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Sample records for diffusion limited aggregation

  1. Diffusion limited aggregation. The role of surface diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Ruiz, Juan M.; Otálora, Fermín

    1991-11-01

    We present a growth model in which the hitting particles are able to diffuse to more stable growth sites in the perimeter of a cluster growing by diffusion limited aggregation. By tuning the diffusion path Ls, the morphological output - from disordered fractal to perfect single crystals - can be controlled. Instabilities appear when the mean length of the crystal faces Lf are greater than 2 Ls.

  2. Photoacoustic ultrasound sources from diffusion-limited aggregates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, Krutik; Brubaker, Morgan; Kotlerman, Alexander; Salazar, Robert; Wolf, Eli; Weld, David M.

    2016-10-01

    Metallic diffusion-limited aggregate (DLA) films are well-known to exhibit near-perfect broadband optical absorption. We demonstrate that such films also manifest a substantial and relatively material-independent photoacoustic response, as a consequence of their random nanostructure. We theoretically and experimentally analyze the photoacoustic phenomena in DLA films and show that they can be used to create broadband air-coupled acoustic sources. These sources are inexpensive and simple to fabricate and work into the ultrasonic regime. We illustrate the device possibilities by building and testing an optically addressed acoustic phased array capable of producing virtually arbitrary acoustic intensity patterns in air.

  3. Impact of diffusion limited aggregates of impurities on nematic ordering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harkai, S.; Ambrožič, M.; Kralj, S.

    2017-02-01

    We study the impact of random bond-type disorder on two-dimensional (2D) orientational ordering of nematic liquid crystal (LC) configurations. The lattice Lebwohl-Lasher pseudospin model is used to model orientational ordering perturbed by frozen-in rod-like impurities of concentration p exhibiting the isotropic orientational probability distribution. The impurities are either (i) randomly spatially distributed or (ii) form diffusion limited aggregation (DLA)-type patterns characterized by the fractal dimensions df, where we consider cases df ∼ 1.7 and df ∼ 1.9. The degree of orientational ordering is quantified in terms of the orientational pair correlation function G(r) . Simulations reveal that the DLA pattern imposed disorder has a significantly weaker impact for a given concentration of impurities. Furthermore, if samples are quenched from the isotropic LC phase, then the fractal dimension is relatively strongly imprinted on quantitative characteristics of G(r) .

  4. Formation and structure of stable aggregates in binary diffusion-limited cluster-cluster aggregation processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López-López, J. M.; Moncho-Jordá, A.; Schmitt, A.; Hidalgo-Álvarez, R.

    2005-09-01

    Binary diffusion-limited cluster-cluster aggregation processes are studied as a function of the relative concentration of the two species. Both, short and long time behaviors are investigated by means of three-dimensional off-lattice Brownian Dynamics simulations. At short aggregation times, the validity of the Hogg-Healy-Fuerstenau approximation is shown. At long times, a single large cluster containing all initial particles is found to be formed when the relative concentration of the minority particles lies above a critical value. Below that value, stable aggregates remain in the system. These stable aggregates are composed by a few minority particles that are highly covered by majority ones. Our off-lattice simulations reveal a value of approximately 0.15 for the critical relative concentration. A qualitative explanation scheme for the formation and growth of the stable aggregates is developed. The simulations also explain the phenomenon of monomer discrimination that was observed recently in single cluster light scattering experiments.

  5. Multifractal analysis of the branch structure of diffusion-limited aggregates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanan, W. G.; Heffernan, D. M.

    2012-02-01

    We examine the branch structure of radial diffusion-limited aggregation (DLA) clusters for evidence of multifractality. The lacunarity of DLA clusters is measured and the generalized dimensions D(q) of their mass distribution is estimated using the sandbox method. We find that the global n-fold symmetry of the aggregates can induce anomalous scaling behavior into these measurements. However, negating the effects of this symmetry, standard scaling is recovered.

  6. Electrochemical Growth of Ag Junctions and Diffusion Limited Aggregate (DLA) Fractal Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olson, Zak; Tuppan, Sam; Kim, Woo-Joong; Seattle University Team

    2015-03-01

    We attempt construction of a single atom connection between two copper wires. By applying a DC voltage across the wires when immersed in a silver nitrate solution, we deposit silver until a junction is formed. The deposited silver forms a fractal structure that can be simulated with a diffusion limited aggregation model.

  7. Structural five-fold symmetry in the fractal morphology of diffusion-limited aggregates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arneodo, A.; Argoul, F.; Muzy, J. F.; Tabard, M.

    1992-09-01

    The statistical self-similarity of the geometry of diffusion-limited aggregates and the multifractal nature of the growth probability distribution on the surface of the growing clusters are investigated using the wavelet transform. This study reveals the existence of a predominant structural five-fold symmetry in the internal frozen region as well as in the active outer region of the interface. This observation is corroborated by a statistical analysis of the screening effects that govern diffusion-limited aggregation (DLA) growth in linear and sector-shaped cells. The existence of this symmetry is likely to be a clue to a hierarchichal fractal ordering. We report on the discovery of Fibonacci sequences in the inner extinct region of large mass off-lattice DLA clusters, with a branching ratio which converges asymptotically to the golden mean. We suggest an interpretation of the DLA morphology as a “quasifractal” counterpart of the well-ordered snowflake fractal architecture.

  8. Self-assembly of high molecular weight polypeptide copolymers studied via diffusion limited aggregation.

    PubMed

    Meier, Christoph; Wu, Yuzhou; Pramanik, Goutam; Weil, Tanja

    2014-01-13

    The assembly of high molecular weight polypeptides into complex architectures exhibiting structural complexity ranging from the nano- to the mesoscale is of fundamental importance for various protein-related diseases but also hold great promise for various nano- and biotechnological applications. Here, the aggregation of partially unfolded high molecular weight polypeptides into multiscale fractal structures is investigated by means of diffusion limited aggregation and atomic force microscopy. The zeta potential, the hydrodynamic radius, and the obtained fractal morphologies were correlated with the conformation of the polypeptide backbones as obtained from circular dichroism measurements. The polypeptides are modified with polyethylene oxide side chains to stabilize the polypeptides and to normalize intermolecular interactions. The modification with the hydrophobic thioctic acid alters the folding of the polypeptide backbone, resulting in a change in solution aggregation and fractal morphology. We found that a more compact folding results in dense and highly branched structures, whereas a less compact folded polypeptide chain yields a more directional assembly. Our results provide first evidence for the role of compactness of polypeptide folding on aggregation. Furthermore, the mesoscale-structured biofilms were used to achieve a hierarchical protein assembly, which is demonstrated by deposition of Rhodamine-labeled HSA with the preassembled fractal structures. These results contribute important insights to the fundamental understanding of the aggregation of high molecular weight polypeptides in general and provide opportunities to study nanostructure-related effects on biological systems such as adhesion, proliferation, and the development of, for example, neuronal cells.

  9. Phase transition and crossover in diffusion-limited aggregation with reaction times

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagatani, Takashi; Stanley, H. Eugene

    1990-09-01

    A generalized diffusion-limited aggregation (DLA) with reaction times that has been proposed by Bunde and Miyazima [Phys. Rev. A 38, 2099 (1988)] is considered. Crossover from the DLA to the diffusion-limited self-avoiding walk (DLSAW) is investigated by using the two-parameter position-space renormalization-group method. The crossover exponent and the crossover radius are calculated. The geometrical phase transition between DLA and DLSAW found by Bunde and Miyajima is analyzed by making use of the three-parameter position-space renormalization-group method. A global flow diagram in the three-parameter space is obtained. Above the percolation threshold all the renormalization flows are merged into the DLA point. Below the threshold all the renormalization flows are merged into the DLSAW point. When the reaction time is large, the double-crossover phenomenon occurs below the threshold.

  10. Electrochemical deposition of layered copper thin films based on the diffusion limited aggregation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Chenhuinan; Wu, Guoxing; Yang, Sanjun; Liu, Qiming

    2016-10-01

    In this work layered copper films with smooth surface were successfully fabricated onto ITO substrate by electrochemical deposition (ECD) and the thickness of the films was nearly 60 nm. The resulting films were characterized by SEM, TEM, AFM, XPS, and XRD. We have investigated the effects of potential and the concentration of additives and found that 2D dendritic-like growth process leaded the formation of films. A suitable growth mechanism based on diffusion limited aggregation (DLA) mechanism for the copper films formation is presented, which are meaningful for further designing homogeneous and functional films.

  11. Electrochemical deposition of layered copper thin films based on the diffusion limited aggregation

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Chenhuinan; Wu, Guoxing; Yang, Sanjun; Liu, Qiming

    2016-01-01

    In this work layered copper films with smooth surface were successfully fabricated onto ITO substrate by electrochemical deposition (ECD) and the thickness of the films was nearly 60 nm. The resulting films were characterized by SEM, TEM, AFM, XPS, and XRD. We have investigated the effects of potential and the concentration of additives and found that 2D dendritic-like growth process leaded the formation of films. A suitable growth mechanism based on diffusion limited aggregation (DLA) mechanism for the copper films formation is presented, which are meaningful for further designing homogeneous and functional films. PMID:27734900

  12. Optimized phenomenological renormalization group for geometrical models: Applications to diffusion-limited aggregation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montag, J. Lee; Family, Fereydoon; Vicsek, Tamas; Nakanishi, Hisao

    1985-10-01

    We propose a new phenomenological rule for the weight function in the position-space renormalization-group approach for the calculation of the fractal dimension in models of geometrical disorder in order to avoid strong corrections to scaling due to surface effects. In our scheme the radius of gyration is used as a characteristic measure of the spatial extent of the clusters. In addition, an optimization parameter is introduced. Application to diffusion-limited aggregation in two dimensions shows that our method gives good estimates even when relatively small cells are used.

  13. A diffusion-limited aggregation model for the evolution of drainage networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Masek, Jeffrey G.; Turcotte, Donald L.

    1993-01-01

    We propose a modified diffusion-limited aggregation (DLA) model for the evolution of fluvial drainage networks. Random walkers are introduced randomly on a grid, and each two-dimensional random walk proceeds until the walker finds a drainage network on which to accrete. This model for headward growth of drainage networks generates drainage patterns remarkably similar to actual drainages. The model also predicts statistical features which agree with actual networks, including the frequency-order (bifurcation) ratio (R(sub b) = 3.98) and the stream length-order (R(sub r) = 2.09). Using the definition of network fractal dimension D = log R(sub b)/log R(sub r), we find that our DLA model gives D = 1.87, near the observed range of D approximately equal to 1.80 - 1.85.

  14. Scaling theory for the anisotropic behavior of generalized diffusion-limited aggregation clusters in two dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsushita, Mitsugu; Family, Fereydoon; Honda, Katsuya

    1987-10-01

    A scaling description of the crossover from isotropic to anisotropic cluster growth for ordinary diffusion-limited aggregation (DLA) in two dimensions developed recently by Family and Hentschel is extended to the generalized DLA or η model. The dependence of various exponents necessary to characterize the anisotropic growth of the local-growth probability exponent η of the generalized DLA is obtained explicitly. The η dependence of the exponent β describing the variation of the crossover mass Nc on the degree of symmetry m,Nc~mβ, is derived. The results indicate that the anisotropic star-shaped clusters can be easily observed for η>1, while their appearance is much more difficult for η<1. All our results are consistent with those of computer simulations reported so far.

  15. Diffusion-Limited Aggregation with Anisotropic Sticking Probability: A Tentative Model for River Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondoh, Hiroshi; Matsushita, Mitsugu

    1986-10-01

    Diffusion-limited aggregation (DLA) model with anisotropic sticking probability Ps is computer-simulated on two dimensional square lattice. The cluster grows from a seed particle at the origin in the positive y area with the absorption-type boundary along x-axis. The cluster is found to grow anisotropically as R//˜Nν// and R\\bot˜Nν\\bot, where R\\bot and R// are the radii of gyration of the cluster along x- and y-axes, respectively, and N is the particle number constituting the cluster. The two exponents are shown to become assymptotically ν//{=}2/3, ν\\bot{=}1/3 whenever the sticking anisotropy exists. It is also found that the present model is fairly consistent with Hack’s law of river networks, suggesting that it is a good candidate of a prototype model for the evolution of the river network.

  16. Diffusion-Limited Aggregation on Percolating Cluster: Crossover and Multifractal Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagatani, Takashi; Stanley, H. Eugene

    1991-04-01

    Viscous fingering in porous media is considered as the diffusion-limited aggregation (DLA) on the percolating cluster. The crossover between percolation and DLA is studied by using a three-parameter position-space renormalization-group approach. The global flow diagram in the two-parameter space is obtained. It is found that there are two nontrivial fixed points, the percolation point and the DLA point. Above the percolation threshold, the system crosses eventually over to the DLA fractal on the perfect lattice. The fractal nature and the multifractal structure of the growth probability distribution are derived from the position-space renormalization-group method. The multifractal structure at the percolation threshold is compared with that at the perfect lattice.

  17. Two-dimensional growth of germanium under a diffusion limited aggregation environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jaejun; Kim, Sung Wook; Park, Youn Ho; Park, Jeong Min; Kim, Yeon Joo; Park, Sangwon; Yang, Jeen Moon; Choi, Heon-Jin

    2017-01-01

    The discovery of graphene has triggered immense interest in two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterials. However, the 2D growth of several layerstructured crystals such as graphene, MoS2, and black phosphorus is difficult and limited. Here, we report the gas-phase 2D growth of germanium (Ge) with a cubic structure to form Ge nanosheets (GeNSs) using the chemical vapor deposition method. Our investigation revealed that a diffusion limited aggregation (DLA) environment is essential for the 2D growth of Ge that induces a dendritic growth in the <110> direction and suppresses the growth in the [111] direction. The growth behavior was similar to the 2D growth of silicon reported previously. Thus, it can be concluded that a DLA environment is essential for the 2D growth of cubic structured materials. The electron density and mobility of GeNSs were found to be 1.3 × 1015 cm-3 and 792 cm2/Vs, respectively, and their resistivity varied with the intensity of light. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  18. Nanostructured diffusion-limited-aggregation crystal pattern formation in a reactive microemulsion system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srivastava, Rohit; Srivastava, P. K.

    2014-03-01

    Nanostructured diffusion-limited-aggregation (DLA) crystal pattern formation in microemulsion consisting of water, styrene, cetyltrimethylammonium chloride (CTACl), potassium persulphate and an oscillating Belousov-Zhabotinsky (BZ) reactant is reported. A variety of spatiotemporal patterns like concentric wave, spatial (stripe) and chaotic patterns appear. A colloidal phase composed of numerous nano-sized particles has been observed. The solid phase nucleation has been found to occur in the colloidal phase and has been found to grow in a symmetric crystal pattern with the progress of the reaction finally exhibiting DLA structures. We show that the formation of a nanostructured DLA crystal pattern is governed by spatial structures emerging in the BZ microemulsion system. Without any spatial structure in the microemulsion system only hydrogel of high viscosity is formed. A nano-sized branched crystal pattern was formed with a particle diameter in the range of 60-100 nm, as evident by transmission electron microscope, powder x-ray diffraction and particle size analyser studies.

  19. Why patchy diffusion-limited aggregation belongs to the directed-percolation universality class

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kartha, Moses J.; Banpurkar, Arun G.

    2016-12-01

    We present a possible link between nonequilibrium phase transition observed in patchy diffusion-limited aggregation (DLA) [M. J. Kartha and A. Sayeed, Phys. Lett. A 380, 2791 (2016), 10.1016/j.physleta.2016.06.036] and directed bond percolation (DP). A system of directed percolation with patchy particles (patchy DP) in which the bond connectivity is established depending on patch size p is analyzed. It is observed that patchy DP starting from a single seed shows a nonequilibrium phase transition. Below a critical value of the patch size pc, the system reaches an absorbing state above which is a fluctuating active state as observed in the DP system. The value of this nonuniversal parameter pc is observed to be slightly higher than the value observed in patchy DLA. Close to the critical value, the order parameter P (∞ ) ˜(p-pc) β where β =0.272 ±0.010 , which is consistent with the directed-percolation universality class. Therefore the intrinsic nature of patchy DP is responsible for the phase transition in patchy DLA. This study reveals that the estimated critical value of patch size pc=0.806 25 ±0.000 20 in patchy DP is different from the critical bond probability pc=0.6447 in the DP system. This elucidates that the bond probability in DP is not equivalent to the patch probability of a particular site. Our work also gives an insight into the problem related with formation of an extended network of pentagon subunits in connection with the virus capsid.

  20. Laplacian growth phenomena with the third boundary condition: Crossover from dense structure to diffusion-limited aggregation fractal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagatani, Takashi

    1989-12-01

    A Laplacian growth model with the third boundary condition, (1-P)∂Φ/∂n-PΦ=0, is considered in order to study the effect of the sticking probability of the diffusion-limited aggregation (DLA), where Φ is the harmonic function satisfying the Laplace equation and ∂Φ/∂n the derivative normal to the interface. The crossover from the dense structure to the DLA fractal is investigated by using a two-parameter position-space renormalization-group method. A global flow diagram in two-parameter space is obtained. It is found that there are two nontrivial fixed points, the Eden point and the DLA point. The DLA point corresponding to the DLA fractal is stable in all directions, while the Eden point is a saddle point. When the sticking probability P is not 1, the aggregate must eventually cross over to the DLA fractal. The crossover exponent φ and crossover radius r× are calculated.

  1. Rate of diffusion-limited reactions for a fractal aggregate of reactive spheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tseng, Chin-Yao; Tsao, Heng-Kwong

    2002-08-01

    We study the reaction rate for a fractal cluster of perfectly absorbing, stationary spherical sinks in a medium containing a mobile reactant. The effectiveness factor eta, which is defined as the ratio of the total reaction rate of the cluster to that without diffusional interactions, is calculated. The scaling behavior of eta is derived for arbitrary fractal dimension based on the Kirkwood-Riseman approximation. The asymptotic as well as the finite size scaling of eta are confirmed numerically by the method of multipole expansion, which has been proven to be an excellent approximation. The fractal assembly is made of N spheres with its dimension varying from D<1 to D=3. The number of sinks can be as high as NapproxO(104). The asymptotic scaling behavior of the effectiveness factor is eta][approxN1/D-1 for D>1, eta][approx(ln N)-1 for D=1, and eta][approxN0 for D<1. The crossover behavior indicates that while in the regime of D>1 the screening effect of diffusive interactions grows with the size, for D<1 it is limited in a finite range and decays with decreasing D. The conclusion is also applicable to transport phenomena like dissolution, heat conduction, and sedimentation.

  2. Scaling behavior of generalized diffusion-limited aggregation: The correct form of the m-spoke model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kassner, K.; Family, F.

    1989-05-01

    The potential of the original m-spoke model, conceived by Family and Hentschel (FH) [Faraday Discuss. Chem. Soc. 83, 139 (1987)], does not satisfy the correct boundary conditions for diffusion-limited aggregation (DLA) or dielectric breakdown. Moreover, while the suggested scaling forms hold, if the growth probability exponent η of the dielectric breakdown model is larger than 2, they are not generally valid for η<2. The correct potential of an m-spoke structure is given, and the scaling behavior of this new model is calculated. Since the scaling dependence on the cluster size N is determined by the local-field behavior, the exponent ν found by FH is recovered with the new potential. For a careful evaluation of the m dependence, however, a nonlocal quantity must be considered, leading to novel results. We conclude that only if the fractal dimension is m dependent can the asymptotic shape of DLA clusters be m-spoke-like.

  3. Tourmaline nodules from Capo Bianco aplite (Elba Island, Italy): an example of diffusion limited aggregation growth in a magmatic system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perugini, Diego; Poli, Giampiero

    2007-05-01

    The morphology of tourmaline nodules occurring in the Capo Bianco aplite (Elba Island, Italy) is studied. Outcrop features indicate that tourmaline nodules are the product of magmatic crystallization, as they are aligned along flow fields developed within the magmatic hosting mass. Mesoscopic observations indicate that nodule morphologies are very variable, from rounded to dendritic. Morphometric analyses show that tourmaline nodules are fractals and that fractal dimension quantifies their degree of irregularity. Numerical simulations of nodule growth are performed by using a Diffusion-Limited Aggregation process. The presence in natural samples of nodules with different morphologies is explained by considering a chaotic magmatic system characterized by a complex interplay between growth rate in different dynamical regions, latent heat of crystallization, and local convection dynamics. It is suggested that higher growth rates correspond to growth of tourmaline nodules in dynamical regions where the transfer of nutrients is very efficient. In such conditions, the latent heat released by the growing nodule is high, inducing strong local convection dynamics, destabilizing the nodule interface, and promoting the formation of dendritic morphologies. On the contrary, the growth of nodules in dynamical regions characterized by weak transfer of nutrients is inhibited leading to weak local convection dynamics and, consequently, to the formation of rounded morphologies.

  4. Diffusion-limited iron transformations in artificial soil aggregates: The impact of small-scale heterogeneity on cycling of redox-sensitive elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pallud, C.; Meile, C.; Fendorf, S.

    2007-12-01

    Structured soils are typically heterogeneous composites of chemical and biological constituents within an intricate physical framework, which has variable geometry, composition and stability expressed over spatial scales of several orders of magnitude. In such settings, solutes move preferentially (by advection) through macropores and slowly (by diffusion) into intra-aggregate micropores, which promotes the establishment of redox gradients at the aggregate scale. Consequently, in such structured environments characterized by mass transfer limitation and redox gradients within soil aggregates, metals distribution can be strongly localized and the interrelated transport and biogeochemical processes control the fate of redox-sensitive contaminants and metals. Iron (hydr)oxides are particularly ubiquitous in soils and sediments and hence exert a pronounced effect on the fate and transport of nutrients and contaminants. As they are subject to both biotic and abiotic redox transformations, iron cycling depends on a tight interplay between hydrodynamic transport, and (bio)geochemical reactions depending on substrate distribution and microbial activity patterns. In this study, we present an experimental/modelling approach aimed at a qualitative and quantitative understanding of bioreductive processes at the microscale, and between advective and diffusive domains. Artificial soil aggregates, representing systems of intermediate complexity, were used to study the coupling of physical, chemical, and biological processes affecting iron oxides transformations, under environmentally relevant geometries. We used novel aggregate-based reaction flow cell experiments and reactive transport modeling to determine mass transfer and biogeochemical redox controls on the cycling of iron ranging from micropore- to aggregate-scales. Aggregates were made of ferrihydrite coated-sand and inoculated with Shewanella putrefaciens. Lactate was added in the input solution. Chemical gradients

  5. A finite-volume fast diffusion-limited aggregation model for predicting the coagulation rate of mixed low-ionized system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Yu; Wang, Guang; Ruan, Leidan; Du, Ai

    2017-03-01

    Accompanied with the changing of coagulation time, the micro-structure of aerogel can be controlled by adding Polyacrylic acid (PAA) into sol system. We simulate the process of particles aggregation contains attracting molecular chains based on diffusion-limited cluster aggregation (DLCA). Compared with the normal coagulation system, the coagulation rate of the system that contains attracting chains are sped up first and then slowed down. The results of the stimulation point out that the interaction between particles and chains not only accelerates the motion of particles, but also separates the region and constrains the clusters' motion. These two effects are coexisting but the attracting interaction play a dominant role in the early state while the volume of chains has a dramatic influence on cluster's motion in late states.

  6. Average shape of transport-limited aggregates.

    PubMed

    Davidovitch, Benny; Choi, Jaehyuk; Bazant, Martin Z

    2005-08-12

    We study the relation between stochastic and continuous transport-limited growth models. We derive a nonlinear integro-differential equation for the average shape of stochastic aggregates, whose mean-field approximation is the corresponding continuous equation. Focusing on the advection-diffusion-limited aggregation (ADLA) model, we show that the average shape of the stochastic growth is similar, but not identical, to the corresponding continuous dynamics. Similar results should apply to DLA, thus explaining the known discrepancies between average DLA shapes and viscous fingers in a channel geometry.

  7. Molecular dynamics simulation of fractal aggregate diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pranami, Gaurav; Lamm, Monica H.; Vigil, R. Dennis

    2010-11-01

    The diffusion of fractal aggregates constructed with the method by Thouy and Jullien [J. Phys. A 27, 2953 (1994)10.1088/0305-4470/27/9/012] comprised of Np spherical primary particles was studied as a function of the aggregate mass and fractal dimension using molecular dynamics simulations. It is shown that finite-size effects have a strong impact on the apparent value of the diffusion coefficient (D) , but these can be corrected by carrying out simulations using different simulation box sizes. Specifically, the diffusion coefficient is inversely proportional to the length of a cubic simulation box, and the constant of proportionality appears to be independent of the aggregate mass and fractal dimension. Using this result, it is possible to compute infinite dilution diffusion coefficients (Do) for aggregates of arbitrary size and fractal dimension, and it was found that Do∝Np-1/df , as is often assumed by investigators simulating Brownian aggregation of fractal aggregates. The ratio of hydrodynamic radius to radius of gyration is computed and shown to be independent of mass for aggregates of fixed fractal dimension, thus enabling an estimate of the diffusion coefficient for a fractal aggregate based on its radius of gyration.

  8. Characterization and modeling of thermal diffusion and aggregation in nanofluids.

    SciTech Connect

    Gharagozloo, Patricia E.; Goodson, Kenneth E.

    2010-05-01

    Fluids with higher thermal conductivities are sought for fluidic cooling systems in applications including microprocessors and high-power lasers. By adding high thermal conductivity nanoscale metal and metal oxide particles to a fluid the thermal conductivity of the fluid is enhanced. While particle aggregates play a central role in recent models for the thermal conductivity of nanofluids, the effect of particle diffusion in a temperature field on the aggregation and transport has yet to be studied in depth. The present work separates the effects of particle aggregation and diffusion using parallel plate experiments, infrared microscopy, light scattering, Monte Carlo simulations, and rate equations for particle and heat transport in a well dispersed nanofluid. Experimental data show non-uniform temporal increases in thermal conductivity above effective medium theory and can be well described through simulation of the combination of particle aggregation and diffusion. The simulation shows large concentration distributions due to thermal diffusion causing variations in aggregation, thermal conductivity and viscosity. Static light scattering shows aggregates form more quickly at higher concentrations and temperatures, which explains the increased enhancement with temperature reported by other research groups. The permanent aggregates in the nanofluid are found to have a fractal dimension of 2.4 and the aggregate formations that grow over time are found to have a fractal dimension of 1.8, which is consistent with diffusion limited aggregation. Calculations show as aggregates grow the viscosity increases at a faster rate than thermal conductivity making the highly aggregated nanofluids unfavorable, especially at the low fractal dimension of 1.8. An optimum nanoparticle diameter for these particular fluid properties is calculated to be 130 nm to optimize the fluid stability by reducing settling, thermal diffusion and aggregation.

  9. Statistical mixing and aggregation in Feller diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anteneodo, C.; Duarte Queirós, S. M.

    2009-10-01

    We consider Feller mean-reverting square-root diffusion, which has been applied to model a wide variety of processes with linearly state-dependent diffusion, such as stochastic volatility and interest rates in finance, and neuronal and population dynamics in the natural sciences. We focus on the statistical mixing (or superstatistical) process in which the parameter related to the mean value can fluctuate—a plausible mechanism for the emergence of heavy-tailed distributions. We obtain analytical results for the associated probability density function (both stationary and time-dependent), its correlation structure and aggregation properties. Our results are applied to explain the statistics of stock traded volume at different aggregation scales.

  10. Model incorporating deposition, diffusion, and aggregation in submonolayer nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jensen, Pablo; Barabási, Albert-László; Larralde, Hernán; Havlin, Shlomo; Stanley, H. E.

    1994-07-01

    We propose a model for describing diffusion-controlled aggregation of particles that are continually deposited on a surface. The model incorporates deposition, diffusion, and aggregation. We find that the diffusion and aggregation of randomly deposited particles ``builds'' a wide variety of fractal structures, all characterized by a common length scale L1. This length L1 scales as the ratio of the diffusion constant over the particle flux to the power 1/4. We compare our results with several recent experiments on two-dimensional nanostructures formed by diffusion-controlled aggregation on surfaces.

  11. Deposition, diffusion, and aggregation of atoms on surfaces: A model for nanostructure growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jensen, Pablo; Barabási, Albert-László; Larralde, Hernán; Havlin, Shlomo; Stanley, H. E.

    1994-11-01

    We propose a model that describes the diffusion-controlled aggregation exhibited by particles as they are deposited on a surface. The model, which incorporates deposition, particle and cluster diffusion, and aggregation, is inspired by recent thin-film-deposition experiments. We find that as randomly deposited particles diffuse and aggregate they configure themselves into a wide variety of fractal structures characterized by a length scale L1. We introduce an exponent γ that tunes the way the diffusion coefficient changes with cluster size: if the values of γ are very large, only single particles can move, if they are smaller, all clusters can move. The introduction of cluster diffusion dramatically affects the dynamics of film growth. We compare our results with those of several recent experiments on two-dimensional nanostructures formed by diffusion-controlled aggregation on surfaces, and we propose several experimental tests of the model. We also investigate the spanning properties of this model and find another characteristic length scale L2 (L2>>L1) above which the system behaves as a bond percolation network of the fractal structures each of length scale L1. Below L2, the system shows similarities with diffusion-limited aggregation. We find that L1 scales as the ratio of the diffusion constant over the particle flux to the power 1/4, whereas L2 scales with another exponent close to 0.9.

  12. Aggregation-fragmentation-diffusion model for trail dynamics

    DOE PAGES

    Kawagoe, Kyle; Huber, Greg; Pradas, Marc; ...

    2017-07-21

    We investigate statistical properties of trails formed by a random process incorporating aggregation, fragmentation, and diffusion. In this stochastic process, which takes place in one spatial dimension, two neighboring trails may combine to form a larger one, and also one trail may split into two. In addition, trails move diffusively. The model is defined by two parameters which quantify the fragmentation rate and the fragment size. In the long-time limit, the system reaches a steady state, and our focus is the limiting distribution of trail weights. We find that the density of trail weight has power-law tail P(w)~w–γ for smallmore » weight w. We obtain the exponent γ analytically and find that it varies continuously with the two model parameters. In conclusion, the exponent γ can be positive or negative, so that in one range of parameters small-weight trails are abundant and in the complementary range they are rare.« less

  13. Diffusion and deformations of single hydra cells in cellular aggregates.

    PubMed Central

    Rieu, J P; Upadhyaya, A; Glazier, J A; Ouchi, N B; Sawada, Y

    2000-01-01

    Cell motion within cellular aggregates consists of both random and coherent components. We used confocal microscopy to study the center of mass displacements and deformations of single endodermal Hydra cells in two kinds of cellular aggregates, ectodermal and endodermal. We first carefully characterize the center of mass displacements using standard statistical analysis. In both aggregates, cells perform a persistent random walk, with the diffusion constant smaller in the more cohesive endodermal aggregate. We show that a simple parametric method is able to describe cell deformations and relate them to displacements. These deformations are random, with their amplitude and direction uncorrelated with the center of mass motion. Unlike for an isolated cell on a substrate, the random forces exerted by the surrounding cells predominate over the deformation of the cell itself, causing the displacements of a cell within an aggregate. PMID:11023896

  14. Oxygen limitation within a bacterial aggregate.

    PubMed

    Wessel, Aimee K; Arshad, Talha A; Fitzpatrick, Mignon; Connell, Jodi L; Bonnecaze, Roger T; Shear, Jason B; Whiteley, Marvin

    2014-04-15

    ABSTRACT Cells within biofilms exhibit physiological heterogeneity, in part because of chemical gradients existing within these spatially structured communities. Previous work has examined how chemical gradients develop in large biofilms containing >10(8) cells. However, many bacterial communities in nature are composed of small, densely packed aggregates of cells (≤ 10(5) bacteria). Using a gelatin-based three-dimensional (3D) printing strategy, we confined the bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa within picoliter-sized 3D "microtraps" that are permeable to nutrients, waste products, and other bioactive small molecules. We show that as a single bacterium grows into a maximally dense (10(12) cells ml(-1)) clonal population, a localized depletion of oxygen develops when it reaches a critical aggregate size of ~55 pl. Collectively, these data demonstrate that chemical and phenotypic heterogeneity exists on the micrometer scale within small aggregate populations. IMPORTANCE Before developing into large, complex communities, microbes initially cluster into aggregates, and it is unclear if chemical heterogeneity exists in these ubiquitous micrometer-scale aggregates. We chose to examine oxygen availability within an aggregate since oxygen concentration impacts a number of important bacterial processes, including metabolism, social behaviors, virulence, and antibiotic resistance. By determining that oxygen availability can vary within aggregates containing ≤ 10(5) bacteria, we establish that physiological heterogeneity exists within P. aeruginosa aggregates, suggesting that such heterogeneity frequently exists in many naturally occurring small populations.

  15. 47 CFR 20.6 - CMRS spectrum aggregation limit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false CMRS spectrum aggregation limit. 20.6 Section... COMMERCIAL MOBILE SERVICES § 20.6 CMRS spectrum aggregation limit. (a) Spectrum limitation. No licensee in... broadband PCS, cellular, and SMR spectrum regulated as CMRS with significant overlap in any geographic...

  16. 47 CFR 20.6 - CMRS spectrum aggregation limit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false CMRS spectrum aggregation limit. 20.6 Section... COMMERCIAL MOBILE SERVICES § 20.6 CMRS spectrum aggregation limit. (a) Spectrum limitation. No licensee in... broadband PCS, cellular, and SMR spectrum regulated as CMRS with significant overlap in any geographic...

  17. 47 CFR 20.6 - CMRS spectrum aggregation limit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false CMRS spectrum aggregation limit. 20.6 Section... COMMERCIAL MOBILE RADIO SERVICES § 20.6 CMRS spectrum aggregation limit. (a) Spectrum limitation. No licensee... licensed broadband PCS, cellular, and SMR spectrum regulated as CMRS with significant overlap in...

  18. 47 CFR 20.6 - CMRS spectrum aggregation limit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false CMRS spectrum aggregation limit. 20.6 Section... COMMERCIAL MOBILE SERVICES § 20.6 CMRS spectrum aggregation limit. (a) Spectrum limitation. No licensee in... broadband PCS, cellular, and SMR spectrum regulated as CMRS with significant overlap in any geographic...

  19. 47 CFR 20.6 - CMRS spectrum aggregation limit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false CMRS spectrum aggregation limit. 20.6 Section... COMMERCIAL MOBILE SERVICES § 20.6 CMRS spectrum aggregation limit. (a) Spectrum limitation. No licensee in... broadband PCS, cellular, and SMR spectrum regulated as CMRS with significant overlap in any geographic...

  20. Reaction limited aggregation in surfactant-mediated epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jing; Liu, Bang-Gui; Zhang, Zhenyu; Wang, E. G.

    2000-05-01

    A theoretical model for reaction limited aggregation (RLA) is introduced to study the effect of a monolayer of surfactant on the formation of two-dimensional islands in heteroepitaxial and homoepitaxial growth. In this model the basic atomic processes are considered as follows. A stable island consists of the adatoms that have exchanged positions with the surfactant atoms beneath them. Movable active adatoms may (a) diffuse on the surfactant terrace, (b) exchange positions with the surfactant atoms beneath them and become island seeds (seed exchange), or (c) stick to stable islands and become stuck but still active adatoms. The rate-limiting step for the formation of a stable island is the seed exchange. Furthermore, a stuck but still active adatom must overcome a sizable potential-energy barrier to exchange positions with the surfactant atom beneath it and become a member of the stable island (aided exchange). The seed exchange process can occur with an adatom or collectively with an addimer. In the case of dimer exchange, the diffusing adatoms on the surfactant terrace can meet and (after exchanging) form stable dimers, which can then become island seeds. Systematic kinetic Monte Carlo simulations and rate-equation analysis of the model are carried out. The key finding of these simulations is that a counterintuitive fractal-to-compact island shape transition can be induced either by increasing deposition flux or by decreasing growth temperature. This major qualitative conclusion is valid for both the monomer and the dimer seed exchanges and for two different substrate lattices (square and triangular, respectively), although there are some quantitative differences in the flux and temperature dependence of the island density. The shape transition observed is contrary to the prediction of the classic diffusion-limited aggregation (DLA) theory, but in excellent qualitative agreement with recent experiments. In rationalizing the main finding, it is crucial to realize

  1. Lattice animals in diffusion limited binary colloidal system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shireen, Zakiya; Babu, Sujin B.

    2017-08-01

    In a soft matter system, controlling the structure of the amorphous materials has been a key challenge. In this work, we have modeled irreversible diffusion limited cluster aggregation of binary colloids, which serves as a model for chemical gels. Irreversible aggregation of binary colloidal particles leads to the formation of a percolating cluster of one species or both species which are also called bigels. Before the formation of the percolating cluster, the system forms a self-similar structure defined by a fractal dimension. For a one component system when the volume fraction is very small, the clusters are far apart from each other and the system has a fractal dimension of 1.8. Contrary to this, we will show that for the binary system, we observe the presence of lattice animals which has a fractal dimension of 2 irrespective of the volume fraction. When the clusters start inter-penetrating, we observe a fractal dimension of 2.5, which is the same as in the case of the one component system. We were also able to predict the formation of bigels using a simple inequality relation. We have also shown that the growth of clusters follows the kinetic equations introduced by Smoluchowski for diffusion limited cluster aggregation. We will also show that the chemical distance of a cluster in the flocculation regime will follow the same scaling law as predicted for the lattice animals. Further, we will also show that irreversible binary aggregation comes under the universality class of the percolation theory.

  2. Analysis of aggregated tick returns: Evidence for anomalous diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, Philipp

    2007-01-01

    In order to investigate the origin of large price fluctuations, we analyze stock price changes of ten frequently traded NASDAQ stocks in the year 2002. Though the influence of the trading frequency on the aggregate return in a certain time interval is important, it cannot alone explain the heavy-tailed distribution of stock price changes. For this reason, we analyze intervals with a fixed number of trades in order to eliminate the influence of the trading frequency and investigate the relevance of other factors for the aggregate return. We show that in tick time the price follows a discrete diffusion process with a variable step width while the difference between the number of steps in positive and negative direction in an interval is Gaussian distributed. The step width is given by the return due to a single trade and is long-term correlated in tick time. Hence, its mean value can well characterize an interval of many trades and turns out to be an important determinant for large aggregate returns. We also present a statistical model reproducing the cumulative distribution of aggregate returns. For an accurate agreement with the empirical distribution, we also take into account asymmetries of the step widths in different directions together with cross correlations between these asymmetries and the mean step width as well as the signs of the steps.

  3. Confinement-dependent localization of diffusing aggregates in cellular geometries.

    PubMed

    Keramati, Mahdi Rezaei; Wasnik, Vaihbav; Ping, Liyan; Das, Dibyendu; Emberly, Eldon

    2015-01-01

    Confinement has a strong influence on diffusing nano-sized clusters. In particular, biomolecular aggregates within the shell-like confining space of a bacterial cell have been shown to display a variety of localization patterns, from being midcell to the poles. How does the confining space determine where the aggregate will localize? Here, using Monte Carlo simulations we have calculated the equilibrium spatial distribution of fixed-sized clusters diffusing in spherocylindrical shells. We find that localization to the poles depends strongly on shell thickness and the size of the cluster. Compared to being at midcell, polar clusters can be more bent and hence have higher energy, but they also can have a greater number of defects and hence have more entropy. Under certain conditions this can lead to polar clusters having a lower free energy than at midcell, favoring localization to the poles. Our findings suggest possible localization selection mechanisms within shell-like geometries that can arise purely from cluster confinement.

  4. Hydration and diffusion processes shape microbial community organization and function in model soil aggregates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebrahimi, Ali; Or, Dani

    2015-12-01

    The constantly changing soil hydration status affects gas and nutrient diffusion through soil pores and thus the functioning of soil microbial communities. The conditions within soil aggregates are of particular interest due to limitations to oxygen diffusion into their core, and the presence of organic carbon often acting as binding agent. We developed a model for microbial life in simulated soil aggregates comprising of 3-D angular pore network model (APNM) that mimics soil hydraulic and transport properties. Within these APNM, we introduced individual motile (flagellated) microbial cells with different physiological traits that grow, disperse, and respond to local nutrients and oxygen concentrations. The model quantifies the dynamics and spatial extent of anoxic regions that vary with hydration conditions, and their role in shaping microbial community size and activity and the spatial (self) segregation of anaerobes and aerobes. Internal carbon source and opposing diffusion directions of oxygen and carbon within an aggregate were essential to emergence of stable coexistence of aerobic and anaerobic communities (anaerobes become extinct when carbon sources are external). The model illustrates a range of hydration conditions that promote or suppress denitrification or decomposition of organic matter and thus affect soil GHG emissions. Model predictions of CO2 and N2O production rates were in good agreement with limited experimental data. These limited tests support the dynamic modeling approach whereby microbial community size, composition, and spatial arrangement emerge from internal interactions within soil aggregates. The upscaling of the results to a population of aggregates of different sizes embedded in a soil profile is underway.

  5. Diffusion and aggregation of oxygen vacancies in amorphous silica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munde, Manveer S.; Gao, David Z.; Shluger, Alexander L.

    2017-06-01

    Using density functional theory (DFT) calculations, we investigated oxygen vacancy diffusion and aggregation in relation to dielectric breakdown in amorphous silicon dioxide (a-SiO2). Our calculations indicate the existence of favourable sites for the formation of vacancy dimers and trimers in the amorphous network with maximum binding energies of approximately 0.13 eV and 0.18 eV, respectively. However, an average energy barrier height for neutral vacancy diffusion is found to be about 4.6 eV, rendering this process unfeasible. At Fermi level positions above 6.4 eV with respect to the top of the valence band, oxygen vacancies can trap up to two extra electrons. Average barriers for the diffusion of negative and double negatively charged vacancies are found to be 2.7 eV and 2.0 eV, respectively. These barriers are higher than or comparable to thermal ionization energies of extra electrons from oxygen vacancies into the conduction band of a-SiO2. In addition, we discuss the competing pathways for electron trapping in oxygen deficient a-SiO2 caused by the existence of intrinsic electron traps and oxygen vacancies. These results provide new insights into the role of oxygen vacancies in degradation and dielectric breakdown in amorphous silicon oxides.

  6. 5 CFR 9901.313 - Aggregate compensation limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aggregate compensation limitations. 9901.313 Section 9901.313 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT AND LABOR RELATIONS SYSTEMS (DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE-OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT) DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE...

  7. Kinetic theory of diffusion-limited nucleation.

    PubMed

    Philippe, T; Bonvalet, M; Blavette, D

    2016-05-28

    We examine binary nucleation in the size and composition space {R,c} using the formalism of the multivariable theory [N. V. Alekseechkin, J. Chem. Phys. 124, 124512 (2006)]. We show that the variable c drops out of consideration for very large curvature of the new phase Gibbs energy with composition. Consequently nuclei around the critical size have the critical composition, which is derived from the condition of criticality for the canonical variables and is found not to depend on surface tension. In this case, nucleation kinetics can be investigated in the size space only. Using macroscopic kinetics, we determine the general expression for the condensation rate when growth is limited by bulk diffusion, which accounts for both diffusion and capillarity and exhibits a different dependence with the critical size, as compared with the interface-limited regime. This new expression of the condensation rate for bulk diffusion-limited nucleation is the counterpart of the classical interface-limited result. We then extend our analysis to multicomponent solutions.

  8. Localization of Protein Aggregation in Escherichia coli Is Governed by Diffusion and Nucleoid Macromolecular Crowding Effect

    PubMed Central

    Coquel, Anne-Sophie; Jacob, Jean-Pascal; Primet, Mael; Demarez, Alice; Dimiccoli, Mariella; Julou, Thomas; Moisan, Lionel

    2013-01-01

    Aggregates of misfolded proteins are a hallmark of many age-related diseases. Recently, they have been linked to aging of Escherichia coli (E. coli) where protein aggregates accumulate at the old pole region of the aging bacterium. Because of the potential of E. coli as a model organism, elucidating aging and protein aggregation in this bacterium may pave the way to significant advances in our global understanding of aging. A first obstacle along this path is to decipher the mechanisms by which protein aggregates are targeted to specific intercellular locations. Here, using an integrated approach based on individual-based modeling, time-lapse fluorescence microscopy and automated image analysis, we show that the movement of aging-related protein aggregates in E. coli is purely diffusive (Brownian). Using single-particle tracking of protein aggregates in live E. coli cells, we estimated the average size and diffusion constant of the aggregates. Our results provide evidence that the aggregates passively diffuse within the cell, with diffusion constants that depend on their size in agreement with the Stokes-Einstein law. However, the aggregate displacements along the cell long axis are confined to a region that roughly corresponds to the nucleoid-free space in the cell pole, thus confirming the importance of increased macromolecular crowding in the nucleoids. We thus used 3D individual-based modeling to show that these three ingredients (diffusion, aggregation and diffusion hindrance in the nucleoids) are sufficient and necessary to reproduce the available experimental data on aggregate localization in the cells. Taken together, our results strongly support the hypothesis that the localization of aging-related protein aggregates in the poles of E. coli results from the coupling of passive diffusion-aggregation with spatially non-homogeneous macromolecular crowding. They further support the importance of “soft” intracellular structuring (based on macromolecular

  9. Localization of protein aggregation in Escherichia coli is governed by diffusion and nucleoid macromolecular crowding effect.

    PubMed

    Coquel, Anne-Sophie; Jacob, Jean-Pascal; Primet, Mael; Demarez, Alice; Dimiccoli, Mariella; Julou, Thomas; Moisan, Lionel; Lindner, Ariel B; Berry, Hugues

    2013-04-01

    Aggregates of misfolded proteins are a hallmark of many age-related diseases. Recently, they have been linked to aging of Escherichia coli (E. coli) where protein aggregates accumulate at the old pole region of the aging bacterium. Because of the potential of E. coli as a model organism, elucidating aging and protein aggregation in this bacterium may pave the way to significant advances in our global understanding of aging. A first obstacle along this path is to decipher the mechanisms by which protein aggregates are targeted to specific intercellular locations. Here, using an integrated approach based on individual-based modeling, time-lapse fluorescence microscopy and automated image analysis, we show that the movement of aging-related protein aggregates in E. coli is purely diffusive (Brownian). Using single-particle tracking of protein aggregates in live E. coli cells, we estimated the average size and diffusion constant of the aggregates. Our results provide evidence that the aggregates passively diffuse within the cell, with diffusion constants that depend on their size in agreement with the Stokes-Einstein law. However, the aggregate displacements along the cell long axis are confined to a region that roughly corresponds to the nucleoid-free space in the cell pole, thus confirming the importance of increased macromolecular crowding in the nucleoids. We thus used 3D individual-based modeling to show that these three ingredients (diffusion, aggregation and diffusion hindrance in the nucleoids) are sufficient and necessary to reproduce the available experimental data on aggregate localization in the cells. Taken together, our results strongly support the hypothesis that the localization of aging-related protein aggregates in the poles of E. coli results from the coupling of passive diffusion-aggregation with spatially non-homogeneous macromolecular crowding. They further support the importance of "soft" intracellular structuring (based on macromolecular

  10. Diffusion-limited reactions in crowded environments.

    PubMed

    Dorsaz, N; De Michele, C; Piazza, F; De Los Rios, P; Foffi, G

    2010-09-17

    Diffusion-limited reactions are usually described within the Smoluchowski theory, which neglects interparticle interactions. We propose a simple way to incorporate excluded-volume effects building on simulations of hard sphere in the presence of a sink. For large values of the sink-to-particle size ratio R(s), the measured encounter rate is in good agreement with a simple generalization of the Smoluchowski equation at high densities. Reducing R(s), the encounter rate is substantially depressed and becomes even nonmonotonic for R(s)<1. Concurrently with the saturation of the rate, stationary density waves set in close to the sink. A mean-field analysis helps to shed light on the subtle link between such ordering and the slowing down of the encounter dynamics. Finally, we show how an infinitesimal amount of nonreacting impurities can equally slow down dramatically the reaction.

  11. Phase-field modeling of two-dimensional solute precipitation/dissolution: Solid fingers and diffusion-limited precipitation

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Zhijie; Meakin, Paul

    2011-01-28

    Two-dimensional dendritic growth due to solute precipitation was simulated using a phase-field model reported earlier [Z. Xu and P. Meakin, J. Chem. Phys. 129, 014705 (2008)]. It was shown that diffusion-limited precipitation due to the chemical reaction at the solid-liquid interface posses similarities with diffusion-limited aggregation (DLA). The diffusion-limited precipitation is attained by setting the chemical reaction rate much larger compared to the solute diffusion to eliminate the effect of the interface growth kinetics. The phase-field simulation results were in reasonable agreement with the analytical solutions. The fractal solid fingers can be formed in the diffusion-limited precipitation and have a fractal dimension measured , close to 1.64, the fractal dimensionality of large square lattice diffusion-limited aggregation (DLA) clusters.

  12. Limited Slowdown of Endocrine-Disruptor Diffusion in Confined Fluid Lipid Membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okamura, Emiko; Wakai, Chihiro; Matubayasi, Nobuyuki; Sugiura, Yukio; Nakahara, Masaru

    2004-12-01

    Self-diffusion rates of lipids and trapped bisphenol A (BPA) are determined in various sizes of confined but fluid membranes by high-field-gradient NMR at 600MHz. Micelles and vesicles of 3- to 400-nm diameters are used as model membranes to get an insight into the molecular diffusion in such soft environments. The slowdown of BPA and lipid motions is leveled off in 100- and 400-nm vesicles, although the hydrodynamic continuum model gives the aggregate motion slowed inversely to the aggregate size. Instead, the limited motion is related to the intra-membrane fluidity.

  13. Public Good Diffusion Limits Microbial Mutualism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menon, Rajita; Korolev, Kirill S.

    2015-04-01

    Standard game theory cannot describe microbial interactions mediated by diffusible molecules. Nevertheless, we show that one can still model microbial dynamics using game theory with parameters renormalized by diffusion. Contrary to expectations, greater sharing of metabolites reduces the strength of cooperation and leads to species extinction via a nonequilibrium phase transition. We report analytic results for the critical diffusivity and the length scale of species intermixing. Species producing slower public good is favored by selection when fitness saturates with nutrient concentration.

  14. Fireproof impact limiter aggregate packaging inside shipping containers

    DOEpatents

    Byington, Gerald A.; Oakes, Jr., Raymon Edgar; Feldman, Matthew Rookes

    2001-01-01

    The invention is a product and a process for making a fireproof, impact limiter, homogeneous aggregate material for casting inside a hazardous material shipping container, or a double-contained Type-B nuclear shipping container. The homogeneous aggregate material is prepared by mixing inorganic compounds with water, pouring the mixture into the void spaces between an inner storage containment vessel and an outer shipping container, vibrating the mixture inside the shipping container, with subsequent curing, baking, and cooling of the mixture to form a solidified material which encapsulates an inner storage containment vessel inside an outer shipping container. The solidified material forms a protective enclosure around an inner storage containment vessel which may store hazardous, toxic, or radioactive material. The solidified material forms a homogeneous fire-resistant material that does not readily transfer heat, and provides general shock and specific point-impact protection, providing protection to the interior storage containment vessel. The material is low cost, may contain neutron absorbing compounds, and is easily formed into a variety of shapes to fill the interior void spaces of shipping containers.

  15. Tuning the thermal diffusivity of silver based nanofluids by controlling nanoparticle aggregation.

    PubMed

    Agresti, Filippo; Barison, Simona; Battiston, Simone; Pagura, Cesare; Colla, Laura; Fedele, Laura; Fabrizio, Monica

    2013-09-13

    With the aim of preparing stable nanofluids for heat exchange applications and to study the effect of surfactant on the aggregation of nanoparticles and thermal diffusivity, stable silver colloids were synthesized in water by a green method, reducing AgNO₃ with fructose in the presence of poly-vinylpyrollidone (PVP) of various molecular weights. A silver nanopowder was precipitated from the colloids and re-dispersed at 4 vol% in deionized water. The Ag colloids were characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy, combined dynamic light scattering and ζ-potential measurements, and laser flash thermal diffusivity. The Ag nanopowders were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and thermal gravimetric analysis. It was found that the molecular weight of PVP strongly affects the ζ-potential and the aggregation of nanoparticles, thereby affecting the thermal diffusivity of the obtained colloids. In particular, it was observed that on increasing the molecular weight of PVP the absolute value of the ζ-potential is reduced, leading to increased aggregation of nanoparticles. A clear relation was identified between thermal diffusivity and aggregation, showing higher thermal diffusivity for nanofluids having higher aggregation. A maximum improvement of thermal diffusivity by about 12% was found for nanofluids prepared with PVP having higher molecular weight.

  16. Tuning the thermal diffusivity of silver based nanofluids by controlling nanoparticle aggregation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agresti, Filippo; Barison, Simona; Battiston, Simone; Pagura, Cesare; Colla, Laura; Fedele, Laura; Fabrizio, Monica

    2013-09-01

    With the aim of preparing stable nanofluids for heat exchange applications and to study the effect of surfactant on the aggregation of nanoparticles and thermal diffusivity, stable silver colloids were synthesized in water by a green method, reducing AgNO3 with fructose in the presence of poly-vinylpyrollidone (PVP) of various molecular weights. A silver nanopowder was precipitated from the colloids and re-dispersed at 4 vol% in deionized water. The Ag colloids were characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy, combined dynamic light scattering and ζ-potential measurements, and laser flash thermal diffusivity. The Ag nanopowders were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and thermal gravimetric analysis. It was found that the molecular weight of PVP strongly affects the ζ-potential and the aggregation of nanoparticles, thereby affecting the thermal diffusivity of the obtained colloids. In particular, it was observed that on increasing the molecular weight of PVP the absolute value of the ζ-potential is reduced, leading to increased aggregation of nanoparticles. A clear relation was identified between thermal diffusivity and aggregation, showing higher thermal diffusivity for nanofluids having higher aggregation. A maximum improvement of thermal diffusivity by about 12% was found for nanofluids prepared with PVP having higher molecular weight.

  17. Some free boundary problems involving non-local diffusion and aggregation

    PubMed Central

    Carrillo, José Antonio; Vázquez, Juan Luis

    2015-01-01

    We report on recent progress in the study of evolution processes involving degenerate parabolic equations which may exhibit free boundaries. The equations we have selected follow two recent trends in diffusion theory: considering anomalous diffusion with long-range effects, which leads to fractional operators or other operators involving kernels with large tails; and the combination of diffusion and aggregation effects, leading to delicate long-term equilibria whose description is still incipient. PMID:26261360

  18. 42 CFR 447.78 - Aggregate limits on alternative premiums and cost sharing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Aggregate limits on alternative premiums and cost... Provisions Alternative Premiums and Cost Sharing Under Section 1916a § 447.78 Aggregate limits on alternative premiums and cost sharing. (a) The total aggregate amount of premiums and cost sharing imposed...

  19. A numerical study of soot aggregate formation in a laminar coflow diffusion flame

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Q.; Thomson, M.J.; Guo, H.; Liu, F.; Smallwood, G.J.

    2009-03-15

    Soot aggregate formation in a two-dimensional laminar coflow ethylene/air diffusion flame is studied with a pyrene-based soot model, a detailed sectional aerosol dynamics model, and a detailed radiation model. The chemical kinetic mechanism describes polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon formation up to pyrene, the dimerization of which is assumed to lead to soot nucleation. The growth and oxidation of soot particles are characterized by the HACA surface mechanism and pyrene-soot surface condensation. The mass range of the solid soot phase is divided into thirty-five discrete sections and two equations are solved in each section to model the formation of the fractal-like soot aggregates. The coagulation model is improved by implementing the aggregate coagulation efficiency. Several physical processes that may cause sub-unitary aggregate coagulation efficiency are discussed. Their effects on aggregate structure are numerically investigated. The average number of primary soot particles per soot aggregate n{sub p} is found to be a strong function of the aggregate coagulation efficiency. Compared to the available experimental data, n{sub p} is well reproduced with a constant 20% aggregate coagulation efficiency. The predicted axial velocity, OH mole fraction, and C{sub 2}H{sub 2} mole fraction are validated against experimental data in the literature. Reasonable agreements are obtained. Finally, a sensitivity study of the effects of particle coalescence on soot volume fraction and soot aggregate nanostructure is conducted using a coalescence cutoff diameter method. (author)

  20. Asymptotic Diffusion-Limit Accuracy of Sn Angular Differencing Schemes

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, T S; Morel, J E; Chang, J H

    2009-11-05

    In a previous paper, Morel and Montry used a Galerkin-based diffusion analysis to define a particular weighted diamond angular discretization for S{sub n}n calculations in curvilinear geometries. The weighting factors were chosen to ensure that the Galerkin diffusion approximation was preserved, which eliminated the discrete-ordinates flux dip. It was also shown that the step and diamond angular differencing schemes, which both suffer from the flux dip, do not preserve the diffusion approximation in the Galerkin sense. In this paper we re-derive the Morel and Montry weighted diamond scheme using a formal asymptotic diffusion-limit analysis. The asymptotic analysis yields more information than the Galerkin analysis and demonstrates that the step and diamond schemes do in fact formally preserve the diffusion limit to leading order, while the Morel and Montry weighted diamond scheme preserves it to first order, which is required for full consistency in this limit. Nonetheless, the fact that the step and diamond differencing schemes preserve the diffusion limit to leading order suggests that the flux dip should disappear as the diffusion limit is approached for these schemes. Computational results are presented that confirm this conjecture. We further conjecture that preserving the Galerkin diffusion approximation is equivalent to preserving the asymptotic diffusion limit to first order.

  1. Pulmonary diffusion limitation after prolonged strenuous exercise.

    PubMed

    Manier, G; Moinard, J; Téchoueyres, P; Varène, N; Guénard, H

    1991-02-01

    To determine the effect of strenuous prolonged exercise on alveolo-capillary membrane diffusing capacity, 11 marathon runners aged 37 +/- 7 years (mean +/- SD) were studied before and during early recovery (28 +/- 14 min) from a marathon race. Lung capillary blood volume (Vc) and the alveolo-capillary diffusing capacity (Dm) were determined in a one-step maneuver by simultaneous measurements of CO and NO lung transfer (DLCO and DLNO, respectively) using the single breath, breath-holding method. After the race, both DLCO and DLNO were significantly decreased in all subjects (-10.9 +/- 4.8%, P less than 10(-4) and -29.0 +/- 11.1%, P less than 10(-4), respectively). The mean value of the derived DmCO decreased by -29.3 +/- 11.1%, whereas Vc had not entirely returned to control resting value. Although these results do not indicate the detailed mechanism involved, interstitial lung fluid was suspected to accumulate, particularly in alveoli, during the race. We concluded that the high overall work load and the extended duration of the exercise both contributed to a transient change in the structure of the alveolo-capillary membrane thereby affecting the diffusing capacity of the alveolo-capillary membrane.

  2. 26 CFR 1.25-5T - Limitation on aggregate amount of mortgage credit certificates (Temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... TREASURY INCOME TAX INCOME TAXES Changes in Rates During A Taxable Year § 1.25-5T Limitation on aggregate... certificate credit rate of 20 percent and a certified indebtedness amount of $50,000. The aggregate amount of... a certificate credit rate of 10 percent and an aggregate principal amount of $25 million,...

  3. Endocannabinoids Control Platelet Activation and Limit Aggregate Formation under Flow

    PubMed Central

    De Angelis, Valentina; Koekman, Arnold C.; Weeterings, Cees; Roest, Mark; de Groot, Philip G.; Herczenik, Eszter; Maas, Coen

    2014-01-01

    Background The endocannabinoid system has previously been implicated in the regulation of neurons and inflammatory cells. Additionally, it has been reported that endocannabinoid receptors are present on circulating platelets, but there has been conflicting evidence on their contribution to platelet function. Objectives Our aim was to examine the role of endocannabinoids in platelet function in vitro and in vivo. Methods and Results We studied the effects of the well-characterized endogenous endocannabinoid anandamide on platelet aggregation in suspension, α-granule release, calcium mobilization, Syk phosphorylation, as well as platelet spreading and aggregate formation under flow. Anandamide inhibits platelet aggregation and α-granule release by collagen, collagen-derived peptide CRP-XL, ADP, arachidonic acid and thromboxane A2 analogue U46619. However, activation via thrombin receptor PAR-1 stays largely unaffected. Calcium mobilization is significantly impaired when platelets are stimulated with collagen or CRP-XL, but remains normal in the presence of the other agonists. In line with this finding, we found that anandamide prevents collagen-induced Syk phosphorylation. Furthermore, anandamide-treated platelets exhibit reduced spreading on immobilized fibrinogen, have a decreased capacity for binding fibrinogen in solution and show perturbed platelet aggregate formation under flow over collagen. Finally, we investigated the influence of Cannabis sativa consumption by human volunteers on platelet activation. Similar to our in vitro findings with anandamide, ex vivo collagen-induced platelet aggregation and aggregate formation on immobilized collagen under flow were impaired in whole blood of donors that had consumed Cannabis sativa. Conclusions Endocannabinoid receptor agonists reduce platelet activation and aggregate formation both in vitro and ex vivo after Cannabis sativa consumption. Further elucidation of this novel regulatory mechanism for platelet function

  4. Invisibility cloaking in the diffusive-light limit (presentation video)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schittny, Robert; Kadic, Muamer; Wegener, Martin

    2014-09-01

    Albert Einstein's theory of relativity imposes stringent limitations to making macroscopic objects invisible with respect to electromagnetic light waves propagating in vacuum. These limitations are not relevant though for propagation of light in diffusive media like fog or milk because the effective energy speed is significantly lower than in vacuum due to multiple scattering events. Here, by exploiting the close mathematical analogy between the electrostatic or near-field limit of optics on the one hand and light diffusion on the other hand, we design, fabricate, and characterize simple core-shell cloaking structures for diffusive light propagation in cylindrical and spherical geometry.

  5. Effect of clay aggregation on water diffusivity using low field NMR.

    PubMed

    Guichet, Xavier; Fleury, Marc; Kohler, Eric

    2008-11-01

    Water diffusivity D measured by using NMR techniques in Na-smectite suspensions decreases with increasing smectite fraction (up to 50 wt%), but increases with increasing salinity (NaCl or CaCl(2) aqueous solutions) at a fixed clay fraction. The increase, larger for CaCl(2) solutions, is explained by aggregation of clay particles when high salinities are reached. Macroscopic organisation of dense mixtures of clay and aqueous solutions can be inferred by T(2) transverse NMR relaxation times which are sensitive to the volume to surface ratio. Dispersed suspensions exhibit mono-modal T(2) distributions, whereas bimodal T(2) distributions are observed for flocculated systems. The bimodal T(2) distributions are interpreted as a measurement of the spacing between clay particles within aggregates and between aggregates. Finally, the diffusion data can be gathered in an unique curve using the Debye length and the measured spacing between particles. When the thickness of the electro-diffuse layer (Debye length) is of the same order as the spacing between clay particles, the water diffusivity decreases. Otherwise it is constant at about 2.22+/-0.25x10(-9) m(2)/s. This last result illustrates clearly the effect of electro-chemical properties of smectite on water diffusivity.

  6. On limits to Jupiter's magnetospheric diffusion rates.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mihalov, J. D.

    1973-01-01

    X-ray fluxes at earth estimated from hypothetical fluxes and spectra of energetic particles trapped in Jupiter's magnetic field are found to be 1/170000 times the upper limit X-ray flux from Jupiter based on published results from a rocket experiment. Detection of the calculated X-ray flux from Jupiter does not necessarily provide information on an energetic trapped proton component because the X-ray flux due to the hypothetical trapped energetic proton fluxes alone is comparable in magnitude to that due alone to trapped energetic electron fluxes as Jupiter.

  7. On limits to Jupiter's magnetospheric diffusion rates.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mihalov, J. D.

    1973-01-01

    X-ray fluxes at earth estimated from hypothetical fluxes and spectra of energetic particles trapped in Jupiter's magnetic field are found to be 1/170000 times the upper limit X-ray flux from Jupiter based on published results from a rocket experiment. Detection of the calculated X-ray flux from Jupiter does not necessarily provide information on an energetic trapped proton component because the X-ray flux due to the hypothetical trapped energetic proton fluxes alone is comparable in magnitude to that due alone to trapped energetic electron fluxes as Jupiter.

  8. Phase-field modeling of two-dimensional solute precipitation/dissolution: Solid fingers and diffusion-limited precipitation

    SciTech Connect

    Zhijie Xu; Paul Meakin

    2011-01-01

    Two-dimensional dendritic growth due to solute precipitation was simulated using a phase-field model reported earlier [Z. Xu and P. Meakin, J. Chem. Phys. 129, 014705 (2008)]. It was shown that diffusion-limited precipitation due to the chemical reaction at the solid–liquid interface has similarities with diffusion-limited aggregation (DLA). The diffusion-limited precipitation is attained by setting the chemical reaction rate much larger compared to the solute diffusion to eliminate the effect of the interface growth kinetics. The phase-field simulation results were in reasonable agreement with the analytical solutions. The fractal solid fingers can be formed in the diffusion-limited precipitation and have a fractal dimension measured df = 1.68, close to 1.64, the fractal dimensionality of large square lattice DLA clusters.

  9. Phase-field modeling of two-dimensional solute precipitation∕dissolution: solid fingers and diffusion-limited precipitation.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhijie; Meakin, Paul

    2011-01-28

    Two-dimensional dendritic growth due to solute precipitation was simulated using a phase-field model reported earlier [Z. Xu and P. Meakin, J. Chem. Phys. 129, 014705 (2008)]. It was shown that diffusion-limited precipitation due to the chemical reaction at the solid-liquid interface has similarities with diffusion-limited aggregation (DLA). The diffusion-limited precipitation is attained by setting the chemical reaction rate much larger compared to the solute diffusion to eliminate the effect of the interface growth kinetics. The phase-field simulation results were in reasonable agreement with the analytical solutions. The fractal solid fingers can be formed in the diffusion-limited precipitation and have a fractal dimension measured d(f)=1.68, close to 1.64, the fractal dimensionality of large square lattice DLA clusters.

  10. The effects of nutrient chemotaxis on bacterial aggregation patterns with non-linear degenerate cross diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leyva, J. Francisco; Málaga, Carlos; Plaza, Ramón G.

    2013-11-01

    This paper studies a reaction-diffusion-chemotaxis model for bacterial aggregation patterns on the surface of thin agar plates. It is based on the non-linear degenerate cross diffusion model proposed by Kawasaki et al. (1997) [5] and it includes a suitable nutrient chemotactic term compatible with such type of diffusion, as suggested by Ben-Jacob et al. (2000) [20]. An asymptotic estimation predicts the growth velocity of the colony envelope as a function of both the nutrient concentration and the chemotactic sensitivity. It is shown that the growth velocity is an increasing function of the chemotactic sensitivity. High resolution numerical simulations using Graphic Processing Units (GPUs), which include noise in the diffusion coefficient for the bacteria, are presented. The numerical results verify that the chemotactic term enhances the velocity of propagation of the colony envelope. In addition, the chemotaxis seems to stabilize the formation of branches in the soft-agar, low-nutrient regime.

  11. Reaction-diffusion-advection approach to spatially localized treadmilling aggregates of molecular motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yochelis, Arik; Bar-On, Tomer; Gov, Nir S.

    2016-04-01

    Unconventional myosins belong to a class of molecular motors that walk processively inside cellular protrusions towards the tips, on top of actin filament. Surprisingly, in addition, they also form retrograde moving self-organized aggregates. The qualitative properties of these aggregates are recapitulated by a mass conserving reaction-diffusion-advection model and admit two distinct families of modes: traveling waves and pulse trains. Unlike the traveling waves that are generated by a linear instability, pulses are nonlinear structures that propagate on top of linearly stable uniform backgrounds. Asymptotic analysis of isolated pulses via a simplified reaction-diffusion-advection variant on large periodic domains, allows to draw qualitative trends for pulse properties, such as the amplitude, width, and propagation speed. The results agree well with numerical integrations and are related to available empirical observations.

  12. Overcoming diffusion-limited processes using enhanced advective fields

    SciTech Connect

    Rasmussen, T.C.

    1995-12-31

    Many subsurface cleanup activities focus on the remediation of organic contaminants using induced advective fields. Subsurface heterogeneities cause most advective transport to occur in more permeable zones, with transport from the lower permeability units being limited by diffusion to the higher permeable units. While diffusion rates can be enhanced using thermal sources, many of the treatment strategies, including pump and treat, vapor extraction and bioremediation, are limited by mass exchange rates between the higher and lower permeability sand and clay mixtures. Instead of relying on the enhancement of diffusion rates, it is proposed that remediation strategies should focus on the enhancement of induced advective transport rates through the lower permeability units. Injection-extraction strategies using crosshole and huff-and-puff methods are presented for maximizing advective transport through lower permeability units. Optimization of the design can incorporate diffusion-enhancement technologies, bionourishment, capillary confinement in the unsaturated zone, and DNAPL slurping.

  13. The Analytical Limits of Modeling Short Diffusion Timescales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradshaw, R. W.; Kent, A. J.

    2016-12-01

    Chemical and isotopic zoning in minerals is widely used to constrain the timescales of magmatic processes such as magma mixing and crystal residence, etc. via diffusion modeling. Forward modeling of diffusion relies on fitting diffusion profiles to measured compositional gradients. However, an individual measurement is essentially an average composition for a segment of the gradient defined by the spatial resolution of the analysis. Thus there is the potential for the analytical spatial resolution to limit the timescales that can be determined for an element of given diffusivity, particularly where the scale of the gradient approaches that of the measurement. Here we use a probabilistic modeling approach to investigate the effect of analytical spatial resolution on estimated timescales from diffusion modeling. Our method investigates how accurately the age of a synthetic diffusion profile can be obtained by modeling an "unknown" profile derived from discrete sampling of the synthetic compositional gradient at a given spatial resolution. We also include the effects of analytical uncertainty and the position of measurements relative to the diffusion gradient. We apply this method to the spatial resolutions of common microanalytical techniques (LA-ICP-MS, SIMS, EMP, NanoSIMS). Our results confirm that for a given diffusivity, higher spatial resolution gives access to shorter timescales, and that each analytical spacing has a minimum timescale, below which it overestimates the timescale. For example, for Ba diffusion in plagioclase at 750 °C timescales are accurate (within 20%) above 10, 100, 2,600, and 71,000 years at 0.3, 1, 5, and 25 mm spatial resolution, respectively. For Sr diffusion in plagioclase at 750 °C, timescales are accurate above 0.02, 0.2, 4, and 120 years at the same spatial resolutions. Our results highlight the importance of selecting appropriate analytical techniques to estimate accurate diffusion-based timescales.

  14. Unity and diversity in mixing: Stretching, diffusion, breakup, and aggregation in chaotic flows

    SciTech Connect

    Ottino, J.M. )

    1991-05-01

    Experiments and theory have produced a reasonably good qualitative understanding of the evolution of chaotic mixing of passive tracers, especially in two-dimensional time-periodic flow fields. Such an understanding forms a fabric for the evolution of breakup, aggregation, and diffusion-controlled reactions in more complex flows. These systems can be viewed as a population of microstructures'' whose behavior is dictated by iterations of a chaotic flow; microstructures break, diffuse, and aggregate, causing the population to evolve in space and time. This paper presents simple physical models for such processes. Self-similarity is common to all the problems; examples arise in the context of the distribution of stretchings within chaotic flows, in the asymptotic evolution of diffusion-reaction processes at striation thickness scales, in the equilibrium distribution of drop sizes generated upon mixing of immiscible fluids, in the equations describing mean-field kinetics of coagulation, in the sequence of actions necessary for the destruction of islands in two-dimensional flow, and in the fractal structure of clusters produced upon aggregation in chaotic flows.

  15. 5 CFR 530.203 - Administration of aggregate limitation on pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... pay. 530.203 Section 530.203 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY RATES AND SYSTEMS (GENERAL) Aggregate Limitation on Pay § 530.203 Administration of aggregate... discretionary payment deferred under this paragraph must be available for payment as provided in § 530.204. When...

  16. Latent heat induced rotation limited aggregation in 2D ice nanocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bampoulis, Pantelis; Siekman, Martin H.; Kooij, E. Stefan; Lohse, Detlef; Zandvliet, Harold J. W.; Poelsema, Bene

    2015-07-01

    The basic science responsible for the fascinating shapes of ice crystals and snowflakes is still not understood. Insufficient knowledge of the interaction potentials and the lack of relevant experimental access to the growth process are to blame for this failure. Here, we study the growth of fractal nanostructures in a two-dimensional (2D) system, intercalated between mica and graphene. Based on our scanning tunneling spectroscopy data, we provide compelling evidence that these fractals are 2D ice. They grow while they are in material contact with the atmosphere at 20 °C and without significant thermal contact to the ambient. The growth is studied in situ, in real time and space at the nanoscale. We find that the growing 2D ice nanocrystals assume a fractal shape, which is conventionally attributed to Diffusion Limited Aggregation (DLA). However, DLA requires a low mass density mother phase, in contrast to the actual currently present high mass density mother phase. Latent heat effects and consequent transport of heat and molecules are found to be key ingredients for understanding the evolution of the snow (ice) flakes. We conclude that not the local availability of water molecules (DLA), but rather them having the locally required orientation is the key factor for incorporation into the 2D ice nanocrystal. In combination with the transport of latent heat, we attribute the evolution of fractal 2D ice nanocrystals to local temperature dependent rotation limited aggregation. The ice growth occurs under extreme supersaturation, i.e., the conditions closely resemble the natural ones for the growth of complex 2D snow (ice) flakes and we consider our findings crucial for solving the "perennial" snow (ice) flake enigma.

  17. Studying Dynamic Myofiber Aggregate Reorientation in Dilated Cardiomyopathy Using In Vivo Magnetic Resonance Diffusion Tensor Imaging

    PubMed Central

    von Deuster, Constantin; Sammut, Eva; Asner, Liya; Nordsletten, David; Lamata, Pablo; Stoeck, Christian T.; Razavi, Reza

    2016-01-01

    Background— The objective of this study is to assess the dynamic alterations of myocardial microstructure and strain between diastole and systole in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy relative to healthy controls using the magnetic resonance diffusion tensor imaging, myocardial tagging, and biomechanical modeling. Methods and Results— Dual heart-phase diffusion tensor imaging was successfully performed in 9 patients and 9 controls. Tagging data were acquired for the diffusion tensor strain correction and cardiac motion analysis. Mean diffusivity, fractional anisotropy, and myocyte aggregate orientations were compared between both cohorts. Cardiac function was assessed by left ventricular ejection fraction, torsion, and strain. Computational modeling was used to study the impact of cardiac shape on fiber reorientation and how fiber orientations affect strain. In patients with dilated cardiomyopathy, a more longitudinal orientation of diastolic myofiber aggregates was measured compared with controls. Although a significant steepening of helix angles (HAs) during contraction was found in the controls, consistent change in HAs during contraction was absent in patients. Left ventricular ejection fraction, cardiac torsion, and strain were significantly lower in the patients compared with controls. Computational modeling revealed that the dilated heart results in reduced HA changes compared with a normal heart. Reduced torsion was found to be exacerbated by steeper HAs. Conclusions— Diffusion tensor imaging revealed reduced reorientation of myofiber aggregates during cardiac contraction in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy relative to controls. Left ventricular remodeling seems to be an important factor in the changes to myocyte orientation. Steeper HAs are coupled with a worsening in strain and torsion. Overall, the findings provide new insights into the structural alterations in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy. PMID:27729361

  18. A Computational Investigation of Sooting Limits of Spherical Diffusion Flames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lecoustre, V. R.; Chao, B. H.; Sunderland, P. B.; Urban, D. L.; Stocker, D. P.; Axelbaum, R. L.

