Science.gov

Sample records for diffusion of innovation

  1. The Diffusion of Innovation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Earabino, Gerard J.; Heyl, G. Christopher; Percorini, Thomas J.

    1987-01-01

    New ideas encounter obstacles on way to becoming products. Report examines process by which new ideas become products, processes, or accepted standards. Sequence of events called "the diffusion of innovation." Focuses on development of material processing in low gravity as case study in diffusion of innovation.

  2. Consequences of Diffusion of Innovations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goss, Kevin F.

    1979-01-01

    The article traces evolution of diffusion theory; illustrates undesirable consequences in a cross-cultural setting, reviews criticisms of several scholars; considers distributional effects and unanticipated consequences for potential ameliorative impact on diffusion theory; and codifies these factors into a framework for research into consequences…

  3. Influence of Luddism on innovation diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mellor, Andrew; Mobilia, Mauro; Redner, S.; Rucklidge, Alastair M.; Ward, Jonathan A.

    2015-07-01

    We generalize the classical Bass model of innovation diffusion to include a new class of agents—Luddites—that oppose the spread of innovation. Our model also incorporates ignorants, susceptibles, and adopters. When an ignorant and a susceptible meet, the former is converted to a susceptible at a given rate, while a susceptible spontaneously adopts the innovation at a constant rate. In response to the rate of adoption, an ignorant may become a Luddite and permanently reject the innovation. Instead of reaching complete adoption, the final state generally consists of a population of Luddites, ignorants, and adopters. The evolution of this system is investigated analytically and by stochastic simulations. We determine the stationary distribution of adopters, the time needed to reach the final state, and the influence of the network topology on the innovation spread. Our model exhibits an important dichotomy: When the rate of adoption is low, an innovation spreads slowly but widely; in contrast, when the adoption rate is high, the innovation spreads rapidly but the extent of the adoption is severely limited by Luddites.

  4. Influence of Luddism on innovation diffusion.

    PubMed

    Mellor, Andrew; Mobilia, Mauro; Redner, S; Rucklidge, Alastair M; Ward, Jonathan A

    2015-07-01

    We generalize the classical Bass model of innovation diffusion to include a new class of agents-Luddites-that oppose the spread of innovation. Our model also incorporates ignorants, susceptibles, and adopters. When an ignorant and a susceptible meet, the former is converted to a susceptible at a given rate, while a susceptible spontaneously adopts the innovation at a constant rate. In response to the rate of adoption, an ignorant may become a Luddite and permanently reject the innovation. Instead of reaching complete adoption, the final state generally consists of a population of Luddites, ignorants, and adopters. The evolution of this system is investigated analytically and by stochastic simulations. We determine the stationary distribution of adopters, the time needed to reach the final state, and the influence of the network topology on the innovation spread. Our model exhibits an important dichotomy: When the rate of adoption is low, an innovation spreads slowly but widely; in contrast, when the adoption rate is high, the innovation spreads rapidly but the extent of the adoption is severely limited by Luddites.

  5. Supplement to Bibliography on the Diffusion of Innovations. Diffusion of Innovations Research Report, 6a.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Everett M.

    Supplementing an earlier work, this bibliography lists all new publications on diffusion of innovations (75 new nonempirical and 184 coded empirical studies) added to the Diffusion Documents Center, Michigan State University, from July 1967 to September 1968. Psychology, anthropology, agricultural economics, general economics, communication,…

  6. Diffusion of Innovation Theory and End-User Searching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Joanne Gard

    1990-01-01

    Discussion of the value of diffusion of innovation theory for predicting the implementation of end-user online searching highlights a study of Canadian health professionals who were early adopters of end-user searching. User perceptions are emphasized, and the use of diffusion of innovation theory in information science research is recommended.…

  7. How Can Innovative Learning Environments Promote the Diffusion of Innovation?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osborne, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Schools implementing innovative learning environments (ILEs) face many challenges, including the need to discard previously cherished practices and behaviours, adjust mindsets, and invent successful new ways of operating. Leaders can support these processes by implementing structures that: i) support ongoing, distributed, participatory innovation;…

  8. Applying Diffusion of Innovation Theory to Intervention Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dearing, James W.

    2009-01-01

    Few social science theories have a history of conceptual and empirical study as long as does the diffusion of innovations. The robustness of this theory derives from the many disciplines and fields of study in which diffusion has been studied, from the international richness of these studies, and from the variety of new ideas, practices, programs,…

  9. Diffusion of Innovations and Policy Decision-Making.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valente, Thomas W.

    1993-01-01

    Presents a general mathematical model of the diffusion of innovations that incorporates mass media and interpersonal influence. Suggests that policymakers can use diffusion models to evaluate the effectiveness of media versus interpersonal campaigns, make comparisons between subgroups, and evaluate the effect of a policy. (RS)

  10. Diffusion of Innovations in Service Organizations: Systematic Review and Recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Greenhalgh, Trisha; Robert, Glenn; Macfarlane, Fraser; Bate, Paul; Kyriakidou, Olivia

    2004-01-01

    This article summarizes an extensive literature review addressing the question, How can we spread and sustain innovations in health service delivery and organization? It considers both content (defining and measuring the diffusion of innovation in organizations) and process (reviewing the literature in a systematic and reproducible way). This article discusses (1) a parsimonious and evidence-based model for considering the diffusion of innovations in health service organizations, (2) clear knowledge gaps where further research should be focused, and (3) a robust and transferable methodology for systematically reviewing health service policy and management. Both the model and the method should be tested more widely in a range of contexts. PMID:15595944

  11. Applying Diffusion of Innovation Theory to Intervention Development.

    PubMed

    Dearing, James W

    2009-09-01

    Few social science theories have a history of conceptual and empirical study as long as does the diffusion of innovations. The robustness of this theory derives from the many disciplines and fields of study in which diffusion has been studied, from the international richness of these studies, and from the variety of new ideas, practices, programs, and technologies that have been the objects of diffusion research. Early theorizing from the beginning of the 20th century was gradually displaced by post hoc empirical research that described and explained diffusion processes. By the 1950s, diffusion researchers had begun to apply the collective knowledge learned about naturalistic diffusion in tests of process interventions to affect the spread of innovations. Now, this purposive objective has given form to a science of dissemination in which evidence-based practices are designed a priori not just to result in internal validity but to increase the likelihood that external validity and diffusion both are more likely to result. Here, I review diffusion theory and focus on seven concepts-intervention attributes, intervention clusters, demonstration projects, societal sectors, reinforcing contextual conditions, opinion leadership, and intervention adaptation-with potential for accelerating the spread of evidence-based practices, programs, and policies in the field of social work.

  12. Applying Diffusion of Innovation Theory to Intervention Development

    PubMed Central

    Dearing, James W.

    2010-01-01

    Few social science theories have a history of conceptual and empirical study as long as does the diffusion of innovations. The robustness of this theory derives from the many disciplines and fields of study in which diffusion has been studied, from the international richness of these studies, and from the variety of new ideas, practices, programs, and technologies that have been the objects of diffusion research. Early theorizing from the beginning of the 20th century was gradually displaced by post hoc empirical research that described and explained diffusion processes. By the 1950s, diffusion researchers had begun to apply the collective knowledge learned about naturalistic diffusion in tests of process interventions to affect the spread of innovations. Now, this purposive objective has given form to a science of dissemination in which evidence-based practices are designed a priori not just to result in internal validity but to increase the likelihood that external validity and diffusion both are more likely to result. Here, I review diffusion theory and focus on seven concepts—intervention attributes, intervention clusters, demonstration projects, societal sectors, reinforcing contextual conditions, opinion leadership, and intervention adaptation—with potential for accelerating the spread of evidence-based practices, programs, and policies in the field of social work. PMID:20976022

  13. Course Management Software Adoption: A Diffusion of Innovations Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilmon, Carol; Fagan, Mary Helen

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to explore the adoption of course management software (CMS) among faculty in a nursing program in order to better understand the consequences that result from adoption decisions. Design/methodology/approach: A case study approach was taken using a component of diffusion of innovations theory as a framework for…

  14. Developing Policies for Optimal Diffusion of Educational Innovations in China.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, John J.

    Focusing on educational reform in China, this paper suggests policies that will lead to the optimal diffusion of educational innovations so as to enhance China's modernization efforts. The intention is to identify a theory of knowledge about the types of educational policies likely to be most beneficial in helping China achieve its educational…

  15. Diffusion of Innovation: A Roadmap for Inclusive Community Recreation Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schleien, Stuart J.; Miller, Kimberly D.

    2010-01-01

    Inclusive community recreation is an optimal environment for the development of recreation and sports skills and social relationships between people with and without disabilities. Although we know much about best practices for inclusion, little systemic change in recreation agencies has transpired. Diffusion of Innovation Theory is proposed as a…

  16. Diffusion of Innovations: Smartphones and Wireless Anatomy Learning Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trelease, Robert B.

    2008-01-01

    The author has previously reported on principles of diffusion of innovations, the processes by which new technologies become popularly adopted, specifically in relation to anatomy and education. In presentations on adopting handheld computers [personal digital assistants (PDAs)] and personal media players for health sciences education, particular…

  17. Innovation Diffusion Model in Higher Education: Case Study of E-Learning Diffusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buc, Sanjana; Divjak, Blaženka

    2015-01-01

    The diffusion of innovation (DOI) is critical for any organization and especially nowadays for higher education institutions (HEIs) in the light of vast pressure of emerging educational technologies as well as of the demand of economy and society. DOI takes into account the initial and the implementation phase. The conceptual model of DOI in…

  18. The Diffusion of Innovations: A Review of Research and Theory with Implications for Computer Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, David W.

    A review of the general literature on diffusion, innovation, and social change is worthwhile as a basis for developing more effective methods for facilitating the adoption of computer-based technologies. Much of the research on diffusion has focused on (1) characteristics of the innovation which influence the diffusion process, (2) a description…

  19. Diffusing Supply Chain Innovations at Hewlett-Packard Company: Applications of Performance Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cargille, Brian; Branvold, Dwight

    2000-01-01

    Explains how Hewlett-Packard creates supply chain management innovations and effectively diffuses new technologies. Outlines how performance technologists help accelerate the diffusion and adoption of innovations by modifying innovations, define the client adoption path, create resources to lead clients through adoption, and improve the diffusion…

  20. Innovation Attributes, Policy Intervention, and the Diffusion of Computer Applications Among Local Governments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, James L.; Kraemer, Kenneth L.

    1978-01-01

    Argues that innovation attributes, together with policies associated with the diffusion on an innovation, account for significant differences in diffusion patterns. An empirical analysis of this thesis focuses on the diffusion of computer applications software in local government. Available from Elsevier Scientific Publishing Co., Box 211,…

  1. Diffusion methodology: time to innovate?

    PubMed

    Meyer, Gary

    2004-01-01

    Over the past 60 years, thousands of diffusion studies have been conducted in numerous disciplines of study including sociology, education, communication, marketing, and pubic health. With few exceptions, these studies have been driven by a methodological approach that has become institutionalized in diffusion research. This approach is characterized by the collection of quantitative data about one innovation gathered from adopters at a single point in time after widespread diffusion has occurred. This dominant approach is examined here in terms of both its strengths and weaknesses and with regard to its contribution to the collective base of understanding the diffusion of innovations. Alternative methodological approaches are proposed and reviewed with consideration for the means by which they may expand the knowledge base.

  2. Structure of S-shaped growth in innovation diffusion.

    PubMed

    Shimogawa, Shinsuke; Shinno, Miyuki; Saito, Hiroshi

    2012-05-01

    A basic question on innovation diffusion is why the growth curve of the adopter population in a large society is often S shaped. From macroscopic, microscopic, and mesoscopic viewpoints, the growth of the adopter population is observed as the growth curve, individual adoptions, and differences among individual adoptions, respectively. The S shape can be explained if an empirical model of the growth curve can be deduced from models of microscopic and mesoscopic structures. However, even the structure of growth curve has not been revealed yet because long-term extrapolations by proposed models of S-shaped curves are unstable and it has been very difficult to predict the long-term growth and final adopter population. This paper studies the S-shaped growth from the viewpoint of social regularities. Simple methods to analyze power laws enable us to extract the structure of the growth curve directly from the growth data of recent basic telecommunication services. This empirical model of growth curve is singular at the inflection point and a logarithmic function of time after this point, which explains the unstable extrapolations obtained using previously proposed models and the difficulty in predicting the final adopter population. Because the empirical S curve can be expressed in terms of two power laws of the regularity found in social performances of individuals, we propose the hypothesis that the S shape represents the heterogeneity of the adopter population, and the heterogeneity parameter is distributed under the regularity in social performances of individuals. This hypothesis is so powerful as to yield models of microscopic and mesoscopic structures. In the microscopic model, each potential adopter adopts the innovation when the information accumulated by the learning about the innovation exceeds a threshold. The accumulation rate of information is heterogeneous among the adopter population, whereas the threshold is a constant, which is the opposite of previously

  3. Diffusion of innovations dynamics, biological growth and catenary function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guseo, Renato

    2016-12-01

    The catenary function has a well-known role in determining the shape of chains and cables supported at their ends under the force of gravity. This enables design using a specific static equilibrium over space. Its reflected version, the catenary arch, allows the construction of bridges and arches exploiting the dual equilibrium property under uniform compression. In this paper, we emphasize a further connection with well-known aggregate biological growth models over time and the related diffusion of innovation key paradigms (e.g., logistic and Bass distributions over time) that determine self-sustaining evolutionary growth dynamics in naturalistic and socio-economic contexts. Moreover, we prove that the 'local entropy function', related to a logistic distribution, is a catenary and vice versa. This special invariance may be explained, at a deeper level, through the Verlinde's conjecture on the origin of gravity as an effect of the entropic force.

  4. Diffusion of innovation: computer technology in hospital pharmacy.

    PubMed

    Browning, W C; Hurd, P D; Bootman, J L; Tansik, D A; McGhan, W F

    1984-11-01

    The diffusion of computer technology in hospital pharmacy departments was studied by surveying pharmacy directors in a randomly selected sample of 501 hospitals in the United States with at least 100 beds. Pharmacy directors were asked to indicate for which of 17 tasks a computer or memory typewriter was used in the pharmacy department. The time of first adopting computers in the department was compared with the predicted S adoption curve; adoption time was also correlated with characteristics of the hospital, pharmacy, and pharmacy director. Of the 417 respondents, 308 reported use of a memory typewriter or computer in the pharmacy. Fifty-one directors reported only memory-typewriter use, and 94 reported both computer and memory-typewriter use. Maintenance of patient census lists and patient billing were the most frequent uses of computers. The primary uses of memory typewriters were preparation of letters and labels. There was no significant difference in the actual and predicted S curves for time of adoption of computers. The number of months since first adopting computers was positively correlated with hospital bed size and the pharmacy director's number of years as a pharmacist, years in current position and with current employer, and number of subordinates; it was also positively correlated with number of pharmaceutical services and number of computer uses in the department. Computer technology is becoming more universally accepted in hospital pharmacy, and research on the diffusion of innovations suggests that acceptance will continue to increase.

  5. An Application of the Diffusion of Innovations Theory to the Investigation of Blended Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grgurovic, Maja

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates technology-enhanced blended learning in an English as a Second Language (ESL) program from the theoretical perspective of Diffusion of Innovations theory. The study first established that the use of a learning management system (LMS) in two ESL classes represented an educational innovation. Next, the innovation attributes…

  6. Diffusion of Innovation Theory: A Bridge for the Research-Practice Gap in Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Christine E.

    2009-01-01

    This article presents a diffusion of innovation theory-based framework for addressing the gap between research and practice in the counseling profession. The author describes the nature of the research-practice gap and presents an overview of diffusion of innovation theory. On the basis of the application of several major postulates of diffusion…

  7. The origins and development of the diffusion of innovations paradigm as an example of scientific growth.

    PubMed

    Valente, T W; Rogers, E M

    1995-03-01

    Diffusion is the process by which an innovation is communicated through certain channels over time among members of a social system. The diffusion of innovations is a communication theory which has laid the groundwork for behavior change models across the social sciences, representing a widely applicable perspective. The diffusion of innovations paradigm began with the 1943 publication of the results of an hybrid seed corn study conducted by Bryce Ryan and Neal C. Gross, rural sociologists at Iowa State University. The diffusion paradigm spread among midwestern rural sociological researchers in the 1950s and 1960s, and then to a larger, interdisciplinary field of diffusion scholars. By the late 1960s, rural sociologists lost interest in diffusion studies, not because it was ineffective scientifically, but because of lack of support for such study as a consequence of farm overproduction and because most of the interesting research questions were thought to be answered. Since 1943, more than 4000 research publications have appeared and diffusion research became a widely practiced variety of scholarly study in sociology and other social sciences. This paper describes some of the history of rural sociological research on the diffusion of agricultural innovations with the goal of understanding how the research tradition emerged and to determine how it influenced the larger body of diffusion research conducted later by scholars in other disciplinary specialties. The authors describe how diffusion of innovations research followed and deviated from the Kuhnian concept of paradigm development.

  8. Diffusing Innovations: Adoption of Serious Educational Games by K-12 Science Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vallett, David; Annetta, Leonard; Lamb, Richard; Bowling, Brandy

    2014-01-01

    Innovation is a term that has become widely used in education; especially as it pertains to technology infusion. Applying the corporate theory of diffusing innovation to educational practice is an innovation in itself. This mixed-methods study examined 38 teachers in a science educational gaming professional development program that provided…

  9. The Role of the Organization Structure in the Diffusion of Innovations

    PubMed Central

    Sáenz-Royo, Carlos; Gracia-Lázaro, Carlos; Moreno, Yamir

    2015-01-01

    Diffusion and adoption of innovations is a topic of increasing interest in economics, market research, and sociology. In this paper we investigate, through an agent based model, the dynamics of adoption of innovative proposals in different kinds of structures. We show that community structure plays an important role on the innovation diffusion, so that proposals are more likely to be accepted in homogeneous organizations. In addition, we show that the learning process of innovative technologies enhances their diffusion, thus resulting in an important ingredient when heterogeneous networks are considered. We also show that social pressure blocks the adoption process whatever the structure of the organization. These results may help to understand how different factors influence the diffusion and acceptance of innovative proposals in different communities and organizations. PMID:25978360

  10. The role of the organization structure in the diffusion of innovations.

    PubMed

    Sáenz-Royo, Carlos; Gracia-Lázaro, Carlos; Moreno, Yamir

    2015-01-01

    Diffusion and adoption of innovations is a topic of increasing interest in economics, market research, and sociology. In this paper we investigate, through an agent based model, the dynamics of adoption of innovative proposals in different kinds of structures. We show that community structure plays an important role on the innovation diffusion, so that proposals are more likely to be accepted in homogeneous organizations. In addition, we show that the learning process of innovative technologies enhances their diffusion, thus resulting in an important ingredient when heterogeneous networks are considered. We also show that social pressure blocks the adoption process whatever the structure of the organization. These results may help to understand how different factors influence the diffusion and acceptance of innovative proposals in different communities and organizations.

  11. Diffusion of innovations: smartphones and wireless anatomy learning resources.

    PubMed

    Trelease, Robert B

    2008-01-01

    The author has previously reported on principles of diffusion of innovations, the processes by which new technologies become popularly adopted, specifically in relation to anatomy and education. In presentations on adopting handheld computers [personal digital assistants (PDAs)] and personal media players for health sciences education, particular attention has been directed to the anticipated integration of PDA functions into popular cellular telephones. However, limited distribution of early "smartphones" (e.g., Palm Treo and Blackberry) has provided few potential users for anatomical learning resources. In contrast, iPod media players have been self-adopted by millions of students, and "podcasting" has become a popular medium for distributing educational media content. The recently introduced Apple iPhone has combined smartphone and higher resolution media player capabilities. The author successfully tested the iPhone and the "work alike" iPod touch wireless media player with text-based "flashcard" resources, existing PDF educational documents, 3D clinical imaging data, lecture "podcasts," and clinical procedure video. These touch-interfaced, mobile computing devices represent just the first of a new generation providing practical, scalable wireless Web access with enhanced multimedia capabilities. With widespread student self-adoption of such new personal technology, educators can look forward to increasing portability of well-designed, multiplatform "learn anywhere" resources.

  12. Nonlinear models for the adoption and diffusion of innovations for industrial energy conservation.

    PubMed

    Jacobsen, Joseph J; Guastello, Stephen J

    2007-10-01

    Four different theoretical models for explaining the diffusion of innovation were compared for 13 energy-related innovations--the Theory of Planned Behavior, the S-curve for Diffusion of Innovations, the power law distribution, and the cusp catastrophe. The substantive concern was to explore the roles of facilitative and obstructive factors in diffusing industrial and commercial innovations. Participants were 102 industrial plant and facilities managers from sites that were among the top users of electrical energy and natural gas in the United States. They completed a survey that contained measurements of positive attitudes toward innovation, organizational resistance to innovation, and the extent to which they had investigated or adopted each of the target innovations. Seven of the 13 innovations exhibited strong cusp catastrophe models (via nonlinear regression, average R2 = .91) compared to linear alternative models (average R2 = .31) for those innovations; the S-curve for diffusion was regarded as a simplified version of the cusp. One innovation was characterized best by a power law distribution (R2 = .94), and the remaining five were characterized best by a linear model that was based on the Theory of Planned Behavior (R2 = .41). Different underlying dynamics for the various innovations were implied by these results.

  13. The Fierce Urgency of Now: Diffusion of Innovation as a Mechanism to Integrate Social Justice in Counselor Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ratts, Manivong J.; Wood, Chris

    2011-01-01

    The authors present diffusion of innovation theory (Rogers, 2003) as a framework for integrating social justice into counselor education. An overview of diffusion theory is provided along with how the tenets of diffusion of innovation can be used to alleviate fears and anxieties that come with adopting an innovation such as social justice in…

  14. U.S. Government Initiatives in Afghanistan: An Application of Diffusion of Innovations Theory

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-05-17

    first examine the literature concerning diffusion of innovations. The rest of the monograph is organized utilizing three of the four elements of...understand the major elements of the concept. Rogers identifies four main elements of diffusion of innovations. These elements are the social system in...in Afghanistan is radio. Radio is the most accessible media for Afghan households with eighty -two percent of respondents to the Afghanistan Survey

  15. Organizational learning, diffusion of innovation, and international collaboration in telemedicine.

    PubMed

    Robinson, David F; Savage, Grant T; Campbell, Kim Sydow

    2003-01-01

    The authors analyze competing forces affecting the diffusion of telemedicine practices across organizations, potential learning effects from telemedicine practice, and their implications for the development of telemedicine-based networks. They also speculate on the learning, diffusion, and institutional effects that telemedical collaboration may trigger; five sets of propositions are advanced to explain these effects.

  16. Application of Diffusion of Innovations Theory to the TIPs Evaluation Project Results and Beyond.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hubbard, Susan M.; Huang, Judy Y.; Mulvey, Kevin P.

    2003-01-01

    Summarizes the results from four major studies under the Treatment Improvement Protocols (TIPs) evaluation project and uses the diffusion of innovations theory as a theoretical framework to understand substance abuse treatment providers awareness, attitudes, and practices regarding TIPs. (SLD)

  17. The Origins and Development of the Diffusion of Innovations Paradigm as an Example of Scientific Growth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valente, Thomas W.; Rogers, Everett M.

    1995-01-01

    Describes some of the history of rural sociological research on the diffusion of agricultural innovations, and shows how research followed (and deviated from) the Kuhnian concept of paradigm development. Examines the Iowa Hybrid Seed Corn Study which contributed to the rise of sociological diffusion research. (103 references) (AEF)

  18. Understanding innovators' experiences of barriers and facilitators in implementation and diffusion of healthcare service innovations: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Healthcare service innovations are considered to play a pivotal role in improving organisational efficiency and responding effectively to healthcare needs. Nevertheless, healthcare organisations encounter major difficulties in sustaining and diffusing innovations, especially those which concern the organisation and delivery of healthcare services. The purpose of the present study was to explore how healthcare innovators of process-based initiatives perceived and made sense of factors that either facilitated or obstructed the innovation implementation and diffusion. Methods A qualitative study was designed. Fifteen primary and secondary healthcare organisations in the UK, which had received health service awards for successfully generating and implementing service innovations, were studied. In-depth, semi structured interviews were conducted with the organisational representatives who conceived and led the development process. The data were recorded, transcribed and thematically analysed. Results Four main themes were identified in the analysis of the data: the role of evidence, the function of inter-organisational partnerships, the influence of human-based resources, and the impact of contextual factors. "Hard" evidence operated as a proof of effectiveness, a means of dissemination and a pre-requisite for the initiation of innovation. Inter-organisational partnerships and people-based resources, such as champions, were considered an integral part of the process of developing, establishing and diffusing the innovations. Finally, contextual influences, both intra-organisational and extra-organisational were seen as critical in either impeding or facilitating innovators' efforts. Conclusions A range of factors of different combinations and co-occurrence were pointed out by the innovators as they were reflecting on their experiences of implementing, stabilising and diffusing novel service initiatives. Even though the innovations studied were of various

  19. The impact of network characteristics on the diffusion of innovations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peres, Renana

    2014-05-01

    This paper studies the influence of network topology on the speed and reach of new product diffusion. While previous research has focused on comparing network types, this paper explores explicitly the relationship between topology and measurements of diffusion effectiveness. We study simultaneously the effect of three network metrics: the average degree, the relative degree of social hubs (i.e., the ratio of the average degree of highly-connected individuals to the average degree of the entire population), and the clustering coefficient. A novel network-generation procedure based on random graphs with a planted partition is used to generate 160 networks with a wide range of values for these topological metrics. Using an agent-based model, we simulate diffusion on these networks and check the dependence of the net present value (NPV) of the number of adopters over time on the network metrics. We find that the average degree and the relative degree of social hubs have a positive influence on diffusion. This result emphasizes the importance of high network connectivity and strong hubs. The clustering coefficient has a negative impact on diffusion, a finding that contributes to the ongoing controversy on the benefits and disadvantages of transitivity. These results hold for both monopolistic and duopolistic markets, and were also tested on a sample of 12 real networks.

  20. Use of Diffusion of Innovations Theory To Drive a Federal Agency's Program Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hubbard, Susan M.; Hayashi, Susan W.

    2003-01-01

    Provides the conceptual framework for the Treatment Improvement Protocols (TIPs) evaluation project, using the diffusion of innovations theory as the theoretical foundation to understand and assess the development of TIPs. Summarizes principles of diffusion theory, and discusses how the model was used to structure the TIPs studies. (SLD)

  1. Lessons Learnt from Literature on the Diffusion of Innovative Learning and Teaching Practices in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Faced with the challenges of the changes in: higher education, educational developers' roles and the use of innovation to stimulate change, this study aimed to synthesise literature dealing with the diffusion of innovative learning and teaching practices in higher education to determine what lessons could be learnt. The findings suggest that the…

  2. Expanding Downward: Innovation, Diffusion, and State Policy Adoptions of Universal Preschool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curran, F. Chris

    2015-01-01

    Framed within the theoretical framework of policy innovation and diffusion, this study explores both interstate (diffusion) and intrastate predictors of adoption of state universal preschool policies. Event history analysis methodology is applied to a state level dataset drawn from the Census, the NCES Common Core, the Book of the States, and…

  3. Diffusion of an Innovation: Digital Reference Service in Carnegie Foundation Master's (Comprehensive) Academic Institution Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Marilyn Domas

    2001-01-01

    Analyses academic digital reference services in institutions categorized as Master's (Comprehensive) Universities by the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching that offer undergraduate and master's degree education within the framework of diffusion of innovation theory. Focuses on the extent and rate of diffusion, library…

  4. Diffusion Milieus as a Focus of Research on Innovation in the Public Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feller, Irwin; Menzel, Donald C.

    1977-01-01

    Presents an approach to the diffusion of technological innovations in state and local governments that is organized around the concept of "diffusion milieus." Available from: Elsevier Scientific Publishing Company, Box 211, Amsterdam, The Netherlands; single issues supplied upon request. (Author/JG)

  5. Rethinking Policy Diffusion: The Interstate Spread of "Finance Innovations"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lacy, T. Austin; Tandberg, David A.

    2014-01-01

    Recently a number of studies have focused on states' adoptions of postsecondary-specific policies. Cutting across much of this research is the presence and influence of interstate diffusion of policy adoptions, a phenomenon for which support is scant. This paper seeks to address this through broadening the categorization of policies beyond…

  6. Innovation in industry and the diffusion of technology.

    PubMed

    Utterback, J M

    1974-02-15

    The varied definitions used in the sources that have been discussed make any aggregate analysis difficult. A simple three-stage analysis of flows to, from, and within the firm was used to facilitate comparisons. Even so, each of the generalizations is drawn from relatively small and unrepresentative samples. Case studies may continue to be a source of ideas and hypotheses for further research, but do not appear to offer a means for deeper understanding of the innovation process. The retrospective nature of nearly all of the sources discussed probably means that the process has been viewed as much more rational and well-ordered than it is in fact. This failing is partially overcome in firsthand accounts such as those of Suites and Bueche (63) and Frey and Goldman (64). Each of these accounts involves a successful innovation according to technical or commercial criteria, or both. However, many of the characteristics of innovations that have failed commercially (10) appear to be similar to those of successful cases. The few longitudinal studies, and studies comparing more and less successful cases, do support the main conclusions drawn above (10, 32, 38). More serious problems are raised by the distinctly nonrepresentative nature of the samples used. There are few cases (17, 33, 65) in which the contributions of more than one organization, or details of interactions over a significant period of time, are discussed. There is a wide variation in the importance of the innovations included, ranging from those affecting the economy as a whole to cases involving production in a single firm, albeit with significant commercial results (66). In addition to questions of comparability and sampling, a central problem for further research on innovation will be to devise an operational model to account for interfirm and interindustry differences. Polar definitions used in past studies, "high technology" and "mature industry," for example, are insufficient. One possibility is to use

  7. Designing for Diffusion: How Can We Increase Uptake of Cancer Communication Innovations?

    PubMed Central

    Dearing, James W.; Kreuter, Matthew W.

