    PubMed Central

    Alkuraya, Hisham S.; Al-Gehedan, Saeed M.; Alsharif, Abdulrahman M.; Alasbali, Tariq; Lotfy, Nancy M.; Khandekar, Rajiv

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: We compared the thickness of the peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) in patients with diabetic macular edema (DME) and/against the thickness in the normal population. Methods: This cross-sectional study compared the RNFL thickness in patients with DME (DME group) using optical coherence tomography (OCT) to a comparable group of healthy (nondiabetic) patients (control group). Measurements were performed in different/the four peripapillary quadrants and in the macula region for the fovea, parafoveal, and perifoveal areas. The mean RNFL thickness was compared between both groups. Results: There were fifty eyes of fifty nonglaucomatous diabetic patients with DME (29 with nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy [PDR] and 21 with PDR), and fifty eyes in the control group. The macular regions were significantly thicker in the DME group compared to the control group. The central foveal thickness was 149 μ thicker in eyes with DME compared to the control group (P < 0.001). The difference in total RNFL thickness between groups was not significant (4.4 μ [95% confidence interval: −3.1 to +12]). The between-group differences in peripapillary RNFL thickness by age group, glycemic control, history of intravitreal treatments, and refractive errors were not statistically significant (P > 0.05, all comparisons). Conclusion: Peripapillary RNFL thickness measurements were not significantly influenced by DME. Hence, OCT parameters could be used to monitor/early detect glaucomatous eyes even in the presence of DME. PMID:27555707

  7. EVALUATION OF MULTIPLE DEXAMETHASONE INTRAVITREAL IMPLANTS IN PATIENTS WITH MACULAR EDEMA ASSOCIATED WITH RETINAL VEIN OCCLUSION.

    PubMed

    Bakri, Sophie J; Omar, Ahmed F; Iezzi, Raymond; Kapoor, Kapil G

    2016-03-01

    Limited data have evaluated multiple injections of the dexamethasone 700 μg implant (DEX) (Ozurdex; Allergan, Inc.) for cystoid macular edema (CME) secondary to retinal vein occlusion (RVO) over an extended regimen. This retrospective study evaluated patients treated with DEX for CME associated with RVO. Each patient had ophthalmologic evaluation, optical coherence tomography (OCT), and 4 weeks to 6 weeks follow-up intervals. Retreatment criterion was fluid on OCT. Outcome measures included best-corrected visual acuity, intraocular pressure (IOP), central macular thickness on OCT, fluid resolution on OCT, and required treatment for elevated IOP and cataract. Thirty-one patients had 82 DEX injections, with 19 patients having ≥2, 12 having ≥3, 10 having ≥4, 6 having ≥5, and 4 having ≥6 DEX injections. All patients were followed at least 12 weeks and had a mean follow-up period of 344.94 days. Fourteen patients (45%) developed ocular hypertension (≥22 mmHg), and 40% of phakic patients required cataract surgery. Mean interval of OCT fluid resolution was 52 days (range, 28-245; SD, ±8), and mean retreatment interval was 119 days (range, 42-309; SD, ±9). No patients required glaucoma surgery or developed endophthalmitis. This study suggests that repeated, as needed, DEX injections for CME associated with RVO may be performed. Patients should be monitored and treated for ocular hypertension and cataract progression.

  8. Macular thickness measured by stratus optical coherence tomography in patients with diabetes type 2 and mild nonproliferative retinopathy without clinical evidence of macular edema.

    PubMed

    Pires, Isabel; Santos, Ana Rita; Nunes, Sandrina; Lobo, Conceição

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate macular thickness in eyes with mild nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR), patients with diabetes type 2, NPDR level 20 or 35, and without evidence of clinical macular edema underwent best-corrected visual acuity assessment, color fundus photography and Stratus optical coherence tomography. Mean center point thickness (CPT) and mean central subfield (CSF) thickness were compared with those of a healthy control population. 410 eyes/patients aged 61.2 ± 8.3 years, and with glycosylated hemoglobin of 7.9 ± 1.5% were included. Mean CPT and CSF were 186.6 ± 28.4 and 215.2 ± 25 µm, respectively, significantly increased compared to healthy subjects (p < 0.001). CSF thickness was abnormally increased in 17.6% of the patients, with values within the normal range in 79.5%, and abnormally decreased in 2.9%. CPT and CSF thickness were significantly thicker in men. No systemic factors showed a significant association. A significant increase in the macular thickness was found in eyes/patients with mild NPDR without clinical macular edema; however, only 17.6% of the eyes/patients had abnormally increased values and less than 3% abnormally decreased values.

  9. Subthreshold diode laser micropulse photocoagulation for the treatment of diabetic macular edema.

    PubMed

    Sivaprasad, Sobha; Dorin, Giorgio

    2012-03-01

    Diabetic macular edema (DME) is a sight-threatening complication of diabetic retinopathy, the leading cause of visual loss in the working-age population in the industrialized and emerging world. The standard of care for DME is focal/grid laser photocoagulation, which is proven effective in reducing the risk of vision loss, but inherently destructive and associated with tissue damage and collateral effects. Subthreshold diode laser micropulse photocoagulation is a nondestructive tissue-sparing laser procedure, which, in randomized controlled trials for the treatment of DME, has been found equally effective as conventional photocoagulation. Functional and anatomical outcomes from four independent randomized controlled trials provide level one evidence that vision stabilization/improvement and edema resolution/reduction can be elicited with less or no retinal damage, and with fewer or no complications. This review describes the principles of subthreshold diode laser micropulse photocoagulation, its treatment modalities and clinical outcomes in the context of standard laser treatments and of emerging nonlaser therapies for DME.

  10. The Course of Response to Focal/ Grid Photocoagulation for Diabetic Macular Edema

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Purpose To determine whether eyes with center involved diabetic macular edema (DME), treated with focal/grid photocoagulation, in which there is a reduction in central subfield thickness (CST) measured with optical coherence tomography (OCT) after 16 weeks, will continue to improve if retreatment is deferred. Methods Prospective, multi-center, observational, single group focal/grid photocoagulation study of 122 eyes with center involved DME (OCT CST ≥250μ). At the 16-week visit and continuing every 8 weeks, eyes were assessed for retreatment and additional laser was deferred if the visual acuity letter score improved ≥5 letters or OCT CST decreased ≥10% compared with the visit 16 weeks prior. Results Of the 115 eyes that completed the 16-week visit, 54 (47%) had a decrease in CST by ≥10% compared with baseline. Of these, 26 (48%) had a CST ≥250μ at 16 weeks and were evaluable at 32 weeks. Eleven (42%, 95% confidence interval 23% to 63%) of the 26 eyes had a further decrease in CST ≥10% from 16 to 32 weeks without further treatment. Conclusion Sixteen weeks following focal/grid laser for DME, in eyes with a definite reduction, but not resolution, of central edema, 23% to 63% will continue to improve without additional treatment. PMID:19898182

  11. Simultaneous Segmentation of Retinal Surfaces and Microcystic Macular Edema in SDOCT Volumes

    PubMed Central

    Antony, Bhavna J.; Lang, Andrew; Swingle, Emily K.; Al-Louzi, Omar; Carass, Aaron; Solomon, Sharon; Calabresi, Peter A.; Saidha, Shiv; Prince, Jerry L.

    2016-01-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a noninvasive imaging modality that has begun to find widespread use in retinal imaging for the detection of a variety of ocular diseases. In addition to structural changes in the form of altered retinal layer thicknesses, pathological conditions may also cause the formation of edema within the retina. In multiple sclerosis, for instance, the nerve fiber and ganglion cell layers are known to thin. Additionally, the formation of pseudocysts called microcystic macular edema (MME) have also been observed in the eyes of about 5% of MS patients, and its presence has been shown to be correlated with disease severity. Previously, we proposed separate algorithms for the segmentation of retinal layers and MME, but since MME mainly occurs within specific regions of the retina, a simultaneous approach is advantageous. In this work, we propose an automated globally optimal graph-theoretic approach that simultaneously segments the retinal layers and the MME in volumetric OCT scans. SD-OCT scans from one eye of 12 MS patients with known MME and 8 healthy controls were acquired and the pseudocysts manually traced. The overall precision and recall of the pseudocyst detection was found to be 86.0% and 79.5%, respectively. PMID:27199502

  12. Simultaneous segmentation of retinal surfaces and microcystic macular edema in SDOCT volumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antony, Bhavna J.; Lang, Andrew; Swingle, Emily K.; Al-Louzi, Omar; Carass, Aaron; Solomon, Sharon; Calabresi, Peter A.; Saidha, Shiv; Prince, Jerry L.

    2016-03-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a noninvasive imaging modality that has begun to find widespread use in retinal imaging for the detection of a variety of ocular diseases. In addition to structural changes in the form of altered retinal layer thicknesses, pathological conditions may also cause the formation of edema within the retina. In multiple sclerosis, for instance, the nerve fiber and ganglion cell layers are known to thin. Additionally, the formation of pseudocysts called microcystic macular edema (MME) have also been observed in the eyes of about 5% of MS patients, and its presence has been shown to be correlated with disease severity. Previously, we proposed separate algorithms for the segmentation of retinal layers and MME, but since MME mainly occurs within specific regions of the retina, a simultaneous approach is advantageous. In this work, we propose an automated globally optimal graph-theoretic approach that simultaneously segments the retinal layers and the MME in volumetric OCT scans. SD-OCT scans from one eye of 12 MS patients with known MME and 8 healthy controls were acquired and the pseudocysts manually traced. The overall precision and recall of the pseudocyst detection was found to be 86.0% and 79.5%, respectively.

  13. EFFECT OF INTERNAL LIMITING MEMBRANE PEELING DURING VITRECTOMY FOR DIABETIC MACULAR EDEMA: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Takuya; Roggia, Murilo F; Noda, Yasuo; Ueta, Takashi

    2015-09-01

    To evaluate the effect of internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling during vitrectomy for diabetic macular edema. MEDLINE, EMBASE, and CENTRAL were systematically reviewed. Eligible studies included randomized or nonrandomized studies that compared surgical outcomes of vitrectomy with or without ILM peeling for diabetic macular edema. The primary and secondary outcome measures were postoperative best-corrected visual acuity and central macular thickness. Meta-analysis on mean differences between vitrectomy with and without ILM peeling was performed using inverse variance method in random effects. Five studies (7 articles) with 741 patients were eligible for analysis. Superiority (95% confidence interval) in postoperative best-corrected visual acuity in ILM peeling group compared with nonpeeling group was 0.04 (-0.05 to 0.13) logMAR (equivalent to 2.0 ETDRS letters, P = 0.37), and superiority in best-corrected visual acuity change in ILM peeling group was 0.04 (-0.02 to 0.09) logMAR (equivalent to 2.0 ETDRS letters, P = 0.16). There was no significant difference in postoperative central macular thickness and central macular thickness reduction between the two groups. The visual acuity outcomes using pars plana vitrectomy with ILM peeling versus no ILM peeling were not significantly different. A larger randomized prospective study would be necessary to adequately address the effectiveness of ILM peeling on visual acuity outcomes.

  14. Optical coherence tomography for age-related macular degeneration and diabetic macular edema: an evidence-based analysis.

    PubMed

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this evidence-based review was to examine the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of spectral-domain (SD) optical coherence tomography (OCT) in the diagnosis and monitoring of patients with retinal disease, specifically age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and diabetic macular edema (DME). Specifically, the research question addressed was: What is the sensitivity and specificity of spectral domain OCT relative to the gold standard? TARGET POPULATION AND CONDITION The incidence of blindness has been increasing worldwide. In Canada, vision loss in those 65 years of age and older is primarily due to AMD, while loss of vision in those 18 years of age and older is mainly due to DME. Both of these conditions are diseases of the retina, which is located at the back of the eye. At the center of the retina is the macula, a 5 mm region that is responsible for what we see in front of us, our ability to detect colour, and fine detail. Damage to the macula gives rise to vision loss, but early detection of asymptomatic disease may lead to the prevention or slowing of the vision loss process. There are two main types of AMD, 'dry' and 'wet'. Dry AMD is the more prevalent of the two, accounting for approximately 85% of cases and characterized by small deposits of extracellular material called "drusen" that build up in Bruch's membrane of the eye. Central vision loss is gradual with blurring and eventual colour fading. Wet AMD is a less prevalent condition (15% of all AMD cases) but it accounts for 90% of severe cases. It's characterized by the appearance of retinal fluid with vision loss due to abnormal blood vessels/leakage within weeks to months of diagnosis. In 2003, the Canadian National Institute for the Blind (CNIB) prevalence estimate for AMD was 1 million Canadians, including approximately 400,000 affected Ontarians. The incidence in 2003 was estimated to be 78,000 new cases in Canada, with approximately one-third of these cases arising in Ontario (n=26

  15. Characteristics of Macular Edema in Behcet Disease after Intravitreal Bevacizumab Injection

    PubMed Central

    Ghassemi, Fariba; Mirak, Sohrab Afshari; Chams, Hormoz; Sabour, Siamak; Ahmadabadi, Mehdi Nilli; Davatchi, Fereidoun; Shahram, Farhad

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the effect of intravitreal bevacizumab (IVB) injection on macular edema (ME) secondary to Behcet's disease. Methods: This prospective case series included 15 patients with bilateral ME due to Behcet's disease. Intravitreal bevacizumab was injected into the more severely involved eye; the contralateral eye was evaluated as the control. Patients were followed up with comprehensive ocular examination, optical coherence tomography, and fluorescein angiography (FA) for a minimum of 6 months by a single ophthalmologist. Results: Patients with a mean age of 30.6 ± 7.4 years received a mean number of 3.3 IVB injections during the 6 months. The mean preinjection vision was 0.6 ± 0.3 and 0.4 ± 0.4 LogMAR in the case and control groups, respectively, with no significant improvement at 6 months. Mean central foveal thickness was 375.3 ± 132.1 and 307.2 ± 84.5 μm in the case and control groups, respectively, and these changed to 401 ± 199.9 (P = 0.65) and 307.7 ± 82.8 μm (P = 0.73) at month 6, respectively. A statistically nonsignificant improvement in ME was observed during the first 3 months in the case group. However, it did not persist up to month 6 on an as-needed basis. IVB injections caused a disproportionate decrease in the thickness of macular subfields. A reduction in disc leakage was observed on FA (P = 0.058). Logistic regression analysis revealed no statistically significant predictive factor for an improvement in visual acuity (VA) and a reduction in foveal thickness. Conclusion: During a 6-month period, IVB injections based on an as-needed protocol provided no statistically significant improvement in VA and ME. PMID:28299006

  16. Intraocular soluble intracellular adhesion molecule-1 correlates with subretinal fluid height of diabetic macular edema

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Dan; Zhu, He; Wang, Chunyan; Yang, Dayong

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the correlations between aqueous concentrations of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), soluble intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1) and diabetic macular edema (DME). Materials and Methods: VEGF, MCP-1 and sICAM-1 concentrations in aqueous humor samples of 22 patients with DME and 23 patients with cataract of a control group were measured with solid-phase chemiluminescence immunoassay. Results: Aqueous VEGF (89.2 ± 58.5 pg/ml versus 48.5 ± 27.8 pg/ml, P = 0.006), MCP-1 (684.2 ± 423.4 pg/ml versus 432.4 ± 230.4 pg/ml, P = 0.019) and sICAM-1 (3213.8 ± 2581.6 pg/ml versus 260.2 ± 212.2 pg/ml, P < 0.001) all vary significantly between DME group and control group. Maximum height of submacular fluid measured by Optical coherence tomography (OCT) was significantly associated with aqueous sICAM-1 (r = -0.45, P = 0.034). The maximum height of macular thickness measured by OCT was not significantly associated with either VEGF (P = 0.300), MCP-1 (P = 0.320) or sICAM-1 (P = 0.285). Conclusions: Our results suggest that sICAM-1 may majorly contribute to the formation of subretinal fluid in DME patients and imply that MCP-1 and sICAM-1 may be the potential therapy targets, besides VEGF. PMID:23619489

  17. Presence of foveal bulge in optical coherence tomographic images in eyes with macular edema associated with branch retinal vein occlusion.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Taiji; Ueda, Tetsuo; Okamoto, Masahiro; Ogata, Nahoko

    2014-02-01

    To determine whether a significant correlation exists between the presence of a bulge in the photoreceptor inner segment/outer segment (IS/OS) line and the best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) in eyes with resolved macular edema associated with branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO). Retrospective, observational case series. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of patients who had a complete resolution of macular edema and had an intact IS/OS line in the central fovea in the spectral-domain optical coherence tomographic (SDOCT) images. Thirty-one eyes with macular edema associated with BRVO (BRVO group) and 31 unaffected fellow eyes (control group) of 31 patients were evaluated. In normal eyes, the intact IS/OS line determined by SDOCT has a bulge at the central fovea, called the foveal bulge. The eyes in the BRVO group were classified by the presence or absence of foveal bulge, and the characteristics of the 2 groups were compared. A foveal bulge was present in 7 of 31 eyes in the BRVO group. The incidence of a foveal bulge was significantly lower in the BRVO group (22.6%) than in the control group (100%; P < .0001). All 7 eyes with foveal bulge had a decimal BCVA of ≥1.0 at the final visit. The incidence of a foveal bulge was significantly higher in eyes with BCVA of ≥1.0 (77.8%) than in the eyes with BCVA of <1.0 (0%; P < .0001). The foveal bulge is a good marker of the functional properties of the fovea in eyes with resolved macular edema associated with BRVO. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Two Functional Variants of IRF5 Influence the Development of Macular Edema in Patients with Non-Anterior Uveitis

    PubMed Central

    Cordero-Coma, Miguel; Ortego-Centeno, Norberto; Adán, Alfredo; Fonollosa, Alejandro; Díaz Valle, David; Pato, Esperanza; Blanco, Ricardo; Cañal, Joaquín; Díaz-Llopis, Manuel; de Ramón, Enrique; del Rio, María José; García Serrano, José Luis; Artaraz, Joseba; Martín-Villa, José Manuel; Llorenç, Víctor; Gorroño-Echebarría, Marina Begoña; Martín, Javier

    2013-01-01

    Objective Interferon (IFN) signaling plays a crucial role in autoimmunity. Genetic variation in interferon regulatory factor 5 (IRF5), a major regulator of the type I interferon induction, has been associated with risk of developing several autoimmune diseases. In the current study we aimed to evaluate whether three sets of correlated IRF5 genetic variants, independently associated with SLE and with different functional roles, are involved in uveitis susceptibility and its clinical subphenotypes. Methods Three IRF5 polymorphisms, rs2004640, rs2070197 and rs10954213, representative of each group, were genotyped using TaqMan® allelic discrimination assays in a total of 263 non-anterior uveitis patients and 724 healthy controls of Spanish origin. Results A clear association between two of the three analyzed genetic variants, rs2004640 and rs10954213, and the absence of macular edema was observed in the case/control analysis (PFDR=5.07E-03, OR=1.48, CI 95%=1.14-1.92 and PFDR=3.37E-03, OR=1.54, CI 95%=1.19-2.01, respectively). Consistently, the subphenotype analysis accordingly with the presence/absence of this clinical condition also reached statistical significance (rs2004640: P=0.037, OR=0.69, CI 95%=0.48-0.98; rs10954213: P=0.030, OR=0.67, CI 95%=0.47-0.96), thus suggesting that both IRF5 genetic variants are specifically associated with the lack of macular edema in uveitis patients. Conclusion Our results clearly showed for the first time that two functional genetic variants of IRF5 may play a role in the development of macular edema in non-anterior uveitis patients. Identifying genetic markers for macular edema could lead to the possibility of developing novel treatments or preventive therapies. PMID:24116155

  19. Intravitreal aflibercept for macular edema secondary to central retinal vein occlusion: 18-month results of the phase 3 GALILEO study.

    PubMed

    Ogura, Yuichiro; Roider, Johann; Korobelnik, Jean-François; Holz, Frank G; Simader, Christian; Schmidt-Erfurth, Ursula; Vitti, Robert; Berliner, Alyson J; Hiemeyer, Florian; Stemper, Brigitte; Zeitz, Oliver; Sandbrink, Rupert

    2014-11-01

    To evaluate intravitreal aflibercept for treatment of macular edema secondary to central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO). Randomized, double-masked, phase 3 study. A total of 177 patients with macular edema secondary to CRVO were randomized to receive 2 mg intravitreal aflibercept (n = 106) or sham (n = 71) every 4 weeks for 20 weeks. From weeks 24 to 48, patients were monitored every 4 weeks; the former group received intravitreal aflibercept as needed (PRN), and the sham group received sham. From weeks 52 to 76, patients were monitored every 8 weeks, and both groups received intravitreal aflibercept PRN. The primary endpoint (proportion of patients who gained ≥15 letters) was at week 24. This study reports exploratory outcomes at week 76. The proportion of patients who gained ≥15 letters in the intravitreal aflibercept and sham groups was 60.2% vs 22.1% at week 24 (patients discontinued before week 24 were considered nonresponders; P < .0001), 60.2% vs 32.4% at week 52 (last observation carried forward, P < .001), and 57.3% vs 29.4% at week 76 (last observation carried forward; P < .001). Mean μm change from baseline central retinal thickness was -448.6 vs -169.3 at week 24 (P < .0001), -423.5 vs -219.3 at week 52 (P < .0001), and -389.4 vs -306.4 at week 76 (P = .1122). Over 76 weeks, the most common ocular serious adverse event in the intravitreal aflibercept group was macular edema (3.8%). The visual and anatomic improvements seen after fixed, monthly dosing at week 24 were largely maintained when treatment intervals were extended. Patients with macular edema following CRVO benefited from early treatment with intravitreal aflibercept. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Association of aqueous humor cytokines with the development of retinal ischemia and recurrent macular edema in retinal vein occlusion.

    PubMed

    Jung, Sang Hoon; Kim, Kyung-A; Sohn, Sea Woon; Yang, Sung Jae

    2014-04-09

    We evaluated the association of angiogenic and inflammatory cytokine levels in the aqueous humor with development of retinal ischemia and recurrent macular edema in retinal vein occlusion (RVO) patients. This was a retrospective cross-sectional study, and patients with RVO (n = 41) and age-matched control subjects (n = 25) were included. The concentrations of angiogenic and inflammatory cytokines, including VEGF, PDGF-AA, IL-1a, IL-6, IL-8, MCP-1, TNF-α, and IP-10, in the aqueous humor were measured before intravitreal injection of bevacizumab using suspension array technology. After retinal hemorrhage disappeared, fluorescein angiography (FA) images were obtained. Based on FA data, RVO patients were divided into a nonischemic group and an ischemic group. We investigated the presence of recurrent macular edema using optical coherent tomography (OCT) during the follow-up period. We compared the levels of cytokines between RVO patients and control subjects, between nonischemic and ischemic groups, and between patients with and without recurrent macular edema. The levels of VEGF, PDGF-AA, IL-1a, IL-6, IL-8, MCP-1, TNF-α, and IP-10 in the aqueous humor were higher in the RVO group than in the control group. The levels of IL-8, PDFGF-AA, TNF-α, and VEGF in the aqueous humor were significantly higher in the ischemic RVO group than in the nonischemic RVO group. We did not observe any association between cytokine levels and recurrent macular edema. Angiogenic and inflammatory cytokines were overexpressed in RVO patients. Additionally, increased levels of IL-8, PDFGF-AA, TNF-α, and VEGF in the aqueous humor at the onset of RVO were associated with the development of future retinal ischemia in RVO patients.

  1. Steroid eye drop treatment (difluprednate ophthalmic emulsion) is effective in reducing refractory diabetic macular edema.

    PubMed

    Nakano, Sakiko; Yamamoto, Teiko; Kirii, Eriko; Abe, Sachi; Yamashita, Hidetoshi

    2010-06-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of treatment of refractory diabetic macular edema (DME) after vitrectomy with difluprednate ophthalmic emulsion 0.05% (Durezol(TM)), and to compare this treatment with sub-Tenon's injection of triamcinolone (STTA). This study enrolled patients with refractory diabetic macular edema that persisted despite pars plana vitrectomy in our clinic. In all subjects, more than 3 months had passed since prior treatment. Eleven eyes in ten subjects were treated with STTA (STTA group), and 11 eyes in seven subjects were treated with difluprednate ophthalmic emulsion 0.05% (Durezol(TM), Sirion Therapeutics Inc., USA) 4 times daily for the first month and then twice daily for 2 months (eye drop group). In the eye drop group, mean VA (+/- SD) was 0.67 +/- 0.35 logMAR and mean retinal thickness was 500.6 +/- 207.7 mum at baseline. After 3 months of treatment, mean VA was 0.67 +/- 0.29 and mean retinal thickness had decreased to 341.2 +/- 194.8 mum. The mean minimum value of RT during the treatment period was 300.6 +/- 123.2 mum, and significantly lower than that at baseline (Mann-Whitney U test: P = 0.003). In the STTA group, mean VA (+/- SD) was 0.67 +/- 0.35 logMAR, and mean retinal thickness was 543.3 +/- 132.6 mum at baseline. After 3 months of treatment, mean VA was 0.49 +/- 0.67, and mean retinal thickness had decreased to 378.6 +/- 135 mum. The mean minimum value of RT during the treatment period was 349.9 +/- 113.8 mum, and significantly lower than at baseline (Mann-Whitney U test: P = 0.003). The rate of effective improvement in RT did not differ between the eye drop group (73%) and STTA group (84%) (Fisher's exact test: P = 1). Comparable improvements of retinal thickness were observed in the STTA and eye drop groups. Instillation of difluprednate ophthalmic emulsion 0.05% is a safe and effective treatment that does not require surgical intervention and does not produce severe side-effects.

  2. The Relationship between OCT-measured Central Retinal Thickness and Visual Acuity in Diabetic Macular Edema

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Objective To compare optical coherence tomography (OCT)-measured retinal thickness and visual acuity in eyes with diabetic macular edema (DME) both before and after macular laser photocoagulation. Design Cross-sectional and longitudinal study. Participants 210 subjects (251 eyes) with DME enrolled in a randomized clinical trial of laser techniques. Methods Retinal thickness was measured with OCT and visual acuity was measured with the electronic-ETDRS procedure. Main Outcome Measures OCT-measured center point thickness and visual acuity Results The correlation coefficients for visual acuity versus OCT center point thickness were 0.52 at baseline and 0.49, 0.36, and 0.38 at 3.5, 8, and 12 months post-laser photocoagulation. The slope of the best fit line to the baseline data was approximately 4.4 letters (95% C.I.: 3.5, 5.3) better visual acuity for every 100 microns decrease in center point thickness at baseline with no important difference at follow-up visits. Approximately one-third of the variation in visual acuity could be predicted by a linear regression model that incorporated OCT center point thickness, age, hemoglobin A1C, and severity of fluorescein leakage in the center and inner subfields. The correlation between change in visual acuity and change in OCT center point thickening 3.5 months after laser treatment was 0.44 with no important difference at the other follow-up times. A subset of eyes showed paradoxical improvements in visual acuity with increased center point thickening (7–17% at the three time points) or paradoxical worsening of visual acuity with a decrease in center point thickening (18%–26% at the three time points). Conclusions There is modest correlation between OCT-measured center point thickness and visual acuity, and modest correlation of changes in retinal thickening and visual acuity following focal laser treatment for DME. However, a wide range of visual acuity may be observed for a given degree of retinal edema and paradoxical

  3. The Cost-Effectiveness of Ranibizumab for the Treatment of Diabetic Macular Edema.

    PubMed

    Brown, Gary C; Brown, Melissa M; Turpcu, Adam; Rajput, Yamina

    2015-07-01

    To assess the incremental, comparative effectiveness (patient value gain) and cost effectiveness (financial value gain) associated with 0.3-mg intravitreal ranibizumab injection therapy versus sham therapy for diabetic macular edema (DME). Value-Based Medicine (Center for Value-Based Medicine, Flourtown, PA) 14-year, cost-utility analysis using patient preferences and 2012 United States real dollars. Published data from the identical Ranibizumab Injection in Subjects with Clinically Significant Macular Edema with Center Involvement Secondary to Diabetes Mellitus (RISE and RIDE) clinical trials. An incremental cost-utility analysis was performed using societal and third-party insurer cost perspectives. Costs and outcomes were discounted with net present value analysis at 3% per annum. The incremental comparative effectiveness was measured in: (1) quality-adjusted life year (QALY) gain and (2) percent patient value (quality-of-life) gain. Cost effectiveness was quantified with the cost-utility ratio (CUR) measured as $/QALY. The 14-year, incremental patient value gain conferred by intravitreal ranibizumab therapy for diabetic maculopathy was 0.9981 QALY, equating to an 11.6% improvement in quality of life. The direct, ophthalmic medical cost for ranibizumab therapy in 1 eye was $30 116, whereas for 2 eyes it was $56 336. The direct, nonophthalmic, medical costs saved from decreased depression, injury, skilled nursing facility admissions, nursing home admissions, and other vision-associated costs totaled $51 758, resulting in an overall direct medical cost of $4578. The net mean societal cost for bilateral ranibizumab therapy was -$30 807. Of this total, decreased caregiver costs accrued a $31 406 savings against the direct medical costs, whereas decreased wage losses accrued a $3978 savings. The third-party insurer CUR for bilateral ranibizumab therapy was $4587/QALY. The societal cost perspective for bilateral therapy was -$30 807/QALY, indicating that ranibizumab

  4. Effect of initial retinal thickness on outcome of intravitreal bevacizumab therapy for diabetic macular edema

    PubMed Central

    Mushtaq, Bushra; Crosby, Niall J; Dimopoulos, Antonios T; Lip, Peck Lin; Stavrou, Panagiota; El-Sherbiny, Samer; Yang, Yit

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To investigate whether eyes with diabetic macular edema (DME) and central retinal thickness (CRT) >400 μm had better visual and anatomical outcomes compared to eyes with a CRT <400 μm when treated with intravitreal bevacizumab in a real-world setting. Patients and methods Patients undergoing intravitreal bevacizumab therapy for DME were identified from the departmental database of a tertiary referral unit. Following the initial injection, a retreatment was performed for any persistent macular edema, unless there had been no previous response to repeated doses. Recorded parameters included visual acuity, CRT on optical coherence tomography (spectral domain optical coherence tomography [SD-OCT]), and SD-OCT characteristics. Comparisons were made between data at baseline and 12 months after the first injection, and differences were tested for statistical significance using the Student’s t-test. Results In all, 175 eyes of 142 patients were analyzed. Patients in group 2 (CRT >400 μm) had significantly more injections than group 1 (CRT <400 μm) (4.0 versus 3.3; P=0.003). Both groups had similar numbers of eyes with preexisting epiretinal membrane and/or vitreomacular traction at baseline. The reduction in CRT was significantly greater in group 2 when compared to group 1 (P<0.0001). In terms of visual gain between baseline and month 12, each gained significantly by a mean of 0.12 logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution units (P=0.0001), but there was no difference between groups 1 and 2 (P=0.99). Conclusion These results do not support a 400 μm baseline CRT cut-off for treating DME with bevacizumab, in contrast to published data on ranibizumab. Our results also indicate that patients with a thicker CRT require more bevacizumab injections, making treatment less cost-effective for these patients. Our results could be used by practitioners to support the use of bevacizumab in DME without applying a CRT cut-off. PMID:24812486

  5. [New perspectives in the approach to diabetic macular edema. Aflibercept therapy].

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Moreno, J M

    2015-03-01

    The VISTA and VIVID trials were conducted to compare the safety and efficacy of two intravitreal injection (IVI) regimens of aflibercept versus macular laser photocoagulation for the treatment of diabetic macular edema (DME). These double-masked, phase III clinical trials randomized (461/402) patients with DME to receive either 2mg aflibercept IVI every 4 weeks (2q4) or 2mg aflibercept IVI every 8 weeks (2q8) after 5 initial monthly doses vs macular laser photocoagularion. The primary efficacy endpoint was the mean change in best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) from baseline to week 52. Secondary efficacy endpoints were the change in central retinal thickness (CRT), the proportion of patients who gained ≥10 amd ≥15 Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) letters, and the change in the National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire (NEI VFQ-25) in near and distance vision. The mean BCVA gains in the 2q4 and 2q8 groups versus the laser group were 12.5 and 10.7 versus 0.2 letters (p<0.0001) in VISTA, and 10.5 and 10.7 versus 1.2 letters (p<0.0001) in VIVID. The proportions of patients gaining ≥ 15 letters and the proportion of patients with an improvement of > 2 levels in the severity of diabetic retinopathy was significant in the treatment groups versus the laser group. Mean reductions in CRT in the 2q4 and 2q8 groups vs the laser group were 185.9 and 183.1 versus 73.3 μm (p<0.0001) in VISTA, and 195.0 and 192.4 versus 66.2 μm (p<0.0001) in VIVID. The incidences of ocular and nonocular adverse events were similar in all groups. In conclusion, IIV aflibercept demonstrated statistically significant superiority in improvement in BCVA and reduction in DME over laser, with similar efficacy in the 2q4 and 2q8 groups in VISTA and VIVID. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. Diabetic Macular Edema With and Without Subfoveal Neuroretinal Detachment: Two Different Morphologic and Functional Entities.

    PubMed

    Vujosevic, Stela; Torresin, Tommaso; Berton, Marianna; Bini, Silvia; Convento, Enrica; Midena, Edoardo

    2017-09-01

    To assess specific morphologic and functional characteristics in eyes with diabetic macular edema (DME) with subfoveal neuroretinal detachment (SND+) vs DME without SND (SND-). Cross-sectional, prospective, comparative case series. Seventy-two patients (72 eyes: 22 eyes SND+ and 50 eyes SND-) with treatment-naïve, center-involving DME were evaluated. Data gathering included fundus color photographs, fluorescein angiography, spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT), best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), and microperimetry. The following parameters were evaluated with SD-OCT: central macular thickness (CMT [including SND]); central retinal thickness (CRT [excluding SND]); choroidal thickness (CT); nasal and temporal retinal thickness (RT) at 500 μm and 1500 μm from the fovea; the number of hyperreflective retinal spots (HRS) in the central 3000 μm; and the presence of SND and integrity of the external limiting membrane (ELM). Retinal sensitivity (RS) was evaluated within 4 degrees and 12 degrees of the fovea. Correlation among CT, RS, and HRS in patients with and without SND was determined. CMT (P = .032), temporal RT at 1500 μm (P = .03), mean CT (P = .009), and mean number of HRS (P = .0001) were all higher in SND+ vs SND- eyes. CRT, BCVA, HbA1c, and prevalence of systemic arterial hypertension were not different between the 2 groups. RS within 4 degrees (P = .002) and 12 degrees (P = .015) was lower in SND+ vs SND- eyes. SND correlated significantly with disruption of the ELM (54.55% vs 24%, P = .01) and lower RS. A direct correlation was found between the number of HRS, presence of SND, CT, and RS within 12 degrees in SND- eyes, and an inverse correlation was found between CT and RS within 12degrees in SND+ eyes. These data may improve characterization of DME in eyes with SND. DME with SND correlates with greater CT, more HRS, disruption of the ELM, and significant macular functional impairment (RS decrease) vs SND-. Copyright © 2017

  7. ASSOCIATIONS BETWEEN MACULAR EDEMA AND CIRCULATORY STATUS IN EYES WITH RETINAL VEIN OCCLUSION: An Adaptive Optics Scanning Laser Ophthalmoscopy Study.

    PubMed

    Iida, Yuto; Muraoka, Yuki; Uji, Akihito; Ooto, Sotaro; Murakami, Tomoaki; Suzuma, Kiyoshi; Tsujikawa, Akitaka; Arichika, Shigeta; Takahashi, Ayako; Miwa, Yuko; Yoshimura, Nagahisa

    2017-10-01

    To investigate associations between parafoveal microcirculatory status and foveal pathomorphology in eyes with macular edema (ME) secondary to retinal vein occlusion (RVO). Ten consecutive patients (10 eyes) with acute retinal vein occlusion were enrolled, 9 eyes of which received intravitreal ranibizumab (IVR) injections. Foveal morphologic changes were examined via optical coherence tomography (OCT), and parafoveal circulatory status was assessed via adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (AO-SLO). The mean parafoveal aggregated erythrocyte velocity (AEV) measured by adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy in eyes with retinal vein occlusion was 0.99 ± 0.43 mm/second at baseline, which was significantly lower than that of age-matched healthy subjects (1.41 ± 0.28 mm/second, P = 0.042). The longitudinal adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy examinations of each patient showed that parafoveal AEV was strongly inversely correlated with optical coherence tomography-measured central foveal thickness (CFT) over the entire observation period. Using parafoveal AEV and central foveal thickness measurements obtained at the first and second examinations, we investigated associations between differences in parafoveal AEV and central foveal thickness, which were significantly and highly correlated (r = -0.84, P = 0.002). Using adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy in eyes with retinal vein occlusion macular edema, we could quantitatively evaluate the parafoveal AEV. A reduction or an increase in parafoveal AEV may be a clinical marker for the resolution or development/progression of macular edema respectively.

  8. Ranibizumab versus aflibercept for macular edema due to central retinal vein occlusion: 18-month results in real-life data.

    PubMed

    Chatziralli, Irini; Theodossiadis, George; Moschos, Marilita M; Mitropoulos, Panagiotis; Theodossiadis, Panagiotis

    2017-06-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the anatomical and functional outcomes of ranibizumab versus aflibercept for the treatment of macular edema due to central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO) in routine clinical practice. Participants in this observational study included 62 treatment-naïve patients with CRVO who received intravitreal injections of either ranibizumab or aflibercept. The demographic data, best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) characteristics were evaluated at baseline and at months 1, 2, 3, 6, 12 and 18 post-treatment. At month 18, the mean BCVA of ranibizumab-treated eyes increased 7.9 letters, compared to 7.4 letters for eyes receiving aflibercept, with a similar number of injections. There was no statistically significant difference between the two groups in letters or in central subfield thickness at month 18. At the end of the follow-up, 50% of patients in the ranibizumab group and 42.9% in the aflibercept group showed complete resolution of macular edema. Ranibizumab and aflibercept demonstrated similar anatomical and functional outcomes over 18-month follow-up in patients with macular edema due to CRVO, with a similar number of injections.

  9. Long-term follow-up of oral administration of flavonoids, Centella asiatica and Melilotus, for diabetic cystoid macular edema without macular thickening.

    PubMed

    Forte, Raimondo; Cennamo, Gilda; Bonavolontà, Paola; Pascotto, Arduino; de Crecchio, Giuseppe; Cennamo, Giovanni

    2013-10-01

    To evaluate long-term follow-up of the orally administered combination of flavonoids with Centella asiatica and Melilotus for treatment of diabetic cystoid macular edema (CME) without macular thickening. Seventy consecutive patients with type 2 diabetes and CME without macular thickening at optical coherence tomography (OCT) were prospectively and randomly enrolled in two groups of 35 subjects each (treatment and control groups). Patients in the treatment group were treated with an oral combination of diosmin (300 mg/day), with C. asiatica (15 mg/day) and Melilotus (160 mg/day). All patients underwent a complete ophthalmologic examination, OCT (Spectralis HRA-OCT), and central microperimetry (SD-SLO/OCT) at baseline, month 3, month 6, month 12, month 24, and month 36. No differences in HbAc1 percentage, blood pressure, microalbuminuria, visual acuity, mean central retinal thickness, and stability of fixation were present between the two groups during follow up (p>0.05). Retinal sensitivity reduced in the control group only from month 6 until month 36 (p<0.001). In the treatment group, a greater retinal sensitivity was present at month 12, month 24, and month 36 (p=0.001). No side effects of treatment were observed. Oral administration of flavonoids, C. asiatica and Melilotus, in patients with CME without macular thickening provided preservation of retinal sensitivity during 36 months of follow up when compared with untreated patients.

  10. Learning-Based Visual Saliency Model for Detecting Diabetic Macular Edema in Retinal Image

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Xiaochun; Zhao, Xinbo; Yang, Yongjia; Li, Na

    2016-01-01

    This paper brings forth a learning-based visual saliency model method for detecting diagnostic diabetic macular edema (DME) regions of interest (RoIs) in retinal image. The method introduces the cognitive process of visual selection of relevant regions that arises during an ophthalmologist's image examination. To record the process, we collected eye-tracking data of 10 ophthalmologists on 100 images and used this database as training and testing examples. Based on analysis, two properties (Feature Property and Position Property) can be derived and combined by a simple intersection operation to obtain a saliency map. The Feature Property is implemented by support vector machine (SVM) technique using the diagnosis as supervisor; Position Property is implemented by statistical analysis of training samples. This technique is able to learn the preferences of ophthalmologist visual behavior while simultaneously considering feature uniqueness. The method was evaluated using three popular saliency model evaluation scores (AUC, EMD, and SS) and three quality measurements (classical sensitivity, specificity, and Youden's J statistic). The proposed method outperforms 8 state-of-the-art saliency models and 3 salient region detection approaches devised for natural images. Furthermore, our model successfully detects the DME RoIs in retinal image without sophisticated image processing such as region segmentation. PMID:26884750

  11. Learning-Based Visual Saliency Model for Detecting Diabetic Macular Edema in Retinal Image.

    PubMed

    Zou, Xiaochun; Zhao, Xinbo; Yang, Yongjia; Li, Na

    2016-01-01

    This paper brings forth a learning-based visual saliency model method for detecting diagnostic diabetic macular edema (DME) regions of interest (RoIs) in retinal image. The method introduces the cognitive process of visual selection of relevant regions that arises during an ophthalmologist's image examination. To record the process, we collected eye-tracking data of 10 ophthalmologists on 100 images and used this database as training and testing examples. Based on analysis, two properties (Feature Property and Position Property) can be derived and combined by a simple intersection operation to obtain a saliency map. The Feature Property is implemented by support vector machine (SVM) technique using the diagnosis as supervisor; Position Property is implemented by statistical analysis of training samples. This technique is able to learn the preferences of ophthalmologist visual behavior while simultaneously considering feature uniqueness. The method was evaluated using three popular saliency model evaluation scores (AUC, EMD, and SS) and three quality measurements (classical sensitivity, specificity, and Youden's J statistic). The proposed method outperforms 8 state-of-the-art saliency models and 3 salient region detection approaches devised for natural images. Furthermore, our model successfully detects the DME RoIs in retinal image without sophisticated image processing such as region segmentation.

  12. Advances in retinal imaging for diabetic retinopathy and diabetic macular edema

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Colin Siang Hui; Chew, Milton Cher Yong; Lim, Louis Wei Yi; Sadda, Srinivas R

    2016-01-01

    Diabetic retinopathy and diabetic macular edema (DME) are leading causes of blindness throughout the world, and cause significant visual morbidity. Ocular imaging has played a significant role in the management of diabetic eye disease, and the advent of advanced imaging modalities will be of great value as our understanding of diabetic eye diseases increase, and the management options become increasingly varied and complex. Color fundus photography has established roles in screening for diabetic eye disease, early detection of progression, and monitoring of treatment response. Fluorescein angiography (FA) detects areas of capillary nonperfusion, as well as leakage from both microaneurysms and neovascularization. Recent advances in retinal imaging modalities complement traditional fundus photography and provide invaluable new information for clinicians. Ultra-widefield imaging, which can be used to produce both color fundus photographs and FAs, now allows unprecedented views of the posterior pole. The pathologies that are detected in the periphery of the retina have the potential to change the grading of disease severity, and may be of prognostic significance to disease progression. Studies have shown that peripheral ischemia may be related to the presence and severity of DME. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) provides structural detail of the retina, and the quantitative and qualitative features are useful in the monitoring of diabetic eye disease. A relatively recent innovation, OCT angiography, produces images of the fine blood vessels at the macula and optic disc, without the need for contrast agents. This paper will review the roles of each of these imaging modalities for diabetic eye disease. PMID:26953028

  13. Kernel regression based segmentation of optical coherence tomography images with diabetic macular edema

    PubMed Central

    Chiu, Stephanie J.; Allingham, Michael J.; Mettu, Priyatham S.; Cousins, Scott W.; Izatt, Joseph A.; Farsiu, Sina

    2015-01-01

    We present a fully automatic algorithm to identify fluid-filled regions and seven retinal layers on spectral domain optical coherence tomography images of eyes with diabetic macular edema (DME). To achieve this, we developed a kernel regression (KR)-based classification method to estimate fluid and retinal layer positions. We then used these classification estimates as a guide to more accurately segment the retinal layer boundaries using our previously described graph theory and dynamic programming (GTDP) framework. We validated our algorithm on 110 B-scans from ten patients with severe DME pathology, showing an overall mean Dice coefficient of 0.78 when comparing our KR + GTDP algorithm to an expert grader. This is comparable to the inter-observer Dice coefficient of 0.79. The entire data set is available online, including our automatic and manual segmentation results. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first validated, fully-automated, seven-layer and fluid segmentation method which has been applied to real-world images containing severe DME. PMID:25909003

  14. Application of different imaging modalities for diagnosis of Diabetic Macular Edema: A review.

    PubMed

    Mookiah, Muthu Rama Krishnan; Acharya, U Rajendra; Fujita, Hamido; Tan, Jen Hong; Chua, Chua Kuang; Bhandary, Sulatha V; Laude, Augustinus; Tong, Louis

    2015-11-01

    Diabetic Macular Edema (DME) is caused by accumulation of extracellular fluid from hyperpermeable capillaries within the macula. DME is one of the leading causes of blindness among Diabetes Mellitus (DM) patients. Early detection followed by laser photocoagulation can save the visual loss. This review discusses various imaging modalities viz. biomicroscopy, Fluorescein Angiography (FA), Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) and colour fundus photographs used for diagnosis of DME. Various automated DME grading systems using retinal fundus images, associated retinal image processing techniques for fovea, exudate detection and segmentation are presented. We have also compared various imaging modalities and automated screening methods used for DME grading. The reviewed literature indicates that FA and OCT identify DME related changes accurately. FA is an invasive method, which uses fluorescein dye, and OCT is an expensive imaging method compared to fundus photographs. Moreover, using fundus images DME can be identified and automated. DME grading algorithms can be implemented for telescreening. Hence, fundus imaging based DME grading is more suitable and affordable method compared to biomicroscopy, FA, and OCT modalities.

  15. Automated diabetic macular edema (DME) grading system using DWT, DCT Features and maculopathy index.

    PubMed

    Acharya, U Rajendra; Mookiah, Muthu Rama Krishnan; Koh, Joel E W; Tan, Jen Hong; Bhandary, Sulatha V; Rao, A Krishna; Hagiwara, Yuki; Chua, Chua Kuang; Laude, Augustinus

    2017-03-19

    The cause of diabetic macular edema (DME) is due to prolonged and uncontrolled diabetes mellitus (DM) which affects the vision of diabetic subjects. DME is graded based on the exudate location from the macula. It is clinically diagnosed using fundus images which is tedious and time-consuming. Regular eye screening and subsequent treatment may prevent the vision loss. Hence, in this work, a hybrid system based on Radon transform (RT), discrete wavelet transform (DWT) and discrete cosine transform (DCT) are proposed for an automated detection of DME. The fundus images are subjected to RT to obtain sinograms and DWT is applied on these sinograms to extract wavelet coefficients (approximate, horizontal, vertical and diagonal). DCT is applied on approximate coefficients to obtain 2D-DCT coefficients. Further, these coefficients are converted into 1D vector by arranging the coefficients in zig-zag manner. This 1D signal is subjected to locality sensitive discriminant analysis (LSDA). Finally, various supervised classifiers are used to classify the three classes using significant features. Our proposed technique yielded a classification accuracy of 100% and 97.01% using two and seven significant features for private and public (MESSIDOR) databases respectively. Also, a maculopathy index is formulated with two significant parameters to discriminate the three groups distinctly using a single integer. Hence, our obtained results suggest that this system can be used as an eye screening tool for diabetic subjects for DME.

  16. Laser Treatment for Diabetic Macular Edema in the 21st Century

    PubMed Central

    Romero-Aroca, Pedro; Reyes-Torres, Javier; Baget-Bernaldiz, Marc; Blasco-Suñe, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    Diabetic macular edema (DME) is the leading cause of blindness in the diabetic population. The diabetes Control and Complications Trial reported that 27% of patients affected by type 1 diabetes develop DME within 9 years of onset. Other studies have shown that in patients with type 2 diabetes, the prevalence increased from 3% to 28% within 5 years of diagnosis to twenty years after the onset. At the present time, despite the enthusiasm for evaluating several new treatments for DME, including the intravitreal therapies for DME (e.g., corticosteroids, and anti-VEGF drugs), laser photocoagulation remains the current gold standard and the only treatment with proven efficacy in a wide range of clinical trials for this condition. Despite being the standard technique for comparison and evaluation of the emerging treatments, we have generally poor understanding of the ETDRS recommendations, and we often forget about the results of laser in DME. The purpose of this review is to update our knowledge on laser photocoagulation for DME with an extensive review of the ETDRS results and discuss the laser techniques. Furthermore, we will describe the new developments in laser systems and review the current indications and results. Finally, we will discuss the results of laser treatments versus the current pharmacological therapies. We conclude by trying to provide a general overview that which laser treatment must be indicated and what types of lasers are currently recommended. PMID:24852439

  17. Topical Nepafenec in Eyes with Non-Central Diabetic Macular Edema

    PubMed Central

    Friedman, Scott M.; Almukhtar, Talat H.; Baker, Carl W.; Glassman, Adam R.; Elman, Michael J.; Bressler, Neil M.; Maker, Manvi P.; Jampol, Lee M.; Melia, Michele

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the effect of a topical non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, nepafenac 0.1%, in eyes with non-central diabetic macular edema (DME). Methods Multi-center double-masked randomized trial. Individuals with good visual acuity and non-center involved DME were randomly assigned to nepafenac 0.1% (N = 61) or placebo (nepafenac vehicle, N = 64) three times a day for 12 months. The primary outcome was mean change in OCT retinal volume at 12 months. Results Mean baseline retinal volume was 7.8 mm3. At 12 months, in the nepafenac and placebo groups respectively, mean change in retinal volume was -0.03 mm3 and -0.02 mm3 (treatment group difference: -0.02, 95% CI: -0.27 to 0.23, P = 0.89). Central involved DME was present in 7 eyes (11%) and 9 eyes (14%) at the 12-month visit (P = 0.79), respectively. No differences in visual acuity outcomes were identified. One study participant developed a corneal melt after using nepafenac in the non-study eye, which had a history of severe dry eye. No additional safety concerns were evident. Conclusion In eyes with non-central DME and good visual acuity, topical nepafenac 0.1% three times daily for 1 year likely does not have a meaningful effect on OCT-measured retinal thickness. PMID:25602634

  18. Treatment of cystoid macular edema secondary to retinitis pigmentosa: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Bakthavatchalam, Malini; Lai, Frank H P; Rong, Shi Song; Ng, Danny S; Brelen, Marten E

    2017-10-04

    There are various treatments for cystoid macular edema (CME) secondary to retinitis pigmentosa (RP); however, the evidence for these treatments has not been previously systematically reviewed. Our review that includes 23 studies shows that oral carbonic anhydrase inhibitors (CAI) (including acetazolamide, methazolamide) and topical CAI (dorzolamide and brinzolamide) are effective first line treatments. In patients unresponsive to CAI treatment, intravitreal steroids (triamcinolone acetonide and sustained-release dexamethasone implant), oral corticosteroid (Deflazacort), intravitreal anti-vascular endothelial growth factor agents (ranibizumab and bevacizumab), grid laser photocoagulation, pars plana vitrectomy, or ketorolac were also effective in improving CME secondary to RP. Oral acetazolamide has the strongest clinical basis for treatment and was superior to topical dorzolamide. Rebound of CME was commonly seen in the long term, regardless of the choice of treatment. Oral acetazolamide should be the first line treatment in CME secondary to RP. Topical dorzolamide is an appropriate alternative in patients intolerant to adverse effects of oral acetazolamide. More studies are required to investigate the management of rebound CME. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Automatic Diabetic Macular Edema Detection in Fundus Images Using Publicly Available Datasets

    SciTech Connect

    Giancardo, Luca; Meriaudeau, Fabrice; Karnowski, Thomas Paul; Li, Yaquin; Garg, Seema; Tobin Jr, Kenneth William; Chaum, Edward

    2011-01-01

    Diabetic macular edema (DME) is a common vision threatening complication of diabetic retinopathy. In a large scale screening environment DME can be assessed by detecting exudates (a type of bright lesions) in fundus images. In this work, we introduce a new methodology for diagnosis of DME using a novel set of features based on colour, wavelet decomposition and automatic lesion segmentation. These features are employed to train a classifier able to automatically diagnose DME. We present a new publicly available dataset with ground-truth data containing 169 patients from various ethnic groups and levels of DME. This and other two publicly available datasets are employed to evaluate our algorithm. We are able to achieve diagnosis performance comparable to retina experts on the MESSIDOR (an independently labelled dataset with 1200 images) with cross-dataset testing. Our algorithm is robust to segmentation uncertainties, does not need ground truth at lesion level, and is very fast, generating a diagnosis on an average of 4.4 seconds per image on an 2.6 GHz platform with an unoptimised Matlab implementation.

