Microgenerateurs electriques a base d'oscillateurs thermiques
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Leveille, Etienne
Dans un contexte de developpement durable et d'automatisation de notre environnement, l'utilisation de capteurs sans-fil distribues est croissante. Hors l'usage et le remplacement de piles s'avere couteux. La consommation energetique de plus en plus faible de l'electronique rend l'extraction energetique de l'energie ambiante envisageable. La chaleur residuelle est une source d'energie interessante puisqu'elle est la forme finale de la majeure partie de l'energie utilisee par l'humain. Cependant, a petite echelle, seuls les elements thermoelectriques sont disponibles. Les presents travaux s'interessent donc a explorer et comparer des mecanismes de generation alternatifs. Puisque la majorite des mecanismes de transduction alternatifs sont dynamiques, leur utilisation requiert une transformation de l'energie thermique continue en oscillations. Les mecanismes etudies ont donc tous en commun de posseder un oscillateur thermique en plus d'un mecanisme de transduction vers la forme d'energie electrique. Parmi les divers mecanismes identifies, deux sont etudies en details pour comprendre leurs comportements ainsi que connaitre leur efficacite et leur puissance potentielle. Le premier generateur etudie theoriquement est base sur le changement de ferromagnetisme d'une masse suspendue par des ressorts au-dessus d'un aimant. Les comportements du modele developpe correspondent aux comportements reportes dans la litterature. Deux parametres de conception principaux ont ete identifies, permettant un controle de la frequence, de la plage de temperatures d'operation. De plus le mecanisme peut operer avec de faibles differences de temperature et des temperatures proches de l'ambiant, ouvrant la porte a des applications utilisant la chaleur du corps humain. L'utilisation de materiau pyroelectrique comme mecanisme de transduction pourrait offrir des densites de puissance electrique envisageables de l'ordre de 1mW/cm3. Le second generateur etudie experimentalement est base sur l
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ayoub, Simon
Le reseau de distribution et de transport de l'electricite se modernise dans plusieurs pays dont le Canada. La nouvelle generation de ce reseau que l'on appelle smart grid, permet entre autre l'automatisation de la production, de la distribution et de la gestion de la charge chez les clients. D'un autre cote, des appareils domestiques intelligents munis d'une interface de communication pour des applications du smart grid commencent a apparaitre sur le marche. Ces appareils intelligents pourraient creer une communaute virtuelle pour optimiser leurs consommations d'une facon distribuee. La gestion distribuee de ces charges intelligentes necessite la communication entre un grand nombre d'equipements electriques. Ceci represente un defi important a relever surtout si on ne veut pas augmenter le cout de l'infrastructure et de la maintenance. Lors de cette these deux systemes distincts ont ete concus : un systeme de communication peer-to-peer, appele Ring-Tree, permettant la communication entre un nombre important de noeuds (jusqu'a de l'ordre de grandeur du million) tel que des appareils electriques communicants et une technique distribuee de gestion de la charge sur le reseau electrique. Le systeme de communication Ring-Tree inclut une nouvelle topologie reseau qui n'a jamais ete definie ou exploitee auparavant. Il inclut egalement des algorithmes pour la creation, l'exploitation et la maintenance de ce reseau. Il est suffisamment simple pour etre mis en oeuvre sur des controleurs associes aux dispositifs tels que des chauffe-eaux, chauffage a accumulation, bornes de recharges electriques, etc. Il n'utilise pas un serveur centralise (ou tres peu, seulement lorsqu'un noeud veut rejoindre le reseau). Il offre une solution distribuee qui peut etre mise en oeuvre sans deploiement d'une infrastructure autre que les controleurs sur les dispositifs vises. Finalement, un temps de reponse de quelques secondes pour atteindre 1'ensemble du reseau peut etre obtenu, ce qui est
Microstructure et proprietes electriques de l'oxyde de vanadium pour les microbolometres
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cadieux, Catherine
section contains V3O7 in addition to the multiple orientations of V2O5. Those germinations which have already been observed but not explained in literature can be attributed to the accumulation of germination centers, a stress buildup for the crystalline sections, and a substrate heating caused by the ions bombardment. This last effect is also suggested to be the cause of the amorphous phase crystallisation for the films with longer deposition times. Films deposited at different temperatures show the same microstructure transitions. Two different behavior regimes can be proposed as function of the adatoms' energy. For low temperature, increasing the adatom energy increases the diffusion which promotes the formation of the lowest surface energy stoichiometry and orientation, V2O 5(001). At higher temperature, energy is sufficient to form more energetically expensive orientation and phases. Resistivity is strongly dependant on grain boundaries density as seen by its relationship with lateral grain size. The thin film resistivity is also increased with the number of different crystallographic orientation present in it. To circumvent the high sheet resistance of the deposited single layer films, a multilayer stacking of alternating oxides and metal layers has been deposited. This approach has permitted this project's industrial collaborator to obtain a sheet resistance of 250 kO/□and a TCR of -1.59 %/K. The microstructure of the multilayer is however very heterogeneous. Not only can the metal layers be identified, it is also possible to observe the amorphous to polycrystalline transition described higher for every oxide layer. This multilayer, as well as the best single layer film produced have been annealed for 2 hours at 400°C in high vacuum. The annealed multilayer doesn't show any diffraction peaks, has very low resistance, and an almost null TCR generally attributed to metallic compounds We suggest that the diffusion of the vanadium layers into the stack created a
Microstructure et proprietes electriques de l'oxyde de vanadium pour les microbolometres
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cadieux, Catherine
section contains V3O7 in addition to the multiple orientations of V2O5. Those germinations which have already been observed but not explained in literature can be attributed to the accumulation of germination centers, a stress buildup for the crystalline sections, and a substrate heating caused by the ions bombardment. This last effect is also suggested to be the cause of the amorphous phase crystallisation for the films with longer deposition times. Films deposited at different temperatures show the same microstructure transitions. Two different behavior regimes can be proposed as function of the adatoms' energy. For low temperature, increasing the adatom energy increases the diffusion which promotes the formation of the lowest surface energy stoichiometry and orientation, V2O 5(001). At higher temperature, energy is sufficient to form more energetically expensive orientation and phases. Resistivity is strongly dependant on grain boundaries density as seen by its relationship with lateral grain size. The thin film resistivity is also increased with the number of different crystallographic orientation present in it. To circumvent the high sheet resistance of the deposited single layer films, a multilayer stacking of alternating oxides and metal layers has been deposited. This approach has permitted this project's industrial collaborator to obtain a sheet resistance of 250 kO/□and a TCR of -1.59 %/K. The microstructure of the multilayer is however very heterogeneous. Not only can the metal layers be identified, it is also possible to observe the amorphous to polycrystalline transition described higher for every oxide layer. This multilayer, as well as the best single layer film produced have been annealed for 2 hours at 400°C in high vacuum. The annealed multilayer doesn't show any diffraction peaks, has very low resistance, and an almost null TCR generally attributed to metallic compounds We suggest that the diffusion of the vanadium layers into the stack created a
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wadle, Stephen; Wuest, Daniel; Cantalupo, John; Lakes, Roderic S.
1994-01-01
Holographic diffusers are prepared using silver halide (Agfa 8E75 and Kodak 649F) and photopolymer (Polaroid DMP 128 and DuPont 600, 705, and 150 series) media. It is possible to control the diffusion angle in three ways: by selection of the properties of the source diffuser, by control of its subtended angle, and by selection of the holographic medium. Several conventional diffusers based on refraction or scattering of light are examined for comparison.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fukuyama, Hidenao
Recent advances of magnetic resonance imaging have been described, especially stressed on the diffusion sequences. We have recently applied the diffusion sequence to functional brain imaging, and found the appropriate results. In addition to the neurosciences fields, diffusion weighted images have improved the accuracies of clinical diagnosis depending upon magnetic resonance images in stroke as well as inflammations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Senoo, Y.
The influence of vaneless diffusers on flow in centrifugal compressors, particularly on surge, is discussed. A vaneless diffuser can demonstrate stable operation in a wide flow range only if it is installed with a backward leaning blade impeller. The circumferential distortion of flow in the impeller disappears quickly in the vaneless diffuser. The axial distortion of flow at the diffuser inlet does not decay easily. In large specific speed compressors, flow out of the impeller is distorted axially. Pressure recovery of diffusers at distorted inlet flow is considerably improved by half guide vanes. The best height of the vanes is a little 1/2 diffuser width. In small specific speed compressors, flow out of the impeller is not much distorted and pressure recovery can be predicted with one-dimensional flow analysis. Wall friction loss is significant in narrow diffusers. The large pressure drop at a small flow rate can cause the positive gradient of the pressure-flow rate characteristic curve, which may cause surging.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nicolet, M. A.
1983-01-01
The choice of the metallic film for the contact to a semiconductor device is discussed. One way to try to stabilize a contact is by interposing a thin film of a material that has low diffusivity for the atoms in question. This thin film application is known as a diffusion barrier. Three types of barriers can be distinguished. The stuffed barrier derives its low atomic diffusivity to impurities that concentrate along the extended defects of a polycrystalline layer. Sacrificial barriers exploit the fact that some (elemental) thin films react in a laterally uniform and reproducible fashion. Sacrificial barriers have the advantage that the point of their failure is predictable. Passive barriers are those most closely approximating an ideal barrier. The most-studied case is that of sputtered TiN films. Stuffed barriers may be viewed as passive barriers whose low diffusivity material extends along the defects of the polycrystalline host.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1981-01-01
A diffuse celestial radiation which is isotropic at least on a course scale were measured from the soft X-ray region to about 150 MeV, at which energy the intensity falls below that of the galactic emission for most galactic latitudes. The spectral shape, the intensity, and the established degree of isotropy of this diffuse radiation already place severe constraints on the possible explanations for this radiation. Among the extragalactic theories, the more promising explanations of the isotropic diffuse emission appear to be radiation from exceptional galaxies from matter antimatter annihilation at the boundaries of superclusters of galaxies of matter and antimatter in baryon symmetric big bang models. Other possible sources for extragalactic diffuse gamma radiation are discussed and include normal galaxies, clusters of galaxies, primordial cosmic rays interacting with intergalactic matter, primordial black holes, and cosmic ray leakage from galaxies.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Dou, Remy; Hogan, DaNel; Kossover, Mark; Spuck, Timothy; Young, Sarah
2013-01-01
Diffusion has often been taught in science courses as one of the primary ways by which molecules travel, particularly within organisms. For years, classroom teachers have used the same common demonstrations to illustrate this concept (e.g., placing drops of food coloring in a beaker of water). Most of the time, the main contributor to the motion…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Haba, Z.
2009-02-01
We discuss relativistic diffusion in proper time in the approach of Schay (Ph.D. thesis, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ, 1961) and Dudley [Ark. Mat. 6, 241 (1965)]. We derive (Langevin) stochastic differential equations in various coordinates. We show that in some coordinates the stochastic differential equations become linear. We obtain momentum probability distribution in an explicit form. We discuss a relativistic particle diffusing in an external electromagnetic field. We solve the Langevin equations in the case of parallel electric and magnetic fields. We derive a kinetic equation for the evolution of the probability distribution. We discuss drag terms leading to an equilibrium distribution. The relativistic analog of the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process is not unique. We show that if the drag comes from a diffusion approximation to the master equation then its form is strongly restricted. The drag leading to the Tsallis equilibrium distribution satisfies this restriction whereas the one of the Jüttner distribution does not. We show that any function of the relativistic energy can be the equilibrium distribution for a particle in a static electric field. A preliminary study of the time evolution with friction is presented. It is shown that the problem is equivalent to quantum mechanics of a particle moving on a hyperboloid with a potential determined by the drag. A relation to diffusions appearing in heavy ion collisions is briefly discussed.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Foy, Barry G.
1977-01-01
Two demonstrations are described. Materials and instructions for demonstrating movement of molecules into cytoplasm using agar blocks, phenolphthalein, and sodium hydroxide are given. A simple method for demonstrating that the rate of diffusion of a gas is inversely proportional to its molecular weight is also presented. (AJ)
Haba, Z
2009-02-01
We discuss relativistic diffusion in proper time in the approach of Schay (Ph.D. thesis, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ, 1961) and Dudley [Ark. Mat. 6, 241 (1965)]. We derive (Langevin) stochastic differential equations in various coordinates. We show that in some coordinates the stochastic differential equations become linear. We obtain momentum probability distribution in an explicit form. We discuss a relativistic particle diffusing in an external electromagnetic field. We solve the Langevin equations in the case of parallel electric and magnetic fields. We derive a kinetic equation for the evolution of the probability distribution. We discuss drag terms leading to an equilibrium distribution. The relativistic analog of the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process is not unique. We show that if the drag comes from a diffusion approximation to the master equation then its form is strongly restricted. The drag leading to the Tsallis equilibrium distribution satisfies this restriction whereas the one of the Jüttner distribution does not. We show that any function of the relativistic energy can be the equilibrium distribution for a particle in a static electric field. A preliminary study of the time evolution with friction is presented. It is shown that the problem is equivalent to quantum mechanics of a particle moving on a hyperboloid with a potential determined by the drag. A relation to diffusions appearing in heavy ion collisions is briefly discussed. PMID:19391727
Anderson, Robert C.
1976-06-22
1. A method for joining beryllium to beryllium by diffusion bonding, comprising the steps of coating at least one surface portion of at least two beryllium pieces with nickel, positioning a coated surface portion in a contiguous relationship with an other surface portion, subjecting the contiguously disposed surface portions to an environment having an atmosphere at a pressure lower than ambient pressure, applying a force upon the beryllium pieces for causing the contiguous surface portions to abut against each other, heating the contiguous surface portions to a maximum temperature less than the melting temperature of the beryllium, substantially uniformly decreasing the applied force while increasing the temperature after attaining a temperature substantially above room temperature, and maintaining a portion of the applied force at a temperature corresponding to about maximum temperature for a duration sufficient to effect the diffusion bond between the contiguous surface portions.
Habib, S.
1994-10-01
We consider a simple quantum system subjected to a classical random force. Under certain conditions it is shown that the noise-averaged Wigner function of the system follows an integro-differential stochastic Liouville equation. In the simple case of polynomial noise-couplings this equation reduces to a generalized Fokker-Planck form. With nonlinear noise injection new ``quantum diffusion`` terms rise that have no counterpart in the classical case. Two special examples that are not of a Fokker-Planck form are discussed: the first with a localized noise source and the other with a spatially modulated noise source.
Levenson, L.
1963-09-01
A high-vacuum diffusion pump is described, featuring a novel housing geometry for enhancing pumping speed. An upright, cylindrical lower housing portion is surmounted by a concentric, upright, cylindrical upper housing portion of substantially larger diameter; an uppermost nozzle, disposed concentrically within the upper portion, is adapted to eject downwardly a conical sheet of liquid outwardly to impinge upon the uppermost extremity of the interior wall of the lower portion. Preferably this nozzle is mounted upon a pedestal rising coaxially from within the lower portion and projecting up into said upper portion. (AEC)
Parallel flow diffusion battery
Yeh, H.C.; Cheng, Y.S.
1984-01-01
A parallel flow diffusion battery for determining the mass distribution of an aerosol has a plurality of diffusion cells mounted in parallel to an aerosol stream, each diffusion cell including a stack of mesh wire screens of different density.
Parallel flow diffusion battery
Yeh, Hsu-Chi; Cheng, Yung-Sung
1984-08-07
A parallel flow diffusion battery for determining the mass distribution of an aerosol has a plurality of diffusion cells mounted in parallel to an aerosol stream, each diffusion cell including a stack of mesh wire screens of different density.
National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway
NIST Diffusion Data Center (Web, free access) The NIST Diffusion Data Center is a collection of over 14,100 international papers, theses, and government reports on diffusion published before 1980.
Leonenko, Nikolai N.; Meerschaert, Mark M.
2013-01-01
Pearson diffusions are governed by diffusion equations with polynomial coefficients. Fractional Pearson diffusions are governed by the corresponding time-fractional diffusion equation. They are useful for modeling sub-diffusive phenomena, caused by particle sticking and trapping. This paper provides explicit strong solutions for fractional Pearson diffusions, using spectral methods. It also presents stochastic solutions, using a non-Markovian inverse stable time change. PMID:23626377
Microfabricated diffusion source
Oborny, Michael C.; Frye-Mason, Gregory C.; Manginell, Ronald P.
2008-07-15
A microfabricated diffusion source to provide for a controlled diffusion rate of a vapor comprises a porous reservoir formed in a substrate that can be filled with a liquid, a headspace cavity for evaporation of the vapor therein, a diffusion channel to provide a controlled diffusion of the vapor, and an outlet to release the vapor into a gas stream. The microfabricated diffusion source can provide a calibration standard for a microanalytical system. The microanalytical system with an integral diffusion source can be fabricated with microelectromechanical systems technologies.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hui, Zi; Tang, Xiaoyue; Li, Wei; Greneche, Jean-Marc; Wang, Qiuping A.
2015-04-01
In this work, we study the problem of diffusing a product (idea, opinion, disease etc.) among agents on spatial network. The network is constructed by random addition of nodes on the planar. The probability for a previous node to be connected to the new one is inversely proportional to their spatial distance to the power of α. The diffusion rate between two connected nodes is inversely proportional to their spatial distance to the power of β as well. Inspired from the Fick's first law, we introduce the diffusion coefficient to measure the diffusion ability of the spatial network. Using both theoretical analysis and Monte Carlo simulation, we get the fact that the diffusion coefficient always decreases with the increasing of parameter α and β, and the diffusion sub-coefficient follows the power-law of the spatial distance with exponent equals to -α-β+2. Since both short-range diffusion and long-range diffusion exist, we use anomalous diffusion method in diffusion process. We get the fact that the slope index δ in anomalous diffusion is always smaller that 1. The diffusion process in our model is sub-diffusion.
UPDATING APPLIED DIFFUSION MODELS
Most diffusion models currently used in air quality applications are substantially out of date with understanding of turbulence and diffusion in the planetary boundary layer. Under a Cooperative Agreement with the Environmental Protection Agency, the American Meteorological Socie...
Diffusion bonding aeroengine components
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fitzpatrick, G. A.; Broughton, T.
1988-10-01
The use of diffusion bonding processes at Rolls-Royce for the manufacture of titanium-alloy aircraft engine components and structures is described. A liquid-phase diffusion bonding process called activated diffusion bonding has been developed for the manufacture of the hollow titanium wide chord fan blade. In addition, solid-state diffusion bonding is being used in the manufacture of hollow vane/blade airfoil constructions mainly in conjunction with superplastic forming and hot forming techniques.
Handbook on atmospheric diffusion
Hanna, S.R.; Briggs, G.A.; Hosker, R.P. Jr.
1982-01-01
Basic meteorological concepts are covered as well as plume rise, source effects, and diffusion models. Chapters are included on cooling tower plumes and urban diffusion. Suggestions are given for calculating diffusion in special situations, such as for instantaneous releases over complex terrain, over long distances, and during times when chemical reactions or dry or wet deposition are important. (PSB)
Reduce Confusion about Diffusion.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hebrank, Mary R.
1997-01-01
Presents activities that allow students to explore the fundamental but poorly understood concept of diffusion by appealing to their kinesthetic senses first, then challenging their analytical skills as they try to deduce the mathematical principle involved. Presents a computer simulation of diffusion and discusses diffusion's limitations and…
Diffusion of uranium hexafluoride
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Winkelmann, J.
This document is part of Subvolume A `Gases in Gases, Liquids and their Mixtures' of Volume 15 `Diffusion in Gases, Liquids and Electrolytes' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV `Physical Chemistry'. It is part of the chapter of the chapter `Diffusion in Pure Gases' and contains data on diffusion of uranium hexafluoride
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
McCutcheon, James R.; Sanders, John R.
A methodology is presented for planning and managing the spread of educational innovations. The first portion of the guide develops a theoretical framework for diffusion which summarizes and capitalizes on the latest marketing and on the latest marketing and diffusion research findings. Major stages in the diffusion paradigm discussed include…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Havlin, Shlomo; Ben-Avraham, Daniel
2002-01-01
Diffusion in disordered systems does not follow the classical laws which describe transport in ordered crystalline media, and this leads to many anomalous physical properties. Since the application of percolation theory, the main advances in the understanding of these processes have come from fractal theory. Scaling theories and numerical simulations are important tools to describe diffusion processes (random walks: the 'ant in the labyrinth') on percolation systems and fractals. Different types of disordered systems exhibiting anomalous diffusion are presented (the incipient infinite percolation cluster, diffusion-limited aggregation clusters, lattice animals, and random combs), and scaling theories as well as numerical simulations of greater sophistication are described. Also, diffusion in the presence of singular distributions of transition rates is discussed and related to anomalous diffusion on disordered structures.
Hereditary Diffuse Infiltrating Retinoblastoma.
Schedler, Katharina J E; Traine, Peter G; Lohmann, Dietmar R; Haritoglou, Christos; Metz, Klaus A; Rodrigues, Eduardo B
2016-03-01
Retinoblastoma is one of the most common childhood cancers. The diffuse infiltrating retinoblastoma is a rare subtype of this neoplasm. The majority of cases of diffuse infiltrating retinoblastoma are unilateral and occur sporadically. Herein we report on a family with three children affected by retinoblastoma, among them one girl with diffuse infiltrating retinoblastoma. This girl was diagnosed at the age of 8 years with a unilateral diffuse infiltrating retinoblastoma. By contrast, the two brothers became clinically apparent in the first 2 years of life with bilateral retinoblastoma. The parents were clinically unremarkable. Genetic analysis of RB1 gene was performed. The girl with diffuse infiltrating RB was found to be heterozygous for an oncogenic mutation in the RB1 gene that was also carried by both brothers and the father of the family. These results show that diffuse infiltrating retinoblastoma can develop on the background of a hereditary predisposition to retinoblastoma. PMID:24892564
Multinomial diffusion equation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Balter, Ariel; Tartakovsky, Alexandre M.
2011-06-01
We describe a new, microscopic model for diffusion that captures diffusion induced fluctuations at scales where the concept of concentration gives way to discrete particles. We show that in the limit as the number of particles N→∞, our model is equivalent to the classical stochastic diffusion equation (SDE). We test our new model and the SDE against Langevin dynamics in numerical simulations, and show that our model successfully reproduces the correct ensemble statistics, while the classical model fails.
Multinomial diffusion equation
Balter, Ariel I.; Tartakovsky, Alexandre M.
2011-06-24
We describe a new, microscopic model for diffusion that captures diffusion induced uctuations at scales where the concept of concentration gives way to discrete par- ticles. We show that in the limit as the number of particles N ! 1, our model is equivalent to the classical stochastic diffusion equation (SDE). We test our new model and the SDE against Langevin dynamics in numerical simulations, and show that our model successfully reproduces the correct ensemble statistics, while the classical model fails.
Garrett, George A.; Shacter, John
1978-01-01
1. A gaseous diffusion system comprising a plurality of diffusers connected in cascade to form a series of stages, each of said diffusers having a porous partition dividing it into a high pressure chamber and a low pressure chamber, and means for combining a portion of the enriched gas from a succeeding stage with a portion of the enriched gas from the low pressure chamber of each stage and feeding it into one extremity of the high pressure chamber thereof.
Inpainting using airy diffusion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lorduy Hernandez, Sara
2015-09-01
One inpainting procedure based on Airy diffusion is proposed, implemented via Maple and applied to some digital images. Airy diffusion is a partial differential equation with spatial derivatives of third order in contrast with the usual diffusion with spatial derivatives of second order. Airy diffusion generates the Airy semigroup in terms of the Airy functions which can be rewritten in terms of Bessel functions. The Airy diffusion can be used to smooth an image with the corresponding noise elimination via convolution. Also the Airy diffusion can be used to erase objects from an image. We build an algorithm using the Maple package ImageTools and such algorithm is tested using some images. Our results using Airy diffusion are compared with the similar results using standard diffusion. We observe that Airy diffusion generates powerful filters for image processing which could be incorporated in the usual packages for image processing such as ImageJ and Photoshop. Also is interesting to consider the possibility to incorporate the Airy filters as applications for smartphones and smart-glasses.
Experimental study of vortex diffusers
Shakerin, S.; Miller, P.L.
1995-11-01
This report documents experimental research performed on vortex diffusers used in ventilation and air-conditioning systems. The main objectives of the research were (1) to study the flow characteristics of isothermal jets issuing from vortex diffusers, (2) to compare the vortex diffuser`s performance with that of a conventional diffuser, and (3) to prepare a report that disseminates the results to the designers of ventilation and air-conditioning systems. The researchers considered three diffusers: a conventional round ceiling diffuser and two different styles of vortex diffusers. Overall, the vortex diffusers create slightly more induction of ambient air in comparison to the conventional diffuser.
Digel, Seth W.; /SLAC
2007-10-25
Interactions of cosmic rays with interstellar nucleons and photons make the Milky Way a bright, diffuse source of high-energy {gamma}-rays. Observationally, the results from EGRET, COMPTEL, and OSSE have now been extended to higher energies by ground-based experiments, with detections of diffuse emission in the Galactic center reported by H.E.S.S. in the range above 100 GeV and of diffuse emission in Cygnus by MILAGRO in the TeV range. In the range above 100 keV, INTEGRAL SPI has found that diffuse emission remains after point sources are accounted for. I will summarize current knowledge of diffuse {gamma}-ray emission from the Milky Way and review some open issues related to the diffuse emission -- some old, like the distribution of cosmic-ray sources and the origin of the 'excess' of GeV emission observed by EGRET, and some recently recognized, like the amount and distribution of molecular hydrogen not traced by CO emission -- and anticipate some of the advances that will be possible with the Large Area Telescope on GLAST. We plan to develop an accurate physical model for the diffuse emission, which will be useful for detecting and accurately characterizing emission from Galactic point sources as well as any Galactic diffuse emission from exotic processes, and for studying the unresolved extragalactic emission.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Earabino, Gerard J.; Heyl, G. Christopher; Percorini, Thomas J.
1987-01-01
New ideas encounter obstacles on way to becoming products. Report examines process by which new ideas become products, processes, or accepted standards. Sequence of events called "the diffusion of innovation." Focuses on development of material processing in low gravity as case study in diffusion of innovation.
Investigating Diffusion with Technology
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Miller, Jon S.; Windelborn, Augden F.
2013-01-01
The activities described here allow students to explore the concept of diffusion with the use of common equipment such as computers, webcams and analysis software. The procedure includes taking a series of digital pictures of a container of water with a webcam as a dye slowly diffuses. At known time points, measurements of the pixel densities…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bringuier, E.
2009-01-01
The paper analyses particle diffusion from a thermodynamic standpoint. The main goal of the paper is to highlight the conceptual connection between particle diffusion, which belongs to non-equilibrium statistical physics, and mechanics, which deals with particle motion, at the level of third-year university courses. We start out from the fact…
Cosmology with matter diffusion
Calogero, Simone; Velten, Hermano E-mail: velten@cce.ufes.br
2013-11-01
We construct a viable cosmological model based on velocity diffusion of matter particles. In order to ensure the conservation of the total energy-momentum tensor in the presence of diffusion, we include a cosmological scalar field φ which we identify with the dark energy component of the universe. The model is characterized by only one new degree of freedom, the diffusion parameter σ. The standard ΛCDM model can be recovered by setting σ = 0. If diffusion takes place (σ > 0) the dynamics of the matter and of the dark energy fields are coupled. We argue that the existence of a diffusion mechanism in the universe may serve as a theoretical motivation for interacting models. We constrain the background dynamics of the diffusion model with Supernovae, H(z) and BAO data. We also perform a perturbative analysis of this model in order to understand structure formation in the universe. We calculate the impact of diffusion both on the CMB spectrum, with particular attention to the integrated Sachs-Wolfe signal, and on the matter power spectrum P(k). The latter analysis places strong constraints on the magnitude of the diffusion mechanism but does not rule out the model.
Diffusion in Coulomb crystals.
Hughto, J; Schneider, A S; Horowitz, C J; Berry, D K
2011-07-01
Diffusion in Coulomb crystals can be important for the structure of neutron star crusts. We determine diffusion constants D from molecular dynamics simulations. We find that D for Coulomb crystals with relatively soft-core 1/r interactions may be larger than D for Lennard-Jones or other solids with harder-core interactions. Diffusion, for simulations of nearly perfect body-centered-cubic lattices, involves the exchange of ions in ringlike configurations. Here ions "hop" in unison without the formation of long lived vacancies. Diffusion, for imperfect crystals, involves the motion of defects. Finally, we find that diffusion, for an amorphous system rapidly quenched from Coulomb parameter Γ=175 to Coulomb parameters up to Γ=1750, is fast enough that the system starts to crystalize during long simulation runs. These results strongly suggest that Coulomb solids in cold white dwarf stars, and the crust of neutron stars, will be crystalline and not amorphous. PMID:21867316
Combustor diffuser interaction program
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Srinivasan, Ram; Thorp, Daniel
1986-01-01
Advances in gas turbine engine performance are achieved by using compressor systems with high stage loading and low part count, which result in high exit Mach numbers. The diffuser and combustor systems in such engines should be optimized to reduce system pressure loss and to maximize the engine thrust-to-weight ratio and minimize length. The state-of-the-art combustor-diffuser systems do not meet these requirements. Detailed understanding of the combustor-diffuser flow field interaction is required for designing advanced gas turbine engines. An experimental study of the combustor-diffuser interaction (CDI) is being conducted to obtain data for the evaluation and improvement of analytical models applicable to a wide variety of diffuser designs. The CDI program consists of four technical phases: Literature Search; Baseline Configuration; Parametric Configurations; and Performance Configurations. Phase 2 of the program is in progress.
Diffusion on strained surfaces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schroeder, M.; Wolf, D. E.
1997-03-01
The change of diffusion kinetics when elastic fields are present is discussed for diffusion on (001) surfaces of simple cubic, fcc and bcc lattices. All particles interact pairwise with a Lennard-Jones potential. The simple cubic lattice was stabilized by an anisotropic prefactor. It is found that generically compressive strain enhances diffusion whereas tensile strain increases the activation barrier. An approximately linear dependence of the barrier in a wide range of misfits is found. In heteroepitaxy, diffusion on top of large clusters is inhomogeneous and anisotropic. The kinetics close to edges and centers of islands are remarkably different. In many cases changes of binding energies are small compared to those of saddle point energies. Thermodynamic arguments (minimization of free energy) are not appropriate to describe diffusion on strained surfaces in these cases.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cherniak, D. J.
2006-05-01
Diffusion of thorium has been characterized in synthetic monazite under dry conditions. The synthetic monazites (either pure CePO4, NdPO4, or a mixed LREE phosphate containing Ce, Nd, and Sm) were grown via a Na2CO3-MoO3 flux method. The source of diffusant for the experiments were either synthesized ThSiO4 or CaTh(PO4)2 powders. Experiments were performed by placing source and monazite in Pt capsules and annealing capsules in 1 atm furnaces for times ranging from 10 days to a few hours, at temperatures from 1400 to 1550C. The Th distributions in the monazite were profiled by Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS). The following Arrhenius relation was obtained for diffusion in monazite: DSm = 7.2x103 exp(-814 kJ mol-1/RT) m2sec-1 The diffusivity of Th was similar for monazites containing a single REE and the mixed LREE phosphates. Th diffusion was also similar for experiments run using the Th silicate and Ca-Th phosphate sources, suggesting that the substitutional mechanism for Th in monazite, i.e, Th+4 + Si+4 for REE+3 + P+5 with the ThSiO4 source, and Th+4 + Ca+2 for 2REE+3 with the CaTh(PO4)2 source, does not significantly affect Th diffusivities, and that Th is likely the rate-limiting species. Th diffusion in monazite is about 4 orders of magnitude slower than Pb diffusion (Cherniak et al., 2004). This contrasts with findings of Gardes et al. (2005) who determined that Pb, Th and REE diffusivities in monazite are similar. Th diffusion in zircon (Cherniak et al., 1997) is about an order of magnitude slower than in monazite, but with similar activation energy for diffusion. The smaller diffusivities in zircon may be a consequence of the larger disparity in size between Th and the Zr site in zircon as compared with Th and the REE site in monazite. Nonetheless, Th is essentially immobile in monazite with respect to exchange by volume diffusion under most geologic conditions; these findings may have implications for containment of high- level actinide
De Luca, A.; Texier, M.; Burle, N.; Oison, V.; Pichaud, B.; Portavoce, A.; Grosjean, C.
2014-01-07
Two doses (10{sup 13} and 10{sup 15} cm{sup −2}) of tungsten (W) atoms were implanted in different Si(001) wafers in order to study W diffusion in Si. The samples were annealed or oxidized at temperatures between 776 and 960 °C. The diffusion profiles were measured by secondary ion mass spectrometry, and defect formation was studied by transmission electron microscopy and atom probe tomography. W is shown to reduce Si recrystallization after implantation and to exhibit, in the temperature range investigated, a solubility limit close to 0.15%–0.2%, which is higher than the solubility limit of usual metallic impurities in Si. W diffusion exhibits unusual linear diffusion profiles with a maximum concentration always located at the Si surface, slower kinetics than other metals in Si, and promotes vacancy accumulation close to the Si surface, with the formation of hollow cavities in the case of the higher W dose. In addition, Si self-interstitial injection during oxidation is shown to promote W-Si clustering. Taking into account these observations, a diffusion model based on the simultaneous diffusion of interstitial W atoms and W-Si atomic pairs is proposed since usual models used to model diffusion of metallic impurities and dopants in Si cannot reproduce experimental observations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cherniak, D. J.; Van Orman, J. A.
2014-03-01
Diffusion of tungsten has been characterized in synthetic forsterite and natural olivine (Fo90) under dry conditions. The source of diffusant was a mixture of magnesium tungstate and olivine powders. Experiments were prepared by sealing the source material and polished olivine under vacuum in silica glass ampoules with solid buffers to buffer at NNO or IW. Prepared capsules were annealed in 1 atm furnaces for times ranging from 45 min to several weeks, at temperatures from 1050 to 1450 °C. Tungsten distributions in the olivine were profiled by Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS). The following Arrhenius relation is obtained for W diffusion in forsterite: D=1.0×10-8exp(-365±28 kJ mol/RT) m s Diffusivities for the synthetic forsterite and natural Fe-bearing olivine are similar, and tungsten diffusion in olivine shows little dependence on crystallographic orientation or oxygen fugacity. The slow diffusivities measured for W in olivine indicate that Hf-W ages in olivine-metal systems will close to diffusive exchange at higher temperatures than other chronometers commonly used in cosmochronology, and that tungsten isotopic signatures will be less likely to be reset by subsequent thermal events.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Takahashi, Fumiaki; Katta, V. R.
2006-01-01
Diffusion flames are commonly used for industrial burners in furnaces and flares. Oxygen/fuel burners are usually diffusion burners, primarily for safety reasons, to prevent flashback and explosion in a potentially dangerous system. Furthermore, in most fires, condensed materials pyrolyze, vaporize, and burn in air as diffusion flames. As a result of the interaction of a diffusion flame with burner or condensed-fuel surfaces, a quenched space is formed, thus leaving a diffusion flame edge, which plays an important role in flame holding in combustion systems and fire spread through condensed fuels. Despite a long history of jet diffusion flame studies, lifting/blowoff mechanisms have not yet been fully understood, compared to those of premixed flames. In this study, the structure and stability of diffusion flames of gaseous hydrocarbon fuels in coflowing air at normal earth gravity have been investigated experimentally and computationally. Measurements of the critical mean jet velocity (U(sub jc)) of methane, ethane, or propane at lifting or blowoff were made as a function of the coflowing air velocity (U(sub a)) using a tube burner (i.d.: 2.87 mm). By using a computational fluid dynamics code with 33 species and 112 elementary reaction steps, the internal chemical-kinetic structures of the stabilizing region of methane and propane flames were investigated. A peak reactivity spot, i.e., reaction kernel, is formed in the flame stabilizing region due to back-diffusion of heat and radical species against an oxygen-rich incoming flow, thus holding the trailing diffusion flame. The simulated flame base moved downstream under flow conditions close to the measured stability limit.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Takahashi, Fumiaki; Katta, Viswanath R.
2007-01-01
Diffusion flames are commonly used for industrial burners in furnaces and flares. Oxygen/fuel burners are usually diffusion burners, primarily for safety reasons, to prevent flashback and explosion in a potentially dangerous system. Furthermore, in most fires, condensed materials pyrolyze, vaporize, and burn in air as diffusion flames. As a result of the interaction of a diffusion flame with burner or condensed-fuel surfaces, a quenched space is formed, thus leaving a diffusion flame edge, which plays an important role in flame holding in combustion systems and fire spread through condensed fuels. Despite a long history of jet diffusion flame studies, lifting/blowoff mechanisms have not yet been fully understood, compared to those of premixed flames. In this study, the structure and stability of diffusion flames of gaseous hydrocarbon fuels in coflowing air at normal earth gravity have been investigated experimentally and computationally. Measurements of the critical mean jet velocity (U(sub jc)) of methane, ethane, or propane at lifting or blowoff were made as a function of the coflowing air velocity (U(sub a)) using a tube burner (i.d.: 2.87 mm) (Fig. 1, left). By using a computational fluid dynamics code with 33 species and 112 elementary reaction steps, the internal chemical-kinetic structures of the stabilizing region of methane and propane flames were investigated (Fig. 1, right). A peak reactivity spot, i.e., reaction kernel, is formed in the flame stabilizing region due to back-diffusion of heat and radical species against an oxygen-rich incoming flow, thus holding the trailing diffusion flame. The simulated flame base moved downstream under flow conditions close to the measured stability limit.
Hereditary Diffuse Gastric Cancer
... with the syndrome is recommended. What are the estimated cancer risks associated with HDGC? Not everyone who ... the lifetime risk for diffuse gastric cancer is estimated to be 70% to 80% for men and ...
Multinomial Diffusion Equation
Balter, Ariel I.; Tartakovsky, Alexandre M.
2011-06-01
We have developed a novel stochastic, space/time discrete representation of particle diffusion (e.g. Brownian motion) based on discrete probability distributions. We show that in the limit of both very small time step and large concentration, our description is equivalent to the space/time continuous stochastic diffusion equation. Being discrete in both time and space, our model can be used as an extremely accurate, efficient, and stable stochastic finite-difference diffusion algorithm when concentrations are so small that computationally expensive particle-based methods are usually needed. Through numerical simulations, we show that our method can generate realizations that capture the statistical properties of particle simulations. While our method converges converges to both the correct ensemble mean and ensemble variance very quickly with decreasing time step, but for small concentration, the stochastic diffusion PDE does not, even for very small time steps.
Investigating diffusion with technology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Miller, Jon S.; Windelborn, Augden F.
2013-07-01
The activities described here allow students to explore the concept of diffusion with the use of common equipment such as computers, webcams and analysis software. The procedure includes taking a series of digital pictures of a container of water with a webcam as a dye slowly diffuses. At known time points, measurements of the pixel densities (darkness) of the digital pictures are recorded and then plotted on a graph. The resulting graph of darkness versus time allows students to see the results of diffusion of the dye over time. Through modification of the basic lesson plan, students are able to investigate the influence of a variety of variables on diffusion. Furthermore, students are able to expand the boundaries of their thinking by formulating hypotheses and testing their hypotheses through experimentation. As a result, students acquire a relevant science experience through taking measurements, organizing data into tables, analysing data and drawing conclusions.
Mastocytosis, diffuse cutaneous (image)
This is a picture of diffuse, cutaneous mastocytosis. Abnormal collections of cells in the skin (mast cells) produce this rash. Unlike bullous mastocytosis, rubbing will not lead to formation of blisters ( ...
Lung diffusion testing measures how well the lungs exchange gases. This is an important part of lung testing , because ... Gender Height Hemoglobin (the protein in red blood cells that carries oxygen) level
Hydrogen Diffusion in Forsterite
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Demouchy, S.; Mackwell, S.
2002-12-01
Physical and chemical properties of Earth's mantle are readily modified by interaction with volatiles, such as water. Thus, characterization of solubility and kinetics of incorporation for water in nominally anhydrous minerals is important in order to understand the behavior of Earth's interior under hydrous conditions. Experimental studies on the olivine-water system indicate that significant amounts of OH can dissolve within olivine as point defects (Bell and Rossman, 1992; Kohlstedt et al. 1996). Extending Kohlstedt and Mackwell's (1998) work, our study concerns the kinetics of hydrogen transport in the iron-free olivine-water system. This study is based on hydrogenation of forsterite samples during piston-cylinder and TZM cold-seal vessel experiments. We use infrared analyses in order to constrain the speciation of the mobile water-derived defects in forsterite single-crystal sample, and the rates of diffusion of such species under uppermost mantle conditions (0.2 to 1.5 GPa, 900 to 1100° C). Hydrogen defect transport in single crystals of forsterite is investigated for diffusion parallel to each crystallographic axis. Defect diffusivities are obtained by fitting a diffusion law to the OH content as a function of position in the sample. Our current results indicate that incorporation of hydroxyl species into iron-free olivine is a one-stage process with hydrogen diffusion linked to magnesium vacancy self-diffusion DV, such that DV = D~/3 = 10-12 m2/s at 1000° C parallel to [001], where D~ represents the chemical diffusivity. Those diffusion rates are slightly lower than in iron-bearing olivine for the same incorporation mechanism. The different concentration profiles show a clear anisotropy of diffusion, with fastest diffusion parallel to [001] as in iron-bearing olivine. Thus, while hydrogen solubilities are dependent on iron content, the rate of incorporation of water-derived species in olivine is not strongly coupled to the concentration of iron. This
Nodal Diffusion & Transport Theory
1992-02-19
DIF3D solves multigroup diffusion theory eigenvalue, adjoint, fixed source, and criticality (concentration, buckling, and dimension search) problems in 1, 2, and 3-space dimensions for orthogonal (rectangular or cylindrical), triangular, and hexagonal geometries. Anisotropic diffusion theory coefficients are permitted. Flux and power density maps by mesh cell and regionwise balance integrals are provided. Although primarily designed for fast reactor problems, upscattering and internal black boundary conditions are also treated.
Advanced manufacturing: Technology diffusion
Tesar, A.
1995-12-01
In this paper we examine how manufacturing technology diffuses rom the developers of technology across national borders to those who do not have the capability or resources to develop advanced technology on their own. None of the wide variety of technology diffusion mechanisms discussed in this paper are new, yet the opportunities to apply these mechanisms are growing. A dramatic increase in technology diffusion occurred over the last decade. The two major trends which probably drive this increase are a worldwide inclination towards ``freer`` markets and diminishing isolation. Technology is most rapidly diffusing from the US In fact, the US is supplying technology for the rest of the world. The value of the technology supplied by the US more than doubled from 1985 to 1992 (see the Introduction for details). History shows us that technology diffusion is inevitable. It is the rates at which technologies diffuse to other countries which can vary considerably. Manufacturers in these countries are increasingly able to absorb technology. Their manufacturing efficiency is expected to progress as technology becomes increasingly available and utilized.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cherniak, D. J.
2004-05-01
Xenotime is an important mineral in metamorphic paragenesis, and useful in isotopic dating, garnet-xenotime thermometry, and monazite-xenotime thermometry, so diffusion data for xenotime of cations of geochronological and geochemical importance are of some interest. We report here on diffusion of the rare earth elements Sm, Dy and Yb in synthetic xenotime under dry conditions. The synthetic xenotime was grown via a Na2}CO{3}-MoO_{3 flux method. The source of diffusant for the experiments were REE phosphate powders, with experiments run with sources containing a single REE. Experiments were performed by placing source and xenotime in Pt capsules, and annealing capsules in 1 atm furnaces for times ranging from thirty minutes to a month, at temperatures from 1000 to 1400C. The REE distributions in the xenotime were profiled by Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS). The following Arrhenius relations are obtained for diffusion in xenotime, normal to (101): DSm = 1.7x10-4 exp(-442 kJ mol-1/RT) m2}sec{-1 DDy = 3.5x10-7 exp(-365 kJ mol-1/RT) m2}sec{-1 DYb = 7.4x10-7 exp(-371 kJ mol-1/RT) m2}sec{-1. Diffusivities of these REE do not differ greatly in xenotime, in contrast to the findings noted for the REE in zircon (Cherniak et al., 1997), where the LREE diffuse more slowly, and with higher activation energies for diffusion, than the heavier rare earths. In zircon, these differences among diffusion of the rare earths are attributed to the relatively large size of the REE with respect to Zr, for which they substitute in the zircon lattice. With the systematic increase in ionic radius from the heavy to lighter REE, this size mismatch becomes more pronounced and diffusivities of the LREE are as consequence slower. Although xenotime is isostructural with zircon, the REE are more closely matched in size to Y, so in xenotime this effect appears much smaller and the REE diffuse at similar rates. In addition, the process of diffusion in xenotime likely involves simple REE+3
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cherniak, D.; Liang, Y.
2008-12-01
Diffusion of titanium has been characterized in natural enstatite and diopside under buffered conditions and in air. The sources of diffusant for the enstatite experiments were mixtures of Mg, Si and Ti oxide powders, which were combined and heated at 1300°C overnight, and then thoroughly mixed with synthesized enstatite powder and heated for an additional day at 1300°C. Sources for diopside experiments were prepared similarly, using Ca, Mg, Si, and Ti oxide powders combined with synthesized diopside powder, with heating of source materials at 1200°C. Buffered experiments were prepared by enclosing source material and pyroxene (polished and pre-annealed under conditions comparable to those to be experienced in the experiment) in AgPd or platinum capsules, placing the metal capsule in a silica glass capsule with a solid buffer (to buffer at NNO or IW) and sealing the assembly under vacuum. Some experiments on enstatite were run in air; sample and source were placed in Pt capsules and crimped shut. Prepared capsules were then annealed in 1 atm furnaces for times ranging from 8 hours to a few months, at temperatures from 950 to 1200°C. The Ti distributions in the pyroxene were profiled with Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS). The following Arrhenius relation is obtained for Ti diffusion in a natural enstatite, for diffusion normal to the (210) cleavage face (950 - 1150°C, experiments run in air): DTi = 1.9×10-10 exp(-300 ± 44 kJ mol-1/RT) m2 sec-1. Diffusion under NNO and IW-buffered conditions is similar to that for experiments run in air, suggesting little dependence of Ti diffusion on oxygen fugacity. There is also little evidence of anisotropy, as diffusion normal to (001) does not differ significantly from diffusion for the other orientation. Preliminary findings for Ti diffusion in diopside suggest diffusivities similar to those for enstatite. Ti diffusivities in enstatite are similar to those of the trivalent REEs (Cherniak and Liang, 2007
Counterion Diffusion in Ionomers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Walter, Russell; Winey, Karen; Kim, Joon-Seop; Composto, Russell
2004-03-01
Diffusion of Cs counterions to the air/ionomer film interface is followed using Rutherford backscattering spectrometry and results compared with the "sticky reptation" model[1]. The ionomer system is poly(styrene-ran-methacrylic acid) (Cs-SMAA) neutralized at 100% by Cs. The concentration profiles exhibit a surface excess, z*, of Cs followed by a depletion of Cs. The z* and depletion layer thickness grow as t1/2, consistent with diffusion limited growth. Annealing studies at 130 °C, 145 °C and 208 °C were used to extract the diffusion coefficient, D. In all cases, D is greater than that of the matrix chains. These results suggest that the diffusion rate is controlled by the fraction of counterions that disassociate from the acid groups and migrate through the matrix. Moreover, the "sticky reptation" model doesn't appear to predict the diffusion behavior in the Cs-SMAA system. [1] Leibler, L, Ludwick, L., Rubinstein, M., Colby, R.H., Macromolecules 24 (1991) 4701.
Evans, R.B. III; Davis, W. Jr.; Sutton, A.L. Jr.
1980-05-01
Experiments on diffusion of /sup 137/Cs in five types of graphite were performed. The document provides a completion of the report that was started and includes a presentation of all of the diffusion data, previously unpublished. Except for data on mass transfer of /sup 137/Cs in the Hawker-Siddeley graphite, analyses of experimental results were initiated but not completed. The mass transfer process of cesium in HS-1-1 graphite at 600 to 1000/sup 0/C in a helium atmosphere is essentially pure diffusion wherein values of (E/epsilon) and ..delta..E of the equation D/epsilon = (D/epsilon)/sub 0/ exp (-..delta..E/RT) are about 4 x 10/sup -2/ cm/sup 2//s and 30 kcal/mole, respectively.
Apparatus for diffusion separation
Nierenberg, William A.; Pontius, Rex B.
1976-08-10
1. The method of testing the separation efficiency of porous permeable membranes which comprises causing a stream of a gaseous mixture to flow into contact with one face of a finely porous permeable membrane under such conditions that a major fraction of the mixture diffuses through the membrane, maintaining a rectangular cross section of the gaseous stream so flowing past said membrane, continuously recirculating the gas that diffuses through said membrane and continuously withdrawing the gas that does not diffuse through said membrane and maintaining the volume of said recirculating gas constant by continuously introducing into said continuously recirculating gas stream a mass of gas equivalent to that which is continuously withdrawn from said gas stream and comparing the concentrations of the light component in the entering gas, the withdrawn gas and the recirculated gas in order to determine the efficiency of said membrane.
Diffusion imaging concepts for clinicians.
Neil, Jeffrey J
2008-01-01
This review covers the fundamentals of diffusion tensor imaging. It is written with the clinician in mind and assumes the reader has a passing familiarity with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Topics covered include comparison of diffusion MRI with conventional MRI, water apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), diffusion anisotropy, tract tracing, and changes of water apparent diffusion in response to injury. The discussion centers primarily on applications to the central nervous system, but examples from other tissues are included. PMID:18050325
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ingrin, Jannick; Zhang, Peipei
2016-04-01
Hydrogen mobility in gem quality zircon single crystals from Madagascar was investigated through H-D exchange experiments. Thin slices were annealed in a horizontal furnace flushed with a gas mixture of Ar/D2(10%) under ambient pressure between 900 ° C to 1150 ° C. FTIR analyses were performed on oriented slices before and after each annealing run. H diffusion along [100] and [010] follow the same diffusion law D = D0exp[-E /RT], with log D0 = 2.24 ± 1.57 (in m2/s) and E = 374 ± 39 kJ/mol. H diffusion along [001] follows a slightly more rapid diffusion law, with log D0 = 1.11 ± 0.22 (in m2/s) and E = 334 ± 49 kJ/mol. H diffusion in zircon has much higher activation energy and slower diffusivity than other NAMs below 1150 ° C even iron-poor garnets which are known to be among the slowest (Blanchard and Ingrin, 2004; Kurka et al. 2005). During H-D exchange zircon incorporates also deuterium. This hydration reaction involves uranium reduction as it is shown from the exchange of U5+ and U4+ characteristic bands in the near infrared region during annealing. It is the first time that a hydration reaction U5+ + OH‑ = U4+ + O2‑ + 1/2H2, is experimentally reported. The kinetics of deuterium incorporation is slightly slower than hydrogen diffusion, suggesting that the reaction is limited by hydrogen mobility. Hydrogen isotopic memory of zircon is higher than other NAMs. Zircons will be moderately retentive of H signatures at mid-crustal metamorphic temperatures. At 500 ° C, a zircon with a radius of 300 μm would retain its H isotopic signature over more than a million years. However, a zircon is unable to retain this information for geologically significant times under high-grade metamorphism unless the grain size is large enough. Refrences Blanchard, M. and Ingrin, J. (2004) Hydrogen diffusion in Dora Maira pyrope. Physics and Chemistry of Minerals, 31, 593-605. Kurka, A., Blanchard, M. and Ingrin, J. (2005) Kinetics of hydrogen extraction and deuteration in
Wilkinson, P; Dimbylow, P J
1985-10-01
A mathematical model has been developed that examines the ingress of radon into houses, through a vertical crack in an otherwise impervious concrete floor. Initially, the model considered the diffusive flow of radon from its soil source and this simulation has highlighted the dependency of the flux of radon into the house on the magnitude of various parameters, such as the diffusion coefficient of radon in soil. A preliminary investigation of the modelling of pressure-driven flow into a building is presented, and the potential of this type of analysis is discussed. PMID:4081719
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Knox, Keith T.
1999-10-01
As we approach the new millennium, error diffusion is approaching the 25th anniversary of its invention. Because of its exceptionally high image quality, it continues to be a popular choice among digital halftoning algorithms. Over the last 24 years, many attempts have been made to modify and improve the algorithm--to eliminate unwanted textures and to extend it to printing media and color. Some of these modifications have been very successful and are in use today. This paper will review the history of the algorithm and its modifications. Three watershed events in the development of error diffusion will be described, together with the lessons learned along the way.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Knox, Keith T.
1998-12-01
As we approach the new millennium, error diffusion is approaching the 25th anniversary of its invention. Because of its exceptionally high image quality, it continues to be a popular choice among digital halftoning algorithms. Over the last 24 years, many attempts have been made to modify and improve the algorithm - to eliminate unwanted textures and to extend it to printing media and color. Some of these modifications have been very successful and are in use today. This paper will review the history of the algorithm and its modifications. Three watershed events in the development of error diffusion will be described, together with the lesions learned along the way.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Walter, H. U.
Dimensionless number analysis indicates that diffusion-controlled conditions with liquid samples having characteristic dimensions larger than one millimetre can only be established under microgravity conditions.Consequently, heat and mass transport properties of fluids can only be quantitatively investigated in space.Results obtained from experiments on selfdiffusion, interdiffusion and thermodiffusion carried out during the SL-1 and D-1 Spacelab missions clearly demonstrate the potential of space platforms to determine such properties with a precision unattainable on earth. These results imply also that crystal growth from solutions, vapours and melts in the diffusive regime can be realised in space only.
Multispecies diffusion models: A study of uranyl species diffusion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Chongxuan; Shang, Jianying; Zachara, John M.
2011-12-01
Rigorous numerical description of multispecies diffusion requires coupling of species, charge, and aqueous and surface complexation reactions that collectively affect diffusive fluxes. The applicability of a fully coupled diffusion model is, however, often constrained by the availability of species self-diffusion coefficients, as well as by computational complication in imposing charge conservation. In this study, several diffusion models with variable complexity in charge and species coupling were formulated and compared to describe reactive multispecies diffusion in groundwater. Diffusion of uranyl [U(VI)] species was used as an example in demonstrating the effectiveness of the models in describing multispecies diffusion. Numerical simulations found that a diffusion model with a single, common diffusion coefficient for all species was sufficient to describe multispecies U(VI) diffusion under a steady state condition of major chemical composition, but not under transient chemical conditions. Simulations revealed that for multispecies U(VI) diffusion under transient chemical conditions, a fully coupled diffusion model could be well approximated by a component-based diffusion model when the diffusion coefficient for each chemical component was properly selected. The component-based diffusion model considers the difference in diffusion coefficients between chemical components, but not between the species within each chemical component. This treatment significantly enhanced computational efficiency at the expense of minor charge conservation. The charge balance in the component-based diffusion model can be enforced, if necessary, by adding a secondary migration term resulting from model simplification. The effect of ion activity coefficient gradients on multispecies diffusion is also discussed. The diffusion models were applied to describe U(VI) diffusive mass transfer in intragranular domains in two sediments collected from U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford 300A
Irradiance calibration with solar diffuser
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Haring, Robert E. (Inventor); Roeder, Herbert A. (Inventor); Hartmann, Ulli G. (Inventor)
1993-01-01
The sun's energy is used in combination of movable and fixed diffuser plates, windows and apertures which are positioned in a series of test sequences (modes) for reflectance monitoring and calibration without the use of man-made sources. There are three embodiments, or implementations, of the invention--one embodiment uses two diffusers--a working diffuser and a secondary diffuser--the second embodiment uses three diffusers, a working diffuser, a secondary diffuser and a reference diffuser--and the third embodiment uses two diffusers--a working diffuser and a secondary diffuser, the latter also functioning as a cover for the working diffuser. The movable diffusers are mounted on rotatable cones and, in all embodiments, the sun is blocked from reaching the diffusers when not in use. Thus, the sun is used as a stable source for calibration and monitoring and the sun/diffuser combination is used in such a way that the response of all elements of the optical subsystem of the TOMS can be unambiguously and efficiently characterized with high accuracy and precision.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Padrino, Juan C.; Zhang, Duan Z.