    2010-01-01

    Objective The best innovations in cancer communication do not necessarily achieve uptake by researchers, public health and clinical practitioners, and policy makers. This paper describes design activities that can be applied and combined for the purpose of spreading effective cancer communication innovations. Methods A previously developed Push-Pull-Infrastructure Model is used to organize and highlight the types of activities that can be deployed during the design phase of innovations. Scientific literature about the diffusion of innovations, knowledge utilization, marketing, public health, and our experiences in working to spread effective practices, programs, and policies are used for this purpose. Results Attempts to broaden the reach, quicken the uptake, and facilitate the use of cancer communication innovations can apply design activities to increase the likelihood of diffusion. Some simple design activities hold considerable promise for improving dissemination and subsequent diffusion. Conclusion Augmenting current dissemination practices with evidence-based concepts from diffusion science, marketing science, and knowledge utilization hold promise for improving results by eliciting greater market pull. Practice Implications Inventors and change agencies seeking to spread cancer communication innovations can experience more success by explicit consideration of design activities that reflect an expanded version of the Push-Pull-Infrastructure Model. PMID:21067884

  8. Potential for Integrating Diffusion of Innovation Principles into Life Cycle Assessment of Emerging Technologies.

    PubMed

    Sharp, Benjamin E; Miller, Shelie A

    2016-03-15

    Life cycle assessment (LCA) measures cradle-to-grave environmental impacts of a product. To assess impacts of an emerging technology, LCA should be coupled with additional methods that estimate how that technology might be deployed. The extent and manner that an emerging technology diffuses throughout a region shapes the magnitude and type of environmental impacts. Diffusion of innovation is an established field of research that analyzes the adoption of new innovations, and its principles can be used to construct scenario models that enhance LCA of emerging technologies. Integrating diffusion modeling techniques with an LCA of emerging technology can provide estimates for the extent of market penetration, the displacement of existing systems, and the rate of adoption. Two general perspectives of application are macro-level diffusion models that use a function of time to represent adoption, and microlevel diffusion models that simulate adoption through interactions of individuals. Incorporating diffusion of innovation concepts complement existing methods within LCA to inform proactive environmental management of emerging technologies.

  9. Mothers "Google It Up:" Extending Communication Channel Behavior in Diffusion of Innovations Theory.

    PubMed

    Sundstrom, Beth

    2016-01-01

    This study employed qualitative methods, conducting 44 in-depth interviews with biological mothers of newborns to understand women's perceptions and use of new media, mass media, and interpersonal communication channels in relation to health issues. Findings contribute to theoretical and practical understandings of the role of communication channels in diffusion of innovations theory. In particular, this study provides a foundation for the use of qualitative research to advance applications of diffusion of innovations theory. Results suggest that participants resisted mass media portrayals of women's health. When faced with a health question, participants uniformly started with the Internet to "Google it up." Findings suggest new media comprise a new communication channel with new rules, serving the functions of both personal and impersonal influence. In particular, pregnancy and the postpartum period emerged as a time when campaign planners can access women in new ways online. As a result, campaign planners could benefit from introducing new ideas online and capitalizing on the strength of weak ties favored in new media. Results expand the innovativeness/needs paradox in diffusion of innovations theory by elaborating on the role of new media to reach underserved populations. These findings provide an opportunity to better understand patient information seeking through the lens of diffusion of innovations theory.

  10. Nurses' adoption of technology: application of Rogers' innovation-diffusion model.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ting-Ting

    2004-11-01

    This qualitative study applied Everett Rogers' innovation-diffusion model to analyze nurses' perceptions toward using a computerized care plan system. Twelve nurses from three respiratory intensive care units in Taiwan voluntarily participated in a one-on-one, in-depth interview. Data were analyzed by constant comparative analysis. The content that emerged was compared with the model's five innovation characteristics (relative advantage, compatibility, complexity, trialability, and observability), as perceived by new users. Results indicate that Rogers' model can accurately describe nurses' behavior during the process of adopting workplace innovations. Related issues that emerged deserve further attention to help nurses make the best use of technology.

  11. Market Aspects of Diffusion: A Spatial Perspective on the Diffusion of Innovations in Thailand.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pontius, Steven K.

    How market factors affected the diffusion of four agricultural inputs (fertilizer, herbicide, insecticide, and fungicide) among farmers on the Central Plain of Thailand is examined. Market factors investigated were the distribution policies of the propagators and the travel behavior of the potential adopters. Data were gathered through personal…

  12. Reliability and Validity Study of the Mobile Learning Adoption Scale Developed Based on the Diffusion of Innovations Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Celik, Ismail; Sahin, Ismail; Aydin, Mustafa

    2014-01-01

    In this study, a mobile learning adoption scale (MLAS) was developed on the basis of Rogers' (2003) Diffusion of Innovations Theory. The scale that was developed consists of four sections. These sections are as follows: Stages in the innovation-decision process, Types of m-learning decision, Innovativeness level and attributes of m-learning.…

  13. Reliability and Validity Study of the Mobile Learning Adoption Scale Developed Based on the Diffusion of Innovations Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Celik, Ismail; Sahin, Ismail; Aydin, Mustafa

    2014-01-01

    In this study, a mobile learning adoption scale (MLAS) was developed on the basis of Rogers' (2003) Diffusion of Innovations Theory. The scale that was developed consists of four sections. These sections are as follows: Stages in the innovation-decision process, Types of m-learning decision, Innovativeness level and attributes of m-learning. There…

  14. Facebook and the Diffusion of Innovation in New Zealand Public Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neo, Emily; Calvert, Philip J

    2012-01-01

    The decision by public libraries in New Zealand to implement Facebook has been uneven. Using Rogers' Diffusion of Innovations theory, a survey of nine public libraries investigated the process of its adoption or non-adoption. The motivating factors for the adoption of Facebook were identified. The surveyed libraries all met the four prior…

  15. Diffusion and Adoption of Innovations in Fertilizer-Related Agricultural Production Technology in Developing Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrnes, Kerry J.

    This monograph reviews a wide range of research literature on the diffusion and adoption of innovations in agricultural production technology in the developing countries, with particular emphasis on the practice of using commercially purchased, inorganic fertilizer as a source of plant nutrients. It is intended that the report's documentation of…

  16. Professional Learning Communities and the Diffusion of Pedagogical Innovation in the Chinese Education System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sargent, Tanja Carmel

    2015-01-01

    Pedagogical innovations have been diffusing unevenly through the Chinese education system as a result of the implementation of the New Curriculum Reforms. Drawing on large-scale linked teacher and principal survey data from the Gansu Survey of Children and Families, this article investigates the extent to which interlocking teacher networks, which…

  17. A Diffusion of Innovations Approach to Gerontological Curriculum Enrichment: Institutionalizing and Sustaining Curricular Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorfman, Lorraine T.; Murty, Susan A.

    2005-01-01

    This article describes a gerontological enrichment model for institutionalizing and sustaining curricular change utilizing Rogers' (1995, 2003) diffusion of innovations approach to organizational change. The goal of the project, funded by the John A. Hartford Foundation, is to transform the social work curriculum at a major state university so…

  18. Instructional Technology in Appalachian Kentucky 1929-2011: Countering the Pervasive Narrative of Innovation Diffusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nettleton, Kimberely Fletcher

    2012-01-01

    The prevalent public narrative based on Roger's (2003) model of innovation diffusion categorizes teachers as laggards; rigidly entrenched in outdated practices and unwilling to change. As new instructional technologies failed to be adopted into classrooms, this public narrative served as a pervasive explanation, widely accepted as characteristic…

  19. Diffusion of Technological Innovation in a Foreign Languages Unit in Turkey: A Focus on Risk-Aversive Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Timucin, Metin

    2009-01-01

    Taking advantage of Rogers' Diffusion of Innovations Theory, which suggests that adoption of a specific innovation is critically influenced by the way the adopters receive it, this article aims at presenting the implementation process of such an innovation in the form of Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL) in an English as a Foreign…

  20. Advancing the practice of online psychotherapy: An application of Rogers' diffusion of innovations theory.

    PubMed

    Lovejoy, Travis I; Demireva, Petya D; Grayson, Jessica L; McNamara, John R

    2009-03-01

    With the advancements of technology and its increasing use in all spheres of life, clinicians too are faced with the decision of whether to adopt or refrain from adopting certain innovations in their practice. This article discusses the process of adopting clinical innovations within a theoretical framework, namely diffusion of innovations theory (DIT; Rogers, 2003). DIT constructs are applied to the example of online therapy adoption into clinical practice. Nine adoption barriers are identified, including issues of dehumanizing the therapeutic environment, start-up cost and reimbursement, infrastructure and training, licensure and jurisdiction concerns, ethical guidelines, both client and clinician suitability factors, and professional reputation and acceptance within the field. The authors conclude with a theory-based discussion of activities that may help to accelerate the adoption of online therapy among professional psychologists. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Factors influencing pharmacists’ adoption of prescribing: qualitative application of the diffusion of innovations theory

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In 2007, Alberta became the first Canadian jurisdiction to grant pharmacists a wide range of prescribing privileges. Our objective was to understand what factors influence pharmacists’ adoption of prescribing using a model for the Diffusion of Innovations in healthcare services. Methods Pharmacists participated in semi-structured telephone interviews to discuss their prescribing practices and explore the facilitators and barriers to implementation. Pharmacists working in community, hospital, PCN, or other settings were selected using a mix of random and purposive sampling. Two investigators independently analyzed each transcript using an Interpretive Description approach to identify themes. Analyses were informed by a model explaining the Diffusion of Innovations in health service organizations. Results Thirty-eight participants were interviewed. Prescribing behaviours varied from non-adoption through to product, disease, and patient focused use of prescribing. Pharmacists’ adoption of prescribing was dependent on the innovation itself, adopter, system readiness, and communication and influence. Adopting pharmacists viewed prescribing as a legitimization of previous practice and advantageous to instrumental daily tasks. The complexity of knowledge required for prescribing increased respectively in product, disease and patient focused prescribing scenarios. Individual adopters had higher levels of self-efficacy toward prescribing skills. At a system level, pharmacists who were in practice settings that were patient focused were more likely to adopt advanced prescribing practices, over those in product-focused settings. All pharmacists stated that physician relationships impacted their prescribing behaviours and individual pharmacists’ decisions to apply for independent prescribing privileges. Conclusions Diffusion of Innovations theory was helpful in understanding the multifaceted nature of pharmacists’ adoption of prescribing. The characteristics

  2. Diffusion of Innovation: Factors Promoting Interest in Solar Photovoltaic Generation Systems Within Air Force Installations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-03-01

    Q42c. How likely is it that your base will request funding in these systems in the next 10 years? (large scale) Q43a.How beneficial do you think it...DIFFUSION OF INNOVATION: FACTORS PROMOTING INTEREST IN SOLAR PHOTOVOLTAIC GENERATION SYSTEMS WITHIN AIR...SOLAR PHOTOVOLTAIC GENERATION SYSTEMS WITHIN AIR FORCE INSTALLATIONS THESIS Presented to the Faculty Department of Systems and Engineering

  3. National Seminar on the Diffusion of New Instructional Materials and Practices. 5.0 Characteristics of the Communications Network: What are the Mechanisms Within the Diffusion System That Encourage or Discourage the Diffusion of Innovation?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Social Science Education Consortium, Inc., Boulder, CO.

    In this document conference participants consider characteristics of the communications network for diffusion of new instructional materials and practices. Responses to these questions are presented: What are the communication mechanisms within the diffusion system that encourage or discourage the diffusion of innovation? What role do journal…

  4. Diffusion of complex health innovations--implementation of primary health care reforms in Bosnia and Herzegovina.

    PubMed

    Atun, Rifat A; Kyratsis, Ioannis; Jelic, Gordan; Rados-Malicbegovic, Drazenka; Gurol-Urganci, Ipek

    2007-01-01

    Most transition countries in Central and Eastern Europe and Central Asia are engaged in health reform initiatives aimed at introducing primary health care (PHC) centred on family medicine to enhance performance of their health systems. But, in these countries the introduction of PHC reforms has been particularly challenging; while some have managed to introduce pilots, many have failed to these scale up. Using an innovation lens, we examine the introduction and diffusion of family-medicine-centred PHC reforms in Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH), which experienced bitter ethnic conflicts that destroyed much of the health systems infrastructure. The study was conducted in 2004-05 over a 18-month period and involved both qualitative and quantitative methods of inquiry. In this study we report the findings of the qualitative research, which involved in-depth interviews in three stages with key informants that were purposively sampled. In our research, we applied a proprietary analytical framework which enables simultaneous and holistic analysis of the context, the innovation, the adopters and the interactions between them over time. While many transition countries have struggled with the introduction of family-medicine-centred PHC reforms, in spite of considerable resource constraints and a challenging post-war context, within a few years, BiH has managed to scale up multifaceted reforms to cover over 25% of the country. Our analysis reveals a complex setting and bidirectional interaction between the innovation, adopters and the context, which have collectively influenced the diffusion process. Family-medicine-centred PHC reform is a complex innovation-involving organizational, financial, clinical and relational changes-within a complex adaptive system. An important factor influencing the adoption of this complex innovation in BiH was the perceived benefits of the innovation: benefits which accrue to the users, family physicians, nurses and policy makers. In the case of Bi

  5. The diffusion of a medical innovation: where teleradiology is and where it is going.

    PubMed

    Dimmick, Susan L; Ignatova, Kunka D

    2006-01-01

    Teleradiology is one of the more successful applications of telemedicine as measured by a bibliometric analysis of teleradiology research publications. The organizational diffusion of innovation framework is helpful in understanding the diffusion of teleradiology. Teleradiology had become part of the practices of two-thirds of radiologists who responded to the American College of Radiology survey in 1999. It is clear that teleradiology has become routinized even though quantitative data are hard to find. Telecardiology may be the next successfully diffused form of telemedicine. The potential cloud on the horizon for telediagnostics is political pressure to avoid outsourcing to foreign countries, particularly those to which US information technology jobs have already been transferred. How the outsourcing issue is resolved will have a significant effect on teleradiology specifically, and, perhaps, telemedicine generally.

  6. Diffusion of solar innovations through television news programming

    SciTech Connect

    Shoemaker, F.; Halacy, D.; O'Keefe, G.J.; Sendroy, C.G.

    1981-04-01

    The rationale, methodology, finished product, and evaluation of a series of short, topical films of various solar applications are presented. They were produced for use on prime-television news programming.

  7. Advice Networks and Local Diffusion of Technological Innovations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barahona, Juan Carlos; Pentland, Alex Sandy

    Classical writers such as John Stuart Mill and Karl Marx speculated that the standard of living could not rise indefinitely unless advances in technology increased the yield of the means of production. Neoclassical growth theory, based on capital accumulation, supports this intuition [1]. Digital tools increase personal productivity. Communication technologies enhance the coordination among individuals and increase the efficacy and efficiency of collective efforts. In both ways, technology contributes with wealth creation and the overall welfare of the community.

  8. Detailed Review of Rogers' Diffusion of Innovations Theory and Educational Technology-Related Studies Based on Rogers' Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sahin, Ismail

    2006-01-01

    The process of adopting new innovations has been studied for over 30 years, and one of the most popular adoption models is described by Rogers in his book, "Diffusion of Innovations" (Sherry & Gibson, 2002). Much research from a broad variety of disciplines has used the model as a framework. Dooley (1999) and Stuart (2000) mentioned…

  9. Detailed Review of Rogers' Diffusion of Innovations Theory and Educational Technology-Related Studies Based on Rogers' Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sahin, Ismail

    2006-01-01

    The process of adopting new innovations has been studied for over 30 years, and one of the most popular adoption models is described by Rogers in his book, "Diffusion of Innovations" (Sherry & Gibson, 2002). Much research from a broad variety of disciplines has used the model as a framework. Dooley (1999) and Stuart (2000) mentioned several of…

  10. Diffusion of Innovation Theory and Xbox Live: Examining Minority Gamers' Responses and Rate of Adoption to Changes in Xbox Live

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Kishonna L.

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the response of minority gamers as they adopt new innovations in Xbox Live. Using diffusion of innovation theory, specific attention is given to gamers' rate of adoption of the new Xbox Live environment, which was a recent update to the Xbox Live interface. By employing virtual ethnography, observations, and interviews reveal…

  11. The Social Fabric and Innovation Diffusion: Symbolic Adoption of Food

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sapp, Stephen G.; Korsching, Peter F.

    2004-01-01

    This study used a longitudinal, panel design to examine the effects of negative information acquisition, compliance with opinion leader endorsements, and social demographic characteristics on consumers' symbolic adoption of food irradiation. Data collection coincided with the first market test of irradiated food conducted by a commercial firm,…

  12. DIFFUSING INNOVATIONS: Implementing the Technology Transfer Act of 1986.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    resources 6. D Improved quality of R&D products 7. D Better transfer and utilization of technology 8. D Other (please specify) Questions 24-30...Views on the Legislation’s Effectiveness Views on Improvements to Technology Transfer Examples of Successful and Unsuccessful Transfer Attempts...Service reserach centers designated by the agency - The FAA Technology Center, Tumer-Fairbank Research Center, and Coast Guard Research Development

  13. Packaging for Dissemination. Diffusion of Innovations Handbook Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abbott, Andrew D.; And Others

    This handbook reviews some of the forms that can be used to package educational projects for dissemination to other schools, such as written reports, slide tape presentations, news releases, conference presentations, and workshops. Guidelines and suggestions in the essays on each format are supplemented by the appendices, which include a report…

  14. Diffusion of Educational Innovations via Co-Teaching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henderson, Charles; Beach, Andrea; Famiano, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Physics Education Research (PER) is currently facing significant difficulties in disseminating research-based knowledge and instructional strategies to other faculty. Co-teaching is a promising and cost-effective alternative to traditional professional development that may be applicable in many situations. This paper discusses the rationale for co-teaching and our initial experience with co-teaching. A new instructor (MF) co-taught with an instructor experienced in PER-based reforms (CH). The pair worked within the course structure typically used by the experienced instructor and met regularly to discuss instructional decisions. An outsider (AB) conducted interviews and class observations with each instructor. Classroom observations show an immediate use of PER-based instructional practices by the new instructor. Interviews show a significant shift in the new instructor's beliefs about teaching and intentions towards future use of the PER-based instructional approaches.

  15. Rapid innovation diffusion in social networks

    PubMed Central

    Kreindler, Gabriel E.; Young, H. Peyton

    2014-01-01

    Social and technological innovations often spread through social networks as people respond to what their neighbors are doing. Previous research has identified specific network structures, such as local clustering, that promote rapid diffusion. Here we derive bounds that are independent of network structure and size, such that diffusion is fast whenever the payoff gain from the innovation is sufficiently high and the agents’ responses are sufficiently noisy. We also provide a simple method for computing an upper bound on the expected time it takes for the innovation to become established in any finite network. For example, if agents choose log-linear responses to what their neighbors are doing, it takes on average less than 80 revision periods for the innovation to diffuse widely in any network, provided that the error rate is at least 5% and the payoff gain (relative to the status quo) is at least 150%. Qualitatively similar results hold for other smoothed best-response functions and populations that experience heterogeneous payoff shocks. PMID:25024191

  16. Mechanisms of Innovation Diffusion under Information Abundance and Information Scarcity--On the Contribution of Social Networks in Group vs. Individual Extension Approaches in Semi-Arid Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darr, Dietrich; Pretzsch, Jurgen

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The objective of this paper is to assess the effectiveness of innovation diffusion under group-oriented and individual-oriented extension. Current theoretical notions of innovation diffusion in social networks shall be briefly reviewed, and the concepts of "search" and "innovation" vis-a-vis "transfer" and…

  17. Innovation Diffusion: Implications for Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashley, Shena R.

    2009-01-01

    Whether looking at the spread and adoption of an intervention across a community, across multiple units, or within a single unit, an understanding of diffusion theory can help evaluators uncover patterns and impacts that might otherwise be overlooked. The theory alerts evaluators to examine why uptake of an intervention appeared different in…

  18. Disadvantaged Social Groups and the Cigarette Epidemic: Limits of the Diffusion of Innovations Vision.

    PubMed

    Khlat, Myriam; Pampel, Fred; Bricard, Damien; Legleye, Stéphane

    2016-12-11

    The original four-stage model of the cigarette epidemic has been extended with diffusion of innovations theory to reflect socio-economic differences in cigarette use. Recently, two revisions of the model have been proposed: (1) separate analysis of the epidemic stages for men and women, in order to improve generalization to developing countries, and; (2) addition of a fifth stage to the smoking epidemic, in order to account for the persistence of smoking in disadvantaged social groups. By developing a cohort perspective spanning a 35-year time period in France and the USA, we uncover distinctive features which challenge the currently held vision on the evolution of smoking inequalities within the framework of the cigarette epidemic. We argue that the reason for which the model may not be fit to the lower educated is that the imitation mechanism underlying the diffusion of innovations works well with regard to adoption of the habit, but is much less relevant with regard to its rejection. Based on those observations, we support the idea that the nature and timing of the epidemic differs enough to treat the stages separately for high and low education groups, and discuss policy implications.

  19. Disadvantaged Social Groups and the Cigarette Epidemic: Limits of the Diffusion of Innovations Vision

    PubMed Central

    Khlat, Myriam; Pampel, Fred; Bricard, Damien; Legleye, Stéphane

    2016-01-01

    The original four-stage model of the cigarette epidemic has been extended with diffusion of innovations theory to reflect socio-economic differences in cigarette use. Recently, two revisions of the model have been proposed: (1) separate analysis of the epidemic stages for men and women, in order to improve generalization to developing countries, and; (2) addition of a fifth stage to the smoking epidemic, in order to account for the persistence of smoking in disadvantaged social groups. By developing a cohort perspective spanning a 35-year time period in France and the USA, we uncover distinctive features which challenge the currently held vision on the evolution of smoking inequalities within the framework of the cigarette epidemic. We argue that the reason for which the model may not be fit to the lower educated is that the imitation mechanism underlying the diffusion of innovations works well with regard to adoption of the habit, but is much less relevant with regard to its rejection. Based on those observations, we support the idea that the nature and timing of the epidemic differs enough to treat the stages separately for high and low education groups, and discuss policy implications. PMID:27973442

  20. Oxide diffusion in innovative SOFC cathode materials.

    PubMed

    Hu, Y; Thoréton, V; Pirovano, C; Capoen, E; Bogicevic, C; Nuns, N; Mamede, A-S; Dezanneau, G; Vannier, R N

    2014-01-01

    Oxide diffusion was studied in two innovative SOFC cathode materials, Ba(2)Co(9)O(14) and Ca(3)Co(4)O(9)+δ derivatives. Although oxygen diffusion was confirmed in the promising material Ba(2)Co(9)O(14), it was not possible to derive accurate transport parameters because of an oxidation process at the sample surface which has still to be clarified. In contrast, oxygen diffusion in the well-known Ca(3)Co(4)O(9)+δ thermoelectric material was improved when calcium was partly substituted with strontium, likely due to an increase of the volume of the rock salt layers in which the conduction process takes place. Although the diffusion coefficient remains low, interestingly, fast kinetics towards the oxygen molecule dissociation reaction were shown with surface exchange coefficients higher than those reported for the best cathode materials in the field. They increased with the strontium content; the Sr atoms potentially play a key role in the mechanism of oxygen molecule dissociation at the solid surface.

  1. Health Promotion Efforts as Predictors of Physical Activity in Schools: An Application of the Diffusion of Innovations Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glowacki, Elizabeth M.; Centeio, Erin E.; Van Dongen, Daniel J.; Carson, Russell L.; Castelli, Darla M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Implementing a comprehensive school physical activity program (CSPAP) effectively addresses public health issues by providing opportunities for physical activity (PA). Grounded in the Diffusion of Innovations model, the purpose of this study was to identify how health promotion efforts facilitate opportunities for PA. Methods: Physical…

  2. Assessing social preparedness for antiretroviral therapy in a generalized AIDS epidemic: a diffusion of innovations approach.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Shannon K; Kelly, Kevin J; Potgieter, François E; Moon, Martha W

    2009-02-01

    Researchers conducted focus groups in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa concerning AIDS and treatment options. Constituent groups included adults aged 25-45, HIV/AIDS caregivers, HIV-positive adults, nurses, rural elders, teenagers, and traditional healers. This pilot work aimed to gather early evidence on perceptions about the government's rollout of antiretroviral treatment (ART), identify potential barriers to success, and inform a subsequent pilot survey. Diffusion of innovations theory was used to interpret the data and helped identify potential obstacles to the ART rollout. AIDS stigma and a weakened healthcare system were negatively impacting the program. There was a lack of accurate knowledge about HIV/AIDS and antiretroviral treatment, with wide disparities among groups. Many people were not convinced that antiretroviral treatment is superior to other treatments, and a few people were afraid it was poisonous. There was no evidence that people were aware of the long-term difficulties of adherence to the regimen.

  3. Bridging the Research-to-Practice Gap in Autism Intervention: An Application of Diffusion of Innovation Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dingfelder, Hilary E.; Mandell, David S.

    2011-01-01

    There is growing evidence that efficacious interventions for autism are rarely adopted or successfully implemented in public mental health and education systems. We propose applying diffusion of innovation theory to further our understanding of why this is the case. We pose a practical set of questions that administrators face as they decide about…

  4. Diffusion of Innovations Theory Applied to Global Tobacco Control Treaty Ratification

    PubMed Central

    Valente, Thomas W.; Dyal, Stephanie R.; Chu, Kar-Hai; Wipfli, Heather; Fujimoto, Kayo

    2015-01-01

    This study applies diffusion of innovations theory to understand network influences on country ratification of an international health treaty, the Framework Convention for Tobacco Control (FCTC). From 2003 to 2014 approximately 90% of United Nations member countries ratified the FCTC. We hypothesized that communication between tobacco control advocates on GLOBALink, a 7,000-member online communication forum in existence from 1992 to 2012, would be associated with the timing of treaty ratification. We further hypothesized dynamic network influences such that external influence decreased over time, internal influence increased over time, and the role of opinion leader countries varied over time. In addition we develop two concepts: Susceptibility and influence that uncover the micro-level dynamics of network influence. Statistical analyses lend support to the influence of co-subscriptions on GLOBALink providing a conduit for inter-country influences on treaty ratification and some support for the dynamic hypotheses. Analyses of susceptibility and infection indicated particularly influential countries. These results have implications for the study of policy diffusion as well as dynamic models of behavior change. PMID:26460508

  5. Diffusion of innovations theory applied to global tobacco control treaty ratification.

    PubMed

    Valente, Thomas W; Dyal, Stephanie R; Chu, Kar-Hai; Wipfli, Heather; Fujimoto, Kayo

    2015-11-01

    This study applies diffusion of innovations theory to understand network influences on country ratification of an international health treaty, the Framework Convention for Tobacco Control (FCTC). From 2003 to 2014 approximately 90% of United Nations member countries ratified the FCTC. We hypothesized that communication between tobacco control advocates on GLOBALink, a 7000-member online communication forum in existence from 1992 to 2012, would be associated with the timing of treaty ratification. We further hypothesized dynamic network influences such that external influence decreased over time, internal influence increased over time, and the role of opinion leader countries varied over time. In addition we develop two concepts: Susceptibility and influence that uncover the micro-level dynamics of network influence. Statistical analyses lend support to the influence of co-subscriptions on GLOBALink providing a conduit for inter-country influences on treaty ratification and some support for the dynamic hypotheses. Analyses of susceptibility and infection indicated particularly influential countries. These results have implications for the study of policy diffusion as well as dynamic models of behavior change.