    2007-01-01

    Limiting conditions for soot particle inception in spherical diffusion flames were investigated numerically. The flames were modeled using a one-dimensional, time accurate diffusion flame code with detailed chemistry and transport and an optically thick radiation model. Seventeen normal and inverse flames were considered, covering a wide range of stoichiometric mixture fraction, adiabatic flame temperature, and residence time. These flames were previously observed to reach their sooting limits after 2 s of microgravity. Sooting-limit diffusion flames with residence times longer than 200 ms were found to have temperatures near 1190 K where C/O = 0.6, whereas flames with shorter residence times required increased temperatures. Acetylene was found to be a reasonable surrogate for soot precursor species in these flames, having peak mole fractions of about 0.01.

  19. Shear-limited test particle diffusion in 2-dimensional plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderegg, Francois; Driscoll, C. Fred; Dubin, Daniel H. E.

    2002-01-01

    Measurements of test-particle diffusion in pure ion plasmas show 2D enhancements over the 3D rates, limited by shear in the plasma rotation ωE(r). The diffusion is due to "long-range" ion-ion collisions in the quiescent, steady-state Mg+ plasma. For short plasma length Lp and low shear S≡r∂ωE/∂r, thermal ions bounce axially many times before shear separates them in θ, so the ions move in (r,θ) as bounce averaged "rods" of charge (i.e. 2D point vortices). Experimentally, we vary the number of bounces over the range 0.2⩽Nb⩽10,000. For long plasmas with Nb⩽1, we observe diffusion in quantitative agreement with the 3D theory of long-range E×B drift collisions. For shorter plasmas or lower shear, with Nb>1, we measure diffusion rates enhanced by up to 100×. For exceedingly small she0ar, i.e. Nb⩾1000, we observe diffusion rates consistent with the Taylor-McNamara estimates for a shear-free thermal plasma. Overall, the data shows fair agreement with Dubin's new theory of 2D diffusion in shear, which predicts an enhancement of D2D/D3D≈Nb up to the Taylor-McNamara limit.

  20. 42 CFR 447.512 - Drugs: Aggregate upper limits of payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...: Aggregate upper limits of payment. (a) Multiple source drugs. Except for brand name drugs that are certified... applies. (b) Other drugs. The agency payments for brand name drugs certified in accordance with paragraph... brand name drugs. (1) The upper limit for payment for multiple source drugs for which a specific limit...

  1. Fractal Aggregates in Tennis Ball Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabin, J.; Bandin, M.; Prieto, G.; Sarmiento, F.

    2009-01-01

    We present a new practical exercise to explain the mechanisms of aggregation of some colloids which are otherwise not easy to understand. We have used tennis balls to simulate, in a visual way, the aggregation of colloids under reaction-limited colloid aggregation (RLCA) and diffusion-limited colloid aggregation (DLCA) regimes. We have used the…

  2. Fractal Aggregates in Tennis Ball Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabin, J.; Bandin, M.; Prieto, G.; Sarmiento, F.

    2009-01-01

    We present a new practical exercise to explain the mechanisms of aggregation of some colloids which are otherwise not easy to understand. We have used tennis balls to simulate, in a visual way, the aggregation of colloids under reaction-limited colloid aggregation (RLCA) and diffusion-limited colloid aggregation (DLCA) regimes. We have used the…

  3. The equilibrium-diffusion limit for radiation hydrodynamics

    DOE PAGES

    Ferguson, J. M.; Morel, J. E.; Lowrie, R.

    2017-07-27

    The equilibrium-diffusion approximation (EDA) is used to describe certain radiation-hydrodynamic (RH) environments. When this is done the RH equations reduce to a simplified set of equations. The EDA can be derived by asymptotically analyzing the full set of RH equations in the equilibrium-diffusion limit. Here, we derive the EDA this way and show that it and the associated set of simplified equations are both first-order accurate with transport corrections occurring at second order. Having established the EDA’s first-order accuracy we then analyze the grey nonequilibrium-diffusion approximation and the grey Eddington approximation and show that they both preserve this first-order accuracy.more » Further, these approximations preserve the EDA’s first-order accuracy when made in either the comoving-frame (CMF) or the lab-frame (LF). And while analyzing the Eddington approximation, we found that the CMF and LF radiation-source equations are equivalent when neglecting O(β2) terms and compared in the LF. Of course, the radiation pressures are not equivalent. It is expected that simplified physical models and numerical discretizations of the RH equations that do not preserve this first-order accuracy will not retain the correct equilibrium-diffusion solutions. As a practical example, we show that nonequilibrium-diffusion radiative-shock solutions devolve to equilibrium-diffusion solutions when the asymptotic parameter is small.« less

  4. Information diffusion, Facebook clusters, and the simplicial model of social aggregation: a computational simulation of simplicial diffusers for community health interventions.

    PubMed

    Kee, Kerk F; Sparks, Lisa; Struppa, Daniele C; Mannucci, Mirco A; Damiano, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    By integrating the simplicial model of social aggregation with existing research on opinion leadership and diffusion networks, this article introduces the constructs of simplicial diffusers (mathematically defined as nodes embedded in simplexes; a simplex is a socially bonded cluster) and simplicial diffusing sets (mathematically defined as minimal covers of a simplicial complex; a simplicial complex is a social aggregation in which socially bonded clusters are embedded) to propose a strategic approach for information diffusion of cancer screenings as a health intervention on Facebook for community cancer prevention and control. This approach is novel in its incorporation of interpersonally bonded clusters, culturally distinct subgroups, and different united social entities that coexist within a larger community into a computational simulation to select sets of simplicial diffusers with the highest degree of information diffusion for health intervention dissemination. The unique contributions of the article also include seven propositions and five algorithmic steps for computationally modeling the simplicial model with Facebook data.

  5. Lysimeter experiment to investigate the potential influence of diffusion-limited sorption on pesticide availability for leaching.

    PubMed

    van Beinum, Wendy; Beulke, Sabine; Fryer, Chris; Brown, Colin

    2006-11-29

    Pesticide leaching from soil has been shown to decrease with increasing time from application to irrigation. It is hypothesized that the availability of compounds for leaching decreases due to diffusion and sorption inside soil aggregates. Previous work showed that pesticide sorption inside soil aggregates increases significantly during the first days after application. The study presented here tested if diffusion into aggregates could explain the leaching of four aged pesticides from manually irrigated soil cores. Azoxystrobin, chlorotoluron, cyanazine, and bentazone were applied to 30 undisturbed cores (25 cm long, 23.7 cm diameter) from a clay loam soil. The soil cores were irrigated 1, 3, 7, 14, and 28 days after application. Leachate was collected and analyzed. The amount of pesticide found in leachate decreased rapidly with time from application. Pesticide losses in leachate declined 2.5-27 times faster than total residues in soil. The decline was 4-5 times faster for the more strongly sorbed pesticides (azoxystrobin, chlorotoluron, and cyanazine) than for bentazone. In previous work, we derived a model to describe sorption and diffusion of the pesticides in small aggregates from the same soil. The diffusion model was used here to describe sorption inside the large aggregates in the soil cores and extended to describe pesticide leaching by interaggregate flow. The model showed a significant decline in leaching with time from application, which supports the theory that diffusion-limited sorption in aggregates influences the availability for pesticide leaching, although it does not exclude alternative explanations for this decline. The model well described the decline in leaching for three out of four pesticides. The interaggregate transport model could, however, not account for the amount of preferential flow in the cores and underestimated the leaching of bentazone.

  6. 12 CFR 723.17 - Are there any exceptions to the aggregate loan limit?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... includes but is not limited to the original charter, original bylaws, original business plan, original... AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS MEMBER BUSINESS LOANS § 723.17 Are there any exceptions to the aggregate loan limit.... Loans that are excepted from the definition of member business loans are not counted for the purpose...

  7. 5 CFR 530.203 - Administration of aggregate limitation on pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... limitation on pay. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, no executive branch employee or General Schedule employee in the legislative branch (or General Schedule employee in the judicial branch... aggregate limitation. In such cases, the employee will become indebted to the Federal Government for...

  8. Biofilms suck: how bacteria beat the diffusion limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angelini, Thomas; Zhang, Wenbo; Zehnder, Steven; Breaux, Jolie

    2013-03-01

    Multicellular behavior in bacterial biofilms is intimately tied to the production of an extracellular polysaccharide (EPS) matrix that encases the cells and provides physical integrity to the colony as a whole. Recent work in Bacillus subtilis biofilms shows that a sudden increase in EPS production generates osmotic stresses that cause the biofilm to expand. Moreover, EPS production is triggered by a nutrient depletion gradient that develops in the biofilm due to diffusive mass transport limitations. These polymer physics based biofilm behaviors suggest that EPS production may have evolved in biofilms to beat the diffusion limit of nutrient transport into the colony, though no direct observation of nutrient transport has been observed previously. Here we measure the rate of nutrient transport into b. subtilis biofilms and find that when EPS production is up-regulated, the polymer sucks fluid into the colony with a characteristic time dependence like that of pressure driven flow. Preliminary data and analysis will be presented.

  9. Diffusive limits of nonlinear hyperbolic systems with variable coefficients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyoshi, Hironari; Tsutsumi, Masayoshi

    2016-09-01

    We consider the initial-boundary value problem for a 2-speed system of first-order nonhomogeneous semilinear hyperbolic equations whose leading terms have a small positive parameter. Using energy estimates and a compactness lemma, we show that the diffusion limit of the sum of the solutions of the hyperbolic system, as the parameter tends to zero, verifies the nonlinear parabolic equation of the p-Laplacian type.

  10. Limits on diffuse X-ray emission from M101

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccammon, D.; Sanders, W. T.

    1984-01-01

    Observed limits on diffuse X-ray emission from M101 require that the temperature of any coronal or matrix hot gas which is radiating an appreciable part ( 10%) of the average supernova power be less than 10(5.7)K. Furthermore, the fraction of the galactic plane occupied by hot buttles similar to the one which apparently surrounds the Sun is at most 25% in the region between 10 kpc and 20 kpc from the galactic center.

  11. The aggregation and diffusion of asphaltenes studied by GPU-accelerated dissipative particle dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Sibo; Xu, Junbo; Wen, Hao

    2014-12-01

    The heavy crude oil consists of thousands of compounds and much of them have large molecular weights and complex structures. Studying the aggregation and diffusion behavior of asphaltenes can facilitate the understanding of the heavy crude oil. In previous studies, the fused aromatic rings were treated as rigid bodies so that dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) integrated with the quaternion method can be used to study asphaltene systems. In this work, DPD integrated with the quaternion method is implemented on graphics processing units (GPUs). Compared with the serial program, tens of times speedup can be achieved when simulations performed on a single GPU. Using multiple GPUs can provide faster computation speed and more storage space for simulations of significant large systems. By using large systems, simulations of the asphaltene-toluene system at extremely dilute concentrations can be performed. The determined diffusion coefficients of asphaltenes are similar to that in experimental studies. At last, the aggregation behavior of asphaltenes in heptane was investigated, and the simulation results agreed with the modified Yen model. Monomers, nanoaggregates and clusters were observed from the simulations at different concentrations.

  12. Shear-Limited Diffusion and Viscosity: Experiments and Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Driscoll, C. Fred

    2001-10-01

    Experiments and theory on collisional diffusion and viscosity demonstrate enhanced transport in the 2D bounce-averaged regime, limited by shear in the plasma rotation. The experiments are performed on relatively quiescent pure-ion or pure electron plasma columns, where the shear in the drift rotation ωE (r) can be controlled accurately. For long plasma columns, we measure test particle diffusion(F. Anderegg, et al.), Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 2128 (1997). and bulk viscosity(J.M. Kriesel and C.F. Driscoll, submitted to Phys. Rev. Lett. (2001).) coefficients which quantitatively agree with recent 3D theories(D.H.E. Dubin, Phys. Plasmas 5), 1688 (1998). of E × B drift collisions with impact parameters in the range rc < ρ < λ_D. In general, this transport is substantially greater than would be expected for velocity-scattering collisions with ρ < r_c. For finite plasma length L_p, thermal particles may bounce axially many times before rotational shear separates them in θ and this number of bounces Nb ≡ ( barv / 2L_p) / (r ; partial ωE / partial r) characterizes the approach to the 2D bounce-averaged regime. Experiments measuring electron viscosity coefficients and separate experiments measuring tagged ion diffusion coefficients each show transport enhancements up to 100×, scaling quantitatively as Nb over the range 1 < Nb < 10^2. In the zero-shear limit of Nb arrow ∞ , theory treats the particles as z-averaged rods of charge undergoing 2D E × B drift dynamics. For this case, Taylor and McNamara showed that Bohm-like diffusion results from large-scale thermally-excited ``Dawson-Okuda'' vortices. More recently, Dubin(D.H.E. Dubin and D.Z. Jin, Phys. Lett. A 284), 112 (2001). analyzed the 2D test-particle diffusion with applied background shear, showing that the particle diffusion decreases with increasing shear. Overall, this new theory gives fair quantitative agreement with the diffusion experiments from the 3D (or high shear) regime with Nb <= 1 to the 2D (or

  13. Influence of neighboring reactive particles on diffusion-limited reactions

    PubMed Central

    Eun, Changsun; Kekenes-Huskey, Peter M.; McCammon, J. Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Competition between reactive species is commonplace in typical chemical reactions. Specifically the primary reaction between a substrate and its target enzyme may be altered when interactions with secondary species in the system are substantial. We explore this competition phenomenon for diffusion-limited reactions in the presence of neighboring particles through numerical solution of the diffusion equation. As a general model for globular proteins and small molecules, we consider spherical representations of the reactants and neighboring particles; these neighbors vary in local density, size, distribution, and relative distance from the primary target reaction, as well as their surface reactivity. Modulations of these model variables permit inquiry into the influence of excluded volume and competition on the primary reaction due to the presence of neighboring particles. We find that the surface reactivity effect is long-ranged and a strong determinant of reaction kinetics, whereas the excluded volume effect is relatively short-ranged and less influential in comparison. As a consequence, the effect of the excluded volume is only modestly dependent on the neighbor distribution and is approximately additive; this additivity permits a linear approximation to the many-body effect on the reaction kinetics. In contrast, the surface reactivity effect is non-additive, and thus it may require higher-order approximations to describe the reaction kinetics. Our model study has broad implications in the general understanding of competition and local crowding on diffusion-limited chemical reactions. PMID:23901970

  14. Singular diffusionless limits of double-diffusive instabilities in magnetohydrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirillov, Oleg N.

    2017-09-01

    We study local instabilities of a differentially rotating viscous flow of electrically conducting incompressible fluid subject to an external azimuthal magnetic field. In the presence of the magnetic field, the hydrodynamically stable flow can demonstrate non-axisymmetric azimuthal magnetorotational instability (AMRI) both in the diffusionless case and in the double-diffusive case with viscous and ohmic dissipation. Performing stability analysis of amplitude transport equations of short-wavelength approximation, we find that the threshold of the diffusionless AMRI via the Hamilton-Hopf bifurcation is a singular limit of the thresholds of the viscous and resistive AMRI corresponding to the dissipative Hopf bifurcation and manifests itself as the Whitney umbrella singular point. A smooth transition between the two types of instabilities is possible only if the magnetic Prandtl number is equal to unity, Pm=1. At a fixed Pm≠1, the threshold of the double-diffusive AMRI is displaced by finite distance in the parameter space with respect to the diffusionless case even in the zero dissipation limit. The complete neutral stability surface contains three Whitney umbrella singular points and two mutually orthogonal intervals of self-intersection. At these singularities, the double-diffusive system reduces to a marginally stable system which is either Hamiltonian or parity-time-symmetric.

  15. Quantitative confirmation of diffusion-limited oxidation theories

    SciTech Connect

    Gillen, K.T.; Clough, R.L.

    1990-01-01

    Diffusion-limited (heterogeneous) oxidation effects are often important for studies of polymer degradation. Such effects are common in polymers subjected to ionizing radiation at relatively high dose rate. To better understand the underlying oxidation processes and to aid in the planning of accelerated aging studies, it would be desirable to be able to monitor and quantitatively understand these effects. In this paper, we briefly review a theoretical diffusion approach which derives model profiles for oxygen surrounded sheets of material by combining oxygen permeation rates with kinetically based oxygen consumption expressions. The theory leads to a simple governing expression involving the oxygen consumption and permeation rates together with two model parameters {alpha} and {beta}. To test the theory, gamma-initiated oxidation of a sheet of commercially formulated EPDM rubber was performed under conditions which led to diffusion-limited oxidation. Profile shapes from the theoretical treatments are shown to accurately fit experimentally derived oxidation profiles. In addition, direct measurements on the same EPDM material of the oxygen consumption and permeation rates, together with values of {alpha} and {beta} derived from the fitting procedure, allow us to quantitatively confirm for the first time the governing theoretical relationship. 17 refs., 3 figs.

  16. Intramolecular aggregation and optical limiting properties of triazine-linked mono-, bis- and tris-phthalocyanines.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jun; Zhang, Tao; Wang, Shuangqing; Hu, Rui; Li, Shayu; Ma, Jin Shi; Yang, Guoqiang

    2015-10-05

    A series of triazine-linked mono-, bis- and tris-phthalocyanines are synthesized, intramolecular aggregation is found in bis- and tris-phthalocyanines via π-π stacking interaction. Theoretical and experimental studies reveal the formation of the intramolecular aggregation. The spectrographic, photophysical and nonlinear optical properties of these compounds are adjusted for the formation of the intramolecular aggregation. The bis-phthalocyanine dimer presents smaller fluorescence quantum yield, lower triplet formation yield and the triplet-minus-ground state extinction coefficient, which causes poorer optical limiting performance. It is interesting that the tris-phthalocyanine is composed of a mono-phthalocyanine part and a bis-phthalocyanine part, the optical limiting property of the tris-phthalocyanine is similar to that of mono-phthalocyanine.

  17. Surface aggregation patterns of LDL receptors near coated pits. I. The radially convective diffusion and generalized insertion mechanism.

    PubMed

    Solana-Arellano, E; Echaverría-Heras, H; Leal-Ramírez, C

    1998-12-01

    In this paper we formulate a mathematical model for the receptor mediated endocytotic cycle under the influence of diffusion, radial convection, and generalized receptor reinsertion. The steady state radial concentration function of unbound receptors admits an explicit representation. This can be expressed as a functional of the insertion rate, the diffusion coefficient, and the flow strength. Using the referred functional we study the influence of the aforementioned mechanisms on the surface aggregation pattern of low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptors near coated pits. We perform that analysis on both a theoretical level and by means of simulated receptor aggregation patterns obtained by computer graphics techniques. We conclude that radially convective diffusion in combination with suitable characterizations of the insertion mode are consistent with reported cell surface aggregation patterns.

  18. First Principles Calculations on the Diffusion of Cu, Ag and Au Atoms or Aggregates on the Bulk and Surface of Titania

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-04-01

    AFRL-AFOSR-UK-TR-2011-0002 First Principles Calculations on the Diffusion of Cu, Ag and Au Atoms or Aggregates on the Bulk and...SUBTITLE First Principles Calculations on the Diffusion of Cu, Ag and Au Atoms or Aggregates on the Bulk and Surface of Titania 5a. CONTRACT...093072 Final report First principles calculations on the diffusion of Cu, Ag and Au atoms or aggregates on the bulk and surface of titania List

  19. Resolution limits for imaging through turbid media with diffuse light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moon, J. A.; Mahon, R.; Duncan, M. D.; Reintjes, J.

    1993-10-01

    For the achievable resolution for imaging through a turbid medium with multiply scattered light in the diffusion limit, the authors present analytic expressions. The spatial resolution R (the half-width of the point-spread function) scales with thickness d of the sample as R = (0.2 +/- 0.04)d over 10 order of magnitude in input intensity and transport length are found for detectable levels of light. The experiments with a time-gated stimulated Raman amplifier are in good agreement with the calculations.

  20. Transient aggregation and long-time diffusion of bacterial suspensions in time periodic flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Boyang; Winter, Rebecca; Gurjar, Madhura; Gagnon, David; Patteson, Alison; Arratia, Paulo

    2016-11-01

    In this talk, the transport dynamics of swimming bacteria in time-periodic flows is investigated in experiments and simulations. Experiments are performed by introducing swimming bacteria (Vibrio cholerae) in a low Reynolds number, two-dimensional flow driven electromagnetically. We observe two distinct transport regimes: (i) entrapment of bacteria inside vortex and near elliptic points and (ii) aggregation and subsequent transport along the flow manifolds. These time-dependent behaviors are set by the interaction between swimmer kinematics (e.g. speed, tumbling frequency, etc) and flow properties. Numerical simulation using a stochastic Langevin model are able to capture the main experimental results including the entrapment of bacteria near elliptic points and the rapid spreading along manifolds. Results show a significant reduction in long-time effective diffusion of the swimmer as vortex strength is increased. The conditions for bacterial entrapment in vortex flows are discussed.

  1. Stochastic reaction-diffusion kinetics in the microscopic limit

    PubMed Central

    Fange, David; Berg, Otto G.; Sjöberg, Paul; Elf, Johan

    2010-01-01

    Quantitative analysis of biochemical networks often requires consideration of both spatial and stochastic aspects of chemical processes. Despite significant progress in the field, it is still computationally prohibitive to simulate systems involving many reactants or complex geometries using a microscopic framework that includes the finest length and time scales of diffusion-limited molecular interactions. For this reason, spatially or temporally discretized simulations schemes are commonly used when modeling intracellular reaction networks. The challenge in defining such coarse-grained models is to calculate the correct probabilities of reaction given the microscopic parameters and the uncertainty in the molecular positions introduced by the spatial or temporal discretization. In this paper we have solved this problem for the spatially discretized Reaction-Diffusion Master Equation; this enables a seamless and physically consistent transition from the microscopic to the macroscopic frameworks of reaction-diffusion kinetics. We exemplify the use of the methods by showing that a phosphorylation-dephosphorylation motif, commonly observed in eukaryotic signaling pathways, is predicted to display fluctuations that depend on the geometry of the system. PMID:21041672

  2. Solvent-dependent spectral diffusion in a hydrogen bonded "vibrational aggregate".

    PubMed

    King, John T; Baiz, Carlos R; Kubarych, Kevin J

    2010-10-07

    Two-dimensional infrared spectroscopy (2DIR) is used to measure the viscosity-dependent spectral diffusion of a model vibrational probe, Mn(2)(CO)(10) (dimanganese decacarbonyl, DMDC), in a series of alcohols with time scales ranging from 2.67 ps in methanol to 5.33 ps in 1-hexanol. Alcohol-alkane solvent mixtures were found to produce indistinguishable linear IR spectra, while still demonstrating viscosity-dependent spectral diffusion. Using a vibrational exciton model to characterize the inhomogeneous energy landscape, several analogies emerge with multichromophoric electronic systems, such as J-aggregates and light-harvesting protein complexes. An excitonic, local vibrational mode Hamiltonian parametrized to reproduce the vibrational structure of DMDC serves as a starting point from which site energies (i.e., local carbonyl frequencies) are given Gaussian distributed disorder. The model gives excellent agreement with both the linear IR spectrum and the inhomogeneous widths extracted from 2DIR, indicating the system can be considered to be a "vibrational aggregate." This model naturally leads to exchange narrowing due to disorder-induced exciton localization, producing line widths consistent with our 1D and 2D measurements. Further, the diagonal disorder alone effectively reduces the molecular symmetry, leading to the appearance of Raman bands in the IR spectrum in accord with the measurements. Here, we show that the static inhomogeneity of the excitonic model with disorder successfully captures the essential details of the 1D spectrum while predicting the degree of IR activity of forbidden modes as well as the inhomogeneous widths and relative magnitudes of the transition moments.

  3. Fractal aggregates in tennis ball systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabin, J.; Bandín, M.; Prieto, G.; Sarmiento, F.

    2009-09-01

    We present a new practical exercise to explain the mechanisms of aggregation of some colloids which are otherwise not easy to understand. We have used tennis balls to simulate, in a visual way, the aggregation of colloids under reaction-limited colloid aggregation (RLCA) and diffusion-limited colloid aggregation (DLCA) regimes. We have used the images of the cluster of balls, following Forrest and Witten's pioneering studies on the aggregation of smoke particles, to estimate their fractal dimension.

  4. Flux limited Diffusion Theory of Microwave Background Radiation Fluctuations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonanno, A.; Antonuccio-Delogu, V.

    1995-08-01

    A physically satisfactory treatment of the radiative transfer during the recombination epoch is complicated by the fact that the Universe has a quite rapid (Dz~400 at z_dec~1200) transition into the optically thin regime. We show here that all previous approaches (e.g. Peebles and Yu,1968 [1],Bond and Efstathiou,1987 [2],up to the most recent by Holtzmann,1992 [3] and Stompor,1994 [4]) are based on analytic expansions in powers of the mean free path which run into physical inconsistencies (the predicted radiation flux is larger than the product of speed of light and radiation density). To remedy to this situation, we apply to this problem the Covariant Flux-Limited Diffusion (CFLD) theory recently formulated by Bonanno and Romano (1993)[4]. Flux-limited diffusion theories are currently adopted in plasma physics, and offer a physical description free of the above mentioned inconsistency. We calculate the spectrum of the resulting perturbations for a few CDM models. Our physical treatment improves consistently on small (<=50') scales over previous treatments: the resulting spectra for the corresponding high wavenumbers are then substantially different from those found by the previous authors.

  5. The Reaction-Diffusion Master Equation, Diffusion Limited Reactions, and Singular Potentials

    PubMed Central

    Isaacson, Samuel A.; Isaacson, David

    2011-01-01

    To model biochemical systems in which both noise in the chemical reaction process and spatial movement of molecules is important, both the reaction-diffusion master equation (RDME) and Smoluchowski diffusion limited reaction (SDLR) PDE models have been used. In previous work we showed that the solution to the RDME may be interpreted as an asymptotic approximation in the reaction-radius to the solution of the SDLR PDE [1]. The approximation was shown to be divergent in the limit that the lattice spacing in the RDME approached zero. In this work we expand upon these results for the special case of the two molecule annihilation reaction, A + B → ø. We first introduce a third stochastic reaction-diffusion PDE model that incorporates a pseudopotential based bimolecular reaction mechanism. The solution to the pseudopotential model is then shown to be an asymptotic approximation to the solution of the SDLR PDE for small reaction-radii. We next illustrate how the RDME may be obtained by a formal discretization of the pseudopotential model, motivating why the RDME is itself an asymptotic approximation of the SDLR PDE. Finally, we give a more detailed numerical analysis of the difference between solutions to the RDME and SDLR PDE models as a function of both the reaction-radius and the lattice spacing (in the RDME). PMID:20365230

  6. Diffusion Limited Supercritical Water Oxidation (SCWO) in Microgravity Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hicks, M. C.; Lauver, R. W.; Hegde, U. G.; Sikora, T. J.

    2006-01-01

    Tests designed to quantify the gravitational effects on thermal mixing and reactant injection in a Supercritical Water Oxidation (SCWO) reactor have recently been performed in the Zero Gravity Facility (ZGF) at NASA s Glenn Research Center. An artificial waste stream, comprising aqueous mixtures of methanol, was pressurized to approximately 250 atm and then heated to 450 C. After uniform temperatures in the reactor were verified, a controlled injection of air was initiated through a specially designed injector to simulate diffusion limited reactions typical in most continuous flow reactors. Results from a thermal mapping of the reaction zone in both 1-g and 0-g environments are compared. Additionally, results of a numerical model of the test configuration are presented to illustrate first order effects on reactant mixing and thermal transport in the absence of gravity.

  7. Maximum entropy Eddington factors in flux-limited neutrino diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cernohorsky, Jan; Vandenhorn, L. J.; Cooperstein, J.

    A neutrino transport scheme for use in dense stellar environments and collapsing stars is constructed. The maximum entropy principle is used to establish the general form of the angular neutrino distribution functions. The two Lagrange multipliers introduced by this procedure are determined by using the Flux-limited Diffusion Theory (FDT) of Levermore and Pomraning. The anisotropic scattering contribution is taken into account. Its inclusion leads to a modification of the Levermore-Pomraning approach. The transition from a multigroup to an energy integrated transport scheme for FDT is investigated. The link to the two fluid model of Cooperstein et al is made. This extended two fluid model parametrizes the thermal and chemical disequilibrium between matter and neutrinos. The variable Eddington factors are now self-consistently determined through a local dimensionless quantity, rather than by macroscopic geometrical prescription.

  8. On the entropy conditions for some flux limited diffusion equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caselles, V.

    2011-04-01

    In this paper we give a characterization of the notion of entropy solutions of some flux limited diffusion equations for which we can prove that the solution is a function of bounded variation in space and time. This includes the case of the so-called relativistic heat equation and some generalizations. For them we prove that the jump set consists of fronts that propagate at the speed given by Rankine-Hugoniot condition and we give on it a geometric characterization of the entropy conditions. Since entropy solutions are functions of bounded variation in space once the initial condition is, to complete the program we study the time regularity of solutions of the relativistic heat equation under some conditions on the initial datum. An analogous result holds for some other related equations without additional assumptions on the initial condition.

  9. Diffusion-limited growth in bacterial colony formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsushita, Mitsugu; Fujikawa, Hiroshi

    1990-09-01

    Colonies of bacterial species called Bacillus subtilis have been found to grow two-dimensionally and self-similarly on agar plates through diffusion-limited processes in a nutrient concentration field. We obtained a fractal dimension of the colony patterns of D=1.73±0.02, very close to that of the two-dimensional DLA model, and confirmed the existence of the screening effect of protruding main branches against inner ones in a colony, the repulsion between two neighboring colonies and the tendency to grow toward nutrient. These effects are all characteristic of the pattern formation in a Laplacian field. This finding implies the importance of physical properties of the environment for the morphology of bacterial colonies in general.

  10. Experimental and numerical modeling of chloride diffusivity in hardened cement concrete considering the aggregate shapes and exposure-duration effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jie, Wu; Dassekpo, Jean-Baptiste Mawulé; Wan, Chengyong; Zha, Xiaoxiong

    This paper presents an experimental and numerical model describing the effects of the aggregate shapes and exposure duration of chloride diffusion into cement-based materials. A simple chloride diffusion test was performed on a concrete specimen composed of a mixture of cement mortar with crushed granites and round gravels. A simulation was done and the numerical model developed was applied to the matrix at the meso-scale level and the chloride diffusivity was investigated at 30, 60, and 90 days. The experimental and simulation results showed that the aggregate shape and the exposure duration of chloride diffusing into concrete are of high significance. It was indicated that the model with crushed granite presents a good resistance against chloride ingress, while the model with rounded gravels shows some sensitivity to the chloride penetration. It was also found out that when the time dependence of the diffusion coefficient is not taken into account, the diffusion rate will be overestimated. The meso-scale model developed in this study also provides a new method applied in the analysis of the chloride and water transport that causes damage to concrete considering the particle inclusion and the diffusion duration.

  11. Finite lattice model for molecular aggregation equilibria. Boolean statistics, analytical approximations, and the macroscopic limit.

    PubMed

    Rankin, Blake M; Ben-Amotz, Dor; Widom, B

    2015-09-14

    Molecular processes, ranging from hydrophobic aggregation and protein binding to mesoscopic self-assembly, are typically driven by a delicate balance of energetic and entropic non-covalent interactions. Here, we focus on a broad class of such processes in which multiple ligands bind to a central solute molecule as a result of solute-ligand (direct) and/or ligand-ligand (cooperative) interaction energies. Previously, we described a weighted random mixing (WRM) mean-field model for such processes and compared the resulting adsorption isotherms and aggregate size distributions with exact finite lattice (FL) predictions, for lattices with up to n = 20 binding sites. Here, we compare FL predictions obtained using both Bethe-Guggenheim (BG) and WRM approximations, and find that the latter two approximations are complementary, as they are each most accurate in different aggregation regimes. Moreover, we describe a computationally efficient method for exhaustively counting nearest neighbors in FL configurations, thus making it feasible to obtain FL predictions for systems with up n = 48 binding sites, whose properties approach the thermodynamic (infinite lattice) limit. We further illustrate the applicability of our results by comparing lattice model and molecular dynamics simulation predictions pertaining to the aggregation of methane around neopentane.

  12. Protein aggregation and amyloid fibril formation by an SH3 domain probed by limited proteolysis.

    PubMed

    Polverino de Laureto, Patrizia; Taddei, Niccolò; Frare, Erica; Capanni, Cristina; Costantini, Silvia; Zurdo, Jesús; Chiti, Fabrizio; Dobson, Christopher M; Fontana, Angelo

    2003-11-14

    The SH3 domains are small protein modules of 60-85 amino acid residues that are found in many proteins involved in intracellular signal transduction. The SH3 domain of the p85alpha subunit of bovine phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase (PI3-SH3) under acidic solution adopts a compact denatured state from which amyloid fibrils are readily formed. This aggregation process has been found to be modulated substantially by solution conditions. Here, we have analyzed the conformational features of the native and acid denatured states of PI3-SH3 by limited proteolysis experiments using proteinase K and pepsin, respectively. Moreover, we have analyzed the propensity of PI3-SH3 to be hydrolyzed by pepsin at different stages in the process of aggregation and amyloid formation at pH 1.2 and 2.0 and compared the sites of proteolysis under these conditions with the conformational features of both native and aggregated PI3-SH3. The results demonstrate that the denatured state of PI3-SH3 formed at low pH is relatively resistant to proteolysis, indicating that it is partially folded. The long loop connecting beta-strands b and c in the native protein is the region in this structure most susceptible to proteolysis. Remarkably, aggregates of PI3-SH3 that are formed initially from this denatured state in acid solution display enhanced susceptibility to proteolysis of the long loop, suggesting that the protein becomes more unfolded in the early stages of aggregation. By contrast, the more defined amyloid fibrils that are formed over longer periods of time are completely resistant to proteolysis. We suggest that the protein aggregates formed initially are relatively dynamic species that are able readily to reorganize their interactions to enable formation of very well ordered fibrillar structures. In addition, the disordered and non-native character of the polypeptide chains in the early aggregates could be important in determining the high cytotoxicity that has been revealed in previous

  13. Approaching the strong coupling limit in single plasmonic nanorods interacting with J-aggregates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zengin, Gülis; Johansson, Göran; Johansson, Peter; Antosiewicz, Tomasz J.; Käll, Mikael; Shegai, Timur

    2013-10-01

    We studied scattering and extinction of individual silver nanorods coupled to the J-aggregate form of the cyanine dye TDBC as a function of plasmon - exciton detuning. The measured single particle spectra exhibited a strongly suppressed scattering and extinction rate at wavelengths corresponding to the J-aggregate absorption band, signaling strong interaction between the localized surface plasmon of the metal core and the exciton of the surrounding molecular shell. In the context of strong coupling theory, the observed ``transparency dips'' correspond to an average vacuum Rabi splitting of the order of 100 meV, which approaches the plasmon dephasing rate and, thereby, the strong coupling limit for the smallest investigated particles. These findings could pave the way towards ultra-strong light-matter interaction on the nanoscale and active plasmonic devices operating at room temperature.

  14. Approaching the strong coupling limit in single plasmonic nanorods interacting with J-aggregates

    PubMed Central

    Zengin, Gülis; Johansson, Göran; Johansson, Peter; Antosiewicz, Tomasz J.; Käll, Mikael; Shegai, Timur

    2013-01-01

    We studied scattering and extinction of individual silver nanorods coupled to the J-aggregate form of the cyanine dye TDBC as a function of plasmon – exciton detuning. The measured single particle spectra exhibited a strongly suppressed scattering and extinction rate at wavelengths corresponding to the J-aggregate absorption band, signaling strong interaction between the localized surface plasmon of the metal core and the exciton of the surrounding molecular shell. In the context of strong coupling theory, the observed “transparency dips” correspond to an average vacuum Rabi splitting of the order of 100 meV, which approaches the plasmon dephasing rate and, thereby, the strong coupling limit for the smallest investigated particles. These findings could pave the way towards ultra-strong light-matter interaction on the nanoscale and active plasmonic devices operating at room temperature. PMID:24166360

  15. Shear-induced reaction-limited aggregation kinetics of brownian particles at arbitrary concentrations.

    PubMed

    Zaccone, Alessio; Gentili, Daniele; Wu, Hua; Morbidelli, Massimo

    2010-04-07

    The aggregation of interacting brownian particles in sheared concentrated suspensions is an important issue in colloid and soft matter science per se. Also, it serves as a model to understand biochemical reactions occurring in vivo where both crowding and shear play an important role. We present an effective medium approach within the Smoluchowski equation with shear which allows one to calculate the encounter kinetics through a potential barrier under shear at arbitrary colloid concentrations. Experiments on a model colloidal system in simple shear flow support the validity of the model in the concentration range considered. By generalizing Kramers' rate theory to the presence of shear and collective hydrodynamics, our model explains the significant increase in the shear-induced reaction-limited aggregation kinetics upon increasing the colloid concentration.

  16. DIFFUSION-LIMITED TUMOUR GROWTH: SIMULATIONS AND ANALYSIS

    PubMed Central

    Gerlee, Philip; Anderson, Alexander R. A.

    2013-01-01

    The morphology of solid tumours is known to be affected by the background oxygen concentration of the tissue in which the tumour grows, and both computational and experimental studies have suggested that branched tumour morphology in low oxygen concentration is caused by diffusion-limited growth. In this paper we present a simple hybrid cellular automaton model of solid tumour growth aimed at investigating this phenomenon. Simulation results show that for high consumption rates (or equivalently low oxygen concentrations) the tumours exhibit branched morphologies, but more importantly the simplicity of the model allows for an analytic approach to the problem. By applying a steady-state assumption we derive an approximate solution of the oxygen equation, which closely matches the simulation results. Further, we derive a dispersion relation which reveals that the average branch width in the tumour depends on the width of the active rim, and that a smaller active rim gives rise to thinner branches. Comparison between the prediction of the stability analysis and the results from the simulations shows good agreement between theory and simulation. PMID:20462295

  17. Flux-limited neutrino diffusion in static stellar backgrounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cernohorsky, Jan

    The numerical implementation of multigroup Levermore-Pomraning Flux Limited Neutrino Diffusion Theory (FNDT) is presented. The behavior of this transport scheme is investigated in five static stellar models. In the calculations the feedback of the neutrino flow on the stellar matter is neglected. The evolution of the neutrino energy distribution function is followed in time, starting from an initial Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium (LTE) distribution throughout the star, until a stationary non LTE solution is reached. Spectral and frequency integrated sources, luminosities and distributions are presented. The influence of electron degeneracy on the neutrino transport is highlighted. Energy deposition in regions of the stellar models relevant to the delayed explosion mechanism is rule rather than exception. Absorption of high energy neutrinos w greater than 20 MeV depletes the high energy end of the spectrum at densities ranging down to n(10 to the 9th power) g/cubic cm. In order to simulate spectra seen by an observer at infinity, it is necessary to extend the transport calculation to this density. Emergent neutrino energy distributions are typically nonthermal. Thermal fits can be made only on the high energy tail of the spectrum. The use of fitting parameters in the evaluation of bulk luminosities may overestimate these by factors of several.

  18. Macromolecular Crowding Regulates the Gene Expression Profile by Limiting Diffusion

    PubMed Central

    Golkaram, Mahdi; Hellander, Stefan; Drawert, Brian; Petzold, Linda R.

    2016-01-01

    We seek to elucidate the role of macromolecular crowding in transcription and translation. It is well known that stochasticity in gene expression can lead to differential gene expression and heterogeneity in a cell population. Recent experimental observations by Tan et al. have improved our understanding of the functional role of macromolecular crowding. It can be inferred from their observations that macromolecular crowding can lead to robustness in gene expression, resulting in a more homogeneous cell population. We introduce a spatial stochastic model to provide insight into this process. Our results show that macromolecular crowding reduces noise (as measured by the kurtosis of the mRNA distribution) in a cell population by limiting the diffusion of transcription factors (i.e. removing the unstable intermediate states), and that crowding by large molecules reduces noise more efficiently than crowding by small molecules. Finally, our simulation results provide evidence that the local variation in chromatin density as well as the total volume exclusion of the chromatin in the nucleus can induce a homogenous cell population. PMID:27893768

  19. On the Geometry of Diffusion and the Limits of Biosensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alam, Muhammad

    2010-03-01

    As the future of Moore's law of transistor scaling appears uncertain, Electronics is trying to reinvent itself by broadening its focus to other areas including macroelectronics (electronics of large, possibly flexible and transparent displays), bioelectronics (e.g. nanobio sensors for geomomics, proteomics), and energy-harvesting (e.g. solar cells). In this talk, I focus on the recent progress in the field of bioelectronics, specifically on nanobiosensors for gene and protein identification. While capabilities of classical techniques based on optical detection of biomolecules is already impressive, the method is too expensive to preclude its routine use in clinical setting for personal medicine. As an cost-effective alternative, (optical) label-free electronic detection of biomolecules has long been a cherished dream for researchers involved in Genomics and Proteomics. Despite significant interest and almost monthly reports of groundbreaking experimental results in leading journals by researchers all over the world, the elements that dictate response of a biosensor has remained -- until recently -- poorly understood. In this talk, we discuss how the elementary use of fractal geometry of diffusion, percolative transport in random networks, electrolyte screening-limited response, etc. are finally allowing us to establish the performance potential of such sensors and how ``form' or geometry is fundamental in defining the sensitivity of biosensors.

  20. Diffusive shock acceleration - Acceleration rate, magnetic-field direction and the diffusion limit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jokipii, J. R.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reviews the concept of diffusive shock acceleration, showing that the acceleration of charged particles at a collisionless shock is a straightforward consequence of the standard cosmic-ray transport equation, provided that one treats the discontinuity at the shock correctly. This is true for arbitrary direction of the upstream magnetic field. Within this framework, it is shown that acceleration at perpendicular or quasi-perpendicular shocks is generally much faster than for parallel shocks. Paradoxically, it follows also that, for a simple scattering law, the acceleration is faster for less scattering or larger mean free path. Obviously, the mean free path can not become too large or the diffusion limit becomes inapplicable. Gradient and curvature drifts caused by the magnetic-field change at the shock play a major role in the acceleration process in most cases. Recent observations of the charge state of the anomalous component are shown to require the faster acceleration at the quasi-perpendicular solar-wind termination shock.

  1. Diffusive shock acceleration - Acceleration rate, magnetic-field direction and the diffusion limit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jokipii, J. R.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reviews the concept of diffusive shock acceleration, showing that the acceleration of charged particles at a collisionless shock is a straightforward consequence of the standard cosmic-ray transport equation, provided that one treats the discontinuity at the shock correctly. This is true for arbitrary direction of the upstream magnetic field. Within this framework, it is shown that acceleration at perpendicular or quasi-perpendicular shocks is generally much faster than for parallel shocks. Paradoxically, it follows also that, for a simple scattering law, the acceleration is faster for less scattering or larger mean free path. Obviously, the mean free path can not become too large or the diffusion limit becomes inapplicable. Gradient and curvature drifts caused by the magnetic-field change at the shock play a major role in the acceleration process in most cases. Recent observations of the charge state of the anomalous component are shown to require the faster acceleration at the quasi-perpendicular solar-wind termination shock.

  2. Diffusion and aggregation of Agn-clusters (n=2-9) on HOPG probed by fs-two-photon-photoemission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Busolt, U.; Cottancin, E.; Socaciu, L.; Röhr, H.; Leisner, T.; Wöste, L.

    The diffusion and aggregation of preformed Agn-clusters (n = 2-9) deposited onto a highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) substrate is studied by two-photon-photoemission (2PPE). The sample is irradiated with ultrashort laser pulse pairs and the kinetic energy of the emitted photoelectrons is analyzed in a magnetic bottle type time-of-flight spectrometer. During annealing of the sample from 100 K up to room temperature, nanoparticles are formed on the surface by diffusion and aggregation of the silver clusters. A steep increase of the total photoelectron yield at a sample temperature of about 150 K is explained by the excitation of plasmons in the silver nanoparticles. From the kinetic energy distribution of the photoelectrons we deduce a strong variation of the work function of the sample during the formation of the nanoparticles, which is attributed to a quantum size effect.

  3. Setting limits for acceptable change in sediment particle size composition following marine aggregate dredging.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Keith M

    2012-08-01

    In the UK, Government policy requires marine aggregate extraction companies to leave the seabed in a similar physical condition after the cessation of dredging. This measure is intended to promote recovery, and the return of a similar faunal community to that which existed before dredging. Whilst the policy is sensible, and in line with the principles of sustainable development, the use of the word 'similar' is open to interpretation. There is, therefore, a need to set quantifiable limits for acceptable change in sediment composition. Using a case study site, it is shown how such limits could be defined by the range of sediment particle size composition naturally found in association with the faunal assemblages in the wider region. Whilst the approach offers a number of advantages over the present system, further testing would be required before it could be recommended for use in the regulatory context. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. A Mathematical Model of Diffusion-Limited Gas Bubble Dynamics in Tissue with Varying Diffusion Region Thickness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srinivasan, R. Srini; Gerth, Wayne A.; Powell, Michael R.; Paloski, William H. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    A three-region mathematical model of gas bubble dynamics has been shown suitable for describing diffusion-limited dynamics of more than one bubble in a given volume of extravascular tissue. The model is based on the dynamics of gas exchange between a bubble and a well-stirred tissue region through an intervening unperfused diffusion region previously assumed to have constant thickness and uniform gas diffusivity. As a result, the gas content of the diffusion region remains constant as the volume of the region increases with bubble growth, causing dissolved gas in the region to violate Henry's law. Earlier work also neglected the relationship between the varying diffusion region volume and the fixed total tissue volume, because only cases in which the diffusion region volume is a small fraction of the overall tissue volume were considered. We herein extend the three-region model to correct these theoretical inconsistencies by allowing both the thickness and gas content of the diffusion region to vary during bubble evolution. A postulated difference in gas diffusivity between an infinitesimally thin layer at the bubble surface and the remainder of the diffusion region leads to variation in diffusion region gas content and thickness during bubble growth and resolution. This variable thickness, differential diffusivity (VTDD) model can yield bubble lifetimes considerably longer than those yielded by earlier three-region models for given model and decompression parameters, and meets a need for theoretically consistent but relatively simple bubble dynamics models for use in studies of decompression sickness (DCS) in human subjects, Keywords: decompression sickness, gas diffusion in tissue, diffusivity

  5. Note: The effect of viscosity on the rate of diffusion-limited association of nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Zhdanov, Vladimir P

    2015-10-28

    In the treatments of diffusion-limited association of suspended nanoparticles, their diffusion coefficients are usually considered to be constant and equal to those given by conventional hydrodynamics for diffusion of single nanoparticles. In reality, according to hydrodynamics, these coefficients depend, however, on the distance between nanoparticles. I show how this dependence can influence the association rate.

  6. Effective reaction rates for diffusion-limited reaction cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nałecz-Jawecki, Paweł; Szymańska, Paulina; Kochańczyk, Marek; Miekisz, Jacek; Lipniacki, Tomasz

    2015-12-01

    Biological signals in cells are transmitted with the use of reaction cycles, such as the phosphorylation-dephosphorylation cycle, in which substrate is modified by antagonistic enzymes. An appreciable share of such reactions takes place in crowded environments of two-dimensional structures, such as plasma membrane or intracellular membranes, and is expected to be diffusion-controlled. In this work, starting from the microscopic bimolecular reaction rate constants and using estimates of the mean first-passage time for an enzyme-substrate encounter, we derive diffusion-dependent effective macroscopic reaction rate coefficients (EMRRC) for a generic reaction cycle. Each EMRRC was found to be half of the harmonic average of the microscopic rate constant (phosphorylation c or dephosphorylation d), and the effective (crowding-dependent) motility divided by a slowly decreasing logarithmic function of the sum of the enzyme concentrations. This implies that when c and d differ, the two EMRRCs scale differently with the motility, rendering the steady-state fraction of phosphorylated substrate molecules diffusion-dependent. Analytical predictions are verified using kinetic Monte Carlo simulations on the two-dimensional triangular lattice at the single-molecule resolution. It is demonstrated that the proposed formulas estimate the steady-state concentrations and effective reaction rates for different sets of microscopic reaction rates and concentrations of reactants, including a non-trivial example where with increasing diffusivity the fraction of phosphorylated substrate molecules changes from 10% to 90%.

  7. Diffusion-limited phase separation in eukaryotic chemotaxis

    PubMed Central

    Gamba, Andrea; de Candia, Antonio; Di Talia, Stefano; Coniglio, Antonio; Bussolino, Federico; Serini, Guido

    2005-01-01

    The ability of cells to sense spatial gradients of chemoattractant factors governs the development of complex eukaryotic organisms. Cells exposed to shallow chemoattractant gradients respond with strong accumulation of the enzyme phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and its D3-phosphoinositide product (PIP3) on the plasma membrane side exposed to the highest chemoattractant concentration, whereas PIP3-degrading enzyme PTEN and its product PIP2 localize in a complementary pattern. Such an early symmetry-breaking event is a mandatory step for directed cell movement elicited by chemoattractants, but its physical origin is still mysterious. Here, we propose that directional sensing is the consequence of a phase-ordering process mediated by phosphoinositide diffusion and driven by the distribution of chemotactic signal. By studying a realistic reaction–diffusion lattice model that describes PI3K and PTEN enzymatic activity, recruitment to the plasma membrane, and diffusion of their phosphoinositide products, we show that the effective enzyme–enzyme interaction induced by catalysis and diffusion introduces an instability of the system toward phase separation for realistic values of physical parameters. In this framework, large reversible amplification of shallow chemotactic gradients, selective localization of chemical factors, macroscopic response timescales, and spontaneous polarization arise naturally. The model is robust with respect to order-of-magnitude variations of the parameters. PMID:16291809

  8. Effective reaction rates for diffusion-limited reaction cycles.

    PubMed

    Nałęcz-Jawecki, Paweł; Szymańska, Paulina; Kochańczyk, Marek; Miękisz, Jacek; Lipniacki, Tomasz

    2015-12-07

    Biological signals in cells are transmitted with the use of reaction cycles, such as the phosphorylation-dephosphorylation cycle, in which substrate is modified by antagonistic enzymes. An appreciable share of such reactions takes place in crowded environments of two-dimensional structures, such as plasma membrane or intracellular membranes, and is expected to be diffusion-controlled. In this work, starting from the microscopic bimolecular reaction rate constants and using estimates of the mean first-passage time for an enzyme-substrate encounter, we derive diffusion-dependent effective macroscopic reaction rate coefficients (EMRRC) for a generic reaction cycle. Each EMRRC was found to be half of the harmonic average of the microscopic rate constant (phosphorylation c or dephosphorylation d), and the effective (crowding-dependent) motility divided by a slowly decreasing logarithmic function of the sum of the enzyme concentrations. This implies that when c and d differ, the two EMRRCs scale differently with the motility, rendering the steady-state fraction of phosphorylated substrate molecules diffusion-dependent. Analytical predictions are verified using kinetic Monte Carlo simulations on the two-dimensional triangular lattice at the single-molecule resolution. It is demonstrated that the proposed formulas estimate the steady-state concentrations and effective reaction rates for different sets of microscopic reaction rates and concentrations of reactants, including a non-trivial example where with increasing diffusivity the fraction of phosphorylated substrate molecules changes from 10% to 90%.

  9. Simulation of chemical reaction via particle tracking: Diffusion-limited versus thermodynamic rate-limited regimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benson, David A.; Meerschaert, Mark M.

    2008-12-01

    Chemical reactions may be simulated without regard to local concentrations by applying simple probabilistic rules of particle interaction and combination. The forward reaction A + B→ C is coded by calculating the probability that any A and B particles will occupy the same volume over some time interval. This becomes a convolution of the location densities of the two particles. The backward reaction is a simple exponential decay of C particles into A and B particles. When the mixing of reactants is not a limiting process, the classical thermodynamic reaction rates are reproduced. When low mixing (as by diffusion) limits the reaction probabilities, the reaction rates drop significantly, including the rate of approach to global equilibrium. At long enough times, the law of mass action is reproduced exactly in the mean, with some irreducible deviation in the local equilibrium saturations (the equilibrium constant divided by the mass action expression) away from unity. The saturation variability is not sensitive to numerical parameters but depends strongly on how far from equilibrium the system is initiated. This is simply due to a relative paucity of particles of some species as the reaction moves far to one side or the other.

  10. Cosolute effects on amyloid aggregation in a nondiffusion limited regime: intrinsic osmolyte properties and the volume exclusion principle.

    PubMed

    Murray, Brian; Rosenthal, Joseph; Zheng, Zhongli; Isaacson, David; Zhu, Yingxi; Belfort, Georges

    2015-04-14

    The effects of cosolutes on amyloid aggregation kinetics in vivo are critical and not fully understood. To explore the effects of cosolute additives, the in vitro behavior of destabilizing and stabilizing osmolytes with polymer cosolutes on the aggregation of a model amyloid, human insulin, is probed using experiments coupled with an amyloid aggregation reaction model. The destabilizing osmolyte, guanidine hydrochloride (GuHCl), induces biphasic behavior on the amyloid aggregation rate exhibited by an enhancement of the aggregation kinetics at low concentrations of GuHCl (<0.6 M) and a reduction in kinetics at higher GuHCl concentrations. Stabilizing osmolytes, glycerol, sorbitol and trimethylamine N-oxide, slow the rate of aggregation by reducing the rate of monomer unfolding. Polymer cosolutes, polyvinylpyrrolidone 3.5 kDa and 40 kDa, delay amyloid aggregation mainly through a decrease in the nucleation reaction. These results are in good agreement with the volume exclusion principle for polymer crowding and supports the need to include conformational rearrangement of monomers prior to nucleation. Using fluorescence correlation spectroscopy, we demonstrate that amyloid aggregation is nondiffusion limited, except during fibril accumulation in the presence of high concentrations of long chain polymers. Lastly, the neutral surface area of osmolytes correlates well with the time to initiate fibril formation, tlag, which implicates an intrinsic osmolyte property underlying preferential interactions.

  11. Pulsation-limited oxygen diffusion in the tumour microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    Milotti, Edoardo; Stella, Sabrina; Chignola, Roberto

    2017-01-01

    Hypoxia is central to tumour evolution, growth, invasion and metastasis. Mathematical models of hypoxia based on reaction-diffusion equations provide seemingly incomplete descriptions as they fail to predict the measured oxygen concentrations in the tumour microenvironment. In an attempt to explain the discrepancies, we consider both the inhomogeneous distribution of oxygen-consuming cells in solid tumours and the dynamics of blood flow in the tumour microcirculation. We find that the low-frequency oscillations play an important role in the establishment of tumour hypoxia. The oscillations interact with consumption to inhibit oxygen diffusion in the microenvironment. This suggests that alpha-blockers–a class of drugs used to treat hypertension and stress disorders, and known to lower or even abolish low-frequency oscillations of arterial blood flow –may act as adjuvant drugs in the radiotherapy of solid tumours by enhancing the oxygen effect. PMID:28045083

  12. Pulsation-limited oxygen diffusion in the tumour microenvironment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milotti, Edoardo; Stella, Sabrina; Chignola, Roberto

    2017-01-01

    Hypoxia is central to tumour evolution, growth, invasion and metastasis. Mathematical models of hypoxia based on reaction-diffusion equations provide seemingly incomplete descriptions as they fail to predict the measured oxygen concentrations in the tumour microenvironment. In an attempt to explain the discrepancies, we consider both the inhomogeneous distribution of oxygen-consuming cells in solid tumours and the dynamics of blood flow in the tumour microcirculation. We find that the low-frequency oscillations play an important role in the establishment of tumour hypoxia. The oscillations interact with consumption to inhibit oxygen diffusion in the microenvironment. This suggests that alpha-blockers–a class of drugs used to treat hypertension and stress disorders, and known to lower or even abolish low-frequency oscillations of arterial blood flow –may act as adjuvant drugs in the radiotherapy of solid tumours by enhancing the oxygen effect.

  13. Diffusion limited soil vapor extraction: Geologic and bed thickness controls

    SciTech Connect

    Beckett, G.D.; Benson, D.A.

    1996-12-31

    Soil vapor extraction (SVE) can remove volatile contaminants from the subsurface environment. In a heterogeneous geologic setting, SVE cleanup will progress rapidly through advective mass transfer in permeable sediments and primarily through slow diffusion in lower permeability soil. The contrast in rates of cleanup between high and low permeability soils is further increased by the associated soil moisture retention contrasts (i.e., capillarity) in the same soils. Low permeability soil generally has a higher soil suction capacity and moisture content than high permeability soil. This results in further diminishment of cleanup rate in fine-grained sediments in a heterogeneous environment. This paper investigates how contrasts in soil type and bed thickness affect the rate of SVE diffusive cleanup. The numerical model VENT3D is used to simulate three heterogeneous geologic settings with differing soil contrasts. Within each geologic setting, four simulations are performed with varying bed thicknesses in each, effectively changing the diffusive half-length of the fine-grained soils while maintaining the total bulk percentages of fine-to coarse-grained material. Under these conditions, the bulk flow parameters measured during SVE field testing would be constant for each of the four simulations within a single geologic domain while the cleanup times would not.

  14. Diffusion limited soil vapor extraction: Geologic and bed thickness controls

    SciTech Connect

    Beckett, G.D. ); Benson, D.A. )

    1996-01-01

    Soil vapor extraction (SVE) can remove volatile contaminants from the subsurface environment. In a heterogeneous geologic setting, SVE cleanup will progress rapidly through advective mass transfer in permeable sediments and primarily through slow diffusion in lower permeability soil. The contrast in rates of cleanup between high and low permeability soils is further increased by the associated soil moisture retention contrasts (i.e., capillarity) in the same soils. Low permeability soil generally has a higher soil suction capacity and moisture content than high permeability soil. This results in further diminishment of cleanup rate in fine-grained sediments in a heterogeneous environment. This paper investigates how contrasts in soil type and bed thickness affect the rate of SVE diffusive cleanup. The numerical model VENT3D is used to simulate three heterogeneous geologic settings with differing soil contrasts. Within each geologic setting, four simulations are performed with varying bed thicknesses in each, effectively changing the diffusive half-length of the fine-grained soils while maintaining the total bulk percentages of fine-to coarse-grained material. Under these conditions, the bulk flow parameters measured during SVE field testing would be constant for each of the four simulations within a single geologic domain while the cleanup times would not.

  15. Study of defect formation from process step anomalies in limited boron source diffusion in crystalline silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Singha, Bandana Solanki, Chetan Singh

    2016-05-06

    In limited dopant source diffusion process, the deposition and the drive in conditions of the source play an important role in pn- junction formation. The pre diffusion anomalies can introduce defects in the emitter region during the process of diffusion which can glide into the bulk region. So, the defects formed in the emitter region due to different pre diffusion issues are studied in this work with boron spin on dopant source diffused in n-type crystalline Si. The samples are prepared for different diffusion conditions of times carried out at diffusion temperature of 900°C. Different characterization techniques used in this work confirms the presence of these defects in the emitter region. The dopant distribution under the same diffusion condition result in non- uniformity, varying the junction depth of the emitter. A single process step anomaly is sufficient enough to degrade the emitter performance and should be avoided.

  16. Study of defect formation from process step anomalies in limited boron source diffusion in crystalline silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singha, Bandana; Solanki, Chetan Singh

    2016-05-01

    In limited dopant source diffusion process, the deposition and the drive in conditions of the source play an important role in pn- junction formation. The pre diffusion anomalies can introduce defects in the emitter region during the process of diffusion which can glide into the bulk region. So, the defects formed in the emitter region due to different pre diffusion issues are studied in this work with boron spin on dopant source diffused in n-type crystalline Si. The samples are prepared for different diffusion conditions of times carried out at diffusion temperature of 900°C. Different characterization techniques used in this work confirms the presence of these defects in the emitter region. The dopant distribution under the same diffusion condition result in non- uniformity, varying the junction depth of the emitter. A single process step anomaly is sufficient enough to degrade the emitter performance and should be avoided.

  17. Conditions for diffusion-limited and reaction-limited recombination in nanostructured solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ansari-Rad, Mehdi; Anta, Juan A.; Arzi, Ezatollah

    2014-04-01

    The performance of Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSC) and related devices made of nanostructured semiconductors relies on a good charge separation, which in turn is achieved by favoring charge transport against recombination. Although both processes occur at very different time scales, hence ensuring good charge separation, in certain cases the kinetics of transport and recombination can be connected, either in a direct or an indirect way. In this work, the connection between electron transport and recombination in nanostructured solar cells is studied both theoretically and by Monte Carlo simulation. Calculations using the Multiple-Trapping model and a realistic trap distribution for nanostructured TiO2 show that for attempt-to-jump frequencies higher than 1011-1013 Hz, the system adopts a reaction limited (RL) regime, with a lifetime which is effectively independent from the speed of the electrons in the transport level. For frequencies lower than those, and depending on the concentration of recombination centers in the material, the system enters a diffusion-limited regime (DL), where the lifetime increases if the speed of free electrons decreases. In general, the conditions for RL or DL recombination depend critically on the time scale difference between recombination kinetics and free-electron transport. Hence, if the former is too rapid with respect to the latter, the system is in the DL regime and total thermalization of carriers is not possible. In the opposite situation, a RL regime arises. Numerical data available in the literature, and the behavior of the lifetime with respect to (1) density of recombination centers and (2) probability of recombination at a given center, suggest that a typical DSC in operation stays in the RL regime with complete thermalization, although a transition to the DL regime may occur for electrolytes or hole conductors where recombination is especially rapid or where there is a larger dispersion of energies of electron acceptors.

  18. Conditions for diffusion-limited and reaction-limited recombination in nanostructured solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Ansari-Rad, Mehdi; Anta, Juan A.; Arzi, Ezatollah

    2014-04-07

    The performance of Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSC) and related devices made of nanostructured semiconductors relies on a good charge separation, which in turn is achieved by favoring charge transport against recombination. Although both processes occur at very different time scales, hence ensuring good charge separation, in certain cases the kinetics of transport and recombination can be connected, either in a direct or an indirect way. In this work, the connection between electron transport and recombination in nanostructured solar cells is studied both theoretically and by Monte Carlo simulation. Calculations using the Multiple-Trapping model and a realistic trap distribution for nanostructured TiO{sub 2} show that for attempt-to-jump frequencies higher than 10{sup 11}–10{sup 13} Hz, the system adopts a reaction limited (RL) regime, with a lifetime which is effectively independent from the speed of the electrons in the transport level. For frequencies lower than those, and depending on the concentration of recombination centers in the material, the system enters a diffusion-limited regime (DL), where the lifetime increases if the speed of free electrons decreases. In general, the conditions for RL or DL recombination depend critically on the time scale difference between recombination kinetics and free-electron transport. Hence, if the former is too rapid with respect to the latter, the system is in the DL regime and total thermalization of carriers is not possible. In the opposite situation, a RL regime arises. Numerical data available in the literature, and the behavior of the lifetime with respect to (1) density of recombination centers and (2) probability of recombination at a given center, suggest that a typical DSC in operation stays in the RL regime with complete thermalization, although a transition to the DL regime may occur for electrolytes or hole conductors where recombination is especially rapid or where there is a larger dispersion of energies of

  19. Numerical analysis of the influence of scale effects and microstructure on hydrogen diffusion in polycrystalline aggregates

    SciTech Connect

    Legrand, Esaie; Bouhattate, Jamaa; Feaugas, Xavier; Touzain, S.; Garmestani, Hamid; Khaleel, Mohammad A.; Li, Dongsheng

    2013-04-01

    Predicting resistance to environmental degradation, especially hydrogen embrittlement (HE) has become a major concern for life assessment and risk analysis of structural materials. The microstructure of the materials plays a significant role in HE. Despite the large documentation about the subject, the contribution of hydrogen diffusion on this process stays unclear. In this work, we analyze the effects of the microstructure on hydrogen diffusion, especially the influence of grain boundaries considered as high diffusivity paths and possible sites of damage occurrence. Electrochemical permeation was simulated using finite elements method (FEM). Scale effects between the RVE (Representative Volume Element) and the size of the membrane are discussed. Domains of applicability for standard homogenization methods, especially Hashin Shtrikman model are studied using results from microstructural based FEM. Domains of invariance of diffusion behavior and concentration profiles for grain shapes and the size of the membrane are also analyzed. Thus, the difficulty to extract diffusion properties by permeation test for heterogeneous microstructures is highlighted and discussed.

  20. Shear-Limited Test Particle Diffusion in 2-Dimensional Plasmas

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-06-24

    scale , but short lived; convective cells. In the presence of shear, new quantitative theoretical work [5] predicts that the diffusion coefficient is...represent the bounce average shear, the solid line a simple estimate of s(rz - 0) directly from VE (r) = vtot(r) - Vdia(r) where the diamagnetic drift is...2. 20 X 20 X 0 0 0 T; . , 0 200 V ’-" 200 o, tot7 tot - VE - 4 100 100 ~ Ov0 .. dia o 0 -100 . -100 .’o > -200 f E 10.27 kltz > -200 f 0 k£ f = 30.04

  1. Limit Cycle Solutions of Reaction-Diffusion Equations.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-06-01

    chernotactic bacteria: a theoretical analysis. .J. Theor. Biol., 30(1971), pp. 235-24 8. A. Kolm.ogorov, 1. Petrovsky, and N . Piskunov . Etude de 1’, quation de...equations of the form u + F(u)+K V (1.1) NN where u is an N -dimensional vector, K is a nonnegative-definite diffusion matrix, and F(u) is a vector...k6 c, the rate constants k1, ..., k6 are empirical but various relations exist between them (for instance, at equilibrium, amb n /c k f k2/k - k4 /k3

  2. Diffusion-limited reactions on the cell surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gopalakrishnan, Manoj; Tauber, Uwe; Forsten-Williams, Kimberly

    2003-03-01

    Fibroblast growth factors (FGF) stimulates proliferation of many cell types, and are crucial in such processes as eg. wound healing. Cells have specific receptor (R) protein molecules on their surface which bind FGF for this purpose. FGF is also bound by Heparan Sulfate Proteoglycan (HSPG) molecules which are present on the cell surface. In isolation, both these complexes are unstable, with half-life of the order of 10-20 minutes, wheras in intact cells, the half-life of FGF-R complex is nearly 5 hours! To account for this increased stability, it has been proposed that R-FGF complex combines with HSPG via surface diffusion and forms the triad R-FGF-HSPG. We examine the feasibility of this reaction using the well-known Smoluchowski theory and Monte Carlo simulations. Our results support the triad formation theory, and are in qualitative agreement with experimental results. We also discuss the effects of slowing down of surface diffusion of these molecules by such factors as eg. the cytosekeletal network and anchored proteins.

  3. Two-dimensional diffusion limited system for cell growth

    SciTech Connect

    Hlatky, L.

    1985-11-01

    A new cell system, the ''sandwich'' system, was developed to supplement multicellular spheroids as tumor analogues. Sandwiches allow new experimental approaches to questions of diffusion, cell cycle effects and radiation resistance in tumors. In this thesis the method for setting up sandwiches is described both theoretically and experimentally followed by its use in x-ray irradiation studies. In the sandwich system, cells are grown in a narrow gap between two glass slides. Where nutrients and waste products can move into or out of the local environment of the cells only by diffusing through the narrow gap between the slides. Due to the competition between cells, self-created gradients of nutrients and metabolic products are set up resulting in a layer of cells which resembles a living spheroid cross section. Unlike the cells of the spheroid, however, cells in all regions of the sandwich are visible. Therefore, the relative sizes of the regions and their time-dependent growth can be monitored visually without fixation or sectioning. The oxygen and nutrient gradients can be ''turned off'' at any time without disrupting the spatial arrangement of the cells by removing the top slide of the assembly and subsequently turned back on if desired. Removal of the top slide also provides access to all the cells, including those near the necrotic center, of the sandwich. The cells can then be removed for analysis outside the sandwich system. 61 refs., 17 figs.

  4. Diffusion and sedimentation interaction parameters for measuring the second virial coefficient and their utility as predictors of protein aggregation.

    PubMed

    Saluja, Atul; Fesinmeyer, R Matthew; Hogan, Sabine; Brems, David N; Gokarn, Yatin R

    2010-10-20

    The concentration-dependence of the diffusion and sedimentation coefficients (k(D) and k(s), respectively) of a protein can be used to determine the second virial coefficient (B₂), a parameter valuable in predicting protein-protein interactions. Accurate measurement of B₂ under physiologically and pharmaceutically relevant conditions, however, requires independent measurement of k(D) and k(s) via orthogonal techniques. We demonstrate this by utilizing sedimentation velocity (SV) and dynamic light scattering (DLS) to analyze solutions of hen-egg white lysozyme (HEWL) and a monoclonal antibody (mAb1) in different salt solutions. The accuracy of the SV-DLS method was established by comparing measured and literature B₂ values for HEWL. In contrast to the assumptions necessary for determining k(D) and k(s) via SV alone, k(D) and ks were of comparable magnitudes, and solution conditions were noted for both HEWL and mAb1 under which 1), k(D) and k(s) assumed opposite signs; and 2), k(D) ≥k(s). Further, we demonstrate the utility of k(D) and k(s) as qualitative predictors of protein aggregation through agitation and accelerated stability studies. Aggregation of mAb1 correlated well with B₂, k(D), and k(s), thus establishing the potential for k(D) to serve as a high-throughput predictor of protein aggregation.

  5. A Diffusion Limit for a Test Particle in a Random Distribution of Scatterers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basile, G.; Nota, A.; Pulvirenti, M.

    2014-06-01

    We consider a point particle moving in a random distribution of obstacles described by a potential barrier. We show that, in a weak-coupling regime, under a diffusion limit suggested by the potential itself, the probability distribution of the particle converges to the solution of the heat equation. The diffusion coefficient is given by the Green-Kubo formula associated to the generator of the diffusion process dictated by the linear Landau equation.

  6. Diffusion-limited contact formation in unfolded cytochrome c: estimating the maximum rate of protein folding.

    PubMed Central

    Hagen, S J; Hofrichter, J; Szabo, A; Eaton, W A

    1996-01-01

    How fast can a protein fold? The rate of polypeptide collapse to a compact state sets an upper limit to the rate of folding. Collapse may in turn be limited by the rate of intrachain diffusion. To address this question, we have determined the rate at which two regions of an unfolded protein are brought into contact by diffusion. Our nanosecond-resolved spectroscopy shows that under strongly denaturing conditions, regions of unfolded cytochrome separated by approximately 50 residues diffuse together in 35-40 microseconds. This result leads to an estimate of approximately (1 microsecond)-1 as the upper limit for the rate of protein folding. Images Fig. 1 PMID:8876184

  7. Fluctuation Limit for Interacting Diffusions with Partial Annihilations Through Membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhen-Qing; Fan, Wai-Tong Louis

    2016-08-01

    We study fluctuations of the empirical processes of a non-equilibrium interacting particle system consisting of two species over a domain that is recently introduced in Chen and Fan (Ann Probab, to appear) and establish its functional central limit theorem. This fluctuation limit is a distribution-valued Gaussian Markov process which can be represented as a mild solution of a stochastic partial differential equation. The drift of our fluctuation limit involves a new partial differential equation with nonlinear coupled term on the interface that characterized the hydrodynamic limit of the system. The covariance structure of the Gaussian part consists two parts, one involving the spatial motion of the particles inside the domain and other involving a boundary integral term that captures the boundary interactions between two species. The key is to show that the Boltzmann-Gibbs principle holds for our non-equilibrium system. Our proof relies on generalizing the usual correlation functions to the join correlations at two different times.

  8. Surface diffusion driven nanoshell formation by controlled sintering of mesoporous nanoparticle aggregates.

    PubMed

    Anumol, E A; Viswanath, B; Ganesan, P G; Shi, Yunfeng; Ramanath, Ganpati; Ravishankar, N

    2010-08-01

    We report a general method for the synthesis of hollow structures of a variety of functional inorganics by partial sintering of mesoporous nanocrystal aggregates. The formation of a thin shell initiates the transport of mass from the interior leading to growth of the shell. The principles are general and the hollow structures thus produced are attractive for many applications including catalysis, drug delivery and biosensing.

  9. 12 CFR 723.17 - Are there any exceptions to the aggregate loan limit?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... comprise the largest portion of the credit union's loan portfolio (as evidenced in any call report filed... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Are there any exceptions to the aggregate loan... AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS MEMBER BUSINESS LOANS § 723.17 Are there any exceptions to the aggregate loan...

  10. Experimental limit on the cosmic diffuse ultrahigh energy neutrino flux.

    PubMed

    Gorham, P W; Hebert, C L; Liewer, K M; Naudet, C J; Saltzberg, D; Williams, D

    2004-07-23

    We report results from 120 h of live time with the Goldstone lunar ultrahigh energy neutrino experiment (GLUE). The experiment searches for < or = 10 ns microwave pulses from the lunar regolith, appearing in coincidence at two large radio telescopes separated by 22 km and linked by optical fiber. Such pulses would arise from subsurface electromagnetic cascades induced by interactions of > or = 100 EeV (1 EeV = 10(18) eV neutrinos in the lunar regolith. No candidates are yet seen, and the implied limits constrain several current models for ultrahigh energy neutrino fluxes.

  11. Effective reaction rates in diffusion-limited phosphorylation-dephosphorylation cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szymańska, Paulina; Kochańczyk, Marek; Miekisz, Jacek; Lipniacki, Tomasz

    2015-02-01

    We investigate the kinetics of the ubiquitous phosphorylation-dephosphorylation cycle on biological membranes by means of kinetic Monte Carlo simulations on the triangular lattice. We establish the dependence of effective macroscopic reaction rate coefficients as well as the steady-state phosphorylated substrate fraction on the diffusion coefficient and concentrations of opposing enzymes: kinases and phosphatases. In the limits of zero and infinite diffusion, the numerical results agree with analytical predictions; these two limits give the lower and the upper bound for the macroscopic rate coefficients, respectively. In the zero-diffusion limit, which is important in the analysis of dense systems, phosphorylation and dephosphorylation reactions can convert only these substrates which remain in contact with opposing enzymes. In the most studied regime of nonzero but small diffusion, a contribution linearly proportional to the diffusion coefficient appears in the reaction rate. In this regime, the presence of opposing enzymes creates inhomogeneities in the (de)phosphorylated substrate distributions: The spatial correlation function shows that enzymes are surrounded by clouds of converted substrates. This effect becomes important at low enzyme concentrations, substantially lowering effective reaction rates. Effective reaction rates decrease with decreasing diffusion and this dependence is more pronounced for the less-abundant enzyme. Consequently, the steady-state fraction of phosphorylated substrates can increase or decrease with diffusion, depending on relative concentrations of both enzymes. Additionally, steady states are controlled by molecular crowders which, mostly by lowering the effective diffusion of reactants, favor the more abundant enzyme.