2015-11-01
The ensemble phase averaging technique is applied to model mass transport in a porous medium. The porous material is idealized as an ensemble of random networks, where each network consists of a set of junction points representing the pores and tortuous channels connecting them. Inside a channel, fluid transport is assumed to be governed by the one-dimensional diffusion equation. Mass balance leads to an integro-differential equation for the pores mass density. Instead of attempting to solve this equation, and equivalent set of partial differential equations is derived whose solution is sought numerically. As a test problem, we consider the one-dimensional diffusion of a substance from one end to the other in a bounded domain. For a statistically homogeneous and isotropic material, results show that for relatively large times the pore mass density evolution from the new theory is significantly delayed in comparison with the solution from the classical diffusion equation. In the short-time case, when the solution evolves with time as if the domain were semi-infinite, numerical results indicate that the pore mass density becomes a function of the similarity variable xt- 1 / 4 rather than xt- 1 / 2 characteristic of classical diffusion. This result was verified analytically. Possible applications of this framework include flow in gas shales. Work supported by LDRD project of LANL.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Sack, Jeff
2005-01-01
OsmoBeaker is a CD-ROM designed to enhance the learning of diffusion and osmosis by presenting interactive experimentation to the student. The software provides several computer simulations that take the student through different scenarios with cells, having different concentrations of solutes in them.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Matuszak, Daniel
Diffusion is the migration of molecules in the reference frame of a system's center of mass and it is a physical process that occurs in all chemical and biological systems. Diffusion generally involves intermolecular interactions that lead to clustering, adsorption, and phase transitions; as such, it is difficult to describe theoretically on a molecular level in systems containing both intermolecular repulsions and attractions. This work describes a simple thermodynamic approach that accounts for intermolecular attractions and repulsions (much like how the van der Waals equation does) to model and help provide an understanding of diffusion. The approach is an extension of the equilibrium Lattice Density Functional Theory of Aranovich and Donohue; it was developed with Mason and Lonsdale's guidelines on how to construct and test a transport theory. In the framework of lattice fluids, this new approach gives (a) correct equilibrium limits, (b) Fickian behavior for non-interacting systems, (c) correct departures from Fickian behavior in non-ideal systems, (d) the correct Maxwell-Stefan formulation, (e) symmetry behavior upon re-labeling species, (f) reasonable non-equilibrium phase behavior, (g) agreement with Molecular Dynamics simulations, (h) agreement with the theory of non-equilibrium thermodynamics, (i) a vanishing diffusive flux at the critical point, and (j) other qualitatively-correct behaviors when applied to problems in porous membranes and in packed beds.
Pivovarov, Sergey
2009-04-01
This work presents a simple solution for the diffuse double layer model, applicable to calculation of surface speciation as well as to simulation of ionic adsorption within the diffuse layer of solution in arbitrary salt media. Based on Poisson-Boltzmann equation, the Gaines-Thomas selectivity coefficient for uni-bivalent exchange on clay, K(GT)(Me(2+)/M(+))=(Q(Me)(0.5)/Q(M)){M(+)}/{Me(2+)}(0.5), (Q is the equivalent fraction of cation in the exchange capacity, and {M(+)} and {Me(2+)} are the ionic activities in solution) may be calculated as [surface charge, mueq/m(2)]/0.61. The obtained solution of the Poisson-Boltzmann equation was applied to calculation of ionic exchange on clays and to simulation of the surface charge of ferrihydrite in 0.01-6 M NaCl solutions. In addition, a new model of acid-base properties was developed. This model is based on assumption that the net proton charge is not located on the mathematical surface plane but diffusely distributed within the subsurface layer of the lattice. It is shown that the obtained solution of the Poisson-Boltzmann equation makes such calculations possible, and that this approach is more efficient than the original diffuse double layer model. PMID:19159896
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Milam, T. B.
1973-01-01
Tool allows flat plate diffusion welding to be done in standard brazing furnace. Weld is achieved using high water pressure applied by hand-operated positive-displacement pump. Good welds have been obtained between nickel and nickel-base alloy plates at temperature of 1200 K and water pressure of 13.8 million N/sq m.
Water vapor diffusion membranes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Holland, F. F., Jr.; Smith, J. K.
1974-01-01
The program is reported, which was designed to define the membrane technology of the vapor diffusion water recovery process and to test this technology using commercially available or experimental membranes. One membrane was selected, on the basis of the defined technology, and was subjected to a 30-day demonstration trial.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cherniak, D. J.; Watson, E. B.
2006-12-01
Diffusion of Ti under anhydrous conditions at 1 atmosphere and under fluid-present conditions at 1.1-1.2 GPa has been measured in natural zircon. The source of diffusant for 1-atm experiments was a ZrO2- TiO2-ZrSiO4 mixture, with experiments run in Pt capsules. Diffusion experiments conducted in the presence of H2O-CO2 fluid were run in a piston-cylinder apparatus, using a source of ground TiO2, ZrSiO4 and SiO2, with oxalic acid added to produce H2O-CO2 vapor and partially melt the solid source material, yielding an assemblage of rutile + zircon + melt + vapor. Resonant nuclear reaction analysis (NRA) with the nuclear reaction ^{48}Ti(p,Γ)^{49}V was used to measure diffusion profiles for both sets of experiments. The following Arrhenius relation was obtained for Ti diffusion normal to c over the temperature range 1350-1550C at one atmosphere: DTi = 3.3x102 exp(-754 ± 56 kJ mol-1 /RT) m2sec-1 Ti diffusivities were found to be similar for experiments run under fluid-present conditions. A fit to all of the data yields the Arrhenius relation D = 1.3x103 exp(-741 ± 46 kJ mol-1 /RT) m2sec-1. These data suggest that zircon should be extremely retentive of Ti chemical signatures, indicating that the recently developed Ti-in-zircon crystallization geothermometer (Watson and Harrison, 2005; Watson et al., 2006) will be quite robust in preserving temperatures of zircon crystallization. Titanium diffuses somewhat faster in zircon than larger tetravalent cations U, Th, and Hf, but considerably more slowly than Pb, the REE, and oxygen; hence Ti crystallization temperatures may be retained under circumstances when radiometric ages or other types of geochemical information are lost. Watson EB, Harrison TM (2005) Science 308, 841-844. Watson EB, Wark DA, Thomas JB (2006) CMP(in press).
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Karimi, Majid
1993-01-01
Understanding surface diffusion is essential in understanding surface phenomena, such as crystal growth, thin film growth, corrosion, physisorption, and chemisorption. Because of its importance, various experimental and theoretical efforts have been directed to understand this phenomena. The Field Ion Microscope (FIM) has been the major experimental tool for studying surface diffusion. FIM have been employed by various research groups to study surface diffusion of adatoms. Because of limitations of the FIM, such studies are only limited to a few surfaces: nickel, platinum, aluminum, iridium, tungsten, and rhodium. From the theoretical standpoint, various atomistic simulations are performed to study surface diffusion. In most of these calculations the Embedded Atom Method (EAM) along with the molecular static (MS) simulation are utilized. The EAM is a semi-empirical approach for modeling the interatomic interactions. The MS simulation is a technique for minimizing the total energy of a system of particles with respect to the positions of its particles. One of the objectives of this work is to develop the EAM functions for Cu and use them in conjunction with the molecular static (MS) simulation to study diffusion of a Cu atom on a perfect as well as stepped Cu(100) surfaces. This will provide a test of the validity of the EAM functions on Cu(100) surface and near the stepped environments. In particular, we construct a terrace-ledge-kink (TLK) model and calculate the migration energies of an atom on a terrace, near a ledge site, near a kink site, and going over a descending step. We have also calculated formation energies of an atom on the bare surface, a vacancy in the surface, a stepped surface, and a stepped-kink surface. Our results are compared with the available experimental and theoretical results.
Instrumentation in Diffuse Optical Imaging
Zhang, Xiaofeng
2014-01-01
Diffuse optical imaging is highly versatile and has a very broad range of applications in biology and medicine. It covers diffuse optical tomography, fluorescence diffuse optical tomography, bioluminescence, and a number of other new imaging methods. These methods of diffuse optical imaging have diversified instrument configurations but share the same core physical principle – light propagation in highly diffusive media, i.e., the biological tissue. In this review, the author summarizes the latest development in instrumentation and methodology available to diffuse optical imaging in terms of system architecture, light source, photo-detection, spectral separation, signal modulation, and lastly imaging contrast. PMID:24860804
Erbium diffusion in silicon dioxide
Lu Yingwei; Julsgaard, B.; Petersen, M. Christian; Jensen, R. V. Skougaard; Pedersen, T. Garm; Pedersen, K.; Larsen, A. Nylandsted
2010-10-04
Erbium diffusion in silicon dioxide layers prepared by magnetron sputtering, chemical vapor deposition, and thermal growth has been investigated by secondary ion mass spectrometry, and diffusion coefficients have been extracted from simulations based on Fick's second law of diffusion. Erbium diffusion in magnetron sputtered silicon dioxide from buried erbium distributions has in particular been studied, and in this case a simple Arrhenius law can describe the diffusivity with an activation energy of 5.3{+-}0.1 eV. Within a factor of two, the erbium diffusion coefficients at a given temperature are identical for all investigated matrices.
[Diffuse Pulmonary Ossification].
Avsar, K; Behr, J; Morresi-Hauf, A
2016-04-01
Diffuse pulmonary ossification (DPO) represents an uncommon condition usually associated with different underlying pulmonary and extrapulmonary diseases. In this work, we discuss eleven patients of our clinic with the diagnosis of a diffuse pulmonary ossification. We focus on histological changes in the surrounding lung tissue. Clinical and radiological findings were analysed. The aim of the study is to collect data for a better understanding of this condition, especially in association with interstitial lung disease.Three patients with interstitial lung disease had histological findings of UIP. The follow-up data of these patients showed a benign course of the disease.The analysis of the clinical data yielded a very heterogenous group. Regarding these fact we assume, that DPO is not an own entity, but a pathological epiphenomenon in the context of different conditions, possibly with pathogenetic overlap. PMID:26829606
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dianoux, A. J.
2003-09-01
Après une brève introduction qui rappelle les concepts détaillés dans le cours de M. Bée, nous présentons un aperçu de trois de nos travaux sur l'étude de la diffusion. Tout d'abord la dynamique de l'eau, dans son état normal ou surfondu, révèle la complexité apportée par le réseau de liaisons hydrogène. Ensuite l'effet du confinement sur la dynamique de l'eau sera étudié dans le cas de la membrane Nafion. Enfin la diffusion dans les phases nématique et smectique A d'un cristal liquide permet d'obtenir la valeur du potentiel qui maintient les couches dans la phase smectique.
Galactic Diffuse Polarized Emission
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Carretti, Ettore
2011-12-01
Diffuse polarized emission by synchrotron is a key tool to investigate magnetic fields in the Milky Way, particularly the ordered component of the large scale structure. Key observables are the synchrotron emission itself and the RM is by Faraday rotation. In this paper the main properties of the radio polarized diffuse emission and its use to investigate magnetic fields will be reviewed along with our current understanding of the galactic magnetic field and the data sets available. We will then focus on the future perspective discussing RM-synthesis - the new powerful instrument devised to unlock the information encoded in such an emission - and the surveys currently in progress like S-PASS and GMIMS.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gfroerer, Tim; Phillips, Ryan; Rossi, Peter
2015-11-01
The tip of a rod is heated with a torch and brought into contact with the center of a metal sheet. A thermal camera is then used to image the temperature profile of the surface as a function of time. The infrared camera is capable of recording radiometric data with 1 mK resolution in nearly 105 pixels, so thermal diffusion can be monitored with unprecedented precision. With a frame rate of approximately 10 Hz, the pace of the data acquisition minimizes the loss of accuracy due to inevitable cooling mechanisms. We report diffusivity constants equal to 1.23 ± 0.06 cm2/s in copper and 0.70 ± 0.05 cm2/s in aluminum. The behavior is modeled with a straightforward but oddly under-utilized one-dimensional finite difference method.
Nonlocal electrical diffusion equation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gómez-Aguilar, J. F.; Escobar-Jiménez, R. F.; Olivares-Peregrino, V. H.; Benavides-Cruz, M.; Calderón-Ramón, C.
2016-07-01
In this paper, we present an analysis and modeling of the electrical diffusion equation using the fractional calculus approach. This alternative representation for the current density is expressed in terms of the Caputo derivatives, the order for the space domain is 0<β≤1 and for the time domain is 0<γ≤2. We present solutions for the full fractional equation involving space and time fractional derivatives using numerical methods based on Fourier variable separation. The case with spatial fractional derivatives leads to Levy flight type phenomena, while the time fractional equation is related to sub- or super diffusion. We show that the mathematical concept of fractional derivatives can be useful to understand the behavior of semiconductors, the design of solar panels, electrochemical phenomena and the description of anomalous complex processes.
Turbo fluid machinery and diffusers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sakurai, T.
1984-01-01
The general theory behind turbo devices and diffusers is explained. Problems and the state of research on basic equations of flow and experimental and measuring methods are discussed. Conventional centrifugation-type compressor and fan diffusers are considered in detail.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baring, Matthew
2003-04-01
The process of diffusive acceleration of charged particles in shocked plasmas is widely invoked in astrophysics to account for the ubiquitous presence of signatures of non-thermal relativistic electrons and ions in the universe. This statistical energization mechanism, manifested in turbulent media, was first posited by Enrico Fermi in 1949 to explain the observed cosmic ray population, which exhibits an almost power-law distribution in rigidity. The absence of a momentum scale is a key characteristic of diffusive shock acceleration, and astrophysical systems generally only impose scales at the injection (low energy) and loss (high energy) ends of the particle spectrum. The existence of structure in the cosmic ray spectrum (the "knee") at around 3000 TeV has promoted contentions that there are at least two origins for cosmic rays, a galactic one supplying those up to the knee, and perhaps an extragalactic one that can explain even the ultra-high energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) seen at 1-300 EeV. Accounting for the UHECRs with familiar astrophysical sites of acceleration has historically proven difficult due to the need to assume high magnetic fields in order to reduce the shortest diffusive acceleration timescale, the ion gyroperiod, to meaningful values. Yet active galaxies and gamma-ray bursts remain strong and interesting candidate sources for UHECRs, turning the theoretical focus to relativistic shocks. This review summarizes properties of diffusive shock acceleration that are salient to the issue of UHECR generation. These include spectral indices, anisotropies, acceleration efficencies and timescales, as functions of the shock speed and mean field orientation, and also the degree of field turbulence. Astrophysical sites for UHECR production are also critiqued.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Oterkus, Selda; Madenci, Erdogan; Agwai, Abigail
2014-05-01
This study presents the derivation of ordinary state-based peridynamic heat conduction equation based on the Lagrangian formalism. The peridynamic heat conduction parameters are related to those of the classical theory. An explicit time stepping scheme is adopted for numerical solution of various benchmark problems with known solutions. It paves the way for applying the peridynamic theory to other physical fields such as neutronic diffusion and electrical potential distribution.
Oterkus, Selda; Madenci, Erdogan; Agwai, Abigail
2014-05-15
This study presents the derivation of ordinary state-based peridynamic heat conduction equation based on the Lagrangian formalism. The peridynamic heat conduction parameters are related to those of the classical theory. An explicit time stepping scheme is adopted for numerical solution of various benchmark problems with known solutions. It paves the way for applying the peridynamic theory to other physical fields such as neutronic diffusion and electrical potential distribution.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Baird, James K.
1987-01-01
For the purpose of determining diffusion coefficients as required for electrodeposition studies and other applications, a diaphragm cell and an isothermal water bath were constructed. the calibration of the system is discussed. On the basis of three calibration runs on the diaphram cell, researchers concluded that the cell constant beta equals 0.12 cm -2 . Other calibration runs in progress should permit the cell constant to be determined with an accuracy of one percent.
Kosaka, K
1995-12-01
Diffuse Lewy body disease (DLBD), which we have proposed since 1976, has received great attention among both researchers and clinicians. Recently, it was reported by some English and American research groups that DLBD is the second most frequent dementing illness in the elderly, following Alzheimer-type dementia (ATD). Our recent research of 79 autopsied dementia cases in a hospital disclosed that DLBD (15.4%) was the second most common degenerative dementia, following ATD (43.6%). In 1980 we proposed Lewy body disease, and classified it into three types: brain stem type, transitional type, and diffuse type. Diffuse type of LBD is now called DLBD. In 1990 we divided DLBD into two forms: common form and pure form. The common form of DLBD has more or less Alzheimer pathology, and pure form has none. Very recently, we proposed the cerebral type of LBD, in which numerous Lewy bodies are found in the cerebral cortex and amygdala, but no PD pathology is present in the brain stem. Therefore, LBD is now classified as follows: [table: see text] PMID:8752428
Solute diffusion in liquid metals
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bhat, B. N.
1973-01-01
A gas model of diffusion in liquid metals is presented. In this model, ions of liquid metals are assumed to behave like the molecules in a dense gas. Diffusion coefficient of solute is discussed with reference to its mass, ionic size, and pair potential. The model is applied to the case of solute diffusion in liquid silver. An attempt was made to predict diffusion coefficients of solutes with reasonable accuracy.
Percolation of interaction diffusing particles
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Selinger, Robin Blumberg; Stanley, H. Eugene
1990-01-01
The connectivity properties of systems of diffusing interacting particles with the blind and myopic diffusion rules are studied. It is found that the blind rule case is equivalent to the lattice gas with J = 0 in all dimensions. The connectivity properties of blind rule diffusion are described by random site percolation due to the fact that the density on neighboring sites is uncorrelated.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Etienne, Lucile
2014-10-01
L'archipel de Kerkennah, situé dans le Golfe de Gabès en Tunisie, est composé d'une dizaine de petites îles dont le relief est très plat et la lithologie meuble et fragile. Les espaces les plus bas sont occupés par des sebkhas, espaces salés et stériles. L'évolution du climat et l'élévation relative du niveau de la mer ainsi que les Évolutions importantes des modes de vie et de production locaux ont conduit à des changements majeurs dans l'occupation du sol. Dans ce contexte, cette thèse vise à comprendre l'évolution de la vulnérabilité liée à la mobilité du trait de côte et à la salinisation des sols depuis les années 1960. Des études diachroniques de photo-interprétation et télédétection ont été réalisées afin d'observer et mesurer l'évolution de l'occupation du sol, du trait de côte et de l'extension des surfaces de sebkhas. Grâce à ces études et à des relevés de terrain, il est apparu que les côtes subissent majoritairement une érosion significative (0,12m/an) et que les surfaces de sebkhas s'étendent. Ces phénomènes physiques, associés aux évolutions de l'occupation des sols et aux modes de gestion parfois peu adaptés, ont conduit à une augmentation de la vulnérabilité liée à la mobilit:é du trait de côte et à la salinisation des sols. Les résultats d'un questionnaire, proposé à 139 personnes, laissent penser que la population locale perçoit le retrait de la côte et la salinisation des sols comme étant des phénomènes préoccupants et dangereux. Ainsi le contexte local est plutôt cohérent avec des phénomènes dommageables réels et une population qui semble les connaître. Cependant, la gestion littorale dans l'archipel ne semble prendre en compte ni la vulnérabilité existante, ni la perception et les connaissances de la population locale. Même si la gestion intégrée des zones côtières est préconisée en Tunisie, elle n'est pas mise en place dans l'archipel de Kerkennah.
Diffusion of Zonal Variables Using Node-Centered Diffusion Solver
Yang, T B
2007-08-06
Tom Kaiser [1] has done some preliminary work to use the node-centered diffusion solver (originally developed by T. Palmer [2]) in Kull for diffusion of zonal variables such as electron temperature. To avoid numerical diffusion, Tom used a scheme developed by Shestakov et al. [3] and found their scheme could, in the vicinity of steep gradients, decouple nearest-neighbor zonal sub-meshes leading to 'alternating-zone' (red-black mode) errors. Tom extended their scheme to couple the sub-meshes with appropriate chosen artificial diffusion and thereby solved the 'alternating-zone' problem. Because the choice of the artificial diffusion coefficient could be very delicate, it is desirable to use a scheme that does not require the artificial diffusion but still able to avoid both numerical diffusion and the 'alternating-zone' problem. In this document we present such a scheme.
Anisotropic fractional diffusion tensor imaging
Meerschaert, Mark M; Magin, Richard L; Ye, Allen Q
2015-01-01
Traditional diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) maps brain structure by fitting a diffusion model to the magnitude of the electrical signal acquired in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Fractional DTI employs anomalous diffusion models to obtain a better fit to real MRI data, which can exhibit anomalous diffusion in both time and space. In this paper, we describe the challenge of developing and employing anisotropic fractional diffusion models for DTI. Since anisotropy is clearly present in the three-dimensional MRI signal response, such models hold great promise for improving brain imaging. We then propose some candidate models, based on stochastic theory.
Accelerated stochastic diffusion processes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Garbaczewski, Piotr
1990-07-01
We give a purely probabilistic demonstration that all effects of non-random (external, conservative) forces on the diffusion process can be encoded in the Nelson ansatz for the second Newton law. Each random path of the process together with a probabilistic weight carries a phase accumulation (complex valued) weight. Random path summation (integration) of these weights leads to the transition probability density and transition amplitude respectively between two spatial points in a given time interval. The Bohm-Vigier, Fenyes-Nelson-Guerra and Feynman descriptions of the quantum particle behaviours are in fact equivalent.
Diffusion in silicon isotope heterostructures
Silvestri, Hughes Howland
2004-05-14
The simultaneous diffusion of Si and the dopants B, P, and As has been studied by the use of a multilayer structure of isotopically enriched Si. This structure, consisting of 5 pairs of 120 nm thick natural Si and {sup 28}Si enriched layers, enables the observation of {sup 30}Si self-diffusion from the natural layers into the {sup 28}Si enriched layers, as well as dopant diffusion from an implanted source in an amorphous Si cap layer, via Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS). The dopant diffusion created regions of the multilayer structure that were extrinsic at the diffusion temperatures. In these regions, the Fermi level shift due to the extrinsic condition altered the concentration and charge state of the native defects involved in the diffusion process, which affected the dopant and self-diffusion. The simultaneously recorded diffusion profiles enabled the modeling of the coupled dopant and self-diffusion. From the modeling of the simultaneous diffusion, the dopant diffusion mechanisms, the native defect charge states, and the self- and dopant diffusion coefficients can be determined. This information is necessary to enhance the physical modeling of dopant diffusion in Si. It is of particular interest to the modeling of future electronic Si devices, where the nanometer-scale features have created the need for precise physical models of atomic diffusion in Si. The modeling of the experimental profiles of simultaneous diffusion of B and Si under p-type extrinsic conditions revealed that both species are mediated by neutral and singly, positively charged Si self-interstitials. The diffusion of As and Si under extrinsic n-type conditions yielded a model consisting of the interstitialcy and vacancy mechanisms of diffusion via singly negatively charged self-interstitials and neutral vacancies. The simultaneous diffusion of P and Si has been modeled on the basis of neutral and singly negatively charged self-interstitials and neutral and singly positively charged P
A simple flow analysis of diffuser-getter-diffuser systems
Klein, J. E.; Howard, D. W.
2008-07-15
Tritium clean-up systems typically deploy gas processing technologies between stages of palladium-silver (Pd/Ag) diffusers/permeators. The number of diffusers positioned before and after a gas clean-up process to obtain optimal system performance will vary with feed gas inert composition. A simple method to analyze optimal diffuser configuration is presented. The method assumes equilibrium across the Pd/Ag tubes and system flows are limited by diffuser vacuum pump speeds preceding or following the clean-up process. A plot of system feed as a function of inert feed gas composition for various diffuser configuration allows selection of a diffuser configuration for maximum throughput based on feed gas composition. (authors)
FLOW ANALYSIS OF DIFFUSER-GETTER-DIFFUSER SYSTEMS
Klein, J; Dave W. Howard, D
2007-07-24
Tritium clean-up systems typically deploy gas processing technologies between stages of palladium-silver (Pd/Ag) diffusers/permeators. The number of diffusers positioned before and after a gas clean-up process to obtain optimal system performance will vary with feed gas inert composition. A simple method to analyze optimal diffuser configuration is presented. The method assumes equilibrium across the Pd/Ag tubes and system flows are limited by diffuser vacuum pump speeds preceding or following the clean-up process. A plot of system feed as a function of inert feed gas composition for various diffuser configuration allows selection of a diffuser configuration for maximum throughput based on feed gas composition.
Sampling diffusive transition paths
F. Miller III, Thomas; Predescu, Cristian
2006-10-12
We address the problem of sampling double-ended diffusive paths. The ensemble of paths is expressed using a symmetric version of the Onsager-Machlup formula, which only requires evaluation of the force field and which, upon direct time discretization, gives rise to a symmetric integrator that is accurate to second order. Efficiently sampling this ensemble requires avoiding the well-known stiffness problem associated with sampling infinitesimal Brownian increments of the path, as well as a different type of stiffness associated with sampling the coarse features of long paths. The fine-features sampling stiffness is eliminated with the use of the fast sampling algorithm (FSA), and the coarse-feature sampling stiffness is avoided by introducing the sliding and sampling (S&S) algorithm. A key feature of the S&S algorithm is that it enables massively parallel computers to sample diffusive trajectories that are long in time. We use the algorithm to sample the transition path ensemble for the structural interconversion of the 38-atom Lennard-Jones cluster at low temperature.
Sampling diffusive transition paths.
Miller, Thomas F; Predescu, Cristian
2007-04-14
The authors address the problem of sampling double-ended diffusive paths. The ensemble of paths is expressed using a symmetric version of the Onsager-Machlup formula, which only requires evaluation of the force field and which, upon direct time discretization, gives rise to a symmetric integrator that is accurate to second order. Efficiently sampling this ensemble requires avoiding the well-known stiffness problem associated with the sampling of infinitesimal Brownian increments of the path, as well as a different type of stiffness associated with the sampling of the coarse features of long paths. The fine-feature sampling stiffness is eliminated with the use of the fast sampling algorithm, and the coarse-feature sampling stiffness is avoided by introducing the sliding and sampling (S&S) algorithm. A key feature of the S&S algorithm is that it enables massively parallel computers to sample diffusive trajectories that are long in time. The authors use the algorithm to sample the transition path ensemble for the structural interconversion of the 38-atom Lennard-Jones cluster at low temperature. PMID:17444696
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gardiner, Thomas
2013-10-01
Anisotropic thermal diffusion in magnetized plasmas is an important physical phenomena for a diverse set of physical conditions ranging from astrophysical plasmas to MFE and ICF. Yet numerically simulating this phenomenon accurately poses significant challenges when the computational mesh is misaligned with respect to the magnetic field. Particularly when the temperature gradients are unresolved, one frequently finds entropy violating solutions with heat flowing from cold to hot zones for χ∥ /χ⊥ >=102 which is substantially smaller than the range of interest which can reach 1010 or higher. In this talk we present a new implicit algorithm for solving the anisotropic thermal diffusion equations and demonstrate its characteristics on what has become a fairly standard set of test problems in the literature. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000. SAND2013-5687A.
The diffusion of microfinance.
Banerjee, Abhijit; Chandrasekhar, Arun G; Duflo, Esther; Jackson, Matthew O
2013-07-26
To study the impact of the choice of injection points in the diffusion of a new product in a society, we developed a model of word-of-mouth diffusion and then applied it to data on social networks and participation in a newly available microfinance loan program in 43 Indian villages. Our model allows us to distinguish information passing among neighbors from direct influence of neighbors' participation decisions, as well as information passing by participants versus nonparticipants. The model estimates suggest that participants are seven times as likely to pass information compared to informed nonparticipants, but information passed by nonparticipants still accounts for roughly one-third of eventual participation. An informed household is not more likely to participate if its informed friends participate. We then propose two new measures of how effective a given household would be as an injection point. We show that the centrality of the injection points according to these measures constitutes a strong and significant predictor of eventual village-level participation. PMID:23888042
Apparatus for diffusion separation
Nierenberg, William A.
1976-08-10
1. A diffuser separator apparatus which comprises a plurality of flow channels in a single stage, each of said channels having an inlet port and an outlet port and a constant cross sectional area between said ports, at least a portion of the defining surface of each of said channels being a diffusion separation membrane, and each of said channels having a different cross sectional area, means for connecting said channels in series so that each successive channel of said series has a smaller cross sectional area than the previous channel of said series, a source of gaseous mixture, individual means for flowing said gaseous mixture to the inlet port of each of said channels, gas receiving and analyzing means, individual means for flowing gas passing from each of said outlet ports and means for flowing gas passing through said membranes to said receiving and analyzing means, and individual means for connecting the outlet port of each channel with the inlet port of the channel having the next smaller cross sectional area.
Sucrose diffusion in aqueous solution.
Price, Hannah C; Mattsson, Johan; Murray, Benjamin J
2016-07-28
The diffusion of sugar in aqueous solution is important both in nature and in technological applications, yet measurements of diffusion coefficients at low water content are scarce. We report directly measured sucrose diffusion coefficients in aqueous solution. Our technique utilises a Raman isotope tracer method to monitor the diffusion of non-deuterated and deuterated sucrose across a boundary between the two aqueous solutions. At a water activity of 0.4 (equivalent to 90 wt% sucrose) at room temperature, the diffusion coefficient of sucrose was determined to be approximately four orders of magnitude smaller than that of water in the same material. Using literature viscosity data, we show that, although inappropriate for the prediction of water diffusion, the Stokes-Einstein equation works well for predicting sucrose diffusion under the conditions studied. As well as providing information of importance to the fundamental understanding of diffusion in binary solutions, these data have technological, pharmaceutical and medical implications, for example in cryopreservation. Moreover, in the atmosphere, slow organic diffusion may have important implications for aerosol growth, chemistry and evaporation, where processes may be limited by the inability of a molecule to diffuse between the bulk and the surface of a particle. PMID:27364512
Diffusion limited aggregation. The role of surface diffusion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
García-Ruiz, Juan M.; Otálora, Fermín
1991-11-01
We present a growth model in which the hitting particles are able to diffuse to more stable growth sites in the perimeter of a cluster growing by diffusion limited aggregation. By tuning the diffusion path Ls, the morphological output - from disordered fractal to perfect single crystals - can be controlled. Instabilities appear when the mean length of the crystal faces Lf are greater than 2 Ls.
The Harrison Diffusion Kinetics Regimes in Solute Grain Boundary Diffusion
Belova, Irina; Fiedler, T; Kulkarni, Nagraj S; Murch, Prof. Graeme
2012-01-01
Knowledge of the limits of the principal Harrison kinetics regimes (Type-A, B and C) for grain boundary diffusion is very important for the correct analysis of the depth profiles in a tracer diffusion experiment. These regimes for self-diffusion have been extensively studied in the past by making use of the phenomenological Lattice Monte Carlo (LMC) method with the result that the limits are now well established. The relationship of those self-diffusion limits to the corresponding ones for solute diffusion in the presence of solute segregation to the grain boundaries remains unclear. In the present study, the influence of solute segregation on the limits is investigated with the LMC method for the well-known parallel grain boundary slab model by showing the equivalence of two diffusion models. It is shown which diffusion parameters are useful for identifying the limits of the Harrison kinetics regimes for solute grain boundary diffusion. It is also shown how the measured segregation factor from the diffusion experiment in the Harrison Type-B kinetics regime may differ from the global segregation factor.
Apoplastic Diffusion Barriers in Arabidopsis
Schreiber, Lukas; Franke, Rochus Benni; Geldner, Niko; Reina-Pinto, José J.; Kunst, Ljerka
2013-01-01
During the development of Arabidopsis and other land plants, diffusion barriers are formed in the apoplast of specialized tissues within a variety of plant organs. While the cuticle of the epidermis is the primary diffusion barrier in the shoot, the Casparian strips and suberin lamellae of the endodermis and the periderm represent the diffusion barriers in the root. Different classes of molecules contribute to the formation of extracellular diffusion barriers in an organ- and tissue-specific manner. Cutin and wax are the major components of the cuticle, lignin forms the early Casparian strip, and suberin is deposited in the stage II endodermis and the periderm. The current status of our understanding of the relationships between the chemical structure, ultrastructure and physiological functions of plant diffusion barriers is discussed. Specific aspects of the synthesis of diffusion barrier components and protocols that can be used for the assessment of barrier function and important barrier properties are also presented. PMID:24465172
Light diffusing fiber optic chamber
Maitland, Duncan J.
2002-01-01
A light diffusion system for transmitting light to a target area. The light is transmitted in a direction from a proximal end to a distal end by an optical fiber. A diffusing chamber is operatively connected to the optical fiber for transmitting the light from the proximal end to the distal end and transmitting said light to said target area. A plug is operatively connected to the diffusing chamber for increasing the light that is transmitted to the target area.
Multilane driven diffusive systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Curatolo, A. I.; Evans, M. R.; Kafri, Y.; Tailleur, J.
2016-03-01
We consider networks made of parallel lanes along which particles hop according to driven diffusive dynamics. The particles also hop transversely from lane to lane, hence indirectly coupling their longitudinal dynamics. We present a general method for constructing the phase diagram of these systems which reveals that in many cases their physics reduce to that of single-lane systems. The reduction to an effective single-lane description legitimizes, for instance, the use of a single TASEP to model the hopping of molecular motors along the many tracks of a single microtubule. Then, we show how, in quasi-2D settings, new phenomena emerge due to the presence of non-zero transverse currents, leading, for instance, to strong ‘shear localization’ along the network.
Enthalpy Diffusion in Multicomponent Flows
Cook, A W
2009-01-20
The conclusions of this paper are: (1) Enthalpy diffusion preserves the second law. (2) Euler solvers will not produce correct temperatures in mixing regions. (3) Navier-Stokes solvers will only produce correct temperatures if q{sub d} is included. (4) Errors from neglecting enthalpy diffusion are most severe when differences in molecular weights are large. (5) In addition to temperature, enthalpy diffusion affects density, dilatation and other fields in subtle ways. (6) Reacting flow simulations that neglect the term are a dubious proposition. (7) Turbulence models for RANS and LES closures should preserve consistency between energy and species diffusion.
Lateral Diffusion in an Archipelago
Saxton, Michael J.
1982-01-01
Lateral diffusion of molecules in lipid bilayer membranes can be hindered by the presence of impermeable domains of gel-phase lipid or of proteins. Effective-medium theory and percolation theory are used to evaluate the effective lateral diffusion constant as a function of the area fraction of fluid-phase lipid and the permeability of the obstructions to the diffusing species. Applications include the estimation of the minimum fraction of fluid lipid needed for bacterial growth, and the enhancement of diffusion-controlled reactions by the channeling effect of solid patches of lipid. PMID:7052153
Solvent diffusion into fluoropolymer membranes
Aminabhavi, T.M.; Munnolli, R.S.
1993-12-31
Solvent diffusion in polymers is important to the physical properties of the material from processing to end-use and shelf-life. Many aspects of diffusion in polymers have been studied using indirect and direct methods. Du Pont`s fluoropolymers are known for their excellent resistance to a variety of organic solvents. This paper describes the measurement of diffusion coefficients and the derived thermodynamic quantities on four different fluoropolymer membranes with several esters. This information is interpreted in terms of the molecular organization and phase structure. Diffusion coefficients are sensitive to structural changes as well as binding and association phenomena.
Fractional diffusion on bounded domains
Defterli, Ozlem; D'Elia, Marta; Du, Qiang; Gunzburger, Max Donald; Lehoucq, Richard B.; Meerschaert, Mark M.
2015-03-13
We found that the mathematically correct specification of a fractional differential equation on a bounded domain requires specification of appropriate boundary conditions, or their fractional analogue. In this paper we discuss the application of nonlocal diffusion theory to specify well-posed fractional diffusion equations on bounded domains.
Teaching Diffusion with a Coin
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Haddad, Hamilton; Baldo, Marcus Vinicius Chrysostomo
2010-01-01
In this article, the authors describe an inexpensive and simple way to make students intuitively experience the probabilistic nature and nonorientated motion of diffusing particles. This understanding allows students to realize why diffusion works so well over short distances and becomes increasingly and rapidly less effective as the distances…
Demonstrating Diffusion: Why the Confusion?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Panizzon, Debra Lee
1998-01-01
Examines the principles of diffusion and how it may be confused with convection. Suggests that educators may be misleading students and clouding their understanding of the process. Provides two contemporary examples to explain the process of diffusion and how it differs from convection. (Author/CCM)
Osmosis and Diffusion Conceptual Assessment
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Fisher, Kathleen M.; Williams, Kathy S.; Lineback, Jennifer Evarts
2011-01-01
Biology student mastery regarding the mechanisms of diffusion and osmosis is difficult to achieve. To monitor comprehension of these processes among students at a large public university, we developed and validated an 18-item Osmosis and Diffusion Conceptual Assessment (ODCA). This assessment includes two-tiered items, some adopted or modified…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ready, Patricia M.
The life cycle of "new math" is fertile ground for the study of the diffusion of an innovation. New math arrived in 1958 to save the day for America after the Soviet Union launched Sputnik, the first successful space flight in 1957. In a period of 16 years an entire diffusion cycle was completed throughout the entire educational system of the…
Enthalpy Diffusion in Multicomponent Flows
Cook, A W
2008-11-12
The enthalpy diffusion flux in the multicomponent energy equation is a well known yet frequently neglected term. It accounts for energy changes, associated with compositional changes, resulting from species diffusion. Enthalpy diffusion is important in flows where significant mixing occurs between species of dissimilar molecular weight. The term plays a critical role in preventing local violations of the entropy condition. In simulations of nonpremixed combustion, omission of the enthalpy flux can lead to anomalous temperature gradients, which may cause mixing regions to exceed ignition conditions. The term can also play a role in generating acoustic noise in turbulent mixing layers. Euler solvers that rely on numerical diffusion to mix fluids cannot accurately predict the temperature in mixed regions. On the other hand, Navier-Stokes solvers that incorporate enthalpy diffusion can provide much more accurate results.
Thermal diffusivity of diamond films
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Albin, Sacharia; Winfree, William P.; Crews, B. Scott
1990-01-01
A laser pulse technique to measure the thermal diffusivity of diamond films deposited on a silicon substrate is developed. The effective thermal diffusivity of diamond film on silicon was measured by observing the phase and amplitude of the cyclic thermal waves generated by the laser pulses. An analytical model is developed to calculate the effective in-plane (face-parallel) diffusivity of a two layer system. The model is used to reduce the effective thermal diffusivity of the diamond/silicon sample to a value for the thermal diffusivity and conductivity of the diamond film. Phase and amplitude measurements give similar results. The thermal conductivity of the films is found to be better than that of type 1a natural diamond.
Ammonia diffusion through Nalophan™ bags.
Sironi, Selena; Eusebio, Lidia; Dentoni, Licinia; Capelli, Laura; Del Rosso, Renato
2014-01-01
The aim of the work is to verify the diffusion rate of ammonia through the Nalophan™ film that constitutes the sampling bag, considering storage times ranging from 1 to 26 h. The ammonia decay over time was evaluated using gas-chromatography for the quantification of ammonia concentration inside the bag. The research assesses the roles of both of ammonia and water concentration gradients at the polymeric film interface on the diffusion process. The results show that both the ammonia concentration gradient and, in a less pronounced way, the water concentration gradient are the main 'engines' of ammonia diffusion. Double bags seem to represent a simple solution for preventing ammonia losses during storage. Another interesting result concerns the role of the bag surface on the ammonia diffusion rate: the higher the surface/volume (S/V) ratio, the higher the ammonia diffusion rate through the polymeric film. PMID:24552718
Portable vapor diffusion coefficient meter
Ho, Clifford K.
2007-06-12
An apparatus for measuring the effective vapor diffusion coefficient of a test vapor diffusing through a sample of porous media contained within a test chamber. A chemical sensor measures the time-varying concentration of vapor that has diffused a known distance through the porous media. A data processor contained within the apparatus compares the measured sensor data with analytical predictions of the response curve based on the transient diffusion equation using Fick's Law, iterating on the choice of an effective vapor diffusion coefficient until the difference between the predicted and measured curves is minimized. Optionally, a purge fluid can forced through the porous media, permitting the apparatus to also measure a gas-phase permeability. The apparatus can be made lightweight, self-powered, and portable for use in the field.
Heat transfer, diffusion, and evaporation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nusselt, Wilhelm
1954-01-01
Although it has long been known that the differential equations of the heat-transfer and diffusion processes are identical, application to technical problems has only recently been made. In 1916 it was shown that the speed of oxidation of the carbon in iron ore depends upon the speed with which the oxygen of the combustion air diffuses through the core of gas surrounding the carbon surface. The identity previously referred to was then used to calculate the amount of oxygen diffusing to the carbon surface on the basis of the heat transfer between the gas stream and the carbon surface. Then in 1921, H. Thoma reversed that procedure; he used diffusion experiments to determine heat-transfer coefficients. Recently Lohrisch has extended this work by experiment. A technically very important application of the identity of heat transfer and diffusion is that of the cooling tower, since in this case both processes occur simultaneously.
Diffusion in membranes: Toward a two-dimensional diffusion map
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Toppozini, Laura; Garcia-Sakai, Victoria; Bewley, Robert; Dalgliesh, Robert; Perring, Toby; Rheinstädter, Maikel C.
2015-01-01
For decades, quasi-elastic neutron scattering has been the prime tool for studying molecular diffusion in membranes over relevant nanometer distances. These experiments are essential to our current understanding of molecular dynamics of lipids, proteins and membrane-active molecules. Recently, we presented experimental evidence from X-ray diffraction and quasi-elastic neutron scattering demonstrating that ethanol enhances the permeability of membranes. At the QENS 2014/WINS 2014 conference we presented a novel technique to measure diffusion across membranes employing 2-dimensional quasi-elastic neutron scattering. We present results from our preliminary analysis of an experiment on the cold neutron multi-chopper spectrometer LET at ISIS, where we studied the self-diffusion of water molecules along lipid membranes and have the possibility of studying the diffusion in membranes. By preparing highly oriented membrane stacks and aligning them horizontally in the spectrometer, our aim is to distinguish between lateral and transmembrane diffusion. Diffusion may also be measured at different locations in the membranes, such as the water layer and the hydrocarbon membrane core. With a complete analysis of the data, 2-dimensional mapping will enable us to determine diffusion channels of water and ethanol molecules to quantitatively determine nanoscale membrane permeability.
Diffuse Microwave Emission Survey
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shafer, R. A.; Mather, J.; Kogut, A.; Fixsen, D. J.; Seiffert, M.; Lubin, P. M.; Levin, S. M.
1996-12-01
The Diffuse Microwave Emission Survey (DIMES) is a mission concept selected by NASA in 1995 to answer fundamental questions about the content and history of the universe. DIMES will use a set of absolutely calibrated cryogenic radiometers from a space platform to measure the frequency spectrum of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) at wavelengths 15--0.3 cm (frequency 2--100 GHz) to precision 0.1 mK or better. Measurements at centimeter wavelengths probe different physical processes than the COBE-FIRAS spectra at shorter wavelengths, and complement the anisotropy measurements from DMR, balloon and ground-based instruments, and the planned MAP and COBRAS/SAMBA satellites. DIMES will observe the free-free signal from early photoionization to establish the precise epoch of structure formation, and will measure or limit energy release at redshift 10(4) < z < 10(7) by measuring the chemical potential distortion of the CMB spectrum. Both are likely under current cosmological theory and allowed by current measurement limits; even an upper limit at the expected sensitivity 10(-5) MJy/sr will place important constraints on the matter content, structure, and evolution of the universe. Detecting these distortions or showing that they do not exist constitutes the last frontier of CMB observations.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fichtel, C. E.; Simpson, G. A.; Thompson, D. J.
1977-01-01
An examination of the intensity, energy spectrum, and spatial distribution of the diffuse gamma-radiation observed by SAS-2 satellite away from the galactic plane in the energy range above 35 MeV has shown that it consists of two components. One component is generally correlated with galactic latitudes, the atomic hydrogen column density was deduced from 21 cm measurements, and the continuum radio emission, believed to be synchrotron emission. It has an energy spectrum similar to that in the plane and joins smoothly to the intense radiation from the plane. It is therefore presumed to be of galactic origin. The other component is apparently isotropic, at least on a coarse scale, and has a steep energy spectrum. No evidence is found for a cosmic ray halo surrounding the galaxy in the shape of a sphere or oblate spheroid with galactic dimensions. Constraints for a halo model with significantly larger dimensions are set on the basis of an upper limit to the gamma-ray anisotropy.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
2001-01-01
This photo shows an individual cell from the Handheld Diffusion Test Cell (HH-DTC) apparatus flown on the Space Shuttle. Similar cells will be used in the Observable Protein Crystal Growth Apparatus (OPCGA) to be operated aboard the International Space Station (ISS). The principal investigator is Dr. Alex McPherson of the University of California, Irvine. Each individual cell comprises two sample chambers with a rotating center section that isolates the two from each other until the start of the experiment and after it is completed. The cells are made from optical-quality quartz glass to allow photography and interferometric observations. Each cell has a small light-emitting diode and lens to back-light the solution. In protein crystal growth experiments, a precipitating agent such as a salt solution is used to absorb and hold water but repel the protein molecules. This increases the concentration of protein until the molecules nucleate to form crystals. This cell is one of 96 that make up the experiment module portion of the OPCGA.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
2001-01-01
This photo shows the Handheld Diffusion Test Cell (HH-DTC) apparatus flown on the Space Shuttle. Similar cells (inside the plastic box) will be used in the Observable Protein Crystal Growth Apparatus (OPCGA) to be operated aboard the International Space Station (ISS). The principal investigator is Dr. Alex McPherson of the University of California, Irvine. Each individual cell comprises two sample chambers with a rotating center section that isolates the two from each other until the start of the experiment and after it is completed. The cells are made from optical-quality quartz glass to allow photography and interferometric observations. Each cell has a small light-emitting diode and lens to back-light the solution. In protein crystal growth experiments, a precipitating agent such as a salt solution is used to absorb and hold water but repel the protein molecules. This increases the concentration of protein until the molecules nucleate to form crystals. This cell is one of 96 that make up the experiment module portion of the OPCGA.
Diffusion with optimal resetting
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Evans, Martin R.; Majumdar, Satya N.
2011-10-01
We consider the mean time to absorption by an absorbing target of a diffusive particle with the addition of a process whereby the particle is reset to its initial position with rate r. We consider several generalizations of the model of Evans and Majumdar (2011 Phys. Rev. Lett.106 160601): (i) a space-dependent resetting rate r(x); (ii) resetting to a random position z drawn from a resetting distribution { P}(z); and (iii) a spatial distribution for the absorbing target PT(x). As an example of (i) we show that the introduction of a non-resetting window around the initial position can reduce the mean time to absorption provided that the initial position is sufficiently far from the target. We address the problem of optimal resetting, that is, minimizing the mean time to absorption for a given target distribution. For an exponentially decaying target distribution centred at the origin we show that a transition in the optimal resetting distribution occurs as the target distribution narrows.
Transdermal diffusion of xenon in vitro using diffusion cells
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Verkhovsky, A.; Petrov, E.
2015-11-01
The aim of this research was to study the diffusion rate of xenon through guinea pig skin and how viscosity of cosmetic component capryl/capric triglyceride (CCT) facilitates to deliver xenon to surface of skin patches. They were placed in Franz cell for 24 hours and diffusion rate and permeability of xenon were calculated. Thus diffusion rate was 0.031 mg/hour*cm2 and permeability was 0.003 cm/hour. Using Brookfield viscometer it was shown that viscosity of CCT decreased upon increasing xenon concentration. Obtained results can be utilized in developing of new xenon containing drugs for topical administration.
Acid diffusion through polymer films
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, P. Linda; Eckert, Andrew R.; Willson, C. Grant; Webber, Stephen E.; Byers, Jeffrey D.
1997-07-01
In order to perform 0.2 micrometer processes, one needs to study the diffusion of photoacid generators within the photoresist system, since diffusion during post exposure bake time has an influence on the critical dimension (CD). We have developed a new method to study the diffusion of photoacid generators within a polymer film. This new method is based on monitoring the change of the fluorescence intensity of a pH- sensitive fluorescent dye caused by the reaction with photoacid. A simplified version of this experiment has been conducted by introducing acid vapor to quench the fluorescence intensity of this pH sensor. A thin polymer film is spin cast onto the sensor to create a barrier to the acid diffusion process. During the acid diffusion process, the fluorescence intensity of this pH sensor is measured in situ, using excitation and emission wavelengths at 466 nm and 516 nm, respectively. Fluoresceinamine, the pH sensitive fluorescent dye, is covalently bonded onto the treated quartz substrate to form a single dye layer. Poly(hydroxystyrene) (Mn equals 13k, Tg equals 180 degrees Celsius) in PGMEA (5% - 18% by weight) is spin cast onto this quartz substrate to form films with varying thickness. The soft bake time is 60 seconds at 90 degrees Celsius and a typical film has a thickness of 1.4 micrometers. Trifluoroacetic acid is introduced into a small chamber while the fluorescence from this quartz window is observed. Our study focuses on finding the diffusion constant of the vaporized acid (trifluoroacetic acid) in the poly(hydroxystyrene) polymer film. By applying the Fick's second law, (It - Io)/(I(infinity ) - Io) equals erfc [L/(Dt)1/2] is obtained. The change of fluorescence intensity with respect to the diffusion time is monitored. The above equation is used for the data analysis, where L represents the film thickness and t represents the average time for the acid to diffuse through the film. The diffusion constant is calculated to be at the order of 10
Fick's Insights on Liquid Diffusion
Narasimhan, T.N.
2004-10-07
In 1855, Adolph Fick published ''On Liquid Diffusion'', mathematically treating salt movements in liquids as a diffusion process, analogous to heat diffusion. Less recognized is the fact that Fick also provided a detailed account of the implications of salt diffusion to transport through membranes. A careful look at Fick (1855) shows that his conceptualization of molecular diffusion was more comprehensive than could be captured with the mathematical methods available to him, and therefore his expression, referred to as Fick's Law, dealt only with salt flux. He viewed salt diffusion in liquids as a binary process, with salt moving in one way and water moving in the other. Fick's analysis of the consequences of such a binary process operating in a hydrophilic pore in a membrane offers insights that are relevant to earth systems. This paper draws attention to Fick's rationale, and its implications to hydrogeological systems. Fick (1829-1901; Figure 1), a gifted scientist, published the first book on medical physics (Fick, 1858), discussing the application of optics, solid mechanics, gas diffusion, and heat budget to biological systems. Fick's paper is divisible into two parts. The first describes his experimental verification of the applicability of Fourier's equation to liquid diffusion. The second is a detailed discussion of diffusion through a membrane. Although Fick's Law specifically quantifies solute flux, Fick visualized a simultaneous movement of water and stated, ''It is evident that a volume of water equal to that of the salt passes simultaneously out of the upper stratum into the lower.'' (Fick, 1855, p.30). Fick drew upon Fourier's model purely by analogy. He assumed that concentration gradient impelled salt movement, without inquiring why concentration gradient should constitute a driving force. As for water movement, he stated intuitively, ''a force of suction comes into play on each side of the membrane, proportional to the difference of concentration
DiffuseModel: Modeling the diffuse ultraviolet background
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Murthy, Jayant
2015-12-01
DiffuseModel calculates the scattered radiation from dust scattering in the Milky Way based on stars from the Hipparcos catalog. It uses Monte Carlo to implement multiple scattering and assumes a user-supplied grid for the dust distribution. The output is a FITS file with the diffuse light over the Galaxy. It is intended for use in the UV (900 - 3000 A) but may be modified for use in other wavelengths and galaxies.
BEAM DIFFUSION MEASUREMENTS AT RHIC.
FLILLER,R.P.,IIIDREES,A.GASSNER,D.MCINTYRE,G.PEGGS,S.TRBOJEVIC,D.
2003-05-12
During a store, particles from the beam core continually diffuse outwards into the halo through a variety of mechanisms. Understanding the diffusion rate as a function of particle amplitude can help discover which processes are important to halo growth. A collimator can be used to measure the amplitude growth rate as a function of the particle amplitude. In this paper we present results of diffusion measurements performed at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) with fully stripped gold ions, deuterons, and protons. We compare these results with measurements from previous years, and simulations, and discuss any factors that relate to beam growth in RHIC.
Phosphorus diffusion in polycrystalline silicon
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Losee, D. L.; Lavine, J. P.; Trabka, E. A.; Lee, S.-T.; Jarman, C. M.
1984-02-01
The diffusion of phosphorus in crystallized amorphous Si layers was studied with secondary-ion mass spectroscopy. A two-dimensional diffusion model is used to find effective grain (Dg) and grain-boundary (Dgb) diffusion coefficients. This simplified model leads to Dgb ≤ 10Dg, which is significantly lower than what has been deduced from conventional, larger grained polysilicon. Our result is consistent with specific-gravity measurements, which found a significantly lower ``mass defect'' for layers deposited amorphous and subsequently crystallized as compared to initially polycrystalline layers.
Configurational diffusion of coal macromolecules
Guin, J.A.; Curtis, C.W.; Tarrer, A.R.
1990-01-01
As shown in last quarter's report on the configurational diffusion of coal macromolecules, the hindered diffusion data for both TPP and coal macromolecules were significantly different from the theoretical correlations. In order to evaluate the factors which could lead to this difference an error analysis was conducted, and the detailed results reported herein. Generally, we did not find any errors which could account for the deviation from the theory, and thus we conclude that this deviation is real and can be ascribed to some factor not considered by the hindered diffusion theory, i.e., attractive or repulsive forces. 2 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.
ALUMINUM IMPURITY DIFFUSION IN MAGNESIUM
Brennan, Sarah; Warren, Andrew; Coffey, Kevin; Kulkarni, Nagraj S; Todd, Peter J; Sohn, Yong Ho; Klimov, Mikhail
2012-01-01
The Al impurity diffusion in polycrystalline Mg (99.9%) via depth profiling with secondary ion mass spectrometry was studied in the temperature range of 673-573K, utilizing the thin film method and thin film solution to the diffusion equation. Multiple samples were utilized and multiple profiles were obtained to determine statistically confident coefficient with maximum standard deviation of 16%. Activation energy and pre-exponential factor of Al impurity diffusion in Mg was determined as 155 kJ/mole and 3.9 x 10-3 m2/sec.
Improved diffuser for augmenting a wind turbine
Foreman, K.M.; Gilbert, B.L.
A diffuser for augmenting a wind turbine having means for energizing the boundary layer at several locations along the diffuser walls is improved by the addition of a short collar extending radially outward from the outlet of the diffuser.
Diffuser for augmenting a wind turbine
Foreman, Kenneth M.; Gilbert, Barry L.
1984-01-01
A diffuser for augmenting a wind turbine having means for energizing the boundary layer at several locations along the diffuser walls is improved by the addition of a short collar extending radially outward from the outlet of the diffuser.
Fluid diffusion in porous silica
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McCann, Lowell I.