  6. Functional food and nutraceutical registration processes in Japan and China: a diffusion of innovation perspective.

    PubMed

    Patel, Darshika; Dufour, Yvon; Domigan, Neil

    2008-01-01

    Purpose - This paper looks into the functional food and nutraceutical registration processes in Japan and China. The Japanese have developed the Foods for Specified Health Use (FOSHU) registration process whereas the Chinese have put into place the Health Food (HF) registration process. The aim of this paper is to compare the regulation processes between the two countries in search for answers to three core empirical questions: (1) how have the registration processes developed and changed? (2) What are the similarities and differences between the processes of registration in the two countries investigated? (3) Why are the registration processes similar/different? Method - The study was conducted using secondary sources. The literature surveyed covered academic journals, trade journals, magazine and newspaper articles, market reports, proceedings, books and web pages of relevant regulatory authorities and regulatory consultants. Information from the more recently published sources was used preferentially over older sources. As well as using the most recent sources, information was selected on the basis of which source it was from. Official regulations and SFDA and MHLW websites would contain accurate and up to date information and information from here would be taken as true over other sources of information. Results - The two diagrams of the registration processes respectively in Japan and China clearly show that there are similarities and differences. There are six categories under which these can be found: (1) the scientific evidence required; (2) the application process; (3) the evaluation process; (4) the law and the categories of products; (5) the labels and the types of claims; and finally (6) the cost and the time involved. Conclusions -The data analysis suggests that the process of diffusion of innovation played a role in the development of the regulations. Further it was found that while Japan was at the outset a pioneer innovator in nutraceutical

  7. Storylines of research in diffusion of innovation: a meta-narrative approach to systematic review.

    PubMed

    Greenhalgh, Trisha; Robert, Glenn; Macfarlane, Fraser; Bate, Paul; Kyriakidou, Olympia; Peacock, Richard

    2005-07-01

    Producing literature reviews of complex evidence for policymaking questions is a challenging methodological area. There are several established and emerging approaches to such reviews, but unanswered questions remain, especially around how to begin to make sense of large data sets drawn from heterogeneous sources. Drawing on Kuhn's notion of scientific paradigms, we developed a new method-meta-narrative review-for sorting and interpreting the 1024 sources identified in our exploratory searches. We took as our initial unit of analysis the unfolding 'storyline' of a research tradition over time. We mapped these storylines by using both electronic and manual tracking to trace the influence of seminal theoretical and empirical work on subsequent research within a tradition. We then drew variously on the different storylines to build up a rich picture of our field of study. We identified 13 key meta-narratives from literatures as disparate as rural sociology, clinical epidemiology, marketing and organisational studies. Researchers in different traditions had conceptualised, explained and investigated diffusion of innovations differently and had used different criteria for judging the quality of empirical work. Moreover, they told very different over-arching stories of the progress of their research. Within each tradition, accounts of research depicted human characters emplotted in a story of (in the early stages) pioneering endeavour and (later) systematic puzzle-solving, variously embellished with scientific dramas, surprises and 'twists in the plot'. By first separating out, and then drawing together, these different meta-narratives, we produced a synthesis that embraced the many complexities and ambiguities of 'diffusion of innovations' in an organisational setting. We were able to make sense of seemingly contradictory data by systematically exposing and exploring tensions between research paradigms as set out in their over-arching storylines. In some traditions

  8. Analysis of the development and diffusion of technological innovations in oil spill forecasting: The MEDESS-4MS case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcati, Alberto; Prete, M. Irene; Mileti, Antonio; Cortese, Mario; Zodiatis, George; Karaolia, Andria; Gauci, Adam; Drago, Aldo

    2016-11-01

    This paper presents a case study on the management of users' engagement in the development of a new technology. Based on the experience of MEDESS-4MS, an integrated operational model for oil spill Decision Support System covering the whole Mediterranean Sea, the case study is aimed at the development of a framework for user engagement and for the management of its dual logic. Indeed, users may play a dual role in the innovation process, contributing to both the design of the innovation and its promotion. Users contribute to shaping the innovation, by aggregating and integrating knowledge, and they facilitate its diffusion, by adopting the innovation and fostering its adoption within the socio-economic system.

  9. The diffusion of innovation in nursing regulatory policy: removing a barrier to medication administration training for child care providers.

    PubMed

    Torre, Carolyn T; Crowley, Angela A

    2011-08-01

    Safe medication administration is an essential component of high-quality child care. Its achievement in New Jersey was impeded by a controversy over whether teaching child care providers medication administration involves registered nurses in the process of nursing delegation. Through the theoretical framework of the Diffusion of Innovation, this paper examines how the interpretation of regulatory policy related to nursing practice in New Jersey was adjusted by the Board of Nursing following a similar interpretation of regulatory policy by the Board of Nursing in Connecticut. This adjustment enabled New Jersey nurses to continue medication administration training for child care providers. National data supporting the need for training child care providers in medication administration is presented, the Diffusion of Innovation paradigm is described; the Connecticut case and the New Jersey dilemma are discussed; the diffusion process between the two states is analyzed and an assessment of the need for further change is made.

  10. Optimizing technology development and adoption in medical imaging using the principles of innovation diffusion, part II: practical applications.

    PubMed

    Reiner, Bruce I

    2012-02-01

    Successful adoption of new technology development can be accentuated by learning and applying the scientific principles of innovation diffusion. This is of particular importance to areas within the medical imaging practice which have lagged in innovation; perhaps, the most notable of which is reporting which has remained relatively stagnant for over a century. While the theoretical advantages of structured reporting have been well documented throughout the medical imaging community, adoption to date has been tepid and largely relegated to the academic and breast imaging communities. Widespread adoption will likely require an alternative approach to innovation, which addresses the heterogeneity and diversity of the practicing radiologist community along with the ever-changing expectations in service delivery. The challenges and strategies for reporting innovation and adoption are discussed, with the goal of adapting and customizing new technology to the preferences and needs of individual end-users.

  11. Understanding the Adoption Process of National Security Technology: An Integration of Diffusion of Innovations and Volitional Behavior Theories.

    PubMed

    Iles, Irina A; Egnoto, Michael J; Fisher Liu, Brooke; Ackerman, Gary; Roberts, Holly; Smith, Daniel

    2017-03-01

    After the 9/11 terrorist attacks, the U.S. government initiated several national security technology adoption programs. The American public, however, has been skeptical about these initiatives and adoption of national security technologies has been mandated, rather than voluntary. We propose and test a voluntary behavioral intention formation model for the adoption of one type of new security technology: portable radiation detectors. Portable radiation detectors are an efficient way of detecting radiological and nuclear threats and could potentially prevent loss of life and damage to individuals' health. However, their functioning requires that a critical mass of individuals use them on a daily basis. We combine the explanatory advantages of diffusion of innovation with the predictive power of two volitional behavior frameworks: the theory of reasoned action and the health belief model. A large sample survey (N = 1,482) investigated the influence of factors identified in previous diffusion of innovation research on portable radiation detector adoption intention. Results indicated that nonfinancial incentives, as opposed to financial incentives, should be emphasized in persuasive communications aimed at fostering adoption. The research provides a new integration of diffusion of innovation elements with determinants of volitional behavior from persuasion literature, and offers recommendations on effective communication about new security technologies to motivate public adoption and enhance national safety.

  12. Factors associated with the diffusion rate of innovations: a pilot study from the perspective of the Brazilian Unified National Health System.

    PubMed

    Schneiders, Roberto Eduardo; Ronsoni, Ricardo de March; Sarti, Flávia Mori; Nita, Marcelo Eidi; Bastos, Ediane de Assis; Zimmermann, Ivan Ricardo; Ferreira, Fernando Fagundes

    2016-10-10

    Budget Impact Analyses require a set of essential information on health technology innovation, including expected rates of adoption. There is an absence of studies investigating trends, magnitude of budgetary effects and determinants of diffusion rates for health technology innovations worldwide during the last decades. The present study proposes a pilot assessment on main determinants influencing diffusion rates of pharmaceutical innovations within the Brazilian Unified National Health System (SUS). Data from the Brazilian Health Informatics Department (DATASUS) was gathered to establish the main determinants of diffusion rates of health technology innovations in Brazil, specifically referring to pharmaceutical innovations incorporated in the Brazilian Program for Specialized Pharmaceutical Services (CEAF) at SUS. Information was retrieved on DATASUS relating to patients who had used one of the medicines incorporated into CEAF at least three years prior to the beginning of the study (2015) for treatment of each health condition available. Thus, data from patients adopting 10 different medicines were analyzed in the study. Results from the zero-one inflated beta model showed a higher influence on diffusion rates of pharmaceutical innovations due to: number of pharmaceutical competitors for treatment of the same disease available at CEAF (negative); medicine used in combination with other medication (positive); and innovative medicine within the SUS (positive). Further research on diffusion rates of health technology innovations is required, including wider scope of diseases and medications, potential confusion factors and other variables that may influence rates of adoption in different health systems.

  13. Exploring associations between micro-level models of innovation diffusion and emerging macro-level adoption patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laciana, Carlos E.; Rovere, Santiago L.; Podestá, Guillermo P.

    2013-04-01

    A micro-level agent-based model of innovation diffusion was developed that explicitly combines (a) an individual's perception of the advantages or relative utility derived from adoption, and (b) social influence from members of the individual's social network. The micro-model was used to simulate macro-level diffusion patterns emerging from different configurations of micro-model parameters. Micro-level simulation results matched very closely the adoption patterns predicted by the widely-used Bass macro-level model (Bass, 1969 [1]). For a portion of the p-q domain, results from micro-simulations were consistent with aggregate-level adoption patterns reported in the literature. Induced Bass macro-level parameters p and q responded to changes in micro-parameters: (1) p increased with the number of innovators and with the rate at which innovators are introduced; (2) q increased with the probability of rewiring in small-world networks, as the characteristic path length decreases; and (3) an increase in the overall perceived utility of an innovation caused a corresponding increase in induced p and q values. Understanding micro to macro linkages can inform the design and assessment of marketing interventions on micro-variables-or processes related to them-to enhance adoption of future products or technologies.

  14. Innovation diffusion equations on correlated scale-free networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertotti, M. L.; Brunner, J.; Modanese, G.

    2016-07-01

    We introduce a heterogeneous network structure into the Bass diffusion model, in order to study the diffusion times of innovation or information in networks with a scale-free structure, typical of regions where diffusion is sensitive to geographic and logistic influences (like for instance Alpine regions). We consider both the diffusion peak times of the total population and of the link classes. In the familiar trickle-down processes the adoption curve of the hubs is found to anticipate the total adoption in a predictable way. In a major departure from the standard model, we model a trickle-up process by introducing heterogeneous publicity coefficients (which can also be negative for the hubs, thus turning them into stiflers) and a stochastic term which represents the erratic generation of innovation at the periphery of the network. The results confirm the robustness of the Bass model and expand considerably its range of applicability.

  15. The PLATO System: A Study in the Diffusion of an Innovation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Driscoll, Francis D.; Wolf, W. C., Jr.

    This study was designed to ascertain the relationships between the steps of a tool designed to link knowledge production and the needs of knowledge users (the Wolf-Welsh Linkage Methodology or WWLM) with milestones in the evolution of an innovative computer-assisted instructional system called PLATO (Programming Logic for Advanced Teaching…

  16. The Diffusion of IT in the Historical Context of Innovations from Developed Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Jeffrey

    2013-01-01

    The well-known s-shaped diffusion of technology curve generally works well in developed countries. But how does it perform in the very different context of developing countries? Across a wide range of new technologies imported from the developed countries it works poorly. In most cases the penetration rate fails to reach 25% of the population. The…

  17. Diffusion of Innovation: A Case Study of Course Management System Adoption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Phillip, Ed.D.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the processes of evaluation, selection, adoption and diffusion of a course management system (CMS). This study incorporated a cross-case analysis using a multiple case study approach, which included two institutions, each having six participants. The participants were placed into three categories: faculty,…

  18. The Challenge for Change in Rural Chile; A Study on Diffusion and Adoption of Agricultural Innovations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menanteau-Horta, Dario

    Purposes of the study were (1) to present some of the problems of the organizational structure of Chilean agriculture, and (2) to explore some of the factors related to diffusion and adoption of agricultural practices as aspects of social and technological change and development. Two central factors considered in the research problem were (1)…

  19. [When the scientific career favors the scholarly diffusion of innovation: doctor Max Fourestier].

    PubMed

    Laffage-Cosnier, Sébastien

    2014-01-01

    In 1992, the hospital of Nanterre assumed Max Fourestier's surname, as this great doctor was in office there between 1948 and 1973. Max Fourestier's biography and career emphasize that he embarked on three specific professional fields : specialty medicine, social medicine and school medicine. At the time, Max Fourestier was developing his universal endoscope in his department in Nanterre, achieving an extensive experience of massive BCG vaccination in a tuberculosis clinic in Montreuil, called "social hygiene" and, finally, carrying out a lot of school innovations to achieve an equal division of time between school work and sport practices. He also implemented snow classes in public schools in 1953 or napping classes,forest classes and snow classes in infant schools in 1959. In short, this presentation reveals that the inherent process of Max Fourestier's school innovation reputation lies in the scientific will of its creator, which allows him to convey his teaching ideas at the international level. Finally, in addition to the inventory of the physician's various innovations, the major challenge of this presentation is to reveal the intertwining and strong connections of Max Fourestier's medical and school commitments. In 1992, the hospital of Nanterre assumed Max Fourestier's surname, as this great doctor was in office there between 1948 and 1973. Max Fourestier's biography and career emphasize that he embarked on three specific professional fields: specialty medicine, social medicine and school medicine. At the time, Max Fourestier was developing his universal endoscope in his department in Nanterre, achieving an extensive experience of massive BCG vaccination in a tuberculosis clinic in Montreuil, called "social hygiene" and,finally, carrying out a lot of school innovations to achieve an equal division of time between school work and sport practices. He also implemented snow classes in public schools in 1953 or napping classes, forest classes and snow classes in

  20. Innovation Diffusion: Proposal of an Organizing Theory on Which To Base Research into School Library Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knuth, Rebecca

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the appropriateness of applying diffusion theory to the study of five factors that influence school library development globally: (1) the evolution of, acceptance of, and consensus on a viable service-delivery model; (2) influence exercised by professional organizations; (3) generation of acceptable standards; (4) overt government…

  1. Physics Faculty and Educational Researchers: Divergent Expectations as Barriers to the Diffusion of Innovations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henderson, Charles; Dancy, Melissa H.

    2006-02-01

    To identify barriers to the dissemination of innovative instructional strategies we conducted interviews with 5 physics instructors who represent likely users of educational research. One significant barrier appears to be that faculty and educational researchers have different expectations about how they should work together to improve student learning. This discrepancy was expressed directly (and often emotionally) by all of the instructors we interviewed. Although different instructors described different aspects of this discrepancy, we believe that they are all related to a single underlying issue: educational researchers expect to disseminate curricular innovations and have faculty adopt them with minimal changes while faculty expect researchers to work with them to adapt knowledge and materials for their unique instructional situations. We will explore this claim and the evidence found in the interview transcripts. We will also discuss implications for the educational research community.

  2. Disruptive innovations for designing and diffusing evidence-based interventions.

    PubMed

    Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane; Swendeman, Dallas; Chorpita, Bruce F

    2012-09-01

    Evidence-based therapeutic and preventive intervention programs (EBIs) have been growing exponentially. Yet EBIs have not been broadly adopted in the United States. In order for our EBI science to significantly reduce disease burden, we need to critically reexamine our scientific conventions and norms. Innovation may be spurred by reexamining the traditional biomedical model for validating, implementing, and diffusing EBI products and science. The model of disruptive innovations suggests that we reengineer EBIs on the basis of their most robust features in order to serve more people in less time and at lower cost. A disruptive innovation provides a simpler and less expensive alternative that meets the essential needs for the majority of consumers and is more accessible, scalable, replicable, and sustainable. Examples of disruptive innovations from other fields include minute clinics embedded in retail chain drug stores, $2 generic eyeglasses, automated teller machines, and telemedicine. Four new research approaches will be required to support disruptive innovations in EBI science: synthesize common elements across EBIs; experiment with new delivery formats (e.g., consumer controlled, self-directed, brief, paraprofessional, coaching, and technology and media strategies); adopt market strategies to promote and diffuse EBI science, knowledge, and products; and adopt continuous quality improvement as a research paradigm for systematically improving EBIs, based on ongoing monitoring data and feedback. EBI science can have more impact if it can better leverage what we know from existing EBIs in order to inspire, engage, inform, and support families and children to adopt and sustain healthy daily routines and lifestyles.

  3. Optimizing technology development and adoption in medical imaging using the principles of innovation diffusion, part I: theoretical, historical, and contemporary considerations.

    PubMed

    Reiner, Bruce I

    2011-10-01

    The pioneering work performed in the social sciences on diffusion of innovation can be applied to medical imaging and shed valuable insights as to how innovation is analyzed and adopted within the population of end-users. Successful innovation must take into account unique stakeholder differences, changes in communication and social interactions, and shifting priorities in market economics. The dramatic changes currently underway in current medical imaging practice provides unique innovation opportunities to those individuals and companies which can utilize this knowledge and effect change in objective and reproducible means. Successful innovation should rely upon data-driven objective analysis, which can scientifically validate the inherent strengths and weaknesses of the innovation, when compared with the idea or technology it supercedes.

  4. Prevention of metabolic syndrome from atypical antipsychotic medications: applying Rogers' diffusion of innovations model in clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Parrinello, Michael C

    2012-12-01

    Patients who are taking atypical antipsychotic medications have a high incidence of metabolic complications, including increased weight, waist circumference, blood sugar, lipid levels, and blood pressure. In 2004, the American Diabetic Association and three other associations, including the American Psychiatric Association, developed guidelines to screen for metabolic syndrome, but in practice, adherence to the guidelines varies. This article describes a process to implement the guidelines in a suburban psychiatric day treatment hospital using Rogers' Diffusion of Innovations model. Measurement of waist circumference was identified as an opportunity to improve the current metabolic screening protocol. Post-intervention evaluation revealed increased adherence to the guidelines (0% pre versus 95% post). Adherence to the guidelines demonstrates the effect of the systematic application of Rogers' model on acceptance of practice change. Fully implementing the guidelines meets recommendations for the standard of practice and can improve the health and quality of life of patients prescribed atypical antipsychotic medications.

  5. Innovation or rebranding, acute care surgery diffusion will continue

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Courtney E.; Pringle, Patricia L.; Santry, Heena P.

    2015-01-01

    Background Patterns of adoption of acute care surgery (ACS) as a strategy for emergency general surgery (EGS) care are unknown. Methods We conducted a qualitative study comprising face-to-face interviews with senior surgeons responsible for ACS at 18 teaching hospitals chosen to ensure diversity of opinions and practice environment (three practice types [community, public/charity, university] in each of six geographic regions [Mid-Atlantic, Midwest, New England, Northeast, South, West]). Interviews were recorded, transcribed, and analyzed using NVivo (QSR International, Melbourne, Australia). We applied the methods of investigator triangulation using an inductive approach to develop a final taxonomy of codes organized by themes related to respondents’ views on the future of ACS as a strategy for EGS. We applied our findings to a conceptual model on diffusion of innovation. Results We found a paradox between ACS viewed as a healthcare delivery innovation versus a rebranding of comprehensive general surgery. Optimism for the future of ACS due to increased desirability for trauma/critical care careers and improved outcomes for EGS was tempered by fear over lack of continuity, poor institutional resources and uncertainty regarding financial viability. Our analysis suggests that the implementation of ACS, whether a true healthcare delivery innovation or an innovative rebranding, fits into the Rogers’ Diffusion of Innovation Theory. Conclusions Despite concerns over resource allocation and the definition of the specialty, from the perspective of senior surgeons deeply entrenched in executing this care-delivery model, ACS represents the new face of general surgery that will likely continue to diffuse from these early adopters. PMID:25891673

  6. Agent-based Modeling to Simulate the Diffusion of Water-Efficient Innovations and the Emergence of Urban Water Sustainability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanta, L.; Giacomoni, M.; Shafiee, M. E.; Berglund, E.

    2014-12-01

    The sustainability of water resources is threatened by urbanization, as increasing demands deplete water availability, and changes to the landscape alter runoff and the flow regime of receiving water bodies. Utility managers typically manage urban water resources through the use of centralized solutions, such as large reservoirs, which may be limited in their ability balance the needs of urbanization and ecological systems. Decentralized technologies, on the other hand, may improve the health of the water resources system and deliver urban water services. For example, low impact development technologies, such as rainwater harvesting, and water-efficient technologies, such as low-flow faucets and toilets, may be adopted by households to retain rainwater and reduce demands, offsetting the need for new centralized infrastructure. Decentralized technologies may create new complexities in infrastructure and water management, as decentralization depends on community behavior and participation beyond traditional water resources planning. Messages about water shortages and water quality from peers and the water utility managers can influence the adoption of new technologies. As a result, feedbacks between consumers and water resources emerge, creating a complex system. This research develops a framework to simulate the diffusion of water-efficient innovations and the sustainability of urban water resources, by coupling models of households in a community, hydrologic models of a water resources system, and a cellular automata model of land use change. Agent-based models are developed to simulate the land use and water demand decisions of individual households, and behavioral rules are encoded to simulate communication with other agents and adoption of decentralized technologies, using a model of the diffusion of innovation. The framework is applied for an illustrative case study to simulate water resources sustainability over a long-term planning horizon.

  7. Bridging the Research-to-Practice Gap in Autism Intervention: An Application of Diffusion of Innovation Theory

    PubMed Central

    Mandell, David S.

    2011-01-01

    There is growing evidence that efficacious interventions for autism are rarely adopted or successfully implemented in public mental health and education systems. We propose applying diffusion of innovation theory to further our understanding of why this is the case. We pose a practical set of questions that administrators face as they decide about the use of interventions. Using literature from autism intervention and dissemination science, we describe reasons why efficacious interventions for autism are rarely adopted, implemented, and maintained in community settings, all revolving around the perceived fit between the intervention and the needs and capacities of the setting. Finally, we suggest strategies for intervention development that may increase the probability that these interventions will be used in real-world settings. PMID:20717714

  8. Innovation diffusion on time-varying activity driven networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rizzo, Alessandro; Porfiri, Maurizio

    2016-01-01

    Since its introduction in the 1960s, the theory of innovation diffusion has contributed to the advancement of several research fields, such as marketing management and consumer behavior. The 1969 seminal paper by Bass [F.M. Bass, Manag. Sci. 15, 215 (1969)] introduced a model of product growth for consumer durables, which has been extensively used to predict innovation diffusion across a range of applications. Here, we propose a novel approach to study innovation diffusion, where interactions among individuals are mediated by the dynamics of a time-varying network. Our approach is based on the Bass' model, and overcomes key limitations of previous studies, which assumed timescale separation between the individual dynamics and the evolution of the connectivity patterns. Thus, we do not hypothesize homogeneous mixing among individuals or the existence of a fixed interaction network. We formulate our approach in the framework of activity driven networks to enable the analysis of the concurrent evolution of the interaction and individual dynamics. Numerical simulations offer a systematic analysis of the model behavior and highlight the role of individual activity on market penetration when targeted advertisement campaigns are designed, or a competition between two different products takes place.

  9. Using Diffusion of Innovation Theory to Explain the Degree of Faculty Adoption of Web-Based Instruction in a Thai University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Intharaksa, Usa

    2009-01-01

    Scope and method of study: Using the framework of Rogers's (1995) Diffusion of Innovation Theory, the purpose of the study is to examine the use of web-based instruction and faculty perceptions of web-based instruction in a Thai university. In this study, interviews with seven participants were used as the primary method to collect data.…

  10. Using the Diffusion of Innovation Theory to Explain the Degree of English Teachers' Adoption of Interactive Whiteboards in the Modern Systems School in Jordan: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jwaifell, Mustafa; Gasaymeh, Al-Mothana

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to explain the use of interactive whiteboards (IWBs) by English female teachers in Modern Systems School in Jordan. Viewed from the lens of Rogers' Diffusion of Innovation Theory, the study examined and reported teachers' use of IWB and its features that have impact on their decisions to adopt it in Modern Systems School . The…

  11. "Coming ready or not" high fidelity human patient simulation in child and adolescent psychiatric nursing education: diffusion of Innovation.

    PubMed

    McGarry, Denise; Cashin, Andrew; Fowler, Cathrine

    2011-10-01

    This paper is the first to address high fidelity human patient simulation (HFHPS) as a technique to prepare pre-registration nursing students for practice in child and adolescent psychiatric nursing (CAPN). By examining the published literature in a systematic review, no evidence was located that discussed the application of this innovative mannequin-based educational technique for this population. Indeed, mental health nursing preparation generally had minimal literature addressing the adoption of HFHPS. Rogers' (2003) model of the "Diffusion of Innovation" was applied as a lens to explain this observation. His model fitted this observed pattern well and provided a range of explanatory paradigms. It was limited, however, in its predictive ability to suggest when and under what conditions HFHPS might be expected to be adopted by nursing preparation programmes for CAPN. At the conclusion to this examination, the absence of a conversation evident in the mental health or CAPN literature on the preparation of pre-registration nursing students using this educational technique is striking. The potential of this approach to be combined in new ways to better prepare nursing students for the challenges of practice in mental health or CAPN needs extensive examination.

  12. Characterization and biological abatement of diffuse methane emissions and odour in an innovative wastewater treatment plant.

    PubMed

    Barcón, Tamara; Hernández, Jerónimo; Gómez-Cuervo, Santiago; Garrido, Juan M; Omil, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    An innovative and patented process for medium-high strength sewage which comprises an anaerobic step followed by a hybrid anoxic-aerobic chamber and a final ultrafiltration stage was characterized in terms of methane fugitive emissions as well as odours. The operation at ambient temperature implies higher methane content in the liquid anaerobic effluent, which finally causes concentrations around 0.01-2.4% in the off-gas released in the anoxic-aerobic chamber (1.25% average). Mass balances indicate that these emissions account for up to 30-35% of the total methane generated in the anaerobic reactor. A conventional biofilter (BF) operated at an empty bed residence time of 4 min was used to treat these emissions for 70 d. In spite of the fluctuations in the methane inlet concentrations derived from the operation of the wastewater treatment plant (WWTP), it was possible to operate at pseudo-steady-state conditions, achieving average removal efficiencies of 76.5% and maximum elimination capacities of 30.1 g m(-3) h(-1). Odour removal was quantified as 99.1%. Fluorescence in situ hybridization probes as well as metabolic activity assays demonstrated the suitability of the biomass developed in the WWTP as inoculum to start up the BF due to the presence of methanotrophic bacteria.

  13. Diffusion of innovation: enhancing the dissemination of the Ponseti method in Latin America through virtual forums.

    PubMed

    Jayawardena, Asitha; Boardman, Allison; Cook, Thomas; Oprescu, Florin; Morcuende, Jose A

    2011-01-01

    This ethnographic study evaluated the use of low-bandwidth web-conferencing to enhance diffusion of a specific best practice, the Ponseti method to treat clubfoot, in three economically diverse countries in Latin America. A "Ponseti Virtual Forum" (PVF) was organized in Guatemala, Peru and Chile to examine the influences of economic level and telecommunication infrastructure on the effectiveness of tins approach. Across the three countries, a total of 14 different sites participated in the PVFs. Thirty-three Ponseti-trained practitioners were interviewed before and after each PVF, which included interactions with a Spanish-speaking Ponseti method expert. Semi-structured interviews, observations, and IP address data were triangulated and analyzed. The results demonstrated that 100% of the practitioners rated the sessions as very useful and that they would use this approach again. The largest obstacles to using PVFs were financial (7 out of 9 practitioners) in Guatemala; a lack of equipment and network access (6 out of 11) in Peru; and the organization and implementation of the conferences themselves (7 out of 9) in Chile. This study illustrates the usefulness of Ponseti Virtual Forums in Latin America. Health officials in Peru are currently developing a large-scale information session for traumatologists about the Ponseti method, while practitioners in Guatemala and Chile are organizing monthly scholarly meetings for physicians in remote areas. This initial feedback suggests that low-bandwidth web-conferencing can be an important vehicle for the dissemination of best practices, such as the Ponseti method, in developing countries.

  14. Physics faculty and educational researchers: Divergent expectations as barriers to the diffusion of innovations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henderson, Charles; Dancy, Melissa H.

    2008-01-01

    Physics Education Research (PER) practitioners have engaged in substantial curriculum development and dissemination work in recent years. Yet, it appears that this work has had minimal influence on the fundamental teaching practices of the typical physics faculty. To better understand this situation, interviews were conducted with five likely users of physics education research. All reported making changes in their instructional practices and all were influenced, to some extent, by educational research. Yet, none made full use of educational research and most had complaints about their interactions with educational researchers. In this paper we examine how these instructors used educational research in making instructional decisions and identify divergent expectations about how researchers and faculty can work together to improve student learning. Although different instructors emphasized different aspects of this discrepancy between expectations, we believe that they are all related to a single underlying issue: the typical dissemination model is to disseminate curricular innovations and have faculty adopt them with minimal changes, while faculty expect researchers to work with them to incorporate research-based knowledge and materials into their unique instructional situations. Implications and recommendations are discussed.