  12. Effective reaction rates in diffusion-limited phosphorylation-dephosphorylation cycles.

    PubMed

    Szymańska, Paulina; Kochańczyk, Marek; Miękisz, Jacek; Lipniacki, Tomasz

    2015-02-01

    We investigate the kinetics of the ubiquitous phosphorylation-dephosphorylation cycle on biological membranes by means of kinetic Monte Carlo simulations on the triangular lattice. We establish the dependence of effective macroscopic reaction rate coefficients as well as the steady-state phosphorylated substrate fraction on the diffusion coefficient and concentrations of opposing enzymes: kinases and phosphatases. In the limits of zero and infinite diffusion, the numerical results agree with analytical predictions; these two limits give the lower and the upper bound for the macroscopic rate coefficients, respectively. In the zero-diffusion limit, which is important in the analysis of dense systems, phosphorylation and dephosphorylation reactions can convert only these substrates which remain in contact with opposing enzymes. In the most studied regime of nonzero but small diffusion, a contribution linearly proportional to the diffusion coefficient appears in the reaction rate. In this regime, the presence of opposing enzymes creates inhomogeneities in the (de)phosphorylated substrate distributions: The spatial correlation function shows that enzymes are surrounded by clouds of converted substrates. This effect becomes important at low enzyme concentrations, substantially lowering effective reaction rates. Effective reaction rates decrease with decreasing diffusion and this dependence is more pronounced for the less-abundant enzyme. Consequently, the steady-state fraction of phosphorylated substrates can increase or decrease with diffusion, depending on relative concentrations of both enzymes. Additionally, steady states are controlled by molecular crowders which, mostly by lowering the effective diffusion of reactants, favor the more abundant enzyme.

  13. Diffusion into human islets is limited to molecules below 10 kDa.

    PubMed

    Williams, S J; Schwasinger-Schmidt, T; Zamierowski, D; Stehno-Bittel, L

    2012-10-01

    Isolated islets are important tools in diabetes research and are used for islet transplantation as a treatment for type 1 diabetes. Yet these cell clusters have a dramatic diffusion barrier that leads to core cell death. Computer modeling has provided theoretical size limitations, but little has been done to measure the actual rate of diffusion in islets. The purpose of this study was to directly measure the diffusion barrier in intact human islets and determine its role in restricting insulin secretion. Impeded diffusion into islets was monitored with fluorescent dextran beads. Dextran beads of 10-70 kDa failed to diffuse into the core of the intact islets, while 0.9 kDa probe was observed within the core of smaller islets. Diffusion of the fluorescent form of glucose, 2-NBDG, had similar diffusion limitations as the beads, with an average intra-islet diffusion rate of 1.5 ± 0.2 μm/min. The poor diffusion properties were associated with core cell death from necrosis, not apoptosis. Short-term exposure to a mild papain/0 Ca(2+) cocktail, dramatically reduced the diffusion barrier so that all cells within islets were exposed to media components. Lowering the diffusion barrier increased the immediate and long-term viability of islet cells, and tended to increase the amount of insulin released, especially in low glucose conditions. However, it failed to improve the large islet's glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. Thus, the islet diffusion barrier leads to low viability and poor survival of large islets, but is not solely responsible for the reduced insulin secretion of large isolated islets.

  14. Diffusion-limited attachment of large spherical particles to flexible membrane-immobilized receptors.

    PubMed

    Zhdanov, Vladimir P; Höök, Fredrik

    2015-05-01

    Relatively large (~100 nm) spherical particles, e.g., virions, vesicles, or metal nanoparticles, often interact with short (<10 nm) flexible receptors immobilized in a lipid membrane or on other biologically relevant surfaces. The attachment kinetics of such particles may be limited globally by their diffusion toward a membrane or locally by diffusion around receptors. The detachment kinetics, also, can be limited by diffusion. Focusing on local diffusion limitations and using suitable approximations, we present expressions for the corresponding rate constants and identify their dependence on particle size and receptor length. We also illustrate features likely to be observed in such kinetics for particles (e.g., vesicles) with a substantial size distribution. The results obtained are generic and can be used to interpret a variety of situations. For example, we estimate upper values of virion attachment rate constants and clarify the likely effect of vesicle size distribution on previously observed non-exponential kinetics of vesicle detachment.

  15. Spatial patterns of African ungulate aggregation reveal complex but limited risk effects from reintroduced carnivores.

    PubMed

    Moll, Remington J; Killion, Alexander K; Montgomery, Robert A; Tambling, Craig J; Hayward, Matt W

    2016-05-01

    The "landscape of fear" model, recently advanced in research on the non-lethal effects of carnivores on ungulates, predicts that prey will exhibit detectable antipredator behavior not only during risky times (i.e., predators in close proximity) but also in risky places (i.e., habitat where predators kill prey or tend to occur). Aggregation is an important antipredator response in numerous ungulate species, making it a useful metric to evaluate the strength and scope of the landscape of fear in a multi-carnivore, multi-ungulate system. We conducted ungulate surveys over a 2-year period in South Africa to test the influence of three broad-scale sources of variation in the landscape on spatial patterns in aggregation: (1) habitat structure, (2) where carnivores tended to occur (i.e., population-level utilization distributions), and (3) where carnivores tended to kill ungulate prey (i.e., probabilistic kill site maps). We analyzed spatial variation in aggregation for six ungulate species exposed to predation from recently reintroduced lion (Panthera leo) and spotted hyena (Crocuta crocuta). Although we did detect larger aggregations of ungulates in "risky places," these effects existed primarily for smaller-bodied (<150 kg) ungulates and were relatively moderate (change of 4 individuals across all habitats). In comparison, ungulate aggregations tended to increase at a slightly lower rate in habitat that was more open. The lion, an ambush (stalking) carnivore, had stronger influence on ungulate aggregation than the hyena, an active (coursing) carnivore. In addition, places where lions tended to kill prey had a greater effect on ungulate aggregation than places where lions tended to occur, but an opposing pattern existed for hyena. Our study reveals heterogeneity in the landscape of fear and suggests broad-scale risk effects following carnivore reintroduction only moderately influence ungulate aggregation size and vary considerably by predator hunting mode, type of

  16. Limited protection of macro-aggregate-occluded organic carbon in Siberian steppe soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bischoff, Norbert; Mikutta, Robert; Shibistova, Olga; Puzanov, Alexander; Silanteva, Marina; Grebennikova, Anna; Fuß, Roland; Guggenberger, Georg

    2017-05-01

    Macro-aggregates especially in agricultural steppe soils are supposed to play a vital role for soil organic carbon (OC) stabilization at a decadal timescale. While most research on soil OC stabilization in steppes focused on North American prairie soils of the Great Plains with information mainly provided by short-term incubation experiments, little is known about the agricultural steppes in southwestern Siberia, though they belong to the greatest conversion areas in the world and occupy an area larger than that in the Great Plains. To quantify the proportion of macro-aggregate-protected OC under different land use as function of land use intensity and time since land use change (LUC) from pasture to arable land in Siberian steppe soils, we determined OC mineralization rates of intact (250-2000 µm) and crushed (< 250 µm) macro-aggregates in long-term incubations over 401 days (20 °C; 60 % water holding capacity) along two agricultural chronosequences in the Siberian Kulunda steppe. Additionally, we incubated bulk soil (< 2000 µm) to determine the effect of LUC and subsequent agricultural use on a fast and a slow soil OC pool (labile vs. more stable OC), as derived from fitting exponential-decay models to incubation data. We hypothesized that (i) macro-aggregate crushing leads to increased OC mineralization due to an increasing microbial accessibility of a previously occluded labile macro-aggregate OC fraction, and (ii) bulk soil OC mineralization rates and the size of the fast OC pool are higher in pasture than in arable soils with decreasing bulk soil OC mineralization rates and size of the fast OC pool as land use intensity and time since LUC increase. Against our hypothesis, OC mineralization rates of crushed macro-aggregates were similar to those of intact macro-aggregates under all land use regimes. Macro-aggregate-protected OC was almost absent and accounted for < 1 % of the total macro-aggregate OC content and to a maximum of 8 ± 4 % of mineralized OC

  17. Diffusion as a Rate Limiting Factor on the Evolution of Strontium Isotope Ratios in Fractured Rock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, E. G.; Holt, R. M.; McLing, T. L.

    2002-12-01

    In recent years, several approaches have been developed to model the evolution of strontium isotope ratios (87Sr/86Sr) in porous media. In fractured rock, however, diffusion limits the rates of reaction between mobile water and mineral surfaces inside fracture-bounded blocks. Diffusion can limit transfer of fluids with differing isotopic ratios between the mobile and immobile zones leading to longer equilibration times. We develop a diffusion-based mathematical approach for modeling the evolution of ratios that includes sorption, ion exchange, and dissolution in fracture bounded blocks of multiple sizes. Traditional models employing isotopic ratios with the advection-dispersion equation are unable to incorporate diffusion because they are limited by the structure of their equation. Modeling the individual isotopic species separately accounts for the effects of diffusion. The general governing equation is robust in that it does not assume chemical equilibrium reactions. Special cases show the importance of diffusion-limited mass transfer on the evolution of isotopes ratios in fractured rock.

  18. The rate of the deoxygenation reaction limits myoglobin- and hemoglobin-facilitated O₂ diffusion in cells.

    PubMed

    Endeward, Volker

    2012-05-01

    A mathematical model describing facilitation of O(2) diffusion by the diffusion of myoglobin and hemoglobin is presented. The equations are solved numerically by a finite-difference method for the conditions as they prevail in cardiac and skeletal muscle and in red cells without major simplifications. It is demonstrated that, in the range of intracellular diffusion distances, the degree of facilitation is limited by the rate of the chemical reaction between myglobin or hemoglobin and O(2). The results are presented in the form of relationships between the degree of facilitation and the length of the diffusion path on the basis of the known kinetics of the oxygenation-deoxygenation reactions. It is concluded that the limitation by reaction kinetics reduces the maximally possible facilitated oxygen diffusion in cardiomyoctes by ∼50% and in skeletal muscle fibers by ∼ 20%. For human red blood cells, a reduction of facilitated O(2) diffusion by 36% is obtained in agreement with previous reports. This indicates that, especially in cardiomyocytes and red cells, chemical equilibrium between myoglobin or hemoglobin and O(2) is far from being established, an assumption that previously has often been made. Although the "O(2) transport function" of myoglobin in cardiac muscle cells thus is severely limited by the chemical reaction kinetics, and to a lesser extent also in skeletal muscle, it is noteworthy that the speed of release of O(2) from MbO(2), the "storage function," is not limited by the reaction kinetics under physiological conditions.

  19. Central limit theorems and suppression of anomalous diffusion for systems with symmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gottwald, Georg A.; Melbourne, Ian

    2016-10-01

    We give general conditions for the central limit theorem and weak convergence to Brownian motion (the weak invariance principle/functional central limit theorem) to hold for observables of compact group extensions of nonuniformly expanding maps. In particular, our results include situations where the central limit theorem would fail, and anomalous behaviour would prevail, if the compact group were not present. This has important consequences for systems with noncompact Euclidean symmetry and provides the rigorous proof for a conjecture made in our paper: a Huygens principle for diffusion and anomalous diffusion in spatially extended systems. Gottwald and Melbourne (2013 Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 110 8411-6).

  20. Evidence of diffusive fractal aggregation of TiO2 nanoparticles by femtosecond laser ablation at ambient conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Celardo, G. L.; Archetti, D.; Ferrini, G.; Gavioli, L.; Pingue, P.; Cavaliere, E.

    2017-01-01

    The specific mechanisms which lead to the formation of fractal nanostructures by pulsed laser deposition remain elusive despite intense research efforts, motivated mainly by the technological interest in obtaining tailored nanostructures with simple and scalable production methods. Here we focus on fractal nanostructures of titanium dioxide, TiO2, a strategic material for many applications, obtained by femtosecond laser ablation at ambient conditions. We compare a theoretical model of fractal formation with experimental data. The comparison of theory and experiment confirms that fractal aggregates are formed after landing of the ablated material on the substrate surface by a simple diffusive mechanism. We model the fractal formation through extensive Monte Carlo simulations based on a set of minimal assumptions: TiO2 nanoparticles arrive already formed on the substrate, then they diffuse in a size/mass independent way and stick irreversibly upon touching, thus forming fractal clusters. Despite its simplicity, our model explains the main features of the fractal structures arising from the complex interaction of large TiO2 nanoparticles with different substrates. Indeed our model is able to reproduce both the fractal dimensions and the area distributions of the nanostructures for different densities of the ablated material. Finally we discuss the role of the thermal conductivity of the substrate and the laser fluence on the properties of the fractal nanostructures. Our results represent an advancement towards controlling the production of fractal nanostructures by pulsed laser deposition.

  1. Secular resonant dressed orbital diffusion - I. Method and WKB limit for tepid discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fouvry, Jean-Baptiste; Pichon, Christophe; Prunet, Simon

    2015-05-01

    The equation describing the secular diffusion of a self-gravitating collisionless system induced by an exterior perturbation is derived while assuming that the time-scale corresponding to secular evolution is much larger than that corresponding to the natural frequencies of the system. Its two-dimensional formulation for a tepid galactic disc is also derived using the epicyclic approximation. Its Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin (WKB) limit is found while assuming that only tightly wound transient spirals are sustained by the disc. It yields a simple quadrature for the diffusion coefficients which provides a straightforward understanding of the loci of maximal diffusion within the disc.

  2. Effects of C/O Ratio and Temperature on Sooting Limits of Spherical Diffusion Flames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lecoustre, V. R.; Sunderland, P. B.; Chao, B. H.; Urban, D. L.; Stocker, D. P.; Axelbaum, R. L.

    2008-01-01

    Limiting conditions for soot particle inception in spherical diffusion flames were investigated numerically. The flames were modeled using a one-dimensional, time accurate diffusion flame code with detailed chemistry and transport and an optically thick radiation model. Seventeen normal and inverse flames were considered, covering a wide range of stoichiometric mixture fraction, adiabatic flame temperature, residence time and scalar dissipation rate. These flames were previously observed to reach their sooting limits after 2 s of microgravity. Sooting-limit diffusion flames with scalar dissipation rate lower than 2/s were found to have temperatures near 1400 K where C/O = 0.51, whereas flames with greater scalar dissipation rate required increased temperatures. This finding was valid across a broad range of fuel and oxidizer compositions and convection directions.

  3. An asymptotic-preserving scheme for linear kinetic equation with fractional diffusion limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Li; Yan, Bokai

    2016-05-01

    We present a new asymptotic-preserving scheme for the linear Boltzmann equation which, under appropriate scaling, leads to a fractional diffusion limit. Our scheme rests on novel micro-macro decomposition to the distribution function, which splits the original kinetic equation following a reshuffled Hilbert expansion. As opposed to classical diffusion limit, a major difficulty comes from the fat tail in the equilibrium which makes the truncation in velocity space depending on the small parameter. Our idea is, while solving the macro-micro part in a truncated velocity domain (truncation only depends on numerical accuracy), to incorporate an integrated tail over the velocity space that is beyond the truncation, and its major component can be precomputed once with any accuracy. Such an addition is essential to drive the solution to the correct asymptotic limit. Numerical experiments validate its efficiency in both kinetic and fractional diffusive regimes.

  4. Simply and multiply scaled diffusion limits for continuous time random walks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorenflo, Rudolf; Mainardi, Francesco

    2005-01-01

    First a survey is presented on how space-time fractional diffusion processes can be obtained by well-scaled limiting from continuous time random walks under the sole assumption of asymptotic power laws (with appropriate exponents for the tail behaviour of waiting times and jumps). The spatial operator in the limiting pseudo-differential equation is the inverse of a general Riesz-Feller potential operator. The analysis is carried out via the transforms of Fourier and Laplace. Then mixtures of waiting time distributions, likewise of jump distributions, are considered, and it is shown that correct multiple scaling in the limit yields diffusion equations with distributed order fractional derivatives (fractional operators being replaced by integrals over such ones, with the order of differentiation as variable of integration). It is outlined how in this way super-fast and super-slow diffusion can be modelled.

  5. Diffusion-limited kinetics of the solution–solid phase transition of molecular substances

    PubMed Central

    Petsev, Dimiter N.; Chen, Kai; Gliko, Olga; Vekilov, Peter G.

    2003-01-01

    For critical tests of whether diffusion-limited kinetics is an option for the solution–solid phase transition of molecular substances or whether they are determined exclusively by a transition state, we performed crystallization experiments with ferritin and apoferritin, a unique pair of proteins with identical shells but different molecular masses. We find that the kinetic coefficient for crystallization is identical (accuracy ≤7%) for the pair, indicating diffusion-limited kinetics of crystallization. Data on the kinetics of this phase transition in systems ranging from small-molecule ionic to protein and viri suggest that the kinetics of solution-phase transitions for broad classes of small-molecule and protein materials are diffusion-limited. PMID:12552115

  6. Underdamped scaled Brownian motion: (non-)existence of the overdamped limit in anomalous diffusion

    PubMed Central

    Bodrova, Anna S.; Chechkin, Aleksei V.; Cherstvy, Andrey G.; Safdari, Hadiseh; Sokolov, Igor M.; Metzler, Ralf

    2016-01-01

    It is quite generally assumed that the overdamped Langevin equation provides a quantitative description of the dynamics of a classical Brownian particle in the long time limit. We establish and investigate a paradigm anomalous diffusion process governed by an underdamped Langevin equation with an explicit time dependence of the system temperature and thus the diffusion and damping coefficients. We show that for this underdamped scaled Brownian motion (UDSBM) the overdamped limit fails to describe the long time behaviour of the system and may practically even not exist at all for a certain range of the parameter values. Thus persistent inertial effects play a non-negligible role even at significantly long times. From this study a general questions on the applicability of the overdamped limit to describe the long time motion of an anomalously diffusing particle arises, with profound consequences for the relevance of overdamped anomalous diffusion models. We elucidate our results in view of analytical and simulations results for the anomalous diffusion of particles in free cooling granular gases. PMID:27462008

  7. Underdamped scaled Brownian motion: (non-)existence of the overdamped limit in anomalous diffusion.

    PubMed

    Bodrova, Anna S; Chechkin, Aleksei V; Cherstvy, Andrey G; Safdari, Hadiseh; Sokolov, Igor M; Metzler, Ralf

    2016-07-27

    It is quite generally assumed that the overdamped Langevin equation provides a quantitative description of the dynamics of a classical Brownian particle in the long time limit. We establish and investigate a paradigm anomalous diffusion process governed by an underdamped Langevin equation with an explicit time dependence of the system temperature and thus the diffusion and damping coefficients. We show that for this underdamped scaled Brownian motion (UDSBM) the overdamped limit fails to describe the long time behaviour of the system and may practically even not exist at all for a certain range of the parameter values. Thus persistent inertial effects play a non-negligible role even at significantly long times. From this study a general questions on the applicability of the overdamped limit to describe the long time motion of an anomalously diffusing particle arises, with profound consequences for the relevance of overdamped anomalous diffusion models. We elucidate our results in view of analytical and simulations results for the anomalous diffusion of particles in free cooling granular gases.

  8. Modeling methylene blue aggregation in acidic solution to the limits of factor analysis.

    PubMed

    Golz, Emily K; Vander Griend, Douglas A

    2013-01-15

    Methylene blue (MB(+)), a common cationic thiazine dye, aggregates in acidic solutions. Absorbance data for equilibrated solutions of the chloride salt were analyzed over a concentration range of 1.0 × 10(-3) to 2.6 × 10(-5) M, in both 0.1 M HCl and 0.1 M HNO(3). Factor analyses of the raw absorbance data sets (categorically a better choice than effective absorbance) definitively show there are at least three distinct molecular absorbers regardless of acid type. A model with monomer, dimer, and trimer works well, but extensive testing has resulted in several other good models, some with higher order aggregates and some with chloride anions. Good models were frequently indistinguishable from each other by quality of fit or reasonability of molar absorptivity curves. The modeling of simulated data sets demonstrates the cases and degrees to which signal noise in the original data obscure the true model. In particular, the more mathematically similar (less orthogonal) the molar absorptivity curves of the chemical species in a model are, the less signal noise it takes to obscure the true model from other potentially good models. Unfortunately, the molar absorptivity curves in dye aggregation systems like that of methylene blue tend to be sufficiently similar so as to lead to the obscuration of models even at the noise levels (0.0001 ABS) of typical benchtop spectrophotometers.

  9. Condensation versus diffusion. A spatial-scale-independent theory of aggregate structures in edible oils: applications to model systems and commercial shortenings studied via rheology and USAXS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pink, David A.; Peyronel, Fernanda; Quinn, Bonnie; Singh, Pratham; Marangoni, Alejandro G.

    2015-09-01

    Understanding how solid fats structures come about in edible oils and quantifying their structures is of fundamental importance in developing edible oils with pre-selected characteristics. We considered the great range of fractal dimensions, from 1.91 to 2.90, reported from rheological measurements. We point out that, if the structures arise via DLA/RLA or DLCA/RLCA, as has been established using ultra small angle x-ray scattering (USAXS), we would expect fractal dimensions in the range ~1.7 to 2.1, and ~2.5 or ~3.0. We present new data for commercial fats and show that the fractal dimensions deduced lie outside these values. We have developed a model in which competition between two processes can lead to the range of fractal dimensions observed. The two processes are (i) the rate at which the solid fat particles are created as the temperature is decreased, and (ii) the rate at which these particles diffuse, thereby meeting and forming aggregates. We assumed that aggregation can take place essentially isotropically and we identified two characteristic times: a time characterizing the rate of creation of solid fats, {τ\\text{create}}(T)\\equiv 1/{{R}S}(T) , where {{R}S}(T) is the rate of solid condensation (cm3 s-1), and the diffusion time of solid fats, {τ\\text{diff}}≤ft(T,{{c}S}\\right)=< {{r}2}> /6{D}≤ft(T,{{c}S}\\right) , where {D}≤ft(T,{{c}S}\\right) is their diffusion coefficient and < {{r}2}> is the typical average distance that fats must move in order to aggregate. The intent of this model is to show that a simple process can lead to a wide range of fractal dimensions. We showed that in the limit of very fast solid creation, {τ\\text{create}}\\ll {τ\\text{diff}} the fractal dimension is predicted to be that of DLCA, ~1.7, relaxing to that of RLCA, 2.0-2.1, and that in the limit of very slow solid creation, {τ\\text{create}}\\gg {τ\\text{diff}} , the fractal dimension is predicted to be that obtained via DLA, ~2.5, relaxing to that of RLA, 3

  10. Microfabricated Valveless Devices for Thermal Bioreactions based on Diffusion-limited Evaporation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Fang; Yang, Ming; Burns, Mark A.

    2009-01-01

    Microfluidic devices that reduce evaporative loss during thermal bioreactions such as PCR without microvalves have been developed by relying on the principle of diffusion-limited evaporation. Both theoretical and experimental results demonstrate that the sample evaporative loss can be reduced by more than 20 times using long narrow diffusion channels on both sides of the reaction region. In order to further suppress the evaporation, the driving force for liquid evaporation is reduced by two additional techniques: decreasing the interfacial temperature using thermal isolation and reducing the vapor concentration gradient by replenishing water vapor in the diffusion channels. Both thermal isolation and vapor replenishment techniques can limit the sample evaporative loss to approximately 1% of the reaction content. PMID:18094766

  11. Thermal diffusivity and adiabatic limit temperature characterization of consolidate granular expanded perlite using the flash method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raefat, Saad; Garoum, Mohammed; Laaroussi, Najma; Thiam, Macodou; Amarray, Khaoula

    2017-07-01

    In this work experimental investigation of apparent thermal diffusivity and adiabatic limit temperature of expanded granular perlite mixes has been made using the flash technic. Perlite granulates were sieved to produce essentially three characteristic grain sizes. The consolidated samples were manufactured by mixing controlled proportions of the plaster and water. The effect of the particle size on the diffusivity was examined. The inverse estimation of the diffusivity and the adiabatic limit temperature at the rear face as well as the heat losses coefficients were performed using several numerical global minimization procedures. The function to be minimized is the quadratic distance between the experimental temperature rise at the rear face and the analytical model derived from the one dimension heat conduction. It is shown that, for all granulometry tested, the estimated parameters lead to a good agreement between the mathematical model and experimental data.

  12. Asymptotic current-voltage relations for currents exceeding the diffusion limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yariv, Ehud

    2009-11-01

    We consider the one-dimensional transport of ions into a perm-selective solid. Direct attempts to evaluate the current-voltage characteristics for currents exceeding the diffusion limit are frustrated by the appearance of nonconverging integrals. We describe how to overcome this obstacle using a regularization scheme.

  13. The effect of receptor clustering on diffusion-limited forward rate constants.

    PubMed Central

    Goldstein, B; Wiegel, F W

    1983-01-01

    The effect of receptor clustering on the diffusion-limited forward rate constant (k+) is studied theoretically by modeling cell surface receptors by hemispheres distributed on a plane. We give both exact results and bounds. The exact results are obtained using an electrostatic analogue and applying the method of the images. Accurate upper bounds on k+ are found from a variational principle. PMID:6309261

  14. Limits on the Diffuse Flux of Ultra-High Energy Neutrinos from the RICE Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, J.; Allen, Chris; Bean, A.; Besson, David Z.; Box, D. J.; Buniy, R.; Drees, J.; Frichter, George M., IV; Kravchenko, Igor; McKay, D.; Meyers, J.; Miller, T.; Perry, L.; Piccirillo, L.; Ralston, John P.; Razzaque, S.; Schmitz, D. W.; Seckel, David; Seunarine, S.; Spiczak, G. M.

    2003-02-01

    Upper limits are presented on the diffuse flux of ultra-high energy neutrinos, based on analysis of data taken by the RICE experiment during August, 2000. The RICE receiver array at South Pole monitors cold ice for radio-wavelength Cherenkov radiation resulting from neutrino-induced in-ice showers. For energies above 1 EeV, RICE monitors over 25 km3 sr. We discuss limits based on both hadronic and electromagnetic showers.

  15. Vibrational relaxation beyond the linear damping limit in two-dimensional optical spectra of molecular aggregates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perlík, Václav; Šanda, František

    2017-08-01

    We present a computational model for the spectra of molecular aggregates with signatures of vibronic progression. Vibronic dynamics is implemented by coupling the dynamics of Frenkel excitons with underdamped vibrations. Vibrational dynamics includes linear damping resulting in the exponential decay and quadratic damping inducing subexponential or power law relaxation and increasing vibrational decoherence as demonstrated on lineshapes of the absorption spectrum. Simulations of the third-order coherent response account for bath reorganization during excitonic transport, which allows us to study the line-shape evolution of cross peaks of 2D spectra.

  16. Variable aggregation rates in colloidal gold: Kernel homogeneity dependence on aggregant concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olivier, B. J.; Sorensen, C. M.

    1990-02-01

    Dynamic light scattering is used to study the dependence of the aggregation kernel homogeneity λ on the aggregant concentration [HCl] for aqueous gold sols. We find the cluster growth kinetics are well described by a powerlaw, Rapp~tz/D, where Rapp is the measured apparent radius, D the cluster fractal dimension, and z=1/(1-λ) for all aggregant concentrations. The values for the dynamic exponent z, and hence the homogeneity λ, are functions of HCl concentration. We find the larger HCl concentrations yield a fast-aggregation regime characterized by λ~=-0.6. Smaller HCl concentrations yield a continuum of aggregation regimes characterized by homogeneities evolving from λ~=-0.6 towards 1.0. Our results do not support the view that aggregation in gold colloids is based on two limiting regimes, diffusion-limited and reaction-limited aggregation.

  17. Shear-Limited Diffusion of Test Particles in Pure Ion Plasmas.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderegg, F.; Driscoll, C. F.; Dubin, D. H. E.

    2001-10-01

    Measurements of test-particle diffusion in pure ion plasmas show 2D enhancements over the 3D rates, limited by shear in the plasma rotation ωE (r). The diffusion is due to ``long-range'' ion-ion collisions in the quiescent, steady-state Mg^+ plasma. For short plasma length Lp and low shear ω_E^' ≡ partial ωE / partial r, thermal ions bounce axially many times before shear separates them in θ, so the ions may move in (r, θ ) as bounce averaged ``rods'' of charge (i.e. 2D point vortices). Experimentally, we vary the number of bounces over the range 0.2 <= Nb ≡ ( barv / 2 Lp ) / r ω_E^' <= 10,000. For long plasmas with Nb <= 1, we observe diffusion in quantitative agreement with the 3D theory of long-range E × B drift collisions.(F. Anderegg et al.), Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 2128 (1997). For shorter plasmas or lower shear, with Nb > 1, we measure diffusion rates enhanced by approximately N_b. For exceedingly small shear, i.e. Nb >= 1000, we observe diffusion rates consistent with the Taylor-McNamara estimates for a shear-free plasma. Overall, the data shows fair agreement with Dubin's new theory of 2D diffusion in shear.(D.H.E. Dubin and D.Z. Jin, Phys. Lett. A 284), 112-117 (2001).

  18. Setting limits for acceptable change in sediment particle size composition: testing a new approach to managing marine aggregate dredging.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Keith M

    2013-08-15

    A baseline dataset from 2005 was used to identify the spatial distribution of macrofaunal assemblages across the eastern English Channel. The range of sediment composition found in association with each assemblage was used to define limits for acceptable change at ten licensed marine aggregate extraction areas. Sediment data acquired in 2010, 4 years after the onset of dredging, were used to assess whether conditions remained within the acceptable limits. Despite the observed changes in sediment composition, the composition of sediments in and around nine extraction areas remained within pre-defined acceptable limits. At the tenth site, some of the observed changes within the licence area were judged to have gone beyond the acceptable limits. Implications of the changes are discussed, and appropriate management measures identified. The approach taken in this study offers a simple, objective and cost-effective method for assessing the significance of change, and could simplify the existing monitoring regime. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Mathematical model of diffusion-limited evolution of multiple gas bubbles in tissue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srinivasan, R. Srini; Gerth, Wayne A.; Powell, Michael R.

    2003-01-01

    Models of gas bubble dynamics employed in probabilistic analyses of decompression sickness incidence in man must be theoretically consistent and simple, if they are to yield useful results without requiring excessive computations. They are generally formulated in terms of ordinary differential equations that describe diffusion-limited gas exchange between a gas bubble and the extravascular tissue surrounding it. In our previous model (Ann. Biomed. Eng. 30: 232-246, 2002), we showed that with appropriate representation of sink pressures to account for gas loss or gain due to heterogeneous blood perfusion in the unstirred diffusion region around the bubble, diffusion-limited bubble growth in a tissue of finite volume can be simulated without postulating a boundary layer across which gas flux is discontinuous. However, interactions between two or more bubbles caused by competition for available gas cannot be considered in this model, because the diffusion region has a fixed volume with zero gas flux at its outer boundary. The present work extends the previous model to accommodate interactions among multiple bubbles by allowing the diffusion region volume of each bubble to vary during bubble evolution. For given decompression and tissue volume, bubble growth is sustained only if the bubble number density is below a certain maximum.

  20. Mathematical model of diffusion-limited evolution of multiple gas bubbles in tissue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srinivasan, R. Srini; Gerth, Wayne A.; Powell, Michael R.

    2003-01-01

    Models of gas bubble dynamics employed in probabilistic analyses of decompression sickness incidence in man must be theoretically consistent and simple, if they are to yield useful results without requiring excessive computations. They are generally formulated in terms of ordinary differential equations that describe diffusion-limited gas exchange between a gas bubble and the extravascular tissue surrounding it. In our previous model (Ann. Biomed. Eng. 30: 232-246, 2002), we showed that with appropriate representation of sink pressures to account for gas loss or gain due to heterogeneous blood perfusion in the unstirred diffusion region around the bubble, diffusion-limited bubble growth in a tissue of finite volume can be simulated without postulating a boundary layer across which gas flux is discontinuous. However, interactions between two or more bubbles caused by competition for available gas cannot be considered in this model, because the diffusion region has a fixed volume with zero gas flux at its outer boundary. The present work extends the previous model to accommodate interactions among multiple bubbles by allowing the diffusion region volume of each bubble to vary during bubble evolution. For given decompression and tissue volume, bubble growth is sustained only if the bubble number density is below a certain maximum.

  1. Detangling the Effects of Environmental Filtering and Dispersal Limitation on Aggregated Distributions of Tree and Shrub Species: Life Stage Matters

    PubMed Central

    Liu, He-Ming; Wang, Zhang-Hua; Ma, Zun-Ping; Fang, Xiao-Feng; Zhang, Jian; Wang, Xi-Hua

    2016-01-01

    The pervasive pattern of aggregated tree distributions in natural communities is commonly explained by the joint effect of two clustering processes: environmental filtering and dispersal limitation, yet little consensus remains on the relative importance of the two clustering processes on tree aggregations. Different life stages of examined species were thought to be one possible explanation of this disagreement, because the effect of environmental filtering and dispersal limitation are expected to increase and decrease with tree life stages, respectively. However, few studies have explicitly tested these expectations. In this study, we evaluated these expectations by three different methods (species-habitat association test based on Poisson Clustering model and spatial point pattern analyses based on Heterogeneous Poisson model and the jointly modeling approach) using 36 species in a 20-ha subtropical forest plot. Our results showed that the percentage of species with significant habitat association increased with life stages, and there were fewer species affected by dispersal limitation in later life stages compared with those in earlier stages. Percentage of variance explained by the environmental filtering and dispersal limitation also increases and decreases with life stages. These results provided a promising alternative explanation on the existing mixed results about the relative importance of the two clustering processes. These findings also highlighted the importance of plant life stages for fully understanding species distributions and species coexistence. PMID:27227538

  2. Geometric Correction in Diffusive Limit of Neutron Transport Equation in 2D Convex Domains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Yan; Wu, Lei

    2017-10-01

    Consider the steady neutron transport equation with diffusive boundary condition. In Wu and Guo (Commun Math Phys 336:1473-1553, 2015) and Wu et al. (J Stat Phys 165:585-644, 2016), it was discovered that geometric correction is necessary for the Milne problem of Knudsen-layer construction in a disk or annulus. In this paper, we establish the diffusive limit for a 2D convex domain. Our contribution relies on novel weighted W^{1,∞} estimates for the Milne problem with geometric correction in the presence of a convex domain, as well as an L^{2m}-L^{∞} framework which yields stronger remainder estimates.

  3. Limitations and Prospects for Diffusion-Weighted MRI of the Prostate

    PubMed Central

    Bourne, Roger; Panagiotaki, Eleftheria

    2016-01-01

    Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) is the most effective component of the modern multi-parametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) scan for prostate pathology. DWI provides the strongest prediction of cancer volume, and the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) correlates moderately with Gleason grade. Notwithstanding the demonstrated cancer assessment value of DWI, the standard measurement and signal analysis methods are based on a model of water diffusion dynamics that is well known to be invalid in human tissue. This review describes the biophysical limitations of the DWI component of the current standard mpMRI protocol and the potential for significantly improved cancer assessment performance based on more sophisticated measurement and signal modeling techniques. PMID:27240408

  4. Oxygen diffusion limitation triggers ventilatory movements during spiracle closure when insects breathe discontinuously.

    PubMed

    Huang, Shu-Ping; Sender, Roi; Gefen, Eran

    2014-07-01

    During discontinuous gas exchange cycles in insects, spiracular opening follows a typical prolonged period of spiracle closure. Gas exchange with the environment occurs mostly during the period of full spiracular opening. In this study we tested the hypothesis that recently reported ventilatory movements during the spiracle closure period serve to mix the tracheal system gaseous contents, and support diffusive exchanges with the tissues. Using heliox (21% O2, 79% He), we found that by increasing oxygen diffusivity in the gas phase, ventilatory movements of Schistocerca gregaria were significantly delayed compared with normoxic conditions. Exposure to hyperoxic conditions (40% O2, 60% N2) resulted in a similar delay in forced ventilation. Together, these results indicate that limits to oxygen diffusion to the tissues during spiracle closure trigger ventilatory movements, which in turn support tissue demands. These findings contribute to our understanding of the mechanistic basis of respiratory gas exchange between insect tissues and the environment.

  5. Boron-enhanced-diffusion of boron: The limiting factor for ultra-shallow junctions

    SciTech Connect

    Agarwal, A. |; Eaglesham, D.J.; Gossmann, H.J.; Pelaz, L.; Herner, S.B.; Jacobson, D.C.; Haynes, T.E.; Erokhin, Y.; Simonton, R.

    1997-12-01

    Reducing implant energy is an effective way to eliminate transient enhanced diffusion (TED) due to excess interstitials from the implant. It is shown that TED from a fixed Si dose implanted at energies from 0.5 to 20 keV into boron doping-superlattices decreases linearly with decreasing Si ion range, virtually disappearing at sub-keV energies. However, for sub-keV B implants diffusion remains enhanced and x{sub j} is limited to {ge} 100 nm at 1,050 C. The authors term this enhancement, which arises in the presence of B atomic concentrations at the surface of {approx} 6%, Boron-Enhanced-Diffusion (BED).

  6. Comparison of the Rates of Uni- and Bi-Molecular Diffusion Controlled Reactions on Circular, Filled Aggregate and DLA Fractal Aggregate in Two Dimensions.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-05-07

    CLASSIFICATION Of THIS PAGIL(Whan Data Entered) It is found that the reaction rates of OLA agigregates are comnatible with * that of circular aggregates with...NOSC Wayne State University Code 521 Detroit, Michigan 49207 San Diego, California 91232 Or. W.E. Moerner I.B.M. Corporation Almaden Research Center 650

  7. A Bayesian Approach to Distinguishing Interdigitated Tongue Muscles from Limited Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Chuyang; Murano, Emi; Stone, Maureen; Prince, Jerry L.

    2015-01-01

    The tongue is a critical organ for a variety of functions, including swallowing, respiration, and speech. It contains intrinsic and extrinsic muscles that play an important role in changing its shape and position. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) has been used to reconstruct tongue muscle fiber tracts. However, previous studies have been unable to reconstruct the crossing fibers that occur where the tongue muscles interdigitate, which is a large percentage of the tongue volume. To resolve crossing fibers, multi-tensor models on DTI and more advanced imaging modalities, such as high angular resolution diffusion imaging (HARDI) and diffusion spectrum imaging (DSI), have been proposed. However, because of the involuntary nature of swallowing, there is insufficient time to acquire a sufficient number of diffusion gradient directions to resolve crossing fibers while the in vivo tongue is in a fixed position. In this work, we address the challenge of distinguishing interdigitated tongue muscles from limited diffusion magnetic resonance imaging by using a multi-tensor model with a fixed tensor basis and incorporating prior directional knowledge. The prior directional knowledge provides information on likely fiber directions at each voxel, and is computed with anatomical knowledge of tongue muscles. The fiber directions are estimated within a maximum a posteriori (MAP) framework, and the resulting objective function is solved using a noise-aware weighted ℓ1-norm minimization algorithm. Experiments were performed on a digital crossing phantom and in vivo tongue diffusion data including three control subjects and four patients with glossectomies. On the digital phantom, effects of parameters, noise, and prior direction accuracy were studied, and parameter settings for real data were determined. The results on the in vivo data demonstrate that the proposed method is able to resolve inter-digitated tongue muscles with limited gradient directions. The distributions of the

  8. A Bayesian approach to distinguishing interdigitated tongue muscles from limited diffusion magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Ye, Chuyang; Murano, Emi; Stone, Maureen; Prince, Jerry L

    2015-10-01

    The tongue is a critical organ for a variety of functions, including swallowing, respiration, and speech. It contains intrinsic and extrinsic muscles that play an important role in changing its shape and position. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) has been used to reconstruct tongue muscle fiber tracts. However, previous studies have been unable to reconstruct the crossing fibers that occur where the tongue muscles interdigitate, which is a large percentage of the tongue volume. To resolve crossing fibers, multi-tensor models on DTI and more advanced imaging modalities, such as high angular resolution diffusion imaging (HARDI) and diffusion spectrum imaging (DSI), have been proposed. However, because of the involuntary nature of swallowing, there is insufficient time to acquire a sufficient number of diffusion gradient directions to resolve crossing fibers while the in vivo tongue is in a fixed position. In this work, we address the challenge of distinguishing interdigitated tongue muscles from limited diffusion magnetic resonance imaging by using a multi-tensor model with a fixed tensor basis and incorporating prior directional knowledge. The prior directional knowledge provides information on likely fiber directions at each voxel, and is computed with anatomical knowledge of tongue muscles. The fiber directions are estimated within a maximum a posteriori (MAP) framework, and the resulting objective function is solved using a noise-aware weighted ℓ1-norm minimization algorithm. Experiments were performed on a digital crossing phantom and in vivo tongue diffusion data including three control subjects and four patients with glossectomies. On the digital phantom, effects of parameters, noise, and prior direction accuracy were studied, and parameter settings for real data were determined. The results on the in vivo data demonstrate that the proposed method is able to resolve interdigitated tongue muscles with limited gradient directions. The distributions of the

  9. Nitric oxide uptake by erythrocytes is primarily limited by extracellular diffusion not membrane resistance.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoping; Samouilov, Alexandre; Lancaster, Jack R; Zweier, Jay L

    2002-07-19

    The process of NO transfer into erythrocytes (RBCs) is of critical biological importance because it regulates the bioavailability and diffusional distance of endothelial-derived NO. It has been reported that the rate of NO reaction with oxyhemoglobin (Hb) within RBCs is nearly three orders of magnitude slower than that by equal amounts of free oxyhemoglobin. Consistent with early studies on oxygen uptake by RBCs, the process of extracellular diffusion was reported to explain this much lower NO uptake by RBC encapsulated Hb (Liu, X., Miller, M. J., Joshi, M. S., Sadowska-Krowicka, H., Clark, D. A., and Lancaster, J. R., Jr. (1998) J. Biol. Chem. 273, 18709-18713). However, it was subsequently proposed that the RBC membrane provides the main resistance to NO uptake rather than the process of extracellular diffusion (Vaughn, M. W., Huang, K. T., Kuo, L., and Liao, J. C. (2000) J. Biol. Chem. 275, 2342-2348). This conclusion was based on competition experiments that were assumed to be able to determine the rate constant of NO uptake by RBCs without extracellular diffusion limitation. To test the validity of this hypothesis, we theoretically analyzed competition experiments. Here, we show that competition experiments do not eliminate the extracellular diffusion limitation. Simulation of the competition data indicates that the main resistance to NO uptake by RBCs is caused by extracellular diffusion in the unstirred layer surrounding each RBC but not by the RBC membrane. This extracellular diffusion resistance is responsible for preventing interference of NO signaling in the endothelium without the need for special NO uptake by intracellular hemoglobin or a unique membrane resistance mechanism.

  10. Aggregation of BiTe monolayer on Bi2Te3 (111) induced by diffusion of intercalated atoms in the van der Waals gap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhi-Wen; Huang, Wen-Kai; Zhang, Kai-Wen; Shu, Da-Jun; Wang, Mu; Li, Shao-Chun

    2017-03-01

    We report a postgrowth aging mechanism of Bi2Te3 (111) films with scanning tunneling microscopy in combination with density functional theory calculation. It is found that a monolayered structure with a squared lattice symmetry gradually aggregates from the surface steps. Theoretical calculations indicate that the van der Waals (vdW) gap not only acts as a natural reservoir for self-intercalated Bi and Te atoms, but also provides them easy diffusion pathways. Once hopping out of the gap, these defective atoms prefer to develop into a two-dimensional BiTe superstructure on the Bi2Te3 (111) surface driven by positive energy gain. Considering the common nature of weak bonding between vdW layers, we expect such unusual diffusion and aggregation of the intercalated atoms may be of general importance for most kinds of vdW layered materials.

  11. Diffusive and metabolic limitations to photosynthesis under drought and salinity in C(3) plants.

    PubMed

    Flexas, J; Bota, J; Loreto, F; Cornic, G; Sharkey, T D

    2004-05-01

    Drought and salinity are two widespread environmental conditions leading to low water availability for plants. Low water availability is considered the main environmental factor limiting photosynthesis and, consequently, plant growth and yield worldwide. There has been a long-standing controversy as to whether drought and salt stresses mainly limit photosynthesis through diffusive resistances or by metabolic impairment. Reviewing in vitro and in vivo measurements, it is concluded that salt and drought stress predominantly affect diffusion of CO(2) in the leaves through a decrease of stomatal and mesophyll conductances, but not the biochemical capacity to assimilate CO(2), at mild to rather severe stress levels. The general failure of metabolism observed at more severe stress suggests the occurrence of secondary oxidative stresses, particularly under high-light conditions. Estimates of photosynthetic limitations based on the photosynthetic response to intercellular CO(2) may lead to artefactual conclusions, even if patchy stomatal closure and the relative increase of cuticular conductance are taken into account, as decreasing mesophyll conductance can cause the CO(2) concentration in chloroplasts of stressed leaves to be considerably lower than the intercellular CO(2) concentration. Measurements based on the photosynthetic response to chloroplast CO(2) often confirm that the photosynthetic capacity is preserved but photosynthesis is limited by diffusive resistances in drought and salt-stressed leaves.

  12. Mathematical model of diffusion-limited gas bubble dynamics in unstirred tissue with finite volume

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srinivasan, R. Srini; Gerth, Wayne A.; Powell, Michael R.

    2002-01-01

    Models of gas bubble dynamics for studying decompression sickness have been developed by considering the bubble to be immersed in an extravascular tissue with diffusion-limited gas exchange between the bubble and the surrounding unstirred tissue. In previous versions of this two-region model, the tissue volume must be theoretically infinite, which renders the model inapplicable to analysis of bubble growth in a finite-sized tissue. We herein present a new two-region model that is applicable to problems involving finite tissue volumes. By introducing radial deviations to gas tension in the diffusion region surrounding the bubble, the concentration gradient can be zero at a finite distance from the bubble, thus limiting the tissue volume that participates in bubble-tissue gas exchange. It is shown that these deviations account for the effects of heterogeneous perfusion on gas bubble dynamics, and are required for the tissue volume to be finite. The bubble growth results from a difference between the bubble gas pressure and an average gas tension in the surrounding diffusion region that explicitly depends on gas uptake and release by the bubble. For any given decompression, the diffusion region volume must stay above a certain minimum in order to sustain bubble growth.

  13. Mathematical model of diffusion-limited gas bubble dynamics in unstirred tissue with finite volume

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srinivasan, R. Srini; Gerth, Wayne A.; Powell, Michael R.

    2002-01-01

    Models of gas bubble dynamics for studying decompression sickness have been developed by considering the bubble to be immersed in an extravascular tissue with diffusion-limited gas exchange between the bubble and the surrounding unstirred tissue. In previous versions of this two-region model, the tissue volume must be theoretically infinite, which renders the model inapplicable to analysis of bubble growth in a finite-sized tissue. We herein present a new two-region model that is applicable to problems involving finite tissue volumes. By introducing radial deviations to gas tension in the diffusion region surrounding the bubble, the concentration gradient can be zero at a finite distance from the bubble, thus limiting the tissue volume that participates in bubble-tissue gas exchange. It is shown that these deviations account for the effects of heterogeneous perfusion on gas bubble dynamics, and are required for the tissue volume to be finite. The bubble growth results from a difference between the bubble gas pressure and an average gas tension in the surrounding diffusion region that explicitly depends on gas uptake and release by the bubble. For any given decompression, the diffusion region volume must stay above a certain minimum in order to sustain bubble growth.

  14. Asymptotic diffusion limit of cell temperature discretisation schemes for thermal radiation transport

    SciTech Connect

    Smedley-Stevenson, Richard P.; McClarren, Ryan G.

    2015-04-01

    This paper attempts to unify the asymptotic diffusion limit analysis of thermal radiation transport schemes, for a linear-discontinuous representation of the material temperature reconstructed from cell centred temperature unknowns, in a process known as ‘source tilting’. The asymptotic limits of both Monte Carlo (continuous in space) and deterministic approaches (based on linear-discontinuous finite elements) for solving the transport equation are investigated in slab geometry. The resulting discrete diffusion equations are found to have nonphysical terms that are proportional to any cell-edge discontinuity in the temperature representation. Based on this analysis it is possible to design accurate schemes for representing the material temperature, for coupling thermal radiation transport codes to a cell centred representation of internal energy favoured by ALE (arbitrary Lagrange–Eulerian) hydrodynamics schemes.

  15. Microwave extinction characteristics of nanoparticle aggregates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Y. P.; Cheng, J. X.; Liu, X. X.; Wang, H. X.; Zhao, F. T.; Wen, W. W.

    2016-07-01

    Structure of nanoparticle aggregates plays an important role in microwave extinction capacity. The diffusion-limited aggregation model (DLA) for fractal growth is utilized to explore the possible structures of nanoparticle aggregates by computer simulation. Based on the discrete dipole approximation (DDA) method, the microwave extinction performance by different nano-carborundum aggregates is numerically analyzed. The effects of the particle quantity, original diameter, fractal structure, as well as orientation on microwave extinction are investigated, and also the extinction characteristics of aggregates are compared with the spherical nanoparticle in the same volume. Numerical results give out that proper aggregation of nanoparticle is beneficial to microwave extinction capacity, and the microwave extinction cross section by aggregated granules is better than that of the spherical solid one in the same volume.

  16. Allylmagnesium Halides Do Not React Chemoselectively Because Reaction Rates Approach the Diffusion Limit.

    PubMed

    Read, Jacquelyne A; Woerpel, K A

    2017-02-17

    Competition experiments demonstrate that additions of allylmagnesium halides to carbonyl compounds, unlike additions of other organomagnesium reagents, occur at rates approaching the diffusion rate limit. Whereas alkylmagnesium and alkyllithium reagents could differentiate between electronically or sterically different carbonyl compounds, allylmagnesium reagents reacted with most carbonyl compounds at similar rates. Even additions to esters occurred at rates competitive with additions to aldehydes. Only in the case of particularly sterically hindered substrates, such as those bearing tertiary alkyl groups, were additions slower.

  17. Limiting behavior of non-autonomous stochastic reaction-diffusion equations on thin domains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Dingshi; Wang, Bixiang; Wang, Xiaohu

    2017-02-01

    This paper deals with the limiting behavior of stochastic reaction-diffusion equations driven by multiplicative noise and deterministic non-autonomous terms defined on thin domains. We first prove the existence, uniqueness and periodicity of pullback tempered random attractors for the equations in an (n + 1)-dimensional narrow domain, and then establish the upper semicontinuity of these attractors when a family of (n + 1)-dimensional thin domains collapses onto an n-dimensional domain.

  18. The limiting problem of the drift-diffusion-Poisson model with discontinuous p-n-junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lian, Songzhe; Yuan, Hongjun; Cao, Chunling; Gao, Wenjie

    2008-11-01

    In this paper, the authors consider the limiting problem of the drift-diffusion-Poisson model for semiconductors. Different from previous papers, the model considered involve some special doping profiles D which have the property that the function is allowed to have a jump-discontinuity and sign changing property but D2 is required to be Lipschitz continuous. The existence, uniqueness and large-time asymptotic behavior of the global (in time) solutions are given.

  19. Aggregation dynamics of rigid polyelectrolytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tom, Anvy Moly; Rajesh, R.; Vemparala, Satyavani

    2016-01-01

    Similarly charged polyelectrolytes are known to attract each other and aggregate into bundles when the charge density of the polymers exceeds a critical value that depends on the valency of the counterions. The dynamics of aggregation of such rigid polyelectrolytes are studied using large scale molecular dynamics simulations. We find that the morphology of the aggregates depends on the value of the charge density of the polymers. For values close to the critical value, the shape of the aggregates is cylindrical with height equal to the length of a single polyelectrolyte chain. However, for larger values of charge, the linear extent of the aggregates increases as more and more polymers aggregate. In both the cases, we show that the number of aggregates decrease with time as power laws with exponents that are not numerically distinguishable from each other and are independent of charge density of the polymers, valency of the counterions, density, and length of the polyelectrolyte chain. We model the aggregation dynamics using the Smoluchowski coagulation equation with kernels determined from the molecular dynamics simulations and justify the numerically obtained value of the exponent. Our results suggest that once counterions condense, effective interactions between polyelectrolyte chains short-ranged and the aggregation of polyelectrolytes are diffusion-limited.

  20. Fractional Progress Toward Understanding the Fractional Diffusion Limit: The Electromagnetic Response of Spatially Correlated Geomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiss, C. J.; Beskardes, G. D.; Everett, M. E.

    2016-12-01

    In this presentation we review the observational evidence for anomalous electromagnetic diffusion in near-surface geophysical exploration and how such evidence is consistent with a detailed, spatially-correlated geologic medium. To date, the inference of multi-scale geologic correlation is drawn from two independent methods of data analysis. The first of which is analogous to seismic move-out, where the arrival time of an electromagnetic pulse is plotted as a function of transmitter/receiver separation. The "anomalous" diffusion is evident by the fractional-order power law behavior of these arrival times, with an exponent value between unity (pure diffusion) and 2 (lossless wave propagation). The second line of evidence comes from spectral analysis of small-scale fluctuations in electromagnetic profile data which cannot be explained in terms of instrument, user or random error. Rather, the power-law behavior of the spectral content of these signals (i.e., power versus wavenumber) and their increments reveals them to lie in a class of signals with correlations over multiple length scales, a class of signals known formally as fractional Brownian motion. Numerical results over simulated geology with correlated electrical texture - representative of, for example, fractures, sedimentary bedding or metamorphic lineation - are consistent with the (albeit limited, but growing) observational data, suggesting a possible mechanism and modeling approach for a more realistic geology. Furthermore, we show how similar simulated results can arise from a modeling approach where geologic texture is economically captured by a modified diffusion equation containing exotic, but manageable, fractional derivatives. These derivatives arise physically from the generalized convolutional form for the electromagnetic constitutive laws and thus have merit beyond mere mathematical convenience. In short, we are zeroing in on the anomalous, fractional diffusion limit from two converging

  1. The Transport Equation in Optically Thick Media: Discussion of IMC and its Diffusion Limit

    SciTech Connect

    Szoke, A.; Brooks, E. D.

    2016-07-12

    We discuss the limits of validity of the Implicit Monte Carlo (IMC) method for the transport of thermally emitted radiation. The weakened coupling between the radiation and material energy of the IMC method causes defects in handling problems with strong transients. We introduce an approach to asymptotic analysis for the transport equation that emphasizes the fact that the radiation and material temperatures are always different in time-dependent problems, and we use it to show that IMC does not produce the correct diffusion limit. As this is a defect of IMC in the continuous equations, no improvement to its discretization can remedy it.

  2. Diffusion-Limited Agglomeration and Defect Generation during Chemical Mechanical Planarization

    SciTech Connect

    Biswas, R.; Han, Y.; Karra, P.; Sherman, P.; Chandra, A.

    2008-06-06

    Chemical mechanical planarization (CMP) of copper involves removal of surface asperities with abrasive particles and polishing processes. This leads to copper-containing nanoparticles extruded into the solution. We model the diffusion-limited agglomeration (DLA) of such nanoparticles which can rapidly grow to large sizes. These large particles are detrimental because they can participate in polishing, causing scratches and surface defects during CMP. The agglomeration is much slower in the reaction-limited agglomeration process. Under realistic conditions the defect generation probability can increase significantly over time scales of {approx}10 to 20 min from DLA, unless prevented by slurry rejuvenation or process modification measures.

  3. PIP3-binding proteins promote age-dependent protein aggregation and limit survival in C. elegans.

    PubMed

    Ayyadevara, Srinivas; Balasubramaniam, Meenakshisundaram; Johnson, Jay; Alla, Ramani; Mackintosh, Samuel G; Shmookler Reis, Robert J

    2016-08-02

    Class-I phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3KI) converts phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) to phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-triphosphate (PIP3). PIP3 comprises two fatty-acid chains that embed in lipid-bilayer membranes, joined by glycerol to inositol triphosphate. Proteins with domains that specifically bind that head-group (e.g. pleckstrin-homology [PH] domains) are thus tethered to the inner plasma-membrane surface where they have an enhanced likelihood of interaction with other PIP3-bound proteins, in particular other components of their signaling pathways. Null alleles of the C. elegans age-1 gene, encoding the catalytic subunit of PI3KI, lack any detectable class-I PI3K activity and so cannot form PIP3. These mutant worms survive almost 10-fold longer than the longest-lived normal control, and are highly resistant to a variety of stresses including oxidative and electrophilic challenges. Traits associated with age-1 mutation are widely believed to be mediated through AKT-1, which requires PIP3 for both tethering and activation. Active AKT complex phosphorylates and thereby inactivates the DAF-16/FOXO transcription factor. However, extensive evidence indicates that pleiotropic effects of age-1-null mutations, including extreme longevity, cannot be explained by insulin like-receptor/AKT/FOXO signaling alone, suggesting involvement of other PIP3-binding proteins. We used ligand-affinity capture to identify membrane-bound proteins downstream of PI3KI that preferentially bind PIP3. Computer modeling supports a subset of candidate proteins predicted to directly bind PIP3 in preference to PIP2, and functional testing by RNAi knockdown confirmed candidates that partially mediate the stress-survival, aggregation-reducing and longevity benefits of PI3KI disruption. PIP3-specific candidate sets are highly enriched for proteins previously reported to affect translation, stress responses, lifespan, proteostasis, and lipid transport.

  4. Nano Vacancy Clusters and Trap Limited Diffusion of Si Interstitials in Silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Prof. Wei-Kan Chu

    2010-05-05

    consecutive steps. (a) First, high energy self ion irradiation is used to create a wide vacancy-rich region, and to form voids by post implantation annealing. (b) In an additional annealing step in oxygen ambient, Si interstitials are injected in by surface oxidation. (c) Analyzing trap-limited diffusion of Si interstitials, which is experimentally detectable by studying the diffusion of multiple boron superlattices grown in Si, and enables us to characterize the nano voids, e.g. their sizes and densities.

  5. Effect of diffusion limitations on multianalyte determination from biased biosensor response.

    PubMed

    Baronas, Romas; Kulys, Juozas; Lančinskas, Algirdas; Zilinskas, Antanas

    2014-03-07

    The optimization-based quantitative determination of multianalyte concentrations from biased biosensor responses is investigated under internal and external diffusion-limited conditions. A computational model of a biocatalytic amperometric biosensor utilizing a mono-enzyme-catalyzed (nonspecific) competitive conversion of two substrates was used to generate pseudo-experimental responses to mixtures of compounds. The influence of possible perturbations of the biosensor signal, due to a white noise- and temperature-induced trend, on the precision of the concentration determination has been investigated for different configurations of the biosensor operation. The optimization method was found to be suitable and accurate enough for the quantitative determination of the concentrations of the compounds from a given biosensor transient response. The computational experiments showed a complex dependence of the precision of the concentration estimation on the relative thickness of the outer diffusion layer, as well as on whether the biosensor operates under diffusion- or kinetics-limited conditions. When the biosensor response is affected by the induced exponential trend, the duration of the biosensor action can be optimized for increasing the accuracy of the quantitative analysis.

  6. Effect of Diffusion Limitations on Multianalyte Determination from Biased Biosensor Response

    PubMed Central

    Baronas, Romas; Kulys, Juozas; Lančinskas, Algirdas; Žilinskas, Antanas

    2014-01-01

    The optimization-based quantitative determination of multianalyte concentrations from biased biosensor responses is investigated under internal and external diffusion-limited conditions. A computational model of a biocatalytic amperometric biosensor utilizing a mono-enzyme-catalyzed (nonspecific) competitive conversion of two substrates was used to generate pseudo-experimental responses to mixtures of compounds. The influence of possible perturbations of the biosensor signal, due to a white noise- and temperature-induced trend, on the precision of the concentration determination has been investigated for different configurations of the biosensor operation. The optimization method was found to be suitable and accurate enough for the quantitative determination of the concentrations of the compounds from a given biosensor transient response. The computational experiments showed a complex dependence of the precision of the concentration estimation on the relative thickness of the outer diffusion layer, as well as on whether the biosensor operates under diffusion- or kinetics-limited conditions. When the biosensor response is affected by the induced exponential trend, the duration of the biosensor action can be optimized for increasing the accuracy of the quantitative analysis. PMID:24608006

  7. Possible complication regarding phosphorus removal with a continuous flow biofilm system: diffusion limitation.

    PubMed

    Falkentoft, C M; Arnz, P; Henze, M; Mosbaek, H; Müller, E; Wilderer, P A; Harremoës, P

    2001-01-01

    Diffusion limitation of phosphate possibly constitutes a serious problem regarding the use of a biofilm reactor for enhanced biological phosphorus removal. A lab-scale reactor for simultaneous removal of phosphorus and nitrate was operated in a continuous alternating mode of operation. For a steady-state operation with excess amounts of carbon source (acetate) during the anaerobic phase, the same amount of phosphate was released during the anaerobic phase as was taken up during the anoxic phase. The measured phosphorus content of the biomass that detached during backwash after an anoxic phase was low, 2.4 +/- 0.4% (equal to 24 +/- 4 mg P/g TS). A simplified computer model indicated the reason to be phosphate diffusion limitation and the model revealed a delicate balance between the obtainable phosphorus contents of the biomass and operating parameters, such as backwash interval, biofilm thickness after backwash, and phase lengths. The aspect of diffusion is considered of crucial importance when evaluating the performance of a biofilter for phosphate removal. Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  8. Expansion-limited aggregation of nanoclusters in a single-pulse laser-produced plume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gamaly, E. G.; Madsen, N. R.; Golberg, D.; Rode, A. V.

    2009-11-01

    Formation of carbon nanoclusters in a single-laser-pulse created ablation plume was studied both in vacuum and in a noble gas environment at various pressures. The developed theory provides cluster radius dependence on combination of laser parameters, properties of ablated material, and type and pressure of an ambient gas in agreement with experiments. The experiments were performed on carbon nanoclusters formed by laser ablation of graphite targets with 12 picosecond 532 nm laser pulses at MHz-range repetition rate in a broad range of ambient He, Ar, Kr, and Xe gas pressures from 2×10-2 to 1500 Torr. The experimental results confirmed our theoretical prediction that the average size of the nanoparticles depends weakly on the type of the ambient gas used, and is determined exclusively by the single laser pulse parameters even at the repetition rate as high as 28 MHz with the time gap 36 ns between the pulses. The most important finding relates to the fact that in vacuum the cluster size is mainly determined by hydrodynamic expansion of the plume while in the ambient gas it is controlled by atomic diffusion in the gas. We demonstrate that the ultrashort pulses can be used for production of clusters with the size less than the critical value, which separates the particles with properties drastically different from those of a material in a bulk. The presented results of experiments on formation of carbon nanoclusters are in close agreement with the theoretical scaling. The developed theory is applicable for cluster formation from any monatomic material, such as silicon for example.

  9. Pushing the limits of in vivo diffusion MRI for the Human Connectome Project

    PubMed Central

    Setsompop, K.; Kimmlingen, R.; Eberlein, E.; Witzel, T.; Cohen-Adad, J.; McNab, J.A.; Keil, B.; Tisdall, M.D.; Hoecht, P.; Dietz, P.; Cauley, S.F.; Tountcheva, V.; Matschl, V.; Lenz, V. H.; Heberlein, K.; Potthast, A.; Thein, H.; Van Horn, J.; Toga, A.; Schmitt, F.; Lehne, D.; Rosen, B.R.; Wedeen, V.; Wald, L.L.

    2013-01-01

    Perhaps more than any other “-omics” endeavor, the accuracy and level of detail obtained from mapping the major connection pathways in the living human brain with diffusion MRI depends on the capabilities of the imaging technology used. The current tools are remarkable; allowing the formation of an “image” of the water diffusion probability distribution in regions of complex crossing fibers at each of half a million voxels in the brain. Nonetheless our ability to map the connection pathways is limited by the image sensitivity and resolution, and also the contrast and resolution in encoding of the diffusion probability distribution. The goal of our Human Connectome Project (HCP) is to address these limiting factors by re-engineering the scanner from the ground up to optimize the high b-value, high angular resolution diffusion imaging needed for sensitive and accurate mapping of the brain’s structural connections. Our efforts were directed based on the relative contributions of each scanner component. The gradient subsection was a major focus since gradient amplitude is central to determining the diffusion contrast, the amount of T2 signal loss, and the blurring of the water PDF over the course of the diffusion time. By implementing a novel 4-port drive geometry and optimizing size and linearity for the brain, we demonstrate a whole-body sized scanner with Gmax = 300mT/m on each axis capable of the sustained duty cycle needed for diffusion imaging. The system is capable of slewing the gradient at a rate of 200 T/m/s as needed for the EPI image encoding. In order to enhance the efficiency of the diffusion sequence we implemented a FOV shifting approach to Simultaneous MultiSlice (SMS) EPI capable of unaliasing 3 slices excited simultaneously with a modest g-factor penalty allowing us to diffusion encode whole brain volumes with low TR and TE. Finally we combine the multi-slice approach with a compressive sampling reconstruction to sufficiently undersample q

  10. Pushing the limits of in vivo diffusion MRI for the Human Connectome Project.

    PubMed

    Setsompop, K; Kimmlingen, R; Eberlein, E; Witzel, T; Cohen-Adad, J; McNab, J A; Keil, B; Tisdall, M D; Hoecht, P; Dietz, P; Cauley, S F; Tountcheva, V; Matschl, V; Lenz, V H; Heberlein, K; Potthast, A; Thein, H; Van Horn, J; Toga, A; Schmitt, F; Lehne, D; Rosen, B R; Wedeen, V; Wald, L L

    2013-10-15

    Perhaps more than any other "-omics" endeavor, the accuracy and level of detail obtained from mapping the major connection pathways in the living human brain with diffusion MRI depend on the capabilities of the imaging technology used. The current tools are remarkable; allowing the formation of an "image" of the water diffusion probability distribution in regions of complex crossing fibers at each of half a million voxels in the brain. Nonetheless our ability to map the connection pathways is limited by the image sensitivity and resolution, and also the contrast and resolution in encoding of the diffusion probability distribution. The goal of our Human Connectome Project (HCP) is to address these limiting factors by re-engineering the scanner from the ground up to optimize the high b-value, high angular resolution diffusion imaging needed for sensitive and accurate mapping of the brain's structural connections. Our efforts were directed based on the relative contributions of each scanner component. The gradient subsection was a major focus since gradient amplitude is central to determining the diffusion contrast, the amount of T2 signal loss, and the blurring of the water PDF over the course of the diffusion time. By implementing a novel 4-port drive geometry and optimizing size and linearity for the brain, we demonstrate a whole-body sized scanner with G(max) = 300 mT/m on each axis capable of the sustained duty cycle needed for diffusion imaging. The system is capable of slewing the gradient at a rate of 200 T/m/s as needed for the EPI image encoding. In order to enhance the efficiency of the diffusion sequence we implemented a FOV shifting approach to Simultaneous MultiSlice (SMS) EPI capable of unaliasing 3 slices excited simultaneously with a modest g-factor penalty allowing us to diffusion encode whole brain volumes with low TR and TE. Finally we combine the multi-slice approach with a compressive sampling reconstruction to sufficiently undersample q-space to

  11. Diffusion influence on Michaelis Menten kinetics: II. The low substrate concentration limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyojoon; Shin, Kook Joe

    2007-02-01

    The diffusion-influenced Michaelis-Menten kinetics in the low substrate concentration limit is studied in one and three dimensions. For the initial pair distribution of enzyme and substrate, we obtain the exact analytical results. We find that at short times the diffusion effect can make the reaction rate faster. The concentration deviations of the substrate and enzyme show t-1/2 and t-3/2 power-law behaviours in one and three dimensions, respectively, at long times. On the other hand, the average lifetime of the intermediate is independent of the initial state in one dimension, while it depends on the initial state in three dimensions. The ultimate production yield approaches unity in one dimension but it reaches a different value depending on other parameters in three dimensions. We also obtain the analytical results for the initial random distribution.

  12. Theoretical limit of spatial resolution in diffuse optical tomography using a perturbation model

    SciTech Connect

    Konovalov, A B; Vlasov, V V

    2014-03-28

    We have assessed the limit of spatial resolution of timedomain diffuse optical tomography (DOT) based on a perturbation reconstruction model. From the viewpoint of the structure reconstruction accuracy, three different approaches to solving the inverse DOT problem are compared. The first approach involves reconstruction of diffuse tomograms from straight lines, the second – from average curvilinear trajectories of photons and the third – from total banana-shaped distributions of photon trajectories. In order to obtain estimates of resolution, we have derived analytical expressions for the point spread function and modulation transfer function, as well as have performed a numerical experiment on reconstruction of rectangular scattering objects with circular absorbing inhomogeneities. It is shown that in passing from reconstruction from straight lines to reconstruction using distributions of photon trajectories we can improve resolution by almost an order of magnitude and exceed the accuracy of reconstruction of multi-step algorithms used in DOT. (optical tomography)

  13. Diffuse reflectance optical topography: location of inclusions in 3D and detectability limits

    PubMed Central

    Carbone, N. A.; Baez, G. R.; García, H. A.; Waks Serra, M. V.; Di Rocco, H. O.; Iriarte, D. I.; Pomarico, J. A.; Grosenick, D.; Macdonald, R.

    2014-01-01

    In the present contribution we investigate the images of CW diffusely reflected light for a point-like source, registered by a CCD camera imaging a turbid medium containing an absorbing lesion. We show that detection of μa variations (absorption anomalies) is achieved if images are normalized to background intensity. A theoretical analysis based on the diffusion approximation is presented to investigate the sensitivity and the limitations of our proposal and a novel procedure to find the location of the inclusions in 3D is given and tested. An analysis of the noise and its influence on the detection capabilities of our proposal is provided. Experimental results on phantoms are also given, supporting the proposed approach. PMID:24876999

  14. Theoretical limit of spatial resolution in diffuse optical tomography using a perturbation model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konovalov, A. B.; Vlasov, V. V.

    2014-03-01

    We have assessed the limit of spatial resolution of timedomain diffuse optical tomography (DOT) based on a perturbation reconstruction model. From the viewpoint of the structure reconstruction accuracy, three different approaches to solving the inverse DOT problem are compared. The first approach involves reconstruction of diffuse tomograms from straight lines, the second - from average curvilinear trajectories of photons and the third - from total banana-shaped distributions of photon trajectories. In order to obtain estimates of resolution, we have derived analytical expressions for the point spread function and modulation transfer function, as well as have performed a numerical experiment on reconstruction of rectangular scattering objects with circular absorbing inhomogeneities. It is shown that in passing from reconstruction from straight lines to reconstruction using distributions of photon trajectories we can improve resolution by almost an order of magnitude and exceed the accuracy of reconstruction of multi-step algorithms used in DOT.

  15. Averaging and spectral properties for the 2D advection-diffusion equation in the semi-classical limit for vanishing diffusivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vukadinovic, J.; Dedits, E.; Poje, A. C.; Schäfer, T.

    2015-08-01

    We consider the two-dimensional advection-diffusion equation (ADE) on a bounded domain subject to Dirichlet or von Neumann boundary conditions involving a Liouville integrable Hamiltonian. Transformation to action-angle coordinates permits averaging in time and angle, resulting in an equation that allows for separation of variables. The Fourier transform in the angle coordinate transforms the equation into an effective diffusive equation and a countable family of non-self-adjoint Schrödinger equations. For the corresponding Liouville-Sturm problem, we apply complex-plane WKB methods to study the spectrum in the semi-classical limit for vanishing diffusivity. The spectral limit graph is found to consist of analytic curves (branches) related to Stokes graphs forming a tree-structure. Eigenvalues in the neighborhood of branches emanating from the imaginary axis are subject to various sublinear power laws with respect to diffusivity, leading to convection-enhanced rates of dissipation of the corresponding modes. The solution of the ADE converges in the limit of vanishing diffusivity to the solution of the effective diffusion equation on convective time scales that are sublinear with respect to the diffusive time scales.

  16. Non-ideal diffusion effects, short-range ordering, and unsteady-state effects strongly influence Brownian aggregation rates in concentrated dispersions of interacting spheres.

    PubMed

    Kelkar, Aniruddha V; Franses, Elias I; Corti, David S

    2015-08-21

    Brownian aggregation rates are determined for concentrated dispersions of interacting particles with Brownian dynamics (BD) simulations and various theoretical models. Using simulation results as benchmarks, the predictions of the classical Fuchs-Smoluchowski (FS) model are shown to be quite inaccurate for concentrated dispersions. A new aggregation model is presented which provides significantly improved predictions. This model is developed on the basis of the fundamental measure theory (FMT) which is a rigorous "liquid-state" dynamic density-functional theory (DDFT) approach. It provides a major improvement of the FS model by considering short-range ordering, non-ideal diffusion, and unsteady-state effects. These were recently shown by the authors to play important roles in Brownian aggregation of hard spheres at high concentrations. Two types of interparticle interaction potentials are examined, the purely attractive van der Waals potential and the DLVO potential which includes van der Waals attraction and electrostatic double layer repulsion. For dispersions of particles with purely attractive interactions, the FS model underpredicts the aggregation rates by up to 1000 fold. In the presence of strong interparticle repulsive forces, its predictions are in fair agreement with the BD simulation results for dilute systems with particle volume fractions ϕ < < 0.1. In contrast, the predictions of the new FM-DDFT based model compare favorably with the BD simulation results, in both cases, up to ϕ = 0.3. A new quantitative measure for colloidal dispersion stability, different from the classical FS stability ratio, is proposed on the basis of aggregation half-times. Hence, a better mechanistic understanding of Brownian aggregation is obtained for concentrated dispersions of particles with either attractive or repulsive interactions, or both.

  17. Hydrogen Gas Driven Permeation through Asymmetric Membranes in Diffusion Limited and Surface Limited Regimes: Interplay between Analytical and Numerical Calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pisarev, A.; Bacherov, A.

    Validity of analytical solutions for the gas driven permeation of H in the Diffusion Limited Regime (DLR) and Surface Limited Regime (SLR) is analyzed by comparison with numerical calculations. Margins for analytical formulas have been established in terms of the permeation factors W = KLSp1/2/D on the inlet (W1) and outlet (W2) sides of the membrane. The DLR analytical formula gives perfect result (error less than 0.5%) if both W2 ≥ 104 and W1 ≥ 102 conditions are satisfied simultaneously. Decrease of both margins by two orders of magnitude leads to 10% error. The SLR analytical formula gives a very good result (error less than 0.5%) if both W1 ≤ 10-2 and W2W1 ≤ 10-3 conditions are satisfied simultaneously. Increase of both margins by two orders of magnitude leads to 10% error. It has been shown that the inlet side and the outlet side conditions are different in their importance for validity of the analytical formulas. In DLR the condition is softer on the inlet side and more rigid on the outlet side, while in SLR the condition is softer on the outlet side and more rigid on the inlet side.