Fluid motion in porous media has received a great deal of theoretical and experimental attention due to its importance in systems as diverse as ground water aquifers, catalytic processes, and size separation schemes. Often, the motion of interest is the random thermal motion of molecules in a fluid undergoing no net flow. This diffusive motion is particularly important when the size of the pores is nearly the same as the size of the molecules. In this study, fluid diffusion is measured in several varieties of porous silica whose pore structure is determined by the process by which it is made. The samples in this study have porosities (φ, the ratio of the pore volume to the total sample volume) that vary from 0.3 to 0.75 and average pore radii that range from approximately 15 to 120 A. Determining the effect of the pore structure on the diffusion of a liquid in a porous material is complicated by the chemical interactions between the diffusing molecules and the pore surface. In this study, ions in a hydrophilic fluid are used to block the adsorption of the diffusing dye molecules to the hydroxyl groups covering the silica surface. This technique is unlike typical surface treatments of silica in that it does not permanently alter the pore geometry. In this work, fluid diffusion is measured with a transient holographic grating technique where interfering laser beams create a periodic refractive index modulation in the fluid. The diffraction of a third laser off this grating is monitored to determine how quickly the grating relaxes, thereby determining the diffusion coefficient of the molecules in the fluid. Varying the grating periodicity controls the length scale of the diffusion measurement from 1.2 to 100 μm which is much larger than the average pore sizes of the samples. Therefore, over these large scales, we measure 'normal' diffusion, where the mean squared displacement of a diffusing particle varies linearly with time. In one particular type of porous silica
Geometric diffusion of quantum trajectories
Yang, Fan; Liu, Ren-Bao
2015-01-01
A quantum object can acquire a geometric phase (such as Berry phases and Aharonov–Bohm phases) when evolving along a path in a parameter space with non-trivial gauge structures. Inherent to quantum evolutions of wavepackets, quantum diffusion occurs along quantum trajectories. Here we show that quantum diffusion can also be geometric as characterized by the imaginary part of a geometric phase. The geometric quantum diffusion results from interference between different instantaneous eigenstate pathways which have different geometric phases during the adiabatic evolution. As a specific example, we study the quantum trajectories of optically excited electron-hole pairs in time-reversal symmetric insulators, driven by an elliptically polarized terahertz field. The imaginary geometric phase manifests itself as elliptical polarization in the terahertz sideband generation. The geometric quantum diffusion adds a new dimension to geometric phases and may have applications in many fields of physics, e.g., transport in topological insulators and novel electro-optical effects. PMID:26178745
Geometric diffusion of quantum trajectories.
Yang, Fan; Liu, Ren-Bao
2015-01-01
A quantum object can acquire a geometric phase (such as Berry phases and Aharonov-Bohm phases) when evolving along a path in a parameter space with non-trivial gauge structures. Inherent to quantum evolutions of wavepackets, quantum diffusion occurs along quantum trajectories. Here we show that quantum diffusion can also be geometric as characterized by the imaginary part of a geometric phase. The geometric quantum diffusion results from interference between different instantaneous eigenstate pathways which have different geometric phases during the adiabatic evolution. As a specific example, we study the quantum trajectories of optically excited electron-hole pairs in time-reversal symmetric insulators, driven by an elliptically polarized terahertz field. The imaginary geometric phase manifests itself as elliptical polarization in the terahertz sideband generation. The geometric quantum diffusion adds a new dimension to geometric phases and may have applications in many fields of physics, e.g., transport in topological insulators and novel electro-optical effects. PMID:26178745
Flow development through interturbine diffusers
Dominy, R.G.; Kirkham, D.A.; Smith, A.D.
1998-04-01
Interturbine diffusers offer the potential advantage of reducing the flow coefficient in the following stages, leading to increased efficiency. The flows associated with these ducts differ from those in simple annular diffusers both as a consequence of their high-curvature S-shaped geometry and of the presence of wakes created by the upstream turbine. Experimental data and numerical simulations clearly reveal the generation of significant secondary flows as the flow develops through the diffuser in the presence of cross-passage pressure gradients. The further influence of inlet swirl is also demonstrated. Data from experimental measurements with and without an upstream turbine are discussed and computational simulations are shown not only to give a good prediction of the flow development within the diffuser but also to demonstrate the importance of modeling the fully three-dimensional nature of the flow.
ANALYSIS OF DIFFUSION FIELD EXPERIMENTS
The report describes general theoretical frameworks for the ordering of diffusion field data in terms of meteorological measurements. The three methods described are surface-layer (Monin-Obukhov) similarity, convective scaling, and statistical theory using wind fluctuations. Earl...
Diffusion of monochromatic classical waves.
Gerritsen, Sijmen; Bauer, Gerrit E W
2006-01-01
We study the diffusion of monochromatic classical waves in a disordered acoustic medium by scattering theory. In order to avoid artifacts associated with mathematical point scatterers, we model the randomness by small but finite insertions. We derive expressions for the configuration-averaged energy flux, energy density, and intensity for one-, two-, and three-dimensional (3D) systems with an embedded monochromatic source using the ladder approximation to the Bethe-Salpeter equation. We study the transition from ballistic to diffusive wave propagation and obtain results for the frequency dependence of the medium properties such as mean free path and diffusion coefficient as a function of the scattering parameters. We discover characteristic differences of the diffusion in 2D as compared to the conventional 3D case, such as an explicit dependence of the energy flux on the mean free path and quite different expressions for the effective transport velocity. PMID:16486306
Fractional-calculus diffusion equation
2010-01-01
Background Sequel to the work on the quantization of nonconservative systems using fractional calculus and quantization of a system with Brownian motion, which aims to consider the dissipation effects in quantum-mechanical description of microscale systems. Results The canonical quantization of a system represented classically by one-dimensional Fick's law, and the diffusion equation is carried out according to the Dirac method. A suitable Lagrangian, and Hamiltonian, describing the diffusive system, are constructed and the Hamiltonian is transformed to Schrodinger's equation which is solved. An application regarding implementation of the developed mathematical method to the analysis of diffusion, osmosis, which is a biological application of the diffusion process, is carried out. Schrödinger's equation is solved. Conclusions The plot of the probability function represents clearly the dissipative and drift forces and hence the osmosis, which agrees totally with the macro-scale view, or the classical-version osmosis. PMID:20492677
Energy Transfer and Joint Diffusion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pajor-Gyulai, Zs.; Szász, D.
2012-03-01
A paradigm model is suggested for describing the diffusive limit of trajectories of two Lorentz disks moving in a finite horizon periodic configuration of smooth, strictly convex scatterers and interacting with each other via elastic collisions. For this model the diffusive limit of the two trajectories is a mixture of joint Gaussian laws (analogous behavior is expected for the mechanical model of two Lorentz disks).
Visualization of Diffusion within Nanoarrays.
Liu, Yang; Holzinger, Angelika; Knittel, Peter; Poltorak, Lukasz; Gamero-Quijano, Alonso; Rickard, William D A; Walcarius, Alain; Herzog, Grégoire; Kranz, Christine; Arrigan, Damien W M
2016-07-01
The direct experimental characterization of diffusion processes at nanoscale remains a challenge that could help elucidate processes in biology, medicine and technology. In this report, two experimental approaches were employed to visualize ion diffusion profiles at the orifices of nanopores (radius (ra) of 86 ± 6 nm) in array format: (1) electrochemically assisted formation of silica deposits based on surfactant ion transfer across nanointerfaces between two immiscible electrolyte solutions (nanoITIES); (2) combined atomic force - scanning electrochemical microscopy (AFM-SECM) imaging of topography and redox species diffusion through the nanopores. The nature of the diffusion zones formed around the pores is directly related to the interpore distance within the array. Nanopore arrays with different ratios of pore center-to-center separation (rc) to pore radius (ra) were fabricated by focused ion beam (FIB) milling of silicon nitride (SiN) membranes, with 100 pores in a hexagonal arrangement. The ion diffusion profiles determined by the two visualization methods indicated the formation of overlapped or independent diffusion profiles at nanopore arrays with rc/ra ratios of 21 ± 2 and 91 ± 7, respectively. In particular, the silica deposition method resulted in formation of a single deposit encompassing the complete array with closer nanopore arrangement, whereas individual silica deposits were formed around each nanopore within the more widely spaced array. The methods reveal direct experimental evidence of diffusion zones at nanopore arrays and provide practical illustration that the pore-pore separation within such arrays has a significant impact on diffusional transport as the pore size is reduced to the nanoscale. These approaches to nanoscale diffusion zone visualization open up possibilities for better understanding of molecular transport processes within miniaturized systems. PMID:27264360
Uphill diffusion in multicomponent mixtures.
Krishna, Rajamani
2015-05-21
Molecular diffusion is an omnipresent phenomena that is important in a wide variety of contexts in chemical, physical, and biological processes. In the majority of cases, the diffusion process can be adequately described by Fick's law that postulates a linear relationship between the flux of any species and its own concentration gradient. Most commonly, a component diffuses down the concentration gradient. The major objective of this review is to highlight a very wide variety of situations that cause the uphill transport of one constituent in the mixture. Uphill diffusion may occur in multicomponent mixtures in which the diffusion flux of any species is strongly coupled to that of its partner species. Such coupling effects often arise from strong thermodynamic non-idealities. For a quantitative description we need to use chemical potential gradients as driving forces. The transport of ionic species in aqueous solutions is coupled with its partner ions because of the electro-neutrality constraints; such constraints may accelerate or decelerate a specific ion. When uphill diffusion occurs, we observe transient overshoots during equilibration; the equilibration process follows serpentine trajectories in composition space. For mixtures of liquids, alloys, ceramics and glasses the serpentine trajectories could cause entry into meta-stable composition zones; such entry could result in phenomena such as spinodal decomposition, spontaneous emulsification, and the Ouzo effect. For distillation of multicomponent mixtures that form azeotropes, uphill diffusion may allow crossing of distillation boundaries that are normally forbidden. For mixture separations with microporous adsorbents, uphill diffusion can cause supra-equilibrium loadings to be achieved during transient uptake within crystals; this allows the possibility of over-riding adsorption equilibrium for achieving difficult separations. PMID:25761383
Boron diffusion in silicon devices
Rohatgi, Ajeet; Kim, Dong Seop; Nakayashiki, Kenta; Rounsaville, Brian
2010-09-07
Disclosed are various embodiments that include a process, an arrangement, and an apparatus for boron diffusion in a wafer. In one representative embodiment, a process is provided in which a boric oxide solution is applied to a surface of the wafer. Thereafter, the wafer is subjected to a fast heat ramp-up associated with a first heating cycle that results in a release of an amount of boron for diffusion into the wafer.
Gibbs Ringing in Diffusion MRI
Veraart, Jelle; Fieremans, Els; Jelescu, Ileana O.; Knoll, Florian; Novikov, Dmitry S.
2016-01-01
Purpose To study and reduce the effect of Gibbs ringing artifact on computed diffusion parameters. Methods We reduce the ringing by extrapolating the k-space of each diffusion weighted image beyond the measured part by selecting an adequate regularization term. We evaluate several regularization terms and tune the regularization parameter to find the best compromise between anatomical accuracy of the reconstructed image and suppression of the Gibbs artifact. Results We demonstrate empirically and analytically that the Gibbs artifact, which is typically observed near sharp edges in magnetic resonance images, has a significant impact on the quantification of diffusion model parameters, even for infinitesimal diffusion weighting. We find the second order total generalized variation to be a good choice for the penalty term to regularize the extrapolation of the k-space, as it provides a parsimonious representation of images, a practically full suppression of Gibbs ringing, and the absence of staircasing artifacts typical for total variation methods. Conclusions Regularized extrapolation of the k-space data significantly reduces truncation artifacts without compromising spatial resolution in comparison to the default option of window filtering. In particular, accuracy of estimating diffusion tensor imaging and diffusion kurtosis imaging parameters improves so much that unconstrained fits become possible. PMID:26257388
Osmosis and Diffusion Conceptual Assessment
Fisher, Kathleen M.; Williams, Kathy S.; Lineback, Jennifer Evarts
2011-01-01
Biology student mastery regarding the mechanisms of diffusion and osmosis is difficult to achieve. To monitor comprehension of these processes among students at a large public university, we developed and validated an 18-item Osmosis and Diffusion Conceptual Assessment (ODCA). This assessment includes two-tiered items, some adopted or modified from the previously published Diffusion and Osmosis Diagnostic Test (DODT) and some newly developed items. The ODCA, a validated instrument containing fewer items than the DODT and emphasizing different content areas within the realm of osmosis and diffusion, better aligns with our curriculum. Creation of the ODCA involved removal of six DODT item pairs, modification of another six DODT item pairs, and development of three new item pairs addressing basic osmosis and diffusion concepts. Responses to ODCA items testing the same concepts as the DODT were remarkably similar to responses to the DODT collected from students 15 yr earlier, suggesting that student mastery regarding the mechanisms of diffusion and osmosis remains elusive. PMID:22135375
An Introduction to Fractional Diffusion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Henry, B. I.; Langlands, T. A. M.; Straka, P.
The mathematical description of diffusion has a long history with many different formulations including phenomenological models based on conservation of mass and constitutive laws; probabilistic models based on random walks and central limit theorems; microscopic stochastic models based on Brownian motion and Langevin equations; and mesoscopic stochastic models based on master equations and Fokker-Planck equations. A fundamental result common to the different approaches is that the mean square displacement of a diffusing particle scales linearly with time. However there have been numerous experimental measurements in which the mean square displacement of diffusing particles scales as a fractional order power law in time. In recent years a great deal of progress has been made in extending the different models for diffusion to incorporate this fractional diffusion. The tools of fractional calculus have proven very useful in these developments, linking together fractional constitutive laws, continuous time random walks, fractional Langevin equations and fractional Brownian motions. These notes provide a tutorial style overview of standard and fractional diffusion processes.
Water diffusion in phonolite melts
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schmidt, Burkhard C.; Blum-Oeste, Nils; Flagmeier, Jens
2013-04-01
We report an experimental study of total water diffusion (irrespective of water speciation) in two different phonolite melts, which are representative of Montaña Blanca, Tenerife, Spain (MBP) and Laacher See, East Eifel, Germany (LSP-II). Both phonolites have Na-rich compositions, but differ in their alumina saturation index, with MBP being peralkaline and LSP-II being slightly peraluminous. Diffusion couple experiments for MBP were performed at 200-250 MPa in the temperature range of 800-1050 °C and water contents between 1 and 6.5 wt.%. Due to higher liquidus temperatures of LSP-II, the accessible temperature and water concentration range was reduced to 875-1050 °C and 3-6.5 wt.% water. All experiments were performed in rapid quench cold-seal pressure vessels, which enabled rapid heating and quenching of the samples within seconds. Compared to the run durations of 30-90 min, these short heating and cooling periods can be neglected and no corrections needed to be applied for the calculation of the diffusion coefficients. Water diffusion profiles were determined by FT-IR micro-spectroscopy on doubly polished glass sections and the diffusion coefficients were determined by Boltzmann-Matano analysis. Water diffusion increases with increasing water content and temperature and follows the empirical relations:
Diffusion path representation for two-phase ternary diffusion couples
Dayananda, M A; Venkatasubramanian, R
1986-01-01
Several two-phase, solid-solid diffusion couples from diffusion studies in the ternary Cu-Ni-Zn, Fe-Ni-Al and Cu-Ag-Au systems were investigated for their analytical representation on the basis of characteristic path parameters. The concentration profiles were examined in terms of relative concentration variables for cross-over compositions and internal consistency. The diffusion paths delineated single or double S-shaped curves crossing the straight line joining the terminal alloy compositions once or thrice. Cross-over compositions were identified in the individual phase regions or at an interface. Based on the symmetry between the path segments on either side of cross-over compositions, the paths were analytically represented with the aid of cross-over compositions and path slopes at these compositions, considered as path parameters. Exprestion for the ratios of diffusion depth on the two sides of the Matano plane were derived in terms of cross-over compositions and the estimated ratios of diffusion depths were found to be consistent with those observed from the concentration profiles.
Drug diffusion across skin with diffusivity spatially modulated
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Montoya Arroyave, Isabel
2014-05-01
A diffusion and delivery model of a drug across the skin with diffusivity spatially modulated is formulated and solved analytically using computer algebra. The model is developed using one-dimensional diffusion equation with a diffusivity which is a function of position in the skin; with an initial condition which is describing that the drug is initially contained inside a therapeutic patch; with a boundary condition according to which the change in concentration in the patch is minimal, such that assumption of zero flux at the patch-skin interface is valid; and with other boundary condition according to which the microcirculation in the capillaries just below the dermis carries the drug molecules away from the site at a very fast rate, maintaining the inner concentration at 0. The model is solved analytically by the method of the Laplace transform, with Bromwich integral and residue theorem. The concentration profile of the drug in the skin is expressed as an infinite series of Bessel functions. The corresponding total amount of delivered drug is expressed as an infinite series of decreasing exponentials. Also, the corresponding effective time for the therapeutic patch is determined. All computations were performed using computer algebra software, specifically Maple. The analytical results obtained are important for understanding and improving currentapplications of therapeutic patches. For future research it is interesting to consider more general models of spatial modulation of the diffusivity and the possible application of other computer algebra software such as Mathematica and Maxima.
Restricted Diffusion in Biophysical Systems
Cooper, Robert L.; Chang, David B.; Young, Allan C.; Martin, Carroll J.; Ancker-Johnson, Betsy
1974-01-01
The pulsed-gradient spin echo nuclear magnetic resonance (PGSENMR) technique was used to measure restricted diffusion of water in three types of animal tissue: human blood plasma and red cells; rat and rabbit heart; rat and rabbit liver. Characteristic lengths (L) for restriction of diffusion are estimated from dependence on the measuring time. Limitations on the range of observable restrictive lengths (1.5-15 μm) are discussed. The decrease in diffusivity due to 1 μm alumina powder (volume fraction = 0.18) in glycerin/water mixtures agrees with the Wang theory assuming spherical particles and no hydration. The characteristic length (L ≃ 4 μm) is larger than the particle size (1 μm) or separation (1.8 μm). Comparison of the diffusivities in tissues at short diffusion times with the Wang theory indicates some bound or trapped water. For packed red blood cells, a restriction (L ≃ 2.3 μm) was attributed tothe red cell membrane. A permeability p ≃ 0.014 cm/s may be estimated from the decrease in diffusivity. Average values of diffusivity ratio in heart were: 0.36 ± 0.02 for rat; and 0.26 ± 0.03 for rabbit; and in liver: 0.25 ± 0.01 for rat; 0.25 ± .04 for 10-day old rabbit; and 0.195 ± 0.03 for 2-yr old rabbit. A restriction (L ≃ 2.7 μm) in rat liver probably results from the mitochondria. PMID:4823458
Diffuse Gamma Rays Galactic and Extragalactic Diffuse Emission
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Moskalenko, Igor V.; Strong, Andrew W.; Reimer, Olaf
2004-01-01
Diffuse gamma rays consist of several components: truly diffuse emission from the interstellar medium, the extragalactic background, whose origin is not firmly established yet, and the contribution from unresolved and faint Galactic point sources. One approach to unravel these components is to study the diffuse emission from the interstellar medium, which traces the interactions of high energy particles with interstellar gas and radiation fields. Because of its origin such emission is potentially able to reveal much about the sources and propagation of cosmic rays. The extragalactic background, if reliably determined, can be used in cosmological and blazar studies. Studying the derived average spectrum of faint Galactic sources may be able to give a clue to the nature of the emitting objects.
Kramers turnover: From energy diffusion to spatial diffusion using metadynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tiwary, Pratyush; Berne, B. J.
2016-04-01
We consider the rate of transition for a particle between two metastable states coupled to a thermal environment for various magnitudes of the coupling strength using the recently proposed infrequent metadynamics approach [P. Tiwary and M. Parrinello, Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 230602 (2013)]. We are interested in understanding how this approach for obtaining rate constants performs as the dynamics regime changes from energy diffusion to spatial diffusion. Reassuringly, we find that the approach works remarkably well for various coupling strengths in the strong coupling regime, and to some extent even in the weak coupling regime.
Diffusion of childbearing within cohabitation.
Vitali, Agnese; Aassve, Arnstein; Lappegård, Trude
2015-04-01
The article analyzes the diffusion of childbearing within cohabitation in Norway, using municipality data over a 24-year period (1988-2011). Research has found substantial spatial heterogeneity in this phenomenon but also substantial spatial correlation, and the prevalence of childbearing within cohabitation has increased significantly over time. We consider several theoretical perspectives and implement a spatial panel model that allows accounting for autocorrelation not only on the dependent variable but also on key explanatory variables, and hence identifies the key determinants of diffusion of childbearing within cohabitation across space and over time. We find only partial support for the second demographic transition as a theory able to explain the diffusion of childbearing within cohabitation. Our results show that at least in the first phase of the diffusion (1988-1997), economic difficulties as measured by increased unemployment among men contributed to the diffusion of childbearing within cohabitation. However, the most important driver for childbearing within cohabitation is expansion in education for women. PMID:25808022
Fast Measurements Of Thermal Diffusivities Of Ceramics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Smith, Marnell; Goldstein, Howard E.
1988-01-01
Temperature rises of samples compared with reference sample. Apparatus quickly measures thermal diffusivities of ceramics at high temperatures. Produces data on relative thermal diffusivities of as many as six ceramic specimens per hour. Thermal-diffusivity tester makes it easy to determine thermal diffusivities of ceramics. Pronounced effects of processing parameters on thermal properties of ceramics evaluated quickly.
A Short-Duration Gel Diffusion Experiment.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Mulcahy, D. E.
1980-01-01
Described is a gel diffusion experiment that permits the completion of duplicate diffusion runs within a three-hour laboratory session. Information included for the short-duration gel diffusion experiment is the diffusion cell, the experiment, data treatment, and the expected results of the experiment. (Author/DS)
A Diffusion Approach to Study Leadership Reform
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Adams, Curt M.; Jean-Marie, Gaetane
2011-01-01
Purpose: This study aims to draw on elements of diffusion theory to understand leadership reform. Many diffusion studies examine the spread of an innovation across social units but the objective is to examine diffusion of a collective leadership model within school units. Specifically, the strength of reform diffusion is tested to account for…
Upscaling diffusion waves in porous media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Valdés-Parada, Francisco J.; Álvarez Ramírez, José; Ochoa-Tapia, J. Alberto
2016-04-01
The aim of this work is to derive the effective-medium equations and to estimate the related effective diffusivities for diffusion waves in porous media. Effective diffusivities are estimated within the framework of the volume averaging method, where they are obtained from the solution of the associated closure problems in 2D and 3D periodic unit cells. The results showed that the transport of diffusion waves are governed by the diffusion and co-diffusion mechanisms of harmonic waves. In addition, numerical results showed that the effective diffusivities increase with frequency, while the effective co-diffusivities display a resonance-like behavior. Our results also indicate that geometry plays a more significant effect over the predictions of the co-diffusion coefficient at moderate frequencies and it mainly influences the predictions of the direct diffusivity at low frequencies (i . e .,ω∗ ≪ 1).
Transverse Diffusion in Bedload Transport
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Devauchelle, Olivier; Abramian, Anais; Seizilles, Gregoire; Lajeunesse, Eric
2015-11-01
When a fluid flows over a granular bed, it entrains the grains as bedload. This interaction produces a beautiful variety of shapes and landscapes, such as dunes, ripples and meanders. In this context, Coulomb's law of friction translates into a threshold shear stress, above which the grains are entrained. When the flow-induced stress is barely above this threshold, only a small proportion of the superficial grains move. Their trajectory is then strongly influenced by the layer of static grains below them. They mostly move in the flow direction, but the roughness of the underlying bed causes their velocity to fluctuate, and turns their trajectory into a random walk. As a consequence, bedload diffuses in the direction orthogonal to the flow. Laboratory experiments suggest that this diffusion opposes gravity to maintain the banks of a river. However, quantifying the terms of this balance remains an experimental challenge. We propose to use an instability generated by bedload diffusion to do so.
Devitrite-based optical diffusers.
Butt, Haider; Knowles, Kevin M; Montelongo, Yunuen; Amaratunga, Gehan A J; Wilkinson, Timothy D
2014-03-25
Devitrite is a novel material produced by heat treatment of commercial soda-lime-silica glass. It consists of fans of needle-like crystals which can extend up to several millimeters and have interspacings of up to a few hundred nanometers. To date, only the material properties of devitrite have been reported, and there has been a distinct lack of research on using it for optical applications. In this study, we demonstrate that randomly oriented fans of devitrite crystals can act as highly efficient diffusers for visible light. Devitrite crystals produce phase modulation of light because of their relatively high anisotropy. The nanoscale spacings between these needles enable light to be diffused to large scattering angles. Experimentally measured results suggest that light diffusion patterns with beam widths of up to 120° are produced. Since devitrite is an inexpensive material to produce, it has the potential to be used in a variety of commercial applications. PMID:24559189
Load Diffusion in Composite Structures
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Horgan, Cornelius O.; Simmonds, J. G.
2000-01-01
This research has been concerned with load diffusion in composite structures. Fundamental solid mechanics studies were carried out to provide a basis for assessing the complicated modeling necessary for large scale structures used by NASA. An understanding of the fundamental mechanisms of load diffusion in composite subcomponents is essential in developing primary composite structures. Analytical models of load diffusion behavior are extremely valuable in building an intuitive base for developing refined modeling strategies and assessing results from finite element analyses. The decay behavior of stresses and other field quantities provides a significant aid towards this process. The results are also amendable to parameter study with a large parameter space and should be useful in structural tailoring studies.
Water vapor diffusion membranes, 2
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Holland, F. F.; Klein, E.; Smith, J. K.; Eyer, C.
1976-01-01
Transport mechanisms were investigated for the three different types of water vapor diffusion membranes. Membranes representing porous wetting and porous nonwetting structures as well as dense diffusive membrane structures were investigated for water permeation rate as a function of: (1) temperature, (2) solids composition in solution, and (3) such hydrodynamic parameters as sweep gas flow rate, solution flow rate and cell geometry. These properties were measured using nitrogen sweep gas to collect the effluent. In addition, the chemical stability to chromic acid-stabilized urine was measured for several of each type of membrane. A technology based on the mechanism of vapor transport was developed, whereby the vapor diffusion rates and relative susceptibility of membranes to fouling and failure could be projected for long-term vapor recovery trials using natural chromic acid-stabilized urine.
Diffusion in Brain Extracellular Space
Syková, Eva; Nicholson, Charles
2009-01-01
Diffusion in the extracellular space (ECS) of the brain is constrained by the volume fraction and the tortuosity and a modified diffusion equation represents the transport behavior of many molecules in the brain. Deviations from the equation reveal loss of molecules across the blood-brain barrier, through cellular uptake, binding or other mechanisms. Early diffusion measurements used radiolabeled sucrose and other tracers. Presently, the real-time iontophoresis (RTI) method is employed for small ions and the integrative optical imaging (IOI) method for fluorescent macromolecules, including dextrans or proteins. Theoretical models and simulations of the ECS have explored the influence of ECS geometry, effects of dead-space microdomains, extracellular matrix and interaction of macromolecules with ECS channels. Extensive experimental studies with the RTI method employing the cation tetramethylammonium (TMA) in normal brain tissue show that the volume fraction of the ECS typically is about 20% and the tortuosity about 1.6 (i.e. free diffusion coefficient of TMA is reduced by 2.6), although there are regional variations. These parameters change during development and aging. Diffusion properties have been characterized in several interventions, including brain stimulation, osmotic challenge and knockout of extracellular matrix components. Measurements have also been made during ischemia, in models of Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases and in human gliomas. Overall, these studies improve our conception of ECS structure and the roles of glia and extracellular matrix in modulating the ECS microenvironment. Knowledge of ECS diffusion properties are valuable in contexts ranging from understanding extrasynaptic volume transmission to the development of paradigms for drug delivery to the brain. PMID:18923183
Diffusion of polyelectrolytes in polyelectrolyte gels
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rahalkar, Anand; Muthukumar, Murugappan
2015-03-01
Using dynamic light scattering, we have investigated the diffusion coefficient of sodium poly(styrene sulfonate) in a matrix of poly(acrylamide-co-acrylate) gels. The diffusion coefficient of the probe polyelectrolyte exhibits a crossover behavior from a particle-diffusion to entropic-barrier dominated diffusion, as the molecular weight is increased. The effect of electrostatics, by varying the charge density of the matrix, on probe diffusion constant will be presented.
Measurement of Diffusion in Flowing Complex Fluids
Leonard, Edward F.; Aucoin, Christian P.; Nanne, Edgar E.
2006-01-01
A microfluidic device for the measurement of solute diffusion as well as particle diffusion and migration in flowing complex fluids is described. The device is particularly suited to obtaining diffusivities in such fluids, which require a desired flow state to be maintained during measurement. A method based on the Loschmidt diffusion theory and short times of exposure is presented to allow calculation of diffusivities from concentration differences in the flow streams leaving the cell. PMID:18560469
The diffusion of ions in unconsolidated sediments
Manheim, F. T.
1970-01-01
Diffusion in unconsolidated sediments generally proceeds at rates ranging from half to one twentieth of those applying to diffusion of ions and molecules in free solution. Diffusion rates are predictable with respect to porosity and path tortuosity in host sediments, and can be conveniently measured by determinations of electrical resistivity on bulk sediment samples. Net ion flux is further influenced by reactions of diffusing species with enclosing sediments, but such influences should not be confused with or lumped with diffusion processes. ?? 1970.
Innovation Diffusion: Assessment of Strategies within the Diffusion Simulation Game
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Enfield, Jacob; Myers, Rodney D.; Lara, Miguel; Frick, Theodore W.
2012-01-01
Educators increasingly view the high level of engagement and experiential learning offered by games as a means to promote learning. However, as with any designed learning experience, player experiences should provide an accurate representation of content to be learned. In this study, the authors investigated the DIFFUSION SIMULATION GAME (DSG) to…
Hindered diffusion of coal liquids
Tsotsis, T.T.; Sahimi, M. . Dept. of Chemical Engineering); Webster, I.A. )
1992-01-01
The molecules comprising coal liquids can range from less than 10 to several hundred [angstrom] in diameter. Their size is, therefore, comparable to the average pore size of most hydroprocessing catalysts. Thus, during processing, transport of these molecules into the catalyst occurs mainly by configurational'' or hindered diffusion,'' which is the result of two phenomena occurring in the pores; the distribution of solute molecules in the pores is affected by the pores and the solute molecules experience an increased hydrodynamic drag. The field of hindered diffusion has been reviewed by Deen [16]. The earliest studies in the filed were by Renkin et al. [17].
Optimization of hydraulic turbine diffuser
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moravec, Prokop; Hliník, Juraj; Rudolf, Pavel
2016-03-01
Hydraulic turbine diffuser recovers pressure energy from residual kinetic energy on turbine runner outlet. Efficiency of this process is especially important for high specific speed turbines, where almost 50% of available head is utilized within diffuser. Magnitude of the coefficient of pressure recovery can be significantly influenced by designing its proper shape. Present paper focuses on mathematical shape optimization method coupled with CFD. First method is based on direct search Nelder-Mead algorithm, while the second method employs adjoint solver and morphing. Results obtained with both methods are discussed and their advantages/disadvantages summarized.
Configurational diffusion of coal macromolecules
Guin, J.A.; Curtis, C.W.; Tarrer, A.R.
1989-01-01
During this quarter, progress has been made in two areas: (1) preparation of the calibration curve for gel permeation chromatography analysis of coal asphaltene; (2) preliminary measurements of the effective diffusion coefficients of coal asphaltene fractions. A calibration curve was prepared with standard compounds including polystyrenes, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons and tetraphenylporphine in GPC analysis. A correlation equation was obtained from the calibration curve to estimate the molecular weights of coal asphaltene fractions. Based on this GPC analysis, effective diffusion coefficients of coal asphaltene fractions were measured.
Eddy diffusion at Saturn's homopause
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sandel, B. R.; Mcconnell, J. C.; Strobel, D. F.
1982-01-01
Measurements of Saturn's He 584 A dayglow and the CH4 density profile deduced from stellar occultation data near the homopause have been combined to infer an eddy diffusion coefficient of 8 + or - 4 x 10 to the 7th sq cm/s and a temperature of 125 + 40 or - 25 K near the homopause at Voyager 2 encounter. It appears that the eddy diffusion coefficient may have increased between the Voyager encounters. Saturn's H Ly-alpha dayglow is qualitatively compatible with this increase and the interpretation of the He 584 A dayglow and CH4 absorption measurement.
Diffusive mixing and Tsallis entropy
O'Malley, Daniel; Vesselinov, Velimir V.; Cushman, John H.
2015-04-29
Brownian motion, the classical diffusive process, maximizes the Boltzmann-Gibbs entropy. The Tsallis q-entropy, which is non-additive, was developed as an alternative to the classical entropy for systems which are non-ergodic. A generalization of Brownian motion is provided that maximizes the Tsallis entropy rather than the Boltzmann-Gibbs entropy. This process is driven by a Brownian measure with a random diffusion coefficient. In addition, the distribution of this coefficient is derived as a function of q for 1 < q < 3. Applications to transport in porous media are considered.
Kwon, Oh-Hun; Park, Hyunjin; Seo, Sang-Won; Na, Duk L.; Lee, Jong-Min
2015-01-01
The mean diffusivity (MD) value has been used to describe microstructural properties in Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) in cortical gray matter (GM). Recently, researchers have applied a cortical surface generated from the T1-weighted volume. When the DTI data are analyzed using the cortical surface, it is important to assign an accurate MD value from the volume space to the vertex of the cortical surface, considering the anatomical correspondence between the DTI and the T1-weighted image. Previous studies usually sampled the MD value using the nearest-neighbor (NN) method or Linear method, even though there are geometric distortions in diffusion-weighted volumes. Here we introduce a Surface Guided Diffusion Mapping (SGDM) method to compensate for such geometric distortions. We compared our SGDM method with results using NN and Linear methods by investigating differences in the sampled MD value. We also projected the tissue classification results of non-diffusion-weighted volumes to the cortical midsurface. The CSF probability values provided by the SGDM method were lower than those produced by the NN and Linear methods. The MD values provided by the NN and Linear methods were significantly greater than those of the SGDM method in regions suffering from geometric distortion. These results indicate that the NN and Linear methods assigned the MD value in the CSF region to the cortical midsurface (GM region). Our results suggest that the SGDM method is an effective way to correct such mapping errors. PMID:26236180
SHETTY, ANIL N.; CHIANG, SHARON; MALETIC-SAVATIC, MIRJANA; KASPRIAN, GREGOR; VANNUCCI, MARINA; LEE, WESLEY
2016-01-01
In this article, we discuss the theoretical background for diffusion weighted imaging and diffusion tensor imaging. Molecular diffusion is a random process involving thermal Brownian motion. In biological tissues, the underlying microstructures restrict the diffusion of water molecules, making diffusion directionally dependent. Water diffusion in tissue is mathematically characterized by the diffusion tensor, the elements of which contain information about the magnitude and direction of diffusion and is a function of the coordinate system. Thus, it is possible to generate contrast in tissue based primarily on diffusion effects. Expressing diffusion in terms of the measured diffusion coefficient (eigenvalue) in any one direction can lead to errors. Nowhere is this more evident than in white matter, due to the preferential orientation of myelin fibers. The directional dependency is removed by diagonalization of the diffusion tensor, which then yields a set of three eigenvalues and eigenvectors, representing the magnitude and direction of the three orthogonal axes of the diffusion ellipsoid, respectively. For example, the eigenvalue corresponding to the eigenvector along the long axis of the fiber corresponds qualitatively to diffusion with least restriction. Determination of the principal values of the diffusion tensor and various anisotropic indices provides structural information. We review the use of diffusion measurements using the modified Stejskal–Tanner diffusion equation. The anisotropy is analyzed by decomposing the diffusion tensor based on symmetrical properties describing the geometry of diffusion tensor. We further describe diffusion tensor properties in visualizing fiber tract organization of the human brain.
Living with Technology Diffusion Confusion.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Isaak, Troy; Ward, John
This paper is a report on the implementation of a project to diffuse technology throughout a teacher education program in elementary education at Millersville University (Pennsylvania). Rather than relying on a single technology course in a preservice program, students develop technology skills in a variety of courses in the education sequence and…
Technology Diffusion. [SITE 2001 Section].
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Strudler, Neal, Ed.; Niederhauser, Dale S., Ed.
This document contains the following papers on technology diffusion from the SITE (Society for Information Technology & Teacher Education) 2001 conference: (1) "A Response to Technology Integration in Teacher Education for Merit, Tenure, and Promotion" (Cindy L. Anderson and David Starrett); (2) "Online Technical Support Database for Educators"…
In Vivo Facilitated Diffusion Model
Bauer, Maximilian; Metzler, Ralf
2013-01-01
Under dilute in vitro conditions transcription factors rapidly locate their target sequence on DNA by using the facilitated diffusion mechanism. However, whether this strategy of alternating between three-dimensional bulk diffusion and one-dimensional sliding along the DNA contour is still beneficial in the crowded interior of cells is highly disputed. Here we use a simple model for the bacterial genome inside the cell and present a semi-analytical model for the in vivo target search of transcription factors within the facilitated diffusion framework. Without having to resort to extensive simulations we determine the mean search time of a lac repressor in a living E. coli cell by including parameters deduced from experimental measurements. The results agree very well with experimental findings, and thus the facilitated diffusion picture emerges as a quantitative approach to gene regulation in living bacteria cells. Furthermore we see that the search time is not very sensitive to the parameters characterizing the DNA configuration and that the cell seems to operate very close to optimal conditions for target localization. Local searches as implied by the colocalization mechanism are only found to mildly accelerate the mean search time within our model. PMID:23349772
Technology Diffusion. [SITE 2002 Section].
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Niederhauser, Dale S., Ed.; Strudler, Neal, Ed.
This document contains the following papers on technology diffusion from the SITE (Society for Information Technology & Teacher Education) 2002 conference: (1) "Faculty Technology Integration Project" (Comfort Akwaji); (2) "If It Is Broke, Then What?" (D. Lynnwood Belvin and Jennifer Leaderer); (3) "Developing Video-Based E-Learning Applications"…
Wang, W.; Zhang, S; He, X.
1995-04-01
By means of particle tracking autoradiography (PTA), the diffusion coefficients of boron between 900 and 1,200 C were measured in 04MnNbB steel, 25MnTiB steel, Ni-B, Fe-30%Ni-B and Fe-3%Si-B alloys, and the frequency factor D{sub 0} and activation energy Q were obtained respectively. The experiment results indicated that there was an obvious difference between the present result and the result obtained by Busby (in 1953). It was found that the boron diffusivity in {gamma}-Fe increased as Ni was added. The diffusivity of boron in Fe-3%Si-B alloy with b.c.c. structure was much slower than one obtained by Busby in {alpha}-Fe (1954), which, however, was much faster than the results obtained in {gamma}-Fe (with f.c.c. structure). Based on the present data of boron diffusion coefficients, the mechanism of segregation of boron to grain boundaries is discussed.
Geometry-induced asymmetric diffusion
Shaw, Robert S.; Packard, Norman; Schröter, Matthias; Swinney, Harry L.
2007-01-01
Past work has shown that ions can pass through a membrane more readily in one direction than the other. We demonstrate here in a model and an experiment that for a mixture of small and large particles such asymmetric diffusion can arise solely from an asymmetry in the geometry of the pores of the membrane. Our deterministic simulation considers a two-dimensional gas of elastic disks of two sizes diffusing through a membrane, and our laboratory experiment examines the diffusion of glass beads of two sizes through a metal membrane. In both experiment and simulation, the membrane is permeable only to the smaller particles, and the asymmetric pores lead to an asymmetry in the diffusion rates of these particles. The presence of even a small percentage of large particles can clog a membrane, preventing passage of the small particles in one direction while permitting free flow of the small particles in the other direction. The purely geometric kinetic constraints may play a role in common biological contexts such as membrane ion channels. PMID:17522257
Double-diffusive layer formation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zaussinger, Florian; Kupka, Friedrich; Hücker, Sebastian; Egbers, Christoph
2015-04-01
Double-diffusive convection plays an important role in geo- and astrophysical applications. The special case, where a destabilising temperature gradient counteracts a stabilising solute gradient leads to layering phenomena under certain conditions. Convectively mixed layers sandwiched in diffusive interfaces form a so-called stack. Well-known double-diffusive systems are observed in rift lakes in Africa and even from the coffee drink Latte Macciatto. Stacks of layers are also predicted to occur inside massive stars and inside giant planets. Their dynamics depend on the thermal, the solute and the momentum diffusivities, as well on the ratio of the gradients of the opposing stratifications. Since the layering process cannot be derived from linear stability analysis, the full nonlinear set of equations has to be investigated. Numerical simulations have become feasible for this task, despite the physical processes operate on a vast range of length and time scales, which is challenging for numerical hydrodynamical modelling. The oceanographically relevant case of fresh and salty water is investigated here in further details. The heat and mass transfer is compared with theoretical results and experimental measurements. Additionally, the initial dynamic of layering, the transient behaviour of a stack and the long time evolution are presented using the example of Lake Kivu and the interior of a giant planet.
Nonlinear diffusion and superconducting hysteresis
Mayergoyz, I.D.
1996-12-31
Nonlinear diffusion of electromagnetic fields in superconductors with ideal and gradual resistive transitions is studied. Analytical results obtained for linear and nonlinear polarizations of electromagnetic fields are reported. These results lead to various extensions of the critical state model for superconducting hysteresis.
Innovation Diffusion: Implications for Evaluation
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ashley, Shena R.
2009-01-01
Whether looking at the spread and adoption of an intervention across a community, across multiple units, or within a single unit, an understanding of diffusion theory can help evaluators uncover patterns and impacts that might otherwise be overlooked. The theory alerts evaluators to examine why uptake of an intervention appeared different in…
Tiny Molybdenites Tell Diffusion Tales
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stein, H. J.; Hannah, J. L.
2014-12-01
Diffusion invokes micron-scale exchange during crystal growth and dissolution in magma chambers on short time-scales. Fundamental to interpreting such data are assumptions on magma-fluid dynamics at all scales. Nevertheless, elemental diffusion profiles are used to estimate time scales for magma storage, eruption, and recharge. An underutilized timepiece to evaluate diffusion and 3D mobility of magmatic fluids is high-precision Re-Os dating of molybdenite. With spatially unique molybdenite samples from a young ore system (e.g., 1 Ma) and a double Os spike, analytical errors of 1-3 ka unambiguously separate events in time. Re-Os ages show that hydrous shallow magma chambers locally recharge and expel Cu-Mo-Au-silica as superimposed stockwork vein networks at time scales less than a few thousand years [1]. Re-Os ages provide diffusion rates controlled by a dynamic crystal mush, accumulation and expulsion of metalliferous fluid, and magma reorganization after explosive crystallization events. Importantly, this approach has broad application far from ore deposits. Here, we use Re-Os dating of molybdenite to assess time scales for generating and diffusing metals through the deep crust. To maximize opportunity for chemical diffusion, we use a continental-scale Sveconorwegian mylonite zone for the study area. A geologically constrained suite of molybdenite samples was acquired from quarry exposures. Molybdenite, previously unreported, is extremely scarce. Tiny but telling molybdenites include samples from like occurrences to assure geologic accuracy in Re-Os ages. Ages range from mid-Mesoproterozoic to mid-Neoproterozoic, and correspond to early metamorphic dehydration of a regionally widespread biotite-rich gneiss, localized melting of gneiss to form cm-m-scale K-feldspar ± quartz pods, development of vapor-rich, vuggy mm stringers that serve as volatile collection surfaces in felsic leucosomes, and low-angle (relative to foliation) cross-cutting cm-scale quartz veins
Diffusion of highly charged cations in olivine
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cherniak, D. J.; Watson, E. B.; Liang, Y.
2012-12-01
Diffusion of tungsten, titanium and phosphorus have been measured in natural iron-bearing olivine (~Fo90) and synthetic forsterite. Experiments were run under buffered conditions (with iron-wustite or Ni-NiO buffers) in 1-atm furnaces. The sources of diffusant for experiments were MgWO4 for tungsten diffusion, Mg2TiO4 for Ti diffusion, and AlPO4 for P diffusion; in all cases these compounds were pre-reacted at high temperature with Mg2SiO4 or Fe-bearing olivine prior to diffusion anneals. Samples were placed with the source materials in noble metal or silica capsules, which were sealed under vacuum in silica glass ampoules with solid buffers. Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) was used to measure depth profiles for all sets of experiments; measurements of P were also made with Nuclear Reaction Analysis using the 31P(α,p)34S reaction. These new data suggest marked differences among diffusivities of these cations, with titanium diffusion faster than diffusion of tungsten, but slower than diffusion of phosphorus over the conditions investigated. Diffusivities of all of these elements appear significantly slower than those of divalent cations in olivine. These results will be discussed in context with extant diffusion data for major, trace and minor elements in olivine. The effects of oxygen fugacity and olivine composition on diffusion, and potential implications for diffusion mechanisms will also be considered.
A diffuse-interface approximation for surface diffusion including adatoms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rätz, Andreas; Voigt, A.
2007-01-01
We introduce a diffuse-interface approximation for solving partial differential equations on evolving surfaces. The model of interest is a fourth-order geometric evolution equation for a growing surface with an additional diffusive adatom density on the surface. Such models arise in the description of epitaxial growth, where the surface of interest is the solid-vapour interface. The model allows us to handle complex geometries in an implicit manner, by considering an evolution equation for a phase-field variable describing the surface and an evolution equation for an extended adatom concentration on a time-independent domain. Matched asymptotic analysis shows the formal convergence towards the sharp interface model and numerical results based on adaptive finite elements demonstrate the applicability of the approach.
A diffusion-diffusion model for percutaneous drug absorption.
Kubota, K; Ishizaki, T
1986-08-01
Several theories describing percutaneous drug absorption have been proposed, incorporating the mathematical solutions of differential equations describing percutaneous drug absorption processes where the vehicle and skin are regarded as simple diffusion membranes. By a solution derived from Laplace transforms, the mean residence time MRT and the variance of the residence time VRT in the vehicle are expressed as simple elementary functions of the following five pharmacokinetic parameters characterizing the percutaneous drug absorption: kd, which is defined as the normalized diffusion coefficient of the skin, kc, which is defined as the normalized skin-capillary boundary clearance, the apparent length of diffusion of the skin 1d, the effective length of the vehicle lv, and the diffusion coefficient of the vehicle Dv. All five parameters can be obtained by the methods proposed here. Results of numerical computation indicate that: concentration-distance curves in the vehicle and skin approximate two curves which are simply expressed using trigonometric functions when sufficient time elapses after an ointment application; the most suitable condition for the assumption that the concentration of a drug in the uppermost epidermis can be considered unchanged is the case where the partition coefficient between vehicle and skin is small, and the constancy of drug concentration is even more valid when the effective length of the vehicle is large; and the amount of a drug in the vehicle or skin and the flow rate of the drug from vehicle into skin or from skin into blood becomes linear on a semilogarithmic scale, and the slopes of those lines are small when Dv is small, when the partition coefficient between vehicle and skin is small, when lv is large, or when kc is small. A simple simulation method is also proposed using a biexponential for the concentration-time curve for the skin near the skin-capillary boundary, that is, the flow rate-time curve for drug passing from skin
Diffuse volume transport in fluids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brenner, Howard
2010-10-01
The diffuse flux of volume j in a single-component liquid or gas, the subject of this paper, is a purely molecular quantity defined as the difference between the flux of volume n and the convective flux of volume nvˆ carried by the flowing mass, with n the mass flux, vˆ=1/ρ the specific volume, and ρ the mass density. Elementary statistical-mechanical arguments are used to derive the linear constitutive equation j=DS∇lnρ, valid in near-equilibrium fluids from which body forces are absent. Here, DS is the fluid’s self-diffusion coefficient. The present derivation is based on Einstein’s mesoscopic Brownian motion arguments, albeit applied here to volume- rather than particle-transport phenomena. In contrast to these mesoscale arguments, all prior derivations were based upon macroscale linear irreversible thermodynamic (LIT) arguments. DS replaces the thermometric diffusivity α as the phenomenological coefficient appearing in earlier, ad hoc, derivations. The prior scheme based on α, which had been shown to accord with Burnett’s well-known gas-kinetic constitutive data for the heat flux and viscous stress, carries over intact to now show comparable accord of DS with these same data, since for gases the dimensionless Lewis number Le=α/DS is essentially unity. On the other hand for most liquids, where Le≫1, use of DS in place of α is shown to agree much better with existing experimental data for liquids. For the case of binary mixtures it is shown for the special case of isothermal, isobaric, force-free, Fick’s law-type molecular diffusion processes that j=D∇lnρ, where D is the binary diffusion coefficient. In contrast with the preceding use in the single-component case of both mesoscopic and LIT models to obtain a constitutive equation for j, the corresponding mixture result is derived here without use of any physical model whatsoever. Rather, the derivation effectively requires little more than the respective definitions of the diffuse volume
Diffusion of Ca and Mg in Calcite
Cygan, R.T.; Fisler, D.K.
1999-02-10
The self-diffusion of Ca and the tracer diffusion of Mg in calcite have been experimentally measured using isotopic tracers of {sup 25}Mg and {sup 44}Ca. Natural single crystals of calcite were coated with a thermally-sputtered oxide thin film and then annealed in a CO{sub 2} gas at one atmosphere total pressure and temperatures from 550 to 800 C. Diffusion coefficient values were derived from the depth profiles obtained by ion microprobe analysis. The resultant activation energies for Mg tracer diffusion and Ca self-diffusion are respectively: E{sub a}(Mg) = 284 {+-} 74 kJ/mol and E{sub a}(Ca) = 271 {+-} 80 kJ/mol. For the temperature ranges in these experiments, the diffusion of Mg is faster than Ca. The results are generally consistent in magnitude with divalent cation diffusion rates obtained in previous studies and provide a means of interpreting the thermal histories of carbonate minerals, the mechanism of dolomitization, and other diffusion-controlled processes. The results indicate that cation diffusion in calcite is relatively slow and cations are the rate-limiting diffusing species for the deformation of calcite and carbonate rocks. Application of the calcite-dolomite geothermometer to metamorphic assemblages will be constrained by cation diffusion and cooling rates. The direct measurement of Mg tracer diffusion in calcite indicates that dolomitization is unlikely to be accomplished by Mg diffusion in the solid state but by a recrystallization process.
Analytical boron diffusivity model in silicon for thermal diffusion from boron silicate glass film
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kurachi, Ikuo; Yoshioka, Kentaro
2015-09-01
An analytical boron diffusivity model in silicon for thermal diffusion from a boron silicate glass (BSG) film has been proposed in terms of enhanced diffusion due to boron-silicon interstitial pair formation. The silicon interstitial generation is considered to be a result of the silicon kick-out mechanism by the diffused boron at the surface. The additional silicon interstitial generation in the bulk silicon is considered to be the dissociation of the diffused pairs. The former one causes the surface boron concentration dependent diffusion. The latter one causes the local boron concentration dependent diffusion. The calculated boron profiles based on the diffusivity model are confirmed to agree with the actual diffusion profiles measured by secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) for a wide range of the BSG boron concentration. This analytical diffusivity model is a helpful tool for p+ boron diffusion process optimization of n-type solar cell manufacturing.
Oxygen diffusion in cuprate superconductors
Routbort, J.L.; Rothman, S.J.
1995-01-01
Superconducting properties of the cuprate superconductors depend on the oxygen content of the material; the diffusion of oxygen is thus an important process in the fabrication and application of these materials. This article reviews studies of the diffusion of oxygen in La{sub 2}{sub {minus}}{sub {times}}Sr{sub {times}}CuO{sub 4}, YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7}{sub {minus}}{delta}, YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 4}O{sub 8}, and the Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}Ca{sub n}{sub {minus}}{sub 1}Cu{sub n}O{sub 2}{sub +}{sub 4} (n = 1, and 2) superconductors, and attempt to elucidate the atomic mechanisms responsible.
Osmotical liquid diffusion within sclera
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bashkatov, Alexey N.; Genina, Elina A.; Kochubey, Vyacheslav I.; Lakodina, Nina A.; Tuchin, Valery V.
2000-06-01
We present experimental results of investigation of the optical properties of the human eye sclera controlled by administration of osmotically active chemical, such as glucose solution with various concentrations. Administration of chemical agent induces diffusion of matter and as a result equalization of the refractive indices of collagen and ground material. Results of experimental study of influence of osmotical liquid (glucose solution) on reflectance and transmittance spectra of human sclera are presented. In vitro reflectance and transmittance spectra of the human sclera samples were investigated by commercially available spectrophotometer CARY-2415. The significant increasing of the transmittance and decreasing of the reflectance of human sclera samples under action of osmotical solutions were demonstrated. Results of our study show that the degree of the sclera samples clearing is increased with increasing of the chemical agent concentration in solution. The diffusion coefficients of glucose solution with various concentrations within scleral tissue was estimated.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hansen, Ole
1994-09-01
Based on the solution of the Boltzmann transport equation for a homogeneous base transistor [A.A. Grinberg and S. Luryi, Solid-St. Electron, 35, 1299 (1992)] a very instructive model of carrier transport in a short base transistor is developed. Essential to the above is a replacement of the Schottky boundary conditions. Using modified boundary conditions to the diffusion equation, the transport current density in a homogeneous base is predicted, to an accuracy within ±3%, regardless of the base width, covering the whole range from the diffusion controlled regime to the thermionic regime. Based on the modified boundary conditions a corrected Moll-Ross-Kroemer relation valid for a very short non-homogeneous base is derived. Correspondingly, an expression for the base transit time is derived.
Information filtering via preferential diffusion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lü, Linyuan; Liu, Weiping
2011-06-01
Recommender systems have shown great potential in addressing the information overload problem, namely helping users in finding interesting and relevant objects within a huge information space. Some physical dynamics, including the heat conduction process and mass or energy diffusion on networks, have recently found applications in personalized recommendation. Most of the previous studies focus overwhelmingly on recommendation accuracy as the only important factor, while overlooking the significance of diversity and novelty that indeed provide the vitality of the system. In this paper, we propose a recommendation algorithm based on the preferential diffusion process on a user-object bipartite network. Numerical analyses on two benchmark data sets, MovieLens and Netflix, indicate that our method outperforms the state-of-the-art methods. Specifically, it can not only provide more accurate recommendations, but also generate more diverse and novel recommendations by accurately recommending unpopular objects.
Information filtering via preferential diffusion.
Lü, Linyuan; Liu, Weiping
2011-06-01
Recommender systems have shown great potential in addressing the information overload problem, namely helping users in finding interesting and relevant objects within a huge information space. Some physical dynamics, including the heat conduction process and mass or energy diffusion on networks, have recently found applications in personalized recommendation. Most of the previous studies focus overwhelmingly on recommendation accuracy as the only important factor, while overlooking the significance of diversity and novelty that indeed provide the vitality of the system. In this paper, we propose a recommendation algorithm based on the preferential diffusion process on a user-object bipartite network. Numerical analyses on two benchmark data sets, MovieLens and Netflix, indicate that our method outperforms the state-of-the-art methods. Specifically, it can not only provide more accurate recommendations, but also generate more diverse and novel recommendations by accurately recommending unpopular objects. PMID:21797453
Ultrasonic enhancement of battery diffusion.
Hilton, R; Dornbusch, D; Branson, K; Tekeei, A; Suppes, G J
2014-03-01
It has been demonstrated that sonic energy can be harnessed to enhance convection in Galvanic cells during cyclic voltammetry; however, the practical value of this approach is limited due to the lack of open volumes for convection patterns to develop in most batteries. This study evaluates the ability of ultrasonic waves to enhance diffusion in membrane separators commonly used in sandwich-architecture batteries. Studies include the measuring of open-circuit performance curves to interpret performances in terms of reductions in concentration overpotentials. The use of a 40 kHz sonicator bath can consistently increase the voltage of the battery and reduce overpotential losses up to 30%. This work demonstrates and quantifies battery enhancement due to enhanced diffusion made possible with ultrasonic energy. PMID:24210813
Riemann equation for prime number diffusion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Wen; Liang, Yingjie
2015-05-01
This study makes the first attempt to propose the Riemann diffusion equation to describe in a manner of partial differential equation and interpret in physics of diffusion the classical Riemann method for prime number distribution. The analytical solution of this equation is the well-known Riemann representation. The diffusion coefficient is dependent on natural number, a kind of position-dependent diffusivity diffusion. We find that the diffusion coefficient of the Riemann diffusion equation is nearly a straight line having a slope 0.99734 in the double-logarithmic axis. Consequently, an approximate solution of the Riemann diffusion equation is obtained, which agrees well with the Riemann representation in predicting the prime number distribution. Moreover, we interpret the scale-free property of prime number distribution via a power law function with 1.0169 the scale-free exponent in respect to logarithmic transform of the natural number, and then the fractal characteristic of prime number distribution is disclosed.