  15. Technical Report for DOE grant ER63467-1020269-0008388 ''International Innovation & Diffusion of Environmental Technologies: The Case of NOX''

    SciTech Connect

    David Popp

    2004-11-18

    This research traces the development of nitrogen dioxide (NOX) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) pollution control devices for coal-fired power plants in the United States, Japan, and Germany. This is of particular interest because of the timing of regulation in each country. While the US was an early adopter of SO2 regulations, it did not adopt stringent NOX regulations until the 1990s. Both Japan and Germany adopted stringent NOX regulations earlier. As such, advanced control techniques such as selective catalytic reduction (SCR) were first developed in Japan and Germany. In contrast, US firms were more active in the development of SO2 control devices. This study uses patent data from the three countries, as well as adoption data for individual plants, to trace the development of these technologies. Of particular interest is the role of technology transfer. While we know from previous research that firms respond to new regulations in their own country with new innovations, we do no t know the extent to which firms respond to regulations in foreign countries. Moreover, we know little about how innovations developed abroad enter the domestic knowledge base. For example, do firms make direct use of knowledge developed in foreign countries, or is domestic R&D necessary to adapt these innovations to local conditions. Understanding such trends is important, as it affects both the speed at which technology will diffuse, and the cost of technology transfer. To address these issues, this research compares the role that domestic and foreign knowledge play in the decisions of firms to adopt new environmental technologies. I begin by using patent and regulatory data from the U.S., Japan, and Germany to study the links between both domestic and foreign environmental policy and innovation. I show that innovative activity responds to domestic environmental policy pressures, but not to foreign pressures. Moreover, even countries that adopt regulations late, such as th e U.S. in the case

  16. Diffusion models for innovation: s-curves, networks, power laws, catastrophes, and entropy.

    PubMed

    Jacobsen, Joseph J; Guastello, Stephen J

    2011-04-01

    This article considers models for the diffusion of innovation would be most relevant to the dynamics of early 21st century technologies. The article presents an overview of diffusion models and examines the adoption S-curve, network theories, difference models, influence models, geographical models, a cusp catastrophe model, and self-organizing dynamics that emanate from principles of network configuration and principles of heat diffusion. The diffusion dynamics that are relevant to information technologies and energy-efficient technologies are compared. Finally, principles of nonlinear dynamics for innovation diffusion that could be used to rehabilitate the global economic situation are discussed.

  17. Agency, Socio-Cultural Context, and the Role of the Technical Communicator during IT Adoption: A Case Study in Innovation Diffusion across Cultures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coggio, Grace Leinbach

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation examines the diffusion of an innovative information technology system across multiple cultures between 2000 and 2006. Developed and implemented by technical communicators in the technical communication department of a global medical device company, the Advanced Single-Source Authoring and Publication System (ASAPS) brought…

  18. School climate and teachers' beliefs and attitudes associated with implementation of the positive action program: a diffusion of innovations model.

    PubMed

    Beets, Michael W; Flay, Brian R; Vuchinich, Samuel; Acock, Alan C; Li, Kin-Kit; Allred, Carol

    2008-12-01

    Teacher- and school-level factors influence the fidelity of implementation of school-based prevention and social character and development (SACD) programs. Using a diffusion of innovations framework, the relationships among teacher beliefs and attitudes towards a prevention/SACD program and the influence of a school's administrative support and perceptions of school connectedness, characteristics of a school's climate, were specified in two cross-sectional mediation models of program implementation. Implementation was defined as the amount of the programs' curriculum delivered (e.g., lessons taught), and use of program-specific materials in the classroom (e.g., ICU boxes and notes) and in relation to school-wide activities (e.g., participation in assemblies). Teachers from 10 elementary schools completed year-end process evaluation reports for year 2 (N = 171) and 3 (N = 191) of a multi-year trial. Classroom and school-wide material usage were each favorably associated with the amount of the curriculum delivered, which were associated with teachers' attitudes toward the program which, in turn, were related to teachers' beliefs about SACD. These, in turn, were associated with teachers' perceptions of school climate. Perceptions of school climate were indirectly related to classroom material usage and both indirectly and directly related to the use of school-wide activities. Program developers need to consider the importance of a supportive environment on program implementation and attempt to incorporate models of successful school leadership and collaboration among teachers that foster a climate promoting cohesiveness, shared visions, and support.

  19. Dynamics of human innovative behaviors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Ying-Ting; Han, Xiao-Pu; Wang, Bing-Hong

    2014-01-01

    How to promote the innovative activities is an important problem for modern society. In this paper, combining the evolutionary games with information spreading, we propose a lattice model to investigate dynamics of human innovative behaviors based on benefit-driven assumption. Simulations show several properties in agreement with peoples’ daily cognition on innovative behaviors, such as slow diffusion of innovative behaviors, gathering of innovative strategy on “innovative centers”, and quasi-localized dynamics. Furthermore, our model also emerges rich non-Poisson properties in the temporal-spatial patterns of the innovative status, including the scaling law in the interval time of innovation releases and the bimodal distributions on the spreading range of innovations, which would be universal in human innovative behaviors. Our model provides a basic framework on the study of the issues relevant to the evolution of human innovative behaviors and the promotion measurement of innovative activities.

  20. Disruptive Innovations for Designing and Diffusing Evidence-based Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane; Swendeman, Dallas; Chorpita, Bruce F.

    2013-01-01

    The numbers of evidence-based interventions (EBIs) have been growing exponentially, both therapeutic and prevention programs. Yet, EBIs have not been broadly adopted in the United States. In order for our EBI science to significantly reduce disease burden, we need to critically re-examine our scientific conventions and norms. Innovation may be spurred by re-examining the biomedical model for validating EBIs and the compartmentalization of EBIs as disease-specific, institutionally-based, counseling programs. The model of Disruptive Innovations suggests that we re-engineer EBIs based on their most robust features in order to reach more people in less time and at lower cost. Four new research agendas will be required to support disruptive innovations in EBI science: synthesize common elements across EBIs; experiment with new delivery formats (e.g., consumer controlled, self-directed, brief, paraprofessional, coaching, and technology and media strategies); adopt market strategies to promote and diffuse EBI science, knowledge, and products; and adopt continuous quality improvement as a research paradigm for systematically improving EBIs, based on ongoing data and feedback. EBI science can have more impact if it can better leverage what we know from existing EBIs in order to inspire, engage, inform, and support families and children to adopt and sustain healthy daily routines and lifestyles. PMID:22545596

  1. Diffusion of an economic development policy innovation: explaining the international spread of casino gambling.

    PubMed

    Richard, Brian

    2010-06-01

    This study uses an event history analysis to examine the factors that lead to the adoption of casino gambling among 13 nations around the world. Specifically, measures of fiscal stress, economic development, tourism, religiosity, and income levels are tested for their relationship to national decisions to legalize casino gambling. This study found that economic development needs, as measured by general unemployment rates, were associated with the casino legalization decisions of national governments. Higher unemployment rates were more likely in the years that nations legalized casino gambling. Religiosity, measured by frequency of church attendance, was also found to be a significant barrier in legalization decisions. Measures of fiscal stress, tourism, and income levels were not found to have significant relationships with the legalization decisions. This is interesting because these factors are often cited in case studies, media reports, and the statements of politicians during legalization processes. This study points to the need for further research in several areas. Further exploration of potential explanatory variables and more appropriate measures of currently theorized factors is warranted. Another area for further research is the seeming contradictory findings of multiple statistical analyses and multiple anecdotal findings of the impacts of fiscal stress on the casino legalization decision.

  2. Diffusion of a nursing education innovation: nursing workforce development through promotion of RN/BSN education.

    PubMed

    Diaz Swearingen, Connie; Clarke, Pamela N; Gatua, Mary Wairimu; Sumner, Christa Cooper

    2013-01-01

    Despite state, national, and organizational objectives to increase the proportion of nurses with a bachelor's degree or higher, a majority of nurses hold an associate's degree in nursing. To address the need for a better-prepared nursing workforce in this rural state, an RN/BSN recruitment and retention project was implemented. The authors discuss the Leadership Education to Advance Practice project and its outcomes.

  3. The governance of innovation diffusion - a socio-technical analysis of energy policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nolden, C.

    2012-10-01

    This paper describes a dynamic price mechanism to coordinate eletric power generation from micro Combined Heat and Power (micro-CHP) systems in a network of households. It is assumed that the households are prosumers, i.e. both producers and consumers of electricity. The control is done on household level in a completely distributed manner. Avoiding a centralized controller both eases computation complexity and preserves communication structure in the network. Local information is used to decide to turn on or off the micro-CHP, but through price signals between the prosumers the network as a whole operates in a cooperative way.

  4. Contraceptive intention behavior in rural Bangladesh: factors in the diffusion of an innovation.

    PubMed

    Paul, B K

    1990-04-01

    To elucidate the determinants of contraceptive use or nonuse in rural Bangladesh, Fishbein's behavioral intention model was modified and applied to survey data collected in 1984 in the Ghatail upazila of the Tangail district. The proposed behavioral model consists of 5 independent variables: global attitude, global motivation to comply, motivation toward fertility regulation, method-specific attitude, and method-specific availability. Of the 193 respondents surveyed, 152 expressed an intention not to use oral contraceptives (OCs)--the most accessible method in the survey area--and were generally negative about any form of contraceptive use. As expected, the 41 women who did intend to use OCs had a positive global attitude toward contraception. Global motivation to comply scores were negative for women who had no plans to become OC users, largely because of a belief that the Islamic religion prohibits contraceptive use. Concern about religion was a greater obstacle to these women than the perceived reaction of their husband and friends to OC use. The aggregate score on motivation for fertility regulation was positive, suggesting that respondents still desire more children. The pill received a negative method-specific score due to perceptions that it is unreliable and causes side effects. The mean distance to a source of OCs (method availability) was 2.55 miles among women who intended not to use the pill and 2.34 miles among potential acceptors. Stepwise logistic regression analysis indicated that global attitude and global motivation were the most significant predictors of intent to use OCs; the only other significant variable was method-specific attitude. The implications of these findings are that contraceptive availability is not sufficient to contraceptive use; creation of a favorable attitude toward contraception and support from Islamic religious leaders appear to the necessary prerequisites to more widespread fertility control.

  5. Using Diffusion of Innovations to Explore Digital Gaming in Undergraduate Library Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Michael James

    2009-01-01

    Digital games and simulations are receiving considerable notice within the library and information science (LIS) community. This study adds to the depth of knowledge in this area by providing research on the likelihood a hypothetical digital game delivery method for library instruction achieves sufficient adoption to justify its development.…

  6. Teachers' Perceptions of the Diffusion of an Innovation within an Authority-Decision Framework: A Senior School Geography Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, P. W.; Marsh, C. J.

    1979-01-01

    The process of educational authority-innovation decisions is explored through a study of the introduction of a new tertiary admissions geography syllabus. All area geography teachers were surveyed on their reactions to the new syllabus and on the extent to which they have accepted, rejected, or modified it. (Author/SJL)

  7. Diffusion of e-health innovations in ‘post-conflict’ settings: a qualitative study on the personal experiences of health workers

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Technological innovations have the potential to strengthen human resources for health and improve access and quality of care in challenging ‘post-conflict’ contexts. However, analyses on the adoption of technology for health (that is, ‘e-health’) and whether and how e-health can strengthen a health workforce in these settings have been limited so far. This study explores the personal experiences of health workers using e-health innovations in selected post-conflict situations. Methods This study had a cross-sectional qualitative design. Telephone interviews were conducted with 12 health workers, from a variety of cadres and stages in their careers, from four post-conflict settings (Liberia, West Bank and Gaza, Sierra Leone and Somaliland) in 2012. Everett Roger’s diffusion of innovation-decision model (that is, knowledge, persuasion, decision, implementation, contemplation) guided the thematic analysis. Results All health workers interviewed held positive perceptions of e-health, related to their beliefs that e-health can help them to access information and communicate with other health workers. However, understanding of the scope of e-health was generally limited, and often based on innovations that health workers have been introduced through by their international partners. Health workers reported a range of engagement with e-health innovations, mostly for communication (for example, email) and educational purposes (for example, online learning platforms). Poor, unreliable and unaffordable Internet was a commonly mentioned barrier to e-health use. Scaling-up existing e-health partnerships and innovations were suggested starting points to increase e-health innovation dissemination. Conclusions Results from this study showed ICT based e-health innovations can relieve information and communication needs of health workers in post-conflict settings. However, more efforts and investments, preferably driven by healthcare workers within the post

  8. Task-shifting Using a Pain Management Protocol in an Emergency Care Service: Nurses' Perception through the Eye of the Rogers's Diffusion of Innovation Theory.

    PubMed

    Hadorn, Fabienne; Comte, Pascal; Foucault, Eliane; Morin, Diane; Hugli, Olivier

    2016-02-01

    It has been shown that over 70% of patients waiting in emergency departments (EDs) do not receive analgesics, despite the fact that more than 78% complain of pain. A clinical innovation in the form of a pain management protocol that includes task-shifting has been implemented in the ED of a university hospital in Switzerland in order to improve pain-related outcomes in patients. This innovation involves a change in clinical practice for physicians and nurses. The aim of this study is to explore nurses' perceptions on how well this innovation is adopted. This descriptive correlational study took place in the ED of a Swiss university hospital; the hospital provides healthcare for the city, the canton, and adjoining cantons. A convenience sample of 37 ED nurses participated. They were asked to complete a questionnaire comprising 56 statements based on Rogers's "Diffusion of Innovation" theory. Nurses' opinions (on a 1-10 Likert scale) indicate that the new protocol benefits the ED (mean [M] = 7.4, standard deviation [SD] = 1.21), is compatible with nursing roles (M = 8.0, SD = 1.9), is not too complicated to apply (M = 2.7, SD = 1.7), provides observable positive effects in patients (M = 7.0, SD = 1.28), and is relatively easy to introduce into daily practice (M = 6.5, SD = 1.0). Further studies are now needed to examine patients' experiences of this innovation.

  9. Diffusion of innovations in social interaction systems. An agent-based model for the introduction of new drugs in markets.

    PubMed

    Pombo-Romero, Julio; Varela, Luis M; Ricoy, Carlos J

    2013-06-01

    The existence of imitative behavior among consumers is a well-known phenomenon in the field of Economics. This behavior is especially common in markets determined by a high degree of innovation, asymmetric information and/or price-inelastic demand, features that exist in the pharmaceutical market. This paper presents evidence of the existence of imitative behavior among primary care physicians in Galicia (Spain) when choosing treatments for their patients. From this and other evidence, we propose a dynamic model for determining the entry of new drugs into the market. To do this, we introduce the structure of the organization of primary health care centers and the presence of groups of doctors who are specially interrelated, as well as the existence of commercial pressure on doctors. For modeling purposes, physicians are treated as spins connected in an exponentially distributed complex network of the Watts-Strogatz type. The proposed model provides an explanation for the differences observed in the patterns of the introduction of technological innovations in different regions. The main cause of these differences is the different structure of relationships among consumers, where the existence of small groups that show a higher degree of coordination over the average is particularly influential. The evidence presented, together with the proposed model, might be useful for the design of optimal strategies for the introduction of new drugs, as well as for planning policies to manage pharmaceutical expenditure.

  10. The Diffusion of New Math.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ready, Patricia M.

    The life cycle of "new math" is fertile ground for the study of the diffusion of an innovation. New math arrived in 1958 to save the day for America after the Soviet Union launched Sputnik, the first successful space flight in 1957. In a period of 16 years an entire diffusion cycle was completed throughout the entire educational system…

  11. Enhancing the effectiveness of HIV/AIDS prevention programs targeted to unique population groups in Thailand: lessons learned from applying concepts of diffusion of innovation and social marketing.

    PubMed

    Svenkerud, P J; Singhal, A

    1998-01-01

    Diffusion of innovations theory and social marketing theory have been criticized for their limited applicability in influencing unique population groups (e.g., female commercial sex workers (CSWs) working in low-class brothels). This study investigated the applicability of these two theoretical frameworks in outreach efforts directed to unique populations at high risk for HIV/AIDS in Bangkok, Thailand. Further, this study examined Thai cultural characteristics that influence communication about HIV/AIDS prevention. The results suggest that certain concepts and strategies drawn from the two frameworks were used more or less by effective outreach programs, providing several policy-relevant lessons. Cultural constraints, such as the lack of visibility of the disease and traditional sexual practices, influenced communication about HIV/AIDS prevention.

  12. Study Abroad as Innovation: Applying the Diffusion Model to International Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spiering, Kerri; Erickson, Sheri

    2006-01-01

    This paper uses diffusion of innovation theory as a framework for studying why United States college students who attend study abroad information sessions fail to take advantage of such educational opportunities. Surveys were administered to two groups of undergraduate students--those who studied abroad and those who did not. Students ranked their…

  13. Diffusion of Distance Education in North Cyprus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isman, Aytekin; Dabaj, Fahme

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of the present paper is to explore how distance education has diffused in north Cyprus. In this paper, Rogers' diffusion theory (1995) was used to analyze the acceptance and implementation of distance education in institutions of higher learning in north Cyprus. The four main elements of the diffusion paradigm--the innovation,…

  14. Communication of Innovations; A Cross-Cultural Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Everett M.; Shoemaker, F. Floyd

    How do innovations (defined as idea, products, and practices perceived as new by an individual) diffuse to members of a social system? The authors answer this and other questions about the character of innovators, the rate of adoption of ideas, and the decision-making process in 103 generalizations about diffusion of innovation. These propositions…

  15. VET and the Diffusion and Implementation of Innovation in the Mining, Solar Energy and Computer Games Sectors. NCVER Monograph Series 06/2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalitz, Robert; Toner, Phillip; Turpin, Tim

    2011-01-01

    Innovation is thought to improve productivity at the firm level and economic prosperity at the national level. This would seem to have implications for the skills and skills development of employees. However, little is known about the relationship between skills development and innovation. This report is the culmination of case studies exploring…

  16. An Examination of the Adoption of Preservation Metadata in Cultural Heritage Institutions: An Exploratory Study Using Diffusion of Innovations Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alemneh, Daniel Gelaw

    2009-01-01

    Digital preservation is a significant challenge for cultural heritage institutions and other repositories of digital information resources. Recognizing the critical role of metadata in any successful digital preservation strategy, the Preservation Metadata Implementation Strategies (PREMIS) has been extremely influential on providing a "core" set…

  17. Diffusion of Innovations in Schools: A Study of Adoption and Implementation of School-Based Tobacco Prevention Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormick, Laura K.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    This study examined the extent of implementation of school health education curricula (smoking prevention) in 21 school districts, identifying factors that affected implementation. Middle school teachers received training on curriculum use. Results indicated that larger organizational size, teacher training, and a favorable organizational climate…

  18. An Evaluation of the ELNP e-Learning Quality Assurance Program: Perspectives of Gap Analysis and Innovation Diffusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Ming-Puu

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the appropriateness of a nationwide quality assurance framework for e-learning from participants' perspectives. Two types of quality evaluation programs were examined in this study, including the e-Learning Service Certification program (eLSC) and the e-Learning Courseware Certification program (eLCC). Gap…

  19. Applying the Theory of Diffusion of Innovations to Understand Electronic Benefit Transfer Technology Adoption at Mid-West Farmers Markets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hasin, Afroza

    2016-01-01

    The Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP, previously "food stamps"), is the nation's largest federal entitlement nutritional assistance program which assists individuals and households living below the federal poverty level in order to reduce the amount of money they spend on food. With the conversion of food stamps coupons to…

  20. Diffusion of Innovations Approach to the Evaluation of Learning Management System Usage in an Open Distance Learning Institution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mkhize, Peter; Mtsweni, Samuel; Buthelezi, Portia

    2016-01-01

    Academic institutions such as the University of South Africa (Unisa) are using information and communication technology (ICT) in order to conduct their daily primary operations, which are teaching and learning. Unisa is the only distance learning university in South Africa and also in Africa. Unisa currently has the highest number of students on…

  1. The Diffusion of Innovations in Education: A Study of Secondary English Language Arts Teachers' Classroom Technology Integration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thayer, Kelly Keener

    2013-01-01

    This study explored secondary English Language Arts teachers' experiences using digital technologies in their classrooms, as presented in two key journals in the English Education field: the "Journal of Adolescent and Adult Literacy" ("JAAL"), sponsored by the International Reading Association, and "English…

  2. Innovative discharge geometries for diffusion-cooled gas lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapucci, Antonio

    2004-09-01

    Large area, narrow discharge gap, diffusion cooled gas lasers are nowadays a well established technology for the construction of industrial laser sources. Successful examples exist both with the slab (Rofin-Sinar) or coaxial (Trumpf) geometry. The main physical properties and the associated technical problems of the transverse large area RF discharge, adopted for the excitation of high power diffusion cooled gas lasers, are reviewed here. The main problems of this technology are related to the maintenance of a uniform and stable plasma excitation between closely spaced large-area electrodes at high power-density loading. Some practical solutions such as distributed resonance of the discharge channel proved successful in the case of square or rectangular cross-sections but hardly applicable to geometries such as that of coaxial electrodes. In this paper we present some solutions, adopted by our group, for the development of slab and annular CO2 lasers and for CO2 laser arrays with linear or circular symmetry. We will also briefly mention the difficulties encountered in the extraction of a good quality beam from an active medium with such a cross section. A problem that has also seen some interesting solutions.

  3. Innovation

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA frames innovation as critical to the protection of human health and the environment through initiatives such as sustainable practices, innovative research, prize competitions, innovation awards, partnerships, and community activities.

  4. Electronic Health Records: Applying Diffusion of Innovation Theory to the Relationship between Multifactor Authentication and EHR Adoption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lockett, Daeron C.

    2014-01-01

    Electronic Health Record (EHR) systems are increasingly becoming accepted as future direction of medical record management systems. Programs such as the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act have provided incentives to hospitals that adopt EHR systems. In spite of these incentives, the perception of EHR adoption is that is has not achieved the…

  5. Coming Full Circle with Boyd’s OODA Loop Ideas: An Analysis of Innovation Diffusion and Evolution

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-03-01

    answer “what” and “how” exploratory questions and was focused on the discovery of aspects of complex ideas, a qualitative methodology was used. A... discovery rather than explanation (Maykut & Morehouse, 1994). This thesis research followed the Miles and Huberman (1994) interactive model of...conducted using the research tools FirstSearch and EBSCO and the on-line search engine Google (www.google.com). Within FirstSearch, academic and business

  6. The Impact of Innovation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Banion, Terry; Weidner, Laura; Wilson, Cynthia

    2012-01-01

    With funding from MetLife Foundation, the League for Innovation in the Community College engaged in a yearlong study in 2009 of the nature of innovation in the community college. Using recipients of the League's Innovation of the Year Award at 19 community colleges during the period from 1999 through 2008 as a data set, the authors used document…

  7. Pedagogical Reforms within a Centralised-Decentralised System: A Singapore's Perspective to Diffuse 21st Century Learning Innovations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toh, Yancy; Hung, Wei Loong David; Chua, Paul Meng-Huat; He, Sujin; Jamaludin, Azilawati

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to illustrate the dialectical interplay between centralisation and decentralisation forces so as to understand how schools leverage on its autonomous pedagogical space, influence the diffusion of innovations in the educational landscape of Singapore and how a centralised-decentralised system supports (or…

  8. In Search of Alternative Communication Strategies for Rural Development in the Third World: A Critique of the Diffusion of Innovations Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melkote, Srinivas Rajagopal

    In their attempts to further the adoption of productivity increasing ideas and practices by third world peasants, diffusion researchers have paid insufficient attention to the factors acting as constraints to their efforts. An examination of one of these constraints, the lack of an equitable system for delivering knowledge and skills to rural…

  9. Innovative Decontamination Technology for Use in Gaseous Diffusion Plant Decommissioning

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, M.J.; Norton, C.J.; Fraikor, G.B.; Potter, G.L.; Chang, K.C.

    2006-07-01

    The results of bench scale tests demonstrated that TechXtract{sup R} RadPro{sup TM} technology (hereinafter referred to as RadPro{sup R}) can provide 100% coverage of complex mockup gaseous diffusion plant (GDP) equipment and can decontaminate uranium (U) deposits with 98% to 99.99% efficiency. Deployment tests demonstrated RadPro{sup R} can be applied as foam, mist/fog, or steam, and fully cover the internal surfaces of complex mockup equipment, including large piping. Decontamination tests demonstrated that two formulations of RadPro{sup R}, one with neutron attenuators and one without neutron attenuators, could remove up to 99.99% of uranyl fluoride deposits, one of the most difficult to remove deposits in GDP equipment. These results were supplemented by results from previous tests conducted in 1994 that showed RadPro{sup R} could remove >97% of U and Tc-99 contamination from actual GDP components. Operational use of RadPro{sup R} at other DOE and commercial facilities also support these data. (authors)

  10. The discipline of innovation.

    PubMed

    Drucker, P F

    1998-01-01

    Some innovations spring from a flash of genius. But as Peter Drucker points out in this HBR Classic, most result from a conscious, purposeful search for opportunities. For managers seeking innovation, engaging in disciplined work is more important than having an entrepreneurial personality. Writing originally in the May-June 1985 issue, Drucker describes the major sources of opportunities for innovation. Within a company or industry, opportunities can be found in unexpected occurrences, incongruities of various kinds, process needs, or changes in an industry or market. Outside a company, opportunities arise from demographic changes, changes in perception, or new knowledge. These seven sources overlap, and the potential for innovation may well lie in more than one area at a time. Innovations based on new knowledge, of course, tend to have the greatest effect on the marketplace. But it often takes decades before the ideas are translated into actual products, processes, or services. The other sources of innovation are easier and simpler to handle, yet they still require managers to look beyond established practices. Drucker emphasizes that in seeking opportunities, innovators need to look for simple, focused solutions to real problems. The greatest praise an innovation can receive is for people to say, "This is obvious!" Grandiose ideas designed to revolutionize an industry rarely work. Innovation, like any other endeavor, takes talent, ingenuity, and knowledge. But Drucker cautions that if diligence, persistence, and commitment are lacking, companies are unlikely to succeed at the business of innovation.

  11. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 59: Japanese Technological Innovation. Implications for Large Commercial Aircraft and Knowledge Diffusion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Kotler, Mindy L.

    1997-01-01

    This paper explores three factors-public policy, the Japanese (national) innovation system, and knowledge-that influence technological innovation in Japan. To establish a context for the paper, we examine Japanese culture and the U.S. and Japanese patent systems in the background section. A brief history of the Japanese aircraft industry as a source of knowledge and technology for other industries is presented. Japanese and U.S. alliances and linkages in three sectors-biotechnology, semiconductors, and large commercial aircraft (LCA)-and the importation, absorption, and diffusion of knowledge and technology are examined next. The paper closes with implications for diffusing knowledge and technology, U.S. public policy, and LCA.

  12. Diffusion of tungsten hexafluoride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winkelmann, J.

    This document is part of Subvolume A `Gases in Gases, Liquids and their Mixtures' of Volume 15 `Diffusion in Gases, Liquids and Electrolytes' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV `Physical Chemistry'. It is part of the chapter of the chapter `Diffusion in Pure Gases' and contains data on diffusion of tungsten hexafluoride

  13. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 62: The Influence of Knowledge Diffusion on Aeronautics Innovation: The Research, Development, and Production of Large Commercial Aircraft in France, Germany, and the United Kingdom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golich, Vicki L.; Pinelli, Thomas E.

    1997-01-01

    This paper focuses on how European public policies-individually and collectively - influence the diffusion of knowledge and technology. It begins with an overview of the roles played historically and currently by European governments in the Research, Development and Production (RD&P) of Large Commercial Aircraft (LCA). The analytical framework brings together literature from global political economy, comparative politics, business management, and science and technology policy studies. It distinguishes between the production of knowledge, on the one hand, and the dissemination of knowledge, on the other. France, Germany, and the United Kingdom serve as the analytical cases. The paper concludes with a call for additional research in this area, some tentative lessons learned, and a discussion of the consequences of national strategies and policies for the diffusion of knowledge and technology in an era of globalizaton.

  14. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 62: The Influence of Knowledge Diffusion on Aeronautics Innovation: The Research, Development, and Production of Large Commercial Aircraft in France, Germany, and the United Kingdom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Golich, Vicki L.

    1997-01-01

    This paper focuses on how European public policies-individually and collectively - influence the diffusion of knowledge and technology. It begins with an overview of the roles played historically and currently by European governments in the research, development and production (RD&P) of large commercial aircraft (LCA). The analytical framework brings together literature from global political economy, comparative politics, business management, and science and technology policy studies. It distinguishes between the production of knowledge, on the one hand, and the dissemination of knowledge, on the other. France, Germany, and the United Kingdom serve as the analytical cases. The paper concludes with a call for additional research in this area, some tentative lessons learned, and a discussion of the consequences of national strategies and policies for the diffusion of knowledge and technology in an era of globalization.

  15. Diffusion of innovative agricultural production systems for sustainable development of small islands: A methodological approach based on the science of complexity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbera, Guiseppe; Butera, Federico M.