  18. Scleroderma lung study (SLS): differences in the presentation and course of patients with limited versus diffuse systemic sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Clements, Philip J; Roth, Michael D; Elashoff, Robert; Tashkin, Donald P; Goldin, Jonathan; Silver, Richard M; Sterz, Mildred; Seibold, James R; Schraufnagel, Dean; Simms, Robert W; Bolster, Marcy; Wise, Robert A; Steen, Virginia; Mayes, M D; Connelly, Kari; Metersky, Mark; Furst, Daniel E

    2007-12-01

    Pulmonary fibrosis is a leading cause of death in systemic sclerosis (SSc). This report examines the differences at baseline and over 12 months between patients with limited versus diffuse cutaneous SSc who participated in the Scleroderma Lung Study. SSc patients (64 limited; 94 diffuse) exhibiting dyspnoea on exertion, restrictive pulmonary function and evidence of alveolitis on bronchoalveolar lavage and/or high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) were randomised to receive cyclophosphamide (CYC) or placebo and serially evaluated over 12 months. Baseline measures of alveolitis, dyspnoea and pulmonary function were similar in limited and diffuse SSc. However, differences were noted with respect to HRCT-scored fibrosis (worse in limited SSc), and to functional activity, quality of life, skin and musculoskeletal manifestations (worse in diffuse SSc) (p<0.05). When adjusted for the baseline level of fibrosis, both groups responded similarly to CYC with regard to lung function and dyspnoea (p<0.05). Cyclophosphamide was also associated with more improvement in skin score in the diffuse disease group more than in the limited disease group (p<0.05). After adjusting for the severity of fibrosis at baseline, CYC slowed the decline of lung volumes and improved dyspnoea equally in the limited and the diffuse SSc groups. On the other hand, diffuse SSc patients responded better than limited patients with respect to improvements in skin thickening.

  19. Scleroderma lung study (SLS): differences in the presentation and course of patients with limited versus diffuse systemic sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Clements, P J; Roth, M D; Elashoff, R; Tashkin, D P; Goldin, J; Silver, R M; Sterz, M; Seibold, J R; Schraufnagel, D; Simms, R W; Bolster, M; Wise, R A; Steen, V; Mayes, M D; Connelly, K; Metersky, M; Furst, D E

    2007-01-01

    Objectives Pulmonary fibrosis is a leading cause of death in systemic sclerosis (SSc). This report examines the differences at baseline and over 12 months between patients with limited versus diffuse cutaneous SSc who participated in the Scleroderma Lung Study. Methods SSc patients (64 limited; 94 diffuse) exhibiting dyspnoea on exertion, restrictive pulmonary function and evidence of alveolitis on bronchoalveolar lavage and/or high‐resolution computed tomography (HRCT) were randomised to receive cyclophosphamide (CYC) or placebo and serially evaluated over 12 months. Results Baseline measures of alveolitis, dyspnoea and pulmonary function were similar in limited and diffuse SSc. However, differences were noted with respect to HRCT‐scored fibrosis (worse in limited SSc), and to functional activity, quality of life, skin and musculoskeletal manifestations (worse in diffuse SSc) (p<0.05). When adjusted for the baseline level of fibrosis, both groups responded similarly to CYC with regard to lung function and dyspnoea (p<0.05). Cyclophosphamide was also associated with more improvement in skin score in the diffuse disease group more than in the limited disease group (p<0.05). Conclusions After adjusting for the severity of fibrosis at baseline, CYC slowed the decline of lung volumes and improved dyspnoea equally in the limited and the diffuse SSc groups. On the other hand, diffuse SSc patients responded better than limited patients with respect to improvements in skin thickening. PMID:17485423

  20. Improved limit to the diffuse flux of ultrahigh energy neutrinos from the Pierre Auger Observatory

    DOE PAGES

    Aab, Alexander

    2015-05-26

    Neutrinos in the cosmic ray flux with energies near 1 EeV and above are detectable with the Surface Detector array (SD) of the Pierre Auger Observatory. We report here on searches through Auger data from 1 January 2004 until 20 June 2013. No neutrino candidates were found, yielding a limit to the diffuse flux of ultrahigh energy neutrinos that challenges the Waxman-Bahcall bound predictions. Neutrino identification is attempted using the broad time structure of the signals expected in the SD stations, and is efficiently done for neutrinos of all flavors interacting in the atmosphere at large zenith angles, as wellmore » as for “Earth-skimming” neutrino interactions in the case of tau neutrinos. In this paper the searches for downward-going neutrinos in the zenith angle bins 60°–75° and 75°–90° as well as for upward-going neutrinos, are combined to give a single limit. In addition, the 90% C.L. single-flavor limit to the diffuse flux of ultrahigh energy neutrinos with an E–2 spectrum in the energy range 1.0 × 1017 eV – 2.5 × 1019 eV is E2νdNν/dEν < 6.4 × 10–9 GeV cm–2 s–1 sr–1.« less

  1. Improved limit to the diffuse flux of ultrahigh energy neutrinos from the Pierre Auger Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aab, A.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Ahn, E. J.; Al Samarai, I.; Albuquerque, I. F. M.; Allekotte, I.; Allison, P.; Almela, A.; Alvarez Castillo, J.; Alvarez-Muñiz, J.; Alves Batista, R.; Ambrosio, M.; Aminaei, A.; Anchordoqui, L.; Andringa, S.; Aramo, C.; Aranda, V. M.; Arqueros, F.; Arsene, N.; Asorey, H.; Assis, P.; Aublin, J.; Ave, M.; Avenier, M.; Avila, G.; Awal, N.; Badescu, A. M.; Barber, K. B.; Bäuml, J.; Baus, C.; Beatty, J. J.; Becker, K. H.; Bellido, J. A.; Berat, C.; Bertaina, M. E.; Bertou, X.; Biermann, P. L.; Billoir, P.; Blaess, S. G.; Blanco, A.; Blanco, M.; Bleve, C.; Blümer, H.; Boháčová, M.; Boncioli, D.; Bonifazi, C.; Borodai, N.; Brack, J.; Brancus, I.; Bridgeman, A.; Brogueira, P.; Brown, W. C.; Buchholz, P.; Bueno, A.; Buitink, S.; Buscemi, M.; Caballero-Mora, K. S.; Caccianiga, B.; Caccianiga, L.; Candusso, M.; Caramete, L.; Caruso, R.; Castellina, A.; Cataldi, G.; Cazon, L.; Cester, R.; Chavez, A. G.; Chiavassa, A.; Chinellato, J. A.; Chudoba, J.; Cilmo, M.; Clay, R. W.; Cocciolo, G.; Colalillo, R.; Coleman, A.; Collica, L.; Coluccia, M. R.; Conceição, R.; Contreras, F.; Cooper, M. J.; Cordier, A.; Coutu, S.; Covault, C. E.; Cronin, J.; Dallier, R.; Daniel, B.; Dasso, S.; Daumiller, K.; Dawson, B. R.; de Almeida, R. M.; de Jong, S. J.; De Mauro, G.; de Mello Neto, J. R. T.; De Mitri, I.; de Oliveira, J.; de Souza, V.; del Peral, L.; Deligny, O.; Dembinski, H.; Dhital, N.; Di Giulio, C.; Di Matteo, A.; Diaz, J. C.; Díaz Castro, M. L.; Diogo, F.; Dobrigkeit, C.; Docters, W.; D'Olivo, J. C.; Dorofeev, A.; Dorosti Hasankiadeh, Q.; Dova, M. T.; Ebr, J.; Engel, R.; Erdmann, M.; Erfani, M.; Escobar, C. O.; Espadanal, J.; Etchegoyen, A.; Falcke, H.; Fang, K.; Farrar, G.; Fauth, A. C.; Fazzini, N.; Ferguson, A. P.; Fernandes, M.; Fick, B.; Figueira, J. M.; Filevich, A.; Filipčič, A.; Fox, B. D.; Fratu, O.; Freire, M. M.; Fuchs, B.; Fujii, T.; García, B.; Garcia-Pinto, D.; Gate, F.; Gemmeke, H.; Gherghel-Lascu, A.; Ghia, P. L.; Giaccari, U.; Giammarchi, M.; Giller, M.; Głas, D.; Glaser, C.; Glass, H.; Golup, G.; Gómez Berisso, M.; Gómez Vitale, P. F.; González, N.; Gookin, B.; Gordon, J.; Gorgi, A.; Gorham, P.; Gouffon, P.; Griffith, N.; Grillo, A. F.; Grubb, T. D.; Guardincerri, Y.; Guarino, F.; Guedes, G. P.; Hampel, M. R.; Hansen, P.; Harari, D.; Harrison, T. A.; Hartmann, S.; Harton, J. L.; Haungs, A.; Hebbeker, T.; Heck, D.; Heimann, P.; Herve, A. E.; Hill, G. C.; Hojvat, C.; Hollon, N.; Holt, E.; Homola, P.; Hörandel, J. R.; Horvath, P.; Hrabovský, M.; Huber, D.; Huege, T.; Insolia, A.; Isar, P. G.; Jandt, I.; Jansen, S.; Jarne, C.; Johnsen, J. A.; Josebachuili, M.; Kääpä, A.; Kambeitz, O.; Kampert, K. H.; Kasper, P.; Katkov, I.; Kégl, B.; Keilhauer, B.; Keivani, A.; Kemp, E.; Kieckhafer, R. M.; Klages, H. O.; Kleifges, M.; Kleinfeller, J.; Krause, R.; Krohm, N.; Krömer, O.; Kuempel, D.; Kunka, N.; LaHurd, D.; Latronico, L.; Lauer, R.; Lauscher, M.; Lautridou, P.; Le Coz, S.; Lebrun, D.; Lebrun, P.; Leigui de Oliveira, M. A.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Lhenry-Yvon, I.; Link, K.; Lopes, L.; López, R.; López Casado, A.; Louedec, K.; Lu, L.; Lucero, A.; Malacari, M.; Maldera, S.; Mallamaci, M.; Maller, J.; Mandat, D.; Mantsch, P.; Mariazzi, A. G.; Marin, V.; Mariş, I. C.; Marsella, G.; Martello, D.; Martin, L.; Martinez, H.; Martínez Bravo, O.; Martraire, D.; Masías Meza, J. J.; Mathes, H. J.; Mathys, S.; Matthews, J.; Matthews, J. A. J.; Matthiae, G.; Maurel, D.; Maurizio, D.; Mayotte, E.; Mazur, P. O.; Medina, C.; Medina-Tanco, G.; Meissner, R.; Mello, V. B. B.; Melo, D.; Menshikov, A.; Messina, S.; Meyhandan, R.; Micheletti, M. I.; Middendorf, L.; Minaya, I. A.; Miramonti, L.; Mitrica, B.; Molina-Bueno, L.; Mollerach, S.; Montanet, F.; Morello, C.; Mostafá, M.; Moura, C. A.; Muller, M. A.; Müller, G.; Müller, S.; Mussa, R.; Navarra, G.; Navarro, J. L.; Navas, S.; Necesal, P.; Nellen, L.; Nelles, A.; Neuser, J.; Nguyen, P. H.; Niculescu-Oglinzanu, M.; Niechciol, M.; Niemietz, L.; Niggemann, T.; Nitz, D.; Nosek, D.; Novotny, V.; Nožka, L.; Ochilo, L.; Oikonomou, F.; Olinto, A.; Pacheco, N.; Pakk Selmi-Dei, D.; Palatka, M.; Pallotta, J.; Papenbreer, P.; Parente, G.; Parra, A.; Paul, T.; Pech, M.; PÈ©kala, J.; Pelayo, R.; Pepe, I. M.; Perrone, L.; Petermann, E.; Peters, C.; Petrera, S.; Petrov, Y.; Phuntsok, J.; Piegaia, R.; Pierog, T.; Pieroni, P.; Pimenta, M.; Pirronello, V.; Platino, M.; Plum, M.; Porcelli, A.; Porowski, C.; Prado, R. R.; Privitera, P.; Prouza, M.; Purrello, V.; Quel, E. J.; Querchfeld, S.; Quinn, S.; Rautenberg, J.; Ravel, O.; Ravignani, D.; Revenu, B.; Ridky, J.; Riggi, S.; Risse, M.; Ristori, P.; Rizi, V.; Rodrigues de Carvalho, W.; Rodriguez Fernandez, G.; Rodriguez Rojo, J.; Rodríguez-Frías, M. D.; Rogozin, D.; Rosado, J.; Roth, M.; Roulet, E.; Rovero, A. C.; Saffi, S. J.; Saftoiu, A.; Salamida, F.; Salazar, H.; Saleh, A.; Salesa Greus, F.; Salina, G.; Sánchez, F.; Sanchez-Lucas, P.; Santos, E.; Santos, E. M.; Sarazin, F.; Sarkar, B.; Sarmento, R.; Sato, R.; Scarso, C.; Schauer, M.; Scherini, V.; Schieler, H.; Schiffer, P.; Schmidt, D.; Scholten, O.; Schoorlemmer, H.; Schovánek, P.; Schröder, F. G.; Schulz, A.; Schulz, J.; Schumacher, J.; Sciutto, S. J.; Segreto, A.; Settimo, M.; Shadkam, A.; Shellard, R. C.; Sidelnik, I.; Sigl, G.; Sima, O.; Śmiałkowski, A.; Šmída, R.; Snow, G. R.; Sommers, P.; Sorokin, J.; Squartini, R.; Srivastava, Y. N.; Stanca, D.; Stanič, S.; Stapleton, J.; Stasielak, J.; Stephan, M.; Stutz, A.; Suarez, F.; Suomijärvi, T.; Supanitsky, A. D.; Sutherland, M. S.; Swain, J.; Szadkowski, Z.; Taborda, O. A.; Tapia, A.; Tepe, A.; Theodoro, V. M.; Tiffenberg, J.; Timmermans, C.; Todero Peixoto, C. J.; Toma, G.; Tomankova, L.; Tomé, B.; Tonachini, A.; Torralba Elipe, G.; Torres Machado, D.; Travnicek, P.; Ulrich, R.; Unger, M.; Urban, M.; Valdés Galicia, J. F.; Valiño, I.; Valore, L.; van Aar, G.; van Bodegom, P.; van den Berg, A. M.; van Velzen, S.; van Vliet, A.; Varela, E.; Vargas Cárdenas, B.; Varner, G.; Vasquez, R.; Vázquez, J. R.; Vázquez, R. A.; Veberič, D.; Verzi, V.; Vicha, J.; Videla, M.; Villaseñor, L.; Vlcek, B.; Vorobiov, S.; Wahlberg, H.; Wainberg, O.; Walz, D.; Watson, A. A.; Weber, M.; Weidenhaupt, K.; Weindl, A.; Werner, F.; Widom, A.; Wiencke, L.; Wilczyński, H.; Winchen, T.; Wittkowski, D.; Wundheiler, B.; Wykes, S.; Yang, L.; Yapici, T.; Yushkov, A.; Zas, E.; Zavrtanik, D.; Zavrtanik, M.; Zepeda, A.; Zhu, Y.; Zimmermann, B.; Ziolkowski, M.; Zuccarello, F.; Pierre Auger Collaboration

    2015-05-01

    Neutrinos in the cosmic ray flux with energies near 1 EeV and above are detectable with the Surface Detector array (SD) of the Pierre Auger Observatory. We report here on searches through Auger data from 1 January 2004 until 20 June 2013. No neutrino candidates were found, yielding a limit to the diffuse flux of ultrahigh energy neutrinos that challenges the Waxman-Bahcall bound predictions. Neutrino identification is attempted using the broad time structure of the signals expected in the SD stations, and is efficiently done for neutrinos of all flavors interacting in the atmosphere at large zenith angles, as well as for "Earth-skimming" neutrino interactions in the case of tau neutrinos. In this paper the searches for downward-going neutrinos in the zenith angle bins 60°-75° and 75°-90° as well as for upward-going neutrinos, are combined to give a single limit. The 90% C.L. single-flavor limit to the diffuse flux of ultrahigh energy neutrinos with an E-2 spectrum in the energy range 1.0 ×1 017 eV - 2.5 ×1 019 eV is Eν2d Nν/d Eν<6.4 ×10-9 GeV cm-2 s-1 sr-1 .

  2. Energy-transport and drift-diffusion limits of nonisentropic Euler-Poisson equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jiang

    Two relaxation limits in critical spaces for the scaled nonisentropic Euler-Poisson equations with the momentum relaxation time and energy relaxation time are considered. As the first step of this justification, the uniform (global) classical solutions to the Cauchy problem in Chemin-Lerner's spaces with critical regularity are constructed. Furthermore, by the compactness argument, it is rigorously justified that the scaled classical solutions converge to the solutions of energy-transport equations and drift-diffusion equations, respectively, with respect to different time scales.

  3. Development of the new approach to the diffusion-limited reaction rate theory

    SciTech Connect

    Veshchunov, M. S.

    2012-04-15

    The new approach to the diffusion-limited reaction rate theory, recently proposed by the author, is further developed on the base of a similar approach to Brownian coagulation. The traditional diffusion approach to calculation of the reaction rate is critically analyzed. In particular, it is shown that the traditional approach is applicable only in the special case of reactions with a large reaction radius and the mean inter-particle distances, and become inappropriate in calculating the reaction rate in the case of a relatively small reaction radius. In the latter case, most important for chemical reactions, particle collisions occur not in the diffusion regime but mainly in the kinetic regime characterized by homogeneous (random) spatial distribution of particles on the length scale of the mean inter-particle distance. The calculated reaction rate for a small reaction radius in three dimensions formally (and fortuitously) coincides with the expression derived in the traditional approach for reactions with a large reaction radius, but notably deviates at large times from the traditional result in the planar two-dimensional geometry. In application to reactions on discrete lattice sites, new relations for the reaction rate constants are derived for both three-dimensional and two-dimensional lattices.

  4. Constraining the Volatility Distributions and Possible Diffusion Limitations of Secondary Organic Aerosols Using Laboratory Dilution Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Q.; Robinson, E. S.; Mahfouz, N.; Sullivan, R. C.; Donahue, N. M.

    2016-12-01

    Secondary organic aerosols (SOA) dominate the mass of fine particles in the atmosphere. Their formation involves both oxidation of volatile organics from various sources that produce products with uncertain volatilities, and diffusion of these products into the condensed phase. Therefore, constraining volatility distribution and diffusion timescales of the constituents in SOA are important in predicting size, concentration and composition of SOA, as well as how these properties of SOA evolve in the atmosphere. In this work, we demonstrate how carefully designed laboratory isothermal dilution experiments in smog chambers can shed light into the volatility distribution and any diffusion barriers of common types of SOA over time scales relevant to atmospheric transport and diurnal cycling. We choose SOA made from mono-terpenes (alpha-pinene and limonene) and toluene to represent biogenic and anthropogenic SOA. We look into how moisture content can alter any evaporation behaviors of SOA by varying relative humidity during SOA generation and during dilution process. This provides insight into whether diffusion in the condensed phase is rate limiting in reaching gas/particle equilibrium of semi-volatile organic compounds. Our preliminary results show that SOA from alpha-pinene evaporates continuously over several hours of experiments, and there is no substantial discernible differences over wide ranges of the chamber humidity. SOA from toluene oxidation shows slower evaporation. We fit these experimental data using absorptive partitioning theory and a particle dynamic model to obtain volatility distributions and to predict particle size evolution. This in the end will help us to improve representation of SOA in large scale chemical transport models.

  5. Thermal aggregation of patatin studied in situ.

    PubMed

    Pots, A M; ten Grotenhuis, E; Gruppen, H; Voragen, A G; de Kruif, K G

    1999-11-01

    In this work dynamic light scattering was used to study the thermal aggregation of patatin in situ, to elucidate the physical aggregation mechanism of the protein and to be able to relate the aggregation behavior to its structural properties. The dependence of the aggregation rates on the temperature and the ionic strength suggested a mechanism of slow coagulation, being both diffusion and chemically limited. The aggregation rate dependence on the protein concentration was in accordance with the mechanism proposed. The aggregation rates as obtained at temperatures ranging from 40 to 65 degrees C correlated well with unfolding of the protein at a secondary level. Small-angle neutron scattering and dynamic light scattering results were in good accordance; they revealed that native patatin has a cylindrical shape with a diameter and length of 5 and 9.8 nm, respectively.

  6. Upper limit on the diffuse flux of ultrahigh energy tau neutrinos from the Pierre Auger Observatory.

    PubMed

    Abraham, J; Abreu, P; Aglietta, M; Aguirre, C; Allard, D; Allekotte, I; Allen, J; Allison, P; Alvarez-Muñiz, J; Ambrosio, M; Anchordoqui, L; Andringa, S; Anzalone, A; Aramo, C; Argirò, S; Arisaka, K; Armengaud, E; Arneodo, F; Arqueros, F; Asch, T; Asorey, H; Assis, P; Atulugama, B S; Aublin, J; Ave, M; Avila, G; Bäcker, T; Badagnani, D; Barbosa, A F; Barnhill, D; Barroso, S L C; Bauleo, P; Beatty, J J; Beau, T; Becker, B R; Becker, K H; Bellido, J A; BenZvi, S; Berat, C; Bergmann, T; Bernardini, P; Bertou, X; Biermann, P L; Billoir, P; Blanch-Bigas, O; Blanco, F; Blasi, P; Bleve, C; Blümer, H; Bohácová, M; Bonifazi, C; Bonino, R; Boratav, M; Brack, J; Brogueira, P; Brown, W C; Buchholz, P; Bueno, A; Burton, R E; Busca, N G; Caballero-Mora, K S; Cai, B; Camin, D V; Caramete, L; Caruso, R; Carvalho, W; Castellina, A; Catalano, O; Cataldi, G; Cazon, L; Cester, R; Chauvin, J; Chiavassa, A; Chinellato, J A; Chou, A; Chye, J; Clark, P D J; Clay, R W; Colombo, E; Conceição, R; Connolly, B; Contreras, F; Coppens, J; Cordier, A; Cotti, U; Coutu, S; Covault, C E; Creusot, A; Criss, A; Cronin, J; Curutiu, A; Dagoret-Campagne, S; Daumiller, K; Dawson, B R; de Almeida, R M; De Donato, C; de Jong, S J; De La Vega, G; de Mello Junior, W J M; de Mello Neto, J R T; DeMitri, I; de Souza, V; del Peral, L; Deligny, O; Della Selva, A; Delle Fratte, C; Dembinski, H; Di Giulio, C; Diaz, J C; Dobrigkeit, C; D'Olivo, J C; Dornic, D; Dorofeev, A; dos Anjos, J C; Dova, M T; D'Urso, D; Dutan, I; DuVernois, M A; Engel, R; Epele, L; Erdmann, M; Escobar, C O; Etchegoyen, A; Facal San Luis, P; Falcke, H; Farrar, G; Fauth, A C; Fazzini, N; Ferrer, F; Ferry, S; Fick, B; Filevich, A; Filipcic, A; Fleck, I; Fonte, R; Fracchiolla, C E; Fulgione, W; García, B; García Gámez, D; Garcia-Pinto, D; Garrido, X; Geenen, H; Gelmini, G; Gemmeke, H; Ghia, P L; Giller, M; Glass, H; Gold, M S; Golup, G; Gomez Albarracin, F; Gómez Berisso, M; Gómez Herrero, R; Gonçalves, P; Gonçalves do Amaral, M; Gonzalez, D; Gonzalez, J G; González, M; Góra, D; Gorgi, A; Gouffon, P; Grassi, V; Grillo, A F; Grunfeld, C; Guardincerri, Y; Guarino, F; Guedes, G P; Gutiérrez, J; Hague, J D; Hamilton, J C; Hansen, P; Harari, D; Harmsma, S; Harton, J L; Haungs, A; Hauschildt, T; Healy, M D; Hebbeker, T; Hebrero, G; Heck, D; Hojvat, C; Holmes, V C; Homola, P; Hörandel, J; Horneffer, A; Horvat, M; Hrabovský, M; Huege, T; Hussain, M; Iarlori, M; Insolia, A; Ionita, F; Italiano, A; Kaducak, M; Kampert, K H; Karova, T; Kégl, B; Keilhauer, B; Kemp, E; Kieckhafer, R M; Klages, H O; Kleifges, M; Kleinfeller, J; Knapik, R; Knapp, J; Koang, D-H; Krieger, A; Krömer, O; Kuempel, D; Kunka, N; Kusenko, A; La Rosa, G; Lachaud, C; Lago, B L; Lebrun, D; Lebrun, P; Lee, J; Leigui de Oliveira, M A; Letessier-Selvon, A; Leuthold, M; Lhenry-Yvon, I; López, R; Lopez Agüera, A; Lozano Bahilo, J; Luna García, R; Maccarone, M C; Macolino, C; Maldera, S; Mancarella, G; Manceñido, M E; Mandat, D; Mantsch, P; Mariazzi, A G; Maris, I C; Marquez Falcon, H R; Martello, D; Martínez, J; Martínez Bravo, O; Mathes, H J; Matthews, J; Matthews, J A J; Matthiae, G; Maurizio, D; Mazur, P O; McCauley, T; McEwen, M; McNeil, R R; Medina, M C; Medina-Tanco, G; Meli, A; Melo, D; Menichetti, E; Menschikov, A; Meurer, Chr; Meyhandan, R; Micheletti, M I; Miele, G; Miller, W; Mollerach, S; Monasor, M; Monnier Ragaigne, D; Montanet, F; Morales, B; Morello, C; Moreno, J C; Morris, C; Mostafá, M; Muller, M A; Mussa, R; Navarra, G; Navarro, J L; Navas, S; Necesal, P; Nellen, L; Newman-Holmes, C; Newton, D; Nguyen Thi, T; Nierstenhoefer, N; Nitz, D; Nosek, D; Nozka, L; Oehlschläger, J; Ohnuki, T; Olinto, A; Olmos-Gilbaja, V M; Ortiz, M; Ortolani, F; Ostapchenko, S; Otero, L; Pacheco, N; Pakk Selmi-Dei, D; Palatka, M; Pallotta, J; Parente, G; Parizot, E; Parlati, S; Pastor, S; Patel, M; Paul, T; Pavlidou, V; Payet, K; Pech, M; Pekala, J; Pelayo, R; Pepe, I M; Perrone, L; Petrera, S; Petrinca, P; Petrov, Y; Pham Ngoc, Diep; Pham Ngoc, Dong; Pham Thi, T N; Pichel, A; Piegaia, R; Pierog, T; Pimenta, M; Pinto, T; Pirronello, V; Pisanti, O; Platino, M; Pochon, J; Privitera, P; Prouza, M; Quel, E J; Rautenberg, J; Redondo, A; Reucroft, S; Revenu, B; Rezende, F A S; Ridky, J; Riggi, S; Risse, M; Rivière, C; Rizi, V; Roberts, M; Robledo, C; Rodriguez, G; Rodríguez Frías, D; Rodriguez Martino, J; Rodriguez Rojo, J; Rodriguez-Cabo, I; Ros, G; Rosado, J; Roth, M; Rouillé-d'Orfeuil, B; Roulet, E; Rovero, A C; Salamida, F; Salazar, H; Salina, G; Sánchez, F; Santander, M; Santo, C E; Santos, E M; Sarazin, F; Sarkar, S; Sato, R; Scherini, V; Schieler, H; Schmidt, A; Schmidt, F; Schmidt, T; Scholten, O; Schovánek, P; Schüssler, F; Sciutto, S J; Scuderi, M; Segreto, A; Semikoz, D; Settimo, M; Shellard, R C; Sidelnik, I; Siffert, B B; Sigl, G; Smetniansky De Grande, N; Smiałkowski, A; Smída, R; Smith, A G K; Smith, B E; Snow, G R; Sokolsky, P; Sommers, P; Sorokin, J; Spinka, H; Squartini, R; Strazzeri, E; Stutz, A; Suarez, F; Suomijärvi, T; Supanitsky, A D; Sutherland, M S; Swain, J; Szadkowski, Z; Takahashi, J; Tamashiro, A; Tamburro, A; Taşcău, O; Tcaciuc, R; Thomas, D; Ticona, R; Tiffenberg, J; Timmermans, C; Tkaczyk, W; Todero Peixoto, C J; Tomé, B; Tonachini, A; Torres, I; Torresi, D; Travnicek, P; Tripathi, A; Tristram, G; Tscherniakhovski, D; Tueros, M; Tunnicliffe, V; Ulrich, R; Unger, M; Urban, M; Valdés Galicia, J F; Valiño, I; Valore, L; van den Berg, A M; van Elewyck, V; Vázquez, R A; Veberic, D; Veiga, A; Velarde, A; Venters, T; Verzi, V; Videla, M; Villaseñor, L; Vorobiov, S; Voyvodic, L; Wahlberg, H; Wainberg, O; Walker, P; Warner, D; Watson, A A; Westerhoff, S; Wieczorek, G; Wiencke, L; Wilczyńska, B; Wilczyński, H; Wileman, C; Winnick, M G; Wu, H; Wundheiler, B; Yamamoto, T; Younk, P; Zas, E; Zavrtanik, D; Zavrtanik, M; Zech, A; Zepeda, A; Ziolkowski, M

    2008-05-30

    The surface detector array of the Pierre Auger Observatory is sensitive to Earth-skimming tau neutrinos that interact in Earth's crust. Tau leptons from nu(tau) charged-current interactions can emerge and decay in the atmosphere to produce a nearly horizontal shower with a significant electromagnetic component. The data collected between 1 January 2004 and 31 August 2007 are used to place an upper limit on the diffuse flux of nu(tau) at EeV energies. Assuming an E(nu)(-2) differential energy spectrum the limit set at 90% C.L. is E(nu)(2)dN(nu)(tau)/dE(nu)<1.3 x 10(-7) GeV cm(-2) s(-1) sr(-1) in the energy range 2 x 10(17) eV< E(nu)< 2 x 10(19) eV.

  7. Upper Limit on the Diffuse Flux of Ultrahigh Energy Tau Neutrinos from the Pierre Auger Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abraham, J.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Aguirre, C.; Allard, D.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Allison, P.; Alvarez-Muñiz, J.; Ambrosio, M.; Anchordoqui, L.; Andringa, S.; Anzalone, A.; Aramo, C.; Argirò, S.; Arisaka, K.; Armengaud, E.; Arneodo, F.; Arqueros, F.; Asch, T.; Asorey, H.; Assis, P.; Atulugama, B. S.; Aublin, J.; Ave, M.; Avila, G.; Bäcker, T.; Badagnani, D.; Barbosa, A. F.; Barnhill, D.; Barroso, S. L. C.; Bauleo, P.; Beatty, J. J.; Beau, T.; Becker, B. R.; Becker, K. H.; Bellido, J. A.; Benzvi, S.; Berat, C.; Bergmann, T.; Bernardini, P.; Bertou, X.; Biermann, P. L.; Billoir, P.; Blanch-Bigas, O.; Blanco, F.; Blasi, P.; Bleve, C.; Blümer, H.; Boháčová, M.; Bonifazi, C.; Bonino, R.; Boratav, M.; Brack, J.; Brogueira, P.; Brown, W. C.; Buchholz, P.; Bueno, A.; Burton, R. E.; Busca, N. G.; Caballero-Mora, K. S.; Cai, B.; Camin, D. V.; Caramete, L.; Caruso, R.; Carvalho, W.; Castellina, A.; Catalano, O.; Cataldi, G.; Cazon, L.; Cester, R.; Chauvin, J.; Chiavassa, A.; Chinellato, J. A.; Chou, A.; Chye, J.; Clark, P. D. J.; Clay, R. W.; Colombo, E.; Conceição, R.; Connolly, B.; Contreras, F.; Coppens, J.; Cordier, A.; Cotti, U.; Coutu, S.; Covault, C. E.; Creusot, A.; Criss, A.; Cronin, J.; Curutiu, A.; Dagoret-Campagne, S.; Daumiller, K.; Dawson, B. R.; de Almeida, R. M.; de Donato, C.; de Jong, S. J.; de La Vega, G.; de Mello Junior, W. J. M.; de Mello Neto, J. R. T.; Demitri, I.; de Souza, V.; Del Peral, L.; Deligny, O.; Della Selva, A.; Delle Fratte, C.; Dembinski, H.; di Giulio, C.; Diaz, J. C.; Dobrigkeit, C.; D'Olivo, J. C.; Dornic, D.; Dorofeev, A.; Dos Anjos, J. C.; Dova, M. T.; D'Urso, D.; Dutan, I.; Duvernois, M. A.; Engel, R.; Epele, L.; Erdmann, M.; Escobar, C. O.; Etchegoyen, A.; Facal San Luis, P.; Falcke, H.; Farrar, G.; Fauth, A. C.; Fazzini, N.; Ferrer, F.; Ferry, S.; Fick, B.; Filevich, A.; Filipčič, A.; Fleck, I.; Fonte, R.; Fracchiolla, C. E.; Fulgione, W.; García, B.; García Gámez, D.; Garcia-Pinto, D.; Garrido, X.; Geenen, H.; Gelmini, G.; Gemmeke, H.; Ghia, P. L.; Giller, M.; Glass, H.; Gold, M. S.; Golup, G.; Gomez Albarracin, F.; Gómez Berisso, M.; Gómez Herrero, R.; Gonçalves, P.; Gonçalves Do Amaral, M.; Gonzalez, D.; Gonzalez, J. G.; González, M.; Góra, D.; Gorgi, A.; Gouffon, P.; Grassi, V.; Grillo, A. F.; Grunfeld, C.; Guardincerri, Y.; Guarino, F.; Guedes, G. P.; Gutiérrez, J.; Hague, J. D.; Hamilton, J. C.; Hansen, P.; Harari, D.; Harmsma, S.; Harton, J. L.; Haungs, A.; Hauschildt, T.; Healy, M. D.; Hebbeker, T.; Hebrero, G.; Heck, D.; Hojvat, C.; Holmes, V. C.; Homola, P.; Hörandel, J.; Horneffer, A.; Horvat, M.; Hrabovský, M.; Huege, T.; Hussain, M.; Iarlori, M.; Insolia, A.; Ionita, F.; Italiano, A.; Kaducak, M.; Kampert, K. H.; Karova, T.; Kégl, B.; Keilhauer, B.; Kemp, E.; Kieckhafer, R. M.; Klages, H. O.; Kleifges, M.; Kleinfeller, J.; Knapik, R.; Knapp, J.; Koang, D.-H.; Krieger, A.; Krömer, O.; Kuempel, D.; Kunka, N.; Kusenko, A.; La Rosa, G.; Lachaud, C.; Lago, B. L.; Lebrun, D.; Lebrun, P.; Lee, J.; Leigui de Oliveira, M. A.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Leuthold, M.; Lhenry-Yvon, I.; López, R.; Lopez Agüera, A.; Lozano Bahilo, J.; Luna García, R.; Maccarone, M. C.; Macolino, C.; Maldera, S.; Mancarella, G.; Manceñido, M. E.; Mandat, D.; Mantsch, P.; Mariazzi, A. G.; Maris, I. C.; Marquez Falcon, H. R.; Martello, D.; Martínez, J.; Martínez Bravo, O.; Mathes, H. J.; Matthews, J.; Matthews, J. A. J.; Matthiae, G.; Maurizio, D.; Mazur, P. O.; McCauley, T.; McEwen, M.; McNeil, R. R.; Medina, M. C.; Medina-Tanco, G.; Meli, A.; Melo, D.; Menichetti, E.; Menschikov, A.; Meurer, Chr.; Meyhandan, R.; Micheletti, M. I.; Miele, G.; Miller, W.; Mollerach, S.; Monasor, M.; Monnier Ragaigne, D.; Montanet, F.; Morales, B.; Morello, C.; Moreno, J. C.; Morris, C.; Mostafá, M.; Muller, M. A.; Mussa, R.; Navarra, G.; Navarro, J. L.; Navas, S.; Necesal, P.; Nellen, L.; Newman-Holmes, C.; Newton, D.; Nguyen Thi, T.; Nierstenhoefer, N.; Nitz, D.; Nosek, D.; Nožka, L.; Oehlschläger, J.; Ohnuki, T.; Olinto, A.; Olmos-Gilbaja, V. M.; Ortiz, M.; Ortolani, F.; Ostapchenko, S.; Otero, L.; Pacheco, N.; Pakk Selmi-Dei, D.; Palatka, M.; Pallotta, J.; Parente, G.; Parizot, E.; Parlati, S.; Pastor, S.; Patel, M.; Paul, T.; Pavlidou, V.; Payet, K.; Pech, M.; Pękala, J.; Pelayo, R.; Pepe, I. M.; Perrone, L.; Petrera, S.; Petrinca, P.; Petrov, Y.; Pham Ngoc, Diep; Pham Ngoc, Dong; Pham Thi, T. N.; Pichel, A.; Piegaia, R.; Pierog, T.; Pimenta, M.; Pinto, T.; Pirronello, V.; Pisanti, O.; Platino, M.; Pochon, J.; Privitera, P.; Prouza, M.; Quel, E. J.; Rautenberg, J.; Redondo, A.; Reucroft, S.; Revenu, B.; Rezende, F. A. S.; Ridky, J.; Riggi, S.; Risse, M.; Rivière, C.; Rizi, V.; Roberts, M.; Robledo, C.; Rodriguez, G.; Rodríguez Frías, D.; Rodriguez Martino, J.; Rodriguez Rojo, J.; Rodriguez-Cabo, I.; Ros, G.; Rosado, J.; Roth, M.; Rouillé-D'Orfeuil, B.; Roulet, E.; Rovero, A. C.; Salamida, F.; Salazar, H.; Salina, G.; Sánchez, F.; Santander, M.; Santo, C. E.; Santos, E. M.; Sarazin, F.; Sarkar, S.; Sato, R.; Scherini, V.; Schieler, H.; Schmidt, A.; Schmidt, F.; Schmidt, T.; Scholten, O.; Schovánek, P.; Schüssler, F.; Sciutto, S. J.; Scuderi, M.; Segreto, A.; Semikoz, D.; Settimo, M.; Shellard, R. C.; Sidelnik, I.; Siffert, B. B.; Sigl, G.; Smetniansky de Grande, N.; Smiałkowski, A.; Šmída, R.; Smith, A. G. K.; Smith, B. E.; Snow, G. R.; Sokolsky, P.; Sommers, P.; Sorokin, J.; Spinka, H.; Squartini, R.; Strazzeri, E.; Stutz, A.; Suarez, F.; Suomijärvi, T.; Supanitsky, A. D.; Sutherland, M. S.; Swain, J.; Szadkowski, Z.; Takahashi, J.; Tamashiro, A.; Tamburro, A.; Taşcău, O.; Tcaciuc, R.; Thomas, D.; Ticona, R.; Tiffenberg, J.; Timmermans, C.; Tkaczyk, W.; Todero Peixoto, C. J.; Tomé, B.; Tonachini, A.; Torres, I.; Torresi, D.; Travnicek, P.; Tripathi, A.; Tristram, G.; Tscherniakhovski, D.; Tueros, M.; Tunnicliffe, V.; Ulrich, R.; Unger, M.; Urban, M.; Valdés Galicia, J. F.; Valiño, I.; Valore, L.; van den Berg, A. M.; van Elewyck, V.; Vázquez, R. A.; Veberič, D.; Veiga, A.; Velarde, A.; Venters, T.; Verzi, V.; Videla, M.; Villaseñor, L.; Vorobiov, S.; Voyvodic, L.; Wahlberg, H.; Wainberg, O.; Walker, P.; Warner, D.; Watson, A. A.; Westerhoff, S.; Wieczorek, G.; Wiencke, L.; Wilczyńska, B.; Wilczyński, H.; Wileman, C.; Winnick, M. G.; Wu, H.; Wundheiler, B.; Yamamoto, T.; Younk, P.; Zas, E.; Zavrtanik, D.; Zavrtanik, M.; Zech, A.; Zepeda, A.; Ziolkowski, M.

    2008-05-01

    The surface detector array of the Pierre Auger Observatory is sensitive to Earth-skimming tau neutrinos that interact in Earth’s crust. Tau leptons from ντ charged-current interactions can emerge and decay in the atmosphere to produce a nearly horizontal shower with a significant electromagnetic component. The data collected between 1 January 2004 and 31 August 2007 are used to place an upper limit on the diffuse flux of ντ at EeV energies. Assuming an Eν-2 differential energy spectrum the limit set at 90% C.L. is Eν2dNντ/dEν<1.3×10-7GeVcm-2s-1sr-1 in the energy range 2×1017eV

  8. Alveolar-Membrane Diffusing Capacity Limits Performance in Boston Marathon Qualifiers

    PubMed Central

    Lavin, Kaleen M.; Straub, Allison M.; Uhranowsky, Kathleen A.; Smoliga, James M.; Zavorsky, Gerald S.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose (1) to examine the relation between pulmonary diffusing capacity and marathon finishing time, and (2), to evaluate the accuracy of pulmonary diffusing capacity for nitric oxide (DLNO) in predicting marathon finishing time relative to that of pulmonary diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO). Methods 28 runners [18 males, age = 37 (SD 9) years, body mass = 70 (13) kg, height = 173 (9) cm, percent body fat = 17 (7) %] completed a test battery consisting of measurement of DLNO and DLCO at rest, and a graded exercise test to determine running economy and aerobic capacity prior to the 2011 Steamtown Marathon (Scranton, PA). One to three weeks later, all runners completed the marathon (range: 2∶22:38 to 4∶48:55). Linear regressions determined the relation between finishing time and a variety of anthropometric characteristics, resting lung function variables, and exercise parameters. Results In runners meeting Boston Marathon qualification standards, 74% of the variance in marathon finishing time was accounted for by differences in DLNO relative to body surface area (BSA) (SEE = 11.8 min, p<0.01); however, the relation between DLNO or DLCO to finishing time was non-significant in the non-qualifiers (p = 0.14 to 0.46). Whereas both DLCO and DLNO were predictive of finishing time for all finishers, DLNO showed a stronger relation (r2 = 0.30, SEE = 33.4 min, p<0.01) compared to DLCO when considering BSA. Conclusion DLNO is a performance-limiting factor in only Boston qualifiers. This suggests that alveolar-capillary membrane conductance is a limitation to performance in faster marathoners. Additionally, DLNO/BSA predicts marathon finishing time and aerobic capacity more accurately than DLCO. PMID:22984520

  9. Operating limit study for the proposed solid waste landfill at Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, D.W.; Wang, J.C.; Kocher, D.C.

    1995-06-01

    A proposed solid waste landfill at Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) would accept wastes generated during normal operations that are identified as non-radioactive. These wastes may include small amounts of radioactive material from incidental contamination during plant operations. A site-specific analysis of the new solid waste landfill is presented to determine a proposed operating limit that will allow for waste disposal operations to occur such that protection of public health and the environment from the presence of incidentally contaminated waste materials can be assured. Performance objectives for disposal were defined from existing regulatory guidance to establish reasonable dose limits for protection of public health and the environment. Waste concentration limits were determined consistent with these performance objectives for the protection of off-site individuals and inadvertent intruders who might be directly exposed to disposed wastes. Exposures of off-site individuals were estimated using a conservative, site-specific model of the groundwater transport of contamination from the wastes. Direct intrusion was analyzed using an agricultural homesteader scenario. The most limiting concentrations from direct intrusion or groundwater transport were used to establish the concentration limits for radionuclides likely to be present in PGDP wastes.

  10. Multigroup radiation hydrodynamics with flux-limited diffusion and adaptive mesh refinement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González, M.; Vaytet, N.; Commerçon, B.; Masson, J.

    2015-06-01

    Context. Radiative transfer plays a crucial role in the star formation process. Because of the high computational cost, radiation-hydrodynamics simulations performed up to now have mainly been carried out in the grey approximation. In recent years, multifrequency radiation-hydrodynamics models have started to be developed in an attempt to better account for the large variations in opacities as a function of frequency. Aims: We wish to develop an efficient multigroup algorithm for the adaptive mesh refinement code RAMSES which is suited to heavy proto-stellar collapse calculations. Methods: Because of the prohibitive timestep constraints of an explicit radiative transfer method, we constructed a time-implicit solver based on a stabilized bi-conjugate gradient algorithm, and implemented it in RAMSES under the flux-limited diffusion approximation. Results: We present a series of tests that demonstrate the high performance of our scheme in dealing with frequency-dependent radiation-hydrodynamic flows. We also present a preliminary simulation of a 3D proto-stellar collapse using 20 frequency groups. Differences between grey and multigroup results are briefly discussed, and the large amount of information this new method brings us is also illustrated. Conclusions: We have implemented a multigroup flux-limited diffusion algorithm in the RAMSES code. The method performed well against standard radiation-hydrodynamics tests, and was also shown to be ripe for exploitation in the computational star formation context.

  11. CO2 diffusion into pore spaces limits weathering rate of an experimental basalt landscape

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    van Haren, Joost; Dontsova, Katerina; Barron-Gafford, Greg A.; Troch, Peter A.; Chorover, Jon; DeLong, Stephen B.; Breshears, David D.; Huxman, Travis E.; Pelletier, Jon D.; Saleska, Scott; Zeng, Xubin; Ruiz, Joaquin

    2017-01-01

    Basalt weathering is a key control over the global carbon cycle, though in situ measurements of carbon cycling are lacking. In an experimental, vegetation-free hillslope containing 330 m3 of ground basalt scoria, we measured real-time inorganic carbon dynamics within the porous media and seepage flow. The hillslope carbon flux (0.6–5.1 mg C m–2 h–1) matched weathering rates of natural basalt landscapes (0.4–8.8 mg C m–2 h–1) despite lacking the expected field-based impediments to weathering. After rainfall, a decrease in CO2 concentration ([CO2]) in pore spaces into solution suggested rapid carbon sequestration but slow reactant supply. Persistent low soil [CO2] implied that diffusion limited CO2 supply, while when sufficiently dry, reaction product concentrations limited further weathering. Strong influence of diffusion could cause spatial heterogeneity of weathering even in natural settings, implying that modeling studies need to include variable soil [CO2] to improve carbon cycling estimates associated with potential carbon sequestration methods.

  12. Impact of virus aggregation on inactivation by peracetic acid and implications for other disinfectants.

    PubMed

    Mattle, Michael J; Crouzy, Benoit; Brennecke, Moritz; Wigginton, Krista R; Perona, Paolo; Kohn, Tamar

    2011-09-15

    Viruses in wastewater and natural environments are often present as aggregates. The disinfectant dose required for their inactivation, however, is typically determined with dispersed viruses. This study investigates how aggregation affects virus inactivation by chemical disinfectants. Bacteriophage MS2 was aggregated by lowering the solution pH, and aggregates were inactivated by peracetic acid (PAA). Aggregates were redispersed before enumeration to obtain the residual number of individual infectious viruses. In contrast to enumerating whole aggregates, this approach allowed an assessment of disinfection efficiency which remains applicable even if the aggregates disperse in post-treatment environments. Inactivation kinetics were determined as a function of aggregate size (dispersed, 0.55 and 0.90 μm radius) and PAA concentration (5-103 mg/L). Aggregation reduced the apparent inactivation rate constants 2-6 fold. The larger the aggregate and the higher the PAA concentration, the more pronounced the inhibitory effect of aggregation on disinfection. A reaction-diffusion based model was developed to interpret the experimental results, and to predict inactivation rates for additional aggregate sizes and disinfectants. The model showed that the inhibitory effect of aggregation arises from consumption of the disinfectant within the aggregate, but that diffusion of the disinfectant into the aggregates is not a rate-limiting factor. Aggregation therefore has a large inhibitory effect if highly reactive disinfectants are used, whereas inactivation by mild disinfectants is less affected. Our results suggest that mild disinfectants should be used for the treatment of water containing viral aggregates.

  13. 1,4-Addition of Lithium Diisopropylamide to Unsaturated Esters: Role of Rate-Limiting Deaggregation, Autocatalysis, Lithium Chloride Catalysis and Other Mixed Aggregation Effects

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Yun; Hoepker, Alexander C.; Gupta, Lekha; Faggin, Marc F.; Collum, David B.

    2010-01-01

    Lithium diisopropylamide (LDA) in tetrahydrofuran at −78 °C undergoes 1,4-addition to an unsaturated ester via a rate-limiting deaggregation of LDA dimer followed by a post-rate-limiting reaction with the substrate. Muted autocatalysis is traced to a lithium enolate-mediated deaggregation of the LDA dimer and the intervention of LDA-lithium enolate mixed aggregates displaying higher reactivities than LDA. Striking accelerations are elicited by <1.0 mol % LiCl. Rate and mechanistic studies reveal that the uncatalyzed and catalyzed pathways funnel through a common monosolvated-monomer-based intermediate. Four distinct classes of mixed aggregation effects are discussed. PMID:20961095

  14. Prevalence of Escherichia coli strains with localized, diffuse, and aggregative adherence to HeLa cells in infants with diarrhea and matched controls.

    PubMed Central

    Gomes, T A; Blake, P A; Trabulsi, L R

    1989-01-01

    To determine the possible role of Escherichia coli strains with three different patterns of adherence to HeLa cells in causing diarrhea in infants in São Paulo, Brazil, we studied stool specimens from 100 infants up to 1 year of age with acute diarrheal illnesses and 100 age-matched control infants without recent diarrhea. E. coli with localized adherence to HeLa cells was much more common in patients (23%) than in controls (2%) (P less than 0.0001) and was detected more frequently than rotavirus (19%) was in patients, even though the study was conducted during the coldest months of the year. Most (80%) of the E. coli colonies with localized adherence were of traditional enteropathogenic E. coli serotypes. Little difference was found between patients and controls in the rate of isolation of E. coli with diffuse adherence (31 and 32%, respectively) or aggregative adherence (10 and 8%, respectively). A genetic probe used to detect a plasmid-mediated adhesin which confers expression of localized adherence proved to be 100% sensitive and 99.9% specific in detecting E. coli with localized adherence to HeLa cells. Although E. coli strains with localized adherence have now been shown to be enteric pathogens in several parts of the world, the role of strains showing diffuse adherence and aggregative adherence is still uncertain. PMID:2563383

  15. Forecasting sales of new vehicle with limited data using Bass diffusion model and Grey theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abu, Noratikah; Ismail, Zuhaimy

    2015-02-01

    New product forecasting is a process that determines a reasonable estimate of sales attainable under a given set of conditions. There are several new products forecasting method in practices and Bass Diffusion Model (BDM) is one of the most common new product diffusion model used in many industries to forecast new product and technology. Hence, this paper proposed a combining BDM with Grey theory to forecast sales of new vehicle in Malaysia that certainly have limited data to build a model on. The aims of this paper is to examine the accuracy of different new product forecasting models and thus identify which is the best among the basic BDM and combining BDM with Grey theory. The results show that combining BDM with Grey theory performs better than the basic BDM based on in-sample and out-sample mean absolute percentage error (MAPE). Results also reveals combining model forecast more effectively and accurately even with insufficient previous data on the new vehicle in Malaysia.

  16. Structural limitations of learning in a crowd: communication vulnerability and information diffusion in MOOCs.

    PubMed

    Gillani, Nabeel; Yasseri, Taha; Eynon, Rebecca; Hjorth, Isis

    2014-09-23

    Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) bring together a global crowd of thousands of learners for several weeks or months. In theory, the openness and scale of MOOCs can promote iterative dialogue that facilitates group cognition and knowledge construction. Using data from two successive instances of a popular business strategy MOOC, we filter observed communication patterns to arrive at the "significant" interaction networks between learners and use complex network analysis to explore the vulnerability and information diffusion potential of the discussion forums. We find that different discussion topics and pedagogical practices promote varying levels of 1) "significant" peer-to-peer engagement, 2) participant inclusiveness in dialogue, and ultimately, 3) modularity, which impacts information diffusion to prevent a truly "global" exchange of knowledge and learning. These results indicate the structural limitations of large-scale crowd-based learning and highlight the different ways that learners in MOOCs leverage, and learn within, social contexts. We conclude by exploring how these insights may inspire new developments in online education.

  17. Structural limitations of learning in a crowd: communication vulnerability and information diffusion in MOOCs

    PubMed Central

    Gillani, Nabeel; Yasseri, Taha; Eynon, Rebecca; Hjorth, Isis

    2014-01-01

    Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) bring together a global crowd of thousands of learners for several weeks or months. In theory, the openness and scale of MOOCs can promote iterative dialogue that facilitates group cognition and knowledge construction. Using data from two successive instances of a popular business strategy MOOC, we filter observed communication patterns to arrive at the “significant” interaction networks between learners and use complex network analysis to explore the vulnerability and information diffusion potential of the discussion forums. We find that different discussion topics and pedagogical practices promote varying levels of 1) “significant” peer-to-peer engagement, 2) participant inclusiveness in dialogue, and ultimately, 3) modularity, which impacts information diffusion to prevent a truly “global” exchange of knowledge and learning. These results indicate the structural limitations of large-scale crowd-based learning and highlight the different ways that learners in MOOCs leverage, and learn within, social contexts. We conclude by exploring how these insights may inspire new developments in online education. PMID:25244925

  18. Structural limitations of learning in a crowd: communication vulnerability and information diffusion in MOOCs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillani, Nabeel; Yasseri, Taha; Eynon, Rebecca; Hjorth, Isis

    2014-09-01

    Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) bring together a global crowd of thousands of learners for several weeks or months. In theory, the openness and scale of MOOCs can promote iterative dialogue that facilitates group cognition and knowledge construction. Using data from two successive instances of a popular business strategy MOOC, we filter observed communication patterns to arrive at the ``significant'' interaction networks between learners and use complex network analysis to explore the vulnerability and information diffusion potential of the discussion forums. We find that different discussion topics and pedagogical practices promote varying levels of 1) ``significant'' peer-to-peer engagement, 2) participant inclusiveness in dialogue, and ultimately, 3) modularity, which impacts information diffusion to prevent a truly ``global'' exchange of knowledge and learning. These results indicate the structural limitations of large-scale crowd-based learning and highlight the different ways that learners in MOOCs leverage, and learn within, social contexts. We conclude by exploring how these insights may inspire new developments in online education.

  19. Numerical simulation of transonic limit cycle oscillations using high-order low-diffusion schemes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Baoyuan; Zha, Ge-Cheng

    2010-05-01

    This paper simulates the NLR7301 airfoil limit cycle oscillation (LCO) caused by fluid-structure interaction (FSI) using Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes equations (RANS) coupled with Spalart-Allmaras (S-A) one-equation turbulence model. A low diffusion E-CUSP (LDE) scheme with 5th order weighted essentially nonoscillatory scheme (WENO) is employed to calculate the inviscid fluxes. A fully conservative 4th order central differencing is used for the viscous terms. A fully coupled fluid-structural interaction model is employed. For the case computed in this paper, the predicted LCO frequency, amplitudes, averaged lift and moment, all agree excellently with the experiment performed by Schewe et al. The solutions appear to have bifurcation and are dependent on the initial fields or initial perturbation. The developed computational fluid dynamics (CFD)/computational structure dynamics (CSD) simulation is able to capture the LCO with very small amplitudes measured in the experiment. This is attributed to the high order low diffusion schemes, fully coupled FSI model, and the turbulence model used. This research appears to be the first time that a numerical simulation of LCO matches the experiment. The simulation confirms several observations of the experiment.

  20. Diffusion Rate Limitations in Actin-Based Propulsion of Hard and Deformable Particles

    PubMed Central

    Dickinson, Richard B.; Purich, Daniel L.

    2006-01-01

    The mechanism by which actin polymerization propels intracellular vesicles and invasive microorganisms remains an open question. Several recent quantitative studies have examined propulsion of biomimetic particles such as polystyrene microspheres, phospholipid vesicles, and oil droplets. In addition to allowing quantitative measurement of parameters such as the dependence of particle speed on its size, these systems have also revealed characteristic behaviors such a saltatory motion of hard particles and oscillatory deformation of soft particles. Such measurements and observations provide tests for proposed mechanisms of actin-based motility. In the actoclampin filament end-tracking motor model, particle-surface-bound filament end-tracking proteins are involved in load-insensitive processive insertion of actin subunits onto elongating filament plus-ends that are persistently tethered to the surface. In contrast, the tethered-ratchet model assumes working filaments are untethered and the free-ended filaments grow as thermal ratchets in a load-sensitive manner. This article presents a model for the diffusion and consumption of actin monomers during actin-based particle propulsion to predict the monomer concentration field around motile particles. The results suggest that the various behaviors of biomimetic particles, including dynamic saltatory motion of hard particles and oscillatory vesicle deformations, can be quantitatively and self-consistently explained by load-insensitive, diffusion-limited elongation of (+)-end-tethered actin filaments, consistent with predictions of the actoclampin filament-end tracking mechanism. PMID:16731556

  1. Universal diffusion-limited injection and the hook effect in organic thin-film transistors

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chuan; Huseynova, Gunel; Xu, Yong; Long, Dang Xuan; Park, Won-Tae; Liu, Xuying; Minari, Takeo; Noh, Yong-Young

    2016-01-01

    The general form of interfacial contact resistance was derived for organic thin-film transistors (OTFTs) covering various injection mechanisms. Devices with a broad range of materials for contacts, semiconductors, and dielectrics were investigated and the charge injections in staggered OTFTs was found to universally follow the proposed form in the diffusion-limited case, which is signified by the mobility-dependent injection at the metal-semiconductor interfaces. Hence, real ohmic contact can hardly ever be achieved in OTFTs with low carrier concentrations and mobility, and the injection mechanisms include thermionic emission, diffusion, and surface recombination. The non-ohmic injection in OTFTs is manifested by the generally observed hook shape of the output conductance as a function of the drain field. The combined theoretical and experimental results show that interfacial contact resistance generally decreases with carrier mobility, and the injection current is probably determined by the surface recombination rate, which can be promoted by bulk-doping, contact modifications with charge injection layers and dopant layers, and dielectric engineering with high-k dielectric materials. PMID:27440253

  2. Universal diffusion-limited injection and the hook effect in organic thin-film transistors.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chuan; Huseynova, Gunel; Xu, Yong; Long, Dang Xuan; Park, Won-Tae; Liu, Xuying; Minari, Takeo; Noh, Yong-Young

    2016-07-21

    The general form of interfacial contact resistance was derived for organic thin-film transistors (OTFTs) covering various injection mechanisms. Devices with a broad range of materials for contacts, semiconductors, and dielectrics were investigated and the charge injections in staggered OTFTs was found to universally follow the proposed form in the diffusion-limited case, which is signified by the mobility-dependent injection at the metal-semiconductor interfaces. Hence, real ohmic contact can hardly ever be achieved in OTFTs with low carrier concentrations and mobility, and the injection mechanisms include thermionic emission, diffusion, and surface recombination. The non-ohmic injection in OTFTs is manifested by the generally observed hook shape of the output conductance as a function of the drain field. The combined theoretical and experimental results show that interfacial contact resistance generally decreases with carrier mobility, and the injection current is probably determined by the surface recombination rate, which can be promoted by bulk-doping, contact modifications with charge injection layers and dopant layers, and dielectric engineering with high-k dielectric materials.

  3. Kinetic effects of toluene blending on the extinction limit of n-decane diffusion flames

    SciTech Connect

    Won, Sang Hee; Sun, Wenting; Ju, Yiguang

    2010-03-15

    The impact of toluene addition in n-decane on OH concentrations, maximum heat release rates, and extinction limits were studied experimentally and computationally by using counterflow diffusion flames with laser induced fluorescence imaging. Sensitivity analyses of kinetic path ways and species transport on flame extinction were also conducted. The results showed that the extinction strain rate of n-decane/toluene/nitrogen flames decreased significantly with an increase of toluene addition and depended linearly on the maximum OH concentration. It was revealed that the maximum OH concentration, which depends on the fuel H/C ratio, can be used as an index of the radical pool and chemical heat release rate, since it plays a significant role on the heat production via the reaction with other species, such as CO, H{sub 2}, and HCO. Experimental results further demonstrated that toluene addition in n-decane dramatically reduced the peak OH concentration via H abstraction reactions and accelerated flame extinction via kinetic coupling between toluene and n-decane mechanisms. Comparisons between experiments and simulations revealed that the current toluene mechanism significantly over-predicts the radical destruction rate, leading to under-prediction of extinction limits and OH concentrations, especially caused by the uncertainty of the H abstraction reaction from toluene, which rate coefficient has a difference by a factor of 5 in the tested toluene models. In addition, sensitivity analysis of diffusive transport showed that in addition to n-decane and toluene, the transport of OH and H also considerably affects the extinction limit. A reduced linear correlation between the extinction limits of n-decane/toluene blended fuels and the H/C ratio as well as the mean fuel molecular weight was obtained. The results suggest that an explicit prediction of the extinction limits of aromatic and alkane blended fuels can be established by using H/C ratio (or radical index) and the

  4. A Rigorous Sharp Interface Limit of a Diffuse Interface Model Related to Tumor Growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rocca, Elisabetta; Scala, Riccardo

    2017-06-01

    In this paper, we study the rigorous sharp interface limit of a diffuse interface model related to the dynamics of tumor growth, when a parameter ɛ, representing the interface thickness between the tumorous and non-tumorous cells, tends to zero. More in particular, we analyze here a gradient-flow-type model arising from a modification of the recently introduced model for tumor growth dynamics in Hawkins-Daruud et al. (Int J Numer Math Biomed Eng 28:3-24, 2011) (cf. also Hilhorst et al. Math Models Methods Appl Sci 25:1011-1043, 2015). Exploiting the techniques related to both gradient flows and gamma convergence, we recover a condition on the interface Γ relating the chemical and double-well potentials, the mean curvature, and the normal velocity.

  5. Reactive nanolaminate pulsed-laser ignition mechanism: Modeling and experimental evidence of diffusion limited reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yarrington, C. D.; Abere, M. J.; Adams, D. P.; Hobbs, M. L.

    2017-04-01

    Al/Pt nanolaminates with a bilayer thickness (tb, width of an Al/Pt pair-layer) of 164 nm were irradiated with single laser pulses with durations of 10 ms and 0.5 ms at 189 W/cm2 and 1189 W/cm2, respectively. The time to ignition was measured for each pulse, and shorter ignition times were observed for the higher power/shorter pulse width. Videographic images of the irradiated area shortly after ignition show a non-uniform radial brightness for the longer pulse, while the shorter pulse shows uniform brightness. A diffusion-limited single step reaction mechanism was implemented in a finite element package to model the progress from reactants to products at both pulse widths. The model captures well both the observed ignition delay and qualitative observations regarding the non-uniform radial temperature.

  6. Reactive nanolaminate pulsed-laser ignition mechanism: Modeling and experimental evidence of diffusion limited reactions

    DOE PAGES

    Yarrington, C. D.; Abere, M. J.; Adams, D. P.; ...

    2017-04-03

    We irradiated Al/Pt nanolaminates with a bilayer thickness (tb, width of an Al/Pt pair-layer) of 164 nm with single laser pulses with durations of 10 ms and 0.5 ms at 189 W/cm2 and 1189 W/cm2, respectively. The time to ignition was measured for each pulse, and shorter ignition times were observed for the higher power/shorter pulse width. While the shorter pulse shows uniform brightness, videographic images of the irradiated area shortly after ignition show a non-uniform radial brightness for the longer pulse. A diffusion-limited single step reaction mechanism was implemented in a finite element package to model the progress frommore » reactants to products at both pulse widths. Finally, the model captures well both the observed ignition delay and qualitative observations regarding the non-uniform radial temperature.« less

  7. Non-local meta-conformal invariance in diffusion-limited erosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henkel, Malte

    2016-12-01

    The non-stationary relaxation and physical ageing in the diffusion-limited erosion process (dle) is studied through the exact solution of its Langevin equation, in d spatial dimensions. The dynamical exponent z = 1, the growth exponent β =\\max (0,(1-d)/2) and the ageing exponents a=b=d-1 and {λ }C={λ }R=d are found. In d = 1 spatial dimension, a new representation of the meta-conformal Lie algebra, isomorphic to {sl}(2,{{R}})\\oplus {sl}(2,{{R}}), acts as a dynamical symmetry of the noise-averaged dle Langevin equation. Its infinitesimal generators are non-local in space. The exact form of the full time-space dependence of the two-time response function of dle is reproduced for d = 1 from this symmetry. The relationship to the terrace-step-kink model of vicinal surfaces is discussed.

  8. Mass fractionation of noble gases in diffusion-limited hydrodynamic hydrogen escape

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zahnle, Kevin; Pollack, James B.; Kasting, James F.

    1990-01-01

    The theory of mass fractionation by hydrogen is presently extended to atmospheres in which hydrogen is not the major constituent. This theoretical framework is applied to three different cases. In the first, it is shown that the fractionation of terrestrial atmospheric neon with respect to mantle neon is explainable as a consequence of diffusion-limited hydrogen escape from a steam atmosphere toward the end of the accretion process. In the second, the anomalously high Ar-38/Ar-36 ratio of Mars is shown to be due to hydrodynamic fractionation by a vigorously escaping and very pure hydrogen wind. In the last case, it is speculated that the currently high Martian D/H ratio emerged during the hydrodynamic escape phase which fractionated Ar.

  9. Mass fractionation of noble gases in diffusion-limited hydrodynamic hydrogen escape

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zahnle, Kevin; Pollack, James B.; Kasting, James F.

    1990-01-01

    The theory of mass fractionation by hydrogen is presently extended to atmospheres in which hydrogen is not the major constituent. This theoretical framework is applied to three different cases. In the first, it is shown that the fractionation of terrestrial atmospheric neon with respect to mantle neon is explainable as a consequence of diffusion-limited hydrogen escape from a steam atmosphere toward the end of the accretion process. In the second, the anomalously high Ar-38/Ar-36 ratio of Mars is shown to be due to hydrodynamic fractionation by a vigorously escaping and very pure hydrogen wind. In the last case, it is speculated that the currently high Martian D/H ratio emerged during the hydrodynamic escape phase which fractionated Ar.

  10. A Rigorous Sharp Interface Limit of a Diffuse Interface Model Related to Tumor Growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rocca, Elisabetta; Scala, Riccardo

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, we study the rigorous sharp interface limit of a diffuse interface model related to the dynamics of tumor growth, when a parameter ɛ, representing the interface thickness between the tumorous and non-tumorous cells, tends to zero. More in particular, we analyze here a gradient-flow-type model arising from a modification of the recently introduced model for tumor growth dynamics in Hawkins-Daruud et al. (Int J Numer Math Biomed Eng 28:3-24, 2011) (cf. also Hilhorst et al. Math Models Methods Appl Sci 25:1011-1043, 2015). Exploiting the techniques related to both gradient flows and gamma convergence, we recover a condition on the interface Γ relating the chemical and double-well potentials, the mean curvature, and the normal velocity.

  11. Singular value decomposition metrics show limitations of detector design in diffuse fluorescence tomography

    PubMed Central

    Leblond, Frederic; Tichauer, Kenneth M.; Pogue, Brian W.

    2010-01-01

    The spatial resolution and recovered contrast of images reconstructed from diffuse fluorescence tomography data are limited by the high scattering properties of light propagation in biological tissue. As a result, the image reconstruction process can be exceedingly vulnerable to inaccurate prior knowledge of tissue optical properties and stochastic noise. In light of these limitations, the optimal source-detector geometry for a fluorescence tomography system is non-trivial, requiring analytical methods to guide design. Analysis of the singular value decomposition of the matrix to be inverted for image reconstruction is one potential approach, providing key quantitative metrics, such as singular image mode spatial resolution and singular data mode frequency as a function of singular mode. In the present study, these metrics are used to analyze the effects of different sources of noise and model errors as related to image quality in the form of spatial resolution and contrast recovery. The image quality is demonstrated to be inherently noise-limited even when detection geometries were increased in complexity to allow maximal tissue sampling, suggesting that detection noise characteristics outweigh detection geometry for achieving optimal reconstructions. PMID:21258566

  12. Normal-to-anomalous diffusion transition in disordered correlated potentials: from the central limit theorem to stable laws.

    PubMed

    Salgado-García, R; Maldonado, Cesar

    2013-12-01

    We study the diffusion of an ensemble of overdamped particles sliding over a tilted random potential (produced by the interaction of a particle with a random polymer) with long-range correlations. We found that the diffusion properties of such a system are closely related to the correlation function of the corresponding potential. We model the substrate as a symbolic trajectory of a shift space which enables us to obtain a general formula for the diffusion coefficient when normal diffusion occurs. The total time that the particle takes to travel through n monomers can be seen as an ergodic sum to which we can apply the central limit theorem. The latter can be implemented if the correlations decay fast enough in order for the central limit theorem to be valid. On the other hand, we presume that when the central limit theorem breaks down the system give rise to anomalous diffusion. We give two examples exhibiting a transition from normal to anomalous diffusion due to this mechanism. We also give analytical expressions for the diffusion exponents in both cases by assuming convergence to a stable law. Finally we test our predictions by means of numerical simulations.

  13. Near-Limit Flamelet Phenomena in Buoyant Low Stretch Diffusion Flames Beneath a Solid Fuel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olson, S. L.; Tien, J. S.

    2000-01-01

    A unique near-limit low stretch multidimensional stable flamelet phenomena has been observed for the first time which extends the material flammability limit beyond the one-dimensional low stretch flammability limit to lower burning rates and higher relative heat losses than is possible with uniform flame coverage. During low stretch experiments burning the underside of very large radii (greater than or = 75 cm stretch rate less than or = 3/s) cylindrical cast PMMA samples, multidimensional flamelets were observed, in contrast with a one-dimensional flame that was found to blanket the surface for smaller radii samples ( higher stretch rate). Flamelets were observed by decreasing the stretch rate or by increasing the conductive heat loss from the flame. Flamelets are defined as flames that cover only part of the burning sample at any given time, but persist for many minutes. Flamelet phenomena is viewed as the flame's method of enhancing oxygen flow to the flame, through oxygen transport into the edges of the flamelet. Flamelets form as heat losses (surface radiation and solid-phase conduction) become large relative to the weakened heat release of the low stretch flame. While heat loss rates remain fairly constant, the limiting factor in the heat release of the flame is hypothesized to be the oxygen transport to the flame in this low stretch (low convective) environment. Flamelet extinction is frequently caused by encroachment of an adjacent flamelet. Large-scale whole-body flamelet oscillations at 1.2 - 1.95 Hz are noted prior to extinction of a flamelet. This oscillation is believed to be due a repeated process of excess fuel leakage through the dark channels between the flamelets, fuel premixing with slow incoming oxidizer, and subsequent rapid flame spread and retreat of the flamelet through the premixed layer. The oscillation frequency is driven by gas-phase diffusive time scales.

  14. Surface aggregation patterns of LDL receptors near coated pits II. The retrograde membrane flow-diffusion and generalized plaque-form insertion mechanism.

    PubMed

    Echavarria-Heras, Hector; Solana-Arellano, Elena; Leal-Ramirez, Cecilia

    2012-06-01

    This study presents a theoretical exploration of the effects of mechanisms that, in addition to diffusion, may influence the surface dynamics and display of unbound receptors in the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) endocytic cycle in human fibroblasts. The factors considered here are a transverse membrane flow and a generalized plaque-form insertion mode. The proposed model permits estimations of aggregation rates of unbound receptors in coated pits as well as pictorial representations of their expected steady-state display on the cell surface. Our findings show that this display is determined in a fundamental way by the ratio of the strength of the flow to the diffusion coefficient. For measured values of the diffusion coefficient and the estimated value of the flow rate strength (and independent of the receptor insertion mode), the display predicted by our model is consistent with the capping phenomenon, i.e., a gradated clustering in the direction of flow streamlines. There could be suitable characterizations of the receptor reinsertion mode that would produce a substantial reduction in the mean capture time of LDL receptors by coated pits. In any event, our results show that the existence of a transverse membrane flow precludes the display of steady-state plaque-form surface clusters.

  15. Time-resolved phosphorescence of proteins: structural studies using energy transfer in the rapid diffusion limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gafni, Ari; Mersol, Joseph V.; Steel, Duncan G.

    1990-05-01

    Room temperature phosphorescence emitted by tryptophan residues in deoxygenated aqueous solutions of proteins is extremely sensitive to the environment of these residues and can be utilized for the detailed study of protein structure and dynamics. The long decay time of their triplet state makes the phosphorescent tryptophans suitable donors for resonance energy transfer in the rapid diffusion limit. As shown by Stryer et al. (Ann. Rev. Biophys. Bioeng. 11, 203 (1982)) proper data analysis can then yield the distance of closest approach between the donor-acceptor pair. This method can thus allow one to map the distances of phosphorescent tryptophans from the surface of the protein. In the present study a laser-based photon counting system was used to follow the room-temperature phosphorescence decays of alkaline phosphatase and horse liver alcohol dehydrogenase and to study the quenching of their triplet states by several molecules whose absorption spectra overlap the long-lived emission of these proteins. The results demonstrate the potential applicability of these measurements for the mapping of phosphorescent tryptophan residues and confirm the phosphorescence of alkaline phosphatase to originate in Trp-109. Limitations to the applicability of the energy-transfer approach arise from quenching mechanisms which compete with resonance transfer. Two such processes - electron transfer and exchange interactions - are discussed.

  16. Upper limit on the diffuse flux of UHE tau neutrinos from the Pierre Auger Observatory

    SciTech Connect

    Collaboration, The Pierre Auger

    2007-12-01

    The surface detector array of the Pierre Auger Observatory is sensitive to Earth-skimming tau-neutrinos {nu}{sub {tau}} that interact in the Earth's crust. Tau leptons from {tau}{sub {tau}} charged-current interactions can emerge and decay in the atmosphere to produce a nearly horizontal shower with a significant electromagnetic component. The data collected between 1 January 2004 and 31 August 2007 is used to place an upper limit on the diffuse flux of {nu}{sub {tau}} at EeV energies. Assuming an E{sub {nu}}{sup -2} differential energy spectrum the limit set at 90 % C.L. is E{sub {nu}}{sup 2} dN{sub {nu}{sub {tau}}}/dE{sub {nu}} < 1.3 x 10{sup -7} GeV cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} sr{sup -1} in the energy range 2 x 10{sup 17} eV < E{sub {nu}} < 2 x 10{sup 19} eV.