Diffusion-Barrier Contacts For Solar Cells
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stella, Paul M.; Pool, Frederick S.; Nicolet, Marc; Iles, Peter A.
1996-01-01
Electrically conductive diffusion barriers of TaSiN prevent diffusion of metal from overlying metal contacts into underlying silicon during processing at high temperature, improving performance during subsequent use in low-intensity light at low temperature.
Probability tree algorithm for general diffusion processes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ingber, Lester; Chen, Colleen; Mondescu, Radu Paul; Muzzall, David; Renedo, Marco
2001-11-01
Motivated by path-integral numerical solutions of diffusion processes, PATHINT, we present a tree algorithm, PATHTREE, which permits extremely fast accurate computation of probability distributions of a large class of general nonlinear diffusion processes.
Uncovering blue diffuse dwarf galaxies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
James, Bethan L.; Koposov, Sergey; Stark, Daniel P.; Belokurov, Vasily; Pettini, Max; Olszewski, Edward W.
2015-04-01
Extremely metal poor (XMP) galaxies are known to be very rare, despite the large numbers of low-mass galaxies predicted by the local galaxy luminosity function. This paper presents a subsample of galaxies that were selected via a morphology-based search on Sloan Digital Sky Survey images with the aim of finding these elusive XMP galaxies. By using the recently discovered XMP galaxy, Leo P, as a guide, we obtained a collection of faint, blue systems, each with isolated H II regions embedded in a diffuse continuum, that have remained optically undetected until now. Here we show the first results from optical spectroscopic follow-up observations of 12 of ˜100 of these blue diffuse dwarf (BDD) galaxies yielded by our search algorithm. Oxygen abundances were obtained via the direct method for eight galaxies, and found to be in the range 7.45 < 12 + log (O/H) < 8.0, with two galaxies being classified as XMPs. All BDDs were found to currently have a young star-forming population (<10 Myr) and relatively high ionization parameters of their H II regions. Despite their low luminosities (-11 ≲ MB ≲ -18) and low surface brightnesses (˜23-25 mag arcsec-2), the galaxies were found to be actively star forming, with current star formation rates between 0.0003 and 0.078 M⊙ yr-1. From our current subsample, BDD galaxies appear to be a population of non-quiescent dwarf irregular galaxies, or the diffuse counterparts to blue compact galaxies and as such may bridge the gap between these two populations. Our search algorithm demonstrates that morphology-based searches are successful in uncovering more diffuse metal-poor star-forming galaxies, which traditional emission-line-based searches overlook.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Burns, R. E.
1973-01-01
The problem with predicting pollutant diffusion from a line source of arbitrary geometry is treated. The concentration at the line source may be arbitrarily varied with time. Special attention is given to the meteorological inputs which act as boundary conditions for the problem, and a mixing layer of arbitrary depth is assumed. Numerical application of the derived theory indicates the combinations of meteorological parameters that may be expected to result in high pollution concentrations.
Proton diffusion along biological membranes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Medvedev, E. S.; Stuchebrukhov, A. A.
2011-06-01
Biological surfaces are known to be capable of retaining protons and facilitating their lateral diffusion. Since the surface dynamically exchanges protons with the bulk, the proton movement from a source to a target at the surface acquires a complicated pattern of coupled surface and bulk (2D + 3D) diffusion of which the main feature is that the surface acts as a proton-collecting antenna enhancing the proton flux from the bulk. A phenomenological model of this process is reviewed and its applications to recent experiments on lipid bilayers and small unilaminar vesicles are discussed. The model (i) introduces the important notions of the fast and slow regimes of proton exchange between the surface and the bulk, (ii) permits evaluation of the antenna radius and amplification coefficient in both regimes, (iii) explains the observed macroscopically large distances (in the micrometer range; Antonenko and Pohl 1998 FEBS Lett. 429 197) that the proton can travel along lipid membranes embedded into pure aqueous solutions, and (iv) predicts the dependence of the steady-state proton flux and the kinetics of the non-stationary diffusion upon the buffer concentration in buffered solutions. The surface diffusion coefficient for small unilaminar vesicles is calculated from experimental data (Sandén et al 2010 Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 107 4129) to be 1 × 10 - 5 cm2 s - 1. The dependence of the shape of the kinetic curves representing protonation/deprotonation of a lipid-bound pH-sensitive dye attached to a planar bilayer lipid membrane upon the buffer concentration (Serowy et al 2003 Biophys. J. 84 1031) and the effect of changing the membrane composition (Antonenko and Pohl 2008 Eur. Biophys. J. 37 865) are explained.
Proton diffusion along biological membranes.
Medvedev, E S; Stuchebrukhov, A A
2011-06-15
Biological surfaces are known to be capable of retaining protons and facilitating their lateral diffusion. Since the surface dynamically exchanges protons with the bulk, the proton movement from a source to a target at the surface acquires a complicated pattern of coupled surface and bulk (2D + 3D) diffusion of which the main feature is that the surface acts as a proton-collecting antenna enhancing the proton flux from the bulk. A phenomenological model of this process is reviewed and its applications to recent experiments on lipid bilayers and small unilaminar vesicles are discussed. The model (i) introduces the important notions of the fast and slow regimes of proton exchange between the surface and the bulk, (ii) permits evaluation of the antenna radius and amplification coefficient in both regimes, (iii) explains the observed macroscopically large distances (in the micrometer range; Antonenko and Pohl 1998 FEBS Lett. 429 197) that the proton can travel along lipid membranes embedded into pure aqueous solutions, and (iv) predicts the dependence of the steady-state proton flux and the kinetics of the non-stationary diffusion upon the buffer concentration in buffered solutions. The surface diffusion coefficient for small unilaminar vesicles is calculated from experimental data (Sandén et al 2010 Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 107 4129) to be 1 × 10(-5) cm(2) s(-1). The dependence of the shape of the kinetic curves representing protonation/deprotonation of a lipid-bound pH-sensitive dye attached to a planar bilayer lipid membrane upon the buffer concentration (Serowy et al 2003 Biophys. J. 84 1031) and the effect of changing the membrane composition (Antonenko and Pohl 2008 Eur. Biophys. J. 37 865) are explained. PMID:21613715
Diffuse Cosmic Infrared Background Radiation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dwek, Eli
2002-01-01
The diffuse cosmic infrared background (CIB) consists of the cumulative radiant energy released in the processes of structure formation that have occurred since the decoupling of matter and radiation following the Big Bang. In this lecture I will review the observational data that provided the first detections and limits on the CIB, and the theoretical studies explaining the origin of this background. Finally, I will also discuss the relevance of this background to the universe as seen in high energy gamma-rays.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bahcall, J. N.; Pinsonneault, M. H.
1992-01-01
We calculate improved standard solar models using the new Livermore (OPAL) opacity tables, an accurate (exportable) nuclear energy generation routine which takes account of recent measurements and analyses, and the recent Anders-Grevesse determination of heavy element abundances. We also evaluate directly the effect of the diffusion of helium with respect to hydrogen on the calculated neutrino fluxes, on the primordial solar helium abundance, and on the depth of the convective zone. Helium diffusion increases the predicted event rates by about 0.8 SNU, or 11 percent of the total rate, in the chlorine solar neutrino experiment, by about 3.5 SNU, or 3 percent, in the gallium solar neutrino experiments, and by about 12 percent in the Kamiokande and SNO solar neutrino experiments. The best standard solar model including helium diffusion and the most accurate nuclear parameters, element abundances, and radiative opacity predicts a value of 8.0 SNU +/- 3.0 SNU for the C1-37 experiment and 132 +21/-17 SNU for the Ga - 71 experiment, where the uncertainties include 3 sigma errors for all measured input parameters.
Configurational diffusion of coal macromolecules
Guin, J.A.; Curtis, C.W.; Tarrer, A.R.; Kim, S.; Hwang, D.; Chen, C.C.; Chiou, Z.
1991-01-01
The objective of our research was to obtain fundamental information regarding the functional dependence of the diffusion coefficient of coal molecules on the ratio of molecule to pore diameter. That is, the objective of our study was to examine the effect of molecule size and configuration on hindered diffusion of coal macromolecules through as porous medium. To best accomplish this task, we circumvented the complexities of an actual porous catalyst by using a well defined porous matrix with uniform capillaric pores, i.e., a track-etched membrane. In this way, useful information was obtained regarding the relationship of molecular size and configuration on the diffusion rate of coal derived macromolecules through a pore structure with known geometry. Similar studies were performed using a pellet formed of porous alumina, to provide a link between the idealized membranes and the actual complex pore structure of real catalyst extrudates. The fundamental information from our study will be useful toward the tailoring of catalysts to minimize diffusional influences and thereby increase coal conversion and selectivity for desirable products. (VC)
Relativistic diffusive motion in random electromagnetic fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Haba, Z.
2011-08-01
We show that the relativistic dynamics in a Gaussian random electromagnetic field can be approximated by the relativistic diffusion of Schay and Dudley. Lorentz invariant dynamics in the proper time leads to the diffusion in the proper time. The dynamics in the laboratory time gives the diffusive transport equation corresponding to the Jüttner equilibrium at the inverse temperature β-1 = mc2. The diffusion constant is expressed by the field strength correlation function (Kubo's formula).
Finite-dimensional models of diffusion chaos
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Glyzin, S. D.; Kolesov, A. Yu.; Rozov, N. Kh.
2010-05-01
Some parabolic systems of the reaction-diffusion type exhibit the phenomenon of diffusion chaos. Specifically, when the diffusivities decrease proportionally, while the other parameters of a system remain fixed, the system exhibits a chaotic attractor whose dimension increases indefinitely. Various finite-dimensional models of diffusion chaos are considered that represent chains of coupled ordinary differential equations and similar chains of discrete mappings. A numerical analysis suggests that these chains with suitably chosen parameters exhibit chaotic attractors of arbitrarily high dimensions.
Optimal Network Modularity for Information Diffusion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nematzadeh, Azadeh; Ferrara, Emilio; Flammini, Alessandro; Ahn, Yong-Yeol
2014-08-01
We investigate the impact of community structure on information diffusion with the linear threshold model. Our results demonstrate that modular structure may have counterintuitive effects on information diffusion when social reinforcement is present. We show that strong communities can facilitate global diffusion by enhancing local, intracommunity spreading. Using both analytic approaches and numerical simulations, we demonstrate the existence of an optimal network modularity, where global diffusion requires the minimal number of early adopters.
Approximate Solutions Of Equations Of Steady Diffusion
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Edmonds, Larry D.
1992-01-01
Rigorous analysis yields reliable criteria for "best-fit" functions. Improved "curve-fitting" method yields approximate solutions to differential equations of steady-state diffusion. Method applies to problems in which rates of diffusion depend linearly or nonlinearly on concentrations of diffusants, approximate solutions analytic or numerical, and boundary conditions of Dirichlet type, of Neumann type, or mixture of both types. Applied to equations for diffusion of charge carriers in semiconductors in which mobilities and lifetimes of charge carriers depend on concentrations.
Extended source model for diffusive coupling.
González-Ochoa, Héctor O; Flores-Moreno, Roberto; Reyes, Luz M; Femat, Ricardo
2016-01-01
Motivated by the prevailing approach to diffusion coupling phenomena which considers point-like diffusing sources, we derived an analogous expression for the concentration rate of change of diffusively coupled extended containers. The proposed equation, together with expressions based on solutions to the diffusion equation, is intended to be applied to the numerical solution of systems exclusively composed of ordinary differential equations, however is able to account for effects due the finite size of the coupled sources. PMID:26802012
Thermal diffusivity measurements on composite porosity samples
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zalameda, Joseph N.; Winfree, William P.
1990-01-01
A phase lag technique is used to make quantitative measurements of diffusivity in composite porosity samples. Changes in through-ply diffusivity in a graphite composite due to varying porosity levels are examined. The relationship between the amount of porosity and the change in diffusivity is analyzed using an electrical analog for modeling heat flow in the composite.
COMPUTER AIDED DESIGN OF DIFFUSED AERATION SYSTEMS
CADDAS (Computer Aided Design of Diffused Aeration Systems) is a microcomputer-based program that analyzes the cost and performance of diffused aeration used in activated sludge wastewater treatment systems. The program can analyze both coarse bubble and fine pore diffusers as we...
Diffusion of oxygen (1); isoquinoline (2)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Winkelmann, J.
This document is part of Subvolume A `Gases in Gases, Liquids and their Mixtures' of Volume 15 `Diffusion in Gases, Liquids and Electrolytes' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV `Physical Chemistry'. It is part of the chapter of the chapter `Diffusion in Pure Gases' and contains data on diffusion of (1) oxygen; (2) isoquinoline
Mathematical Methods for Diffusion MRI Processing
Lenglet, C.; Campbell, J.S.W.; Descoteaux, M.; Haro, G.; Savadjiev, P.; Wassermann, D.; Anwander, A.; Deriche, R.; Pike, G.B.; Sapiro, G.; Siddiqi, K.; Thompson, P.
2009-01-01
In this article, we review recent mathematical models and computational methods for the processing of diffusion Magnetic Resonance Images, including state-of-the-art reconstruction of diffusion models, cerebral white matter connectivity analysis, and segmentation techniques. We focus on Diffusion Tensor Images (DTI) and Q-Ball Images (QBI). PMID:19063977
Flux-limited diffusion with relativistic corrections
Pomraning, G.C.
1983-03-15
A recently reported flux-limited diffusion theory is extended to include relativistic terms, correct to first order in the fluid velocity. We show that this diffusion theory is fully flux limited, and yields the correct result for the radiative flux in the classical diffusion limit, namely a Fick's law component plus a v/c convective term.
Diffusion of air (1); furfural (2)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Winkelmann, J.
This document is part of Subvolume A `Gases in Gases, Liquids and their Mixtures' of Volume 15 `Diffusion in Gases, Liquids and Electrolytes' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV `Physical Chemistry'. It is part of the chapter of the chapter `Diffusion in Pure Gases' and contains data on diffusion of (1) air; (2) furfural
Diffusion of Distance Education in North Cyprus
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Isman, Aytekin; Dabaj, Fahme
2005-01-01
The purpose of the present paper is to explore how distance education has diffused in north Cyprus. In this paper, Rogers' diffusion theory (1995) was used to analyze the acceptance and implementation of distance education in institutions of higher learning in north Cyprus. The four main elements of the diffusion paradigm--the innovation,…
Replicator dynamics with diffusion on multiplex networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Requejo, R. J.; Díaz-Guilera, A.
2016-08-01
In this study we present an extension of the dynamics of diffusion in multiplex graphs, which makes the equations compatible with the replicator equation with mutations. We derive an exact formula for the diffusion term, which shows that, while diffusion is linear for numbers of agents, it is necessary to account for nonlinear terms when working with fractions of individuals. We also derive the transition probabilities that give rise to such macroscopic behavior, completing the bottom-up description. Finally, it is shown that the usual assumption of constant population sizes induces a hidden selective pressure due to the diffusive dynamics, which favors the increase of fast diffusing strategies.
REGULAR VERSUS DIFFUSIVE PHOTOSPHERIC FLUX CANCELLATION
Litvinenko, Yuri E.
2011-04-20
Observations of photospheric flux cancellation on the Sun imply that cancellation can be a diffusive rather than regular process. A criterion is derived, which quantifies the parameter range in which diffusive photospheric cancellation should occur. Numerical estimates show that regular cancellation models should be expected to give a quantitatively accurate description of photospheric cancellation. The estimates rely on a recently suggested scaling for a turbulent magnetic diffusivity, which is consistent with the diffusivity measurements on spatial scales varying by almost two orders of magnitude. Application of the turbulent diffusivity to large-scale dispersal of the photospheric magnetic flux is discussed.
In situ anion diffusion experiments using radiotracers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jansson, Mats; Eriksen, Trygve E.
2004-02-01
Diffusion experiments in compacted bentonite have been carried out in situ using the borehole laboratory CHEMLAB. The "ordinary" anion iodide and the redox-sensitive pertechnetate ion have been investigated. In spite of strongly reducing groundwater conditions, technetium was found to diffuse mostly unreduced as TcO 4-, although in some spots in the compacted clay, the activity was significantly higher, which may be explained by reduction of some TcO 4- by iron-containing minerals in the bentonite. The measured concentration profiles in the clay cannot be accommodated by assuming one single diffusion process. The experimental data are modeled assuming two diffusion paths, intralamellar diffusion and diffusion in external water. The apparent diffusivity for the intralamellar diffusion was found to be 8.6×10 -11 m 2 s -1 for iodide with a capacity factor of 0.1, while the apparent diffusivity for the diffusion in external water was found to be 5×10 -14 m 2 s -1 with α=2.26. The corresponding values for Tc were found to be Da=6×10 -11 m 2 s -1, α=0.1 and Da=1×10 -13 m 2 s -1, α=0.46, respectively. The diffusion constants and capacity factors obtained in this study are in accordance with data from laboratory experiments.
TUNED FINITE-DIFFERENCE DIFFUSION OPERATORS
Maron, Jason; Low, Mordecai-Mark Mac E-mail: mordecai@amnh.org
2009-05-15
Finite-difference simulations of fluid dynamics and magnetohydrodynamics generally require an explicit diffusion operator, either to maintain stability by attenuating grid-scale structure, or to implement physical diffusivities such as viscosity or resistivity. If the goal is stability only, the diffusion must act at the grid scale, but should affect structure at larger scales as little as possible. For physical diffusivities the diffusion scale depends on the problem, and diffusion may act at larger scales as well. Diffusivity can undesirably limit the computational time step in both cases. We construct tuned finite-difference diffusion operators that minimally limit the time step while acting as desired near the diffusion scale. Such operators reach peak values at the diffusion scale rather than at the grid scale, but behave as standard operators at larger scales. These operators will be useful for simulations with high magnetic diffusivity or kinematic viscosity such as in the simulation of astrophysical dynamos with magnetic Prandtl number far from unity, or for numerical stabilization using hyperdiffusivity.
Probing the diffuse interstellar medium with diffuse interstellar bands
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Theodorus van Loon, Jacco; Bailey, Mandy; Farhang, Amin; Javadi, Atefeh; Khosroshahi, Habib
2015-08-01
For a century already, a large number of absorption bands have been known at optical wavelengths, called the diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs). While their carriers remain unidentified, the relative strengths of these bands in various environments make them interesting new probes of the diffuse interstellar medium (ISM). We present the results from two large, dedicated campaigns to map the ISM using DIBs measured in the high signal-to-noise spectra of hundreds of early-type stars: [1] in and around the Local Bubble using ESO's New Technology Telescope and the Isaac Newton Telescope, and [2] across both Magellanic Clouds using the Very Large Telescope and the Anglo-Australian Telescope. We discuss the implications for the structure and dynamics of the ISM, as well as the constraints these maps place on the nature of the carriers of the DIBs. Partial results have appeared in the recent literature (van Loon et al. 2013; Farhang et al. 2015a,b; Bailey, PhD thesis 2014) with the remainder being prepared for publication now.
Diffusion of Ellipsoids in Bacterial Suspensions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Peng, Yi; Lai, Lipeng; Tai, Yi-Shu; Zhang, Kechun; Xu, Xinliang; Cheng, Xiang
2016-02-01
Active fluids such as swarming bacteria and motile colloids exhibit exotic properties different from conventional equilibrium materials. As a peculiar example, a spherical tracer immersed inside active fluids shows an enhanced translational diffusion, orders of magnitude stronger than its intrinsic Brownian motion. Here, rather than spherical tracers, we investigate the diffusion of isolated ellipsoids in a quasi-two-dimensional bacterial bath. Our study shows a nonlinear enhancement of both translational and rotational diffusions of ellipsoids. More importantly, we uncover an anomalous coupling between particles' translation and rotation that is strictly prohibited in Brownian diffusion. The coupling reveals a counterintuitive anisotropic particle diffusion, where an ellipsoid diffuses fastest along its minor axis in its body frame. Combining experiments with theoretical modeling, we show that such an anomalous diffusive behavior arises from the generic straining flow of swimming bacteria. Our work illustrates an unexpected feature of active fluids and deepens our understanding of transport processes in microbiological systems.
Fractional diffusion-reaction stochastic simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bayati, Basil S.
2013-03-01
A novel method is presented for the simulation of a discrete state space, continuous time Markov process subject to fractional diffusion. The method is based on Lie-Trotter operator splitting of the diffusion and reaction terms in the master equation. The diffusion term follows a multinomial distribution governed by a kernel that is the discretized solution of the fractional diffusion equation. The algorithm is validated and simulations are provided for the Fisher-KPP wavefront. It is shown that the wave speed is dictated by the order of the fractional derivative, where lower values result in a faster wave than in the case of classical diffusion. Since many physical processes deviate from classical diffusion, fractional diffusion methods are necessary for accurate simulations.
Diffusion of Ellipsoids in Bacterial Suspensions.
Peng, Yi; Lai, Lipeng; Tai, Yi-Shu; Zhang, Kechun; Xu, Xinliang; Cheng, Xiang
2016-02-12
Active fluids such as swarming bacteria and motile colloids exhibit exotic properties different from conventional equilibrium materials. As a peculiar example, a spherical tracer immersed inside active fluids shows an enhanced translational diffusion, orders of magnitude stronger than its intrinsic Brownian motion. Here, rather than spherical tracers, we investigate the diffusion of isolated ellipsoids in a quasi-two-dimensional bacterial bath. Our study shows a nonlinear enhancement of both translational and rotational diffusions of ellipsoids. More importantly, we uncover an anomalous coupling between particles' translation and rotation that is strictly prohibited in Brownian diffusion. The coupling reveals a counterintuitive anisotropic particle diffusion, where an ellipsoid diffuses fastest along its minor axis in its body frame. Combining experiments with theoretical modeling, we show that such an anomalous diffusive behavior arises from the generic straining flow of swimming bacteria. Our work illustrates an unexpected feature of active fluids and deepens our understanding of transport processes in microbiological systems. PMID:26919019
Diffuse Optics for Tissue Monitoring and Tomography
Durduran, T; Choe, R; Baker, W B; Yodh, A G
2015-01-01
This review describes the diffusion model for light transport in tissues and the medical applications of diffuse light. Diffuse optics is particularly useful for measurement of tissue hemodynamics, wherein quantitative assessment of oxy- and deoxy-hemoglobin concentrations and blood flow are desired. The theoretical basis for near-infrared or diffuse optical spectroscopy (NIRS or DOS, respectively) is developed, and the basic elements of diffuse optical tomography (DOT) are outlined. We also discuss diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS), a technique whereby temporal correlation functions of diffusing light are transported through tissue and are used to measure blood flow. Essential instrumentation is described, and representative brain and breast functional imaging and monitoring results illustrate the workings of these new tissue diagnostics. PMID:26120204
Turbulent diffusion with memories and intrinsic shear
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tchen, C. M.
1974-01-01
The first part of the present theory is devoted to the derivation of a Fokker-Planck equation. The eddies smaller than the hydrodynamic scale of the diffusion cloud form a diffusivity, while the inhomogeneous, bigger eddies give rise to a nonuniform migratory drift. This introduces an eddy-induced shear which reflects on the large-scale diffusion. The eddy-induced shear does not require the presence of a permanent wind shear and is intrinsic to the diffusion. Secondly, a transport theory of diffusivity is developed by the method of repeated-cascade and is based upon a relaxation of a chain of memories with decreasing information. The full range of diffusion consists of inertia, composite, and shear subranges, for which variance and eddy diffusivities are predicted. The coefficients are evaluated. Comparison with experiments in the upper atmosphere and oceans is made.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Edmonds, L. D.
1996-01-01
Charge collected by diffusion from ion tracks in a semiconductor substrate may be influenced by the substrate diffusion length, which is related to recombination losses. A theoretical analysis shows that, excluding some extreme cases, charge collection is insensitive to spatial variations in the diffusion length funciton, so it is possible to define an effective diffusion length having the property that collected charge can be approximated by assuming a uniform diffusion length equal to this effective value.
Complex hydrogen diffusion in forsterite
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Padron-Navarta, J.
2013-12-01
The singular geodynamic and chemical evolution of the Earth seems to be dictated by the influence of 'water' (more specifically hydrogen structurally bonded to oxygen forming hydroxyl groups, OH-) on the physical properties of the nominally minerals of the Earth's mantle. In the most abundant upper mantle phase, olivine, the presence of hydrogen has been shown to significantly modify the timescale of chemical diffusion, plastic deformation, electrical conductivity and the attenuation of seismic waves. In olivine there are four different hydrogen substitution mechanisms, associated with Mg vacancies, Si vacancies, trivalent cations and titanium substitution, hereafter referred to as H[Mg], H[Si], H[triv] and H[Ti] respectively. It seems possible that hydrogen diffusion rates vary with the type of defect. We addressed this hypothesis by an experimental investigation of the dehydroxylation of synthetic forsterite with two contrasting hydrous defect populations: (1) Ti4+-doped forsterite with H[Si], and H[Ti] dominant and H[Mg] and H[triv] subsidiary; and (2) MgO-buffered forsterite with only H[Si] hydrous defects. The experiments were conducted by annealing the hydroxylated forsterites at atmospheric pressure and 1073 to 1273 K, with OH- contents monitored at intervals by room-temperature FTIR spectroscopy. For the Ti4+-doped forsterite, four stages were observed during dehydoxylation. Firstly, the small amounts of H[Mg] and H[triv] disappear very quickly. Secondly, Ti is removed from the forsterite lattice by precipitation of a new phase; thirdly, the dehydroxylation of H[Ti] as monitored by the 3525 cm-1 peak proceeds at the same rate as H[Si] monitored by the 3613 cm-1 peak; and fourthly, once H[Ti] reaches zero, the dehydroxylation of H[Si] slows drastically, to rates that are unobservable in the duration of our experiments (1073-1273 K). Whereas the rates of loss of H[Mg] and H[triv] are in agreement with previous measurements of bulk hydrogen diffusion in
DNest3: Diffusive Nested Sampling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brewer, Brendon
2016-04-01
DNest3 is a C++ implementation of Diffusive Nested Sampling (ascl:1010.029), a Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithm for Bayesian Inference and Statistical Mechanics. Relative to older DNest versions, DNest3 has improved performance (in terms of the sampling overhead, likelihood evaluations still dominate in general) and is cleaner code: implementing new models should be easier than it was before. In addition, DNest3 is multi-threaded, so one can run multiple MCMC walkers at the same time, and the results will be combined together.
Diffusely Reflecting Paints Containing TFE
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shai, M. C.; Schutt, J. B.
1985-01-01
Highly reflective, diffused coatings developed by incorporating polytetrafluoroethylene (TFE) pigment with alcohol-soluble binders. Alcohol and binder mixed together in blender before adding TFE. TFE preferably outgassed in mechanical-pump vacuum for typical interval of 4 hours before adding to liquid. Like wetting agent, vacuum treatment helps to prevent clumping of TFE and eases dispersion throughout mixture. Mixture blended for 3 to 5 minutes before used. Coatings useful on reflectance-standard surfaces for calibrating radiometric instruments in both laboratory and field. Paints washable and usable as optical reference surfaces.
Khinchin Theorem and Anomalous Diffusion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lapas, Luciano C.; Morgado, Rafael; Vainstein, Mendeli H.; Rubí, J. Miguel; Oliveira, Fernando A.
2008-12-01
A recent Letter [M. H. Lee, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 190601 (2007)PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.98.190601] has called attention to the fact that irreversibility is a broader concept than ergodicity, and that therefore the Khinchin theorem [A. I. Khinchin, Mathematical Foundations of Statistical Mechanics (Dover, New York, 1949)] may fail in some systems. In this Letter we show that for all ranges of normal and anomalous diffusion described by a generalized Langevin equation the Khinchin theorem holds.
Laser activated diffuse discharge switch
Christophorou, Loucas G.; Hunter, Scott R.
1988-01-01
The invention is a gas mixture for a diffuse discharge switch which is capable of changing from a conducting state to an insulating state in the presence of electrons upon the introduction of laser light. The mixture is composed of a buffer gas such as nitrogen or argon and an electron attaching gas such as C.sub.6 H.sub.5 SH, C.sub.6 H.sub.5 SCH.sub.3, CH.sub.3 CHO and CF.sub.3 CHO wherein the electron attachment is brought on by indirect excitation of molecules to long-lived states by exposure to laser light.
Diffusion on asymmetric fractal networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Haynes, Christophe P.; Roberts, Anthony P.
2010-12-01
We derive a renormalization method to calculate the spectral dimension d¯ of deterministic self-similar networks with arbitrary base units and branching constants. The generality of the method allows the affect of a multitude of microstructural details to be quantitatively investigated. In addition to providing models for physical networks, the results allow precise tests of theories of diffusive transport. For example, the properties of a class of nonrecurrent trees (d¯>2) with asymmetric elements and branching violate the Alexander-Orbach scaling law.
Inhomogeneous diffusion-limited aggregation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Selinger, Robin Blumberg; Nittmann, Johann; Stanley, H. E.
1989-01-01
It is demonstrated here that inhomogeneous diffusion-limited aggregation (DLA) model can be used to simulate viscous fingering in a medium with inhomogeneous permeability and homogeneous porosity. The medium consists of a pipe-pore square-lattice network in which all pores have equal volume and the pipes have negligible volume. It is shown that fluctuations in a DLA-based growth process may be tuned by noise reduction, and that fluctuations in the velocity of the moving interface are multiplicative in form.
Calculation of thermal diffuse scattering
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wakabayashi, N.; Nicklow, R. M.; Katano, S.; Ishii, Y.; Child, H. R.; Smith, H. G.; Fernandez-Baca, J. A.
We have developed a computer program to calculate the thermal diffuse scattering (TDS) intensity distribution for single-crystal specimens in a diffractometer with no energy analysis. We assumed that the phonon frequencies are approximated by those of elastic waves and that the elastic constants, density and lattice parameters of the system under study are known. The results of the calculations were compared to experimental data obtain for single crystals of Si, diamond and NiAl at the wide-angle neutron diffractometer (WAND) at the HFIR at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Excellent agreement was found between the calculations and the experimental observations.
Water vapor diffusion membrane development
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tan, M. K.
1976-01-01
A total of 18 different membranes were procured, characterized, and tested in a modified bench-scale vapor diffusion water reclamation unit. Four membranes were selected for further studies involving membrane fouling. Emphasis was placed on the problem of flux decline due to membrane fouling. This is discussed in greater details under "Summary and Discussion on Membrane Fouling Studies" presented in pages 47-51. The system was also investigated for low temperature application on wash-water where the permeated water is not recovered but vented into space vacuum.
Takeda, M.; Hiratsuka, T.; Ito, K.; Finsterle, S.
2011-02-01
Diffusion anisotropy is a critical property in predicting migration of substances in sedimentary formations with very low permeability. The diffusion anisotropy of sedimentary rocks has been evaluated mainly from laboratory diffusion experiments, in which the directional diffusivities are separately estimated by through-diffusion experiments using different rock samples, or concurrently by in-diffusion experiments in which only the tracer profile in a rock block is measured. To estimate the diffusion anisotropy from a single rock sample, this study proposes an axisymmetric diffusion test, in which tracer diffuses between a cylindrical rock sample and a surrounding solution reservoir. The tracer diffusion between the sample and reservoir can be monitored from the reservoir tracer concentrations, and the tracer profile could also be obtained after dismantling the sample. Semi-analytical solutions are derived for tracer concentrations in both the reservoir and sample, accounting for an anisotropic diffusion tensor of rank two as well as the dilution effects from sampling and replacement of reservoir solution. The transient and steady-state analyses were examined experimentally and numerically for different experimental configurations, but without the need for tracer profiling. These experimental configurations are tested for in- and out-diffusion experiments using Koetoi and Wakkanai mudstones and Shirahama sandstone, and are scrutinized by a numerical approach to identify favorable conditions for parameter estimation. The analysis reveals the difficulty in estimating diffusion anisotropy; test configurations are proposed for enhanced identifiability of diffusion anisotropy. Moreover, it is demonstrated that the axisymmetric diffusion test is efficient in obtaining the sorption parameter from both steady-state and transient data, and in determining the effective diffusion coefficient if isotropic diffusion is assumed. Moreover, measuring reservoir concentrations in an
Takeda, M; Hiratsuka, T; Ito, K; Finsterle, S
2011-04-25
Diffusion anisotropy is a critical property in predicting migration of substances in sedimentary formations with very low permeability. The diffusion anisotropy of sedimentary rocks has been evaluated mainly from laboratory diffusion experiments, in which the directional diffusivities are separately estimated by through-diffusion experiments using different rock samples, or concurrently by in-diffusion experiments in which only the tracer profile in a rock block is measured. To estimate the diffusion anisotropy from a single rock sample, this study proposes an axisymmetric diffusion test, in which tracer diffuses between a cylindrical rock sample and a surrounding solution reservoir. The tracer diffusion between the sample and reservoir can be monitored from the reservoir tracer concentrations, and the tracer profile could also be obtained after dismantling the sample. Semi-analytical solutions are derived for tracer concentrations in both the reservoir and sample, accounting for an anisotropic diffusion tensor of rank two as well as the dilution effects from sampling and replacement of reservoir solution. The transient and steady-state analyses were examined experimentally and numerically for different experimental configurations, but without the need for tracer profiling. These experimental configurations are tested for in- and out-diffusion experiments using Koetoi and Wakkanai mudstones and Shirahama sandstone, and are scrutinized by a numerical approach to identify favorable conditions for parameter estimation. The analysis reveals the difficulty in estimating diffusion anisotropy; test configurations are proposed for enhanced identifiability of diffusion anisotropy. Moreover, it is demonstrated that the axisymmetric diffusion test is efficient in obtaining the sorption parameter from both steady-state and transient data, and in determining the effective diffusion coefficient if isotropic diffusion is assumed. Moreover, measuring reservoir concentrations in an
Precision Measurement of Isospin Diffusion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Winkelbauer, Jack; Hodges, R.; Tsang, M. B.; Lynch, W. G.; Chajecki, Z.; Coupland, D.; Youngs, M.; Lu, F.; Sanetullaev, A.; Shane, R.; Tangwancharoen, S.; Famiano, M.; George, S.; Ghosh, T.; Dunn, J.; Dye, S.; Nielsen, S.; Ramos, A.; Charity, R.; Sobotka, L.; Elson, J.; Rana, T.; El Houssieny, M.
2011-10-01
In heavy-ion collisions, the tendency for isospin to drift from a neutron (proton) rich region to a neutron (proton) deficient region is sensitive to the density dependence of the symmetry energy. Until recently, most of the isospin diffusion results have been obtained with mid central to central collisions and different isospin observables have been used in experiment and in model simulations. To provide more accurate understanding of the dependence of isospin diffusion on impact parameters and different isospin observables, we have measured isotopic fragment and residue yields for 112 , 118 , 124Sn + 112 , 118 , 124Sn collisions at E/A = 70 MeV. The measurements were carried out at the Coupled Cyclotron Facility at Michigan State University. Fragment yields were measured using the Large Area Silicon Strip Array (LASSA) and heavy residue yields emitted at the forward angles were measured using the S800 Spectrograph. Impact parameter was selected using the MSU Miniball-WU Miniwall phoswich array. Preliminary results will be presented. Work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant PHY-0606007.
Virus diffusion in isolation rooms.
Kao, P H; Yang, R J
2006-03-01
In hospitals, the ventilation of isolation rooms operating under closed-door conditions is vital if the spread of viruses and infection is to be contained. Engineering simulation, which employs computational fluid dynamics, provides a convenient means of investigating airflow behaviour in isolation rooms for various ventilation arrangements. A cough model was constructed to permit the numerical simulation of virus diffusion inside an isolation room for different ventilation system configurations. An analysis of the region of droplet fallout and the dilution time of virus diffusion of coughed gas in the isolation room was also performed for each ventilation arrangement. The numerical results presented in this paper indicate that the parallel-directional airflow pattern is the most effective means of controlling flows containing virus droplets. Additionally, staggering the positions of the supply vents at the door end of the room relative to the exhaust vents on the wall behind the bed head provides effective infection control and containment. These results suggest that this particular ventilation arrangement enhances the safety of staff when performing medical treatments within isolation rooms. PMID:16359753
Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage following alemtuzumab.
Sachdeva, Ashutosh; Matuschak, George M
2008-06-01
This study describes an unusual patient with X-linked Alport syndrome (XLAS) in whom diffuse alveolar hemorrhage (DAH) developed as a complication of alemtuzumab therapy following renal transplantation. A 26-year-old man with XLAS underwent retransplantation with a cadaveric renal allograft. He received alemtuzumab therapy as a part of an immunosuppressive induction protocol, and dyspnea and hemoptysis developed. A chest CT scan showed diffuse alveolar opacities. Bronchoscopy was performed to determine the cause of hemoptysis and hypoxia. BAL showed a characteristic increasingly bloody return in the sequential aliquots. There was no growth of pathogenic bacteria or evidence of opportunistic infection. Clinical improvement occurred with the initiation of steroids, and the patient required short-term mechanical ventilation for acute respiratory failure. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of DAH associated with use of alemtuzumab therapy, although other pulmonary toxicities have been described. The prevalence of this form of pulmonary toxicity is unclear and requires further systematic study. PMID:18574290
Water vapor diffusion membrane development
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tan, M. K.
1977-01-01
An application of the water vapor diffusion technique is examined whereby the permeated water vapor is vented to space vacuum to alleviate on-board waste storage and provide supplemental cooling. The work reported herein deals primarily with the vapor diffusion-heat rejection (VD-HR) as it applies to the Space Shuttle. A stack configuration was selected, designed and fabricated. An asymmetric cellulose acetate membrane, used in reverse osmosis application was selected and a special spacer was designed to enhance mixing and promote mass transfer. A skid-mount unit was assembled from components used in the bench unit although no attempt was made to render it flight-suitable. The operating conditions of the VD-HR were examined and defined and a 60-day continuous test was carried out. The membranes performed very well throughout the test; no membrane rupture and no unusual flux decay was observed. In addition, a tentative design for a flight-suitable VD-HR unit was made.
The Foundations of Diffusion Revisited
van Milligen, B. Ph.; Carreras, Benjamin A; Sanchez, Raul
2005-12-01
Diffusion is essentially the macroscopic manifestation of random (Brownian) microscopic motion. This idea has been generalized in the continuous time random walk formalism, which under quite general conditions leads to a generalized master equation (GME) that provides a useful modelling framework for transport. Here we review some of the basic ideas underlying this formalism from the perspective of transport in (magnetic confinement) plasmas. Under some specific conditions, the fluid limit of the GME corresponds to the Fokker-Planck (FP) diffusion equation in inhomogeneous systems, which reduces to Fick's law when the system is homogeneous. It is suggested that the FP equation may be preferable in fusion plasmas due to the inhomogeneity of the system, which would imply that part of the observed inward convection ('pinch') can be ascribed to this inhomogeneity. The GME also permits a mathematically sound approach to more complex transport issues, such as the incorporation of critical gradients and non-local transport mechanisms. A toy model incorporating these ingredients was shown to possess behaviour that bears a striking similarity to certain unusual phenomena observed in fusion plasmas.
Spectral clustering with epidemic diffusion.
Smith, Laura M; Lerman, Kristina; Garcia-Cardona, Cristina; Percus, Allon G; Ghosh, Rumi
2013-10-01
Spectral clustering is widely used to partition graphs into distinct modules or communities. Existing methods for spectral clustering use the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the graph Laplacian, an operator that is closely associated with random walks on graphs. We propose a spectral partitioning method that exploits the properties of epidemic diffusion. An epidemic is a dynamic process that, unlike the random walk, simultaneously transitions to all the neighbors of a given node. We show that the replicator, an operator describing epidemic diffusion, is equivalent to the symmetric normalized Laplacian of a reweighted graph with edges reweighted by the eigenvector centralities of their incident nodes. Thus, more weight is given to edges connecting more central nodes. We describe a method that partitions the nodes based on the componentwise ratio of the replicator's second eigenvector to the first and compare its performance to traditional spectral clustering techniques on synthetic graphs with known community structure. We demonstrate that the replicator gives preference to dense, clique-like structures, enabling it to more effectively discover communities that may be obscured by dense intercommunity linking. PMID:24229231
Spectral clustering with epidemic diffusion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Smith, Laura M.; Lerman, Kristina; Garcia-Cardona, Cristina; Percus, Allon G.; Ghosh, Rumi
2013-10-01
Spectral clustering is widely used to partition graphs into distinct modules or communities. Existing methods for spectral clustering use the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the graph Laplacian, an operator that is closely associated with random walks on graphs. We propose a spectral partitioning method that exploits the properties of epidemic diffusion. An epidemic is a dynamic process that, unlike the random walk, simultaneously transitions to all the neighbors of a given node. We show that the replicator, an operator describing epidemic diffusion, is equivalent to the symmetric normalized Laplacian of a reweighted graph with edges reweighted by the eigenvector centralities of their incident nodes. Thus, more weight is given to edges connecting more central nodes. We describe a method that partitions the nodes based on the componentwise ratio of the replicator's second eigenvector to the first and compare its performance to traditional spectral clustering techniques on synthetic graphs with known community structure. We demonstrate that the replicator gives preference to dense, clique-like structures, enabling it to more effectively discover communities that may be obscured by dense intercommunity linking.
Cosmological baryon diffusion and nucleosynthesis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Applegate, James H.; Hogan, Craig J.; Scherrer, Robert J.
1987-02-01
The diffusion rate of baryons through the big-bang plasma is calculated. Fluctuations in baryon density in the early Universe lead to inhomogeneities in the neutron-proton ratio, due to the differential diffusion of these particles through the radiation plasma. For certain types of nonlinear fluctuations, some nucleosynthesis would occur in very neutron-rich regions. Nuclear products of homogeneous neutron-enriched regions are evaluated numerically using a standard reaction network and these results are used to estimate final abundances in an inhomogeneous universe. Net deuterium and lithium abundances tend to increase and the net helium abundance tends to decrease compared to an unperturbed standard model. It is suggested that pronounced nonlinear baryon-density fluctuations produced in QCD- or electroweak-epoch phase transitions could alter abundances sufficiently to make a closed baryonic universe consistent with current observations of these elements. In such a model the abundance of heavier elements (C,N,O, etc.) increases significantly and approaches observable levels. Abundances can be used to place constraints on extreme scenarios for phase transitions at these epochs.
Uncovering Blue Diffuse Dwarf Galaxies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
James, Bethan; Koposov, Sergey; Stark, Daniel; Belokurov, Vasily; Pettini, Max; Olszewski, Edward W.
2015-01-01
Extremely metal-poor galaxies (XMPs) and the star-formation within their chemically pristine environments are fundamental to our understanding of the galaxy formation process at early times. However, traditional emission-line surveys detect only the brightest metal-poor galaxies where star-formation occurs in compact, starbursting environments, and thereby give us only a partial view of the dwarf galaxy population. To avoid such biases, we have developed a new search algorithm based on the morphological, rather then spectral, properties of XMPs and have applied to the Sloan Digital Sky Survey database of images. Using this novel approach, we have discovered ~100 previously undetected, faint blue galaxies, each with isolated HII regions embedded in a diffuse continuum. In this talk I will present the first results from follow-up optical spectroscopy of this sample, which reveals these blue diffuse dwarfs (BDDs) to be young, very metal-poor and actively forming stars despite their intrinsically low luminosities. I will present evidence showing that BDDs appear to bridge the gap between quiescent dwarf irregular (dIrr) galaxies and blue compact galaxies (BCDs) and as such offer an ideal opportunity to assess how star-formation occurs in more `normal' metal-poor systems.
Separation of gases by diffusion
Peieris, R. E.; Simon, F. E.; Arms, H. S.
1960-12-13
An apparatus is described for the separation of mixtures of gaseous or vaporous media by diffusion through a permeable membrane. The apparatus consists principally of a housing member having an elongated internal chamber dissected longitudinally by a permeable membrane. Means are provided for producing a pressure difference between opposite sides of the membrane to cause a flow of the media in the chamber therethrough. This pressure difference is alternated between opposite sides of the membrane to produce an oscillating flow through the membrane. Additional means is provided for producing flow parallel to the membrane in opposite directions on the two sides thereof and of the same frequency and in phase wlth the alternating pressure difference. The lighter molecules diffuse through the membrane more readily than the heavier molecules and the parallel flow effects a net transport of the lighter molecules in one direction and the heavier molecules in the opposite direction wlthin the chamber. By these means a concentration gradient along the chamber is established. (auth)
Mechanisms of impurity diffusion in rutile
Peterson, N.L.; Sasaki, J.
1984-01-01
Tracer diffusion of /sup 46/Sc, /sup 51/Cr, /sup 54/Mn, /sup 59/Fe, /sup 60/Co, /sup 63/Ni, and /sup 95/Zr, was measured as functions of crystal orientation, temperature, and oxygen partial pressure in rutile single crystals using the radioactive tracer sectioning technique. Compared to cation self-diffusion, divalent impurities (e.g., Co and Ni) diffuse extremely rapidly in TiO/sub 2/ and exhibit a large anisotropy in the diffusion behavior; divalent-impurity diffusion parallel to the c-axis is much larger than it is perpendicular to the c-axis. The diffusion of trivalent impurity ions (Sc and Cr) and tetravalent impurity ions (Zr) is similar to cation self-diffusion, as a function of temperature and of oxygen partial pressure. The divalent impurity ions Co and Ni apparently diffuse as interstitial ions along open channels parallel to the c-axis. The results suggest that Sc, Cr, and Zr ions diffuse by an interstitialcy mechanism involving the simultaneous and cooperative migration of tetravalent interstitial titanium ions and the tracer-impurity ions. Iron ions diffused both as divalent and as trivalent ions. 8 figures.
A Multimodal Theory of Affect Diffusion.
Peters, Kim; Kashima, Yoshihisa
2015-09-01
There is broad consensus in the literature that affect diffuses through social networks (such that a person may "acquire" or "catch" an affective state from his or her social contacts). It is further assumed that affect diffusion primarily occurs as the result of people's tendencies to synchronize their affective actions (such as smiles and frowns). However, as we show, there is a lack of clarity in the literature about the substrate and scope of affect diffusion. One consequence of this is a difficulty in distinguishing between affect diffusion and several other affective influence phenomena that look similar but have very different consequences. There is also a growing body of evidence that action synchrony is unlikely to be the only, or indeed the most important, pathway for affect diffusion. This paper has 2 key aims: (a) to craft a formal definition of affect diffusion that does justice to the core of the phenomenon while distinguishing it from other phenomena with which it is frequently confounded and (b) to advance a theory of the mechanisms of affect diffusion. This theory, which we call the multimodal theory of affect diffusion, identifies 3 parallel multimodal mechanisms that may act as routes for affect diffusion. It also provides a basis for novel predictions about the conditions under which affect is most likely to diffuse. PMID:26011791
Modeling of hydrogen diffusion in metals
Yang, K.; Cao, M.Z.; Wan, X.J.; Shi, C.X.
1989-02-01
The study of the diffusion of hydrogen in metals is very important to further understand the hydrogen embrittlement of metals. To describe the diffusion of hydrogen in metals the diffusion equation deduced from Fick's law under an ideal condition has been generally used and the effect of hydrogen trapping in metals has been neglected. In the process of hydrogen diffusion through a metal, hydrogen fills the traps continuously and the fraction of the traps filled by hydrogen, which have only little effect on the diffusion of hydrogen, may be different at different places because the distribution of hydrogen concentration may be different at different places. Thus the hydrogen diffusion coefficient in the metal may also be different at different positions, i.e., the diffusion coefficient should be affected by time in a dynamic process of hydrogen diffusion through a metal. But in the previous analyses, the above fact is not considered and the hydrogen diffusion coefficient is generally taken as a constant. In the present paper a new model of hydrogen diffusion in metals in which the effect of time is taken into account is developed.
Is Protein Folding Sub-Diffusive?
Krivov, Sergei V.
2010-01-01
Protein folding dynamics is often described as diffusion on a free energy surface considered as a function of one or few reaction coordinates. However, a growing number of experiments and models show that, when projected onto a reaction coordinate, protein dynamics is sub-diffusive. This raises the question as to whether the conventionally used diffusive description of the dynamics is adequate. Here, we numerically construct the optimum reaction coordinate for a long equilibrium folding trajectory of a Go model of a -repressor protein. The trajectory projected onto this coordinate exhibits diffusive dynamics, while the dynamics of the same trajectory projected onto a sub-optimal reaction coordinate is sub-diffusive. We show that the higher the (cut-based) free energy profile for the putative reaction coordinate, the more diffusive the dynamics become when projected on this coordinate. The results suggest that whether the projected dynamics is diffusive or sub-diffusive depends on the chosen reaction coordinate. Protein folding can be described as diffusion on the free energy surface as function of the optimum reaction coordinate. And conversely, the conventional reaction coordinates, even though they might be based on physical intuition, are often sub-optimal and, hence, show sub-diffusive dynamics. PMID:20862361
Anomalous extracellular diffusion in rat cerebellum.
Xiao, Fanrong; Hrabe, Jan; Hrabetova, Sabina
2015-05-01
Extracellular space (ECS) is a major channel transporting biologically active molecules and drugs in the brain. Diffusion-mediated transport of these substances is hindered by the ECS structure but the microscopic basis of this hindrance is not fully understood. One hypothesis proposes that the hindrance originates in large part from the presence of dead-space (DS) microdomains that can transiently retain diffusing molecules. Because previous theoretical and modeling work reported an initial period of anomalous diffusion in similar environments, we expected that brain regions densely populated by DS microdomains would exhibit anomalous extracellular diffusion. Specifically, we targeted granular layers (GL) of rat and turtle cerebella that are populated with large and geometrically complex glomeruli. The integrative optical imaging (IOI) method was employed to evaluate diffusion of fluorophore-labeled dextran (MW 3000) in GL, and the IOI data analysis was adapted to quantify the anomalous diffusion exponent dw from the IOI records. Diffusion was significantly anomalous in rat GL, where dw reached 4.8. In the geometrically simpler turtle GL, dw was elevated but not robustly anomalous (dw = 2.6). The experimental work was complemented by numerical Monte Carlo simulations of anomalous ECS diffusion in several three-dimensional tissue models containing glomeruli-like structures. It demonstrated that both the duration of transiently anomalous diffusion and the anomalous exponent depend on the size of model glomeruli and the degree of their wrapping. In conclusion, we have found anomalous extracellular diffusion in the GL of rat cerebellum. This finding lends support to the DS microdomain hypothesis. Transiently anomalous diffusion also has a profound effect on the spatiotemporal distribution of molecules released into the ECS, especially at diffusion distances on the order of a few cell diameters, speeding up short-range diffusion-mediated signals in less permeable
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yan, Fuhan; Li, Zhaofeng; Jiang, Yichuan
2016-05-01
The issues of modeling and analyzing diffusion in social networks have been extensively studied in the last few decades. Recently, many studies focus on uncertain diffusion process. The uncertainty of diffusion process means that the diffusion probability is unpredicted because of some complex factors. For instance, the variety of individuals' opinions is an important factor that can cause uncertainty of diffusion probability. In detail, the difference between opinions can influence the diffusion probability, and then the evolution of opinions will cause the uncertainty of diffusion probability. It is known that controlling the diffusion process is important in the context of viral marketing and political propaganda. However, previous methods are hardly feasible to control the uncertain diffusion process of individual opinion. In this paper, we present suitable strategy to control this diffusion process based on the approximate estimation of the uncertain factors. We formulate a model in which the diffusion probability is influenced by the distance between opinions, and briefly discuss the properties of the diffusion model. Then, we present an optimization problem at the background of voting to show how to control this uncertain diffusion process. In detail, it is assumed that each individual can choose one of the two candidates or abstention based on his/her opinion. Then, we present strategy to set suitable initiators and their opinions so that the advantage of one candidate will be maximized at the end of diffusion. The results show that traditional influence maximization algorithms are not applicable to this problem, and our algorithm can achieve expected performance.
Role of diffusion in irreversible deposition
Luthi, P.O.; Ramsden, J.J.; Chopard, B.
1997-03-01
The adsorption of spheres onto solid surfaces is investigated using a cellular automaton model of diffusion deposition. Unlike previous models, the diffusive transport of the particles from the bulk to the surface as well as their interaction with adsorbed particles are explicitly considered at a microscopic level. We study the initial time regime, which determines the subsequent evolution and during which the particle flux at the surface is not constant. We observe that diffusion-driven adsorption differs significantly from random sequential adsorption (RSA) when particles diffuse in a two-dimensional bulk and are adsorbed on a one-dimensional substrate. We also find that the microscopic details of the diffusive motion influence both the kinetics of deposition and the jamming limit of the coverage. The RSA model appears to be a good approximation, especially for two-dimensional deposition, but cannot generally represent diffusion deposition. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}
Advanced diffusion studies with isotopically controlled materials
Bracht, Hartmut A.; Silvestri, Hughes H.; Haller, Eugene E.
2004-11-14
The use of enriched stable isotopes combined with modern epitaxial deposition and depth profiling techniques enables the preparation of material heterostructures, highly appropriate for self- and foreign-atom diffusion experiments. Over the past decade we have performed diffusion studies with isotopically enriched elemental and compound semiconductors. In the present paper we highlight our recent results and demonstrate that the use of isotopically enriched materials ushered in a new era in the study of diffusion in solids which yields greater insight into the properties of native defects and their roles in diffusion. Our approach of studying atomic diffusion is not limited to semiconductors and can be applied also to other material systems. Current areas of our research concern the diffusion in the silicon-germanium alloys and glassy materials such as silicon dioxide and ion conducting silicate glasses.
Short-time diffusivity of dicolloids.
Panczyk, Mark M; Wagner, Norman J; Furst, Eric M
2014-06-01
The short-time diffusivity of dicolloid particles as a function of particle volume fraction ϕ from 0.01 ≤ ϕ ≤ 0.6 is measured using diffusing wave spectroscopy. The diffusivities of symmetric and asymmetric dicolloids are compared with similarly sized spheres. The short-time diffusivity is independent of salt concentration and decreases with increasing volume fraction for both spheres and asymmetric dicolloids. Symmetric dicolloids have a higher diffusivity than spheres at similar volume fractions. This difference is accounted for by rescaling the dicolloid volume fraction based on the ratio of the random close-packing volume fractions of spheres and dicolloids. Finally, a useful method is provided for calculating the diffusivity of symmetric dicolloid particles of arbitrary aspect ratio based on the calculated hydrodynamic resistance of Zabarankin [Proc. R. Soc. A 463, 2329 (2007)]. PMID:25019780
Diffusion bonding of mismatch dental alloys.
Liu, Honghua; Ni, Jiahua; Wu, Luhai; He, Guo
2010-04-01
The diffusion bonding of Ti-6Al-4V and Co-Cr-Mo dental alloys has been investigated in terms of the atoms diffusion, the microstructure evolution, and the bonding strength. The bonding performance reveals asymmetry diffusion profiles for both the Co and Cr in Ti-6Al-4V and the Ti in Co-Cr-Mo alloy. Their diffusion coefficients (Arrhenius relations) have been established based on the experiments. Co and Cr diffusion into Ti-6Al-4V leads to alpha --> beta transformation and the intermetallics-formation. Maximum bonding strength occurs at about 840 degrees C. The bonding joint fails under the shear stress in the Ti-6Al-4V side near the bonding interface in brittle manner. The intermetallics in the diffusion layer together with the unbonded areas and other flaws in the bonding interface are responsible for the shear brittle fracture, which also weaken the bonding strength. PMID:19957358
Unstructured Polyhedral Mesh Thermal Radiation Diffusion
Palmer, T.S.; Zika, M.R.; Madsen, N.K.
2000-07-27
Unstructured mesh particle transport and diffusion methods are gaining wider acceptance as mesh generation, scientific visualization and linear solvers improve. This paper describes an algorithm that is currently being used in the KULL code at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory to solve the radiative transfer equations. The algorithm employs a point-centered diffusion discretization on arbitrary polyhedral meshes in 3D. We present the results of a few test problems to illustrate the capabilities of the radiation diffusion module.
Diffusion in solid-Earth systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Watson, E. Bruce; Baxter, Ethan F.