    1992-09-01

    In order to develop small islands, not only must a vital agricultural system be maintained, but the range of opportunities for tourism must be increased with respect to both the seaside and the environmental features of the rural landscape. As an alternative to the traditional and economically declining ones, many innovative production processes can be identified, but their success depends on their interaction with the physical, biological, economic and social environment. In order to identify the main nodes and the most critical interactions, so as to increase the probability of success of a new productive process, a methodological approach based on the science of complexity is proposed for the cultivation of capers ( Capparis spinosa L.) on the island of Pantelleria. The methodology encompasses the identification of actors and factors involved. the quantitative evaluation of their interactions with the different stages of the productive process, and a quasiquantitative evaluation of the probability that the particular action will be performed successfully. The study of “traditional,” “modernized,” and “modernized-sustainable” processes, shows that the modernized-sustainable process offers mutually reinforcing opportunities in terms of an integrated development of high-quality agricultural products and the enhancement of environmental features, in conjunction with high-efficiency production techniques, in conjunction with high-efficiency production techniques, in a way that suits the development of Pantelleria. There is a high probability of failure, however, as a result of the large number of critical factors. Nevertheless, the present study indicates which activities will enhance the probability of successful innovation in the production process.

  16. Sustaining Research Innovations in Educational Technology through Communities of Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hung, David; Lee, Shu-Shing; Lim, Kenneth Y. T.

    2012-01-01

    The diffusion of innovation is critical to societal progression. In the field of education, such diffusion takes on added significance because of the many stakeholders and accountabilities involved. This article presents the argument that efforts at diffusion which are designed from a top-down perspective are not sustainable over the long term…

  17. Evolution of diffusion and dissemination theory.

    PubMed

    Dearing, James W

    2008-01-01

    The article provides a review and considers how the diffusion of innovations Research paradigm has changed, and offers suggestions for the further development of this theory of social change. Main emphases of diffusion Research studies are compared over time, with special attention to applications of diffusion theory-based concepts as types of dissemination science. A considerable degree of paradigmatic evolution is observed. The classical diffusion model focused on adopter innovativeness, individuals as the locus of decision, communication channels, and adoption as the primary outcome measures in post hoc observational study designs. The diffusion systems in question were centralized, with fidelity of implementation often assumed. Current dissemination Research and practice is better characterized by tests of interventions that operationalize one or more diffusion theory-based concepts and concepts from other change approaches, involve complex organizations as the units of adoption, and focus on implementation issues. Foment characterizes dissemination and implementation Research, Reflecting both its interdisciplinary Roots and the imperative of spreading evidence-based innovations as a basis for a new paradigm of translational studies of dissemination science.

  18. NREL Spectrum of Innovation

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    There are many voices calling for a future of abundant clean energy. The choices are difficult and the challenges daunting. How will we get there? The National Renewable Energy Laboratory integrates the entire spectrum of innovation including fundamental science, market relevant research, systems integration, testing and validation, commercialization and deployment. The innovation process at NREL is interdependent and iterative. Many scientific breakthroughs begin in our own laboratories, but new ideas and technologies come to NREL at any point along the innovation spectrum to be validated and refined for commercial use.

  19. NREL Spectrum of Innovation

    SciTech Connect

    2011-01-01

    There are many voices calling for a future of abundant clean energy. The choices are difficult and the challenges daunting. How will we get there? The National Renewable Energy Laboratory integrates the entire spectrum of innovation including fundamental science, market relevant research, systems integration, testing and validation, commercialization and deployment. The innovation process at NREL is interdependent and iterative. Many scientific breakthroughs begin in our own laboratories, but new ideas and technologies come to NREL at any point along the innovation spectrum to be validated and refined for commercial use.

  20. Experimental study of vortex diffusers

    SciTech Connect

    Shakerin, S.; Miller, P.L.

    1995-11-01

    This report documents experimental research performed on vortex diffusers used in ventilation and air-conditioning systems. The main objectives of the research were (1) to study the flow characteristics of isothermal jets issuing from vortex diffusers, (2) to compare the vortex diffuser`s performance with that of a conventional diffuser, and (3) to prepare a report that disseminates the results to the designers of ventilation and air-conditioning systems. The researchers considered three diffusers: a conventional round ceiling diffuser and two different styles of vortex diffusers. Overall, the vortex diffusers create slightly more induction of ambient air in comparison to the conventional diffuser.

  1. The Economics of Library Innovation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drake, Miriam A.; Olsen, Harold A.

    1979-01-01

    Presents a review of the economic literature dealing with innovation in academic libraries, and of the economic environment and structure of libraries and their relationship to innovation. Also discussed are sources of capital for libraries, the economic character of innovation, and innovation in libraries. (Author/MBR)

  2. Anatomy of Particle Diffusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bringuier, E.

    2009-01-01

    The paper analyses particle diffusion from a thermodynamic standpoint. The main goal of the paper is to highlight the conceptual connection between particle diffusion, which belongs to non-equilibrium statistical physics, and mechanics, which deals with particle motion, at the level of third-year university courses. We start out from the fact…

  3. Diffusion of Botulinum Toxins

    PubMed Central

    Brodsky, Matthew A.; Swope, David M.; Grimes, David

    2012-01-01

    Background It is generally agreed that diffusion of botulinum toxin occurs, but the extent of the spread and its clinical importance are disputed. Many factors have been suggested to play a role but which have the most clinical relevance is a subject of much discussion. Methods This review discusses the variables affecting diffusion, including protein composition and molecular size as well as injection factors (e.g., volume, dose, injection method). It also discusses data on diffusion from comparative studies in animal models and human clinical trials that illustrate differences between the available botulinum toxin products (onabotulinumtoxinA, abobotulinumtoxinA, incobotulinumtoxinA, and rimabotulinumtoxinB). Results Neither molecular weight nor the presence of complexing proteins appears to affect diffusion; however, injection volume, concentration, and dose all play roles and are modifiable. Both animal and human studies show that botulinum toxin products are not interchangeable, and that some products are associated with greater diffusion and higher rates of diffusion-related adverse events than others. Discussion Each of the botulinum toxins is a unique pharmacologic entity. A working knowledge of the different serotypes is essential to avoid unwanted diffusion-related adverse events. In addition, clinicians should be aware that the factors influencing diffusion may range from properties intrinsic to the drug to accurate muscle selection as well as dilution, volume, and dose injected. PMID:23440162

  4. Modelling Diffusion of a Personalized Learning Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karmeshu; Raman, Raghu; Nedungadi, Prema

    2012-01-01

    A new modelling approach for diffusion of personalized learning as an educational process innovation in social group comprising adopter-teachers is proposed. An empirical analysis regarding the perception of 261 adopter-teachers from 18 schools in India about a particular personalized learning framework has been made. Based on this analysis,…

  5. The Communication of Innovations and the Case of Sustainable Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higgins, Mary Anne

    This paper begins by providing a thorough history and review of the diffusion of innovations research tradition. It then focuses on undesirable, indirect, and unanticipated consequences of innovations based on the dominant paradigm of development. In the case of high-input agriculture, the consequences have affected the quality of the environment…

  6. Diffusion of eccentric microswimmers.

    PubMed

    Debnath, Debajyoti; Ghosh, Pulak K; Li, Yunyun; Marchesoni, Fabio; Li, Baowen

    2016-02-21

    We model the two-dimensional diffusive dynamics of an eccentric artificial microswimmer in a highly viscous medium. We assume that the swimmer's propulsion results from an effective force applied to a center distinct from its center of mass, both centers resting on a body's axis parallel to its average self-propulsion velocity. Moreover, we allow for angular fluctuations of the velocity about the body's axis. We prove, both analytically and numerically, that the ensuing active diffusion of the swimmer is suppressed to an extent that strongly depends on the model parameters. In particular, the active diffusion constant undergoes a transition from a quadratic to a linear dependence on the self-propulsion speed, with practical consequences on the interpretation of the experimental data. Finally, we extend our model to describe the diffusion of chiral eccentric swimmers.

  7. Diffusion of Photovoltaic Occupational Skills Training: Awareness and Adoption in the North Carolina Community Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porto, Deborah Ruth

    2012-01-01

    Educational administrators in the North Carolina Community College System (NCCCS) play a key role in the decisions to adopt or reject educational innovations and as a result are the gatekeepers of technology innovations reaching students. In this study the innovation-decision process and other aspects of the diffusion of innovation model are used…

  8. Innovation Policies of Brazil

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-01

    sugarcane, coffee, and, more recently, soybeans through the efforts of Brazil’s Agricultural Research Corporation Embrapa (Fishlow 2011). 6 Source...climate conditions in Brazil (Martha and Filho (eds.) 2012).3 One of the major innovations from Embrapa is the development of soybeans for tropical

  9. The Epistemology of Innovator Motivation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolf, W. C., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    This satire reports an imaginary research study which found three motivations for educational innovation: money, happiness, and garlic. The article facetiously traces the careers of three innovators: the director of an institute, a government official, and a popular writer. (SJL)

  10. Educational Policy Diffusion and Transfer: The Case of Armenia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karakhanyan, Susanna; van Veen, Klaas; Bergen, Theo

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the quality of the implementation of the West European Bologna reforms in higher education in a post-soviet country. This process of policy diffusion is analysed using concepts of policy diffusion/transfer and innovation literature, attempting to combine both streams of literature. Despite strong motivation to improve the…

  11. Income, Inequality, Market Potential, and Diffusion of Mobile Telephony

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Sungjoong

    2009-01-01

    The diffusion of many previous innovations eventually slowed down and reached an equilibrium level. Despite continued rapid growth, it is possible that the diffusion of mobile telephony will also begin to decelerate and reach a saturation level. Whether universal service can be achieved with the help of mobile telephony will therefore depend…

  12. A Temporal Model of Technology Diffusion into Small Firms in Wales.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Brychan; Packham, Gary; Miller, Chris

    2001-01-01

    Discusses technology diffusion through formal and informal networks. Develops a model that includes channels and mechanisms involved in transferring technology into innovative small businesses. The model depicts influences that increase or slow the rate of diffusion. (SK)

  13. Towards a bioethics of innovation.

    PubMed

    Lipworth, Wendy; Axler, Renata

    2016-07-01

    In recent years, it has become almost axiomatic that biomedical research and clinical practice should be 'innovative'-that is, that they should be always evolving and directed towards the production, translation and implementation of new technologies and practices. While this drive towards innovation in biomedicine might be beneficial, it also raises serious moral, legal, economic and sociopolitical questions that require further scrutiny. In this article, we argue that biomedical innovation needs to be accompanied by a dedicated 'bioethics of innovation' that attends systematically to the goals, process and outcomes of biomedical innovation as objects of critical inquiry. Using the example of personalised or precision medicine, we then suggest a preliminary framework for a bioethics of innovation, based on the research policy initiative of 'Responsible Innovation'. We invite and encourage critiques of this framework and hope that this will provoke a challenging and enriching new bioethical discourse.

  14. Implementing a web-based home monitoring system within an academic health care network: barriers and facilitators to innovation diffusion.

    PubMed

    Pelletier, Alexandra C; Jethwani, Kamal; Bello, Heather; Kvedar, Joseph; Grant, Richard W

    2011-01-01

    The practice of outpatient type 2 diabetes management is gradually moving from the traditional visit-based, fee-for-service model to a new, health information communication technology (ICT)-supported model that can enable non-visit-based diabetes care. To date, adoption of innovative health ICT tools for diabetes management has been slowed by numerous barriers, such as capital investment costs, lack of reliable reimbursement mechanisms, design defects that have made some systems time-consuming and inefficient to use, and the need to integrate new ICT tools into a system not primarily designed for their use. Effective implementation of innovative diabetes health ICT interventions must address local practice heterogeneity and the interaction of this heterogeneity with clinical care delivery. The Center for Connected Health at Partners Healthcare has implemented a new ICT intervention, Diabetes Connect (DC), a Web-based glucose home monitoring and clinical messaging system. Using the framework of the diffusion of innovation theory, we review the implementation and examine lessons learned as we continue to deploy DC across the health care network.

  15. Diffusion of innovation in mental health policy adoption: what should we ask about the quality of policy and the role of stakeholders in this process? Comment on "Cross-national diffusion of mental health policy".

    PubMed

    Lee, Lucy

    2015-03-10

    In his recent study, Gordon Shen analyses a pertinent question facing the global mental health research and practice community today; that of how and why mental health policy is or is not adopted by national governments. This study identifies becoming a World Health Organization (WHO) member nation, and being in regional proximity to countries which have adopted a mental health policy as supportive of mental health policy adoption, but no support for its hypothesis that country recipients of higher levels of aid would have adopted a mental health policy due to conditionalities imposed on aid recipients by donors. Asking further questions of each may help to understand more not only about how and why mental health policies may be adopted, but also about the relevance and quality of implementation of these policies and the role of specific actors in achieving adoption and implementation of high quality mental health policies.

  16. [The diffusion of knowledge].

    PubMed

    Ramiro-H, Manuel; Cruz-A, Enrique

    2016-01-01

    Between August 19 and 21, the Feria del Libro de las Ciencias de la Salud (Healthcare Book Fair) took place in the Palacio de Medicina in Mexico City. Archives of Medical Research, Revista Médica del IMSS, and Saber IMSS, three of the main instruments of knowledge diffusion of the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, assisted to this book fair, which was organized by the Facultad de Medicina of UNAM.

  17. A Study of the Diffusion of Ten Educational Products. An Evaluation of Communication and Subsequent Action With Respect to Educational Innovations in Ten Display Modules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarbaugh, L. E.; And Others

    Research was undertaken to evaluate the degree to which a program of exhibiting display modules of new teaching methods influenced the adoption of those methods. The study examined: 1) the prior adoption level of display visitors, 2) the amount of attention paid to different aspects of the displays, 3) the reactions to displays, 4) the ability of…

  18. Multispecies diffusion models: A study of uranyl species diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chongxuan; Shang, Jianying; Zachara, John M.

    2011-12-01

    Rigorous numerical description of multispecies diffusion requires coupling of species, charge, and aqueous and surface complexation reactions that collectively affect diffusive fluxes. The applicability of a fully coupled diffusion model is, however, often constrained by the availability of species self-diffusion coefficients, as well as by computational complication in imposing charge conservation. In this study, several diffusion models with variable complexity in charge and species coupling were formulated and compared to describe reactive multispecies diffusion in groundwater. Diffusion of uranyl [U(VI)] species was used as an example in demonstrating the effectiveness of the models in describing multispecies diffusion. Numerical simulations found that a diffusion model with a single, common diffusion coefficient for all species was sufficient to describe multispecies U(VI) diffusion under a steady state condition of major chemical composition, but not under transient chemical conditions. Simulations revealed that for multispecies U(VI) diffusion under transient chemical conditions, a fully coupled diffusion model could be well approximated by a component-based diffusion model when the diffusion coefficient for each chemical component was properly selected. The component-based diffusion model considers the difference in diffusion coefficients between chemical components, but not between the species within each chemical component. This treatment significantly enhanced computational efficiency at the expense of minor charge conservation. The charge balance in the component-based diffusion model can be enforced, if necessary, by adding a secondary migration term resulting from model simplification. The effect of ion activity coefficient gradients on multispecies diffusion is also discussed. The diffusion models were applied to describe U(VI) diffusive mass transfer in intragranular domains in two sediments collected from U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford 300A

  19. Technology-Enhanced Blended Language Learning in an ESL Class: A Description of a Model and an Application of the Diffusion of Innovations Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grgurovic, Maja

    2010-01-01

    Blended learning, a combination of face-to-face and online instruction, is seen as one of the most important advancements of this century and a natural evolution of the learning agenda (Thorne, 2003). Blended learning studies that compared traditional and blended foreign language classes showed no significant differences in learner outcomes and…

  20. The Cross-Cultural Study of Human-Computer Interaction: A Review of Research Methodology, Technology Transfer, and the Diffusion of Innovation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day, Donald L.

    This paper examines the methodological literature of cross-cultural research to establish whether the means exist to identify culturally biased preconceptions implicit in human-computer interfaces, and to develop interfaces more attuned to the cultural differences of the users. It is the premise of this paper that cultural conditioning affects…

  1. The dynamics of social innovation.

    PubMed

    Young, H Peyton

    2011-12-27

    Social norms and institutions are mechanisms that facilitate coordination between individuals. A social innovation is a novel mechanism that increases the welfare of the individuals who adopt it compared with the status quo. We model the dynamics of social innovation as a coordination game played on a network. Individuals experiment with a novel strategy that would increase their payoffs provided that it is also adopted by their neighbors. The rate at which a social innovation spreads depends on three factors: the topology of the network and in particular the extent to which agents interact in small local clusters, the payoff gain of the innovation relative to the status quo, and the amount of noise in the best response process. The analysis shows that local clustering greatly enhances the speed with which social innovations spread. It also suggests that the welfare gains from innovation are more likely to occur in large jumps than in a series of small incremental improvements.

  2. Adoption of Technological Innovations: A Case Study of the ASSESS Website

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Sarah; Brown, Shane; Davis, Denny; LeBeau, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    In engineering education, assessment instruments are often developed to evaluate programs and projects. Unfortunately, these innovations are not always adopted by intended audiences. Rogers' Diffusion of Innovations (DI) Theory provides a framework to analyze characteristics of an innovation that will affect adoption. The Appraisal System for…

  3. Qualitative Delphi Study of Factors Influencing Data Center Investment in Eco-Innovations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, M. Bennett

    2016-01-01

    This qualitative investigation explored the diffusion of eco-innovations within the U.S. data center industry from 2007 to 2015 whose adoption was intended to decouple digital economy growth from environmental impact. Using diffusion of innovation theory to inform the study, and synthesizing subject matter expert input from a Delphi panel…

  4. Fractal model of anomalous diffusion.

    PubMed

    Gmachowski, Lech

    2015-12-01

    An equation of motion is derived from fractal analysis of the Brownian particle trajectory in which the asymptotic fractal dimension of the trajectory has a required value. The formula makes it possible to calculate the time dependence of the mean square displacement for both short and long periods when the molecule diffuses anomalously. The anomalous diffusion which occurs after long periods is characterized by two variables, the transport coefficient and the anomalous diffusion exponent. An explicit formula is derived for the transport coefficient, which is related to the diffusion constant, as dependent on the Brownian step time, and the anomalous diffusion exponent. The model makes it possible to deduce anomalous diffusion properties from experimental data obtained even for short time periods and to estimate the transport coefficient in systems for which the diffusion behavior has been investigated. The results were confirmed for both sub and super-diffusion.

  5. Adding Innovation Diffusion Theory to the Technology Acceptance Model: Supporting Employees' Intentions to Use E-Learning Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Yi-Hsuan; Hsieh, Yi-Chuan; Hsu, Chia-Ning

    2011-01-01

    This study intends to investigate factors affecting business employees' behavioral intentions to use the e-learning system. Combining the innovation diffusion theory (IDT) with the technology acceptance model (TAM), the present study proposes an extended technology acceptance model. The proposed model was tested with data collected from 552…

  6. Elementary Classroom Teachers' Adoption of Physical Activity Promotion in the Context of a Statewide Policy: An Innovation Diffusion and Socio-Ecologic Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webster, Collin Andrew; Caputi, Peter; Perreault, Melanie; Doan, Rob; Doutis, Panayiotis; Weaver, Robert Glenn

    2013-01-01

    Physical activity promotion in the academic classroom (PAPAC) is an effective means for increasing children's school-based physical activity. In the context of a South Carolina policy requiring elementary schools to provide children with 90 min of physical activity beyond physical education every week, the purpose of this study was to test a…

  7. An Examination of the Acceptance, Adoption, and Diffusion of Smartphone Devices with Senior Citizens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reneau, James M.

    2013-01-01

    This research looked at the process of the diffusion of an innovation in the context of smartphones with American senior citizens. The subject of diffusion, or spread of a technology, is a rich and varied topic with more than 60 years of research. Much of this diffusion research does not go beyond the study of the original acceptance of a new…

  8. The Seductive Power of an Innovation: Enrolling Non-Conventional Actors in a Drip Irrigation Community in Morocco

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benouniche, Maya; Errahj, Mostafa; Kuper, Marcel

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to analyze the motivations of non-conventional innovation actors to engage in innovation processes, how their involvement changed the technology and their own social-professional status, and to analyze their role in the diffusion of the innovation. Design/methodology/approach: We studied the innovation process of…

  9. Innovative uses of imiquimod.

    PubMed

    Vender, Ronald B; Goldberg, Orli

    2005-01-01

    Imiquimod (Aldara, 3M Pharmaceuticals) is a potent stimulator of the innate and adaptive arms of the immune system through induction, synthesis, and release of cytokines and chemokines. An extensive review of clinical trials, case reports, and letters published in peer-reviewed journals was performed regarding imiquimod use in skin disorders. A reference module was developed for physicians to consult as a guide. Studies have validated the benefit of imiquimod in treating external genital and perianal warts, superficial basal cell carcinomas, and actinic keratoses. This new topical therapeutic agent has shown to be of benefit in other various skin disorders through its broad immunomodulatory properties. Since many skin conditions are immunologically influenced, it is reasonable to expect several diseases to respond to imiquimod. Our research consolidates the therapeutic trials and reports on the innovative uses of imiquimod, thereby serving as a useful resource to benefit dermatologists treating patients with refractory or recalcitrant skin diseases.

  10. Configurational diffusion of coal macromolecules

    SciTech Connect

    Guin, J.A.; Curtis, C.W.; Tarrer, A.R.

    1990-01-01

    The objective of this project is to investigate the phenomenon of hindered diffusion of coal macromolecules in idealized porous media. Tasks towards this objective include: Construct a diffusion cell with ideal pore structure for determination of diffusion coefficients, prepare and characterize ideal porous membranes, perform model compound experiments to calibrate and test diffusion apparatus and methodology, prepare and characterize coal macromolecules, and analyze data to evaluate the diffusional behavior of coal macromolecules. This report describes work on the hindered diffusion of tetraphenylporphine and asphaltene. 18 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  11. The diffusion of microfinance.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Abhijit; Chandrasekhar, Arun G; Duflo, Esther; Jackson, Matthew O

    2013-07-26

    To study the impact of the choice of injection points in the diffusion of a new product in a society, we developed a model of word-of-mouth diffusion and then applied it to data on social networks and participation in a newly available microfinance loan program in 43 Indian villages. Our model allows us to distinguish information passing among neighbors from direct influence of neighbors' participation decisions, as well as information passing by participants versus nonparticipants. The model estimates suggest that participants are seven times as likely to pass information compared to informed nonparticipants, but information passed by nonparticipants still accounts for roughly one-third of eventual participation. An informed household is not more likely to participate if its informed friends participate. We then propose two new measures of how effective a given household would be as an injection point. We show that the centrality of the injection points according to these measures constitutes a strong and significant predictor of eventual village-level participation.

  12. Focus on Learning. Proceedings of the National Conference on Innovation, Diffusion, and Delivery in Education. (Newport Beach, California, March 6-8, 1978)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    League for Innovation in the Community Coll., Los Angeles, CA.

    This proceedings contains the full texts of five keynote speeches: "The Continuing Challenge of the Disadvantaged Student" by Nolen Ellison; "Fostering Creativity in the Teaching-Learning Process" by Norman Watson; "From Junior College to Community College and the Significance of the Change" by John Dunn; Robert Heinich's "From Learning Theory to…

  13. Measuring the diffusion of linguistic change.

    PubMed

    Nerbonne, John

    2010-12-12

    We examine situations in which linguistic changes have probably been propagated via normal contact as opposed to via conquest, recent settlement and large-scale migration. We proceed then from two simplifying assumptions: first, that all linguistic variation is the result of either diffusion or independent innovation, and, second, that we may operationalize social contact as geographical distance. It is clear that both of these assumptions are imperfect, but they allow us to examine diffusion via the distribution of linguistic variation as a function of geographical distance. Several studies in quantitative linguistics have examined this relation, starting with Séguy (Séguy 1971 Rev. Linguist. Romane 35, 335-357), and virtually all report a sublinear growth in aggregate linguistic variation as a function of geographical distance. The literature from dialectology and historical linguistics has mostly traced the diffusion of individual features, however, so that it is sensible to ask what sort of dynamic in the diffusion of individual features is compatible with Séguy's curve. We examine some simulations of diffusion in an effort to shed light on this question.

  14. Measuring the diffusion of linguistic change

    PubMed Central

    Nerbonne, John

    2010-01-01

    We examine situations in which linguistic changes have probably been propagated via normal contact as opposed to via conquest, recent settlement and large-scale migration. We proceed then from two simplifying assumptions: first, that all linguistic variation is the result of either diffusion or independent innovation, and, second, that we may operationalize social contact as geographical distance. It is clear that both of these assumptions are imperfect, but they allow us to examine diffusion via the distribution of linguistic variation as a function of geographical distance. Several studies in quantitative linguistics have examined this relation, starting with Séguy (Séguy 1971 Rev. Linguist. Romane 35, 335–357), and virtually all report a sublinear growth in aggregate linguistic variation as a function of geographical distance. The literature from dialectology and historical linguistics has mostly traced the diffusion of individual features, however, so that it is sensible to ask what sort of dynamic in the diffusion of individual features is compatible with Séguy's curve. We examine some simulations of diffusion in an effort to shed light on this question. PMID:21041207

  15. Innovation, Innovation, Innovation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuller, Tom

    2007-01-01

    Innovation, Universities and Skills. The new title of the department offers much food for thought. The title is indeed an intriguing and important one. Bringing the idea of innovation right to the fore is, to use an overworked term, challenging. Pinning down what innovation means is not at all easy. There are three different lines of argument. The…

  16. Diffusion of Web Supported Instruction in Higher Education--The Case of Tel-Aviv University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soffer, Tal; Nachmias, Rafi; Ram, Judith

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a study that focused on long-term web-supported learning diffusion among lecturers at Tel Aviv University (TAU), from an organizational point of view. The theoretical models we used to examine this process are Rogers' model for "Diffusion of Innovation" (1995) and Bass's "Diffusion Model" (1969). The study…

  17. Predictability of some innovative behaviour in agricultural innovativeness.

    PubMed

    Das, P; Chakraborti, S; Gupta, T K

    1973-07-01

    An attempt is made to determine the relationship between a farmer's innovative behavior in the field of health, home, and family planning and his adoption of agricultural innovations. The study was carried out among all married farmers of the Muslim village of Padmerat in South Bengal territory. To measure the adoption behavior of the 196 farmers, 70 agricultural innovations were taken into account, 17 health practices, 10 family planning methods, and 22 home innovations. It was found that innovations in all 3 areas contributed toward agricultural innovative behavior, with family planning being the highest contributory, followed by home and health innovativeness. Together, these three can explain 62.15% of the total variation due to agricutural innovativeness. Income can explain another 16.91% of the variation, with the remaining part begin explained by other socioeconomic factors. It is recommended that agencies initiating programs to introduce technological change should work together to develop an integrated plan. This would bring better results at less cost.

  18. When Neighbours Matter Most: Innovation, Diffusion and State Policy Adoption in Tertiary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen-Vogel, Lora; Ingle, William Kyle

    2007-01-01

    We now have ample evidence that public policies diffuse across the American states; that is, policy adoption is due at least in part to the emulation of policies enacted in nearby states. But, policy adoption is the result of a complex process, a process that often takes years and sometimes decades to complete. According to the "stage"…

  19. An investigation of the relationship between innovation and cultural diversity.

    PubMed

    Kandler, Anne; Laland, Kevin N

    2009-08-01

    In this paper we apply reaction-diffusion models to explore the relationship between the rate of behavioural innovation and the level of cultural diversity. We investigate how both independent invention and the modification and refinement of established innovations impact on cultural dynamics and diversity. Further, we analyse these relationships in the presence of biases in cultural learning and find that the introduction of new variants typically increases cultural diversity substantially in the short term, but may decrease long-term diversity. Independent invention generally supports higher levels of cultural diversity than refinement. Repeated patterns of innovation through refinement generate characteristic oscillating trends in diversity, with increasing trends towards greater average diversity observed for medium but not low innovation rates. Conformity weakens the relationship between innovation and diversity. The level of cultural diversity, and pattern of temporal dynamics, potentially provide clues as to the underlying process, which can be used to interpret empirical data.

  20. A simple flow analysis of diffuser-getter-diffuser systems

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, J. E.; Howard, D. W.

    2008-07-15

    Tritium clean-up systems typically deploy gas processing technologies between stages of palladium-silver (Pd/Ag) diffusers/permeators. The number of diffusers positioned before and after a gas clean-up process to obtain optimal system performance will vary with feed gas inert composition. A simple method to analyze optimal diffuser configuration is presented. The method assumes equilibrium across the Pd/Ag tubes and system flows are limited by diffuser vacuum pump speeds preceding or following the clean-up process. A plot of system feed as a function of inert feed gas composition for various diffuser configuration allows selection of a diffuser configuration for maximum throughput based on feed gas composition. (authors)

  1. FLOW ANALYSIS OF DIFFUSER-GETTER-DIFFUSER SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, J; Dave W. Howard, D

    2007-07-24

    Tritium clean-up systems typically deploy gas processing technologies between stages of palladium-silver (Pd/Ag) diffusers/permeators. The number of diffusers positioned before and after a gas clean-up process to obtain optimal system performance will vary with feed gas inert composition. A simple method to analyze optimal diffuser configuration is presented. The method assumes equilibrium across the Pd/Ag tubes and system flows are limited by diffuser vacuum pump speeds preceding or following the clean-up process. A plot of system feed as a function of inert feed gas composition for various diffuser configuration allows selection of a diffuser configuration for maximum throughput based on feed gas composition.

  2. Identification of Empirical Dimensions of the Diffusion Process: Interim Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kester, Ralph J.; Hull, William L.