  17. Anatomical accuracy of brain connections derived from diffusion MRI tractography is inherently limited.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Cibu; Ye, Frank Q; Irfanoglu, M Okan; Modi, Pooja; Saleem, Kadharbatcha S; Leopold, David A; Pierpaoli, Carlo

    2014-11-18

    Tractography based on diffusion-weighted MRI (DWI) is widely used for mapping the structural connections of the human brain. Its accuracy is known to be limited by technical factors affecting in vivo data acquisition, such as noise, artifacts, and data undersampling resulting from scan time constraints. It generally is assumed that improvements in data quality and implementation of sophisticated tractography methods will lead to increasingly accurate maps of human anatomical connections. However, assessing the anatomical accuracy of DWI tractography is difficult because of the lack of independent knowledge of the true anatomical connections in humans. Here we investigate the future prospects of DWI-based connectional imaging by applying advanced tractography methods to an ex vivo DWI dataset of the macaque brain. The results of different tractography methods were compared with maps of known axonal projections from previous tracer studies in the macaque. Despite the exceptional quality of the DWI data, none of the methods demonstrated high anatomical accuracy. The methods that showed the highest sensitivity showed the lowest specificity, and vice versa. Additionally, anatomical accuracy was highly dependent upon parameters of the tractography algorithm, with different optimal values for mapping different pathways. These results suggest that there is an inherent limitation in determining long-range anatomical projections based on voxel-averaged estimates of local fiber orientation obtained from DWI data that is unlikely to be overcome by improvements in data acquisition and analysis alone.

  18. Investigations on diffusion limitations of biocatalyzed reactions in amphiphilic polymer conetworks in organic solvents.

    PubMed

    Schoenfeld, Ina; Dech, Stephan; Ryabenky, Benjamin; Daniel, Bastian; Glowacki, Britta; Ladisch, Reinhild; Tiller, Joerg C

    2013-09-01

    The use of enzymes as biocatalysts in organic media is an important issue in modern white biotechnology. However, their low activity and stability in those media often limits their full-scale application. Amphiphilic polymer conetworks (APCNs) have been shown to greatly activate entrapped enzymes in organic solvents. Since these nanostructured materials are not porous, the bioactivity of the conetworks is strongly limited by diffusion of substrate and product. The present manuscript describes two different APCNs as nanostructured microparticles, which showed greatly increased activities of entrapped enzymes compared to those of the already activating membranes and larger particles. We demonstrated this on the example of APCN particles based on PHEA-l-PDMS loaded with α-Chymotrypsin, which resulted in an up to 28,000-fold higher activity of the enzyme compared to the enzyme powder. Furthermore, lipase from Rhizomucor miehei entrapped in particles based on PHEA-l-PEtOx was tested in n-heptane, chloroform, and substrate. Specific activities in smaller particles were 10- to 100-fold higher in comparison to the native enzyme. The carrier activity of PHEA-l-PEtOx microparticles was tenfold higher with some 25-50-fold lower enzyme content compared to a commercial product.

  19. Effects of buffer concentration on voltage-gated H+ currents: does diffusion limit the conductance?

    PubMed Central

    DeCoursey, T E; Cherny, V V

    1996-01-01

    The single-channel proton conductance of the voltage-gated H(+)-selective channel, like that of the F0 component of the H(+)-ATPase, is nearly constant over a wide range of pH encompassing the physiological range. To examine the possible contributions of buffer diffusion and buffer-channel proton transfer reactions to this phenomenon, the effects of buffer concentration on voltage-activated H+ currents were explored in voltage-clamped rat alveolar epithelial cells. Changes in the external buffer concentration ([B]o), evaluated using the whole-cell configuration, had only small effects on H+ currents (IH). Lowering [B]o from 100 to 1 mM did not alter the voltage-activation curve or reversal potential (Vrev) but reduced IH, typically by 10-30%. Changes in internal buffer concentration ([B]i), examined in inside-out patches, usually altered IH more distinctly and subtly changed the kinetics. Overall, the effects of changing buffer concentration were small and subtle. The maximum attenuation of the single-channel H+ current at 1 mM buffer was estimated to be approximately 20% at either mouth of the H+ channel. Therefore, the rate-determining step in H+ permeation is neither deprotonation of buffer at the inner mouth of the channel nor protonation of buffer at the external surface. Evidently the rate of H+ permeation through the channel is itself small enough that diffusion of buffer in bulk solution does not directly limit the conductance significantly. PMID:8804602

  20. In situ liquid-cell electron microscopy of colloid aggregation and growth dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grogan, Joseph M.; Rotkina, Lolita; Bau, Haim H.

    2011-06-01

    We report on real-time observations of the aggregation of gold nanoparticles using a custom-made liquid cell that allows for in situ electron microscopy. Process kinetics and fractal dimension of the aggregates are consistent with three-dimensional cluster-cluster diffusion-limited aggregation, even for large aggregates, for which confinement effects are expected. This apparent paradox was resolved through in situ observations of the interactions between individual particles as well as clusters at various stages of the aggregation process that yielded the large aggregates. The liquid cell described herein facilitates real-time observations of various processes in liquid media with the high resolution of the electron microscope.

  1. Aggregates and Superaggregates of Soot with Four Distinct Fractal Morphologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sorensen, C. M.; Kim, W.; Fry, D.; Chakrabarti, A.

    2004-01-01

    Soot formed in laminar diffusion flames of heavily sooting fuels evolves through four distinct growth stages which give rise to four distinct aggregate fractal morphologies. These results were inferred from large and small angle static light scattering from the flames, microphotography of the flames, and analysis of soot sampled from the flames. The growth stages occur approximately over four successive orders of magnitude in aggregate size. Comparison to computer simulations suggests that these four growth stages involve either diffusion limited cluster aggregation or percolation in either three or two dimensions.

  2. Transient shear viscosity of weakly aggregating polystyrene latex dispersions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Rooij, R.; Potanin, A. A.; van den Ende, D.; Mellema, J.

    1994-04-01

    The transient behavior of the viscosity (stress growth) of a weakly aggregating polystyrene latex dispersion after a step from a high shear rate to a lower shear rate has been measured and modeled. Single particles cluster together into spherical fractal aggregates. The steady state size of these aggregates is determined by the shear stresses exerted on the latter by the flow field. The restructuring process taking place when going from a starting situation with monodisperse spherical aggregates to larger monodisperse spherical aggregates is described by the capture of primary fractal aggregates by growing aggregates until a new steady state is reached. It is assumed that the aggregation mechanism is diffusion limited. The model is valid if the radii of primary aggregates Rprim are much smaller than the radii of the growing aggregates. Fitting the model to experimental data at two volume fractions and a number of step sizes in shear rate yielded physically reasonable values of Rprim at fractal dimensions 2.1≤df≤2.2. The latter range is in good agreement with the range 2.0≤df≤2.3 obtained from steady shear results. The experimental data have also been fitted to a numerical solution of the diffusion equation for primary aggregates for a cell model with moving boundary, also yielding 2.1≤df≤2.2. The range for df found from both approaches agrees well with the range df≊2.1-2.2 determined from computer simulations on diffusion-limited aggregation including restructuring or thermal breakup after formation of bonds. Thus a simple model has been put forward which may capture the basic features of the aggregating model dispersion on a microstructural level and leads to physically acceptable parameter values.

  3. Effects of chemical mechanical planarization slurry additives on the agglomeration of alumina nanoparticles II: aggregation rate analysis.

    PubMed

    Brahma, Neil; Talbot, Jan B

    2014-04-01

    The aggregation rate and mechanism of 150 nm alumina particles in 1mM KNO3 with various additives used in chemical mechanical planarization of copper were investigated. The pH of each suspension was ∼8 such that the aggregation rate was slow enough to be measured and analyzed over ∼120 min. In general, an initial exponential growth was observed for most suspensions indicating reaction-limited aggregation. After aggregate sizes increase to >500 nm, the rate followed a power law suggesting diffusion-limited aggregation. Stability ratios and fractal dimension numbers were also calculated to further elucidate the aggregation mechanism. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Energy relaxation and separation of a hot electron-hole pair in organic aggregates from a time-dependent wavepacket diffusion method

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Lu; Liang, WanZhen; Zhao, Yi; Zhong, Xinxin

    2014-06-07

    The time-dependent wavepacket diffusive method [X. Zhong and Y. Zhao, J. Chem. Phys. 138, 014111 (2013)] is extended to investigate the energy relaxation and separation of a hot electron-hole pair in organic aggregates with incorporation of Coulomb interaction and electron-phonon coupling. The pair initial condition generated by laser pulse is represented by a Gaussian wavepacket with a central momentum. The results reveal that the hot electron energy relaxation is very well described by two rate processes with the fast rate much larger than the slow one, consistent with experimental observations, and an efficient electron-hole separation is accomplished accompanying the fast energy relaxation. Furthermore, although the extra energy indeed helps the separation by overcoming the Coulomb interaction, the width of initial wavepacket is much sensitive to the separation efficiency and the narrower wavepacket generates the more separated charges. This behavior may be useful to understand the experimental controversy of the hot carrier effect on charge separation.

  5. Acetylcholine receptors and concanavalin A-binding sites on cultured Xenopus muscle cells: electrophoresis, diffusion, and aggregation [corrected and republished article originally printed in J Cell Biol 1988 May;106(5):1723-34

    PubMed Central

    1988-01-01

    Using digitally analyzed fluorescence videomicroscopy, we have examined the behavior of acetylcholine receptors and concanavalin A binding sites in response to externally applied electric fields. The distributions of these molecules on cultured Xenopus myoballs were used to test a simple model which assumes that electrophoresis and diffusion are the only important processes involved. The model describes the distribution of concanavalin A sites quite well over a fourfold range of electric field strengths; the results suggest an average diffusion constant of approximately 2.3 X 10(-9) cm2/s. At higher electric field strengths, the asymmetry seen is substantially less than that predicted by the model. Acetylcholine receptors subjected to electric fields show distributions substantially different from those predicted on the basis of simple electrophoresis and diffusion, and evidence a marked tendency to aggregate. Our results suggest that this aggregation is due to lateral migration of surface acetylcholine receptors, and is dependent on surface interactions, rather than the rearrangement of microfilaments or microtubules. The data are consistent with a diffusion-trap mechanism of receptor aggregation, and suggest that the event triggering receptor localization is a local increase in the concentration of acetylcholine receptors, or the electrophoretic concentration of some other molecular species. These observations suggest that, whatever mechanism(s) trigger initial clustering events in vivo, the accumulation of acetylcholine receptors can be substantially enhanced by passive, diffusion-mediated aggregation. PMID:3170634

  6. Cluster-cluster aggregation in binary mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alsunaidi, A.; Lach-Hab, M.; González, Agustín E.; Blaisten-Barojas, Estela

    2000-01-01

    The structure and aggregation kinetics of three-dimensional clusters composed of two different monomeric species at three concentrations are thoroughly investigated by means of extensive, large-scale computer simulations. The aggregating monomers have all the same size and occupy the cells of a cubic lattice. Two bonding schemes are considered: (a) the binary diffusion-limited cluster-cluster aggregation (BDLCA) in which only the monomers of different species stick together, and (b) the invading binary diffusion-limited cluster-cluster aggregation (IBDLCA) in which additionally monomers of one of the two species are allowed to bond. In the two schemes, the mixed aggregates display self-similarity with a fractal dimension df that depends on the relative molar fraction of the two species and on concentration. At a given concentration, when this molar fraction is small, df approaches a value close to the reaction-limited cluster-cluster aggregation of one-component systems, and when the molar fraction is 0.5, df becomes close to the value of the diffusion-limited cluster-cluster aggregation model. The crossover between these two regimes is due to a time-decreasing reaction probability between colliding particles, particularly at small molar fractions. Several dynamical quantities are studied as a function of time. The number of clusters and the weight-average cluster size display a power-law behavior only at small concentrations. The dynamical exponents are obtained for molar fractions above 0.3 but not at or below 0.2, indicating the presence of a critical transition between a gelling to a nongelling system. The cluster-size distribution function presents scaling for molar fractions larger than 0.2.

  7. Mixing with herringbone-inspired microstructures: overcoming the diffusion limit in co-laminar microfluidic devices.

    PubMed

    Marschewski, Julian; Jung, Stefan; Ruch, Patrick; Prasad, Nishant; Mazzotti, Sergio; Michel, Bruno; Poulikakos, Dimos

    2015-04-21

    Enhancing mixing is of uttermost importance in many laminar microfluidic devices, aiming at overcoming the severe performance limitation of species transport by diffusion alone. Here we focus on the significant category of microscale co-laminar flows encountered in membraneless redox flow cells for power delivery. The grand challenge is to achieve simultaneously convective mixing within each individual reactant, to thin the reaction depletion boundary layers, while maintaining separation of the co-flowing reactants, despite the absence of a membrane. The concept presented here achieves this goal with the help of optimized herringbone flow promoting microstructures with an integrated separation zone. Our electrochemical experiments using a model redox couple show that symmetric flow promoter designs exhibit laminar to turbulent flow behavior, the latter at elevated flow rates. This change in flow regime is accompanied by a significant change in scaling of the Sherwood number with respect to the Reynolds number from Sh ~ Re(0.29) to Sh ~ Re(0.58). The stabilized continuous laminar flow zone along the centerline of the channel allows operation in a co-laminar flow regime up to Re ~325 as we demonstrate by micro laser-induced fluorescence (μLIF) measurements. Micro particle image velocimetry (μPIV) proves the maintenance of a stratified flow along the centerline, mitigating reactant cross-over effectively. The present work paves the way toward improved performance in membraneless microfluidic flow cells for electrochemical energy conversion.

  8. Mass fractionation of noble gases in diffusion-limited hydrodynamic hydrogen escape.

    PubMed

    Zahnle, K; Kasting, J F; Pollack, J B

    1990-01-01

    Mass fractionation by hydrodynamic hydrogen escape is a promising mechanism for explaining the observed elemental and isotopic abundance patterns in terrestrial planet atmospheres. Previous work has considered only pure hydrogen winds. Here, the theory of mass fractionation by hydrogen escape is extended to atmospheres in which hydrogen is not the only major constituent. Analytical solutions are derived for cases in which all relevant atmospheric constituents escape; both analytical and numerical solutions are obtained for cases in which important heavy constituents are retained. In either case the fractionation patterns that result can differ significantly from those produced by pure hydrogen winds. Three applications of the theory are discussed: (1) The observed fractionation of terrestrial atmospheric neon with respect to mantle neon can be explained as a by-product of diffusion-limited hydrogen escape from a steam atmosphere toward the end of accretion. (2) The anomalously high Martian (SNC) 38Ar/36Ar ratio is attributed to hydrodynamic fractionation by a vigorously escaping, nearly pure hydrogen wind. (3) It is possible that the present high Martian D/H ratio was established during the same hydrodynamic escape phase that fractionated argon, but the predicted degree of D/H enrichment is sensitive to other, less well constrained parameters.

  9. Freezing of tissue-limits for the autoradiographic localization of diffusible substances.

    PubMed

    Frederik, P M; Busing, W M

    1979-11-01

    Frozen thin sections and sections from freeze-dried and embedded tissue are used for the autoradiographic localization of diffusible substances at the electron microscope level. The presence of ice crystals in such sections may limit the autoradiographic resolution. Ice crystals are formed during freezing and may grow during subsequent processing of tissue. The contribution of ice crystal growth to the final image was estimated by measuring the distribution of the ice crystal sizes in freeze-etch replicas and in sections from freeze-dried and embedded tissues. A surface layer (10-15 mu) without visible ice crystals was present in both preparations. Beneath this surface layer the diameter of ice crystals increased towards the interior with the same relationship between crystal size and distance from the surface in the freeze-etch preparation as in the freeze-dry preparation. Ice crystal growth occurring during a much longer time during freeze-drying compared to freeze-etching does not significantly contribute to the final image in the electron microscope. The formation of ice crystals during freezing determines to a large extent the image (and therefore the autoradiographic resolution) of freeze-dry preparations and this probably holds also for thin cryosections of which examples are given.

  10. Sooting Limits Of Diffusion Flames With Oxygen-Enriched Air And Diluted Fuel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sunderland, P. B.; Urban, D. L.; Stocker, D. P.; Chao, B. H.; Axelbaum, R. L.

    2003-01-01

    Oxygen-enhanced combustion permits certain benefits and flexibility that are not otherwise available in the design of practical combustors, as discussed by Baukal. The cost of pure and enriched oxygen has declined to the point that oxygen-enhanced combustion is preferable to combustion in air for many applications. Carbon sequestration is greatly facilitated by oxygen enrichment because nitrogen can be eliminated from the product stream. For example, when natural gas (or natural gas diluted with CO2) is burned in pure oxygen, the only significant products are water and CO2. Oxygen-enhanced combustion also has important implications for soot formation, as explored in this work. We propose that soot inception in nonpremixed flames requires a region where C/O ratio, temperature, and residence time are above certain critical values. Soot does not form at low temperatures, with the threshold in nonpremixed flames ranging from about 1250-1650 K, a temperature referred to here as the critical temperature for soot inception, Tc. Soot inception also can be suppressed when residence time is short (equivalently, when the strain rate in counterflow flames is high). Soot induction times of 0.8-15 ms were reported by Tesner and Shurupov for acetylene/nitrogen mixtures at 1473 K. Burner stabilized spherical microgravity flames are employed in this work for two main reasons. First, this configuration offers unrestricted control over convection direction. Second, in steady state these flames are strain-free and thus can yield intrinsic sooting limits in diffusion flames, similar to the way past work in premixed flames has provided intrinsic values of C/O ratio associated with soot inception limits.

  11. Identifying the limitations of conventional biofiltration of diffuse methane emissions at long-term operation.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Cuervo, S; Hernández, J; Omil, F

    2016-08-01

    There is growing international concern about the increasing levels of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, particularly CO2 and methane. The emissions of methane derived from human activities are associated with large flows and very low concentrations, such as those emitted from landfills and wastewater treatment plants, among others. The present work was focused on the biological methane degradation at diffuse concentrations (0.2% vv(-1)) in a conventional biofilter using a mixture of compost, perlite and bark chips as carrier. An extensive characterization of the process was carried out at long-term operation (250 days) in a fully monitored pilot plant, achieving stable conditions during the entire period. Operational parameters such as waterings, nitrogen addition and inlet loads and contact time influences were evaluated. Obtained results indicate that empty bed residence times within 4-8 min are crucial to maximize elimination rates. Waterings and the type of nitrogen supplied in the nutrient solution (ammonia or nitrate) have a strong impact on the biofilter performance. The better results compatible with a stable operation were achieved using nitrate, with elimination capacities up to 7.6 ± 1.1 g CH4 m(-3 )h(-1). The operation at low inlet concentrations (IC) implied that removal rates obtained were quite limited (ranging 3-8 g CH4 m(-3 )h(-1)); however, these results could be significantly increased (up to 20.6 g CH4 m(-3) h(-1)) at higher IC, which indicates that the mass transfer from the gas to the liquid layer surrounding the biofilm is a key limitation of the process.

  12. Limits of Spatial Resolution for Thermography and Other Non-destructive Imaging Methods Based on Diffusion Waves.

    PubMed

    Burgholzer, Peter; Hendorfer, Günther

    2013-01-01

    In this work the measured variable, such as temperature, is a random variable showing fluctuations. The loss of information caused by diffusion waves in non-destructive testing can be described by stochastic processes. In non-destructive imaging, the information about the spatial pattern of a samples interior has to be transferred to the sample surface by certain waves, e.g., thermal waves. At the sample surface these waves can be detected and the interior structure is reconstructed from the measured signals. The amount of information about the interior of the sample, which can be gained from the detected waves on the sample surface, is essentially influenced by the propagation from its excitation to the surface. Diffusion causes entropy production and information loss for the propagating waves. Mandelis has developed a unifying framework for treating diverse diffusion-related periodic phenomena under the global mathematical label of diffusion-wave fields, such as thermal waves. Thermography uses the time-dependent diffusion of heat (either pulsed or modulated periodically) which goes along with entropy production and a loss of information. Several attempts have been made to compensate for this diffusive effect to get a higher resolution for the reconstructed images of the samples interior. In this work it is shown that fluctuations limit this compensation. Therefore, the spatial resolution for non-destructive imaging at a certain depth is also limited by theory.

  13. Aggregation behaviour of engineered nanoparticles in natural waters: characterising aggregate structure using on-line laser light scattering.

    PubMed

    Chekli, L; Zhao, Y X; Tijing, L D; Phuntsho, S; Donner, E; Lombi, E; Gao, B Y; Shon, H K

    2015-03-02

    Adsorption of natural organic matter, aggregation and disaggregation have been identified as three of the main processes affecting the fate and behaviour of engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) in aquatic environments. However, although several methods have been developed to study the aggregation behaviour of ENPs in natural waters, there are only a few studies focusing on the fate of such aggregates and their potential disaggregation behaviour. In this study, we proposed and demonstrated a simple method for characterising the aggregation behaviour and aggregate structure of ENPs in different natural waters. Both the aggregate size of ENPs and their adsorption capacity for dissolved organic matter (DOM) were strongly related (R(2)>0.97, p<.05) to the combined effect of initial concentration of dissolved organic matter (DOM) and the ionic strength of the natural waters. The structure of the formed aggregates was strongly correlated (R(2)>0.95, p<.05) to the amount of DOM adsorbed by the ENPs during the aggregation process. Under high ionic strength conditions, aggregation is mainly governed by diffusion and the aggregates formed under these conditions showed the lowest stability and fractal dimension, forming linear, chain-like aggregates. In contrast, under low ionic strength conditions, the aggregate structure was more compact, most likely due to strong chemical binding with DOM and bridging mechanisms involving divalent cations formed during reaction-limited aggregation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. [Effect of diffusion limitation on gas exchange in the lung--analysis in oleic acid-induced lung injury].

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, K; Kawai, A; Mori, M; Asano, K; Takasugi, T; Umeda, A; Kawashiro, T; Yokoyama, T

    1993-05-01

    To assess the effect of diffusion limitation on gas exchange in injured lungs with non-cardiogenic pulmonary edema, an experimental model of acute lung injury with alveolar flooding was produced in six mongrel dogs by intravenously injecting oleic acid at 0.06 ml/kg. The effect of diffusion limitation was quantitatively examined by measuring the excretion (E) of three indicator gases (acetylene, ethylene and freon-22) with differing solubility (lambda) and tissue diffusivity (d). The indicator gases were dissolved in normal saline and infused at a constant rate through a peripheral vein. Since acetylene and ethylene have nearly identical of d but differing lambda, the difference in E values of these two gases may solely reflect the effect of uneven distribution of ventilation-perfusion ratios (VA/Q) in the lung. Thus, measured E values of acetylene and ethylene allowed us to approximately predict the E of freon-22, the value corresponding to the condition where d of freon-22 was taken to be equal to that of acetylene or ethylene. The difference between predicted and measured E values of freon-22 is indicative of the limitation of diffusion in the lung periphery. In all the lungs studied, measured E values of freon-22 were consistently smaller than those predicted from acetylene and ethylene, leading to the conclusion that gas exchange in injured lungs with widespread pulmonary edema was partly impaired by diffusion in aqueous media.

  15. Peripheral vasculopathy in patients with systemic sclerosis: difference in limited and diffuse subset of disease.

    PubMed

    Ostojić, Predrag; Damjanov, Nemanja; Pavlov-Dolijanovic, Slavica; Radunović, Goran

    2004-01-01

    To examine the difference in clinical signs of peripheral vasculopathy in patients (pts) with limited (lcSSc) and diffuse cutaneus systemic sclerosis (dcSSc). Ninety one patients with systemic sclerosis (39 with lcSSc and 52 with dcSSc) have been assessed for the presence of clinical signs of vascular injury: Raynaud's phenomenon, severity of capillary damage on capillaroscopy, presence or absence of finger-tip ulcers or pitting scars, presence of telangiectasias and radiographic signs of finger-tip osteolysis. Statistical significance of difference in clinical manifestations of peripheral vasculopathy in pts with lcSSc and dcSSc was assessed using the Mann-Whitney and X2-test. Duration of Raynaud's phenomenon before manifestation of skin or internal organ damage, was significantly longer (z=-2.54, p=0.004) in patients with lcSSc (5.4 years) than in patients with dcSSc (1.9 years). Using the technique of nailfold capillaroscopy, we found normal capillaries or non-specific capillary change in 10.2% pts with lcSSc and only in 2.0% pts with dcSSc. Enlarged capillaries without significant loss of capillaries were found in 38.5% pts with lcSSc, and 11.5% pts with dcSSc (p=0.05). But severe capillary damage, with significant loss of capillaries, was noticed more frequently in pts with dcSSc (dcSSc/lcSSc: 86.5%/51.3%, p=0.002). Pitting scars or digital ulcers were found in 46.2% pts with lcSSc and 67.3% pts with dcSSc (p=0.04). We did not notice significant difference in frequency of finger-tip osteolysis (lcSSc/dcSSc: 23.1%/21.2%, p>0.05) and telangiectasias (lcSSc/dcSSc: 46.2%/53.8%, p>0.05). Severe capillary damage and digital ulcers are more common in patients with diffuse cutaneus systemic sclerosis, but finger-tip osteolysis and telangiectasias are equally frequent in both form of disease.

  16. Excess Diffuse Light Absorption in Upper Mesophyll Limits CO2 Drawdown and Depresses Photosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Earles, J Mason; Théroux-Rancourt, Guillaume; Gilbert, Matthew E; McElrone, Andrew J; Brodersen, Craig R

    2017-06-01

    In agricultural and natural systems, diffuse light can enhance plant primary productivity due to deeper penetration into and greater irradiance of the entire canopy. However, for individual sun-grown leaves from three species, photosynthesis is actually less efficient under diffuse compared with direct light. Despite its potential impact on canopy-level productivity, the mechanism for this leaf-level diffuse light photosynthetic depression effect is unknown. Here, we investigate if the spatial distribution of light absorption relative to electron transport capacity in sun- and shade-grown sunflower (Helianthus annuus) leaves underlies its previously observed diffuse light photosynthetic depression. Using a new one-dimensional porous medium finite element gas-exchange model parameterized with light absorption profiles, we found that weaker penetration of diffuse versus direct light into the mesophyll of sun-grown sunflower leaves led to a more heterogenous saturation of electron transport capacity and lowered its CO2 concentration drawdown capacity in the intercellular airspace and chloroplast stroma. This decoupling of light availability from photosynthetic capacity under diffuse light is sufficient to generate an 11% decline in photosynthesis in sun-grown but not shade-grown leaves, primarily because thin shade-grown leaves similarly distribute diffuse and direct light throughout the mesophyll. Finally, we illustrate how diffuse light photosynthetic depression could overcome enhancement in canopies with low light extinction coefficients and/or leaf area, pointing toward a novel direction for future research. © 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  17. Excess Diffuse Light Absorption in Upper Mesophyll Limits CO2 Drawdown and Depresses Photosynthesis1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Gilbert, Matthew E.; McElrone, Andrew J.

    2017-01-01

    In agricultural and natural systems, diffuse light can enhance plant primary productivity due to deeper penetration into and greater irradiance of the entire canopy. However, for individual sun-grown leaves from three species, photosynthesis is actually less efficient under diffuse compared with direct light. Despite its potential impact on canopy-level productivity, the mechanism for this leaf-level diffuse light photosynthetic depression effect is unknown. Here, we investigate if the spatial distribution of light absorption relative to electron transport capacity in sun- and shade-grown sunflower (Helianthus annuus) leaves underlies its previously observed diffuse light photosynthetic depression. Using a new one-dimensional porous medium finite element gas-exchange model parameterized with light absorption profiles, we found that weaker penetration of diffuse versus direct light into the mesophyll of sun-grown sunflower leaves led to a more heterogenous saturation of electron transport capacity and lowered its CO2 concentration drawdown capacity in the intercellular airspace and chloroplast stroma. This decoupling of light availability from photosynthetic capacity under diffuse light is sufficient to generate an 11% decline in photosynthesis in sun-grown but not shade-grown leaves, primarily because thin shade-grown leaves similarly distribute diffuse and direct light throughout the mesophyll. Finally, we illustrate how diffuse light photosynthetic depression could overcome enhancement in canopies with low light extinction coefficients and/or leaf area, pointing toward a novel direction for future research. PMID:28432257

  18. Excess diffuse light absorption in upper mesophyll limits CO2 drawdown and depresses photosynthesis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sun-grown and shade-grown leaves of some species absorb direct and diffuse light differently. Sun-grown leaves can photosynthesize ~10-15% less under diffuse compared to direct irradiance, while shade-grown leaves do not exhibit this sensitivity. In this study, we investigate if the spatial differen...

  19. Size and number density of precrystalline aggregates in lysozyme crystallization process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Shinpei; Ito, Kohzo; Hayakawa, Reinosuke; Ataka, Mitsuo

    1999-12-01

    Using dynamic light scattering, we investigated supersaturated aqueous solutions of hen egg white lysozyme. We could observe the formation of aggregates only in solutions, from which crystals grew within a few days. The aggregates were grouped into smaller "units" and larger "clusters." The units consisted of a few molecules, whereas the clusters grew from about 100 nm to 1 μm. At the beginning of aggregation, the number density of the units decreased, while that of the clusters increased. At this stage, unit-cluster aggregation proceeded. At the next stage, the number density of the units became constant, while that of the clusters began to decrease, which means that the units stopped aggregating and cluster-cluster aggregation started. The aggregation mechanism for the clusters fit well with the diffusion limited cluster aggregation model, but this model alone could not explain that the aggregates separated into two groups, corresponding to units and clusters, and that the units stopped aggregating during the aggregation process. We find that the observed aggregation process has several similarities to the liquid-liquid phase separation process, which occurs metastably in protein solution. Furthermore, using both models for diffusion limited aggregation and the liquid-liquid phase separation together, we could naturally explain the process of the cluster formation.

  20. Surface aggregation patterns of LDL receptors near coated pits III: potential effects of combined retrograde membrane flow-diffusion and a polarized-insertion mechanism

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Although the process of endocytosis of the low density lipoprotein (LDL) macromolecule and its receptor have been the subject of intense experimental research and modeling, there are still conflicting hypotheses and even conflicting data regarding the way receptors are transported to coated pits, the manner by which receptors are inserted before they aggregate in coated pits, and the display of receptors on the cell surface. At first it was considered that LDL receptors in human fibroblasts are inserted at random locations and then transported by diffusion toward coated pits. But experiments have not ruled out the possibility that the true rate of accumulation of LDL receptors in coated pits might be faster than predicted on the basis of pure diffusion and uniform reinsertion over the entire cell surface. It has been claimed that recycled LDL receptors are inserted preferentially in regions where coated pits form, with display occurring predominantly as groups of loosely associated units. Another mechanism that has been proposed by experimental cell biologists which might affect the accumulation of receptors in coated pits is a retrograde membrane flow. This is essentially linked to a polarized receptor insertion mode and also to the capping phenomenon, characterized by the formation of large patches of proteins that passively flow away from the regions of membrane exocytosis. In this contribution we calculate the mean travel time of LDL receptors to coated pits as determined by the ratio of flow strength to diffusion-coefficient, as well as by polarized-receptor insertion. We also project the resulting display of unbound receptors on the cell membrane. We found forms of polarized insertion that could potentially reduce the mean capture time of LDL receptors by coated pits which is controlled by diffusion and uniform insertion. Our results show that, in spite of its efficiency as a possible device for enhancement of the rate of receptor trapping, polarized

  1. Surface aggregation patterns of LDL receptors near coated pits III: potential effects of combined retrograde membrane flow-diffusion and a polarized-insertion mechanism.

    PubMed

    Echavarria-Heras, Héctor; Leal-Ramirez, Cecilia; Castillo, Oscar

    2014-05-22

    Although the process of endocytosis of the low density lipoprotein (LDL) macromolecule and its receptor have been the subject of intense experimental research and modeling, there are still conflicting hypotheses and even conflicting data regarding the way receptors are transported to coated pits, the manner by which receptors are inserted before they aggregate in coated pits, and the display of receptors on the cell surface. At first it was considered that LDL receptors in human fibroblasts are inserted at random locations and then transported by diffusion toward coated pits. But experiments have not ruled out the possibility that the true rate of accumulation of LDL receptors in coated pits might be faster than predicted on the basis of pure diffusion and uniform reinsertion over the entire cell surface. It has been claimed that recycled LDL receptors are inserted preferentially in regions where coated pits form, with display occurring predominantly as groups of loosely associated units. Another mechanism that has been proposed by experimental cell biologists which might affect the accumulation of receptors in coated pits is a retrograde membrane flow. This is essentially linked to a polarized receptor insertion mode and also to the capping phenomenon, characterized by the formation of large patches of proteins that passively flow away from the regions of membrane exocytosis. In this contribution we calculate the mean travel time of LDL receptors to coated pits as determined by the ratio of flow strength to diffusion-coefficient, as well as by polarized-receptor insertion. We also project the resulting display of unbound receptors on the cell membrane. We found forms of polarized insertion that could potentially reduce the mean capture time of LDL receptors by coated pits which is controlled by diffusion and uniform insertion. Our results show that, in spite of its efficiency as a possible device for enhancement of the rate of receptor trapping, polarized

  2. Oxidation of nanoscale zero-valent iron under sufficient and limited dissolved oxygen: Influences on aggregation behaviors.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Danlie; Hu, Xialin; Wang, Rui; Yin, Daqiang

    2015-03-01

    Oxidations of nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI) under aerobic (dissolved oxygen≈8mgL(-1)) and anaerobic (dissolved oxygen <3mgL(-1)) conditions were simulated, and their influences on aggregation behaviors of nZVI were investigated. The two oxidation products were noted as HO-nZVI (nZVI oxidized in highly oxygenated water) and LO-nZVI (nZVI oxidized in lowly oxygenated water) respectively. The metallic iron of the oxidized nZVI was almost exhausted (Fe(0)≈8±5%), thus magnetization mainly depended on magnetite content. Since sufficient dissolved oxygen led to the much less magnetite (∼15%) in HO-nZVI than that in LO-nZVI (>90%), HO-nZVI was far less magnetic (Ms=88kAm(-1)) than LO-nZVI (Ms=365kAm(-1)). Consequently, HO-nZVI formed small agglomerates (228±10nm), while LO-nZVI tended to form chain-like aggregations (>1μm) which precipitated rapidly. Based on the EDLVO theory, we suggested that dissolved oxygen level determined aggregation morphologies by controlling the degree of oxidation and the magnitude of magnetization. Then the chain-like alignment of LO-nZVI would promote further aggregation, but the agglomerate morphology of HO-nZVI would eliminate magnetic forces and inhibit the aggregation while HO-nZVI remained magnetic. Our results indicated the fine colloidal stability of HO-nZVI, which might lead to the great mobility in the environment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. MicroRNA expression abnormalities in limited cutaneous scleroderma and diffuse cutaneous scleroderma.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Honglin; Li, Yisha; Qu, Shunlin; Luo, Hui; Zhou, Yaou; Wang, Yanping; Zhao, Hongjun; You, Yunhui; Xiao, Xianzhong; Zuo, Xiaoxia

    2012-06-01

    Scleroderma (systemic sclerosis, SSc) is a complex autoimmune disease caused by progressive fibrotic replacement of normal tissue architecture, a progressive and ultimately fatal process that currently has no cure. Although dysregulation of microRNAs (miRNAs) is known to be involved in a variety of pathophysiologic processes, the role of miRNAs in SSc is unclear. In comparison with the normal skin tissues, miRNAs were aberrantly expressed in limited cutaneous scleroderma and diffuse cutaneous scleroderma skin tissues. We also identified miRNAs whose expressions were correlated with SSc fibrosis: miR-21, miR-31, miR-146, miR-503, miR-145, and miR-29b were predicted to be involved. This study further confirmed that miR-21 was increased whereas miR-145 and miR-29b were decreased both in the skin tissues and fibroblasts. As predicted target genes, SMAD7, SAMD3, and COL1A1 were regulated by these miRNAs. After stimulation with transforming growth factor β, the expression of miR-21 was increased and that of SMAD7 mRNA was decreased. MiR-145 was upregulated whereas the mRNA level of SMAD3 was downregulated. The downregulation of miR-29b was correlated with the upregulation of COL1A1 mRNA. MiRNAs might play an important role in the pathogenesis of SSc and suggest a potential therapy.

  4. Nailfold digital capillaroscopic findings in patients with diffuse and limited cutaneous systemic sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Haghighi, Mahyar Yousefipour; Nazarinia, Mohammad Ali

    2017-01-01

    Background Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a chronic disease with microvascular damage. Nailfold capillaroscopy is a non-invasive method used for evaluating capillaries in SSc. Its findings could be related to the internal organ involvement and SSc course. In this study, we aimed to determine the association of the capillaroscopic patterns of nailfold capillaries with the disease subtypes of SSc, disease duration, and clinical manifestations. Material and methods Seventy patients with SSc (15 cases with diffuse cutaneous SSc [DcSSc] and 55 patients with limited SSc [LcSSc]) were studied. The patients were classified into early and intermediate/late DcSSc and LcSSc regarding their disease duration. The capillaroscopy findings were classified into normal, ‘early’, ‘active’ and ‘late’ scleroderma patterns, and ‘non-specific’ changes. The association of the nailfold capillaroscopy changes and their components with clinical manifestations was also studied. Results We studied 15 DcSSc and 55 LcSSc patients. No association was found between the patterns of capillaroscopic changes and these subtypes. There were 8 early DcSSc, 7 intermediate/late DcSSc, 34 early LcSSc, and 21 intermediate/late LcSSc patients. In patients with LcSSc, the ‘early’ scleroderma pattern of capillaroscopy was associated with early disease based on duration. We found a direct association between some capillary components and some clinical findings. Also, some capillaroscopic components had an inverse association with some clinical manifestations. Conclusions We found no association between the patterns of capillaroscopy and SSc subtypes; early scleroderma pattern of capillaroscopy was significantly associated with early LcSSc, compatible with the slower course of the disease in LcSSc. Subtle changes, capillary elongation, and capillary tortuosity had an inverse association with clinical manifestations and might be considered as good prognostic factors. PMID:28386138

  5. Nailfold digital capillaroscopic findings in patients with diffuse and limited cutaneous systemic sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Shenavandeh, Saeedeh; Haghighi, Mahyar Yousefipour; Nazarinia, Mohammad Ali

    2017-01-01

    Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a chronic disease with microvascular damage. Nailfold capillaroscopy is a non-invasive method used for evaluating capillaries in SSc. Its findings could be related to the internal organ involvement and SSc course. In this study, we aimed to determine the association of the capillaroscopic patterns of nailfold capillaries with the disease subtypes of SSc, disease duration, and clinical manifestations. Seventy patients with SSc (15 cases with diffuse cutaneous SSc [DcSSc] and 55 patients with limited SSc [LcSSc]) were studied. The patients were classified into early and intermediate/late DcSSc and LcSSc regarding their disease duration. The capillaroscopy findings were classified into normal, 'early', 'active' and 'late' scleroderma patterns, and 'non-specific' changes. The association of the nailfold capillaroscopy changes and their components with clinical manifestations was also studied. We studied 15 DcSSc and 55 LcSSc patients. No association was found between the patterns of capillaroscopic changes and these subtypes. There were 8 early DcSSc, 7 intermediate/late DcSSc, 34 early LcSSc, and 21 intermediate/late LcSSc patients. In patients with LcSSc, the 'early' scleroderma pattern of capillaroscopy was associated with early disease based on duration. We found a direct association between some capillary components and some clinical findings. Also, some capillaroscopic components had an inverse association with some clinical manifestations. We found no association between the patterns of capillaroscopy and SSc subtypes; early scleroderma pattern of capillaroscopy was significantly associated with early LcSSc, compatible with the slower course of the disease in LcSSc. Subtle changes, capillary elongation, and capillary tortuosity had an inverse association with clinical manifestations and might be considered as good prognostic factors.

  6. Observed Limits on Charge Exchange Contributions to the Diffuse X-Ray Background

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crowder, S. G.; Barger, K. A.; Brandl, D. E.; Eckart, M. E.; Galeazzi, M.; Kelley, R. L.; Kilbourne, C. A.; McCammon, D.; Pfendner, C. G.; Porter, F. S.; Rocks, L.; Szymkowiak, A. E.; Teplin, I. M.

    2012-01-01

    We present a high-resolution spectrum of the diffuse X-ray background from 0.1 to 1 keV for an approximately 1 sr region of the sky centered at l = 90 degrees b = +60 degrees using a 36 pixel array of microcalorimeters flown on a sounding rocket. With an energy resolution of 11 eV FWHM below 1 keV, the spectrum s observed line ratios help separate charge exchange contributions originating within the heliosphere from thermal emission of hot gas in the interstellar medium. The X-ray sensitivity below 1 keV was reduced by about a factor of four from contamination that occurred early in the flight, limiting the significance of the results. The observed centroid of helium-like O VII is 568 (sup +2 (sub -3) eV at 90% confidence. Since the centroid expected for thermal emission is 568.4 eV and for charge exchange is 564.2 eV, thermal emission appears to dominate for this line complex. The dominance of thermal emission is consistent with much of the high-latitude O VII emission originating in 2-3 x 10(exp 6) K gas in the Galactic halo. On the other hand, the observed ratio of C VI Lygamma to Lyalpha is 0.3 plus or minus 0.2. The expected ratios are 0.04 for thermal emission and 0.24 for charge exchange, indicating that charge exchange must contribute strongly to this line and therefore potentially to the rest of the ROSAT R12 band usually associated with 10(sup 6) K emission from the Local Hot Bubble. The limited statistics of this experiment and systematic uncertainties due to the contamination require only greater than 32% thermal emission for O VII and greater than 20% from charge exchange for C VI at the 90% confidence level. An experimental gold coating on the silicon substrate of the array greatly reduced extraneous signals induced on nearby pixels from cosmic rays passing through the substrate, reducing the triggered event rate by a factor of 15 from a previous flight of the instrument.

  7. Angularly Adaptive P1 - Double P0 Flux-Limited Diffusion Solutions of Non-Equilibrium Grey Radiative Transfer Problems

    SciTech Connect

    Brantley, P S

    2006-08-08

    The double spherical harmonics angular approximation in the lowest order, i.e. double P{sub 0} (DP{sub 0}), is developed for the solution of time-dependent non-equilibrium grey radiative transfer problems in planar geometry. Although the DP{sub 0} diffusion approximation is expected to be less accurate than the P{sub 1} diffusion approximation at and near thermodynamic equilibrium, the DP{sub 0} angular approximation can more accurately capture the complicated angular dependence near a non-equilibrium radiation wave front. In addition, the DP{sub 0} approximation should be more accurate in non-equilibrium optically thin regions where the positive and negative angular domains are largely decoupled. We develop an adaptive angular technique that locally uses either the DP{sub 0} or P{sub 1} flux-limited diffusion approximation depending on the degree to which the radiation and material fields are in thermodynamic equilibrium. Numerical results are presented for two test problems due to Su and Olson and to Ganapol and Pomraning for which semi-analytic transport solutions exist. These numerical results demonstrate that the adaptive P{sub 1}-DP{sub 0} diffusion approximation can yield improvements in accuracy over the standard P{sub 1} diffusion approximation, both without and with flux-limiting, for non-equilibrium grey radiative transfer.

  8. Angularly Adaptive P1-Double P0 Flux-Limited Diffusion Solutions of Non-Equilibrium Grey Radiative Transfer Problems

    SciTech Connect

    Brantley, P S

    2005-12-13

    The double spherical harmonics angular approximation in the lowest order, i.e. double P{sub 0} (DP{sub 0}), is developed for the solution of time-dependent non-equilibrium grey radiative transfer problems in planar geometry. Although the DP{sub 0} diffusion approximation is expected to be less accurate than the P{sub 1} diffusion approximation at and near thermodynamic equilibrium, the DP{sub 0} angular approximation can more accurately capture the complicated angular dependence near a non-equilibrium radiation wave front. In addition, the DP{sub 0} approximation should be more accurate in non-equilibrium optically thin regions where the positive and negative angular domains are largely decoupled. We develop an adaptive angular technique that locally uses either the DP{sub 0} or P{sub 1} flux-limited diffusion approximation depending on the degree to which the radiation and material fields are in thermodynamic equilibrium. Numerical results are presented for two test problems due to Su and Olson and to Ganapol and Pomraning for which semi-analytic transport solutions exist. These numerical results demonstrate that the adaptive P{sub 1}-DP{sub 0} diffusion approximation can yield improvements in accuracy over the standard P{sub 1} diffusion approximation, both without and with flux-limiting, for non-equilibrium grey radiative transfer.

  9. Even- and odd-parity finite-element transport solutions in the thick diffusion limit

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, M.L.

    1991-01-07

    We analyze the behavior of odd-parity continuous finite-element methods (CFEMs) for problems that contain diffusive regions. We find that each of these method produces a solution that, to leading order inside diffusive regions, satisfies a discretization of the diffusion equation. We find further that these leading-order solutions satisfy boundary conditions that can lead to large errors in the interior solution. We recognize, however, that we can combine an odd-purity CFEM solution and an even-parity CFEM solution and obtain a solution that satisfies very accurate boundary conditions. Our analysis holds in three-dimensional Cartesian geometry, with an arbitrary spatial grid. We give numerical results from slab-geometry; these invariably agree with the predictions of the analysis. Finally, we introduce a rapidly-convergent diffusion-synthetic acceleration scheme for the odd-parity CFEMs, which we believe is new. 18 refs., 3 figs.

  10. Subdiffraction-Limit Study of Kaede Diffusion and Spatial Distribution in Live Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Bakshi, Somenath; Bratton, Benjamin P.; Weisshaar, James C.

    2011-01-01

    Photoactivation localization microscopy (PALM) is used to study the spatial distribution and diffusion of single copies of the protein Kaede in the cytoplasm of live Escherichia coli under moderate growth conditions (67 min doubling time). The spatial distribution of Kaede is uniform within the cytoplasm. The cytoplasmic radius of 380 ± 30 nm varies little from cell to cell. Single-particle tracking using 4 ms exposure times reveals negatively curved plots of mean-square displacement versus time. A detailed comparison with Monte Carlo simulations in a spherocylindrical volume shows that the curvature can be quantitatively understood in terms of free diffusion within a confining volume. The mean diffusion coefficient across cells is  = 7.3 ± 1.1 μm2·s−1, consistent with a homotetrameric form of Kaede. The distribution of squared displacements along the long axis for individual Kaede molecules is consistent with homogeneous diffusion. However, for longer cells, a spatial map of one-step estimates of the diffusion coefficient along x suggests that diffusion is ∼20–40% faster within nucleoids than in the ribosome-rich region lying between nucleoid lobes at the cell mid-plane. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching yielded  = 8.3 ± 1.6 μm2·s−1, in agreement with the single-particle tracking results. PMID:22098753

  11. Subdiffraction-limit study of Kaede diffusion and spatial distribution in live Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Bakshi, Somenath; Bratton, Benjamin P; Weisshaar, James C

    2011-11-16

    Photoactivation localization microscopy (PALM) is used to study the spatial distribution and diffusion of single copies of the protein Kaede in the cytoplasm of live Escherichia coli under moderate growth conditions (67 min doubling time). The spatial distribution of Kaede is uniform within the cytoplasm. The cytoplasmic radius of 380 ± 30 nm varies little from cell to cell. Single-particle tracking using 4 ms exposure times reveals negatively curved plots of mean-square displacement versus time. A detailed comparison with Monte Carlo simulations in a spherocylindrical volume shows that the curvature can be quantitatively understood in terms of free diffusion within a confining volume. The mean diffusion coefficient across cells is = 7.3 ± 1.1 μm(2)·s(-1), consistent with a homotetrameric form of Kaede. The distribution of squared displacements along the long axis for individual Kaede molecules is consistent with homogeneous diffusion. However, for longer cells, a spatial map of one-step estimates of the diffusion coefficient along x suggests that diffusion is ∼20-40% faster within nucleoids than in the ribosome-rich region lying between nucleoid lobes at the cell mid-plane. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching yielded = 8.3 ± 1.6 μm(2)·s(-1), in agreement with the single-particle tracking results. Copyright © 2011 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Challenges for simultaneous nitrification, denitrification, and phosphorus removal in microbial aggregates: mass transfer limitation and nitrous oxide production.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Rikke Louise; Zeng, Raymond Jianxiong; Giugliano, Valerio; Blackall, Linda Louise

    2005-05-01

    The microbial community composition and activity was investigated in aggregates from a lab-scale bioreactor, in which nitrification, denitrification and phosphorus removal occurred simultaneously. The biomass was highly enriched for polyphosphate accumulating organisms facilitating complete removal of phosphorus from the bulk liquid; however, some inorganic nitrogen still remained at the end of the reactor cycle. This was ascribed to incomplete coupling of nitrification and denitrification causing NO(3)(-) accumulation. After 2 h of aeration, denitrification was dependent on the activity of nitrifying bacteria facilitating the formation of anoxic zones in the aggregates; hence, denitrification could not occur without simultaneous nitrification towards the end of the reactor cycle. Nitrous oxide was identified as a product of denitrification, when based on stored PHA as carbon source. This observation is of critical importance to the outlook of applying PHA-driven denitrification in activated sludge processes.

  13. Distribution of chromium contamination and microbial activity in soil aggregates.

    PubMed

    Tokunaga, Tetsu K; Wan, Jiamin; Hazen, Terry C; Schwartz, Egbert; Firestone, Mary K; Sutton, Stephen R; Newville, Matthew; Olson, Keith R; Lanzirotti, Antonio; Rao, William

    2003-01-01

    Biogeochemical transformations of redox-sensitive chemicals in soils can be strongly transport-controlled and localized. This was tested through experiments on chromium diffusion and reduction in soil aggregates that were exposed to chromate solutions. Reduction of soluble Cr(VI) to insoluble Cr(II) occurred only within the surface layer of aggregates with higher available organic carbon and higher microbial respiration. Sharply terminated Cr diffusion fronts develop when the reduction rate increases rapidly with depth. The final state of such aggregates consists of a Cr-contaminated exterior, and an uncontaminated core, each having different microbial community compositions and activity. Microbial activity was significantly higher in the more reducing soils, while total microbial biomass was similar in all of the soils. The small fraction of Cr(VI) remaining unreduced resides along external surfaces of aggregates, leaving it potentially available to future transport down the soil profile. Using the Thiele modulus, Cr(VI) reduction in soil aggregates is shown to be diffusion rate- and reaction rate-limited in anaerobic and aerobic aggregates, respectively. Thus, spatially resolved chemical and microbiological measurements are necessary within anaerobic soil aggregates to characterize and predict the fate of Cr contamination. Typical methods of soil sampling and analyses that average over redox gradients within aggregates can erase important biogeochemical spatial relations necessary for understanding these environments.

  14. Estimating diffusivity along a reaction coordinate in the high friction limit: Insights on pulse times in laser-induced nucleation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knott, Brandon C.; Duff, Nathan; Doherty, Michael F.; Peters, Baron

    2009-12-01

    In the high friction limit of Kramers' theory, the diffusion coefficient for motion along the reaction coordinate is a crucial parameter in determining reaction rates from mean first passage times. The Einstein relation between mean squared displacement, time, and diffusivity is inaccurate at short times because of ballistic motion and inaccurate at long times because trajectories drift away from maxima in the potential of mean force. Starting from the Smoluchowski equation for a downward parabolic barrier, we show how drift induced by the potential of mean force can be included in estimating the diffusivity. A modified relation between mean squared displacement, time, and diffusivity now also includes a dependence on the barrier curvature. The new relation provides the diffusivity at the top of the barrier from a linear regression that is analogous to the procedure commonly used with Einstein's relation. The new approach has particular advantages over previous approaches when evaluations of the reaction coordinate are costly or when the reaction coordinate cannot be differentiated to compute restraining forces or velocities. We use the new method to study the dynamics of barrier crossing in a Potts lattice gas model of nucleation from solution. Our analysis shows that some current hypotheses about laser-induced nucleation mechanisms lead to a nonzero threshold laser pulse duration below which a laser pulse will not affect nucleation. We therefore propose experiments that might be used to test these hypotheses.

  15. Calculation of diffusion-limited kinetics for the reactions in collision coupling and receptor cross-linking.

    PubMed Central

    Shea, L D; Omann, G M; Linderman, J J

    1997-01-01

    Both enzyme (e.g., G-protein) activation via a collision coupling model and the formation of cross-linked receptors by a multivalent ligand involve reactions between two molecules diffusing in the plasma membrane. The diffusion of these molecules is thought to play a critical role in these two early signal transduction events. In reduced dimensions, however, diffusion is not an effective mixing mechanism; consequently, zones in which the concentration of particular molecules (e.g., enzymes, receptors) becomes depleted or enriched may form. To examine the formation of these depletion/ accumulation zones and their effect on reaction rates and ultimately the cellular response, Monte Carlo techniques are used to simulate the reaction and diffusion of molecules in the plasma membrane. The effective reaction rate at steady state is determined in terms of the physical properties of the tissue and ligand for both enzyme activation via collision coupling and the generation of cross-linked receptors. The diffusion-limited reaction rate constant is shown to scale with the mean square displacement of a receptor-ligand complex. The rate constants determined in the simulation are compared with other theoretical predictions as well as experimental data. PMID:9414209

  16. Chain Dynamics in Single Chain Limit by Rheological and Diffusion Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shi-Qing; Wang, Shanfeng

    2004-03-01

    Our recent trace and self diffusion measurements , indicate (a) (b) that the molecular weight scaling of the self-diffusion coefficient is non-reptative for moderately entangled polymer melts as noted previously (c) but asymptotically approaches the reptative exponent of -2.0 for sufficiently entangled polymers, whereas the trace diffusion coefficient, measured by immersing a dilute amount of probe chains in a matrix of sufficiently entangled polymer of the same species, scales reptatively even for the probe chains of moderate entanglement. To further understand the behavior of probe chain dynamics in a matrix, we have measured the intrinsic viscosity and intrinsic storage and loss moduli of dilute solutions made of long chains (in dilution) and short chains, where both chain lengths can be much longer than the entanglement chain length. A rich variety of chain dynamics is observed including Stokes-Zimm behavior and Rouse like behavior as a function of the long and short chain lengths and concentration. (a) S.Q. Wang, Highlight Article, J. Polym. Sci. Polym. Phys., 41, 1589 (2003). (b) "Diffusion and Rheology of Binary Polymer Mixtures", S. Wang et al, Macromolecules, in press (2003). (c) T.P. Lodge, Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 3218 (1999).

  17. Mathematical Models of Diffusion-Limited Gas Bubble Evolution in Perfused Tissue

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Mathematical models of gas and bubble dynamics in tissue are used in various algorithms to mitigate the incidence and severity of decompression ... sickness (DCS) in man. These are simple models that describe the diffusion and perfusion processes that underlie gas bubble growth and resolution in terms

  18. Solution of classical evolutionary models in the limit when the diffusion approximation breaks down

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saakian, David B.; Hu, Chin-Kun

    2016-10-01

    The discrete time mathematical models of evolution (the discrete time Eigen model, the Moran model, and the Wright-Fisher model) have many applications in complex biological systems. The discrete time Eigen model rather realistically describes the serial passage experiments in biology. Nevertheless, the dynamics of the discrete time Eigen model is solved in this paper. The 90% of results in population genetics are connected with the diffusion approximation of the Wright-Fisher and Moran models. We considered the discrete time Eigen model of asexual virus evolution and the Wright-Fisher model from population genetics. We look at the logarithm of probabilities and apply the Hamilton-Jacobi equation for the models. We define exact dynamics for the population distribution for the discrete time Eigen model. For the Wright-Fisher model, we express the exact steady state solution and fixation probability via the solution of some nonlocal equation then give the series expansion of the solution via degrees of selection and mutation rates. The diffusion theories result in the zeroth order approximation in our approach. The numeric confirms that our method works in the case of strong selection, whereas the diffusion method fails there. Although the diffusion method is exact for the mean first arrival time, it provides incorrect approximation for the dynamics of the tail of distribution.

  19. Exploring the hypothesis that limiting diffusion of fungal oxidants underlies decay resistance in acetylated wood

    Treesearch

    Christopher G. Hunt; Steven Lacher; Kolby Hirth; Linda Lorenz; Kenneth E. Hammel

    2017-01-01

    The mechanisms by which chemical modifications, specifically acetylation, improve the decay resistance of wood are a topic of active research. In the early stages of decay, fungi secrete lowmolecular- weight oxidants or oxidant precursors. These oxidants diffuse through the wet wood cell wall and oxidize cell wall polymers, which enable the decay process to proceed....

  20. Discontinuous finite-element transport solutions in the thick diffusion limit in Cartesian geometry

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, M.L.

    1991-01-07

    We analyze the behavior of discontinuous finite-element methods (DFEMs) for problems that contain diffusive regions. We find that in slab geometry most of these methods perform quite well, but that the same is not true in XY or XYZ geometry. In these geometries, we find that there are two distinct sets of DFEMS. Methods in one set produce unphysical solutions in diffusive regions; the other leading-order solutions that satisfy discretizations of the correct diffusion equation. We show that two simple properties of the finite-element weight functions are sufficient to guarantee that a DFEM belongs to the latter set. We show, however, that even these DFEMs suffer from several defects: their leading-order solutions are in general discontinuous, they satisfy diffusion discretizations that can be ill-behaved, and they may not be accurate given boundary layers that are not resolved by the spatial mesh. We discuss the practical significance of these defects, and we show that liberal modification of some DFEMs can eliminate the defects. We present numerical results from simple test problems; these fully agree with our analysis. 15 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Light-scattering measurements of slow aggregation in colloids: Deviations from asymptotic time scaling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cametti, C.; Codastefano, P.; Tartaglia, P.

    1987-11-01

    We report measurements on the reversible and irreversible kinetics of aggregation in a colloid of polystyrene particles, performed by quasielastic light scattering. The experiment was made with small to moderate concentrations of the simple electrolyte inducing the aggregation in order to observe both the reversible flocculation and the slow, irreversible diffusion-limited coagulation. In the latter case we observe deviations from asymptotic scaling in time. The experimental results are well described by a numerical solution of the von Smoluchowski equation for aggregation limited by Brownian diffusion.

  2. Diffusion barriers limit the effect of mobile calcium buffers on exocytosis of large dense cored vesicles.

    PubMed Central

    Kits, K S; de Vlieger, T A; Kooi, B W; Mansvelder, H D

    1999-01-01

    Fast exocytosis in melanotropic cells, activated by calcium entry through voltage-gated calcium channels, is very sensitive to mobile calcium buffers (complete block at 800 microM ethylene glycol bis(beta-aminoethyl ether)-N,N,N'N'-tetraacetic acid (EGTA)). This indicates that calcium diffuses a substantial distance from the channel to the vesicle. Surprisingly, 1, 2-bis(2-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (BAPTA), having a similar KD for calcium as EGTA but a approximately 100 times faster binding rate, blocked exocytosis only twice as effectively as EGTA. Using computer simulations, we demonstrate that this result cannot be explained by free diffusion and buffer binding rates. We hypothesized that local saturation of calcium buffers is involved. A diffusion barrier for both calcium and buffer molecules, located 50-300 nm from the membrane and reducing diffusion 1000 to 10,000 times, generated similar calcium concentrations for specific concentrations of EGTA and BAPTA. With such barriers, calcium rise phase kinetics upon short step depolarizations (2-20 ms) were faster for EGTA than for BAPTA, implying that short depolarizations should allow exocytosis with 50 microM EGTA but not with 25 microM BAPTA. This prediction was confirmed experimentally with capacitance measurements. Coupling exocytosis to calcium dynamics in the model, we found that a barrier with a approximately 3000 times reduced diffusion at approximately 130 nm beneath the membrane best explains the experimentally observed effects of EGTA and BAPTA on block and kinetics of release. PMID:10049349

  3. Fractal dimension and mechanism of aggregation of apple juice particles.

    PubMed

    Benítez, E I; Lozano, J E; Genovese, D B

    2010-04-01

    Turbidity of freshly squeezed apple juice is produced by a polydisperse suspension of particles coming from the cellular tissue. After precipitation of coarse particles by gravity, only fine-colloidal particles remain in suspension. Aggregation of colloidal particles leads to the formation of fractal structures. The fractal dimension is a measure of the internal density of these aggregates and depends on their mechanism of aggregation. Digitized images of primary particles and aggregates of depectinized, diafiltered cloudy apple juice were obtained by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Average radius of the primary particles was found to be a = 40 ± 11 nm. Maximum radius of the aggregates, R(L), ranged between 250 and 7750 nm. Fractal dimension of the aggregates was determined by analyzing SEM images with the variogram method, obtaining an average value of D(f) = 2.3 ± 0.1. This value is typical of aggregates formed by rapid flocculation or diffusion limited aggregation. Diafiltration process was found to reduce the average size and polydispersity of the aggregates, determined by photon correlation spectroscopy. Average gyration radius of the aggregates before juice diafiltration was found to be R(g) = 629 ± 87 nm. Average number of primary particles per aggregate was calculated to be N = 1174.

  4. Complex noise in diffusion-limited reactions of replicating and competing species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hochberg, David; Zorzano, M.-P.; Morán, Federico

    2006-06-01

    We derive exact Langevin-type equations governing quasispecies dynamics. The inherent multiplicative noise has both real and imaginary parts. The numerical simulation of the underlying complex stochastic partial differential equations is carried out employing the Cholesky decomposition for the noise covariance matrix. This noise produces unavoidable spatiotemporal density fluctuations about the mean-field value. In two dimensions, the fluctuations are suppressed only when the diffusion time scale is much smaller than the amplification time scale for the master species.

  5. Limited subsolidus diffusion in type B1 CAI: Evidence from Ti distribution in spinel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meeker, G. P.; Quick, J. E.; Paque, Julie M.

    1993-01-01

    Most models of calcium aluminum-rich inclusions (CAI) have focused on early stages of formation by equilibrium crystallization of a homogeneous liquid. Less is known about the subsolidus cooling history of CAI. Chemical and isotopic heterogeneties on a scale of tens to hundreds of micrometers (e.g. MacPherson et al. (1989) and Podosek, et al. (1991)) suggest fairly rapid cooling with a minimum of subsolidus diffusion. However, transmission electron microscopy indicates that solid state diffusion may have been an important process at a smaller scale (Barber et al. 1984). If so, chemical evidence for diffusion could provide constraints on cooling times and temperatures. With this in mind, we have begun an investigation of the Ti distribution in spinels from two type B1 CAI from Allende to determine if post-crystallization diffusion was a significant process. The type B1 CAIs, 3529Z and 5241 have been described by Podosek et al. (1991) and by El Goresy et al. (1985) and MacPherson et al. (1989). We have analyzed spinels in these inclusions using the electron microprobe. These spinels are generally euhedral, range in size from less than 10 to 15 micron and are poikilitically enclosed by millimeter-sized pyroxene, melilite, and anorthite. Analyses were obtained from both the mantles and cores of the inclusions. Compositions of pyroxene in the vicinity of individual spinel grains were obtained by analyzing at least two points on opposite sides of the spinel and averaging the compositions. The pyroxene analyses were obtained within 15 microns of the spinel-pyroxene interface. No compositional gradients were observed within single spinel crystals. Ti concentrations in spinels included within pyroxene, melilite, and anorthite are presented.

  6. Energetic electrons at Uranus: Bimodal diffusion in a satellite limited radiation belt

    SciTech Connect

    Selesnick, R.S.; Stone, E.C. )

    1991-04-01

    The Voyager 2 cosmic ray experiment observed intense electron fluxes in the middle magnetosphere of Uranus. High counting rates in several of the solid-state detectors precluded in the normal multiple coincidence analysis used for cosmic ray observations, and the authors have therefore performed laboratory measurements of the single-detector response to electrons. These calibrations allow a deconvolution from the counting rate data of the electron energy spectrum between energies of about 0.7 and 2.5 MeV. They present model fits to the differential intensity spectra from observations between L values of 6 and 15. The spectra are well represented by power laws in kinetic energy with spectral indices between 5 and 7. The phase space density at fixed values of the first two adiabatic invariants generally increases with L, indicative of an external source. However, there are also local minima associated with the satellites Ariel and Umbriel, indicating either a local source or an effective source due to nonconservation of the first two adiabatic invariants. For electrons which mirror at the highest magnetic latitudes, the local minimum associated with Ariel is radically displaced from the minimum L of that satellite by {approximately}0.5. The latitude variation of the satellite absorption efficiency predicts that if satellite losses are replenished primarily by radial diffusion there should be an increasing pitch angle anisotropy with decreasing L. The uniformity in the observed anisotropy outside the absorption regions then suggests that it is maintained by pitch angle diffusion. The effective source due to pitch angle diffusion is insufficient to cause the phase space density minimum associated with Ariel. Model solutions of the simultaneous radial and pitch angle diffusion equation show that the displacement of the high-latitude Ariel signature is also consistent with a larger effective source.

  7. Spin injection beyond the diffusive limit in the presence of spin-orbit coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liefeith, Lennart-Knud; Tholapi, Rajkiran; Ishikura, Tomotsugu; Hänze, Max; Hartmann, Robert; Slobodskyy, Taras; Hansen, Wolfgang

    2017-02-01

    Spin injection from epitaxial iron into InGaAs/InAs quantum wells is observed using an all-electric nonlocal setup. From the choice of material, a significant spin-orbit interaction (SOI) is expected. The contact separation of the spin-valve devices is in the order of the mean free path so that the transport is at the transition between diffusive and ballistic. With an established purely diffusive model a spin-injection efficiency of 77 % is determined from the data. This value is very large compared to previous observations on diffusive spin-valve devices on similar material systems. Motivated by similar results on ballistic spin-valve devices in a material system with small spin-orbit coupling, a recent model was suggested in which a ballistic spin-dephasing length was pointed out to be the crucial length scale. With this model and an experimentally determined spin-orbit coupling parameter of α =4 ×10-12 eV m, very high spin-injection efficiencies are still determined in our quantum wells. We suggest that the spin-dephasing length to be used in the model must be larger due to the crystallographic anisotropy of the spin-orbit coupling, i.e., in our setup the SOI stabilizes the spin in the crystal direction of the spin-polarized current.

  8. Network simulation method applied to models of diffusion-limited gas bubble dynamics in tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zueco, Joaquín; Hernández-González, A.

    2010-08-01

    In this work the Network Simulation Method is used to study decompression sickness (DCS) in human subjects after diving and/or flying exposures. Bubble dynamics models suitable for these applications assume the bubble to be either contained in an unstirred tissue (two-region model) or surrounded by a boundary layer within a well stirred tissue (three-region model). The main results are obtained using the three-region model of gas bubble dynamics, which consists of a bubble and a well-stirred tissue region with an intervening unperfused diffusion region previously assumed to have a constant thickness and uniform gas diffusivity. Spatial discretization is used to numerically solve the diffusion equation considering the transitory term, where programming does not involve manipulation of the sophisticated mathematical software that is inherent in other numerical methods. The technique in question is always stable and convergent. Different effects (among them, tissue volume, initial bubble radius, surface tension of intercellular fluid and boundary layer thickness) are studied and plotted.

  9. Dynamics of reaction-diffusion patterns controlled by asymmetric nonlocal coupling as a limiting case of differential advection.

    PubMed

    Siebert, Julien; Alonso, Sergio; Bär, Markus; Schöll, Eckehard

    2014-05-01

    A one-component bistable reaction-diffusion system with asymmetric nonlocal coupling is derived as a limiting case of a two-component activator-inhibitor reaction-diffusion model with differential advection. The effects of asymmetric nonlocal couplings in such a bistable reaction-diffusion system are then compared to the previously studied case of a system with symmetric nonlocal coupling. We carry out a linear stability analysis of the spatially homogeneous steady states of the model and numerical simulations of the model to show how the asymmetric nonlocal coupling controls and alters the steady states and the front dynamics in the system. In a second step, a third fast reaction-diffusion equation is included which induces the formation of more complex patterns. A linear stability analysis predicts traveling waves for asymmetric nonlocal coupling, in contrast to a stationary Turing patterns for a system with symmetric nonlocal coupling. These findings are verified by direct numerical integration of the full equations with nonlocal coupling.

  10. On the asymptotic preserving property of the unified gas kinetic scheme for the diffusion limit of linear kinetic models

    SciTech Connect

    Mieussens, Luc

    2013-11-15

    The unified gas kinetic scheme (UGKS) of K. Xu et al. (2010) [37], originally developed for multiscale gas dynamics problems, is applied in this paper to a linear kinetic model of radiative transfer theory. While such problems exhibit purely diffusive behavior in the optically thick (or small Knudsen) regime, we prove that UGKS is still asymptotic preserving (AP) in this regime, but for the free transport regime as well. Moreover, this scheme is modified to include a time implicit discretization of the limit diffusion equation, and to correctly capture the solution in case of boundary layers. Contrary to many AP schemes, this method is based on a standard finite volume approach, it does neither use any decomposition of the solution, nor staggered grids. Several numerical tests demonstrate the properties of the scheme.

  11. Multiple external field effects on diffusion-limited reversible reactions for a geminate pair with no interparticle interactions.

    PubMed

    Reigh, Shang Yik

    2015-08-28

    Kinetics of a geminate particle pair with no interparticle interactions controlled by diffusion-limited reversible reactions is investigated in the presence of various possible external fields such as electric or gravitational fields based on continuum theory. Diffusion equations subject to multiple external fields are analytically solved with Green functions and the physical quantities such as the binding and survival probabilities are derived. Particularly, the local binding probabilities at the specific location on the reaction surface depending on the initial distance and orientation and the field directions are calculated. The variations of the binding probabilities due to the change of the field directions are predicted at long times and it shows that the binding probabilities tend to shift along the sum of individual field directions.

  12. Disadvantaged Social Groups and the Cigarette Epidemic: Limits of the Diffusion of Innovations Vision

    PubMed Central

    Khlat, Myriam; Pampel, Fred; Bricard, Damien; Legleye, Stéphane

    2016-01-01

    The original four-stage model of the cigarette epidemic has been extended with diffusion of innovations theory to reflect socio-economic differences in cigarette use. Recently, two revisions of the model have been proposed: (1) separate analysis of the epidemic stages for men and women, in order to improve generalization to developing countries, and; (2) addition of a fifth stage to the smoking epidemic, in order to account for the persistence of smoking in disadvantaged social groups. By developing a cohort perspective spanning a 35-year time period in France and the USA, we uncover distinctive features which challenge the currently held vision on the evolution of smoking inequalities within the framework of the cigarette epidemic. We argue that the reason for which the model may not be fit to the lower educated is that the imitation mechanism underlying the diffusion of innovations works well with regard to adoption of the habit, but is much less relevant with regard to its rejection. Based on those observations, we support the idea that the nature and timing of the epidemic differs enough to treat the stages separately for high and low education groups, and discuss policy implications. PMID:27973442

  13. Disadvantaged Social Groups and the Cigarette Epidemic: Limits of the Diffusion of Innovations Vision.

    PubMed

    Khlat, Myriam; Pampel, Fred; Bricard, Damien; Legleye, Stéphane

    2016-12-11

    The original four-stage model of the cigarette epidemic has been extended with diffusion of innovations theory to reflect socio-economic differences in cigarette use. Recently, two revisions of the model have been proposed: (1) separate analysis of the epidemic stages for men and women, in order to improve generalization to developing countries, and; (2) addition of a fifth stage to the smoking epidemic, in order to account for the persistence of smoking in disadvantaged social groups. By developing a cohort perspective spanning a 35-year time period in France and the USA, we uncover distinctive features which challenge the currently held vision on the evolution of smoking inequalities within the framework of the cigarette epidemic. We argue that the reason for which the model may not be fit to the lower educated is that the imitation mechanism underlying the diffusion of innovations works well with regard to adoption of the habit, but is much less relevant with regard to its rejection. Based on those observations, we support the idea that the nature and timing of the epidemic differs enough to treat the stages separately for high and low education groups, and discuss policy implications.

  14. Structural, thermal and dielectric properties of cobaltous malonate single crystals grown in limited diffusion media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lincy, A.; Mahalakshmi, V.; Tinto, A. J.; Thomas, J.; Saban, K. V.

    2010-11-01

    Well-faceted crystals of cobaltous malonate (C 6 H 12 Co 2 O 12) have been grown by the controlled diffusion of ionic species in hydrosilica gel. Single crystal X-ray diffraction studies show that the crystal belongs to the monoclinic system with space group C2/m. The unit cell dimensions are a=12.6301(9) Å, b=7.3857(9) Å, c=7.2945(7) Å, α= γ=90°, β=120.193(9)°. The functional groups, elucidated from the FT-IR spectrum, are in conformity with the information derived from the X-ray diffraction studies. The thermal behaviour of the material has been investigated using TG-DTA in the temperature range 30-1050 °C. The optical band gap of the sample is estimated using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS). The dielectric constant and dielectric loss of the crystal have been studied over wide temperature and frequency ranges. AC conductivity measurements reveal a thermally activated process and the mechanism behind the conduction process has been discussed.

  15. From static micrographs to particle aggregation dynamics in three dimensions.

    PubMed

    Häbel, H; Särkkä, A; Rudemo, M; Hamngren Blomqvist, C; Olsson, E; Abrahamsson, C; Nordin, M

    2016-04-01

    Studies on colloidal aggregation have brought forth theories on stability of colloidal gels and models for aggregation dynamics. Still, a complete link between developed frameworks and obtained laboratory observations has to be found. In this work, aggregates of silica nanoparticles (20 nm) are studied using diffusion limited cluster aggregation (DLCA) and reaction limited cluster aggregation (RLCA) models. These processes are driven by the probability of particles to aggregate upon collision. This probability of aggregation is one in the DLCA and close to zero in the RLCA process. We show how to study the probability of aggregation from static micrographs on the example of a silica nanoparticle gel at 9 wt%. The analysis includes common summary functions from spatial statistics, namely the empty space function and Ripley's K-function, as well as two newly developed summary functions for cluster analysis based on graph theory. One of the new cluster analysis functions is related to the clustering coefficient in communication networks and the other to the size of a cluster. All four topological summary statistics are used to quantitatively compare in plots and in a least-square approach experimental data to cluster aggregation simulations with decreasing probabilities of aggregation. We study scanning transmission electron micrographs and utilize the intensity-mass thickness relation present in such images to create comparable micrographs from three-dimensional simulations. Finally, a characterization of colloidal silica aggregates and simulated structures is obtained, which allows for an evaluation of the cluster aggregation process for different aggregation scenarios. As a result, we find that the RLCA process fits the experimental data better than the DLCA process.

  16. Limiting magnetic fields in the cosmic web with diffuse radio emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, S.; Vernstrom, T.; Carretti, E.; Dolag, K.; Gaensler, B. M.; Staveley-Smith, L.; Bernardi, G.; Haverkorn, M.; Kesteven, M.; Poppi, S.

    2017-07-01

    We set limits on the presence of the synchrotron cosmic web through the cross-correlation of the 2.3 GHz S-PASS survey with a model of the local cosmic web derived from constrained magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations. The MHD simulation assumes cosmologically seeded magnetic fields amplified during large-scale structure formation and a population of relativistic electrons/positrons from proton-proton collisions within the intergalactic medium. We set a model-dependent 3σ upper limit on the synchrotron surface brightness of 0.16 mJy arcmin-2 at 2.3 GHz in filaments. Extrapolating from magnetic field maps created from the simulation, we infer an upper limit (density-weighted) magnetic field of 0.03 (0.13) μG in filaments at the current epoch and a limit on the primordial magnetic field (PMF) of BPMF < 1.0 nG.