  20. Exudate-based diabetic macular edema detection in fundus images using publicly available datasets

    SciTech Connect

    Giancardo, Luca; Meriaudeau, Fabrice; Karnowski, Thomas Paul; Li, Yaquin; Garg, Seema; Tobin Jr, Kenneth William; Chaum, Edward

    2011-01-01

    Diabetic macular edema (DME) is a common vision threatening complication of diabetic retinopathy. In a large scale screening environment DME can be assessed by detecting exudates (a type of bright lesions) in fundus images. In this work, we introduce a new methodology for diagnosis of DME using a novel set of features based on colour, wavelet decomposition and automatic lesion segmentation. These features are employed to train a classifier able to automatically diagnose DME through the presence of exudation. We present a new publicly available dataset with ground-truth data containing 169 patients from various ethnic groups and levels of DME. This and other two publicly available datasets are employed to evaluate our algorithm. We are able to achieve diagnosis performance comparable to retina experts on the MESSIDOR (an independently labelled dataset with 1200 images) with cross-dataset testing (e.g., the classifier was trained on an independent dataset and tested on MESSIDOR). Our algorithm obtained an AUC between 0.88 and 0.94 depending on the dataset/features used. Additionally, it does not need ground truth at lesion level to reject false positives and is computationally efficient, as it generates a diagnosis on an average of 4.4 s (9.3 s, considering the optic nerve localization) per image on an 2.6 GHz platform with an unoptimized Matlab implementation.

  1. Kernel regression based segmentation of optical coherence tomography images with diabetic macular edema.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Stephanie J; Allingham, Michael J; Mettu, Priyatham S; Cousins, Scott W; Izatt, Joseph A; Farsiu, Sina

    2015-04-01

    We present a fully automatic algorithm to identify fluid-filled regions and seven retinal layers on spectral domain optical coherence tomography images of eyes with diabetic macular edema (DME). To achieve this, we developed a kernel regression (KR)-based classification method to estimate fluid and retinal layer positions. We then used these classification estimates as a guide to more accurately segment the retinal layer boundaries using our previously described graph theory and dynamic programming (GTDP) framework. We validated our algorithm on 110 B-scans from ten patients with severe DME pathology, showing an overall mean Dice coefficient of 0.78 when comparing our KR + GTDP algorithm to an expert grader. This is comparable to the inter-observer Dice coefficient of 0.79. The entire data set is available online, including our automatic and manual segmentation results. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first validated, fully-automated, seven-layer and fluid segmentation method which has been applied to real-world images containing severe DME.

  2. Retinal vein occlusion and macular edema – critical evaluation of the clinical value of ranibizumab

    PubMed Central

    Keane, Pearse A; Sadda, Srinivas R

    2011-01-01

    Retinal vein occlusions (RVOs) constitute the second most common cause of retinal vascular disease after diabetic retinopathy, with a prevalence of between 1% and 2% in persons older than 40 years of age. Despite the existence of numerous potential therapeutic options, none is entirely satisfactory, and many patients with RVO suffer irreversible visual loss. Fortunately however, the recent introduction of antivascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) agents, such as ranibizumab (Lucentis®, Genentech, South San Francisco, CA) and bevacizumab (Avastin®, Genentech), offers a potentially new treatment approach for clinicians managing this disorder. The results of the BRAVO and CRUISE trials have provided the first definitive evidence for the efficacy and safety of ranibizumab in the treatment of RVO. As a result, ranibizumab has recently been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of RVO-associated macular edema. In this review, we provide a critical evaluation of clinical trial data for the safety and efficacy of ranibizumab, and address unresolved issues in the management of this disorder. PMID:21750610

  3. Switching Anti-VEGF Drugs in the Treatment of Diabetic Macular Edema.

    PubMed

    Banaee, Touka; Ashraf, Mohammed; Conti, Felipe F; Singh, Rishi P

    2017-09-01

    Since their introduction in the late 2000s, anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) agents have become the first-line choice for center-involved diabetic macular edema (DME). Even with its proven effectiveness, there are still cases that do not respond satisfactorily. In those cases, a treatment option is to change to another anti-VEGF drug. In this paper, the authors review studies on switching between different anti-VEGF drugs in the treatment of persistent DME. An extensive bibliographic review was done using PubMed, Embase, and Scopus. Fourteen studies published from March 2010 to April 2017 reporting switching from anti-VEGF drugs in DME treatment were included. All reported good anatomical results after conversion; however, visual acuity outcomes showed great variability between publications. Therefore, switching to other anti-VEGFs in patients with DME not responding to previous anti-VEGF therapy may be an option, but the results are still not well-known due to a lack of randomized clinical trials. [Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging Retina. 2017;48:748-754.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  4. Diabetic retinopathy and diabetic macular edema: pathophysiology, screening, and novel therapies.

    PubMed

    Ciulla, Thomas A; Amador, Armando G; Zinman, Bernard

    2003-09-01

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR) and diabetic macular edema (DME) are leading causes of blindness in the working-age population of most developed countries. The increasing number of individuals with diabetes worldwide suggests that DR and DME will continue to be major contributors to vision loss and associated functional impairment for years to come. Early detection of retinopathy in individuals with diabetes is critical in preventing visual loss, but current methods of screening fail to identify a sizable number of high-risk patients. The control of diabetes-associated metabolic abnormalities (i.e., hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, and hypertension) is also important in preserving visual function because these conditions have been identified as risk factors for both the development and progression of DR/DME. The currently available interventions for DR/DME, laser photocoagulation and vitrectomy, only target advanced stages of disease. Several biochemical mechanisms, including protein kinase C-beta activation, increased vascular endothelial growth factor production, oxidative stress, and accumulation of intracellular sorbitol and advanced glycosylation end products, may contribute to the vascular disruptions that characterize DR/DME. The inhibition of these pathways holds the promise of intervention for DR at earlier non-sight-threatening stages. To implement new therapies effectively, more individuals will need to be screened for DR/DME at earlier stages-a process requiring both improved technology and interdisciplinary cooperation among physicians caring for patients with diabetes.

  5. Glucocorticoids: structure, signaling and molecular mechanisms in the treatment of diabetic retinopathy and diabetic macular edema.

    PubMed

    Zhang, X; Wang, N; Schachat, A P; Bao, S; Gillies, M C

    2014-03-01

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is one of the leading causes of blindness in the working population worldwide. Vascular leakage, angiogenesis and neuronal degeneration are key features of DR. Current effective interventions for DR include treatment of systemic risk factors such as elevated blood glucose, blood pressure and dyslipidemia. Ocular treatments include vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) inhibitors, laser photocoagulation and surgery. While anti-VEGF therapy has become as first-line treatment for diabetic macular edema (DME) that causes reduced vision, intravitreal glucocorticoids also have been shown to be efficacious in this situation. It has been reported that all the major pathological processes of DR are susceptible to glucocorticoid treatment. The effects of glucocorticoids on vascular leakage and angiogenesis may be mediated through their well established anti-inflammatory role. Alternatively, glucocorticoids may affect other mechanisms known to be activated in DR. Potential mechanisms for the anti-inflammatory effects of glucocorticoids include blockage of cytokine production and inhibition of leukocyte adhesion induced by VEGF-A. Glucocorticoids decrease the expression of VEGF-A directly, and increase the production, or decrease phosphorylation, of tight junction-associated proteins. Glucocorticoids have also been shown to be neuroprotective, in contrast to VEGF-A inhibitors which animal studies suggest may be neurotoxic. This review outlines the biological properties of synthetic glucocorticoids, with particular emphasis on the potential beneficial effect of combining glucocorticoids with anti-VEGF treatment for DME and DR.

  6. The Role of Anti-VEGF Therapy in the Treatment of Diabetic Macular Edema.

    PubMed

    Moshfeghi, Darius M; Kaiser, Peter K; Michels, Stephan; Midena, Edoardo; Kitchens, John W; Prenner, Jonathan L; Regillo, Carl D; Reichel, Elias

    2016-06-01

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is the leading cause of blindness among working-age adults. DR often leads to diabetic macular edema (DME), which often goes unnoticed until a patient presents with vision loss. However, treatment options and data for DME are continually improving. We know that vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) plays a key role in DME progression; therapies that act by inhibiting VEGF production seem to improve visual acuity in patients with DME. Of the anti-VEGF therapies available, two have been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration to treat DME: ranibizumab (Lucentis; Genentech, South San Francisco, CA) and aflibercept (Eylea; Regeneron, Tarrytown, NY). Bevacizumab (Avastin; Genentech, South San Francisco, CA), which is approved for the treatment of certain types of cancer, is occasionally used off-label to treat DME. Anti-VEGF therapy can stop vision loss and even improve visual acuity. Other treatments remain effective, and these various treatment options fuel a need for new data and discussion. This roundtable discussion, which took place during the 2015 annual meeting of the American Academy of Ophthalmology, outlines the current protocols used to treat DME and provides clinical opinions about selecting and treating with an appropriate anti-VEGF therapy. [Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging Retina. 2016;47:S5-14.].

  7. Restoration of foveal photoreceptors after intravitreal ranibizumab injections for diabetic macular edema

    PubMed Central

    Mori, Yuki; Suzuma, Kiyoshi; Uji, Akihito; Ishihara, Kenji; Yoshitake, Shin; Fujimoto, Masahiro; Dodo, Yoko; Yoshitake, Tatsuya; Miwa, Yuko; Murakami, Tomoaki

    2016-01-01

    Anti-vascular endothelial growth factor drugs are the first-line treatment for diabetic macular edema (DME), although the mechanism of the visual acuity (VA) improvement remains largely unknown. The association between photoreceptor damage and visual impairment encouraged us to retrospectively investigate the changes in the foveal photoreceptors in the external limiting membrane (ELM) and ellipsoid zone (EZ) on spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) images in 62 eyes with DME treated with intravitreal ranibizumab (IVR) injections. The transverse lengths of the disrupted EZ and ELM were shortened significantly (P < 0.001 and P = 0.044, respectively) at 12 months. The qualitative investigation also showed restoration of the EZ and ELM lines on SD-OCT images. The EZ at 12 months lengthened in 34 of 38 eyes with discontinuous EZ and was preserved in 16 of 21 eyes with complete EZ at baseline. VA improvement was positively correlated with shortening of the disrupted EZ at 12 months (ρ = 0.463, P < 0.001), whereas the decrease in central subfield thickness was associated with neither VA improvement nor changes in EZ status (ρ = 0.215, P = 0.093 and (ρ = 0.209, P = 0.103, respectively). These data suggested that photoreceptor restoration contributes to VA improvement after pro re nata treatment with IVR injections for DME independent of resolved retinal thickening. PMID:27966644

  8. Comparison of Perioperative Ranibizumab Injections for Diabetic Macular Edema in Patients Undergoing Cataract Surgery

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To compare the efficacy of perioperative ranibizumab injections on diabetic macular edema (DME) in patients undergoing cataract surgery. Methods. This study included 59 eyes of 59 patients. All patients had advanced cataract with DME and underwent an uneventful phacoemulsification surgery. There were 3 subgroups. The first group received intravitreal ranibizumab injection 2 weeks preoperatively, the second group received intraoperatively, and the third group received 2 weeks postoperatively. Follow-up examinations were performed at 1 week as well as at 1 and 3 months. Results. Baseline visual acuity showed a significant increase in all groups at 1 month. In group 1, compared to baseline value, foveal thickness (FT) increased significantly at 1 month and showed a significant decrease up to month 3. In group 2, FT increased at month 1 and this continued up to month 3. In group 3, FT increased at month 1 and was almost stable up to month 3. There were not any significant differences for visual acuity and FT between the groups. Conclusions. Although intrapostoperative ranibizumab injection for DME seems to be more effective than preoperative injections in patients undergoing cataract surgery, the treatment still needs to be continued following surgery. PMID:27493795

  9. Segmentation of microcystic macular edema in Cirrus OCT scans with an exploratory longitudinal study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swingle, Emily K.; Lang, Andrew; Carass, Aaron; Al-Louzi, Omar; Saidha, Shiv; Prince, Jerry L.; Calabresi, Peter A.

    2015-03-01

    Microcystic macular edema (MME) is a term used to describe pseudocystic spaces in the inner nuclear layer (INL) of the human retina. It has been noted in multiple sclerosis (MS) as well as a variety of other diseases. The processes that lead to MME formation and their change over time have yet to be explained sufficiently. The low rate at which MME occurs within such diverse patient groups makes the identification and consistent quantification of this pathology important for developing patient-specific prognoses. MME is observed in optical coherence tomography (OCT) scans of the retina as changes in light reflectivity in a pattern suggestive of fluid accumulations called pseudocysts. Pseudocysts can be readily identified in higher signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) images, however pseudocysts can be indistinguishable from noise in lower SNR scans. In this work, we expand upon our earlier MME identification methods on Spectralis OCT scans to handle lower quality Cirrus OCT scans. Our approach uses a random forest classifier, trained on manual segmentation of ten subjects, to automatically detect MME. The algorithm has a true positive rate for MME identification of 0.95 and a Dice score of 0.79. We include a preliminary longitudinal study of three patients over four to five years to explore the longitudinal changes of MME. The patients with relapsing-remitting MS and neuromyelitis optica appear to have dynamic pseudocyst volumes, while the MME volume appears stable in the one patient with primary progressive MS.

  10. Incidence of cystoid macular edema after Descemet's stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty.

    PubMed

    Pedemonte-Sarrias, Eduard; Salvador Playà, Toni; Sassot Cladera, Irene; Gris, Oscar; Ribas Martínez, Joan; García-Arumí, José; Giménez, Núria

    2017-01-01

    To determine the incidence of cystoid macular edema (CME) after Descemet's stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty (DSAEK). This study included all consecutive patients operated in a Spanish tertiary reference hospital over a period of four years. A total of 55 eyes from 47 patients matched the selection criteria. CME was diagnosed clinically at the slit-lamp and confirmed by optical coherence tomography. Six cases of CME were diagnosed postoperatively, which represented an incidence of 11%. Three patients had previously undergone DSAEK alone (7%; 3/41) and the other three, DSAEK combined with phacoemulsification (21%; 3/14). Five out of six patients with CME responded to standard therapy. CME is a possible complication after DSAEK and can be treated with standard therapy. CME appears more frequently when DSAEK is combined with phacoemulsification and posterior chamber (PC) intraocular lens (IOL) implantation. Intraoperative damage to the corneal endothelial cells might play a role in the pathogenesis of CME. As long as the causes remain unclear, we recommend administering prophylaxis when risk factors are present or when combined surgery is planned.

  11. Edema

    MedlinePlus

    Edema means swelling caused by fluid in your body's tissues. It usually occurs in the feet, ankles ... it can involve your entire body. Causes of edema include Eating too much salt Sunburn Heart failure ...

  12. VISUAL ACUITY AND MULTIFOCAL ELECTRORETINOGRAPHIC CHANGES AFTER ARTERIOVENOUS CROSSING SHEATHOTOMY FOR MACULAR EDEMA ASSOCIATED WITH BRANCH RETINAL VEIN OCCLUSION

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Eun Jee; Freeman, William R.; Koh, Hyoung Jun

    2009-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the influence of arteriovenous (AV) sheathotomy on retinal function with central multifocal electroretinography (mfERG) in eyes with macular edema secondary to branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO). Methods Fifteen patients (15 eyes) who underwent AV sheathotomy for macular edema secondary to BRVO were included in the study. Best-corrected visual acuity and mfERG responses from the most central seven hexagons were analyzed before and 6 months after the operation. Results The mean preoperative Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) score ± SD was 34.1 ± 12.7 letters (Snellen equivalent, 20/50) and significantly improved up to 40.5 ± 10.9 letters (Snellen equivalent, 20/40) at 6 months after AV sheathotomy (P = 0.027, Wilcoxon signed rank test). The mean preoperative P1 amplitude ± SD of the most central 7 hexagons was 39.30 ± 10.86 nV/deg2 for the affected eye versus 47.72 ± 6.67 nV/deg2 for the normal fellow (control) eye (P = 0.013, Mann–Whitney U test) and significantly increased up to 50.71 ± 15.58 nV/deg2 at 6 months after the operation (P = 0.014, Wilcoxon signed rank test). Significant correlations between preoperative and postoperative ETDRS score and preoperative P1 amplitude were present (r = 0.929, P < 0.001; r = 0.768, P = 0.001; respectively [Spearman correlation]). Conclusions AV sheathotomy improved macular function and anatomical outcome as measured by ETDRS score and mfERG responses in patients with macular edema due to BRVO. PMID:18301026

  13. The combination of phacoemulsification surgery and intravitreal triamcinolone injection in patients with cataract and diabetic macular edema

    PubMed Central

    Ozgur, Ozlen Rodop; Ozkurt, Yelda; Kulekci, Zeynep; Evciman, Tufan

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To assess the safety and efficiency of combined phacoemulsification (PHACO) surgery and intravitreal triamcinolone (IVTA) injection with or without macular grid laser photocoagulation in patients with cataract and diabetic macular edema. Material and methods This prospective study included 41 eyes of 36 diabetic patients with cataract and coexisting clinically significant macular edema (CSME). After PHACO and IVTA injection eyes were divided into two groups: the laser and IVTA group (Group 1) and only IVTA group (Group 2). Preoperative and postoperative best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), central macular thickness (CMT), and intraocular pressure (IOP) were recorded. Paired sample t-test was used to compare data in the groups and C square test for qualitative variables. Results Postoperative BCVA was significantly higher than the initial BCVA during the follow-up period in both groups (p < 0.01). The BCVA 6 months after surgery was significantly higher in group 1 than in group 2 (p < 0.01). There was no statistically significant difference in IOP between two groups preoperatively and postoperatively during the follow-up period (p > 0.05). There was no statistically significant difference between both groups in mean CMT preoperatively and 2nd week, 2nd month and 3rd month after surgery (p > 0.05). The mean CMT 6 months after surgery was statistically significantly lower in group 1 than in group 2 (p < 0.01). Conclusions PHACO surgery combined with IVTA injection improves BCVA and provides a decrease in CMT in diabetic patients with CSME. Additional macular grid laser photocoagulation after surgery helps to preserve this improvement in BCVA and decrease in CMT. PMID:26949356

  14. Optical Coherence Tomography Biomarkers as Functional Outcome Predictors in Diabetic Macular Edema Treated with Dexamethasone Implant.

    PubMed

    Zur, Dinah; Iglicki, Matias; Busch, Catharina; Invernizzi, Alessandro; Mariussi, Miriana; Loewenstein, Anat

    2017-09-18

    Identification and characterization of patients with diabetic macular edema (DME) are important for individualizing treatment and optimizing outcome. We investigated optical coherence tomography (OCT) biomarkers for DME treated by intravitreal dexamethasone (DEX) implant. Multicenter, retrospective, observational cohort study. A total of 299 eyes from 284 patients treated with DEX implant for DME (naïve, n = 209; refractory, n = 90). Baseline best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) was between 0.3 and 1.0 on a logarithm of minimum angle of resolution visual chart. The OCT scans previous to DEX implants were evaluated for submacular fluid, size and location of cystoid changes, inner segment-outer segment (IS-OS) continuity, quantity and location of hyperreflective foci (HRF), vitreomacular interface abnormalities, and epiretinal membrane. The BCVA and central macular thickness were recorded at baseline and at 1, 2, and 4 months after treatment with DEX implants. Correlations between OCT measures and visual outcome were analyzed using the generalized estimating equations procedure. The correlation between spectral-domain (SD) OCT measures at baseline and BCVA response (mean change from baseline; categorized improvement [<5, 5-9, or ≥10; Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study letters] in BCVA) after treatment with a DEX implant. The presence of subretinal fluid (odds ratio [OR], 1.98; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.23-3.20; P = 0.01), absence of HRF (OR, 3.66; 95% CI, 1.40-9.62; P = 0.01), and integrity of the IS-OS layer (OR, 2.09; 95% CI, 1.30-3.37; P = 0.003) were all predictive of better visual outcome after treatment with DEX implants. Although eyes with naïve DME gained more vision than refractory eyes (P < 0.001), the predictive value of OCT findings did not differ according to this classification. Spectral-domain OCT is useful in identifying various imaging findings in DME. Among eyes with DME, those with submacular fluid, no HRF, and a continuous IS

  15. Intravitreal aflibercept versus intravitreal ranibizumab for the treatment of diabetic macular edema

    PubMed Central

    Fouda, Sameh Mosaad; Bahgat, Ahmed M

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of intravitreal aflibercept and ranibizumab in the treatment of diabetic macular edema (DME) in eyes with moderate visual loss. Patients and methods This study is a randomized prospective study. Seventy eyes with DME were divided into two groups (each containing 35 eyes). Eyes in group I were treated with intravitreal injection of 2 mg/0.05 mL aflibercept and eyes in group II were treated with intravitreal injection of 0.5 mg/0.1 mL ranibizumab. All the eyes had three successive injections as a loading dose (with 1 month interval), and then the patients were followed up monthly for 12 months. The outcomes of the study were visual acuity, central macular thickness (CMT), and the number of re-injections of the drug. Results Mean age of the patients in group I was 55.05±4.7 years and in group II was 56.64±5.8 years (P=0.17). The mean baseline best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) of eyes treated with aflibercept was 0.17±0.05 and with ranibizumab was 0.18±0.04 (P=0.9). BCVA was improved in both the groups at the end of the follow-up period and was found to be 0.42±0.28 and 0.37±0.23, respectively (P=0.27). The mean baseline CMT of eyes in group I was 465.29±33.7 µm and in group II was 471.5±34.4 µm (P=0.65). CMT decreased in both the groups to 360.8±85.7 µm and 387.3±87.8 µm, respectively (P=0.2). The mean number of drug re-injection was 2.62±0.68 and 3.03±0.95 in both the groups, respectively (P=0.02). Conclusion Aflibercept and ranibizumab have the same efficacy in the treatment of DME in eyes with moderate visual loss but with less number of drug re-injection and less treatment burden with aflibercept (2.62±0.68 versus 3.03±0.95). PMID:28356711

  16. EFFICACY AND FREQUENCY OF INTRAVITREAL AFLIBERCEPT VERSUS BEVACIZUMAB FOR MACULAR EDEMA SECONDARY TO CENTRAL RETINAL VEIN OCCLUSION.

    PubMed

    Lotfy, Ayman; Solaiman, Kamal A M; Abdelrahman, Ayman; Samir, Ahmed

    2017-08-01

    To compare the safety, efficacy, and frequency of intravitreal injection of aflibercept and bevacizumab for treatment of macular edema secondary to central retinal vein occlusion. Prospective, comparative, randomized, interventional study. Eyes with macular edema secondary to central retinal vein occlusion were randomized between two groups according to the intravitreal injection used. Group A included eyes treated with intravitreal aflibercept, and Group B included eyes treated with intravitreal bevacizumab injections. The inclusion criteria were macular edema secondary to central retinal vein occlusion and follow-up duration of at least 12 months after the first injection. Exclusion criteria were macular ischemia, associated diabetes, hypertensive or renal retinopathy, other retinal disease, and previous anti-vascular endothelial growth factor injection. The main outcome measures are central foveal thickness, best-corrected visual acuity, time intervals between injections, improved retinal nonperfusion, and any reported complication. Group A included 39 patients with a mean age of 57.4 ± 8.2 years. Group B included 40 eyes with a mean age of 56.5 ± 9.1 years. Twelve months after the first injection, central foveal thickness significantly improved from 475.45 ± 71.05 m to 259.11 ± 20.67 m in Group A and from 460.22 ± 89.38 m to 264.29 ± 32.05 m in Group B; best-corrected visual acuity significantly improved from 0.81 ± 0.16 logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (20/125) to 0.34 ± 0.14 logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (20/40) in Group A and from 0.73 ± 0.15 logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (20/100) to 0.33 ± 0.17 logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (20/40) in Group B; the mean number of injections was 3.72 ± 2.93 in Group A and was 5.44 ± 2.85 in Group B (P < 0.05); and the mean interval between injections was 54.23 ± 8.47 days in Group A and was 35.12 ± 7.76 days in Group B (P < 0.05). Retinal nonperfusion

  17. ISIS-DME: a prospective, randomized, dose-escalation intravitreal steroid injection study for refractory diabetic macular edema.

    PubMed

    Kim, Judy E; Pollack, John S; Miller, David G; Mittra, Robert A; Spaide, Richard F

    2008-05-01

    : To determine safety and efficacy of intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide (IVTA) for refractory clinically significant diabetic macular edema (DME). : Prospective, randomized, dose-escalation pilot study comparing single injection of 2 mg versus 4 mg doses of IVTA. : Inclusion criteria included clinically significant DME persisting >/=3 months after maximal laser treatment and visual acuity 15 letters at 3 months in 23% (3/13) of 2 mg group and in 33% (5/15) of 4 mg group (P = 0.69), and 0% (0/11) and 21% (3/14) at 6 months, respectively (P = 0.23). Visual improvement was more likely in cystoid-type DME than diffuse DME. Intraocular pressure rise of >/=10 mmHg occurred in 19% (3/16) of 2 mg group and 41% (7/17) of 4 mg group. : Both doses of IVTA were well tolerated and had significant positive effects on refractory DME for short term. There were consistent trends throughout the study that suggest that a 4 mg IVTA may be more effective than a 2 mg dose. The benefit of IVTA was greater for cystoid-type DME.

  18. A randomized trial comparing intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide and focal/grid photocoagulation for diabetic macular edema.

    PubMed

    2008-09-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of 1-mg and 4-mg doses of preservative-free intravitreal triamcinolone in comparison with focal/grid photocoagulation for the treatment of diabetic macular edema (DME). Multicenter, randomized clinical trial. Eight hundred forty study eyes of 693 subjects with DME involving the fovea and with visual acuity of 20/40 to 20/320. Eyes were randomized to focal/grid photocoagulation (n = 330), 1 mg intravitreal triamcinolone (n = 256), or 4 mg intravitreal triamcinolone (n = 254). Retreatment was given for persistent or new edema at 4-month intervals. The primary outcome was evaluated at 2 years. Visual acuity measured with the electronic Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study method (primary), optical coherence tomography-measured retinal thickness (secondary), and safety. At 4 months, mean visual acuity was better in the 4-mg triamcinolone group than in either the laser group (P<0.001) or the 1-mg triamcinolone group (P = 0.001). By 1 year, there were no significant differences among groups in mean visual acuity. At the 16-month visit and extending through the primary outcome visit at 2 years, mean visual acuity was better in the laser group than in the other 2 groups (at 2 years, P = 0.02 comparing the laser and 1-mg groups, P = 0.002 comparing the laser and 4-mg groups, and P = 0.49 comparing the 1-mg and 4-mg groups). Treatment group differences in the visual acuity outcome could not be attributed solely to cataract formation. Optical coherence tomography results generally paralleled the visual acuity results. Intraocular pressure increased from baseline by 10 mmHg or more at any visit in 4%, 16%, and 33% of eyes in the 3 treatment groups, respectively, and cataract surgery was performed in 13%, 23%, and 51% of eyes in the 3 treatment groups, respectively. Over a 2-year period, focal/grid photocoagulation is more effective and has fewer side effects than 1-mg or 4-mg doses of preservative-free intravitreal triamcinolone for

  19. Comparison of Prevalence of Diabetic Macular Edema Based on Monocular Fundus Photography vs Optical Coherence Tomography.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu T; Tadarati, Mongkol; Wolfson, Yulia; Bressler, Susan B; Bressler, Neil M

    2016-02-01

    Diagnosing diabetic macular edema (DME) from monocular fundus photography vs optical coherence tomography (OCT) central subfield thickness (CST) can yield different prevalence rates for DME. Epidemiologic studies and telemedicine screening typically use monocular fundus photography, while treatment of DME uses OCT CST. To compare DME prevalence from monocular fundus photography and OCT. Retrospective cross-sectional study of DME grading based on monocular fundus photographs and OCT images obtained from patients with diabetic retinopathy at a single visit between July 1, 2011, and June 30, 2014, at a university-based practice and analyzed between July 30, 2014, and May 29, 2015. Presence of DME, including clinically significant macular edema (CSME), on monocular fundus photographs used definitions from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) and the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Presence of DME on OCT used Diabetic Retinopathy Clinical Research Network eligibility criteria thresholds of CST for trials evaluating anti-vascular endothelial growth factor treatments. Prevalence of DME based on monocular fundus photographs or OCT. A total of 246 eyes of 158 participants (mean [SD] age, 65.0 [11.9] years; 48.7% women; 60.8% white) were included. Among the 246 eyes, the prevalences of DME (61.4%) and CSME (48.5%) based on MESA definitions for monocular fundus photographs were greater than the DME prevalence based on OCT (21.1%) by 40.2% (95% CI, 32.8%-47.7%; P < .001) and 27.2% (95% CI, 19.2%-35.3%; P < .001), respectively. Using NHANES definitions, DME and CSME prevalences from monocular fundus photographs (28.5% and 21.0%, respectively) approximated the DME prevalence from OCT (21.1%). However, among eyes without DME on OCT, 58.2% (95% CI, 51.0%-65.3%) and 18.0% (95% CI, 12.9%-24.2%) were diagnosed as having DME on monocular fundus photographs using MESA and NHANES definitions, respectively, including 47.0% (95% CI, 39

  20. Switch to Aflibercept in Diabetic Macular Edema Patients Unresponsive to Previous Anti-VEGF Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Paulo, Manuel; Henriques, Filipe; Figueira, João

    2017-01-01

    Purpose. The aim was to evaluate the efficacy of aflibercept in patients with diabetic macular edema (DME) unresponsive to prior anti-VEGF therapy. Methods. Retrospective review of DME unresponsive to previous anti-VEGF switched to aflibercept with 3 months of follow-up. Changes in best correct visual acuity (BCVA), central retinal thickness (CRT), and frequency of injections were analyzed. The percentage of subjects who had ≥20/40 (logMAR equivalent 0.3) and ≤20/200 (logMAR equivalent 1) was evaluated. Results. A total of 32 eyes from 26 patients were included. Mean age was 65 ± 10 years old. The mean number of previous anti-VEGF injections was 5.34 ± 2.38, and the mean number of aflibercept injections at the end of the study was 2.00 ± 0.00. The CRT at baseline was 501.47 ± 150.51 μm and 367.97 ± 124.61 μm at 3 months of follow-up (P < 0.001). The logMAR BCVA at baseline was 0.71 ± 0.36 and 0.65 ± 0.33 at the end of the follow-up (P = 0.037). At baseline, 12.5% of patients had ≥20/40 compared with 25% at the end of follow-up. At baseline, 28.13% of patients had 20/200 or inferior vision compared with 15.63% at the end of the follow-up. Conclusions. DME patients unresponsive to previous multiple ranibizumab injections demonstrate a significant anatomical and functional improvement with the switch to aflibercept. PMID:28348885

  1. Implantable MicroPump for Drug Delivery in Patients with Diabetic Macular Edema

    PubMed Central

    Humayun, Mark; Santos, Arturo; Altamirano, Juan Carlos; Ribeiro, Ramiro; Gonzalez, Roberto; de la Rosa, Alejandro; Shih, Jason; Pang, Changling; Jiang, Fukang; Calvillo, Philip; Huculak, John; Zimmerman, Jenna; Caffey, Sean

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To demonstrate the safety and surgical feasibility of the first-in-man ocular implant of a novel Posterior MicroPump Drug Delivery System (PMP) in patients with diabetic macular edema (DME) and to report on the device capabilities for delivering a programmable microdose. Methods This was a single center, single arm, open-label, prospective study. Eleven patients with DME and visual acuity equal to or worse than 20/40 were included. The PMP prefilled with ranibizumab was implanted into the subconjunctival space. After implantation, the PMP was wirelessly controlled to deliver a programmed microdose. Comprehensive ophthalmic exams and optical coherence tomography were performed biweekly for 90 days. At the end of the study, the PMP was explanted and the subjects thereafter received standard of care for DME (i.e., laser or intravitreal injections). Results All 11 surgical implantations were without complications and within the skill sets of a retinal surgeon. No serious adverse events occurred during the follow-up period. At no point were visual acuity and central foveal thickness worse than baseline in the implanted eye. The PMP delivered the programmed ranibizumab dosage in seven subjects. The remaining four patients received a lower than target dose, and the treatment was complemented with standard intravitreal injection. Conclusions This study demonstrates the first-in-man safety of the Replenish MicroPump implant for a period of 90 days and its capability to deliver a microdose into the vitreous cavity. Further studies to enable longer-term safety and to demonstrate the feasibility of multiple programmable drug delivery are necessary. PMID:25653883

  2. Association Between Diabetic Macular Edema and Cardiovascular Events in Type 2 Diabetes Patients

    PubMed Central

    Leveziel, Nicolas; Ragot, Stéphanie; Gand, Elise; Lichtwitz, Olivier; Halimi, Jean Michel; Gozlan, Julien; Gourdy, Pierre; Robert, Marie-Françoise; Dardari, Dured; Boissonnot, Michèle; Roussel, Ronan; Piguel, Xavier; Dupuy, Olivier; Torremocha, Florence; Saulnier, Pierre-Jean; Maréchaud, Richard; Hadjadj, Samy

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Diabetic macular edema (DME) is the main cause of visual loss associated with diabetes but any association between DME and cardiovascular events is unclear. This study aims to describe the possible association between DME and cardiovascular events in a multicenter cross-sectional study of patients with type 2 diabetes. Two thousand eight hundred seven patients with type 2 diabetes were recruited from diabetes and nephrology clinical institutional centers participating in the DIAB 2 NEPHROGENE study focusing on diabetic complications. DME (presence/absence) and diabetic retinopathy (DR) classification were based on ophthalmological report and/or on 30° color retinal photographs. DR was defined as absent, nonproliferative (background, moderate, or severe) or proliferative. Cardiovascular events were stroke, myocardial infarction, and lower limb amputation. Details regarding associations between DME and cardiovascular events were evaluated. The study included 2807 patients with type 2 diabetes, of whom 355 (12.6%) had DME. DME was significantly and independently associated with patient age, known duration of diabetes, HbA1c, systolic blood pressure, and DR stage. Only the prior history of lower limb amputation was strongly associated with DME in univariate and multivariate analyses, whereas no association was found with regard to myocardial infarction or stroke. Moreover, both major (n = 32) and minor lower limb (n = 96) amputations were similarly associated with DME, with respective odds ratio of 3.7 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.77–7.74; P = 0.0012) and of 4.29 (95% CI, 2.79–6.61; P < 0.001). DME is strongly and independently associated with lower limb amputation in type 2 diabetic patients. PMID:26287408

  3. Dexamethasone intravitreal implants for diabetic macular edema refractory to ranibizumab monotherapy or combination therapy.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-Benítez, L; Millan, E; Arias, L; Garcia, P; Cobos, E; Caminal, M

    2015-10-01

    To determine the effectiveness and local safety of dexamethasone intravitreal implants as a treatment in diabetic macular edema (DME) refractory to intravitreal injections of ranibizumab monotherapy or combination therapy. A retrospective study conducted on patients with DME refractory to ranibizumab monotherapy or combined with other treatments treated with dexamethasone intravitreal implants. The parameters analyzed were visual acuity (VA) by ETDRS (Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study) charts and foveal thickness by spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) before the treatment, 2 months after treatment, and at the end of the follow-up. A total of 14 eyes of 14 patients were included, with a mean age of 64 years (SD: 9.5; range 41-78) and a mean follow-up of 7.6 months. The mean VA improved from 53 letters to 59 letters at 2 months (P=.03), and 57 at the end of the follow-up period (P=.3). The mean foveal thickness decreased from 502 μ to 304 μ at 2 months (P=.001), and 376 μ at the end of the follow-up period (P=.009). Further treatment with intravitreal dexamethasone was required in 43% of the patients, and 21% had increased intraocular pressure, which was controlled with topical medication. Intravitreal dexamethasone implant is an effective and locally safe treatment for the management of DME refractory to ranibizumab monotherapy or combined with other treatments. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. Cost-effectiveness of ranibizumab in the treatment of visual impairment due to diabetic macular edema.

    PubMed

    Haig, Jennifer; Barbeau, Martin; Ferreira, Alberto

    2016-07-01

    Objective Ranibizumab, an anti-vascular endothelial growth factor designed for ocular use, has been deemed cost-effective in multiple indications by several Health Technology Assessment bodies. This study assessed the cost-effectiveness of ranibizumab monotherapy or combination therapy (ranibizumab plus laser photocoagulation) compared with laser monotherapy for the treatment of visual impairment due to diabetic macular edema (DME). Methods A Markov model was developed in which patients moved between health states defined by best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) intervals and an absorbing 'death' state. The population of interest was patients with DME due to type 1 or type 2 diabetes mellitus. Baseline characteristics were based on those of participants in the RESTORE study. Main outputs were costs (in 2013 CA$) and health outcomes (in quality-adjusted life-years [QALYs]) and the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) was calculated. This cost-utility analysis was conducted from healthcare system and societal perspectives in Quebec. Results From a healthcare system perspective, the ICERs for ranibizumab monotherapy and combination therapy vs laser monotherapy were CA$24 494 and CA$36 414 per QALY gained, respectively. The incremental costs per year without legal blindness for ranibizumab monotherapy and combination therapy vs laser monotherapy were CA$15 822 and CA$20 616, respectively. Based on the generally accepted Canadian ICER threshold of CA$50 000 per QALY gained, ranibizumab monotherapy and combination therapy were found to be cost-effective compared with laser monotherapy. From a societal perspective, ranibizumab monotherapy and combination therapy provided greater benefits at lower costs than laser monotherapy (ranibizumab therapy dominated laser therapy). Conclusions Ranibizumab monotherapy and combination therapy resulted in increased quality-adjusted survival and time without legal blindness and lower costs from a societal perspective compared with

  5. Dexamethasone implant in diabetic macular edema in real-life situations

    PubMed Central

    Chhablani, J; Bansal, P; Veritti, D; Sambhana, S; Sarao, V; Pichi, F; Carrai, P; Massaro, D; Lembo, A; Mansour, A M; Banker, A; Gupta, S R; Hamam, R; Lanzetta, P

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To report outcome of eyes with recalcitrant and naive eyes with diabetic macular edema (DME) treated with intravitreal dexamethasone implants (Ozurdex) injection. Methods Retrospective multicenter data analysis of eyes with DME treated with Ozurdex implant and with minimum follow-up of at least one year after the first implant. Data collected included demographic details, history of presenting illness, past treatment history, clinical examination details including visual acuity at presentation, and follow-up with imaging and treatment details. Paired sample t-test was used to measure mean differences between pre- and post-implant values obtained at baseline and last follow-up. Results A total of 79 eyes (62 subjects) were included. Sixty-four eyes had been previously treated; 15 eyes were naive. Among the previously treated eyes, mean interval between first Ozurdex injection and any previous treatment was 7.69±8.2 months. In naive eyes, the visual acuity improved from baseline 0.58±0.25 to 0.44±0.33 logMAR at last follow-up (P=0.05). In eyes that had been previously treated, the improvement was from 0.65±0.34 at baseline to 0.48±0.35 logMAR (P=0.01). Mean treatment-free interval was 6.5±4.5 months. Nine eyes were steroid responder with controlled intraocular pressure (IOP), none showed any spike in IOP during the follow-up period. Conclusions Ozurdex implant could be a good alternative for recalcitrant as well as naive eyes with DME. The visual gain after initial implant injection was fairly maintained, with additional treatment usually after 6 months in naive eyes. Ozurdex appeared safe even in steroid responders with good control of IOP with antiglaucoma medications. PMID:26611849

  6. Fully Automatic Segmentation of Fluorescein Leakage in Subjects With Diabetic Macular Edema

    PubMed Central

    Rabbani, Hossein; Allingham, Michael J.; Mettu, Priyatham S.; Cousins, Scott W.; Farsiu, Sina

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To create and validate software to automatically segment leakage area in real-world clinical fluorescein angiography (FA) images of subjects with diabetic macular edema (DME). Methods. Fluorescein angiography images obtained from 24 eyes of 24 subjects with DME were retrospectively analyzed. Both video and still-frame images were obtained using a Heidelberg Spectralis 6-mode HRA/OCT unit. We aligned early and late FA frames in the video by a two-step nonrigid registration method. To remove background artifacts, we subtracted early and late FA frames. Finally, after postprocessing steps, including detection and inpainting of the vessels, a robust active contour method was utilized to obtain leakage area in a 1500-μm-radius circular region centered at the fovea. Images were captured at different fields of view (FOVs) and were often contaminated with outliers, as is the case in real-world clinical imaging. Our algorithm was applied to these images with no manual input. Separately, all images were manually segmented by two retina specialists. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of manual interobserver, manual intraobserver, and automatic methods were calculated. Results. The mean accuracy was 0.86 ± 0.08 for automatic versus manual, 0.83 ± 0.16 for manual interobserver, and 0.90 ± 0.08 for manual intraobserver segmentation methods. Conclusions. Our fully automated algorithm can reproducibly and accurately quantify the area of leakage of clinical-grade FA video and is congruent with expert manual segmentation. The performance was reliable for different DME subtypes. This approach has the potential to reduce time and labor costs and may yield objective and reproducible quantitative measurements of DME imaging biomarkers. PMID:25634978

  7. Trends in the Care of Diabetic Macular Edema: Analysis of a National Cohort

    PubMed Central

    VanderBeek, Brian L.; Shah, Neepa; Parikh, Purak C.; Ma, Liyuan

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate how the monitoring and treatment for diabetic macular edema (DME) has changed in a national sample. Design Retrospective cohort study. Methods Setting: Administrative medical claims data from a large, national U.S. insurer. Study population: Beneficiaries of a U.S. insurance company. Observation procedures: All incident cases of DME were found. Those in years 2002/3, 2006 and 2010 were followed for a 2-year observation period and those from 2009, 2010 and 2011 for a 1-year observation period. Main Outcome Measures: Types and frequencies of treatment were tallied and compared over each of the cohorts. Results Two-year cohorts had 233, 251 and 756 patients in 2002/3, 2006 and 2010 respectively. One-year cohorts had 1002, 1119 and 1382 patients in 2009, 2010 and 2011, respectively. Both percentage of patients receiving therapy and number of treatments given increased across the 2-year cohorts for both focal laser and anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) (p<0.001). The highest use of anti-VEGF agents in any of the cohorts was in the 2011 1-year group that only averaged 3.78 injections. Focal laser was used 2.5x as frequently as anti-VEGF injections in the most recent cohorts with only a high of 14.0% of DME patients receiving anti-VEGF therapy in any of the cohorts. Conclusion Regardless of treatment modality (laser or injection) DME patients received vastly fewer treatments than patients in randomized control trials. Despite the proven superior visual outcomes of anti-VEGF agents over focal laser in DME, focal laser was still used more frequently. PMID:26909797

  8. Treatment of cystoid macular edema with the new-generation NSAID nepafenac 0.1%

    PubMed Central

    Hariprasad, Seenu M; Akduman, Levent; Clever, Joseph A; Ober, Michael; Recchia, Franco M; Mieler, William F

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To describe the use of nepafenac 0.1% for cystoid macular edema (CME). Methods: This was a multicenter retrospective review of 22 CME cases (20 patients) treated with nepafenac 0.1% (six with concomitant prednisolone acetate 1%) from December 2005 to April 2008: three acute pseudophakic CME cases, 13 chronic/recalcitrant pseudophakic CME cases, and six cases of uveitic CME. Pre- and post-treatment retinal thickness and visual acuity were reported. Results: Following treatment for six weeks to six months, six eyes with uveitic CME showed a mean retinal thickness improvement of 227 ± 168.1 μm; mean best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) improvement was 0.36 ± 0.20 logMAR. All three cases of acute pseudophakic CME improved after four to 10 weeks of nepafenac, with a mean improvement in retinal thickness of 134 ± 111.0 μm. BCVA improved in two patients (0.16 and 0.22 logMAR) but not in the third due to underlying retinal pigment epithelium changes. Thirteen eyes with chronic/recalcitrant pseudophakic CME demonstrated a mean improvement in retinal thickness of 178 ± 128.7 μm after nepafenac and mean BCVA improvement of 0.33 ± 0.19 logMAR. Conclusion: The positive outcomes of these 22 eyes strongly suggest that nepafenac 0.1% is a promising drug for the treatment of CME. Additional study under randomized controlled conditions is warranted. PMID:19668559

  9. Comparison between ranibizumab and aflibercept for macular edema associated with central retinal vein occlusion.

    PubMed

    Saishin, Yoshitsugu; Ito, Yuka; Fujikawa, Masato; Sawada, Tomoko; Ohji, Masahito

    2017-01-01

    We compared the efficacy of bimonthly intravitreal injections of ranibizumab (IVR) with that of bimonthly intravitreal injections of aflibercept (IVA) in two prospective, consecutive groups of patients with macular edema (ME) secondary to central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO). Eyes with ME after CRVO received either bimonthly IVR (ranibizumab group; n = 13) or IVA (aflibercept group; n = 13) injections and were followed monthly for 6 months. Three patients in the ranibizumab group and two in the aflibercept group were lost to follow-up and excluded from the study. The best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), central foveal thickness (CFT) on optical coherence tomography, and aqueous vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) concentrations were evaluated before and after treatment. From baseline to month 6, significant improvements occurred in mean logMAR BCVA (ranibizumab group: 0.78-0.47; p < 0.05; aflibercept group: 0.74-0.54; p < 0.05) and mean CFT (ranibizumab group: 685-311 µm; p < 0.05; aflibercept group: 695-230 µm; p < 0.05). Fluctuations in CFT were seen at months 2, 4, and 6 in the ranibizumab group. Mean aqueous VEGF concentration decreased from baseline to month 2 in the ranibizumab group (509.9-348.2 pg/ml) and aflibercept group (412.1 pg/ml to undetectable limits in eight of 11 eyes and to 13.6, 15.6, and 24.1 pg/ml in the other three eyes, respectively). There was no significant improvement of visual acuity in one group compared with another; VEGF may not be completely neutralized by bimonthly injections of ranibizumab.

  10. Dorzolamide Chlorhydrate Versus Acetazolamide in the Management of Chronic Macular Edema in Patients with Retinitis Pigmentosa: Description of Three Case Reports

    PubMed Central

    Pacella, Elena; Arrico, Loredana; Santamaria, Valentina; Turchetti, Paolo; Carbotti, Maria Rosaria; La Torre, Giuseppe; Pacella, Fernanda

    2014-01-01

    AIMS To assess the efficacy of topical dorzolamide for treating cystoid macular edema in patients with retinitis pigmentosa and minimize the secondary effects of maintenance therapy in patients with retinitis pigmentosa (RP) who present with chronic microcystic macular edema. METHODS To replace acetazolamide systemic treatment, with a topical treatment using 2% dorzolamide in three patients. The methods performed were OCT scan with a Spectralis HRA-OCT, for the measurement of macular thickness and morphology; best corrected visual acuity was assessed using Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS), was assessed slit-lamp biomicroscopy, ocular tonometry, fundus biomiocrosopy, and color fundus photography. This therapeutic protocol has been applied and described in three patients. RESULTS In all three tested patients, following the administration of dorzolamide in eye drop, we observed a remarkable decrease in macular edema, almost comparable to that obtained with acetazolamide per os. CONCLUSION The study confirms the anti-edematogenic effect of topical dorzolamide in RP with recurring macular cysts, as this can have a favorable response with topical dorzolamide. In all the three examined patients, the instillation of topical dorzolamide caused a remarkable reduction in their macular edema, as highlighted on OCT. PMID:24932106

  11. DEXAMETHASONE IMPLANT FOR MACULAR EDEMA SECONDARY TO CENTRAL RETINAL VEIN OCCLUSION IN PATIENTS YOUNGER THAN 50 YEARS.

    PubMed

    Battaglia Parodi, Maurizio; Iacono, Pierluigi; Sacconi, Riccardo; Parravano, Mariacristina; Varano, Monica; Bandello, Francesco

    2015-07-01

    To evaluate the effects of dexamethasone implant for macular edema secondary to central retinal vein occlusion in patients younger than 50 years. Patients with no previous treatment, macular edema with central foveal thickness >250 μm and best-corrected visual acuity between 1.30 LogMAR and 0.30 LogMAR were prospectively recruited for a 12-month follow-up study. After baseline dexamethasone implant, re-treatment was performed starting from the fourth month if a best-corrected visual acuity deterioration with central foveal thickness >250 μm occurred after an initial improvement. The primary outcome was the change in the best-corrected visual acuity. Secondary outcomes included the proportion of eyes gaining at least 3 Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study lines, the change in the central foveal thickness, and the number of treatments. Mean best-corrected visual acuity changed significantly from 0.60 ± 0.38 LogMAR at baseline to 0.43 ± 0.48 at the 12-month examination (P = 0.03). Eight of 16 eyes (50%) gained 3 Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study lines. Mean central foveal thickness improved significantly from 705 ± 202 μm at baseline to 408 ± 196 μm at 12-month visit (P < 0.001). The patients received a mean of 1.8 ± 0.9 implants with 8/16 eyes and 3/16 receiving 1 and 2 implants, respectively. This present investigation indicates that dexamethasone implant can provide a 3-line improvement in half of the patients younger than 50 years and affected by macular edema secondary to central retinal vein occlusion.

  12. Resolution of bilateral cystoid macular edema and subfoveal serous retinal detachments after treatment with bortezomib in a patient with "smoldering" multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Grannis, Charity H; Dewan, Vinay N; Wang, Robert C

    2014-01-01

    To describe a case of a patient with multiple myeloma without extraocular end-organ damage but with cystoid macular edema and macular detachments who was treated with bortezomib and dexamethasone. There was a complete resolution of retinal and subretinal fluid and significant improvement of vision. The patient's ocular disease was monitored with visual acuity, dilated fundus examinations, and optical coherence tomography before, during, and after treatment. The patient in this case report was a 43-year-old African American man with a medical history of untreated, "smoldering" multiple myeloma, hypertension, hyperlipidemia who presented to our clinic with progressive painless loss of vision in both eyes over 6 weeks. Before treatment with bortezomib and dexamethasone, the patient had complaints of confusion, muscle stiffness, joint pain, and 20-lb unintentional weight loss; however, he did not have hypercalcemia, renal insufficiency, anemia, or bone lesions typical of active multiple myeloma. The bilateral cystoid macular edema and subfoveal neurosensory retinal detachments, noted on presentation and confirmed by optical coherence tomography, completely resolved over the course of treatment with bortezomib and dexamethasone. This case of bilateral cystoid macular edema and subfoveal neurosensory retinal detachments is remarkable for both its presentation and response to therapy. The macular edema and macular detachments along with nonspecific complaints of confusion, muscle stiffness, joint pain, and weight loss were the presenting signs and symptoms; signs typically used as guides to initiate treatment for multiple myeloma were not present. Macular edema in the context of paraproteinemia is usually associated with Waldenstrom's macroglobulinemia and has classically been reported as "silent" with respect to fluorescein angiography. Our patient has multiple myeloma and demonstrated leakage on fluorescein angiography. The case is also notable in that there was

  13. [Efficacy of topical ketorolac for improving visual function after photocoagulation in diabetic patients with focal macular edema].

    PubMed

    Razo Blanco-Hernández, Dulce Milagros; Lima-Gómez, Virgilio; Asbun-Bojalil, Juan

    2014-01-01

    Antecedentes: la fotocoagulación reduce la incidencia de pérdida visual en diabéticos con edema macular focal, aunque puede inducirla durante 6 semanas; la mejoría visual después del tratamiento es excepcional. El ketorolaco tópico puede limitar la inflamación causada por la fotocoagulación, y mejorar el desenlace visual. Objetivo: determinar la eficacia del ketorolaco tópico en la mejoría de la función visual después de la fotocoagulación, en diabéticos con edema macular focal. Material y métodos: estudio experimental, comparativo, prospectivo, longitudinal efectuado en diabéticos con edema macular focal, asignados al azar a dos grupos de tratamiento tópico durante 3 semanas después de la fotocoagulación (A: ketorolaco, B: placebo). En cada grupo se comparó la agudeza visual antes y después del tratamiento (t pareada) y entre grupos la proporción de ojos con mejoría visual (χ(2)). La evaluación se repitió con estratificación por agudeza visual inicial (≥ 0.5, < 0.5). Resultados: se analizaron 105 ojos; en el grupo A (n= 46) el promedio de agudeza visual cambió de 0.50 a 0.58 (p= 0.003), en el B (n= 59) de 0.55 a 0.55 (p= 0.83); el promedio del cambio porcentual fue 22.3% en el grupo A y 3.5% en el B (p= 0.03). Hubo mejoría visual en 25 ojos del grupo A (54.3%) y 19 del B (32.2%, p= 0.019, RR 1.65); la diferencia persistió cuando la agudeza visual inicial era ≥ 0.5 (10 [40%], grupo A, 5 [14.7%], grupo B, p= 0.02, RR 2.72). Conclusiones: el ketorolaco fue más eficaz que el placebo para mejorar la agudeza visual en pacientes diabéticos con edema macular focal.