2007-01-01
Recent years have seen a rapid expansion in the acquisition and use of information on diffusive transport in phases relevant to the solid Earth (crystals, melts and fluids). Although far from complete, the data base on diffusion coefficients is now sufficiently large that broad constraints can be placed upon the length- and time scales of many natural transport phenomena in which diffusion plays a role. Conversely, observations of diffusion progress in specific natural samples can be used to extract time-temperature information for a variety of geologic and geochemical processes, ranging from sediment burial and crustal erosion to fluid-mediated reactions and biosignature retention. Despite this undeniable progress, several major challenges remain that largely define the frontiers of research in solid-Earth diffusion. Perhaps foremost among these is the need to address and understand the multi-scale, multi-path aspects of diffusion in many systems—a complication that is not limited to polyphase materials (individual mineral grains can exhibit clear indications of multi-path behavior even when visible evidence of such paths is lacking). Many other diffusion frontiers are linked in one way or another to this multi-scale issue; they include: diffusion of molecular H 2O and the effect of H species on diffusion in minerals and rocks; diffusive fractionation of multiple isotopes of a single element; diffusion at the extreme conditions of the deep Earth; reconciliation of observations from natural samples and laboratory studies; and development of theoretical approaches to 'predict' diffusion behavior in regions inaccessible to observation.
Relativistic diffusive motion in thermal electromagnetic fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Haba, Z.
2013-04-01
We discuss relativistic dynamics in a random electromagnetic field which can be considered as a high temperature limit of the quantum electromagnetic field in a heat bath (cavity) moving with a uniform velocity w. We derive a diffusion approximation for the particle’s dynamics generalizing the diffusion of Schay and Dudley. It is shown that the Jüttner distribution is the equilibrium state of the diffusion.
Diffusion bonding of Stratapax for drill bits
Middleton, J.N.; Finger, J.T.
1983-01-01
A process has been developed for the diffusion bonding of General Electric's Stratapax drill blanks to support studs for cutter assemblies in drill bits. The diffusion bonding process is described and bond strength test data are provided for a variety of materials. The extensive process details, provided in the Appendices, should be sufficient to enable others to successfully build diffusion-bonded drill bit cutter assemblies.
Reaction-diffusion waves in biology.
Volpert, V; Petrovskii, S
2009-12-01
The theory of reaction-diffusion waves begins in the 1930s with the works in population dynamics, combustion theory and chemical kinetics. At the present time, it is a well developed area of research which includes qualitative properties of travelling waves for the scalar reaction-diffusion equation and for system of equations, complex nonlinear dynamics, numerous applications in physics, chemistry, biology, medicine. This paper reviews biological applications of reaction-diffusion waves. PMID:20416847
Characterizing Unsaturated Diffusion in Porous Tuff Gravel
Hu, Q; Kneafsey, T J; Roberts, J J; Tomutsa, L; Wang, J S
2003-11-12
Evaluation of solute diffusion in unsaturated porous gravel is very important for investigations of contaminant transport and remediation, risk assessment, and waste disposal (e.g., the potential high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada). For a porous aggregate medium such as granular tuff, the total water content is comprised of surface water and interior water. The surface water component (water film around grains and pendular water between the grain contacts) could serve as a predominant diffusion pathway. To investigate the extent of surface water films and contact points affect solute diffusion in unsaturated gravel, we examined the configuration of water using x-ray computed tomography in partially saturated gravel, and made quantitative measurements of diffusion at multiple water contents using two different techniques. In the first, diffusion coefficients of potassium chloride in 2-4 mm granular tuff at multiple water contents are calculated from electrical conductivity measurements using the Nernst-Einstein equation. In the second, we used laser ablation with inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry to perform micro-scale mapping, allowing the measurement of diffusion coefficients for a mixture of chemical tracers for tuff cubes and tetrahedrons having two contact geometries (cube-cube and cube-tetrahedron). The x-ray computed tomography images show limited contact between grains, and this could significantly hinder the pathways for diffusive transport. Experimental results show the critical role of surface water in controlling transport pathways and hence the magnitude of diffusion. Even with a bulk volumetric water content of 1.5%, the measured solute diffusion coefficient is as low as 1.5 x 10{sup -14} m{sup 2}/s. Currently used diffusion models relating diffusion coefficients to total volumetric water content inadequately describe unsaturated diffusion behavior in porous gravel.
Characterizing unsaturated diffusion in porous tuff gravel
Hu, Qinhong; Kneafsey, Timothy J.; Roberts, Jeffery J.; Tomutsa, Liviu; Wang, Joseph, S.Y.
2003-11-12
Evaluation of solute diffusion in unsaturated porous gravel is very important for investigations of contaminant transport and remediation, risk assessment, and waste disposal (for example, the potential high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada). For a porous aggregate medium such as granular tuff, the total water content is comprised of surface water and interior water. The surface water component (water film around grains and pendular water between the grain contacts) could serve as a predominant diffusion pathway. To investigate the extent to which surface water films and contact points affect solute diffusion in unsaturated gravel, we examined the configuration of water using x-ray computed tomography in partially saturated gravel, and made quantitative measurements of diffusion at multiple water contents using two different techniques. In the first, diffusion coefficients of potassium chloride in 2-4 mm granular tuff at multiple water contents were calculated from electrical conductivity measurements using the Nernst-Einstein equation. In the second, we used laser ablation with inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry to perform micro-scale mapping, allowing the measurement of diffusion coefficients for a mixture of chemical tracers for tuff cubes and tetrahedrons having two contact geometries (cube-cube and cube-tetrahedron). The x-ray computed tomography images show limited contact between grains, and this could hinder the pathways for diffusive transport. Experimental results show the critical role of surface water in controlling transport pathways and hence the magnitude of diffusion. Even with a bulk volumetric water content of 1.5%, the measured solute diffusion coefficient is as low as 1.5 x 10{sup -14} m{sup 2}/s for tuff gravel. Currently used diffusion models relating diffusion coefficients to total volumetric water content inadequately describe unsaturated diffusion behavior in porous gravel at very low water contents.
Modeling of hydrogen-air diffusion flame
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Isaac, K. M.
1988-01-01
Work performed during the first six months of the project duration for NASA Grant (NAG-1-861) is reported. An analytical and computational study of opposed jet diffusion flame for the purpose of understanding the effects of contaminants in the reactants and thermal diffusion of light species on extinction and reignition of diffusion flames is in progress. The methodologies attempted so far are described.
Public Good Diffusion Limits Microbial Mutualism
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Menon, Rajita; Korolev, Kirill S.
2015-04-01
Standard game theory cannot describe microbial interactions mediated by diffusible molecules. Nevertheless, we show that one can still model microbial dynamics using game theory with parameters renormalized by diffusion. Contrary to expectations, greater sharing of metabolites reduces the strength of cooperation and leads to species extinction via a nonequilibrium phase transition. We report analytic results for the critical diffusivity and the length scale of species intermixing. Species producing slower public good is favored by selection when fitness saturates with nutrient concentration.
Diffusion processes in general relativistic radiating spheres
Barreto, W.; Herrera, L.; Santos, N.O.; Universidad Central de Venezuela, Caracas; Observatorio Nacional do Brasil, Rio de Janeiro )
1989-09-01
The influence of diffusion processes on the dynamics of general relativistic radiating spheres is systematically studied by means of two examples. Differences between the streaming-out limit and the diffusion limit are exhibited, for both models, through the evolution curves of dynamical variables. In particular it is shown the Bondi mass decreases, for both models, in the diffusion limit as compared with its value at the streaming-out regime. 15 refs.
[Tracheobronchoplasty for Severe Diffuse Tracheomalacia].
Hoffmann, H; Gompelmann, D; Heußel, C P; Dienemann, H; Eberhardt, R
2016-09-01
Patients with diffuse airway instability due to tracheobronchomalacia or excessive dynamic airway collapse are typically highly symptomatic, with marked dyspnoea, recurrent bronchopulmonary infections and excruciating intractable cough. Silicone stents achieve immediate symptom control, but are - due to the typical complications associated with stent treatment - usually not an option for long-term treatment. The aim of surgical intervention is definitive stabilisation of the trachea and of both main bronchi by posterior splinting of the Paries membranaceus with a polypropylene mesh. This operation is an appropriate treatment option for patients with documented severe tracheobronchomalacia or excessive dynamic airway collapse and is ultimately the only therapy that can achieve permanent symptom control. The success of the operation, however, depends on many factors and requires close interdisciplinary collaboration. PMID:27607887
Word Diffusion and Climate Science
Bentley, R. Alexander; Garnett, Philip; O'Brien, Michael J.; Brock, William A.
2012-01-01
As public and political debates often demonstrate, a substantial disjoint can exist between the findings of science and the impact it has on the public. Using climate-change science as a case example, we reconsider the role of scientists in the information-dissemination process, our hypothesis being that important keywords used in climate science follow “boom and bust” fashion cycles in public usage. Representing this public usage through extraordinary new data on word frequencies in books published up to the year 2008, we show that a classic two-parameter social-diffusion model closely fits the comings and goings of many keywords over generational or longer time scales. We suggest that the fashions of word usage contributes an empirical, possibly regular, correlate to the impact of climate science on society. PMID:23144839
Coccidioidomycosis with diffuse miliary pneumonia.
Sotello, David; Rivas, Marcella; Fuller, Audra; Mahmood, Tashfeen; Orellana-Barrios, Menfil; Nugent, Kenneth
2016-01-01
Coccidioidomycosis is a well-known infection in the southwestern United States, and its occurrence is becoming more frequent in endemic areas. This disease can have a significant economic and medical impact; therefore, accurate diagnosis is crucial. In conjunction with patient symptoms, residence in or travel to an endemic area is essential for diagnosis. Diagnosis is usually made with serology, culture, or biopsy and confirmed with DNA probe technology. Pulmonary disease is the most common presentation and is seen in almost 95% of all cases. One-half to two-thirds of all Coccidioides infections are asymptomatic or subclinical. Most pulmonary infections are self-limited and do not require treatment except in special populations. When treatment is warranted, itraconazole and fluconazole are frequently used. Diffuse miliary pneumonia is uncommon and is especially rare in immunocompetent patients. Herein we describe a rare presentation of miliary coccidioidomycosis in a nonimmunocompromised patient. PMID:26722164
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Owen, J. H. G.; Bowler, D. R.; Goringe, C. M.; Miki, K.; Briggs, G. A. D.
1996-11-01
We have imaged hydrogen on Si(001) at low coverages in a variable-temperature STM from 300 K up to 700 K. Individual hydrogen atoms were imaged which became mobile at around 570 K. The observed rate of hopping along the dimer rows was consistent with an activation energy of 1.68 +/- 0.15 eV. Motion across dimer rows was rarely observed, even at the higher temperatures. The diffusion barrier for motion along the dimer rows has been calculated using tight-binding and density-functional theory in the generalized gradient approximation (GGA). The calculated barrier is 1.65 eV from tight binding and 1.51 eV from GGA.
Diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis in Mexico.
Velasco, O; Savarino, S J; Walton, B C; Gam, A A; Neva, F A
1989-09-01
In Mexico, 6 cases of diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis (DCL) were found in widely separated geographic regions. Information was also available on 2 other cases. In addition to the typical clinical features, half of the patients had evidence of nasopharyngeal mucosal involvement. All isolates from the DCL patients were identified as Leishmania mexicana mexicana by isoenzyme analysis and monoclonal antibody typing. In 1 region of Tabasco state where DCL was found, uncomplicated cutaneous leishmaniasis appeared to be highly endemic, and isolates from a few such patients were identified as L. mexicana mexicana. An incidental finding was the recovery of an isolate of L. braziliensis braziliensis from a patient with chiclero ulcer in Oaxaca state. The clinical and epidemiological significance of the reported cases are discussed. PMID:2802018
Dopant diffusion in tungsten silicide
Pan, P.; Hsieh, N.; Geipel, H.J. Jr.; Slusser, G.J.
1982-04-01
The dopant (B, P, and As) redistribution in a silicide on polycrystalline silicon structure after annealing at 800 and 1000 /sup 0/C was studied. The distribution of boron was found to be quite different from these of phosphorus and arsenic. At 1000 /sup 0/C, the distribution coefficient for boron at the WSi/sub 2//polycrystalline silicon interface was found to be 2.7. The solubilities of phosphorus and arsenic in WSi/sub 2/ at 1000 /sup 0/C were estimated to be 6 x 10/sup 19/ and 1.6 x 10/sup 19/ atoms/cm/sup 3/, respectively. At 800 /sup 0/C, the diffusion coefficient for the dopants was found to be equal to, or greater than 3.3 x 10/sup -12/ cm/sup 2//s, which is at least three orders of magnitude larger than in silicon.
Diffusions conditioned on occupation measures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Angeletti, Florian; Touchette, Hugo
2016-02-01
A Markov process fluctuating away from its typical behavior can be represented in the long-time limit by another Markov process, called the effective or driven process, having the same stationary states as the original process conditioned on the fluctuation observed. We construct here this driven process for diffusions spending an atypical fraction of their evolution in some region of state space, corresponding mathematically to stochastic differential equations conditioned on occupation measures. As an illustration, we consider the Langevin equation conditioned on staying for a fraction of time in different intervals of the real line, including the positive half-line which leads to a generalization of the Brownian meander problem. Other applications related to quasi-stationary distributions, metastable states, noisy chemical reactions, queues, and random walks are discussed.
Facilitated diffusion buffers noise in gene expression
Schoech, Armin P.; Zabet, Nicolae Radu
2014-01-01
Transcription factors perform facilitated diffusion (3D diffusion in the cytosol and 1D diffusion on the DNA) when binding to their target sites to regulate gene expression. Here, we investigated the influence of this binding mechanism on the noise in gene expression. Our results showed that, for biologically relevant parameters, the binding process can be represented by a two-state Markov model and that the accelerated target finding due to facilitated diffusion leads to a reduction in both the mRNA and the protein noise. PMID:25314467
Mechanism for hydrogen diffusion in amorphous silicon
Biswas, R.; Li, Q.; Pan, B.C.; Yoon, Y.
1998-01-01
Tight-binding molecular-dynamics calculations reveal a mechanism for hydrogen diffusion in hydrogenated amorphous silicon. Hydrogen diffuses through the network by successively bonding with nearby silicons and breaking their Si{endash}Si bonds. The diffusing hydrogen carries with it a newly created dangling bond. These intermediate transporting states are densely populated in the network, have lower energies than H at the center of stretched Si{endash}Si bonds, and can play a crucial role in hydrogen diffusion. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}
Diffuse cloud chemistry. [in interstellar matter
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Van Dishoeck, Ewine F.; Black, John H.
1988-01-01
The current status of models of diffuse interstellar clouds is reviewed. A detailed comparison of recent gas-phase steady-state models shows that both the physical conditions and the molecular abundances in diffuse clouds are still not fully understood. Alternative mechanisms are discussed and observational tests which may discriminate between the various models are suggested. Recent developments regarding the velocity structure of diffuse clouds are mentioned. Similarities and differences between the chemistries in diffuse clouds and those in translucent and high latitude clouds are pointed out.
Silicon infrared diffuser for wireless communication.
Massera, Ettore; Rea, Ilaria; Nasti, Ivana; Maddalena, Pasqualino; Di Francia, Girolamo
2006-09-10
We show what we believe to be a novel way to use silicon in infrared radio communication as a suitable material for the realization of optical diffusers in the range of 850-1600 nm. A crystalline silicon wafer is made porous by means of electrochemical etching. The porous silicon produced is optically characterized, and measurements report a high reflectance in the band of interest. We also study the angular distribution of diffused radiation by the porous silicon surface at different angles of incident radiation. Measurements show that radiation diffuses in a quasi-Lambertian manner, confirming the good performance of this material as an incident radiation diffuser. PMID:16926908
Fractional diffusion equations coupled by reaction terms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lenzi, E. K.; Menechini Neto, R.; Tateishi, A. A.; Lenzi, M. K.; Ribeiro, H. V.
2016-09-01
We investigate the behavior for a set of fractional reaction-diffusion equations that extend the usual ones by the presence of spatial fractional derivatives of distributed order in the diffusive term. These equations are coupled via the reaction terms which may represent reversible or irreversible processes. For these equations, we find exact solutions and show that the spreading of the distributions is asymptotically governed by the same the long-tailed distribution. Furthermore, we observe that the coupling introduced by reaction terms creates an interplay between different diffusive regimes leading us to a rich class of behaviors related to anomalous diffusion.
Self-Diffusion in Amorphous Silicon
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Strauß, Florian; Dörrer, Lars; Geue, Thomas; Stahn, Jochen; Koutsioubas, Alexandros; Mattauch, Stefan; Schmidt, Harald
2016-01-01
The present Letter reports on self-diffusion in amorphous silicon. Experiments were done on 29Si/natSi heterostructures using neutron reflectometry and secondary ion mass spectrometry. The diffusivities follow the Arrhenius law in the temperature range between 550 and 700 °C with an activation energy of (4.4 ±0.3 ) eV . In comparison with single crystalline silicon the diffusivities are tremendously higher by 5 orders of magnitude at about 700 °C , which can be interpreted as the consequence of a high diffusion entropy.
1-D EQUILIBRIUM DISCRETE DIFFUSION MONTE CARLO
T. EVANS; ET AL
2000-08-01
We present a new hybrid Monte Carlo method for 1-D equilibrium diffusion problems in which the radiation field coexists with matter in local thermodynamic equilibrium. This method, the Equilibrium Discrete Diffusion Monte Carlo (EqDDMC) method, combines Monte Carlo particles with spatially discrete diffusion solutions. We verify the EqDDMC method with computational results from three slab problems. The EqDDMC method represents an incremental step toward applying this hybrid methodology to non-equilibrium diffusion, where it could be simultaneously coupled to Monte Carlo transport.
Biomimetic phantom for cardiac diffusion MRI
Teh, Irvin; Zhou, Feng‐Lei; Hubbard Cristinacce, Penny L.; Parker, Geoffrey J.M.
2015-01-01
Purpose Diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is increasingly used to characterize cardiac tissue microstructure, necessitating the use of physiologically relevant phantoms for methods development. Existing phantoms are generally simplistic and mostly simulate diffusion in the brain. Thus, there is a need for phantoms mimicking diffusion in cardiac tissue. Materials and Methods A biomimetic phantom composed of hollow microfibers generated using co‐electrospinning was developed to mimic myocardial diffusion properties and fiber and sheet orientations. Diffusion tensor imaging was carried out at monthly intervals over 4 months at 9.4T. 3D fiber tracking was performed using the phantom and compared with fiber tracking in an ex vivo rat heart. Results The mean apparent diffusion coefficient and fractional anisotropy of the phantom remained stable over the 4‐month period, with mean values of 7.53 ± 0.16 × 10‐4 mm2/s and 0.388 ± 0.007, respectively. Fiber tracking of the 1st and 3rd eigenvectors generated analogous results to the fiber and sheet‐normal direction respectively, found in the left ventricular myocardium. Conclusion A biomimetic phantom simulating diffusion in the heart was designed and built. This could aid development and validation of novel diffusion MRI methods for investigating cardiac microstructure, decrease the number of animals and patients needed for methods development, and improve quality control in longitudinal and multicenter cardiac diffusion MRI studies. J. MAGN. RESON. IMAGING 2016;43:594–600. PMID:26213152
Spectrum of fibrosing diffuse parenchymal lung disease.
Morgenthau, Adam S; Padilla, Maria L
2009-02-01
The interstitial lung diseases are a heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by inflammation and/or fibrosis of the pulmonary interstitium. In 2002, the American Thoracic Society and the European Respiratory Society revised the classification of interstitial lung diseases and introduced the term diffuse parenchymal lung disease. The idiopathic interstitial pneumonias are a subtype of diffuse parenchymal lung disease. The idiopathic interstitial pneumonias are subdivided into usual interstitial pneumonia (with its clinical counterpart idiopathic interstitial pneumonia), nonspecific interstitial pneumonia, cryptogenic organizing pneumonia, acute interstitial pneumonia, desquamative interstitial pneumonia, respiratory bronchiolitis interstitial lung disease, and lymphocytic pneumonia. Sarcoidosis and hypersensitivity pneumonitis are the 2 most common granulomatous diffuse parenchymal lung diseases. Rheumatoid arthritis, systemic sclerosis, and dermatomyositis/polymyositis (causing antisynthetase syndrome) are diffuse parenchymal lung diseases of known association because these conditions are associated with connective tissue disease. Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome is a rare genetic diffuse parenchymal lung disease characterized by the clinical triad of pulmonary disease, oculocutaneous albinism, and bleeding diathesis. This review provides an overview of the chronic fibrosing diffuse parenchymal lung diseases. Its primary objective is to illuminate the clinical challenges encountered by clinicians who manage the diffuse parenchymal lung diseases regularly and to offer potential solutions to those challenges. Treatment for the diffuse parenchymal lung diseases is limited, and for many patients with end-stage disease, lung transplantation remains the best option. Although much has been learned about the diffuse parenchymal lung diseases during the past decade, research in these diseases is urgently needed. PMID:19170214
Phase diffusion in a chaotic pendulum
Blackburn, J.A.; Gro/nbech-Jensen, N.
1996-04-01
The rate of expansion of the phase coordinate for a harmonically driven pendulum is considered. The mean-squared displacement is found to grow as a linear function of time during chaotic motion, indicating deterministic diffusion. The diffusion coefficient can be significantly influenced by the proximity of a window containing a periodic solution. We find that diffusion associated with intermittent chaos can be described in terms of an interleaving of the diffusion properties of the separate modes taking part in the intermittency. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}
Ambipolar diffusion in the middle atmosphere
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tzur, I.; Roble, R. G.
1984-01-01
In the middle atmosphere above 60 km, the electron concentration increases with altitude, reaching values of 10 to the 10th per cu m in the daytime ionospheric E region near 100 km. The electrons are more mobile than the ions and diffuse more rapidly through the neutral atmosphere. The electron diffusion polarizes the medium, causing an electric field to develop that acts to retard the electron diffusion and enhance the conduction current of ions. A global zonally averaged numerical model of atmosheric electricity from the ground to 100 km is used to examine the effect of ambipolar diffusion and the earth's geomagnetic field on the currents and fields in the middle atmosphere. The results show that above about 65 km, ambipolar diffusion generates local electric fields and conduction currents that balance electron diffusion currents. The electric fields and conduction currents are a few orders of magnitude larger than the vertical fields and currents calculated from the downward mapping of the ionospheric potential without taking electron diffusion into account. Ambipolar diffusion does not alter the total current flowing in the global circuit. It is a local effect where enhanced conduction currens flow to balance the electron diffusion current.
Wanted: Scalable Tracers for Diffusion Measurements
2015-01-01
Scalable tracers are potentially a useful tool to examine diffusion mechanisms and to predict diffusion coefficients, particularly for hindered diffusion in complex, heterogeneous, or crowded systems. Scalable tracers are defined as a series of tracers varying in size but with the same shape, structure, surface chemistry, deformability, and diffusion mechanism. Both chemical homology and constant dynamics are required. In particular, branching must not vary with size, and there must be no transition between ordinary diffusion and reptation. Measurements using scalable tracers yield the mean diffusion coefficient as a function of size alone; measurements using nonscalable tracers yield the variation due to differences in the other properties. Candidate scalable tracers are discussed for two-dimensional (2D) diffusion in membranes and three-dimensional diffusion in aqueous solutions. Correlations to predict the mean diffusion coefficient of globular biomolecules from molecular mass are reviewed briefly. Specific suggestions for the 3D case include the use of synthetic dendrimers or random hyperbranched polymers instead of dextran and the use of core–shell quantum dots. Another useful tool would be a series of scalable tracers varying in deformability alone, prepared by varying the density of crosslinking in a polymer to make say “reinforced Ficoll” or “reinforced hyperbranched polyglycerol.” PMID:25319586
Self-Diffusion in Amorphous Silicon.
Strauß, Florian; Dörrer, Lars; Geue, Thomas; Stahn, Jochen; Koutsioubas, Alexandros; Mattauch, Stefan; Schmidt, Harald
2016-01-15
The present Letter reports on self-diffusion in amorphous silicon. Experiments were done on ^{29}Si/^{nat}Si heterostructures using neutron reflectometry and secondary ion mass spectrometry. The diffusivities follow the Arrhenius law in the temperature range between 550 and 700 °C with an activation energy of (4.4±0.3) eV. In comparison with single crystalline silicon the diffusivities are tremendously higher by 5 orders of magnitude at about 700 °C, which can be interpreted as the consequence of a high diffusion entropy. PMID:26824552
Grain boundary diffusion in olivine (Invited)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Marquardt, K.; Dohmen, R.
2013-12-01
Olivine is the main constituent of Earth's upper mantle. The individual mineral grains are separated by grain boundaries that have very distinct properties compared to those of single crystals and strongly affect large-scale physical and chemical properties of rocks, e.g. viscosity, electrical conductivity and diffusivity. Knowledge on the grain boundary physical and chemical properties, their population and distribution in polycrystalline materials [1] is a prerequisite to understand and model bulk (rock) properties, including their role as pathways for element transport [2] and the potential of grain boundaries as storage sites for incompatible elements [3]. Studies on selected and well characterized single grain boundaries are needed for a detailed understanding of the influence of varying grain boundaries. For instance, the dependence of diffusion on the grain boundary structure (defined by the lattice misfit) and width in silicates is unknown [2, 4], but limited experimental studies in material sciences indicate major effects of grain boundary orientation on diffusion rates. We characterized the effect of grain boundary orientation and temperature on element diffusion in forsterite grain boundaries by transmission electron microscopy (TEM).The site specific TEM-foils were cut using the focused ion beam technique (FIB). To study diffusion we prepared amorphous thin-films of Ni2SiO4 composition perpendicular to the grain boundary using pulsed laser deposition. Annealing (800-1450°C) leads to crystallization of the thin-film and Ni-Mg inter-diffuse into the crystal volume and along the grain boundary. The inter-diffusion profiles were measured using energy dispersive x-ray spectrometry in the TEM, standardized using the Cliff-Lorimer equation and EMPA measurements. We obtain volume diffusion coefficients that are comparable to Ni-Mg inter-diffusion rates in forsterite determined in previous studies at comparable temperatures, with similar activation energies
Self diffusion of interacting membrane proteins.
Abney, J R; Scalettar, B A; Owicki, J C
1989-01-01
A two-dimensional version of the generalized Smoluchowski equation is used to analyze the time (or distance) dependent self diffusion of interacting membrane proteins in concentrated membrane systems. This equation provides a well established starting point for descriptions of the diffusion of particles that interact through both direct and hydrodynamic forces; in this initial work only the effects of direct interactions are explicitly considered. Data describing diffusion in the presence of hard-core repulsions, soft repulsions, and soft repulsions with weak attractions are presented. The effect that interactions have on the self-diffusion coefficient of a real protein molecule from mouse liver gap junctions is also calculated. The results indicate that self diffusion is always inhibited by direct interactions; this observation is interpreted in terms of the caging that will exist at finite protein concentration. It is also noted that, over small distance scales, the diffusion coefficient is determined entirely by the very strong Brownian forces; therefore, as a function of displacement the self-diffusion coefficient decays (rapidly) from its value at infinite dilution to its steady-state interaction-averaged value. The steady-state self-diffusion coefficient describes motion over distance scales that range from approximately 10 nm to cellular dimensions and is the quantity measured in fluorescence recovery after photobleaching experiments. The short-ranged behavior of the diffusion coefficient is important on the interparticle-distance scale and may therefore influence the rate at which nearest-neighbor collisional processes take place. The hard-disk theoretical results presented here are in excellent agreement with lattice Monte-Carlo results obtained by other workers. The concentration dependence of experimentally measured diffusion coefficients of antibody-hapten complexes bound to the membrane surface is consistent with that predicted by the theory. The
Electrolyte diffusion in compacted montmorillonite engineered barriers
Jahnke, F.M.; Radke, C.J.
1985-09-01
The bentonite-based engineered barrier or packing is a proposed component of several designs conceived to dispose of high-level nuclear waste in geologic repositories. Once radionuclides escape the waste package, they must first diffuse through the highly impermeable clay-rich barrier before they reach the host repository. To determine the effectiveness of the packing as a sorption barrier in the transient release period and as a mass-transfer barrier in the steady release period over the geologic time scales involved in nuclear waste disposal, a fundamental understanding of the diffusion of electrolytes in compacted clays is required. We present, and compare with laboratory data, a model quantifying the diffusion rates of cationic cesium and uncharged tritium in compacted montmorillonite clay. Neutral tritium characterizes the geometry (i.e., tortuosity) of the particulate gel. After accounting for cation exchange, we find that surface diffusion is the dominant mechanism of cation transport, with an approximate surface diffusion coefficient of 2 x 10 W cmS/s for cesium. This value increases slightly with increasing background ionic strength. The implications of this work for the packing as a migration barrier are twofold. During the transient release period, K/sub d/ values are of little importance in retarding ion migration. This is because sorption also gives rise to a surface diffusion path, and it is surface diffusion which controls the diffusion rate of highly sorbing cations in compacted montmorillonite. During the steady release period, the presence of surface diffusion leads to a flux through the packing which is greatly enhanced. In either case, if surface diffusion is neglected, the appropriate diffusion coefficient of ions in compacted packing will be in considerable error relative to current design recommendations. 11 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.
Atomistic Simulations of Ion Diffusion in Clay Barriers: Diffusive Path Energy Barriers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Newton, A. G.; Kozaki, T.
2010-12-01
Ion diffusion in clay-rich media is an important transport process relevant to models of contaminant fate and transport in groundwater and risk assessments for the geologic disposal of high-level radioactive waste (HLW). Smectite clay minerals are used as a buffer material in the geologic disposal of HLW due to their low permeability. Ion diffusion experiments with water-saturated, compacted clays have revealed a non-linear trend in which the diffusive energy barrier in clay media at dry densities near 1.0 Mg m-3 exhibited a smaller energy barrier to diffusion than in liquid water (Kozaki, et al. 2005). Although it is likely that the decreased energy barrier is related to preferential diffusion along smectite basal surfaces, experimental methods cannot unambiguously isolate this diffusion pathway. Atomistic simulations were designed to isolate this diffusive pathway and to test if the decreased energy barrier is related to preferential diffusion along the smectite basal surface. In addition, the simulations provide an atomic-scale perspective of this diffusion pathway as a function of temperature. In the present study, we report the energy barrier to diffusion for sodium ions (Na+) at the smectite basal surface. The energy barrier to diffusion at the Na-montmorillonite basal surface was determined by investigating the temperature dependence of ion diffusion through a series of long (9.0 ns) molecular dynamics (MD) simulations in the canonical ensemble (NVT). We show that the energy barrier to diffusion at the clay basal surface is less than the energy barrier to diffusion in free water and demonstrate that this methodology can provide results that are consistent with laboratory diffusion experiments and nanoscale insights into the interpretation of macroscale experimental investigations of ion diffusion in smectite-rich media. Kozaki, T., A. Fujishima, et al. (2005). Engineering Geology, 81(3): 246-254.
Azimi, Mohammad; Jamali, Yousef; Mofrad, Mohammad R. K.
2011-01-01
Diffusion plays a key role in many biochemical reaction systems seen in nature. Scenarios where diffusion behavior is critical can be seen in the cell and subcellular compartments where molecular crowding limits the interaction between particles. We investigate the application of a computational method for modeling the diffusion of molecules and macromolecules in three-dimensional solutions using agent based modeling. This method allows for realistic modeling of a system of particles with different properties such as size, diffusion coefficients, and affinity as well as the environment properties such as viscosity and geometry. Simulations using these movement probabilities yield behavior that mimics natural diffusion. Using this modeling framework, we simulate the effects of molecular crowding on effective diffusion and have validated the results of our model using Langevin dynamics simulations and note that they are in good agreement with previous experimental data. Furthermore, we investigate an extension of this framework where single discrete cells can contain multiple particles of varying size in an effort to highlight errors that can arise from discretization that lead to the unnatural behavior of particles undergoing diffusion. Subsequently, we explore various algorithms that differ in how they handle the movement of multiple particles per cell and suggest an algorithm that properly accommodates multiple particles of various sizes per cell that can replicate the natural behavior of these particles diffusing. Finally, we use the present modeling framework to investigate the effect of structural geometry on the directionality of diffusion in the cell cytoskeleton with the observation that parallel orientation in the structural geometry of actin filaments of filopodia and the branched structure of lamellipodia can give directionality to diffusion at the filopodia-lamellipodia interface. PMID:21966493
Wagner, Matthias W.; Bell, W. Robert; Kern, Jason; Bosemani, Thangamadhan; Mhlanga, Joyce; Carson, Kathryn A.; Cohen, Kenneth J.; Raabe, Eric H.; Rodriguez, Fausto; Huisman, Thierry A.G.M.; Poretti, Andrea
2016-01-01
Purpose To apply DTI to detect early extrapontine extension of pediatric diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma along the corticospinal tracts. Methods In children with diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma, low-grade brainstem glioma, and age-matched controls, DTI metrics were measured in the posterior limb of the internal capsule and posterior centrum semiovale. Histological examination was available in one patient. Results 6 diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma, 8 low-grade brainstem glioma, and two groups of 25 controls were included. In diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma compared to controls, fractional anisotropy was lower in the bilateral posterior limb of the internal capsule, axial diffusivity was lower in the bilateral posterior centrum semiovale and posterior limb of the internal capsule, while radial diffusivity was higher in the bilateral posterior limb of the internal capsule. No significant differences were found between low-grade brainstem glioma and controls. In diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma compared to low-grade brainstem glioma, axial diffusivity was lower in the bilateral posterior limb of the internal capsule. Histological examination in one child showed tumor cells in the posterior limb of the internal capsule. Conclusion Reduction in fractional anisotropy and axial diffusivity and increase in radial diffusivity in diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma may reflect tumor extension along the corticospinal tracts as shown by histology. DTI may detect early extrapontine tumor extension in diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma before it becomes apparent on conventional MRI sequences. PMID:26971411
Changes in "thermal lens" measure diffusivity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gupta, A.; Hong, S. D.; Moacanin, J.
1980-01-01
In an extension of "thermal lens" effect to new applications and better resolution, two laser beams combine to rapidly measure thermal diffusivity and other molecular dynamic properties. New double-beam technique handles very small samples unlike classical techniques for measuring diffusivity. It can be used for measurements on samples undergoing stress, making it applicable to data collection for structural engineering.
Measuring Thermal Diffusivity of Molten Semiconductors
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Crouch, R.; Holland, L.; Taylor, R. E.
1986-01-01
Thermal diffusivity of molten and solid mercury cadmium telluride measured with aid of new apparatus. Knowledge gained from such measurements help efforts to grow high-quality single crystals of this semiconductor for use in infrared detectors: Without knowledge of thermal diffusivity, difficult to control growth rate of solid from molten material.
Effective diffusion of confined active Brownian swimmers.
Sandoval, Mario; Dagdug, Leornardo
2014-12-01
We theoretically find the effect of confinement and thermal fluctuations on the diffusivity of a spherical active swimmer moving inside a two-dimensional narrow cavity of general shape. The explicit formulas for the effective diffusion coefficient of a swimmer moving inside two particular cavities are presented. We also compare our analytical results with Brownian dynamics simulations and we obtain excellent agreement. PMID:25615133
Diffuse knapweed (Centaurea diffusa) seed germination
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
Diffuse knapweed is a deep tap rooted species that was introduced to North America about 1900 and by the mid 1990s occupied 1.2 million hectares in the western United States. Diffuse knapweed invasion has reduced biodiversity, forage for livestock and wildlife, and deteriorated watersheds character...
Diffusion of triglycine sulfate in aqueous solution
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kroes, R. L.; Reiss, D.; Silberman, E.; Morgan, S.
1985-01-01
The diffusion coefficient of triglycine sulfate (TGS) in water was measured for several concentrations over a temperature range of 25 to 55 C. The activation energy for diffusion obtained from these measurements was 4180 cal/mol. No concentration dependence was seen. The maximum difference in D for the various ionic species present was determined by Raman spectroscopy to be about 5 percent.
Riemann equation for prime number diffusion.
Chen, Wen; Liang, Yingjie
2015-05-01
This study makes the first attempt to propose the Riemann diffusion equation to describe in a manner of partial differential equation and interpret in physics of diffusion the classical Riemann method for prime number distribution. The analytical solution of this equation is the well-known Riemann representation. The diffusion coefficient is dependent on natural number, a kind of position-dependent diffusivity diffusion. We find that the diffusion coefficient of the Riemann diffusion equation is nearly a straight line having a slope 0.99734 in the double-logarithmic axis. Consequently, an approximate solution of the Riemann diffusion equation is obtained, which agrees well with the Riemann representation in predicting the prime number distribution. Moreover, we interpret the scale-free property of prime number distribution via a power law function with 1.0169 the scale-free exponent in respect to logarithmic transform of the natural number, and then the fractal characteristic of prime number distribution is disclosed. PMID:26026319
Diffusion coefficients of several aqueous alkanolamine solutions
Snijder, E.D.; Riele, M.J.M. te; Versteeg, G.F.; Swaaij, W.P.M. van . Dept. of Chemical Engineering)
1993-07-01
In absorption processes of acid gases (H[sub 2]S, CO[sub 2], COS) in alkanolamine solutions, diffusion coefficients are used for the calculation of the mass transfer rate. The Taylor dispersion technique was applied for the determination of diffusion coefficients of various systems. Experiments with the system KCl in water showed that the experimental setup provides accurate data. For the alkanolamines monoethanolamine (MEA), diethanolamine (DEA), methyldiethanolamine (MDEA), and di-2-propanolamine (DIPA), correlations for the diffusion coefficient as a function of temperature at different concentrations are given. A single relation for every amine has been derived which correlates the diffusion coefficients as a function of temperature and concentration. The temperature was varied between 298 and 348 K, and the concentration between 0 and 4000-5000 mol/m[sup 3]. Furthermore, a modified Stokes-Einstein relation is presented for the prediction of the diffusion coefficients in the alkanolamines in relation to the viscosity of the solvent and the diffusion coefficient at infinite dilution. The diffusion coefficients at low concentrations are compared with some available relations for the estimation of diffusion coefficients at infinite dilution, and it appears that the agreement is fairly good.
Neoclassical diffusion in a turbulent plasma
Yushmanov, P. |
1991-11-01
This work describes a new approach to plasma transport where the toroidal drift motion is considered as a perturbation to the fluctuating velocity. Percolation theory is used to determine the scaling of the diffusion coefficient. Several neoclassical phenomena should persist even when diffusion is enhanced from neoclassical predictions. Numerical simulation results support the theoretical scaling arguments.
Diffusion and scattering in multifractal clouds
Lovejoy, S.; Schertzer, D.; Waston, B.
1996-04-01
This paper describes investigations of radiative properties of multifractal clouds using two different approaches. In the first, diffusion is considered by examining the scaling properties of one dimensional random walks on media with multifractal diffusivities. The second approach considers the scattering statistics associated with radiative transport.
Pressure diffusion waves in porous media
Silin, Dmitry; Korneev, Valeri; Goloshubin, Gennady
2003-04-08
Pressure diffusion wave in porous rocks are under consideration. The pressure diffusion mechanism can provide an explanation of the high attenuation of low-frequency signals in fluid-saturated rocks. Both single and dual porosity models are considered. In either case, the attenuation coefficient is a function of the frequency.
Attractive membrane domains control lateral diffusion.
Forstner, Martin B; Martin, Douglas S; Rückerl, Florian; Käs, Josef A; Selle, Carsten
2008-05-01
Lipid membranes play a fundamental role in vital cellular functions such as signal transduction. Many of these processes rely on lateral diffusion within the membrane, generally a complex fluid containing ordered microdomains. However, little attention has been paid to the alterations in transport dynamics of a diffusing species caused by long-range interactions with membrane domains. In this paper, we address the effect of such interactions on diffusive transport by studying lateral diffusion in a phase-separated Langmuir phospholipid monolayer via single-particle tracking. We find that attractive dipole-dipole interactions between condensed phase domains and diffusing probe beads lead to transient confinement at the phase boundaries, causing a transition from two- to one-dimensional diffusion. Using Brownian dynamics simulations, the long-term diffusion constant for such a system is found to have a sensitive, Boltzmann-like, dependence on the interaction strength. In addition, this interaction strength is shown to be a strong function of the ratio of domain to particle size. As similar interactions are expected in biological membranes, the modulation of diffusive transport dynamics by varying interaction strength and/or domain size may offer cells selective spatial and temporal control over signaling processes. PMID:18643101
The Classical Diffusion Paradigm in Crisis.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hooks, Gregory
The erosion of the credibility of the classical diffusion paradigm by recent challenges to its fundamental assumptions has resulted in a "paradigmatic crisis" as related to research on the diffusion of agricultural innovations. Such basic assumptions as that of a harmonious and cooperative society and of agricultural research guided by endogenous…
Diffusion mediated localization on membrane surfaces
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Weaver, D. L.
1982-01-01
Using the model of a cell membrane of a spherical surface in which membrane components may diffuse, the rate of localization due to trapping under diffusion control has been estimated by computing an analytical expression for the mean trapping time including the possibilities of a trapping probability less than one and/or the establishment of an equilibrium at the trap boundary.
NEEDED RESEARCH ON DIFFUSION WITHIN EDUCATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
JAIN, NEMI C.; ROGERS, EVERETT M.
IN SPITE OF THE VOLUME OF RESEARCH ATTENTION DEVOTED TO THE DIFFUSION OF INNOVATIONS, RELATIVELY LITTLE EMPHASIS HAS BEEN PLACED UPON DIFFUSION WITHIN ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURES. METHODOLOGICALLY, RELATIONAL ANALYSIS IN WHICH THE UNIT OF ANALYSIS IS A TWO-PERSON INTERACTING PAIR, A MULTIPLE PERSON COMMUNICATION CHAIN, OR CLIQUES OR SUBSYSTEMS IS…
Diffuse Alveolar Hemorrhage Associated with Warfarin Therapy
Kaya, Bülent; Yildiz, Ibrahim; Baha, Reshat Mehmet; Zeytun, Neslihan Ebru Eryaşar; Yetisgen, Azize
2015-01-01
Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage (DAH) is a life-threatening clinical pathologic syndrome caused by a variety of diseases. We report a case of DAH related to therapy of warfarin use. In this case report, we present the diffuse alveolar hemorrhage case as a rare and life-threatening complication of warfarin. PMID:26347781
Diffusion of Salt in Tap Water
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Booth, C.; And Others
1978-01-01
A simple experiment is described to measure the diffusion coefficient of a solute in a fluid. Laboratory-made floats are used to monitor the density changes associated with diffusion behavior. The experiment is ideally suited for undergraduate project work. (BB)
DIFFUSE RADIO EMISSION IN ABELL 754
Kale, Ruta; Dwarakanath, K. S. E-mail: dwaraka@rri.res.in
2009-07-10
We present a low-frequency study of the diffuse radio emission in the galaxy cluster A754. We present a new 150 MHz image of the galaxy cluster A754 made with the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope and discuss the detection of four diffuse features. We compare the 150 MHz image with the images at 74, 330, and 1363 MHz; one new diffuse feature is detected. The flux density upper limits at 330 and 1363 MHz imply a synchrotron spectral index, {alpha}>2 (S {proportional_to} {nu}{sup -{alpha}}), for the new feature. The 'west relic' detected at 74 MHz is not detected at 150 MHz and is thus consistent with its nondetection at 1363 MHz and 330 MHz. Integrated spectra of all the diffuse features are presented. The fourth diffuse feature is located along the proposed merger axis in A754 and 0.7 Mpc away from the peak of X-ray emission; we refer to it as a relic. We have made use of the framework of the adiabatic compression model to obtain spectra. We show that the spectrum of the fourth diffuse feature is consistent with that of a cocoon of a radio galaxy lurking for about 9 x 10{sup 7} yr; no shock compression is required. The other three diffuse emission have spectra steeper than 1.5 and could be cocoons lurking for longer time. We discuss other possibilities such as shocks and turbulent reacceleration being responsible for the diffuse emission in A754.
Molecular Diffusion Coefficients: Experimental Determination and Demonstration.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Fate, Gwendolyn; Lynn, David G.
1990-01-01
Presented are laboratory methods which allow the demonstration and determination of the diffusion coefficients of compounds ranging in size from water to small proteins. Included are the procedures involving the use of a spectrometer, UV cell, triterated agar, and oxygen diffusion. Results including quantification are described. (CW)
Undergraduate Laboratory Module on Skin Diffusion
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Norman, James J.; Andrews, Samantha N.; Prausnitz, Mark R.
2011-01-01
To introduce students to an application of chemical engineering directly related to human health, we developed an experiment for the unit operations laboratory at Georgia Tech examining diffusion across cadaver skin in the context of transdermal drug delivery. In this laboratory module, students prepare mouse skin samples, set up diffusion cells…
Diffusion of Super-Gaussian Profiles
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Rosenberg, C.-J.; Anderson, D.; Desaix, M.; Johannisson, P.; Lisak, M.
2007-01-01
The present analysis describes an analytically simple and systematic approximation procedure for modelling the free diffusive spreading of initially super-Gaussian profiles. The approach is based on a self-similar ansatz for the evolution of the diffusion profile, and the parameter functions involved in the modelling are determined by suitable…
Finite-difference schemes for anisotropic diffusion
Es, Bram van; Koren, Barry; Blank, Hugo J. de
2014-09-01
In fusion plasmas diffusion tensors are extremely anisotropic due to the high temperature and large magnetic field strength. This causes diffusion, heat conduction, and viscous momentum loss, to effectively be aligned with the magnetic field lines. This alignment leads to different values for the respective diffusive coefficients in the magnetic field direction and in the perpendicular direction, to the extent that heat diffusion coefficients can be up to 10{sup 12} times larger in the parallel direction than in the perpendicular direction. This anisotropy puts stringent requirements on the numerical methods used to approximate the MHD-equations since any misalignment of the grid may cause the perpendicular diffusion to be polluted by the numerical error in approximating the parallel diffusion. Currently the common approach is to apply magnetic field-aligned coordinates, an approach that automatically takes care of the directionality of the diffusive coefficients. This approach runs into problems at x-points and at points where there is magnetic re-connection, since this causes local non-alignment. It is therefore useful to consider numerical schemes that are tolerant to the misalignment of the grid with the magnetic field lines, both to improve existing methods and to help open the possibility of applying regular non-aligned grids. To investigate this, in this paper several discretization schemes are developed and applied to the anisotropic heat diffusion equation on a non-aligned grid.
Particle Diffusion in an Inhomogeneous Medium
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bringuier, E.
2011-01-01
This paper is an elementary introduction to particle diffusion in a medium where the coefficient of diffusion varies with position. The introduction is aimed at third-year university courses. We start from a simple model of particles hopping on a discrete lattice, in one or more dimensions, and then take the continuous-space limit so as to obtain…
Discrete Fractional Diffusion Equation of Chaotic Order
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Guo-Cheng; Baleanu, Dumitru; Xie, He-Ping; Zeng, Sheng-Da
Discrete fractional calculus is suggested in diffusion modeling in porous media. A variable-order fractional diffusion equation is proposed on discrete time scales. A function of the variable order is constructed by a chaotic map. The model shows some new random behaviors in comparison with other variable-order cases.
Conformational Diffusion and Helix Formation Kinetics
Hummer, Gerhard; Garcia, Angel E.; Garde, Shekhar
2000-09-18
The time, temperature, and sequence dependences of helix formation kinetics of fully atomistic peptide models in explicit solvent are described quantitatively by a diffusive search within the coil state with barrierless transitions into the helical state. Conformational diffusion leads to nonexponential kinetics and jump-width dependences in temperature jump experiments. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society.
Hydrogen in α -iron: Stress and diffusion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sanchez, J.; Fullea, J.; Andrade, C.; de Andres, P. L.
2008-07-01
First-principles density-functional theory has been used to investigate equilibrium geometries, total energies, and diffusion barriers for H as an interstitial impurity absorbed in α-Fe . Internal strains/stresses upon hydrogen absorption are a crucial factor to understand preferred absorption sites and diffusion. For high concentrations, H absorbs near the octahedral site favoring a large tetragonal distortion of the bcc lattice. For low concentration, H absorbs near the tetrahedral site minimizing the elastic energy stored on nearby cells. Diffusion paths depend on the concentration regime too; hydrogen diffuses about ten times faster in the distorted body-centered-tetragonal (bct) lattice. External stresses of several GPa modify barriers by ≈10% , and diffusion rates by ≈30% .
Li + ion diffusion in nanoscale alumina coatings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Johannes, Michelle; Bernstein, Noam
Nanoscale coatings of alumina are used to stabilize surfaces for a variety of technologies. Diffusion of ions through these coatings is of primary importance: in some cases, diffusion is unwanted (e.g. corrosion) and in others (e.g. electrode materials), it is necessary. In this work DFT and AIMD calculations are used to investigate Li+ ion diffusion through a nano-layer of alumina, examining the phase (alpha, gamma, and amorphous), ion concentration, and electron count dependence. We look at the role of the surface itself in promoting diffusion. One of our main findings is that as the number of ions or charge increases, the diffusivity rises. We show how our data can explain electrochemical data from coated LiCoO2 cathodes and may point toward better and more efficient coatings for stabilizing electrodes.
Solid-state diffusion in amorphous zirconolite
Yang, C.; Dove, M. T.; Trachenko, K.; Zarkadoula, E.; Todorov, I. T.; Geisler, T.; Brazhkin, V. V.
2014-11-14
We discuss how structural disorder and amorphization affect solid-state diffusion, and consider zirconolite as a currently important case study. By performing extensive molecular dynamics simulations, we disentangle the effects of amorphization and density, and show that a profound increase of solid-state diffusion takes place as a result of amorphization. Importantly, this can take place at the same density as in the crystal, representing an interesting general insight regarding solid-state diffusion. We find that decreasing the density in the amorphous system increases pre-factors of diffusion constants, but does not change the activation energy in the density range considered. We also find that atomic species in zirconolite are affected differently by amorphization and density change. Our microscopic insights are relevant for understanding how solid-state diffusion changes due to disorder and for building predictive models of operation of materials to be used to encapsulate nuclear waste.
Particle and tracer diffusion in complex liquids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Koynov, Kaloian; Butt, Hans-Jürgen
2013-02-01
The diffusion of fluorescent tracers can be studied using fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS). This powerful method offers the possibility to monitor very small tracers at low concentrations, down to single molecules. Furthermore it possesses a sub-femtoliter detection volume that can be precisely positioned in a heterogeneous environment to probe the local dynamics. Despite its great potential and high versatility in addressing the diffusion and transport properties in complex systems, FCS has been predominantly applied in molecular and cell biology. Here we present some applications that are more relevant for material and soft matter science. First, we study the diffusion of single tracers with molecular sizes in undiluted polymer systems. Next, the diffusion of small molecules and semiconductor nanoparticles (quantum dots) in silica inverse opals is studied and correlated to the size and morphology of the inverse opals. Finally, we show how FCS can be used to measure the diffusion coefficient of nanoparticles at water-oil interfaces.
Stress diffusion in models for shear banding
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Masnada, Elian; Olmsted, Peter
Understanding shear banding is of utmost importance from both theoretical and experimental point of view and consequently it has been studied for several decades. Despite this study numerous aspects of shear banding remains poorly understood. Because of the intrinsic inhomogeneity in the shear banded state, applicable constitutive models must be include spatial inhomogeneities, leading to a so-called 'diffusive' term in the equation of motion for the slow variables that carry stress. Such terms are also vital in describing the interaction of bulk shear banding flows with walls and incorporation of wall slip. In this work, we consider different sources of 'diffusion' in polymer models in which concentration degrees of freedom are negligible. The simplest models used are consistent with diffusive terms whose origin is intrinsically dissipative, such as due to hydrodynamic interactions. By contrast, models in which elastic effects such as finite chain stiffness contribute to stress diffusion are inconsistent with simple diffusive models, and we propose alternative consistent models
Fast diffusion of water nanodroplets on graphene
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ma, Ming; Tocci, Gabriele; Michaelides, Angelos; Aeppli, Gabriel
2016-01-01
Diffusion across surfaces generally involves motion on a vibrating but otherwise stationary substrate. Here, using molecular dynamics, we show that a layered material such as graphene opens up a new mechanism for surface diffusion whereby adsorbates are carried by propagating ripples in a motion similar to surfing. For water nanodroplets, we demonstrate that the mechanism leads to exceedingly fast diffusion that is 2-3 orders of magnitude faster than the self-diffusion of water molecules in liquid water. We also reveal the underlying principles that regulate this new mechanism for diffusion and show how it also applies to adsorbates other than water, thus opening up the prospect of achieving fast and controllable motion of adsorbates across material surfaces more generally.
MAGNETIC ADVECTION DUE TO DIFFUSIVITY GRADIENTS
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zita, E. J.
2009-12-01
We derive and discuss an important source of advection of magnetic fields in plasmas, for a completely general case. Magnetic diffusivity is proportional to electrical resistivity: where the value this parameter is high, it is well known that magnetic fields can leak (or diffuse) rapidly into (or out) of the plasma. Magnetohydrodynamic lore has it that where gradients, or changes in space, of the value of the diffusivity are high, magnetic fields can have enhanced flow (or advection). We derive this phenomenon rigorously, compare our results to other work in the literature, and discuss its implications, especially for kinematic dynamos. As an extra mathematical bonus, we find that the magnetic advection due to diffusivity gradients can be expressed in terms of a diffusion equation within the induction equation, making its computational implementation especially simple.
Fast diffusion of water nanodroplets on graphene.
Ma, Ming; Tocci, Gabriele; Michaelides, Angelos; Aeppli, Gabriel
2016-01-01
Diffusion across surfaces generally involves motion on a vibrating but otherwise stationary substrate. Here, using molecular dynamics, we show that a layered material such as graphene opens up a new mechanism for surface diffusion whereby adsorbates are carried by propagating ripples in a motion similar to surfing. For water nanodroplets, we demonstrate that the mechanism leads to exceedingly fast diffusion that is 2-3 orders of magnitude faster than the self-diffusion of water molecules in liquid water. We also reveal the underlying principles that regulate this new mechanism for diffusion and show how it also applies to adsorbates other than water, thus opening up the prospect of achieving fast and controllable motion of adsorbates across material surfaces more generally. PMID:26480227
Molecular diffusion, tissue microdynamics and microstructure.
Le Bihan, D
1995-01-01
Diffusion NMR is the only method available today that noninvasively provides information on molecular displacements over distances comparable to cell dimensions. This information can be used to infer tissue microstructure and microdynamics. However, data may be fairly difficult to interpret in biological tissues which differ markedly from the theoretical "infinite isotrope medium", as many factors may affect the NMR signal. The object of this paper is to analyze the expected effects of temperature, restriction, hindrance, membrane permeability, anisotropy and tissue inhomogeneity on the diffusion measurements. Powerful methods, such as q-space imaging, diffusion tensor imaging and diffusion spectroscopy of metabolites further enhance the specificity of the information obtained from diffusion NMR experiments. PMID:8739274
Search for selective ion diffusion through membranes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
May, C. E.; Philipp, W. H.
1983-01-01
The diffusion rates of several ions through some membranes developed as battery separators were measured. The ions investigated were Li(+), Rb(+), Cl(-), and So4. The members were crosslinked polyvinyl alcohol, crosslinked polyacrylic acid, a copolymer of the two, crosslinked calcium polyacrylate, cellulose, and several microporous polyphenylene oxide based films. No true specificity for diffusion of any of these ions was found for any of the membranes. But the calcium polyacrylate membrane was found to exhibit ion exchange with the diffusing ions giving rise to the leaching of the calcium ion and low reproducibility. These findings contrast earlier work where the calcium polyacrylate membrane did show specificity to the diffusion of the copper ion. In general, Fick's law appeared to be obeyed. Except for the microporous membranes, the coefficients for ion diffusion through the membranes were comparable with their values in water. For the microporous membranes, the values found for the coefficients were much less, due to the tortuosity of the micropores.