  17. Modelling of diffusion-limited retardation of contaminants in hydraulically and lithologically nonuniform media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liedl, Rudolf; Ptak, Thomas

    2003-11-01

    A new reactive transport modelling approach and examples of its application are presented, dealing with the impact of sorption/desorption kinetics on the spreading of solutes, e.g. organic contaminants, in groundwater. Slow sorption/desorption is known from the literature to be strongly responsible for the retardation of organic contaminants. The modelling concept applied in this paper quantifies sorption/desorption kinetics by an intra-particle diffusion approach. According to this idea, solute uptake by or release from the aquifer material is modelled at small scale by a "slow" diffusion process where the diffusion coefficient is reduced as compared to the aqueous diffusion coefficient due to (i) the size and shape of intra-particle pores and (ii) retarded transport of solutes within intra-particle pores governed by a nonlinear sorption isotherm. This process-based concept has the advantage of requiring only measurable model parameters, thus avoiding fitting parameters like first-order rate coefficients. In addition, the approach presented here allows for modelling of slow sorption/desorption in lithologically nonuniform media. Therefore, it accounts for well-known experimental findings indicating that sorptive properties depend on (i) the grain size distribution of the aquifer material and (ii) the lithological composition (e.g. percentage of quartz, sandstone, limestone, etc.) of each grain size fraction. The small-scale physico-chemical model describing sorption/desorption is coupled to a large-scale model of groundwater flow and solute transport. Consequently, hydraulic heterogeneities may also be considered by the overall model. This coupling is regarded as an essential prerequisite for simulating field-scale scenarios which will be addressed by a forthcoming publication. This paper focuses on mathematical model formulation, implementation of the numerical code and lab-scale model applications highlighting the sorption and desorption behavior of an organic

  18. Microworm optode sensors limit particle diffusion to enable in vivo measurements.

    PubMed

    Ozaydin-Ince, Gozde; Dubach, J Matthew; Gleason, Karen K; Clark, Heather A

    2011-02-15

    There have been a variety of nanoparticles created for in vivo uses ranging from gene and drug delivery to tumor imaging and physiological monitoring. The use of nanoparticles to measure physiological conditions while being fluorescently addressed through the skin provides an ideal method toward minimally invasive health monitoring. Here we create unique particles that have all the necessary physical characteristics to serve as in vivo reporters, but with minimized diffusion from the point of injection. These particles, called microworms, have a cylindrical shape coated with a biocompatible porous membrane that possesses a large surface-area-to-volume ratio while maintaining a large hydrodynamic radius. We use these microworms to create fluorescent sodium sensors for use as in vivo sodium concentration detectors after subcutaneous injection. However, the microworm concept has the potential to extend to the immobilization of other types of polymers for continuous physiological detection or delivery of molecules.

  19. Modelling of diffusion-limited retardation of contaminants in hydraulically and lithologically nonuniform media.

    PubMed

    Liedl, Rudolf; Ptak, Thomas

    2003-11-01

    A new reactive transport modelling approach and examples of its application are presented, dealing with the impact of sorption/desorption kinetics on the spreading of solutes, e.g. organic contaminants, in groundwater. Slow sorption/desorption is known from the literature to be strongly responsible for the retardation of organic contaminants. The modelling concept applied in this paper quantifies sorption/desorption kinetics by an intra-particle diffusion approach. According to this idea, solute uptake by or release from the aquifer material is modelled at small scale by a "slow" diffusion process where the diffusion coefficient is reduced as compared to the aqueous diffusion coefficient due to (i) the size and shape of intra-particle pores and (ii) retarded transport of solutes within intra-particle pores governed by a nonlinear sorption isotherm. This process-based concept has the advantage of requiring only measurable model parameters, thus avoiding fitting parameters like first-order rate coefficients. In addition, the approach presented here allows for modelling of slow sorption/desorption in lithologically nonuniform media. Therefore, it accounts for well-known experimental findings indicating that sorptive properties depend on (i) the grain size distribution of the aquifer material and (ii) the lithological composition (e.g. percentage of quartz, sandstone, limestone, etc.) of each grain size fraction. The small-scale physico-chemical model describing sorption/desorption is coupled to a large-scale model of groundwater flow and solute transport. Consequently, hydraulic heterogeneities may also be considered by the overall model. This coupling is regarded as an essential prerequisite for simulating field-scale scenarios which will be addressed by a forthcoming publication. This paper focuses on mathematical model formulation, implementation of the numerical code and lab-scale model applications highlighting the sorption and desorption behavior of an organic

  20. Combustion rate limits of hydrogen plus hydrocarbon fuel: Air diffusion flames from an opposed jet burner technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pellett, Gerald L.; Guerra, Rosemary; Wilson, Lloyd G.; Reeves, Ronald N.; Northam, G. Burton

    1987-01-01

    Combustion of H2/hydrocarbon (HC) fuel mixtures may be considered in certain volume-limited supersonic airbreathing propulsion applications. Effects of HC addition to H2 were evaluated, using a recent argon-bathed, coaxial, tubular opposed jet burner (OJB) technique to measure the extinction limits of counterflow diffusion flames. The OJB flames were formed by a laminar jet of (N2 and/or HC)-diluted H2 mixture opposed by a similar jet of air at ambient conditions. The OJB data, derived from respective binary mixtures of H2 and methane, ethylene, or propane HCs, were used to characterize BLOWOFF and RESTORE. BLOWOFF is a sudden breaking of the dish-shaped OJB flame to a stable torus or ring shape, and RESTORE marks sudden restoration of the central flame by radial inward flame propagation. BLOWOFF is a measure of kinetically-limited flame reactivity/speed under highly stretched, but relatively ideal impingement flow conditions. RESTORE measures inward radial flame propagation rate, which is sensitive to ignition processes in the cool central core. It is concluded that relatively small molar amounts of added HC greatly reduce the reactivity characteristics of counterflow hydrogen-air diffusion flames, for ambient initial conditions.

  1. Combustion rate limits of hydrogen plus hydrocarbon fuel: Air diffusion flames from an opposed jet burner technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pellett, Gerald L.; Guerra, Rosemary; Wilson, Lloyd G.; Reeves, Ronald N.; Northam, G. Burton

    1987-01-01

    Combustion of H2/hydrocarbon (HC) fuel mixtures may be considered in certain volume-limited supersonic airbreathing propulsion applications. Effects of HC addition to H2 were evaluated, using a recent argon-bathed, coaxial, tubular opposed jet burner (OJB) technique to measure the extinction limits of counterflow diffusion flames. The OJB flames were formed by a laminar jet of (N2 and/or HC)-diluted H2 mixture opposed by a similar jet of air at ambient conditions. The OJB data, derived from respective binary mixtures of H2 and methane, ethylene, or propane HCs, were used to characterize BLOWOFF and RESTORE. BLOWOFF is a sudden breaking of the dish-shaped OJB flame to a stable torus or ring shape, and RESTORE marks sudden restoration of the central flame by radial inward flame propagation. BLOWOFF is a measure of kinetically-limited flame reactivity/speed under highly stretched, but relatively ideal impingement flow conditions. RESTORE measures inward radial flame propagation rate, which is sensitive to ignition processes in the cool central core. It is concluded that relatively small molar amounts of added HC greatly reduce the reactivity characteristics of counterflow hydrogen-air diffusion flames, for ambient initial conditions.

  2. A Risk Based Approach to Limit the Effects of Covert Channels for Internet Sensor Data Aggregators for Sensor Privacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viecco, Camilo H.; Camp, L. Jean

    Effective defense against Internet threats requires data on global real time network status. Internet sensor networks provide such real time network data. However, an organization that participates in a sensor network risks providing a covert channel to attackers if that organization’s sensor can be identified. While there is benefit for every party when any individual participates in such sensor deployments, there are perverse incentives against individual participation. As a result, Internet sensor networks currently provide limited data. Ensuring anonymity of individual sensors can decrease the risk of participating in a sensor network without limiting data provision.

  3. Solution of the modified Helmholtz equation in a triangular domain and an application to diffusion-limited coalescence.

    PubMed

    ben-Avraham, D; Fokas, A S

    2001-07-01

    A new transform method for solving boundary value problems for linear and integrable nonlinear partial differential equations recently introduced in the literature is used here to obtain the solution of the modified Helmholtz equation q(xx)(x,y)+q(yy)(x,y)-4 beta(2)q(x,y)=0 in the triangular domain 0< or =x< or =L-y< or =L, with mixed boundary conditions. This solution is applied to the problem of diffusion-limited coalescence, A+A<==>A, in the segment (-L/2,L/2), with traps at the edges.

  4. 42 CFR 447.296 - Limitations on aggregate payments for disproportionate share hospitals for the period January 1...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., 1991, if the amendment, or modification thereof, was intended to limit the State's definition of... methodology for disproportionate share hospital payments that was established and in effect as of September 30...(c)(1) of the Act. The minimum payment adjustment is the amount required by the Medicare...

  5. Secular diffusion in discrete self-gravitating tepid discs. I. Analytic solution in the tightly wound limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fouvry, J. B.; Pichon, C.; Chavanis, P. H.

    2015-09-01

    The secular evolution of an infinitely thin tepid isolated galactic disc made of a finite number of particles is described using the inhomogeneous Balescu-Lenard equation. Assuming that only tightly wound transient spirals are present in the disc, a WKB approximation provides a simple and tractable quadrature for the corresponding drift and diffusion coefficients. It provides insight into the physical processes at work during the secular diffusion of a self-gravitating discrete disc and makes quantitative predictions on the initial variations of the distribution function in action space. When applied to the secular evolution of an isolated stationary self-gravitating Mestel disc, this formalism predicts the initial importance of the corotation resonance in the inner regions of the disc leading to a regime involving radial migration and heating. It predicts in particular the formation of a ridge-like feature in action space, in agreement with simulations, but over-estimates the timescale involved in its appearance. Swing amplification is likely needed to resolve this discrepancy. In astrophysics, the inhomogeneous Balescu-Lenard equation and its WKB limit may also describe the secular diffusion of giant molecular clouds in galactic discs, the secular migration and segregation of planetesimals in proto-planetary discs, or even the long-term evolution of population of stars within the Galactic centre. Appendices are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  6. Basin infilling of a schematic 1D estuary using two different approaches: an aggregate diffusive type model and a processed based model.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laginha Silva, Patricia; Martins, Flávio A.; Boski, Tomász; Sampath, Dissanayake M. R.

    2010-05-01

    processes. In this viewpoint the system is broken down into its fundamental components and processes and the model is build up by selecting the important processes regardless of its time and space scale. This viewpoint was only possible to pursue in the recent years due to improvement in system knowledge and computer power (Paola, 2000). The primary aim of this paper is to demonstrate that it is possible to simulate the evolution of the sediment river bed, traditionally studied with synthetic models, with a process-based hydrodynamic, sediment transport and morphodynamic model, solving explicitly the mass and momentum conservation equations. With this objective, a comparison between two mathematical models for alluvial rivers is made to simulate the evolution of the sediment river bed of a conceptual 1D embayment for periods in the order of a thousand years: the traditional synthetic basin infilling aggregate diffusive type model based on the diffusion equation (Paola, 2000), used in the "synthesist" viewpoint and the process-based model MOHID (Miranda et al., 2000). The simulation of the sediment river bed evolution achieved by the process-based model MOHID is very similar to those obtained by the diffusive type model, but more complete due to the complexity of the process-based model. In the MOHID results it is possible to observe a more comprehensive and realistic results because this type of model include processes that is impossible to a synthetic model to describe. At last the combined effect of tide, sea level rise and river discharges was investigated in the process based model. These effects cannot be simulated using the diffusive type model. The results demonstrate the feasibility of using process based models to perform studies in scales of 10000 years. This is an advance relative to the use of synthetic models, enabling the use of variable forcing. REFERENCES • Briggs, L.I. and Pollack, H.N., 1967. Digital model of evaporate sedimentation. Science, 155, 453

  7. The ribosome-bound quality control complex remains associated to aberrant peptides during their proteasomal targeting and interacts with Tom1 to limit protein aggregation.

    PubMed

    Defenouillère, Quentin; Namane, Abdelkader; Mouaikel, John; Jacquier, Alain; Fromont-Racine, Micheline

    2017-05-01

    Protein quality control mechanisms eliminate defective polypeptides to ensure proteostasis and to avoid the toxicity of protein aggregates. In eukaryotes, the ribosome-bound quality control (RQC) complex detects aberrant nascent peptides that remain stalled in 60S ribosomal particles due to a dysfunction in translation termination. The RQC complex polyubiquitylates aberrant polypeptides and recruits a Cdc48 hexamer to extract them from 60S particles in order to escort them to the proteasome for degradation. Whereas the steps from stalled 60S recognition to aberrant peptide polyubiquitylation by the RQC complex have been described, the mechanism leading to proteasomal degradation of these defective translation products remains unknown. We show here that the RQC complex also exists as a ribosome-unbound complex during the escort of aberrant peptides to the proteasome. In addition, we identify a new partner of this light version of the RQC complex, the E3 ubiquitin ligase Tom1. Tom1 interacts with aberrant nascent peptides and is essential to limit their accumulation and aggregation in the absence of Rqc1; however, its E3 ubiquitin ligase activity is not required. Taken together, these results reveal new roles for Tom1 in protein quality control, aggregate prevention, and, therefore, proteostasis maintenance. © 2017 Defenouillère et al. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). Two months after publication it is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  8. Conflation and aggregation of spatial data improve predictive models for species with limited habitats: a case of the threatened yellow-billed cuckoo in Arizona, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Villarreal, Miguel L.; Van Riper, Charles; Petrakis, Roy E.

    2013-01-01

    Riparian vegetation provides important wildlife habitat in the Southwestern United States, but limited distributions and spatial complexity often leads to inaccurate representation in maps used to guide conservation. We test the use of data conflation and aggregation on multiple vegetation/land-cover maps to improve the accuracy of habitat models for the threatened western yellow-billed cuckoo (Coccyzus americanus occidentalis). We used species observations (n = 479) from a state-wide survey to develop habitat models from 1) three vegetation/land-cover maps produced at different geographic scales ranging from state to national, and 2) new aggregate maps defined by the spatial agreement of cover types, which were defined as high (agreement = all data sets), moderate (agreement ≥ 2), and low (no agreement required). Model accuracies, predicted habitat locations, and total area of predicted habitat varied considerably, illustrating the effects of input data quality on habitat predictions and resulting potential impacts on conservation planning. Habitat models based on aggregated and conflated data were more accurate and had higher model sensitivity than original vegetation/land-cover, but this accuracy came at the cost of reduced geographic extent of predicted habitat. Using the highest performing models, we assessed cuckoo habitat preference and distribution in Arizona and found that major watersheds containing high-probably habitat are fragmented by a wide swath of low-probability habitat. Focus on riparian restoration in these areas could provide more breeding habitat for the threatened cuckoo, offset potential future habitat losses in adjacent watershed, and increase regional connectivity for other threatened vertebrates that also use riparian corridors.

  9. Modeling ant battles by means of a diffusion-limited Gillespie algorithm.

    PubMed

    Martelloni, Gianluca; Santarlasci Alisa; Bagnoli, Franco; Santini, Giacomo

    2014-01-01

    We propose two modeling approaches to describe the dynamics of ant battles, starting from laboratory experiments on the behavior of two ant species, the invasive Lasius neglectus and the authocthonus Lasius paralienus. This work is mainly motivated by the need to have realistic models to predict the interaction dynamics of invasive species. The two considered species exhibit different fighting strategies. In order to describe the observed battle dynamics, we start by building a chemical model considering the ants and the fighting groups (for instance two ants of a species and one of the other one) as a chemical species. From the chemical equations we deduce a system of differential equations, whose parameters are estimated by minimizing the difference between the experimental data and the model output. We model the fluctuations observed in the experiments by means of a standard Gillespie algorithm. In order to better reproduce the observed behavior, we adopt a spatial agent-based model, in which ants not engaged in fighting groups move randomly (diffusion) among compartments, and the Gillespie algorithm is used to model the reactions inside a compartment.

  10. Acoustic phonon-limited diffusion thermopower in monolayer MoS{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Patil, S. B.; Sankeshwar, N. S. Kubakaddi, S. S.

    2015-06-24

    Diffusion thermopower S{sub d} is investigated, theoretically, as a function of temperature, T and electron concentration, n{sub s} in a n-type monolayer molebdenum disulfide (MoS{sub 2}). Electron scattering due to unscreened deformation potential (DP) coupling of TA phonons, screened DP coupling of LA phonons, and screened piezoelectric (PE) coupling of LA and TA phonons is considered. Total S{sub d} is dominated by electron scattering by TA phonons via unscreened DP coupling. S{sub d} is found to increase (decrease) with increasing T (n{sub s}). At low T and for high n{sub s}, S{sub d} ∼ T and n{sub s}{sup −1} as found from the Mott formula. At a given T and for given ns, S{sub d} in MoS{sub 2} is much larger than that in GaAs, due to the larger electron effective mass in the former.

  11. Fast detection of biomolecules in diffusion-limited regime using micromechanical pillars.

    PubMed

    Melli, Mauro; Scoles, Giacinto; Lazzarino, Marco

    2011-10-25

    We have developed a micromechanical sensor based on vertically oriented oscillating beams, in which contrary to what is normally done (for example with oscillating cantilevers) the sensitive area is located at the free end of the oscillator. In the micropillar geometry used here, analyte adsorption is confined only to the tip of the micropillar, thus reducing the volume from which the analyte molecules must diffuse to saturate the surface to a sphere of radius more than 2 orders of magnitude smaller than the corresponding linear distance valid for adsorption on a macroscopic surface. Hence the absorption rate is 3 orders of magnitude faster than on a typical 200 × 20 square micrometer cantilever. Pillar oscillations are detected by means of an optical lever method, but the geometry is suitable for multiplexing with compact integrated detection. We demonstrate our technology by investigating the formation of a single-strand DNA self-assembled monolayer (SAM) consisting of less than 10(6) DNA molecules and by measuring their hybridization efficiency. We show that the binding rate is 1000 times faster than on a "macroscopic" surface. We also show that the hybridization of a SAM of maximum density DNA is 40% or 4 times the value reported in the literature. These results suggest that the lower values previously reported in the literature can be attributed to incomplete saturation of the surface due to the slower adsorption rate on the "macroscopic" surfaces used.

  12. The dimer-approach to characterize opto-electronic properties of and exciton trapping and diffusion in organic semiconductor aggregates and crystals.

    PubMed

    Engels, Bernd; Engel, Volker

    2017-05-24

    A fundamental understanding of photo-induced processes in opto-electronic thin film devices is a prerequisite for the rational design of improved organic semiconductor materials. Absorption and emission spectra provide important insights into the complicated electronic structure of and relaxation processes in organic semiconductor aggregates and crystals. They are of interest because they often limit the efficiencies of the devices. For an assignment of the spectra a close interplay between experiment and theory is essential because simulations are often necessary to entangle the various effects which determine the features of the spectra. In the present perspective we describe the so called dimer-approach and provide a few examples in which this approach could successfully deliver an atomistic picture of photo-induced relaxation effects in perylene-based materials and characterize their optical spectra. The model Hamiltonians of standard monomer-based approaches are also briefly discussed to reveal the differences between both methods and to shed some light on their strengths and shortcomings.

  13. Thermal Conductivity of Ultrahigh Molecular Weight Polyethylene Crystal: Defect Effect Uncovered by 0 K Limit Phonon Diffusion.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jing; Xu, Zaoli; Cheng, Zhe; Xu, Shen; Wang, Xinwei

    2015-12-16

    Crystalline ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) has the highest reported thermal conductivity at room temperature: 104 W/(m·K), while theoretical predictions proposed an even higher value of 300 W/(m·K). Defects and amorphous fraction in practical UHMWPE fibers significantly reduces the thermal conductivity from the ideal value. Although the amorphous effect can be readily analyzed based on the effective medium theory, the defect effects are poorly understood. This work reports on the temperature-dependent behavior (down to 22 K) of thermal diffusivity and conductivity of UHMWPE fibers in anticipation of observing the reduction in phonon density and scattering rate against temperature and of freezing out high-momentum phonons to clearly observe the defect effects. By studying the temperature-dependent behavior of thermal reffusivity (Θ, inverse of thermal diffusivity) of UHMWPE fibers, we are able to quantify the defect effects on thermal conductivity. After taking out the amorphous region's effect, the residual thermal reffusivities (Θ0) for the studied two samples at the 0 K limit are determined as 3.45 × 10(4) and 2.95 × 10(4) s/m(2), respectively. For rare-/no-defects crystalline materials, Θ0 should be close to zero at the 0 K limit. The defect-induced low-momentum phonon mean free paths are determined as 8.06 and 9.42 nm for the two samples. They are smaller than the crystallite size in the (002) direction (19.7 nm) determined by X-ray diffraction. This strongly demonstrates the diffuse phonon scattering at the grain boundaries. The grain boundary thermal conductance (G) can be evaluated as G ≈ βρc(p)v with sound accuracy. At room temperature, G is around 3.73 GW/(m(2)·K) for S2, comparable to that of interfaces with tight atomic bonding.

  14. Perfusion and diffusion limitations in middle ear gas exchange: the exchange of CO2 as a test case.

    PubMed

    Marcusohn, Yael; Ar, Amos; Dirckx, Joris J J

    2010-06-14

    A long standing debate on perfusion/diffusion limitations in the context of middle ear (ME) gas exchange was revisited using data obtained from previous iso-pressure gas-exchange measurements in different mammals. We tried to determine whether the exchange of CO(2) in the ME is limited by perfusion or by diffusion by comparing the mass specific cardiac output (msQ) and the mass specific initial CO(2) flow rate into air-washed MEs (msV(i) CO(2)) of rabbits and rats. Based on previously published allometry at rest, the msQ was 0.154 mL/(min g) in rabbits (mean body weight: 2800 g) and 0.259 mL/(min g) in rats (mean body weight: 179.1 g); msV(i) CO(2) (Delta t=0) was 0.109+/-0.047 microL/(h g) in rabbits (n=16) and 0.170+/-0.094 microL/(h g) in rats (n=9). Similar ratios were found when an allometric comparison was made between the ratio of msV(i) CO(2) (Delta t=0) (approximately 0.64), and the ratio of msQs (approximately 0.59) in rabbits and rats. If the active mucosal surface areas of MEs of rabbits and rats are directly proportional to their masses as are the masses of their hearts and if their msQs are proportional to the rates of blood flows in the ME mucosa, these results support the assumption that the exchange of CO(2) in the ME of mammals is mainly perfusion (and not diffusion) dependent.

  15. The effect of solution nonideality on modeling transmembrane water transport and diffusion-limited intracellular ice formation during cryopreservation.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Gang; Takamatsu, Hiroshi; He, Xiaoming

    2014-04-14

    A new model was developed to predict transmembrane water transport and diffusion-limited ice formation in cells during freezing without the ideal-solution assumption that has been used in previous models. The model was applied to predict cell dehydration and intracellular ice formation (IIF) during cryopreservation of mouse oocytes and bovine carotid artery endothelial cells in aqueous sodium chloride (NaCl) solution with glycerol as the cryoprotectant or cryoprotective agent. A comparison of the predictions between the present model and the previously reported models indicated that the ideal-solution assumption results in under-prediction of the amount of intracellular ice at slow cooling rates (<50 K/min). In addition, the lower critical cooling rates for IIF that is lethal to cells predicted by the present model were much lower than those estimated with the ideal-solution assumption. This study represents the first investigation on how accounting for solution nonideality in modeling water transport across the cell membrane could affect the prediction of diffusion-limited ice formation in biological cells during freezing. Future studies are warranted to look at other assumptions alongside nonideality to further develop the model as a useful tool for optimizing the protocol of cell cryopreservation for practical applications.

  16. The effect of solution nonideality on modeling transmembrane water transport and diffusion-limited intracellular ice formation during cryopreservation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Gang; Takamatsu, Hiroshi; He, Xiaoming

    2014-04-01

    A new model was developed to predict transmembrane water transport and diffusion-limited ice formation in cells during freezing without the ideal-solution assumption that has been used in previous models. The model was applied to predict cell dehydration and intracellular ice formation (IIF) during cryopreservation of mouse oocytes and bovine carotid artery endothelial cells in aqueous sodium chloride (NaCl) solution with glycerol as the cryoprotectant or cryoprotective agent. A comparison of the predictions between the present model and the previously reported models indicated that the ideal-solution assumption results in under-prediction of the amount of intracellular ice at slow cooling rates (<50 K/min). In addition, the lower critical cooling rates for IIF that is lethal to cells predicted by the present model were much lower than those estimated with the ideal-solution assumption. This study represents the first investigation on how accounting for solution nonideality in modeling water transport across the cell membrane could affect the prediction of diffusion-limited ice formation in biological cells during freezing. Future studies are warranted to look at other assumptions alongside nonideality to further develop the model as a useful tool for optimizing the protocol of cell cryopreservation for practical applications.

  17. Limit on the diffuse flux of ultrahigh energy tau neutrinos with the surface detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abraham, J.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Aguirre, C.; Ahn, E. J.; Allard, D.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Allison, P.; Alvarez-Muñiz, J.; Ambrosio, M.; Anchordoqui, L.; Andringa, S.; Anzalone, A.; Aramo, C.; Argirò, S.; Arisaka, K.; Arneodo, F.; Arqueros, F.; Asch, T.; Asorey, H.; Assis, P.; Aublin, J.; Ave, M.; Avila, G.; Bäcker, T.; Badagnani, D.; Barber, K. B.; Barbosa, A. F.; Barroso, S. L. C.; Baughman, B.; Bauleo, P.; Beatty, J. J.; Beau, T.; Becker, B. R.; Becker, K. H.; Bellétoile, A.; Bellido, J. A.; Benzvi, S.; Berat, C.; Bernardini, P.; Bertou, X.; Biermann, P. L.; Billoir, P.; Blanch-Bigas, O.; Blanco, F.; Bleve, C.; Blümer, H.; Boháčová, M.; Bonifazi, C.; Bonino, R.; Brack, J.; Brogueira, P.; Brown, W. C.; Bruijn, R.; Buchholz, P.; Bueno, A.; Burton, R. E.; Busca, N. G.; Caballero-Mora, K. S.; Caramete, L.; Caruso, R.; Carvalho, W.; Castellina, A.; Catalano, O.; Cazon, L.; Cester, R.; Chauvin, J.; Chiavassa, A.; Chinellato, J. A.; Chou, A.; Chudoba, J.; Chye, J.; Clay, R. W.; Colombo, E.; Conceição, R.; Connolly, B.; Contreras, F.; Coppens, J.; Cordier, A.; Cotti, U.; Coutu, S.; Covault, C. E.; Creusot, A.; Criss, A.; Cronin, J.; Curutiu, A.; Dagoret-Campagne, S.; Daumiller, K.; Dawson, B. R.; de Almeida, R. M.; de Domenico, M.; de Donato, C.; de Jong, S. J.; de La Vega, G.; de Mello Junior, W. J. M.; de Mello Neto, J. R. T.; de Mitri, I.; de Souza, V.; Decerprit, G.; Del Peral, L.; Deligny, O.; Della Selva, A.; Delle Fratte, C.; Dembinski, H.; di Giulio, C.; Diaz, J. C.; Diep, P. N.; Dobrigkeit, C.; D'Olivo, J. C.; Dong, P. N.; Dornic, D.; Dorofeev, A.; Dos Anjos, J. C.; Dova, M. T.; D'Urso, D.; Dutan, I.; Duvernois, M. A.; Engel, R.; Erdmann, M.; Escobar, C. O.; Etchegoyen, A.; Facal San Luis, P.; Falcke, H.; Farrar, G.; Fauth, A. C.; Fazzini, N.; Ferrer, F.; Ferrero, A.; Fick, B.; Filevich, A.; Filipčič, A.; Fleck, I.; Fliescher, S.; Fracchiolla, C. E.; Fraenkel, E. D.; Fulgione, W.; Gamarra, R. F.; Gambetta, S.; García, B.; García Gámez, D.; Garcia-Pinto, D.; Garrido, X.; Gelmini, G.; Gemmeke, H.; Ghia, P. L.; Giaccari, U.; Giller, M.; Glass, H.; Goggin, L. M.; Gold, M. S.; Golup, G.; Gomez Albarracin, F.; Gómez Berisso, M.; Gonçalves, P.; Gonçalves Do Amaral, M.; Gonzalez, D.; Gonzalez, J. G.; Góra, D.; Gorgi, A.; Gouffon, P.; Grebe, S.; Grigat, M.; Grillo, A. F.; Guardincerri, Y.; Guarino, F.; Guedes, G. P.; Gutiérrez, J.; Hague, J. D.; Halenka, V.; Hansen, P.; Harari, D.; Harmsma, S.; Harton, J. L.; Haungs, A.; Healy, M. D.; Hebbeker, T.; Hebrero, G.; Heck, D.; Hojvat, C.; Holmes, V. C.; Homola, P.; Hörandel, J. R.; Horneffer, A.; Hrabovský, M.; Huege, T.; Hussain, M.; Iarlori, M.; Insolia, A.; Ionita, F.; Italiano, A.; Jiraskova, S.; Kaducak, M.; Kampert, K. H.; Karova, T.; Kasper, P.; Kégl, B.; Keilhauer, B.; Kemp, E.; Kieckhafer, R. M.; Klages, H. O.; Kleifges, M.; Kleinfeller, J.; Knapik, R.; Knapp, J.; Koang, D.-H.; Krieger, A.; Krömer, O.; Kruppke, D.; Kuempel, D.; Kunka, N.; Kusenko, A.; La Rosa, G.; Lachaud, C.; Lago, B. L.; Leão, M. S. A. B.; Lebrun, D.; Lebrun, P.; Lee, J.; Leigui de Oliveira, M. A.; Lemiere, A.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Leuthold, M.; Lhenry-Yvon, I.; López, R.; Lopez Agüera, A.; Lozano Bahilo, J.; Lucero, A.; Luna García, R.; Maccarone, M. C.; Macolino, C.; Maldera, S.; Mandat, D.; Mantsch, P.; Mariazzi, A. G.; Maris, I. C.; Marquez Falcon, H. R.; Martello, D.; Martínez, J.; Martínez Bravo, O.; Mathes, H. J.; Matthews, J.; Matthews, J. A. J.; Matthiae, G.; Maurizio, D.; Mazur, P. O.; McEwen, M.; McNeil, R. R.; Medina-Tanco, G.; Melissas, M.; Melo, D.; Menichetti, E.; Menshikov, A.; Meyhandan, R.; Micheletti, M. I.; Miele, G.; Miller, W.; Miramonti, L.; Mollerach, S.; Monasor, M.; Monnier Ragaigne, D.; Montanet, F.; Morales, B.; Morello, C.; Moreno, J. C.; Morris, C.; Mostafá, M.; Mueller, S.; Muller, M. A.; Mussa, R.; Navarra, G.; Navarro, J. L.; Navas, S.; Necesal, P.; Nellen, L.; Newman-Holmes, C.; Newton, D.; Nhung, P. T.; Nierstenhoefer, N.; Nitz, D.; Nosek, D.; Nožka, L.; Oehlschläger, J.; Olinto, A.; Olmos-Gilbaja, V. M.; Ortiz, M.; Ortolani, F.; Pacheco, N.; Pakk Selmi-Dei, D.; Palatka, M.; Pallotta, J.; Parente, G.; Parizot, E.; Parlati, S.; Pastor, S.; Patel, M.; Paul, T.; Pavlidou, V.; Payet, K.; Pech, M.; Pȩkala, J.; Pelayo, R.; Pepe, I. M.; Perrone, L.; Pesce, R.; Petermann, E.; Petrera, S.; Petrinca, P.; Petrolini, A.; Petrov, Y.; Petrovic, J.; Pfendner, C.; Pichel, A.; Piegaia, R.; Pierog, T.; Pimenta, M.; Pinto, T.; Pirronello, V.; Pisanti, O.; Platino, M.; Pochon, J.; Ponce, V. H.; Pontz, M.; Privitera, P.; Prouza, M.; Quel, E. J.; Rautenberg, J.; Ravignani, D.; Redondo, A.; Reucroft, S.; Revenu, B.; Rezende, F. A. S.; Ridky, J.; Riggi, S.; Risse, M.; Rivière, C.; Rizi, V.; Robledo, C.; Rodriguez, G.; Rodriguez Martino, J.; Rodriguez Rojo, J.; Rodriguez-Cabo, I.; Rodríguez-Frías, M. D.; Ros, G.; Rosado, J.; Roth, M.; Rouillé-D'Orfeuil, B.; Roulet, E.; Rovero, A. C.; Salamida, F.; Salazar, H.; Salina, G.; Sánchez, F.; Santander, M.; Santo, C. E.; Santos, E. M.; Sarazin, F.; Sarkar, S.; Sato, R.; Scharf, N.; Scherini, V.; Schieler, H.; Schiffer, P.; Schmidt, A.; Schmidt, F.; Schmidt, T.; Scholten, O.; Schoorlemmer, H.; Schovancova, J.; Schovánek, P.; Schroeder, F.; Schulte, S.; Schüssler, F.; Schuster, D.; Sciutto, S. J.; Scuderi, M.; Segreto, A.; Semikoz, D.; Settimo, M.; Shellard, R. C.; Sidelnik, I.; Siffert, B. B.; Smetniansky de Grande, N.; Smiałkowski, A.; Šmída, R.; Smith, B. E.; Snow, G. R.; Sommers, P.; Sorokin, J.; Spinka, H.; Squartini, R.; Strazzeri, E.; Stutz, A.; Suarez, F.; Suomijärvi, T.; Supanitsky, A. D.; Sutherland, M. S.; Swain, J.; Szadkowski, Z.; Tamashiro, A.; Tamburro, A.; Tarutina, T.; Taşcău, O.; Tcaciuc, R.; Tcherniakhovski, D.; Thao, N. T.; Thomas, D.; Ticona, R.; Tiffenberg, J.; Timmermans, C.; Tkaczyk, W.; Todero Peixoto, C. J.; Tomé, B.; Tonachini, A.; Torres, I.; Travnicek, P.; Tridapalli, D. B.; Tristram, G.; Trovato, E.; Tuci, V.; Tueros, M.; Ulrich, R.; Unger, M.; Urban, M.; Valdés Galicia, J. F.; Valiño, I.; Valore, L.; van den Berg, A. M.; van Elewyck, V.; Vázquez, R. A.; Veberič, D.; Velarde, A.; Venters, T.; Verzi, V.; Videla, M.; Villaseñor, L.; Vorobiov, S.; Voyvodic, L.; Wahlberg, H.; Wahrlich, P.; Wainberg, O.; Warner, D.; Watson, A. A.; Westerhoff, S.; Whelan, B. J.; Wieczorek, G.; Wiencke, L.; Wilczyńska, B.; Wilczyński, H.; Wileman, C.; Winnick, M. G.; Wu, H.; Wundheiler, B.; Younk, P.; Yuan, G.; Zas, E.; Zavrtanik, D.; Zavrtanik, M.; Zaw, I.; Zepeda, A.; Ziolkowski, M.

    2009-05-01

    Data collected at the Pierre Auger Observatory are used to establish an upper limit on the diffuse flux of tau neutrinos in the cosmic radiation. Earth-skimming ντ may interact in the Earth’s crust and produce a τ lepton by means of charged-current interactions. The τ lepton may emerge from the Earth and decay in the atmosphere to produce a nearly horizontal shower with a typical signature, a persistent electromagnetic component even at very large atmospheric depths. The search procedure to select events induced by τ decays against the background of normal showers induced by cosmic rays is described. The method used to compute the exposure for a detector continuously growing with time is detailed. Systematic uncertainties in the exposure from the detector, the analysis, and the involved physics are discussed. No τ neutrino candidates have been found. For neutrinos in the energy range 2×1017eVdiffuse spectrum of the form Eν-2, data collected between 1 January 2004 and 30 April 2008 yield a 90% confidence-level upper limit of Eν2dNντ/dEν<9×10-8GeVcm-2s-1sr-1.

  18. Diffusion limitations and metabolic factors associated with inhibition and recovery of photosynthesis following cold stress in Elymus nutans Griseb.

    PubMed

    Fu, Juanjuan; Gates, Roger N; Xu, Yuefei; Hu, Tianming

    2016-10-01

    We studied the effects of cold stress (5°C) and re-warming (25°C) on gas exchange, photosystem II, key photosynthetic enzyme activities, gene expression, and carbohydrate metabolite concentrations in two Elymus nutans genotypes differing in cold resistance (DX, cold-tolerant and ZD, cold-sensitive). Cold stress led to irreversible reductions in photosynthetic rate. This reduction was accompanied by declining stomatal and mesophyll conductance (gs and gm), transpiration rate (Tr) and photochemical efficiency in both genotypes, however there were smaller decreases in DX than in ZD. Cold-tolerant DX maintained higher photosynthetic enzyme activities and transcript levels, as well as higher reducing sugar concentrations and sucrose accumulation. The relationship between Pn and internal leaf CO2 concentration (Pn/Ci curve) during cold and re-warming was analyzed to estimate the relative influence of stomatal and non-stomatal components on photosynthesis. Stomatal limitation, non-stomatal limitation, and CO2 compensation point (CP) increased in both genotypes under cold stress, but to a lesser extent in DX. Maximum CO2 assimilation rate (Pmax), and carboxylation efficiency (CE) declined, but DX had significantly higher levels of Pmax and CE than ZD. Following cold-stress recovery, the maximum quantum yield of PSII (Fv/Fm), apparent electron transport rate (ETR), Rubisco activity, Rubisco activation state and CE in DX resumed to the control levels. In contrast, Pn, Pmax, gs, gm, and Tr recovered only partially for DX, suggesting that incomplete recovery of photosynthesis in DX may be mainly related to diffusion limitations. Higher Rubisco large subunit (RbcL) and Rubisco activase (RCA) transcript levels, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) activity, and carbohydrate accumulation contributed to higher photosynthetic recovery in DX. These results indicate that the maintenance of higher Pn and Pmax under cold stress and recovery in cold-tolerant DX could be

  19. Effects of potassium supply on limitations of photosynthesis by mesophyll diffusion conductance in Carya cathayensis.

    PubMed

    Jin, Song Heng; Huang, Jian Qin; Li, Xue Qin; Zheng, Bing Song; Wu, Jia Sen; Wang, Zheng Jia; Liu, Gen Hua; Chen, Miao

    2011-10-01

    Potassium (K) influences the photosynthesis process in a number of ways; however, the mechanisms underlying the photosynthetic response to differences in K supply are not well understood. Concurrent measurements of gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence were made to investigate the effect of K nutrition on photosynthetic efficiency and mesophyll conductance (g(m)) in hickory seedlings (Carya cathayensis Sarg.) in a greenhouse. The results show that leaf K concentrations < 0.7-0.8% appeared to limit the leaf net CO2 assimilation rate (A), and that the relative limitation of photosynthesis due to g(m) and stomatal conductance (g(s)) decreased with increasing supplies of K. However, a sensitivity analysis indicated that A was most sensitive to the maximum carboxylation rate of Rubisco (V(c,max)) and the maximum rate of electron transport (J(max)). These results indicate that the photosynthetic rate is primarily limited by the biochemical processes of photosynthesis (V(c,max) and J(max)), rather than by g(m) and g(s) in K-deficient plants. Additionally, g(m) was closely correlated with g(s) and the leaf dry mass per unit area (M(A)) in hickory seedlings, which indicates that decreased g(m) and g(s) may be a consequence of leaf anatomical adaptation.

  20. Kappa Distribution in a Homogeneous Medium: Adiabatic Limit of a Super-diffusive Process?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roth, I.

    2015-12-01

    The classical statistical theory predicts that an ergodic, weakly interacting system like charged particles in the presence of electromagnetic fields, performing Brownian motions (characterized by small range deviations in phase space and short-term microscopic memory), converges into the Gibbs-Boltzmann statistics. Observation of distributions with a kappa-power-law tails in homogeneous systems contradicts this prediction and necessitates a renewed analysis of the basic axioms of the diffusion process: characteristics of the transition probability density function (pdf) for a single interaction, with a possibility of non-Markovian process and non-local interaction. The non-local, Levy walk deviation is related to the non-extensive statistical framework. Particles bouncing along (solar) magnetic field with evolving pitch angles, phases and velocities, as they interact resonantly with waves, undergo energy changes at undetermined time intervals, satisfying these postulates. The dynamic evolution of a general continuous time random walk is determined by pdf of jumps and waiting times resulting in a fractional Fokker-Planck equation with non-integer derivatives whose solution is given by a Fox H-function. The resulting procedure involves the known, although not frequently used in physics fractional calculus, while the local, Markovian process recasts the evolution into the standard Fokker-Planck equation. Solution of the fractional Fokker-Planck equation with the help of Mellin transform and evaluation of its residues at the poles of its Gamma functions results in a slowly converging sum with power laws. It is suggested that these tails form the Kappa function. Gradual vs impulsive solar electron distributions serve as prototypes of this description.

  1. Light-scattering study of petroleum asphaltene aggregation.

    PubMed

    Burya, Y G; Yudin, I K; Dechabo, V A; Kosov, V I; Anisimov, M A

    2001-08-20

    Dynamic light scattering with an original optical scheme has been used for the investigation of opaque (strongly light-absorbing) asphaltene colloids in crude oils and hydrocarbon mixtures. Diffusion-limited aggregation and reaction-limited aggregation as well as a crossover between these two regimes have been observed. A simple interpolation for the crossover kinetics is proposed. Asphaltene colloidal structures, originally persisting in crude oils, have been detected. Addition of a precipitant above a threshold induces asphaltene aggregation. Depending on the nature of the precipitant, different crude oils respond differently on its addition: (a) exponential-in-time growth of aggregates to huge flocks or (b) fast formation of stable-in-size particles.

  2. Sooting Limits Of Microgravity Spherical Diffusion Flames. [conducted in the NASA Glenn 2.2-second drop tower

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sunderland, P. B.; Urban, D. L.; Stocker, D. P.; Chao, B.-H.; Axelbaum, Richard L.; Salzman, Jack (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Limiting conditions for soot-particle inception were studied in microgravity spherical diffusion flames burning ethylene at atmospheric pressure. Nitrogen was supplied in the fuel and/or oxidizer to obtain the broadest range of stoichiometric mixture fraction. Both normal flames (oxygen in ambience) and inverted flames (fuel in ambience) were considered. Microgravity was obtained in the NASA Glenn 2.2-second drop tower. The flames were observed with a color video camera and sooting conditions were defined as conditions for which yellow emission was present throughout the duration of the drop. Sooting limit results were successfully correlated in terms of adiabatic flame temperature and stoichiometric mixture fraction. Soot free conditions were favored by increased stoichiometric mixture fractions. No statistically significant effect of convection direction on sooting limits was observed. The relationship between adiabatic flame temperature and stoichiometric mixture fraction at the sooting limits was found to be in qualitative agreement with a simple theory based on the assumption that soot inception can occur only where temperature and local C/O ratio exceed threshold values (circa 1250 K and 1, respectively).

  3. High-resolution computed tomographic findings in systemic sclerosis-associated interstitial lung disease: comparison between diffuse and limited systemic sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Patiwetwitoon, Sumawadee; Wangkaew, Suparaporn; Euathrongchit, Juntima; Kasitanon, Nuntana; Louthrenoo, Worawit

    2012-08-01

    This study aimed to compare the high-resolution computed tomographic (HRCT) findings between patients with diffuse cutaneous systemic sclerosis (DcSSc) and limited cutaneous systemic sclerosis (LcSSc) as well as to correlate the HRCT scores and the other variables. The medical records of all patients with SSc who presented at the Rheumatology Clinic, Chiang Mai University Hospital, from March 2005 to 2010 and underwent HRCT of the chest for the presence of interstitial lung disease were retrospectively reviewed. The extent of ground glass, lung fibrosis, and honeycombing was scored. All scores were aggregated to produce a total CT perfusion score. The widest coronal esophageal diameter (WED), the maximum diameter of the main pulmonary artery (MPAD), and ascending aortic diameter (AD) were measured. The ratio of MPAD to AD (MPAD/AD) was calculated. Of the 71 patients with SSc, mean (SD) age and disease duration were 54.8 (11.8) and 3.9 (4.2) years, respectively. Of them, 69.0% were female and 67.6% were classified as having DcSSc. There were no significant differences between patients with DcSSc and LcSSc with respect to age, disease duration, New York Heart Association Functional Classification, the calculated HRCT scores, WED, and MPAD. The lung fibrosis and total CT perfusion score correlated inversely with the SpO2 (r = -0.47, P < 0.01). The honeycombing correlated positively with the New York Heart Association Functional Classification and the WED (r = 0.29 and r = 0.32, respectively, P < 0.05). The HRCT scores of these patients were comparable in both subtypes of SSc. Careful evaluation of lungs and esophageal involvement should be performed irrespective of SSc subtypes. The calculated HRCT scores may be useful to assess the severity of the interstitial lung disease in SSc.

  4. Limited grain growth and chemical ordering during high-temperature sintering of PtNiCo nanoparticle aggregates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukundan, V.; Wanjala, B. N.; Loukrakpam, R.; Luo, J.; Yin, J.; Zhong, C. J.; Malis, O.

    2012-08-01

    High-temperature sintering of ternary PtxNi100-x-yCoy (x = 28-44%, y = 40-54%) nanoparticles of interest in catalysis was studied in situ and in real-time with synchrotron-based x-ray diffraction. For the first time we were able to experimentally capture the early stage of the thermal treatment, and found the nanoparticles to undergo an unusual two-step coalescence process that involves transient growth and restructuring of the nanoparticles. The coalescence process is accompanied by lattice contraction, likely due to composition evolution towards a random alloy. In the late stage of sintering, evidence was found for self-limited grain growth and L10 chemical ordering. The order-disorder transition temperature was found to be around 800 °C in all four ternary alloy compositions studied. Fitting of the experimental data with the model for grain growth with size-dependent impediment leads to an activation energy for mass transport of about 100 kJ mol-1, and may be used as a predictive tool to estimate particle size as a function of heat treatment temperature and duration.

  5. Rate Limited Diffusion and Dissolution of Multicomponent Nonaqueous Phase Liquids (NAPLs) and Effects on Mass Discharge in Groundwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padgett, M.; Tick, G.; Carroll, K. C.

    2014-12-01

    Remediation efforts and contaminant transport predictions generally neglect the complicated dissolution and transport behavior associated with multicomponent NAPL (Non-aqueous phase liquid) sources. Therefore, it is important to understand the diffusion and dissolution processes occurring in these multicomponent systems as a function of mole fraction, molecular similarity/dissimilarity, hydraulic, or nonideal factors. A series of laboratory scale NAPL-aqueous phase dissolution experiments were conducted to assess dissolution and intra-NAPL diffusion as a function of multicomponent NAPL composition (i.e. mole fraction) for both trichloroethene and toluene. These target compounds were selected as representative contaminants as they are commonly components of NAPL mixtures and they define both classes of NAPL (dense-DNAPL and light-LNAPL). Predetermined volumes of target NAPL were mixed with an insoluble n-hexadecane NAPL to create mixtures that vary by NAPL composition. The ideality of resulting target compound dissolution was evaluated by quantifying NAPL-phase activity coefficient through Raoult's Law analysis. The results show that dissolution from the NAPL mixtures behave ideally for mole fractions above 0.2. As the target compound fraction of the NAPL mixture get smaller, the dissolution behavior becomes increasingly more nonideal (i.e. greater NAPL-phase activity coefficients). Overall, the time-series batch experiments show that dissolution rates were consistent for various mole fraction ratios, indicating that intra-NAPL diffusion is not the rate-limiting control over aqueous concentrations or is not significantly controlled by NAPL composition-dependent factors. The results of this work will improve transport predictions, remediation design, and risk assessments especially for sites contaminated by complex NAPL mixtures.

  6. Limiter

    DOEpatents

    Cohen, S.A.; Hosea, J.C.; Timberlake, J.R.

    1984-10-19

    A limiter with a specially contoured front face is provided. The front face of the limiter (the plasma-side face) is flat with a central indentation. In addition, the limiter shape is cylindrically symmetric so that the limiter can be rotated for greater heat distribution. This limiter shape accommodates the various power scrape-off distances lambda p, which depend on the parallel velocity, V/sub parallel/, of the impacting particles.

  7. Limitations of a Research, Development and Diffusion (RD and D) Strategy in Diffusion: A Case Study of Nine Local Implementations of a State-Adopted Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schumacher, Sally

    This study of the first year of an inter-organizational diffusion effort by a national educational laboratory, a state department of education, and nine local school districts focuses on the implementation phase within the Research, Development and Diffusion (RD and D) strategy of an aesthetic education program which uses the arts as the…

  8. Shear, dilation, and swap: Mixing in the limit of fast diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brassart, Laurence; Liu, Qihan; Suo, Zhigang

    2016-11-01

    Molecules of different species mix by local rearrangement and long-range migration. Under certain conditions, the molecules are partially jammed: they rearrange slowly, but migrate fast. Here we formulate a theory of mixing when the long-range migration of molecules is fast, and the local rearrangement of molecules sets the time needed for mixing. In this limit, the time needed for mixing is independent of the length scale of inhomogeneity. We identify three modes of local rearrangement: shear, dilation, and swap. All three modes break and form intermolecular bonds. We place the three modes on equal footing, as distinct, concurrent, nonequilibrium processes. Our theory thus removes the bias that assumes local chemical equilibrium but allows the nonequilibrium process of shear. We propose a kinetic model of four independent viscosity-like coefficients, and a thermodynamic model of ideal mixing of molecules of unequal sizes and nonzero volume of mixing. We illustrate the theory with several examples, including the development of growth stress, the homogenization of a bilayer, and the disappearance of an inclusion in a matrix.

  9. Oxygen transfer in a diffusion-limited hollow fiber bioartificial liver.

    PubMed

    Hay, P D; Veitch, A R; Smith, M D; Cousins, R B; Gaylor, J D

    2000-04-01

    A mathematical model was developed to predict oxygen transport in a hollow fiber bioartificial liver device. Model parameters were taken from the Hepatix ELAD configuration; a blood perfused hollow fiber cartridge with hepatocytes seeded in the extracapillary space. Cellular oxygen uptake is based on Michaelis-Menten kinetics, and nonlinear oxygen transport in the blood is considered. The effect of modulating three important parameters is investigated, namely, the Michaelis-Menten constants Vm (volumetric oxygen consumption of the hepatocytes) and Km (half-saturation constant), and hollow fiber oxygen permeability. A computer implementation of the model is used to assess whether a given cell mass could be maintained within such a device. The results suggest that liver cell lines possessing low rates of oxygen consumption could be maintained if membranes of sufficiently high oxygen permeability are used. For primary hepatocytes, which have much higher oxygen demands, radial transport of oxygen is rate limiting, and the axial-flow hollow fiber cartridge is thus an inappropriate design for use as a bioartificial liver with primary hepatocytes.

  10. Upper Limits to the Diffuse Neutrino Emission from Active Galactic Nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolesta, Jeffery W.

    1997-07-01

    In November of 1987 a muon detector dubbed the Short Prototype String (SPS) was successfully operated for about 30 hours in the deep ocean approximately 35 km west of the big island of Hawaii. The original purpose of the experiment was to demonstrate the technical feasibility of conducting neutrino astronomy in the deep ocean, and to serve as the prototype to the DUMAND experiment. Hence, the data were originally analyzed to measure the deep ocean flux of atmospheric muons as a proof of concept. The more recent theoretical investigations of neutrino production in Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) has motivated a search of the data for the unique signature of neutrino-induced particle cascades. The optical properties of the deep ocean allows for surprisingly large detection volumes that grow with incident neutrino energy. It is found through Monte Carlo simulation that the fiducial mass for this type of search is ~7 × 106 tons of water at incident neutrino energies of 1 PeV (1015eV). This results in an exposure of 19.2 kton-years (kty) at this energy for 24 hours of operation. No evidence for neutrino-induced cascades was found in ~20 hours of detector livetime. This leads to the most stringent limits of AGN neutrino fluxes above the PeV scale yet published.

  11. Consideration of dipole orientation angles yields accurate rate equations for energy transfer in the rapid diffusion limit.

    PubMed Central

    Mersol, J V; Wang, H; Gafni, A; Steel, D G

    1992-01-01

    Dipole-dipole energy transfer between suitable donor and acceptor chromophores is an important luminescence quenching mechanism and has been shown to be useful for distance determination at the molecular level. In the rapid diffusion limit, where the excited-state lifetime of the donor is long enough to allow the donor and acceptor to diffuse many times their average separation before deexcitation, it is usually assumed that the relative dipolar orientation is completely averaged due to rotational Brownian motion. Under this simplifying assumption, analytical expressions have been derived earlier for the energy transfer rate between donor and acceptor characterized by different geometries. Most such expressions, however, are only approximate because complete angular averaging is permitted only in a geometry that possesses spherical symmetry surrounding each chromophore. In this paper analytical expressions that correctly account for incomplete angle averaging due to steric hindrance are presented for several geometries. Each of the equations reveals a dependence of the energy transfer rate on chromophore orientation. It is shown that correctly accounting for this effect can lead to improvements in estimates of the distance of closest approach from measured quenching rates based on energy transfer experiments. PMID:1617143

  12. Diffusion Limitation of Oxygen Uptake and Nitrogenase Activity in the Root Nodules of Parasponia rigida Merr. and Perry 1

    PubMed Central

    Tjepkema, John D.; Cartica, Robert J.

    1982-01-01

    Parasponia is the first non-legume genus proven to form nitrogen-fixing root nodules induced by rhizobia. Infiltration with India ink demonstrated that intercellular air spaces are lacking in the inner layers of the nodule cortex. Oxygen must diffuse through these layers to reach the cells containing the rhizobia, and it was calculated that most of the gradient in O2 partial pressure between the atmosphere and rhizobia occurs at the inner cortex. This was confirmed by O2 microelectrode measurements which showed that the O2 partial pressure was much lower in the zone of infected cells than in the cortex. Measurements of nitrogenase activity and O2 uptake as a function of temperature and partial pressure of O2 were consistent with diffusion limitation of O2 uptake by the inner cortex. In spite of the presumed absence of leghemoglobin in nodules of Parasponia rigida Merr. and Perry, energy usage for nitrogen fixation was similar to that in legume nodules. The results demonstrate that O2 regulation in legume and Parasponia nodules is very similar and differs from O2 regulation in actionorhizal nodules. Images PMID:16662284

  13. Aggregation Rates in Montmorillonite Clay Measured by Light Extinction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katz, A.; Xu, M.; Trusiak, A.; Gottlieb, P.; Alimova, A.; Steiner, J. C.; Block, K. A.

    2012-12-01

    The aggregation rate and configuration of colloidal clay aggregates are important factors in soil clotting and marine-estuary sedimentation. Colloidal aggregation occurs in either of two regimes: 1) reaction limited colloidal aggregation (RLCA) or slow aggregation, in which particles must overcome a potential barrier to adhere, and aggregation rates are determined by the height of the barrier which determines the average number of collisions before adhesion; and 2) diffusion limited colloidal aggregation (DLCA) or fast aggregation, in which there is no barrier to adhesion, and aggregation is limited by the time between collisions. The universality principle dictates that the fractal dimension in the DLCA and RLCA are 1.7-1.9 and 2.1-2.3, respectively. We employ turbidity measurements to determine the aggregation rates and fractal dimension of homoionic smectite suspended in electrolyte solutions over a range of cation concentrations. Early stage aggregation rates (proportional to the time rate of change of the turbidity) and the stability ratio were determined as a function of cation concentration (Ca2+, Mg2+ and K+) from turbidity measurements. At low cation concentrations, the aggregation rates increased with cation concentration until a saturation concentration was reached. The "saturation" concentration, or critical coagulation concentration (CCC), is 3 mM for CaCl2, 4 mM for MgCl2, and 70 mM for KCl. The stability ratio exhibits a z-1 dependence (z is cation valence) rather than the widely accepted z-2 relationship predicted by Reerink and Overbeek. The analysis of turbidity results shows that RLCA occurs at very low concentrations while DLCA extends for a range of concentrations below the CCC. The fractal dimension of the Ca2+ and Mg2+ induced aggregates are 1.65 and 1.75, respectively for concentrations near and above the CCC. The fractal dimension of the K+ induced aggregates varies from 1.35-1.95 as the concentration is elevated, indicating that more

  14. Adjoint-based sensitivity analysis for high-energy density radiative transfer using flux-limited diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Humbird, Kelli D.; McClarren, Ryan G.

    2017-03-01

    Uncertainty quantification and sensitivity analyses are a vital component for predictive modeling in the sciences and engineering. The adjoint approach to sensitivity analysis requires solving a primary system of equations and a mathematically related set of adjoint equations. The information contained in the equations can be combined to produce sensitivity information in a computationally efficient manner. In this work, sensitivity analyses are performed on systems described by flux-limited radiative diffusion using the adjoint approach. The sensitivities computed are shown to agree with standard perturbation theory and require significantly less computational time. The adjoint approach saves the computational cost of one forward solve per sensitivity, making the method attractive when multiple sensitivities are of interest.

  15. Limits to Diffusive O2 Transport: Flow, Form, and Function in Nudibranch Egg Masses from Temperate and Polar Regions

    PubMed Central

    Moran, Amy L.; Woods, H. Arthur

    2010-01-01

    Background Many aquatic animals enclose embryos in gelatinous masses, and these embryos rely on diffusion to supply oxygen. Mass structure plays an important role in limiting or facilitating O2 supply, but external factors such as temperature and photosynthesis can play important roles as well. Other external factors are less well understood. Methodology/Principal Findings We first explored the effects of water flow on O2 levels inside nudibranch embryo masses and compared the effects of flow on masses from temperate and polar regions. Water flow (still vs. vigorously bubbled) had a strong effect on central O2 levels in all masses; in still water, masses were considerably more hypoxic than in bubbled water. This effect was stronger in temperate than in polar masses, likely due to the increased metabolic demand and O2 consumption of temperate masses. Second, we made what are to our knowledge the first measurements of O2 in invertebrate masses in the field. Consistent with laboratory experiments, O2 in Antarctic masses was high in masses in situ, suggesting that boundary-layer effects do not substantially limit O2 supply to polar embryos in the field. Conclusions/Significance All else being equal, boundary layers are more likely to depress O2 in masses in temperate or tropical regions; thus, selection on parents to choose high-flow sites for mass deposition is likely greater in warm water. Because of the large number of variables affecting diffusive O2 supply to embryos in their natural environment, field observations are necessary to test hypotheses generated from laboratory experiments and mathematical modeling. PMID:20711406

  16. Limits to diffusive O2 transport: flow, form, and function in nudibranch egg masses from temperate and polar regions.

    PubMed

    Moran, Amy L; Woods, H Arthur

    2010-08-11

    Many aquatic animals enclose embryos in gelatinous masses, and these embryos rely on diffusion to supply oxygen. Mass structure plays an important role in limiting or facilitating O2 supply, but external factors such as temperature and photosynthesis can play important roles as well. Other external factors are less well understood. We first explored the effects of water flow on O2 levels inside nudibranch embryo masses and compared the effects of flow on masses from temperate and polar regions. Water flow (still vs. vigorously bubbled) had a strong effect on central O2 levels in all masses; in still water, masses were considerably more hypoxic than in bubbled water. This effect was stronger in temperate than in polar masses, likely due to the increased metabolic demand and O2 consumption of temperate masses. Second, we made what are to our knowledge the first measurements of O2 in invertebrate masses in the field. Consistent with laboratory experiments, O2 in Antarctic masses was high in masses in situ, suggesting that boundary-layer effects do not substantially limit O2 supply to polar embryos in the field. All else being equal, boundary layers are more likely to depress O2 in masses in temperate or tropical regions; thus, selection on parents to choose high-flow sites for mass deposition is likely greater in warm water. Because of the large number of variables affecting diffusive O2 supply to embryos in their natural environment, field observations are necessary to test hypotheses generated from laboratory experiments and mathematical modeling.

  17. Aggregation of liposomes induced by calcium: A structural and kinetic study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roldán-Vargas, Sándalo; Martín-Molina, Alberto; Quesada-Pérez, Manuel; Barnadas-Rodríguez, Ramon; Estelrich, Joan; Callejas-Fernández, José

    2007-02-01

    In this work, the calcium-induced aggregation of phosphatidylserine liposomes is probed by means of the analysis of the kinetics of such process as well as the aggregate morphology. This novel characterization of liposome aggregation involves the use of static and dynamic light-scattering techniques to obtain kinetic exponents and fractal dimensions. For salt concentrations larger than 5mM , a diffusion-limited aggregation regime is observed and the Brownian kernel properly describes the time evolution of the diffusion coefficient. For slow kinetics, a slightly modified multiple contact kernel is required. In any case, a time evolution model based on the numerical resolution of Smoluchowski’s equation is proposed in order to establish a theoretical description for the aggregating system. Such a model provides an alternative procedure to determine the dimerization constant, which might supply valuable information about interaction mechanisms between phospholipid vesicles.

  18. Colloidal aggregation and dynamics in anisotropic fluids

    PubMed Central

    Mondiot, Frédéric; Botet, Robert; Snabre, Patrick; Mondain-Monval, Olivier; Loudet, Jean-Christophe

    2014-01-01

    We present experiments and numerical simulations to investigate the collective behavior of submicrometer-sized particles immersed in a nematic micellar solution. We use latex spheres with diameters ranging from 190 to 780 nm and study their aggregation properties due to the interplay of the various colloidal forces at work in the system. We found that the morphology of aggregates strongly depends on the particle size, with evidence for two distinct regimes: the biggest inclusions clump together within minutes into either compact clusters or V-like structures that are completely consistent with attractive elastic interactions. On the contrary, the smallest particles form chains elongated along the nematic axis, within comparable timescales. In this regime, Monte Carlo simulations, based on a modified diffusion-limited cluster aggregation model, strongly suggest that the anisotropic rotational Brownian motion of the clusters combined with short-range depletion interactions dominate the system coarsening; elastic interactions no longer prevail. The simulations reproduce the sharp transition between the two regimes on increasing the particle size. We provide reasonable estimates to interpret our data and propose a likely scenario for colloidal aggregation. These results emphasize the growing importance of the diffusion of species at suboptical-wavelength scales and raise a number of fundamental issues. PMID:24715727

  19. Limiter

    DOEpatents

    Cohen, Samuel A.; Hosea, Joel C.; Timberlake, John R.

    1986-01-01

    A limiter with a specially contoured front face accommodates the various power scrape-off distances .lambda..sub.p, which depend on the parallel velocity, V.sub..parallel., of the impacting particles. The front face of the limiter (the plasma-side face) is flat with a central indentation. In addition, the limiter shape is cylindrically symmetric so that the limiter can be rotated for greater heat distribution.

  20. Dose Modeling Evaluations and Technical Support Document For the Authorized Limits Request for the DOE-Owned Property Outside the Limited Area, Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant Paducah, Kentucky

    SciTech Connect

    Boerner, A. J.; Maldonado, D. G.; Hansen, Tom

    2012-09-01

    Environmental assessments and remediation activities are being conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP), Paducah, Kentucky. The Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE), a DOE prime contractor, was contracted by the DOE Portsmouth/Paducah Project Office (DOE-PPPO) to conduct radiation dose modeling analyses and derive single radionuclide soil guidelines (soil guidelines) in support of the derivation of Authorized Limits (ALs) for 'DOE-Owned Property Outside the Limited Area' ('Property') at the PGDP. The ORISE evaluation specifically included the area identified by DOE restricted area postings (public use access restrictions) and areas licensed by DOE to the West Kentucky Wildlife Management Area (WKWMA). The licensed areas are available without restriction to the general public for a variety of (primarily) recreational uses. Relevant receptors impacting current and reasonably anticipated future use activities were evaluated. In support of soil guideline derivation, a Conceptual Site Model (CSM) was developed. The CSM listed radiation and contamination sources, release mechanisms, transport media, representative exposure pathways from residual radioactivity, and a total of three receptors (under present and future use scenarios). Plausible receptors included a Resident Farmer, Recreational User, and Wildlife Worker. single radionuclide soil guidelines (outputs specified by the software modeling code) were generated for three receptors and thirteen targeted radionuclides. These soil guidelines were based on satisfying the project dose constraints. For comparison, soil guidelines applicable to the basic radiation public dose limit of 100 mrem/yr were generated. Single radionuclide soil guidelines from the most limiting (restrictive) receptor based on a target dose constraint of 25 mrem/yr were then rounded and identified as the derived soil guidelines. An additional evaluation using the derived soil

  1. Low Fractal Dimension Cluster-Dilute Soot Aggregates from a Premixed Flame

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakrabarty, Rajan K.; Moosmüller, Hans; Arnott, W. Patrick; Garro, Mark A.; Tian, Guoxun; Slowik, Jay G.; Cross, Eben S.; Han, Jeong-Ho; Davidovits, Paul; Onasch, Timothy B.; Worsnop, Douglas R.

    2009-06-01

    Using a novel morphology segregation technique, we observed minority populations (≈3%) of submicron-sized, cluster-dilute fractal-like aggregates, formed in the soot-formation window (fuel-to-air equivalence ratio of 2.0-3.5) of a premixed flame, to have mass fractal dimensions between 1.2 and 1.51. Our observations disagree with previous observations of a universal mass fractal dimension of ≈1.8 for fractal-like aerosol aggregates formed in the dilute-limit via three-dimensional diffusion-limited cluster aggregation processes. A hypothesis is presented to explain this observation. Subject to verification of this hypothesis, it may be possible to control the fractal dimension and associated properties of aggregates in the cluster-dilute limit through application of a static electric field during the aggregation process.

  2. Evaluation of Nanoparticle Tracking for Characterization of Fibrillar Protein Aggregates

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Dennis T.; Lu, Xiaomeng; Fan, Yamin; Murphy, Regina M.

    2015-01-01

    Amyloidogenesis is the process of formation of protein aggregates with fibrillar morphology. Because amyloidogenesis is linked to neurodegenerative disease, there is interest in understanding the mechanism of fibril growth. Kinetic models of amyloidogenesis require data on the number concentration and size distribution of aggregates, but this information is difficult to obtain using conventional methods. Nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA) is a relatively new technique that may be uniquely suited for obtaining these data. In NTA, the two-dimensional (2-D) trajectory of individual particles is tracked, from which the diffusion coefficient, and, hence, hydrodynamic radius is obtained. Here we examine the validity of NTA in tracking number concentration and size of DNA, as a model of a fibrillar macromolecule. We use NTA to examine three amyloidogenic materials: beta-amyloid, transthyretin, and polyglutamine-containing peptides. Our results are instructive in demonstrating the advantages and some limitations of single-particle diffusion measurements for investigating aggregation in protein systems. PMID:25843955

  3. Dispersible amyloid β-protein oligomers, protofibrils, and fibrils represent diffusible but not soluble aggregates: their role in neurodegeneration in amyloid precursor protein (APP) transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Rijal Upadhaya, Ajeet; Capetillo-Zarate, Estibaliz; Kosterin, Irina; Abramowski, Dorothee; Kumar, Sathish; Yamaguchi, Haruyasu; Walter, Jochen; Fändrich, Marcus; Staufenbiel, Matthias; Thal, Dietmar Rudolf

    2012-11-01

    Soluble amyloid β-protein (Aβ) aggregates have been identified in the Alzheimer's disease (AD) brain. Dispersed Aβ aggregates in the brain parenchyma are different from soluble, membrane-associated and plaque-associated solid aggregates. They are in mixture with the extra- or intracellular fluid but can be separated from soluble proteins by ultracentrifugation. To clarify the role of dispersible Aβ aggregates for neurodegeneration we analyzed 2 different amyloid precursor protein (APP)-transgenic mouse models. APP23 mice overexpress human mutant APP with the Swedish mutation. APP51/16 mice express high levels of human wild type APP. Both mice develop Aβ-plaques. Dendritic degeneration, neuron loss, and loss of asymmetric synapses were seen in APP23 but not in APP51/16 mice. The soluble and dispersible fractions not separated from one another were received as supernatant after centrifugation of native forebrain homogenates at 14,000 × g. Subsequent ultracentrifugation separated the soluble, i.e., the supernatant, from the dispersible fraction, i.e., the resuspended pellet. The major biochemical difference between APP23 and APP51/16 mice was that APP23 mice exhibited higher levels of dispersible Aβ oligomers, protofibrils and fibrils precipitated with oligomer (A11) and protofibril/fibril (B10AP) specific antibodies than APP51/16 mice. These differences, rather than soluble Aβ and Aβ plaque pathology were associated with dendritic degeneration, neuron, and synapse loss in APP23 mice in comparison with APP51/16 mice. Immunoprecipitation of dispersible Aβ oligomers, protofibrils, and fibrils revealed that they were associated with APP C-terminal fragments (APP-CTFs). These results indicate that dispersible Aβ oligomers, protofibrils, and fibrils represent an important pool of Aβ aggregates in the brain that critically interact with membrane-associated APP C-terminal fragments. The concentration of dispersible Aβ aggregates, thereby, presumably determines

  4. H-aggregate analysis of P3HT thin films-Capability and limitation of photoluminescence and UV/Vis spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Ehrenreich, Philipp; Birkhold, Susanne T; Zimmermann, Eugen; Hu, Hao; Kim, Kwang-Dae; Weickert, Jonas; Pfadler, Thomas; Schmidt-Mende, Lukas

    2016-09-01

    Polymer morphology and aggregation play an essential role for efficient charge carrier transport and charge separation in polymer-based electronic devices. It is a common method to apply the H-aggregate model to UV/Vis or photoluminescence spectra in order to analyze polymer aggregation. In this work we present strategies to obtain reliable and conclusive information on polymer aggregation and morphology based on the application of an H-aggregate analysis on UV/Vis and photoluminescence spectra. We demonstrate, with P3HT as model system, that thickness dependent reflection behavior can lead to misinterpretation of UV/Vis spectra within the H-aggregate model. Values for the exciton bandwidth can deviate by a factor of two for polymer thicknesses below 150 nm. In contrast, photoluminescence spectra are found to be a reliable basis for characterization of polymer aggregation due to their weaker dependence on the wavelength dependent refractive index of the polymer. We demonstrate this by studying the influence of surface characteristics on polymer aggregation for spin-coated thin-films that are commonly used in organic and hybrid solar cells.

  5. H-aggregate analysis of P3HT thin films-Capability and limitation of photoluminescence and UV/Vis spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Ehrenreich, Philipp; Birkhold, Susanne T.; Zimmermann, Eugen; Hu, Hao; Kim, Kwang-Dae; Weickert, Jonas; Pfadler, Thomas; Schmidt-Mende, Lukas

    2016-01-01

    Polymer morphology and aggregation play an essential role for efficient charge carrier transport and charge separation in polymer-based electronic devices. It is a common method to apply the H-aggregate model to UV/Vis or photoluminescence spectra in order to analyze polymer aggregation. In this work we present strategies to obtain reliable and conclusive information on polymer aggregation and morphology based on the application of an H-aggregate analysis on UV/Vis and photoluminescence spectra. We demonstrate, with P3HT as model system, that thickness dependent reflection behavior can lead to misinterpretation of UV/Vis spectra within the H-aggregate model. Values for the exciton bandwidth can deviate by a factor of two for polymer thicknesses below 150 nm. In contrast, photoluminescence spectra are found to be a reliable basis for characterization of polymer aggregation due to their weaker dependence on the wavelength dependent refractive index of the polymer. We demonstrate this by studying the influence of surface characteristics on polymer aggregation for spin-coated thin-films that are commonly used in organic and hybrid solar cells. PMID:27582091

  6. Aggregation of colloidal particles with a finite interparticle attraction energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shih, Wan Y.; Liu, Jun; Shih, Wei-Heng; Aksay, Ilhan A.

    1991-03-01

    Aggregation of colloidal particles with a finite attraction energy was investigated with computer simulations and with gold particles coated with a surfactant. Computer simulations were carried out with the Shih-Aksay-Kikuchi (SAK) model, which incorporates a finite nearest-neighbor attraction energy- E into the diffusion-limited-cluster-aggregation (DLCA) model. Both the computer simulations and the experiments showed that (i) with a finite interparticle attraction energy, aggregates can still remain fractal, and (ii) the fractal dimension remains unchanged at large interparticle attraction energies and increases when the interparticle attraction energy is smaller than 4 k B T where T is the temperature and K B is the Boltzmann constant. The agreement between the simulations and the experimental results suggests that the reversible aggregation process in a colloidal system can be represented by the SAK model.

  7. Generic model for tunable colloidal aggregation in multidirectional fields.

    PubMed

    Kogler, Florian; Velev, Orlin D; Hall, Carol K; Klapp, Sabine H L

    2015-10-07

    Based on Brownian Dynamics computer simulations in two dimensions we investigate aggregation scenarios of colloidal particles with directional interactions induced by multiple external fields. To this end we propose a model which allows continuous change in the particle interactions from point-dipole-like to patchy-like (with four patches). We show that, as a result of this change, the non-equilibrium aggregation occurring at low densities and temperatures transforms from conventional diffusion-limited cluster aggregation (DLCA) to slippery DLCA involving rotating bonds; this is accompanied by a pronounced change of the underlying lattice structure of the aggregates from square-like to hexagonal ordering. Increasing the temperature we find a transformation to a fluid phase, consistent with results of a simple mean-field density functional theory.

  8. Subexponential Divergence and Diffusive Twist of Turbulent Magnetic Field Lines in the Limit of the Very Short Separations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ragot, B. R.

    2008-08-01

    Turbulent magnetic field lines have long been thought to be diverging from each other (or converging toward each other) at exponential rates known as Lyapunov exponents. It is argued here that in a turbulent magnetized plasma, subexponential divergence (convergence) and diffusive twist better characterize the dispersal of magnetic field lines (MFLs) in the limit of the very small separations ρ than do the usual Lyapunov exponents or exponentiation rates. In that limit of the very small separations, the field-line equations give a variation rate for ln ρ , not ρ, and the implied log-normality of the ρ distribution makes langle (ln ρ/ρ0)2rangle a much better probe of the exponential divergence of core MFLs. A fully nonlinear calculation shows that the separation logarithm, ln ρ , and twist or rotation angle, Δ θ , between pairs of MFLs diffuse with the distance Δ z elapsed along the main field, as soon as Δ z exceeds min (k-1II,ζII) , the minimum of the parallel correlation length k-1II ≡ L∥ ∇ of the turbulent field gradients and of the associated nonlinear scale, ζII ≡ ζ∇, defined as the field-aligned length scale for which the mean cross-field displacement langle (rζ - r0)2rangle1/2 reaches 21/2ξ k-1II ≡ 21/2L⊥ ∇, with kII the wavenumber where the turbulence spectrum becomes steeper than (k2∥ + ξ2k2⊥)-1 and ξ the anisotropy parameter of the turbulence. The average growth of the core field-line separation ρ0elangle (ln ρ/ρ0)2rangle1/2 = epropto (Δ z)1/2 along the direction of fastest growth, being subexponential, is not compatible with the definition of Lyapunov exponents. The largest exponentiation rate of the core MFLs actually decreases with the distance Δ z. Application of the new nonlinear calculation to the solar wind shows a substantial MFL rotation in a plane transverse to the main field.