  14. Rebound macular edema following oral acetazolamide therapy for juvenile X-linked retinoschisis in an Italian family

    PubMed Central

    Galantuomo, Maria Silvana; Fossarello, Maurizio; Cuccu, Alberto; Farci, Roberta; Preising, Markus N; Lorenz, Birgit; Napoli, Pietro Emanuele

    2016-01-01

    Background Juvenile X-linked retinoschisis (RS1, OMIM: 312700) is a hereditary vitreoretinal dystrophy characterized by bilateral foveal schisis and, in half of the patients, splitting through the nerve fiber layer in the peripheral retina. In the first decade of life, patients usually develop a decrease in visual acuity. Long-term visual outcomes can be poor due to the limited number of known successful treatments. Purpose The purposes of this study were to present, for the first time, a p.Arg197Cys missense mutation in the RS1 gene (OMIM: 300839) in a four-generation Italian family with RS1 and to examine the clinical response to the treatment with acetazolamide tablets alone or in combination with dorzolamide eye drops as assessed by spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). Methods Eleven individuals, including two brothers with RS1 (patients 1 and 2), underwent a full medical history examination and a comprehensive ocular assessment that involved SD-OCT, fluorescein angiography, electroretinography and DNA analysis. Each RS1 patient received oral acetazolamide (375 mg daily) during the first three months. Thereafter, patient 1 continued only with dorzolamide eyedrops three times a day for a period of three months, while patient 2 spontaneously stopped both medications. Results Sequence analysis of the RS1 gene identified a hemizygous c.589C>T (p.Arg197Cys) missense mutation in exon 6, which has not been previously reported in an Italian family. A different response to the medical therapy was observed in the four eyes of the two affected brothers hemizygous for this abnormality. Of note, after acetazolamide interruption, a rebound effect on cystoid macular edema reduced the beneficial effects of the initial therapy for RS1 from p.Arg197Cys mutation. Indeed, a minimal rebound effect on cystoid macular edema, and an improvement in visual acuity, was observed in patient 1 during the six months of treatment. Conversely, in patient 2, an initial

  15. Macular edema in Asian Indian premature infants with retinopathy of prematurity: Impact on visual acuity and refractive status after 1-year

    PubMed Central

    Vinekar, Anand; Mangalesh, Shwetha; Jayadev, Chaitra; Bauer, Noel; Munusamy, Sivakumar; Kemmanu, Vasudha; Kurian, Mathew; Mahendradas, Padmamalini; Avadhani, Kavitha; Shetty, Bhujang

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To report the impact of transient, self-resolving, untreated “macular edema” detected on spectral domain optical coherence tomography in Asian Indian premature infants with retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) on visual acuity (VA) and refraction at 1-year of corrected age. Materials and Methods: Visual acuity and refraction of 11 infants with bilateral macular edema (Group A) was compared with gestational age-matched 16 infants with ROP without edema (Group B) and 17 preterms infants without ROP and without edema (Group C) at 3, 6, 9 and 12 months of corrected age using Teller Acuity Cards and cycloplegic retinoscopy. Sub-group analysis of the previously described pattern A and B macular edema was performed. Results: Visual acuity was lower in infants with macular edema compared with the other two control groups throughout the study period, but statistically significant only at 3 months. Visual improvement in these infants was highest between the 3rd and 6th month and plateaued by the end of the 1st year with acuity comparable to the other two groups. The edema cohort was more hyperopic compared to the other two groups between 3 and 12 months of age. Pattern A edema had worse VA compared to pattern B, although not statistically significant. Conclusion: Macular edema, although transient, caused reduced VA as early as 3 months of corrected age in Asian Indian premature infants weighing <2000 g at birth. The higher hyperopia in these infants is possibly due to visual disturbances caused at a critical time of fovealization. We hypothesize a recovery and feedback mechanism based on the principles of active emmetropization to explain our findings. PMID:26139806

  16. Effects of Diabetic Macular Edema on Repeatability of Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Thickness Measurements at the Macular and Peripapillary Area Using Swept-Source Optical Coherence Tomography.

    PubMed

    Min, Jung Kee; Lee, Seunghwan; Kim, Ju Sung; Woo, Je Moon; Yang, Hyun Seung

    2017-02-01

    To investigate the repeatability of macular and peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness measurements made using swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) and automated segmentation. Measurements were made in non-diabetic controls and in patients with diabetic retinopathy (DR) with or without diabetic macular edema (DME). A total of 131 eyes of 131 participants were included. Fifty-one eyes with DR had no DME (DME[-]), 45 eyes with DR had DME (DME[+]), and 35 eyes were healthy. Measurements of RNFL and full retinal thickness were simultaneously obtained with SS-OCT in the peripapillary area and in the nine Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) subfields using the wide three-dimensional mode. All measurements were made twice on the same day by a single examiner to test intra-observer repeatability. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) and coefficients of repeatability were examined to evaluate repeatability. Average macular and temporal peripapillary RNFL thickness values were greater in the DME[+] group (36.4 ± 13.2 and 83.8 ± 19.4 µm, respectively) than in the control (27.4 ± 3.5 and 73.5 ± 11.4 µm, respectively) and DME[-] (27.9 ± 3.4 µm and 70.3 ± 11.3 µm, respectively) groups (both P < 0.001). The ICCs of average macular (control: 0.982, DME[-]: 0.913, and DME[+]: 0.970) and peripapillary (control: 0.972, DME[-]: 0.973, and DME[+]: 0.958) RNFL thickness measurements indicated good repeatability in all three study groups. Although the ICCs of average RNFL thickness measurements were relatively lower in eyes with DR than in healthy controls, the intra-observer repeatability of SS-OCT RNFL and full retinal thickness measurements is sufficiently reliable for them to be clinically useful.

  17. Clinical Characteristics of Patients with Newly Diagnosed Diabetic Macular Edema in Turkey: A Real-Life Registry Study—TURK-DEM

    PubMed Central

    Ozdek, Sengul; Ozmert, Emin; Ulay, Esat; Nomak, Gulsah

    2017-01-01

    Purpose. To evaluate the clinical and diagnostic characteristics of patients with newly diagnosed diabetic macular edema (DME) in Turkey in a real-life setting. Methods. A total of 945 consecutive patients (mean (SD) age: 61.3 (9.9) years, 55.2% male) with newly diagnosed DME were included. Data on patient demographics, comorbidities, ocular history, ophthalmic examination findings including type of DME, central macular thickness (CMT) via time domain (TD) and spectral domain (SD) optical coherence tomography (OCT), and planned treatments were recorded. Results. OCT (98.8%) and fundoscopy (92.9%) were the two most common diagnostic methods. Diffuse and focal DMEs were detected in 39.2% and 36.9% of cases, respectively. Laser photocoagulation (32.1%) and antivascular endothelial growth factors (anti-VEGF; 31.8%) were the most commonly planned treatments. The median CMT in the right eye was significantly greater in untreated than in treated patients [376.5 μm (range: 160–840) versus 342 μm (range: 146–999) (p = 0.002)] and in the left eye [370 μm (range: 201–780) versus 329 μm (range: 148–999) (p < 0.001)]. Conclusions. This study is the first large-scale real-life registry of DME patients in Turkey. SD-OCT and fundoscopy were the most common diagnostic methods. Laser photocoagulation and anti-VEGF therapy were the most common treatments. PMID:28316835

  18. Qualitative and quantitative characteristics of near-infrared autofluorescence in diabetic macular edema.

    PubMed

    Yoshitake, Shin; Murakami, Tomoaki; Horii, Takahiro; Uji, Akihito; Ogino, Ken; Unoki, Noriyuki; Nishijima, Kazuaki; Yoshimura, Nagahisa

    2014-05-01

    To study the characteristics of near-infrared autofluorescence (NIR-AF) imaging and its association with spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) findings and logarithm of the minimal angle of resolution (logMAR) visual acuity (VA) in diabetic macular edema (DME). Retrospective, observational, cross-sectional study. One hundred twenty-one consecutive eyes of 87 patients with center-involved DME for whom NIR-AF and SD-OCT images of sufficient quality were obtained. The NIR-AF images were acquired using Heidelberg Retina Angiograph 2 (Heidelberg Engineering, Heidelberg, Germany), and sectional retinal images were obtained using Spectralis OCT (Heidelberg Engineering). The presence of a mosaic pattern and cystoid signs were determined qualitatively. We quantified the average fluorescence intensity in the central 1-mm subfield. The characteristics of the NIR-AF images were compared with the OCT findings and logMAR VA. Qualitative and quantitative characteristics of the NIR-AF images and their association with SD-OCT findings and logMAR VA. Fifty-seven eyes with a mosaic pattern in the NIR-AF macular images had worse logMAR VA (0.355±0.239 vs. 0.212±0.235; P = 0.001), a thicker central subfield (CSF) (530±143 μm vs. 438±105 μm; P <0.001), and disrupted external limiting membrane (ELM; P <0.001) compared with 64 eyes without these findings. Forty-one eyes with a cystoid sign in the NIR-AF images had worse logMAR VA (0.393±0.233 vs. 0.221±0.234; P <0.001) and a thicker CSF (557±155 μm vs. 443±100 μm; P <0.001) than those without them; there were no significant differences in the ELM status. The relative fluorescence intensity in the central subfield in the NIR-AF images was correlated negatively with the CSF thickness and logMAR VA (R = 0.492, P <0.001 and R = 0.377, P <0.001, respectively). Eyes with foveal serous retinal detachment had lower levels of relative fluorescence intensity than those without it (0.751±0.191 vs. 0.877±0

  19. Foveal Microstructure Analysis in Eyes with Diabetic Macular Edema Treated with Vitrectomy.

    PubMed

    Kogo, Jiro; Shiono, Akira; Sasaki, Hiroki; Yomoda, Ryo; Jujo, Tatsuya; Kitaoka, Yasushi; Takagi, Hitoshi

    2017-08-14

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate baseline and postoperative factors affecting outcomes after vitrectomy for diabetic macular edema (DME) using optical coherence tomography (OCT). Vitrectomy combined with inner limiting membrane (ILM) peeling and additional laser photocoagulation therapy was performed on 36 eyes of 30 DME patients. Evaluations included the logarithm of the minimal angle of resolution (logMAR), best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and OCT parameters at baseline and 1, 3, 6, and 12 months postoperatively. Correlations between OCT parameters and BCVA were assessed at each follow-up visit. Correlations among postoperative BCVA and preoperative BCVA, foveal macular thickness (FMT), outer foveal thickness (OFT), and photoreceptor outer segment (PROS) length were evaluated using multiple regression analysis. BCVA significantly improved from 0.50 ± 0.25 to 0.34 ± 0.26 at 12 months postoperatively (P < 0.001). Mean FMT improved significantly from 526.4 ± 120.4 to 384.6 ± 120.5 at 1 month, 325.2 ± 100.3 at 3 months, 304.1 ± 102.5 at 6 months and 274.2 ± 86.6 μm at 12 months postoperatively (P < 0.001, respectively). OFT 1 month after surgery was significantly decreased 46.5 ± 14.7-40.2 ± 14.4 μm (P = 0.017), although at 3, 6, and 12 months it did not differ from the baseline value. PROS length 1 month after surgery significantly decreased from 31.7 ± 6.9-28.8 ± 6.8 μm (P = 0.015) and that at 3 months and 6 months recovered to the baseline value. PROS length 12 months after surgery was significantly increased to 34.3 ± 7.2 μm from baseline (P = 0.023). Mean FMT was not correlated with BCVA at any time point. Mean OFT and PROS length at 3, 6, and 12 months were correlated with BCVA. In multiple regression analysis, PROS length had the greatest effect on VA 12 months postoperatively (P = 0.0262, standard regression coefficient = -0.366). Current surgery helps DME patients to maintain

  20. Edema

    MedlinePlus

    ... and symptoms Pregnancy Edema can be a side effect of some medications, including: High blood pressure medications Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs Steroid drugs Estrogens Certain diabetes medications called ...

  1. Vitrectomy Outcomes in Eyes with Diabetic Macular Edema and Vitreomacular Traction

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate vitrectomy for diabetic macular edema (DME) in eyes with at least moderate vision loss and vitreomacular traction. Design Prospective cohort study Participants The primary cohort included 87 eyes with DME and vitreomacular traction based on investigator’s evaluation, visual acuity 20/63–20/400, optical coherence tomography (OCT) central subfield >300 microns and no concomitant cataract extraction at the time of vitrectomy. Methods Surgery was performed according to the investigator’s usual routine. Follow-up visits were performed after 3 months, 6 months (primary endpoint) and 1 year. Main Outcome Measures Visual acuity, OCT retinal thickening and surgical complications. Results At baseline, median visual acuity in the 87 eyes was 20/100 and median OCT thickness was 491 microns. During vitrectomy, additional procedures included epiretinal membrane peeling in 61%, internal limiting membrane peeling in 54%, panretinal photocoagulation in 40% and injection of corticosteroids at the close of the procedure in 64%. At 6 months, median OCT central subfield thickness decreased by 160 microns, with 43% having central subfield thickness <250 microns and 68% having at least a 50% reduction in thickening. Visual acuity improved by 10 or more letters in 38% (95% confidence interval 28% – 49%) and deteriorated by 10 or more letters in 22% (95% confidence interval 13% – 31%). Postoperative surgical complications through 6 months included vitreous hemorrhage (5 eyes), elevated intraocular pressure requiring treatment (7 eyes), retinal detachment (3 eyes) and endophthalmitis (1 eye). Little changes in results were noted between 6 months and one year. Conclusion Following vitrectomy performed for DME and vitreomacular traction, retinal thickening was reduced in most eyes. Between 28% and 49% of eyes with characteristics similar to those included in this study are likely to have improvement of visual acuity, while between 13% and 31% are likely to have

  2. [Multicenter Ozurdex® assessment for diabetic macular edema: MOZART study].

    PubMed

    Guigou, S; Hajjar, C; Parrat, E; Merite, P Y; Pommier, S; Matonti, F; Prost-Magnin, O; Meyer, F

    2014-06-01

    To evaluate the efficiency and safety of intravitreal implant of 0.7mg dexamathasone in visual impairment due to diabetic macular edema (DME). This was a retrospective, multicenter, study. Seventy-four patients, with a mean age of 65 years, followed for at least 6 months (mean follow-up: 9.8 months) were included in 5 French eye clinics (P 1.5 collective). The mean systolic blood pressure was 138mmHg and the mean HbA1c was 7.2%. We monitored 2 systemic parameters: blood pressure and glycemic balance. Best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), central retinal thickness (CRT, Spectralis OCT), intraocular pressure (IOP) and cataract progression are studied at baseline and then at 1, 2, 4 and 6 months. The average CRT decrease was: 239μm at month 2 (M2) and 135μm at month 6 (M6). The mean improvement from baseline of BCVA is 8.5 letters at M2 and 7.6 letters at M6. A gain greater than 15 letters is found in 27% of patients at M6. For naive patients the BCVA is 71 letters versus 60 letters (P<0.05). Patients with a baseline CRT <500mmHg have a BCVA of 66 letters versus 57 letters (P<0.05). The mean rate injections was 1.2 at 6 months with an average of 5.4 months for reinjection. Ocular hypertension greater than 25mmHg, managed by topical treatment, is observed in 13.4% of patients. No glaucoma surgery was necessary. Dexamethasone has an anatomical and functional effectiveness in the treatment of DME. Outcomes for naive patients and lower CRT suggest that the duration of diabetes mellitus and previous treatments are negative factors of recovery. Side effects are rare and manageable. Ozurdex(®) seems to be a treatment for visual impairment due to DME with a favorable safety profile. Patient follow-up must be adapted to half-life of the product with a control before M1 (intraocular pressure) and before M5 (DME recurrence, BCVA). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Validity of Optical Coherence Tomography as a Diagnostic Method for Diabetic Retinopathy and Diabetic Macular Edema

    PubMed Central

    Azrak, Cesar; Baeza-Díaz, Manuel Vicente; Palazón-Bru, Antonio; Hernández-Martínez, Carmen; Navarro-Navarro, Aída; Martínez-Toldos, José Juan; Gil-Guillén, Vicente Francisco

    2015-01-01

    Abstract To validate optical coherence tomography (OCT) for the diagnosis of referable retinopathy (severe, very severe or proliferative retinopathy, and macular edema) in diabetic patients. We performed a cross-sectional observational study. A random sample was analyzed comprising 136 eyes of diabetic patients referred to the hospital in Elche (Spain) with suspected referable retinopathy between October 2012 and June 2013. Primary variable: Referable retinopathy measured by ophthalmological examination of the retina. OCT data included: central foveal thickness, presence of intraretinal fluid, and fundus photographs. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was calculated to determine the minimum thickness value with a positive likelihood ratio >10. To determine the validity of OCT, the following diagnostic test was defined: Positive: if the patient had at least 1 of these criteria: foveal thickness greater than the point obtained on the previously defined ROC curve, intraretinal fluid, abnormal fundus photographs; Negative: none of the above criteria. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, positive and negative likelihood ratios, and Kappa statistic were determined. Of the 136 eyes, 48 had referable retinopathy (35.3%, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 27.3–43.3). The minimum thickness value with a positive likelihood ratio >10 was 275 μm. The diagnostic test constructed showed: sensitivity, 91.67% (95% CI: 79.13–97.30); specificity, 93.18% (95% CI: 85.19–97.20); positive predictive value, 88.00% (95% CI: 75.00–95.03); negative predictive value, 95.35% (95% CI: 87.87–98.50); positive likelihood ratio, 13.44 (95% CI: 6.18–29.24); negative likelihood ratio, 0.09 (95% CI: 0.03–0.23). The Kappa value was 0.84 (95% CI: 0.75–0.94, P < 0.001. This study constructed a diagnostic test for referable diabetic retinopathy with type A evidence. Nevertheless, studies are needed to determine the validity of this test in the

  4. Long-Term Intravitreal Dexamethasone Treatment in Eyes with Pretreated Chronic Diabetic Macular Edema.

    PubMed

    Zandi, Souska; Lereuil, Théo; Freiberg, Florentina; Pfau, Maximilian; Pfister, Isabel B; Gerhardt, Christin; Michels, Stephan; Kodjikian, Laurent; Garweg, Justus G

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study is to assess the effect of repeated injections of dexamethasone implants in patients with persistent diabetic macular edema (DME) despite prior therapies. This retrospective interventional study involved 47 DME-afflicted eyes, which were administered ≥2 intravitreal injections of dexamethasone. Group 1 (34 eyes) received a dexamethasone monotherapy, whereas group 2 (13 eyes) received a combination therapy with intravitreal antivascular endothelial growth factor as needed. The duration of dexamethasone effect until retreatment and the change in best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and central retinal thickness (CRT) were defined as outcome measures. A total of 197 injections of dexamethasone were administered in group 1 and 52 in group 2 during a mean follow-up of 23 ± 10 and 24 ± 13 months, respectively. Mean time to reinjection was 4.6 ± 0.5 (group 1) and 5.3 ± 1.0 months (group 2; P = 0.17). Reinjection intervals did not shorten over time for up to 10 dexamethasone injections per eye in group 1 and BCVA improved from before 1 month after the first implantation, 7.0 letters (P = 0.04). In group 2, there was no significant improvement in BCVA at any time point. CRT decreased from 534 ± 208 and 529 ± 215 μm to 287 ± 115 and 371 ± 78 μm at 3 months and increased to 460 ± 186 μm and 547 ± 175 μm before reinjection (groups1 and 2, respectively). The maximal CRT before each implantation remained stable over time. In eyes with chronic DME that respond incompletely to prior therapy or require frequent reinjections, dexamethasone shows promising long-term anatomic and functional improvement. The absence of a treatment effect reduction over time argues against a relevant rebound phenomenon.

  5. Choroidal Variations in Diabetic Macular Edema: Fluorescein Angiography and Optical Coherence Tomography.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiangning; Li, Shuting; Li, Wei; Hua, Yanjun; Wu, Qiang

    2017-09-22

    To (i) evaluate variations in choroidal thickness (CT) and choroidal volume (CV) in diabetic macular edema (DME), as demonstrated by fluorescein angiography (FA) and enhanced depth-imaging (EDI) optical coherence tomography (OCT) (EDI-OCT) and (ii) correlate these variations with visual acuity. This study was a retrospective observational case series of patients with diabetic retinopathy (DR) and DME. The study groups comprised 77 DR patients (n = 87), all of whom underwent color fundus photography, FA, and OCT on the same day. The control group comprised 25 age-matched healthy individuals (n = 50 eyes). CT was measured by manual segmentation (EDI-OCT built-in automated retinal segmentation software). Variations in CT in DME patterns were analyzed. We studied a total of 87 eyes from patients with DR, including 50 eyes from 25 patients with DME (DME group) and 37 eyes from 22 patients without DME (non-DME group). For DME-group patients, mean subfoveal choroidal thickness (SFCT) and total CV (TCV) were 258.8 ± 81.7 µm and 6.6 ± 1.8 mm(3), respectively. For non-DME group patients, mean SFCT and TCV values were 247.6 ± 73.3 µm and 6.6 ± 1.6 mm(3), respectively. SFCT and TCV values for both groups were significantly lower than for healthy controls (294.3 ± 87.6 µm and 7.7 ± 1.8 mm,(3) respectively) (p = 0.040 and 0.019, respectively). CTs varied according to morphological FA and OCT patterns of DME, but did not differ significantly (p > 0.05). CT and CV in DR patients were decreased compared with healthy controls. CTs did not differ significantly between DME patterns demonstrated by OCT and FA.

  6. Cost-effectiveness of various interventions for newly diagnosed diabetic macular edema.

    PubMed

    Stein, Joshua D; Newman-Casey, Paula Anne; Kim, David D; Nwanyanwu, Kristen Harris; Johnson, Mark W; Hutton, David W

    2013-09-01

    Anti-vascular endothelial growth factor therapies have revolutionized the treatment of clinically significant diabetic macular edema (CSDME); yet these agents are expensive, and whether they are cost-effective is unclear. The purpose of this study is to determine the most cost-effective treatment option for patients with newly diagnosed CSDME: focal laser photocoagulation alone (L), focal laser plus intravitreal ranibizumab (L+R), focal laser plus intravitreal bevacizumab (L+B), or focal laser plus intravitreal triamcinolone (L+T) injections. Cost-effectiveness analysis. Hypothetical cohort of 57-year-old patients with newly diagnosed CSDME. By using a Markov model with a 25-year time horizon, we compared the incremental cost-effectiveness of treating patients with newly diagnosed CSDME using L, L+R, L+B, or L+T. Data came from the DRCRnet randomized controlled trial, the Medicare fee schedule, and the medical literature. Costs, quality-adjusted life years (QALYs), and incremental costs per QALY gained. Compared with L, the incremental cost-effectiveness of L+R and L+B was $89903/QALY and $11138/QALY, respectively. L+T was dominated by L. A probabilistic sensitivity analysis demonstrated that, at a willingness to pay (WTP) of $50000/QALY, L was approximately 70% likely to be the preferred therapy over L+R and L+T. However, at a WTP of $100000/QALY, more than 90% of the time, L+R therapy was the preferred therapy compared with L and L+T. In the probabilistic sensitivity analysis, L+B was found to be the preferred therapy over L and L+T for any WTP value >$10000/QALY. Sensitivity analyses revealed that the annual risk of cerebrovascular accident would have to be at least 1.5% higher with L+B than with L+R for L+R to be the preferred treatment. In another sensitivity analysis, if patients require <8 injections per year over the remainder of the 25-year time horizon, L+B would cost <$100000/QALY, whereas L+R would be cost-effective at a WTP of $100000/QALY if patients

  7. Vitrectomy outcomes in eyes with diabetic macular edema and vitreomacular traction.

    PubMed

    Haller, Julia A; Qin, Haijing; Apte, Rajendra S; Beck, Roy R; Bressler, Neil M; Browning, David J; Danis, Ronald P; Glassman, Adam R; Googe, Joseph M; Kollman, Craig; Lauer, Andreas K; Peters, Mark A; Stockman, Margaret E

    2010-06-01

    To evaluate vitrectomy for diabetic macular edema (DME) in eyes with at least moderate vision loss and vitreomacular traction. Prospective cohort study. The primary cohort included 87 eyes with DME and vitreomacular traction based on investigator's evaluation, visual acuity 20/63-20/400, optical coherence tomography (OCT) central subfield >300 microns and no concomitant cataract extraction at the time of vitrectomy. Surgery was performed according to the investigator's usual routine. Follow-up visits were performed after 3 months, 6 months (primary end point), and 1 year. Visual acuity, OCT retinal thickening, and operative complications. At baseline, median visual acuity in the 87 eyes was 20/100 and median OCT thickness was 491 microns. During vitrectomy, additional procedures included epiretinal membrane peeling in 61%, internal limiting membrane peeling in 54%, panretinal photocoagulation in 40%, and injection of corticosteroids at the close of the procedure in 64%. At 6 months, median OCT central subfield thickness decreased by 160 microns, with 43% having central subfield thickness <250 microns and 68% having at least a 50% reduction in thickening. Visual acuity improved by > or =10 letters in 38% (95% confidence interval, 28%-49%) and deteriorated by > or =10 letters in 22% (95% confidence interval, 13%-31%). Postoperative complications through 6 months included vitreous hemorrhage (5 eyes), elevated intraocular pressure requiring treatment (7 eyes), retinal detachment (3 eyes), and endophthalmitis (1 eye). Few changes in results were noted between 6 months and 1 year. After vitrectomy performed for DME and vitreomacular traction, retinal thickening was reduced in most eyes. Between 28% and 49% of eyes with characteristics similar to those included in this study are likely to have improvement of visual acuity, whereas between 13% and 31% are likely to have worsening. The operative complication rate is low and similar to what has been reported for this

  8. Psychometric validation of the visual function questionnaire-25 in patients with diabetic macular edema

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Diabetic Macular Edema (DME) is a common cause of impaired vision and blindness amongst diabetics. If not detected and treated early, the resulting vision loss can lead to considerable health costs and decreased health-related quality of life (HRQoL). The aim of this study was to provide evidence of the psychometric properties of the National Eye Institute - Visual Functioning Questionnaire (VFQ-25) for use in a cohort of DME patients who participated in a clinical efficacy and safety trial of pegaptinib sodium (Macugen). Methods A phase 2/3 randomised, double masked trial evaluated pegaptanib injection versus sham injection in patients with DME. The analysis was conducted using baseline HRQoL data of the VFQ-25 and the EQ-5D, on a modified intent-to-treat sample of 235 patients. These measures were administered by a trained interviewer by telephone in all but one of the study countries, where face-to-face interviews were conducted in the clinic. The measures were completed in the week prior to baseline, and after 54 weeks of treatment. Distance visual acuity, measured according to the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS), was assessed at all time points. Psychometric properties of the VFQ-25 assessed included domain structure, reliability, concurrent and construct validity, responsiveness. Results The VFQ-25 was found to consist of 11 domains slightly different than those proposed. Nevertheless, none of the eight established multi-item scales met the criterion for further splitting and the VFQ-25 was scored as in the developers’ instructions. Internal consistency reliability was demonstrated for six out of the eight original multi-item scales, with Cronbach's alpha ranging from 0.58 (Distance Activities) to 0.85 (Vision Specific: Dependency). The VFQ-25 domains generally showed a low to moderate correlation with EQ-5D visual analogue scale (range 0.16-0.43) and with the visual acuity score (range 0.10-0.41). Construct validity was upheld

  9. A Phase 2 Randomized Clinical Trial of Intravitreal Bevacizumab for Diabetic Macular Edema

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Objective To provide data on the short-term effect of intravitreal bevacizumab for diabetic macular edema (DME). Design Randomized phase 2 clinical trial. Participants 121 eyes of 121 subjects (109 eligible for analysis) with DME and Snellen acuity equivalent ranging from 20/32-20/320. Interventions Random assignment to one of five groups: focal photocoagulation at baseline (N=19, Group A), intravitreal injection of 1.25mg bevacizumab at baseline and 6 weeks (N=22, Group B), intravitreal injection of 2.5mg bevacizumab at baseline and 6 weeks (N=24, Group C), intravitreal injection of 1.25mg bevacizumab at baseline and sham injection at 6 weeks (N=22, Group D), or intravitreal injection of 1.25mg bevacizumab at baseline and 6 weeks with photocoagulation at 3 weeks (N=22, Group E). Main Outcome Measures Central subfield thickness (CST) on optical coherence tomography and best-corrected visual acuity (VA) were measured at baseline and after 3, 6, 9, 12, 18, and 24 weeks. Results At baseline, median CST was 411 microns and median Snellen VA equivalent was 20/50. Compared with Group A, Groups B and C had a greater reduction in CST at 3 weeks and about one line better median visual acuity over 12 weeks. There were no meaningful differences between Groups B and C in CST reduction or VA improvement. A CST reduction >11% (the reliability limit) was present at 3 weeks in 36/84 (43%) bevacizumab-treated eyes and in 5/18 (28%) eyes treated with laser alone, and at 6 weeks in 31/84 (37%) and 9/18 (50%) eyes, respectively. Combining focal photocoagulation with bevacizumab resulted in no apparent short-term benefit or adverse outcomes. Endophthalmitis developed in one eye. The following events occurred during the first 24 weeks in subjects treated with bevacizumab without attributing cause to the drug: myocardial infarction (N=2), congestive heart failure (N=1), elevated blood pressure (N=3), and worsened renal function (N=3). Conclusion These results demonstrate that

  10. Incidence of Visual Improvement in Uveitis Cases with Visual Impairment Caused by Macular Edema

    PubMed Central

    Levin, Marc H.; Pistilli, Maxwell; Daniel, Ebenezer; Gangaputra, Sapna S.; Nussenblatt, Robert B.; Rosenbaum, James T.; Suhler, Eric B.; Thorne, Jennifer E.; Foster, C. Stephen; Jabs, Douglas A.; Levy-Clarke, Grace A.; Kempen, John H.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Among cases of visually significant uveitic macular edema (ME), to estimate the incidence of visual improvement and identify predictive factors. Design Retrospective cohort study. Participants Eyes with uveitis, seen at five academic ocular inflammation centers in the United States, for which ME was documented to be currently present and the principal cause of reduced visual acuity (worse than 20/40). Methods Data were obtained by standardized chart review. Main Outcome Measures Decrease of at least 0.2 logMAR (base 10 logarithm of visual acuity decimal fraction)-equivalent; risk factors for such visual improvement. Results We identified 1,510 eyes (of 1,077 patients) with visual impairment to a level worse than 20/40 attributed to ME. Most patients were female (67%) and white (76%), and had bilateral uveitis (82%). The estimated six-month incidence of at least two lines of visual acuity improvement in affected eyes was 52% (95% confidence interval [CI], 49%–55%). Vision reduced by ME was more likely to improve by two lines in eyes initially with poor visual acuity (20/200 or worse; adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 1.5, 95% CI 1.3–1.7), active uveitis (HR 1.3, 95% CI 1.1–1.5), and anterior uveitis as opposed to intermediate (HR=1.2), posterior (HR=1.3) or panuveitis (HR=1.4) (overall p=0.02). During follow-up, reductions in anterior chamber or vitreous cellular activity or in vitreous haze each led to statistically significant improvements in visual outcome (p<0.001 for each). Conversely, snowbanking (HR 0.7, 95% CI 0.4–0.99), posterior synechiae (HR 0.8, 95% CI 0.6–0.9), and hypotony (HR 0.2, 95% CI 0.06–0.5) each were associated with lower incidence of visual improvement with respect to eyes lacking each of these attributes at a given visit. Conclusions These results suggest that many, but not all, patients with ME causing low vision in a tertiary care setting will enjoy meaningful visual recovery in response to treatment. Evidence of significant

  11. Effect of Anti-Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Therapy on Choroidal Thickness in Diabetic Macular Edema

    PubMed Central

    Yiu, Glenn; Manjunath, Varsha; Chiu, Stephanie J.; Farsiu, Sina; Mahmoud, Tamer H.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To determine the effect of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) therapy on choroidal thickness in eyes with diabetic macular edema (DME) Design A retrospective, cohort analysis of 59 eyes from 59 patients with DME without prior anti-VEGF therapy Methods Choroidal thickness was measured using semi-automated segmentation of enhanced-depth imaging optical coherence tomography (EDI-OCT) images at 0.5mm intervals from 2.5mm nasal to 2.5mm temporal to the fovea. Changes in choroidal thickness with and without anti-VEGF treatment over 6 months were compared. Best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and central foveal thickness (CFT) were analyzed to evaluate the association of choroidal thickness with functional and anatomical outcomes. Results Of the 59 eyes with DME, 26 eyes were observed without treatment, while 33 underwent intravitreal anti-VEGF therapy (mean number of injections = 2.73) over 6 months. In untreated eyes, there was no significant change in BCVA (p=0.098), CFT (p=0.472), or choroidal thickness at all measurements along the macula (p=0.057 at the fovea). In eyes treated with anti-VEGF injections, choroidal thickness significantly decreased at the fovea (246.6μm to 224.8μm; p<0.001) and at 0.5 mm nasal (240.9μm to 221.9μm; p = 0.002) and 0.5 mm temporal (249.3μm to 224.8μm; p=0.011) to the fovea. The decrease in subfoveal choroidal thickness after anti-VEGF treatment was not associated with the cumulative number of anti-VEGF injections (R2=0.031, p=0.327), or to changes in BCVA (R2=0.017; p=0.470) or CFT (R2=0.040; p=0.263). Conclusions Central choroidal thickness decreases after anti-VEGF therapy for DME after 6 months, but may not be associated with functional or anatomical outcomes in eyes with DME. PMID:24952275

  12. Matrix Metalloproteinase-1 and Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 in the Aqueous Humor of Diabetic Macular Edema Patients

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jin A.; Jee, Donghyun

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To assess the concentrations of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1 and MMP-9 in the aqueous humor of diabetic macular edema (DME) patients. Method The concentrations of MMP-1 and MMP-9 in the aqueous humors of 15 cataract patients and 25 DME patients were compared. DME patients were analyzed according to the diabetic retinopathy (DR) stage, diabetes mellitus (DM) duration, pan-retinal photocoagulation (PRP) treatment, recurrence within 3 months, HbA1C (glycated hemoglobin) level, and axial length. Results The concentrations of MMP-1 and MMP-9 of the DME groups were higher than those of the control group (p = 0.005 and p = 0.002, respectively). There was a significant difference in MMP-1 concentration between the mild non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR) group and the proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) group (p = 0.012). MMP-1 concentrations were elevated in PRP-treated patients (p = 0.005). There was a significant difference in MMP-9 concentrations between the mild NPDR group and the PDR group (p < 0.001), and between the moderate and severe NPDR group and the PDR group (p < 0.001). The MMP-9 concentrations in PRP treated patients, DM patients with diabetes ≥ 10 years and recurrent DME within 3months were elevated (p = 0.023, p = 0.011, and p = 0.027, respectively). In correlation analyses, the MMP-1 level showed a significant correlation with age (r = -0.48, p = 0.01,), and the MMP-9 level showed significant correlations with axial length (r = -0.59, p < 0.01) and DM duration (r = 049, p = 0.01). Conclusions Concentrations of MMP-1 and MMP-9 were higher in the DME groups than in the control group. MMP-9 concentrations also differed depending on DR staging, DM duration, PRP treatment, and degree of axial myopia. MMP-9 may be more important than MMP-1 in the induction of DM complications in eyes. PMID:27467659

  13. Residual edema evaluation with ranibizumab 0.5 mg and 2.0 mg formulations for diabetic macular edema (REEF study)

    PubMed Central

    Dhoot, D S; Pieramici, D J; Nasir, M; Castellarin, A A; Couvillion, S; See, R F; Steinle, N; Bennett, M; Rabena, M; Avery, R L

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To compare the efficacy of ranibizumab 0.5-mg and 2.0-mg intravitreal injections for persistent diabetic macular edema (DME) previously treated with bevacizumab. Methods In all, 43 patients with residual center-involved DME following intravitreal bevacizumab were included in this 12-month prospective, nonrandomized, multicenter study. Enrolled patients received three monthly ranibizumab 0.5-mg injections. At month 3, patients with residual macular edema switched to three monthly injections of ranibizumab 2.0-mg. Assessments included monthly visual acuity and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography. Results Mean visual acuity improved by +6.4 letters at month 3 and +8.8 letters at month 6. Mean central subfield thickness (CST) decreased by –113 μm at month 3 and –165 μm at month 6. Before enrollment, 29/43 (67.4%) patients showed <10% CST reduction following monthly bevacizumab treatment. After three monthly ranibizumab 0.5-mg injections, 22/29 (75.9%) patients showed >10% reduction in CST, whereas 6 showed <10% reduction. Of these six, three (50%) showed >10% reduction in CST after switching to three monthly ranibizumab 2.0-mg doses. No serious adverse events were observed to month 6. Conclusion Ranibizumab 0.5-mg or 2.0-mg may improve visual and anatomic outcomes in patients with DME who demonstrated minimal or no response to bevacizumab therapy. Moreover, increased dosage of ranibizumab (2.0-mg) may provide additional benefit over ranibizumab 0.5-mg in some patients. However, 2.0-mg ranibizumab is not currently commercially licensed or available. PMID:25633882

  14. Qualitative and Quantitative Assessment of Vascular Changes in Diabetic Macular Edema after Dexamethasone Implant Using Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography

    PubMed Central

    Toto, Lisa; D’Aloisio, Rossella; Di Nicola, Marta; Di Martino, Giuseppe; Di Staso, Silvio; Ciancaglini, Marco; Tognetto, Daniele; Mastropasqua, Leonardo

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate retinal and choriocapillaris vessel changes in diabetic macular edema (DME) after the intravitreal dexamethasone implant (IDI) using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA). Moreover, a comparison between morphological and functional parameters of DME and healthy patients was performed. Twenty-five eyes of 25 type 2 diabetic retinopathy patients complicated by macular edema (DME group) and 25 healthy subjects (control group) were enrolled. Superficial capillary plexus density (SCPD) and deep capillary plexus density (DCPD) in the foveal and parafoveal areas, choricapillary density (CCD) and optic disc vessel density (ODVD) were detected using OCTA at baseline and after 7, 30, 60, 90 and 120 days post injection. Best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), retinal sensitivity, and central retinal thickness (CMT) were also evaluated in both groups of patients. A statistically significant difference between the two groups (DME and controls) was found in terms of functional (MP, p < 0.001 and BCVA, p < 0.001) and morphological (CMT, p < 0.001; SCPD in the parafoveal area, p < 0.001; DCPD in the foveal area, p < 0.05 and parafoveal area, p < 0.001; CCD, p < 0.001) parameters. After the treatment, SCPD and DCPD in the foveal and parafoveal areas did not modify significantly during the follow up. PMID:28574436

  15. Differentiation between Good and Low-Responders to Intravitreal Ranibizumab for Macular Edema Secondary to Retinal Vein Occlusion

    PubMed Central

    Ebneter, Andreas; Zinkernagel, Martin S.; Wolf, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    Background. Ranibizumab is approved for treatment of macular edema in eyes with retinal vein occlusion (RVO). Some eyes show low-response to treatment with regard to visual acuity gain (VA) and OCT central retinal thickness (CRT) reduction. The goal of this study was to quantify the percentage of low-responders. Methods. Treatment of naïve eyes with macular edema secondary to RVO was included and monthly VA and CRT were analyzed. Four weeks after the loading phase, and at the end of the study, eyes were grouped into low- and good responders based on predefined criteria. The responder and low-responder groups were then compared at various time points. Results. Forty-three eyes were included. Regarding VA, 27.9% were low-responders after the loading phase and 30.2% at the end of the study. For CRT, 34.9% were low-responders after the loading phase versus 27.9% at the end of the study. 75% of patients that were VA low-responders and 73.3% of CRT low-responders after loading phase remained low-responders at the end of the study. Conclusion. Approximately 30% of patients showed low response to ranibizumab after the loading phase and after 1 year of treatment. Two-thirds of patients that were low-responders after the loading phase remained low-responders after 1 year. PMID:28044102

  16. Quantitative evaluation of reduction of plaque-like hard exudates in diabetic macular edema after intravitreal triamcinolone injection.

    PubMed

    Cekiç, Osman; Bardak, Yavuz; Tiğ, U Sahin; Yildizoğlu, Uzeyir; Bardak, Handan

    2008-04-01

    To describe a new method of quantifying the amount of plaque-like hard exudates after intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide injection in diabetic macular edema. This study included 22 eyes of 14 patients (mean age, 63 years) with chronic diabetic macular edema and plaque-like hard exudates. The patients were injected with a single dose of 4 mg intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide. The optic disc size as relative size unit was taken to quantify the hard exudates: Total areas of exudates and the optic nerve head were computed from fundus pictures with a digital analysis program on magnified images. The former was divided by the latter, and the results were expressed as a percentage value. The ratio was used to track improvements in a given eye over 6 months. Average ratio of hard exudates to optic nerve head area reduced to 81% of its initial value at 1 month (P=0.007), to 54% at 3 months (P<0.001) and to 41% at 6 months (P<0.001). The new method allowed detection of a significant reduction of ratio of hard exudates to optic disc area of diabetic plaque-like hard exudates following 4 mg intravitreal triamcinolone.

  17. Observational study of the development of diabetic macular edema following panretinal (scatter) photocoagulation given in 1 or 4 sittings.

    PubMed

    Brucker, Alexander J; Qin, Haijing; Antoszyk, Andrew N; Beck, Roy W; Bressler, Neil M; Browning, David J; Elman, Michael J; Glassman, Adam R; Gross, Jeffrey G; Kollman, Craig; Wells, John A

    2009-02-01

    To compare the effects of single-sitting vs 4-sitting panretinal photocoagulation (PRP) on macular edema in subjects with severe nonproliferative or early proliferative diabetic retinopathy with relatively good visual acuity and no or mild center-involved macular edema. Subjects were treated with 1 sitting or 4 sittings of PRP in a nonrandomized, prospective, multicentered clinical trial. Main Outcome Measure Central subfield thickness on optical coherence tomography (OCT). Central subfield thickness was slightly greater in the 1-sitting group (n = 84) than in the 4-sitting group (n = 71) at the 3-day (P = .01) and 4-week visits (P = .003). At the 34-week primary outcome visit, the slight differences had reversed, with the thickness being slightly greater in the 4-sitting group than in the 1-sitting group (P = .06). Visual acuity differences paralleled OCT differences. Our results suggest that clinically meaningful differences are unlikely in OCT thickness or visual acuity following application of PRP in 1 sitting compared with 4 sittings in subjects in this cohort. More definitive results would require a large randomized trial. Application to Clinical Practice These results suggest PRP costs to some patients in terms of travel and lost productivity as well as to eye care providers could be reduced. clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00687154.

  18. Structure tensor based automated detection of macular edema and central serous retinopathy using optical coherence tomography images.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Bilal; Raja, Gulistan; Hassan, Taimur; Usman Akram, M

    2016-04-01

    Macular edema (ME) and central serous retinopathy (CSR) are two macular diseases that affect the central vision of a person if they are left untreated. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging is the latest eye examination technique that shows a cross-sectional region of the retinal layers and that can be used to detect many retinal disorders in an early stage. Many researchers have done clinical studies on ME and CSR and reported significant findings in macular OCT scans. However, this paper proposes an automated method for the classification of ME and CSR from OCT images using a support vector machine (SVM) classifier. Five distinct features (three based on the thickness profiles of the sub-retinal layers and two based on cyst fluids within the sub-retinal layers) are extracted from 30 labeled images (10 ME, 10 CSR, and 10 healthy), and SVM is trained on these. We applied our proposed algorithm on 90 time-domain OCT (TD-OCT) images (30 ME, 30 CSR, 30 healthy) of 73 patients. Our algorithm correctly classified 88 out of 90 subjects with accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity of 97.77%, 100%, and 93.33%, respectively.

  19. Intravitreal steroids versus observation for macular edema secondary to central retinal vein occlusion.

    PubMed

    Gewaily, Dina; Muthuswamy, Karthikeyan; Greenberg, Paul B

    2015-09-09

    Central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO) is a common retinal vascular abnormality associated with conditions such as hypertension, diabetes, glaucoma, and a wide variety of hematologic disorders. Macular edema (ME) represents an important vision-threatening complication of CRVO. Intravitreal steroids (IVS), such as triamcinolone acetonide, have been utilized to treat macular edema stemming from a variety of etiologies and may be a treatment option for CRVO-ME. To explore the effectiveness and safety of intravitreal steroids in the treatment of CRVO-ME. We searched CENTRAL (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Group Trials Register) (2014 Issue 10), Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid MEDLINE In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, Ovid MEDLINE Daily, Ovid OLDMEDLINE (January 1946 to November 2014), EMBASE (January 1980 to November 2014), the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) (www.controlled-trials.com), ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrials.gov) and the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (www.who.int/ictrp/search/en). We did not use any date or language restrictions in the electronic searches for trials. We last searched the electronic databases on 13 November 2014. For all included primary studies, we used The Science Citation Index (3 December 2014) and manually reviewed reference lists to identify other possible relevant trials. We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that compared intravitreal steroids, of any dosage and duration of treatment of at least six months, with observation for the treatment of CRVO-ME. Two review authors independently screened titles and abstracts identified from the electronic searches and assessed full-text articles from potentially eligible trials. Two review authors independently assessed trial characteristics, risk of bias, and extracted data from included trials. We contacted investigators of included trials for desired data not provided in the trial reports. We

  20. Effect of topical nepafenac in prevention of macular edema after cataract surgery in patients with non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Sarfraz, Muhammad Haroon; Haq, Rana Intisar Ul; Mehboob, Mohammad Asim

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To determine the efficacy of topical Nepafenac (0.1%), administered post-operatively in prevention of Macular Edema (ME), after cataract surgery in patients with Non-Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy (NPDR). Methods: This randomized control trial was conducted at Armed Forces Institute of Ophthalmology (AFIO), Rawalpindi from Sep 2015 to Sep 2016. Sixty eyes of 60 patients with NPDR underwent phacoemulsification with intraocular lens implantation. Group 1 received 0.1% Nepafenac, 8-hourly, in operated eye after cataract surgery for three months, along with routine post-operative medications. Group-2 received only routine post-operative medications. ME was defined as increase in Central Macular Thickness (CMT) of >10% from pre-operative baseline, measured using spectral domain optical coherence tomography. Results: Mean age of study population was 60.97±4.91 years. Out of 60 patients, 34 (56.7%) were males and 24 (43.3%) were females. Mean pre-operative CMT, 3 months post-operative CMT, mean change in CMT and mean frequency change in CMT of Group-1 was 226.5±10.86µm, 228.83±14.56 µm, 2.33±10.45 µm and 1.05% respectively. Mean pre-operative CMT, three months post-operative CMT, mean change in CMT and mean frequency change in CMT in Group-2 was 223.93±11.69µm, 236.17±16.16 µm, 12.23±12.40µm and 5.51% respectively. ME was observed in one patient (3.3%) in Group-1, and seven patients (23.3%) in Group 2. The difference of mean change in CMT and frequency change in CMT between groups was statistically significant (p<0.05). Conclusion: 0.1% topical Nepafenac is effective in prevention of macular edema after cataract surgery in patients with non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR).

  1. Effect of topical nepafenac in prevention of macular edema after cataract surgery in patients with non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy.

    PubMed

    Sarfraz, Muhammad Haroon; Haq, Rana Intisar Ul; Mehboob, Mohammad Asim

    2017-01-01

    To determine the efficacy of topical Nepafenac (0.1%), administered post-operatively in prevention of Macular Edema (ME), after cataract surgery in patients with Non-Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy (NPDR). This randomized control trial was conducted at Armed Forces Institute of Ophthalmology (AFIO), Rawalpindi from Sep 2015 to Sep 2016. Sixty eyes of 60 patients with NPDR underwent phacoemulsification with intraocular lens implantation. Group 1 received 0.1% Nepafenac, 8-hourly, in operated eye after cataract surgery for three months, along with routine post-operative medications. Group-2 received only routine post-operative medications. ME was defined as increase in Central Macular Thickness (CMT) of >10% from pre-operative baseline, measured using spectral domain optical coherence tomography. Mean age of study population was 60.97±4.91 years. Out of 60 patients, 34 (56.7%) were males and 24 (43.3%) were females. Mean pre-operative CMT, 3 months post-operative CMT, mean change in CMT and mean frequency change in CMT of Group-1 was 226.5±10.86µm, 228.83±14.56 µm, 2.33±10.45 µm and 1.05% respectively. Mean pre-operative CMT, three months post-operative CMT, mean change in CMT and mean frequency change in CMT in Group-2 was 223.93±11.69µm, 236.17±16.16 µm, 12.23±12.40µm and 5.51% respectively. ME was observed in one patient (3.3%) in Group-1, and seven patients (23.3%) in Group 2. The difference of mean change in CMT and frequency change in CMT between groups was statistically significant (p<0.05). 0.1% topical Nepafenac is effective in prevention of macular edema after cataract surgery in patients with non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR).

  2. INTRAVITREAL DEXAMETHASONE IMPLANT FOR THE TREATMENT OF REFRACTORY MACULAR EDEMA IN RETINAL VASCULAR DISEASES: Results of the KKESH International Collaborative Retina Study Group.

    PubMed

    Alshahrani, Saeed T; Dolz-Marco, Rosa; Gallego-Pinazo, Roberto; Diaz-Llopis, Manuel; Arevalo, J Fernando

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the safety and efficacy of intravitreal dexamethasone implant (Ozurdex) for treating refractory macular edema in retinal vascular diseases. This is a retrospective consecutive series of 53 eyes with refractory macular edema secondary to central retinal vein occlusion (13 eyes), branch retinal vein occlusion (14 eyes), and diabetic macular edema (26 eyes) treated with a single 0.7 mg dexamethasone implant. Data were collected on best-corrected visual acuity, intraocular pressure, and central macular thickness preoperatively and at 1, 3, and 6 months postoperatively. Baseline best-corrected visual acuity was 20/160 and improved statistically significantly to 20/80 and 20/60 at 1 months and 3 months, respectively (P < 0.05, both postoperative visits), and 20/100 at 6 months (P > 0.05). The central macular thickness at baseline was 569.96 ± 178.11 μm, and it decreased statistically significantly to 305.81 ± 155.94 μm, 386 ± 210.79 μm, and 446.41 ± 221.21 μm at 1, 3 and 6 months, respectively (P < 0.05, all visits compared with baseline). Fourteen (26%) eyes developed high intraocular pressure after implantation and was successfully controlled with topical medications, and cataract progressed in 1 (1.8%) eye. The dexamethasone implant improved macular edema in refractory cases resulting in statistically significant improvements in best-corrected visual acuity and central macular thickness that remained stable to 3 months and 6 months, respectively.

  3. Intravitreal diclofenac versus intravitreal bevacizumab in naive diabetic macular edema: a randomized double-masked clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Soheilian, Masoud; Karimi, Saeed; Ramezani, Alireza; Montahai, Talieh; Yaseri, Mehdi; Soheilian, Roham; Peyman, Gholam A

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of the study is to compare single injection of intravitreal diclofenac (IVD) with intravitreal bevacizumab (IVB) in the treatment of eyes with naïve diabetic macular edema (DME). In this randomized clinical trial, 57 eyes of 57 patients were randomly assigned to IVD group (30 eyes), cases who received a single intravitreal injection of diclofenac (500 μg/0.1 ml), and IVB group (27 eyes), cases who received a single intravitreal injection of bevacizumab (1.25 mg). Change in best-corrected visual acuity in logMAR at week 12 was the primary outcome measure. Secondary outcomes included changes in central macular thickness, macular leakage, and potential injection-related complications. Best-corrected visual acuity improved significantly more in the IVD group than in the IVB group (P = 0.033), from 0.57 ± 0.25 to 0.49 ± 0.31 versus 0.55 ± 0.24-0.59 ± 0.27 logMAR at 12 weeks, respectively. However, the difference of macular thickness changes was in favor of IVB, but not to a significant level. The amount of change in leakage was not significantly different between the groups either. None of the eyes, in either group, developed ocular hypertension (≥23 mmHg) or cataract progression. No important injection-related complication was observed during the study period. This study demonstrated the superiority of IVD over IVB in the treatment of naïve DME regarding functional, but not anatomical outcomes. Therefore, using IVD as an adjunct or even alternative to other treatments might enhance the functional outcomes in such cases. Further studies are warranted to confirm potential benefit of IVD observed in this study.