Diffusion of uranium in compacted sodium bentonite
Muurinen, A.; Ollila, K.; Lehikoinen, J.
1993-12-31
In this study the diffusion of uranium dissolved from uranium oxide fuel was studied experimentally in compacted sodium bentonite (Wyoming bentonite MX-80). The parameters varied in the study were the density of bentonite, the salt content of the solution and the redox conditions. In the studies with non-saline water of total dissolved solids about 300 ppm, uranium was both in aerobic and anaerobic experiments as anionic complexes and followed the anionic diffusion mechanism. Anion exclusion decreased effective diffusion coefficients, especially in more dense samples. In the studies with saline water of total dissolves solids about 35000 ppm, uranium appeared in the aerobic experiments probably as cationic complexes and followed the cationic diffusion mechanism. Uranium in the saline, anaerobic experiment was probably U(OH){sub 4} and followed the diffusion mechanism of neutral species.
Preliminary report on the diffusion of solids
Van Orstrand, C. E.; Dewey, F.P.
1916-01-01
Although 19 years has elapsed since Roberts-Austen published his classical paper on the diffusion of solid metals, no attempt seems to have been made to verify his important results and conclusions or to extend the investigations to minerals and to the great number of solids in which diffusion may be expected to occur. Progress has been made by means of chemical and electrical methods in the detection of diffusion in a number of metals in the solid state, some progress has been made in explaining the phenomena of diffusion on the basis of osmotic pressure and the kinetic theory, and recent measurements of the vapor pressures of solids have contributed indirectly to the progress of the science, but investigators have not undertaken the difficult and essential task of making definitive determinations of the coefficients of diffusivity at various pressures and temperatures.
The dynamics of unsteady detonation with diffusion
Aslam, Tariq Dennis; Romick, Christopher; Powers, Joseph
2010-01-01
Here we consider an unsteady detonation with diffusion included. This introduces an interaction between the reaction length scales and diffusion length scales. Detailed kinetics introduce multiple length scales as shown though the spatial eigenvalue analysis of hydrogen-oxygen system; the smallest length scale is {approx} 10{sup 7} m and the largest {approx} 10{sup -2} m; away from equilibrium, the breadth can be larger. In this paper, we consider a simpler set of model equations, similar to the inviscid reactive compressible fluid equations, but include diffusion (in the form of thermal/energy, momentum, and mass diffusion). We will seek to reveal how the complex dynamics already discovered in one-step systems in the inviscid limit changes with the addition of diffusion.
Heat Diffusion with Frozen Boundary
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Florescu, Laura; Ganguly, Shirshendu; Peres, Yuval; Spencer, Joel
2015-11-01
Consider "frozen random walk" on Z: n particles start at the origin. At any discrete time, the leftmost and rightmost lfloor {n/4}rfloor particles are "frozen" and do not move. The rest of the particles in the "bulk" independently jump to the left and right uniformly. The goal of this note is to understand the limit of this process under scaling of mass and time. To this end we study the following deterministic mass splitting process: start with mass 1 at the origin. At each step the extreme quarter mass on each side is "frozen". The remaining "free" mass in the center evolves according to the discrete heat equation. We establish diffusive behavior of this mass evolution and identify the scaling limit under the assumption of its existence. It is natural to expect the limit to be a truncated Gaussian. A naive guess for the truncation point might be the 1 / 4 quantile points on either side of the origin. We show that this is not the case and it is in fact determined by the evolution of the second moment of the mass distribution.
Turbulent resistivity, diffusion and heating
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fried, B. D.; Kennel, C. F.; Mackenzie, K.; Coroniti, F. V.; Kindel, J. M.; Stenzel, R.; Taylor, R. J.; White, R.; Wong, A. Y.; Bernstein, W.
1971-01-01
Experimental and theoretical studies are reported on ion acoustic and ion cyclotron turbulence and their roles in anomalous resistivity, viscosity, diffusion and heating and in the structure of collisionless electrostatic shocks. Resistance due to ion acoustic turbulence has been observed in experiments with a streaming cesium plasma in which electron current, potential rise due to turbulent resistivity, spectrum of unstable ion acoustic waves, and associated electron heating were all measured directly. Kinetic theory calculations for an expanding, unstable plasma, give results in agreement with the experiment. In a strong magnetic field, with T sub e/T sub i approximately 1 and current densities typical for present Tokomaks, the plasma is stable to ion acoustic but unstable to current driven electrostatic ion cyclotron waves. Relevant characteristics of these waves are calculated and it is shown that for ion, beta greater than m sub e/m sub i, the electromagnetic ion cyclotron wave has a lower instability threshold than the electrostatic one. However, when ion acoustic turbulence is present experiments with double plasma devices show rapid anomalous heating of an ion beam streaming through a plasma.
Diffusion Tensor Imaging of Pedophilia.
Cantor, James M; Lafaille, Sophie; Soh, Debra W; Moayedi, Massieh; Mikulis, David J; Girard, Todd A
2015-11-01
Pedophilia is a principal motivator of child molestation, incurring great emotional and financial burdens on victims and society. Even among pedophiles who never commit any offense,the condition requires lifelong suppression and control. Previous comparison using voxel-based morphometry (VBM)of MR images from a large sample of pedophiles and controls revealed group differences in white matter. The present study therefore sought to verify and characterize white matter involvement using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), which better captures the microstructure of white matter than does VBM. Pedophilics ex offenders (n=24) were compared with healthy, age-matched controls with no criminal record and no indication of pedophilia (n=32). White matter microstructure was analyzed with Tract-Based Spatial Statistics, and the trajectories of implicated fiber bundles were identified by probabilistic tractography. Groups showed significant, highly focused differences in DTI parameters which related to participants’ genital responses to sexual depictions of children, but not to measures of psychopathy or to childhood histories of physical abuse, sexual abuse, or neglect. Some previously reported gray matter differences were suggested under highly liberal statistical conditions (p(uncorrected)<.005), but did not survive ordinary statistical correction (whole brain per voxel false discovery rate of 5%). These results confirm that pedophilia is characterized by neuroanatomical differences in white matter microstructure, over and above any neural characteristics attributable to psychopathy and childhood adversity, which show neuroanatomic footprints of their own. Although some gray matter structures were implicated previously, only few have emerged reliably. PMID:26494360
Attracted diffusion-limited aggregation.
Rahbari, S H Ebrahimnazhad; Saberi, A A
2012-07-01
In this paper we present results of extensive Monte Carlo simulations of diffusion-limited aggregation (DLA) with a seed placed on an attractive plane as a simple model in connection with the electrical double layers. We compute the fractal dimension of the aggregated patterns as a function of the attraction strength α. For the patterns grown in both two and three dimensions, the fractal dimension shows a significant dependence on the attraction strength for small values of α and approaches that of the ordinary two-dimensional (2D) DLA in the limit of large α. For the nonattracting case with α = 1, our results in three dimensions reproduce the patterns of 3D ordinary DLA, while in two dimensions our model leads to the formation of a compact cluster with dimension 2. For intermediate α, the 3D clusters have a quasi-2D structure with a fractal dimension very close to that of the ordinary 2D DLA. This allows one to control the morphology of a growing cluster by tuning a single external parameter α. PMID:23005417
Attracted diffusion-limited aggregation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rahbari, S. H. Ebrahimnazhad; Saberi, A. A.
2012-07-01
In this paper we present results of extensive Monte Carlo simulations of diffusion-limited aggregation (DLA) with a seed placed on an attractive plane as a simple model in connection with the electrical double layers. We compute the fractal dimension of the aggregated patterns as a function of the attraction strength α. For the patterns grown in both two and three dimensions, the fractal dimension shows a significant dependence on the attraction strength for small values of α and approaches that of the ordinary two-dimensional (2D) DLA in the limit of large α. For the nonattracting case with α=1, our results in three dimensions reproduce the patterns of 3D ordinary DLA, while in two dimensions our model leads to the formation of a compact cluster with dimension 2. For intermediate α, the 3D clusters have a quasi-2D structure with a fractal dimension very close to that of the ordinary 2D DLA. This allows one to control the morphology of a growing cluster by tuning a single external parameter α.
Anisotropic diffusion-limited aggregation.
Popescu, M N; Hentschel, H G E; Family, F
2004-06-01
Using stochastic conformal mappings, we study the effects of anisotropic perturbations on diffusion-limited aggregation (DLA) in two dimensions. The harmonic measure of the growth probability for DLA can be conformally mapped onto a constant measure on a unit circle. Here we map m preferred directions for growth to a distribution on the unit circle, which is a periodic function with m peaks in [-pi,pi) such that the angular width sigma of the peak defines the "strength" of anisotropy kappa= sigma(-1) along any of the m chosen directions. The two parameters (m,kappa) map out a parameter space of perturbations that allows a continuous transition from DLA (for small enough kappa ) to m needlelike fingers as kappa--> infinity. We show that at fixed m the effective fractal dimension of the clusters D(m,kappa) obtained from mass-radius scaling decreases with increasing kappa from D(DLA) approximately 1.71 to a value bounded from below by D(min) = 3 / 2. Scaling arguments suggest a specific form for the dependence of the fractal dimension D(m,kappa) on kappa for large kappa which compares favorably with numerical results. PMID:15244564
Burning Laminar Jet Diffusion Flame
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
2003-01-01
Study of the downlink data from the Laminar Soot Processes (LSP) experiment quickly resulted in discovery of a new mechanism of flame extinction caused by radiation of soot. Scientists found that the flames emit soot sooner than expected. These findings have direct impact on spacecraft fire safety, as well as the theories predicting the formation of soot -- which is a major factor as a pollutant and in the spread of unwanted fires. This sequence was taken July 15, 1997, MET:14/10:34 (approximate) and shows the ignition and extinction of this flame. LSP investigated fundamental questions regarding soot, a solid byproduct of the combustion of hydrocarbon fuels. The experiment was performed using a laminar jet diffusion flame, which is created by simply flowing fuel -- like ethylene or propane -- through a nozzle and igniting it, much like a butane cigarette lighter. The LSP principal investigator was Gerard Faeth, University of Michigan, Arn Arbor. The experiment was part of the space research investigations conducted during the Microgravity Science Laboratory-1R mission (STS-94, July 1-17 1997). LSP results led to a reflight for extended investigations on the STS-107 research mission in January 2003. Advanced combustion experiments will be a part of investigations planned for the International Space Station. (518KB, 20-second MPEG, screen 160 x 120 pixels; downlinked video, higher quality not available) A still JPG composite of this movie is available at http://mix.msfc.nasa.gov/ABSTRACTS/MSFC-0300182.html.
Laminar Jet Diffusion Flame Burning
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
2003-01-01
Study of the downlink data from the Laminar Soot Processes (LSP) experiment quickly resulted in discovery of a new mechanism of flame extinction caused by radiation of soot. Scientists found that the flames emit soot sooner than expected. These findings have direct impact on spacecraft fire safety, as well as the theories predicting the formation of soot -- which is a major factor as a pollutant and in the spread of unwanted fires. This sequence, using propane fuel, was taken STS-94, July 4 1997, MET:2/05:30 (approximate). LSP investigated fundamental questions regarding soot, a solid byproduct of the combustion of hydrocarbon fuels. The experiment was performed using a laminar jet diffusion flame, which is created by simply flowing fuel-like ethylene or propane -- through a nozzle and igniting it, much like a butane cigarette lighter. The LSP principal investigator was Gerard Faeth, University of Michigan, Arn Arbor. The experiment was part of the space research investigations conducted during the Microgravity Science Laboratory-1R mission (STS-94, July 1-17 1997). LSP results led to a reflight for extended investigations on the STS-107 research mission in January 2003. Advanced combustion experiments will be a part of investigations planned for the International Space Station. (983KB, 9-second MPEG, screen 320 x 240 pixels; downlinked video, higher quality not available) A still JPG composite of this movie is available at http://mix.msfc.nasa.gov/ABSTRACTS/MSFC-0300184.html.
Vertical diffusivities of active and passive tracers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Canuto, V. M.; Cheng, Y.; Howard, A. M.
The climate models that include a carbon-cycle need the vertical diffusivity of a passive tracer. Since an expression for the latter is not available, it has been common practice to identify it with that of salt. The identification is questionable since T, S are active, not passive tracers. We present the first derivation of the diffusivity of a passive tracer in terms of Ri (Richardson number) and R ρ (density ratio, ratio of salinity over temperature z-gradients). The following results have emerged: The passive tracer diffusivity is an algebraic function of Ri, R ρ. In doubly stable regimes (DS, ∂ T/∂z > 0, ∂S/∂ z < 0), the passive scalar diffusivity is nearly the same as that of salt/heat for any values of R ρ < 0 and Ri > 0. In DC regimes (diffusive convection, ∂ T/∂ z < 0, ∂ S/∂ z < 0, R ρ > 1), the passive scalar diffusivity is larger than that of salt. At Ri = O(1), it can be more than twice as large. In SF regimes (salt fingers, ∂ T/∂ z > 0, ∂ S/∂ z > 0, R ρ < 1), the passive scalar diffusivity is smaller than that of salt. At Ri = O(1), it can be less than half of it. The passive tracer diffusivity predicted at the location of NATRE (North Atlantic Tracer Release Experiment) is discussed. Perhaps the most relevant conclusion is that the common identification of the tracer diffusivity with that of salt is valid only in DS regimes. In the Southern Ocean, where there is the largest CO 2 absorption, the dominant regime is diffusive convection discussed in (c) above.
Thermal diffusivity of some crystalline rocks
Drury, M.J.
1987-01-01
Thermal diffusivity data at room temperature and uniaxial pressure of 1 MPa are reported for five sets of crystalline rocks - granite, granodiorite, gabbro, basalt and gneiss. Diffusivity ranges between approximately 0.6 and 1.9 mm/sup 2//s, the lower end of the range being appropriate for basic rocks and the upper end for quartz-bearing acidic rocks. The scatter in diffusivity for each data set is significantly more than that of thermal conductivity, because the diffusivity of water is typically less than 10% of the diffusivity of most common minerals, whereas water conductivity is 25 - 30% of the conductivity of the minerals. For a sample set of uniform mineralogy in which porosity varies, a greater variation of diffusivity than of conductivity is therefore expected. For three of the sets sufficient mineralogical data were available to permit the assessment of methods of estimating thermal diffusivity from mineral content. All models tested yielded higher mean values of diffusivity than the means of the measured values. No model was found to be able to predict diffusivity to better than approximately 20%, but if that accuracy is sufficient, a simple geometrical model, for which only quartz content must be known, is adequate. The diffusivity data have been combined with measurements of thermal conductivity and density to provide estimates of specific heat. These all tend to be higher than those reported in the literature. For some rocks, such as the basalts, this can be explained in terms of relatively high water content and the very high specific heat of water compared with that of most common minerals. For the granites and granodiorites, the new specific heat data redefine the previously published means and ranges, by increasing the data base by approximately an order of magnitude.
Vertical Diffusivities of Active and Passive Tracers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Canuto, V. M.; Cheng, Y.; Howard, A. M.
2010-01-01
The climate models that include a carbon-cycle need the vertical diffusivity of a passive tracer. Since an expression for the latter is not available, it has been common practice to identify it with that of salt. The identification is questionable since T, S are active, not passive tracers. We present the first derivation of the diffusivity of a passive tracer in terms of Ri (Richardson number) and Rq (density ratio, ratio of salinity over temperature z-gradients). The following results have emerged: (a) The passive tracer diffusivity is an algebraic function of Ri, Rq. (b) In doubly stable regimes (DS, partial derivative of T with respect to z > 0, partial derivative of S with respect to z < 0), the passive scalar diffusivity is nearly the same as that of salt/heat for any values of Rq < 0 and Ri > 0. (c) In DC regimes (diffusive convection, partial derivative of T with respect to z < 0, partial derivative of S with respect to z < 0, Rq > 1), the passive scalar diffusivity is larger than that of salt. At Ri = O(1), it can be more than twice as large. (d) In SF regimes (salt fingers, partial derivative of T with respect to z > 0, partial derivative of S with respect to z > 0, Rq < 1), the passive scalar diffusivity is smaller than that of salt. At Ri = O(1), it can be less than half of it. (e) The passive tracer diffusivity predicted at the location of NATRE (North Atlantic Tracer Release Experiment) is discussed. (f) Perhaps the most relevant conclusion is that the common identification of the tracer diffusivity with that of salt is valid only in DS regimes. In the Southern Ocean, where there is the largest CO2 absorption, the dominant regime is diffusive convection discussed in (c) above.
Sentinel-2 diffuser on-ground calibration
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mazy, E.; Camus, F.; Chorvalli, V.; Domken, I.; Laborie, A.; Marcotte, S.; Stockman, Y.
2013-10-01
The Sentinel-2 multi-spectral instrument (MSI) will provide Earth imagery in the frame of the Global Monitoring for Environment and Security (GMES) initiative which is a joint undertaking of the European Commission and the Agency. MSI instrument, under Astrium SAS responsibility, is a push-broom spectro imager in 13 spectral channels in VNIR and SWIR. The instrument radiometric calibration is based on in-flight calibration with sunlight through a quasi Lambertian diffuser. The diffuser covers the full pupil and the full field of view of the instrument. The on-ground calibration of the diffuser BRDF is mandatory to fulfil the in-flight performances. The diffuser is a 779 x 278 mm2 rectangular flat area in Zenith-A material. It is mounted on a motorised door in front of the instrument optical system entrance. The diffuser manufacturing and calibration is under the Centre Spatial of Liege (CSL) responsibility. The CSL has designed and built a completely remote controlled BRDF test bench able to handle large diffusers in their mount. As the diffuser is calibrated directly in its mount with respect to a reference cube, the error budget is significantly improved. The BRDF calibration is performed directly in MSI instrument spectral bands by using dedicated band-pass filters (VNIR and SWIR up to 2200 nm). Absolute accuracy is better than 0.5% in VNIR spectral bands and 1% in SWIR spectral bands. Performances were cross checked with other laboratories. The first MSI diffuser for flight model was calibrated mid 2013 on CSL BRDF measurement bench. The calibration of the diffuser consists mainly in thermal vacuum cycles, BRDF uniformity characterisation and BRDF angular characterisation. The total amount of measurement for the first flight model diffuser corresponds to more than 17500 BRDF acquisitions. Performance results are discussed in comparison with requirements.
Anomalous diffusion in time-fluctuating non-stationary diffusivity landscapes.
Cherstvy, Andrey G; Metzler, Ralf
2016-08-24
We investigate the ensemble and time averaged mean squared displacements for particle diffusion in a simple model for disordered media by assuming that the local diffusivity is both fluctuating in time and has a deterministic average growth or decay in time. In this study we compare computer simulations of the stochastic Langevin equation for this random diffusion process with analytical results. We explore the regimes of normal Brownian motion as well as anomalous diffusion in the sub- and superdiffusive regimes. We also consider effects of the inertial term on the particle motion. The investigation of the resulting diffusion is performed for unconfined and confined motion. PMID:27523709
A Stochastic Cellular Automaton Model of Non-linear Diffusion and Diffusion with Reaction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brieger, Leesa M.; Bonomi, Ernesto
1991-06-01
This article presents a stochastic cellular automaton model of diffusion and diffusion with reaction. The master equations for the model are examined, and we assess the difference between the implementation in which a single particle at a time moves (asynchronous dynamics) and one implementation in which all particles move simultaneously (synchronous dynamics). Biasing locally each particle's random walk, we alter the diffusion coefficients of the system. By appropriately choosing the biasing function, we can impose a desired non-linear diffusive behaviour in the model. We present an application of this model, adapted to include two diffusing species, two static species, and a chemical reaction in a prototypical simulation of carbonation in concrete.
Numerical Evaluation of Lateral Diffusion Inside Diffusive Gradients in Thin Films Samplers
2015-01-01
Using numerical simulation of diffusion inside diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) samplers, we show that the effect of lateral diffusion inside the sampler on the solute flux into the sampler is a nonlinear function of the diffusion layer thickness and the physical sampling window size. In contrast, earlier work concluded that this effect was constant irrespective of parameters of the sampler geometry. The flux increase caused by lateral diffusion inside the sampler was determined to be ∼8.8% for standard samplers, which is considerably lower than the previous estimate of ∼20%. Lateral diffusion is also propagated to the diffusive boundary layer (DBL), where it leads to a slightly stronger decrease in the mass uptake than suggested by the common 1D diffusion model that is applied for evaluating DGT results. We introduce a simple correction procedure for lateral diffusion and demonstrate how the effect of lateral diffusion on diffusion in the DBL can be accounted for. These corrections often result in better estimates of the DBL thickness (δ) and the DGT-measured concentration than earlier approaches and will contribute to more accurate concentration measurements in solute monitoring in waters. PMID:25877251
Noble gas diffusion in silicate liquids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Amalberti, J.; Burnard, P.; Laporte, D.
2013-12-01
Fractionated noble gas relative abundances (Ne/Ar, Kr/Ar and Xe/Ar) and isotopic compositions (40Ar/36Ar, 38Ar/36Ar, 20Ne/22Ne, 21Ne/22Ne) are found in volcanic materials, notably in pumices (1-3). This has generally been interpreted as fractionation resulting from diffusion. However, there is some disagreement as to whether this fractionation occurs during high temperature magmatic processes (3) or due to diffusion of air into solidified pyroclastic deposits (2). We show that differences in relative noble gas diffusivities (e.g. D4He vs D40Ar, where D is the diffusivity) and isotopic diffusivities (e.g. D40Ar vs D36Ar) reduce at high temperatures (Fig). These results predict minimal fractionation of noble gases during magmatic processes. However, it is important to note that these diffusivities were measured in silicate glasses; the relative noble diffusivities in silicate liquids are poorly known. We have developed a new experimental protocol which will to determine the diffusivities of the noble gases and their isotopes in the liquid state. A graphite crucible c. 0.3 mm diameter and c. 20mm deep is filled with powdered glass of the desired composition, heated to 1773 K for 15 minutes and quenched to form a glass cylinder within the crucible. The crucible is then placed in a low pressure (1 bar) controlled atmosphere vertical furnace and heated at high temperatures (1673-1773K) for 2 hours in a pure N2 atmosphere. At this point noble gases (He and Ar) are introduced into the furnace and allowed to diffuse into the cylinder of liquid for durations of between 30 and 90. After quenching, the glass cylinder, preserving its' diffusion profile, is sawed into c. 1mm thick discs which are measured by conventional noble gas mass spectrometry for noble gas abundances (He, Ar) and isotopes (40,38,36Ar). The results will be presented at the conference. References 1 Kaneoka, I. Earth Planet Sci Letts 48, 284-292 (1980). 2 Pinti, D. L., Wada, N. & Matsuda, J. J. Volcan
Mutual diffusion in a binary isotopic mixture.
Sharma, Raman; Tankeshwar, K
2010-11-17
The mass dependence of the mutual diffusion coefficient, in a binary equimolar mixture of Lennard-Jones fluids, is studied within Mori's memory function formalism. A phenomenological form of the memory function is used to study the time evolution of the self- and relative velocity correlation functions. The diffusion coefficients are calculated from the relevant velocity correlation functions using the Green-Kubo integral formula. Like the self-diffusion coefficient, the mutual diffusion coefficient is also found to be weakly dependent on the mass ratio. The present study shows that the minimum value that the mutual diffusion coefficient in an equimolar mixture of isotopic fluids can have is √(1/2) times the self-diffusion coefficient of any of the species when in isolation. Further, the contribution of the dynamic/distinct cross correlations to the mutual diffusion coefficient is found to be small and positive for the whole range of the mass ratio which is consistent with earlier molecular dynamics results. PMID:21339621
Diffusion MRI and its role in neuropsychology
Mueller, Bryon A; Lim, Kelvin O; Hemmy, Laura; Camchong, Jazmin
2015-01-01
Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging (dMRI) is a popular method used by neuroscientists to uncover unique information about the structural connections within the brain. dMRI is a non-invasive imaging methodology in which image contrast is based on the diffusion of water molecules in tissue. While applicable to many tissues in the body, this review focuses exclusively on the use of dMRI to examine white matter in the brain. In this review, we begin with a definition of diffusion and how diffusion is measured with MRI. Next we introduce the diffusion tensor model, the predominant model used in dMRI. We then describe acquisition issues related to acquisition parameters and scanner hardware and software. Sources of artifacts are then discussed, followed by a brief review of analysis approaches. We provide an overview of the limitations of the traditional diffusion tensor model, and highlight several more sophisticated non-tensor models that better describe the complex architecture of the brain’s white matter. We then touch on reliability and validity issues of diffusion measurements. Finally, we describe examples of ways in which dMRI has been applied to studies of brain disorders and how identified alterations relate to symptomatology and cognition. PMID:26255305
Brain Extracellular Space as a Diffusion Barrier
Nicholson, Charles; Kamali-Zare, Padideh; Tao, Lian
2012-01-01
The extracellular space (ECS) consists of the narrow channels between brain cells together with their geometrical configuration and contents. Despite being only 20–60 nm in width, the ECS typically occupies 20% of the brain volume. Numerous experiments over the last 50 years have established that molecules moving through the ECS obey the laws of diffusion but with an effective diffusion coefficient reduced by a factor of about 2.6 compared to free diffusion. This review considers the origins of the diffusion barrier arising from the ECS and its properties. The paper presents a brief overview of software for implementing two point-source paradigms for measurements of localized diffusion properties: the real-time iontophoresis or pressure method for small ions and the integrative optical imaging method for macromolecules. Selected results are presented. This is followed by a discussion of the application of the MCell Monte Carlo simulation program to determining the importance of geometrical constraints, especially dead-space microdomains, and the possible role of interaction with the extracellular matrix. It is concluded that we can predict the impediment to diffusion of many molecules of practical importance and also use studies of the diffusion of selected molecular probes to reveal the barrier properties of the ECS. PMID:23172993
Image-based color ink diffusion rendering.
Wang, Chung-Ming; Wang, Ren-Jie
2007-01-01
This paper proposes an image-based painterly rendering algorithm for automatically synthesizing an image with color ink diffusion. We suggest a mathematical model with a physical base to simulate the phenomenon of color colloidal ink diffusing into absorbent paper. Our algorithm contains three main parts: a feature extraction phase, a Kubelka-Munk (KM) color mixing phase, and a color ink diffusion synthesis phase. In the feature extraction phase, the information of the reference image is simplified by luminance division and color segmentation. In the color mixing phase, the KM theory is employed to approximate the result when one pigment is painted upon another pigment layer. Then, in the color ink diffusion synthesis phase, the physically-based model that we propose is employed to simulate the result of color ink diffusion in absorbent paper using a texture synthesis technique. Our image-based ink diffusing rendering (IBCIDR) algorithm eliminates the drawback of conventional Chinese ink simulations, which are limited to the black ink domain, and our approach demonstrates that, without using any strokes, a color image can be automatically converted to the diffused ink style with a visually pleasing appearance. PMID:17218741
Diffusion MRI and its Role in Neuropsychology.
Mueller, Bryon A; Lim, Kelvin O; Hemmy, Laura; Camchong, Jazmin
2015-09-01
Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging (dMRI) is a popular method used by neuroscientists to uncover unique information about the structural connections within the brain. dMRI is a non-invasive imaging methodology in which image contrast is based on the diffusion of water molecules in tissue. While applicable to many tissues in the body, this review focuses exclusively on the use of dMRI to examine white matter in the brain. In this review, we begin with a definition of diffusion and how diffusion is measured with MRI. Next we introduce the diffusion tensor model, the predominant model used in dMRI. We then describe acquisition issues related to acquisition parameters and scanner hardware and software. Sources of artifacts are then discussed, followed by a brief review of analysis approaches. We provide an overview of the limitations of the traditional diffusion tensor model, and highlight several more sophisticated non-tensor models that better describe the complex architecture of the brain's white matter. We then touch on reliability and validity issues of diffusion measurements. Finally, we describe examples of ways in which dMRI has been applied to studies of brain disorders and how identified alterations relate to symptomatology and cognition. PMID:26255305
Structural Proton Diffusion along Lipid Bilayers
Serowy, Steffen; Saparov, Sapar M.; Antonenko, Yuri N.; Kozlovsky, Wladas; Hagen, Volker; Pohl, Peter
2003-01-01
For H+ transport between protein pumps, lateral diffusion along membrane surfaces represents the most efficient pathway. Along lipid bilayers, we measured a diffusion coefficient of 5.8 × 10−5 cm2 s−1. It is too large to be accounted for by vehicle diffusion, considering proton transport by acid carriers. Such a speed of migration is accomplished only by the Grotthuss mechanism involving the chemical exchange of hydrogen nuclei between hydrogen-bonded water molecules on the membrane surface, and the subsequent reorganization of the hydrogen-bonded network. Reconstitution of H+-binding sites on the membrane surface decreased the velocity of H+ diffusion. In the absence of immobile buffers, structural (Grotthuss) diffusion occurred over a distance of 100 μm as shown by microelectrode aided measurements of the spatial proton distribution in the immediate membrane vicinity and spatially resolved fluorescence measurements of interfacial pH. The efficiency of the anomalously fast lateral diffusion decreased gradually with an increase in mobile buffer concentration suggesting that structural diffusion is physiologically important for distances of ∼10 nm. PMID:12547784
Hydrogen and deuterium diffusion in vanadium alloys
Herro, H.M.
1982-01-01
Hydrogen and deuterium diffusion coefficients were measured between 473 and 230 K in alloys of vanadium containing titanium or niobium. Boltzmann-Matano techniques allowed the measurement of the hydrogen concentration dependence of the diffusion coefficient. In addition, one of these techniques permitted a determination of the terminal hydrogen solid solubility which was greatly increased by alloying. Both the hydrogen and deuterium diffusion coefficients were found to decrease with hydrogen isotope concentration in all alloys at all temperatures. The effect of niobium additions was to markedly reduce the rate of hydrogen migration to a minimum in the 75 at. pct. Nb alloy. The rate of hydrogen migration decreased with titanium concentration up to 30 at. pct. Ti, the highest concentration examined in that alloy system. The diffusion coefficients exhibited an Arrhenius temperature dependence and the resulting diffusion activation energy and D/sub o/ values both increased with titanium and with niobium concentration to a maximum of 75 at. pct. Nb. Deuterium diffusion activation energies were larger than corresponding hydrogen values in all alloys. The diffusion behavior found in these alloys is not well represented by current local deep trapping models.
Diffuse flow from hydrothermal vents. Doctoral thesis
Trivett, D.A.
1991-08-01
The effluent from a collection of diffuse hydrothermal vents was modelled to determine the fate of the source of flow under typical environmental conditions at seafloor spreading centers. A laboratory simulation was conducted to test an analytic model of diffuse plume rise. The results showed that diffuse plumes are likely to remain near the seafloor, with their maximum rise height scaled with the diameter of the source of diffuse flow. The entrainment of ambient seawater into these plumes is limited by the proximity to the seafloor, thus slowing the rate of dilution. The model of diffuse plume behaviour was used to guide the design and implementation of a scheme for monitoring the flow from diffuse hydrothermal vents in the ocean. A deployment of an array at the Southern Juan de Fuca Ridge yielded measurements of a variety of diffuse plume properties, including total heat output. Two distinct sources of hydrothermal flow were detected during the field deployment. The larger source was 1-1.5km north of the instrument array, and its energy output was 450 + or - 270MW. A smaller source was located 100m east of one instrument in the array. The energy output of the source was 12 + or - 8MW. The rise heights of the centerlines of these plumes were 45m and 10m, respectively.
Mechanism and kinetics of hydrated electron diffusion
Tay, Kafui A.; Coudert, Francois-Xavier; Boutin, Anne
2008-08-07
Molecular dynamics simulations are used to study the mechanism and kinetics of hydrated electron diffusion. The electron center of mass is found to exhibit Brownian-type behavior with a diffusion coefficient considerably greater than that of the solvent. As previously postulated by both experimental and theoretical works, the instantaneous response of the electron to the librational motions of surrounding water molecules constitutes the principal mode of motion. The diffusive mechanism can be understood within the traditional framework of transfer diffusion processes, where the diffusive step is akin to the exchange of an extramolecular electron between neighboring water molecules. This is a second-order process with a computed rate constant of 5.0 ps{sup -1} at 298 K. In agreement with experiment the electron diffusion exhibits Arrhenius behavior over the temperature range of 298-400 K. We compute an activation energy of 8.9 kJ mol{sup -1}. Through analysis of Arrhenius plots and the application of a simple random walk model it is demonstrated that the computed rate constant for exchange of an excess electron is indeed the phenomenological rate constant associated with the diffusive process.
Surface diffusion studies by optical diffraction techniques
Xiao, X.D.
1992-11-01
The newly developed optical techniques have been combined with either second harmonic (SH) diffraction or linear diffraction off a monolayer adsorbate grating for surface diffusion measurement. Anisotropy of surface diffusion of CO on Ni(l10) was used as a demonstration for the second harmonic dim reaction method. The linear diffraction method, which possesses a much higher sensitivity than the SH diffraction method, was employed to study the effect of adsorbate-adsorbate interaction on CO diffusion on Ni(l10) surface. Results showed that only the short range direct CO-CO orbital overlapping interaction influences CO diffusion but not the long range dipole-dipole and CO-NI-CO interactions. Effects of impurities and defects on surface diffusion were further explored by using linear diffraction method on CO/Ni(110) system. It was found that a few percent S impurity can alter the CO diffusion barrier height to a much higher value through changing the Ni(110) surface. The point defects of Ni(l10) surface seem to speed up CO diffusion significantly. A mechanism with long jumps over multiple lattice distance initiated by CO filled vacancy is proposed to explain the observed defect effect.
Mass partitioning effects in diffusion transport.
Kojic, Milos; Milosevic, Miljan; Wu, Suhong; Blanco, Elvin; Ferrari, Mauro; Ziemys, Arturas
2015-08-28
Frequent mass exchange takes place in a heterogeneous environment among several phases, where mass partitioning may occur at the interface of phases. Analytical and computational methods for diffusion do not usually incorporate molecule partitioning masking the true picture of mass transport. Here we present a computational finite element methodology to calculate diffusion mass transport with a partitioning phenomenon included and the analysis of the effects of partitioning. Our numerical results showed that partitioning controls equilibrated mass distribution as expected from analytical solutions. The experimental validation of mass release from drug-loaded nanoparticles showed that partitioning might even dominate in some cases with respect to diffusion itself. The analysis of diffusion kinetics in the parameter space of partitioning and diffusivity showed that partitioning is an extremely important parameter in systems, where mass diffusivity is fast and that the concentration of nanoparticles can control payload retention inside nanoparticles. The computational and experimental results suggest that partitioning and physiochemical properties of phases play an important, if not crucial, role in diffusion transport and should be included in the studies of mass transport processes. PMID:26204522
Aqueous diffusion in repository and backfill environments
Conca, J.L.; Apted, M.; Arthur, R.
1993-12-31
Aqueous diffusion coefficients have been experimentally determined in a variety of porous/fractured geologic and engineered media. For performance assessment applications, the purely diffusive flux must be separated from retardation effects. The simple diffusion coefficient, D, does not include any transient chemical effects, e.g., sorption, which lower the diffusion coefficient for some finite time period until equilibrium is reached. D is primarily a function of volumetric water content, {theta}, and not material characteristics. At high water contents, D gradually declines as water content decreases, from 10{sup -5} cm{sup 2}/sec at {theta} {approximately}0.5%. Although surface diffusion has a strong experimental basis in the transport of gases along metal surfaces experimental evidence for aqueous geologic/backfill/engineered systems strongly indicates that surface diffusion is not important, even in bentonite, because of the extremely poor connectivity among electric double-layers and the extremely low diffusivities and high {partial_derivative}C/{partial_derivative}x at small area/point contacts which more than negate the increased flux along intragrain surfaces.
The Diffusive Shock Acceleration Myth
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gloeckler, G.; Fisk, L. A.
2012-12-01
It is generally accepted that diffusive shock acceleration (DSA) is the dominant mechanism for particle acceleration at shocks. This is despite the overwhelming observational evidence that is contrary to predictions of DSA models. For example, our most recent survey of hourly-averaged, spin-averaged proton distribution functions around 61 locally observed shocks in 2001 at 1 AU found that in 21 cases no particles were accelerated. Spectral indices (γ ) of suprathermal tails on the velocity distributions around the 40 shocks that did accelerate particles, showed none of the DSA-predicted correlations of γ with the shock compression ratio and the shock normal to magnetic field angle. Here we will present ACE/SWICS observations of three sets of 72 consecutive one-hour averaged velocity distributions (in each of 8 SWICS spin sectors). Each set includes passage of one or more shocks or strong compression regions. All spectra were properly transformed to the solar wind frame using the detailed, updated SWICS forward model, taking into account the hourly-averaged directions of the solar wind flow, the magnetic field and the ACE spin axis (http://www.srl.caltech.edu/ACE/ASC/). The suprathermal tails are observed to be a combination of locally accelerated and remote tails. The local tails are power laws. The remote tails are also power laws with rollovers at higher energies. When local tails are weak (as is the case especially upstream of strong shocks or compression regions) the remote tails also have a rollover at low energies due to modulation (transport effects). Among our main findings are that (1) the spectral indices of both the local and remote tails are -5 within the uncertainties of the measurements, as predicted by our pump acceleration mechanism, and (2) the velocity distributions are anisotropic with the perpendicular (to the magnetic field) pressure greater than the parallel pressure.
Interests diffusion in social networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
D'Agostino, Gregorio; D'Antonio, Fulvio; De Nicola, Antonio; Tucci, Salvatore
2015-10-01
We provide a model for diffusion of interests in Social Networks (SNs). We demonstrate that the topology of the SN plays a crucial role in the dynamics of the individual interests. Understanding cultural phenomena on SNs and exploiting the implicit knowledge about their members is attracting the interest of different research communities both from the academic and the business side. The community of complexity science is devoting significant efforts to define laws, models, and theories, which, based on acquired knowledge, are able to predict future observations (e.g. success of a product). In the mean time, the semantic web community aims at engineering a new generation of advanced services by defining constructs, models and methods, adding a semantic layer to SNs. In this context, a leapfrog is expected to come from a hybrid approach merging the disciplines above. Along this line, this work focuses on the propagation of individual interests in social networks. The proposed framework consists of the following main components: a method to gather information about the members of the social networks; methods to perform some semantic analysis of the Domain of Interest; a procedure to infer members' interests; and an interests evolution theory to predict how the interests propagate in the network. As a result, one achieves an analytic tool to measure individual features, such as members' susceptibilities and authorities. Although the approach applies to any type of social network, here it is has been tested against the computer science research community. The DBLP (Digital Bibliography and Library Project) database has been elected as test-case since it provides the most comprehensive list of scientific production in this field.
Measurement of vorticity diffusion by NMR microscopy.
Brown, Jennifer R; Callaghan, Paul T
2010-05-01
In a Newtonian fluid, vorticity diffuses at a rate determined by the kinematic viscosity. Here we use rapid NMR velocimetry, based on a RARE sequence, to image the time-dependent velocity field on startup of a fluid-filled cylinder and therefore measure the diffusion of vorticity. The results are consistent with the solution to the vorticity diffusion equation where the angular velocity on the outside surface of the fluid, at the cylinder's rotating wall, is fixed. This method is a means of measuring kinematic viscosity for low viscosity fluids without the need to measure stress. PMID:20189854
Computerized Analysis Of Thermal-Diffusivity Data
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chmielewski, Artur B.; Wood, Charles; Vandersande, Jan W.
1988-01-01
Improved data-acquisition and data-analysis system for thermal-diffusivity measurements using flash method incorporates digital oscilloscope and microcomputer for rapid reduction of experimental data. In thermal-diffusivity apparatus thin specimen heated on one face by pulsed xenon flashlamp, subsequent temperature rise on opposite face monitored by infrared detector. Thermal diffusivity estimated from thickness of specimen and from time after initial pulse during which temperature rise reaches half maximum value. Accuracy of estimate improved by correcting temperature measurements for radiative loss of heat from specimen and for finite duration and specific waveform of flashlamp pulse. System devised for use in high-temperature measurements of thermoelectric materials.
Relativistic diffusion of elementary particles with spin
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Haba, Z.
2009-11-01
We obtain a generalization of the relativistic diffusion of Schay and Dudley for particles with spin. The diffusion equation is a classical version of an equation for the Wigner function of an elementary particle. The elementary particle is described by a unitary irreducible representation of the Poincare group realized in the Hilbert space of wavefunctions in the momentum space. The arbitrariness of the Wigner rotation appears as a gauge freedom of the diffusion equation. The spin is described by an SU(2) connection of a fiber bundle over the momentum hyperbolic space (the mass shell). Motion in an electromagnetic field, transport equations and equilibrium states are discussed.
The AN neutron transport by nodal diffusion
Barbarino, A.; Tomatis, D.
2013-07-01
The two group diffusion model combined to a nodal approach in space is the preferred scheme for the industrial simulation of nuclear water reactors. The main selling point is the speed of computation, allowing a large number of parametric studies. Anyway, the drawbacks of the underlying diffusion equation may arise with highly heterogeneous interfaces, often encountered in modern UO{sub 2} and MO{sub x} fuel loading patterns, and boron less controlled systems. This paper aims at showing how the simplified AN transport model, equivalent to the well known SPN, can be implemented in standard diffusion codes with minor modifications. Some numerical results are illustrated. (authors)
Enhanced diffusion of phosphorus at grain boundaries
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cheng, L. J.; Shyu, C. M.; Stika, K. M.; Daud, T.; Crotty, G. T.
1982-01-01
Enhanced diffusion of phosphorus at grain boundaries in cast polycrystalline photovoltaic materials (Wacker, HEM, and Semix) was studied. It was found that the enhancements for the three materials were the same, indicating that the properties of boundaries are similar, even though they were grown by different techniques. In addition, it was observed that grain boundaries capable of enhancing the diffusion always have strong recombination activities. Both phenomena could be related to dangling bonds existing at the boundaries. The present study gives the first evidence that incoherent second order twins of 111/115-plane type are diffusion-active.
Diffusion and transport coefficients in synthetic opals
Sofo, J. O.; Mahan, G. D.
2000-07-15
Opals are structures composed of close-packed spheres in the size range of nano to micrometers. They are sintered to create small necks at the points of contact. We have solved the diffusion problem in such structures. The relation between the diffusion coefficient and the thermal and electrical conductivity is used to estimate the transport coefficients of opal structures as a function of the neck size and the mean free path of the carriers. The theory presented is also applicable to the diffusion problem in other periodic structures. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society.
Analytical study of diffusive relativistic shock acceleration.
Keshet, Uri
2006-12-01
Particle acceleration in relativistic shocks is studied analytically in the test-particle, small-angle scattering limit, for an arbitrary velocity-angle diffusion function D. The particle spectral index s is found to be sensitive to D, particularly downstream and at certain angles. The analysis, confirmed numerically, justifies and generalizes previous results for isotropic diffusion. It can be used to test collisionless shock models and to observationally constrain D. For example, strongly forward- or backward-enhanced diffusion downstream is ruled out by gamma-ray burst afterglow observations. PMID:17155790
The Riesz-Bessel Fractional Diffusion Equation
Anh, V.V. McVinish, R.
2004-05-15
This paper examines the properties of a fractional diffusion equation defined by the composition of the inverses of the Riesz potential and the Bessel potential. The first part determines the conditions under which the Green function of this equation is the transition probability density function of a Levy motion. This Levy motion is obtained by the subordination of Brownian motion, and the Levy representation of the subordinator is determined. The second part studies the semigroup formed by the Green function of the fractional diffusion equation. Applications of these results to certain evolution equations is considered. Some results on the numerical solution of the fractional diffusion equation are also provided.
A3 Subscale Diffuser Test Article Design
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Saunders, G. P.
2009-01-01
This paper gives a detailed description of the design of the A3 Subscale Diffuser Test (SDT) Article Design. The subscale diffuser is a geometrically accurate scale model of the A3 altitude rocket facility. It was designed and built to support the SDT risk mitigation project located at the E3 facility at Stennis Space Center, MS (SSC) supporting the design and construction of the A3 facility at SSC. The subscale test article is outfitted with a large array of instrumentation to support the design verification of the A3 facility. The mechanical design of the subscale diffuser and test instrumentation are described here
Finite-volume scheme for anisotropic diffusion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
van Es, Bram; Koren, Barry; de Blank, Hugo J.
2016-02-01
In this paper, we apply a special finite-volume scheme, limited to smooth temperature distributions and Cartesian grids, to test the importance of connectivity of the finite volumes. The area of application is nuclear fusion plasma with field line aligned temperature gradients and extreme anisotropy. We apply the scheme to the anisotropic heat-conduction equation, and compare its results with those of existing finite-volume schemes for anisotropic diffusion. Also, we introduce a general model adaptation of the steady diffusion equation for extremely anisotropic diffusion problems with closed field lines.
Measurements of the diffuse ultraviolet radiation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fix, John D.; Craven, John D.; Frank, Louis A.
1989-01-01
The imaging instrumentation on the Dynamics Explorer 1 satellite has been used to measure the intensity of the diffuse ultraviolet radiation on two great circles about the sky. It is found that the isotropic component of the diffuse ultraviolet radiation (possibly of extragalactic origin) has an intensity of 530 + or - 80 units (a unit is 1 photon per sq cm s A sr) at a wavelength of 150 nm. The Galactic component of the diffuse ultraviolet radiation has a dependence on Galactic latitude which requires strongly forward scattering particles if it is produced by dust above the Galactic plane.
The Diffuse X-ray Spectrometer Experiment
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sanders, W. T.; Edgar, R. J.; Juda, M.; Kraushaar, W. L.; Mccammon, D.; Snowden, S. L.; Zhang, J.; Skinner, M. A.
1992-01-01
The Diffuse X-ray Spectrometer Experiment, or 'DXS', is designed to measure the spectrum of the low-energy diffuse X-ray background with about 10 eV energy resolution and 15-deg spatial resolution. During a 5-day Space Shuttle mission, DXS is to measure the spectrum of ten 15 x 15 deg regions lying along a single 150-deg-long great circle arc on the sky. DXS carries two large-area X-ray Bragg spectrometers for the 44-84 A wavelength range; these permit measurement of the wavelength spectrum of the cosmic low-energy diffuse X-ray background with good spectral resolution.
Mechanisms of monovacancy diffusion in graphene
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wadey, Jack D.; Markevich, Alexander; Robertson, Alex; Warner, Jamie; Kirkland, Angus; Besley, Elena
2016-03-01
A comprehensive investigation of monovacancy diffusion in graphene has been carried out with the use of density functional theory and the climbing image nudged elastic band method. An out-of-plane spiro structure is found for the first-order saddle point, which defines the transition state in the vacancy diffusion pathway. The obtained activation energy for diffusion is significantly lower than the reported values for the in-plane saddle point structures. The time between consecutive vacancy jumps in graphene is estimated to be in the range of 100-200 s at room temperature in a good agreement with experimental observations.
Enhancing Rotational Diffusion Using Oscillatory Shear
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Leahy, Brian D.; Cheng, Xiang; Ong, Desmond C.; Liddell-Watson, Chekesha; Cohen, Itai
2013-05-01
Taylor dispersion—shear-induced enhancement of translational diffusion—is an important phenomenon with applications ranging from pharmacology to geology. Through experiments and simulations, we show that rotational diffusion is also enhanced for anisotropic particles in oscillatory shear. This enhancement arises from variations in the particle’s rotation (Jeffery orbit) and depends on the strain amplitude, rate, and particle aspect ratio in a manner that is distinct from the translational diffusion. This separate tunability of translational and rotational diffusion opens the door to new techniques for controlling positions and orientations of suspended anisotropic colloids.
Dynamic Simulation of Backward Diffusion Based on Random Walk Theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dung, Vu Ba; Nguyen, Bui Huu
2016-06-01
Results of diffusion study in silicon showed that diffusion of the selfinterstitial and vacancy could be backward diffusion and their diffusivity could be negative [1]. The backward diffusion process and negative diffusivity is contrary to the fundamental laws of diffusion such as the law of Fick law, namely the diffusive flux of backward diffusion goes from regions of low concentration to regions of high concentration. The backward diffusion process have been explained [2]. In this paper, the backward diffusion process is simulated. Results is corresponding to theory and show that when thermal velocity of the low concentration area is greater than thermal velocity of the high concentration area, the backward diffusion can be occurred.
Ozarslan, Evren; Mareci, Thomas H
2003-11-01
A new method for mapping diffusivity profiles in tissue is presented. The Bloch-Torrey equation is modified to include a diffusion term with an arbitrary rank Cartesian tensor. This equation is solved to give the expression for the generalized Stejskal-Tanner formula quantifying diffusive attenuation in complicated geometries. This makes it possible to calculate the components of higher-rank tensors without using the computationally-difficult spherical harmonic transform. General theoretical relations between the diffusion tensor (DT) components measured by traditional (rank-2) DT imaging (DTI) and 3D distribution of diffusivities, as measured by high angular resolution diffusion imaging (HARDI) methods, are derived. Also, the spherical tensor components from HARDI are related to the rank-2 DT. The relationships between higher- and lower-rank Cartesian DTs are also presented. The inadequacy of the traditional rank-2 tensor model is demonstrated with simulations, and the method is applied to excised rat brain data collected in a spin-echo HARDI experiment. PMID:14587006
Meryem Seferinolu; Yuda Yurum
2006-05-15
The aim of this study is to measure the diffusion coefficients of pyridine in Turkish Cayirhan lignite (C: 57.1 wt%, dmmf) at temperatures about 20-27{sup o}C and determine the type of transport mechanism of diffusion. The raw coal sample was demineralized with HCl and HF by standard methods, and the raw and demineralized coal samples were extracted with pyridine. To investigate the diffusion of pyridine vapor in coal samples, the mass of pyridine uptake per mass of coal sample (M{sub t}/M{sub {infinity}}) was calculated as a function of time. The diffusion coefficients were measured from the slope of graphs of M{sub t}/M{sub {infinity}} versus t{sup 1/2}. The diffusion coefficient of pyridine in the raw coal increased from 10.0 x 10{sup -15} to 11.9 x 10{sup -15} m{sup 2}/s when the temperature was elevated from 21.1 to 26.9{sup o}C, respectively. The diffusion coefficients of pyridine raw coal and of those treated with HCl and HF were 11.9 x 10{sup -15}, 4.3 x 10{sup -15}, and 4.8 x 10{sup -15} m{sup 2}/s at 26.9{sup o}C, respectively. The studies in the present work on pyridine vapor diffusion in raw coals have generally indicated that the diffusion obeyed the Fickian diffusion mechanism the temperatures 20.0-27.0{sup o}C. Generally, the diffusion exponent values increased when the temperature elevated from 20.0 to 27.0{sup o}C, but this rise placed the diffusion of pyridine between the Fickian diffusion and Case II diffusion mechanisms. 29 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.
Silver diffusion over silicon surfaces with adsorbed tin atoms
Dolbak, A. E. Olshanetskii, B. Z.
2015-02-15
Silver diffusion over the (111), (100), and (110) surfaces of silicon with preliminarily adsorbed tin atoms is studied by Auger electron spectroscopy and low-energy electron diffraction. Diffusion is observed only on the surface of Si(111)-2√3 × 2√3-Sn. The diffusion mechanism is established. It is found that the diffusion coefficient depends on the concentration of diffusing atoms. The diffusion coefficient decreases with increasing silver concentration, while the activation energy and the preexponential factor increase.
Review of enhanced vapor diffusion in porous media
Webb, S.W.; Ho, C.K.
1998-08-01
Vapor diffusion in porous media in the presence of its own liquid has often been treated similar to gas diffusion. The gas diffusion rate in porous media is much lower than in free space due to the presence of the porous medium and any liquid present. However, enhanced vapor diffusion has also been postulated such that the diffusion rate may approach free-space values. Existing data and models for enhanced vapor diffusion, including those in TOUGH2, are reviewed in this paper.
Cortexin diffusion in human eye sclera
Genina, Elina A; Bashkatov, A N; Tuchin, Valerii V; Ghosn, M G; Larin, Kirill V; Kamenskikh, T G
2011-05-31
Investigation of the diffusion of cytamines, a typical representative of which is cortexin, is important for evaluating the drug dose, necessary to provide sufficient concentration of the preparation in the inner tissues of the eye. In the present paper, the cortexin diffusion rate in the eye sclera is measured using the methods of optical coherence tomography (OCT) and reflectance spectroscopy. The technique for determining the diffusion coefficient is based on the registration of temporal dependence of the eye sclera scattering parameters caused by partial replacement of interstitial fluid with the aqueous cortexin solution, which reduces the level of the OCT signal and decreases the reflectance of the sclera. The values of the cortexin diffusion coefficient obtained using two independent optical methods are in good agreement. (optical technologies in biophysics and medicine)
Communication: Probing anomalous diffusion in frequency space
Stachura, Sławomir; Kneller, Gerald R.
2015-11-21
Anomalous diffusion processes are usually detected by analyzing the time-dependent mean square displacement of the diffusing particles. The latter evolves asymptotically as W(t) ∼ 2D{sub α}t{sup α}, where D{sub α} is the fractional diffusion constant and 0 < α < 2. In this article we show that both D{sub α} and α can also be extracted from the low-frequency Fourier spectrum of the corresponding velocity autocorrelation function. This offers a simple method for the interpretation of quasielastic neutron scattering spectra from complex (bio)molecular systems, in which subdiffusive transport is frequently encountered. The approach is illustrated and validated by analyzing molecular dynamics simulations of molecular diffusion in a lipid POPC bilayer.
Irregular diffusion in the bouncing ball billiard
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mátyás, L.; Klages, R.
2004-01-01
We call a system bouncing ball billiard if it consists of a particle that is subject to a constant vertical force and bounces inelastically on a one-dimensional vibrating periodically corrugated floor. Here we choose circular scatterers that are very shallow, hence this billiard is a deterministic diffusive version of the well-known bouncing ball problem on a flat vibrating plate. Computer simulations show that the diffusion coefficient of this system is a highly irregular function of the vibration frequency exhibiting pronounced maxima whenever there are resonances between the vibration frequency and the average time of flight of a particle. In addition, there exist irregularities on finer scales that are due to higher-order dynamical correlations pointing towards a fractal structure of this curve. We analyze the diffusive dynamics by classifying the attracting sets and by working out a simple random walk approximation for diffusion, which is systematically refined by using a Green-Kubo formula.
Diffusion, Viscosity and Crystal Growth in Microgravity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Myerson, Allan S.
1996-01-01
The diffusivity of TriGlycine Sulfate (TGS), Potassium Dihydrogen Phosphate (KDP), Ammonium Dihydrogen Phosphate (ADF) and other compounds of interest to microgravity crystal growth, in supersaturated solutions as a function of solution concentration, 'age' and 'history was studied experimentally. The factors that affect the growth of crystals from water solutions in microgravity have been examined. Three non-linear optical materials have been studied, potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP), ammonium dihydrogen phosphate (ADP) and triglycine sulfate (TGC). The diffusion coefficient and viscosity of supersaturated water solutions were measured. Also theoretical model of diffusivity and viscosity in a metastable state, model of crystal growth from solution including non-linear time dependent diffusivity and viscosity effect and computer simulation of the crystal growth process which allows simulation of the microgravity crystal growth were developed.
Lyapunov Spectra in Diffusion Replicator Equation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Orihashi, Kenji; Aizawa, Yoji
2008-11-01
Statistical Properties of the turbulence in the diffusion replicator equation of three species are numerically studied. The maximal Lyapunov exponent and Lyapunov dimension are derived precisely. Further, these characteristics obey some characteristic scaling laws.