  9. Construction aggregates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tepordei, V.V.

    1995-01-01

    Part of the 1994 Industrial Minerals Review. The production, consumption, and applications of construction aggregates are reviewed. In 1994, the production of construction aggregates, which includes crushed stone and construction sand and gravel combined, increased 7.7 percent to 2.14 Gt compared with the previous year. These record production levels are mostly a result of funding for highway construction work provided by the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991. Demand is expected to increase for construction aggregates in 1995.

  10. Marine Synechococcus Aggregation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neuer, S.; Deng, W.; Cruz, B. N.; Monks, L.

    2016-02-01

    Cyanobacteria are considered to play an important role in the oceanic biological carbon pump, especially in oligotrophic regions. But as single cells are too small to sink, their carbon export has to be mediated by aggregate formation and possible consumption by zooplankton producing sinking fecal pellets. Here we report results on the aggregation of the ubiquitous marine pico-cyanobacterium Synechococcus as a model organism. We first investigated the mechanism behind such aggregation by studying the potential role of transparent exopolymeric particles (TEP) and the effects of nutrient (nitrogen or phosphorus) limitation on the TEP production and aggregate formation of these pico-cyanobacteria. We further studied the aggregation and subsequent settling in roller tanks and investigated the effects of the clays kaolinite and bentonite in a series of concentrations. Our results show that despite of the lowered growth rates, Synechococcus in nutrient limited cultures had larger cell-normalized TEP production, formed a greater volume of aggregates, and resulted in higher settling velocities compared to results from replete cultures. In addition, we found that despite their small size and lack of natural ballasting minerals, Synechococcus cells could still form aggregates and sink at measureable velocities in seawater. Clay minerals increased the number and reduced the size of aggregates, and their ballasting effects increased the sinking velocity and carbon export potential of aggregates. In comparison with the Synechococcus, we will also present results of the aggregation of the pico-cyanobacterium Prochlorococcus in roller tanks. These results contribute to our understanding in the physiology of marine Synechococcus as well as their role in the ecology and biogeochemistry in oligotrophic oceans.

  11. Simulation on the aggregation process of spherical particle confined in a spherical shell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J.; Xu, J. J.; Zhang, L.

    2016-04-01

    The aggregation process of spherical particles confined in a spherical shell was studied by using a diffusion-limited cluster-cluster aggregation (DLCA) model. The influence of geometrical confinement and wetting-like properties of the spherical shell walls on the particle concentration profile, aggregate structure and aggregation kinetics had been explored. The results show that there will be either depletion or absorption particles near the shell walls depending on the wall properties. It is observed that there are four different types of density distribution which can be realized by modifying the property of the inner or outer spherical shell wall. In addition, the aggregate structure will become more compact in the confined spherical shell comparing to bulk system with the same particle volume fraction. The analysis on the aggregation kinetics indicates that geometrical confinement will promote the aggregation process by reducing the invalid movement of the small aggregates and by constraining the movement of those large aggregates. Due to the concave geometrical characteristic of the outer wall of the spherical shell, its effects on the aggregating kinetics and the structure of the formed aggregates are more evident than those of the inner wall. This study will provide some instructive information of controlling the density distribution of low-density porous polymer hollow spherical shells and helps to predict gel structures developed in confined geometries.

  12. DIFFUSED SOLUTE-SOLVENT INTERFACE WITH POISSON-BOLTZMANN ELECTROSTATICS: FREE-ENERGY VARIATION AND SHARP-INTERFACE LIMIT.

    PubMed

    Li, B O; Liu, Yuan

    A phase-field free-energy functional for the solvation of charged molecules (e.g., proteins) in aqueous solvent (i.e., water or salted water) is constructed. The functional consists of the solute volumetric and solute-solvent interfacial energies, the solute-solvent van der Waals interaction energy, and the continuum electrostatic free energy described by the Poisson-Boltzmann theory. All these are expressed in terms of phase fields that, for low free-energy conformations, are close to one value in the solute phase and another in the solvent phase. A key property of the model is that the phase-field interpolation of dielectric coefficient has the vanishing derivative at both solute and solvent phases. The first variation of such an effective free-energy functional is derived. Matched asymptotic analysis is carried out for the resulting relaxation dynamics of the diffused solute-solvent interface. It is shown that the sharp-interface limit is exactly the variational implicit-solvent model that has successfully captured capillary evaporation in hydrophobic confinement and corresponding multiple equilibrium states of underlying biomolecular systems as found in experiment and molecular dynamics simulations. Our phase-field approach and analysis can be used to possibly couple the description of interfacial fluctuations for efficient numerical computations of biomolecular interactions.

  13. Class C β-Lactamases Operate at the Diffusion Limit for Turnover of Their Preferred Cephalosporin Substrates

    PubMed Central

    Bulychev, Alexey; Mobashery, Shahriar

    1999-01-01

    It has been suggested that class C β-lactamases have evolved to carry out a metabolic reaction other than hydrolysis of β-lactam antibiotics. It is demonstrated in the present study that the class C β-lactamase from Enterobacter cloacae P99 has reached the diffusion limit in its ability to hydrolyze its preferred cephalosporin substrates. The increase in the solution viscosity by addition of a microviscogen (sucrose) caused the decline in the parameter kcat/Km for hydrolysis of cephaloridine and cephalosporin C (approximately 2.5-fold at a relative viscosity of 2.9). A similar increase in viscosity has no effect on the turnover rate of the poorer substrates cefepime and penicillin G. Addition of a macroviscogen (polyethylene glycol) to the reaction mixture did not change the rate of turnover for any of the substrates tested because in this case the viscogen would not interfere with the motion of small molecules, as was expected. Therefore, it would appear that the driving force behind the evolution of this class C β-lactamase and, in principle, other enzymes of this class is indeed the functional reaction of this enzyme as a drug resistance factor. PMID:10390233

  14. DIFFUSED SOLUTE-SOLVENT INTERFACE WITH POISSON–BOLTZMANN ELECTROSTATICS: FREE-ENERGY VARIATION AND SHARP-INTERFACE LIMIT

    PubMed Central

    LI, BO; LIU, YUAN

    2015-01-01

    A phase-field free-energy functional for the solvation of charged molecules (e.g., proteins) in aqueous solvent (i.e., water or salted water) is constructed. The functional consists of the solute volumetric and solute-solvent interfacial energies, the solute-solvent van der Waals interaction energy, and the continuum electrostatic free energy described by the Poisson–Boltzmann theory. All these are expressed in terms of phase fields that, for low free-energy conformations, are close to one value in the solute phase and another in the solvent phase. A key property of the model is that the phase-field interpolation of dielectric coefficient has the vanishing derivative at both solute and solvent phases. The first variation of such an effective free-energy functional is derived. Matched asymptotic analysis is carried out for the resulting relaxation dynamics of the diffused solute-solvent interface. It is shown that the sharp-interface limit is exactly the variational implicit-solvent model that has successfully captured capillary evaporation in hydrophobic confinement and corresponding multiple equilibrium states of underlying biomolecular systems as found in experiment and molecular dynamics simulations. Our phase-field approach and analysis can be used to possibly couple the description of interfacial fluctuations for efficient numerical computations of biomolecular interactions. PMID:26877556

  15. Estimating the concentration of aluminum-substituted hematite and goethite using diffuse reflectance spectrometry and rock magnetism: Feasibility and limitations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Pengxiang; Jiang, Zhaoxia; Liu, Qingsong; Heslop, David; Roberts, Andrew P.; Torrent, José; Barrón, Vidal

    2016-06-01

    Hematite and goethite in soils are often aluminum (Al) substituted, which can dramatically change their reflectance and magnetic properties and bias abundance estimates using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) and magnetic techniques. In this study, synthetic Al-substituted hematites and goethites and two Chinese loess/paleosol sequences were investigated to test the feasibility and limitations of estimating Al-hematite and Al-goethite concentration. When Al substitution is limited (Al/(Al + Fe) molar ratio < ~8%), the reflectance spectrum provides a reliable estimate of the goethite/hematite concentration ratio. New empirical relationships between the DRS band intensity ratio and the true concentration goethite/hematite ratio are estimated as goethite/hematite = 1.56 × (I425 nm/I535 nm) or goethite/hematite = 6.32 × (I480 nm/I535 nm), where I425 nm, I480 nm, and I535 nm are the amplitudes of DRS second-derivative curves for characteristic bands at ~425 nm, ~480 nm, and ~535 nm, respectively. High Al substitution (> ~8%) reduces DRS band intensity, which leads to biased estimates of mineral concentration. Al substitution and grain size exert a control on coercivity distributions of hematite and goethite and, thus, affect the hard isothermal remanent magnetization. By integrating DRS and magnetic methods, we suggest a way to constrain hematite and goethite Al substitution in natural loess. Results indicate that hematite and goethite in Chinese loess have Al contents lower than ~8% and, thus, that DRS can be used to trace hematite and goethite concentration variations.

  16. Congested Aggregation via Newtonian Interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craig, Katy; Kim, Inwon; Yao, Yao

    2017-08-01

    We consider a congested aggregation model that describes the evolution of a density through the competing effects of nonlocal Newtonian attraction and a hard height constraint. This provides a counterpoint to existing literature on repulsive-attractive nonlocal interaction models, where the repulsive effects instead arise from an interaction kernel or the addition of diffusion. We formulate our model as the Wasserstein gradient flow of an interaction energy, with a penalization to enforce the constraint on the height of the density. From this perspective, the problem can be seen as a singular limit of the Keller-Segel equation with degenerate diffusion. Two key properties distinguish our problem from previous work on height constrained equations: nonconvexity of the interaction kernel (which places the model outside the scope of classical gradient flow theory) and nonlocal dependence of the velocity field on the density (which causes the problem to lack a comparison principle). To overcome these obstacles, we combine recent results on gradient flows of nonconvex energies with viscosity solution theory. We characterize the dynamics of patch solutions in terms of a Hele-Shaw type free boundary problem and, using this characterization, show that in two dimensions patch solutions converge to a characteristic function of a disk in the long-time limit, with an explicit rate on the decay of the energy. We believe that a key contribution of the present work is our blended approach, combining energy methods with viscosity solution theory.

  17. Aggregate-mediated charge transport in ionomeric electrolytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Keran; Maranas, Janna; Milner, Scott

    Polymers such PEO can conduct ions, and have been studied as possible replacements for organic liquid electrolytes in rechargeable metal-ion batteries. More generally, fast room-temperature ionic conduction has been reported for a variety of materials, from liquids to crystalline solids. Unfortunately, polymer electrolytes generally have limited conductivity; these polymers are too viscous to have fast ion diffusion like liquids, and too unstructured to promote cooperative transport like crystalline solids. Ionomers are polymer electrolytes in which ionic groups are covalently bound to the polymer backbone, neutralized by free counterions. These materials also conduct ions, and can exhibit strong ionic aggregation. Using coarse-grained molecular dynamics, we explore the forces driving ionic aggregation, and describe the role ion aggregates have in mediating charge transport. The aggregates are string-like such that ions typically have two neighbors. We find ion aggregates self-assemble like worm-like micelles. Excess charge, or free ions, occasionally coordinate with aggregates and are transported along the chain in a Grotthuss-like mechanism. We propose that controlling ionomer aggregate structure through materials design can enhance cooperative ion transport.

  18. Microelectrode Measurements of the Activity Distribution in Nitrifying Bacterial Aggregates

    PubMed Central

    de Beer, D.; van den Heuvel, J. C.; Ottengraf, S. P. P.

    1993-01-01

    Microelectrodes for ammonium, oxygen, nitrate, and pH were used to study nitrifying aggregates grown in a fluidized-bed reactor. Local reactant fluxes and distribution of microbial activity could be determined from the microprofiles. The interfacial fluxes of the reactants closely reflected the stoichiometry of bacterial nitrification. Both ammonium consumption and nitrate production were localized in the outer shells, with a thickness of approximately 100 to 120 μm, of the aggregates. Under conditions in which ammonium and oxygen penetrated the whole aggregate, nitrification was restricted to this zone; oxygen was consumed in the central parts of the aggregates as well, probably because of oxidation of dead biomass. A sudden increase of the oxygen concentration to saturation (pure oxygen) was inhibitory to nitrification. The pH profiles showed acidification in the aggregates, but not to an inhibitory level. The distribution of activity was determined by the penetration depth of oxygen during aggregate development in the reactor. Mass transfer was significantly limited by the boundary layer surrounding the aggregates. Microelectrode measurements showed that the thickness of this layer was correlated with the diffusion coefficient of the species. Determination of the distribution of nitrifying activity required the use of ammonium or nitrate microelectrodes, whereas the use of oxygen microelectrodes alone would lead to erroneous results. Images PMID:16348875

  19. Aggregation Kinetics of Diesel Soot Nanoparticles in Wet Environments.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chengyu; Huang, Weilin

    2017-02-21

    Soot produced during incomplete combustion consists mainly of carbonaceous nanoparticles (NPs) with severe adverse environmental and health effects, and its environmental fate and transport are largely controlled by aggregation. In this study, we examined the aggregation behavior for diesel soot NPs under aqueous condition in an effort to elucidate the fundamental processes that govern soot particle-particle interactions in wet environments such as rain droplets or surface aquatic systems. The influence of electrolytes and aqueous pH on colloidal stability of these NPs was investigated by measuring their aggregation kinetics in different aqueous solution chemistries. The results showed that the NPs had negatively charged surfaces and exhibited both reaction- and diffusion-limited aggregation regimes with rates depended upon solution chemistry. The aggregation kinetics data were in good agreement with the classic Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (DLVO) theory. The critical coagulation concentrations (CCC) were quantified and the Hamaker constant was derived for the soot (1.4 × 10(-20) J) using the colloidal chemistry approach. The study indicated that, depending upon local aqueous chemistry, single soot NPs could remain stable against self-aggregation in typical freshwater environments and in neutral cloud droplets but are likely to aggregate under salty (e.g., estuaries) or acidic (e.g., acid rain droplets) aquatic conditions or both.

  20. Kinetic analysis of the multistep aggregation mechanism of monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Nicoud, Lucrèce; Arosio, Paolo; Sozo, Margaux; Yates, Andrew; Norrant, Edith; Morbidelli, Massimo

    2014-09-11

    We investigate by kinetic analysis the aggregation mechanism of two monoclonal antibodies belonging to the IgG1 and IgG2 subclass under thermal stress. For each IgG, we apply a combination of size exclusion chromatography and light scattering techniques to resolve the time evolution of the monomer, dimer, and trimer concentrations, as well as the average molecular weight and the average hydrodynamic radius of the aggregate distribution. By combining the detailed experimental characterization with a theoretical kinetic model based on population balance equations, we extract relevant information on the contribution of the individual elementary steps on the global aggregation process. The analysis shows that the two molecules follow different aggregation pathways under the same operating conditions. In particular, while the monomer depletion of the IgG1 is found to be rate-limited by monomeric conformational changes, bimolecular collision is identified as the rate-limiting step in the IgG2 aggregation process. The measurement of the microscopic rate constants by kinetic analysis allows the quantification of the protein-protein interaction potentials expressed in terms of the Fuchs stability ratio (W). It is found that the antibody solutions exhibit large W values, which are several orders of magnitude larger than the values computed in the frame of the DLVO theory. This indicates that, besides net electrostatic repulsion, additional effects delay the aggregation kinetics of the antibody solutions with respect to diffusion-limited conditions. These effects likely include the limited efficiency of the collision events due to the presence of a limited number of specific aggregation-prone patches on the heterogeneous protein surface, and the contribution of additional repulsive non-DLVO forces to the protein-protein interaction potential, such as hydration forces.

  1. Plasmapause diffusion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horwitz, J. L.

    1983-01-01

    The Bohm diffusion coefficient and observed electrostatic wave scattering are used as the bases of estimates of the smoothing effect that diffusion may have on steep plasmapause density gradients. The estimate for diffusion resulting from scattering by observed electrostatic waves is found to be much lower than that of the perpendicular Bohm diffusion coefficient for characteristic plasma temperatures and magnetic fields. This diffusion rate estimate may be too small, however, if the wave amplitudes are significantly higher for steep plasmapauses. The effects are therefore negligible for most considerations of macroscopic plasmapause dynamics, but may be significant in limiting drift wave instabilities and similar phenomena driven by the steepness of the plasmapause density gradient.

  2. Colloidal Aggregate Structure under Shear by USANS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatterjee, Tirtha; van Dyk, Antony K.; Ginzburg, Valeriy V.; Nakatani, Alan I.

    2015-03-01

    Paints are complex formulations of polymeric binders, inorganic pigments, dispersants, surfactants, colorants, rheology modifiers, and other additives. A commercially successful paint exhibits a desired viscosity profile over a wide shear rate range from 10-5 s-1 for settling to >104 s-1 for rolling, and spray applications. Understanding paint formulation structure is critical as it governs the paint viscosity profile. However, probing paint formulation structure under shear is a challenging task due to the formulation complexity containing structures with different hierarchical length scales and their alterations under the influence of an external flow field. In this work mesoscale structures of paint formulations under shear are investigated using Ultra Small-Angle Neutron Scattering (rheo-USANS). Contrast match conditions were utilized to independently probe the structure of latex binder particle aggregates and the TiO2 pigment particle aggregates. Rheo-USANS data revealed that the aggregates are fractal in nature and their self-similarity dimensions and correlations lengths depend on the chemistry of the binder particles, the type of rheology modifier present and the shear stress imposed upon the formulation. These results can be explained in the framework of diffusion and reaction limited transient aggregates structure evolution under simple shear.

  3. Effect of erythrocyte aggregation at pathological levels on NO/O2 transport in small arterioles.

    PubMed

    Cho, Seungkwan; Namgung, Bumseok; Kim, Han Sung; Leo, Hwa Liang; Kim, Sangho

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the effects of red blood cell (RBC) aggregation at pathological levels on NO/O2 transport in small arterioles. Transient gas diffusion simulations were performed with in vivo cell-free layer (CFL) widths data obtained from arteriolar flows in the rat cremaster muscle. The CFL data were measured at physiological and pathological levels of aggregation under reduced flow conditions (pseudoshear rate = 31.4 ± 10.5 s-1). Our results showed that the mean peak NO concentration significantly decreased with increasing the aggregation level from non-aggregating to normal-aggregating (P < 0.05) and to hyper-aggregating (P < 0.01) conditions. In contrast, the partial O2 pressure (PO2) in pathological aggregating conditions significantly increased from those under non-aggregating (P < 0.001) and normal-aggregating (P < 0.05) conditions. Although the NO scavenging by RBCs could be impaired with a thicker CFL at higher levels of aggregation, the overall decrease in NO production due to reduction of wall shear stress with the thicker CFL dominantly limited the NO availability in tissue. On the other hand, the O2 availability in tissue increased due to the relatively high core hematocrit in the blood lumen with the thicker CFL.

  4. Cell aggregation: Packing soft grains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Åström, J. A.; Karttunen, M.

    2006-06-01

    Cellular aggregates may be considered as collections of membrane enclosed units with a pressure difference between the internal and external liquid phases. Cells are kept together by membrane adhesion and/or confined space compression. Pattern formation and, in particular, intercellular spacing have important roles in controlling solvent diffusion within such aggregates. A physical approach is used to study generic aspects of cellular packings in a confined space. Average material properties are derived from the free energy. The appearance of penetrating intercellular void channels is found to be critically governed by the cell wall adhesion mechanisms during the formation of dense aggregates. A fully relaxed aggregate efficiently hinders solvent diffusion at high hydrostatic pressures, while a small fraction (˜0.1) of adhesion related packing frustration is sufficient for breaking such a blockage even at high a pressure.

  5. Limitations of the commonly used simplified laterally uniform optical fiber probe-tissue interface in Monte Carlo simulations of diffuse reflectance

    PubMed Central

    Naglič, Peter; Pernuš, Franjo; Likar, Boštjan; Bürmen, Miran

    2015-01-01

    Light propagation models often simplify the interface between the optical fiber probe tip and tissue to a laterally uniform boundary with mismatched refractive indices. Such simplification neglects the precise optical properties of the commonly used probe tip materials, e.g. stainless steel or black epoxy. In this paper, we investigate the limitations of the laterally uniform probe-tissue interface in Monte Carlo simulations of diffuse reflectance. In comparison to a realistic probe-tissue interface that accounts for the layout and properties of the probe tip materials, the simplified laterally uniform interface is shown to introduce significant errors into the simulated diffuse reflectance. PMID:26504647

  6. Fractal structure and the dynamics of aggregation of synthetic melanin in low pH aqueous solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, J.S.; Sung, J.; Eisner, M.; Moss, S.C.; Gallas, J.

    1989-01-01

    We have used static and dynamic light scattering to study the dynamics of aggregation of synthetic melanin, an amorphous biopolymeric substance, in low pH aqueous solution. We have found that, depending on the final pH value of the solutions, there existed two regimes of the aggregation kinetics, one corresponding to diffusion limited aggregation (DLA), and the other corresponding to reaction limited aggregation (RLA). The precipitates formed in these two regimes can be characterized by fractal structures. We have found fractal dimensions of d/sub f/ = 1.8 for the DLA clusters and d/sub f/ = 2.2 for the RLA clusters. These results agree well with the proposed limits of the fractal dimensions of the gold aggregates formed in aqueous solutions by Weitz et al.

  7. The fractal structure and the dynamics of aggregation of synthetic melanin in low pH aqueous solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, J. S.; Sung, J.; Eisner, M.; Moss, S. C.; Gallas, J.

    1989-01-01

    We have used static and dynamic light scattering to study the dynamics of aggregation of synthetic melanin, an amorphous biopolymeric substance, in low pH aqueous solution. We have found that, depending on the final pH value of the solutions, there existed two regimes of the aggregation kinetics, one corresponding to diffusion limited aggregation (DLA), and the other corresponding to reaction limited aggregation (RLA). The precipitates formed in these two regimes can be characterized by fractal structures. We have found fractal dimensions of df =1.8 for the DLA clusters and df =2.2 for the RLA clusters. These results agree well with the proposed limits of the fractal dimensions of the gold aggregates formed in aqueous solutions by Weitz et al.

  8. Construction aggregates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tepordei, V.V.

    1994-01-01

    Part of a special section on industrial minerals in 1993. The 1993 production of construction aggregates increased 6.3 percent over the 1992 figure, to reach 2.01 Gt. This represents the highest estimated annual production of combined crushed stone and construction sand and gravel ever recorded in the U.S. The outlook for construction aggregates and the issues facing the industry are discussed.

  9. Archean Earth Atmosphere Fractal Haze Aggregates: Light Scattering Calculations and the Faint Young Sun Paradox

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boness, D. A.; Terrell-Martinez, B.

    2010-12-01

    As part of an ongoing undergraduate research project of light scattering calculations involving fractal carbonaceous soot aggregates relevant to current anthropogenic and natural sources in Earth's atmosphere, we have read with interest a recent paper [E.T. Wolf and O.B Toon,Science 328, 1266 (2010)] claiming that the Faint Young Sun paradox discussed four decades ago by Carl Sagan and others can be resolved without invoking heavy CO2 concentrations as a greenhouse gas warming the early Earth enough to sustain liquid water and hence allow the origin of life. Wolf and Toon report that a Titan-like Archean Earth haze, with a fractal haze aggregate nature due to nitrogen-methane photochemistry at high altitudes, should block enough UV light to protect the warming greenhouse gas NH3 while allowing enough visible light to reach the surface of the Earth. To test this hypothesis, we have employed a rigorous T-Matrix arbitrary-particle light scattering technique, to avoid the simplifications inherent in Mie-sphere scattering, on haze fractal aggregates at UV and visible wavelenths of incident light. We generate these model aggregates using diffusion-limited cluster aggregation (DLCA) algorithms, which much more closely fit actual haze fractal aggregates than do diffusion-limited aggregation (DLA) algorithms.

  10. Serum levels, tissue expression and cellular secretion of macrophage migration inhibitory factor in limited and diffuse systemic sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Corallo, Claudio; Paulesu, Luana; Cutolo, Maurizio; Ietta, Francesca; Carotenuto, Claudio; Mannelli, Chiara; Romagnoli, Roberta; Nuti, Ranuccio; Giordano, Nicola

    2015-01-01

    To investigate serum levels, tissue/cellular expression of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) in patients with limited (lSSc) and diffuse (dSSc) systemic sclerosis. 10 lSSc-patients, 10 dSSc-patients and 10 controls were enrolled. MIF serum levels were assayed by ELISA. MIF and its receptors CD74/CD44 were evaluated by immunohistochemistry on skin biopsies from patients with dSSc, lSSc (affected and not-affected skin) and controls. MIF levels were assessed (ELISA) in supernatants of healthy dermal microvascular endothelial cells (MVECs) and in control (CTR), non-affected SSc (NA) and affected (SSc) fibroblasts treated for 48 h with 10% control serum and 10% SSc-serum. MIF supernatant (ELISA) and mRNA (quantitative real-time PCR) levels were determined in SSc dermal fibroblasts and in control dermal fibroblasts untreated or stimulated at 6 h-24 h-48 h with bleomycin (50 mU/ml). Serum MIF was significantly higher in dSSc (18.7±4.1 ng/ml, p<0.001) and in lSSc (10.4±4.4 ng/ml, p<0.001) patients respect to controls (2.6±1.4 ng/ml). Enhanced MIF immunoreactivity was found in keratinocytes, fibroblasts, endothelium, sebaceous/sweat glands from lSSc/dSSc affected skin. Faint MIF immunoreactivity was found in control skin and not-affected skin of lSSc patients. No differences were found in CD74/CD44 receptors' analysis among control and dSSc/lSSc affected and non-affected skin. MVECs and fibroblasts (CTR, NA and SSc) produced significantly more MIF, when stimulated with SSc serum respect to control-serum (p<0.001). Finally, MIF mRNA levels significantly increased at 6h (p<0.001) and decreased at 48 h (p<0.001) in control fibroblasts treated with bleomycin compared to control untreated. Simultaneously, MIF supernatant protein levels increased after 48 h (p<0.01) in bleomycin-treated fibroblasts respect to untreated ones. These results suggest that MIF could be implicated in the pathogenesis of SSc, probably acting as protective factor against the SSc stressful

  11. Maskless direct laser writing with visible light: Breaking through the optical resolving limit with cooperative manipulations of nonlinear reverse saturation absorption and thermal diffusion

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, Jingsong; Wang, Rui

    2014-03-28

    In this work, the resolving limit of maskless direct laser writing is overcome by cooperative manipulation from nonlinear reverse saturation absorption and thermal diffusion, where the nonlinear reverse saturation absorption can induce the formation of below diffraction-limited energy absorption spot, and the thermal diffusion manipulation can make the heat quantity at the central region of energy absorption spot propagate along the thin film thickness direction. The temperature at the central region of energy absorption spot transiently reaches up to melting point and realizes nanolithography. The sample “glass substrate/AgInSbTe” is prepared, where AgInSbTe is taken as nonlinear reverse saturation absorption thin film. The below diffraction-limited energy absorption spot is simulated theoretically and verified experimentally by near-field spot scanning method. The “glass substrate/Al/AgInSbTe” sample is prepared, where the Al is used as thermal conductive layer to manipulate the thermal diffusion channel because the thermal diffusivity coefficient of Al is much larger than that of AgInSbTe. The direct laser writing is conducted by a setup with a laser wavelength of 650 nm and a converging lens of NA=0.85, the lithographic marks with a size of about 100 nm are obtained, and the size is only about 1/10 the incident focused spot. The experimental results indicate that the cooperative manipulation from nonlinear reverse saturation absorption and thermal diffusion is a good method to realize nanolithography in maskless direct laser writing with visible light.

  12. Importance of leaf anatomy in determining mesophyll diffusion conductance to CO2 across species: quantitative limitations and scaling up by models

    PubMed Central

    Tomás, Magdalena; Flexas, Jaume; Copolovici, Lucian; Galmés, Jeroni; Hallik, Lea; Medrano, Hipólito; Ribas-Carbó, Miquel; Tosens, Tiina; Vislap, Vivian; Niinemets, Ülo

    2013-01-01

    Foliage photosynthetic and structural traits were studied in 15 species with a wide range of foliage anatomies to gain insight into the importance of key anatomical traits in the limitation of diffusion of CO2 from substomatal cavities to chloroplasts. The relative importance of different anatomical traits in constraining CO2 diffusion was evaluated using a quantitative model. Mesophyll conductance (g m) was most strongly correlated with chloroplast exposed surface to leaf area ratio (S c/S) and cell wall thickness (T cw), but, depending on foliage structure, the overall importance of g m in constraining photosynthesis and the importance of different anatomical traits in the restriction of CO2 diffusion varied. In species with mesophytic leaves, membrane permeabilities and cytosol and stromal conductance dominated the variation in g m. However, in species with sclerophytic leaves, g m was mostly limited by T cw. These results demonstrate the major role of anatomy in constraining mesophyll diffusion conductance and, consequently, in determining the variability in photosynthetic capacity among species. PMID:23564954

  13. Free-living bacterial communities associated with tubeworm (Ridgeia piscesae) aggregations in contrasting diffuse flow hydrothermal vent habitats at the Main Endeavour Field, Juan de Fuca Ridge.

    PubMed

    Forget, Nathalie L; Kim Juniper, S

    2013-04-01

    We systematically studied free-living bacterial diversity within aggregations of the vestimentiferan tubeworm Ridgeia piscesae sampled from two contrasting flow regimes (High Flow and Low Flow) in the Endeavour Hydrothermal Vents Marine Protected Area (MPA) on the Juan de Fuca Ridge (Northeast Pacific). Eight samples of particulate detritus were recovered from paired tubeworm grabs from four vent sites. Most sequences (454 tag and Sanger methods) were affiliated to the Epsilonproteobacteria, and the sulfur-oxidizing genus Sulfurovum was dominant in all samples. Gammaproteobacteria were also detected, mainly in Low Flow sequence libraries, and were affiliated with known methanotrophs and decomposers. The cooccurrence of sulfur reducers from the Deltaproteobacteria and the Epsilonproteobacteria suggests internal sulfur cycling within these habitats. Other phyla detected included Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria, Chloroflexi, Firmicutes, Planctomycetes, Verrucomicrobia, and Deinococcus-Thermus. Statistically significant relationships between sequence library composition and habitat type suggest a predictable pattern for High Flow and Low Flow environments. Most sequences significantly more represented in High Flow libraries were related to sulfur and hydrogen oxidizers, while mainly heterotrophic groups were more represented in Low Flow libraries. Differences in temperature, available energy for metabolism, and stability between High Flow and Low Flow habitats potentially explain their distinct bacterial communities. © 2013 The Authors. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  14. Free-living bacterial communities associated with tubeworm (Ridgeia piscesae) aggregations in contrasting diffuse flow hydrothermal vent habitats at the Main Endeavour Field, Juan de Fuca Ridge

    PubMed Central

    Forget, Nathalie L; Kim Juniper, S

    2013-01-01

    We systematically studied free-living bacterial diversity within aggregations of the vestimentiferan tubeworm Ridgeia piscesae sampled from two contrasting flow regimes (High Flow and Low Flow) in the Endeavour Hydrothermal Vents Marine Protected Area (MPA) on the Juan de Fuca Ridge (Northeast Pacific). Eight samples of particulate detritus were recovered from paired tubeworm grabs from four vent sites. Most sequences (454 tag and Sanger methods) were affiliated to the Epsilonproteobacteria, and the sulfur-oxidizing genus Sulfurovum was dominant in all samples. Gammaproteobacteria were also detected, mainly in Low Flow sequence libraries, and were affiliated with known methanotrophs and decomposers. The cooccurrence of sulfur reducers from the Deltaproteobacteria and the Epsilonproteobacteria suggests internal sulfur cycling within these habitats. Other phyla detected included Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria, Chloroflexi, Firmicutes, Planctomycetes, Verrucomicrobia, and Deinococcus–Thermus. Statistically significant relationships between sequence library composition and habitat type suggest a predictable pattern for High Flow and Low Flow environments. Most sequences significantly more represented in High Flow libraries were related to sulfur and hydrogen oxidizers, while mainly heterotrophic groups were more represented in Low Flow libraries. Differences in temperature, available energy for metabolism, and stability between High Flow and Low Flow habitats potentially explain their distinct bacterial communities. PMID:23401293

  15. Diffusion and aggregation process of oxygen embedded around an amorphous/crystal interface of Si(001) studied by molecular dynamics simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoshino, Yasushi

    2017-05-01

    I performed empirical molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to understand the peculiar migration behavior of oxygen embedded in an amorphous Si (a-Si) layer near the crystal/amorphous (c/a) Si interface and investigated the time evolution of the atomic configuration at high temperatures from 1200 to 1500 K. The previously proposed sweeping effect, which is demonstrated in terms of the oxygen migration and precipitation in silicon taking place along the moving c/a interface, was definitely confirmed in this MD simulation. [Hoshino et al., J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 49, 315106 (2016)] In the present study, I reproducibly found the theoretical evidence of the novel sweeping and aggregation phenomenon of oxygen occurring in the recrystallization process of a-Si. The temperature-dependence revealed that the relationship between the displacement velocity of the oxygen and the c/a interface plays an important role in interpreting the behavior. The oxide precipitations in the recrystallized Si as well as the sweeping effect were well reproduced in the simulation in which the systems containing several oxygen atoms were assumed. These facts significantly well explain and support my interpretation in the previous papers reported on the synthesis mechanism of the ultrathin silicon-on-insulator/buried oxide structure prepared by low-energy implantation followed by relatively low temperature annealing, compared to the ordinary separation by the implanted oxygen process.

  16. Connectivity of diffusing particles continually deposited on a surface: relation to LECBD experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jensen, Pablo; Barabási, Albert-László; Larralde, Hernán; Havlin, Shlomo; Eugene Stanley, H.

    1994-06-01

    We generalize the conventional model of two-dimensional site percolation by including both (1) continuous deposition of particles on a two-dimensional substrate, and (2) diffusion of these particles in two-dimensions. This new model is motivated by recent thin film deposition experiments using the low-energy cluster beam deposition (LECBD) technique. Depending on various parameters such as deposition flux, diffusion constant, and system size, we find a rich range of fractal morphologies including diffusion limited aggregation (DLA), cluster-cluster aggregation (CCA), and percolation.

  17. Two phase morphology limits lithium diffusion in TiO(2)(anatase): a (7)Li MAS NMR study.

    PubMed

    Wagemaker, M; van de Krol, R; Kentgens, A P; van Well, A A; Mulder, F M

    2001-11-21

    7Li magic angle spinning solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance is applied to investigate the lithium local environment and lithium ion mobility in tetragonal anatase TiO(2) and orthorhombic lithium titanate Li(0.6)TiO(2). Upon lithium insertion, an increasing fraction of the material changes its crystallographic structure from anatase TiO(2) to lithium titanate Li(0.6)TiO(2). Phase separation occurs, and as a result, the Li-rich lithium titanate phase is coexisting with the Li-poor TiO(2) phase containing only small Li amounts approximately equal to 0.01. In both the anatase and the lithium titanate lattice, Li is found to be hopping over the available sites with activation energies of 0.2 and 0.09 eV, respectively. This leads to rapid microscopic diffusion rates at room temperature (D(micr) = 4.7 x 10(-12) cm(2)s(-1) in anatase and D(micr) = 1.3 x 10(-11) cm(2)s(-1) in lithium titanate). However, macroscopic intercalation data show activation energies of approximately 0.5 eV and smaller diffusion coefficients. We suggest that the diffusion through the phase boundary is determining the activation energy of the overall diffusion and the overall diffusion rate itself. The chemical shift of lithium in anatase is independent of temperature up to approximately 250 K but decreases at higher temperatures, reflecting a change in the 3d conduction electron densities. The Li mobility becomes prominent from this same temperature showing that such electronic effects possibly facilitate the mobility.

  18. Spatial Modeling of Iron Transformations Within Artificial Soil Aggregates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kausch, M.; Meile, C.; Pallud, C.

    2008-12-01

    Structured soils exhibit significant variations in transport characteristics at the aggregate scale. Preferential flow occurs through macropores while predominantly diffusive exchange takes place in intra-aggregate micropores. Such environments characterized by mass transfer limitations are conducive to the formation of small-scale chemical gradients and promote strong spatial variation in processes controlling the fate of redox-sensitive elements such as Fe. In this study, we present a reactive transport model used to spatially resolve iron bioreductive processes occurring within a spherical aggregate at the interface between advective and diffusive domains. The model is derived from current conceptual models of iron(hydr)oxide (HFO) transformations and constrained by literature and experimental data. Data were obtained from flow-through experiments on artificial soil aggregates inoculated with Shewanella putrefaciens strain CN32, and include the temporal evolution of the bulk solution composition, as well as spatial information on the final solid phase distribution within aggregates. With all iron initially in the form of ferrihydrite, spatially heterogeneous formation of goethite/lepidocrocite, magnetite and siderite was observed during the course of the experiments. These transformations were reproduced by the model, which ascribes a central role to divalent iron as a driver of HFO transformations and master variable in the rate laws of the considered reaction network. The predicted dissolved iron breakthrough curves also match the experimental ones closely. Thus, the computed chemical concentration fields help identify factors governing the observed trends in the solid phase distribution patterns inside the aggregate. Building on a mechanistic description of transformation reactions, fluid flow and solute transport, the model was able to describe the observations and hence illustrates the importance of small-scale gradients and dynamics of bioreductive

  19. Aggregation in charged nanoparticles solutions induced by different interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Abbas, S.; Kumar, Sugam; Aswal, V. K.; Kohlbrecher, J.

    2016-05-23

    Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) has been used to study the aggregation of anionic silica nanoparticles as induced through different interactions. The nanoparticle aggregation is induced by addition of salt (NaCl), cationic protein (lysozyme) and non-ionic surfactant (C12E10) employing different kind of interactions. The results show that the interaction in presence of salt can be explained using DLVO theory whereas non-DLVO forces play important role for interaction of nanoparticles with protein and surfactant. The presence of salt screens the repulsion between charged nanoparticles giving rise to a net attraction in the DLVO potential. On the other hand, strong electrostatic attraction between nanoparticle and oppositely charged protein leads to protein-mediated nanoparticle aggregation. In case of non-ionic surfactant, the relatively long-range attractive depletion interaction is found to be responsible for the particle aggregation. Interestingly, the completely different interactions lead to similar kind of aggregate morphology. The nanoparticle aggregates formed are found to have mass fractal nature having a fractal dimension (~2.5) consistent with diffusion limited type of fractal morphology in all three cases.

  20. Gel-Entrapped Staphylococcus aureus Bacteria as Models of Biofilm Infection Exhibit Growth in Dense Aggregates, Oxygen Limitation, Antibiotic Tolerance, and Heterogeneous Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Pabst, Breana; Pitts, Betsey; Lauchnor, Ellen

    2016-01-01

    An experimental model that mimicked the structure and characteristics of in vivo biofilm infections, such as those occurring in the lung or in dermal wounds where no biomaterial surface is present, was developed. In these infections, microbial biofilm forms as cell aggregates interspersed in a layer of mucus or host matrix material. This structure was modeled by filling glass capillary tubes with an agarose gel that had been seeded with Staphylococcus aureus bacteria and then incubating the gel biofilm in medium for up to 30 h. Confocal microscopy showed that the bacteria formed in discrete pockets distributed throughout the gel matrix. These aggregates enlarged over time and also developed a size gradient, with the clusters being larger near the nutrient- and oxygen-supplied interface and smaller at greater depths. Bacteria entrapped in gels for 24 h grew slowly (specific growth rate, 0.06 h−1) and were much less susceptible to oxacillin, minocycline, or ciprofloxacin than planktonic cells. Microelectrode measurements showed that the oxygen concentration decreased with depth into the gel biofilm, falling to values less than 3% of air saturation at depths of 500 μm. An anaerobiosis-responsive green fluorescent protein reporter gene for lactate dehydrogenase was induced in the region of the gel where the measured oxygen concentrations were low, confirming biologically relevant hypoxia. These results show that the gel biofilm model captures key features of biofilm infection in mucus or compromised tissue: formation of dense, distinct aggregates, reduced specific growth rates, local hypoxia, and antibiotic tolerance. PMID:27503656

  1. Chondrogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cell aggregates via controlled release of TGF-β1 from incorporated polymer microspheres

    PubMed Central

    Solorio, Loran D.; Fu, Andrew S.; Hernández-Irizarry, Roberto; Alsberg, Eben

    2013-01-01

    Aggregate culture is a useful method for inducing chondrogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC) in a three-dimensional in vitro culture environment. Conventional aggregate culture, however, typically requires repeated growth factor supplementation during media changes, which is both expensive and time-intensive. In addition, homogenous cell differentiation is limited by the diffusion of chondrogenic growth factor from the culture medium into the aggregate and peripheral cell consumption of the growth factor. We have engineered a technology to incorporate growth factor-loaded polymer microspheres within hMSC aggregates themselves. Here, we report on the system’s capacity to induce chondrogenesis via sustained delivery of transforming growth factor-b1 (TGF-β1). Cartilage formation after 3 weeks in the absence of externally supplied growth factor approached that of aggregates cultured by conventional methods. Chondrogenesis in the central region of the aggregates is enabled at TGF-β1 levels much lower than those required by conventional culture using exogenously supplied TGF-β1, which is likely a result of the system’s ability to overcome limitations of growth factor diffusion from cell culture media surrounding the exterior of the aggregates. Importantly, the inclusion of growth factor-releasing polymer microspheres in hMSC aggregates could enable in vivo chondrogenesis for cartilage tissue engineering applications without extensive in vitro culture. PMID:19322820

  2. Oligomeric baroeffect and gas aggregation states

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noever, David A.

    1992-01-01

    The baroeffect is analyzed to include a gas that aggregates into higher-order polymers or oligomers. The resulting pressure change is found to vary independently of the molecular weight of the gas components and to depend only on the aggregation or oligomeric order of the gas. With increasing aggregation, diffusive slip velocities are found to increase. The calculations are extended to include general counterdiffusion of two distinct aggregation states (k-, j-mer) for the gas, and the pressure change is derived as a function that is independent of both molecular weight and the absolute aggregation. The only parameter that determines the baroeffect is the ratio of aggregated states, beta = k/j. For gases that reversibly aggregate, possible oscillatory behavior and complex dynamics for pressure are discussed. Gas aggregation may play a role for low-temperature crystal-growth conditions in which vapor concentrations of one (or more) species are high.

  3. Effect of surface properties of elastomer colloids on their coalescence and aggregation kinetics.

    PubMed

    Gauer, Cornelius; Wu, Hua; Morbidelli, Massimo

    2009-10-20

    We study the aggregation kinetics of two elastomer colloids with similar bulk polymer properties but with different surface charge groups in order to understand the role of the surface properties in particle coalescence during aggregation. It is confirmed that clusters of the elastomer particles stabilized purely by ionic surfactants coalesce in both reaction-limited and diffusion-limited aggregation (RLCA and DLCA) regimes and that the coalescence is independent of the coagulant type. On the other hand, clusters formed by elastomer particles stabilized by charged polymer end groups, which are fixed on the particle surface, are fractal objects with a fractal dimension of 1.7 in the DLCA and 2.1 in the RLCA regime. This indicates insignificant cluster coalescence during aggregation, most likely due to a hindrance effect of the fixed charges.

  4. Computer simulation and mode coupling theory study of the effects of specific solute-solvent interactions on diffusion: Crossover from a sub-slip to a super-stick limit of diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivas, Groundla; Bhattacharyya, Sarika; Bagchi, Biman

    1999-03-01

    In many experimental situations, the interaction potential between the tagged solute and the solvent molecules is often different from that between the two solvent molecules. In such cases, the Stokes-Einstein relation attempts to describe the self-diffusion of the solute in terms of an effective hydrodynamic radius which, along with the hydrodynamic boundary condition (slip or stick), are varied to fit the experimental results. Extensive molecular dynamics (MD) simulations have been carried out to obtain the diffusion coefficient by varying interaction between the solute and the solvent. It is found that when this interaction is more repulsive than that between solvent-solvent, the diffusion can be significantly faster, leading to a complete breakdown of the Stokes-Einstein relation. In the limit of strong attractive interaction, we recover a dynamic version of the solvent-berg picture. The diffusion coefficient of the solute is found to depend strongly and nonlinearly on the magnitude of this specific interaction. The velocity correlation function also shows an interesting dependence on the sign and magnitude of the specific interaction. Another potentially important observation is that the specific solute-solvent interaction can induce a crossover from a sliplike to a stick-like diffusion, if one still uses the hydrodynamic language. Mode coupling theory analysis of the friction shows that the change in it originates largely from the modification of the binary component of the total friction. This is because the cage structure around the solute is modified due to the specific solute-solvent interaction, which directly affects the binary dynamics.

  5. Aggregation and sedimentation in gas-fluidized beds of cohesive powders.

    PubMed

    Castellanos, A; Valverde, J M; Quintanilla, M A

    2001-10-01

    We present measurements on the settling velocity of gas-fluidized beds of fine cohesive powders. In the solidlike regime (solid volume fraction straight phi>straight phi(c)) particles are static, sustained by enduring contacts. The settling is hindered by interparticle contacts and is a very slow process. In the fluidlike regime (straight phidiffusive dynamics. The interparticle adhesive force leads to the formation of particle aggregates, and for this reason the sedimentation velocity exceeds the predicted value by empirical or theoretical laws on the settling of individual particles. We use an extension of the Richardson-Zaki empirical law for the settling of aggregates in the fluidlike regime to fit the experimental data. Aggregates are characterized by the number of aggregated particles N and by an effective radius R. The trend followed by these parameters with particle size is confirmed by direct visualization of the aggregates, and shows that cohesive effects become important when the adhesion force between particles is above particle weight. Results show that aggregates form open structures with a fractal dimension close to the predicted one in the diffusion-limited-aggregation model (D=2.5).

  6. Conditions for self-consistent aggregation by chemotactic particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoue, Masayo; Kaneko, Kunihiko

    2008-04-01

    We have numerically studied chemotactic aggregation of microorganisms by introducing a model consisting of elements with intracellular dynamics, random walks with a state-dependent turnover rate, and secretion of attractant. Three phases with and without aggregation, as well as partial aggregation, were obtained as to the diffusion and degradation rates of the attractant, and conditions for cellular aggregation were analyzed. The size of aggregated clusters was shown to be independent of cell density, as is consistent with experiment.

  7. Nonspecific shielding of unfavorable electrostatic intramolecular interactions in the erythropoietin native-state increase conformational stability and limit non-native aggregation

    PubMed Central

    Banks, Douglas D

    2015-01-01

    Previous equilibrium and kinetic folding studies of the glycoprotein erythropoietin indicate that sodium chloride increases the conformational stability of this therapeutically important cytokine, ostensibly by stabilizing the native-state [Banks DD, (2011) The Effect of Glycosylation on the Folding Kinetics of Erythropoietin. J Mol Biol 412:536–550]. The focus of the current report is to determine the underlying cause of the salt dependent increase in erythropoietin conformational stability and to understand if it has any impact on aggregation, an instability that remains a challenge to the biotech industry in maintaining the efficacy and shelf-life of protein therapeutics. Isothermal urea denaturation experiments conducted at numerous temperatures in the absence and presence of sodium chloride indicated that salt stabilizes erythropoietin primarily by increasing the difference in enthalpy between the native and unfolded sates. This result, and the finding that the salt induced increases in erythropoietin melting temperatures were independent of the identity of the salt cation and anion, indicates that salt likely increases the conformational stability of erythropoietin at neutral pH by nonspecific shielding of unfavorable electrostatic interaction(s) in the native-state. The addition of salt (even low concentrations of the strong chaotrope salt guanidinium hydrochloride) also exponentially decreased the initial rate of soluble erythropoietin non-native aggregation at 37 °C storage. PMID:25628168

  8. Reinforcement of rubber by fractal aggregates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witten, T. A.; Rubinstein, M.; Colby, R. H.

    1993-03-01

    Rubber is commonly reinforced with colloidal aggregates of carbon or silica, whose structure has the scale invariance of a fractal object. Reinforced rubbers support large stresses, which often grow faster than linearly with the strain. We argue that under strong elongation the stress arises through lateral compression of the aggregates, driven by the large bulk modulus of the rubber. We derive a power-law relationship between stress and elongation λ when λgg 1. The predicted power p depends on the fractal dimension D and a second structural scaling exponent C. For diffusion-controlled aggregates this power p should lie beween 0.9 and 1.1 ; for reaction-controlled aggregates p should lie between 1.8 and 2.4. For uniaxial compression the analogous powers lie near 4. Practical rubbers filled with fractal aggregates should approach the conditions of validity for these scaling laws. On renforce souvent le caoutchouc avec des agrégats de carbone ou de silice dont la structure a l'invariance par dilatation d'un objet fractal. Les caoutchoucs ainsi renforcés supportent de grandes contraintes qui croissent souvent plus vite que l'élongation. Nous prétendons que, sous élongation forte, cette contrainte apparaît à cause d'une compression latérale des agrégats induite par le module volumique important du caoutchouc. Nous établissons une loi de puissance reliant la contrainte et l'élongation λ quand λgg 1. Cet exposant p dépend de la dimension fractale D et d'un deuxième exposant structural C. Pour des agrégats dont la cinétique de formation est limitée par diffusion, p vaut entre 0,9 et 1,1. Si la cinétique est limitée par le soudage local des particules, p vaut entre 1,8 et 2,4. Sous compression uniaxiale, les puissances homologues valent environ 4. Des caoutchoucs pratiques chargés de tels agrégats devraient approcher des conditions où ces lois d'échelle sont valables.

  9. Aggregation kinetics and dissolution of coated silver nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Li, Xuan; Lenhart, John J; Walker, Harold W

    2012-01-17

    Determining the fate of manufactured nanomaterials in the environment is contingent upon understanding how stabilizing agents influence the stability of nanoparticles in aqueous systems. In this study, the aggregation and dissolution tendencies of uncoated silver nanoparticles and the same particles coated with three common coating agents, trisodium citrate, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), and Tween 80 (Tween), were evaluated. Early stage aggregation kinetics of the uncoated and coated silver nanoparticles were assessed by dynamic light scattering over a range of electrolyte types (NaCl, NaNO(3), and CaCl(2)) and concentrations that span those observed in natural waters. Although particle dissolution was observed, aggregation of all particle types was still consistent with classical Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (DLVO) theory. The aggregation of citrate-coated particles and SDS-coated particles were very similar to that for the uncoated particles, as the critical coagulation concentrations (CCC) of the particles in different electrolytes were all approximately the same (40 mM NaCl, 30 mM NaNO(3), and 2 mM CaCl(2)). The Tween-stabilized particles were significantly more stable than the other particles, however, and in NaNO(3) aggregation was not observed up to an electrolyte concentration of 1 M. Differences in the rate of aggregation under diffusion-limited aggregation conditions at high electrolyte concentrations for the SDS and Tween-coated particles, in combination with the moderation of their electrophoretic mobilities, suggest SDS and Tween imparted steric interactions to the particles. The dissolution of the silver nanoparticles was inhibited by the SDS and Tween coatings, but not by the citrate coating, and in chloride-containing electrolytes a secondary precipitate of AgCl was observed bridging the individual particles. These results indicate that coating agents could significant influence the fate of silver nanoparticles in aquatic systems, and in some

  10. Construction aggregates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tepordei, V.V.

    1996-01-01

    Part of the Annual Commodities Review 1995. Production of construction aggregates such as crushed stone and construction sand and gravel showed a marginal increase in 1995. Most of the 1995 increases were due to funding for highway construction work. The major areas of concern to the industry included issues relating to wetlands classification and the classification of crystalline silica as a probable human carcinogen. Despite this, an increase in demand is anticipated for 1996.

  11. Construction aggregates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelson, T.I.; Bolen, W.P.

    2007-01-01

    Construction aggregates, primarily stone, sand and gravel, are recovered from widespread naturally occurring mineral deposits and processed for use primarily in the construction industry. They are mined, crushed, sorted by size and sold loose or combined with portland cement or asphaltic cement to make concrete products to build roads, houses, buildings, and other structures. Much smaller quantities are used in agriculture, cement manufacture, chemical and metallurgical processes, glass production and many other products.

  12. Construction aggregates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tepordei, V.V.

    1993-01-01

    Part of a special section on the market performance of industrial minerals in 1992. Production of construction aggregates increased by 4.6 percent in 1992. This increase was due, in part, to the increased funding for transportation and infrastructure projects. The U.S. produced about 1.05 Gt of crushed stone and an estimated 734 Mt of construction sand and gravel in 1992. Demand is expected to increase by about 5 percent in 1993.

  13. Model demonstrating the potential for coupled nitrification denitrification in soil aggregates.

    PubMed

    Kremen, Arie; Bear, Jacob; Shavit, Uri; Shaviv, Avi

    2005-06-01

    A model of reactive, multi-species diffusion has been developed to describe N transformations in spherical soil aggregates, emphasizing the effects of irrigation with reclaimed wastewater. Oxygen demand for respiratory activity has been shown to promote the establishment of anaerobic conditions. Aggregate size and soil respiration rate were identified as the most significant parameters governing the existence and extent of the anaerobic volume in aggregates. The inclusion of kinetic models describing mineralization, nitrification, and denitrification facilitated the investigation of coupled nitrification/denitrification (CND), subject to O2 availability. N-transformations are shown to be affected by effluent-borne NH4+-N content, in addition to elevated BOD and pH levels. Their incremental contribution to O2 availability has been found to be secondary to respiratory activity. At the aggregate level, significant differences between apparent and gross rates of N-transformations were predicted (e.g., NH4+ oxidation and N2 formation), resulting from diffusive constraints due to aggregate size. With increasing anaerobic volume, the effective nitrification rate determined at the aggregates level decreases until its contribution to nitrification is negligible. It was found that the nitrification process was predominantly limited to aggregates <0.25 cm. Assuming that nitrification is the main source for NO3- formation, denitrification efficiency is predicted to peak in medium-sized aggregates, where aerobic and anaerobic conditions coexist, supporting CND. In effluent-irrigated soils, the predicted NO2- formation rate in small aggregates is enhanced when compared to freshwater-irrigated soils. The difference vanishes with increasing aggregate size as anaerobic NO2- consumption exceeds aerobic NO2- formation due to the coupling of nitrification and denitrification.

  14. Delayed plastic relaxation limit in SiGe islands grown by Ge diffusion from a local source

    SciTech Connect

    Vanacore, G. M.; Zani, M.; Tagliaferri, A.; Nicotra, G.; Bollani, M.; Bonera, E.; Montalenti, F.; Picco, A.; Boioli, F.; Capellini, G.; Isella, G.; Osmond, J.

    2015-03-14

    The hetero-epitaxial strain relaxation in nano-scale systems plays a fundamental role in shaping their properties. Here, the elastic and plastic relaxation of self-assembled SiGe islands grown by surface-thermal-diffusion from a local Ge solid source on Si(100) are studied by atomic force and transmission electron microscopies, enabling the simultaneous investigation of the strain relaxation in different dynamical regimes. Islands grown by this technique remain dislocation-free and preserve a structural coherence with the substrate for a base width as large as 350 nm. The results indicate that a delay of the plastic relaxation is promoted by an enhanced Si-Ge intermixing, induced by the surface-thermal-diffusion, which takes place already in the SiGe overlayer before the formation of a critical nucleus. The local entropy of mixing dominates, leading the system toward a thermodynamic equilibrium, where non-dislocated, shallow islands with a low residual stress are energetically stable. These findings elucidate the role of the interface dynamics in modulating the lattice distortion at the nano-scale, and highlight the potential use of our growth strategy to create composition and strain-controlled nano-structures for new-generation devices.

  15. Limited information estimation of the diffusion-based item response theory model for responses and response times.

    PubMed

    Ranger, Jochen; Kuhn, Jörg-Tobias; Szardenings, Carsten

    2016-05-01

    Psychological tests are usually analysed with item response models. Recently, some alternative measurement models have been proposed that were derived from cognitive process models developed in experimental psychology. These models consider the responses but also the response times of the test takers. Two such models are the Q-diffusion model and the D-diffusion model. Both models can be calibrated with the diffIRT package of the R statistical environment via marginal maximum likelihood (MML) estimation. In this manuscript, an alternative approach to model calibration is proposed. The approach is based on weighted least squares estimation and parallels the standard estimation approach in structural equation modelling. Estimates are determined by minimizing the discrepancy between the observed and the implied covariance matrix. The estimator is simple to implement, consistent, and asymptotically normally distributed. Least squares estimation also provides a test of model fit by comparing the observed and implied covariance matrix. The estimator and the test of model fit are evaluated in a simulation study. Although parameter recovery is good, the estimator is less efficient than the MML estimator.

  16. Diffusion Limitations in Root Uptake of Cadmium and Zinc, But Not Nickel, and Resulting Bias in the Michaelis Constant1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Degryse, Fien; Shahbazi, Afsaneh; Verheyen, Liesbeth; Smolders, Erik

    2012-01-01

    It has long been recognized that diffusive boundary layers affect the determination of active transport parameters, but this has been largely overlooked in plant physiological research. We studied the short-term uptake of cadmium (Cd), zinc (Zn), and nickel (Ni) by spinach (Spinacia oleracea) and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) in solutions with or without metal complexes. At same free ion concentration, the presence of complexes, which enhance the diffusion flux, increased the uptake of Cd and Zn, whereas Ni uptake was unaffected. Competition effects of protons on Cd and Zn uptake were observed only at a very large degree of buffering, while competition of magnesium ions on Ni uptake was observed even in unbuffered solutions. These results strongly suggest that uptake of Cd and Zn is limited by diffusion of the free ion to the roots, except at very high degree of solution buffering, whereas Ni uptake is generally internalization limited. All results could be well described by a model that combined a diffusion equation with a competitive Michaelis-Menten equation. Direct uptake of the complex was estimated to be a major contribution only at millimolar concentrations of the complex or at very large ratios of complex to free ion concentration. The true Km for uptake of Cd2+ and Zn2+ was estimated at <5 nm, three orders of magnitude smaller than the Km measured in unbuffered solutions. Published Michaelis constants for plant uptake of Cd and Zn likely strongly overestimate physiological ones and should not be interpreted as an indicator of transporter affinity. PMID:22864584

  17. Subsurface fluids screening by an analytical system employing a diffusion-limited and implantable sampling module deployable with a cone penetrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Lucero, D.P.; Ilgner, R.H.; Smith, R.R.; Jenkins, R.A.

    1997-03-01

    An analytical system employing a diffusion-limited sampling module and a direct sampling ion trap for quantitative assessment of subsurface fluids was developed and field tested. The sampling module is deployable with a cone penetrometer. It can be retrieved and/or remain as an implant for an indefinite time period. The device geometry, comprised of two planar membranes enclosing a diffusion cell, provides good implant ruggedness and reliable service in the field. Also, the sampling module is protected within a push pipe housing to extend implant service life. Subsurface volatile organic compound (VOC) vapors, in nanoliter amounts, diffuse through the sampler membrane wall by a diffusion-limited process that is independent of the soil permeability. Sample vapors are transported to the surface for analysis by direct sampling ion trap, or other analytical devices. Metered pressurized or reduced pressure transport (carrier) gas is utilized for sample transport to the surface. The vapors obtained are a function only of the fluid partial pressure and the vapor conductance of the sampler. Thus, quantitative analytical data is obtained regardless of soil conditions. The sampling module was deployed in the field at Dover Air Force Base at depths of 5 to 8.5 feet by the US Army Site Characterization and Analysis Penetrometer System (SCAPS). Relatively small 1.75 inch diameter push pipe and the relatively small vapor samples extracted cause minimal soil disturbance which preserves the integrity of the sampler subsurface surroundings. Analytical results were obtained for the system sampler operating in real time and as an implant where equilibrium was obtained between sampler interior and the external surroundings.

  18. A simple algorithmic approach using histology and immunohistochemistry for the current classification of adult diffuse glioma in a resource-limited set-up.

    PubMed

    Rajeswarie, R T; Rao, Shilpa; Nandeesh, Bevinahalli N; Yasha, T Chickabasaviah; Santosh, Vani

    2017-08-11

    The WHO 2016 classification of diffuse gliomas combines histological and molecular parameters for diagnosis. However, in view of cost constraints for molecular testing, an economical working formula is essential to reach a meaningful diagnosis in a resource-limited setting. The aim of this study was to establish a practical algorithmic approach using histology and immunohistochemistry (IHC) in the classification of diffuse gliomas in such a set-up. Diffuse gliomas of WHO grade II and III diagnosed in our institute in the year 2016 were analysed for histological and IHC features, using the markers isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1R132H) and α thalassemia/mental retardation syndrome X-linked gene (ATRX). Fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) for 1p/19q co-deletion was performed when requested. 449 diffuse gliomas (grades II/III) were included in the study. Integrating histology and IHC features, as per the WHO 2016 guidelines, we derived the following groups: Astrocytoma, IDH-mutant (A,IDH-mt, 37.2%); astrocytoma, not otherwise specified (A,NOS, 12.7%); oligoastrocytoma, NOS (OA,NOS, 4.5%); and oligodendroglioma, NOS (ODG,NOS, 45.6%). FISH was performed in a subset of ODG,NOS, OA,NOS and A,NOS gliomas. This revealed 1p/19q co-deletion in all cases of ODG,NOS, 15.8% of OA,NOS and 37.5% of A,NOS. Sequencing for rare IDH 1/2 mutations was not carried out in this study. In a resource-limited set-up, histology with IHC (IDH1(R132H) and ATRX) form the baseline to reasonably derive four histomolecular subgroups of diffuse glioma. Of these, we recommend, OA,NOS and IDH1(R132H)-non-mt ODG,NOS to be our priority for performing 1p/19q co-deletion studies in comparison to IDH-mt ODG,NOS, and it would not be mandatory for astrocytoma. Sequencing for rare IDH mutations is advised for A,NOS and OA,NOS groups, but not for the IDH1(R132H)-non-mutant diffuse gliomas with 1p/19q co-deletion. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the

  19. Surface fractals in liposome aggregation.

    PubMed

    Roldán-Vargas, Sándalo; Barnadas-Rodríguez, Ramon; Quesada-Pérez, Manuel; Estelrich, Joan; Callejas-Fernández, José

    2009-01-01

    In this work, the aggregation of charged liposomes induced by magnesium is investigated. Static and dynamic light scattering, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, and cryotransmission electron microscopy are used as experimental techniques. In particular, multiple intracluster scattering is reduced to a negligible amount using a cross-correlation light scattering scheme. The analysis of the cluster structure, probed by means of static light scattering, reveals an evolution from surface fractals to mass fractals with increasing magnesium concentration. Cryotransmission electron microscopy micrographs of the aggregates are consistent with this interpretation. In addition, a comparative analysis of these results with those previously reported in the presence of calcium suggests that the different hydration energy between lipid vesicles when these divalent cations are present plays a fundamental role in the cluster morphology. This suggestion is also supported by infrared spectroscopy data. The kinetics of the aggregation processes is also analyzed through the time evolution of the mean diffusion coefficient of the aggregates.

  20. Limitations to oxygen transport and utilization during sprint exercise in humans: evidence for a functional reserve in muscle O2 diffusing capacity.

    PubMed

    Calbet, José A L; Losa-Reyna, José; Torres-Peralta, Rafael; Rasmussen, Peter; Ponce-González, Jesús Gustavo; Sheel, A William; de la Calle-Herrero, Jaime; Guadalupe-Grau, Amelia; Morales-Alamo, David; Fuentes, Teresa; Rodríguez-García, Lorena; Siebenmann, Christoph; Boushel, Robert; Lundby, Carsten

    2015-10-15

    To determine the contribution of convective and diffusive limitations to V̇(O2peak) during exercise in humans, oxygen transport and haemodynamics were measured in 11 men (22 ± 2 years) during incremental (IE) and 30 s all-out cycling sprints (Wingate test, WgT), in normoxia (Nx, P(IO2): 143 mmHg) and hypoxia (Hyp, P(IO2): 73 mmHg). Carboxyhaemoglobin (COHb) was increased to 6-7% before both WgTs to left-shift the oxyhaemoglobin dissociation curve. Leg V̇(O2) was measured by the Fick method and leg blood flow (BF) with thermodilution, and muscle O2 diffusing capacity (D(MO2)) was calculated. In the WgT mean power output, leg BF, leg O2 delivery and leg V̇(O2) were 7, 5, 28 and 23% lower in Hyp than Nx (P < 0.05); however, peak WgT D(MO2) was higher in Hyp (51.5 ± 9.7) than Nx (20.5 ± 3.0 ml min(-1) mmHg(-1), P < 0.05). Despite a similar P(aO2) (33.3 ± 2.4 and 34.1 ± 3.3 mmHg), mean capillary P(O2) (16.7 ± 1.2 and 17.1 ± 1.6 mmHg), and peak perfusion during IE and WgT in Hyp, D(MO2) and leg V̇(O2) were 12 and 14% higher, respectively, during WgT than IE in Hyp (both P < 0.05). D(MO2) was insensitive to COHb (COHb: 0.7 vs. 7%, in IE Hyp and WgT Hyp). At exhaustion, the Y equilibration index was well above 1.0 in both conditions, reflecting greater convective than diffusive limitation to the O2 transfer in both Nx and Hyp. In conclusion, muscle V̇(O2) during sprint exercise is not limited by O2 delivery, O2 offloading from haemoglobin or structure-dependent diffusion constraints in the skeletal muscle. These findings reveal a remarkable functional reserve in muscle O2 diffusing capacity.

  1. Effects of water-contaminated air on blowoff limits of opposed jet hydrogen-air diffusion flames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pellett, Gerald L.; Jentzen, Marilyn E.; Wilson, Lloyd G.; Northam, G. Burton

    1988-01-01

    The effects of water-contaminated air on the extinction and flame restoration of the central portion of N2-diluted H2 versus air counterflow diffusion flames are investigated using a coaxial tubular opposed jet burner. The results show that the replacement of N2 contaminant in air by water on a mole for mole basis decreases the maximum sustainable H2 mass flow, just prior to extinction, of the flame. This result contrasts strongly with the analogous substitution of water for N2 in a relatively hot premixed H2-O2-N2 flame, which was shown by Koroll and Mulpuru (1986) to lead to a significant, kinetically controlled increase in laminar burning velocity.

  2. Aggregation of liposomes in presence of La3+: a study of the fractal dimension.

    PubMed

    Sabín, Juan; Prieto, Gerardo; Ruso, Juan M; Messina, Paula; Sarmiento, Félix

    2007-07-01

    A study of the fractal dimension of the aggregation of three different types of large unilamellar vesicles, formed by egg yolk phosphatidylcholine (EYPC), dimyristoyl-phosphocholine (DMPC), and dipalmitoyl-phosphocholine (DPPC), in the presence of La3+, is presented. Aggregate liposome fractal dimensions were calculated by two methods, aggregation kinetics, using the approaches diffusion-limited cluster aggregation (DLCA) and reaction-limited cluster aggregation (RLCA) and angle-scattering light dispersion. Electrophoretic measurements show a similar variation of the zeta potential (zeta potential) for EYPC and DPPC, with a small increase of initial positive values. However, the zeta potential of DMPC changes from a initial negative value to near zero with increasing La3+ concentration. The evolution of the aggregate sizes was followed by light scattering. DPPC and DMPC show a RLCA regimen growth at low La3+ concentrations and a DLCA regimen at higher concentrations. In the case of EYPC, the final size of aggregation strongly depends on La3+ concentration. The calculated fractal dimension is in the range 1.8 to 2.1.

  3. Characterizing Unsaturated Diffusion in Porous Tuff Gravel

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Q; Kneafsey, T J; Roberts, J J; Tomutsa, L; Wang, J S

    2003-11-12

    Evaluation of solute diffusion in unsaturated porous gravel is very important for investigations of contaminant transport and remediation, risk assessment, and waste disposal (e.g., the potential high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada). For a porous aggregate medium such as granular tuff, the total water content is comprised of surface water and interior water. The surface water component (water film around grains and pendular water between the grain contacts) could serve as a predominant diffusion pathway. To investigate the extent of surface water films and contact points affect solute diffusion in unsaturated gravel, we examined the configuration of water using x-ray computed tomography in partially saturated gravel, and made quantitative measurements of diffusion at multiple water contents using two different techniques. In the first, diffusion coefficients of potassium chloride in 2-4 mm granular tuff at multiple water contents are calculated from electrical conductivity measurements using the Nernst-Einstein equation. In the second, we used laser ablation with inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry to perform micro-scale mapping, allowing the measurement of diffusion coefficients for a mixture of chemical tracers for tuff cubes and tetrahedrons having two contact geometries (cube-cube and cube-tetrahedron). The x-ray computed tomography images show limited contact between grains, and this could significantly hinder the pathways for diffusive transport. Experimental results show the critical role of surface water in controlling transport pathways and hence the magnitude of diffusion. Even with a bulk volumetric water content of 1.5%, the measured solute diffusion coefficient is as low as 1.5 x 10{sup -14} m{sup 2}/s. Currently used diffusion models relating diffusion coefficients to total volumetric water content inadequately describe unsaturated diffusion behavior in porous gravel.

  4. Characterizing unsaturated diffusion in porous tuff gravel

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Qinhong; Kneafsey, Timothy J.; Roberts, Jeffery J.; Tomutsa, Liviu; Wang, Joseph, S.Y.

    2003-11-12

    Evaluation of solute diffusion in unsaturated porous gravel is very important for investigations of contaminant transport and remediation, risk assessment, and waste disposal (for example, the potential high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada). For a porous aggregate medium such as granular tuff, the total water content is comprised of surface water and interior water. The surface water component (water film around grains and pendular water between the grain contacts) could serve as a predominant diffusion pathway. To investigate the extent to which surface water films and contact points affect solute diffusion in unsaturated gravel, we examined the configuration of water using x-ray computed tomography in partially saturated gravel, and made quantitative measurements of diffusion at multiple water contents using two different techniques. In the first, diffusion coefficients of potassium chloride in 2-4 mm granular tuff at multiple water contents were calculated from electrical conductivity measurements using the Nernst-Einstein equation. In the second, we used laser ablation with inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry to perform micro-scale mapping, allowing the measurement of diffusion coefficients for a mixture of chemical tracers for tuff cubes and tetrahedrons having two contact geometries (cube-cube and cube-tetrahedron). The x-ray computed tomography images show limited contact between grains, and this could hinder the pathways for diffusive transport. Experimental results show the critical role of surface water in controlling transport pathways and hence the magnitude of diffusion. Even with a bulk volumetric water content of 1.5%, the measured solute diffusion coefficient is as low as 1.5 x 10{sup -14} m{sup 2}/s for tuff gravel. Currently used diffusion models relating diffusion coefficients to total volumetric water content inadequately describe unsaturated diffusion behavior in porous gravel at very low water contents.

  5. Fluorescence spectroscopy of PTCDA molecules on the KCl(100) surface in the limit of low coverages: site selection and diffusion.

    PubMed

    Paulheim, Alexander; Müller, Mathias; Marquardt, Christian; Sokolowski, Moritz

    2013-04-14

    We performed fluorescence (FL) and fluorescence excitation (FLE) spectroscopy on the model molecule perylene-3,4,9,10-tetracarboxyl acid dianhydride (PTCDA) for very low coverages (below 1% of a monolayer) on thin (100) oriented KCl films. Two different states of PTCDA molecules can be distinguished in the spectra: an initial state, which is observed directly after deposition of the molecules onto the cold sample at 20 K, and a final state, which is found after intensive optical excitation or thermal annealing of the sample. The spectrum of the final state is blue-shifted with respect to that of the initial state by 130 ± 15 cm(-1) and exhibits lines with significantly reduced widths. This can be explained by diffusion of molecules from initially populated terrace sites to energetically favoured step edge sites. Polarization dependent spectroscopy reveals the same azimuthal orientation of the molecules on both adsorption sites and leads to a model of the adsorption geometry of PTCDA at the KCl step sites. Our experiment demonstrates how optical spectroscopy can be used to investigate kinetic processes of fluorescent molecules on surfaces.

  6. Incidentally discovered diffuse large B-cell lymphoma limited to the endocervical mucosa in a young female patient.

    PubMed

    Pósfai, Éva; Nagy, Károly; Marton, Imelda; Bánfalvi, Attila; Kocsis, Lajos; Cserni, Gábor

    2015-01-01

    Primary high-grade non-Hodgkin lymphoma of the female genital tract is extremely rare. Vaginal bleeding, abdominal pain or urinary complaints might be its most frequent symptoms. We report a 27-year-old multipara who underwent large loop excision of the transformation zone because of the repeated finding of a low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion identified during routine cancer screening. Incidentally, CD20-positive, primary, diffuse large B-cell lymphoma infiltrating the mucosa of the endocervix was also diagnosed from this specimen. The case is unusual because the patient had no symptoms, specific colposcopic signs or visible mass. R-CHOP 21 immunochemotherapy was introduced and resulted in complete remission without hysterectomy. The patient is without any evidence of disease after 49 months of follow-up. Primary cervical lymphomas are mainly subepithelial initially, and therefore they may be under-recognized due to the inefficiency of smears to diagnose such lesions. Early diagnosis and available targeted treatment allowed a cure in the reported example.

  7. Limitation of parallel flow in double diffusive convection: Two- and three-dimensional transitions in a horizontal porous domain

    SciTech Connect

    Mimouni, N.; Chikh, S.; Rahli, O.; Bennacer, R.

    2014-07-15

    Two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) numerical simulations of double diffusion natural convection in an elongated enclosure filled with a binary fluid saturating a porous medium are carried out in the present work. The Boussinesq approximation is made in the formulation of the problem, and Neumann boundary conditions for temperature and concentration are adopted, respectively, on vertical and horizontal walls of the cavity. The used numerical method is based on the control volume approach, with the third order quadratic upstream interpolation scheme in approximating the advection terms. A semi implicit method algorithm is used to handle the velocity-pressure coupling. To avoid the excessively high computer time inherent to the solution of 3D natural convection problems, full approximation storage with full multigrid method is used to solve the problem. A wide range of the controlling parameters (Rayleigh-Darcy number Ra, lateral aspect ratio Ay, Lewis number Le, and the buoyancy ration N) is investigated. We clearly show that increasing the depth of the cavity (i.e., the lateral aspect ratio) has an important effect on the flow patterns. The 2D perfect parallel flows obtained for small lateral aspect ratio are drastically destabilized by increasing the cavity lateral dimension. This yields a 3D fluid motion with a much more complex flow pattern and the usually considered 2D parallel flow model cannot be applied.

  8. Corrections to the law of mass action and properties of the asymptotic t =∞ state for reversible diffusion-limited reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voituriez, R.; Moreau, M.; Oshanin, G.