    The objective of the research study was to determine if dimensions of the innovation diffusion process could be identified empirically. Questionnaires were administered to a sample of 300 educational practitioners in various roles in Kansas and Ohio. The data resulting from the 82 percent response are divided into two categories. One category…

  3. Innovative bi-fluid atomizer inner flow characterization and outer spray diffusion analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elzo, D.; Mazin, C.

    2012-11-01

    We developed an atomizer nozzle equipping a medical device used for airborne disinfection of medical rooms. The diffusion technology of the equipment is based on the spraying of fine liquid droplets of disinfectant into the volume to be treated. The liquid phase is expulsed thanks to an air assist atomizer we designed, which originality comes from the geometry we give to the throat of the micro-venturi, inner part of the atomizer nozzle. The micro-venturi throat is deviated of angle of 4° and will permit a homogeneous diffusion. We computed three dimensional numerical calculations of the inner compressible turbulent air flow through the atomizer we designed and compared the results obtained with the ones computed for a symmetrical atomizer. The modeling was done with the CFD codes STARCCM+ and Fluent, choosing the k-omega turbulent model. The modeling has been validated especially by one dimensional analytical calculations and experimental measurements of the mean axial velocity and mass flow rate circulating through the atomizer. Three dimensional numerical calculations show the vertical deviation of the flow at throat level and swirl effect generated by the deviated inner throat of the micro-venturi. These calculations allowed understanding the nature of the spray observed in experimental conditions, and the advantages to use a deviated micro-venturi throat. Indeed, micro bacteriological tests showed that the quality and the effectiveness of the diffusion are enhanced in comparison to equipments with a symmetrical micro-venturi.

  4. Motivational Antecedents of Individual Innovation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Picci, Patrizia; Battistelli, Adalgisa

    The current work seeks to focus on the innovative work behavior and, in particular, on the stage of idea generation. An important factor that stimulates the individual to carry out the various emergent processes of change and innovation within the organization is known as intrinsic motivation, but under certain conditions, the presence of different forms of extrinsic motivation, as external regulation, introjection, identification and integration, positively influences innovative behavior at work, specifically the creative stage of the process. Starting from this evidence, the organizational environment could be capable of stimulating or indeed inhibiting potential creativity and innovation of individuals. About 100 individuals employees of a local government health department in Central Italy were given an explicit questionnaire. The results show that among external factors that effect the individual such as control, rewards and recognition for work well done, controlled motivation influences overall innovative behavior whereas autonomous motivation plays a significant role in the specific behavior of idea generation. At the same time, it must also be acknowledged that a clearly articulated task which allows an individual to identify with said task, seems to favor overall innovative behavior, whilst a task which allows a fair degree of autonomy influences the behavior of generating ideas.

  5. Development of a Detonation Diffuser

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-03-27

    reflection of the shock would result in a detonation that runs out of reactants when it encounters the combustion front. Rotating the reflecting surface...FEASIBILITY AND PARAMETER STUDY OF A DETONATION DIFFUSER DISSERTATION Christopher A Stevens, CTR AFIT-DS...States Government. iii AFIT-DS-ENY-14-M-05 FEASIBILITY AND PARAMETER STUDY OF A DETONATION DIFFUSER DISSTERTATION

  6. Relationship of Self-Efficacy to Stages of Concern in the Adoption of Innovation in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcu, Amber Diane

    2013-01-01

    In this research, it was proposed that self-efficacy is the missing underlying psychological factor in innovation diffusion models of higher education. This is based upon research conducted in the fields of innovation-diffusion in higher education, technology adoption, self-efficacy, health and behavioral change. It was theorized that if…

  7. The new face of innovation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bloch, Erich

    2000-05-01

    The rapid changes in technology, the changes in the national and global economy and the emergence of many new nations that acquire an increasing competence to innovate is presenting us with new issues and opportunities. In particular, it affects the innovation system of the country, namely the scientific and technological infrastructure, the workforce and the policy environment in which government, industry, and academia operates. From a sequential or serial model we are moving or have moved to a dynamic, interactive one that encompasses more stakeholders in a realtime way. Of late, the work of the Council on Competitiveness has focused on the capacity for innovation as a pre-requisite for national competitiveness. This talk will discuss the results from its report "Going Global: The New Shape of American Innovation" and its "Findings from the Innovation Index" and assess the forces that affect the future. The main conclusion will be that the changes we have and will be facing are irreversible and require the active and positive participation of the technical professional and technical institutions. It also requires new relationships between the main participants of the innovation system.

  8. KEY ITEMS OF INNOVATION MANAGEMENT IN THE PRIMARY HEALTHCARE CENTRES CASE STUDY: FINLAND.

    PubMed

    Aslani, Alireza; Zolfagharzadeh, Mohammad Mahdi; Naaranoja, Marja

    2015-09-01

    Trends such as aging populations, excess costs, rising public expectations, and progress in medical science and technologies point out the necessity of adaptation and development of innovation in the healthcare systems particularly in developed countries. The main objective of this article is to review diffusion of innovation in the healthcare sector. Different types of innovation, diffusion characteristics, and adoption mechanisms are the subjects that are discussed in the selected case study, Finland. Finally, the key items of innovation management in the Finnish health system are introduced. The results can be implemented in other countries as well.

  9. Collaborating across the pond: the diffusion of virtual communities for nursing education.

    PubMed

    Giddens, Jean Foret; Walsh, Mike

    2010-08-01

    Over the past decade, there have been significant changes in nursing education, particularly in teaching practice. This change has fueled interest in developing new and innovative approaches to teaching and curriculum. This article describes the shared experiences of two nurse educators on opposite sides of the Atlantic Ocean who have spent the last 4 years immersed in the process of developing and diffusing virtual communities for nursing education. Diffusion of innovations theory is used as a framework for this narrative. Nurse educators should have an awareness of the phases, steps, and challenges that can be expected during the process of innovation diffusion, including implications for education practice.

  10. Studies of Innovation and of Communication to the Public. Studies in the Utilization of Behavioral Science, Volume II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Elihu; And Others

    The papers presented in this volume report studies on the process of innovation and studies on the process and problems of communicating scientific information to the public. Papers include: "The Social Itinerary of Technical Change: Two Studies on the Diffusion of Innovation" by Elihu Katz; "The Communication of Ideals on Innovation in…

  11. Diffusion of polymer gel implants.

    PubMed

    Davis, B K

    1974-08-01

    Crosslinked polyacrylamide and polyvinylpyrrolidone gels have been used to subcutaneously implant (125)I-labeled immunoglobulin, (125)I-labeled luteinizing hormone, (125)I-labeled bovine serum albumin, (125)I-labeled insulin, [(3)H]prostaglandin F(2alpha), and Na(125)I into hamsters. From the rates of absorption of the solutes, their diffusion coefficients were determined. The diffusion coefficients showed a logarithmic dependence on implant polymer concentration and solute molecular weight. Release of the solutes from gel preparations incubated 10 mM phosphate buffer (pH 7.2) at 37 degrees revealed a similar relationship between solute diffusion coefficient, molecular weight, and the concentration of polymer. A general equation was derived that gives the expected diffusion coefficient of a substance in a polymer gel from its molecular weight, diffusion coefficient in solvent, and polymer concentration of the gel.

  12. Preliminary Investigation of Supersonic Diffusers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1945-05-01

    No. L5D20 This pressure was measured with a large mercury manometer . The total ’head after diffusion can be assumed equal to the static pressure at...of the entering kinetic energy. A mercury manometer was used to measure the difference between the total heads before and after diffusion. ‘J!hesetwo

  13. Innovation Adoption: A Review of Theories and Constructs

    PubMed Central

    Chor, Ka Ho Brian; Hoagwood, Kimberly E.; Horwitz, Sarah M.

    2013-01-01

    Many theoretical frameworks seek to describe the dynamic process of the implementation of innovations. Little is known, however, about factors related to decisions to adopt innovations and how the likelihood of adoption of innovations can be increased. Using a narrative synthesis approach, this paper compared constructs theorized to be related to adoption of innovations proposed in existing theoretical frameworks in order to identify characteristics likely to increase adoption of innovations. The overall goal was to identify elements across adoption frameworks that are potentially modifiable and, thus, might be employed to improve the adoption of evidence-based practices. The review identified 20 theoretical frameworks that could be grouped into two broad categories: theories that mainly address the adoption process (N = 10) and theories that address adoption within the context of implementation, diffusion, dissemination, and/or sustainability (N = 10). Constructs of leadership, operational size and structure, innovation fit with norms and values, and attitudes/motivation toward innovations each are mentioned in at least half of the theories, though there were no consistent definitions of measures for these constructs. A lack of precise definitions and measurement of constructs suggests further work is needed to increase our understanding of adoption of innovations. PMID:23549911

  14. Innovation adoption: a review of theories and constructs.

    PubMed

    Wisdom, Jennifer P; Chor, Ka Ho Brian; Hoagwood, Kimberly E; Horwitz, Sarah M

    2014-07-01

    Many theoretical frameworks seek to describe the dynamic process of the implementation of innovations. Little is known, however, about factors related to decisions to adopt innovations and how the likelihood of adoption of innovations can be increased. Using a narrative synthesis approach, this paper compared constructs theorized to be related to adoption of innovations proposed in existing theoretical frameworks in order to identify characteristics likely to increase adoption of innovations. The overall goal was to identify elements across adoption frameworks that are potentially modifiable and, thus, might be employed to improve the adoption of evidence-based practices. The review identified 20 theoretical frameworks that could be grouped into two broad categories: theories that mainly address the adoption process (N = 10) and theories that address adoption within the context of implementation, diffusion, dissemination, and/or sustainability (N = 10). Constructs of leadership, operational size and structure, innovation fit with norms and values, and attitudes/motivation toward innovations each are mentioned in at least half of the theories, though there were no consistent definitions of measures for these constructs. A lack of precise definitions and measurement of constructs suggests further work is needed to increase our understanding of adoption of innovations.

  15. Diffusion Strategy Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCutcheon, James R.; Sanders, John R.

    A methodology is presented for planning and managing the spread of educational innovations. The first portion of the guide develops a theoretical framework for diffusion which summarizes and capitalizes on the latest marketing and on the latest marketing and diffusion research findings. Major stages in the diffusion paradigm discussed include…

  16. Innovators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    NEA Today, 2001

    2001-01-01

    Describes various innovations that have been developed to enhance education. These innovations include: helping educators help at-risk students succeed; promoting high school journalism; ensuring quality online learning experiences; developing a student performing group that uses theater to address social issues; and having students design their…

  17. Transdermal diffusion of xenon in vitro using diffusion cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verkhovsky, A.; Petrov, E.

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this research was to study the diffusion rate of xenon through guinea pig skin and how viscosity of cosmetic component capryl/capric triglyceride (CCT) facilitates to deliver xenon to surface of skin patches. They were placed in Franz cell for 24 hours and diffusion rate and permeability of xenon were calculated. Thus diffusion rate was 0.031 mg/hour*cm2 and permeability was 0.003 cm/hour. Using Brookfield viscometer it was shown that viscosity of CCT decreased upon increasing xenon concentration. Obtained results can be utilized in developing of new xenon containing drugs for topical administration.

  18. Dimensions of Innovation: Some Historical Perspectives on Vocational Education and Training and Innovation in Australia. A Discussion Paper. A National Vocational Education and Training Research and Evaluation Program Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pickersgill, Richard

    2005-01-01

    The development of a uniquely Australian system of innovation and its relation to the vocational education and training (VET) system is considered in this discussion paper. It asserts that the Australian system of innovation fits the pattern of incremental innovation and diffusion of technical knowledge. It focuses on arrangements prior to the…

  19. Determinants of the Use of Technological Innovation in Distance Learning: A Study with Business School Instructors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Araujo Leal, Edvalda; Luiz Albertin, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    This study's overall purpose is to identify the factors determining the use of technological innovation in Distance Learning (DL), as perceived by instructors of Business Education programs. The theoretical basis for the study is the Innovation Diffusion Theory (IDT). The study's sample is made up of 436 instructors; we used a quantitative…

  20. A Case of Problematic Diffusion: The Use of Sex Determination Techniques in India.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luthra, Rashmi

    1994-01-01

    Discussion of model shifts in diffusion research focuses on the growth in the use of sex determination techniques in India and their consequences relating to gender and power. Topics addressed include development, underdevelopment, and modernization; the adoption of innovations; and meanings of innovations within particular social systems.…

  1. Perceptions of Innovativeness and Communication about Innovations: A Study of Three Types of Service Organizations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheney, George; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Illustrates the importance of communication about innovations in organizations. Calls for more research on the communication that leads organizations to notice innovative ideas, practices, or objects. (MS)

  2. Four Decades of Innovation: Impact of the League for Innovation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Los Santos, Gerardo E.; O'Banion, Terry

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the League for Innovation in the Community College which will be celebrating throughout 2008 its 40th anniversary as one of the oldest and most significant organizations in the community college world. Created in 1968, when community colleges were being established at the rate of one per week, the League became a beacon for…

  3. Geometric diffusion of quantum trajectories

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Fan; Liu, Ren-Bao

    2015-01-01

    A quantum object can acquire a geometric phase (such as Berry phases and Aharonov–Bohm phases) when evolving along a path in a parameter space with non-trivial gauge structures. Inherent to quantum evolutions of wavepackets, quantum diffusion occurs along quantum trajectories. Here we show that quantum diffusion can also be geometric as characterized by the imaginary part of a geometric phase. The geometric quantum diffusion results from interference between different instantaneous eigenstate pathways which have different geometric phases during the adiabatic evolution. As a specific example, we study the quantum trajectories of optically excited electron-hole pairs in time-reversal symmetric insulators, driven by an elliptically polarized terahertz field. The imaginary geometric phase manifests itself as elliptical polarization in the terahertz sideband generation. The geometric quantum diffusion adds a new dimension to geometric phases and may have applications in many fields of physics, e.g., transport in topological insulators and novel electro-optical effects. PMID:26178745

  4. An innovative lattice Boltzmann model for simulating Michaelis-Menten-based diffusion-advection kinetics and its application within a cartilage cell bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Moaty Sayed, A A; Hussein, M A; Becker, T

    2010-04-01

    Lattice Boltzmann models (LBM) are rapidly showing their ability to simulate a lot of fluid dynamics problems that previously required very complex approaches. This study presents a LBM for simulating diffusion-advection transport of substrate in a 2-D laminar flow. The model considers the substrate influx into a set of active cells placed inside the flow field. A new innovative method was used to simulate the cells activity using the LBM by means of Michaelis-Menten kinetics. The model is validated with some numerical benchmark problems and proved highly accurate results. After validation the model was used to simulate the transport of oxygen substrates that diffuse in water to feed a set of active cartilage cells inside a new designed bioreactor.

  5. The speed of Arnold diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Efthymiopoulos, C.; Harsoula, M.

    2013-05-01

    A detailed numerical study is presented of the slow diffusion (Arnold diffusion) taking place around resonance crossings in nearly integrable Hamiltonian systems of three degrees of freedom in the so-called ‘Nekhoroshev regime’. The aim is to construct estimates regarding the speed of diffusion based on the numerical values of a truncated form of the so-called remainder of a normalized Hamiltonian function, and to compare them with the outcomes of direct numerical experiments using ensembles of orbits. In this comparison we examine, one by one, the main steps of the so-called analytic and geometric parts of the Nekhoroshev theorem. Thus: (i) we review and implement an algorithm Efthymiopoulos (2008) [45] for Hamiltonian normalization in multiply resonant domains which is implemented as a computer program making calculations up to a high normalization order. (ii) We compute the dependence of the optimal normalization order on the small parameter ɛ in a specific model and compare the result with theoretical estimates on this dependence. (iii) We examine in detail the consequences of assuming simple convexity conditions for the unperturbed Hamiltonian on the geometry of the resonances and on the phase space structure around resonance crossings. (iv) We discuss the dynamical mechanisms by which the remainder of the optimal Hamiltonian normal form drives the diffusion process. Through these steps, we are led to two main results: (i) We construct in our concrete example a convenient set of variables, proposed first by Benettin and Gallavotti (1986) [12], in which the phenomenon of Arnold diffusion in doubly resonant domains can be clearly visualized. (ii) We determine, by numerical fitting of our data, the dependence of the local diffusion coefficient D on the size ‖R‖ of the optimal remainder function, and we compare this with a heuristic argument based on the assumption of normal diffusion. We find a power law D∝‖, where the constant b has a small positive

  6. Perceived Characteristics of an Innovation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holloway, Robert E.

    This study investigated the characteristics of an innovative cooperative high school-college program as perceived by principals of adopting and nonadopting schools. The data from survey questionnaires with 24 Likert-type items were reduced to six factors: observability, status, simplicity, cost, trialability, and relative…

  7. Developing a Questionnaire to Measure Perceived Attributes of eHealth Innovations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkinson, Nancy L.

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: To design a valid and reliable questionnaire to assess perceived attributes of technology-based health education innovations. Methods: College students in 12 personal health courses reviewed a prototype eHealth intervention using a 30-item instrument based upon diffusion theory's perceived attributes of an innovation. Results:…

  8. Innovation Management Perceptions of Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bakir, Asli Agiroglu

    2016-01-01

    This study is aimed to determine the perceptions of principals about innovation management and to investigate whether there is a significant difference in this perception according to various parameters. In the study, descriptive research model is used and universe is consisted from principals who participated in "Acquiring Formation Course…

  9. On Sustainability Assessment of Emerging Radical Innovations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hronszky, Imre

    2009-07-01

    The meaning of sustainability in a world full of breakthrough technological innovations is envisaged. Attention to systematically include speculative investigations for sustainability requirements already in the emergence phase of breakthrough innovations is discussed.

  10. Diffusion phenomena of cells and biomolecules in microfluidic devices

    PubMed Central

    Yildiz-Ozturk, Ece; Yesil-Celiktas, Ozlem

    2015-01-01

    Biomicrofluidics is an emerging field at the cross roads of microfluidics and life sciences which requires intensive research efforts in terms of introducing appropriate designs, production techniques, and analysis. The ultimate goal is to deliver innovative and cost-effective microfluidic devices to biotech, biomedical, and pharmaceutical industries. Therefore, creating an in-depth understanding of the transport phenomena of cells and biomolecules becomes vital and concurrently poses significant challenges. The present article outlines the recent advancements in diffusion phenomena of cells and biomolecules by highlighting transport principles from an engineering perspective, cell responses in microfluidic devices with emphases on diffusion- and flow-based microfluidic gradient platforms, macroscopic and microscopic approaches for investigating the diffusion phenomena of biomolecules, microfluidic platforms for the delivery of these molecules, as well as the state of the art in biological applications of mammalian cell responses and diffusion of biomolecules. PMID:26180576

  11. Diffusion phenomena of cells and biomolecules in microfluidic devices.

    PubMed

    Yildiz-Ozturk, Ece; Yesil-Celiktas, Ozlem

    2015-09-01

    Biomicrofluidics is an emerging field at the cross roads of microfluidics and life sciences which requires intensive research efforts in terms of introducing appropriate designs, production techniques, and analysis. The ultimate goal is to deliver innovative and cost-effective microfluidic devices to biotech, biomedical, and pharmaceutical industries. Therefore, creating an in-depth understanding of the transport phenomena of cells and biomolecules becomes vital and concurrently poses significant challenges. The present article outlines the recent advancements in diffusion phenomena of cells and biomolecules by highlighting transport principles from an engineering perspective, cell responses in microfluidic devices with emphases on diffusion- and flow-based microfluidic gradient platforms, macroscopic and microscopic approaches for investigating the diffusion phenomena of biomolecules, microfluidic platforms for the delivery of these molecules, as well as the state of the art in biological applications of mammalian cell responses and diffusion of biomolecules.

  12. Knowledge Diffusion in the Context of Development in Rural Areas. Keynote Address.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez-Brawley, Emilia E.

    This paper analyzes principles of knowledge diffusion and provides a framework for applying new ideas or innovations, particularly in relation to rural community development. As new knowledge is created or old knowledge is found to have new applications, the art of spreading knowledge and managing innovation has become more crucial in both urban…

  13. Pursuing Knowledge and Innovation through Collective Actions. The Case of Young Farmers in Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koutsou, Stavriani; Partalidou, Maria

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This paper examines new coalitions for knowledge diffusion and innovations of young farmers. Understanding their patterns and the factors influencing their cooperative and innovating norms is crucial in improving these young farmers' positioning in the agricultural knowledge and information system. Design/methodology/approach: Drawing on…

  14. Beyond Economy: Impact of National Cultural Values on Nationwide Broadband Internet Diffusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joo, Sung-Hee

    2010-01-01

    This study examines how the non-conventional factors of national cultural values and government involvement affect the diffusion of broadband Internet technologies in various nations around the world. An innovative element of the study was the examination of the influence patterns at different stages of diffusion, which was measured by the number…

  15. Design and Evaluation of a Prompting Instrument to Support Learning within the Diffusion Simulation Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwon, Seolim; Lara, Miguel; Enfield, Jake; Frick, Theodore

    2013-01-01

    Conducting an iterative usability testing, a set of prompts used as a form of instructional support was developed in order to facilitate the comprehension of the diffusion of innovations theory (Rogers, 2003) in a simulation game called the Diffusion Simulation Game (DSG) (Molenda & Rice, 1979). The six subjects who participated in the study…

  16. Diffusion of chromium in chrysoberyl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, Yong-Kil; Seo, Jin-Gyo; Park, Jong-Wan

    2009-07-01

    Cr 3+ diffusion in chrysoberyl (BeAl 2O 4) irradiated by H + ions and electrons has been studied and compared with diffusion in non-irradiated samples. Chrysoberyl crystals were irradiated with 6 MeV H + ions to fluencies of 1×10 16 cm -2 for 25 min and with 10 MeV electrons to fluencies of 2×10 17 cm -2 for 1 h. Three different types of samples, which were doped with Cr 3+, were annealed in horizontal alumina tube furnaces by 50 K intervals in the temperature range from 1773 to 1923 K for 200 h. Scanning electron microscope-energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (SEM-EDX) was used to measure the diffusion. Arrhenius equations for the diffusion coefficient for Cr 3+ in the temperature range 1773-1923 K were developed: Electron beam irradiated chrysoberyls, Dcr=2.1×10 -5×exp (-482.3±18.2 kJ mol -1/ RT)m 2 s -1 Proton beam irradiated chrysoberyls, Dcr=2.3×10 -3×exp (-545.4±25.0 kJ mol -1/ RT)m 2 s -1 Natural non-irradiated chrysoberyls Dcr=2.2×10 -3×exp (-547.9±36.8 kJ mol -1/ RT)m 2 s -1 The results indicate that the chromium diffuses deepest into the electron beam irradiated chrysoberyls.

  17. Configurational diffusion of coal macromolecules

    SciTech Connect

    Guin, J.A.; Curtis, C.W.; Tarrer, A.R.

    1989-01-01

    During this quarter, progress has been made in two areas: (1) preparation of the calibration curve for gel permeation chromatography analysis of coal asphaltene; (2) preliminary measurements of the effective diffusion coefficients of coal asphaltene fractions. A calibration curve was prepared with standard compounds including polystyrenes, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons and tetraphenylporphine in GPC analysis. A correlation equation was obtained from the calibration curve to estimate the molecular weights of coal asphaltene fractions. Based on this GPC analysis, effective diffusion coefficients of coal asphaltene fractions were measured.

  18. Factors That Influence the Diffusion Process of Mobile Devices in Higher Education in Botswana and Namibia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asino, Tutaleni I.

    2015-01-01

    This comparative study uses the Diffusion of Innovation (DoI) theoretical framework to explore factors that influence diffusion of mobile devices in higher education in Botswana and Namibia. The five attributes (Relative Avantage, Compatability, Complexity, Trialability, and Observability) of the persuasion stage, which have been found in previous…

  19. The diffusion of generics after patent expiry in Germany.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Katharina Elisabeth; Stargardt, Tom

    2016-11-01

    To identify the influences on the diffusion of generics after patent expiry, we analyzed 65 generic entries using prescription data of a large German sickness fund between 2007 and 2012 in a sales model. According to theory, several elements are responsible for technology diffusion: (1) time reflecting the rate of adaption within the social system, (2) communication channels, and (3) the degree of incremental innovation, e.g., the modifications of existing active ingredient's strength. We investigated diffusion in two ways: (1) generic market share (percentage of generic prescriptions of all prescriptions of a substance) and, (2) generic sales quantity (number of units sold) over time. We specified mixed regression models. Generic diffusion takes considerable time. An average generic market share of about 75 % was achieved not until 48 months. There was a positive effect of time since generic entry on generic market share (p < 0.001) and sales (p < 0.001). Variables describing the communication channels and the degree of innovation influenced generic market share (mostly p < 0.001), but not generic sales quantity. Market structure, e.g., the number of generic manufacturers (p < 0.001) and prices influenced both generic market share and sales. Imperfections in generic uptake through informational cascades seem to be largely present. Third-party payers could enhance means to promote generic diffusion to amplify savings through generic entry.

  20. Technology Diffusion and Innovations in Music Education in a Notebook Computer Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagen, Sara L.

    Valley City State University (North Dakota) was the second university in the nation to adopt a notebook computer environment, supplying every faculty, staff member, administrator, and student with a laptop computer and 24-hour access to the World Wide Web. This paper outlines the innovations made in the music department to accommodate the infusion…

  1. Optimization of hydraulic turbine diffuser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moravec, Prokop; Hliník, Juraj; Rudolf, Pavel

    2016-03-01

    Hydraulic turbine diffuser recovers pressure energy from residual kinetic energy on turbine runner outlet. Efficiency of this process is especially important for high specific speed turbines, where almost 50% of available head is utilized within diffuser. Magnitude of the coefficient of pressure recovery can be significantly influenced by designing its proper shape. Present paper focuses on mathematical shape optimization method coupled with CFD. First method is based on direct search Nelder-Mead algorithm, while the second method employs adjoint solver and morphing. Results obtained with both methods are discussed and their advantages/disadvantages summarized.

  2. Creativity: the fuel of innovation.

    PubMed

    Gilmartin, M J

    1999-01-01

    Market-leveled changes occurring in the health care industry require new and creative models of organization, management, and service delivery. One of today's primary management challenges is the development of organizational cultures that value innovation, change, and creativity. The adoption of an ethic of innovativeness allows the organization to stretch the limits of individual and collective knowledge, skill, and ability to meet complex consumer needs. Creativity within organizations is influenced by management practices in conjunction with creativity-relevant work group skills. A common wisdom exists that professional nurses are creative in finding solutions for complex patient care needs. The expansion of this creativity within organizational systems will allow for the evolution of professional nursing practice, improvement in care delivery, and organizational performance.

  3. Diffusion of polyelectrolytes in polyelectrolyte gels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahalkar, Anand; Muthukumar, Murugappan

    2015-03-01

    Using dynamic light scattering, we have investigated the diffusion coefficient of sodium poly(styrene sulfonate) in a matrix of poly(acrylamide-co-acrylate) gels. The diffusion coefficient of the probe polyelectrolyte exhibits a crossover behavior from a particle-diffusion to entropic-barrier dominated diffusion, as the molecular weight is increased. The effect of electrostatics, by varying the charge density of the matrix, on probe diffusion constant will be presented.

  4. 75 FR 71670 - Office of Innovation and Entrepreneurship; the National Advisory Council on Innovation and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-24

    ... Office of Innovation and Entrepreneurship; the National Advisory Council on Innovation and Entrepreneurship: Meeting of the National Advisory Council on Innovation and Entrepreneurship AGENCY: Office of Innovation and Entrepreneurship, U.S. Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice of an open meeting. SUMMARY:...

  5. 75 FR 59685 - Office of Innovation and Entrepreneurship; the National Advisory Council on Innovation and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-28

    ... Office of Innovation and Entrepreneurship; the National Advisory Council on Innovation and Entrepreneurship: National Advisory Council on Innovation and Entrepreneurship AGENCY: Office of Innovation and Entrepreneurship, U.S. Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice of an open meeting. SUMMARY: The National...

  6. Thermally grown oxide and diffusions for automatic processing of integrated circuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kennedy, B. W.

    1979-01-01

    A totally automated facility for semiconductor oxidation and diffusion was developed using a state-of-the-art diffusion furnace and high temperature grown oxides. Major innovations include: (1) a process controller specifically for semiconductor processing; (2) an automatic loading system to accept wafers from an air track, insert them into a quartz carrier and then place the carrier on a paddle for insertion into the furnace; (3) automatic unloading of the wafers back onto the air track, and (4) boron diffusion using diborane with plus or minus 5 percent uniformity. Processes demonstrated include Wet and dry oxidation for general use and for gate oxide, boron diffusion, phosphorous diffusion, and sintering.

  7. Diffusion brazing of nickel aluminides

    SciTech Connect

    Orel, S.V.; Parous, L.C.; Gale, W.F.