Atomic Diffusion in Solid Molecular Hydrogen
Belonoshko, Anatoly B.; Ramzan, Muhammad; Mao, Ho-kwang; Ahuja, Rajeev
2013-01-01
We performed ab initio molecular dynamics simulations of the C2c and Cmca-12 phases of hydrogen at pressures from 210 to 350 GPa. These phases were predicted to be stable at 0 K and pressures above 200 GPa. However, systematic studies of temperature impact on properties of these phases have not been performed so far. Filling this gap, we observed that on temperature increase diffusion sets in the Cmca-12 phase, being absent in C2c. We explored the mechanism of diffusion and computed melting curve of hydrogen at extreme pressures. The results suggest that the recent experiments claiming conductive hydrogen at the pressure around 260 GPa and ambient temperature might be explained by the diffusion. The diffusion might also be the reason for the difference in Raman spectra obtained in recent experiments. PMID:23902995
Stochastic models for surface diffusion of molecules
Shea, Patrick Kreuzer, Hans Jürgen
2014-07-28
We derive a stochastic model for the surface diffusion of molecules, starting from the classical equations of motion for an N-atom molecule on a surface. The equation of motion becomes a generalized Langevin equation for the center of mass of the molecule, with a non-Markovian friction kernel. In the Markov approximation, a standard Langevin equation is recovered, and the effect of the molecular vibrations on the diffusion is seen to lead to an increase in the friction for center of mass motion. This effective friction has a simple form that depends on the curvature of the lowest energy diffusion path in the 3N-dimensional coordinate space. We also find that so long as the intramolecular forces are sufficiently strong, memory effects are usually not significant and the Markov approximation can be employed, resulting in a simple one-dimensional model that can account for the effect of the dynamics of the molecular vibrations on the diffusive motion.
SURFACE INHOMOGENEITY EFFECTS ON CONVECTIVE DIFFUSION
It is suggested that convectlve scaling, with appropriate extensions, provides the most useful framework for estimating the effects of urban-scale surface inhomogeneities on diffusion in convective conditions. trong contrasts in surface heat flux exist between cropland, forests, ...
Diffusivity Maximum in a Reentrant Nematic Phase
Stieger, Tillmann; Mazza, Marco G.; Schoen, Martin
2012-01-01
We report molecular dynamics simulations of confined liquid crystals using the Gay–Berne–Kihara model. Upon isobaric cooling, the standard sequence of isotropic–nematic–smectic A phase transitions is found. Upon further cooling a reentrant nematic phase occurs. We investigate the temperature dependence of the self-diffusion coefficient of the fluid in the nematic, smectic and reentrant nematic phases. We find a maximum in diffusivity upon isobaric cooling. Diffusion increases dramatically in the reentrant phase due to the high orientational molecular order. As the temperature is lowered, the diffusion coefficient follows an Arrhenius behavior. The activation energy of the reentrant phase is found in reasonable agreement with the reported experimental data. We discuss how repulsive interactions may be the underlying mechanism that could explain the occurrence of reentrant nematic behavior for polar and non-polar molecules. PMID:22837730
Diffusivity maximum in a reentrant nematic phase.
Stieger, Tillmann; Mazza, Marco G; Schoen, Martin
2012-01-01
We report molecular dynamics simulations of confined liquid crystals using the Gay-Berne-Kihara model. Upon isobaric cooling, the standard sequence of isotropic-nematic-smectic A phase transitions is found. Upon further cooling a reentrant nematic phase occurs. We investigate the temperature dependence of the self-diffusion coefficient of the fluid in the nematic, smectic and reentrant nematic phases. We find a maximum in diffusivity upon isobaric cooling. Diffusion increases dramatically in the reentrant phase due to the high orientational molecular order. As the temperature is lowered, the diffusion coefficient follows an Arrhenius behavior. The activation energy of the reentrant phase is found in reasonable agreement with the reported experimental data. We discuss how repulsive interactions may be the underlying mechanism that could explain the occurrence of reentrant nematic behavior for polar and non-polar molecules. PMID:22837730
Diffusion in active suspension of microswimmers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Climent, Eric; Delmotte, Blaise; Plouraboue, Franck; Keaveny, Eric; Martin, Matthieu; Rafai, Salima; Peyla, Philippe; Bertin, Eric; IMFT Team; IC Team; LiPhy Team
2015-11-01
The presence of microswimmers in a fluid generates flow agitation due to multi-body hydrodynamic interactions. This agitation of the fluid leads to random trajectories of passive tracers particles and the swimmers themselves, and from a macroscopic point view, it can be interpreted as a diffusive mechanism. By means of experiments (videomicroscopy of suspensions of chlamydomonas reinhardtii)and numerical simulations (Stokesian fluid populated with squirmers), we investigate the evolution of the effective diffusion coefficient when the volumetric concentration of the active suspension varies. By comparing the experimental and numerical results, we quantify the role of active swimming on the measured diffusion and identify the physical mechanisms that lead to diffusion enhancement. Our results aim to provide a better understanding of how swimming organisms affect micron-scale transport in the environment.
Stochastic Analysis of Reaction–Diffusion Processes
Hu, Jifeng; Kang, Hye-Won
2013-01-01
Reaction and diffusion processes are used to model chemical and biological processes over a wide range of spatial and temporal scales. Several routes to the diffusion process at various levels of description in time and space are discussed and the master equation for spatially discretized systems involving reaction and diffusion is developed. We discuss an estimator for the appropriate compartment size for simulating reaction–diffusion systems and introduce a measure of fluctuations in a discretized system. We then describe a new computational algorithm for implementing a modified Gillespie method for compartmental systems in which reactions are aggregated into equivalence classes and computational cells are searched via an optimized tree structure. Finally, we discuss several examples that illustrate the issues that have to be addressed in general systems. PMID:23719732
Fractal fronts of diffusion in microgravity
Vailati, Alberto; Cerbino, Roberto; Mazzoni, Stefano; Takacs, Christopher J.; Cannell, David S.; Giglio, Marzio
2011-01-01
Spatial scale invariance represents a remarkable feature of natural phenomena. A ubiquitous example is represented by miscible liquid phases undergoing diffusion. Theory and simulations predict that in the absence of gravity diffusion is characterized by long-ranged algebraic correlations. Experimental evidence of scale invariance generated by diffusion has been limited, because on Earth the development of long-range correlations is suppressed by gravity. Here we report experimental results obtained in microgravity during the flight of the FOTON M3 satellite. We find that during a diffusion process a dilute polymer solution exhibits scale-invariant concentration fluctuations with sizes ranging up to millimetres, and relaxation times as large as 1,000 s. The scale invariance is limited only by the finite size of the sample, in agreement with recent theoretical predictions. The presence of such fluctuations could possibly impact the growth of materials in microgravity. PMID:21505446
Search for gravitational effects in diffusion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Clunie, J. C.; Lewis, M. L.; Albright, D. T.; Baird, James K.
1996-07-01
We have measured the rate of diffusion of aqueous CuSO4 into pure water across a free liquid interface both on the ground and in 'microgravity' aboard the STS-43 mission of the Space Shuttle. Because both experiments were carried out under isothermal conditions with the CuSO4 solution on the bottom and the pure water on the top, there was no obvious source of buoyancy. Moreover, the expected decrease in the diffusion coefficient due to hydrostatic pressure diffusion of CuSO4 was two orders of magnitude less than the experimental error, which was 3-4 percent. Thus, within this error, our experiments show that there is not effect of gravity on diffusion in the case of a gravitationally stabilized, isothermal liquid. This is in contrast to the results obtained by others using melts under non-isothermal conditions where effects as large as 10 percent have been reported.
Nanoscale topography influences polymer surface diffusion.
Wang, Dapeng; He, Chunlin; Stoykovich, Mark P; Schwartz, Daniel K
2015-02-24
Using high-throughput single-molecule tracking, we studied the diffusion of poly(ethylene glycol) chains at the interface between water and a hydrophobic surface patterned with an array of hexagonally arranged nanopillars. Polymer molecules displayed anomalous diffusion; in particular, they exhibited intermittent motion (i.e., immobilization and "hopping") suggestive of continuous-time random walk (CTRW) behavior associated with desorption-mediated surface diffusion. The statistics of the molecular trajectories changed systematically on surfaces with pillars of increasing height, exhibiting motion that was increasingly subdiffusive and with longer waiting times between diffusive steps. The trajectories were well-described by kinetic Monte Carlo simulations of CTRW motion in the presence of randomly distributed permeable obstacles, where the permeability (the main undetermined parameter) was conceptually related to the obstacle height. These findings provide new insights into the mechanisms of interfacial transport in the presence of obstacles and on nanotopographically patterned surfaces. PMID:25621372
Hydrogen diffusion in chalcopyrite solar cell materials
Weidinger, A.; Krauser, J.; Riedle, T.; Klenk, R.; Lux-Steiner, M.C.; Yakushev, M.V.
1998-12-31
Hydrogen diffusion in CuInSe{sub 2} single crystals and CuInS{sub 2} thin films was studied by measuring the spreading of implantation profiles upon annealing. Deep implantation with an ion energy of 10 keV and sub-surface implantation with 300 eV were applied. The diffusion coefficients in both materials were found to be in the order of 10{sup {minus}14} to 10{sup {minus}13} cm{sup 2}/s in the temperature range between 400 and 520 K. These fairly low diffusivities are typical for a trap and release transport process rather than intrinsic diffusion of interstitial hydrogen. In the polycrystalline CuInS{sub 2} films, hydrogen leaves the sample through the grain boundaries.
The seismic noise wavefield is not diffuse.
Mulargia, Francesco
2012-04-01
Passive seismology is burgeoning under the apparent theoretical support of diffuse acoustics. However, basic physical arguments suggest that this theory may not be applicable to seismic noise. A procedure is developed to establish the applicability of the diffuse field paradigm to a wavefield, based on testing the latter for azimuthal isotropy and spatial homogeneity. This procedure is then applied to the seismic noise recorded at 65 sites covering a wide variety of environmental and subsoil conditions. Considering the instantaneous oscillation vector measured at single triaxial stations, the hypothesis of azimuthal isotropy is rejected in all cases with high confidence, which makes the spatial homogeneity test unnecessary and leads directly to conclude that the seismic noise wavefield is not diffuse. However, such a conclusion has no practical effect on passive imaging, which is also possible in non-diffuse wavefields. PMID:22501063
Quantifying water diffusion in secondary organic material
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Price, Hannah; Murray, Benjamin; Mattsson, Johan; O'Sullivan, Daniel; Wilson, Theodore; Zhang, Yue; Martin, Scot
2014-05-01
Recent research suggests that some secondary organic aerosol (SOA) is highly viscous under certain atmospheric conditions. This may have important consequences for equilibration timescales, SOA growth, heterogeneous chemistry and ice nucleation. In order to quantify these effects, knowledge of the diffusion coefficients of relevant gas species within aerosol particles is vital. In this work, a Raman isotope tracer method is used to quantify water diffusion coefficients over a range of atmospherically relevant humidity and temperature conditions. D2O is observed as it diffuses from the gas phase into a disk of aqueous solution, without the disk changing in size or viscosity. An analytical solution of Fick's second law is then used with a fitting procedure to determine water diffusion coefficients in reference materials for method validation. The technique is then extended to compounds of atmospheric relevance and α-pinene secondary organic material. We produce water diffusion coefficients from 20 to 80 % RH at 23.5° C for sucrose, levoglucosan, M5AS and MgSO4. For levoglucosan we show that under conditions where a particle bounces, water diffusion in aqueous solutions can be fast (a fraction of a second for a 100 nm radius). For sucrose solutions, we also show that the Stokes-Einstein relation breaks down at high viscosity and cannot be used to predict water diffusion timescales with accuracy. In addition, we also quantify water diffusion coefficients in α-pinene SOM from 20-80% RH and over temperatures from 6 to -30° C. Our results suggest that, at 6° C, water diffusion in α-pinene SOA is not kinetically limited on the second timescale, even at 20% RH. As temperatures decrease, however, diffusion slows and may become an increasingly limiting factor for atmospheric processes. A parameterization for the diffusion coefficient of water in α-pinene secondary organic material, as a function of relative humidity and temperature, is presented. The implications for
Chemical effect on diffusion in intermetallic compounds
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Yi-Ting
With the trend of big data and the Internet of things, we live in a world full of personal electronic devices and small electronic devices. In order to make the devices more powerful, advanced electronic packaging such as wafer level packaging or 3D IC packaging play an important role. Furthermore, ?-bumps, which connect silicon dies together with dimension less than 10 ?m, are crucial parts in advanced packaging. Owing to the dimension of ?-bumps, they transform into intermetallic compound from tin based solder after the liquid state bonding process. Moreover, many new reliability issues will occur in electronic packaging when the bonding materials change; in this case, we no longer have tin based solder joint, instead, we have intermetallic compound ?-bumps. Most of the potential reliability issues in intermetallic compounds are caused by the chemical reactions driven by atomic diffusion in the material; thus, to know the diffusivities of atoms inside a material is significant and can help us to further analyze the reliability issues. However, we are lacking these kinds of data in intermetallic compound because there are some problems if used traditional Darken's analysis. Therefore, we considered Wagner diffusivity in our system to solve the problems and applied the concept of chemical effect on diffusion by taking the advantage that large amount of energy will release when compounds formed. Moreover, by inventing the holes markers made by Focus ion beam (FIB), we can conduct the diffusion experiment and obtain the tracer diffusivities of atoms inside the intermetallic compound. We applied the technique on Ni3Sn4 and Cu3Sn, which are two of the most common materials in electronic packaging, and the tracer diffusivities are measured under several different temperatures; moreover, microstructure of the intermetallic compounds are investigated to ensure the diffusion environment. Additionally, the detail diffusion mechanism was also discussed in aspect of diffusion
Computational simulations of vorticity enhanced diffusion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vold, Erik L.
1999-11-01
Computer simulations are used to investigate a phenomenon of vorticity enhanced diffusion (VED), a net transport and mixing of a passive scalar across a prescribed vortex flow field driven by a background gradient in the scalar quantity. The central issue under study here is the increase in scalar flux down the gradient and across the vortex field. The numerical scheme uses cylindrical coordinates centered with the vortex flow which allows an exact advective solution and 1D or 2D diffusion using simple numerical methods. In the results, the ratio of transport across a localized vortex region in the presence of the vortex flow over that expected for diffusion alone is evaluated as a measure of VED. This ratio is seen to increase dramatically while the absolute flux across the vortex decreases slowly as the diffusion coefficient is decreased. Similar results are found and compared for varying diffusion coefficient, D, or vortex rotation time, τv, for a constant background gradient in the transported scalar vs an interface in the transported quantity, and for vortex flow fields constant in time vs flow which evolves in time from an initial state and with a Schmidt number of order unity. A simple analysis shows that for a small diffusion coefficient, the flux ratio measure of VED scales as the vortex radius over the thickness for mass diffusion in a viscous shear layer within the vortex characterized by (Dτv)1/2. The phenomenon is linear as investigated here and suggests that a significant enhancement of mixing in fluids may be a relatively simple linear process. Discussion touches on how this vorticity enhanced diffusion may be related to mixing in nonlinear turbulent flows.
The Diffuse Interstellar Bands: Contributed papers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tielens, Alexander G. G. M. (Editor)
1994-01-01
Drawing a coherent picture of the observational characteristics of the Diffuse Interstellar Bands (DIB's) and the physical and chemical properties of its proposed carriers was the focus of this NASA sponsored conference. Information relating to absoption spectra, diffuse radiation carriers, carbon compounds, stellar composition, and interstellar extinction involving T-Tauri stars, Reflection Nebulae, Red Giants, and accretion discs are discussed from those papers presented at the conference, which are included in this analytic.
Correlation and prediction of gaseous diffusion coefficients.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Marrero, T. R.; Mason, E. A.
1973-01-01
A new correlation method for binary gaseous diffusion coefficients from very low temperatures to 10,000 K is proposed based on an extended principle of corresponding states, and having greater range and accuracy than previous correlations. There are two correlation parameters that are related to other physical quantities and that are predictable in the absence of diffusion measurements. Quantum effects and composition dependence are included, but high-pressure effects are not. The results are directly applicable to multicomponent mixtures.
Back diffusion from thin low permeability zones.
Yang, Minjune; Annable, Michael D; Jawitz, James W
2015-01-01
Aquitards can serve as long-term contaminant sources to aquifers when contaminant mass diffuses from the aquitard following aquifer source mass depletion. This study describes analytical and experimental approaches to understand reactive and nonreactive solute transport in a thin aquitard bounded by an adjacent aquifer. A series of well-controlled laboratory experiments were conducted in a two-dimensional flow chamber to quantify solute diffusion from a high-permeability sand into and subsequently out of kaolinite clay layers of vertical thickness 15 mm, 20 mm, and 60 mm. One-dimensional analytical solutions were developed for diffusion in a finite aquitard with mass exchange with an adjacent aquifer using the method of images. The analytical solutions showed very good agreement with measured breakthrough curves and aquitard concentration distributions measured in situ by light reflection visualization. Solutes with low retardation accumulated more stored mass with greater penetration distance in the aquitard compared to high-retardation solutes. However, because the duration of aquitard mass release was much longer, high-retardation solutes have a greater long-term back diffusion risk. The error associated with applying a semi-infinite domain analytical solution to a finite diffusion domain increases as a function of the system relative diffusion length scale, suggesting that the solutions using image sources should be applied in cases with rapid solute diffusion and/or thin clay layers. The solutions presented here can be extended to multilayer aquifer/low-permeability systems to assess the significance of back diffusion from thin layers. PMID:25478850
Photopyroelectric measurement of thermal diffusivity of meat
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dadarlat, D.; Frandas, A.; Surducan, V.; Nagy, G.; Bicanic, D.
1999-03-01
The thermal diffusivity of various meat samples (pork, fish), and its temperature dependence, in the -5 to +70 °C temperature range, was measured using the photopyroelectric calorimetry in the back configuration (with thermally thick sample and sensor, and optically opaque sample). An almost temperature independent behavior of the thermal diffusivity, for temperatures higher than melting point of ice was confirmed. The results can be used to optimize the meat sterilisation process.
Imaging complex structures with diffuse light
Konecky, Soren D.; Panasyuk, George Y.; Lee, Kijoon; Markel, Vadim; Yodh, Arjun G.; Schotland, John C.
2008-01-01
We use diffuse optical tomography to quantitatively reconstruct images of complex phantoms with millimeter sized features located centimeters deep within a highly-scattering medium. A non-contact instrument was employed to collect large data sets consisting of greater than 107 source-detector pairs. Images were reconstructed using a fast image reconstruction algorithm based on an analytic solution to the inverse scattering problem for diffuse light. PMID:18542605
On vibrational diffusion segregation in granular media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Blekhman, I. I.; Blekhman, L. I.; Vaisberg, L. A.; Vasilkov, V. B.; Yakimova, K. S.
2016-01-01
In this paper, the definition and description of vibrational diffusion (gradient) segregation of the bulk materials have been provided. The results of the experimental studies of this kind of segregation are described. This technique can be very useful for creation of entirely new high effective machines for granular separation. The results of theoretical investigation are presented. In this investigation, the diffusion equation, in which random and deterministic parameters are taken into consideration, has been used.
Origins of the Earth's Diffuse Auroral Precipitation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ni, Binbin; Thorne, Richard M.; Zhang, Xiaojia; Bortnik, Jacob; Pu, Zuyin; Xie, Lun; Hu, Ze-jun; Han, Desheng; Shi, Run; Zhou, Chen; Gu, Xudong
2016-04-01
The Earth's diffuse auroral precipitation provides the major source of energy input into the nightside upper atmosphere and acts as an essential linkage of the magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling. Resonant wave-particle interactions play a dominant role in the scattering of injected plasma sheet electrons, leading to the diffuse auroral precipitation. We review the recent advances in understanding the origin of the diffuse aurora and in quantifying the exact roles of various magnetospheric waves in producing the global distribution of diffuse auroral precipitation and its variability with the geomagnetic activity. Combined scattering by upper-and lower-band chorus accounts for the most intense inner magnetospheric electron diffuse auroral precipitation on the nightside. Dayside chorus can be responsible for the weaker dayside electron diffuse auroral precipitation. Pulsating auroras, the dynamic auroral structures embedded in the diffuse aurora, can be mainly caused by modulation of the excitation of lower band chorus due to macroscopic density variations in the magnetosphere. Electrostatic electron cyclotron harmonic waves are an important or even dominant cause for the nightside electron diffuse auroral precipitation beyond {˜}8Re and can also contribute to the occurrence of the pulsating aurora at high L-shells. Scattering by electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves could quite possibly be the leading candidate responsible for the ion precipitation (especially the reversed-type events of the energy-latitude dispersion) in the regions of the central plasma sheet and ring current. We conclude the review with a summary of current understanding, outstanding questions, and a number of suggestions for future research.
Thermal conductivity and diffusivity of soil
Sorour, M.M. ); Saleh, M.M.; Mahmoud, R.A. )
1990-03-01
The thermal conductivity and diffusivity of soil has been experimentally measured using the line heat source transient method. Representative samples of different textures were collected and analyzed from different localities and depths. The effect of temperatures, in the range of {minus}10{degrees}C {yields} 35{degrees}C and moisture content up to 40% on the conductivity and diffusivity were investigated. The results of this investigation indicate some interesting results and confirm some previously published data.
Diffusion in the nickel-rhenium system
Neubauer, C.M.; Mari, D.; Dunand, D.C. . Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering)
1994-07-01
Most Ni-based metal matrix composites (MMC) studied to date were reinforced with ductile refractory metal fibers, mostly W or W-alloys. However, Ni embrittles and weakens cold-drawn W fibers by (1) forming intermetallic phases at the fiber-matrix interface and (2) inducing recrystallization of W at temperatures as low as 950 C by rapid grain-boundary diffusion. To prevent these problems, ceramic coatings with low solubility, reactivity, and diffusion coefficients for both W and Ni can be applied at the interface. However, ceramic coatings are brittle, and typically exhibit a large mismatch of coefficient of thermal expansion with Ni; therefore, these coatings tend to crack when the composite is subjected to thermal cycling. To prevent cracking of the diffusion barrier, ductile, metallic coatings can be used. Rhenium is an attractive candidate for W fibers in a Ni matrix, since it exhibits high-temperature strength significantly higher than W, while retaining excellent ductility at all temperatures, even after recrystallization. Also, its coefficient of thermal expansion is between those of W and Ni. Diffusion in the Re-W system at the potential use temperatures of Ni-based MMC (1,200--1,500 K) is negligible due to the very high melting points of both W and Re (3,695 K and 3,459 K, respectively). Furthermore, Re additions have been found to improve the mechanical properties of both W and Ni. Finally, the Ni-Re phase diagram shows a simple peritectic system with no intermetallic present. However, one potential drawback is the relatively high solubility of each metal in the other. The authors present an experimental investigation of diffusion phenomena in the Ni-Re system. The parameters controlling diffusion (activation energy and frequency factor) of each metal into the other are determined in order to predict long-term diffusion behavior at elevated temperatures and to assess the suitability of Re diffusion coatings for W fibers in Ni-based matrices.
Microgravity Turbulent Gas-Jet Diffusion Flames
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1996-01-01
A gas-jet diffusion flame is similar to the flame on a Bunsen burner, where a gaseous fuel (e.g., propane) flows from a nozzle into an oxygen-containing atmosphere (e.g., air). The difference is that a Bunsen burner allows for (partial) premixing of the fuel and the air, whereas a diffusion flame is not premixed and gets its oxygen (principally) by diffusion from the atmosphere around the flame. Simple gas-jet diffusion flames are often used for combustion studies because they embody the mechanisms operating in accidental fires and in practical combustion systems. However, most practical combustion is turbulent (i.e., with random flow vortices), which enhances the fuel/air mixing. These turbulent flames are not well understood because their random and transient nature complicates analysis. Normal gravity studies of turbulence in gas-jet diffusion flames can be impeded by buoyancy-induced instabilities. These gravitycaused instabilities, which are evident in the flickering of a candle flame in normal gravity, interfere with the study of turbulent gas-jet diffusion flames. By conducting experiments in microgravity, where buoyant instabilities are avoided, we at the NASA Lewis Research Center hope to improve our understanding of turbulent combustion. Ultimately, this could lead to improvements in combustor design, yielding higher efficiency and lower pollutant emissions. Gas-jet diffusion flames are often researched as model flames, because they embody mechanisms operating in both accidental fires and practical combustion systems (see the first figure). In normal gravity laboratory research, buoyant air flows, which are often negligible in practical situations, dominate the heat and mass transfer processes. Microgravity research studies, however, are not constrained by buoyant air flows, and new, unique information on the behavior of gas-jet diffusion flames has been obtained.
Diffusion Simulation and Lifetime Calculation at RHIC
Abreu,N.P.; Fischer, W.; Luo, Y.; Robert-Demolaize, G.
2009-01-02
The beam lifetime is an important parameter for any storage ring. For protons in RHIC it is dominated by the non-linear nature of the head-on collisions that causes the particles to diffuse outside the stable area in phase space. In this report we show results from diffusion simulation and lifetime calculation for the 2006 and 2008 polarized proton runs in RHIC.
Multidimensional reaction rate theory with anisotropic diffusion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Berezhkovskii, Alexander M.; Szabo, Attila; Greives, Nicholas; Zhou, Huan-Xiang
2014-11-01
An analytical expression is derived for the rate constant that describes diffusive transitions between two deep wells of a multidimensional potential. The expression, in contrast to the Kramers-Langer formula for the rate constant, is valid even when the diffusion is highly anisotropic. Our approach is based on a variational principle for the reactive flux and uses a trial function for the splitting probability or commitor. The theoretical result is validated by Brownian dynamics simulations.
Fluid dynamics of double diffusive systems
Koseff, J.R.
1988-05-01
A study of mixing processes in doubly diffusive systems is being conducted. Continuous gradients of two diffusing components (heat and salinity) are being used as initial conditions, and forcing is introduced by lateral heating, surface shear and sloping boundaries. The goals of the proposed work include: quantification of the effects of finite amplitude disturbances on stable, double diffusive systems, particularly with respect to lateral heating, development of an improved understanding of the physical phenomena present in wind-driven shear flows in double diffusive stratified environments, increasing our knowledge-base on turbulent flow in stratified environments and how to represent it, and formulation of numerical code for such flows. The work is being carried out in a new experimental facility at Stanford and on laboratory minicomputers and CRAY computers. In particular we are focusing on the following key issues. The formation and propagation of double diffusive intrusions away from a heated wall and the effects of lateral heating on the double diffusive system; The interaction between the double diffusively influenced fluxes and the turbulence induced fluxes; The formation of gravitational intrusions; and The influence of double diffusive gradients on mixed layer deepening. The goals of the project were as follows. Physical experiments: Construct experimental facility; Modify and fabricate instrument rakes; Develop sampling and calibration software; Develop stratification techniques; Conduct flow visualization studies; Qualify wind tunnel over a range of wind speeds. Numerical experiments: Adapt REMIXCS to handle turbulent flows; Investigate approaches for specifying wind field; Perform calculations for low wind speeds. With the exception of the wind tunnel qualification, all the tasks have already been completed and we are now conducting quantitative experiments. 2 figs.
Flux Control in Networks of Diffusion Paths
A. I. Zhmoginov and N. J. Fisch
2009-07-08
A class of optimization problems in networks of intersecting diffusion domains of a special form of thin paths has been considered. The system of equations describing stationary solutions is equivalent to an electrical circuit built of intersecting conductors. The solution of an optimization problem has been obtained and extended to the analogous electrical circuit. The interest in this network arises from, among other applications, an application to wave-particle diffusion through resonant interactions in plasma.
Diffusion in Condensed Matter: Methods, Materials, Models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Heitjans, Paul; Kärger, Jög
This comprehensive, handbook-style survey of diffusion in condensed matter gives detailed insight into diffusion as the process of particle transport due to stochastic movement. It is understood and presented as a phenomenon of crucial relevance for a large variety of processes and materials. In this book, all aspects of the theoretical fundamentals, experimental techniques, highlights of current developments and results for solids, liquids and interfaces are presented.
Rotor/Stator Interaction In A Diffuser Pump
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Acosta, A. J.; Brennan, C. E.; Caughey, T. K.
1990-01-01
Measurements of steady and fluctuating pressures reported. Report describes experiments designed to investigate interactions between blades of impeller and both vaned and vaneless diffuser (stator) in diffuser pump.
Influence of point defects on grain boundary diffusion in oxides
Stubican, V.S.
1991-03-15
The influence of point defects on grain boundary diffusion of Co ions in NiO was studied using polycrystalline films and bicrystals. Grain boundary diffusion was studied at 750 C at oxygen partial pressure. Two diffusion regions were found. At low oxygen pressures, extrinsic diffusion was observed. Above oxygen pressure of 10{sup {minus}7}, influence of intrinsic point defects was detected. It was determined that grain boundary diffusion was > 3 orders of magnitude faster than volume diffusion. However, it seems that grain boundary diffusion is influenced by the point defects in a similar way as the volume diffusion. 4 figs.
Finite gyroradius corrections in the theory of perpendicular diffusion 2. Strong velocity diffusion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shalchi, A.
2016-01-01
The current paper is a sequel to an article where we have started to incorporate finite gyroradius effects in the theory of perpendicular diffusion of energetic particles interacting with turbulent magnetic fields. In the previous paper we have focused on the case that velocity diffusion is suppressed and we derived corrections to the perpendicular diffusion coefficient. In the current article we focus on the limit of strong non-linear velocity diffusion. If finite gyroradius effects are not present, we derive the well-known limit where the perpendicular diffusion coefficient is directly proportional to the parallel diffusion coefficient. As in the previous paper, we employ different turbulence models as examples, namely the slab model, noisy slab turbulence, and the two-dimensional model. We show that finite gyroradius effects reduce the perpendicular mean free path in all considered cases except for the slab model where such effects do not occur.
Titanium self-diffusion and chemical diffusion in Ti{sub 3}Al
Ruesing, J.; Herzig, C.
1995-08-15
Temperature and concentration dependence of the diffusion of Ti and Al has been measured in the ordered {alpha}{sub 2}-phase Ti{sub 3}Al. Ti self-diffusion is almost independent of the Al concentration in the hyperstoichiometric {alpha}{sub 2}-phase. The absolute D*{sub Ti}-values are rather low. Obviously diffusion proceeds by the vacancy mechanism and no constitutional vacancies but Al antisite defects are formed. Chemical diffusion {tilde D} is larger than self-diffusion D*{sub Ti} due to the fact that the thermodynamic factor {Phi} is larger than unity in the {alpha}{sub 2}-phase. Al self-diffusion D*{sub Al} was deduced to be lower than D*{sub Ti} by a factor of two to three in the range of 1,273 K to 1,173 K.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fieremans, Els; DeDeene, Yves; Delputte, Steven; Özdemir, Mahir S.; Achten, Eric; Lemahieu, Ignace
2008-10-01
Diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging offers a non-invasive tool to explore the three-dimensional structure of brain white matter in clinical practice. Anisotropic diffusion hardware phantoms are useful for the quantitative validation of this technique. This study provides guidelines on how to manufacture anisotropic fibre phantoms in a reproducible way and which fibre material to choose to obtain a good quality of the diffusion weighted images. Several fibre materials are compared regarding their effect on the diffusion MR measurements of the water molecules inside the phantoms. The diffusion anisotropy influencing material properties are the fibre density and diameter, while the fibre surface relaxivity and magnetic susceptibility determine the signal-to-noise ratio. The effect on the T2-relaxation time of water in the phantoms has been modelled and the diffusion behaviour inside the fibre phantoms has been quantitatively evaluated using Monte Carlo random walk simulations.
Impurity diffusion in transition-metal oxides
Peterson, N.L.
1982-06-01
Intrinsic tracer impurity diffusion measurements in ceramic oxides have been primarily confined to CoO, NiO, and Fe/sub 3/O/sub 4/. Tracer impurity diffusion in these materials and TiO/sub 2/, together with measurements of the effect of impurities on tracer diffusion (Co in NiO and Cr in CoO), are reviewed and discussed in terms of impurity-defect interactions and mechanisms of diffusion. Divalent impurities in divalent solvents seem to have a weak interaction with vacancies whereas trivalent impurities in divalent solvents strongly influence the vacancy concentrations and significantly reduce solvent jump frequencies near a trivalent impurity. Impurities with small ionic radii diffuse more slowly with a larger activation energy than impurities with larger ionic radii for all systems considered in this review. Cobalt ions (a moderate size impurity) diffuse rapidly along the open channels parallel to the c-axis in TiO/sub 2/ whereas chromium ions (a smaller-sized impurity) do not. 60 references, 11 figures.
Diffusion at the magnetopause: A theoretical perspective
Winske, D.; Thomas, V.A.; Omidi, N.
1994-04-01
This paper discusses theoretical aspects of cross-field wave-particle transport at the magnetopause. The basic framework for calculating the transport based on second order-theory is reviewed. Instabilities that give rise to the waves which then lead to particle scattering and diffusion are discussed, and in particular, the lower hybrid drift instability is emphasized. The linear and nonlinear properties of this instability are presented, along with results from revelant computer simulations. Other potential diffusion processes at the magnetopause are also described. The overall conclusion, supported by wave and particle observations, is that wave-particle diffusion is a relatively weak process at the magnetopause. Further, it is argued that this line of research, while illuminating potential new mechanisms, cannot address the more important question of diffusion and transport on a spatial scale of many ion gyroradii over a temporal scale of many ion gyroperiods. A new paradigm to examine the global aspects of magnetopause transport on ion scales using hybrid code methods is presented. Results of two-dimensional hybrid simulations show that the structure of the magnetopause for northward interplanetary magnetic field is reproduced, and the resulting transport in this case is due to waves below the ion gyrofrequency. Diffusion in the presence of viscous transport due to the kinetic Kelvin-Helmholtz instability is then discussed. The potential for the study of particle diffusion, viscous interactions and magnetic reconnection simultaneously through this paradigm is also addressed.
Size of diffusion pore of Alcaligenes faecalis.
Ishii, J; Nakae, T
1988-03-01
The diffusion pore of the outer membrane of Alcaligenes faecalis was shown to be substantially smaller than the Escherichia coli porin pore. In experiments with intact cells, pentoses and hexoses penetrated into the NaCl-expanded periplasm, whereas saccharides of Mr greater than 342 did not. Cells treated with 0.5 M saccharides of Mr greater than 342 weighed 33 to 38% less than cells treated with isotonic solution, suggesting that these saccharides do not permeate through the outer membrane. The diffusion rates of various solutes through the liposome membranes reconstituted from the Mr-43,000 outer membrane protein showed the following characteristics. (i) The relative diffusion rates of pentoses, hexoses, and methylhexoses appeared to be about 1.0, 0.6, and negligibly small, respectively. (ii) The diffusion rate of glucose appeared to be about 1/10th that with the E. coli B porin. (iii) The diffusion rate of gluconic acid was five to seven times higher than that of glucose. (iv) The diffusion rates of beta-lactam antibiotics appeared to be 40 to less than 10% of those with the E. coli B porin. PMID:2835003
Size of diffusion pore of Alcaligenes faecalis.
Ishii, J; Nakae, T
1988-01-01
The diffusion pore of the outer membrane of Alcaligenes faecalis was shown to be substantially smaller than the Escherichia coli porin pore. In experiments with intact cells, pentoses and hexoses penetrated into the NaCl-expanded periplasm, whereas saccharides of Mr greater than 342 did not. Cells treated with 0.5 M saccharides of Mr greater than 342 weighed 33 to 38% less than cells treated with isotonic solution, suggesting that these saccharides do not permeate through the outer membrane. The diffusion rates of various solutes through the liposome membranes reconstituted from the Mr-43,000 outer membrane protein showed the following characteristics. (i) The relative diffusion rates of pentoses, hexoses, and methylhexoses appeared to be about 1.0, 0.6, and negligibly small, respectively. (ii) The diffusion rate of glucose appeared to be about 1/10th that with the E. coli B porin. (iii) The diffusion rate of gluconic acid was five to seven times higher than that of glucose. (iv) The diffusion rates of beta-lactam antibiotics appeared to be 40 to less than 10% of those with the E. coli B porin. Images PMID:2835003
Diffusion of residual monomer in polymer resins.
Piver, W T
1976-01-01
A simplified mathematical model which made use of Fick's laws of diffusion written in spherical coordinates was developed to describe the rate of diffusion of residual monomers from polymer resins. The properties of the monomer-polymer system which influenced the amount of monomer remaining in the polymer as a function of time were the diffusivity and solubility of the monomer in the polymer, and the particle size of the polymer resin. This model was used to analyze literature data on the diffusion of residual vinyl chloride monomer in polyvinyl chloride resins made by the suspension process. It was concluded that particle size of the resin was a significant parameter which should be taken advantage of in process equipment designed to remove residual monomer from PVC resins. The diffusivity of the monomer in the polymer was a function of the solubility of the monomer in the polymer. Monomer solubility can be determined from Henry's law. It was suggested that this model could be adapted to describe diffusion of monomers from any monomer-polymer system, and would be a useful approach to modeling the transport of nonreactive chemical additives from plastics. PMID:1026410
Lipid diffusibility in the intact erythrocyte membrane.
Bloom, J A; Webb, W W
1983-01-01
The lateral diffusion of fluorescent lipid analogues in the plasma membrane of intact erythrocytes from man, mouse, rabbit, and frog has been measured by fluorescence photobleaching recovery (FPR). Intact cells from dystrophic, normoblastic, hemolytic, and spherocytotic mouse mutants; from hypercholesterolemic rabbits and humans; and from prenatal, neonatal, and juvenile mice have been compared with corresponding normals. The lateral diffusion coefficient (D) for 3,3'-dioctadecylindodicarbocyanine iodide (DiI[5]) in intact normal human erythrocytes is D = 8.2 +/- 1.2 X 10(-9) cm2/s at 25 degrees C and D = 2.1 +/- 0.4 X 10(-8) cm2/s at 37 degrees C, and varies approximately 50-fold between 1 degree and 42 degrees C. The diffusion constants of lipid analogue rhodamine-B phosphatidylethanolamine (RBPE) are about twice those of DiI[5]. The temperature dependence and magnitude of D vary by up to a factor of 3 between species and are only influenced by donor age in prenatals. DiI[5] diffusibility is not perturbed by the presence of calcium or local anesthetics or by spectrin depletion (via mutation). However, lipid-analogue diffusibility in erythrocyte ghosts may differ from intact cells. Dietary hypercholesterolemia in rabbits reduces the diffusion coefficient and eliminates the characteristic break in Arrhenius plots of D found in all other cells studied except frog. PMID:6603237
Diffusion of tungsten on stepped tungsten surfaces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Choi, D. S.; Kim, S. K.; Gomer, R.
1990-08-01
Self-diffusion of thermally generated tungsten atoms near (123) and (257), on the zone (011)-(112) and on (023), on the zone (011)-(001) of a tungsten field emitter has been investigated by the field-emission fluctuation method, using a rectangular probe in order to investigate diffusion anisotropy. In agreement with earlier findings of Gong and Gomer [J. Chem. Phys. 88 (1988) 1359, 1370] diffusion of single W atoms along and across (011) terraces separated by (011) steps, i.e. step edges running along [111] is essentially isotropic with Ed = 16 kcal, D0 ≈ 10 -4 cm 2 s -1, while atoms can cross (001) oriented steps only with much activation energy: Ed ≈ 35 kcal, D0 = 10 -2 cm -2 s -1. Slow diffusion parallel to steps attributed previously by Gong Chem. Phys. 88 (1988) 1359, 1370] to kink motion was also seen along the zone (011)-(112) but seems more complicated than previously assumed, with several regimes, which may correspond to motions of different kink configurations. Distinct dips in the slow regime diffusion coefficients occurred at 910 K, somewhat higher than the previously seen onset of dips, 875 K, and may indicate roughening, as previously hypothesized. Slow diffusion perpendicular to steps was also seen in this zone and is not fully understood. It may arise from some step components always perpendicular to the short slit dimensions, or may correspond to more complicated surface configurations than the step and terrace pattern on an ideal emitter surface.
Diffusion of Particles in Polymer Solutions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cai, Liheng; Rubinstein, Michael
2010-03-01
We use scaling theory to derive the time dependence of the mean-square-displacement <δr^2> of a probe particle of size d in an entangled semidilute polymer solution. Particles with size smaller than solution correlation length ξ undergo ordinary diffusion (<δr^2 (t)>˜t) with diffusion coefficient determined by the solvent viscosity. The motion of particles with intermediate sizes (ξ
Influence Function Learning in Information Diffusion Networks
Du, Nan; Liang, Yingyu; Balcan, Maria-Florina; Song, Le
2015-01-01
Can we learn the influence of a set of people in a social network from cascades of information diffusion? This question is often addressed by a two-stage approach: first learn a diffusion model, and then calculate the influence based on the learned model. Thus, the success of this approach relies heavily on the correctness of the diffusion model which is hard to verify for real world data. In this paper, we exploit the insight that the influence functions in many diffusion models are coverage functions, and propose a novel parameterization of such functions using a convex combination of random basis functions. Moreover, we propose an efficient maximum likelihood based algorithm to learn such functions directly from cascade data, and hence bypass the need to specify a particular diffusion model in advance. We provide both theoretical and empirical analysis for our approach, showing that the proposed approach can provably learn the influence function with low sample complexity, be robust to the unknown diffusion models, and significantly outperform existing approaches in both synthetic and real world data. PMID:25973445
Quantitative law of diffusion induced fracture
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lei, H.-J.; Wang, H.-L.; Liu, B.; Wang, C.-A.
2016-08-01
Through dimension analysis, an almost analytical model for the maximum diffusion induced stress (DIS) and critical temperature (or concentration) difference at which cracks begin to initiate in the diffusion process is developed. It interestingly predicts that the spacing of diffusion-induced cracks is constant, independent of the thickness of specimen and the temperature difference. These conclusions are validated by our thermal shock experiments on alumina plates. Furthermore, the proposed model can interpret observed hierarchical crack patterns for high temperature jump cases, and a three-stage relation between the residual strength and the temperature difference. The prediction for crack spacing can guide the biomimetic thermal-shock-failure proof design, in which the hard platelets smaller than the predicted diffusion induced by constant crack-spacing are embedded in a soft matrix, and, therefore, no fracture will happen. This may guide the design of the thermal protection system and the lithium ion battery. Finally we present the maximum normalized DISes for various geometry and boundary conditions by single-variable curves for the stress-independent diffusion process and two-variable contour plots for the stress-dependent diffusion process, which can provide engineers and materialists a simple and easy way to quickly evaluate the reliability of related materials and devices.
Quantitative law of diffusion induced fracture
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lei, H.-J.; Wang, H.-L.; Liu, B.; Wang, C.-A.
2016-04-01
Through dimension analysis, an almost analytical model for the maximum diffusion induced stress (DIS) and critical temperature (or concentration) difference at which cracks begin to initiate in the diffusion process is developed. It interestingly predicts that the spacing of diffusion-induced cracks is constant, independent of the thickness of specimen and the temperature difference. These conclusions are validated by our thermal shock experiments on alumina plates. Furthermore, the proposed model can interpret observed hierarchical crack patterns for high temperature jump cases, and a three-stage relation between the residual strength and the temperature difference. The prediction for crack spacing can guide the biomimetic thermal-shock-failure proof design, in which the hard platelets smaller than the predicted diffusion induced by constant crack-spacing are embedded in a soft matrix, and, therefore, no fracture will happen. This may guide the design of the thermal protection system and the lithium ion battery. Finally we present the maximum normalized DISes for various geometry and boundary conditions by single-variable curves for the stress-independent diffusion process and two-variable contour plots for the stress-dependent diffusion process, which can provide engineers and materialists a simple and easy way to quickly evaluate the reliability of related materials and devices.
Quantification of differential diffusion in nonpremixed systems.
Smith, Philip J.; Sutherland, James C.; Chen, Jacqueline H.
2004-06-01
Most attempts to quantify differential diffusion (DD) are based on the difference between different definitions of the mixture fraction. This paper presents a general method for evaluating differential diffusion in premixed or nonpremixed systems based on conservation equations for the elemental mass fractions. These measures form a basis for analyzing differential diffusion. Casting these in terms of a mixture fraction gives particular insight into differential diffusion for nonpremixed systems, and provides a single DD measure. Furthermore, it allows direct evaluation of the validity of the traditional assumptions involved in writing a mixture fraction transport equation. Results are presented for one-dimensional opposed flow simulations of hydrogen and methane flames as well as direct numerical simulations (DNS) of CH 4 /H 2 -air and CO/H 2 -air flames. For a common definition of the mixture fraction, the DD measure can be approximated well by considering only the contribution of H 2 and CH 4 in methane-air flames. Differential diffusion is largely driven by production of H 2 in the flame zone for hydrocarbon flames. Effects of strain rate and filter width on the relative importance of differential diffusion are examined.
Mutual diffusion of interacting membrane proteins.
Abney, J R; Scalettar, B A; Owicki, J C
1989-01-01
The generalized Stokes-Einstein equation is used, together with the two-dimensional pressure equation, to analyze mutual diffusion in concentrated membrane systems. These equations can be used to investigate the role that both direct and hydrodynamic interactions play in determining diffusive behavior. Here only direct interactions are explicitly incorporated into the theory at high densities; however, both direct and hydrodynamic interactions are analyzed for some dilute solutions. We look at diffusion in the presence of weak attractions, soft repulsions, and hard-core repulsions. It is found that, at low densities, attractions retard mutual diffusion while repulsions enhance it. Mechanistically, attractions tend to tether particles together and oppose the dissipation of gradients or fluctuations in concentration, while repulsions provide a driving force that pushes particles apart. At higher concentrations, changes in the structure of the fluid enhance mutual diffusion even in the presence of attractions. It is shown that the theoretical description of postelectrophoresis relaxation and fluorescence correlation spectroscopy experiments must be modified if interacting systems are studied. The effects of interactions on mutual diffusion coefficients have probably already been seen in postelectrophoresis relaxation experiments. PMID:2775829
Water diffusivity in human nail plate.
Gunt, Hemali B; Miller, Matthew A; Kasting, Gerald B
2007-12-01
The diffusivity of water in human nail at 32 degrees C was determined for cadaveric, human finger nails having water contents ranging from 0.536 g H(2)O/g dry nail to 0.035 g H(2)O/g dry nail by measuring the desorption of tritiated water from nails suspended in water or in the vapor phase above salt solutions yielding a range of relative humidities (RH). Diffusivity increased with increasing RH from (7.7 +/- 1.3) x 10(-10) cm(2) s(-1) at 15% RH to (3.2 +/- 1.1) x 10(-7) cm(2) s(-1) in the liquid phase study at 100% RH, a more than 400-fold increase. The diffusivity values, which may be understood in terms of the equilibrium water content of the nail and a free volume theory for diffusion in hydrophilic polymers, were consistent with water diffusivities measured in other keratinized tissues including wool, horn and the corneocyte phase of stratum corneum. Analysis of the tritium desorption data was complicated by a tritium exchange process between (3)H(2)O and nail keratin, the kinetics of which are presented in part. The combination of the concentration-dependent water diffusivity with the natural water activity gradient in nail in vivo leads to the prediction of a nonlinear steady-state water concentration profile in human nail in vivo which, in turn, has implications for ungual drug delivery. PMID:17786922
'LTE-diffusion approximation' for arc calculations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lowke, J. J.; Tanaka, M.
2006-08-01
This paper proposes the use of the 'LTE-diffusion approximation' for predicting the properties of electric arcs. Under this approximation, local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) is assumed, with a particular mesh size near the electrodes chosen to be equal to the 'diffusion length', based on De/W, where De is the electron diffusion coefficient and W is the electron drift velocity. This approximation overcomes the problem that the equilibrium electrical conductivity in the arc near the electrodes is almost zero, which makes accurate calculations using LTE impossible in the limit of small mesh size, as then voltages would tend towards infinity. Use of the LTE-diffusion approximation for a 200 A arc with a thermionic cathode gives predictions of total arc voltage, electrode temperatures, arc temperatures and radial profiles of heat flux density and current density at the anode that are in approximate agreement with more accurate calculations which include an account of the diffusion of electric charges to the electrodes, and also with experimental results. Calculations, which include diffusion of charges, agree with experimental results of current and heat flux density as a function of radius if the Milne boundary condition is used at the anode surface rather than imposing zero charge density at the anode.
Colloidal diffusion over a periodic energy landscape
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ma, Xiao-Guang; Lai, Pik-Yin; Tong, Penger
2014-03-01
A two-layer colloidal system is developed for the study of colloidal diffusion over a two-dimensional periodic energy landscape. The energy landscape is made from the bottom layer of colloidal spheres forming a honey-comb crystalline pattern above a glass substrate. The corrugated surface of the bottom colloidal crystal provides a gravitational potential field for the diffusing particles in the top layer. The obtained population probability histogram P(x , y) of the diffusing particles is used to fully characterize the energy landscape U(x , y) via the Boltzmann distribution. The dynamical properties of the diffusing particle, such as its escape time tR and diffusion coefficient D are simultaneously measured from the particle's trajectories. The long-time diffusion coefficients D is found to be in good agreement with the theory for all colloidal samples studied. The experiment demonstrates the applications of this newly constructed colloidal energy landscape. *Work supported in part by the Research Grants Council of Hong Kong SAR.
Protein diffusion in mammalian cell cytoplasm.
Kühn, Thomas; Ihalainen, Teemu O; Hyväluoma, Jari; Dross, Nicolas; Willman, Sami F; Langowski, Jörg; Vihinen-Ranta, Maija; Timonen, Jussi
2011-01-01
We introduce a new method for mesoscopic modeling of protein diffusion in an entire cell. This method is based on the construction of a three-dimensional digital model cell from confocal microscopy data. The model cell is segmented into the cytoplasm, nucleus, plasma membrane, and nuclear envelope, in which environment protein motion is modeled by fully numerical mesoscopic methods. Finer cellular structures that cannot be resolved with the imaging technique, which significantly affect protein motion, are accounted for in this method by assigning an effective, position-dependent porosity to the cell. This porosity can also be determined by confocal microscopy using the equilibrium distribution of a non-binding fluorescent protein. Distinction can now be made within this method between diffusion in the liquid phase of the cell (cytosol/nucleosol) and the cytoplasm/nucleoplasm. Here we applied the method to analyze fluorescence recovery after photobleach (FRAP) experiments in which the diffusion coefficient of a freely-diffusing model protein was determined for two different cell lines, and to explain the clear difference typically observed between conventional FRAP results and those of fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS). A large difference was found in the FRAP experiments between diffusion in the cytoplasm/nucleoplasm and in the cytosol/nucleosol, for all of which the diffusion coefficients were determined. The cytosol results were found to be in very good agreement with those by FCS. PMID:21886771
Cosmic Ray Diffusion Tensor Throughout the Heliosphere
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pei, C.; Bieber, J. W.; Breech, B.; Burger, R. A.; Clem, J.; Matthaeus, W. H.
2008-12-01
We calculate the cosmic ray diffusion tensor based on a recently developed model of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence in the expanding solar wind [Breech et al., 2008.]. Parameters of this MHD model are tuned by using published observations from Helios, Voyager 2, and Ulysses. We present solutions of two turbulence parameter sets and derive the characteristics of the cosmic ray diffusion tensor for each. We determine the parallel diffusion coefficient of the cosmic ray following the method presented in Bieber et al. [1995]. We use the nonlinear guiding center (NLGC) theory to obtain the perpendicular diffusion coefficient of the cosmic ray [Matthaeus et al. 2003]. We find that (1) the radial mean free path decreases from 1 AU to 20 AU for both turbulence scenarios; (2) after 40 AU the radial mean free path is nearly constant; (3) the radial mean free path is dominated by the parallel component before 20 AU, after which the perpendicular component becomes important; (4) the rigidity P dependence of the parallel component of the diffusion tensor is proportional to P.404 for one turbulence scenario and P.374 for the other at 1 AU from 0.1 GVto 10 GV, but in the outer heliosphere its dependence becomes stronger above 4 GV; (5) the rigidity P dependence of the perpendicular component of the diffusion tensor is very weak. Supported by NASA Heliophysics Guest Investigator grant NNX07AH73G and by NASA Heliophysics Theory grant NNX08AI47G.
Anaerobic degradation of DCM diffusing through clay
Rowe, R.K.; Hrapovic, L.; Kosaric, N.; Cullimore, D.R.
1997-12-01
Two series of diffusion tests were performed to examine the degradation of dichloromethane (DCM) as it diffuses through clay. The first series showed the use of a synthetic leachate with no significant initial bacterial population diffusing through a plug of intact clay; there was an induction period of 95--135 d, during which diffusion was as expected in the absence of degradation, followed by a second stage, where degradation occurred with an apparent half-life of less than 55 d at a temperature of 24 C. The second series of tests examined the diffusion of an actual leachate from the Keele Valley Landfill (KVL) (which provided both nutrients and a source of bacteria), through a compacted clay. In these tests, the induction period was reduced to 40--60 d, after which the apparent half-life was 20 d or less at 27 C. The diffusion coefficient for DCM was approximately 8 {times} 10{sup {minus}10} m{sup 2}/s, with partitioning coefficient K{sub d} = 1.5 cm{sup 3}/g. Biological activity was confirmed by evaluating the change in the concentration of adenosine-5-triphosphate and the biological activity reaction test (BART). The degradation of DCM did not produce any detectable levels of chloromethane.
Olveczky, B P; Verkman, A S
1998-05-01
Molecular transport in the aqueous lumen of organelles involves diffusion in a confined compartment with complex geometry. Monte Carlo simulations of particle diffusion in three dimensions were carried out to evaluate the influence of organelle structure on diffusive transport and to relate experimental photobleaching data to intrinsic diffusion coefficients. Two organelle structures were modeled: a mitochondria-like long closed cylinder containing fixed luminal obstructions of variable number and size, and an endoplasmic reticulum-like network of interconnected cylinders of variable diameter and density. Trajectories were computed in each simulation for >10(5) particles, generally for >10(5) time steps. Computed time-dependent concentration profiles agreed quantitatively with analytical solutions of the diffusion equation for simple geometries. For mitochondria-like cylinders, significant slowing of diffusion required large or wide single obstacles, or multiple obstacles. In simulated spot photobleaching experiments, a approximately 25% decrease in apparent diffusive transport rate (defined by the time to 75% fluorescence recovery) was found for a single thin transverse obstacle occluding 93% of lumen area, a single 53%-occluding obstacle of width 16 lattice points (8% of cylinder length), 10 equally spaced 53% obstacles alternately occluding opposite halves of the cylinder lumen, or particle binding to walls (with mean residence time = 10 time steps). Recovery curve shape with obstacles showed long tails indicating anomalous diffusion. Simulations also demonstrated the utility of measurement of fluorescence depletion at a spot distant from the bleach zone. For a reticulum-like network, particle diffusive transport was mildly reduced from that in unobstructed three-dimensional space. In simulated photobleaching experiments, apparent diffusive transport was decreased by 39-60% in reticular structures in which 90-97% of space was occluded. These computations provide
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yuan, Zhen; Zhang, Qizhi; Sobel, Eric; Jiang, Huabei
2009-09-01
In this study, a simplified spherical harmonics approximated higher order diffusion model is employed for 3-D diffuse optical tomography of osteoarthritis in the finger joints. We find that the use of a higher-order diffusion model in a stand-alone framework provides significant improvement in reconstruction accuracy over the diffusion approximation model. However, we also find that this is not the case in the image-guided setting when spatial prior knowledge from x-rays is incorporated. The results show that the reconstruction error between these two models is about 15 and 4%, respectively, for stand-alone and image-guided frameworks.
Extending the diffusion approximation to the boundary using an integrated diffusion model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Chen; Du, Zhidong; Pan, Liang
2015-06-01
The widely used diffusion approximation is inaccurate to describe the transport behaviors near surfaces and interfaces. To solve such stochastic processes, an integro-differential equation, such as the Boltzmann transport equation (BTE), is typically required. In this work, we show that it is possible to keep the simplicity of the diffusion approximation by introducing a nonlocal source term and a spatially varying diffusion coefficient. We apply the proposed integrated diffusion model (IDM) to a benchmark problem of heat conduction across a thin film to demonstrate its feasibility. We also validate the model when boundary reflections and uniform internal heat generation are present.
Diffusing colloids in the vicinity of a surface: Anomalous yet Brownian diffusion?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ignacio, Maxime; Chubynsky, Mykyta V.; Slater, Gary W.