  4. Distribution of intraretinal exudates in diabetic macular edema during anti-vascular endothelial growth factor therapy observed by spectral domain optical coherence tomography and fundus photography.

    PubMed

    Pemp, Berthold; Deák, Gábor; Prager, Sonja; Mitsch, Christoph; Lammer, Jan; Schmidinger, Gerald; Scholda, Christoph; Schmidt-Erfurth, Ursula; Bolz, Matthias

    2014-12-01

    To evaluate changes in the distribution and morphology of intraretinal microexudates and hard exudates (HEs) during intravitreal anti-vascular endothelial growth factor therapy in patients with persistent diabetic macular edema. Twenty-four patients with persistent diabetic macular edema after photocoagulation were investigated in this prospective cohort study. Each eye was assigned to a loading dose of three anti-vascular endothelial growth factor treatments at monthly intervals. Additional single treatments were performed if diabetic macular edema persisted or recurred. Intraretinal exudates were analyzed over 6 months using spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) and fundus photography. Before treatment, microexudates were detected by SD-OCT as hyperreflective foci in 24 eyes, whereas HEs were seen in 22 eyes. During therapy, HE increased significantly in number and size. This was accompanied by accumulation of microexudates in the outer retina. Enlargement of hyperreflective structures in SD-OCT was accompanied by enlargement of HE at corresponding fundus locations. A rapid reduction in diabetic macular edema was seen in all patients, but to varying degrees. Patients with hemoglobin A1c levels <7% and serum cholesterol <200 mg/dL formed fewer HEs and featured more edema reduction and visual acuity gain. Diabetic macular edema reduction during intravitreal anti-vascular endothelial growth factor therapy was accompanied by dynamic rearrangement of intraretinal exudates at corresponding locations in fundus photography and SD-OCT. Intraretinal aggregates of microexudates detectable as hyperreflective foci by SD-OCT may compose and precede HE before they become clinically visible.

  5. Preliminary results of an intravitreal dexamethasone implant (Ozurdex®) in patients with persistent diabetic macular edema

    PubMed Central

    Pacella, Elena; Vestri, Anna Rita; Muscella, Roberto; Carbotti, Maria Rosaria; Castellucci, Massimo; Coi, Luigi; Turchetti, Paolo; Pacella, Fernanda

    2013-01-01

    Background To evaluate the efficacy and safety of an intravitreal dexamethasone implant (Ozurdex®; Allergan Inc, Irvine, CA, USA) in patients with persistent diabetic macular edema (DME) over a 6-month follow-up period. Methods Seventeen patients (20 eyes) affected by DME were selected. The mean age was 67 + 8 years, and the mean duration of DME was 46.3 + 18.6 months. The eligibility criteria were: age ≥ 18, a best-corrected visual acuity between 5 and 40 letters, and macular edema with a thickness of ≥275 μm. Thirteen patients had also previously been treated with anti-vascular endothelial growth factor medication. Results The mean ETDRS (Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study) value went from 18.80 + 11.06 (T0) to 26.15 + 11.03 (P = 0.04), 28.15 + 10.29 (P = 0.0087), 25.95 + 10.74 (P = 0.045), 21.25 + 11.46 (P = 0.5) in month 1, 3, 4, and 6, respectively. The mean logMAR (logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution) value went from 0.67 + 0.23 (at T0) to 0.525 + 0.190 (P = 0.03), 0.53 + 0.20 (P = 0.034), and 0.56 + 0.22 (P = 0.12) in month 1, 3, and 4, respectively, to finally reach 0.67 + 0.23 in month 6. The mean central macular thickness value improved from 518.80 + 224.75 μm (at T0) to 412.75 + 176.23 μm, 292.0 + 140.8 μm (P < 0.0001), and 346.95 + 135.70 (P = 0.0018) on day 3 and in month 1 and 3, respectively, to then increase to 476.55 + 163.14 μm (P = 0.45) and 494.25 + 182.70 μm (P = 0.67) in month 4 and 6. Conclusion The slow-release intravitreal dexamethasone implant, Ozurdex, produced significant improvements in best-corrected visual acuity and central macular thickness from the third day of implant in DME sufferers, and this improvement was sustained until the third month. PMID:23901252

  6. Clinical, anatomical, and electrophysiological assessments of the central retina following intravitreal bevacizumab for macular edema secondary to retinal vein occlusion.

    PubMed

    Loukianou, Eleni; Brouzas, Dimitrios; Chatzistefanou, Klio; Koutsandrea, Chrysanthi

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the long-term visual, anatomical and electrophysiological outcomes of repeated intravitreal injections of bevacizumab for macular edema due to retinal vein occlusion (RVO) and investigate any possible toxic effects on the central fovea. This is a prospective, noncomparative, interventional case series. Thirty-three eyes of 33 patients with macular edema secondary to RVO were treated with 1.25 mg/0.05 ml intravitreal bevacizumab. Nine patients had nonischemic central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO) and 24 patients had branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO). The main outcome measures were best-corrected visual acuity, central retinal thickness (CRT), and multifocal electroretinography (mfERG) responses changes at baseline, 1 month after the third injection and at the end of the 2-year long follow-up period. Patients with CRVO had mean best-corrected Snellen visual acuity of 0.10 at baseline, which improved significantly to 0.31 after 2 years (P = 0. 028).The mean CRT at presentation was 756.28 μm and reduced significantly to 439.14 μm after 2 years (P = 0.05). Patients with BRVO had mean best-corrected Snellen visual acuity of 0.19 at baseline, which improved significantly to 0.40 after 2 years (P < 0.001). The mean CRT at presentation was 681.04 μm and reduced significantly to 369.81 μm after 2 years (P < 0.001). Mean mfERG responses within central 10° (ring1, ring2) showed statistically significant differences on P1 parameters in terms of response density and implicit time after 2 years in both CRVO and BRVO patients. Repeated intravitreal bevacizumab injections for macular edema due to either CRVO or BRVO resulted in long-term improvement of visual acuity, a reduction in CRT and statistically significant changes in the mfERG responses with nondemonstrable toxic effects on the central fovea.

  7. Eplerenone, a new treatment for an old problem: Retinitis pigmentosa with recalcitrant macular edema.

    PubMed

    Campos Polo, R; Rubio Sánchez, C; García Guisado, D M; Díaz Luque, M J

    2017-06-14

    The case involves a 35-year-old man, with a history of retinitis pigmentosa, who presented with a bilateral cystoid macular oedema associated with bilateral epiretinal membrane, which was resistant to treatment with oral acetazolamide and intravitreal bevacizumab. The treatment with oral eplerenone was able to improve the visual acuity and macular thickness of this patient. A variety of treatments have been proposed for the management of cystoid macular oedema, associated with retinitis pigmentosa, with variable results. The treatment with oral eplerenone might be a good option for the control of this condition. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. [Effectiveness of diffuse diabetic macular edema treatment in relation to structural changes in macular region].

    PubMed

    Fursova, A Zh; Chubar', N V; Tarasov, M S; Saifullina, I F; Pustovaya, G G

    2016-01-01

    Цель — изучить характеристику функциональных и анатомических параметров исходно и на фоне терапии ранибизумабом в зависимости от типа диабетического макулярного отека (МО), определяемого по оптической когерентной томографии (ОКТ). Материал и методы. В исследование включены 100 пациентов (100 глаз) с сахарным диабетом и МО, средний возраст 61,9±5,6 года, 38 мужчин и 62 женщины, средняя длительность заболевания 8,48 года. На основании результатов исследования с помощью ОКТ было выделено 4 группы пациентов (по 25 человек): губчатый МО, кистозный МО, МО с серозной отслойкой нейроэпителия и смешанный МО (при наличии кистозного отека и серозной отслойки). Все пациенты получили 3 ежемесячные инъекции ранибизумаба по 0,5 мг. Определяли взаимосвязь анатомических, функциональных и клинических параметров. Результаты. Наиболее низкая исходная острота зрения (ОЗ) наблюдалась у пациентов со смешанным МО (р<0,05). Наиболее выраженное улучшение ОЗ после трех инъекций отмечалось у пациентов с губчатым МО — 0,34±0,18. Исходная толщина сетчатки была значимо меньше (р<0,05) при губчатом МО и продолжала оставаться самой низкой после лечения. Фовеолярная толщина сетчатки снижалась во всех группах в результате терапии, самая выраженная редукция МО (42,4%, р<0,05) наблюдалась при кистозном МО. Самое значимое уменьшение макулярного объема (на 2,7 мм3) с наиболее низким численным значением после лечения (9,01 мм3, р<0,05 по сравнению с губчатым и смешанным МО) было достигнуто у пациентов с кистозным отеком. При корреляционном анализе у пациентов с губчатым и кистозным МО была выявлена взаимосвязь между улучшением ОЗ (ΔОЗ) и динамикой макулярного объема (р<0,05). Среди клинических показателей с выраженностью улучшения ОЗ на фоне терапии коррелировала длительность диабета (r=–0,3; p<0,05). Эффективность лечения диффузного МО с помощью интравитреального введения ранибизумаба взаимосвязана с морфологическим типом МО, определяемым с помощью ОКТ. Показана корреляция эффективности лечения с длительностью диабета.

  9. Co-Evaluation of Peripapillary RNFL Thickness and Retinal Thickness in Patients with Diabetic Macular Edema: RNFL Misinterpretation and Its Adjustment

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Hyun Seung; Woo, Jong Eun; Kim, Min-ho; Kim, Dong Yoon; Yoon, Young Hee

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the relationship between the peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer and peripapillary retinal thickness in patients with diabetic macular edema. Fifty eyes (group I) with non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy and diabetic macular edema receiving intravitreal anti-VEGF injection, and 90 eyes (group II) without diabetic macular edema were included in this case-control study. The peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thickness, peripapillary retinal thickness, and a new retinal nerve fiber layer index using a modeled relationship between the two parameters were evaluated with spectral-domain optical coherence tomography, at baseline and at the 6-month follow-up. In group I, the peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thickness decreased from 126.4 μm at baseline to 117.6 μm at 6 months (p < 0.001), while the peripapillary retinal thickness decreased from 376.0 μm at baseline to 359.6 μm at 6 months (p < 0.001) after intravitreal anti-VEGF injection. In group II, however, both the parameters remained stable at the 6-month follow-up (100.7 to 102.1 μm and 311.1 to 316.2 μm, respectively, and all p > 0.01). Analysis with the new index to adjust for retinal edema showed no significant change from baseline to 6 months in both groups (p = 0.593 and p = 0.101, respectively). The peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thickness is strongly affected by the peripapillary retinal thickness. Therefore, the measured changes in peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thickness may not represent the real gain or loss of the retinal nerve fiber layer. Therefore, the new retinal nerve fiber layer index, which corrects for the component of macula edema, could be a better means of assessing the changes of peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thickness in patients with diabetic macular edema. PMID:28114356

  10. Changes in vision related quality of life in patients with diabetic macular edema: ranibizumab or laser treatment?

    PubMed

    Turkoglu, Elif Betul; Celık, Erkan; Aksoy, Nilgun; Bursalı, Ozlem; Ucak, Turgay; Alagoz, Gursoy

    2015-01-01

    To compare the changes in vision related quality of life (VR-QoL) in patients with diabetic macular edema (DME) undergoing intravitreal ranibizumab (IVR) injection or focal/grid laser. In this prospective study, 70 patients with clinically significant macular edema (CSME) were randomized to undergo IVR injection (n=35) and focal/grid laser (n=35). If necessary, the laser or ranibizumab injections were repeated. Distance and near visual acuities, central retinal thickness (CRT) and The 25-item Visual Function Questionnaire (VFQ-25) were used to measure the effectiveness of treatments and VR-QoL before and after 6 months following IVR or laser treatment. The demographic and clinical findings before the treatments were similar in both main groups. The improvements in distance and near visual acuities were higher in IVR group than the laser group (p<0.01). The reduction in CRT in IVR group was higher than that in laser treatment group (p<0.01). In both groups, the VFQ-25 composite score tended to improve from baseline to 6 months. And at 6th month, the changes in composite score were significantly higher in IVR group than in laser group (p<0.05). The improvements in overall composite scores were 6.3 points for the IVR group compared with 3.0 points in the laser group. Patients treated with IVR and laser had large improvements in composite scores, general vision, near and distance visual acuities in VFQ-25 at 6 months, in comparison with baseline scores, and also mental health subscale in IVR group. Our study revealed that IVR improved not only visual acuity or CRT, but also vision related quality of life more than laser treatment in DME. And these patient-reported outcomes may play an important role in the treatment choice in DME for clinicians. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. FOUR-YEAR INCIDENCE AND PROGRESSION OF DIABETIC RETINOPATHY AND MACULAR EDEMA: THE LOS ANGELES LATINO EYE STUDY

    PubMed Central

    Varma, Rohit; Choudhury, Farzana; Klein, Ronald; Chung, Jessica; Torres, Mina; Azen, Stanley P.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To estimate the 4-year incidence and progression of diabetic retinopathy macular edema (ME), and clinically significant macular edema (CSME) among adult Latinos with diabetes mellitus. Design A population-based, longitudinal study of 4658 self-identified Latinos (primarily Mexican-Americans), residing in Los Angeles, examined at baseline (2000-2003) and at 4 years (2004-2008). Methods Participants underwent a standardized ophthalmic examination. Diabetic retinopathy (DR) and CSME were detected by grading of stereoscopic fundus photographs using the Modified Airlie House classification scheme. Chi-square and trend tests were used to assess differences in incidence when stratifying by age and duration of diabetes. Results The 4-year incidence of DR, ME and CSME was 34.0% (182/535) and 5.4% (38/699) and 7.2% (50/699) respectively. Younger persons and those with longer duration of diabetes mellitus had a higher incidence on DR compared to those who were older and had shorter duration of diabetes mellitus. A higher incidence of ME was associated with longer duration of diabetes mellitus (P=0.004). Worsening/Progression of any DR was found in 38.9% (126/324) and improvement occurred in 14.0% (37/265) of participants. Progression from non-proliferative (NPDR) to proliferative DR (PDR) and from NPDR to PDR with high-risk characteristics occurred in 5.3% and 1.9% of participants. Conclusions The 4-year incidence and progression of DR and the incidence of ME and CSME among Latinos are high compared to non-Hispanic Whites. These findings support the need to identify and modify risk factors associated with these long-term complications. PMID:20149342

  12. Prophylactic nepafenac and ketorolac versus placebo in preventing postoperative macular edema after uneventful phacoemulsification.

    PubMed

    Almeida, David R P; Khan, Zainab; Xing, Lin; Bakar, Shahrukh N; Rahim, Karim; Urton, Todd; El-Defrawy, Sherif R

    2012-09-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of prophylactic ketorolac 0.5% versus nepafenac 0.1% versus placebo on macular volume 1 month after uneventful phacoemulsification and evaluate the health-related quality-of-life (HRQOL) of topical nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in the context of cataract surgery. Hotel Dieu Hospital, Kingston, Ontario, Canada. Prospective placebo-controlled parallel-assignment double-masked randomized clinical trial. In this study, patients 18 years or older scheduled for routine phacoemulsification were randomized to a placebo, ketorolac 0.5%, or nepafenac 0.1% and dosed 4 times a day starting 1 day before surgery and continuing for 4 weeks. Spectral-domain macular cube ocular coherence tomography scans measuring central subfield thickness, macular cube volume, and average macular cube thickness were performed at baseline and 1 month postoperatively. The HRQOL metrics were determined with the Comparison of Ophthalmic Medications for Tolerability (COMTOL) questionnaire. Each study group comprised 54 patients. One month postoperatively, although a trend toward significance occurred for nepafenac and ketorolac, analysis of the means of differences showed no statistically significant differences between the 3 study groups (P=.2901). The COMTOL analysis found no difference in tolerability, compliance, side-effect frequency and bother, and effects on HRQOL between ketorolac and nepafenac compared with the placebo. One month after uneventful phacoemulsification, there was no difference in macular volume between the placebo, ketorolac, and nepafenac. Ketorolac and nepafenac were well tolerated with minimal side-effect profiles. Thus, for patients without risk factors having routine surgery, prophylactic topical NSAIDs are not recommended. Copyright © 2012 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. [Intravitreal triamcinolone combined with grid laser photocoagulation for patients with cystoid macular edema and advanced diabetic retinopathy: pilot study].

    PubMed

    Arévalo, J F; Fernández, C F; Mendoza, A J; García, R A; Arévalo, F A

    2013-10-01

    To determine if primary intravitreal injection of triamcinolone acetonide (TA) plus grid laser photocoagulation (GLP) is effective in treating cystoid diabetic macular edema (DME). Prospective comparative non-randomized clinical trial. Fourteen eyes (14 patients) diagnosed with cystoid DME were treated with GLP according to the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) guidelines, plus an intravitreal injection of 4 mg of TA. A matched control group (16 eyes [16 patients]) treated with GLP was selected retrospectively from our medical records. Best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), and quantitative change in optical coherence tomography (OCT) macular thickness were assessed. Mean follow up was 14.9 months (12 to 19 months). In 3 (21.4%) eyes BCVA increased > 2 ETDRS lines, in 5 (35.7%) eyes BCVA remained the same, and BCVA decreased >2 ETDRS lines in 6 (42.8%) eyes. Central macular thickness, as measured by OCT, decreased a mean of 106.2 μm (30.2%). The difference with the control group was not statistically significant (P = .2). Four (28.5%) eyes developed an increased in intraocular pressure in our study group. Although all of our patients showed an improvement of cystoid DME by means of OCT and fluorescein angiography, 42.8% (6 eyes) lost 2 or more lines in BCVA with primary intravitreal injection of TA plus GLP. Primary intravitreal injection of TA plus GLP may not be effective for cystoid DME at 12-months. Copyright © 2010 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  14. Cone Photoreceptor Irregularity on Adaptive Optics Scanning Laser Ophthalmoscopy Correlates With Severity of Diabetic Retinopathy and Macular Edema.

    PubMed

    Lammer, Jan; Prager, Sonja G; Cheney, Michael C; Ahmed, Amel; Radwan, Salma H; Burns, Stephen A; Silva, Paolo S; Sun, Jennifer K

    2016-12-01

    To determine whether cone density, spacing, or regularity in eyes with and without diabetes (DM) as assessed by high-resolution adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (AOSLO) correlates with presence of diabetes, diabetic retinopathy (DR) severity, or presence of diabetic macular edema (DME). Participants with type 1 or 2 DM and healthy controls underwent AOSLO imaging of four macular regions. Cone assessment was performed by independent graders for cone density, packing factor (PF), nearest neighbor distance (NND), and Voronoi tile area (VTA). Regularity indices (mean/SD) of NND (RI-NND) and VTA (RI-VTA) were calculated. Fifty-three eyes (53 subjects) were assessed. Mean ± SD age was 44 ± 12 years; 81% had DM (duration: 22 ± 13 years; glycated hemoglobin [HbA1c]: 8.0 ± 1.7%; DM type 1: 72%). No significant relationship was found between DM, HbA1c, or DR severity and cone density or spacing parameters. However, decreased regularity of cone arrangement in the macular quadrants was correlated with presence of DM (RI-NND: P = 0.04; RI-VTA: P = 0.04), increasing DR severity (RI-NND: P = 0.04), and presence of DME (RI-VTA: P = 0.04). Eyes with DME were associated with decreased density (P = 0.04), PF (P = 0.03), and RI-VTA (0.04). Although absolute cone density and spacing don't appear to change substantially in DM, decreased regularity of the cone arrangement is consistently associated with the presence of DM, increasing DR severity, and DME. Future AOSLO evaluation of cone regularity is warranted to determine whether these changes are correlated with, or predict, anatomic or functional deficits in patients with DM.

  15. Cone Photoreceptor Irregularity on Adaptive Optics Scanning Laser Ophthalmoscopy Correlates With Severity of Diabetic Retinopathy and Macular Edema

    PubMed Central

    Lammer, Jan; Prager, Sonja G.; Cheney, Michael C.; Ahmed, Amel; Radwan, Salma H.; Burns, Stephen A.; Silva, Paolo S.; Sun, Jennifer K.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To determine whether cone density, spacing, or regularity in eyes with and without diabetes (DM) as assessed by high-resolution adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (AOSLO) correlates with presence of diabetes, diabetic retinopathy (DR) severity, or presence of diabetic macular edema (DME). Methods Participants with type 1 or 2 DM and healthy controls underwent AOSLO imaging of four macular regions. Cone assessment was performed by independent graders for cone density, packing factor (PF), nearest neighbor distance (NND), and Voronoi tile area (VTA). Regularity indices (mean/SD) of NND (RI-NND) and VTA (RI-VTA) were calculated. Results Fifty-three eyes (53 subjects) were assessed. Mean ± SD age was 44 ± 12 years; 81% had DM (duration: 22 ± 13 years; glycated hemoglobin [HbA1c]: 8.0 ± 1.7%; DM type 1: 72%). No significant relationship was found between DM, HbA1c, or DR severity and cone density or spacing parameters. However, decreased regularity of cone arrangement in the macular quadrants was correlated with presence of DM (RI-NND: P = 0.04; RI-VTA: P = 0.04), increasing DR severity (RI-NND: P = 0.04), and presence of DME (RI-VTA: P = 0.04). Eyes with DME were associated with decreased density (P = 0.04), PF (P = 0.03), and RI-VTA (0.04). Conclusions Although absolute cone density and spacing don't appear to change substantially in DM, decreased regularity of the cone arrangement is consistently associated with the presence of DM, increasing DR severity, and DME. Future AOSLO evaluation of cone regularity is warranted to determine whether these changes are correlated with, or predict, anatomic or functional deficits in patients with DM. PMID:27926754

  16. Long-term follow-up of anatomical and functional macular changes after a single intravitreal implant of dexamethasone 0.7 mg for radiation macular edema secondary to proton beam therapy for choroidal melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Stringa, Francesco; Marzi, Federico; Giannì, Laura; Imparato, Manuela; Bianchi, Alessandro; Bianchi, Paolo Emilio

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To describe the efficacy and safety of a single intravitreal implant of dexamethasone in a patient affected by radiation maculopathy due to proton beam radiotherapy for choroidal melanoma. Patient and methods Retrospective data of a 46-year-old woman treated with a single intravitreal injection of dexamethasone for radiation maculopathy due to proton beam radiotherapy were collected. The main outcome measures were best-corrected visual acuity and central retinal thickness. Intraocular pressure, anterior segment evaluation with slit lamp, macular changes depicted with spectral domain optical coherence tomography, retinal perfusion studied with fundus fluorescein angiography, and grade of macular edema using the Horgan classification were also evaluated during a 16-month follow-up. Results Macular edema occurred 25 months after radiation treatment in the left eye. The patient underwent a single intravitreal implant of dexamethasone. Preinjection visual acuity and central retinal thickness were 6/12 and 502 µm, respectively. After 8 months, visual acuity was 6/6 and remained stable until 16 months. Central retinal thickness was 269 µm at 16 months. Conclusion A single intravitreal implant of dexamethasone could effectively and stably improve visual acuity and central retinal thickness in some patients with radiation macular edema for 16 months after injection. PMID:27942234

  17. Comparison of diclofenac and fluorometholone in preventing cystoid macular edema after small incision cataract surgery: a multicentered prospective trial.

    PubMed

    Miyake, K; Masuda, K; Shirato, S; Oshika, T; Eguchi, K; Hoshi, H; Majima, Y; Kimura, W; Hayashi, F

    2000-01-01

    To compare a nonsteroidal topical solution (0.1% diclofenac) to a steroidal topical solution (0.1% fluorometholone) in preventing cystoid macular edema (CME) and disruption of the blood-aqueous barrier. A multicentered, prospective clinical trial was performed on eyes undergoing phacoemulsification followed by implantation of a foldable acrylic intraocular lens by the envelope technique. The presence and degree of cystoid macula edema (CME) was determined by fluorescein angiography. A breakdown of the blood-aqueous barrier was determined by laser flare-cell photometry. Five weeks after surgery, CME was present in 3 of 53 eyes (5.7%) receiving diclofenac and in 29 of 53 eyes (54.7%) receiving fluorometholone. This difference was statistically significant (P < .001). The amount of flare in the anterior chamber at 3 days, 1, 2, 5, and 8 weeks after surgery was also significantly lower (P < .01-P < .001) in the diclofenac group. The degree of flare at 3 days, 1, 2, 5, and 8 weeks after surgery was significantly higher in eyes with CME (P < .001). These findings suggest that diclofenac effectively prevents CME following cataract surgery and that CME is closely related to the breakdown of the blood-aqueous barrier.

  18. [Status of center point thickness and correlation between anatomic and best corrected visual acuity changes after photocoagulation, in diabetic macular edema].

    PubMed

    Lima-Gómez, Virgilio; Razo Blanco-Hernández, Dulce Milagros

    2013-01-01

    Center point thickness in diabetic macular edema varies after photocoagulation according to its baseline status; it is unknown whether this variation reduces the correlation between anatomic and visual acuity changes. to identify the contribution of baseline center point thickness to the correlation between anatomic and visual acuity after photocoagulation, in eyes with diabetic macular edema. non-experimental, prospective, longitudinal, analytical study in diabetics with macular edema treated with photocoagulation, stratified by groups: visual acuity < 0.5 with (group 1) or without central thickening (group 2), and visual acuity = 0.5 with (group 3) or without central thickening (4). The correlations between changes of center point thickness, macular volume, and visual acuity were identified (Spearman). 79 eyes, 17 in group 1 (21.5%), 21 in group 2 (26.6%), 14 in group 3 (17.7%) and 27 in group 4 (34.2%). Center point thickness increased in groups 2 and 4, visual acuity decreased in group 3 and macular volume in all the groups. The correlations between center point thickness and best corrected visual acuity changes in group 3, and between macular volume and visual acuity in group 1 were negative. The correlations between anatomic variables and visual acuity were low in the sample (r= 0.14). the increase of center point thickness in eyes without baseline central thickening produced opposite correlations between groups, which reduced the correlations in the samples. Stratification according to baseline center point thickness would make easier to evaluate other variables that modify the functional outcome after photocoagulation.

  19. Efficacy of Anti-IL6-Receptor Tocilizumab in Refractory Cystoid Macular Edema of Birdshot Retinochoroidopathy Report of Two Cases and Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Calvo-Río, Vanesa; Blanco, Ricardo; Santos-Gómez, Montserrat; Díaz-Valle, David; Pato, Esperanza; Loricera, Javier; González-Vela, María C; Demetrio-Pablo, Rosalía; Hernández, José L; González-Gay, Miguel A

    2016-10-11

    To evaluate tocilizumab (TCZ) efficacy in severe and refractory birdshot chorioretinopathy (BSCR). Assessment of BSCR patients refractory to conventional immunosuppressive and anti-TNF-α drugs who underwent TCZ therapy. Two HLA-A29 positive patients (man/37 years and woman/38 years; four affected eyes) with BSCR were studied. They had a chronic bilateral posterior uveitis. Patient 1 had been treated with intraocular and oral corticosteroids, cyclosporine A, and infliximab whereas Patient 2 received intravenous methylprednisolone pulses, cyclosporine A, azathioprine, and adalimumab. At TCZ onset they had macular edema (four eyes); visual acuity (VA) impairment (four eyes); vitritis (one eye); and diffuse angiographic signs of vasculitis (periphlebitis) (two eyes). Improvement of VA and OCT was observed following TCZ therapy in both patients. After a follow-up of 18 months (Patient 1) and 10 months (Patient 2), respectively, a corticosteroid sparing effect without any adverse effects was achieved in both cases. TCZ was effective in two patients with BSCR refractory to anti-TNF-α agents.

  20. Combined Ab Interno Glaucoma Surgery Does not Increase the Risk of Pseudophakic Cystoid Macular Edema in Uncomplicated Eyes.

    PubMed

    Schaub, Friederike; Adler, Werner; Koenig, Meike C; Enders, Philip; Dietlein, Thomas S; Cursiefen, Claus; Heindl, Ludwig M

    2017-03-01

    To assess the risk of pseudophakic cystoid macular edema (PCME) following cataract surgery (bimanual phacoemulsification with posterior chamber lens implantation) combined with ab interno glaucoma surgery (trabecular aspiration or ab interno trabeculotomy) compared with solely cataract extraction. In total, 360 consecutive eyes of 180 patients with age-related cataract, and thereof 162 with coexistent glaucoma, who underwent sole cataract surgery or in combination with ab interno glaucoma surgery (trabecular aspiration or ab interno trabeculotomy) were compared retrospectively regarding PCME development. Patients with known risk factors of PCME were excluded. Macular examination was performed using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography before and at 4, 8, 12, 16, 24, 36, and 48 weeks after surgery. Main outcome measure was the incidence of PCME. In total, 126 eyes (35%) underwent cataract surgery combined with ab interno glaucoma surgery (96 trabecular aspiration (76.2%), 30 ab interno trabeculotomy (23.8%), and 234 eyes (65%) received cataract surgery alone. PCME overall occurred in 23 eyes (6.4%). Following combined trabecular aspiration 5 eyes (5.2%) developed PCME, following ab interno trabeculotomy 2 eyes (6.7%), and following sole cataract surgery 16 eyes (6.8%), reaching no significant difference (P=0.676). Risk of PCME in fellow eye was significantly increased (P=0.025; odds ratio 7.177; 95% confidence interval, 5.667-8.687). Additional ab interno glaucoma surgery combined with phacoemulsification does not seem to increase the risk of PCME in uncomplicated eyes. However, in patients with history of PCME a significantly increased risk of PCME in fellow eye should be taken into account.

  1. Therapies for Macular Edema Associated with Branch Retinal Vein Occlusion: A Report by the American Academy of Ophthalmology.

    PubMed

    Ehlers, Justis P; Kim, Stephen J; Yeh, Steven; Thorne, Jennifer E; Mruthyunjaya, Prithvi; Schoenberger, Scott D; Bakri, Sophie J

    2017-09-01

    To evaluate the available evidence on the ocular safety and efficacy of current therapeutic alternatives for the management of macular edema (ME) secondary to branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO). Literature searches were last conducted on January 31, 2017, in PubMed with no date restrictions and limited to articles published in English, and in the Cochrane Database without language limitations. The searches yielded 321 citations, of which 109 were reviewed in full text and 27 were deemed appropriate for inclusion in this assessment. The panel methodologist assigned ratings to the selected studies according to the level of evidence. Level I evidence was identified in 10 articles that addressed anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) pharmacotherapies for ME, including intravitreal bevacizumab (5), aflibercept (2), and ranibizumab (4). Level I evidence was identified in 6 studies that examined intravitreal corticosteroids, including triamcinolone (4) and the dexamethasone implant (2). Level I evidence also was available for the role of macular grid laser photocoagulation (7) and scatter peripheral laser surgery (1). The inclusion of level II and level III studies was limited given the preponderance of level I studies. The number of studies on combination therapy is limited. Current level I evidence suggests that intravitreal pharmacotherapy with anti-VEGF agents is effective and safe for ME secondary to BRVO. Prolonged delay in treatment is associated with less improvement in visual acuity (VA). Level I evidence also indicates that intravitreal corticosteroids are effective and safe for the management of ME associated with BRVO; however, corticosteroids are associated with increased potential ocular side effects (e.g., elevated intraocular pressure, cataracts). Laser photocoagulation remains a safe and effective therapy, but VA results lag behind the results for anti-VEGF therapies. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Ophthalmology. Published by Elsevier

  2. Comparison of Time-Domain OCT and Fundus Photographic Assessments of Retinal Thickening in Eyes with Diabetic Macular Edema

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Matthew D.; Bressler, Susan B.; Aiello, Lloyd Paul; Bressler, Neil M.; Browning, David J.; Flaxel, Christina J.; Fong, Donald S.; Foster, William J.; Glassman, Adam R.; Hartnett, Mary Elizabeth R.; Kollman, Craig; Li, Helen K.; Qin, Haijing; Scott, Ingrid U.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose To explore the correlation between optical coherence tomography (OCT) and stereoscopic fundus photographs (FP) for the assessment of retinal thickening (RT) in diabetic macular edema (DME) within a clinical trial. Methods OCT, FP, and best corrected visual acuity (VA) measurements were obtained in both eyes of 263 participants in a trial comparing two photocoagulation techniques for DME. Correlation coefficients (r) were calculated comparing RT measured by OCT, RT estimated from FP, and VA. Principal variables were central subfield retinal thickness (CSRT) obtained from the OCT fast macular map and DME severity assessed by a reading center using a seven-step photographic scale combining the area of thickened retina within 1 disc diameter of the foveal center and thickening at the center. Results Medians (quartiles) for retinal thickness within the center subfield by OCT at baseline increased from 236 (214, 264) μm in the lowest level of the photographic scale to 517 (455, 598) μm in the highest level (r = 0.67). However, CSRT interquartile ranges were broad and overlapping between FP scale levels, and there were many outliers. Correlations between either modality and VA were weaker (r = 0.57 for CSRT, and r = 0.47 for the FP scale). OCT appeared to be more reproducible and more sensitive to change in RT between baseline and 1 year than was FP. Conclusions There was a moderate correlation between OCT and FP assessments of RT in patients with DME and slightly less correlation of either measure with VA. OCT and FP provide complementary information but neither is a reliable surrogate for VA. PMID:18316700

  3. Evaluation of the effectiveness and safety of glucocorticoids intravitreal implant therapy in macular edema due to retinal vein occlusion.

    PubMed

    Michalska-Małecka, Katarzyna; Gaborek, Aneta; Nowak, Mariusz; Halat, Tomasz; Pawłowska, Mariola; Śpiewak, Dorota

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of intravitreal dexamethasone implant (Ozurdex) on macular morphology and functions in eyes with macular edema (ME) secondary to retinal vein occlusion. Efficacy outcomes of the treatment were best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and central retinal thickness (CRT). Safety outcomes were intraocular pressure and cornea endothelial cell density. The study was conducted by the prospective analysis on 36 patients (17 women and 19 men) aged 28-77 years (the average age was 58±15 years) treated with the injection of dexamethasone implant because of the persistent ME at the Department of Ophthalmology and Ophthalmology Outpatient Clinic of the University Centre of Ophthalmology and Oncology in Katowice. The studied group included 16 patients with central retinal vein occlusion (16 eyes), and 20 patients with branch retinal vein occlusion (20 eyes). We found a significant increase of BCVA after first, second, and third month of treatment. Six months after the treatment, BCVA decreased, although not significantly compared with the value obtained in the third month. Two months after the intravitreal implantation of dexamethasone delivery system, CRT was 338±163 μm and was significantly lower compared with pretreatment value. Between third and sixth month after the treatment, we found insignificant increase of CRT compared with thickness observed in second month. Two months after the treatment, we found an increase in intraocular pressure in 36% of cases and a further decrease during the final visit 6 months after the treatment. During the treatment, there were no significant differences in endothelial cell density in branch retinal vein occlusion and central retinal vein occlusion. We found the intravitreal dexamethasone implant to be safe, well tolerated, and likely to lead to fast morphological and functional improvement of the macula and visual rehabilitation in patients with ME due to retinal vein occlusion.

  4. Health-related quality of life, visual function and treatment satisfaction following intravitreal dexamethasone implant for diabetic macular edema

    PubMed Central

    Ramu, Jayashree; Chatziralli, Irini; Yang, Yit; Menon, Geeta; Bailey, Clare; Eckstein, Michael; Hykin, Phil; Sivaprasad, Sobha

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to explore and describe quantitatively patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs), ie, health-related quality of life (QoL), visual function and treatment satisfaction, in patients with diabetic macular edema (DME) receiving two different regimens of Ozurdex (intravitreal dexamethasone implant). Methods In this multicenter, prospective study, 100 patients with center-involving refractory DME were randomized 1:1 to either five monthly fixed dosing or optical coherence tomography (OCT)-guided pro re nata (PRN) regimen of dexamethasone intravitreal implant therapy. The primary outcome was the difference between arms in change in PROMs and health-related QoL from baseline to 12 months, as measured by the Retinopathy-Dependent Quality of Life (RetDQoL) questionnaire, Visual Function Questionnaire-25 (VFQ-25) and Retinopathy Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire (RetTSQ). Results There was no statistically significant difference in the RetDQoL score and VFQ-25 score at month 12 compared to those at baseline, whereas the total mean RetTSQ score increased significantly at the exit visit. The two treatment arms did not differ significantly regarding the change in PROMs and health-related QoL questionnaires. Logistic regression analysis showed that visual acuity (VA) of ≥55 letters, central foveal thickness <300 μm and macular volume <9.2 mm3 at the exit visit (month 12) predicted a higher change in RetTSQ. Conclusion This study showed that there is a statistically significant improvement in treatment satisfaction, as measured by RetTSQ, in patients with DME treated with dexamethasone intravitreal implant, independent of the dose regimen, namely, fixed or PRN. However, it should be noted that the clinically meaningful change could not be assessed accurately, since no thresholds for clinically meaningful change currently exist for the RetTSQ. On the other hand, there was no significant change in health-related QoL, as measured using VFQ-25

  5. Prospective study of intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide versus bevacizumab for macular edema secondary to central retinal vein occlusion.

    PubMed

    Ding, Xiaoyan; Li, Jiaqing; Hu, Xuting; Yu, Shanshan; Pan, Jianying; Tang, Shibo

    2011-05-01

    To compare the efficacy and safety of intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide (IVT) versus intravitreal bevacizumab (IVB) for the treatment of macular edema (ME) secondary to central retinal vein occlusion. Prospective, consecutive, clinical interventional study. A total of 31 consecutive patients (32 eyes) with ME associated with central retinal vein occlusion were randomized to 2 groups. Sixteen eyes were treated with intravitreal injection of 4 mg/0.1 mL preservative-free triamcinolone acetonide; 16 eyes received IVB 1.25 mg/0.05 mL. Patients were given additional injections if they had ME as determined by optical coherence tomography 3 months after the first treatment or visual acuity loss of at least 2 lines in a Snellen chart. Best-corrected visual acuity, slit-lamp biomicroscopy, intraocular pressure, fundus fluorescein angiography, optical coherence tomography, the number of required injections, and adverse events were recorded during the 9-month follow-up period. Best-corrected visual acuity was significantly improved at 2 weeks and 1, 3, 6, and 9 months after injection in both the IVT and IVB groups, but no statistical difference was found between the 2 treatment groups during the 9-month follow-up period. The mean central macular thickness decreased at 1, 3, 6, and 9 months after injection within each treatment group, and no statistical difference was found between the 2 treatment groups at any time during the follow-up period (P > 0.05). Patients who received IVT treatment appeared to have quicker visual recovery and improved central macular thickness at Week 2 compared with those who received IVB treatment. Five of 16 eyes in the IVT group and 12 of 16 eyes in the IVB group required a repeated injection because of recurrent ME or unresolved intraretinal or subretinal fluid. The mean number of treatment was 1.31 ± 0.48 in the IVT group, as compared with 2.38 ± 1.04 in the IVB group. Significant intraocular pressure increase was found only in the IVT

  6. CHOROIDAL BLOOD FLOW AND THICKNESS AS PREDICTORS FOR RESPONSE TO ANTI-VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTOR THERAPY IN MACULAR EDEMA SECONDARY TO BRANCH RETINAL VEIN OCCLUSION.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Masahiro; Yamashita, Mariko; Sakamoto, Taiji; Ogata, Nahoko

    2017-02-23

    To determine the choroidal blood flow and subfoveal choroidal thickness (SCT) in eyes with macular edema secondary to branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO). Thirty-two eyes of 32 patients with macular edema secondary to a BRVO were treated with a single intravitreal injection of ranibizumab (IVR) and were followed for 2 months. The central retinal thickness and SCT, and the retinal and choroidal blood flows were evaluated, and they were compared between the recurrent and resolved groups. At the baseline, the SCT of eyes with a BRVO was significantly thicker than that of the fellow eye (P < 0.01). It was also significantly thicker in the recurrent group than in the resolved group (P = 0.03). The reduction of the retinal blood flow was found only after 1 week in the resolved group. The SCT and choroidal blood flow were significantly reduced during the follow-up period in the resolved group but not in the recurrent group. The choroid is involved in the pathology of BRVO and the SCT at the baseline may be a predictive factor in the treatment of intravitreal injection of ranibizumab for macular edema secondary to BRVO.

  7. Barely visible 10-millisecond pascal laser photocoagulation for diabetic macular edema: observations of clinical effect and burn localization.

    PubMed

    Muqit, Mahiul M K; Gray, Jane C B; Marcellino, George R; Henson, David B; Young, Lorna B; Patton, Niall; Charles, Stephen J; Turner, George S; Stanga, Paulo E

    2010-06-01

    To investigate the morphologic features and clinical efficacy of barely visible Pascal (Optimedica Corporation) photocoagulation burns in diabetic macular edema (DME) using Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography (FD OCT) and fundus autofluorescence (AF). Interventional case series. Retrospective evaluation of 10 eyes with newly diagnosed DME that underwent barely visible Pascal photocoagulation using an array of 10-microm, 10-millisecond photocoagulation burns. FD OCT and camera-based AF was performed at baseline and at 1 hour, 2 weeks, 4 weeks, and 12 weeks after laser. Changes in retinal thickening after laser treatment were measured using retinal thickness maps within the treated sector and the central foveal subfield. At 1 hour after treatment, burns were visualized partially with clinical biomicroscopy. AF demonstrated spots lacking autofluorescence that confirmed effective laser uptake within the Pascal arrays. Sequential changes in hyperreflectivity on FD OCT correlated with morphologic alterations seen on AF. Burns became increasingly hyperautofluorescent between 2 and 4 weeks. There were significant reductions in the retinal thickness within treated sectors on FD OCT at 2 weeks (26 +/- 32 microm; P = .012) and 3 months after laser (20 +/- 21 microm; P = .02) compared with baseline. Clinical biomicroscopic reduction of DME was the most common finding in 80%. Barely visible 10-millisecond Pascal laser seems to produce an effect at the level of the inner and outer photoreceptor segments and apical retinal pigment epithelium, with minimal axial and lateral spread of burns. FD OCT confirmed spatial localization of AF signal changes that correlated with laser burn-tissue interactions over 3 months. The technique of lower-fluence barely visible 10-millisecond laser may reduce retinal edema within affected sectors and effectively treat DME with minimization of scar formation. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The apparent diffusion coefficient does not reflect cytotoxic edema on the uninjured side after traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Lu, Hong; Lei, Xiaoyan

    2014-05-01

    After traumatic brain injury, vasogenic and cytotoxic edema appear sequentially on the involved side. Neuroimaging investigations of edema on the injured side have employed apparent diffusion coefficient measurements in diffusion tensor imaging. We investigated the changes occurring on the injured and uninjured sides using diffusion tensor imaging/apparent diffusion coefficient and histological samples in rats. We found that, on the injured side, that vasogenic edema appeared at 1 hour and intracellular edema appeared at 3 hours. Mixed edema was observed at 6 hours, worsening until 12-24 hours post-injury. Simultaneously, microglial cells proliferated at the trauma site. Apparent diffusion coefficient values increased at 1 hour, decreased at 6 hours, and increased at 12 hours. The uninjured side showed no significant pathological change at 1 hour after injury. Cytotoxic edema appeared at 3 hours, and vasogenic edema was visible at 6 hours. Cytotoxic edema persisted, but vasogenic edema tended to decrease after 12-24 hours. Despite this complex edema pattern on the uninjured side with associated pathologic changes, no significant change in apparent diffusion coefficient values was detected over the first 24 hours. Apparent diffusion coefficient values accurately detected the changes on the injured side, but did not detect the changes on the uninjured side, giving a false-negative result.

  9. Ocular safety comparison of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory eye drops used in pseudophakic cystoid macular edema prevention.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Ferreiro, Anxo; Santiago-Varela, María; Gil-Martínez, María; Parada, Tomas García-Caballero; Pardo, María; González-Barcia, Miguel; Piñeiro-Ces, Antonio; Rodríguez-Ares, María Teresa; Blanco-Mendez, José; Lamas, M J; Otero-Espinar, Francisco J

    2015-11-30

    Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) eye drops are widely used to treat ocular inflammatory conditions related to ophthalmic surgical procedures, such as pseudophakic cystoid macular edema, and they have been used for off-label treatments. The most commonly used NSAIDs are diclofenac and ketorolac and the new molecules bromfenac and nepafenac have also been used. We used primary human keratocytes in cell culture in combination with a novel technology that evaluates dynamic real-time cytotoxicity through impedance analysis. This study also included classic cell viability tests (WST-1(®) and AlamarBlue(®)), wound healing assay, Hen's Egg Test and an ex vivo histopathological assay. NSAIDs were shown to have important cytotoxicities and to retard the healing response. Furthermore, the new eye drops containing bromfenac and nepafenac were more cytotoxic than the more classical eye drops. Nevertheless, no immuno-histochemical changes or acute irritation processes were observed after the administration of any eye drops tested. Due to cytotoxicity and the total absence of discomfort and observable injuries after the administration of these drugs, significant corneal alterations, such as corneal melts, can develop without any previous warning signs of toxicity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Switching to Aflibercept in Diabetic Macular Edema Not Responding to Ranibizumab and/or Intravitreal Dexamethasone Implant

    PubMed Central

    Herbaut, Antoine; Fajnkuchen, Franck; Qu-Knafo, Lise; Nghiem-Buffet, Sylvia; Bodaghi, Bahram

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To assess short-term functional and anatomical outcomes of refractory diabetic macular edema (DME) following a switch from ranibizumab or dexamethasone to aflibercept. Methods We included retrospectively eyes with persistent DME after at least 3 ranibizumab and/or one dexamethasone implant intravitreal injections (IVI). The primary endpoint was the mean change in visual acuity (VA) at month 6 (M6) after switching. Results Twenty-five eyes were included. Before switching to aflibercept, 23 eyes received a median of 9.5 ranibizumab, and among them, 6 eyes received one dexamethasone implant after ranibizumab and 2 eyes received only one dexamethasone implant. Baseline VA, before any IVI, was 52.9 ± 16.5 letters, and preswitch VA was 57.1 ± 19.6 letters. The mean VA gain was +8 letters (p = 0.01) between preswitch and M6. The mean central retinal thickness was 470.8 ± 129.9 μm before the switch and 303.3 ± 59.1 μm at M6 (p = 0.001). Conclusion Switching to aflibercept in refractory DME results in significant functional and anatomical improvement. The study was approved by the France Macula Federation ethical committee (FMF 2017-138). PMID:28900543

  11. Multifractal geometry in analysis and processing of digital retinal photographs for early diagnosis of human diabetic macular edema.

    PubMed

    Tălu, Stefan

    2013-07-01

    The purpose of this paper is to determine a quantitative assessment of the human retinal vascular network architecture for patients with diabetic macular edema (DME). Multifractal geometry and lacunarity parameters are used in this study. A set of 10 segmented and skeletonized human retinal images, corresponding to both normal (five images) and DME states of the retina (five images), from the DRIVE database was analyzed using the Image J software. Statistical analyses were performed using Microsoft Office Excel 2003 and GraphPad InStat software. The human retinal vascular network architecture has a multifractal geometry. The average of generalized dimensions (Dq) for q = 0, 1, 2 of the normal images (segmented versions), is similar to the DME cases (segmented versions). The average of generalized dimensions (Dq) for q = 0, 1 of the normal images (skeletonized versions), is slightly greater than the DME cases (skeletonized versions). However, the average of D2 for the normal images (skeletonized versions) is similar to the DME images. The average of lacunarity parameter, Λ, for the normal images (segmented and skeletonized versions) is slightly lower than the corresponding values for DME images (segmented and skeletonized versions). The multifractal and lacunarity analysis provides a non-invasive predictive complementary tool for an early diagnosis of patients with DME.

  12. Optical coherence tomography angiography microvascular findings in macular edema due to central and branch retinal vein occlusions

    PubMed Central

    Rodolfo, Mastropasqua; Lisa, Toto; Luca, Di Antonio; Enrico, Borrelli; Alfonso, Senatore; Marta, Di Nicola; Giuseppe, Di Martino; Marco, Ciancaglini; Carpineto, Paolo

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate retinal and choriocapillaris vessel density using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) in eyes with central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO) and branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO) complicated by macular edema (ME). Sixty eyes of 60 patients with CRVO or BRVO and ME and 40 healthy subjects underwent measurements of superficial and deep foveal and parafoveal vessel density (FVD, PFVD) and choricapillary density using OCTA at baseline and 60 days after intravitreal dexamethasone implant (IVDEX). FVD and PFVD of the superficial plexus were not significantly lower in CRVO group compared to the controls while in the BRVO group overall PFVD were significantly lower compared to control group (p < 0.001). Overall PFVD of the deep plexus was significantly lower in CRVO and BRVO groups compared to the control group (p < 0.001). FVD and overall PFVD of choriocapillaris were significantly reduced compared to controls in CRVO group (p < 0.001) and PFVD of choriocapillaris was significantly reduced compared to controls in the affected hemi fields in BRVO groups (p < 0.001). OCTA showed vessel density reduction in BRVO and CRVO with main involvement of the deep retinal plexus compared to the superficial retinal plexus due to ischemia that did not recover after intravitreal dexamethasone implant. PMID:28098203

  13. Switching to Aflibercept in Diabetic Macular Edema Not Responding to Ranibizumab and/or Intravitreal Dexamethasone Implant.

    PubMed

    Herbaut, Antoine; Fajnkuchen, Franck; Qu-Knafo, Lise; Nghiem-Buffet, Sylvia; Bodaghi, Bahram; Giocanti-Auregan, Audrey

    2017-01-01

    To assess short-term functional and anatomical outcomes of refractory diabetic macular edema (DME) following a switch from ranibizumab or dexamethasone to aflibercept. We included retrospectively eyes with persistent DME after at least 3 ranibizumab and/or one dexamethasone implant intravitreal injections (IVI). The primary endpoint was the mean change in visual acuity (VA) at month 6 (M6) after switching. Twenty-five eyes were included. Before switching to aflibercept, 23 eyes received a median of 9.5 ranibizumab, and among them, 6 eyes received one dexamethasone implant after ranibizumab and 2 eyes received only one dexamethasone implant. Baseline VA, before any IVI, was 52.9 ± 16.5 letters, and preswitch VA was 57.1 ± 19.6 letters. The mean VA gain was +8 letters (p = 0.01) between preswitch and M6. The mean central retinal thickness was 470.8 ± 129.9 μm before the switch and 303.3 ± 59.1 μm at M6 (p = 0.001). Switching to aflibercept in refractory DME results in significant functional and anatomical improvement. The study was approved by the France Macula Federation ethical committee (FMF 2017-138).

  14. Anti-vascular endothelial growth factor pharmacotherapy for diabetic macular edema: a report by the American Academy of Ophthalmology.