    1995-09-01

    NiAl is a promising candidate material for high-temperature applications. However, NiAl suffers from poor low-temperature ductility and toughness. Hence, suitable technologies are required for NiAl to Ni-based alloy joining. In view of the poor low-temperature ductility and strong alumina-forming tendency of NiAl, diffusion brazing seems to be the most suitable technology for joining NiAl to itself and to Ni-based alloys. This paper examines the diffusion brazing of NiAl to Ni using Ni-Si-B interlayers and draws comparisons with previous work by authors on NiAl/Ni-Si-B/NiAl and Ni/Ni-Si-B/Ni diffusion brazing. The progression of micro-structural development in the NiAl/Ni-Si-B/Ni joints is compared with that expected from standard models of the diffusion brazing process in which dissolution of the substrate material, isothermal solidification and solid-state homogenization occur sequentially.

  8. Diffusion of the D.A.R.E and Syringe Exchange Programs

    PubMed Central

    Des Jarlais, Don C.; Sloboda, Zili; Friedman, Samuel R.; Tempalski, Barbara; McKnight, Courtney; Braine, Naomi

    2006-01-01

    We examined the diffusion of the D.A.R.E program to reduce use of illicit drugs among school-aged children and youths and the diffusion of syringe exchange programs to reduce HIV transmission among injection drug users. The D.A.R.E program was diffused widely in the United States despite a lack of evidence for its effectiveness; there has been limited diffusion of syringe exchange in the United States, despite extensive scientific evidence for its effectiveness. Multiple possible associations between diffusion and evidence of effectiveness exist, from widespread diffusion without evidence of effectiveness to limited diffusion with strong evidence of effectiveness. The decision theory concepts of framing and loss aversion may be useful for further research on the diffusion of public health innovations. PMID:16809601

  9. Diffusion of oxygen in cork.

    PubMed

    Lequin, Sonia; Chassagne, David; Karbowiak, Thomas; Simon, Jean-Marc; Paulin, Christian; Bellat, Jean-Pierre

    2012-04-04

    This work reports measurements of effective oxygen diffusion coefficient in raw cork. Kinetics of oxygen transfer through cork is studied at 298 K thanks to a homemade manometric device composed of two gas compartments separated by a cork wafer sample. The first compartment contains oxygen, whereas the second one is kept under dynamic vacuum. The pressure decrease in the first compartment is recorded as a function of time. The effective diffusion coefficient D(eff) is obtained by applying Fick's law to transient state using a numerical method based on finite differences. An analytical model derived from Fick's law applied to steady state is also proposed. Results given by these two methods are in close agreement with each other. The harmonic average of the effective diffusion coefficients obtained from the distribution of 15 cork wafers of 3 mm thickness is 1.1 × 10(-9) m(2) s(-1) with a large distribution over four decades. The statistical analysis of the Gaussian distribution obtained on a 3 mm cork wafer is extrapolated to a 48 mm cork wafer, which length corresponds to a full cork stopper. In this case, the probability density distribution gives a mean value of D(eff) equal to 1.6 × 10(-9) m(2) s(-1). This result shows that it is possible to obtain the effective diffusion coefficient of oxygen through cork from short time (few days) measurements performed on a thin cork wafer, whereas months are required to obtain the diffusion coefficient for a full cork stopper. Permeability and oxygen transfer rate are also calculated for comparison with data from other studies.

  10. Competitive dynamics of lexical innovations in multi-layer networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Javarone, Marco Alberto

    2014-04-01

    We study the introduction of lexical innovations into a community of language users. Lexical innovations, i.e. new term added to people's vocabulary, plays an important role in the process of language evolution. Nowadays, information is spread through a variety of networks, including, among others, online and offline social networks and the World Wide Web. The entire system, comprising networks of different nature, can be represented as a multi-layer network. In this context, lexical innovations diffusion occurs in a peculiar fashion. In particular, a lexical innovation can undergo three different processes: its original meaning is accepted; its meaning can be changed or misunderstood (e.g. when not properly explained), hence more than one meaning can emerge in the population. Lastly, in the case of a loan word, it can be translated into the population language (i.e. defining a new lexical innovation or using a synonym) or into a dialect spoken by part of the population. Therefore, lexical innovations cannot be considered simply as information. We develop a model for analyzing this scenario using a multi-layer network comprising a social network and a media network. The latter represents the set of all information systems of a society, e.g. television, the World Wide Web and radio. Furthermore, we identify temporal directed edges between the nodes of these two networks. In particular, at each time-step, nodes of the media network can be connected to randomly chosen nodes of the social network and vice versa. In doing so, information spreads through the whole system and people can share a lexical innovation with their neighbors or, in the event they work as reporters, by using media nodes. Lastly, we use the concept of "linguistic sign" to model lexical innovations, showing its fundamental role in the study of these dynamics. Many numerical simulations have been performed to analyze the proposed model and its outcomes.

  11. Educational Innovation, Quality, and Effects: An Exploration of Innovations and Their Effects in Secondary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hofman, Roelande H.; de Boom, Jan; Meeuwisse, Marieke; Hofman, W. H. Adriaan

    2013-01-01

    Despite the extensive literature on educational innovations, there is only limited empirical research available into the impact of innovations on student achievement. In this article, the following research questions will be answered: What form do innovations in secondary education take, are there types of innovative schools, and what effect do…

  12. The Determinants of Innovation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, Christopher

    1979-01-01

    Argues, that simple market-demand or science-push models are an inadequate explanation of the trend of invention in specific branches of manufacturing industry or the economy as a whole. Reprints available from Copyright Clearance Center, Inc., PO Box 8891, Boston, Massachusetts 02114; specify Code 0016-3287/79/030206-10; $2.00. (Author/IRT)

  13. Diffusion of community empowerment strategies for Aedes aegypti control in Cuba: a muddling through experience.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Dennis; Lefèvre, Pierre; Castro, Marta; Toledo, María Eugenia; Zamora, Gilberto; Bonet, Mariano; Van der Stuyft, Patrick

    2013-05-01

    Effective participatory strategies in dengue control have been developed and assessed as small-scale efforts. The challenge is to scale-up and institutionalize these strategies within dengue control programs. We describe and critically analyze the diffusion process of an effective empowerment strategy within the Cuban Aedes aegypti control program, focusing on decision-making at the national level, to identify ways forward to institutionalize such strategies in Cuba and elsewhere. From 2005 to 2009, we carried out a process-oriented case study. We used participant observation, in-depth interviews with key informants involved in the diffusion process and document analysis. In a first phase, the data analysis was inductive. In a second phase, to enhance robustness of the analysis, emerging categories were contrasted with Rogers' five-stage conceptual model of the innovation-decision process, which was eventually used as the analytical framework. The diffusion of the empowerment strategy was a continuous and dynamic process. Adoption was a result of the perceived potential match between the innovative empowerment strategy and the performance gap of the Ae. aegypti control program. During implementation, the strategy was partially modified by top level Ae. aegypti control program decision-makers to accommodate program characteristics. However, structure, practices and organizational culture of the control program did not change significantly. Thus rejection occurred. It was mainly due to insufficient dissemination of know-how and underlying principles of the strategy by innovation developers, but also to resistance to change. The innovation-diffusion process has produced mitigated results to date, and the control program is still struggling to find ways to move forward. Improving the innovation strategy by providing the necessary knowledge about the innovation and addressing control program organizational changes is crucial for successful diffusion of empowerment

  14. Teams as innovative systems: multilevel motivational antecedents of innovation in R&D teams.

    PubMed

    Chen, Gilad; Farh, Jiing-Lih; Campbell-Bush, Elizabeth M; Wu, Zhiming; Wu, Xin

    2013-11-01

    Integrating theories of proactive motivation, team innovation climate, and motivation in teams, we developed and tested a multilevel model of motivators of innovative performance in teams. Analyses of multisource data from 428 members of 95 research and development (R&D) teams across 33 Chinese firms indicated that team-level support for innovation climate captured motivational mechanisms that mediated between transformational leadership and team innovative performance, whereas members' motivational states (role-breadth self-efficacy and intrinsic motivation) mediated between proactive personality and individual innovative performance. Furthermore, individual motivational states and team support for innovation climate uniquely promoted individual innovative performance, and, in turn, individual innovative performance linked team support for innovation climate to team innovative performance.

  15. Innovative management of pruritus.

    PubMed

    Feramisco, Jamison D; Berger, Timothy G; Steinhoff, Martin

    2010-07-01

    Pruritus remains a significant problem facing dermatologists and can be associated with various dermatoses and systemic derangements. At times, one can treat the underlying cutaneous or systemic process to alleviate itch. However, it is frequently challenging to identify the cause of a patient's itch and, in this situation, even more difficult to manage the symptom effectively. In this article, the authors discuss the approach to a patient with generalized pruritus without clinically obvious dermatoses. They also addresses mechanisms and management modalities of itch in common systemic diseases, including cholestasis, uremia, and neuropathic dysfunction.

  16. A Legacy of Innovation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Immerwahr, John

    2011-01-01

    It's no secret that American higher education is facing a daunting set of challenges. While public opinion surveys show that the public thinks a collegiate education is more important than ever, states across the country are reducing financial resources for their public colleges and universities--which are, in turn, eliminating programs or raising…

  17. Spatial Mapping of Translational Diffusion Coefficients Using Diffusion Tensor Imaging: A Mathematical Description

    PubMed Central

    SHETTY, ANIL N.; CHIANG, SHARON; MALETIC-SAVATIC, MIRJANA; KASPRIAN, GREGOR; VANNUCCI, MARINA; LEE, WESLEY

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we discuss the theoretical background for diffusion weighted imaging and diffusion tensor imaging. Molecular diffusion is a random process involving thermal Brownian motion. In biological tissues, the underlying microstructures restrict the diffusion of water molecules, making diffusion directionally dependent. Water diffusion in tissue is mathematically characterized by the diffusion tensor, the elements of which contain information about the magnitude and direction of diffusion and is a function of the coordinate system. Thus, it is possible to generate contrast in tissue based primarily on diffusion effects. Expressing diffusion in terms of the measured diffusion coefficient (eigenvalue) in any one direction can lead to errors. Nowhere is this more evident than in white matter, due to the preferential orientation of myelin fibers. The directional dependency is removed by diagonalization of the diffusion tensor, which then yields a set of three eigenvalues and eigenvectors, representing the magnitude and direction of the three orthogonal axes of the diffusion ellipsoid, respectively. For example, the eigenvalue corresponding to the eigenvector along the long axis of the fiber corresponds qualitatively to diffusion with least restriction. Determination of the principal values of the diffusion tensor and various anisotropic indices provides structural information. We review the use of diffusion measurements using the modified Stejskal–Tanner diffusion equation. The anisotropy is analyzed by decomposing the diffusion tensor based on symmetrical properties describing the geometry of diffusion tensor. We further describe diffusion tensor properties in visualizing fiber tract organization of the human brain. PMID:27441031

  18. Diffusion of active chiral particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sevilla, Francisco J.

    2016-12-01

    The diffusion of chiral active Brownian particles in three-dimensional space is studied analytically, by consideration of the corresponding Fokker-Planck equation for the probability density of finding a particle at position x and moving along the direction v ̂ at time t , and numerically, by the use of Langevin dynamics simulations. The analysis is focused on the marginal probability density of finding a particle at a given location and at a given time (independently of its direction of motion), which is found from an infinite hierarchy of differential-recurrence relations for the coefficients that appear in the multipole expansion of the probability distribution, which contains the whole kinematic information. This approach allows the explicit calculation of the time dependence of the mean-squared displacement and the time dependence of the kurtosis of the marginal probability distribution, quantities from which the effective diffusion coefficient and the "shape" of the positions distribution are examined. Oscillations between two characteristic values were found in the time evolution of the kurtosis, namely, between the value that corresponds to a Gaussian and the one that corresponds to a distribution of spherical shell shape. In the case of an ensemble of particles, each one rotating around a uniformly distributed random axis, evidence is found of the so-called effect "anomalous, yet Brownian, diffusion," for which particles follow a non-Gaussian distribution for the positions yet the mean-squared displacement is a linear function of time.

  19. Qualitative assessment of innovations in healthcare provision

    PubMed Central

    Porzsolt, Franz; Ghosh, Amit K; Kaplan, Robert M

    2009-01-01

    Background The triad of quality, innovation and economic restraint is as important in health care as it is in the business world. There are many proposals for the assessment of quality and of economic restraints in health care but only a few address assessment of innovations. We propose a strategy and new structures to standardize the description of health care innovations and to quantify them. Discussion Strategy and structure are based on the assumption that in the early phase of an innovation only data on the feasibility and possibly on the efficacy or effectiveness of an innovation can be expected. From the patient's perspective, benefit resulting from an innovation can be confirmed only in a later phase of development. Early indicators of patient's benefit will be surrogate parameters which correlate only weakly with the desired endpoints. After the innovation has been in use, there will be more evidence on correlations between surrogate parameters and the desired endpoints to provide evidence of the patient benefit. From an administrative perspective, this evidence can be considered in decisions about public financing. Different criteria are proposed for the assessment of innovations in prevention, diagnosis and therapy. For decisions on public financing a public fund for innovations may be helpful. Depending on the phase of innovation risk sharing models are proposed between manufacturers, private insurers and public funding. Summary Potential for patient benefit is always uncertain during early stages of innovations. This uncertainty decreases with increasing information on the effects of the innovation. Information about an innovation can be quantified, categorized and integrated into rational economic decisions. PMID:19298658

  20. Ultrasonic enhancement of battery diffusion.

    PubMed

    Hilton, R; Dornbusch, D; Branson, K; Tekeei, A; Suppes, G J

    2014-03-01

    It has been demonstrated that sonic energy can be harnessed to enhance convection in Galvanic cells during cyclic voltammetry; however, the practical value of this approach is limited due to the lack of open volumes for convection patterns to develop in most batteries. This study evaluates the ability of ultrasonic waves to enhance diffusion in membrane separators commonly used in sandwich-architecture batteries. Studies include the measuring of open-circuit performance curves to interpret performances in terms of reductions in concentration overpotentials. The use of a 40 kHz sonicator bath can consistently increase the voltage of the battery and reduce overpotential losses up to 30%. This work demonstrates and quantifies battery enhancement due to enhanced diffusion made possible with ultrasonic energy.

  1. A Diffusion Approach to Study Leadership Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Curt M.; Jean-Marie, Gaetane

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to draw on elements of diffusion theory to understand leadership reform. Many diffusion studies examine the spread of an innovation across social units but the objective is to examine diffusion of a collective leadership model within school units. Specifically, the strength of reform diffusion is tested to account for…

  2. Configurational diffusion of coal macromolecules

    SciTech Connect

    Guin, J.A.; Curtis, C.W.; Tarrer, A.R.; Kim, S.; Hwang, D.; Chen, C.C.; Chiou, Z.

    1991-01-01

    The objective of our research was to obtain fundamental information regarding the functional dependence of the diffusion coefficient of coal molecules on the ratio of molecule to pore diameter. That is, the objective of our study was to examine the effect of molecule size and configuration on hindered diffusion of coal macromolecules through as porous medium. To best accomplish this task, we circumvented the complexities of an actual porous catalyst by using a well defined porous matrix with uniform capillaric pores, i.e., a track-etched membrane. In this way, useful information was obtained regarding the relationship of molecular size and configuration on the diffusion rate of coal derived macromolecules through a pore structure with known geometry. Similar studies were performed using a pellet formed of porous alumina, to provide a link between the idealized membranes and the actual complex pore structure of real catalyst extrudates. The fundamental information from our study will be useful toward the tailoring of catalysts to minimize diffusional influences and thereby increase coal conversion and selectivity for desirable products. (VC)

  3. Diffusion of Ca and Mg in Calcite

    SciTech Connect

    Cygan, R.T.; Fisler, D.K.

    1999-02-10

    The self-diffusion of Ca and the tracer diffusion of Mg in calcite have been experimentally measured using isotopic tracers of {sup 25}Mg and {sup 44}Ca. Natural single crystals of calcite were coated with a thermally-sputtered oxide thin film and then annealed in a CO{sub 2} gas at one atmosphere total pressure and temperatures from 550 to 800 C. Diffusion coefficient values were derived from the depth profiles obtained by ion microprobe analysis. The resultant activation energies for Mg tracer diffusion and Ca self-diffusion are respectively: E{sub a}(Mg) = 284 {+-} 74 kJ/mol and E{sub a}(Ca) = 271 {+-} 80 kJ/mol. For the temperature ranges in these experiments, the diffusion of Mg is faster than Ca. The results are generally consistent in magnitude with divalent cation diffusion rates obtained in previous studies and provide a means of interpreting the thermal histories of carbonate minerals, the mechanism of dolomitization, and other diffusion-controlled processes. The results indicate that cation diffusion in calcite is relatively slow and cations are the rate-limiting diffusing species for the deformation of calcite and carbonate rocks. Application of the calcite-dolomite geothermometer to metamorphic assemblages will be constrained by cation diffusion and cooling rates. The direct measurement of Mg tracer diffusion in calcite indicates that dolomitization is unlikely to be accomplished by Mg diffusion in the solid state but by a recrystallization process.

  4. Surface self-diffusion of organic glasses.

    PubMed

    Brian, Caleb W; Yu, Lian

    2013-12-19

    Surface self-diffusion coefficients have been determined for the organic glass Nifedipine using the method of surface grating decay. The flattening of 1000 nm surface gratings occurs by viscous flow at 12 K or more above the glass transition temperature and by surface diffusion at lower temperatures. Surface diffusion is at least 10(7) times faster than bulk diffusion, indicating a highly mobile surface. Nifedipine glasses have faster surface diffusion than the previously studied Indomethacin glasses, despite their similar bulk relaxation times. Both glasses exhibit fast surface crystal growth, and its rate scales with surface diffusivity. The observed rate of surface diffusion implies substantial surface rearrangement during the preparation of low-energy glasses by vapor deposition. The Random First Order Transition Theory and the Coupling Model successfully predict the large surface-enhancement of mobility and its increase on cooling, but disagree with the experimental observation of the faster surface diffusion of Nifedipine.

  5. Barriers to the adoption of ergonomic innovations to control musculoskeletal disorders and improve performance.

    PubMed

    Karsh, Ben-Tzion; Newenhouse, Astrid C; Chapman, Larry J

    2013-01-01

    Despite a growing number of published articles describing studies of ergonomic interventions, little is known about the barriers potential adopters face when deciding whether or not to adopt such innovations. To this end, the purpose of this paper is to examine the barriers identified by potential adopters of ergonomic innovations and compare barriers identified by individuals not interested in adopting to those identified by individuals planning to adopt. Eight hundred forty-eight fresh market vegetable farmers were mailed surveys measuring the adoption of and barriers to the adoption of several ergonomic innovations as part of a multi-year intervention study. Barriers such as cost, lack of information, never having seen the innovation used and not being able to try out the innovation were among the barriers identified. The barriers identified were moderated by whether or not the respondents were likely to adopt. Implications for diffusing ergonomic and safety innovations are discussed.

  6. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 21: Technological innovation and technical communications: Their place in aerospace engineering curricula. A survey of European, Japanese, and US Aerospace Engineers and Scientists

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Holland, Maurita Peterson; Keene, Michael L.; Kennedy, John M.

    1991-01-01

    Aerospace engineers and scientists from Western Europe, Japan, and the United States were surveyed as part of the NASA/DoD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Questionnaires were used to solicit their opinions regarding the following: (1) the importance of technical communications to their profession; (2) the use and production of technical communications; and (3) their views about the appropriate content of an undergraduate course in technical communications. The ability to communicate technical information effectively was very important to the aerospace engineers and scientists who participated in the study. A considerable portion of their working week is devoted to using and producing technical information. The types of technical communications used and produced varied within and among the three groups. The type of technical communication product used and produced appears to be related to respondents' professional duties. Respondents from the three groups made similar recommendations regarding the principles, mechanics, and on-the-job communications to be included in an undergraduate technical communications course for aerospace majors.

  7. Diffuse heterochromia of scalp hair.

    PubMed

    Lee, W S; Lee, I W; Ahn, S K

    1996-11-01

    Heterochromia of hair is the presence of more than one distinct color of hair in the same person. A color difference between scalp hair and a mustache or sideburns is not uncommon. Pubic and axillary hair and eyebrows and eyelashes are often darker than scalp hair in a fair-haired person. Rarely, a circumscribed patch of hair of different colors occurs. However, diffuse heterochromia of black and red scalp hair has not been previously reported. We describe a father and son with this condition.

  8. Analysis of mercury diffusion pumps

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, K.A.

    1991-01-01

    Several mercury diffusion pump stages in the Tritium Purification process at the Savannah River Site (SRS) have been removed from service for scheduled preventive maintenance. These stages have been examined to determine if failure has occurred. Evidence of fatigue around the flange portion of the pump has been seen. In addition, erosion and cavitation inside the throat of the venturi tube and corrosion on the other surface of the venturi tube has been observed. Several measures are being examined in an attempt to improve the performance of these pumps. These measures, as well as the noted observations, are described. 4 refs.

  9. Analysis of mercury diffusion pumps

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, K.A.

    1991-12-31

    Several mercury diffusion pump stages in the Tritium Purification process at the Savannah River Site (SRS) have been removed from service for scheduled preventive maintenance. These stages have been examined to determine if failure has occurred. Evidence of fatigue around the flange portion of the pump has been seen. In addition, erosion and cavitation inside the throat of the venturi tube and corrosion on the other surface of the venturi tube has been observed. Several measures are being examined in an attempt to improve the performance of these pumps. These measures, as well as the noted observations, are described. 4 refs.

  10. Correlation Structure of Fractional Pearson Diffusions.

    PubMed

    Leonenko, Nikolai N; Meerschaert, Mark M; Sikorskii, Alla

    2013-09-01

    The stochastic solution to a diffusion equations with polynomial coefficients is called a Pearson diffusion. If the first time derivative is replaced by a Caputo fractional derivative of order less than one, the stochastic solution is called a fractional Pearson diffusion. This paper develops an explicit formula for the covariance function of a fractional Pearson diffusion in steady state, in terms of Mittag-Leffler functions. That formula shows that fractional Pearson diffusions are long range dependent, with a correlation that falls off like a power law, whose exponent equals the order of the fractional derivative.

  11. Correlation Structure of Fractional Pearson Diffusions

    PubMed Central

    Leonenko, Nikolai N.; Meerschaert, Mark M.; Sikorskii, Alla

    2013-01-01

    The stochastic solution to a diffusion equations with polynomial coefficients is called a Pearson diffusion. If the first time derivative is replaced by a Caputo fractional derivative of order less than one, the stochastic solution is called a fractional Pearson diffusion. This paper develops an explicit formula for the covariance function of a fractional Pearson diffusion in steady state, in terms of Mittag-Leffler functions. That formula shows that fractional Pearson diffusions are long range dependent, with a correlation that falls off like a power law, whose exponent equals the order of the fractional derivative. PMID:24089586

  12. Innovator: A Tradition of Excellence through Innovation, 1998-1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Italia, Nancy, Ed.

    1999-01-01

    This document presents four Innovator newsletters from the League for Innovation in the Community College (California). Number one contains the following articles: "Focus on Globalization, Learning, and the Human Touch for 1998 Conference on Information Technology,""Internet-in-Education Project Exceeds Goals,""First…

  13. Innovator: A Tradition of Excellence through Innovation, 1999-2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Italia, Nancy, Ed.

    2000-01-01

    This document presents four Innovator newsletters from the League for Innovation in the Community College (California). Number one contains the following articles: "Conference on Information Technology Features Sophisticated Technology and Self-Directed Learning,""'League/PLATO on the Internet' Developmental Research Project…

  14. Refraction and reflection of diffusion fronts.

    PubMed

    Remhof, A; Wijngaarden, R J; Griessen, R

    2003-04-11

    Diffusion waves form the basis of several measurement technologies in materials science as well as in biological systems. They are, however, so heavily damped that their observation is a real challenge to the experimentalist. We show that accurate information about the refraction-like and reflection-like behavior of diffusion waves can be obtained by studying diffusion fronts. For this we use hydrogen in a metal as a model system and visualize its 2D migration with an optical indicator. The similarities between classical optics and diffusion, in particular, the applicability of Snell's law to diffusive systems are discussed. Our measurements are in good agreement with numerical simulations.

  15. Stories of Innovation: Roles, Perspectives, and Players

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martens, Jon

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to examine the roles of stories in the innovation process. Design/methodology/approach: An integrative literature review was used to identify and analyze studies that examined stories of innovation in various organizational settings. The conceptual framework of the review was based on three perspectives of organizational…

  16. Maximizing Information from Implementation of Innovative Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Churchman, David

    Discussed are four different approaches to the evaluation of the implementation of innovative courses. The first approach is that of Alkin and his associates at UCLA. This group emphasized the need to collect information on the degree to which an innovative course is implemented for the purpose of taking corrective action to achieve full…

  17. Are Law Schools Poised for Innovation? Three Case Studies of Law Professors Teaching Online in American J.D. Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaworowski, Susan

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative case study is to describe the characteristics of three law professors teaching online courses to determine what type of adopter they were. This study used the Rogers diffusion of innovation theory, and specifically analyzed the participants on whether they were innovators or early adopters. These analyses are…

  18. Diffusion of Ellipsoids in Bacterial Suspensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Yi; Lai, Lipeng; Tai, Yi-Shu; Zhang, Kechun; Xu, Xinliang; Cheng, Xiang

    2016-02-01

    Active fluids such as swarming bacteria and motile colloids exhibit exotic properties different from conventional equilibrium materials. As a peculiar example, a spherical tracer immersed inside active fluids shows an enhanced translational diffusion, orders of magnitude stronger than its intrinsic Brownian motion. Here, rather than spherical tracers, we investigate the diffusion of isolated ellipsoids in a quasi-two-dimensional bacterial bath. Our study shows a nonlinear enhancement of both translational and rotational diffusions of ellipsoids. More importantly, we uncover an anomalous coupling between particles' translation and rotation that is strictly prohibited in Brownian diffusion. The coupling reveals a counterintuitive anisotropic particle diffusion, where an ellipsoid diffuses fastest along its minor axis in its body frame. Combining experiments with theoretical modeling, we show that such an anomalous diffusive behavior arises from the generic straining flow of swimming bacteria. Our work illustrates an unexpected feature of active fluids and deepens our understanding of transport processes in microbiological systems.

  19. Theory of plane, symmetrical intake diffusers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brodel, Walter

    1950-01-01

    The present report ties in with the investigations on the inlet diffusers by P. Ruden. The theory developed by Ruden had produced results which found excellent confirmation in wind-tunnel tests and in spite of certain still-existing defects, are technically very promising. The reasons for the new theory of the diffuser forms indicated by Ruden are twofold: first, the arguments adduced in Ruden's theory deal only with one specific operating condition, that is, a certain ratio of mean velocity within the diffuser to flying speed, while in the present report any desired velocity ratios are involved; second, a different choice of parameters and the increased possibilities of variation result in diffuser forms which cannot be reconciled at once with Ruden's theory. The first enables a theoretical check of the measurements made with Ruden's diffusers at variable velocity ratio, the second permits the calculation of diffuser types which in many respects are superior to Ruden's diffusers.

  20. Separation of gases by diffusion

    DOEpatents

    Peieris, R. E.; Simon, F. E.; Arms, H. S.

    1960-12-13

    An apparatus is described for the separation of mixtures of gaseous or vaporous media by diffusion through a permeable membrane. The apparatus consists principally of a housing member having an elongated internal chamber dissected longitudinally by a permeable membrane. Means are provided for producing a pressure difference between opposite sides of the membrane to cause a flow of the media in the chamber therethrough. This pressure difference is alternated between opposite sides of the membrane to produce an oscillating flow through the membrane. Additional means is provided for producing flow parallel to the membrane in opposite directions on the two sides thereof and of the same frequency and in phase wlth the alternating pressure difference. The lighter molecules diffuse through the membrane more readily than the heavier molecules and the parallel flow effects a net transport of the lighter molecules in one direction and the heavier molecules in the opposite direction wlthin the chamber. By these means a concentration gradient along the chamber is established. (auth)

  1. Diffusion of limonene in polyethylene.

    PubMed

    Limm, W; Begley, T H; Lickly, T; Hentges, S G

    2006-07-01

    Diffusion coefficients of limonene in various linear low-density polyethylene (LLDPE) and low-density polyethylene (LDPE) resins have been determined from sorption data using a thermogravimetric methodology. From these data, one can determine whether polymer synthesis parameters such as the choice of catalytic process or co-monomer result in substantial differences in how much food packaging additives might migrate to food. For example, LLDPE is currently manufactured using either one of two distinct catalytic processes: Ziegler-Natta (ZN) and metallocene, a single-site catalyst. ZN catalysis is a heterogeneous process that has dominated polyolefin synthesis over the last half-century. It involves a transition metal compound containing a metal-carbon bond that can handle repeated insertion of olefin units. In contrast, metallocene catalysis has fewer than 20 years of history, but has generated much interest due to its ability to produce highly stereospecific polymers at a very high yield. In addition to high stereospecificity, metallocene-catalysed polymers are significantly lower in polydispersity than traditional ZN counterparts. Absorption and desorption testing of heat-pressed films made from LLDPE and LDPE resins of varying processing parameters indicates that diffusion coefficients of limonene in these resins do not change substantially.