    2005-02-01

    For diffusion-limited reversible A +A⇌B reactions we reexamine two fundamental concepts of classical chemical kinetics—the notion of "chemical equilibrium" and the "law of mass action." We consider a general model with distance-dependent reaction rates, such that any pair of A particles, performing standard random walks on sites of a d-dimensional lattice and being at a distance μ apart of each other at time moment t, may associate forming a B particle at the rate k+(μ). In turn, any randomly moving B particle may spontaneously dissociate at the rate k-(λ) into a geminate pair of As "born" at a distance λ apart of each other. Within a formally exact approach based on Gardiner's Poisson representation method we show that the asymptotic t =∞ state attained by such diffusion-limited reactions is generally not a true thermodynamic equilibrium, but rather a nonequilibrium steady state, and that the law of mass action is invalid. The classical concepts hold only in case when the ratio k+(μ)/k-(μ) does not depend on μ for any μ.

  9. Singular eigenvalue limit of advection-diffusion operators and properties of the strange eigenfunctions in globally chaotic flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerbelli, Stefano; Giona, Massimiliano; Gorodetskyi, Olexander; Anderson, Patrick D.

    2017-07-01

    Enforcing the results developed by Gorodetskyi et al. [O. Gorodetskyi, M. Giona, P. Anderson, Phys. Fluids 24, 073603 (2012)] on the application of the mapping matrix formalism to simulate advective-diffusive transport, we investigate the structure and the properties of strange eigenfunctions and of the associated eigenvalues up to values of the Péclet number Pe 𝒪(108). Attention is focused on the possible occurrence of a singular limit for the second eigenvalue, ν2, of the advection-diffusion propagator as the Péclet number, Pe, tends to infinity, and on the structure of the corresponding eigenfunction. Prototypical time-periodic flows on the two-torus are considered, which give rise to toral twist maps with different hyperbolic character, encompassing Anosov, pseudo-Anosov, and smooth nonuniformly hyperbolic systems possessing a hyperbolic set of full measure. We show that for uniformly hyperbolic systems, a singular limit of the dominant decay exponent occurs, log|ν2| → constant≠0 for Pe → ∞, whereas log |ν2| → 0 according to a power-law in smooth non-uniformly hyperbolic systems that are not uniformly hyperbolic. The mere presence of a nonempty set of nonhyperbolic points (even if of zero Lebesgue measure) is thus found to mark the watershed between regular vs. singular behavior of ν2 with Pe as Pe → ∞.

  10. Electron and proton transfer in chloroplasts in silico. 2: The effect of diffusion limitations on the process of photosynthesis in spatially inhomogeneous thylakoids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vershubskii, A. V.; Tikhonov, A. N.

    2017-07-01

    The lateral mobility of protons and mobile electron carriers (plastoquinone and plastocyanin) is subjected to diffusion limitations; the effect of these limitations on the kinetics of photoinduced pH i changes has been investigated in the present work for metabolic states 3 (conditions of intensive ATP synthesis) and 4 (the state of photosynthetic control). Computer simulations were based on a mathematical model of electron and proton transport in chloroplasts developed earlier by the authors. Non-uniform distribution of electron carriers and ATP synthase complexes in the membranes of grana and intergranal thylakoids was taken into account in the model. The kinetics of intrathylakoid pH i changes and the lateral profiles of distribution of the mobile electron transporters in granal and intergranal thylakoids were studied. The formation of non-uniform pH i profiles (with lumen acidification in the central parts of the grana being substantially slower than in the stromal thylakoids) was shown to occur under the conditions of ATP synthesis. Variation of the diffusion coefficients of intrathylakoid hydrogen ions and mobile electron carriers (plastoquinone and plastocyanin) can have substantial effects on the lateral pH i profiles and the redox state of the mobile electron carriers.

  11. Aggregation, sedimentation, dissolution and bioavailability of ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Due to increasing use in flat screen applications, solar cells, ink–jet printing, and medical devices, cadmium-based quantum dots (QDs) are among the fastest growing classes of engineered nanomaterial. These wide-ranging consumer product applications and end of use disposal issues assure that QDs will eventually enter the marine environment. In an effort to understand the fate and transport of CdSe QDs in estuarine systems, the aggregation, sedimentation, dissolution, and bioavailability of CdSe QDs in seawater was investigated. The size of CdSe QDs increased from 40-60 nm to >1 mm within one hour once introduced to seawater, and the diffusion-limited aggregation led to highly polydispersed aggregates with loose structures. As a result, the sedimentation rate of CdSe QD aggregates in seawater was measured to be 4-10 mm/day, which was slow considering their relatively large size. Humic acid (HA), as a model natural organic matter, further increased the size and polydispersity of CdSe QDs, and slowed their sedimentation accordingly. Given the effect of light on CdSe QDs, natural sunlight and light filters were employed to simulate the photic conditions at different water depths in an estuarine system. It was observed that light played a vital role in promoting the dissolution of CdSe QDs and the release of dissolved Cd. The ZnS shell surrounding the CdSe core also significantly hindered the degradation of CdSe QDs into their ionic components. With sufficient

  12. Aggregation, sedimentation, dissolution and bioavailability of ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Due to increasing use in flat screen applications, solar cells, ink–jet printing, and medical devices, cadmium-based quantum dots (QDs) are among the fastest growing classes of engineered nanomaterial. These wide-ranging consumer product applications and end of use disposal issues assure that QDs will eventually enter the marine environment. In an effort to understand the fate and transport of CdSe QDs in estuarine systems, the aggregation, sedimentation, dissolution, and bioavailability of CdSe QDs in seawater was investigated. The size of CdSe QDs increased from 40-60 nm to >1 mm within one hour once introduced to seawater, and the diffusion-limited aggregation led to highly polydispersed aggregates with loose structures. As a result, the sedimentation rate of CdSe QD aggregates in seawater was measured to be 4-10 mm/day, which was slow considering their relatively large size. Humic acid (HA), as a model natural organic matter, further increased the size and polydispersity of CdSe QDs, and slowed their sedimentation accordingly. Given the effect of light on CdSe QDs, natural sunlight and light filters were employed to simulate the photic conditions at different water depths in an estuarine system. It was observed that light played a vital role in promoting the dissolution of CdSe QDs and the release of dissolved Cd. The ZnS shell surrounding the CdSe core also significantly hindered the degradation of CdSe QDs into their ionic components. With sufficient

  13. Development of Arsenic and Iron Biogeochemical Gradients upon Anaerobiosis at Soil Aggregate Scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masue-Slowey, Y.; Pallud, C.; Bedore, P.; Tufano, K.; Fendorf, S.

    2008-12-01

    In aerated soils, As release is limited due to the strong interaction between As(V) and soil minerals. However, under anaerobic conditions, As desorption is stimulated by As(V) reduction to As(III) and reductive dissolution/transformation of Fe (hydr)oxides, common hosts of As. The effect of As(V) and Fe(III) reduction on As release has been extensively studied in laboratory batch and column systems; correlation of apparent Fe and As reduction, with concomitant release to pore water, has also been noted under field conditions. What remains unresolved is the coupling of biogeochemical and physical processes that ultimately control As transport within structured media such as soils. Soils are heterogeneous porous media that are comprised of individual aggregates having pores that are dominated by diffusive (aggregate interiors) or advective (aggregate exteriors) transport. As a consequence of physical and chemical differences in the interior and the exterior of aggregates, As(III,V) and Fe(II,III) chemical gradients develop. Here, we examine As release from constructed aggregates exposed to fluctuating redox conditions. Artificial aggregates were made with As(V) adsorbed ferrihydrite-coated sand homogeneously inoculated with Shewanella sp. ANA-3 (model As(V) and Fe(III) reducer) and then fused using an agarose binder into spheres. Aggregates were placed in a flow reactor and saturated flow of aerobic or anaerobic artificial groundwater media was initiated. Redox fluctuated in select systems to examine changes in chemical gradient under changing aeration status. Our results show that within aerated solutions, oxidized aggregate exteriors provide a "gprotective barrier"h against As release despite anoxia within diffusively constrained aggregate interiors. During a transition to anaerobic conditions in advective zones, however, As is released and transport is promoted. Our study illustrates the microscale variation in biogeoechemical processes within soils and the

  14. Involved-Lesion Radiation Therapy After Chemotherapy in Limited-Stage Head-and-Neck Diffuse Large B Cell Lymphoma

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Jeong Il; Nam, Heerim; Ahn, Yong Chan; Kim, Won Seog; Park, Keunchil; Kim, Seok Jin

    2010-10-01

    Purpose: To report treatment outcomes after combined-modality therapy in patients with Stage I/II head-and-neck (HN) diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBL). Methods and Materials: Eighty-six eligible patients received sequential chemotherapy and involved-lesion radiation therapy from 1995 to 2006. After a median of four cycles of CHOP (cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone) or rituximab-plus-CHOP chemotherapy, a median of 41.4 Gy was delivered to the known initial gross lesion with adequate margin (2 to 3 cm). Results: After a median follow-up of 57 months, eight treatment failures were observed: distant metastasis in 8 patients; and locoregional failure in 4 patients. Among the 4 patients with locoregional failure, 3 presented with in-field failures, and 1 both in-field and out-of-field failure (contralateral neck). Rates of overall survival (OS) and freedom from progression (FFP) at 10 years were 74.1% and 88.9%, respectively. There was no severe side effect except 1 patient with Grade 3 mucositis during and after completion of radiation therapy. Multivariate analyses showed that absence of B symptom (p = 0.022) and normal lactate dehydrogenase (p = 0.017) were related to favorable OS, age >60 years (p = 0.033) was related to favorable FFP, and international prognostic index of 0 or 1 was related to favorable OS (p = 0.003) and FFP (p = 0.03). Conclusion: This study demonstrated that patients with Stage I/II HN DLBL did not need whole-neck irradiation. Involved-lesion radiation therapy might reduce radiation toxicity with favorable treatment results.

  15. Effects of ionic strength and temperature on the aggregation and deposition of multi-walled carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lixin; Yang, Xuezhi; Wang, Qi; Zeng, Yuxuan; Ding, Lei; Jiang, Wei

    2017-01-01

    The aggregation and deposition of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) determines their transport and fate in natural waters. Therefore, the aggregation kinetics of humic-acid treated multi-walled carbon nanotubes (HA-MWCNTs) was investigated by time-resolved dynamic light scattering in NaCl and CaCl2 electrolyte solutions. Increased ionic strength induced HA-MWCNT aggregation due to the less negative zeta potential and the reduced electrostatic repulsion. The critical coagulation concentration (CCC) values of HA-MWCNTs were 80mmol/L in NaCl and 1.3mmol/L in CaCl2 electrolyte, showing that Ca(2+) causes more serious aggregation than Na(+). The aggregation behavior of HA-MWCNTs was consistent with Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek theory. The deposition kinetics of HA-MWCNTs was measured by the optical absorbance at 800nm. The critical deposition concentrations for HA-MWCNT in NaCl and CaCl2 solutions were close to the CCC values, therefore the rate of deposition cannot be increased by changing the ionic strength in the diffusion-limited aggregation regime. The deposition process was correlated to the aggregation since larger aggregates increased gravitational deposition and decreased random Brownian diffusion. HA-MWCNTs hydrodynamic diameters were evaluated at 5, 15 and 25°C. Higher temperature caused faster aggregation due to the reduced electrostatic repulsion and increased random Brownian motion and collision frequency. HA-MWCNTs aggregate faster at higher temperature in either NaCl or CaCl2 electrolyte due to the decreased electrostatic repulsion and increased random Brownian motion. Our results suggest that CNT aggregation and deposition are two correlated processes governed by the electrolyte, and CNT transport is favored at low ionic strength and low temperature. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Fractal aggregates induced by liposome-liposome interaction in the presence of Ca2+.

    PubMed

    Sabín, J; Prieto, G; Ruso, J M; Sarmiento, F

    2007-10-01

    We present a study of the fractal dimension of clusters of large unilamellar vesicles (LUVs) formed by egg yolk phosphatidylcholine (EYPC), dimyristoylphosphocholine (DMPC) and dipalmitoylphosphocholine (DPPC) induced by Ca2+ . Fractal dimensions were calculated by application of two methods, measuring the angular dependency of the light scattered by the clusters and following the evolution of the cluster size. In all cases, the fractal dimensions fell in the range from 2.1 to 1.8, corresponding to two regimes: diffusion-limited cluster aggregation (DLCA) and reaction-limited cluster aggregation (RLCA). Whereas DMPC clusters showed a typical transition from the RLCA to the DLCA aggregation, EYPC exhibited an unusual behaviour, since the aggregation was limited for a higher concentration than the critical aggregation concentration. The behaviour of DPPC was intermediate, with a transition from the RLCA to the DLCA regimes with cluster sizes depending on Ca2+ concentration. Studies on the reversibility of the aggregates show that EYPC and DPPC clusters can be re-dispersed by dilution with water. DMPC does not present reversibility. Reversibility is evidence of the existence of secondary minima in the DLVO potential between two liposomes. To predict these secondary minima, a correction of the DLVO model was necessary taking into account a repulsive force of hydration.

  17. Aggregation dynamics of laminin-1 in a physiological solution: A time-resolved static light scattering study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onuma, Kazuo; Kanzaki, Noriko

    2005-11-01

    The aggregation of laminin-1 in a physiological solution was observed using time-resolved static light scattering. In a solution containing 150 mM of NaCl and 1 mM of CaCl 2, with a pH of 7.2 buffered by 50 mM Tris, and maintained at 25 °C, the weight-averaged mass (molecular weight) Mw, and radius of gyration Rg, of the aggregate were measured at 10 s intervals. The aggregation kinetics changed from reaction-limited cluster aggregation (RLCA) to diffusion-limited cluster aggregation (DLCA) over time. The fractal dimension estimated in the DLCA regime was 1.71 from the M˜Rgd relationship, which is consistent with the df of 1.75 obtained from an R˜t plot. Direct calculation of df using the scattering intensity and scattering vector revealed that df gradually increased over time in the DLCA regime, suggesting that spontaneous restructuring of the aggregate had occurred. This restructuring would have been caused by hydrophobic contact in the aggregate. The form factor of the aggregate was well fitted by a linear random coil model and not by a simple spherical model.

  18. Waves and aggregation patterns in myxobacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Igoshin, Oleg A.; Welch, Roy; Kaiser, Dale; Oster, George

    2004-03-01

    Under starvation conditions, a population of myxobacteria aggregates to build a fruiting body whose shape is species-specific and within which the cells sporulate. Early in this process, cells often pass through a "ripple phase" characterized by traveling linear, concentric, and spiral waves. These waves are different from the waves observed during slime mold aggregation that depend on diffusible morphogens, because myxobacteria communicate by direct contact. The difference is most dramatic when waves collide: rather than annihilating one another, myxobacterial waves appear to pass through one another unchanged. Under certain conditions, the spacing and location of the nascent fruiting bodies is determined by the wavelength and pattern of the waves. Later in fruiting body development, waves are replaced by streams of cells that circulate around small initial aggregates enlarging and rounding them. Still later, pairs of motile aggregates coalesce to form larger aggregates that develop into fruiting bodies. Here we present a mathematical model that quantitatively explains these wave and aggregation phenomena.

  19. Modeling the cell-type dependence of diffusion-limited intracellular ice nucleation and growth during both vitrification and slow freezing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Geer; Zhang, Aili; Xu, Lisa X.; He, Xiaoming

    2009-06-01

    In this study, a set of models for predicting the diffusion-limited ice nucleation and growth inside biological cells were established. Both the heterogeneous and homogeneous nucleation mechanisms were considered in the models. Molecular mobility including viscosity and mutual diffusion coefficient of aqueous cryoprotectant (i.e., glycerol here) solutions was estimated using models derived from the free volume theory for glass transition, which makes it possible to predict the two most important physical properties (i.e., viscosity and mutual diffusion coefficient) over wide ranges of temperature and concentration as encountered in cryopreservation. After being verified using experimental data, the models were used to predict the critical cooling rate (defined as the cooling rate required so that the crystallized volume is less than 0.1% of the cell volume) as a function of the initial glycerol concentration in a number of cell types with different sizes. For slowing freezing, it was found that the required critical cooling rate is cell-type dependent with influences from cell size and the ice nucleation and water transport parameters. In general, the critical cooling rate does not change significantly with the initial glycerol concentration used and tends to be higher for smaller cells. For vitrification, the required critical cooling rate does change significantly with the initial glycerol concentration used and tends to decrease with the decrease in cell size. However, the required critical cooling rate can be similar for cells with very different sizes. It was further found that the thermodynamic and kinetic parameters for intracellular ice formation associated with different cells rather than the cell size per se significantly affect the critical cooling rates required for vitrification. For all cell types, it was found that homogeneous nucleation dominates at ultrafast cooling rates and/or high glycerol concentrations, whereas heterogeneous nucleation becomes

  20. Critical Analysis of Dry Storage Temperature Limits for Zircaloy-Clad Spent Nuclear Fuel Based on Diffusion Controlled Cavity Growth

    SciTech Connect

    Hayes, T.A.; Rosen, R.S.; Kassner, M.E.

    1999-12-01

    Interim dry storage of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) rods is of critical concern because a shortage of existing SNF wet storage capacity combined with delays in the availability of a permanent disposal repository has led to an increasing number of SNF rods being placed into interim dry storage. Safe interim dry storage must be maintained for a minimum of twenty years according to the Standard Review Plan for Dry Cask Storage Systems [1] and the Code of Federal Regulations, 10 CFR Part 72 [2]. Interim dry storage licensees must meet certain safety conditions when storing SNF rods to ensure that there is a ''very low probability (e.g. 0.5%) of cladding breach during long-term storage'' [1]. Commercial SNF typically consists of uranium oxide pellets surrounded by a thin cladding. The cladding is usually an {alpha}-zirconium based alloy know as ''Zircaloy''. In dry storage, the SNF rods are confined in one of several types of cask systems approved by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). ''The cask system must be designed to prevent degradation of fuel cladding that results in a type of cladding breach, such as axial-splits or ductile fracture, where irradiated UO{sub 2} particles may be released. In addition, the fuel cladding should not degrade to the point where more than one percent of the fuel rods suffer pinhole or hairline crack type failure under normal storage conditions [1].'' The NRC has approved two models [3,4] for use by proposed dry storage licensees to determine the maximum initial temperature limit for nuclear fuel rods in dry storage that supposedly meet the above criteria and yield consistent temperature limits. Though these two models are based on the same fundamental failure theory, different assumptions have been made including the choice of values for material constants in the failure equation. This report will examine and compare the similarities and inconsistencies of these two models. It will illustrate some of the shortcomings of the current

  1. Oxygen transport and stem cell aggregation in stirred-suspension bioreactor cultures.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jincheng; Rostami, Mahboubeh Rahmati; Cadavid Olaya, Diana P; Tzanakakis, Emmanuel S

    2014-01-01

    Stirred-suspension bioreactors are a promising modality for large-scale culture of 3D aggregates of pluripotent stem cells and their progeny. Yet, cells within these clusters experience limitations in the transfer of factors and particularly O2 which is characterized by low solubility in aqueous media. Cultured stem cells under different O2 levels may exhibit significantly different proliferation, viability and differentiation potential. Here, a transient diffusion-reaction model was built encompassing the size distribution and ultrastructural characteristics of embryonic stem cell (ESC) aggregates. The model was coupled to experimental data from bioreactor and static cultures for extracting the effective diffusivity and kinetics of consumption of O2 within mouse (mESC) and human ESC (hESC) clusters. Under agitation, mESC aggregates exhibited a higher maximum consumption rate than hESC aggregates. Moreover, the reaction-diffusion model was integrated with a population balance equation (PBE) for the temporal distribution of ESC clusters changing due to aggregation and cell proliferation. Hypoxia was found to be negligible for ESCs with a smaller radius than 100 µm but became appreciable for aggregates larger than 300 µm. The integrated model not only captured the O2 profile both in the bioreactor bulk and inside ESC aggregates but also led to the calculation of the duration that fractions of cells experience a certain range of O2 concentrations. The approach described in this study can be employed for gaining a deeper understanding of the effects of O2 on the physiology of stem cells organized in 3D structures. Such frameworks can be extended to encompass the spatial and temporal availability of nutrients and differentiation factors and facilitate the design and control of relevant bioprocesses for the production of stem cell therapeutics.

  2. Oxygen Transport and Stem Cell Aggregation in Stirred-Suspension Bioreactor Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jincheng; Rostami, Mahboubeh Rahmati; Cadavid Olaya, Diana P.; Tzanakakis, Emmanuel S.

    2014-01-01

    Stirred-suspension bioreactors are a promising modality for large-scale culture of 3D aggregates of pluripotent stem cells and their progeny. Yet, cells within these clusters experience limitations in the transfer of factors and particularly O2 which is characterized by low solubility in aqueous media. Cultured stem cells under different O2 levels may exhibit significantly different proliferation, viability and differentiation potential. Here, a transient diffusion-reaction model was built encompassing the size distribution and ultrastructural characteristics of embryonic stem cell (ESC) aggregates. The model was coupled to experimental data from bioreactor and static cultures for extracting the effective diffusivity and kinetics of consumption of O2 within mouse (mESC) and human ESC (hESC) clusters. Under agitation, mESC aggregates exhibited a higher maximum consumption rate than hESC aggregates. Moreover, the reaction-diffusion model was integrated with a population balance equation (PBE) for the temporal distribution of ESC clusters changing due to aggregation and cell proliferation. Hypoxia was found to be negligible for ESCs with a smaller radius than 100 µm but became appreciable for aggregates larger than 300 µm. The integrated model not only captured the O2 profile both in the bioreactor bulk and inside ESC aggregates but also led to the calculation of the duration that fractions of cells experience a certain range of O2 concentrations. The approach described in this study can be employed for gaining a deeper understanding of the effects of O2 on the physiology of stem cells organized in 3D structures. Such frameworks can be extended to encompass the spatial and temporal availability of nutrients and differentiation factors and facilitate the design and control of relevant bioprocesses for the production of stem cell therapeutics. PMID:25032842

  3. Fractal dimension of alumina aggregates grown in two dimensions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larosa, Judith L.; Cawley, James D.

    1992-01-01

    The concepts of fractal geometry are applied to the analysis of 0.4-micron alumina constrained to agglomerate in two dimensions. Particles were trapped at the bottom surface of a drop of a dilute suspension, and the agglomeration process was directly observed, using an inverted optical microscope. Photographs were digitized and analyzed, using three distinct approaches. The results indicate that the agglomerates are fractal, having a dimension of approximately 1.5, which agrees well with the predictions of the diffusion-limited cluster-cluster aggregation model.

  4. [Anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibody-associated rapid progressive glomerulonephritis complicated with both limited and diffuse scleroderma].

    PubMed

    Miyata, Naoko; Kobayashi, Tomoko; Matsukawa, Yoshihiro; Sawada, Shigemasa; Nishinarita, Susumu; Horie, Takashi

    2002-12-01

    We report two patients with scleroderma, 73-year-old female and 67-year-old female, who developed anti neutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibody (ANCA) associated rapid progressive glomerulonephritis (RPGN). Both patients have had a long history of scleroderma (23 and 14 years, respectively) when ANCA-associated glomerulonephritis occurred. In the first patient, scleroderma was localized in both fingers. She has been followed-up as CREST syndrome rather than systemic sclerosis. The complaints on admission were leg edema and left chest pain in the first patient, and a pyrexia and dyspnea in the second patient. Both patients showed pulmonary manifestation (pleural effusion in the first patient, interstitial pneumonia and alveolar hemorrhage in the second patient, respectively) and rapid progressive glomerulonephritis. Both patients died in spite of corticosteroid therapy. Autopsy findings in the second patient demonstrated crescentic glomerulonephritis and alveolar hemorrhage. Our cases demonstrated that MPO-ANCA associated glomerulonephritis could be associated with limited scleroderma as well as systemic scleroderma. In these condition, the prognosis will be poor if scleroderma seemed to be stable.

  5. Internal methane transport through Juncus effusus: experimental manipulation of morphological barriers to test above- and below-ground diffusion limitation.

    PubMed

    Henneberg, Anders; Sorrell, Brian K; Brix, Hans

    2012-11-01

    Aerenchymatous plants can transport methane (CH(4) ) from the root zone to the atmosphere, bypassing the surface-oxidizing layers of the soil, yet morphological and anatomical factors that govern the transport of methane have rarely been critically tested in manipulative experiments. Here, we investigated the methane transport capacity of hydroponically grown Juncus effusus, in experiments with roots submerged in nutrient solutions sparged with methane (1.16 mmol CH(4) l(-1)). Through a range of manipulations of the above- and below-ground plant parts, we tested the contradictory claims in the literature regarding which sites provide the greatest resistance to gas transport. Root manipulations had the greatest effect on methane transport. Removing root material reduced methane transport significantly, and especially the lateral roots and the root tips were important. Cutting of the shoots, with or without subsequent sealing, did not alter methane transport significantly. We confirm modelling predictions that the limiting factor for methane transport in the tussock forming wetland graminoid, J. effusus, is the amount of permeable root surface, estimated using the proxy measurement of root length. The aerial tissues do not provide any significant resistance to methane transport, and the methane is emitted from the lower 50 mm of the shoots.

  6. Analysis and design of numerical schemes for gas dynamics 1: Artificial diffusion, upwind biasing, limiters and their effect on accuracy and multigrid convergence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jameson, Antony

    1994-01-01

    The theory of non-oscillatory scalar schemes is developed in this paper in terms of the local extremum diminishing (LED) principle that maxima should not increase and minima should not decrease. This principle can be used for multi-dimensional problems on both structured and unstructured meshes, while it is equivalent to the total variation diminishing (TVD) principle for one-dimensional problems. A new formulation of symmetric limited positive (SLIP) schemes is presented, which can be generalized to produce schemes with arbitrary high order of accuracy in regions where the solution contains no extrema, and which can also be implemented on multi-dimensional unstructured meshes. Systems of equations lead to waves traveling with distinct speeds and possibly in opposite directions. Alternative treatments using characteristic splitting and scalar diffusive fluxes are examined, together with modification of the scalar diffusion through the addition of pressure differences to the momentum equations to produce full upwinding in supersonic flow. This convective upwind and split pressure (CUSP) scheme exhibits very rapid convergence in multigrid calculations of transonic flow, and provides excellent shock resolution at very high Mach numbers.

  7. Equivalence of on-Lattice Stochastic Chemical Kinetics with the Well-Mixed Chemical Master Equation in the Limit of Fast Diffusion.

    PubMed

    Stamatakis, Michail; Vlachos, Dionisios G

    2011-12-14

    Well-mixed and lattice-based descriptions of stochastic chemical kinetics have been extensively used in the literature. Realizations of the corresponding stochastic processes are obtained by the Gillespie stochastic simulation algorithm and lattice kinetic Monte Carlo algorithms, respectively. However, the two frameworks have remained disconnected. We show the equivalence of these frameworks whereby the stochastic lattice kinetics reduces to effective well-mixed kinetics in the limit of fast diffusion. In the latter, the lattice structure appears implicitly, as the lumped rate of bimolecular reactions depends on the number of neighbors of a site on the lattice. Moreover, we propose a mapping between the stochastic propensities and the deterministic rates of the well-mixed vessel and lattice dynamics that illustrates the hierarchy of models and the key parameters that enable model reduction.

  8. Search for Point-like Sources of Ultra-high Energy Neutrinos at the Pierre Auger Observatory and Improved Limit on the Diffuse Flux of Tau Neutrinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierre Auger Collaboration; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Ahlers, M.; Ahn, E. J.; Albuquerque, I. F. M.; Allard, D.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Allison, P.; Almela, A.; Alvarez Castillo, J.; Alvarez-Muñiz, J.; Alves Batista, R.; Ambrosio, M.; Aminaei, A.; Anchordoqui, L.; Andringa, S.; Antiči'c, T.; Aramo, C.; Arganda, E.; Arqueros, F.; Asorey, H.; Assis, P.; Aublin, J.; Ave, M.; Avenier, M.; Avila, G.; Badescu, A. M.; Balzer, M.; Barber, K. B.; Barbosa, A. F.; Bardenet, R.; Barroso, S. L. C.; Baughman, B.; Bäuml, J.; Baus, C.; Beatty, J. J.; Becker, K. H.; Bellétoile, A.; Bellido, J. A.; BenZvi, S.; Berat, C.; Bertou, X.; Biermann, P. L.; Billoir, P.; Blanch-Bigas, O.; Blanco, F.; Blanco, M.; Bleve, C.; Blümer, H.; Boháčová, M.; Boncioli, D.; Bonifazi, C.; Bonino, R.; Borodai, N.; Brack, J.; Brancus, I.; Brogueira, P.; Brown, W. C.; Bruijn, R.; Buchholz, P.; Bueno, A.; Buroker, L.; Burton, R. E.; Caballero-Mora, K. S.; Caccianiga, B.; Caramete, L.; Caruso, R.; Castellina, A.; Catalano, O.; Cataldi, G.; Cazon, L.; Cester, R.; Chauvin, J.; Cheng, S. H.; Chiavassa, A.; Chinellato, J. A.; Chirinos Diaz, J.; Chudoba, J.; Cilmo, M.; Clay, R. W.; Cocciolo, G.; Collica, L.; Coluccia, M. R.; Conceição, R.; Contreras, F.; Cook, H.; Cooper, M. J.; Coppens, J.; Cordier, A.; Coutu, S.; Covault, C. E.; Creusot, A.; Criss, A.; Cronin, J.; Curutiu, A.; Dagoret-Campagne, S.; Dallier, R.; Daniel, B.; Dasso, S.; Daumiller, K.; Dawson, B. R.; de Almeida, R. M.; De Domenico, M.; De Donato, C.; de Jong, S. J.; De La Vega, G.; de Mello Junior, W. J. M.; de Mello Neto, J. R. T.; De Mitri, I.; de Souza, V.; de Vries, K. D.; del Peral, L.; del Río, M.; Deligny, O.; Dembinski, H.; Dhital, N.; Di Giulio, C.; Díaz Castro, M. L.; Diep, P. N.; Diogo, F.; Dobrigkeit, C.; Docters, W.; D'Olivo, J. C.; Dong, P. N.; Dorofeev, A.; dos Anjos, J. C.; Dova, M. T.; D'Urso, D.; Dutan, I.; Ebr, J.; Engel, R.; Erdmann, M.; Escobar, C. O.; Espadanal, J.; Etchegoyen, A.; Facal San Luis, P.; Falcke, H.; Farrar, G.; Fauth, A. C.; Fazzini, N.; Ferguson, A. P.; Fick, B.; Figueira, J. M.; Filevich, A.; Filipčič, A.; Fliescher, S.; Fracchiolla, C. E.; Fraenkel, E. D.; Fratu, O.; Fröhlich, U.; Fuchs, B.; Gaior, R.; Gamarra, R. F.; Gambetta, S.; García, B.; Garcia Roca, S. T.; Garcia-Gamez, D.; Garcia-Pinto, D.; Gascon Bravo, A.; Gemmeke, H.; Ghia, P. L.; Giller, M.; Gitto, J.; Glass, H.; Gold, M. S.; Golup, G.; Gomez Albarracin, F.; Gómez Berisso, M.; Gómez Vitale, P. F.; Gonçalves, P.; Gonzalez, J. G.; Gookin, B.; Gorgi, A.; Gouffon, P.; Grashorn, E.; Grebe, S.; Griffith, N.; Grigat, M.; Grillo, A. F.; Guardincerri, Y.; Guarino, F.; Guedes, G. P.; Hansen, P.; Harari, D.; Harrison, T. A.; Harton, J. L.; Haungs, A.; Hebbeker, T.; Heck, D.; Herve, A. E.; Hojvat, C.; Hollon, N.; Holmes, V. C.; Homola, P.; Hörandel, J. R.; Horvath, P.; Hrabovský, M.; Huber, D.; Huege, T.; Insolia, A.; Ionita, F.; Italiano, A.; Jansen, S.; Jarne, C.; Jiraskova, S.; Josebachuili, M.; Kadija, K.; Kampert, K. H.; Karhan, P.; Kasper, P.; Katkov, I.; Kégl, B.; Keilhauer, B.; Keivani, A.; Kelley, J. L.; Kemp, E.; Kieckhafer, R. M.; Klages, H. O.; Kleifges, M.; Kleinfeller, J.; Knapp, J.; Koang, D.-H.; Kotera, K.; Krohm, N.; Krömer, O.; Kruppke-Hansen, D.; Kuempel, D.; Kulbartz, J. K.; Kunka, N.; La Rosa, G.; Lachaud, C.; LaHurd, D.; Latronico, L.; Lauer, R.; Lautridou, P.; Le Coz, S.; Leão, M. S. A. B.; Lebrun, D.; Lebrun, P.; Leigui de Oliveira, M. A.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Lhenry-Yvon, I.; Link, K.; López, R.; Lopez Agüera, A.; Louedec, K.; Lozano Bahilo, J.; Lu, L.; Lucero, A.; Ludwig, M.; Lyberis, H.; Maccarone, M. C.; Macolino, C.; Maldera, S.; Maller, J.; Mandat, D.; Mantsch, P.; Mariazzi, A. G.; Marin, J.; Marin, V.; Maris, I. C.; Marquez Falcon, H. R.; Marsella, G.; Martello, D.; Martin, L.; Martinez, H.; Martínez Bravo, O.; Martraire, D.; Masías Meza, J. J.; Mathes, H. J.; Matthews, J.; Matthews, J. A. J.; Matthiae, G.; Maurel, D.; Maurizio, D.; Mazur, P. O.; Medina-Tanco, G.; Melissas, M.; Melo, D.; Menichetti, E.; Menshikov, A.; Mertsch, P.; Meurer, C.; Meyhandan, R.; Mi'canovi'c, S.; Micheletti, M. I.; Minaya, I. A.; Miramonti, L.; Molina-Bueno, L.; Mollerach, S.; Monasor, M.; Monnier Ragaigne, D.; Montanet, F.; Morales, B.; Morello, C.; Moreno, E.; Moreno, J. C.; Mostafá, M.; Moura, C. A.; Muller, M. A.; Müller, G.; Münchmeyer, M.; Mussa, R.; Navarra, G.; Navarro, J. L.; Navas, S.; Necesal, P.; Nellen, L.; Nelles, A.; Neuser, J.; Nhung, P. T.; Niechciol, M.; Niemietz, L.; Nierstenhoefer, N.; Nitz, D.; Nosek, D.; Nožka, L.; Oehlschläger, J.; Olinto, A.; Ortiz, M.; Pacheco, N.; Pakk Selmi-Dei, D.; Palatka, M.; Pallotta, J.; Palmieri, N.; Parente, G.; Parizot, E.; Parra, A.; Pastor, S.; Paul, T.; Pech, M.; Peķala, J.; Pelayo, R.; Pepe, I. M.; Perrone, L.; Pesce, R.; Petermann, E.; Petrera, S.; Petrolini, A.; Petrov, Y.; Pfendner, C.; Piegaia, R.; Pierog, T.; Pieroni, P.; Pimenta, M.; Pirronello, V.; Platino, M.; Plum, M.; Ponce, V. H.; Pontz, M.; Porcelli, A.; Privitera, P.; Prouza, M.; Quel, E. J.; Querchfeld, S.; Rautenberg, J.; Ravel, O.; Ravignani, D.; Revenu, B.; Ridky, J.; Riggi, S.; Risse, M.; Ristori, P.; Rivera, H.; Rizi, V.; Roberts, J.; Rodrigues de Carvalho, W.; Rodriguez, G.; Rodriguez Cabo, I.; Rodriguez Martino, J.; Rodriguez Rojo, J.; Rodríguez-Frías, M. D.; Ros, G.; Rosado, J.; Rossler, T.; Roth, M.; Rouillé-d'Orfeuil, B.; Roulet, E.; Rovero, A. C.; Rühle, C.; Saftoiu, A.; Salamida, F.; Salazar, H.; Salesa Greus, F.; Salina, G.; Sánchez, F.; Santo, C. E.; Santos, E.; Santos, E. M.; Sarazin, F.; Sarkar, B.; Sarkar, S.; Sato, R.; Scharf, N.; Scherini, V.; Schieler, H.; Schiffer, P.; Schmidt, A.; Scholten, O.; Schoorlemmer, H.; Schovancova, J.; Schovánek, P.; Schröder, F.; Schulte, S.; Schuster, D.; Sciutto, S. J.; Scuderi, M.; Segreto, A.; Settimo, M.; Shadkam, A.; Shellard, R. C.; Sidelnik, I.; Sigl, G.; Silva Lopez, H. H.; Sima, O.; 'Smiałkowski, A.; Šmída, R.; Snow, G. R.; Sommers, P.; Sorokin, J.; Spinka, H.; Squartini, R.; Srivastava, Y. N.; Stanic, S.; Stapleton, J.; Stasielak, J.; Stephan, M.; Stutz, A.; Suarez, F.; Suomijärvi, T.; Supanitsky, A. D.; Šuša, T.; Sutherland, M. S.; Swain, J.; Szadkowski, Z.; Szuba, M.; Tapia, A.; Tartare, M.; Taşcău, O.; Tcaciuc, R.; Thao, N. T.; Thomas, D.; Tiffenberg, J.; Timmermans, C.; Tkaczyk, W.; Todero Peixoto, C. J.; Toma, G.; Tomankova, L.; Tomé, B.; Tonachini, A.; Travnicek, P.; Tridapalli, D. B.; Tristram, G.; Trovato, E.; Tueros, M.; Ulrich, R.; Unger, M.; Urban, M.; Valdés Galicia, J. F.; Valiño, I.; Valore, L.; van Aar, G.; van den Berg, A. M.; van Vliet, A.; Varela, E.; Vargas Cárdenas, B.; Vázquez, J. R.; Vázquez, R. A.; Veberič, D.; Verzi, V.; Vicha, J.; Videla, M.; Villaseñor, L.; Wahlberg, H.; Wahrlich, P.; Wainberg, O.; Walz, D.; Watson, A. A.; Weber, M.; Weidenhaupt, K.; Weindl, A.; Werner, F.; Westerhoff, S.; Whelan, B. J.; Widom, A.; Wieczorek, G.; Wiencke, L.; Wilczyńska, B.; Wilczyński, H.; Will, M.; Williams, C.; Winchen, T.; Wommer, M.; Wundheiler, B.; Yamamoto, T.; Yapici, T.; Younk, P.; Yuan, G.; Yushkov, A.; Zamorano Garcia, B.; Zas, E.; Zavrtanik, D.; Zavrtanik, M.; Zaw, I.; Zepeda, A.; Zhou, J.; Zhu, Y.; Zimbres Silva, M.; Ziolkowski, M.

    2012-08-01

    The surface detector array of the Pierre Auger Observatory can detect neutrinos with energy E ν between 1017 eV and 1020 eV from point-like sources across the sky south of +55° and north of -65° declinations. A search has been performed for highly inclined extensive air showers produced by the interaction of neutrinos of all flavors in the atmosphere (downward-going neutrinos), and by the decay of tau leptons originating from tau neutrino interactions in Earth's crust (Earth-skimming neutrinos). No candidate neutrinos have been found in data up to 2010 May 31. This corresponds to an equivalent exposure of ~3.5 years of a full surface detector array for the Earth-skimming channel and ~2 years for the downward-going channel. An improved upper limit on the diffuse flux of tau neutrinos has been derived. Upper limits on the neutrino flux from point-like sources have been derived as a function of the source declination. Assuming a differential neutrino flux k PS · E -2 ν from a point-like source, 90% confidence level upper limits for k PS at the level of ≈5 × 10-7 and 2.5 × 10-6 GeV cm-2 s-1 have been obtained over a broad range of declinations from the searches for Earth-skimming and downward-going neutrinos, respectively.

  9. Diffusion archeology for diffusion progression history reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Sefer, Emre; Kingsford, Carl

    2016-11-01

    Diffusion through graphs can be used to model many real-world processes, such as the spread of diseases, social network memes, computer viruses, or water contaminants. Often, a real-world diffusion cannot be directly observed while it is occurring - perhaps it is not noticed until some time has passed, continuous monitoring is too costly, or privacy concerns limit data access. This leads to the need to reconstruct how the present state of the diffusion came to be from partial diffusion data. Here, we tackle the problem of reconstructing a diffusion history from one or more snapshots of the diffusion state. This ability can be invaluable to learn when certain computer nodes are infected or which people are the initial disease spreaders to control future diffusions. We formulate this problem over discrete-time SEIRS-type diffusion models in terms of maximum likelihood. We design methods that are based on submodularity and a novel prize-collecting dominating-set vertex cover (PCDSVC) relaxation that can identify likely diffusion steps with some provable performance guarantees. Our methods are the first to be able to reconstruct complete diffusion histories accurately in real and simulated situations. As a special case, they can also identify the initial spreaders better than the existing methods for that problem. Our results for both meme and contaminant diffusion show that the partial diffusion data problem can be overcome with proper modeling and methods, and that hidden temporal characteristics of diffusion can be predicted from limited data.

  10. Surface- vs Diffusion-Limited Mechanisms of Anion Exchange in CsPbBr3 Nanocrystal Cubes Revealed through Kinetic Studies.

    PubMed

    Koscher, Brent A; Bronstein, Noah D; Olshansky, Jacob H; Bekenstein, Yehonadav; Alivisatos, A Paul

    2016-09-21

    Ion-exchange transformations allow access to nanocrystalline materials with compositions that are inaccessible via direct synthetic routes. However, additional mechanistic insight into the processes that govern these reactions is needed. We present evidence for the presence of two distinct mechanisms of exchange during anion exchange in CsPbX3 nanocrystals (NCs), ranging in size from 6.5 to 11.5 nm, for transformations from CsPbBr3 to CsPbCl3 or CsPbI3. These NCs exhibit bright luminescence throughout the exchange, allowing their optical properties to be observed in real time, in situ. The iodine exchange presents surface-reaction-limited exchanges allowing all anionic sites within the NC to appear chemically identical, whereas the chlorine exchange presents diffusion-limited exchanges proceeding through a more complicated exchange mechanism. Our results represent the first steps toward developing a microkinetic description of the anion exchange, with implications not only for understanding the lead halide perovskites but also for nanoscale ion exchange in general.

  11. Stability of a Random Walk Model for Fruiting Body Aggregation in M. xanthus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKenzie-Smith, G. C.; Schüttler, H. B.; Cotter, C.; Shimkets, L.

    2015-03-01

    Myxococcus xanthus exhibits the social starvation behavior of aggregation into a fruiting body containing myxospores able to survive harsh conditions. During fruiting body aggregation, individual bacteria follow random walk paths determined by randomly selected runtimes, turning angles, and speeds. We have simulated this behavior in terms of a continuous-time random walk (CTRW) model, re-formulated as a system of integral equations, describing the angle-resolved cell density, R(r, t, θ), at position r and cell orientation angle θ at time t, and angle-integrated ambient cell density ρ(r, t). By way of a linear stability analysis, we investigated whether a uniform cell density R0 will be unstable for a small non-uniform density perturbation δR(r, t, θ). Such instability indicates aggregate formation, whereas stability indicates absence of aggregation. We show that a broadening of CTRW distributions of the random speed and/or random runtimes strongly favors aggregation. We also show that, in the limit of slowly-varying (long-wavelength) density perturbations, the time-dependent linear density response can be approximated by a drift-diffusion model for which we calculate diffusion and drift coefficients as functions of the CTRW model parameters. Funded by the Fungal Genomics and Computational Biology REU at UGA.

  12. Detection limits for blood on four fabric types using infrared diffuse reflection spectroscopy in mid- and near-infrared spectral windows.

    PubMed

    DeJong, Stephanie A; Lu, Zhenyu; Cassidy, Brianna M; O'Brien, Wayne L; Morgan, Stephen L; Myrick, Michael L

    2015-09-01

    Detection limits (DL) for blood on four fabric types were estimated for calibrations derived using partial least squares regression applied to infrared (IR) diffuse reflection spectra. Samples were prepared by dip-coating acrylic, cotton, nylon, and polyester fabrics from solutions of diluted rat blood. While DLs often appear in terms of dilution factor in the forensic community, mass percentage, coverage (mass per unit area), or film thickness are often more relevant when comparing experimental methods. These alternate DL units are related to one another and presented here. The best IR diffuse reflection DLs for blood on acrylic and cotton fabrics were in the mid-IR spectral window corresponding to the protein Amide I/II absorption bands. These DLs were dilution by a factor of 2300 (0.019% w/w blood solids) for acrylic and a factor of 610 (0.055% w/w blood solids) for cotton. The best DL for blood on polyester was found in the mid-IR spectral window corresponding to the protein Amide A absorption band at dilution by a factor of 900 (0.034% w/w blood solids). Because of the similarity between the IR spectra of blood solids and nylon fabrics, no satisfactory IR DLs were determined for the calibration of blood on nylon. We compare our values to DLs reported for blood detection using the standard luminol method. The most commonly reported luminol DLs are of the order of 1000-fold dilution, which we estimate are a factor of 2-7 lower than our reported IR DLs on a coverage basis.

  13. A discontinuous Galerkin method with a bound preserving limiter for the advection of non-diffusive fields in solid Earth geodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Ying; Puckett, Elbridge Gerry; Billen, Magali I.

    2017-02-01

    Mineral composition has a strong effect on the properties of rocks and is an essentially non-diffusive property in the context of large-scale mantle convection. Due to the non-diffusive nature and the origin of compositionally distinct regions in the Earth the boundaries between distinct regions can be nearly discontinuous. While there are different methods for tracking rock composition in numerical simulations of mantle convection, one must consider trade-offs between computational cost, accuracy or ease of implementation when choosing an appropriate method. Existing methods can be computationally expensive, cause over-/undershoots, smear sharp boundaries, or are not easily adapted to tracking multiple compositional fields. Here we present a Discontinuous Galerkin method with a bound preserving limiter (abbreviated as DG-BP) using a second order Runge-Kutta, strong stability-preserving time discretization method for the advection of non-diffusive fields. First, we show that the method is bound-preserving for a point-wise divergence free flow (e.g., a prescribed circular flow in a box). However, using standard adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) there is an over-shoot error (2%) because the cell average is not preserved during mesh coarsening. The effectiveness of the algorithm for convection-dominated flows is demonstrated using the falling box problem. We find that the DG-BP method maintains sharper compositional boundaries (3-5 elements) as compared to an artificial entropy-viscosity method (6-15 elements), although the over-/undershoot errors are similar. When used with AMR the DG-BP method results in fewer degrees of freedom due to smaller regions of mesh refinement in the neighborhood of the discontinuity. However, using Taylor-Hood elements and a uniform mesh there is an over-/undershoot error on the order of 0.0001%, but this error increases to 0.01-0.10% when using AMR. Therefore, for research problems in which a continuous field method is desired the DG

  14. Computer simulation of electrical conductivity of colloidal dispersions during aggregation.

    PubMed

    Lebovka, N I; Tarafdar, S; Vygornitskii, N V

    2006-03-01

    The computation approach to the simulation of electrical conductivity of colloidal dispersions during aggregation is considered. We use the two-dimensional diffusion-limited aggregation model with multiple-seed growth. The particles execute a random walk, but lose their mobility after contact with the growing clusters or seeds. The two parameters that control the aggregation are the initial concentration of free particles in the system p and the concentration of seeds psi. The case of psi=1, when all the particles are the immobile seeds, corresponds with the usual random percolation problem. The other limiting case of psi=0, when all the particles walk randomly, corresponds to the dynamical percolation problem. The calculation of electrical conductivity and cluster analysis were done with the help of the algorithms of Frank-Lobb and Hoshen-Kopelman. It is shown that the percolation concentration phi c decreases from 0.5927 at psi=1 to 0 at psi --> 0. Scaling analysis was applied to study exponents of correlation length v and of conductivity t. For all psi>0 this model shows universal behavior of classical 2d random percolation with v approximately t approximately 4/3. The electrical conductivity sigma of the system increases during aggregation reaching up to a maximum at the final stage. The concentration dependence of conductivity sigma(phi) obeys the general effective medium equation with apparent exponent ta(psi) that exceeds t. The kinetics of electrical conductivity changes during the aggregation is discussed. In the range of concentration Pc(phi)

  15. Influence of aggregate sizes and microstructures on bioremediation assessment of field-contaminated soils in pilot-scale biopiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, W.; Akbari, A.; Frigon, D.; Ghoshal, S.

    2011-12-01

    Petroleum hydrocarbon contamination of soils and groundwater is an environmental concern. Bioremediation has been frequently considered a cost-effective, less disruptive remedial technology. Formation of soil aggregate fractions in unsaturated soils is generally believed to hinder aerobic hydrocarbon biodegradation due to the slow intra-pore diffusion of nutrients and oxygen within the aggregate matrix and to the reduced bioavailability of hydrocarbons. On the other hand, soil aggregates may harbour favourable niches for indigenous bacteria, providing protective microsites against various in situ environmental stresses. The size of the soil aggregates is likely to be a critical factor for these processes and could be interpreted as a relevant marker for biodegradation assessment. There have been only limited attempts in the past to assess petroleum hydrocarbon biodegradation in unsaturated soils as a function of aggregate size. This study is aimed at investigating the roles of aggregate sizes and aggregate microstructures on biodegradation activity. Field-aged, contaminated, clayey soils were shipped from Norman Wells, Canada. Attempts were made to stimulate indigenous microbial activity by soil aeration and nutrient amendments in a pilot-scale biopile tank (1m L×0.65m W×0.3 m H). A control biopile was maintained without the nutrient amendment but was aerated. The initial concentrations of petroleum hydrocarbons in the field-contaminated soils increased with increasing aggregate sizes, which were classified in three fractions: micro- (<250 μm), meso- (>250-2000 μm) and macro-aggregates (>2000 μm). Compared to the TPH analyses at whole-soil level, the petroleum hydrocarbon analyses based on the aggregate-size levels demonstrated more clearly the extent of biodegradation of non-volatile, heavier hydrocarbons (C16-C34) in the soil. The removal of the C16-C34 hydrocarbons was 44% in macro-aggregates, but only 13% in meso-aggregates. The increased protein

  16. Systemic Sclerosis: Diffuse and Limited

    MedlinePlus

    ... to the nucleus of one’s own cells (anti-nuclear antibodies or ANA) that are seen in nearly ... can and should be switched to an angiotensin-receptor blocker (like Cozaar or Diovan), even as they ...

  17. Additional Survival Benefit of Involved-Lesion Radiation Therapy After R-CHOP Chemotherapy in Limited Stage Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma

    SciTech Connect

    Kwon, Jeanny; Kim, Il Han; Kim, Byoung Hyuck; Kim, Tae Min; Heo, Dae Seog

    2015-05-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of involved-lesion radiation therapy (ILRT) after rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (R-CHOP) chemotherapy in limited stage diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) by comparing outcomes of R-CHOP therapy alone with R-CHOP followed by ILRT. Methods and Materials: We identified 198 patients treated with R-CHOP (median, 6 cycles) for pathologically confirmed DLBCL of limited stage from July 2004 to December 2012. Clinical characteristics of these patients were 33% with stage I and 66.7% with stage II; 79.8% were in the low or low-intermediate risk group; 13.6% had B symptoms; 29.8% had bulky tumors (≥7 cm); and 75.3% underwent ≥6 cycles of R-CHOP therapy. RT was given to 43 patients (21.7%) using ILRT technique, which included the prechemotherapy tumor volume with a median margin of 2 cm (median RT dose: 36 Gy). Results: After a median follow-up of 40 months, 3-year progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were 85.8% and 88.9%, respectively. Multivariate analysis showed ≥6 cycles of R-CHOP (PFS, P=.004; OS, P=.004) and ILRT (PFS, P=.021; OS, P=.014) were favorable prognosticators of PFS and OS. A bulky tumor (P=.027) and response to R-CHOP (P=.012) were also found to be independent factors of OS. In subgroup analysis, the effect of ILRT was prominent in patients with a bulky tumor (PFS, P=.014; OS, P=.030) or an elevated level of serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH; PFS, P=.004; OS, P=.012). Conclusions: Our results suggest that ILRT after R-CHOP therapy improves PFS and OS in patients with limited stage DLBCL, especially in those with bulky disease or an elevated serum LDH level.

  18. SEARCH FOR POINT-LIKE SOURCES OF ULTRA-HIGH ENERGY NEUTRINOS AT THE PIERRE AUGER OBSERVATORY AND IMPROVED LIMIT ON THE DIFFUSE FLUX OF TAU NEUTRINOS

    SciTech Connect

    Abreu, P.; Andringa, S.; Aglietta, M.; Ahlers, M.; Ahn, E. J.; Albuquerque, I. F. M.; Allard, D.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Allison, P.; Almela, A.; Alvarez Castillo, J.; Alvarez-Muniz, J.; Alves Batista, R.; Ambrosio, M.; Aramo, C.; Aminaei, A.; Anchordoqui, L.; Antici'c, T.; Collaboration: Pierre Auger Collaboration; and others

    2012-08-10

    The surface detector array of the Pierre Auger Observatory can detect neutrinos with energy E{sub {nu}} between 10{sup 17} eV and 10{sup 20} eV from point-like sources across the sky south of +55 Degree-Sign and north of -65 Degree-Sign declinations. A search has been performed for highly inclined extensive air showers produced by the interaction of neutrinos of all flavors in the atmosphere (downward-going neutrinos), and by the decay of tau leptons originating from tau neutrino interactions in Earth's crust (Earth-skimming neutrinos). No candidate neutrinos have been found in data up to 2010 May 31. This corresponds to an equivalent exposure of {approx}3.5 years of a full surface detector array for the Earth-skimming channel and {approx}2 years for the downward-going channel. An improved upper limit on the diffuse flux of tau neutrinos has been derived. Upper limits on the neutrino flux from point-like sources have been derived as a function of the source declination. Assuming a differential neutrino flux k{sub PS} {center_dot} E {sup -2}{sub {nu}} from a point-like source, 90% confidence level upper limits for k{sub PS} at the level of Almost-Equal-To 5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -7} and 2.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -6} GeV cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} have been obtained over a broad range of declinations from the searches for Earth-skimming and downward-going neutrinos, respectively.

  19. Population balance modeling of antibodies aggregation kinetics.

    PubMed

    Arosio, Paolo; Rima, Simonetta; Lattuada, Marco; Morbidelli, Massimo

    2012-06-21

    The aggregates morphology and the aggregation kinetics of a model monoclonal antibody under acidic conditions have been investigated. Growth occurs via irreversible cluster-cluster coagulation forming compact, fractal aggregates with fractal dimension of 2.6. We measured the time evolution of the average radius of gyration, , and the average hydrodynamic radius, , by in situ light scattering, and simulated the aggregation kinetics by a modified Smoluchowski's population balance equations. The analysis indicates that aggregation does not occur under diffusive control, and allows quantification of effective intermolecular interactions, expressed in terms of the Fuchs stability ratio (W). In particular, by introducing a dimensionless time weighed on W, the time evolutions of measured under various operating conditions (temperature, pH, type and concentration of salt) collapse on a single master curve. The analysis applies also to data reported in the literature when growth by cluster-cluster coagulation dominates, showing a certain level of generality in the antibodies aggregation behavior. The quantification of the stability ratio gives important physical insights into the process, including the Arrhenius dependence of the aggregation rate constant and the relationship between monomer-monomer and cluster-cluster interactions. Particularly, it is found that the reactivity of non-native monomers is larger than that of non-native aggregates, likely due to the reduction of the number of available hydrophobic patches during aggregation.

  20. Reversible and irreversible aggregation of magnetic liposomes.

    PubMed

    García-Jimeno, Sonia; Estelrich, Joan; Callejas-Fernández, José; Roldán-Vargas, Sándalo

    2017-10-12

    Understanding stabilization and aggregation in magnetic nanoparticle systems is crucial to optimizing the functionality of these systems in real physiological applications. Here we address this problem for a specific, yet representative, system. We present an experimental and analytical study on the aggregation of superparamagnetic liposomes in suspension in the presence of a controllable external magnetic field. We study the aggregation kinetics and report an intermediate time power law evolution and a long time stationary value for the average aggregate diffusion coefficient, both depending on the magnetic field intensity. We then show that the long time aggregate structure is fractal with a fractal dimension that decreases upon increasing the magnetic field intensity. By scaling arguments we also establish an analytical relation between the aggregate fractal dimension and the power law exponent controlling the aggregation kinetics. This relation is indeed independent on the magnetic field intensity. Despite the superparamagnetic character of our particles, we further prove the existence of a population of surviving aggregates able to maintain their integrity after switching off the external magnetic field. Finally, we suggest a schematic interaction scenario to rationalize the observed coexistence between reversible and irreversible aggregation.

  1. Pregel Aggregate Structure in A Sooty Flame

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorensen, C. M.; Shi, D.; Kim, W.; Fry, D.; Chakrabarti, A.

    2002-03-01

    Optical structure factor and fast microphotography have been used to study large gel-like soot aggregates in acetylene diffusion flames. We find that submicron, D_f~= 1.8 soot fractal aggregate form early in the flames or when the carbon concentration is low. Otherwise soot clusters with diameters as large as 100μ and fractal dimension approaching D_f~= 2.5 are obtained. One scenario to explain these observations, consistent with simulations we have performed, is that the smaller D_f~= 1.8 aggregates ``raft'' together to form percolated superclusters. This occurs after the normalized free volume becomes significantly less than one.

  2. Directional sensing and streaming in Dictyostelium aggregation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almeida, Sofia; Dilão, Rui

    2016-05-01

    We merge the Kessler-Levine simple discrete model for Dictyostelium cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) production and diffusion with the Dilão-Hauser directional sensing aggregation mechanism. The resulting compound model describes all the known transient patterns that emerge during Dictyostelium aggregation, which include the spontaneous formation of cAMP self-sustained target and spiral waves and streaming. We show that the streaming patterns depend on the speed of the amoebae, on the relaxation time for the production of cAMP, on the cAMP degradation rate, and on directional sensing. Moreover, we show that different signaling centers emerge during Dictyostelium aggregation.

  3. Protein structural and surface water rearrangement constitute major events in the earliest aggregation stages of tau

    PubMed Central

    Pavlova, Anna; Cheng, Chi-Yuan; Kinnebrew, Maia; Lew, John; Dahlquist, Frederick W.; Han, Songi

    2016-01-01

    Protein aggregation plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases, and the mechanism of its progression is poorly understood. Here, we examine the structural and dynamic characteristics of transiently evolving protein aggregates under ambient conditions by directly probing protein surface water diffusivity, local protein segment dynamics, and interprotein packing as a function of aggregation time, along the third repeat domain and C terminus of Δtau187 spanning residues 255–441 of the longest isoform of human tau. These measurements were achieved with a set of highly sensitive magnetic resonance tools that rely on site-specific electron spin labeling of Δtau187. Within minutes of initiated aggregation, the majority of Δtau187 that is initially homogeneously hydrated undergoes structural transformations to form partially structured aggregation intermediates. This is reflected in the dispersion of surface water dynamics that is distinct around the third repeat domain, found to be embedded in an intertau interface, from that of the solvent-exposed C terminus. Over the course of hours and in a rate-limiting process, a majority of these aggregation intermediates proceed to convert into stable β-sheet structured species and maintain their stacking order without exchanging their subunits. The population of β-sheet structured species is >5% within 5 min of aggregation and gradually grows to 50–70% within the early stages of fibril formation, while they mostly anneal block-wisely to form elongated fibrils. Our findings suggest that the formation of dynamic aggregation intermediates constitutes a major event occurring in the earliest stages of tau aggregation that precedes, and likely facilitates, fibril formation and growth. PMID:26712030

  4. 17 CFR 150.4 - Aggregation of positions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Aggregation of positions. 150... POSITIONS § 150.4 Aggregation of positions. (a) Positions to be aggregated. The position limits set forth in... position limits set forth in § 150.2: (1) A commodity pool operator having ownership or equity interest...

  5. 17 CFR 150.4 - Aggregation of positions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aggregation of positions. 150... POSITIONS § 150.4 Aggregation of positions. (a) Positions to be aggregated. The position limits set forth in... position limits set forth in § 150.2: (1) A commodity pool operator having ownership or equity interest...

  6. Stability and aggregation of metal oxide nanoparticles in natural aqueous matrices.

    PubMed

    Keller, Arturo A; Wang, Hongtao; Zhou, Dongxu; Lenihan, Hunter S; Cherr, Gary; Cardinale, Bradley J; Miller, Robert; Ji, Zhaoxia

    2010-03-15

    There is a pressing need for information on the mobility of nanoparticles in the complex aqueous matrices found in realistic environmental conditions. We dispersed three different metal oxide nanoparticles (TiO(2), ZnO and CeO(2)) in samples taken from eight different aqueous media associated with seawater, lagoon, river, and groundwater, and measured their electrophoretic mobility, state of aggregation, and rate of sedimentation. The electrophoretic mobility of the particles in a given aqueous media was dominated by the presence of natural organic matter (NOM) and ionic strength, and independent of pH. NOM adsorbed onto these nanoparticles significantly reduces their aggregation, stabilizing them under many conditions. The transition from reaction to diffusion limited aggregation occurs at an electrophoretic mobility from around -2 to -0.8 microm s(-1) V(-1) cm. These results are key for designing and interpreting nanoparticle ecotoxicity studies in various environmental conditions.

  7. A Limiting Current Oxygen Sensor Based on LSGM as a Solid Electrolyte and LSGMN ( N = Fe, Co) as a Dense Diffusion Barrier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Tao; Gao, Xiang; He, Bei-Gang; Yu, Jing-Kun

    2016-07-01

    The La0.8Sr0.2(Ga1- x Co x )0.8Mg0.2O3- δ (LSGMC x = 0.05, 0.1, 0.15, 0.2, 0.25) and La0.8Sr0.2(Ga1- x Fe x )0.8Mg0.2O3- δ (LSGMF x = 0.1, 0.2, 0.3) samples were prepared by solid-state reaction. The structure, conductivity, thermal expansion behavior, and chemical compatibility were studied by XRD, dilatometry, and four-terminal method. A limiting current oxygen sensor was prepared with La0.8Sr0.2Ga0.83Mg0.17O2.815 as a solid electrolyte and La0.8Sr0.2(Ga0.75Co0.25)0.8Mg0.2O3- δ as a dense diffusion barrier. The oxygen-sensitive characteristic was measured at different oxygen concentrations. The results show that the phase structure of samples is cubic, except La0.8Sr0.2(Ga0.75Co0.25)0.8Mg0.2O3- δ , which has a hexagonal structure. The change in activation energy for electrical conductivity and the increase in thermal expansion coefficient are confirmed to correlate with an increasing concentration of oxygen vacancies. The limiting current oxygen sensor exhibits a good limiting current platform and the limiting current depends linearly on the oxygen concentration: I L(mA) = 12.8519 + 2.2667 x_{{{O}_{{2}} }} (mol%, 0 < x_{{{{O}}_{ 2} }} < 3.31) at 750 °C, I L(mA) = 14.3222 + 3.5180 x_{{{O}_{{2}} }} (mol%, 0 < x_{{{{O}}_{ 2} }} < 4.16) at 800 °C, and I L(mA) = 15.2872 + 5.0269x_{{{O}_{{2}} }}(mol%, 0 < x_{{{{O}}_{ 2} }} < 4.12) at 850 °C. The sensor has the best sensitivity at 850 °C. As the oxygen concentration increases, the interface resistance of the sensor decreases at 850 °C.

  8. Reconstructing the fractal dimension of granular aggregates from light intensity spectra.

    PubMed

    Tang, Fiona H M; Maggi, Federico

    2015-12-21

    There has been growing interest in using the fractal dimension to study the hierarchical structures of soft materials after realising that fractality is an important property of natural and engineered materials. This work presents a method to quantify the internal architecture and the space-filling capacity of granular fractal aggregates by reconstructing the three-dimensional capacity dimension from their two-dimensional optical projections. Use is made of the light intensity of the two-dimensional aggregate images to describe the aggregate surface asperities (quantified by the perimeter-based fractal dimension) and the internal architecture (quantified by the capacity dimension) within a mathematical framework. This method was tested on control aggregates of diffusion-limited (DLA), cluster-cluster (CCA) and self-correlated (SCA) types, stereolithographically-fabricated aggregates, and experimentally-acquired natural sedimentary aggregates. Statistics of the reconstructed capacity dimension featured correlation coefficients R ≥ 98%, residuals NRMSE ≤ 10% and percent errors PE ≤ 4% as compared to controls, and improved earlier approaches by up to 50%.

  9. COMPARISON OF IMPLICIT SCHEMES TO SOLVE EQUATIONS OF RADIATION HYDRODYNAMICS WITH A FLUX-LIMITED DIFFUSION APPROXIMATION: NEWTON–RAPHSON, OPERATOR SPLITTING, AND LINEARIZATION

    SciTech Connect

    Tetsu, Hiroyuki; Nakamoto, Taishi

    2016-03-15

    Radiation is an important process of energy transport, a force, and a basis for synthetic observations, so radiation hydrodynamics (RHD) calculations have occupied an important place in astrophysics. However, although the progress in computational technology is remarkable, their high numerical cost is still a persistent problem. In this work, we compare the following schemes used to solve the nonlinear simultaneous equations of an RHD algorithm with the flux-limited diffusion approximation: the Newton–Raphson (NR) method, operator splitting, and linearization (LIN), from the perspective of the computational cost involved. For operator splitting, in addition to the traditional simple operator splitting (SOS) scheme, we examined the scheme developed by Douglas and Rachford (DROS). We solve three test problems (the thermal relaxation mode, the relaxation and the propagation of linear waves, and radiating shock) using these schemes and then compare their dependence on the time step size. As a result, we find the conditions of the time step size necessary for adopting each scheme. The LIN scheme is superior to other schemes if the ratio of radiation pressure to gas pressure is sufficiently low. On the other hand, DROS can be the most efficient scheme if the ratio is high. Although the NR scheme can be adopted independently of the regime, especially in a problem that involves optically thin regions, the convergence tends to be worse. In all cases, SOS is not practical.

  10. Comparison of Implicit Schemes to Solve Equations of Radiation Hydrodynamics with a Flux-limited Diffusion Approximation: Newton--Raphson, Operator Splitting, and Linearization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tetsu, Hiroyuki; Nakamoto, Taishi

    2016-03-01

    Radiation is an important process of energy transport, a force, and a basis for synthetic observations, so radiation hydrodynamics (RHD) calculations have occupied an important place in astrophysics. However, although the progress in computational technology is remarkable, their high numerical cost is still a persistent problem. In this work, we compare the following schemes used to solve the nonlinear simultaneous equations of an RHD algorithm with the flux-limited diffusion approximation: the Newton-Raphson (NR) method, operator splitting, and linearization (LIN), from the perspective of the computational cost involved. For operator splitting, in addition to the traditional simple operator splitting (SOS) scheme, we examined the scheme developed by Douglas & Rachford (DROS). We solve three test problems (the thermal relaxation mode, the relaxation and the propagation of linear waves, and radiating shock) using these schemes and then compare their dependence on the time step size. As a result, we find the conditions of the time step size necessary for adopting each scheme. The LIN scheme is superior to other schemes if the ratio of radiation pressure to gas pressure is sufficiently low. On the other hand, DROS can be the most efficient scheme if the ratio is high. Although the NR scheme can be adopted independently of the regime, especially in a problem that involves optically thin regions, the convergence tends to be worse. In all cases, SOS is not practical.

  11. Reduce Confusion about Diffusion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hebrank, Mary R.

    1997-01-01

    Presents activities that allow students to explore the fundamental but poorly understood concept of diffusion by appealing to their kinesthetic senses first, then challenging their analytical skills as they try to deduce the mathematical principle involved. Presents a computer simulation of diffusion and discusses diffusion's limitations and…

  12. Reduce Confusion about Diffusion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hebrank, Mary R.

    1997-01-01

    Presents activities that allow students to explore the fundamental but poorly understood concept of diffusion by appealing to their kinesthetic senses first, then challenging their analytical skills as they try to deduce the mathematical principle involved. Presents a computer simulation of diffusion and discusses diffusion's limitations and…

  13. Symbiotic Cell Differentiation and Cooperative Growth in Multicellular Aggregates

    PubMed Central

    Yamagishi, Jumpei F; Saito, Nen; Kaneko, Kunihiko

    2016-01-01

    As cells grow and divide under a given environment, they become crowded and resources are limited, as seen in bacterial biofilms and multicellular aggregates. These cells often show strong interactions through exchanging chemicals, as evident in quorum sensing, to achieve mutualism and division of labor. Here, to achieve stable division of labor, three characteristics are required. First, isogenous cells differentiate into several types. Second, this aggregate of distinct cell types shows better growth than that of isolated cells without interaction and differentiation, by achieving division of labor. Third, this cell aggregate is robust with respect to the number distribution of differentiated cell types. Indeed, theoretical studies have thus far considered how such cooperation is achieved when the ability of cell differentiation is presumed. Here, we address how cells acquire the ability of cell differentiation and division of labor simultaneously, which is also connected with the robustness of a cell society. For this purpose, we developed a dynamical-systems model of cells consisting of chemical components with intracellular catalytic reaction dynamics. The reactions convert external nutrients into internal components for cellular growth, and the divided cells interact through chemical diffusion. We found that cells sharing an identical catalytic network spontaneously differentiate via induction from cell-cell interactions, and then achieve division of labor, enabling a higher growth rate than that in the unicellular case. This symbiotic differentiation emerged for a class of reaction networks under the condition of nutrient limitation and strong cell-cell interactions. Then, robustness in the cell type distribution was achieved, while instability of collective growth could emerge even among the cooperative cells when the internal reserves of products were dominant. The present mechanism is simple and general as a natural consequence of interacting cells with

  14. Aggregation resistant zwitterated superparamagnetic nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rouhana, Layal L.; Schlenoff, Joseph B.

    2012-05-01

    Superparamagnetic nanoparticles (NPs) are promising for biomedical applications since they can be directed toward the organ of interest using an external magnetic field. They are also good contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging and have potential for the treatment of malignant tumors (i.e., hyperthermia). Therefore, there is a need to produce stable, non-aggregating superparamagnetic nanomaterials that can withstand the in vivo environment. In this work, the colloidal stability of a dispersion of iron oxide NPs was enhanced by functionalizing them with a short zwitterionic siloxane shell in aqueous media. The stabilization procedure yields superparamagnetic nanomaterials, ca. 10 nm in diameter, with saturation magnetization of about 54 emu/g that resist aggregation at physiological salt concentration, temperature, and pH. The loading of the zwitterionic shell was established with diffuse reflectance infrared spectroscopy and thermal gravimetric analysis. X-ray and electron diffraction verified the starting magnetite phase, and that no change in phase occurred on surface functionalization.

  15. Gradient-driven diffusion and pattern formation in crowded mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nandigrami, Prithviraj; Grove, Brandy; Konya, Andrew; Selinger, Robin L. B.

    2017-02-01

    Gradient-driven diffusion in crowded, multicomponent mixtures is a topic of high interest because of its role in biological processes such as transport in cell membranes. In partially phase-separated solutions, gradient-driven diffusion affects microstructure, which in turn affects diffusivity; a key question is how this complex coupling controls both transport and pattern formation. To examine these mechanisms, we study a two-dimensional multicomponent lattice gas model, where "tracer" molecules diffuse between a source and a sink separated by a solution of sticky "crowder" molecules that cluster to form dynamically evolving obstacles. In the high-temperature limit, crowders and tracers are miscible, and transport may be predicted analytically. At intermediate temperatures, crowders phase separate into clusters that drift toward the tracer sink. As a result, steady-state tracer diffusivity depends nonmonotonically on both temperature and crowder density, and we observe a variety of complex microstructures. In the low-temperature limit, crowders rapidly aggregate to form obstacles that are kinetically arrested; if crowder density is near the percolation threshold, resulting tracer diffusivity shows scaling behavior with the same scaling exponent as the random resistor network model. Though highly idealized, this simple model reveals fundamental mechanisms governing coupled gradient-driven diffusion, phase separation, and microstructural evolution in crowded mixtures.

  16. A Gossip-based Energy Efficient Protocol for Robust In-network Aggregation in Wireless Sensor Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fauji, Shantanu

    We consider the problem of energy efficient and fault tolerant in--network aggregation for wireless sensor networks (WSNs). In-network aggregation is the process of aggregation while collecting data from sensors to the base station. This process should be energy efficient due to the limited energy at the sensors and tolerant to the high failure rates common in sensor networks. Tree based in--network aggregation protocols, although energy efficient, are not robust to network failures. Multipath routing protocols are robust to failures to a certain degree but are not energy efficient due to the overhead in the maintenance of multiple paths. We propose a new protocol for in-network aggregation in WSNs, which is energy efficient, achieves high lifetime, and is robust to the changes in the network topology. Our protocol, gossip--based protocol for in-network aggregation (GPIA) is based on the spreading of information via gossip. GPIA is not only adaptive to failures and changes in the network topology, but is also energy efficient. Energy efficiency of GPIA comes from all the nodes being capable of selective message reception and detecting convergence of the aggregation early. We experimentally show that GPIA provides significant improvement over some other competitors like the Ridesharing, Synopsis Diffusion and the pure version of gossip. GPIA shows ten fold, five fold and two fold improvement over the pure gossip, the synopsis diffusion and Ridesharing protocols in terms of network lifetime, respectively. Further, GPIA retains gossip's robustness to failures and improves upon the accuracy of synopsis diffusion and Ridesharing.

  17. Genome-wide DNA methylation analysis in dermal fibroblasts from patients with diffuse and limited systemic sclerosis reveals common and subset-specific DNA methylation aberrancies

    PubMed Central

    Altorok, Nezam; Tsou, Pei-Suen; Coit, Patrick; Khanna, Dinesh; Sawalha, Amr H

    2014-01-01

    Background The aetiology of systemic sclerosis (SSc) is not clear, but there is an emerging evidence of gene-specific epigenetic dysregulation in the pathogenesis of SSc. Methods We performed a genome-wide DNA methylation study in dermal fibroblasts in six diffuse cutaneous SSc (dSSc) patients, six limited cutaneous SSc (lSSc) patients compared with 12 age-matched, sex-matched and ethnicity-matched healthy controls. Cytosine methylation was quantified in more than 485 000 methylation sites across the genome. Differentially methylated CpG sites between patients and controls with a fold difference ≥1.2 were identified. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR was performed to assess correlation between DNA methylation changes and gene expression levels. Results We identified 2710 and 1021 differentially methylated CpG sites in dSSc and lSSc, respectively. Of the differentially methylated sites, 61% in dSSc and 90% in lSSc were hypomethylated. There were only 203 CpG sites differentially methylated in both dSSc and lSSc, representing 118 hypomethylated and 6 hypermethylated genes. Common hypomethylated genes include ITGA9, encoding an α integrin. Other relevant genes such as ADAM12, COL23A1, COL4A2 and MYO1E, and transcription factors genes RUNX1, RUNX2 and RUNX3 were also hypomethylated in both dSSc and lSSc. Pathway analysis of differentially methylated genes in both dSSc and lSSc revealed enrichment of genes involved in extracellular matrix–receptor interaction and focal adhesion. We demonstrate significant correlation between DNA methylation status and gene expression in the majority of genes evaluated. Conclusions Our data highlight common and subset-specific aberrancies in dSSc and lSSc