    PubMed

    Ho, Allen C; Scott, Ingrid U; Kim, Stephen J; Brown, Gary C; Brown, Melissa M; Ip, Michael S; Recchia, Franco M

    2012-10-01

    To review the evidence regarding the safety and efficacy of current anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) pharmacotherapies for the treatment of diabetic macular edema (DME). Literature searches last were conducted in September 2011, in PubMed with no date restrictions, limited to articles published in English, and in the Cochrane Library without a language limitation. The combined searches yielded 532 citations, of which 45 were deemed clinically relevant for the authors to review in full text and to assign ratings of level of evidence to each of the selected studies with the guidance of the panel methodologists. At this time, there are 5 studies that provide level I evidence for intravitreal ranibizumab, alone or in combination with other treatments for DME. There is also 1 study that provides level I evidence for intravitreal pegaptanib sodium for DME. Nine studies reviewed were rated as level II, and 2 additional studies reviewed were graded as level III. Most studies do not provide information about long-term results (i.e., more than 2 years of follow-up) or the comparative efficacy of anti-VEGF pharmacotherapies. Review of the available literature indicates that anti-VEGF pharmacotherapy, delivered by intravitreal injection, is a safe and effective treatment over 2 years for DME. Further evidence is required to support the long-term safety of these pharmacotherapies and their comparative efficacy. Copyright © 2012 American Academy of Ophthalmology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Twelve-Month Results of a Single or Multiple Dexamethasone Intravitreal Implant for Macular Edema following Uncomplicated Phacoemulsification

    PubMed Central

    Abdolrahimzadeh, Solmaz; Fenicia, Vito; Maurizi Enrici, Maurizio; Plateroti, Pasquale; Cianfrone, Dora; Recupero, Santi Maria

    2015-01-01

    The clinical efficacy of one or two intravitreal injections of a continued deliverance dexamethasone 700 μg implant in ten patients with persistent macular edema following uncomplicated phacoemulsification was evaluated. Complete ophthalmological examination and spectral domain optical coherence tomography were carried out. Follow-up was at day 7 and months 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 12. At baseline mean best corrected visual acuity was 62 Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study Chart letters, which showed statistically significant improvement at each follow-up, except at month 6, to reach 79 letters at month 12 (P = 0.018). Prior to treatment mean central foveal thickness was 622 μm, which showed statistically significant improvement at each follow-up to reach a mean value of 282 μm (P = 0.012) at month 12. Five patients received a second dexamethasone implant at month 7. Two patients were excluded from the study at months 4 and 8. Intraocular pressure remained stable during the study period with the exception of mild increase in two patients requiring topical therapy. In conclusion there was statistically significant improvement of best corrected visual acuity and mean central foveal thickness with one or two intravitreal dexamethasone implants over 12 months. PMID:26509151

  16. Aflibercept, Bevacizumab, or Ranibizumab for Diabetic Macular Edema: Two-Year Results from a Comparative Effectiveness Randomized Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Wells, John A; Glassman, Adam R; Ayala, Allison R; Jampol, Lee M; Bressler, Neil M; Bressler, Susan B; Brucker, Alexander J; Ferris, Frederick L; Hampton, G Robert; Jhaveri, Chirag; Melia, Michele; Beck, Roy W

    2016-06-01

    To provide 2-year results comparing anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) agents for center-involved diabetic macular edema (DME) using a standardized follow-up and retreatment regimen. Randomized clinical trial. Six hundred sixty participants with visual acuity (VA) impairment from DME. Randomization to 2.0-mg aflibercept, 1.25-mg repackaged (compounded) bevacizumab, or 0.3-mg ranibizumab intravitreous injections performed up to monthly using a protocol-specific follow-up and retreatment regimen. Focal/grid laser photocoagulation was added after 6 months if DME persisted. Visits occurred every 4 weeks during year 1 and were extended up to every 4 months thereafter when VA and macular thickness were stable. Change in VA, adverse events, and retreatment frequency. Median numbers of injections were 5, 6, and 6 in year 2 and 15, 16, and 15 over 2 years in the aflibercept, bevacizumab, and ranibizumab groups, respectively (global P = 0.08). Focal/grid laser photocoagulation was administered in 41%, 64%, and 52%, respectively (aflibercept vs. bevacizumab, P < 0.001; aflibercept vs. ranibizumab, P = 0.04; bevacizumab vs. ranibizumab, P = 0.01). At 2 years, mean VA improved by 12.8, 10.0, and 12.3 letters, respectively. Treatment group differences varied by baseline VA (P = 0.02 for interaction). With worse baseline VA (20/50 to 20/320), mean improvement was 18.1, 13.3, and 16.1 letters, respectively (aflibercept vs. bevacizumab, P = 0.02; aflibercept vs. ranibizumab, P = 0.18; ranibizumab vs. bevacizumab, P = 0.18). With better baseline VA (20/32 to 20/40), mean improvement was 7.8, 6.8, and 8.6 letters, respectively (P > 0.10, for pairwise comparisons). Anti-Platelet Trialists' Collaboration (APTC) events occurred in 5% with aflibercept, 8% with bevacizumab, and 12% with ranibizumab (global P = 0.047; aflibercept vs. bevacizumab, P = 0.34; aflibercept vs. ranibizumab, P = 0.047; ranibizumab vs. bevacizumab, P = 0.20; global P = 0.09 adjusted for

  17. Intravitreal Bevacizumab with or without Triamcinolone for Refractory Diabetic Macular Edema: Long-term Results of a Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Shoeibi, Nasser; Ahmadieh, Hamid; Entezari, Morteza; Yaseri, Mehdi

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To report the long-term results of intravitreal bevacizumab (IVB) injection alone or combined, at the time of first IVB injection, with intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide (IVT) for treatment of refractory diabetic macular edema (DME). Methods In this randomized clinical trial, 115 eyes of 101 patients with refractory DME were enrolled and randomly assigned to one of the three study arms: the IVB group (41 eyes) received three consecutive injections of 1.25 mg IVB at 6-week intervals; the IVB/IVT group (37 eyes) additionally received 2 mg of IVT at the time of first IVB injection; and the control (sham injection) group. Patients in the IVB and IVB/IVT groups were followed for a mean of 13.3 months and received retreatment with IVB alone whenever indicated. Main outcome measures were best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and central macular thickness (CMT). Results At the last follow up, CMT decreased significantly in the IVB group (p=0.013) but it was not significant (p=0.13) in the IVB/IVT group. Mean CMT improvement was 91 (95% CI, 20 to 161) microns and 57 (95% CI, -18 to 133) microns in the IVB and IVB/IVT groups, respectively. Mean BCVA improvement from baseline was 0.28 (95% CI, 0.18 to 0.38) logMAR (P=0.017) in the IVB group and 0.19 (95% CI, 0.08 to 0.30) logMAR (P=0.001) in the IVB/IVT group. There was no difference between the two groups in terms of visual improvment (p=0.42). In generalized linear mixed model, only the time interval between the last injection and CMT measurement was statistically significant (P=0.04). The same results were repeated for visual acuity (P=0.03). Conclusion Three loading doses of IVB (added doses if required) have long-term beneficial effects for treatment of refractory DME. Adding triamcinolone to this regimen provides no additional long-term benefit. PMID:23943683

  18. Sustained delivery fluocinolone acetonide vitreous implants: long-term benefit in patients with chronic diabetic macular edema.

    PubMed

    Cunha-Vaz, José; Ashton, Paul; Iezzi, Raymond; Campochiaro, Peter; Dugel, Pravin U; Holz, Frank G; Weber, Michel; Danis, Ronald P; Kuppermann, Baruch D; Bailey, Clare; Billman, Kathleen; Kapik, Barry; Kane, Frances; Green, Ken

    2014-10-01

    To present the safety and efficacy of intravitreal implants releasing 0.2 μg/day fluocinolone acetonide (FAc) in patients with chronic versus nonchronic diabetic macular edema (DME). To assess ocular characteristics, anatomic changes, and re-treatment and ancillary therapies that may explain the differential treatment effect seen with intravitreal implants releasing FAc 0.2 μg/day in patients with chronic and nonchronic DME. An overall benefit-to-risk assessment for the FAc 0.2-μg/day and FAc 0.5-μg/day doses has been reported previously. Preplanned subgroup analysis of chronic (duration of diagnosis, ≥3 years) and nonchronic (duration of diagnosis, <3 years) DME in patients from 2 randomized, sham injection-controlled, double-masked, multicenter clinical trials. Patients with persistent DME despite 1 or more macular laser treatment were randomized 1:2:2 to sham injection (n = 185), FAc 0.2 μg/day (n = 375), or FAc 0.5 μg/day (n = 393). Patients received study drug or sham injection and after 6 weeks were eligible for rescue laser. Based on re-treatment criteria, additional masked study drug could be given after 1 year. Percentage of patients with improvement of 15 letters or more from baseline. Secondary outcomes included other parameters of visual function and foveal thickness. At month 36, the difference between FAc 0.2 μg/day and sham control in the percentage of patients who gained 15 letters or more was significantly greater in chronic DME patients (FAc 0.2 μg/day, 34.0% vs. sham, 13.4%; P<0.001), compared with patients with nonchronic DME (FAc 0.2 μg/day, 22.3% vs. sham, 27.8%; P = 0.275). The greater response in patients with chronic DME was not associated with baseline ocular characteristics, changes in anatomic features, or differences in re-treatment or ancillary therapies. The ocular adverse event profile for FAc 0.2 μg/day was similar regardless of DME duration. This is the first published analysis correlating duration of diagnosis of DME

  19. Therapies for macular edema associated with central retinal vein occlusion: a report by the American Academy of Ophthalmology.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Steven; Kim, Stephen J; Ho, Allen C; Schoenberger, Scott D; Bakri, Sophie J; Ehlers, Justis P; Thorne, Jennifer E

    2015-04-01

    To review the available evidence regarding the safety and efficacy of therapies for the treatment of macular edema (ME) associated with central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO). A literature search of the PubMed database was last conducted in March 2014 with no date restrictions but limited to articles published in English. A literature search of the Cochrane Library was also conducted in March 2014 with no date restrictions and without a language limitation. The combined searches yielded 108 citations, of which 20 were deemed clinically relevant for the Ophthalmic Technology Assessment Committee Retina/Vitreous panel to review in full text. Three additional studies were also identified for panel review. The level of evidence of these selected studies was reviewed by the panel methodologist. There were 7 citations representing 4 clinical trials that provided level I evidence supporting the use of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) pharmacotherapies for ME associated with CRVO, including intravitreal ranibizumab (2), aflibercept (3), and bevacizumab (2). There were 3 citations representing 2 studies with level I evidence for intravitreal corticosteroid injection with dexamethasone intravitreal implant (2 citations) or triamcinolone (1 citation), although cataract and glaucoma were observed in these studies. Level I evidence is available on the limited benefit of macular grid-pattern laser photocoagulation (1 citation). Eight other citations reviewed were rated as level II, and 4 citations were rated as level III. Long-term efficacy results (≥2 years of follow-up) are limited to intravitreal ranibizumab at this time, and few studies have evaluated combination therapy with anti-VEGF and corticosteroid versus monotherapy of either class of drug. Level I evidence indicates that intravitreal anti-VEGF pharmacotherapy is safe and effective over 2 years for ME associated with CRVO and that delay in treatment is associated with worse visual outcomes. In addition

  20. Morphological and electrophysiological outcome in prospective intravitreal bevacizumab treatment of macular edema secondary to central retinal vein occlusion.

    PubMed

    Gardašević Topčić, Ivana; Šuštar, Maja; Brecelj, Jelka; Hawlina, Marko; Jaki Mekjavić, Polona

    2014-08-01

    To evaluate intravitreal bevacizumab (IVB) treatment in patients with central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO) by spectral domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) and electroretinography (ERG). Twenty-two CRVO patients were treated with IVB injections and followed for 1 year. Morphological effect of treatment was observed with fluorescent angiography and OCT. Functional effect was followed with best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and ERG: combined rod-cone response of the standard full-field ERG (dark adapted 3.0 ERG), photopic negative response (PhNR), and pattern ERG (PERG). Best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) improved by 18.2 letters after 6 months (p ≤ 0.001) and additional 4.7 letters by the 12th month (p ≤ 0.001). The central retinal thickness of 829.8 ± 256.7 μm decreased to 398.8 ± 230 μm (p ≤ 0.001) after 6 months and to 303.7 ± 128.9 μm during the following 6 months (p ≤ 0.001). The total macular volume (14.4 ± 4.2 mm(3)) decreased to 9.6 ± 3.2 mm(3) and 8.5 ± 2.0 mm(3) after 6 months and 1 year of treatment, respectively (p ≤ 0.001). Electrophysiological measures improved significantly after 6 months and 1 year of treatment: the a-wave implicit time of dark adapted 3.0 ERG from 25.6 ± 2.3 to 24.1 ± 2.1 and 24.1 ± 2.0 ms (p ≤ 0.01); the PhNR from -5.9 ± 6.6 to -9.4 ± 6.1 and -10.4 ± 4.6 µV (p ≤ 0.05); the PERG P50 amplitude from 0.2 ± 0.3 to 0.9 ± 0.6 and 1.1 ± 0.6 µV (p ≤ 0.001); and N95 amplitude from 0.4 ± 0.6 to 1.2 ± 0.9 and 1.6 ± 0.9 µV (p ≤ 0.001). Intravitreal bevacizumab (IVB) treatment of macular edema due to CRVO improved standard morphological measures and the electrophysiological function of outer and inner retinal layers, which was most evident in central retina.

  1. Intravitreal aflibercept injection for macular edema due to central retinal vein occlusion: two-year results from the COPERNICUS study.

    PubMed

    Heier, Jeffrey S; Clark, W Lloyd; Boyer, David S; Brown, David M; Vitti, Robert; Berliner, Alyson J; Kazmi, Husain; Ma, Yu; Stemper, Brigitte; Zeitz, Oliver; Sandbrink, Rupert; Haller, Julia A

    2014-07-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of intravitreal aflibercept injection (IAI) for the treatment of macular edema secondary to central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO). Randomized, double-masked, phase 3 trial. A total of 188 patients with macular edema secondary to CRVO. Patients received IAI 2 mg (IAI 2Q4) (n = 114) or sham injections (n = 74) every 4 weeks up to week 24. During weeks 24 to 52, patients from both arms were evaluated monthly and received IAI as needed, or pro re nata (PRN) (IAI 2Q4 + PRN and sham + IAI PRN). During weeks 52 to 100, patients were evaluated at least quarterly and received IAI PRN. The primary efficacy end point was the proportion of patients who gained ≥ 15 letters in best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) from baseline to week 24. This study reports week 100 results. The proportion of patients gaining ≥ 15 letters was 56.1% versus 12.3% (P<0.001) at week 24, 55.3% versus 30.1% (P<0.001) at week 52, and 49.1% versus 23.3% (P<0.001) at week 100 in the IAI 2Q4 + PRN and sham + IAI PRN groups, respectively. The mean change from baseline BCVA was also significantly higher in the IAI 2Q4 + PRN group compared with the sham + IAI PRN group at week 24 (+17.3 vs. -4.0 letters; P<0.001), week 52 (+16.2 vs. +3.8 letters; P<0.001), and week 100 (+13.0 vs. +1.5 letters; P<0.0001). The mean reduction from baseline in central retinal thickness was 457.2 versus 144.8 μm (P<0.001) at week 24, 413.0 versus 381.8 μm at week 52 (P = 0.546), and 390.0 versus 343.3 μm at week 100 (P = 0.366) in the IAI 2Q4 + PRN and sham + IAI PRN groups, respectively. The mean number (standard deviation) of PRN injections in the IAI 2Q4 + PRN and sham + IAI PRN groups was 2.7 ± 1.7 versus 3.9 ± 2.0 during weeks 24 to 52 and 3.3 ± 2.1 versus 2.9 ± 2.0 during weeks 52 to 100, respectively. The most frequent ocular serious adverse event from baseline to week 100 was vitreous hemorrhage (0.9% vs. 6.8% in the IAI 2Q4 + PRN and sham + IAI PRN groups, respectively). The

  2. Fully Automatic Software for Retinal Thickness in Eyes With Diabetic Macular Edema From Images Acquired by Cirrus and Spectralis Systems

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Joo Yong; Chiu, Stephanie J.; Srinivasan, Pratul P.; Izatt, Joseph A.; Toth, Cynthia A.; Farsiu, Sina; Jaffe, Glenn J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. To determine whether a novel automatic segmentation program, the Duke Optical Coherence Tomography Retinal Analysis Program (DOCTRAP), can be applied to spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) images obtained from different commercially available SD-OCT in eyes with diabetic macular edema (DME). Methods. A novel segmentation framework was used to segment the retina, inner retinal pigment epithelium, and Bruch's membrane on images from eyes with DME acquired by one of two SD-OCT systems, Spectralis or Cirrus high definition (HD)-OCT. Thickness data obtained by the DOCTRAP software were compared with those produced by Spectralis and Cirrus. Measurement agreement and its dependence were assessed using intraclass correlation (ICC). Results. A total of 40 SD-OCT scans from 20 subjects for each machine were included in the analysis. Spectralis: the mean thickness in the 1-mm central area determined by DOCTRAP and Spectralis was 463.8 ± 107.5 μm and 467.0 ± 108.1 μm, respectively (ICC, 0.999). There was also a high level agreement in surrounding areas (out to 3 mm). Cirrus: the mean thickness in the 1-mm central area was 440.8 ± 183.4 μm and 442.7 ± 182.4 μm by DOCTRAP and Cirrus, respectively (ICC, 0.999). The thickness agreement in surrounding areas (out to 3 mm) was more variable due to Cirrus segmentation errors in one subject (ICC, 0.734–0.999). After manual correction of the errors, there was a high level of thickness agreement in surrounding areas (ICC, 0.997–1.000). Conclusions. The DOCTRAP may be useful to compare retinal thicknesses in eyes with DME across OCT platforms. PMID:24084089

  3. Nepafenac 0.1% versus fluorometholone 0.1% for preventing cystoid macular edema after cataract surgery.

    PubMed

    Miyake, Kensaku; Ota, Ichiro; Miyake, Goichiro; Numaga, Jiro

    2011-09-01

    To compare a topical nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug (nepafenac 0.1%) and a topical steroidal antiinflammatory drug (fluorometholone 0.1% ) in preventing cystoid macular edema (CME) and blood-aqueous barrier (BAB) disruption after small-incision cataract extraction with foldable intraocular lens (IOL) implantation. Shohzankai Medical Foundation, Miyake Eye Hospital, Nagoya, Japan. Randomized double-masked single-center clinical trial. Patients were randomized to receive nepafenac 0.1% eyedrops or fluorometholone 0.1% eyedrops for 5 weeks after phacoemulsification with foldable IOL implantation. The incidence and severity of CME were evaluated by fluorescein angiography, retinal foveal thickness on optical coherence tomography, and BAB disruption on laser flare-cell photometry. Thirty patients received nepafenac and 29 patients, fluorometholone. Five weeks postoperatively, the incidence of fluorescein angiographic CME was significantly lower in the nepafenac group (14.3%) than in the fluorometholone group (81.5%) (P<.0001). The fovea was thinner in the nepafenac group than in the fluorometholone group at 2 weeks (P=.0266) and 5 weeks (P=.0055). At 1, 2, and 5 weeks, anterior chamber flare was significantly less in the nepafenac group than in the fluorometholone group (P<.0001, P<.0001, and P=.0304, respectively). The visual acuity recovery from baseline was significantly greater in the nepafenac group (80.0%) than in the fluorometholone group (55.2%) (P=.0395). There were no serious side effects in either group. Nepafenac was more effective than fluorometholone in preventing angiographic CME and BAB disruption, and results indicate nepafenac leads to more rapid visual recovery. Copyright © 2011 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Association Between Diabetic Macular Edema and Cardiovascular Events in Type 2 Diabetes Patients: A Multicenter Observational Study.

    PubMed

    Leveziel, Nicolas; Ragot, Stéphanie; Gand, Elise; Lichtwitz, Olivier; Halimi, Jean Michel; Gozlan, Julien; Gourdy, Pierre; Robert, Marie-Françoise; Dardari, Dured; Boissonnot, Michèle; Roussel, Ronan; Piguel, Xavier; Dupuy, Olivier; Torremocha, Florence; Saulnier, Pierre-Jean; Maréchaud, Richard; Hadjadj, Samy

    2015-08-01

    Diabetic macular edema (DME) is the main cause of visual loss associated with diabetes but any association between DME and cardiovascular events is unclear.This study aims to describe the possible association between DME and cardiovascular events in a multicenter cross-sectional study of patients with type 2 diabetes.Two thousand eight hundred seven patients with type 2 diabetes were recruited from diabetes and nephrology clinical institutional centers participating in the DIAB 2 NEPHROGENE study focusing on diabetic complications. DME (presence/absence) and diabetic retinopathy (DR) classification were based on ophthalmological report and/or on 30° color retinal photographs. DR was defined as absent, nonproliferative (background, moderate, or severe) or proliferative. Cardiovascular events were stroke, myocardial infarction, and lower limb amputation.Details regarding associations between DME and cardiovascular events were evaluated.The study included 2807 patients with type 2 diabetes, of whom 355 (12.6%) had DME. DME was significantly and independently associated with patient age, known duration of diabetes, HbA1c, systolic blood pressure, and DR stage. Only the prior history of lower limb amputation was strongly associated with DME in univariate and multivariate analyses, whereas no association was found with regard to myocardial infarction or stroke. Moreover, both major (n = 32) and minor lower limb (n = 96) amputations were similarly associated with DME, with respective odds ratio of 3.7 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.77-7.74; P = 0.0012) and of 4.29 (95% CI, 2.79-6.61; P < 0.001).DME is strongly and independently associated with lower limb amputation in type 2 diabetic patients.

  5. [Role of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) in the pathogenesis and treatment of diabetic macular edema (DME)].

    PubMed

    Chmielewska, Katarzyna; Robaszkiewicz, Jacek; Kosatka, Mariusz

    2008-01-01

    Pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) has recently been shown to be the most potent inhibitor of angiogenesis in the mammalian eye, suggesting that loss of PEDF is involved in the pathogenesis of proliferative diabetic retinopathy. However, a protective role for PEDF in pericyte loss requires elucidation. Present studies suggest that PEDF proteins could protect against advanced glycation end product (AGE), which induce injury in retinal pericytes. Substitution of PEDF proteins may be a promising strategy in the treatment of patients with early diabetic retinopathy. Therefore, injury of RPE is the basic condition, not only of the progress of neovascularization, but initiation of early diabetic microangiopathy and macular edema as well. Recently new intravitreal drugs being used in the treatment of eye diseases with increased level of VEGE. Intravitreally administered a human, monoclonal anti-VEGF agent acts only as symptomatic treatment. It does not eliminate hypoxia and requires repeated administration. It is worth emphasizing, that VEGF functions are not limited to active angiogenesis, but also seems to require the maintenance and differentiation of mature blood vessels, such as the choriocapillaris. Therefore, delivery of these anti-VEGF treatments needs to be specific to sites of neovascularization or limited to a short duration, to prevent disruption of the normal vasculature. The effective method, which preserves RPE, improves oxygenation and release traction on the macula, leading to decreased permeability with subsequent resolution in DME, is pars plana vitrectomy with ILM peeling. There are several investigations that support the theoretical value of vitrectomy for the treatment of DME. Intraoperative administration of anti-VEGF agent and corticosteroids may additionally improve results of operative treatment.

  6. Twelve-Month Follow-Up of Dexamethasone Implants for Macular Edema from Various Diseases in Vitrectomized and Nonvitrectomized Eyes.

    PubMed

    Novais, Eduardo A; Maia, Mauricio; Filho, Paulo Augusto de Arruda Mello; Dias, João Rafael de Oliveira; Garcia, José Maurício B B; de Andrade, Gabriel C; Louzada, Ricardo N; Ávila, Marcos; Maia, André; Arevalo, J Fernando; Wu, Lihteh; Berrocal, Maria; Badaró, Emmerson; Farah, Michel

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To evaluate the best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), central retinal thickness (CRT), and the number of dexamethasone implants needed to treat cystoid macular edema (CME) from various etiologies over 12 months in vitrectomized and nonvitrectomized eyes. Methods. This multicenter retrospective cohort study included 112 patients with CME secondary to retinal diseases treated pro re nata (PRN) with a 0.7 mg intravitreal dexamethasone implant for 12 months. The BCVA, CRT, adverse events, safety data, and number of implants were recorded. Results. Vitrectomized and nonvitrectomized eyes received means of three implants and one implant, respectively, over 12 months (P < 0.001). The mean BCVA of all patients improved from 0.13 at baseline to 0.33 (P < 0.001) 12 months after one (P = 0.001), two (P = 0.041), and three (P < 0.001) implants but not four implants (P = 0.068). The mean baseline CRT decreased significantly (P < 0.001) from 463 to 254 microns after 12 months with one (P < 0.001), two (P = 0.002), and three (P = 0.001) implants but not with four implants (P = 0.114). The anatomic and functional outcomes were not significantly different between vitrectomized and nonvitrectomized eyes. Increased IOP was the most common adverse event (23.2%). Conclusions. Dexamethasone implant administered PRN improved VA and decreased CRT in CME, with possible long-term clinically relevant benefits for treating CME from various etiologies. Vitrectomized eyes needed more implants compared with nonvitrectomized eyes.

  7. Quantitative evaluation of hard exudates in diabetic macular edema after short-term intravitreal triamcinolone, dexamethasone implant or bevacizumab injections.

    PubMed

    Shin, Yong Un; Hong, Eun Hee; Lim, Han Woong; Kang, Min Ho; Seong, Mincheol; Cho, Heeyoon

    2017-10-03

    To quantitatively compare short-term hard exudates (HEs) alteration in patients with diabetic macular edema (DME) after intravitreal triamcinolone, dexamethasone implant or bevacizumab injections. This retrospective study enrolled DME eyes with HEs that underwent a single-dose intravitreal injection of triamcinolone (25 eyes), dexamethasone implant (20 eyes), or three monthly injections of bevacizumab (25 eyes) and completed at least three months of follow-up. All patients were examined before and after 1, 2 and 3 months of injections. Using color fundus photographs, the amount of HEs was quantified by two masked graders. The difference in HEs area between baseline and each follow-up visit was compared among the three groups. After three months, HEs area was reduced to 52.9 ± 4.21% (P < 0.001) in the triamcinolone group, 63.6 ± 6.08% (P = 0.002) in the dexamethasone implant group, and 85.2 ± 5.07% (P = 0.198) in the bevacizumab group. A significant reduction in HEs appeared at one month in the triamcinolone group (53.5 ± 4.91%, P < 0.001) and at two months in the dexamethasone implant group (70.1 ± 5.21%, P = 0.039). Our study suggests intravitreal steroids (triamcinolone, dexamethasone implants) significantly reduce HEs in DME patients on short-term follow-up, whereas intravitreal bevacizumab does not. Therefore, intravitreal steroids may be useful in DME with HEs in the fovea.

  8. Health-economic evaluation of fluocinolone acetonide 190 µg implant in people with diabetic macular edema.

    PubMed

    Holden, Sarah E; Currie, Craig J; Owens, David R

    2017-10-01

    To assess healthcare resource use and costs of treating people with clinically significant diabetic macular edema (DME) with fluocinolone acetonide (FAc) 190 µg intravitreal implant in routine clinical practice. The retrospective Iluvien Clinical Evidence (ICE-UK) study collected data on people prescribed the FAc implant in any one of 13 ophthalmology centers between April 1, 2013 and April 15, 2015. Data were collected for 12 months before and after implantation. Standard UK costs were attributed to healthcare resource use. In total, 208 people contributing 233 FAc-treated eyes were selected. Mean age was 68.1 years and 62% were male. The mean (standard deviation, SD) number of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) injections per FAc treated eye in the 12 months prior to implant was 2.8 (2.5), decreasing to 0.6 (1.4) for the same period after implant (p < .001). The corresponding figures for other steroid injections (dexamethasone and triamcinolone) were 0.14 (0.4) before and 0.08 (0.4) after implant (p = .016). There was no statistically significant difference in the number of laser therapies required in the 12 months before and after FAc implant (mean = 0.12 vs 0.11, respectively; p = .626). Overall, mean (SD) healthcare costs were £2,691 (£1,850) before and £1,239 (£1,203) after FAc implant (p < .001). The unit drug and administration cost per FAc implant was £5,680. Excluding the cost of the FAc implant, healthcare costs were significantly reduced in the 12 months post-implant. FAc implant has a duration of 3 years. This needs to be considered when interpreting the cost associated with the FAc implant.

  9. Twelve-Month Follow-Up of Dexamethasone Implants for Macular Edema from Various Diseases in Vitrectomized and Nonvitrectomized Eyes

    PubMed Central

    Filho, Paulo Augusto de Arruda Mello; Dias, João Rafael de Oliveira; de Andrade, Gabriel C.; Louzada, Ricardo N.; Ávila, Marcos; Berrocal, Maria; Farah, Michel

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To evaluate the best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), central retinal thickness (CRT), and the number of dexamethasone implants needed to treat cystoid macular edema (CME) from various etiologies over 12 months in vitrectomized and nonvitrectomized eyes. Methods. This multicenter retrospective cohort study included 112 patients with CME secondary to retinal diseases treated pro re nata (PRN) with a 0.7 mg intravitreal dexamethasone implant for 12 months. The BCVA, CRT, adverse events, safety data, and number of implants were recorded. Results. Vitrectomized and nonvitrectomized eyes received means of three implants and one implant, respectively, over 12 months (P < 0.001). The mean BCVA of all patients improved from 0.13 at baseline to 0.33 (P < 0.001) 12 months after one (P = 0.001), two (P = 0.041), and three (P < 0.001) implants but not four implants (P = 0.068). The mean baseline CRT decreased significantly (P < 0.001) from 463 to 254 microns after 12 months with one (P < 0.001), two (P = 0.002), and three (P = 0.001) implants but not with four implants (P = 0.114). The anatomic and functional outcomes were not significantly different between vitrectomized and nonvitrectomized eyes. Increased IOP was the most common adverse event (23.2%). Conclusions. Dexamethasone implant administered PRN improved VA and decreased CRT in CME, with possible long-term clinically relevant benefits for treating CME from various etiologies. Vitrectomized eyes needed more implants compared with nonvitrectomized eyes. PMID:27721989

  10. Anti-VEGF treatment of diabetic macular edema in clinical practice: effectiveness and patterns of use (ECHO Study Report 1)

    PubMed Central

    Blinder, Kevin J; Dugel, Pravin U; Chen, Sanford; Jumper, J Michael; Walt, John G; Hollander, David A; Scott, Lanita C

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the efficacy, safety, and injection frequency of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) inhibitors as used in clinical practice for the treatment of diabetic macular edema. Methods Multicenter (10 sites), retrospective chart review in patients (n=156) who received ≥3 anti-VEGF injections. Data collected for ≥6 months after the first injection included Snellen best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and central retinal thickness (CRT) by time-domain or spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (TD-OCT or SD-OCT). Results Mean number of anti-VEGF injections (627 bevacizumab, 594 ranibizumab, 1 aflibercept) was 5.8 (year 1), 5.0 (year 2), and 3.4 (year 3). Percentage of patients with BCVA of 20/40 or better and CRT ≤250 μm on TD-OCT or ≤300 μm on SD-OCT at the same visit (primary endpoint) ranged from 16.4% to 38.9% after the first 10 injections; 51.9%–62.3% achieved ≥20/40 BCVA and 26.2%–48.0% met CRT criteria. Therapy was well tolerated with 19 treatment-related adverse events (all ocular) reported. Conclusion Anti-VEGF injections were administered less frequently and were less effective than those in the ranibizumab registration trials. After each of the first 9 injections, <25% of patients achieved both BCVA of 20/40 or better and a dry macula. A substantial proportion of patients are suboptimal responders to anti-VEGF therapy; these patients may be candidates for other therapies, including intravitreal corticosteroid and laser therapy. PMID:28260851

  11. Bevacizumab and Panretinal photocoagulation protect against ocular hypertension after posterior subtenon injection of triamcinolone acetonide for diabetic macular edema.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Yi-Ting; Yang, Chung-May; Chang, Shu-Hui

    2017-08-01

    To analyze the prognostic factors for ocular hypertension after posterior subtenon injection of triamcinolone acetonide (PSTA) for the treatment of diabetic macular edema (DME). Patients who received PSTA for DME from January 2006 to December 2011 were enrolled retrospectively and were followed until December 2012 in one hospital. Modified Cox regression models were used to analyze the factors associated with ocular hypertension, which was defined as an intraocular pressure>21 mmHg after PSTA. A total of 180 PSTA injections were given to 114 eyes from 73 adults with DME. During a mean follow-up of 50.4 weeks after each injection, ocular hypertension occurred in 20.6% of injections (28.1% of eyes). Treatment-naïve patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) had a higher risk of ocular hypertension after PSTA than those with nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR) [hazard ratio (HR)=3.255, p=0.030]. Intravitreal injection of bevacizumab (IVB) before PSTA had a significant effect in lowering the risk of ocular hypertension after PSTA in patients with PDR who had received panretinal photocoagulation (PRP) (HR=0.107, p=0.035). Both prompt PRP and IVB following PSTA had a protective effect against ocular hypertension in treatment-naïve patients with PDR (HR=0.086, p=0.0002 and HR=0.155, p=0.049, respectively). Treatment-naïve patients with PDR had a higher risk of ocular hypertension after PSTA than those with NPDR. Bevacizumab and prompt PRP both had a protective effect against ocular hypertension after PSTA in patients with PDR. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Five-year outcomes of pars plana vitrectomy for macular edema associated with branch retinal vein occlusion

    PubMed Central

    Nishida, Akihiro; Kojima, Hiroshi; Kameda, Takanori; Mandai, Michiko; Kurimoto, Yasuo

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Long-term outcomes of pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) for macular edema (ME) associated with branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO) have been previously reported, but the studies did not report the number of additional treatments after surgery. During 5 years of follow-up, we therefore investigated the efficacy and safety of PPV for BRVO and evaluated the incidence of additional treatments. Methods We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 25 eyes of 24 patients who underwent PPV for ME associated with BRVO and were followed up for at least 5 years. Best-corrected visual acuity was measured, and foveal thickness was assessed by optical coherence tomography. Additional treatments were also investigated. Results The logarithm of the minimal angle of resolution (logMAR) improved from 0.53±0.23 at baseline to 0.16±0.25 at 5 years (P<0.0001). The foveal thickness decreased from 535±222 µm at baseline to 205±143 µm at 5 years (P<0.0001). For the eyes with residual ME, the following additional treatments were performed within 5 years of follow-up: sub-Tenon injection of triamcinolone acetonide in two eyes, intravitreal injection of bevacizumab in three eyes, grid laser photocoagulation in one eye, and direct photocoagulation of macroaneurysm in one eye. Additional surgeries were performed in two eyes: for one eye, phacoemulsification extraction of the ocular lens and intraocular lens implantation were performed because of cataract progression, and for the other eye, additional PPV was done for postoperative retinal detachment. Conclusion PPV was effective for resolution of ME associated with BRVO and improved visual acuity with a small number of additional treatments during long-term follow-up. PMID:28255227

  13. Fully automatic software for retinal thickness in eyes with diabetic macular edema from images acquired by cirrus and spectralis systems.

    PubMed

    Lee, Joo Yong; Chiu, Stephanie J; Srinivasan, Pratul P; Izatt, Joseph A; Toth, Cynthia A; Farsiu, Sina; Jaffe, Glenn J

    2013-11-15

    To determine whether a novel automatic segmentation program, the Duke Optical Coherence Tomography Retinal Analysis Program (DOCTRAP), can be applied to spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) images obtained from different commercially available SD-OCT in eyes with diabetic macular edema (DME). A novel segmentation framework was used to segment the retina, inner retinal pigment epithelium, and Bruch's membrane on images from eyes with DME acquired by one of two SD-OCT systems, Spectralis or Cirrus high definition (HD)-OCT. Thickness data obtained by the DOCTRAP software were compared with those produced by Spectralis and Cirrus. Measurement agreement and its dependence were assessed using intraclass correlation (ICC). A total of 40 SD-OCT scans from 20 subjects for each machine were included in the analysis. Spectralis: the mean thickness in the 1-mm central area determined by DOCTRAP and Spectralis was 463.8 ± 107.5 μm and 467.0 ± 108.1 μm, respectively (ICC, 0.999). There was also a high level agreement in surrounding areas (out to 3 mm). Cirrus: the mean thickness in the 1-mm central area was 440.8 ± 183.4 μm and 442.7 ± 182.4 μm by DOCTRAP and Cirrus, respectively (ICC, 0.999). The thickness agreement in surrounding areas (out to 3 mm) was more variable due to Cirrus segmentation errors in one subject (ICC, 0.734-0.999). After manual correction of the errors, there was a high level of thickness agreement in surrounding areas (ICC, 0.997-1.000). The DOCTRAP may be useful to compare retinal thicknesses in eyes with DME across OCT platforms.

  14. Platform-Independent Cirrus and Spectralis Thickness Measurements in Eyes with Diabetic Macular Edema Using Fully Automated Software

    PubMed Central

    Willoughby, Alex S.; Chiu, Stephanie J.; Silverman, Rachel K.; Farsiu, Sina; Bailey, Clare; Wiley, Henry E.; Ferris, Frederick L.; Jaffe, Glenn J.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose We determine whether the automated segmentation software, Duke Optical Coherence Tomography Retinal Analysis Program (DOCTRAP), can measure, in a platform-independent manner, retinal thickness on Cirrus and Spectralis spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) images in eyes with diabetic macular edema (DME) under treatment in a clinical trial. Methods Automatic segmentation software was used to segment the internal limiting membrane (ILM), inner retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), and Bruch's membrane (BM) in SD-OCT images acquired by Cirrus and Spectralis commercial systems, from the same eye, on the same day during a clinical interventional DME trial. Mean retinal thickness differences were compared across commercial and DOCTRAP platforms using intraclass correlation (ICC) and Bland-Altman plots. Results The mean 1 mm central subfield thickness difference (standard error [SE]) comparing segmentation of Spectralis images with DOCTRAP versus HEYEX was 0.7 (0.3) μm (0.2 pixels). The corresponding values comparing segmentation of Cirrus images with DOCTRAP versus Cirrus software was 2.2 (0.7) μm. The mean 1 mm central subfield thickness difference (SE) comparing segmentation of Cirrus and Spectralis scan pairs with DOCTRAP using BM as the outer retinal boundary was −2.3 (0.9) μm compared to 2.8 (0.9) μm with inner RPE as the outer boundary. Conclusions DOCTRAP segmentation of Cirrus and Spectralis images produces validated thickness measurements that are very similar to each other, and very similar to the values generated by the corresponding commercial software in eyes with treated DME. Translational Relevance This software enables automatic total retinal thickness measurements across two OCT platforms, a process that is impractical to perform manually. PMID:28180033

  15. Comorbidity and health care visit burden in working-age commercially insured patients with diabetic macular edema

    PubMed Central

    Kiss, Szilárd; Chandwani, Hitesh S; Cole, Ashley L; Patel, Vaishali D; Lunacsek, Orsolya E; Dugel, Pravin U

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To examine the comorbidity profile and update estimates of health care resource utilization for commercially insured, working-age adults with diabetic macular edema (DME) relative to a matched comparison group of diabetic adults without DME. Additional comparisons were made in the subgroup of pseudophakic patients. Patients and methods A retrospective matched-cohort study of commercially insured diabetic adults aged 18–63 years was conducted using medical and outpatient pharmacy claims (July 1, 2008–June 30, 2013). Outcomes included diabetes-related and ocular comorbidities and health care resource utilization (any health care visit days, outpatient visit days, inpatient visit days, emergency room visits, eye care-related visit days, unique medications) in the 12-month post-index period. Results All diabetes-related and ocular comorbidities were significantly more prevalent in DME cases versus non-DME controls (P<0.05). A significantly greater proportion of DME cases utilized eye care-related visits compared with non-DME controls (P<0.001). DME cases had almost twice the mean number of total health care visit days compared to non-DME controls (28.6 vs 16.9 days, P<0.001), with a minority of visit days being eye care-related (mean 5.1 vs 1.5 days, P<0.001). Similar trends were observed in pseudophakic cohorts. Conclusion This working-age DME population experienced a mean of 29 health care visit days per year. Eye care-related visit days were a minority of the overall visit burden (mean 5 days) emphasizing the trade-offs DME patients face between managing DME and their overall diabetic disease. Insights into the complex comorbidity profile and health care needs of diabetic patients with DME will better inform treatment decisions and help optimize disease management. PMID:27994438

  16. Ranibizumab for Visual Impairment due to Diabetic Macular Edema: Real-World Evidence in the Italian Population (PRIDE Study)

    PubMed Central

    Menchini, Ugo; Bandello, Francesco; De Angelis, Vincenzo; Ricci, Federico; Bonavia, Luigi; Viola, Francesco; Muscianisi, Elisa; Nicolò, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. An expanded access program (PRIDE study) in Italy to provide ranibizumab 0.5 mg to diabetic macular edema (DME) patients, prior to reimbursement. Methods. Open-label, prospective, phase IIIb study. Majority of patients were not treatment-naïve before enrollment. Patients received ranibizumab as per the EU label (2011). Safety was assessed by incidences of ocular/systemic adverse events (AEs) and serious AEs (SAEs) and efficacy in terms of visual acuity (VA) change from baseline (decimal score or Snellen (20/value)). Results. Overall, 515 patients (83.5%) completed the study. In unilateral/bilateral patients, commonly observed AEs were cardiac disorders (1.3%/1.3%) and nervous system disorders (1.3%/1.1%); SAEs were reported in 4.5%/4.8% of patients. Acute renal failure, lung carcinoma, and cardiac arrest were the causes of death in one unilateral and two bilateral patients. Ranibizumab improved/maintained VA (Snellen (20/value)/decimal scores) in both unilateral (up to −16.7/1.5) and bilateral patients (up to −23.6/1.2) at Month 5, with a mean of 4.15 and 4.40 injections, respectively. Overall, no difference was observed in the VA outcomes and treatment exposure between unilateral/bilateral patients. Conclusions. The PRIDE study provided early ranibizumab access to >600 Italian patients. Ranibizumab was well-tolerated and improved/maintained VA in 40.2%–68.8% patients, with no differences in case of unilateral or bilateral pathology. The study is registered with EudraCT. PMID:26294963

  17. Cystoid macular edema after cataract surgery in a patient with previous severe iritis following argon laser peripheral iridoplasty.

    PubMed

    Bagnis, Alessandro; Saccà, Sergio Claudio; Iester, Michele; Traverso, Carlo Enrico

    2011-01-01

    This report describes a patient who had exaggerated responses to different inflammatory stimuli represented by laser and incisional surgery, respectively. These separate episodes should have a common link represented by a genetic predisposition to abnormal release of proinflammatory mediators within the eye. This 51-year old Hispanic woman showed a narrow iridocorneal angle with plateau iris configuration. Nd-YAG laser peripheral iridotomy was successfully performed to both eyes. No substantial changes in the iridotrabecular angle occurred despite patent iridotomies, thus confirming the diagnosis of plateau iris configuration. Argon laser iridoplasty was then performed to the right eye, while the left eye was scheduled for a later session. A severe inflammatory reaction within the anterior chamber developed after tapering of a one-week course of steroid therapy. Phacoemulsification of the lens was performed some months later when no signs of inflammation were detectable; no intraoperative complications occurred during surgery and an intraocular lens was placed. Cystoid macular edema developed four weeks after surgery despite no apparent risk factors, and resolved completely after anti-inflammatory medical therapy. Based on this case report, the unusual occurrence of severe iritis after laser treatment should be regarded as a risk factor for any other incisional or nonincisional procedures because it might indicate that the patient's ocular tissues are prone to release of abnormally elevated proinflammatory mediators. Although further studies are needed to confirm this predisposition, prophylactic adjunctive topical nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug administration after cataract surgery should be considered in such cases in order to prevent potentially sight-threatening conditions.

  18. Clinical utility of intravitreal fluocinolone acetonide (Iluvien®) implant in the management of patients with chronic diabetic macular edema: a review of the current literature

    PubMed Central

    Saedon, Habiba; Anand, Astha; Yang, Yit C

    2017-01-01

    The first-line therapy for patients with center-involving diabetic macular edema (DME) is with intravitreal anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) agents, with or without adjunctive macular laser treatment. However, a significant proportion of patients have persistent and recurrent edema despite repeated anti-VEGF injections. The fluocinolone acetonide (FA) 190 μg intravitreal implant has been shown in pivotal clinical trials to be efficacious for the treatment of DME and has been approved in many countries for use in patients who have not responded to first-line therapy. In this report, we have collated the latest data from the increasing number of studies to illustrate the pattern of usage of the Iluvien FA implant for DME during the current anti-VEGF era. We have shown that there is now a wealth of published evidence from real-world studies to support the clinical utility of the FA implant in achieving further resolution of edema and improving visual acuity outcomes in this challenging group of patients. PMID:28392675

  19. Post-cataract prevention of inflammation and macular edema by steroid and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory eye drops: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Kessel, Line; Tendal, Britta; Jørgensen, Karsten Juhl; Erngaard, Ditte; Flesner, Per; Andresen, Jens Lundgaard; Hjortdal, Jesper

    2014-10-01

    Favorable outcome after cataract surgery depends on proper control of the inflammatory response induced by cataract surgery. Pseudophakic cystoid macular edema is an important cause of visual decline after uncomplicated cataract surgery. We compared the efficacy of topical steroids with topical nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in controlling inflammation and preventing pseudophakic cystoid macular edema (PCME) after uncomplicated cataract surgery. Patients undergoing uncomplicated surgery for age-related cataract. We performed a systematic literature search in Medline, CINAHL, Cochrane, and EMBASE databases to identify randomized trials published from 1996 onward comparing topical steroids with topical NSAIDs in controlling inflammation and preventing PCME in patients undergoing phacoemulsification with posterior chamber intraocular lens implantation for age-related cataract. Postoperative inflammation and pseudophakic cystoid macular edema. Fifteen randomized trials were identified. Postoperative inflammation was less in patients randomized to NSAIDs. The prevalence of PCME was significantly higher in the steroid group than in the NSAID group: 3.8% versus 25.3% of patients, risk ratio 5.35 (95% confidence interval, 2.94-9.76). There was no statistically significant difference in the number of adverse events in the 2 treatment groups. We found low to moderate quality of evidence that topical NSAIDs are more effective in controlling postoperative inflammation after cataract surgery. We found high-quality evidence that topical NSAIDs are more effective than topical steroids in preventing PCME. The use of topical NSAIDs was not associated with an increased events. We recommend using topical NSAIDs to prevent inflammation and PCME after routine cataract surgery. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Ophthalmology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Intravitreal aflibercept injection for macular edema secondary to central retinal vein occlusion: 1-year results from the phase 3 COPERNICUS study.

    PubMed

    Brown, David M; Heier, Jeffrey S; Clark, W Lloyd; Boyer, David S; Vitti, Robert; Berliner, Alyson J; Zeitz, Oliver; Sandbrink, Rupert; Zhu, Xiaoping; Haller, Julia A

    2013-03-01

    To evaluate intravitreal aflibercept injections (IAI; also called VEGF Trap-Eye) for patients with macular edema secondary to central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO). Randomized controlled trial. This multicenter study randomized 189 patients (1 eye/patient) with macular edema secondary to CRVO to receive 6 monthly injections of either 2 mg intravitreal aflibercept (IAI 2Q4) (n = 115) or sham (n = 74). From week 24 to week 52, all patients received 2 mg intravitreal aflibercept as needed (IAI 2Q4 + PRN and sham + IAI PRN) according to retreatment criteria. The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients who gained ≥15 ETDRS letters from baseline at week 24. Additional endpoints included visual, anatomic, and quality-of-life NEI VFQ-25 outcomes at weeks 24 and 52. At week 24, 56.1% of IAI 2Q4 patients gained ≥15 letters from baseline compared with 12.3% of sham patients (P < .001). At week 52, 55.3% of IAI 2Q4 + PRN patients gained ≥15 letters compared with 30.1% of sham + IAI PRN patients (P < .001). At week 52, IAI 2Q4 + PRN patients gained a mean of 16.2 letters of vision vs 3.8 letters for sham + IAI PRN (P < .001). The most common adverse events for both groups were conjunctival hemorrhage, eye pain, reduced visual acuity, and increased intraocular pressure. Monthly injections of 2 mg intravitreal aflibercept for patients with macular edema secondary to CRVO resulted in a statistically significant improvement in visual acuity at week 24, which was largely maintained through week 52 with intravitreal aflibercept PRN dosing. Intravitreal aflibercept injection was generally well tolerated. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. ACUTE MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS LESION: CONVERSION OF RESTRICTED DIFFUSION DUE TO VASOGENIC EDEMA

    PubMed Central

    Balashov, Konstantin E.; Latt Aung, Latt; Dhib-Jalbut, Suhayl; Keller, Irwin A.

    2009-01-01

    It is widely accepted that acute demyelinating plaques in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) demonstrate increased apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and increased diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) signals on MRI. These imaging characteristics in acute MS lesions have been postulated to be due to peripheral vasogenic edema that typically increases the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC). This assumption is commonly used to differentiate stroke from MS lesions since acute and subacute stroke lesions demonstrate increased DWI signal with reduced ADC due to acute cytotoxic edema. We report a case of active relapsing-remitting MS with two new symptomatic contrast-enhancing lesions. The lesions had reduced diffusion on the ADC map in the early acute phase of MS exacerbation. The reduced ADC signal was subsequently “converted” to increased ADC signal which coincided with the development of profound peripheral vasogenic edema seen on T2-weighted images. To our knowledge, this is the first serial MRI study describing decreased ADC signal in the early acute phase of contrast-enhancing MS lesion. The implications of decreased diffusion in the acute phase of MS lesions for the disease pathogenesis are discussed. PMID:19888931

  2. Repeated intravitreous ranibizumab injections for diabetic macular edema and the risk of sustained elevation of intraocular pressure or the need for ocular hypotensive treatment.

    PubMed

    Bressler, Susan B; Almukhtar, Talat; Bhorade, Anjali; Bressler, Neil M; Glassman, Adam R; Huang, Suber S; Jampol, Lee M; Kim, Judy E; Melia, Michele

    2015-05-01

    For the management of retinal disease, the use of intravitreous injections of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor has increased. Recent reports have suggested that this therapy may cause sustained elevation of intraocular pressure (IOP) and may potentially increase the risk of glaucoma for patients with retinal disease. To assess the risk of sustained IOP elevation or the need for IOP-lowering treatments for eyes with diabetic macular edema following repeated intravitreous injections of ranibizumab. An exploratory analysis was conducted within a Diabetic Retinopathy Clinical Research Network randomized clinical trial. Study enrollment dates were from March 20, 2007, to December 17, 2008. Of 582 eyes (of 486 participants) with center-involved diabetic macular edema and no preexisting open-angle glaucoma, 260 were randomly assigned to receive a sham injection plus focal/grid laser treatment, and 322 were randomly assigned to receive ranibizumab plus deferred or prompt focal/grid laser treatment. The cumulative probability of sustained IOP elevation, defined as IOP of at least 22 mm Hg and an increase of at least 6 mm Hg from baseline at 2 consecutive visits, or the initiation or augmentation of ocular hypotensive therapy, through 3 years of follow-up. The mean (SD) baseline IOP in both treatment groups was 16 (3) mm Hg (range, 5-24 mm Hg). The cumulative probability of sustained IOP elevation or of initiation or augmentation of ocular hypotensive therapy by 3 years, after repeated ranibizumab injections, was 9.5% for the participants who received ranibizumab plus prompt or deferred focal/grid laser treatment vs 3.4% for the participants who received a sham injection plus focal/grid laser treatment (difference, 6.1% [99% CI, -0.2% to 12.3%]; hazard ratio, 2.9 [99% CI, 1.0-7.9]; P = .01). The distribution of IOP and the change in IOP from baseline at each visit through 3 years were similar in each group. In eyes with center-involved diabetic macular edema and no

  3. Effect of Bevacizumab vs Aflibercept on Visual Acuity Among Patients With Macular Edema Due to Central Retinal Vein Occlusion: The SCORE2 Randomized Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Scott, Ingrid U; VanVeldhuisen, Paul C; Ip, Michael S; Blodi, Barbara A; Oden, Neal L; Awh, Carl C; Kunimoto, Derek Y; Marcus, Dennis M; Wroblewski, John J; King, Jacqueline

    2017-05-23

    Studies have established the efficacy and safety of aflibercept for the treatment of macular edema due to central retinal vein occlusion. Bevacizumab is used off-label to treat this condition despite the absence of supporting data. To investigate whether bevacizumab is noninferior to aflibercept for the treatment of macular edema secondary to central retinal or hemiretinal vein occlusion. The SCORE2 randomized noninferiority clinical trial was conducted at 66 private practice or academic centers in the United States, and included 362 patients with macular edema due to central retinal or hemiretinal vein occlusion who were randomized 1:1 to receive aflibercept or bevacizumab. The first participant was randomized on September 17, 2014, and the last month 6 visit occurred on May 6, 2016. Analyses included data available as of December 30, 2016. Eyes were randomized to receive intravitreal injection of bevacizumab (1.25 mg; n = 182) or aflibercept (2.0 mg; n = 180) every 4 weeks through month 6. The primary outcome was mean change in visual acuity (VA) letter score (VALS) from the randomization visit to the 6-month follow-up visit, based on the best-corrected electronic Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study VALS (scores range from 0-100; higher scores indicate better VA). The noninferiority margin was 5 letters, and statistical testing for noninferiority was based on a 1-sided 97.5% confidence interval. Among 362 randomized participants (mean [SD] age, 69 [12] years; 157 [43.4%] women; mean [SD] VALS at baseline, 50.3 [15.2] [approximate Snellen VA 20/100]), 348 (96.1%) completed the month 6 follow-up visit. At month 6, the mean VALS was 69.3 (a mean increase from baseline of 18.6) in the bevacizumab group and 69.3 (a mean increase from baseline of 18.9) in the aflibercept group (model-based estimate of between-group difference, -0.14; 97.5% CI, -3.07 to ∞; P = .001 for noninferiority), meeting criteria for noninferiority. Ocular adverse events in

  4. One-year outcomes of the da Vinci Study of VEGF Trap-Eye in eyes with diabetic macular edema.

    PubMed

    Do, Diana V; Nguyen, Quan Dong; Boyer, David; Schmidt-Erfurth, Ursula; Brown, David M; Vitti, Robert; Berliner, Alyson J; Gao, Bo; Zeitz, Oliver; Ruckert, Rene; Schmelter, Thomas; Sandbrink, Rupert; Heier, Jeff S

    2012-08-01

    To compare different doses and dosing regimens of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) Trap-Eye with laser photocoagulation in eyes with diabetic macular edema (DME). Randomized, double-masked, multicenter, phase 2 clinical trial. Diabetic patients (n = 221) with center-involved DME. Participants were assigned randomly to 1 of 5 treatment regimens: VEGF Trap-Eye 0.5 mg every 4 weeks (0.5q4); 2 mg every 4 weeks (2q4); 2 mg every 8 weeks after 3 initial monthly doses (2q8); or 2 mg dosing as needed after 3 initial monthly doses (2PRN), or macular laser photocoagulation. The change in best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) at 24 weeks (the primary end point) and at 52 weeks, proportion of eyes that gained 15 letters or more in Early Treatment of Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) BCVA, and mean changes in central retinal thickness (CRT) from baseline. As previously reported, mean improvements in BCVA in the VEGF Trap-Eye groups at week 24 were 8.6, 11.4, 8.5, and 10.3 letters for 0.5q4, 2q4, 2q8, and 2PRN regimens, respectively, versus 2.5 letters for the laser group (P ≤ 0.0085 versus laser). Mean improvements in BCVA in the VEGF Trap-Eye groups at week 52 were 11.0, 13.1, 9.7, and 12.0 letters for 0.5q4, 2q4, 2q8, and 2PRN regimens, respectively, versus -1.3 letters for the laser group (P ≤ 0.0001 versus laser). Proportions of eyes with gains in BCVA of 15 or more ETDRS letters at week 52 in the VEGF Trap-Eye groups were 40.9%, 45.5%, 23.8%, and 42.2% versus 11.4% for laser (P = 0.0031, P = 0.0007, P = 0.1608, and P = 0.0016, respectively, versus laser). Mean reductions in CRT in the VEGF Trap-Eye groups at week 52 were -165.4 μm, -227.4 μm, -187.8 μm, and -180.3 μm versus -58.4 μm for laser (P < 0.0001 versus laser). Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Trap-Eye generally was well tolerated. The most frequent ocular adverse events with VEGF Trap-Eye were conjunctival hemorrhage, eye pain, ocular hyperemia, and increased intraocular pressure, whereas common

  5. Randomized, sham-controlled trial of dexamethasone intravitreal implant in patients with macular edema due to retinal vein occlusion.