Anomalous yet Brownian diffusion refers to a process with a linear mean-square displacement coexisting with a non-Gaussian Displacement Distribution (DispD). Chubynsky and Slater proposed a model of this phenomenon in which the diffusion coefficient varies randomly in time (''diffusing diffusivity''). Recently, Bechhoefer's group has showed experimentally that diffusion of colloids near a wall exhibits non-Gaussian DispD with exponential tails. Due to hydrodynamic interactions, the diffusivity D (r) is space-dependent and therefore varies in time as the particle moves in space. Qualitatively, the experimental results agree with the predictions of the diffusing diffusivity model. However, the two situations differ in details. First, space-dependent diffusivity implies the possibility of different interpretations of the stochastic term in the overdamped Langevin equation (i.e. the ``Ito-Stratonovich dilemma''). Second, in the system of Bechhoefer et al., there is an external potential due to gravity and the electrostatic repulsion from the wall. Using Lattice Monte Carlo simulations, we explore the role of these effects.
New method to measure liquid diffusivity by analyzing an instantaneous diffusion image.
Sun, Licun; Meng, Weidong; Pu, Xiaoyun
2015-09-01
A novel optical method was applied to measure the binary liquid diffusion coefficient (D) quickly. Equipped with an asymmetric liquid-core cylindrical lens (ALCL), the spatially resolving ability of the ALCL in measuring refractive index of liquid was utilized to obtain the gradient distribution of the liquid concentration along diffusive direction. Based on Fick's second law, the D value was then calculated by analyzing diffusion images. It was worth mentioning that only one instantaneous diffusive image was required to measure D value by the method, reducing the measurement time greatly from several hours in traditional methods to a few seconds. The diffusion coefficients of ethylene glycol diffusing in pure water, at temperatures from 288.15 to 308.15 K, were measured by analyzing instantaneous diffusion images, the results were consistent well with the values measured by using holographic interferometry and Taylor dispersion methods. The method is characterized by faster measurement, direct observation of diffusive process, and easy operation, which provides a new method in measuring diffusion coefficient of liquids rapidly. PMID:26368418
Molecular simulations of diffusion in electrolytes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wheeler, Dean Richard
This work demonstrates new methodologies for simulating multicomponent diffusion in concentrated solutions using molecular dynamics (MD). Experimental diffusion data for concentrated multicomponent solutions are often lacking, as are accurate methods of predicting diffusion for nonideal solutions. MD can be a viable means of understanding and predicting multicomponent diffusion. While there have been several prior reports of MD simulations of mutual diffusion, no satisfactory expressions for simulating Stefan-Maxwell diffusivities for an arbitrary number of species exist. The approaches developed here allow for the computation of a full diffusion matrix for any number of species in both nonequilibrium and equilibrium MD ensembles. Our nonequilibrium approach is based on the application of constant external fields to drive species diffusion. Our equilibrium approach uses a newly developed Green-Kubo formula for Stefan-Maxwell diffusivities. In addition, as part of this work, we demonstrate a widely applicable means of increasing the computational efficiency of the Ewald sum, a technique for handling long-range Coulombic interactions in simulations. The theoretical development is applicable to any solution which can be simulated using MD; nevertheless, our primary interest is in electrochemical applications. To this end, the methods are tested by simulations of aqueous salt solutions and lithium-battery electrolytes. KCl and NaCl aqueous solutions were simulated over the concentration range 1 to 4 molal. Intermolecular-potential models were parameterized for these transport-based simulations. This work is the first to simulate all three independent diffusion coefficients for aqueous NaCl and KCl solutions. The results show that the nonequilibrium and equilibrium methods are consistent with each other, and in moderate agreement with experiment. We simulate lithium-battery electrolytes containing LiPF6 in propylene carbonate and mixed ethylene carbonate
Diffusive Fractionation of Lithium Isotopes in Olivine
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Homolova, V.; Richter, F. M.; Watson, E. B.; Chaussidon, M.
2014-12-01
Systematic lithium isotope variations along concentration gradients found in olivine and pyroxene grains from terrestrial, lunar and martian rocks have been attributed to diffusive isotopic fractionation [Beck et al., 2006; Tang et al., 2007]. In some cases, these isotopic excursions are so large that a single grain may display isotopic variability that spans almost the entire range of documented terrestrial values [Jeffcoate et al., 2007]. In this study, we present the results of experiments to examine diffusive isotopic fractionation of lithium in olivine. The experiments comprised crystallographically oriented slabs of San Carlos olivine juxtaposed with either spodumene powder or a lithium rich pyroxene crystal. Experiments were conducted at 1 GPa and 0.1MPa over a temperature range of 1000 to 1125⁰C. Oxygen fugacity in the 0.1MPa experiments was controlled using the wustite-magnetite and nickel-nickel oxide solid buffer assemblages. Lithium concentrations generally decrease smoothly away from the edges of the grains; however, experiments involving diffusion parallel to the a-axis consistently show peculiar wavy or segmented concentration profiles. Lithium diffusivity parallel to the c-axis is on the order of 1E-14m2/s at 1100⁰C. The diffusivity parallel to the c-axis is more than an order of magnitude faster than diffusion parallel to the b-axis and correlates positively with oxygen fugacity. The lithium isotopic composition, δ7Li = 1000‰ * ((δ7Lisample- δ7Ligrain center)/ δ7Ligrain center), shows a decrease away from the edge of the grain to a minimum value (up to 70‰ lighter) and then an abrupt increase back to the initial isotopic composition of the olivine grain. This isotopic profile is similar to those found in natural grains and an experimental study on diffusive fractionation of lithium isotopes in pyroxene [Richter et al., 2014]. Results from the present study are modeled using the approach of Dohmen et al. [2010], which assumes lithium
Iron diffusion from first principles calculations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wann, E.; Ammann, M. W.; Vocadlo, L.; Wood, I. G.; Lord, O. T.; Brodholt, J. P.; Dobson, D. P.
2013-12-01
The cores of Earth and other terrestrial planets are made up largely of iron1 and it is therefore very important to understand iron's physical properties. Chemical diffusion is one such property and is central to many processes, such as crystal growth, and viscosity. Debate still surrounds the explanation for the seismologically observed anisotropy of the inner core2, and hypotheses include convection3, anisotropic growth4 and dendritic growth5, all of which depend on diffusion. In addition to this, the main deformation mechanism at the inner-outer core boundary is believed to be diffusion creep6. It is clear, therefore, that to gain a comprehensive understanding of the core, a thorough understanding of diffusion is necessary. The extremely high pressures and temperatures of the Earth's core make experiments at these conditions a challenge. Low-temperature and low-pressure experimental data must be extrapolated across a very wide gap to reach the relevant conditions, resulting in very poorly constrained values for diffusivity and viscosity. In addition to these dangers of extrapolation, preliminary results show that magnetisation plays a major role in the activation energies for diffusion at low pressures therefore creating a break down in homologous scaling to high pressures. First principles calculations provide a means of investigating diffusivity at core conditions, have already been shown to be in very good agreement with experiments7, and will certainly provide a better estimate for diffusivity than extrapolation. Here, we present first principles simulations of self-diffusion in solid iron for the FCC, BCC and HCP structures at core conditions in addition to low-temperature and low-pressure calculations relevant to experimental data. 1. Birch, F. Density and composition of mantle and core. Journal of Geophysical Research 69, 4377-4388 (1964). 2. Irving, J. C. E. & Deuss, A. Hemispherical structure in inner core velocity anisotropy. Journal of Geophysical
Diffusion impact on atmospheric moisture transport
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moseley, C.; Haerter, J.; Göttel, H.; Hagemann, S.; Jacob, D.
2009-04-01
To ensure numerical stability, many global and regional climate models employ numerical diffusion to dampen short wavelength modes. Terrain following sigma diffusion is known to cause unphysical effects near the surface in orographically structured regions. They can be reduced by applying z-diffusion on geopotential height levels. We investigate the effect of the diffusion scheme on atmospheric moisture transport and precipitation formation at different resolutions in the European region. With respect to a better understanding of diffusion in current and future grid-space global models, current day regional models may serve as the appropriate tool for studies of the impact of diffusion schemes: Results can easily be constrained to a small test region and checked against reliable observations, which often are unavailable on a global scale. Special attention is drawn to the Alps - a region of strong topographic gradients and good observational coverage. Our study is further motivated by the appearance of the "summer drying problem" in South Eastern Europe. This too warm and too dry simulation of climate is common to many regional climate models and also to some global climate models, and remains a permanent unsolved problem in the community. We perform a systematic comparison of the two diffusion-schemes with respect to the hydrological cycle. In particular, we investigate how local meteorological quantities - such as the atmospheric moisture in the region east of the Alps - depend on the spatial model resolution. Higher model resolution would lead to a more accurate representation of the topography and entail larger gradients in the Alps. This could lead to consecutively stronger transport of moisture along the slopes in the case of sigma-diffusion with subsequent orographic precipitation, whereas the effect could be qualitatively different in the case of z-diffusion. For our study, we analyse a sequence of simulations of the regional climate model REMO employing
Spring 2014 Internship Diffuser Data Analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Laigaie, Robert T.; Ryan, Harry M.
2014-01-01
J-2X engine testing on the A-2 test stand at the NASA John C. Stennis Space Center (SSC) has recently concluded. As part of that test campaign, the engine was operated at lower power levels in support of expanding the use of J-2X to other missions. However, the A-2 diffuser was not designed for engine testing at the proposed low power levels. To evaluate the risk of damage to the diffuser, computer simulations were created of the rocket engine exhaust plume inside the 50ft long, water-cooled, altitude-simulating diffuser. The simulations predicted that low power level testing would cause the plume to oscillate in the lower sections of the diffuser. This can possibly cause excessive vibrations, stress, and heat transfer from the plume to the diffuser walls. To understand and assess the performance of the diffuser during low power level engine testing, nine accelerometers and four strain gages were installed around the outer surface of the diffuser. The added instrumentation also allowed for the verification of the rocket exhaust plume computational model. Prior to engine hot-fire testing, a diffuser water-flow test was conducted to verify the proper operation of the newly installed instrumentation. Subsequently, two J-2X engine hot-fire tests were completed. Hot-Fire Test 1 was 11.5 seconds in duration, and accelerometer and strain data verified that the rocket engine plume oscillated in the lower sections of the diffuser. The accelerometers showed very different results dependent upon location. The diffuser consists of four sections, with Section 1 being closest to the engine nozzle and Section 4 being farthest from the engine nozzle. Section 1 accelerometers showed increased amplitudes at startup and shutdown, but low amplitudes while the diffuser was started. Section 3 accelerometers showed the opposite results with near zero G amplitudes prior to and after diffuser start and peak amplitudes to +/- 100G while the diffuser was started. Hot-Fire Test 1 strain gages
Diffusion of hydrogen in heterogeneous systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Herrmann, A.; Schimmele, L.; Mössinger, J.; Hirscher, M.; Kronmüller, H.
2001-04-01
The effective long-range long-time tracer diffusivity Deff for interstitial diffusion of hydrogen through heterogeneous systems was studied theoretically for model systems consisting of isolated grains of material G embedded in a matrix of material M. Different solubilities of hydrogen in these two materials as well as different diffusivities are allowed for. Additionally, modified diffusion barriers at the phase boundaries were included in the diffusion model. The effect of different sizes, arrangements, and forms of the grains was also considered. Deff was determined by Monte Carlo (MC) simulations on simple lattice models of the systems described above. An equilibrium distribution of hydrogen atoms among the two constituent materials was assumed. Our main interest was focused on whether and how Deff may be related to mesoscopic or macroscopic quantities characterizing the heterogeneous system and its constituent materials, such as the volume fractions of the two materials, the fraction of lattice sites in the immediate vicinity of the phase boundary, the hydrogen concentrations cG and cM in the grains and in the matrix and the respective hydrogen diffusivities DG(cG) and DM(cM). In order to obtain good estimates for these relations in terms of analytic formulas, we attempted to model a heterogeneous system by a network of diffusion elements connected in series and in parallel, in analogy to an electric network. The properties of the basic connections, in parallel and in series, were studied on layered structures, for which analytic expressions for Deff could be derived. The network formulas for different grain-matrix systems were tested by comparing with results of MC simulations. In general, the network formulas describe the corresponding MC results for Deff fairly well. It was found that differences in the hydrogen solubilities in the two phases as well as modified energy barriers at the phase boundaries may have dramatic effects on Deff.
Determination of Matrix Diffusion Properties of Granite
Holtta, Pirkko; Siitari-Kauppi, Marja; Huittinen, Nina; Poteri, Antti
2007-07-01
Rock-core column experiments were introduced to estimate the diffusion and sorption properties of Kuru Grey granite used in block-scale experiments. The objective was to examine the processes causing retention in solute transport through rock fractures, especially matrix diffusion. The objective was also to estimate the importance of retention processes during transport in different scales and flow conditions. Rock-core columns were constructed from cores drilled into the fracture and were placed inside tubes to form flow channels in the 0.5 mm gap between the cores and the tube walls. Tracer experiments were performed using uranin, HTO, {sup 36}Cl, {sup 131}I, {sup 22}Na and {sup 85}Sr at flow rates of 1-50 {mu}L.min{sup -1}. Rock matrix was characterized using {sup 14}C-PMMA method, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray micro analysis (EDX) and the B.E.T. method. Solute mass flux through a column was modelled by applying the assumption of a linear velocity profile and molecular diffusion. Coupling of the advection and diffusion processes was based on the model of generalised Taylor dispersion in the linear velocity profile. Experiments could be modelled applying a consistent parameterization and transport processes. The results provide evidence that it is possible to investigate matrix diffusion at the laboratory scale. The effects of matrix diffusion were demonstrated on the slightly-sorbing tracer breakthrough curves. Based on scoping calculations matrix diffusion begins to be clearly observable for non-sorbing tracer when the flow rate is 0.1 {mu}L.min{sup -1}. The experimental results presented here cannot be transferred directly to the spatial and temporal scales that prevail in an underground repository. However, the knowledge and understanding of transport and retention processes gained from this study is transferable to different scales from laboratory to in-situ conditions. (authors)
Permanganate diffusion and reaction in sedimentary rocks.
Huang, Qiuyuan; Dong, Hailiang; Towne, Rachael M; Fischer, Timothy B; Schaefer, Charles E
2014-04-01
In situ chemical oxidation using permanganate has frequently been used to treat chlorinated solvents in fractured bedrock aquifers. However, in systems where matrix back-diffusion is an important process, the ability of the oxidant to migrate and treat target contaminants within the rock matrix will likely determine the overall effectiveness of this remedial approach. In this study, a series of diffusion experiments were performed to measure the permanganate diffusion and reaction in four different types of sedimentary rocks (dark gray mudstone, light gray mudstone, red sandstone, and tan sandstone). Results showed that, within the experimental time frame (~2 months), oxidant migration into the rock was limited to distances less than 500 μm. The observed diffusivities for permanganate into the rock matrices ranged from 5.3 × 10(-13) to 1.3 × 10(-11) cm(2)/s. These values were reasonably predicted by accounting for both the rock oxidant demand and the effective diffusivity of the rock. Various Mn minerals formed as surface coatings from reduction of permanganate coupled with oxidation of total organic carbon (TOC), and the nature of the formed Mn minerals was dependent upon the rock type. Post-treatment tracer testing showed that these Mn mineral coatings had a negligible impact on diffusion through the rock. Overall, our results showed that the extent of permanganate diffusion and reaction depended on rock properties, including porosity, mineralogy, and organic carbon. These results have important implications for our understanding of long-term organic contaminant remediation in sedimentary rocks using permanganate. PMID:24566296
Water vapor diffusion in Mars subsurface environments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hudson, Troy L.; Aharonson, Oded; Schorghofer, Norbert; Farmer, Crofton B.; Hecht, Michael H.; Bridges, Nathan T.
2007-05-01
The diffusion coefficient of water vapor in unconsolidated porous media is measured for various soil simulants at Mars-like pressures and subzero temperatures. An experimental chamber which simultaneously reproduces a low-pressure, low-temperature, and low-humidity environment is used to monitor water flux from an ice source through a porous diffusion barrier. Experiments are performed on four types of simulants: 40-70 μm glass beads, sintered glass filter disks, 1-3 μm dust (both loose and packed), and JSC Mars-1. A theoretical framework is presented that applies to environments that are not necessarily isothermal or isobaric. For most of our samples, we find diffusion coefficients in the range of 2.8 to 5.4 cm2 s-1 at 600 Pascal and 260 K. This range becomes 1.9-4.7 cm2 s-1 when extrapolated to a Mars-like temperature of 200 K. Our preferred value for JSC Mars-1 at 600 Pa and 200 K is 3.7 +/- 0.5 cm2 s-1. The tortuosities of the glass beads is about 1.8. Packed dust displays a lower mean diffusion coefficient of 0.38 +/- 0.26 cm2 s-1, which can be attributed to transition to the Knudsen regime where molecular collisions with the pore walls dominate. Values for the diffusion coefficient and the variation of the diffusion coefficient with pressure are well matched by existing models. The survival of shallow subsurface ice on Mars and the providence of diffusion barriers are considered in light of these measurements.
Bremmer, Rolf H; van Gemert, Martin J C; Faber, Dirk J; van Leeuwen, Ton G; Aalders, Maurice C G
2013-08-01
Diffuse reflectance spectra are used to determine the optical properties of biological samples. In medicine and forensic science, the turbid objects under study often possess large absorption and/or scattering properties. However, data analysis is frequently based on the diffusion approximation to the radiative transfer equation, implying that it is limited to tissues where the reduced scattering coefficient dominates over the absorption coefficient. Nevertheless, up to absorption coefficients of 20 mm-1 at reduced scattering coefficients of 1 and 11.5 mm-1, we observed excellent agreement (r2=0.994) between reflectance measurements of phantoms and the diffuse reflectance equation proposed by Zonios et al. [Appl. Opt.38, 6628-6637 (1999)], derived as an approximation to one of the diffusion dipole equations of Farrell et al. [Med. Phys.19, 879-888 (1992)]. However, two parameters were fitted to all phantom experiments, including strongly absorbing samples, implying that the reflectance equation differs from diffusion theory. Yet, the exact diffusion dipole approximation at high reduced scattering and absorption also showed agreement with the phantom measurements. The mathematical structure of the diffuse reflectance relation used, derived by Zonios et al. [Appl. Opt.38, 6628-6637 (1999)], explains this observation. In conclusion, diffuse reflectance relations derived as an approximation to the diffusion dipole theory of Farrell et al. can analyze reflectance ratios accurately, even for much larger absorption than reduced scattering coefficients. This allows calibration of fiber-probe set-ups so that the object's diffuse reflectance can be related to its absorption even when large. These findings will greatly expand the application of diffuse reflection spectroscopy. In medicine, it may allow the use of blue/green wavelengths and measurements on whole blood, and in forensic science, it may allow inclusion of objects such as blood stains and cloth at crime
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bremmer, Rolf H.; van Gemert, Martin J. C.; Faber, Dirk J.; van Leeuwen, Ton G.; Aalders, Maurice C. G.
2013-08-01
Diffuse reflectance spectra are used to determine the optical properties of biological samples. In medicine and forensic science, the turbid objects under study often possess large absorption and/or scattering properties. However, data analysis is frequently based on the diffusion approximation to the radiative transfer equation, implying that it is limited to tissues where the reduced scattering coefficient dominates over the absorption coefficient. Nevertheless, up to absorption coefficients of 20 m at reduced scattering coefficients of 1 and 11.5 mm-1, we observed excellent agreement (r2=0.994) between reflectance measurements of phantoms and the diffuse reflectance equation proposed by Zonios et al. [Appl. Opt.
Non-linear diffusion paths in two-phase ternary diffusion couples
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Hongwei
2005-11-01
Prediction of diffusion paths facilitates the understanding of interdiffusion microstructure development at the vicinity of a common interface between two alloys. Understanding the influence of interdiffusion on microstructure is critically important to the design of many advanced materials systems such as high temperature coatings. The current study using DICTRA finite difference software predicts non-linear features formed on the diffusion path as the initial interface is approached. The non-linear diffusion path deviates from the linear zigzag shape predicted by an error function model for multiphase diffusion couples. The deviations appear as "horns" that protrude from the linear paths. The horns were found to be of two types. When the two outer legs of the diffusion path bend in the same direction, a "single-horn" is formed. When they bend in opposite directions a "double-horn" is formed. The formation of horns is attributed to the concentration dependence of the diffusivity. It results in a shift on the maximum of the flux profile from the initial interface, which accordingly leads to a rapid rise or decrease of the precipitate fraction as the interface is approached. It was found that the horn length is proportional to the composition vector component along the major eigenvector of the effective diffusivity matrix. Applying these results to a study on Ni-Cr-Al diffusion couples prepared from gamma + beta alloys, it also was found that the formation of single-phase beta layers could be attributed to the horns pointing away from each other, in which case the diffusion path could intersect the single phase beta region of the phase diagram. Comparison between EPMA data and DICTRA simulation shows that existence of second phase could introduce microstructure effect on diffusion. This microstructure effect may be taken into account for promoting or blocking the diffusion.
Lober, Robert M; Cho, Yoon-Jae; Tang, Yujie; Barnes, Patrick D; Edwards, Michael S; Vogel, Hannes; Fisher, Paul G; Monje, Michelle; Yeom, Kristen W
2014-03-01
While pediatric diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomas (DIPG) remain fatal, recent data have shown subgroups with distinct molecular biology and clinical behavior. We hypothesized that diffusion-weighted MRI can be used as a prognostic marker to stratify DIPG subsets with distinct clinical behavior. Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values derived from diffusion-weighted MRI were computed in 20 consecutive children with treatment-naïve DIPG tumors. The median ADC for the cohort was used to stratify the tumors into low and high ADC groups. Survival, gender, therapy, and potential steroid effects were compared between the ADC groups. Median age at diagnosis was 6.6 (range 2.3-13.2) years, with median follow-up seven (range 1-36) months. There were 14 boys and six girls. Seventeen patients received radiotherapy, five received chemotherapy, and six underwent cerebrospinal fluid diversion. The median ADC of 1,295 × 10(-6) mm(2)/s for the cohort partitioned tumors into low or high diffusion groups, which had distinct median survivals of 3 and 13 months, respectively (log-rank p < 0.001). Low ADC tumors were found only in boys, whereas high ADC tumors were found in both boys and girls. Available tissue specimens in three low ADC tumors demonstrated high-grade histology, whereas one high ADC tumor demonstrated low-grade histology with a histone H3.1 K27M mutation and high-grade metastatic lesion at autopsy. ADC derived from diffusion-weighted MRI may identify prognostically distinct subgroups of pediatric DIPG. PMID:24522717
Optical and Infrared Observations of Diffuse Clouds
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McCall, Benjamin J.
2005-08-01
In the past several years, great progress has been made on the spectroscopy of polyatomic molecules in diffuse interstellar clouds. In this talk, I will review recent developments involving H_3^+, C_3, and the Diffuse Interstellar Bands (DIBs).The simplest polyatomic molecular ion, H_3^+, has long been recognized as the cornerstone of ion-neutral chemistry in dense molecular clouds (Herbst & Klemperer 1973; Watson 1973). However, in diffuse clouds (where electrons are abundantly produced from photoionization of atomic carbon) the H_3^+ number density was expected to be considerably lower than in dense clouds, owing to the efficiency of electron recombination. It was, therefore, a surprise when a large column density of H_3^+ was detected (McCall et al.1998) in the diffuse line of sight towards Cygnus OB2 12, and subsequently in a sample of heavily reddened diffuse sightlines (McCall et al.2002). Recently, we have detected H_3^+ even in the classical diffuse cloud sightline towards ζ Persei; together with a new measurement of the electron recombination rate coefficient, this result suggests that the cosmic-ray ionization rate is much higher in diffuse clouds than in dense clouds (McCall et al. 2003a)!In 2001, interstellar C_3 was first detected by J. P. Maier and colleagues (maier et al. 2001) in three diffuse cloud sightlines. This was quickly followed up by another detection (Roueff et al. 2002) and a survey conducted at low-resolution (Okaet al. 2003). This was followed by a high-resolution survey (Ádámkovics, Blake, & McCall 2003) that yielded rotationally resolved spectra of C_3 in 10 sightlines. Much like C_2, C_3 has no permanent dipole moment, and therefore its rotational distribution serves as a sensitive diagnostic of both temperature and density.The existence of larger polyatomic molecules in diffuse clouds is clear from the presence of the DIBs, which have remained an enigma since their discovery some eight decades ago. A recent survey of the DIBs at
Wave Augmented Diffuser for Centrifugal Compressor
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Skoch, Gary J. (Inventor); Paxson, Daniel E. (Inventor)
2001-01-01
A wave augmented diffuser for a centrifugal compressor surrounds the outlet of an impeller that rotates on a drive shaft having an axis of rotation. The impeller brings flow in in an axial direction and imparts kinetic energy to the flow discharging it in radial and tangential directions. The flow is discharged into a plurality of circumferentially disposed wave chambers. The wave chambers are periodically opened and closed by a rotary valve such that the flow through the diffuser is unsteady. The valve includes a plurality of valve openings that are periodically brought into and out of fluid communication with the wave chambers. When the wave chambers are closed, a reflected compression wave moves upstream towards the diffuser bringing the flow into the wave chamber to rest. This action recovers the kinetic energy from the flow and limits any boundary layer growth. The flow is then discharged in an axial direction through an opening in the valve plate when the valve plate is rotated to an open position. The diffuser thus efficiently raises the static pressure of the fluid and discharges an axially directed flow at a radius that is predominantly below the maximum radius of the diffuser.
Information diffusion in structured online social networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Pei; Zhang, Yini; Qiao, Fengcai; Wang, Hui
2015-05-01
Nowadays, due to the word-of-mouth effect, online social networks have been considered to be efficient approaches to conduct viral marketing, which makes it of great importance to understand the diffusion dynamics in online social networks. However, most research on diffusion dynamics in epidemiology and existing social networks cannot be applied directly to characterize online social networks. In this paper, we propose models to characterize the information diffusion in structured online social networks with push-based forwarding mechanism. We introduce the term user influence to characterize the average number of times that messages are browsed which is incurred by a given type user generating a message, and study the diffusion threshold, above which the user influence of generating a message will approach infinity. We conduct simulations and provide the simulation results, which are consistent with the theoretical analysis results perfectly. These results are of use in understanding the diffusion dynamics in online social networks and also critical for advertisers in viral marketing who want to estimate the user influence before posting an advertisement.
The electron diffusion coefficient in Jupiter's magnetosphere
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Birmingham, T.; Northrop, T.; Baxter, R.; Hess, W.; Lojko, M.
1974-01-01
A steady-state model of Jupiter's electron radiation belt is developed. The model includes injection from the solar wind, radial diffusion, energy degradation by synchrotron radiation, and absorption at Jupiter's surface. A diffusion coefficient of the form D sub RR/R sub J squared = k times R to the m-th power is assumed, and then observed data on synchrotron radiation are used to fit the model. The free parameters determined from this fit are m = 1.95 plus or minus 0.5, k = 1.7 plus or minus 0.5 x 10 to the 9th power per sec, and the magnetic moment of injected particles equals 770 plus or minus 300 MeV/G. The value of m shows quite clearly that the diffusion is not caused by magnetic pumping by a variable solar wind or by a fluctuating convection electric field. The process might be field line exchange driven by atmospheric-ionospheric winds; our diffusion coefficient has roughly the same radial dependence but is considerably smaller in magnitude than the upper bound diffusion coefficients recently suggested for this process by Brice and McDonough (1973) and Jacques and Davis (1972).
Measuring the diffusion of linguistic change
Nerbonne, John
2010-01-01
We examine situations in which linguistic changes have probably been propagated via normal contact as opposed to via conquest, recent settlement and large-scale migration. We proceed then from two simplifying assumptions: first, that all linguistic variation is the result of either diffusion or independent innovation, and, second, that we may operationalize social contact as geographical distance. It is clear that both of these assumptions are imperfect, but they allow us to examine diffusion via the distribution of linguistic variation as a function of geographical distance. Several studies in quantitative linguistics have examined this relation, starting with Séguy (Séguy 1971 Rev. Linguist. Romane 35, 335–357), and virtually all report a sublinear growth in aggregate linguistic variation as a function of geographical distance. The literature from dialectology and historical linguistics has mostly traced the diffusion of individual features, however, so that it is sensible to ask what sort of dynamic in the diffusion of individual features is compatible with Séguy's curve. We examine some simulations of diffusion in an effort to shed light on this question. PMID:21041207
Spatial dilemmas of diffusible public goods.
Allen, Benjamin; Gore, Jeff; Nowak, Martin A
2013-01-01
The emergence of cooperation is a central question in evolutionary biology. Microorganisms often cooperate by producing a chemical resource (a public good) that benefits other cells. The sharing of public goods depends on their diffusion through space. Previous theory suggests that spatial structure can promote evolution of cooperation, but the diffusion of public goods introduces new phenomena that must be modeled explicitly. We develop an approach where colony geometry and public good diffusion are described by graphs. We find that the success of cooperation depends on a simple relation between the benefits and costs of the public good, the amount retained by a producer, and the average amount retained by each of the producer's neighbors. These quantities are derived as analytic functions of the graph topology and diffusion rate. In general, cooperation is favored for small diffusion rates, low colony dimensionality, and small rates of decay of the public good. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.01169.001. PMID:24347543
Double-diffusive instabilities in ancient seawater
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pawlowicz, Rich; Scheifele, Ben; Zaloga, Artem; Wuest, Alfred; Sommer, Tobias
2015-04-01
Powell Lake, British Columbia, Canada is a geothermally heated lake about 350m deep with a saline lower layer that was isolated from the ocean by coastal uplift about 11000 years ago, after the last ice age. Careful temperature and conductivity profiling measurements show consistent, stable, and spatially/temporally coherent steps resulting from double-diffusive processes in certain ranges of depth, vertically interspersed with other depth ranges where these signatures are not present. These features are quasi-stable for at least several years. Although molecular diffusion has removed about half the salt from the deepest waters and biogeochemical processes have slightly modified the water composition, the lack of tidal processes and shear-driven mixing, as well as an accurate estimate of heat flux from both sediment heat flux measurements and gradient measurements in a region not susceptible to diffusive instabilities, makes this a unique geophysical laboratory to study double diffusion. Here we present a detailed picture of the structure of Powell Lake and its double-diffusive stair cases, and suggest shortcomings with existing parameterizations for fluxes through such staircases.
Wave Augmented Diffusers for Centrifugal Compressors
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Paxson, Daniel E.; Skoch, Gary J.
1998-01-01
A conceptual device is introduced which would utilize unsteady wave motion to slow and turn flows in the diffuser section of a centrifugal compressor. The envisioned device would substantially reduce the size of conventional centrifugal diffusers by eliminating the relatively large ninety degree bend needed to turn the flow from the radial/tangential to the axial direction. The bend would be replaced by a wall and the flow would instead exit through a series of rotating ports located on a disk, adjacent to the diffuser hub, and fixed to the impeller shaft. The ports would generate both expansion and compression waves which would rapidly transition from the hub/shroud (axial) direction to the radial/tangential direction. The waves would in turn induce radial/tangential and axial flow. This paper presents a detailed description of the device. Simplified cycle analysis and performance results are presented which were obtained using a time accurate, quasi-one-dimensional CFD code with models for turning, port flow conditions, and losses due to wall shear stress. The results indicate that a periodic wave system can be established which yields diffuser performance comparable to a conventional diffuser. Discussion concerning feasibility, accuracy, and integration follow.
Colloidal diffusion over a random landscape
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Su, Yun; Ma, Xiao-Guang; Lai, Pik-Yin; Tong, Penger
2015-03-01
A two-dimensional quenched random energy landscape is generated by using a randomly packed layer of colloidal spheres of two different sizes fixed on a glass substrate. A number of monodisperse particles diffuse on the top of the first layer particles. The diffusing particles in water feel the gravitational energy landscape U(x,y) generated by the modulated surface of the first layer particles. The trajectories of the particles are obtained by optical microscopy and particle tracking. The energy landscape U(x,y) is obtained from the measured population histogram P(x,y) of the diffusing particles via the Boltzmann distribution, P(x,y) =exp[-U(x,y)/ k_BT], where k_B T is the thermal energy of the particles. The distribution of the energy barrier heights is obtained from the measured U(x,y). From the particle's trajectories, we obtain the dynamical properties of the diffusing particles over the random energy landscape, such as the mean square displacement and distribution of the escape time across the energy barriers. A quantitative relationship between the long-time diffusion coefficient and the random energy landscape is found experimentally, which is in good agreement with the theoretical prediction. *Work supported in part by the Research Grants Council of Hong Kong SAR.
Isotope effect of mercury diffusion in air
Koster van Groos, Paul G.; Esser, Bradley K.; Williams, Ross W.; Hunt, James R.
2014-01-01
Identifying and reducing impacts from mercury sources in the environment remains a considerable challenge and requires process based models to quantify mercury stocks and flows. The stable isotope composition of mercury in environmental samples can help address this challenge by serving as a tracer of specific sources and processes. Mercury isotope variations are small and result only from isotope fractionation during transport, equilibrium, and transformation processes. Because these processes occur in both industrial and environmental settings, knowledge of their associated isotope effects is required to interpret mercury isotope data. To improve the mechanistic modeling of mercury isotope effects during gas phase diffusion, an experimental program tested the applicability of kinetic gas theory. Gas-phase elemental mercury diffusion through small bore needles from finite sources demonstrated mass dependent diffusivities leading to isotope fractionation described by a Rayleigh distillation model. The measured relative atomic diffusivities among mercury isotopes in air are large and in agreement with kinetic gas theory. Mercury diffusion in air offers a reasonable explanation of recent field results reported in the literature. PMID:24364380
Hopping Diffusion of Nanoparticles in Polymer Matrices
2016-01-01
We propose a hopping mechanism for diffusion of large nonsticky nanoparticles subjected to topological constraints in both unentangled and entangled polymer solids (networks and gels) and entangled polymer liquids (melts and solutions). Probe particles with size larger than the mesh size ax of unentangled polymer networks or tube diameter ae of entangled polymer liquids are trapped by the network or entanglement cells. At long time scales, however, these particles can diffuse by overcoming free energy barrier between neighboring confinement cells. The terminal particle diffusion coefficient dominated by this hopping diffusion is appreciable for particles with size moderately larger than the network mesh size ax or tube diameter ae. Much larger particles in polymer solids will be permanently trapped by local network cells, whereas they can still move in polymer liquids by waiting for entanglement cells to rearrange on the relaxation time scales of these liquids. Hopping diffusion in entangled polymer liquids and networks has a weaker dependence on particle size than that in unentangled networks as entanglements can slide along chains under polymer deformation. The proposed novel hopping model enables understanding the motion of large nanoparticles in polymeric nanocomposites and the transport of nano drug carriers in complex biological gels such as mucus. PMID:25691803
Efficient Anisotropic Filtering of Diffusion Tensor Images
Xu, Qing; Anderson, Adam W.; Gore, John C.; Ding, Zhaohua
2009-01-01
To improve the accuracy of structural and architectural characterization of living tissue with diffusion tensor imaging, an efficient smoothing algorithm is presented for reducing noise in diffusion tensor images. The algorithm is based on anisotropic diffusion filtering, which allows both image detail preservation and noise reduction. However, traditional numerical schemes for anisotropic filtering have the drawback of inefficiency and inaccuracy due to their poor stability and first order time accuracy. To address this, an unconditionally stable and second order time accuracy semi-implicit Craig-Sneyd scheme is adapted in our anisotropic filtering. By using large step size, unconditional stability allows this scheme to take much fewer iterations and thus less computation time than the explicit scheme to achieve a certain degree of smoothing. Second order time accuracy makes the algorithm reduce noise more effectively than a first order scheme with the same total iteration time. Both the efficiency and effectiveness are quantitatively evaluated based on synthetic and in vivo human brain diffusion tensor images, and these tests demonstrate that our algorithm is an efficient and effective tool for denoising diffusion tensor images. PMID:20061113
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Morgan, D. J.; Chamberlain, K. J.; Kahl, M.; Potts, N. J.; Pankhurst, M. J.; Wilson, C. J. N.
2014-12-01
Over the past 20 years, diffusion chronometers have evolved from a niche tool into one of routine application, with more practitioners, new tools and increasingly large datasets. As we expand the horizons of diffusional geochronometry, it is worth taking stock of developments in methodologies and data acquisition, and taking time to revisit the underpinnings of the technique. Data collected as part of recent projects on Campi Flegrei, the Bishop Tuff and Fimmvörðuháls-Eyjafjallajökull are here used to investigate the initial state assumption, an absolutely vital aspect underpinning most diffusional work and one that is rarely evaluated despite its fundamental importance. To illustrate the nature of the problem we consider two widely-used element-mineral systems for felsic and mafic systems, respectively. First, barium and strontium profiles within sanidine crystals, modelled independently, can give strongly contrasting timescales from the same crystal zone. We can reconcile the datasets only for a situation where the initial boundary within the crystal was not a sharp step function, but relatively fuzzy before diffusion onset. This fuzziness effectively starts both chronometers off with an apparent, and false, pre-existing timescale, impacting the slower-diffusing barium much more strongly than the faster-diffusing strontium, yielding thousands of years of non-existent diffusion history. By combining both elements, a starting width of tens of microns can be shown, shortening the true diffusive timescales from tens of thousands of years to hundreds. Second, in olivine, we encounter different growth-related problems. Here, Fe-Mg interdiffusion occurs at a rate comparable to growth, with the compound nature of zonation making it difficult to extract the diffusion component. This requires a treatment of changing boundary conditions and sequential growth to generate the curvature seen in natural data, in order to recover timescales for anything but the outermost
Rapid Lateral Diffusion of Phospholipids in Rabbit Sarcoplasmic Reticulum
Scandella, Carl J.; Devaux, Philippe; McConnell, Harden M.
1972-01-01
Phospholipid spin labels incorporated in the sarcoplasmic reticulum from rabbit-skeletal muscle undergo rapid lateral diffusion within the plane of the membrane. The diffusion constant, D, is 6×10-8 cm2/sec at 37°. With this diffusion constant, a phospholipid molecule can diffuse a distance of the order of 5000 nm in 1 sec. PMID:4506073
Diffusion of silver over atomically clean silicon surfaces
Dolbak, A. E. Ol'shanetskii, B. Z.
2013-06-15
The diffusion of silver the (111), (100), and (110) silicon surfaces is studied by Auger electron spectroscopy and low-energy electron diffraction. The mechanisms of diffusion over the (111) and (110) surfaces are revealed, and the temperature dependences of diffusion coefficients are measured. An anisotropy of silver diffusion over the (110) surface is detected.
Energetics of silicate melts from thermal diffusion studies
Walker, D.
1992-07-01
Efforts are reported in the following areas: laboratory equipment (multianvils for high P/T work, pressure media, SERC/DL sychrotron), liquid-state thermal diffusion (silicate liquids, O isotopic fractionation, volatiles, tektites, polymetallic sulfide liquids, carbonate liquids, aqueous sulfate solutions), and liquid-state isothermal diffusion (self-diffusion, basalt-rhyolite interdiffusion, selective contamination, chemical diffusion).
Temperature dependence of soliton diffusion in trans-polyacetylene
Tang, J.; Norris, J.R.; Isoya, J.
1997-07-01
The temperature dependence of 1-D diffusion rate of solitons in transpolyacetylene is determined by time-domain analysis of ESR measurements. The diffusion rate appears to obey a simple power law. Monte Carlo simulation of 1-D diffusion process in impure chains indicates that overall diffusion can be much slower than that without traps.
Effects of Diffusion Time on Short-Range Hyperpolarized 3He Diffusivity Measurements in Emphysema
Gierada, David S.; Woods, Jason C.; Bierhals, Andrew J.; Bartel, Seth T.; Ritter, Jon H.; Choong, Cliff K.; Das, Nitin A.; Hong, Cheng; Pilgram, Thomas K.; Chang, Yulin V.; Jacob, Rick E.; Hogg, James C.; Battafarano, Richard J.; Cooper, Joel D.; Meyers, Bryan F.; Patterson, G Alexander; Yablonskiy, Dmitriy A.; Conradi, Mark S.
2009-09-28
Purpose: To characterize the effect of diffusion time on short-range hyperpolarized 3He MR diffusion measurements across a wide range of emphysema severity. Materials and Methods: 3He diffusion MR imaging was performed on 19 lungs or lobes resected from 18 subjects with varying degrees of emphysema using 3 diffusion times (1.6 msec, 5 msec, and 10 msec) at constant b value. Emphysema severity was quantified as the mean apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and as the percentage of pixels with ADC higher than multiple thresholds from 0.30-0.55 cm2/sec (ADC index). Quantitative histology (mean linear intercept) was obtained in 10 of the lung specimens from 10 of the subjects. Results: The mean ADCs with diffusion times of 1.6, 5.0, and 10.0 msec were 0.46, 0.40, and 0.37 cm2/sec, respectively (P <0.0001, ANOVA). There was no relationship between the ADC magnitude and the effect of diffusion time on ADC values. Mean linear intercept correlated with ADC (r=0.91-0.94, P<0.001) and ADC index (r=0.78-0.92, P<0.01) at all diffusion times.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shirkhanzadeh, Morteza
A series of liquid metal diffusion experiments were conducted in early 1990's by Smith and co-workers onboard the US Space Shuttles and MIR Space Station (1-3) to study the effect of g and g-jitter on the diffusion of solutes in liquid metals. A method called ` cast coating technique' was employed to prepare diffusion couples that involved casting the alloy portion of the diffusion couples directly on top of the pure metal portion in a specially designed mould. Using this method, a series of long capillary experiments were carried out during an extended period of time in space. The objective of the mission was to obtain high quality diffusion data for validating theoretical models. Evidence will be presented that shows that diffusion couples with accurate dimensions suitable for the precise measurement of diffusion coefficients could not be fabricated in a reproducible manner by the cast coating technique. The lack of reproducibility in fabricating diffusion couples is a major factor affecting the reliability of the microgravity data that are widely reported. References: 1.Reginald W. Smith, Xiaohe Zhu, Mark C. Tunnicliffe, Timothy J. N. Smith, Lowell Misener, and Josee Adamson. 2002. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 974:57-67 (2002) (retracted). 2.R. W. Smith, B. J. Yang, and W. D. Huang, Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 1027: 110-128 (2004) (retracted). 3.R.W. Smith, Microgravity Sci. Technol. XI (2) 78-84 (1998).
Effenberger, F.; Fichtner, H.; Scherer, K.; Barra, S.; Kleimann, J.; Strauss, R. D.
2012-05-10
The spatial diffusion of cosmic rays in turbulent magnetic fields can, in the most general case, be fully anisotropic, i.e., one has to distinguish three diffusion axes in a local, field-aligned frame. We reexamine the transformation for the diffusion tensor from this local to a global frame, in which the Parker transport equation for energetic particles is usually formulated and solved. Particularly, we generalize the transformation formulae to allow for an explicit choice of two principal local perpendicular diffusion axes. This generalization includes the 'traditional' diffusion tensor in the special case of isotropic perpendicular diffusion. For the local frame, we describe the motivation for the choice of the Frenet-Serret trihedron, which is related to the intrinsic magnetic field geometry. We directly compare the old and the new tensor elements for two heliospheric magnetic field configurations, namely the hybrid Fisk and Parker fields. Subsequently, we examine the significance of the different formulations for the diffusion tensor in a standard three-dimensional model for the modulation of galactic protons. For this, we utilize a numerical code to evaluate a system of stochastic differential equations equivalent to the Parker transport equation and present the resulting modulated spectra. The computed differential fluxes based on the new tensor formulation deviate from those obtained with the 'traditional' one (only valid for isotropic perpendicular diffusion) by up to 60% for energies below a few hundred MeV depending on heliocentric distance.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Rogers, Everett M.; And Others
The nature and timing of decisions regarding the diffusion of new instructional materials and practices are critical to the ultimate utility achieved by a curriculum project. This publication is a collection of five conference papers which deal with various aspects of diffusion of innovative materials and ideas. Everett M. Rogers discusses two…
Marchadour, Charlotte; Brouillet, Emmanuel; Hantraye, Philippe; Lebon, Vincent; Valette, Julien
2012-01-01
Translational displacement of molecules within cells is a key process in cellular biology. Molecular motion potentially depends on many factors, including active transport, cytosol viscosity and molecular crowding, tortuosity resulting from cytoskeleton and organelles, and restriction barriers. However, the relative contribution of these factors to molecular motion in the cytoplasm remains poorly understood. In this work, we designed an original diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance spectroscopy strategy to probe molecular motion at subcellular scales in vivo. This led to the first observation of anomalous diffusion, that is, dependence of the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) on the diffusion time, for endogenous intracellular metabolites in the brain. The observed increase of the ADC at short diffusion time yields evidence that metabolite motion is characteristic of hindered random diffusion rather than active transport, for time scales up to the dozen milliseconds. Armed with this knowledge, data modeling based on geometrically constrained diffusion was performed. Results suggest that metabolite diffusion occurs in a low-viscosity cytosol hindered by ∼2-μm structures, which is consistent with known intracellular organization. PMID:22929443
Fokas method for a multi-domain linear reaction-diffusion equation with discontinuous diffusivity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Asvestas, M.; Sifalakis, A. G.; Papadopoulou, E. P.; Saridakis, Y. G.
2014-03-01
Motivated by proliferation-diffusion mathematical models for studying highly diffusive brain tumors, that also take into account the heterogeneity of the brain tissue, in the present work we consider a multi-domain linear reaction-diffusion equation with a discontinuous diffusion coefficient. For the solution of the problem at hand we implement Fokas transform method by directly following, and extending in this way, our recent work for a white-gray-white matter brain model pertaining to high grade gliomas. Fokas's novel approach for the solution of linear PDE problems, yields novel integral representations of the solution in the complex plane that, for appropriately chosen integration contours, decay exponentially fast and converge uniformly at the boundaries. Combining these method-inherent advantages with simple numerical quadrature rules, we produce an efficient method, with fast decaying error properties, for the solution of the discontinuous reaction-diffusion problem.
Hahne, Susanne; Maass, Philipp
2014-03-27
Analysis of signal fluctuations of a locally fixed probe, caused by molecules diffusing under the probe, can be used to determine diffusion coefficients. Theoretical treatments so far have been limited to point-like particles or to molecules with circle-like shapes. Here we extend these treatments to molecules with rectangle-like shapes, for which also rotational diffusion needs to be taken into account. Focusing on the distribution of peak widths in the signal, we show how translational as well as rotational diffusion coefficients can be determined. We address also the question, how the distribution of interpeak time intervals and autocorrelation function can be employed for determining diffusion coefficients. Our approach is validated against kinetic Monte Carlo simulations. PMID:24640969
Differential diffusivity of Nodal and Lefty underlies a reaction-diffusion patterning system
Müller, Patrick; Rogers, Katherine W.; Jordan, Ben M.; Lee, Joon S.; Robson, Drew; Ramanathan, Sharad; Schier, Alexander F.
2012-01-01
Biological systems involving short-range activators and long-range inhibitors can generate complex patterns. Reaction-diffusion models postulate that differences in signaling range are caused by differential diffusivity of inhibitor and activator. Other models suggest that differential clearance underlies different signaling ranges. To test these models, we measured the biophysical properties of the Nodal/Lefty activator/inhibitor system during zebrafish embryogenesis. Analysis of Nodal and Lefty gradients reveals that Nodals have a shorter range than Lefty proteins. Pulse-labelinganalysis indicates that Nodals and Leftys have similar clearance kinetics, whereas fluorescence recovery assays reveal that Leftys have a higher effective diffusion coefficient than Nodals. These results indicate that differential diffusivity is the major determinant of the differences in Nodal/Lefty range and provide biophysical support for reaction-diffusion models of activator/inhibitor-mediated patterning. PMID:22499809
Assessing the inherent uncertainty of one-dimensional diffusions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Eliazar, Iddo; Cohen, Morrel H.
2013-01-01
In this paper we assess the inherent uncertainty of one-dimensional diffusion processes via a stochasticity classification which provides an à la Mandelbrot categorization into five states of uncertainty: infra-mild, mild, borderline, wild, and ultra-wild. Two settings are considered. (i) Stopped diffusions: the diffusion initiates from a high level and is stopped once it first reaches a low level; in this setting we analyze the inherent uncertainty of the diffusion's maximal exceedance above its initial high level. (ii) Stationary diffusions: the diffusion is in dynamical statistical equilibrium; in this setting we analyze the inherent uncertainty of the diffusion's equilibrium level. In both settings general closed-form analytic results are established, and their application is exemplified by stock prices in the stopped-diffusions setting, and by interest rates in the stationary-diffusions setting. These results provide a highly implementable decision-making tool for the classification of uncertainty in the context of one-dimensional diffusions.
Numerical discretization for nonlinear diffusion filter
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mustaffa, I.; Mizuar, I.; Aminuddin, M. M. M.; Dasril, Y.
2015-05-01
Nonlinear diffusion filters are famously used in machine vision for image denoising and restoration. This paper presents a study on the effects of different numerical discretization of nonlinear diffusion filter. Several numerical discretization schemes are presented; namely semi-implicit, AOS, and fully implicit schemes. The results of these schemes are compared by visual results, objective measurement e.g. PSNR and MSE. The results are also compared to a Daubechies wavelet denoising method. It is acknowledged that the two preceding scheme have already been discussed in literature, however comparison to the latter scheme has not been made. The semi-implicit scheme uses an additive operator splitting (AOS) developed to overcome the shortcoming of the explicit scheme i.e., stability for very small time steps. Although AOS has proven to be efficient, from the nonlinear diffusion filter results with different discretization schemes, examples shows that implicit schemes are worth pursuing.
Maximal energy extraction under discrete diffusive exchange
Hay, M. J.; Schiff, J.; Fisch, N. J.
2015-10-15
Waves propagating through a bounded plasma can rearrange the densities of states in the six-dimensional velocity-configuration phase space. Depending on the rearrangement, the wave energy can either increase or decrease, with the difference taken up by the total plasma energy. In the case where the rearrangement is diffusive, only certain plasma states can be reached. It turns out that the set of reachable states through such diffusive rearrangements has been described in very different contexts. Building upon those descriptions, and making use of the fact that the plasma energy is a linear functional of the state densities, the maximal extractable energy under diffusive rearrangement can then be addressed through linear programming.
Diffusion of Radionuclides in Concrete and Soil
Mattigod, Shas V.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Bovaird, Chase C.; Parker, Kent E.; Recknagle, Kurtis P.; Clayton, Libby N.; Wood, Marcus I.
2012-04-25
One of the methods being considered for safely disposing of Category 3 low-level radioactive wastes is to encase the waste in concrete. Such concrete encasement would contain and isolate the waste packages from the hydrologic environment and would act as an intrusion barrier. Any failure of concrete encasement may result in water intrusion and consequent mobilization of radionuclides from the waste packages. The mobilized radionuclides may escape from the encased concrete by mass flow and/or diffusion and move into the surrounding subsurface environment. Therefore, it is necessary to assess the performance of the concrete encasement structure and the ability of the surrounding soil to retard radionuclide migration. The objective of our study was to measure the diffusivity of Re, Tc and I in concrete containment and the surrounding vadose zone soil. Effects of carbonation, presence of metallic iron, and fracturing of concrete and the varying moisture contents in soil on the diffusivities of Tc and I were evaluated.
Quantitative thermal diffusivity measurements of composites
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Heath, D. M.; Winfree, W. P.; Heyman, J. S.; Miller, W. E.; Welch, C. S.
1986-01-01
A remote radiometric technique for making quantitative thermal diffusivity measurements is described. The technique was designed to make assessments of the structural integrity of large composite parts, such as wings, and can be performed at field sites. In the measurement technique, a CO2 laser beam is scanned using two orthogonal servo-controlled deflecting mirrors. An infrared imager, whose scanning mirrors oscillate in the vertical and the horizontal directions, is used as the detector. The analysis technique used to extract the diffusivity from these images is based on a thin infinite plate assumption, which requires waiting a given period of time for the temperature to equilibrate throughout the thickness of the sample. The technique is shown to be accurate to within two percent for values of the order of those for composite diffusivities, and to be insensitive to convection losses.
An approach towards a perfect thermal diffuser
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vemuri, Krishna P.; Bandaru, Prabhakar R.
2016-07-01
A method for the most efficient removal of heat, through an anisotropic composite, is proposed. It is shown that a rational placement of constituent materials, in the radial and the azimuthal directions, at a given point in the composite yields a uniform temperature distribution in spherical diffusers. Such arrangement is accompanied by a very significant reduction of the source temperature, in principle, to infinitesimally above the ambient temperature and forms the basis for the design of a perfect thermal diffuser with maximal heat dissipation. Orders of magnitude enhanced performance, compared to that obtained through the use of a diffuser constituted from a single material with isotropic thermal conductivity has been observed and the analytical principles underlying the design were validated through extensive computational simulations.
An approach towards a perfect thermal diffuser
Vemuri, Krishna P.; Bandaru, Prabhakar R.
2016-01-01
A method for the most efficient removal of heat, through an anisotropic composite, is proposed. It is shown that a rational placement of constituent materials, in the radial and the azimuthal directions, at a given point in the composite yields a uniform temperature distribution in spherical diffusers. Such arrangement is accompanied by a very significant reduction of the source temperature, in principle, to infinitesimally above the ambient temperature and forms the basis for the design of a perfect thermal diffuser with maximal heat dissipation. Orders of magnitude enhanced performance, compared to that obtained through the use of a diffuser constituted from a single material with isotropic thermal conductivity has been observed and the analytical principles underlying the design were validated through extensive computational simulations. PMID:27404569
Galactic civilizations: Population dynamics and interstellar diffusion
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Newman, W. I.; Sagan, C.
1978-01-01
The interstellar diffusion of galactic civilizations is reexamined by potential theory; both numerical and analytical solutions are derived for the nonlinear partial differential equations which specify a range of relevant models, drawn from blast wave physics, soil science, and, especially, population biology. An essential feature of these models is that, for all civilizations, population growth must be limited by the carrying capacity of the environment. Dispersal is fundamentally a diffusion process; a density-dependent diffusivity describes interstellar emigration. Two models are considered: the first describing zero population growth (ZPG), and the second which also includes local growth and saturation of a planetary population, and for which an asymptotic traveling wave solution is found.
Plasma Diffusion in Self-Consistent Fluctuations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Smets, R.; Belmont, G.; Aunai, N.
2012-01-01
The problem of particle diffusion in position space, as a consequence ofeleclromagnetic fluctuations is addressed. Numerical results obtained with a self-consistent hybrid code are presented, and a method to calculate diffusion coefficient in the direction perpendicular to the mean magnetic field is proposed. The diffusion is estimated for two different types of fluctuations. The first type (resuiting from an agyrotropic in itiai setting)is stationary, wide band white noise, and associated to Gaussian probability distribution function for the magnetic fluctuations. The second type (result ing from a Kelvin-Helmholtz instability) is non-stationary, with a power-law spectrum, and a non-Gaussian probabi lity distribution function. The results of the study allow revisiting the question of loading particles of solar wind origin in the Earth magnetosphere.
NMR-based diffusion lattice imaging.
Laun, Frederik Bernd; Müller, Lars; Kuder, Tristan Anselm
2016-03-01
Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) diffusion experiments are widely employed as they yield information about structures hindering the diffusion process, e.g., about cell membranes. While it has been shown in recent articles that these experiments can be used to determine the shape of closed pores averaged over a volume of interest, it is still an open question how much information can be gained in open well-connected systems. In this theoretical work, it is shown that the full structure information of connected periodic systems is accessible. To this end, the so-called "SEquential Rephasing by Pulsed field-gradient Encoding N Time intervals" (SERPENT) sequence is used, which employs several diffusion encoding gradient pulses with different amplitudes. Two two-dimensional solid matrices that are surrounded by an NMR-visible medium are considered: a hexagonal lattice of cylinders and a rectangular lattice of isosceles triangles. PMID:27078384