    PubMed

    Haller, Julia A; Bandello, Francesco; Belfort, Rubens; Blumenkranz, Mark S; Gillies, Mark; Heier, Jeffrey; Loewenstein, Anat; Yoon, Young-Hee; Jacques, Marie-Louise; Jiao, Jenny; Li, Xiao-Yan; Whitcup, Scott M

    2010-06-01

    To evaluate the safety and efficacy of dexamethasone intravitreal implant (DEX implant; OZURDEX, Allergan, Inc., Irvine, CA) compared with sham in eyes with vision loss due to macular edema (ME) associated with branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO) or central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO). Two identical, multicenter, masked, randomized, 6-month, sham-controlled clinical trials (each of which included patients with BRVO and patients with CRVO). A total of 1267 patients with vision loss due to ME associated with BRVO or CRVO. A single treatment with DEX implant 0.7 mg (n = 427), DEX implant 0.35 mg (n = 414), or sham (n = 426). The primary outcome measure for the pooled data from the 2 studies was time to achieve a > or =15-letter improvement in best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA). Secondary end points included BCVA, central retinal thickness, and safety. After a single administration, the time to achieve a > or =15-letter improvement in BCVA was significantly less in both DEX implant groups compared with sham (P<0.001). The percentage of eyes with a > or =15-letter improvement in BCVA was significantly higher in both DEX implant groups compared with sham at days 30 to 90 (P<0.001). The percentage of eyes with a > or =15-letter loss in BCVA was significantly lower in the DEX implant 0.7-mg group compared with sham at all follow-up visits (P< or =0.036). Improvement in mean BCVA was greater in both DEX implant groups compared with sham at all follow-up visits (P< or =0.006). Improvements in BCVA with DEX implant were seen in patients with BRVO and patients with CRVO, although the patterns of response differed. The percentage of DEX implant-treated eyes with intraocular pressure (IOP) of > or =25 mmHg peaked at 16% at day 60 (both doses) and was not different from sham by day 180. There was no significant between-group difference in the occurrence of cataract or cataract surgery. Dexamethasone intravitreal implant can both reduce the risk of vision loss and improve the

  6. Randomized Trial Evaluating Ranibizumab Plus Prompt or Deferred Laser or Triamcinolone Plus Prompt Laser for Diabetic Macular Edema

    PubMed Central

    Elman, Michael J.; Aiello, Lloyd Paul; Beck, Roy W.; Bressler, Neil M.; Bressler, Susan B.; Edwards, Allison R.; Ferris, Frederick L.; Friedman, Scott M.; Glassman, Adam R.; Miller, Kellee M.; Scott, Ingrid U.; Stockdale, Cynthia R.; Sun, Jennifer K.

    2010-01-01

    Objective Evaluate intravitreal 0.5 mg ranibizumab or 4 mg triamcinolone combined with focal/grid laser compared with focal/grid laser alone for treatment of diabetic macular edema (DME). Design Multicenter, randomized clinical trial. Participants A total of 854 study eyes of 691 participants with visual acuity (approximate Snellen equivalent) of 20/32 to 20/320 and DME involving the fovea. Methods Eyes were randomized to sham injection + prompt laser (n=293), 0.5 mg ranibizumab + prompt laser (n=187), 0.5 mg ranibizumab + deferred (≥24 weeks) laser (n=188), or 4 mg triamcinolone + prompt laser (n=186). Retreatment followed an algorithm facilitated by a web-based, real-time data-entry system. Main Outcome Measures Best-corrected visual acuity and safety at 1 year. Results The 1-year mean change (±standard deviation) in the visual acuity letter score from baseline was significantly greater in the ranibizumab + prompt laser group (+9±11, P<0.001) and ranibizumab + deferred laser group (+9±12, P<0.001) but not in the triamcinolone + prompt laser group (+4±13, P=0.31) compared with the sham + prompt laser group (+3±13). Reduction in mean central subfield thickness in the triamcinolone + prompt laser group was similar to both ranibizumab groups and greater than in the sham + prompt laser group. In the subset of pseudophakic eyes at baseline (n=273), visual acuity improvement in the triamcinolone + prompt laser group appeared comparable to that in the ranibizumab groups. No systemic events attributable to study treatment were apparent. Three eyes (0.8%) had injection-related endophthalmitis in the ranibizumab groups, whereas elevated intraocular pressure and cataract surgery were more frequent in the triamcinolone + prompt laser group. Two-year visual acuity outcomes were similar to 1-year outcomes. Conclusions Intravitreal ranibizumab with prompt or deferred laser is more effective through at least 1 year compared with prompt laser alone for the treatment of DME

  7. Comparison of topical dorzolamide and ketorolac treatment for cystoid macular edema in retinitis pigmentosa and Usher's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lemos Reis, Ricardo Filipe; Moreira-Gonçalves, Nuno; Estrela Silva, Sérgio E; Brandão, Elisete M; Falcão-Reis, Fernando M

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the topical effect of dorzolamide versus ketorolac on retinitis pigmentosa (RP) and Usher's syndrome (US) macular edema. Prospective, randomized and interventional study. A total of 28 eyes of 18 patients were included. Five eyes had US, 23 had RP. Fifteen eyes were allocated to ketorolac tromethamine 0.5% (4 drops daily regimen) and 13 eyes to dorzolamide hydrochloride 2% (3 drops daily regimen) treatment groups. Snellen's best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), foveal thickness (FT) and foveal zone thickness (FZT) measured by Stratus® optical coherence tomography (OCT) were evaluated at baseline, 1, 3, 6 and 12 months after treatment. Patients assigned to ketorolac had a baseline BCVA of 0.37 ± 0.17 logMAR which improved at the end of 1 year to 0.28 ± 0.16 (p = 0.02). Three eyes (20%) of 2 patients improved by 7 letters or more. Mean FT and FZT did not change significantly during the study follow-up. After 1 year of treatment, 4 eyes (27%) of 3 patients showed an improvement of at least 16% of FT and 11% of FZT. Patients assigned to dorzolamide had a baseline BCVA of 0.48 ± 0.34 logMAR which improved in the first 6 months (0.40 ± 0.30; p = 0.01), with a decrease at 1 year (0.42 ± 0.27; p = 0.20). Seven eyes (54%) of 5 patients had an improvement of 7 letters or more. Mean FT and FZT did not change significantly either. After 1 year of treatment, 3 eyes (23%) of 2 patients showed an improvement of at least 16% on FT and 11% on FZT. RESULTS suggest that dorzolamide and ketorolac might improve visual acuity and therefore be of interest in selected cases. No relationship between retinal thickness fluctuation and visual acuity was found. Sample size was a limitation to the study. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Bromfenac alone or with single intravitreal injection of bevacizumab or triamcinolone acetonide for treatment of uveitic macular edema.

    PubMed

    Radwan, Alaa E; Arcinue, Cheryl A; Yang, Paul; Artornsombudh, Pichaporn; Abu Al-Fadl, Esam M; Foster, C Stephen

    2013-07-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of bromfenac drops alone or with a single intravitreal injection of bevacizumab (IVB) or triamcinolone acetonide (IVTA) in the treatment of uveitic macular edema (UME). Comparative case series. STUDY PARTICIPANT: Sixty-seven eyes (of 55 patients) with UME that received either bromfenac drops alone (n = 34), IVB plus bromfenac (n = 21) or IVTA plus bromfenac (n = 12). Chart review of patients at the Massachusetts Eye Research and Surgery Institution (MERSI) was done. Eyes that received either bromfenac drops alone (Br), IVB plus bromfenac (IVB/Br) or IVTA plus bromfenac (IVTA/Br), with follow-up of up to 3 months, were included. Visual acuity. There was no statistically significant effect seen in VA or CMT in the Br group, with 17 of 34 eyes (50 %) needing re-injection before 3 months of follow-up. Mean change in CMT at 4 weeks for the Br group was 5.06 µm. Compared to baseline, both the IVTA/Br and IVB/Br groups showed significant decrease in CMT and improvement in VA at 1 and 3 months follow-up. There was also a continuous decrease in CMT up to 3 months of follow-up with the IVTA/Br group, which was found to be significant in comparison with the IVB/Br group; this trend was not seen in the IVB/Br group at 3 months. The greatest mean change in CMT at 1 month was seen in the IVTA/Br group (154.33 ±178.22 µm), and this was statistically significant in comparison with the other groups (p = <0.0001). However, in terms of mean change in VA, there was no change in the Br group (0.01 ± 0.11 VA logMAR), and only 0.12 ± 0.19 and 0.15 ± 0.20 in the IVB/Br and IVTA/Br groups, respectively. IVB and IVTA are both effective in improving VA and decreasing CMT up to 3 months. Bromfenac is ineffective alone for UME treatment, but may have a synergistic effect with IVTA in reducing CMT up to 3 months of follow-up.

  9. The effect of topical diclofenac on choroidal blood flow in early postoperative pseudophakias with regard to cystoid macular edema formation.

    PubMed

    Miyake, Kensaku; Nishimura, Kazuo; Harino, Seiyo; Ota, Ichiro; Asano, Sayaka; Kondo, Nagako; Miyake, Sampei

    2007-12-01

    To study the chronological change in choroidal blood flow (ChBFlow), disruption of the blood-aqueous barrier, and incidence of cystoid macular edema (CME) in early postoperative pseudophakic eyes, as well as the effect of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) eye drops on these phenomena. Fifty patients who underwent phacoemulsification and foldable intraocular lens (IOL) implantation were randomized to receive either topical diclofenac or fluorometholone for 5 postoperative weeks. An additional 20 subjects, with long-standing pseudophakia served as the control. The blood-aqueous barrier was examined by laser flarimetry and choroidal blood velocity (ChBVel), volume (ChBVol), and ChBFlow by laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF) at 2 days and 1, 2, and 5 weeks after surgery. The incidence and severity of CME were evaluated by fluorescein angiography at 2 and 5 weeks after surgery. Compared with patients taking diclofenac, those receiving fluorometholone showed significantly reduced ChBVol at 2 weeks (0.38 +/- 0.08 vs. 0.32 +/- 0.07, P = 0.022) and ChBFlow at 1 (11.01 +/- 1.74 vs. 9.35 +/- 1.51, P = 0.003) and 2 (11.15 +/- 1.43 vs. 8.47 +/- 1.27, P = 0.000) weeks after surgery, as well as a significantly elevated amount of anterior flare at 1 (8.9 +/- 2.2 vs. 24.4 +/- 18.9, P = 0.001) and 2 (9.2 +/- 3.5 vs. 16.7 +/- 12.3, P = 0.025) weeks after surgery. The ChBVol and ChBFlow in the fluorometholone group, however, returned to normal and was not different from the diclofenac group at 5 weeks after surgery. The incidence of fluorescein angiographic CME trended to be higher (P = 0.08) at 2 weeks and was significantly higher (P = 0.001) at 5 weeks after surgery in eyes with fluoromethalone than with diclofenac. Reduction of ChBFlow, disruption of the blood-aqueous barrier, and incidence of CME in early postsurgical pseudophakic eyes were more effectively prevented chronologically in eyes treated with diclofenac than in those treated with fluorometholone.

  10. Intravitreal dexamethasone implant for recurrent cystoid macular edema due to Irvine-Gass syndrome: a prospective case series.

    PubMed

    Sudhalkar, A; Chhablani, J; Vasavada, A; Bhojwani, D; Vasavada, V; Vasavada, S

    2016-12-01

    PurposeTo determine the preliminary efficacy and safety of off-label dexamethasone implant for treatment of recurrent cystoid macular edema (CME) secondary to Irvine-Gass syndrome (IGS).Patients and methodsThis study was set in Raghudeep Eye Clinic, Ahmedabad and LV Prasad Eye Institute, Hyderabad (India). It is a Prospective Case Series. Prospective case series comprising of patients with uncomplicated pseudophakia and CME due to IGS who recurred after one course of topical steroids with NSAIDS and a sub-Tenon corticosteroid injection. A complete ocular and systemic exam, fluorescein angiography, and central subfield thickness (CST) on optical coherence tomography scans were performed. Follow-up visits were on days 1, 15, and 30 and then monthly for a year. Appropriate statistical analysis was done. The primary outcome measure was the change in CDVA at months 1, 6, and 12. Secondary outcome measures were recurrence of CME and complications if any as noted at months 1, 2, 6, and 12.ResultsAbout 27 patients (27 eyes) with 16 males were included. Median age: 63.24±5.62 years. At 1 month, the CDVA improved to 0.04±0.02 (20/25) logMAR from 0.52±0.12 logMAR (20/70) (P=0.001) with a reduction in CST from 454.2±45.3 to 218.32±38.15 microns(P=0.013). The CDVA was 0.04±0.03 logMAR(P<0.001) at month 6 and 0.05±0.02 logMAR(P<0.001) at month 12. The CST was 221±35.2 microns (P=0.013) at month 6 and 214±43.34 microns (P=0.0124) at month 12. All improvements were maintained for a year. Only one patient required a second injection. No complications were noted.ConclusionThe implant is safe and effective for the treatment of recurrent CME due to IGS.

  11. Immediate Postoperative Intraocular Pressure Adjustment Reduces Risk of Cystoid Macular Edema after Uncomplicated Micro Incision Coaxial Phacoemulsification Cataract Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Jarstad, Allison R.; Chung, Gary W.; Tester, Robert A.; Day, Linda E.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To determine the accuracy of visual estimation of immediate postoperative intraocular pressure (IOP) following microincision cataract surgery (MICS) and the effect of immediate postoperative IOP adjustment on prevention of cystoid macular edema (CME). Setting Ambulatory surgical center. Methods Prospective, randomized analysis of 170 eyes in 135 patients with MICS, performed in a Medicare approved outpatient ambulatory surgery center. Surgical parameters included a keratome incision of 1.5 mm to 2.8 mm, topical anesthetic, case completion IOP estimation by palpation and patient visualization of light, and IOP adjustment before exiting the operating theater. IOPs were classified into three groups: low (<16 mmHg), normal (16 to 21 mmHg), and elevated (>21 to 30 mmHg). IOP measurements were repeated 1 day after surgery. Optical coherence tomography (Stratus OCT, Zeiss) was measured at 2 weeks. An increase in foveal thickness greater than 15 µm was used to indicate CME. Statistical analysis was performed using one- and two-tailed Student's t-tests. Results Mean minimal foveal thickness averaged 207.15 µm in the low pressure group, 205.14 µm in the normal IOP group, and 210.48 µm in the elevated IOP group 2 weeks following surgery. CME occurred in 14 of 170 eyes (8.2%) at 2 weeks (low IOP, 35.7%; normal IOP, 14.2%; elevated IOP, 50.0%). Change in IOP from the operating theater to 1 day after surgery was within +/−5 mmHg in 54 eyes (31.7%), elevated by 6 to 15 mmHg in 22 eyes (12.9%), and elevated more than 15 mmHg in four eyes (2.3%). IOP was reduced by 6 mmHg to 15 mmHg in 39 eyes (22.9%) and reduced by more than 15 mmHg in nine eyes (5.3%). Conclusions Immediate postoperative adjustment of IOP may prevent CME in MICS. Physicians can improve their ability to estimate postoperative IOP with experience in tonometry to verify immediate postoperative IOP. There are patient safety and economic benefits to immediate IOP adjustment in the operating theater

  12. Randomized trial evaluating ranibizumab plus prompt or deferred laser or triamcinolone plus prompt laser for diabetic macular edema.

    PubMed

    Elman, Michael J; Aiello, Lloyd Paul; Beck, Roy W; Bressler, Neil M; Bressler, Susan B; Edwards, Allison R; Ferris, Frederick L; Friedman, Scott M; Glassman, Adam R; Miller, Kellee M; Scott, Ingrid U; Stockdale, Cynthia R; Sun, Jennifer K

    2010-06-01

    Evaluate intravitreal 0.5 mg ranibizumab or 4 mg triamcinolone combined with focal/grid laser compared with focal/grid laser alone for treatment of diabetic macular edema (DME). Multicenter, randomized clinical trial. A total of 854 study eyes of 691 participants with visual acuity (approximate Snellen equivalent) of 20/32 to 20/320 and DME involving the fovea. Eyes were randomized to sham injection + prompt laser (n=293), 0.5 mg ranibizumab + prompt laser (n=187), 0.5 mg ranibizumab + deferred (> or =24 weeks) laser (n=188), or 4 mg triamcinolone + prompt laser (n=186). Retreatment followed an algorithm facilitated by a web-based, real-time data-entry system. Best-corrected visual acuity and safety at 1 year. The 1-year mean change (+/-standard deviation) in the visual acuity letter score from baseline was significantly greater in the ranibizumab + prompt laser group (+9+/-11, P<0.001) and ranibizumab + deferred laser group (+9+/-12, P<0.001) but not in the triamcinolone + prompt laser group (+4+/-13, P=0.31) compared with the sham + prompt laser group (+3+/-13). Reduction in mean central subfield thickness in the triamcinolone + prompt laser group was similar to both ranibizumab groups and greater than in the sham + prompt laser group. In the subset of pseudophakic eyes at baseline (n=273), visual acuity improvement in the triamcinolone + prompt laser group appeared comparable to that in the ranibizumab groups. No systemic events attributable to study treatment were apparent. Three eyes (0.8%) had injection-related endophthalmitis in the ranibizumab groups, whereas elevated intraocular pressure and cataract surgery were more frequent in the triamcinolone + prompt laser group. Two-year visual acuity outcomes were similar to 1-year outcomes. Intravitreal ranibizumab with prompt or deferred laser is more effective through at least 1 year compared with prompt laser alone for the treatment of DME involving the central macula. Ranibizumab as applied in this study

  13. Cost-effectiveness analysis of ranibizumab plus prompt or deferred laser or triamcinolone plus prompt laser for diabetic macular edema.

    PubMed

    Dewan, Vinay; Lambert, Dennis; Edler, Joshua; Kymes, Steven; Apte, Rajendra S

    2012-08-01

    Perform a cost-effectiveness analysis of the treatment of diabetic macular edema (DME) with ranibizumab plus prompt or deferred laser versus triamcinolone plus prompt laser. Data for the analysis were drawn from reports of the Diabetic Retinopathy Clinical Research Network (DRCRnet) Protocol I. Computer simulation based on Protocol I data. Analyses were conducted from the payor perspective. Simulated participants assigned characteristics reflecting those seen in Protocol I. Markov models were constructed to replicate Protocol I's 104-week outcomes using a microsimulation approach to estimation. Baseline characteristics, visual acuity (VA), treatments, and complications were based on Protocol I data. Costs were identified by literature search. One-way sensitivity analysis was performed, and the results were validated against Protocol I data. Direct cost of care for 2 years, change in VA from baseline, and incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) measured as cost per additional letter gained from baseline (Early Treatment of Diabetic Retinopathy Study). For sham plus laser (S+L), ranibizumab plus prompt laser (R+pL), ranibizumab plus deferred laser (R+dL), and triamcinolone plus laser (T+L), effectiveness through 104 weeks was predicted to be 3.46, 7.07, 8.63, and 2.40 letters correct, respectively. The ICER values in terms of dollars per VA letter were $393 (S+L vs. T+L), $5943 (R+pL vs. S+L), and $20 (R+dL vs. R+pL). For pseudophakics, the ICER value for comparison triamcinolone with laser versus ranibizumab with deferred laser was $14 690 per letter gained. No clinically relevant changes in model variables altered outcomes. Internal validation demonstrated good similarity to Protocol I treatment patterns. In treatment of phakic patients with DME, ranibizumab with deferred laser provided an additional 6 letters correct compared with triamcinolone with laser at an additional cost of $19 216 over 2 years. That would indicate that if the gain in VA seen at 2 years

  14. A clinical study to evaluate the efficacy of intravitreal Anti-VEGF therapy in treating macular edema due to retinal venous occlusions

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Poninder; Banarji, Ajay; Patyal, Sagarika; Gurunadh, V.S.; Ahluwalia, T.S.; Oli, Avadesh; Moulick, P.S.; Makker, Anuradha

    2013-01-01

    Background A non-randomized, interventional study was carried out various types of retinal venous occlusions with significant macular edema who required an Anti-VEGF injection. Method One hundred and one consecutive patients diagnosed as a case of CRVO/HCRVO/BRVO were enrolled in the study provided they had significant macular edema. Atleast three intra-vitreal injections of Anti-VEGFs were given and both the pre and post injections BCVA and CMT on OCT were observed and analyzed. Results 87 patients (86.14%) showed a significant improvement of vision of atleast two lines on the Snellen's and mean BCVA improved from log MAR +1.084 to log MAR +0.455. CMT on OCT showed reduction in thickness after Anti-VEGF therapy in 99 patients out of 101 and mean CMT decreased from 586.30 μ at baseline to 329.50 μ. Both of these findings were statistically very significant. Conclusions Anti-VEGF therapy had a marked improvement in BCVA along with a dramatic reduction in CMT in the vast majority of RVOs patients with no serious ocular or systemic side effects. PMID:24600120

  15. Efficacy and safety of sustained-delivery fluocinolone acetonide intravitreal implant in patients with chronic diabetic macular edema insufficiently responsive to available therapies: a real-life study

    PubMed Central

    Massin, Pascale; Erginay, Ali; Dupas, Bénédicte; Couturier, Aude; Tadayoni, Ramin

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the efficacy and safety of sustained-delivery fluocinolone acetonide (FAc) intravitreal implant for diabetic macular edema (DME). Patients and methods Prospective study in patients with DME insufficiently responsive to laser and anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF). Patients with history of rise of intraocular pressure after intravitreal corticosteroids were excluded. Results The macular edema rapidly decreased both in group 1 (prior laser only; n=7 eyes) and group 2 (prior laser and ≥3 monthly anti-VEGF therapy; n=10 eyes) and central subfield thickness was reduced by −299 μm (P=0.008) and −251 μm (P=0.016) at 12 months, respectively. Mean area under the curve from baseline to last value for pseudophakic eyes was +4.2 letters in group 1 and +9.5 letters in group 2. Overall, the FAc implant was well tolerated. Conclusion This prospective study confirms the efficacy of the FAc implant in DME patients insufficiently responsive to laser and anti-VEGF. Moreover, with a careful patient selection, our safety results would support an earlier use of FAc in the DME treatment pathway. PMID:27468222

  16. An Observational Study of the Development of Diabetic Macular Edema Following Panretinal (Scatter) Photocoagulation (PRP) Given in 1 or 4 Sittings

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Purpose To compare the effects of single-sitting vs. four-sitting panretinal photocoagulation (PRP) on macular edema in subjects with severe non-proliferative or early proliferative diabetic retinopathy with relatively good visual acuity and no or mild center involved macular edema. Method Subjects were treated with one sitting or 4 sittings of PRP in a non-randomized, prospective, multi-centered clinical trial. Main Outcome Measures Central subfield thickness on optical coherence tomography (OCT). Results Central subfield thickness was slightly greater in the 1 sitting group (n=84) than in the 4 sitting group (n=71) at the 3-day (P=0.01) and 4-week visits (P=0.003). At the 34-week primary outcome visit, the slight differences had reversed, with the thickness being slightly greater in the 4-sitting group than in the 1-sitting group (P=0.06). Visual acuity differences paralleled OCT differences. Conclusions Our results suggest that clinically meaningful differences are unlikely in OCT thickness or visual acuity following application of PRP in 1 sitting compared with 4 sittings in subjects in this cohort. More definitive results would require a large randomized trial. Application to Clinical Practice These results suggest PRP costs to some patients, in terms of travel and lost productivity, as well as to eye care providers, could be reduced. PMID:19204228

  17. Exploring the morphological and functional retinal changes after dexamethasone intravitreal implant (Ozurdex®) in macular edema due to retinal vein occlusion.

    PubMed

    Parravano, Mariacristina; Oddone, Francesco; Boccassini, Barbara; Giorno, Paola; Chiaravalloti, Adele; Tedeschi, Massimiliano; Scarinci, Fabio; Varano, Monica

    2014-01-01

    To explore functional and morphological retinal changes 6 months after dexamethasone intravitreal implant (DEX implant) for the treatment of macular edema due to central or branch retinal vein occlusion (CRVO, BRVO). In this prospective interventional case series patients underwent a complete ophthalmological examination at baseline and monthly, including best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), spectral domain-optical coherence tomography and microperimetry. Fluorescein angiography was performed at baseline and at 4 months. All patients were treated with a DEX implant and retreated according to predefined criteria starting from month 4. Sixteen patients (mean age 66 ± 13 years, 14 CRVO, 2 BRVO) were included. At 6 months mean retinal sensitivity improved from 9.7 ± 4.6 to 13.6 ± 5.4 dB (p < 0.0001) while mean BCVA improved from 52.4 ± 16.2 to 66.1 ± 16.6 (p < 0.0001). Mean central retinal thickness decreased from 708.3 ± 151.01 to 362.7 ± 177.4 μm (p < 0.0001); 56.2% of eyes were retreated at month 4. At 6 months DEX implant led to a significant improvement in retinal sensitivity and visual acuity associated with a reduction of retinal thickness in patients with macular edema due to retinal vein occlusion. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Correlation Between the Findings of Optical Coherent Retinal Tomography (OCT), Stereo Biomicroscopic Images from Fundus of an Eye and Values from Visual Acuity of Diabetic Macular Edema

    PubMed Central

    Nisic, Faruk; Turkovic, Samir; Mavija, Milka; Jovanovic, Nina; Alimanovic, Emina Halilovic-

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Diabetic maculopathy is the major cause of reduced visual acuity in patients with non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy and occurs on average in 29% of patients who have diabetes for 20 or more years. Aim: The aim of this study is to re examine the correlation between the findings of optical coherence retinal tomography, stereo bio-microscopic images from fundus of an eye and values from visual acuity of diabetic macular edema. In addition, the aim is to show the importance of various ophthalmic tests for establishing diagnosis in time. Material and methods: The research sample consisted of 90 subjects-patients from Cabinet for photographic documentation, fluorescein angiography and laser photocoagulation in Department of Ophthalmology at the University Clinical Centre in Sarajevo. The study was a one-year long, prospective, clinical study. Results: Research has shown a positive correlation between the various tests that are applied for the diagnosis of diabetic macular edema. Accurate and early diagnosis is of great importance for the treatment in time of this disease by applying laser photocoagulation, intravitreal injections of Anti-VEGF drugs or surgical treatment by Pars Plana Vitrectomy. PMID:25395723

  19. Efficacy of intravitreal dexamethasone implant for prostaglandin-induced refractory pseudophakic cystoid macular edema: case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Sacchi, Matteo; Villani, Edoardo; Gilardoni, Francesca; Nucci, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    Background Macular edema is a known complication even after uneventful cataract surgery. The chronic use of prostaglandin analogs is a risk factor for the development of pseudophakic cystoid macular edema (CME). Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are considered first-line therapy but refractory postsurgical CME represents a therapeutic challenge, as there is not an evidence-based treatment. Objective To report the use of a single implant of intravitreal dexamethasone for tafluprost-associated pseudophakic CME refractory to NSAIDs and to sub-Tenon’s corticosteroid injections. Case report A 64-year-old female with ocular hypertension treated with tafluprost experienced decreased vision (visual acuity 20/60) and metamorphopsia 2 months after uneventful cataract extraction. Spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) revealed CME. After 1 month of topical and oral NSAIDs, CME was still evident on SD-OCT (visual acuity 20/50). Two sub-Tenon’s betamethasone injections were performed at a 2-week interval. As CME was still present, 2 months after the diagnosis of CME (visual acuity 20/40), the patient underwent a single dexamethasone intravitreal implant. One month later, macular appearance was normal, and visual acuity increased to 20/30. This result was maintained throughout the 6 months of follow-up. Conclusion In this report, a single implant of intravitreal dexamethasone successfully treated pseudophakic CME associated with the use of prostaglandin analogs unresponsive to NSAIDs and sub-Tenon’s betamethasone. The results of this report need to be corroborated by powered, prospective, randomized trials. The need for repeated treatments as well as the retreatment interval in patients requiring more than a single injection are issues still needing further investigations. PMID:25061272

  20. Diffuse diabetic macular oedema treated by intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide: a comparative, non-randomised study

    PubMed Central

    Jonas, J B; Akkoyun, I; Kreissig, I; Degenring, R F

    2005-01-01

    Aim: To report on visual outcome of patients receiving an intravitreal injection of triamcinolone acetonide for treatment of diffuse diabetic macular oedema. Methods: Prospective, comparative, non-randomised clinical interventional study included 136 patients with diffuse diabetic macular oedema. Patients of the study group (97 eyes) received an intravitreal injection of 20–25 mg of triamcinolone acetonide and no other retinal treatment. Patients of the control group (69 eyes) received focal or panretinal laser treatment if indicated. Mean (standard deviation) follow up was 8.4 (SD 6.0) months (range 1.03–25.2 months). Results: Visual acuity (VA) increased significantly (p<0.001) in the study group with 66 (68%) eyes gaining in VA by at least two Snellen lines. In the control group, VA did not change significantly during the first 4 months of follow up, and decreased significantly (p<0.001) towards the end of the follow up. Difference in change of best VA was significant (p<0.001) between both groups. Correspondingly, the number of patients with VA improvement of two or more Snellen lines and visual loss of two or more Snellen lines, respectively, was significantly (p<0.001) higher and lower, respectively, in the study group. Conclusions: Intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide can temporarily increase VA in some patients with diffuse diabetic macular oedema. PMID:15722313

  1. What Is Macular Edema?

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  2. Comparison of Aflibercept, Bevacizumab, and Ranibizumab for Treatment of Diabetic Macular Edema: Extrapolation of Data to Clinical Practice.

    PubMed

    Heier, Jeffrey S; Bressler, Neil M; Avery, Robert L; Bakri, Sophie J; Boyer, David S; Brown, David M; Dugel, Pravin U; Freund, K Bailey; Glassman, Adam R; Kim, Judy E; Martin, Daniel F; Pollack, John S; Regillo, Carl D; Rosenfeld, Philip J; Schachat, Andrew P; Wells, John A

    2016-01-01

    The Diabetic Retinopathy Clinical Research Network (DRCR Network), sponsored by the National Eye Institute, reported the results of a comparative effectiveness randomized clinical trial (RCT) evaluating the 3 anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) agents aflibercept (2.0 mg), bevacizumab (1.25 mg), and ranibizumab (0.3 mg) for treatment of diabetic macular edema (DME) involving the center of the retina and associated with visual acuity loss. The many important findings of the RCT prompted the American Society of Retina Specialists to convene a group of experts to provide their perspective regarding clinically relevant findings of the study. To describe specific outcomes of the RCT judged worthy of highlighting, to discuss how these and other clinically relevant results should be considered by specialists treating DME, and to identify unanswered questions that merit consideration before treatment. The DRCR Network-authored publication on primary outcomes of the comparative effectiveness RCT at 89 sites in the United States. The study period of the RCT was August 22, 2012, to August 28, 2013. On average, all 3 anti-VEGF agents led to improved visual acuity in eyes with DME involving the center of the retina and with visual acuity impairment, including mean (SD) improvements by +13.3 (11.1) letters with aflibercept vs +9.7 (10.1) letters with bevacizumab (P < .001) and +11.2 (9.4) letters with ranibizumab (P = .03). Worse visual acuity when initiating therapy was associated with greater visual acuity benefit of aflibercept (+18.9 [11.5]) over bevacizumab (+11.8 [12.0]) or ranibizumab (14.2 [10.6]) 1 year later (P < .001 for interaction with visual acuity as a continuous variable, and P = .002 for interaction with visual acuity as a categorical variable). It is unknown whether different visual acuity outcomes associated with the use of the 3 anti-VEGF agents would be noted with other treatment regimens or with adequately repackaged bevacizumab, as well as

  3. Real-world assessment of intravitreal dexamethasone implant (0.7 mg) in patients with macular edema: the CHROME study

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Wai-Ching; Albiani, David A; Yoganathan, Pradeepa; Chen, John Chanchiang; Kherani, Amin; Maberley, David AL; Oliver, Alejandro; Rabinovitch, Theodore; Sheidow, Thomas G; Tourville, Eric; Wittenberg, Leah A; Sigouin, Chris; Baptiste, Darryl C

    2015-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to evaluate the real-world use, efficacy, and safety of one or more dexamethasone intravitreal implant(s) 0.7 mg (DEX implant) in patients with macular edema (ME). Methods This was a retrospective cohort study of patients with ME secondary to retinal disease treated at ten Canadian retina practices, including one uveitis center. Best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), central retinal thickness (CRT), intraocular pressure (IOP), glaucoma and cataract surgery, and safety data were collected from the medical charts of patients with ≥3 months of follow-up after the initial DEX implant. Results One hundred and one patient charts yielded data on 120 study eyes, including diagnoses of diabetic ME (DME) (n=34), retinal vein occlusion (RVO, n=30; branch in 19 and central in 11), and uveitis (n=23). Patients had a mean age of 60.9 years, and 73.3% of the study eyes had ME for a duration of ≥12 months prior to DEX implant injection(s). Baseline mean (± standard error) BCVA was 0.63±0.03 logMAR (20/86 Snellen equivalents) and mean CRT was 474.4±18.2 μm. The mean number of DEX implant injections was 1.7±0.1 in all study eyes; 44.2% of eyes had repeat DEX implant injections (reinjection interval 2.3–4.9 months). The greatest mean peak changes in BCVA lines of vision occurred in study eyes with uveitis (3.3±0.6, P<0.0001), followed by RVO (1.3±0.5, P<0.01) and DME (0.7±0.5, P>0.05). Significant decreases in CRT were observed: −255.6±43.6 μm for uveitis, −190.9±23.5 μm for DME, and −160.7±39.6 μm for RVO (P<0.0001 for all cohorts). IOP increases of ≥10 mmHg occurred in 20.6%, 24.1%, and 22.7% of DME, RVO, and uveitis study eyes, respectively. IOP-lowering medication was initiated in 29.4%, 16.7%, and 8.7% of DME, RVO, and uveitis study eyes, respectively. Glaucoma surgery was performed in 1.7% of all study eyes and cataract surgery in 29.8% of all phakic study eyes receiving DEX implant(s). Conclusion DEX implant

  4. Dexamethasone intravitreal implant in patients with macular edema related to branch or central retinal vein occlusion twelve-month study results.

    PubMed

    Haller, Julia A; Bandello, Francesco; Belfort, Rubens; Blumenkranz, Mark S; Gillies, Mark; Heier, Jeffrey; Loewenstein, Anat; Yoon, Young Hee; Jiao, Jenny; Li, Xiao-Yan; Whitcup, Scott M; Li, Joanne

    2011-12-01

    To evaluate the safety and efficacy of 1 or 2 treatments with dexamethasone intravitreal implant (DEX implant) over 12 months in eyes with macular edema owing to branch or central retinal vein occlusion (BRVO or CRVO). Two identical, multicenter, prospective studies included a randomized, 6-month, double-masked, sham-controlled phase followed by a 6-month open-label extension. We included 1256 patients with vision loss owing to macular edema associated with BRVO or CRVO. At baseline, patients received DEX implant 0.7 mg (n = 421), DEX implant 0.35 mg (n = 412), or sham (n = 423) in the study eye. At day 180, patients could receive DEX implant 0.7 mg if best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) was <84 letters or retinal thickness was >250 μm. The primary outcome for the open-label extension was safety; BCVA was also evaluated. At day 180, 997 patients received open-label DEX implant. Except for cataract, the incidence of ocular adverse events was similar in patients who received their first or second DEX implant. Over 12 months, cataract progression occurred in 90 of 302 phakic eyes (29.8%) that received 2 DEX implant 0.7 mg injections versus 5 of 88 sham-treated phakic eyes (5.7%); cataract surgery was performed in 4 of 302 (1.3%) and 1 of 88 (1.1%) eyes, respectively. In the group receiving two 0.7-mg DEX implants (n = 341), a ≥ 10-mmHg intraocular pressure (IOP) increase from baseline was observed in (12.6% after the first treatment, and 15.4% after the second). The IOP increases were usually transient and controlled with medication or observation; an additional 10.3% of patients initiated IOP-lowering medications after the second treatment. A ≥ 15-letter improvement in BCVA from baseline was achieved by 30% and 32% of patients 60 days after the first and second DEX implant, respectively. Among patients with macular edema owing to BRVO or CRVO, single and repeated treatment with DEX implant had a favorable safety profile over 12 months. In patients who qualified

  5. Intravitreal Aflibercept Injection for Macular Edema Resulting from Central Retinal Vein Occlusion: One-Year Results of the Phase 3 GALILEO Study.

    PubMed

    Korobelnik, Jean-François; Holz, Frank G; Roider, Johann; Ogura, Yuichiro; Simader, Christian; Schmidt-Erfurth, Ursula; Lorenz, Katrin; Honda, Miki; Vitti, Robert; Berliner, Alyson J; Hiemeyer, Florian; Stemper, Brigitte; Zeitz, Oliver; Sandbrink, Rupert

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of intravitreal aflibercept injections for treatment of macular edema secondary to central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO). A randomized, multicenter, double-masked phase 3 study. A total of 177 treatment-naive patients with macular edema secondary to CRVO were randomized in a 3:2 ratio. Patients received either 2-mg intravitreal aflibercept or sham injections every 4 weeks for 20 weeks. From week 24 to 48, the aflibercept group received aflibercept as needed (pro re nata [PRN]), and the sham group continued receiving sham injections. The primary efficacy end point was the proportion of patients who gained 15 letters or more in best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) at week 24. This study reports week 52 results including the proportion of patients who gained 15 letters or more in BCVA and the mean change from baseline BCVA and central retinal thickness. Efficacy end points at week 52 were all exploratory. At week 52, the mean percentage of patients gaining 15 letters or more was 60.2% in the aflibercept group and 32.4% in the sham group (P = 0.0004). Aflibercept patients, compared with sham patients, had a significantly higher mean improvement in BCVA (+16.9 letters vs. +3.8 letters, respectively) and reduction in central retinal thickness (-423.5 μm vs. -219.3 μm, respectively) at week 52 (P < 0.0001 for both). Aflibercept patients received a mean of 2.5 injections (standard deviation, 1.7 injections) during PRN dosing. The most common ocular adverse events in the aflibercept group were related to the injection procedure or the underlying disease, and included macular edema (33.7%), increased intraocular pressure (17.3%), and eye pain (14.4%). Treatment with intravitreal aflibercept provided significant functional and anatomic benefits after 52 weeks as compared with sham. The improvements achieved after 6 monthly doses at week 24 largely were maintained until week 52 with as-needed dosing. Intravitreal aflibercept

  6. Vascular endothelial growth factor Trap-Eye for macular edema secondary to central retinal vein occlusion: six-month results of the phase 3 COPERNICUS study.

    PubMed

    Boyer, David; Heier, Jeffrey; Brown, David M; Clark, W Lloyd; Vitti, Robert; Berliner, Alyson J; Groetzbach, Georg; Zeitz, Oliver; Sandbrink, Rupert; Zhu, Xiaoping; Beckmann, Karola; Haller, Julia A

    2012-05-01

    To assess the efficacy and safety of intravitreal vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) Trap-Eye in eyes with macular edema secondary to central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO). Multicenter, randomized, prospective, controlled trial. One hundred eighty-nine eyes with macular edema secondary to CRVO. Eyes were randomized 3:2 to receive VEGF Trap-Eye 2 mg or sham injection monthly for 6 months. The proportion of eyes with a ≥15-letter gain or more in best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) at week 24 (primary efficacy end point), mean changes in BCVA and central retinal thickness (CRT), and proportion of eyes progressing to neovascularization of the anterior segment, optic disc, or elsewhere in the retina. At week 24, 56.1% of VEGF Trap-Eye treated eyes gained 15 letters or more from baseline versus 12.3% of sham-treated eyes (P<0.001). The VEGF Trap-Eye treated eyes gained a mean of 17.3 letters versus sham-treated eyes, which lost 4.0 letters (P<0.001). Central retinal thickness decreased by 457.2 μm in eyes treated with VEGF Trap-Eye versus 144.8 μm in sham-treated eyes (P<0.001), and progression to any neovascularization occurred in 0 and 5 (6.8%) of eyes treated with VEGF Trap-Eye and sham-treated eyes, respectively (P = 0.006). Conjunctival hemorrhage, reduced visual acuity, and eye pain were the most common adverse events (AEs). Serious ocular AEs were reported by 3.5% of VEGF Trap-Eye patients and 13.5% of sham patients. Incidences of nonocular serious AEs generally were well balanced between both groups. At 24 weeks, monthly intravitreal injection of VEGF Trap-Eye 2 mg in eyes with macular edema resulting from CRVO improved visual acuity and CRT, eliminated progression resulting from neovascularization, and was associated with a low rate of ocular AEs related to treatment. Copyright © 2012 American Academy of Ophthalmology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Transcranial measurement of diffuse light reflectance from brain edema in rats: effect of change in the blood flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ueda, Yoshinori; Sato, Shunichi; Ooigawa, Hidetoshi; Nawashiro, Hiroshi; Saitoh, Daizoh; Shima, Katsuji; Okada, Yoshiaki; Ashida, Hiroshi; Obara, Minoru

    2005-04-01

    We assumed that edema causes a decrease in the scattering coefficient of brain tissue and hence a decrease in the intensity of diffuse reflectance from the brain. On the basis of this assumption, we attempted to transcranially detect a formation of brain edema by measuring diffuse light reflectance. In rats, edema was induced by making a cold injury in the brain. The skull was irradiated with 633-nm and 532-nm laser light delivered through an optical fiber, and the diffuse light reflectance from the brain was collected with another optical fiber. We observed that reflectance intensities were significantly decreased around the cold injury both at 633 nm and 532 nm, suggesting that scattering coefficient of brain tissue was reduced due to a formation of edema in this area. In the injury, reflectance intensity was increased at 532 nm, indicating that cerebral blood volume was decreased in this region.

  8. Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage from systemic lupus erythematosus misdiagnosed as high altitude pulmonary edema.

    PubMed

    Li, Suzhi; Wang, Yuliang; Huang, Xuewen; Cao, Jingxin; Yang, Dingzhou

    2015-03-01

    A 26-year-old woman presented with dyspnea and dry cough soon after arriving on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (3650 m). Chest radiograph showed diffuse patchy infiltrates. The initial diagnosis was high altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE). However, the patient had no sputum or moist rales, and supplemental oxygen and intravenous aminophylline produced no improvement. Chest HRCT revealed symmetric and diffuse ground glass opacities. Further examination found anemia, leukopenia, urine abnormalities, and increased erythrocyte sedimentation rate. Antibodies for ds-DNA and ANA were positive. Hemoptysis and arthralgia developed after a few days. Finally the patient was diagnosed with diffuse alveolar hemorrhage secondary to systemic lupus erythemetosus. When considering a diagnosis of HAPE, careful attention to physical signs, and a clinical course that is atypical for HAPE should prompt evaluation for other disease processes; HRCT can be useful in this setting.

  9. Discovery of Potent and Orally Active Lipoprotein-Associated Phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) Inhibitors as a Potential Therapy for Diabetic Macular Edema.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xinde; Wang, Kai; Xu, Wenwei; Ma, Quanxin; Chen, Minli; Du, Lili; Mo, Mingguang; Wang, Yiping; Shen, Jianhua

    2016-03-24

    Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) is considered to be a promising therapeutic target for several inflammation-associated diseases. Herein, we describe the discovery of a series of pyrimidone derivatives as Lp-PLA2 inhibitors. Systematic structural modifications led to the identification of several pyrimidone compounds with promising in vitro inhibitory potency and pharmacokinetic properties. Compound 14c, selected for in vivo evaluation, demonstrated decent pharmacokinetic profiles and robust inhibitory potency against Lp-PLA2 in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. Furthermore, 14c significantly inhibited retinal thickening in STZ-induced diabetic SD rats as a model of diabetic macular edema (DME) after oral dosing for 4 weeks. Taken together, these results suggested that 14c can serve as a valuable lead in the search for new Lp-PLA2 inhibitors for prevention and/or treatment of DME.

  10. Synthesis and SAR study of new thiazole derivatives as vascular adhesion protein-1 (VAP-1) inhibitors for the treatment of diabetic macular edema.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Takayuki; Morita, Masataka; Tojo, Takashi; Yoshihara, Kousei; Nagashima, Akira; Moritomo, Ayako; Ohkubo, Mitsuru; Miyake, Hiroshi

    2013-03-01

    Vascular adhesion protein-1 (VAP-1), an amine oxidase that is also known as a semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase (SSAO), is present in particularly high levels in human plasma, and is considered a potential therapeutic target for various inflammatory diseases, including diabetes complications such as macular edema. In our VAP-1 inhibitor program, structural modifications following high-throughput screening (HTS) of our compound library resulted in the discovery that thiazole derivative 10, which includes a guanidine group, shows potent human VAP-1 inhibitory activity (IC(50) of 230 nM; rat IC(50) of 14 nM). Moreover, compound 10 exhibited significant inhibitory effects on ocular permeability in STZ-induced diabetic rats.

  11. Novel 1H-imidazol-2-amine derivatives as potent and orally active vascular adhesion protein-1 (VAP-1) inhibitors for diabetic macular edema treatment.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Takayuki; Morita, Masataka; Tojo, Takashi; Nagashima, Akira; Moritomo, Ayako; Miyake, Hiroshi

    2013-07-01

    Novel thiazole derivatives were synthesized and evaluated as vascular adhesion protein-1 (VAP-1) inhibitors. Although we previously identified a compound (2) with potent VAP-1 inhibitory activity in rats, the human activity was relatively weak. Here, to improve the human VAP-1 inhibitory activity of compound 2, we first evaluated the structure-activity relationships of guanidine bioisosteres as simple small molecules and identified a 1H-benzimidazol-2-amine (5) with potent activity compared to phenylguanidine (1). Based on the structure of compound 5, we synthesized a highly potent VAP-1 inhibitor (37b; human IC50=0.019 μM, rat IC50=0.0051 μM). Orally administered compound 37b also markedly inhibited ocular permeability in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats after oral administration, suggesting it is a promising compound for the treatment of diabetic macular edema.

  12. A Randomized Trial Comparing the Efficacy and Safety of Intravitreal Triamcinolone With Observation to Treat Vision Loss Associated With Macular Edema Secondary to Central Retinal Vein Occlusion

    PubMed Central

    Ip, Michael S.; Scott, Ingrid U.; VanVeldhuisen, Paul C.; Oden, Neal L.; Blodi, Barbara A.; Fisher, Marian; Singerman, Lawrence J.; Tolentino, Michael; Chan, Clement K.; Gonzalez, Victor H.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To compare the efficacy and safety of 1-mg and 4-mg doses of preservative-free intravitreal triamcinolone with observation for eyes with vision loss associated with macular edema secondary to perfused central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO). Methods: Multicenter, randomized, clinical trial of 271 participants. Main Outcome Measure: Gain in visual acuity letter score of 15 or more from baseline to month 12. Results: Seven percent, 27%, and 26% of participants achieved the primary outcome in the observation, 1-mg, and 4-mg groups, respectively. The odds of achieving the primary outcome were 5.0 times greater in the 1-mg group than the observation group (odds ratio [OR],5.0; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.8-14.1; P=.001) and 5.0 times greater in 4-mg group than the observation group (OR,5.0; 95% CI, 1.8-14.4; P=.001); there was no difference identified between the 1-mg and 4-mg groups (OR, 1.0; 95% CI, 0.5-2.1; P=.97). The rates of elevated intraocular pressure and cataract were similar for the observation and 1-mg groups, but higher in the 4-mg group. Conclusions: Intravitreal triamcinolone is superior to observation for treating vision loss associated with macular edema secondary to CRVO in patients who have characteristics similar to those in the SCORE-CRVO trial. The 1-mg dose has a safety profile superior to that of the 4-mg dose. Application to Clinical Practice: Intravitreal triamcinolone in a 1-mg dose, following the retreatment criteria applied in the SCORE Study, should be considered for up to 1 year, and possibly 2 years, for patients with characteristics similar to those in the SCORE-CRVO trial. Trial Registration: clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00105027 PMID:19752419

  13. Effect of preoperative topical diclofenac on intraocular interleukin-12 concentration and macular edema after cataract surgery in patients with diabetic retinopathy: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Medić, Aleksej; Jukić, Tomislav; Matas, Anita; Vukojević, Katarina; Sapunar, Ada; Znaor, Ljubo

    2017-01-01

    Aim To determine if preoperative treatment with a topical non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) lowers the concentration of intraocular interleukin (IL)-12 and the incidence of postoperative macular edema in patients with non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy undergoing cataract surgery. Methods A total of 55 patients were randomized to diclofenac (n = 27) or placebo (n = 28). Patients receiving diclofenac started preoperative treatment with 0.1% topical diclofenac four times a day 7 days before cataract surgery and the therapy was discontinued 30 days after surgery. Patients in the control group were administered placebo 7 days preoperatively and a standard postoperative therapy with 0.1% topical dexamethasone four times a day for 30 days after surgery. All patients received postoperative antibiotic prophylaxis with tobramycin eye drops four times daily for 30 days. Seven days before the cataract surgery, on the day of surgery, and 1, 7, 30, and 90 days after surgery, central foveal thickness (CFT) was measured with optical coherence tomography (OCT) and the aqueous humor was sampled at the beginning of cataract surgery for the analysis of IL-12 concentration. Due to loss to follow-up and insufficient aqueous humor samples, the data of 3 patients treated with diclofenac and 8 patients receiving placebo were not analyzed. Results The aqueous humor IL-12 concentration was significantly lower in the diclofenac group than in the placebo group (t=−2.85, P = 0.007). The diclofenac group had a significantly smaller increase in CFT after phacoemulsification (F = 13.57, p<0.001). Conclusion Patients preoperatively treated with diclofenac had significantly lower intraocular levels of IL-12 and a lower increase in CFT, which indicates that a combination of preoperative and postoperative treatment with a topical NSAID may lower the incidence of postoperative macular edema in patients with diabetic retinopathy. ClinicalTrials.gov trial registration

  14. The effect and safety of intravitreal injection of ranibizumab and bevacizumab on the corneal endothelium in the treatment of diabetic macular edema.

    PubMed

    Guzel, Huseyin; Bakbak, Berker; Koylu, Mehmet Talay; Gonul, Saban; Ozturk, Banu; Gedik, Sansal

    2017-03-01

    To investigate the effect and safety of intravitreal injection (IVI) of bevacizumab and ranibizumab on corneal endothelial cell count and morphology in patients with diabetic macular edema. A total of 60 eyes from 60 consecutive patients who received 0.5 mg/0.05 ml IVIs of bevacizumab (n = 30, IVB group) or 1.25 mg/0.05 ml ranibizumab (n = 30, IVR group) for three consecutive months were investigated prospectively. Specular microscopy was performed to evaluate endothelial cell count, the percentage of hexagonal cells (pleomorphism), and the coefficient of variation of the cell size (polymegathism); optical biometry was performed to evaluate central corneal thickness. Results before injection and 1 month after the first and third injections were compared. The groups were matched for age (p = 0.11) and gender (p = 0.32). There was no significant difference in endothelial cell count (IVB group, p = 0.66; IVR group, p = 0.74), pleomorphism (IVB group, p = 0.44; IVR group, p = 0.88) and polymegathism (IVB group, p = 0.21; IVR group, p = 0.24) before injection or 1 month after the first and third injections. There was also no difference in central corneal thickness (IVB group, p = 0.15; IVR group, p = 0.58) before injection or 1 month after the first and third injections. Monthly 1.25 mg/0.05 ml IVIs of bevacizumab or 0.5 mg/0.05 ml of ranibizumab for three consecutive months in the treatment of diabetic macular edema does not affect corneal morphology and has no harmful effects on the endothelium.

  15. BETTER PROGNOSIS FOR EYES WITH PRESERVED FOVEAL DEPRESSION AFTER INTRAVITREAL RANIBIZUMAB INJECTION FOR MACULAR EDEMA SECONDARY TO CENTRAL RETINAL VEIN OCCLUSION.

    PubMed

    Kitagawa, Shuta; Yasuda, Shunsuke; Ito, Yasuki; Ueno, Shinji; Iwase, Takeshi; Terasaki, Hiroko

    2017-05-18

    To determine the prognosis of eyes with central retinal vein occlusion that had a preserved foveal depression at the baseline and were treated by intravitreal ranibizumab injections (IRIs). The authors reviewed the medical records of 23 eyes of 23 consecutive treatment-naive patients who received IRIs to treat the macular edema due to central retinal vein occlusion. Eyes were classified by the pre-IRI presence or absence of a foveal depression. A foveal depression was defined as a central foveal thickness that was <50 μm thinner than the average thickness at 200 μm temporal and nasal to the central fovea. The characteristics of the two groups were compared. Seven of 23 eyes had a preserved foveal depression before the IRI. The mean number of injections within 12 months after the initial IRI was significantly fewer (P < 0.001) in eyes with foveal depression (1.6 ± 0.5) than in eyes without foveal depression (4.3 ± 1.3). The mean best-corrected visual acuity at 12 months after the initial IRI was significantly better (P = 0.003) in eyes with foveal depression (0.10 ± 0.17 logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution [logMAR] units; 20/25 Snellen units) than in eyes without foveal depression (0.77 ± 0.54 logMAR units; 20/118 Snellen units). These results indicate that the prognosis is better for eyes with a foveal depression before the IRI treatment for a macular edema secondary to central retinal vein occlusion.

  16. Effect of preoperative topical diclofenac on intraocular interleukin-12 concentration and macular edema after cataract surgery in patients with diabetic retinopathy: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Medić, Aleksej; Jukić, Tomislav; Matas, Anita; Vukojević, Katarina; Sapunar, Ada; Znaor, Ljubo

    2017-02-28

    To determine if preoperative treatment with a topical non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) lowers the concentration of intraocular interleukin (IL)-12 and the incidence of postoperative macular edema in patients with non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy undergoing cataract surgery. A total of 55 patients were randomized to diclofenac (n=27) or placebo (n=28). Patients receiving diclofenac started preoperative treatment with 0.1% topical diclofenac four times a day 7 days before cataract surgery and the therapy was discontinued 30 days after surgery. Patients in the control group were administered placebo 7 days preoperatively and a standard postoperative therapy with 0.1% topical dexamethasone four times a day for 30 days after surgery. All patients received postoperative antibiotic prophylaxis with tobramycin eye drops four times daily for 30 days. Seven days before the cataract surgery, on the day of surgery, and 1, 7, 30, and 90 days after surgery, central foveal thickness (CFT) was measured with optical coherence tomography (OCT) and the aqueous humor was sampled at the beginning of cataract surgery for the analysis of IL-12 concentration. Due to loss to follow-up and insufficient aqueous humor samples, the data of 3 patients treated with diclofenac and 8 patients receiving placebo were not analyzed. The aqueous humor IL-12 concentration was significantly lower in the diclofenac group than in the placebo group (t=-2.85, p=0.007). The diclofenac group had a significantly smaller increase in CFT after phacoemulsification (F=13.57, p<0.001). Patients preoperatively treated with diclofenac had significantly lower intraocular levels of IL-12 and a lower increase in CFT, which indicates that a combination of preoperative and postoperative treatment with a topical NSAID may lower the incidence of postoperative macular edema in patients with diabetic retinopathy.

  17. Importance of Central Retinal Sensitivity for Prediction of Visual Acuity after Intravitreal Bevacizumb in Eyes with Macular Edema Associated with Branch Retinal Vein Occlusion

    PubMed Central

    Sugimoto, Masahiko; Ichio, Atsushi; Kondo, Mineo

    2016-01-01

    Objective To determine whether the baseline retinal sensitivity can predict the best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) at 1 month after intravitreal bevacizumab (IVB) in eyes with macular edema (ME) associated with a branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO). Subjects and Methods We evaluated 16 eyes of 16 patients who had ME associated with a BRVO. The mean ± standard deviation age was 69.1 ± 8.9 years, and all had a single IVB injection. The BCVA, central macular thickness (CMT), integrity of the ellipsoid zone (EZ) of the photoreceptors, and retinal sensitivity were determined before (baseline) and at 1 day, 1 week, and 1 month following the IVB. The average threshold retinal sensitivity (AT) within the central 10° was determined by Macular Integrity Assessment. The correlations between the BCVA at 1 month and the CMT, integrity of the EZ, and AT at each visit were determined. Results One month after IVB, the BCVA improved significantly from 0.56 ± 0.27 logMAR units to 0.32 ± 0.28 logMAR units, and the CMT from 611.4 ± 209.3 μm to 258.7 ± 64.0 μm (P <0.05). The AT improved significantly from 17.9 ± 5.3 dB to 21.2 ± 5.0 dB (P <0.05). At 1 day after the treatment, both the integrity of the EZ (r = 0.59) and the retinal sensitivity (r = 0.76) were moderately correlated with the BCVA at 1 month. Conclusion These results indicate that both the integrity of the EZ and the AT at 1 day after the IVB can predict the BCVA after treatment for ME associated with BRVO. There is a possibility that these parameters will predict the effectiveness of IVB for each case. PMID:26885822

  18. Importance of Central Retinal Sensitivity for Prediction of Visual Acuity after Intravitreal Bevacizumb in Eyes with Macular Edema Associated with Branch Retinal Vein Occlusion.

    PubMed

    Sugimoto, Masahiko; Ichio, Atsushi; Kondo, Mineo

    2016-01-01

    To determine whether the baseline retinal sensitivity can predict the best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) at 1 month after intravitreal bevacizumab (IVB) in eyes with macular edema (ME) associated with a branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO). We evaluated 16 eyes of 16 patients who had ME associated with a BRVO. The mean ± standard deviation age was 69.1 ± 8.9 years, and all had a single IVB injection. The BCVA, central macular thickness (CMT), integrity of the ellipsoid zone (EZ) of the photoreceptors, and retinal sensitivity were determined before (baseline) and at 1 day, 1 week, and 1 month following the IVB. The average threshold retinal sensitivity (AT) within the central 10° was determined by Macular Integrity Assessment. The correlations between the BCVA at 1 month and the CMT, integrity of the EZ, and AT at each visit were determined. One month after IVB, the BCVA improved significantly from 0.56 ± 0.27 logMAR units to 0.32 ± 0.28 logMAR units, and the CMT from 611.4 ± 209.3 μm to 258.7 ± 64.0 μm (P <0.05). The AT improved significantly from 17.9 ± 5.3 dB to 21.2 ± 5.0 dB (P <0.05). At 1 day after the treatment, both the integrity of the EZ (r = 0.59) and the retinal sensitivity (r = 0.76) were moderately correlated with the BCVA at 1 month. These results indicate that both the integrity of the EZ and the AT at 1 day after the IVB can predict the BCVA after treatment for ME associated with BRVO. There is a possibility that these parameters will predict the effectiveness of IVB for each case.

  19. Bromfenac sodium 0.1%, fluorometholone 0.1% and dexamethasone 0.1% for control of ocular inflammation and prevention of cystoid macular edema after phacoemulsification.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qi-wei; Yao, Ke; Xu, Wen; Chen, Pei-qing; Shentu, Xing-chao; Xie, Xin; Weng, Yan; Zhang, Li; Jin, Chong-fei; Wu, Wei; Zhu, Ya-nan; Yu, Yin-hui

    2013-01-01

    To compare bromfenac sodium 0.1%, fluorometholone 0.1% and dexamethasone 0.1% for the control of postoperative inflammation and prevention of cystoid macular edema (CME) after phacoemulsification. Patients were randomized to receive bromfenac sodium 0.1% for 1 month (OBS1) or 2 months (OBS2), or fluorometholone 0.1% for 1 month (OFM) or dexamethasone 0.1% for 1 month (ODM). Best-corrected visual acuity, intraocular pressure, endothelial cell density, photon count value and retinal foveal thickness were measured. Mean photon count values were lower in the OBS1 and OBS2 groups compared with the ODM group during the first week. Bromfenac sodium cleared the ocular inflammation more rapidly than fluorometholone and dexamethasone. The foveal thickness was thinner in the second month and the incidence of CME was lower in the OBS1 and OBS2 groups compared with the OFM and ODM groups. Bromfenac sodium was more effective and safer than fluorometholone and dexamethasone as an anti-inflammatory, decreasing macular thickness and preventing CME in age-related cataract patients after cataract surgery. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Intravitreal Injection of Ozurdex® Implant in Patients with Persistent Diabetic Macular Edema, with Six-Month Follow-Up

    PubMed Central

    Pacella, Fernanda; Ferraresi, Adriana Francesca; Turchetti, Paolo; Lenzi, Tommaso; Giustolisi, Rosalia; Bottone, Andrea; Fameli, Valeria; Romano, Maria Rosaria; Pacella, Elena

    2016-01-01

    AIM To evaluate the efficacy of intravitreal dexamethasone injections in diabetic macular edema (DME). METHODS A 700 μg slow-release intravitreal dexamethasone implant (Ozurdex®) was placed in the vitreal cavity of 17 patients (19 eyes) affected with persistent DME. Best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) was assessed through Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS). Central macular thickness (CMT) was measured by spectral-domain optical coherence tomography. BCVA and CMT examinations were carried out at baseline (T0) and repeated after three days, one month (T1), three months (T3), four months (T4), and six months (T6) post injection. RESULTS Dexamethasone implant induced an improvement in ETDRS at T1, T3, T4, and T6 post injection. CMT was reduced at T1, T3, and T4, while at T6, CMT values were not statistically different from baseline. No complications were observed during the follow-up. CONCLUSION Our data suggest that dexamethasone implant is effective in reducing DME symptoms within a six-month frame. PMID:27147895

  1. Contralateral eye-to-eye comparison of intravitreal ranibizumab and a sustained-release dexamethasone intravitreal implant in recalcitrant diabetic macular edema

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Benjamin J; Yonekawa, Yoshihiro; Wolfe, Jeremy D; Hassan, Tarek S

    2016-01-01

    Objective To compare the effects of intravitreal ranibizumab (RZB) or dexamethasone (DEX) intravitreal implant in cases of recalcitrant diabetic macular edema (DME). Methods Retrospective, interventional study examining patients with symmetric bilateral, center-involved DME recalcitrant to treatment with RZB, who received DEX in one eye while the contralateral eye continued to receive RZB every 4–5 weeks for a study period of 3 months. Results Eleven patients (22 eyes) were included: mean logarithm of the minimal angle of resolution (logMAR) visual acuity (VA) for the DEX arm improved from 0.415 (standard deviation [SD] ±0.16) to 0.261 (SD ±0.18) at final evaluation, and mean central macular thickness (CMT) improved from 461 µm (SD ±156) to 356 µm (SD ±110; net decrease: 105 µm, P=0.01). Mean logMAR VA for the RZB arm improved from 0.394 (SD ±0.31) to 0.269 (SD ±0.19) at final evaluation. Mean CMT improved from 421 µm (SD ±147) to 373 µm (SD ±129; net decrease: 48 µm, P=0.26). Conclusion A subset of recalcitrant DME patients demonstrated significant CMT reduction and VA improvement after a single DEX injection. PMID:27621587

  2. Intravitreal bevacizumab injection alone or combined with triamcinolone versus macular photocoagulation in bilateral diabetic macular edema; application of bivariate generalized linear mixed model with asymmetric random effects in a subgroup of a clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Yaseri, Mehdi; Zeraati, Hojjat; Mohammad, Kazem; Soheilian, Masoud; Ramezani, Alireza; Eslani, Medi; Peyman, Gholam A

    2014-01-01

    To compare the efficacy of intravitreal bevacizumab (IVB) injection alone or with intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide (IVB/IVT) versus macular photocoagulation (MPC) in bilateral diabetic macular edema (DME). In this study we revisited data from a subset of subjects previously enrolled in a randomized clinical trial. The original study included 150 eyes randomized to three treatment arms: 1.25 mg IVB alone, combined injection of 1.25 mg IVB and 2 mg IVT, and focal or modified grid MPC. To eliminate the possible effects of systemic confounders, we selected fellow eyes of bilaterally treated subjects who had undergone different treatments; eventually 30 eyes of 15 patients were re-evaluated at baseline, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months. Using mixed model analysis, we compared the treatment protocols regarding visual acuity (VA) and central macular thickness (CMT). Improvement in VA in the IVB group was significantly greater compared to MPC at months 6 and 12 (P = 0.037 and P = 0.035, respectively) but this difference did not persist thereafter up to 24 months. Other levels of VA were comparable at different follow-up intervals (all P > 0.05). The only significant difference in CMT was observed in favor of the IVB group as compared to IVB/IVT group at 24 months (P = 0.048). Overall VA was superior in IVB group as compared to MPC up to 12 months. Although the IVB group showed superiority regarding CMT reduction over 24 months as compared to IVB/IVT group, it was comparable to the MPC group through the same period of follow up.

  3. Sub-threshold micro-pulse diode laser treatment in diabetic macular edema: A Meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

    PubMed Central

    Qiao, Gang; Guo, Hai-Ke; Dai, Yan; Wang, Xiao-Li; Meng, Qian-Li; Li, Hui; Chen, Xiang-Hui; Chen, Zhong-Lun

    2016-01-01

    AIM To examine possible differences in clinical outcomes between sub-threshold micro-pulse diode laser photocoagulation (SDM) and traditional modified Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (mETDRS) treatment protocol in diabetic macular edema (DME). METHODS A comprehensive literature search using the Cochrane Collaboration methodology to identify RCTs comparing SDM with mETDRS for DME. The participants were type I or type II diabetes mellitus with clinically significant macular edema treated by SDM from previously reported randomized controlled trials (RCTs). The primary outcome measures were the changes in the best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and the central macular thickness (CMT) as measured by optical coherence tomography (OCT). The secondary outcomes were the contrast sensitivity and the damages of the retina. RESULTS Seven studies were identified and analyzed for comparing SDM (215 eyes) with mETDRS (210 eyes) for DME. There were no statistical differences in the BCVA after treatment between the SDM and mETDRS based on the follow-up: 3mo (MD, -0.02; 95% CI, -0.12 to 0.09; P=0.77), 6mo (MD, -0.02; 95% CI, -0.12 to 0.09; P=0.75), 12mo (MD, -0.05; 95% CI, -0.17 to 0.07; P=0.40). Likewise, there were no statistical differences in the CMT after treatment between the SDM and mETDRS in 3mo (MD, -9.92; 95% CI, -28.69 to 8.85; P=0.30), 6mo (MD, -11.37; 95% CI, -29.65 to 6.91; P=0.22), 12mo (MD, 8.44; 95% CI, -29.89 to 46.77; P=0.67). Three RCTs suggested that SDM laser results in good preservation of contrast sensitivity as mETDRS, in two different follow-up evaluations: 3mo (MD, 0.05; 95% CI, 0 to 0.09; P=0.04) and 6mo (MD, 0.02; 95% CI, -0.10 to 0.14; P=0.78). Two RCTs showed that the SDM laser treatment did less retinal damage than that mETDRS did (OR, 0.05; 95% CI, 0.02 to 0.13; P<0.01). CONCLUSION SDM laser photocoagulation shows an equally good effect on visual acuity, contrast sensitivity, and reduction of DME as compared to conventional mETDRS protocol

  4. Intravitreal Aflibercept Injection in Eyes With Substantial Vision Loss After Laser Photocoagulation for Diabetic Macular Edema: Subanalysis of the VISTA and VIVID Randomized Clinical Trials.

    PubMed

    Wykoff, Charles C; Marcus, Dennis M; Midena, Edoardo; Korobelnik, Jean-François; Saroj, Namrata; Gibson, Andrea; Vitti, Robert; Berliner, Alyson J; Williams Liu, Zinaria; Zeitz, Oliver; Metzig, Carola; Schmelter, Thomas; Heier, Jeffrey S

    2016-12-22

    Information on the effect of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor therapy in eyes with diabetic macular edema (DME) with vision loss after macular laser photocoagulation is clinically valuable. To evaluate visual and anatomic outcomes in a subgroup of macular laser photocoagulation treatment control (hereafter laser control) eyes with substantial vision loss receiving treatment with intravitreal aflibercept injection. This investigation was a post hoc analysis of a subgroup of laser control eyes in 2 phase 3 trials-VISTA (Study of Intravitreal Aflibercept Injection in Patients With Diabetic Macular Edema) and VIVID (Intravitreal Aflibercept Injection in Vision Impairment Due to DME)-in a multicenter setting. One hundred nine laser control eyes with center-involving DME were included. Treatment with intravitreal aflibercept injection (2 mg) every 8 weeks after 5 monthly doses with sham injections on nontreatment visits starting at week 24 was initiated on meeting prespecified criteria of at least a 10-letter visual acuity loss at 2 consecutive visits or at least a 15-letter visual acuity loss from the best previous measurement at 1 visit and vision not better than at baseline. Visual and anatomic outcomes in a subgroup of laser control eyes receiving treatment with intravitreal aflibercept injection. Through week 100, a total of 63 of 154 eyes (40.9%) in VISTA and 46 of 133 eyes (34.6%) in VIVID initially randomized to laser control received treatment with intravitreal aflibercept injection. The median time from week 24 to the first intravitreal aflibercept injection treatment was 34.0 (VISTA) and 83.5 (VIVID) days. In this subgroup, the mean (SD) visual gain from baseline to week 100 was 2.2 (12.5) (VISTA) and 3.8 (10.1) (VIVID) letters. At the time of intravitreal aflibercept injection initiation, these eyes had a mean (SD) loss of 11.0 (10.1) (VISTA) and 10.0 (6.5) (VIVID) letters from baseline, and they subsequently gained a mean (SD) of 17.4 (9.7) (VISTA

  5. Feasibility of using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy for the quantification of brain edema

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, Juan G.; Sisson, Cynthia; Hendricks, Chad; Pattillo, Chris; McWaters, Megan; Hardjasudarma, Mardjohan; Quarles, Chad; Yaroslavsky, Anna N.; Yaroslavsky, Ilya V.; Battarbee, Harold

    2001-05-01

    Many diseased states of the brain can result in the displacement of brain tissues and restrict cerebral blood flow, disrupting function in a life-threatening manner. Clinical examples where displacements are observed include venous thromboses, hematomas, strokes, tumors, abscesses, and, particularly, brain edema. For the latter, the brain tissue swells, displacing the cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) layer that surrounds it, eventually pressing itself against the skull. Under such conditions, catheters are often inserted into the brain's ventricles or the subarachnoid space to monitor increased pressure. These are invasive procedures that incur increased risk of infection and consequently are used reluctantly by clinicians. Recent studies in the field of biomedical optics have suggested that the presence or absence of the CSF layer can lead to dramatic changes in NIR signals obtained from diffuse reflectance measurements around the head. In this study, we consider how this sensitivity of NIR signals to CSF might be exploited to non-invasively monitor the onset and resolution of brain edema.

  6. Association of Baseline Visual Acuity and Retinal Thickness With 1-Year Efficacy of Aflibercept, Bevacizumab, and Ranibizumab for Diabetic Macular Edema.

    PubMed

    Wells, John A; Glassman, Adam R; Jampol, Lee M; Aiello, Lloyd Paul; Antoszyk, Andrew N; Baker, Carl W; Bressler, Neil M; Browning, David J; Connor, Crystal G; Elman, Michael J; Ferris, Frederick L; Friedman, Scott M; Melia, Michele; Pieramici, Dante J; Sun, Jennifer K; Beck, Roy W

    2016-02-01

    Comparisons of the relative effect of 3 anti-vascular endothelial growth factor agents to treat diabetic macular edema warrant further assessment. To provide additional outcomes from a randomized trial evaluating 3 anti-vascular endothelial growth factor agents for diabetic macular edema within subgroups based on baseline visual acuity (VA) and central subfield thickness (CST) as evaluated on optical coherence tomography. Post hoc exploratory analyses were conducted of randomized trial data on 660 adults with diabetic macular edema and decreased VA (Snellen equivalent, approximately 20/32 to 20/320). The original study was conducted between August 22, 2012, and August 28, 2013. Analysis was conducted from January 7 to June 2, 2015. Repeated 0.05-mL intravitreous injections of 2.0 mg of aflibercept (224 eyes), 1.25 mg of bevacizumab (218 eyes), or 0.3 mg of ranibizumab (218 eyes) as needed per protocol. One-year VA and CST outcomes within prespecified subgroups based on both baseline VA and CST thresholds, defined as worse (20/50 or worse) or better (20/32 to 20/40) VA and thicker (≥400 µm) or thinner (250 to 399 µm) CST. In the subgroup with worse baseline VA (n = 305), irrespective of baseline CST, aflibercept showed greater improvement than bevacizumab or ranibizumab for several VA outcomes. In the subgroup with better VA and thinner CST at baseline (61-73 eyes across 3 treatment groups), VA outcomes showed little difference between groups; mean change was +7.2, +8.4, and +7.6 letters in the aflibercept, bevacizumab, and ranibizumab groups, respectively. However, in the subgroup with better VA and thicker CST at baseline (31-43 eyes), there was a suggestion of worse VA outcomes in the bevacizumab group; mean change from baseline to 1 year was +9.5, +5.4, and +9.5 letters in the aflibercept, bevacizumab, and ranibizumab groups, respectively, and VA letter score was greater than 84 (approximately 20/20) in 21 of 33 (64%), 7 of 31 (23%), and 21 of 43 (49

  7. An eighteen-month follow-up study on the effects of Intravitreal Dexamethasone Implant in diabetic macular edema refractory to anti-VEGF therapy

    PubMed Central

    Pacella, Fernanda; Romano, Maria Rosaria; Turchetti, Paolo; Tarquini, Giovanna; Carnovale, Anna; Mollicone, Antonella; Mastromatteo, Alessandra; Pacella, Elena

    2016-01-01

    AIM To evaluate the long-term efficacy and safety of dexamethasone implants in subjects affected by diabetic macular edema (DME) resistant to anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) therapy. METHODS Thirty-two DME patients were enrolled. A 700 microgram slow release Intravitreal Dexamethasone Implant (Ozurdex®) was placed in the vitreous cavity. All patients were followed for 18mo. Best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) measured with Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) and central macular thickness (CMT) exams were carried out at baseline (T0) and after 1 (T1), 3 (T3), 4 (T4), 6 (T6), 9 (T9), 12 (T12), 15 (T15), and 18mo (T18) post injection. RESULTS Repeated measures ANOVA showed an effect of treatment on ETDRS (P<0.0001). Post hoc analyses revealed that ETDRS values were significantly increased at T1, T3, T4, T9, and T15 (P<0.001) as compared to baseline value (T0). At T6, T12, and T18, ETDRS values were still statistically higher than baseline (P<0.001 vs T0). However, at these time points, we observed a trend to return to baseline conditions. ANOVA also showed an effect of treatment (P<0.0001). CMT decreased significantly at T1, T3, T4, T9, and T15 (P<0.001). At T6 (P<0.01), T12 and T18 (P<0.001) CMT was also significantly lower than T0 although a trend to return to the baseline conditions was also observed. CONCLUSION Our findings demonstrate that Intravitreal Dexamethasone Implant is a good option to improve BCVA and CMT in DME patients resistant to anti-VEGF therapy. Our data also show that the use of drugs administered directly into the vitreous allows achieving appropriate and long-lasting concentration at the site of disease without systemic side effects. PMID:27803859

  8. Long-term safety, high-resolution imaging, and tissue temperature modeling of subvisible diode micropulse photocoagulation for retinovascular macular edema.

    PubMed

    Luttrull, Jeffrey K; Sramek, Christopher; Palanker, Daniel; Spink, Charles J; Musch, David C

    2012-02-01

    To determine the long-term safety of high-density subvisible diode micropulse photocoagulation (810 nm), compare the clinical findings with computational modeling of tissue hyperthermia and to report results for a subset of eyes treated for diabetic macular edema (ME) documented pre- and postoperatively by spectral-domain optical coherence tomography. All eyes treated for ME from diabetic retinopathy (diabetic ME) and branch retinal vein occlusion between April 2000 and January 2010 were reviewed for subvisible diode micropulse laser-induced retinal damage. Therapeutic outcomes were reviewed for a subgroup treated for diabetic ME with pre- and postoperative spectral-domain optical coherence tomography. Laser-induced retinal thermal effects were modeled computationally using Arrhenius formalism. A total of 252 eyes (212 diabetic ME, 40 branch retinal vein occlusion) of 181 patients qualified. None of the 168 eyes treated at irradiance <350 W/cm2 and 7 of 84 eyes at ≥ 590 W/cm2 had retinal damage (P = 0.0001) (follow-up 3-120 months, median, 47). Sixty-two eyes of 48 patients treated for diabetic ME with pre- and postoperative spectral-domain optical coherence tomography with median 12 months follow-up had no retinal injury by infrared, red-free, or fundus autofluorescence photos; fluorescein angiography or indocyanine green angiography; or spectral-domain optical coherence tomography. Central foveal thickness (P = 0.04) and maximum macular thickness decreased (P < 0.0001). Modeling of retinal hyperthermia demonstrates that the sublethal clinical regimen corresponds to Arrhenius integral >0.05, while damage is likely to occur if it exceeds 1. Subvisible diode micropulse can effectively treat retinovascular ME without laser-induced retinal damage, consistent with Arrhenius modeling of pulsed hyperthermia.

  9. Incidence, Risk Factors, and Timing of Elevated Intraocular Pressure After Intravitreal Triamcinolone Acetonide Injection for Macular Edema Secondary to Retinal Vein Occlusion: SCORE Study Report 15.

    PubMed

    Aref, Ahmad A; Scott, Ingrid U; Oden, Neal L; Ip, Michael S; Blodi, Barbara A; VanVeldhuisen, Paul C

    2015-09-01

    The Standard of Care vs Corticosteroid for Retinal Vein Occlusion (SCORE) Study showed that intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide (IVTA) is effective at reducing macular edema and improving visual acuity in participants with retinal vein occlusion. Secondary analysis of the incidence, risk factors, and timing of intraocular pressure (IOP) elevation occurring after IVTA provides guidance for clinical decision making and management of patients treated with IVTA. To investigate the incidence, risk factors, and time course of IOP elevation in participants in the SCORE Study. Secondary analysis conducted from August through December 2014 of a prospective, randomized clinical trial featuring an evaluable population conducted at 75 clinical sites. Six hundred eighty-two patients with macular edema secondary to retinal vein occlusion were enrolled in the study. The SCORE Study enrollment period ran from November 4, 2004, to February 29, 2008, with participant follow-up ending February 28, 2009. Study participants were randomized to standard of care, 1 mg of IVTA, or 4 mg of IVTA therapy and followed up for a mean (SD) of 24.7 (10.3) months. Intraocular pressure elevation greater than 10 mm Hg from baseline. Kaplan-Meier incidences of IOP elevation greater than 10 mm Hg from baseline at 36 months were 0.02 (95% CI, 0.01-0.06), 0.09 (95% CI, 0.05-0.14), and 0.45 (95% CI, 0.38-0.53) in the standard of care, 1-mg IVTA, and 4-mg IVTA groups, respectively. The rates of IOP-related events were higher for the 4-mg IVTA group compared with the other groups (P ≤ .001 for main outcome measure). Younger age, 4-mg IVTA vs 1-mg IVTA treatment, and higher baseline IOP were found to confer greater risk for IOP-related events (P < .05 for all). The median number of days from time of first injection to IOP elevation greater than 10 mm Hg from baseline was 34.0 and 52.5 days in participants treated with 1-mg and 4-mg IVTA, respectively. Intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide injection

  10. En face Integrated Central Avascular Zone (EFICAZ): a noninvasive tool for correlating morphological and functional damage in central diabetic macular edema.

    PubMed

    Hanhart, Joel; Strassman, Israel; Rozenman, Yaakov

    2017-01-01

    As numerous factors account for diabetic maculopathy, retinal thickness alone is poorly correlated to visual function in diabetic macular edema. En face optical coherence tomography (OCT) enables assessing retinal changes at specific layers. By averaging several planes, overall changes can be better appreciated. Retrospective analysis of a consecutive group of 16 patients (30 eyes) with diabetic macular edema in at least one eye, was compared to a control group of 17 healthy subjects (34 eyes). Healthy volunteers and diabetic patients being seen as part of their regular care underwent swept source OCT fundus imaging. En face Integrated Central Avascular Zone (EFICAZ) was manually determined and measured on images obtained by swept-source optical coherence tomography (OCT). EFICAZ was then compared between both populations and, for diabetic patients, correlated with best corrected visual acuity, as measured by the Snellen chart. In healthy subjects, a moderate correlation was found between age and EFICAZ (Pearson's coefficient = 0.45, P = 0.01). In age-matched populations (mean age of 63 ± 3.8 years for eight healthy subjects and 62.7 ± 8.9 years for diabetic patients; P = 0.9), EFICAZ was significantly higher in diabetic than non-diabetic eyes (2.92 ± 1.10 mm(2) versus 1.86 ± 0.53 mm(2); P < 0.01). In diabetic patients, correlation between the size of EFICAZ and visual acuity (Pearson's correlation coefficient = -0 .72, P < 0.001) was stronger than between OCT measured central subfield retinal thickness and visual acuity (Pearson's correlation coefficient = -0.02, N.S). EFICAZ increases with age in normal subjects. It is significantly larger in diabetic than in non-diabetic subjects. It offers a better way to determine visual acuity than OCT measurement of central retinal thickness. This new approach, which takes into account several factors involved in diabetic maculopathy, could be useful in monitoring response

  11. Short-term safety of dexamethasone implant for treatment of macular edema due to retinal vein occlusion, in eyes with glaucoma or treated ocular hypertension.

    PubMed

    Theodoropoulou, Sofia; Ellabban, Abdallah A; Johnston, Robert L; Cilliers, Helena; Mohamed, Quresh; Sallam, Ahmed B

    2017-04-01

    To report the short-term safety of dexamethasone implants to treat macular edema due to retinal vein occlusion (RVO), in eyes with treated glaucoma or ocular hypertension at baseline using an as-needed re-treatment regimen. Retrospective clinical database study from two centers using the same electronic medical record system. Extracted data included: intraocular pressure (IOP), visual acuity (VA), central 1 mm retinal thickness (CRT) by optical coherence tomography, phakic status, number of injections, glaucoma treatment, and peri-operative complications. Thirty-three eyes of 33 patients on IOP-lowering treatment for glaucoma or ocular hypertension (OHT) at baseline and mean IOP of 16 mmHg at baseline received one to four (mean, 1.8; median, 1) dexamethasone implants over 18 months for RVO-related macular edema. Fourteen eyes (42 %) had IOP of ≥21 mmHg, and three eyes (9 %) had IOP of ≥35 mmHg at one or more visits during the study period. Nine of 14 eyes (64 %) with raised IOP required additional topical treatment only for a mean (SE) period of 8.5 months (3.2), while the remaining five eyes (36 %) required long-term additional IOP-lowering treatment for a mean (SE) of 16 months (1.44). Surgery for IOP lowering was not required in any eye. Mean VA (SE) improved from 44 (3) ETDRS letters at baseline to 47 letters (5) at 2 months (p = 0.049), 48 (8) letters at 6 months and 46 (4) letters at 12 months. Mean CRT (SE) improved from 530 (25) μm at baseline to 323 (27) μm at 2 months (p < 0.001), 498 (76) μm at 6 months, and 359 (25) μm at 12 months (p < 0.001). The short-term IOP rise after intravitreal dexamethasone implant in eyes with glaucoma or ocular hypertension at baseline was acceptable and consistent with previous reports in patients without preexisting glaucoma. Treated OHT or glaucoma may not be a strict contraindication against the use of dexamethasone implant, but close monitoring of IOP is required.

  12. Bromfenac 0.09% bioavailability in aqueous humor, prophylactic effect on cystoid macular edema, and clinical signs of ocular inflammation after phacoemulsification in a Mexican population.

    PubMed

    Palacio, Claudia; Fernández De Ortega, Lourdes; Bustos, Francisco R; Chávez, Eduardo; Oregon-Miranda, Aldo A; Mercado-Sesma, Arieh R

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the aqueous humor bioavailability and clinical efficacy of bromfenac 0.09% vs nepafenac on the presence of cystoid macular edema (CME) after phacoemulsification. A Phase II, double-blind, masked, active-controlled, multicenter, clinical trial of 139 subjects, randomized to either a bromfenac 0.09% ophthalmic solution (n=69) or nepafenac 0.1% (n=70). Subjects instilled a drop three times a day for a period of 30 days. Follow-up visits were on days 2, 7, 15, 30, and 60. Biomicroscopy, clinical ocular signs, and assessment of posterior segment were performed. The primary efficacy endpoints included the presence of CME evaluated by optical coherence tomography. Safety evaluation included intraocular pressure, transaminase enzymes, lissamine green, and fluorescein stain. The demographic and efficacy variables were similar between groups at baseline. The presence of pain, photophobia, conjunctival hyperemia, chemosis, cellularity, and corneal edema disappeared by day 30 in both groups. The central retinal thickness did not show significant changes after treatment when compared to baseline as follows: in the bromfenac group (247.2±32.9 vs 252.0±24.9 μm; P=0.958) and in nepafenac group (250.8±34 vs 264.0±34.1 μm; P=0.137), respectively. A statistically significant difference was observed between bromfenac and nepafenac group: (252.0±24.9 vs 264.0±34.1 μm; P=0.022), at day 30, respectively; even though there was no clinical relevance in the presentation of CME. There were no significant alterations in intraocular pressure, either lissamine green or fluorescein stains. The adverse events were not related to the interventions. Bromfenac 0.09% ophthalmic solution showed similar clinical efficacy to reduce the presentation of CME after phacoemulsification compared to nepafenac 0.01%.

  13. Bromfenac 0.09% bioavailability in aqueous humor, prophylactic effect on cystoid macular edema, and clinical signs of ocular inflammation after phacoemulsification in a Mexican population

    PubMed Central

    Palacio, Claudia; Fernández De Ortega, Lourdes; Bustos, Francisco R; Chávez, Eduardo; Oregon-Miranda, Aldo A; Mercado-Sesma, Arieh R

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to evaluate the aqueous humor bioavailability and clinical efficacy of bromfenac 0.09% vs nepafenac on the presence of cystoid macular edema (CME) after phacoemulsification. Material and methods A Phase II, double-blind, masked, active-controlled, multicenter, clinical trial of 139 subjects, randomized to either a bromfenac 0.09% ophthalmic solution (n=69) or nepafenac 0.1% (n=70). Subjects instilled a drop three times a day for a period of 30 days. Follow-up visits were on days 2, 7, 15, 30, and 60. Biomicroscopy, clinical ocular signs, and assessment of posterior segment were performed. The primary efficacy endpoints included the presence of CME evaluated by optical coherence tomography. Safety evaluation included intraocular pressure, transaminase enzymes, lissamine green, and fluorescein stain. Results The demographic and efficacy variables were similar between groups at baseline. The presence of pain, photophobia, conjunctival hyperemia, chemosis, cellularity, and corneal edema disappeared by day 30 in both groups. The central retinal thickness did not show significant changes after treatment when compared to baseline as follows: in the bromfenac group (247.2±32.9 vs 252.0±24.9 μm; P=0.958) and in nepafenac group (250.8±34 vs 264.0±34.1 μm; P=0.137), respectively. A statistically significant difference was observed between bromfenac and nepafenac group: (252.0±24.9 vs 264.0±34.1 μm; P=0.022), at day 30, respectively; even though there was no clinical relevance in the presentation of CME. There were no significant alterations in intraocular pressure, either lissamine green or fluorescein stains. The adverse events were not related to the interventions. Conclusion Bromfenac 0.09% ophthalmic solution showed similar clinical efficacy to reduce the presentation of CME after phacoemulsification compared to nepafenac 0.01%. PMID:26869758

  14. The Effect of Laser Panretinal Photocoagulation on Diabetic Macular Edema Using the Pascal® Photocoagulator versus the Conventional Argon Laser Photocoagulator.

    PubMed

    Mahgoub, Mohamed M; Macky, Tamer A

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effect of panretinal photocoagulation for proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) on diabetic macular edema (DME) using a Pascal® Photocoagulator (PP) or a conventional argon laser photocoagulator (CALP). Eighty eyes with PDR and center-involving DME were randomized to PP or CALP. Both groups had baseline assessment of best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and were examined with optical coherence tomography and fluorescein angiography. The mean number of laser shots for the PP and CALP groups was 1,726.10 and 752.00 at session 1 and 1,589.00 and 830.00 (p < 0.001) at session 2, respectively. The mean central foveal thickness (CFT) at baseline was 306 ± 100 and 314 ± 98 for the PP and CALP groups, respectively. At 8 weeks, the mean CFT was 332 ± 116 and 347 ± 111 for the PP and CALP groups, respectively (p > 0.05). The mean BCVA was similar during the study period with no significant difference between the groups (p > 0.05). PP and CALP had similar effects on DME in PDR eyes and were equally safe with no significant increase in CFT. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Identification of time point to best define 'sub-optimal response' following intravitreal ranibizumab therapy for diabetic macular edema based on real-life data.

    PubMed

    Chatziralli, I; Santarelli, M; Patrao, N; Nicholson, L; Zola, M; Rajendram, R; Hykin, P; Sivaprasad, S

    2017-06-16

    PurposeTo determine the average time-point at which it is best to define 'sub-optimal response' after ranibizumab treatment for diabetic macular edema (DME) based on the data obtained from real-life clinical practice.MethodsIn this retrospective observational study, 322 consecutive treatment naïve eyes with DME were treated with three loading doses of intravitreal ranibizumab followed by re-treatment based on decision of the treating physician on a case-by-case basis. The demographic data, clinic-based visual acuity measurements and central subfield thickness (CST) assessed on spectral domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) were evaluated at baseline (month 0), 1, 2, 3, 6, and 12 months.ResultsOn an average, the improvement in visual acuity and CST was first seen after the loading dose. However, the maximal response in terms of proportion of patients with improvement in visual acuity and/ or CST in this cohort was observed at 12 months. Patients who presented with low visual acuity at baseline (<37 ETDRS letters) were unlikely to attain driving vision with ranibizumab therapy.ConclusionsOn an average, a 'sub-optimal response' after ranibizumab therapy is best defined at month 12 as patients may continue to improve with treatment.Eye advance online publication, 16 June 2017; doi:10.1038/eye.2017.111.

  16. Incidence and Characteristics of Patients with Visual Impairment due to Macular Edema Secondary to Retinal Vein Occlusion in a Representative Canadian Cohort.

    PubMed

    Petrella, Robert J; Blouin, Julie; Davies, Brian; Barbeau, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Retinal vein occlusion (RVO) is an obstruction of the retinal venous system, and macular edema (ME) is a complication of RVO that can lead to blindness. The Canadian incidence of visual impairment (VI) due to ME secondary to RVO is unknown. This observational, retrospective study used records from the Southwestern Ontario database to observe the annual incidence, demographics, and comorbidity characteristics of patients with VI due to ME secondary to RVO. From 47,166 patients, 73 with RVO (>40 years old) were identified: 53 with branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO), 20 with central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO). The annual incidence of VI (visual acuity <20/40 in Snellen equivalent) due to ME secondary to BRVO was (mean (95%CI)) 0.056% (0.011-0.072), and to CRVO was 0.021% (0.008-0.081). Furthermore, a greater proportion of RVO patients had hypertension (68% versus 14%) or dyslipidemia (16% versus 10%), when compared to a healthy control cohort of 76,077 subjects (P < 0.05). This study presents a description of the characteristics of patients with VI due to ME secondary to RVO in a real-world Canadian setting. The results demonstrate that BRVO was more frequent than CRVO, and that RVO in this patient population was associated with several vascular comorbidities.

  17. Anti-Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Therapy for Macular Edema following Central Retinal Vein Occlusion: 1 Initial Injection versus 3 Monthly Injections.

    PubMed

    Osaka, Rie; Muraoka, Yuki; Miwa, Yuko; Manabe, Koichiro; Kobayashi, Mamoru; Takasago, Yukari; Ooto, Sotaro; Murakami, Tomoaki; Suzuma, Kiyoshi; Iida, Yuto; Tsujikawa, Akitaka

    2017-09-26

    To compare the 12-month efficacy of 1 initial intravitreal injection of an anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) agent followed by pro re nata (PRN) dosing with that of 3 initial monthly injections followed by PRN dosing in patients with macular edema (ME) after central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO). Twenty-nine eyes received 1 initial injection (1+PRN group) and 20 received 3 monthly injections (3+PRN group). At month 12, changes in logMAR visual acuity from baseline were -0.172 ± 0.372 and -0.142 ± 0.317 in the 1+PRN and 3+PRN groups, respectively; the difference was not significant (p = 0.769). The number of anti-VEGF injections administered in the 3+PRN group (5.9 ± 2.1) was significantly greater than that in the 1+PRN group (4.1 ± 2.8; p = 0.022). When used for ME after CRVO, a 1+PRN regimen achieved 12-month outcomes similar to those of a 3+PRN regimen with fewer injections. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Sustained intraocular pressure elevation in eyes treated with intravitreal injections of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor for diabetic macular edema in a real-life setting.

    PubMed

    Vo Kim, S; Fajnkuchen, F; Sarda, V; Qu-Knafo, L; Bodaghi, B; Giocanti-Aurégan, A

    2017-08-22

    The aim of this study was to investigate the sustained intraocular pressure (IOP) elevation after repeated anti-VEGF intravitreal injections (IVI) in patients with diabetic macular edema (DME). A retrospective study included 140 eyes without prior glaucoma, treated with at least three anti-VEGF injections for DME between 2012 and 2016. IOP elevation was defined by an increase above baseline IOP by ≥6 mmHg. Baseline IOP was defined as the mean of IOP values before treatment initiation. Three groups were differentiated: group 1 without IOP elevation, groups 2 and 3 with IOP elevation and IOP <21 mmHg (group 2) and ≥21 mmHg (group 3). Rate and several risk factors of IOP elevation were assessed and compared between the three groups. IOP elevation occurred in ten eyes (7.1%). IOP was <21 mmHg in six eyes and ≥21 mmHg in four eyes. Statistically significant associations were found between IOP elevation and the number of injections, and HbA1c level. Two patients required local hypotonic treatment. In a real-life setting, we confirmed in eyes with center-involved DME without prior glaucoma or IOP elevation that repeated anti-VEGF IVI may increase the risk of sustained IOP elevation in about 7% of eyes.

  19. EVOLUTION OF CONTROLLING DIABETIC RETINOPATHY: Changing Trends in the Management of Diabetic Macular Edema at a Single Institution Over the Past Decade.

    PubMed

    Jusufbegovic, Denis; Mugavin, Mark O; Schaal, Shlomit

    2015-05-01

    To report the evolution of treatment in managing diabetic macular edema (DME) in a "real world" clinical setting. Retrospective observational case series of 1,862 patients treated for DME over the last decade. Change in selection of treatment modalities used for controlling DME, visual acuity, and degree of DME on optical coherence tomography were recorded. Over the past decade, there was a linear decrease in laser use, with exponential growth in the utilization of intravitreal injections. An increase in the frequency of clinic visits from 3 ± 2 visits per year to 9 ± 2 visits per year with significant visual and anatomical improvements was noted: mean improvement in visual acuity increased from 0.01 ± 0.1 logMAR units (which is equivalent to less than 1 Snellen line) to 0.3 ± 0.2 logMAR units (which is equivalent to 2 Snellen lines) (P < 0.05), mean decrease in retinal thickness changed from 58 ± 59 μm to 162 ± 91 μm (P < 0.05). An evolution in treatment strategy for controlling DME over the last decade was reflected by the replacement of focal laser therapy with intravitreal injections. This has produced significant improvements in visual and anatomical outcomes but has increased the frequency of office visits.

  20. Short-term Efficacy of Intravitreal Dexamethasone Implant in Vitrectomized Eyes with Recalcitrant Diabetic Macular Edema and Prior Anti-VEGF Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Ankoor R.; Xi, Mengqiao; Abbey, Ashkan M.; Yonekawa, Yoshihiro; Faia, Lisa J.; Hassan, Tarek S.; Ruby, Alan J.; Wolfe, Jeremy D.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the efficacy of an intravitreal dexamethasone implant (IDI) for diabetic macular edema (DME) in vitrectomized eyes. Methods: This interventional retrospective consecutive case series included vitrectomized eyes undergoing IDI placement for treatment of recalcitrant DME between June 2011 and June 2014. All patients had previously received anti-VEGF therapy (ranibizumab or bevacizumab). Primary endpoints were changes in visual acuity (VA) and central retinal thickness (CRT) from baseline values one month after device implantation. Secondary endpoints were VA and CRT changes at 3 months. Results: A total of 8 eyes of 8 patients met the inclusion criteria. One month after IDI placement, there was a significant (p = 0.01) improvement in VA from 0.79 ± 0.52 logMAR (20/123 Snellen equivalent) to 0.64 ± 0.55 logMAR (20/88), meanwhile CRT improved from 455.75 ± 123.19 to 295.00 ± 90.39 μm (p = 0.02). These findings persisted at 3 months. Conclusion: In vitrectomized eyes previously treated with anti-VEGF agents for recalcitrant DME, implantation of the IDI appears to be efficacious in improving VA and CRT at 1-month with the observed benefits persisting for at least for 3 months. PMID:27413499

  1. Clinical Manifestations, Complications and Treatment of Ocular Sarcoidosis: Correlation between Visual Efficiency and Macular Edema as Seen on Optical Coherence Tomography.

    PubMed

    Paovic, Jelena; Paovic, Predrag; Sredovic, Vojislav; Jovanovic, Svetlana

    2016-09-14

    Sarcoidosis is a chronic systemic autoimmune disease which belongs to a group of systemic granulomatous diseases. It can be confirmed through characteristic systemic and ocular manifestations and histological findings. Biopsy is the golden standard for diagnosing sarcoidosis. Ocular sarcoidosis can be confirmed, probable, or possible. Over a two-year period, ocular manifestations were studied on a sample of 52 patients, each followed for four months and diagnosed with some form of systemic sarcoidosis. Most frequent systemic manifestations in patients with ocular sarcoidosis were pulmonary, skin, glandular, and systemic generalized sarcoidosis. The disease was diagnosed four times more frequently in females than males (42:10, respectively; p < 0.05). Most frequent, and statistically significant, manifestation of ocular sarcoidosis is anterior uveitis (64.61%; p < 0.01). Macular edema and periphlebitis associated with periarteritis were frequent, and statistically significant (43.90% and 29.26%, respectively; p < 0.05). Overall, with regards to gender and location (right eye; left eye), visual acuity was >0.5 and of statistical significance (76.92%; p < 0.01). The most common therapy consisted of systemic corticosteroids (26.67%) and/or a combination of corticosteroids and immunosuppressive drugs (23.33%). In 16 eyes treated with repeated doses of sub-Tenon's injections, both initial and control visual acuity correlated with average thickness. There was positive correlation between several optical coherence tomography findings before and after treatment.

  2. Multicenter, Randomized Clinical Trial to Assess the Effectiveness of Intravitreal Injections of Bevacizumab, Triamcinolone, or Their Combination in the Treatment of Diabetic Macular Edema.

    PubMed

    Neto, Hermelino O; Regatieri, Caio V; Nobrega, Mário J; Muccioli, Cristina; Casella, Antonio M; Andrade, Rafael E; Maia, Mauricio; Kniggendorf, Vinicius; Ferreira, Magno; Branco, André C; Belfort, Rubens

    2017-09-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of combined bevacizumab-triamcinolone intravitreal injection in the treatment of diabetic macular edema (DME) compared to monotherapy. At eight clinical sites, 111 patients with DME were randomly assigned to receive an intravitreal injection of bevacizumab (Avastin; Genentech, South San Francisco, CA), triamcinolone (Ophthalmos Pharmaceutical Industry, São Paulo-SP, Brazil), or their combination. The primary outcome was visual acuity (VA) at 6 months' follow-up. The average number of injections was 3.2 in the bevacizumab group, 2.4 in the combined group, and 2.1 in the triamcinolone group. All groups presented with improvements in VA (P < .001); however, no differences between groups were observed (P = .436). Mean reduction in central retinal thickness was statistically different only between the triamcinolone and bevacizumab groups (P < .015). Mono- or combination therapy was effective for DME treatment. No synergistic effects were observed; however, triamcinolone alone or a drug combination may reduce the number of injections required when compared to bevacizumab alone. [Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging Retina. 2017;48:734-740.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  3. Intravitreal Dexamethasone Implant versus Intravitreal Ranibizumab for the Treatment of Macular Edema Secondary to Retinal Vein Occlusion in a Chinese Population.

    PubMed

    Gu, Xiaoya; Yu, Xiaobing; Song, Shuang; Dai, Hong

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this work was to compare the efficacy of intravitreal dexamethasone implant (Ozurdex) and intravitreal ranibizumab (Lucentis) in the treatment of macular edema (ME) caused by retinal vein occlusion (RVO). Thirty-two ME cases treated with Ozurdex and 32 ME cases treated with ranibizumab were enrolled, with 26 central (C)RVO and 6 branch (B)RVO subjects in each group. We compared the results of best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), central retinal thickness, number of injections, and intraocular pressure (IOP) at 1, 2, 3, and 6 months after injection. BCVA in both groups at each follow-up were significantly increased compared to baseline with no statistical difference between the groups. Ozurdex and ranibizumab successfully reduced CMT at each follow-up. Both CRVO and BRVO patients had significant between-group differences in the mean number of injections. Among the CRVO patients, IOP in the Ozurdex group was significantly increased compared to baseline and the ranibizumab group at 1, 2, and 3 months postinjection. Intravitreal injection of Ozurdex and ranibizumab can effectively control ME secondary to RVO and increase a patient's BCVA. The advantages of Ozurdex are fewer injections and longer efficacy, while the advantages of ranibizumab include fewer side effects. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Multifocal electroretinography changes at the 1-year follow-up in a cohort of diabetic macular edema patients treated with ranibizumab.

    PubMed

    Baget-Bernaldiz, Marc; Romero-Aroca, Pedro; Bautista-Perez, Angel; Mercado, Joaquin

    2017-08-04

    To determine the changes in the multifocal electroretinogram (mfERG) at 1 year in a clinical series of diabetic macular edema (DME) patients treated with ranibizumab (RNBZ) using a pro re nata protocol. We analyzed a clinical series of 35 eyes of 35 patients with DME at baseline and after treating them with RNBZ over 1 year, in order to determine the change in the macular function, which was assessed by means of the response density and the implicit time of the first-order kernel (FOK) P1 wave of the mfERG at the foveola (R1), fovea (R2) and parafovea (R3). These electrophysiological parameters were studied taking into account different independent variables, such as DME type, degree of diabetic retinopathy (DR), level of preservation of both the ellipsoid zone (IS/OS) and the external limiting membrane (ELM) and changes in central retinal thickness (CRT) and total macular volume (TMV). We also studied the relationship between the response density and the best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA). Eyes with cystic and spongiform DME showed better response density with respect to the serous type (p < 0.001) at baseline. Similarly, eyes with high IS/OS and ELM preservation rates showed higher initial response density compared to the others (p < 0.001). Eyes with moderate DR had better response density compared to those with severe and proliferative DR (p = 0.001). At the beginning of the study, those eyes with proliferative and severe DR showed longer implicit times with respect to those with moderate DR (p = 0.04). The response density significantly increased in eyes that anatomically restored the IS/OS and the ELM after being treated with RNBZ (both p < 0.001). Similarly, eyes with spongiform DME further improved the response density with respect to those with cystic and serous DME (p < 0.001). On the contrary, eyes with hard exudates showed less improvement in their response density at the end of the study (p < 0.001). We observed a significant

  5. Reproducibility of Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography Retinal Thickness Measurements and Conversion to Equivalent Time Domain Metrics in Diabetic Macular Edema

    PubMed Central

    Bressler, Susan B.; Edwards, Allison R.; Chalam, Kakarla V.; Bressler, Neil M.; Glassman, Adam R.; Jaffe, Glenn J.; Melia, Michele; Saggau, David D.; Plous, Oren Z.

    2014-01-01

    Importance Advances in retinal imaging have led to the development of optical coherence tomography (OCT) instruments that incorporate spectral domain (SD) technology. Understanding measurement variability and relationships between retinal thickness measurements obtained on different machines is critical for proper use in clinical trials and clinical settings. Objectives Evaluate reproducibility of retinal thickness measurements from OCT images obtained by time domain (TD) (Zeiss Stratus) and SD (Zeiss Cirrus and Heidelberg Spectralis) instruments and formulate equations to convert retinal thickness measurements from SD-OCT to equivalent values on TD-OCT. Design Cross-sectional observational study. Each study eye underwent two replicate Stratus scans followed by two replicate Cirrus or Spectralis (real time image registration utilized) scans centered on the fovea. Setting Private and institutional practices Participants Diabetic persons with at least one eye with central-involved diabetic macular edema (DME), defined as Stratus central subfield thickness (CST)≥250μm. An additional normative cohort, individuals with diabetes but without DME, was enrolled. Main Outcome Measure(s) OCT CST and macular volume Results The Bland-Altman coefficient of repeatability for relative change in CST (the degree of change that could be expected from measurement variability) was lower on Spectralis compared with Stratus and Cirrus scans (7%, 12–15%, and 14%, respectively). For each cohort, the initial Stratus CST was within 10% of the replicate Stratus measurement 92% of the time; the conversion equations predicted a Stratus CST within 10% of the observed thickness 86% and 89% of the time for Stratus/Cirrus and Stratus/Spectralis groups, respectively. The Bland-Altman limits of agreement for relative change in CST between machines (the degree of change that could be expected from measurement variability, combined within and between instrument variability) were 21% for Cirrus and

  6. Clinical Features of Patients with Diffuse Alveolar Hemorrhage due to Negative-Pressure Pulmonary Edema.

    PubMed

    Contou, Damien; Voiriot, Guillaume; Djibré, Michel; Labbé, Vincent; Fartoukh, Muriel; Parrot, Antoine

    2017-08-01

    Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage (DAH) with negative-pressure pulmonary edema (NPPE) is an uncommon yet life-threatening condition. We aimed at describing the circumstances, clinical, radiological, and bronchoscopic features, as well as the outcome of patients with NPPE-related DAH. We performed a retrospective, observational cohort study, using data prospectively collected over 35 years in an intensive care unit (ICU). Of the 149 patients admitted for DAH, we identified 18 NPPE episodes in 15 patients, one admitted four times for recurrent NPPE-related DAH. The patients were primarily young, male, and athletic. The NPPE setting was postoperative (n = 12/18, 67%) or following generalized tonic-clonic seizures (n = 6/18, 33%). Hemoptysis was almost constant (n = 17/18, 94%), yet rarely massive (>200 cc, n = 1/18, 6%), with anemia observed in 10 (56%) episodes. The DAH triad (hemoptysis, anemia, and pulmonary infiltrates) was observed in 50% of episodes (n = 9/18), and acute respiratory failure in 94% (n = 17/18). Chest computed tomography revealed diffuse bilateral ground glass opacities (n = 10/10, 100%), while bronchoscopy detected bilateral hemorrhage (n = 12/12, 100%) and macroscopically bloody bronchoalveolar lavage, with siderophage absence in most (n = 7/8, 88%), indicating acute DAH. While one episode proved fatal, the other 17 recovered rapidly, with a mean ICU stay lasting 4.6 (2-15) days. Typically, the evolution was rapidly favorable under supportive care. NPPE-related DAH is a rare life-threatening condition occurring primarily after tonic-clonic generalized seizure or generalized anesthesia. Clinical circumstances are a key to its diagnosis. Early diagnosis and recognition likely allow for successful management of this potentially serious complication, whereas ictal-DAH appears ominous in epileptic patients.

  7. Comparison of 12-month therapeutic effect of conbercept and ranibizumab for diabetic macular edema: a real-life clinical practice study.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yule; Rong, Ao; Xu, Wei; Niu, Yunli; Wang, Zhen

    2017-08-25

    To compare the efficacy of intravitreal conbercept and ranibizumab in the treatment of diabetic macular edema (DME) in a real-life clinical practice. This was a retrospective study. Among 62 Chinese patients with DME, 32 patients (36 eyes) received intravitreal conbercept (IVC) injections and 30 patients (32 eyes) received intravitreal ranibizumab (IVR) injections, once a month for 3 months followed by as needed therapy. All participants had at least 12 months of follow-up. We compared the changes in best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) letter score and central retinal thickness (CRT) between groups, as well as the number of intravitreal injections delivered. Safety was assessed with the incidence of adverse events (AEs). At month 12, the mean BCVA letter score improved by 9.3 ± 5.2 with conbercept, and by 8.9 ± 4.4 with ranibizumab, the mean CRT reduction was 138.4 ± 97.7 μm and 145.2 ± 72.5 μm, respectively. There was no statistically significant difference of improvement in BCVA (P = 0.756) and decrease in CRT (P = 0.748) between the two groups. The number of intravitreal injections delivered was significantly higher (P = 0.027) in the IVR group (7.2 ± 1.0 per eye) than in the IVC group (6.6 ± 0.9 per eye). There were no severe ocular adverse reactions or systemic adverse events. Both conbercept and ranibizumab are effective in the treatment of DME, achieving the similar clinical efficacy. In comparison to ranibizumab, conbercept shows a longer treatment interval and fewer intravitreal conbercept injections are needed.

  8. Five-Year Outcomes of Ranibizumab With Prompt or Deferred Laser Versus Laser or Triamcinolone Plus Deferred Ranibizumab for Diabetic Macular Edema.

    PubMed

    Bressler, Susan B; Glassman, Adam R; Almukhtar, Talat; Bressler, Neil M; Ferris, Frederick L; Googe, Joseph M; Gupta, Shailesh K; Jampol, Lee M; Melia, Michele; Wells, John A

    2016-04-01

    To compare long-term vision and anatomic effects of ranibizumab with prompt or deferred laser vs laser or triamcinolone + laser with very deferred ranibizumab in diabetic macular edema (DME). Randomized clinical trial. Eight hundred and twenty-eight study eyes (558 [67%] completed the 5-year visit), at 52 sites, with visual acuity 20/32 to 20/320 and DME involving the central macula were randomly assigned to intravitreous ranibizumab (0.5 mg) with either (1) prompt or (2) deferred laser; (3) sham injection + prompt laser; or (4) intravitreous triamcinolone (4 mg) + prompt laser. The latter 2 groups could initiate ranibizumab as early as 74 weeks from baseline, for persistent DME with vision impairment. The main outcome measures were visual acuity, optical coherence central subfield thickness, and number of injections through 5 years. At 5 years mean (± standard deviation) change in Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study visual acuity letter scores from baseline in the ranibizumab + deferred laser (N = 111), ranibizumab + prompt laser (N = 124), laser/very deferred ranibizumab (N = 198), and triamcinolone + laser/very deferred ranibizumab (N = 125) groups were 10 ± 13, 8 ± 13, 5 ± 14, and 7 ± 14, respectively. The difference (95% confidence interval) in mean change between ranibizumab + deferred laser and laser/very deferred ranibizumab and triamcinolone + laser/very deferred ranibizumab was 4.4 (1.2-7.6, P = .001) and 2.8 (-0.9 to 6.5, P = .067), respectively, at 5 years. Recognizing limitations of follow-up available at 5 years, eyes receiving initial ranibizumab therapy for center-involving DME likely have better long-term vision improvements than eyes managed with laser or triamcinolone + laser followed by very deferred ranibizumab for persistent thickening and vision impairment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Patterns of retinal thickness prior to and following treatment with fluocinolone acetonide 190 µg intravitreal implant for diabetic macular edema.

    PubMed

    Currie, Craig J; Holden, Sarah E; Owens, David R

    2017-10-01

    To compare retinal thickness before and after treatment with the fluocinolone acetonide (FAc) 190 µg intravitreal implant in people with diabetic macular edema (DME) using data from the Iluvien Clinical Evidence study in the UK (ICE-UK). For this retrospective cohort study, data on people attending any one of 13 participating ophthalmology departments and treated with FAc intravitreal implant between April 1, 2013 and April 15, 2015 were collected for 12 months prior to and at least 12 months after implantation. Cross-sectional and longitudinal patterns of central foveal thickness (CFT) were compared before and after FAc implant. There were 208 people who contributed data from 233 individual eyes treated with the FAc implant. Mean age was 68.1 years and 62% were male. Median (interquartile range) CFT decreased from 462 µm (354-603 µm) at time of implant to 309 µm (222-433 µm) at 12 months post-implant (p < .001). Over the same period, a reduction of ≥10%, ≥25%, and ≥50% in CFT was observed in 113 (65%), 87 (50%), and 37 (21%) treated eyes, respectively. Eyes with a CFT of ≥400 µm at the time of implant were significantly more likely to achieve a reduction in CFT of ≥10%, ≥25%, and ≥50% at 12 months (all p < .001) compared with eyes with a CFT of <400 µm at implant. Both retinal thickness and changes in retinal thickness were loosely correlated with visual acuity. A marked reduction in retinal thickness was observed in people following FAc intravitreal implant for DME. The response was related to the degree of retinal thickness prior to treatment.

  10. Evaluation of the clinical effectiveness in routine practice of fluocinolone acetonide 190 µg intravitreal implant in people with diabetic macular edema.

    PubMed

    Holden, Sarah E; Currie, Craig J; Owens, David R

    2017-10-01

    The aim of the Iluvien Clinical Evidence study in the UK (ICE-UK) was to assess the real-world effectiveness of fluocinolone acetonide (FAc) 190 µg intravitreal implant for the treatment of clinically significant chronic diabetic macular edema (DME) in routine clinical practice. This retrospective study collected data from patient medical records in 13 ophthalmology centers for people with DME prescribed FAc intravitreal implant between April 1, 2013 and April 15, 2015. Visual acuity (VA) and intraocular pressure (IOP) measurements were collected for 12 months prior to and after implant. Two hundred and eight people, contributing 233 eyes, treated with FAc implant were included. Mean age was 68.1 years and 62% were male. In the 12 months prior to FAc implant, VA declined. Median (interquartile range, IQR) VA was 0.66 (0.48-1.00) LogMAR units (equivalent to 52.0 ETDRS letters) at implant, improving to 0.60 (0.38-0.90) LogMAR units (55.0 letters) at 12 months post-implant (p < 0.001). In total, 44%, 30%, and 18% of people achieved an improvement in ETDRS score of ≥5, ≥10, and ≥15 letters, respectively, over the same period. A small but significant (p < .001) increase in median IOP was observed (median = 15.0, IQR = 13.0-18.0 mmHg at implant to 18.0, 15.0-21.0 mmHg at 12 months). In the 12 months following implant, additional IOP-lowering therapy was prescribed in 15% of subjects previously not requiring such therapy. Following FAc implant, an overall significant improvement in VA was observed over a period of 12 months, accompanied by a significant but small increase in IOP.

  11. Evaluation of the clinical effectiveness of fluocinolone acetonide 190 µg intravitreal implant in diabetic macular edema: a comparison between study and fellow eyes.

    PubMed

    Currie, Craig J; Holden, Sarah E; Berni, Ellen; Owens, David R

    2017-10-01

    To compare visual and anatomical outcomes between eyes treated with fluocinolone acetonide (FAc) 190 µg intravitreal implant for clinically significant chronic diabetic macular edema (DME) and fellow eyes not treated with FAc implant using data from the Iluvien Clinical Evidence study in the UK (ICE-UK) study. In this retrospective cohort study, data on people attending hospital eye services and treated with the FAc implant between April 1, 2013 and April 15, 2015 were collected. Changes in visual acuity (VA), central foveal thickness (CFT) and intraocular pressure (IOP) were compared between study eyes (intervention) and fellow eyes. A total of 208 people were selected. Mean age was 68.1 years and 62% were male. Mean change in VA was -0.09 LogMAR units for study eyes and 0.04 LogMAR units for fellow eyes at 12 months post-implant (p < .001). Over the same period, ≥5 letter, ≥10 letter and ≥15 letter improvements in Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) score were achieved by more FAc treated eyes than by fellow eyes (41% versus 23%, p < .001; 28% versus 11%, p < .001; and 18% versus 4%, p < .001 at 12 months, respectively). Differences in the mean change in CFT (-113 µm versus -13 µm, p < .001) and IOP (3.2 mmHg versus -0.2 mmHg, p < .001) were also observed between study and fellow eyes at 12 months. Visual acuity improved in study eyes over the 12 months following FAc implant and worsened in fellow eyes. Over the same period, study eyes showed a larger improvement in central foveal thickness. Intraocular pressure worsened in study eyes only. Change in visual acuity, central foveal thickness and intraocular pressure between FAc implant and the end of the 12-month follow-up period differed significantly between study and fellow eyes.

  12. Prolongation of injection interval after switching therapy from ranibizumab to aflibercept in Japanese patients with macular edema secondary to branch retinal vein occlusion

    PubMed Central

    Tagami, Mizuki; Sai, Ryuto; Fukuda, Masahide; Azumi, Atsushi

    2017-01-01

    Purpose This study was conducted to investigate the outcome of switching therapy from ranibizumab to aflibercept in Japanese patients with macular edema (ME) secondary to branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO) in daily practice. Materials and methods This retrospective study enrolled 15 eyes in 15 Japanese patients with ME secondary to BRVO who had been receiving a pro re nata regimen of ranibizumab and had provided written informed consent to switch to aflibercept therapy. The intravitreal injection interval, central retinal thickness, and visual acuity were evaluated before and after switching. Results The mean period of ranibizumab treatment was 11.8±4.2 months. The mean observation period after switching to aflibercept was 10.6±3.4 months, and seven patients were observed for more than 12 months after switching. The mean intravitreal injection interval was prolonged by 23.6 days with aflibercept (68.2±26.4 days with ranibizumab vs 91.8±33.2 days with aflibercept; P=0.0011). The mean intravitreal injection interval just before the switch was 81.3±35.6 days and was significantly prolonged to 100.8±34.2 days just after the switch to aflibercept (P=0.0309). The mean central retinal thickness did not change before or after the switch to aflibercept (295±55 μm with ranibizumab vs 276±25 μm with aflibercept; P=0.12). The mean visual acuity also remained at an improved level after the switch. No systemic or ocular side effects were evident during the study period. Conclusion Switching therapy from ranibizumab to aflibercept in Japanese patients with ME secondary to BRVO prolonged the intravitreal injection interval without anatomical or functional degradation. PMID:28260852

  13. Pars plana vitrectomy combined with internal limiting membrane peeling for recurrent macular edema due to branch retinal vein occlusion after antivascular endothelial growth factor treatments.

    PubMed

    Shirakata, Yukari; Fukuda, Kouki; Fujita, Tomoyoshi; Nakano, Yuki; Nomoto, Hiroyuki; Yamaji, Hidetaka; Shiraga, Fumio; Tsujikawa, Akitaka

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the anatomic and functional outcomes of pars plana vitrectomy combined with internal limiting membrane peeling for recurrent macular edema (ME) due to branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO) after intravitreal injections of antivascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) agents. Twenty-four eyes of 24 patients with treatment-naive ME from BRVO were treated with intravitreal injections of anti-VEGF agents. Recurred ME was treated with pars plana vitrectomy combined with internal limiting membrane peeling. After the surgery, ME was significantly reduced at 1 month (P=0.031) and the reduction increased with time (P=0.007 at the final visit). With the reduction in ME, treated eyes showed a slow improvement in visual acuity (VA). At the final visit, improvement in VA was statistically significant compared with baseline (P=0.048). The initial presence of cystoid spaces, serous retinal detachment, or subretinal hemorrhage under the fovea, as well as retinal perfusion status, showed no association with VA improvement. However, the presence of epiretinal membrane showed a significant association with the visual recovery. Although eyes without epiretinal membrane showed visual improvement (-0.10±0.32 in logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution [logMAR]), eyes with epiretinal membrane showed greater visual improvement (-0.38±0.12 in logMAR, P=0.012). For recurrent ME due to BRVO after anti-VEGF treatment, particularly when accompanied by epiretinal membrane, pars plana vitrectomy combined with internal limiting membrane peeling might be a possible treatment option.

  14. Efficacy and safety of two or more dexamethasone intravitreal implant injections for treatment of macular edema related to retinal vein occlusion (Shasta study).

    PubMed

    Capone, Antonio; Singer, Michael A; Dodwell, David G; Dreyer, Richard F; Oh, Kean T; Roth, Daniel B; Walt, John G; Scott, Lanita C; Hollander, David A

    2014-02-01

    To evaluate the efficacy, safety, and reinjection interval of dexamethasone intravitreal implant (DEX implant) in branch retinal vein occlusion and central retinal vein occlusion patients receiving ≥ 2 DEX implant treatments. Multicenter (26-site), retrospective chart review study. Data were collected from baseline (at first DEX implant) through 3 months to 6 months after last DEX implant. Patients (n = 289) received 2 to 9 (mean, 3.2) DEX implants as monotherapy (29.1% of patients) or with adjunctive treatments/procedures. Mean duration of macular edema before first DEX implant was 18.4 months. Mean reinjection interval was 5.6 months. Mean peak change in best-corrected visual acuity from baseline through 4 weeks to 20 weeks after final DEX implant was +1.0 line (P < 0.001). Best-corrected visual acuity and central retinal thickness improved significantly from baseline after each of the first 6 DEX implant injections (P ≤ 0.037); 59.7% of branch retinal vein occlusion and 66.7% of central retinal vein occlusion patients achieved ≥ 2-line best-corrected visual acuity improvement. Intraocular pressure increase (≥ 10 mmHg) occurred in 32.6% of patients; 29.1% used intraocular pressure-lowering medication to treat increases associated with DEX implant. Only 1.7% of patients required incisional glaucoma surgery. Retinal vein occlusion patients treated with multiple DEX implant injections, either alone or combined with other therapies, had improved central retinal thickness and visual acuity with each subsequent injection. No new safety concerns developed with multiple implants.

  15. RETINAL BLOOD FLOW AFTER INTRAVITREAL BEVACIZUMAB IS A PREDICTIVE FACTOR FOR OUTCOMES OF MACULAR EDEMA ASSOCIATED WITH CENTRAL RETINAL VEIN OCCLUSION.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Makiko; Suzuma, Kiyoshi; Yamada, Yoshihisa; Tsuiki, Eiko; Fujikawa, Azusa; Kitaoka, Takashi

    2017-02-01

    To investigate whether retinal blood flow levels after intravitreal bevacizumab (IVB) treatment are correlated with the outcomes of patients with macular edema secondary to central retinal vein occlusion. This retrospective observational case study enrolled 44 cases nonischemic central retinal vein occlusion. In each patient, visual acuity, central retinal thickness, and mean blur rate, which was measured by laser speckle flowgraphy and represents retinal blood flow velocity, were examined. At the end of the follow-up period (19.8 ± 8.8 months), 4 of 44 eyes (9.1%) converted to the ischemic type (converted group), whereas 40 (90.9%) remained unchanged (nonischemic group). Mean central retinal thickness significantly decreased and mean visual acuity significantly improved at 1 month after the first IVB injection in each group. Mean mean blur rate in the nonischemic group significantly increased, whereas it was unchanged in the converted group. The difference between the two groups was already significant after the first IVB injection. Subsequently, visual acuity worsened in the converted group. Multiple linear regression analysis indicated that the strongest correlation was between the last visual acuity and the last mean blur rate. Blood flow measurements are useful for evaluating IVB treatments. Blood flow after IVB can predict outcomes in patients with central retinal vein occlusion.This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives License 4.0 (CCBY-NC-ND), where it is permissible to download and share the work provided it is properly cited. The work cannot be changed in any way or used commercially without permission from the journal.

  16. Onset and duration of visual acuity improvement after dexamethasone intravitreal implant in eyes with macular edema due to retinal vein occlusion.

    PubMed

    Kuppermann, Baruch D; Haller, Julia A; Bandello, Francesco; Loewenstein, Anat; Jiao, Jenny; Li, Xiao-Yan; Whitcup, Scott M

    2014-09-01

    To evaluate the onset and duration of improvement in best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) in eyes treated with dexamethasone intravitreal implant 0.7 mg (DEX implant) for macular edema after branch or central retinal vein occlusion. Post hoc analysis of data from 2 previously reported multicenter, 6-month, randomized sham-controlled clinical trials. Patients received a single DEX implant (n = 427) or sham procedure (n = 426) in the study eye. The primary endpoint was the percentage of eyes with ≥ 15-letter improvement in BCVA from baseline at postimplant Day 7. The baseline mean BCVA was 20/80. At Day 7, 10.3% of DEX implant-treated eyes versus 4.0% of sham-treated eyes (P < 0.001) had ≥ 15-letter improvement in the BCVA, and 27.2% of DEX implant-treated eyes versus 10.6% of sham-treated eyes had ≥ 10-letter improvement (P < 0.001). The mean improvement at Day 7 was 5.3 letters (branch retinal vein occlusion, 5.1; and central retinal vein occlusion, 5.8) with DEX implant and 1.6 letters (branch retinal vein occlusion, 2.3; and central retinal vein occlusion, 0.1) with sham (P < 0.001). The mean time from initial observation of ≥ 15-letter BCVA gain to the last observation of ≥ 15-letter BCVA gain was 70 days. Dexamethasone intravitreal implant treatment led to improvement in BCVA compared with sham procedure as early as postimplant Day 7. The duration of ≥ 3-line improvement was typically 2 to 3 months.

  17. Long-term evaluation of dexamethasone intravitreal implant in vitrectomized and non-vitrectomized eyes with macular edema secondary to non-infectious uveitis

    PubMed Central

    Pelegrín, L; de la Maza, M S; Molins, B; Ríos, J; Adán, A

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To compare dexamethasone (DEX) intravitreal implant effect in non-vitrectomized (non-PPV) vs vitrectomized (PPV) eyes with macular edema (ME) secondary to non-infectious uveitis. Methods Medical records of patients with uveitic ME treated with DEX-intravitreal implant were reviewed. Main outcome measures were changes in central retinal thickness (CRT), best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), intraocular pressure (IOP), vitreous haze and adverse events. Statistical analysis was performed by Longitudinal Linear model using the General Estimating Equation methodology. Results Forty-two eyes of 32 patients were included. Median follow-up time was 18 months (interquartile range (IQR): 12–24). Median CRT showed its maximum decrease at the first month in non-PPV and PPV eyes without statistically significant differences between both groups (P=NS). Median Snellen BCVA, converted to logarithm (LogMAR), showed its maximum improvement at third month in both groups without statistically significant differences between them (P=NS). Median IOP was higher in non-PPV eyes than in PPV eyes from third (P=0.025) to 12th month (P=0.013). Vitreous haze score improved in both groups since first month and showed no differences (P=0.706). Reinjection was performed in 45.2% of eyes at a median time of 5 months IQR: (5–6). Ocular hypertension (47.6%) was the most common adverse event. Conclusions DEX-intravitreal implant for uveitic ME has similar long-term safety profile and good response measured in terms of CRT decrease, BCVA, and vitreous haze improvement in both groups. Non-PPV eyes following DEX-intravitreal implant showed higher IOP increase than PPV eyes, showing the need for close IOP monitoring. PMID:25998942

  18. Complications of Macular Peeling

    PubMed Central

    Asencio-Duran, Mónica; Manzano-Muñoz, Beatriz; Vallejo-García, José Luis; García-Martínez, Jesús

    2015-01-01

    Macular peeling refers to the surgical technique for the removal of preretinal tissue or the internal limiting membrane (ILM) in the macula for several retinal disorders, ranging from epiretinal membranes (primary or secondary to diabetic retinopathy, retinal detachment…) to full-thickness macular holes, macular edema, foveal retinoschisis, and others. The technique has evolved in the last two decades, and the different instrumentations and adjuncts have progressively advanced turning into a safer, easier, and more useful tool for the vitreoretinal surgeon. Here, we describe the main milestones of macular peeling, drawing attention to its associated complications. PMID:26425351

  19. Two or more dexamethasone intravitreal implants in treatment-naïve patients with macular edema due to retinal vein occlusion: subgroup analysis of a retrospective chart review study.

    PubMed

    Dugel, Pravin U; Capone, Antonio; Singer, Michael A; Dreyer, Richard F; Dodwell, David G; Roth, Daniel B; Shi, Rui; Walt, John G; Scott, Lanita C; Hollander, David A

    2015-09-04

    Dexamethasone intravitreal implant (DEX implant) is a biodegradable, sustained-release implant that releases dexamethasone for up to 6 months. We evaluated the efficacy and safety of DEX implant in the treatment of macular edema secondary to retinal vein occlusion (RVO) in treatment-naïve patients. A multicenter, retrospective, open-label chart review study investigated the efficacy and safety of DEX implant treatment in 289 patients with macular edema secondary to branch or central RVO (BRVO, CRVO) who received ≥2 treatments with DEX implant in the study eye. Concomitant adjunctive RVO treatments were permitted. Data collected from the time of the first implant (baseline) to 3-6 months after the last implant included best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and central retinal thickness measured with optical coherence tomography. In this subgroup analysis, we evaluated outcomes in patients who had received no previous treatment for RVO complications. Thirty-nine patients were treatment-naïve at the time of their first DEX implant (18 BRVO, 21 CRVO). Before the initial DEX implant, the mean duration of macular edema in treatment-naïve patients was 4.9 months, mean central retinal thickness was 550 μm, and mean Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study BCVA was 8.5 lines (20/125 Snellen). Treatment-naïve patients received a mean of 2.9 implants, either as monotherapy (n = 12) or with adjunctive RVO treatments (n = 27). The mean interval between implants was 177 days. After the first through sixth implants, mean changes from baseline BCVA ranged from +3.0 - +8.0 lines, and mean decreases from baseline central retinal thickness ranged from 241-459 μm. BCVA improved in both BRVO and CRVO and in both phakic and pseudophakic eyes. Overall, 83.8 % of treatment-naïve patients gained ≥2 lines in BCVA, 70.3 % gained ≥3 lines in BCVA, and 56.4 % achieved central retinal thickness ≤250 μm. The most common adverse event was increased intraocular

  20. Visual Impairment and Blindness Avoided with Ranibizumab in Hispanic and Non-Hispanic Whites with Diabetic Macular Edema in the United States.

    PubMed

    Varma, Rohit; Bressler, Neil M; Doan, Quan V; Danese, Mark; Dolan, Chantal M; Lee, Abraham; Turpcu, Adam

    2015-05-01

    To estimate visual impairment (VI) and blindness avoided with intravitreal ranibizumab 0.3 mg treatment for central-involved diabetic macular edema (DME) among Hispanic and non-Hispanic white individuals in the United States. Population-based model simulating visual acuity (VA) outcomes over 2 years after diagnosis and treatment of DME. Visual acuity changes with and without ranibizumab were based on data from the RISE, RIDE, and DRCR Network trials. For the better-seeing eye, VA outcomes included VI, defined as worse than 20/40 in the better-seeing eye, and blindness, defined as VA of 20/200 or worse in the better-seeing eye. Incidence of 1 or both eyes with central-involved DME in 2010 were estimated based on the 2010 United States population, prevalence of diabetes mellitus, and 1-year central-involved DME incidence rate. Sixty-one percent of incident individuals had bilateral DME and 39% had unilateral DME, but DME could develop in the fellow eye. Cases of VI and blindness avoided with ranibizumab treatment. Among approximately 102 million Hispanic and non-Hispanic white individuals in the United States 45 years of age and older in 2010, an estimated 37 274 had central-involved DME and VI eligible for ranibizumab treatment. Compared with no ranibizumab treatment, the model predicted that ranibizumab 0.3 mg every 4 weeks would reduce the number of individuals with VI from 11 438 (95% simulation interval [SI], 7249-16 077) to 6304 (95% SI, 3921-8981), a 45% (95% SI, 36%-53%) reduction at 2 years. Ranibizumab would reduce the number of incident eyes with VA worse than 20/40 from 16 910 (95% SI, 10 729-23 577) to 9361 (95% SI, 5839-13 245), a 45% (95% SI, 38%-51%) reduction. Ranibizumab was estimated to reduce the number of individuals with legal blindness by 75% (95% SI, 58%-88%) and the number of incident eyes with VA of 20/200 or worse by 76% (95% SI, 63%-87%). This model suggests that ranibizumab 0.3 mg every 4 weeks substantially reduces prevalence of VI and

  1. Grid laser with modified pro re nata injection of bevacizumab and ranibizumab in macular edema due to branch retinal vein occlusion: MARVEL report no 2

    PubMed Central

    Narayanan, Raja; Panchal, Bhavik; Stewart, Michael W; Das, Taraprasad; Chhablani, Jay; Jalali, Subhadra; Hasnat Ali, Mohd

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to prospectively study the efficacy of grid laser combined with intravitreal bevacizumab or ranibizumab in eyes with macular edema due to branch retinal vein occlusion. Patients and methods Treatment-naïve eyes were enrolled to receive injections of ranibizumab or bevacizumab. During the first 6 months, patients were evaluated monthly and injected if the best-corrected visual acuity changed by five or more letters or fluid was noted on spectral domain optical coherence tomography (OCT); during the next 6 months, patients were evaluated bimonthly and injected only if the best-corrected visual acuity decreased by five or more letters with the associated fluid. Grid laser photocoagulation was performed if there was fluid on OCT and was repeated if patients were eligible after a minimum interval of 3 months. Results The mean numbers of ranibizumab and bevacizumab injections were, respectively, 3.2±1.5 and 3.0±1.4 in the first 6 months and 0.3±0.6 and 0.3±0.6 in the last 6 months. Moreover, 55/75 (73.33%) participants did not receive any injections in the last 6 months. The mean reductions in central retinal thickness at 12 months were 165.67 μm (P<0.001; 95% confidence interval −221.50 to −135.0) in the ranibizumab group and 184.78 μm (P<0.001; 95% confidence interval −246.49 to −140.0) in the bevacizumab group (P=0.079). More patients in the bevacizumab group compared to those in the ranibizumab group required rescue laser at 12 months (20 vs eleven; P=0.06). Conclusion Bimonthly evaluations after month 6 with very few pro re nata injections were effective in maintaining visual gains achieved during the first 6 months. Grid laser photocoagulation is effective in maintaining the vision even in the presence of fluid on OCT, although it’s required more often in patients treated with bevacizumab. PMID:27330272

  2. Ranibizumab 0.5 mg for Diabetic Macular Edema with Bimonthly Monitoring after a Phase of Initial Treatment: 18-Month, Multicenter, Phase IIIB RELIGHT Study.

    PubMed

    Pearce, Ian; Banerjee, Sanjiv; Burton, Ben J L; Chakravarthy, Usha; Downey, Louise; Gale, Richard P; Gibson, Jonathan; Pagliarini, Sergio; Patel, Jignesh; Sivaprasad, Sobha; Andrews, Chris; Brittain, Christopher; Warburton, James

    2015-09-01

    To evaluate ranibizumab 0.5 mg using bimonthly monitoring and individualized re-treatment after monthly follow-up for 6 months in patients with visual impairment due to diabetic macular edema (DME). A phase IIIb, 18-month, prospective, open-label, multicenter, single-arm study in the United Kingdom. Participants (N = 109) with visual impairment due to DME. Participants received 3 initial monthly ranibizumab 0.5 mg injections (day 0 to month 2), followed by individualized best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and optical coherence tomography-guided re-treatment with monthly (months 3-5) and subsequent bimonthly follow-up (months 6-18). Laser was allowed after month 6. Mean change in BCVA from baseline to month 12 (primary end point), mean change in BCVA and central retinal thickness (CRT) from baseline to month 18, gain of ≥10 and ≥15 letters, treatment exposure, and incidence of adverse events over 18 months. Of 109 participants, 100 (91.7%) and 99 (90.8%) completed the 12 and 18 months of the study, respectively. The mean age was 63.7 years, the mean duration of DME was 40 months, and 77.1% of the participants had received prior laser treatment (study eye). At baseline, mean BCVA was 62.9 letters, 20% of patients had a baseline BCVA of >73 letters, and mean baseline CRT was 418.1 μm, with 32% of patients having a baseline CRT <300 μm. The mean change in BCVA from baseline to month 6 was +6.6 letters (95% confidence interval [CI], 4.9-8.3), and after institution of bimonthly treatment the mean change in BCVA at month 12 was +4.8 letters (95% CI, 2.9-6.7; P < 0.001) and +6.5 letters (95% CI, 4.2-8.8) at month 18. The proportion of participants gaining ≥10 and ≥15 letters was 24.8% and 13.8% at month 12 and 34.9% and 19.3% at month 18, respectively. Participants received a mean of 6.8 and 8.5 injections over 12 and 18 months, respectively. No new ocular or nonocular safety findings were observed during the study. The BCVA gain achieved in the initial 6-month

  3. Grid laser with modified pro re nata injection of bevacizumab and ranibizumab in macular edema due to branch retinal vein occlusion: MARVEL report no 2.

    PubMed

    Narayanan, Raja; Panchal, Bhavik; Stewart, Michael W; Das, Taraprasad; Chhablani, Jay; Jalali, Subhadra; Hasnat Ali, Mohd

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to prospectively study the efficacy of grid laser combined with intravitreal bevacizumab or ranibizumab in eyes with macular edema due to branch retinal vein occlusion. Treatment-naïve eyes were enrolled to receive injections of ranibizumab or bevacizumab. During the first 6 months, patients were evaluated monthly and injected if the best-corrected visual acuity changed by five or more letters or fluid was noted on spectral domain optical coherence tomography (OCT); during the next 6 months, patients were evaluated bimonthly and injected only if the best-corrected visual acuity decreased by five or more letters with the associated fluid. Grid laser photocoagulation was performed if there was fluid on OCT and was repeated if patients were eligible after a minimum interval of 3 months. The mean numbers of ranibizumab and bevacizumab injections were, respectively, 3.2±1.5 and 3.0±1.4 in the first 6 months and 0.3±0.6 and 0.3±0.6 in the last 6 months. Moreover, 55/75 (73.33%) participants did not receive any injections in the last 6 months. The mean reductions in central retinal thickness at 12 months were 165.67 μm (P<0.001; 95% confidence interval -221.50 to -135.0) in the ranibizumab group and 184.78 μm (P<0.001; 95% confidence interval -246.49 to -140.0) in the bevacizumab group (P=0.079). More patients in the bevacizumab group compared to those in the ranibizumab group required rescue laser at 12 months (20 vs eleven; P=0.06). Bimonthly evaluations after month 6 with very few pro re nata injections were effective in maintaining visual gains achieved during the first 6 months. Grid laser photocoagulation is effective in maintaining the vision even in the presence of fluid on OCT, although it's required more often in patients treated with bevacizumab.

  4. Comparison of two doses of intravitreal bevacizumab as primary treatment for macular edema secondary to central retinal vein occlusion: results of the pan American collaborative retina study group at 24 months.

    PubMed

    Wu, Lihteh; Arevalo, J Fernando; Berrocal, Maria H; Maia, Mauricio; Roca, José A; Morales-Cantón, Virgilio; Alezzandrini, Arturo A; Díaz-Llopis, Manuel J

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the injection burden, central macular thickness (CMT), and change in best-corrected visual acuity after injecting 1.25 mg or 2.5 mg bevacizumab as needed in patients with primary macular edema secondary to central retinal vein occlusion. This is an interventional, retrospective, comparative multicenter study of 86 eyes with macular edema secondary to central retinal vein occlusion that were treated primarily with intravitreal bevacizumab (44 eyes, 1.25 mg; 42 eyes, 2.5 mg). The main outcome measures were the CMT and the change of best-corrected visual acuity at 24 months. All patients completed at least 24 months of follow-up. The mean number of injections per eye were 7.2 for the 1.25-mg dose group and 8.1 for the 2.5-mg dose group (P = 0.4492). At 24 months, in the 1.25-mg dose group, the logarithm of the minimal angle of resolution best-corrected visual acuity improved from baseline 0.35 +/- 0.57 units (P < 0.0001) versus 0.27 +/- 0.68 units for the 2.5-mg dose group (P < 0.0001). These differences were not statistically significant between both dose groups. In the 1.25-mg dose group, 25 (56.8%) eyes gained >or=3 lines of Early Treatment of Diabetic Retinopathy Study visual acuity and 6 (13.6%) lost >or=3 lines of Early Treatment of Diabetic Retinopathy Study visual acuity. In the 2.5-mg dose group, 24 (57.1 %) eyes improved >or=3 lines of Early Treatment of Diabetic Retinopathy Study visual acuity and 7 (16.7%) lost >or=3 lines of Early Treatment of Diabetic Retinopathy Study visual acuity. The CMT in the 1.25-mg dose group improved from 635 +/- 324 microm to 264 +/- 160 microm (P < 0.0001) versus 528 +/- microm to 293 +/- 137 microm in the 2.5-mg dose group (P < 0.0001). There was no statistically significant difference between both dose groups with regard to the CMT reduction. Intravitreal bevacizumab at doses up to 2.5 mg seems to be effective in improving visual acuity and reducing CMT in macular edema secondary to

  5. Gene interference regulates aquaporin-4 expression in swollen tissue of rats with cerebral ischemic edema: Correlation with variation in apparent diffusion coefficient.

    PubMed

    Hu, Hui; Lu, Hong; He, Zhanping; Han, Xiangjun; Chen, Jing; Tu, Rong

    2012-07-25

    To investigate the effects of mRNA interference on aquaporin-4 expression in swollen tissue of rats with ischemic cerebral edema, and diagnose the significance of diffusion-weighted MRI, we injected 5 μL shRNA- aquaporin-4 (control group) or siRNA- aquaporin-4 solution (1:800) (RNA interference group) into the rat right basal ganglia immediately before occlusion of the middle cerebral artery. At 0.25 hours after occlusion of the middle cerebral artery, diffusion-weighted MRI displayed a high signal; within 2 hours, the relative apparent diffusion coefficient decreased markedly, aquaporin-4 expression increased rapidly, and intracellular edema was obviously aggravated; at 4 and 6 hours, the relative apparent diffusion coefficient slowly returned to control levels, aquaporin-4 expression slightly increased, and angioedema was observed. In the RNA interference group, during 0.25-6 hours after injection of siRNA- aquaporin-4 solution, the relative apparent diffusion coefficient slightly fluctuated and aquaporin-4 expression was upregulated; during 0.5-4 hours, the relative apparent diffusion coefficient was significantly higher, while aquaporin-4 expression was significantly lower when compared with the control group, and intracellular edema was markedly reduced; at 0.25 and 6 hours, the relative apparent diffusion coefficient and aquaporin-4 expression were similar when compared with the control group; obvious angioedema remained at 6 hours. Pearson's correlation test results showed that aquaporin-4 expression was negatively correlated with the apparent diffusion coefficient (r = -0.806, P < 0.01). These findings suggest that upregulated aquaporin-4 expression is likely to be the main molecular mechanism of intracellular edema and may be the molecular basis for decreased relative apparent diffusion coefficient. Aquaporin-4 gene interference can effectively inhibit the upregulation of aquaporin-4 expression during the stage of intracellular edema with time

  6. OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY CHARACTERISTICS OF MACULAR EDEMA AND HARD EXUDATES AND THEIR ASSOCIATION WITH LIPID SERUM LEVELS IN TYPE 2 DIABETES.

    PubMed

    Davoudi, Samaneh; Papavasileiou, Evangelia; Roohipoor, Ramak; Cho, Heeyoon; Kudrimoti, Shreyas; Hancock, Heather; Hoadley, Suzanne; Andreoli, Christopher; Husain, Deeba; James, Maurice; Penman, Alan; Chen, Ching J; Sobrin, Lucia

    2016-09-01

    To determine whether hyperreflective foci (HF) and macular thickness on spectral domain ocular coherence tomography are associated with lipid levels in patients with Type 2 diabetes. Two hundred and thirty-eight participants from four sites had fundus photographs and spectral domain ocular coherence tomography images graded for hard exudates and HF, respectively. Regression models were used to determine the association between serum lipid levels and 1) presence of HF and hard exudates and 2) central subfield macular thickness, central subfield macular volume, and total macular volume. All patients with hard exudates on fundus photographs had corresponding HF on spectral domain ocular coherence tomography, but 57% of patients with HF on optical coherence tomography did not have hard exudates detected in their fundus photographs. Presence of HF was associated with higher total cholesterol (odds ratio = 1.13, 95% confidence interval = 1.01-1.27, P = 0.03) and higher low-density lipoprotein levels (odds ratio = 1.17, 95% confidence interval = 1.02-1.35, P = 0.02) in models adjusting for other risk factors. The total macular volume was also associated with higher total cholesterol (P = 0.009) and triglyceride (P = 0.02) levels after adjusting for other risk factors. Higher total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol were associated with presence of HF on spectral domain ocular coherence tomography. Total macular volume was associated with higher total cholesterol and triglyceride levels.

  7. Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) patterns and response to intravitreal bevacizumab therapy in macular edema associated with branch retinal vein occlusion.

    PubMed

    Kang, Hae Min; Chung, Eun Jee; Kim, Yong Min; Koh, Hyoung Jun

    2013-02-01

    To evaluate the baseline spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) characteristics of macular edema (ME) due to branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO) for visual outcome after intravitreal bevacizumab injection. Fifty-nine patients treated in one eye with intravitreal bevacizumab for ME due to BRVO were retrospectively reviewed. Stepwise multiple regression analysis was used to evaluate the relative contribution of several variables, including SD-OCT characteristics such as photoreceptor inner segment/outer segment (IS/OS) integrity and external limiting membrane (ELM status), baseline best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), and baseline central retinal thickness (CRT) with final visual outcome. Thirty-one patients (52.5 %) had disrupted photoreceptor IS/OS integrity. The mean BCVA improved significantly from 0.50 logMAR (20/63 Snellen equivalent) to 0.10 logMAR (20/25 Snellen equivalent) in the intact photoreceptor group (p = 0.000, paired t-test). However, the mean BCVA was improved in the disrupted photoreceptor group, from 1.10 logMAR (20/252 Snellen equivalent) to 0.94 logMAR (20/174 Snellen equivalent), which was not statistically significant (p = 0.177, paired t-test). ELM was disrupted in 23 patients (39.0 %). The mean BCVA improved significantly from 0.63 logMAR (20/85 Snellen equivalent) to 0.26 logMAR (20/36 Snellen equivalent) in the intact ELM group (p = 0.000, paired t-test), however, not significantly improved in the disrupted ELM group, from 1.09 logMAR (20/246 Snellen equivalent) to 1.01 logMAR (20/205 Snellen equivalent) (p = 0.563, paired t-test). The strongest individual predictor of final BCVA among patients with ME due to BRVO was the integrity of photoreceptor IS/OS layer on SD OCT (r (2) = 0.514, p = 0.000, stepwise multiple regression), but the most efficient model was the combination of the photoreceptor IS/OS integrity, ELM status, and baseline BCVA (r(2) = 0.671, p = 0.000, stepwise multiple regression). The strongest predictor of

  8. Vascular Safety of Ranibizumab in Patients With Diabetic Macular Edema: A Pooled Analysis of Patient-Level Data From Randomized Clinical Trials.

    PubMed

    Zarbin, Marco A; Dunger-Baldauf, Cornelia; Haskova, Zdenka; Koovejee, Prashil; Mousseau, Marie-Catherine; Margaron, Philippe; Snow, Howard; Beaumont, Paul E; Staurenghi, Giovanni; Francom, Steven

    2017-05-01

    Patients with diabetic macular edema (DME) are at high risk of vascular complications, including stroke and myocardial infarction (MI). Concerns have been raised that intravitreal dosing of vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitors in DME could be associated with an increase in cardiovascular and cerebrovascular adverse events. To evaluate the cardiovascular and cerebrovascular safety of ranibizumab, 0.5 mg and 0.3 mg, compared with sham with and without laser in DME. Patient-level data from 6 randomized, double-masked, sham- and laser-controlled clinical trials. Company-sponsored (Genentech or Novartis) studies in DME completed as of December 31, 2013. Pairwise comparisons (ranibizumab, 0.5 mg, vs sham and laser; ranibizumab, 0.3 mg, vs sham) were performed using Cox proportional hazard regression (hazard ratios, 95% CIs) and rates per 100 person-years. Data analysis was conducted from June 1 to July 15, 2015. Standardized Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities queries and extended searches were prospectively defined to identify relevant safety end points, including arterial thromboembolic events, MI, stroke or transient ischemic attack, vascular deaths, and major vascular events as defined by the Antiplatelet Trialists' Collaboration (APTC). Overall, 936 patients were treated with ranibizumab, 0.5 mg; 250 patients with ranibizumab, 0.3 mg; and 581 patients with sham/laser. The hazard ratios associated with all pairwise comparisons included 1 for all key cardiovascular and cerebrovascular safety end points. For ranibizumab, 0.5 mg, vs sham/laser and ranibizumab, 0.3 mg, vs sham, the hazard ratios were, respectively, arterial thromboembolic events, 1.05 (95% CI, 0.66-1.68) and 0.78 (95% CI, 0.43-1.40); MI, 0.84 (95% CI, 0.41-1.72) and 0.94 (95% CI, 0.43-2.06); stroke or transient ischemic attack, 0.94 (95% CI, 0.44-1.99) and 0.53 (95% CI, 0.19-1.42); stroke (excluding transient ischemic attack), 1.63 (95% CI, 0.65-4.07) and 0.59 (95% CI, 0

  9. A randomized trial comparing the efficacy and safety of intravitreal triamcinolone with observation to treat vision loss associated with macular edema secondary to central retinal vein occlusion: the Standard Care vs Corticosteroid for Retinal Vein Occlusion (SCORE) study report 5.

    PubMed

    Ip, Michael S; Scott, Ingrid U; VanVeldhuisen, Paul C; Oden, Neal L; Blodi, Barbara A; Fisher, Marian; Singerman, Lawrence J; Tolentino, Michael; Chan, Clement K; Gonzalez, Victor H

    2009-09-01

    To compare the efficacy and safety of 1-mg and 4-mg doses of preservative-free intravitreal triamcinolone with observation for eyes with vision loss associated with macular edema secondary to perfused central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO). Multicenter, randomized, clinical trial of 271 participants. Gain in visual acuity letter score of 15 or more from baseline to month 12. Seven percent, 27%, and 26% of participants achieved the primary outcome in the observation, 1-mg, and 4-mg groups, respectively. The odds of achieving the primary outcome were 5.0 times greater in the 1-mg group than the observation group (odds ratio [OR], 5.0; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.8-14.1; P = .001) and 5.0 times greater in 4-mg group than the observation group (OR, 5.0; 95% CI, 1.8-14.4; P = .001); there was no difference identified between the 1-mg and 4-mg groups (OR, 1.0; 95% CI, 0.5-2.1; P = .97). The rates of elevated intraocular pressure and cataract were similar for the observation and 1-mg groups, but higher in the 4-mg group. Intravitreal triamcinolone is superior to observation for treating vision loss associated with macular edema secondary to CRVO in patients who have characteristics similar to those in the SCORE-CRVO trial. The 1-mg dose has a safety profile superior to that of the 4-mg dose. Application to Clinical Practice Intravitreal triamcinolone in a 1-mg dose, following the retreatment criteria applied in the SCORE Study, should be considered for up to 1 year, and possibly 2 years, for patients with characteristics similar to those in the SCORE-CRVO trial. Trial Registration clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00105027.

  10. Comparación de la efectividad de ranibizumab intravítreo para el tratamiento del edema macular diabético en ojos vitrectomizados y no vitrectomizados.

    PubMed

    Koyanagi, Yoshito; Yoshida, Shigeo; Kobayashi, Yoshiyuki; Kubo, Yuki; Yamaguchi, Muneo; Nakama, Takahito; Nakao, Shintaro; Ikeda, Yasuhiro; Ohshima, Yuji; Ishibashi, Tatsuro; Sonoda, Kohhei

    2017-07-11

    Objetivo: Comparar la efectividad de ranibizumab intravítreo (RIV) para el tratamiento del edema macular diabético (EMD) en ojos con y sin vitrectomía previa. Procedimientos: Evaluamos de manera prospectiva la mejor agudeza visual corregida (MAVC) y el grosor macular central (GMC) tras el tratamiento con RIV durante 6 meses. Resultados: No se observaron diferencias significativas en la MAVC o GMC inicial en ninguno de los dos grupos. En el grupo no vitrectomizado (n = 15), los cambios medios en la MAVC y GMC hasta el sexto mes de tratamiento con respecto al valor inicial resultaron significativos (p < 0,01). En el grupo vitrectomizado (n = 10), se observó una mejora más lenta, y la mejora media en la MAVC no resultó significativa (p = 0,5), aunque la media en la disminución del GMC sí que lo fue (p < 0,05). No se observaron diferencias significativas en los cambios medios en la MAVC y el GMC entre ambos grupos a los 6 meses del tratamiento. Conclusiones: La diferencia en la efectividad de RIV entre ambos grupos no resultó significativa. Ranibizumab intravítreo puede ser una opción de tratamiento incluso en pacientes vitrectomizados con EMD. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Oxygen diffusion and edema with modern scleral rigid gas permeable contact lenses.

    PubMed

    Compañ, Vicente; Oliveira, Cristina; Aguilella-Arzo, Marcel; Mollá, Sergio; Peixoto-de-Matos, Sofia C; González-Méijome, José M

    2014-09-04

    We defined the theoretical oxygen tension behind modern scleral contact lenses (CLs) made of different rigid gas permeable (RGP) materials, assuming different thickness of the tear layer behind the lens. A second goal was to show clinically the effect of the postlens tear film on corneal swelling. We simulated the partial pressure of oxygen across the cornea behind scleral CLs made of different lens materials (oxygen permeability Dk, 75-200 barrer) and different thickness (Tav, 100-300 μm). Postlens tear film thicknesses (Tpost-tear) ranging from 150 to 350 μm were considered. Eight healthy subjects were fitted randomly with a scleral lens with a thin and a thick postlens tear layer in two different sessions for a period of 3 hours under open-eye conditions. The CLs with less than 125 barrer of Dk and a thickness over 200 μm depleted the oxygen availability at the lens-cornea interface below 55 mm Hg for a postlens tear film of 150 μm. For a postlens tear film thickness of 350 μm, no combination of material or lens thickness will meet the criteria of 55 mm Hg. Our clinical measures of corneal edema showed that this was significantly higher (P < 0.001, Wilcoxon signed ranks test) with the thicker compared to the thinner Tpost-tear (mean ± SD, 1.66 ± 1.12 vs. 4.27 ± 1.19%). Scleral RGP CLs must be comprised of at least 125 barrer of oxygen permeability and up to 200 μm thick to avoid hypoxic effects even under open eye conditions. Postlens tear film layer should be below 150 μm to avoid clinically significant edema. Copyright 2014 The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Inc.

  12. Unilateral hemorrhagic macular infarction associated with marijuana, alcohol and antiepileptic drug intake.

    PubMed

    Aktaş, Serdar; Tetikoğlu, Mehmet; İnan, Sibel; Aktaş, Hatice; Özcura, Fatih

    2017-03-01

    A 55-year-old male presented with a complaint of a painless and sudden loss of vis