  2. Model of Educational Rewards for Innovative Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monroe County Intermediate School District, MI.

    The purpose of this project is to encourage innovative teaching through support and reward systems; specifically, its objectives are the generation, implementation, and sharing of innovative curricular ideas and classroom procedures. Participants are teachers, students, parents, other school staff and the community. The following elements are…

  3. Basic concepts of MR imaging, diffusion MR imaging, and diffusion tensor imaging.

    PubMed

    de Figueiredo, Eduardo H M S G; Borgonovi, Arthur F N G; Doring, Thomas M

    2011-02-01

    MR image contrast is based on intrinsic tissue properties and specific pulse sequences and parameter adjustments. A growing number of MRI imaging applications are based on diffusion properties of water. To better understand MRI diffusion-weighted imaging, a brief overview of MR physics is presented in this article followed by physics of the evolving techniques of diffusion MR imaging and diffusion tensor imaging.

  4. MODEL OF DIFFUSERS / PERMEATORS FOR HYDROGEN PROCESSING

    SciTech Connect

    Hang, T; William Jacobs, W

    2007-08-27

    Palladium-silver (Pd-Ag) diffusers are mainstays of hydrogen processing. Diffusers separate hydrogen from inert species such as nitrogen, argon or helium. The tubing becomes permeable to hydrogen when heated to more than 250 C and a differential pressure is created across the membrane. The hydrogen diffuses better at higher temperatures. Experimental or experiential results have been the basis for determining or predicting a diffuser's performance. However, the process can be mathematically modeled, and comparison to experimental or other operating data can be utilized to improve the fit of the model. A reliable model-based diffuser system design is the goal which will have impacts on tritium and hydrogen processing. A computer model has been developed to solve the differential equations for diffusion given the operating boundary conditions. The model was compared to operating data for a low pressure diffuser system. The modeling approach and the results are presented in this paper.

  5. Innovation and Entrepreneurship: Trials of Japanese Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shi, Lili; Yonezawa, Akiyoshi

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the Japanese response in terms of innovation capacity and entrepreneurship enhancement under the ever-changing economic environment. Particular focus would go to the interactions among government, industry and universities in the national innovation system at a macro level, and entrepreneurship education at the institutional…

  6. NREL Spectrum of Clean Energy Innovation (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-09-01

    This brochure describes the NREL Spectrum of Clean Energy Innovation, which includes analysis and decision support, fundamental science, market relevant research, systems integration, testing and validation, commercialization and deployment. Through deep technical expertise and an unmatched breadth of capabilities, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) leads an integrated approach across the spectrum of renewable energy innovation. From scientific discovery to accelerating market deployment, NREL works in partnership with private industry to drive the transformation of our nation's energy systems. NREL integrates the entire spectrum of innovation, including fundamental science, market relevant research, systems integration, testing and validation, commercialization, and deployment. Our world-class analysis and decision support informs every point on the spectrum. The innovation process at NREL is inter-dependent and iterative. Many scientific breakthroughs begin in our own laboratories, but new ideas and technologies may come to NREL at any point along the innovation spectrum to be validated and refined for commercial use.

  7. How to Educate Innovation Journalists? Experiences of Innovation Journalism Education in Finland 2004-2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lassila-Merisalo, Maria; Uskali, Turo

    2011-01-01

    Finland has been among the very first nations to apply for practice theories of innovation journalism--journalism covering innovations. This essay is based on deep interviews since 2004 of all former Finnish innovation journalism fellows (N = 9), and two surveys of undergraduate journalism students (N = 16) who took part in the world's first…

  8. Cross-site study of the implementation of information technology innovations in health sciences centers.

    PubMed Central

    Ash, J.

    1995-01-01

    An interpretive oral history technique was used to identify factors most important in the implementation stage of information technology innovation diffusion. Electronic mail, end user literature searching, and aspects of the computer-based patient record were the innovations selected for study at academic health sciences centers. Transcripts of thirty-four interviews with key individuals were analyzed to determine six categories of factors. Word counts were then used to determine underlying emphases. Analysis of variance tested whether there were significant differences in uses of words by categories of individuals, by those at different institutions, and when different innovations were described. Results indicate that the innovations themselves correlate significantly with different word categories, where category of individual and institution do not. Words related to the computer based patient record characterize further critical factors in implementing that particular innovation. PMID:8563400

  9. Determinants for Failure and Success of Innovation Projects: The Road to Sustainable Educational Innovation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirschner, P. A.; Hendricks, M.; Paas, F.; Wopereis, I.; Cordewener, B.

    2004-01-01

    Robert Burns wrote: "The best laid schemes of Mice and Men oft go awry". This could be considered the motto of most educational innovation. The question that arises is not so much why some innovations fail (although this is very important question), but rather why other innovations succeed? This study investigated the success factors of…

  10. What Does an Inventory of Recent Innovation Experiences Tell Us about Agricultural Innovation in Africa?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Triomphe, Bernard; Floquet, Anne; Kamau, Geoffrey; Letty, Brigid; Vodouhe, Simplice Davo; Ng'ang'a, Teresiah; Stevens, Joe; van den Berg, Jolanda; Selemna, Nour; Bridier, Bernard; Crane, Todd; Almekinders, Cornelia; Waters-Bayer, Ann; Hocde, Henri

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Within the context of the European-funded JOLISAA project (JOint Learning in and about Innovation Systems in African Agriculture), an inventory of agricultural innovation experiences was made in Benin, Kenya and South Africa. The objective was to assess multi-stakeholder agricultural innovation processes involving smallholders. Approach:…

  11. Modeling of hydrogen diffusion in metals

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, K.; Cao, M.Z.; Wan, X.J.; Shi, C.X.

    1989-02-01

    The study of the diffusion of hydrogen in metals is very important to further understand the hydrogen embrittlement of metals. To describe the diffusion of hydrogen in metals the diffusion equation deduced from Fick's law under an ideal condition has been generally used and the effect of hydrogen trapping in metals has been neglected. In the process of hydrogen diffusion through a metal, hydrogen fills the traps continuously and the fraction of the traps filled by hydrogen, which have only little effect on the diffusion of hydrogen, may be different at different places because the distribution of hydrogen concentration may be different at different places. Thus the hydrogen diffusion coefficient in the metal may also be different at different positions, i.e., the diffusion coefficient should be affected by time in a dynamic process of hydrogen diffusion through a metal. But in the previous analyses, the above fact is not considered and the hydrogen diffusion coefficient is generally taken as a constant. In the present paper a new model of hydrogen diffusion in metals in which the effect of time is taken into account is developed.

  12. The Adoption and Diffusion of eLearning in UK Universities: A Comparative Case Study Using Giddens's Theory of Structuration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardaker, Glenn; Singh, Gurmak

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This exploratory study seeks to identify the factors that influence the adoption and diffusion of instructional technology at five prominent universities in the UK. The study aims to examine the organisational factors that enable and inhibit organisational adoption and diffusion of innovation. Design/methodology/approach: A qualitative…

  13. A Multimodal Theory of Affect Diffusion.

    PubMed

    Peters, Kim; Kashima, Yoshihisa

    2015-09-01

    There is broad consensus in the literature that affect diffuses through social networks (such that a person may "acquire" or "catch" an affective state from his or her social contacts). It is further assumed that affect diffusion primarily occurs as the result of people's tendencies to synchronize their affective actions (such as smiles and frowns). However, as we show, there is a lack of clarity in the literature about the substrate and scope of affect diffusion. One consequence of this is a difficulty in distinguishing between affect diffusion and several other affective influence phenomena that look similar but have very different consequences. There is also a growing body of evidence that action synchrony is unlikely to be the only, or indeed the most important, pathway for affect diffusion. This paper has 2 key aims: (a) to craft a formal definition of affect diffusion that does justice to the core of the phenomenon while distinguishing it from other phenomena with which it is frequently confounded and (b) to advance a theory of the mechanisms of affect diffusion. This theory, which we call the multimodal theory of affect diffusion, identifies 3 parallel multimodal mechanisms that may act as routes for affect diffusion. It also provides a basis for novel predictions about the conditions under which affect is most likely to diffuse.

  14. Innovating Education and Educating for Innovation: The Power of Digital Technologies and Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Publishing, 2016

    2016-01-01

    OECD's Innovation Strategy calls upon all sectors in the economy and society to innovate in order to foster productivity, growth and well-being. Education systems are critically important for innovation through the development of skills that nurture new ideas and technologies. However, whereas digital technologies are profoundly changing the way…

  15. Diffuse villous hyperplasia of choroid plexus.

    PubMed

    Iplikcioglu, A C; Bek, S; Gökduman, C A; Bikmaz, K; Cosar, M

    2006-06-01

    Diffuse villous hyperplasia of choroid plexus (DVHCP) is a rare condition which is characterized by the presence of diffuse enlargement of the entire choroid plexus throughout the length of the choroidal fissure and overproduction of CSF. The diagnosis of diffuse villous hyperplasia of choroid plexus can be established by the MR demonstration of diffusely large, contrast enhanced choroid plexus in the cases of overproduction hydrocephalus. Although some authors recommend choroid plexus excision or coagulation, ventriculo-atrial shunt insertion is a simple and effective treatment modality in cases of diffuse villous hyperplasia of the choroid plexus. In this report we present a case of diffuse villous hyperplasia of the choroid plexus and a short review of the literature. To our knowledge, in the CT and MRI era only 5 cases of DVHCP cases have been reported.

  16. Cosmic ray diffusion: Report of the Workshop in Cosmic Ray Diffusion Theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birmingham, T. J.; Jones, F. C.

    1975-01-01

    A workshop in cosmic ray diffusion theory was held at Goddard Space Flight Center on May 16-17, 1974. Topics discussed and summarized are: (1) cosmic ray measurements as related to diffusion theory; (2) quasi-linear theory, nonlinear theory, and computer simulation of cosmic ray pitch-angle diffusion; and (3) magnetic field fluctuation measurements as related to diffusion theory.

  17. Diffusion bonding of copper to niobium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, Adrian R.

    Processes used to join metal to ceramic at low temperatures have proven to be inefficient because multiple brazing cycles with different brazing temperatures and braze filler metals are required. Even though this is reproducible and robust, it is not ideal due to the manufacturing time and cost associated with multiple brazing cycles. A more efficient and cost effective process is to utilize the diffusion bonding technique to join different metallic layers prior to joining the entire ceramic assembly in one brazing cycle. In this study, the diffusion bonding of copper to niobium was examined. To the author's knowledge, the diffusion bonding of Cu to Nb has not been researched, and the diffusion of Cu into Nb or Nb into Cu has not been observed. A series of diffusion bonding experiments were conducted to determine the optimal bonding time, temperature, and pressure for the Cu-Nb system. The diffusion bonded samples were evaluated using mechanical testing and microscopy. Results from characterization indicate that diffusion of Nb into Cu occurs, and a robust bond with no interfacial voids is formed using different combinations of bonding parameters. The diffusion of Nb into Cu and with failure occurring outside the diffusion bonded region during all mechanical testing indicate that Cu can be bonded to Nb via the diffusion bonding technique.

  18. An asixymmetric diffusion experiment for the determination of diffusion and sorption coefficients of rock samples

    SciTech Connect

    Takeda, M.; Hiratsuka, T.; Ito, K.; Finsterle, S.

    2011-02-01

    Diffusion anisotropy is a critical property in predicting migration of substances in sedimentary formations with very low permeability. The diffusion anisotropy of sedimentary rocks has been evaluated mainly from laboratory diffusion experiments, in which the directional diffusivities are separately estimated by through-diffusion experiments using different rock samples, or concurrently by in-diffusion experiments in which only the tracer profile in a rock block is measured. To estimate the diffusion anisotropy from a single rock sample, this study proposes an axisymmetric diffusion test, in which tracer diffuses between a cylindrical rock sample and a surrounding solution reservoir. The tracer diffusion between the sample and reservoir can be monitored from the reservoir tracer concentrations, and the tracer profile could also be obtained after dismantling the sample. Semi-analytical solutions are derived for tracer concentrations in both the reservoir and sample, accounting for an anisotropic diffusion tensor of rank two as well as the dilution effects from sampling and replacement of reservoir solution. The transient and steady-state analyses were examined experimentally and numerically for different experimental configurations, but without the need for tracer profiling. These experimental configurations are tested for in- and out-diffusion experiments using Koetoi and Wakkanai mudstones and Shirahama sandstone, and are scrutinized by a numerical approach to identify favorable conditions for parameter estimation. The analysis reveals the difficulty in estimating diffusion anisotropy; test configurations are proposed for enhanced identifiability of diffusion anisotropy. Moreover, it is demonstrated that the axisymmetric diffusion test is efficient in obtaining the sorption parameter from both steady-state and transient data, and in determining the effective diffusion coefficient if isotropic diffusion is assumed. Moreover, measuring reservoir concentrations in an

  19. Short-time diffusivity of dicolloids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panczyk, Mark M.; Wagner, Norman J.; Furst, Eric M.

    2014-06-01

    The short-time diffusivity of dicolloid particles as a function of particle volume fraction ϕ from 0.01≤ϕ≤0.6 is measured using diffusing wave spectroscopy. The diffusivities of symmetric and asymmetric dicolloids are compared with similarly sized spheres. The short-time diffusivity is independent of salt concentration and decreases with increasing volume fraction for both spheres and asymmetric dicolloids. Symmetric dicolloids have a higher diffusivity than spheres at similar volume fractions. This difference is accounted for by rescaling the dicolloid volume fraction based on the ratio of the random close-packing volume fractions of spheres and dicolloids. Finally, a useful method is provided for calculating the diffusivity of symmetric dicolloid particles of arbitrary aspect ratio based on the calculated hydrodynamic resistance of Zabarankin [Proc. R. Soc. A 463, 2329 (2007), 10.1098/rspa.2007.1872].

  20. The Diffusion of Antimony of Alpha Iron.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Diffusion coefficients of antimony in alpha iron were determined in the temperature range 700 to 900C using the residual activity method. Specimens...negligible effect on the diffusion of antomony in alpha iron . These results are discussed in relation to the phenomenon of temper brittleness in steels

  1. Topology and evolution of technology innovation networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valverde, Sergi; Solé, Ricard V.; Bedau, Mark A.; Packard, Norman

    2007-11-01

    The web of relations linking technological innovation can be fairly described in terms of patent citations. The resulting patent citation network provides a picture of the large-scale organization of innovations and its time evolution. Here we study the patterns of change of patents registered by the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office. We show that the scaling behavior exhibited by this network is consistent with a preferential attachment mechanism together with a Weibull-shaped aging term. Such an attachment kernel is shared by scientific citation networks, thus indicating a universal type of mechanism linking ideas and designs and their evolution. The implications for evolutionary theory of innovation are discussed.

  2. Fifty Years of Innovation in Plastic Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Hughes-Hallett, Archie; Marcus, Hani J; Yang, Guang-Zhong; Darzi, Ara; Hettiaratchy, Shehan

    2016-01-01

    Background Innovation has molded the current landscape of plastic surgery. However, documentation of this process only exists scattered throughout the literature as individual articles. The few attempts made to profile innovation in plastic surgery have been narrative, and therefore qualitative and inherently biased. Through the implementation of a novel innovation metric, this work aims to identify and characterise the most prevalent innovations in plastic surgery over the last 50 years. Methods Patents and publications related to plastic surgery (1960 to 2010) were retrieved from patent and MEDLINE databases, respectively. The most active patent codes were identified and grouped into technology areas, which were subsequently plotted graphically against publication data. Expert-derived technologies outside of the top performing patents areas were additionally explored. Results Between 1960 and 2010, 4,651 patents and 43,118 publications related to plastic surgery were identified. The most active patent codes were grouped under reconstructive prostheses, implants, instruments, non-invasive techniques, and tissue engineering. Of these areas and other expert-derived technologies, those currently undergoing growth include surgical instruments, implants, non-invasive practices, transplantation and breast surgery. Innovations related to microvascular surgery, liposuction, tissue engineering, lasers and prostheses have all plateaued. Conclusions The application of a novel metric for evaluating innovation quantitatively outlines the natural history of technologies fundamental to the evolution of plastic surgery. Analysis of current innovation trends provides some insight into which technology domains are the most active. PMID:27019807

  3. Development of Innovative Design Processor

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Y.S.; Park, C.O.

    2004-07-01

    The nuclear design analysis requires time-consuming and erroneous model-input preparation, code run, output analysis and quality assurance process. To reduce human effort and improve design quality and productivity, Innovative Design Processor (IDP) is being developed. Two basic principles of IDP are the document-oriented design and the web-based design. The document-oriented design is that, if the designer writes a design document called active document and feeds it to a special program, the final document with complete analysis, table and plots is made automatically. The active documents can be written with ordinary HTML editors or created automatically on the web, which is another framework of IDP. Using the proper mix-up of server side and client side programming under the LAMP (Linux/Apache/MySQL/PHP) environment, the design process on the web is modeled as a design wizard style so that even a novice designer makes the design document easily. This automation using the IDP is now being implemented for all the reload design of Korea Standard Nuclear Power Plant (KSNP) type PWRs. The introduction of this process will allow large reduction in all reload design efforts of KSNP and provide a platform for design and R and D tasks of KNFC. (authors)

  4. Impact of formularies on clinical innovation.

    PubMed

    Goodwin, Frederick K

    2003-01-01

    It is important to consider, in light of how innovation has so often occurred, whether today's managed care environment is conducive to continued psychopharmacologic innovation. The initial step in the development of a new area in psychopharmacology has historically relied in large part on individual clinicians who pursued unconventional methods of treatment. When a set of guidelines such as a formulary (a list of drugs eligible for reimbursement compiled by a managed care organization) becomes restrictive, it decreases clinician innovation. In addition to this long-term threat to innovation, studies have found greater restrictiveness in formularies to be associated with higher health care utilization. Thus, restricted formularies that are based on a naive interpretation of "therapeutic equivalence" may slow the advance of medical science without even achieving the only goal that could possibly justify such restrictions-cost control. If innovation is to flourish, formularies must be flexible and advisory, not restrictive. Preserving the climate for innovation in health care requires the management culture to focus on the long-term impact of policies on quality and innovation as well as on the overall health cost in the system.

  5. [Facial graft, archetype of microsurgical innovation?].

    PubMed

    Devauchelle, B; Testelin, S; Dakpe, S; Lengelé, B; Dubernard, J-M

    2010-10-01

    Is innovation breaking of the way of thinking, breaker of taboos, concretisation of chimeras or simple benefit of an ineluctable evolution? The surgical act should be considered as innovation itself? From the first facial allotransplantation, innovation is declined in various ways, which could constitute the different answers regarding the planning and management to prepare such surgery, the realisation of the transplantation and also the multiple developments in terms of science and medicine. It is exactly in that meaning that could be really mentioned the term archetypal.

  6. Molecular dynamics simulations of substitutional diffusion

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Xiaowang; Jones, Reese E.; Gruber, Jacob

    2016-12-18

    In atomistic simulations, diffusion energy barriers are usually calculated for each atomic jump path using a nudged elastic band method. Practical materials often involve thousands of distinct atomic jump paths that are not known a priori. Hence, it is often preferred to determine an overall diffusion energy barrier and an overall pre-exponential factor from the Arrhenius equation constructed through molecular dynamics simulations of mean square displacement of the diffusion species at different temperatures. This approach has been well established for interstitial diffusion, but not for substitutional diffusion at the same confidence. Using In 0.1 Ga 0.9 N as an example, we have identified conditions where molecular dynamics simulations can be used to calculate highly converged Arrhenius plots for substitutional alloys. As a result, this may enable many complex diffusion problems to be easily and reliably studied in the future using molecular dynamics, provided that moderate computing resources are available.

  7. Molecular dynamics simulations of substitutional diffusion

    DOE PAGES

    Zhou, Xiaowang; Jones, Reese E.; Gruber, Jacob

    2016-12-18

    In atomistic simulations, diffusion energy barriers are usually calculated for each atomic jump path using a nudged elastic band method. Practical materials often involve thousands of distinct atomic jump paths that are not known a priori. Hence, it is often preferred to determine an overall diffusion energy barrier and an overall pre-exponential factor from the Arrhenius equation constructed through molecular dynamics simulations of mean square displacement of the diffusion species at different temperatures. This approach has been well established for interstitial diffusion, but not for substitutional diffusion at the same confidence. Using In 0.1 Ga 0.9 N as an example,more » we have identified conditions where molecular dynamics simulations can be used to calculate highly converged Arrhenius plots for substitutional alloys. As a result, this may enable many complex diffusion problems to be easily and reliably studied in the future using molecular dynamics, provided that moderate computing resources are available.« less

  8. Diffusion coefficients in leaflets of bilayer membranes.

    PubMed

    Seki, Kazuhiko; Mogre, Saurabh; Komura, Shigeyuki

    2014-02-01

    We study diffusion coefficients of liquid domains by explicitly taking into account the two-layered structure called leaflets of the bilayer membrane. In general, the velocity fields associated with each leaflet are different and the layers sliding past each other cause frictional coupling. We obtain analytical results of diffusion coefficients for a circular liquid domain in a leaflet, and quantitatively study their dependence on the interleaflet friction. We also show that the diffusion coefficients diverge in the absence of coupling between the bilayer and solvents, even when the interleaflet friction is taken into account. In order to corroborate our theory, the effect of the interleaflet friction on the correlated diffusion is examined.

  9. [Innovation].

    PubMed

    Fajardo-Dolci, Germán; Ramiro-H, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Of all the animals, the human being is the only one capable of making processes leading to the development of new tools and methodologies changing the course of nature for their own and others' benefit. These improvements have been also given, of course, in the field of medicine, where the research made by thousands of people have been favored by the advance of new technologies, procedures and substances, that while intended to achieve the welfare of patients also seek to achieve a higher profit margin.

  10. Diffusion bonding of Stratapax for drill bits

    SciTech Connect

    Middleton, J.N.; Finger, J.T.

    1983-01-01

    A process has been developed for the diffusion bonding of General Electric's Stratapax drill blanks to support studs for cutter assemblies in drill bits. The diffusion bonding process is described and bond strength test data are provided for a variety of materials. The extensive process details, provided in the Appendices, should be sufficient to enable others to successfully build diffusion-bonded drill bit cutter assemblies.

  11. Single laser beam measurement of thermal diffusivity.

    PubMed

    Bourgoin, Jean-Philippe; Doiron, Serge; Deveaux, Michel; Haché, Alain

    2008-12-10

    Thermal diffusion properties of interfaces are measured using self-induced surface thermal lensing with a single laser beam. The time evolution of the reflected beam reveals information on heat diffusion away from the interface. Unambiguous correlation between measured signal and thermal diffusivity is shown, theoretically and experimentally, from which calibration curves are obtained. Being simpler and less sensitive to vibrations and misalignments, the technique offers definite advantages over standard two-beam (pump-probe) methods.

  12. Age, Innovations and Time Operator of Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gialampoukidis, Ilias; Antoniou, Ioannis

    2015-08-01

    We extend the Time Operator and Age to Network Evolution models. Internal Age formulas and the distribution of innovations are computed for Erdős-Rényi Random Networks, for Markov Networks and Barabási-Albert preferential Attachment Networks. The innovation probabilities are found to be proportional to the quadratic entropy (which coincides with the Tsallis entropy for entropic index q = 2) in all Markov networks, as well as in the linear growth mechanism. The distribution of innovations in the Barabási-Albert model is a new probability distribution of the logarithmic type.

  13. Spectrum of fibrosing diffuse parenchymal lung disease.

    PubMed

    Morgenthau, Adam S; Padilla, Maria L

    2009-02-01

    The interstitial lung diseases are a heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by inflammation and/or fibrosis of the pulmonary interstitium. In 2002, the American Thoracic Society and the European Respiratory Society revised the classification of interstitial lung diseases and introduced the term diffuse parenchymal lung disease. The idiopathic interstitial pneumonias are a subtype of diffuse parenchymal lung disease. The idiopathic interstitial pneumonias are subdivided into usual interstitial pneumonia (with its clinical counterpart idiopathic interstitial pneumonia), nonspecific interstitial pneumonia, cryptogenic organizing pneumonia, acute interstitial pneumonia, desquamative interstitial pneumonia, respiratory bronchiolitis interstitial lung disease, and lymphocytic pneumonia. Sarcoidosis and hypersensitivity pneumonitis are the 2 most common granulomatous diffuse parenchymal lung diseases. Rheumatoid arthritis, systemic sclerosis, and dermatomyositis/polymyositis (causing antisynthetase syndrome) are diffuse parenchymal lung diseases of known association because these conditions are associated with connective tissue disease. Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome is a rare genetic diffuse parenchymal lung disease characterized by the clinical triad of pulmonary disease, oculocutaneous albinism, and bleeding diathesis. This review provides an overview of the chronic fibrosing diffuse parenchymal lung diseases. Its primary objective is to illuminate the clinical challenges encountered by clinicians who manage the diffuse parenchymal lung diseases regularly and to offer potential solutions to those challenges. Treatment for the diffuse parenchymal lung diseases is limited, and for many patients with end-stage disease, lung transplantation remains the best option. Although much has been learned about the diffuse parenchymal lung diseases during the past decade, research in these diseases is urgently needed.

  14. Diffusion of glycophorin A in human erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Giger, Katie; Habib, Ibrahim; Ritchie, Ken; Low, Philip S

    2016-11-01

    Several lines of evidence suggest that glycophorin A (GPA) interacts with band 3 in human erythrocyte membranes including: i) the existence of an epitope shared between band 3 and GPA in the Wright b blood group antigen, ii) the fact that antibodies to GPA inhibit the diffusion of band 3, iii) the observation that expression of GPA facilitates trafficking of band 3 from the endoplasmic reticulum to the plasma membrane, and iv) the observation that GPA is diminished in band 3 null erythrocytes. Surprisingly, there is also evidence that GPA does not interact with band 3, including data showing that: i) band 3 diffusion increases upon erythrocyte deoxygenation whereas GPA diffusion does not, ii) band 3 diffusion is greatly restricted in erythrocytes containing the Southeast Asian Ovalocytosis mutation whereas GPA diffusion is not, and iii) most anti-GPA or anti-band 3 antibodies do not co-immunoprecipitate both proteins. To try to resolve these apparently conflicting observations, we have selectively labeled band 3 and GPA with fluorescent quantum dots in intact erythrocytes and followed their diffusion by single particle tracking. We report here that band 3 and GPA display somewhat similar macroscopic and microscopic diffusion coefficients in unmodified cells, however perturbations of band 3 diffusion do not cause perturbations of GPA diffusion. Taken together the collective data to date suggest that while weak interactions between GPA and band 3 undoubtedly exist, GPA and band 3 must have separate interactions in the membrane that control their lateral mobility.

  15. Two Blades of Grass: A Summary of Two Studies on Agricultural Innovation in India.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Prodipto; And Others

    Under contract with the United States Agency for International Development and Michigan State University, a study was made comparing diffusion of innovations in Brazil, Nigeria, and India. In India, the study was in two phases: a survey of 108 villages in Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra, and West Bengal; and a study of adoption behavior among 680…

  16. Rogers' Five Main Attributes of Innovation on the Adoption Rate of Online Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Do, Truman

    2008-01-01

    Background: Hawaii Pacific University (HPU) has increased the offering of online courses for its students. The drive toward online instruction has been championed by school management, but feedback from faculty and students has not been measured. Purpose: To investigate the influence of Rogers' five attributes of innovation diffusion on the…

  17. Innovators in Teacher Education: Diffusing Mobile Technologies in Teacher Preparation Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foulger, Teresa S.; Waker, Mary L.; Burke, Diane; Hansen, Randall; Williams, Mia Kim; Slykhuis, David A.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to establish a snapshot of the extent to which teacher educators are preparing teacher candidates to use mobile learning technologies in PK-12 classrooms, with the goal of drawing more teacher credentialing institutions into the conversations surrounding this initiative. We used a questionnaire consisting of open-ended…

  18. Continuous cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisolone. A new, innovative protocol for diffuse aggressive lymphomas

    SciTech Connect

    Banavali, S.D.; Advani, S.H.; Gopal, R.; Agarwala, S.; Dinshaw, K.A.; Saikia, T.K.; Pai, S.K.; Kurkure, P.; Nair, C.N.; Gonsalves, M. )

    1990-04-15

    One hundred eight patients with aggressive non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (high and intermediate grade) were treated with a new protocol: continuous cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisolone (CHOP). They were evaluated for long-term survival and pretreatment characteristics predictive of response and survival. Continuous CHOP protocol consists of initial 8 weeks of intensive chemotherapy with cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisolone, followed by local/cranial radiotherapy and maintenance therapy. Complete remission (CR) was achieved in 84 of 108 (78%) patients; seven (6%) had a moderate response and 17 (16%) had a poor response. A statistically significant difference in CR rate was found only in patients with different stages. Seventeen of 84 (20%) complete responders have had a relapse of the disease. The median survival has not been reached. Results show an actuarial disease-free survival (DFS) of 77% for the 84 patients who had a complete response. The overall survival for all patients was 53% at 5 years of follow-up. The difference in DFS at the end of 5 years between different stages, main histologic subgroups, and age groups was not statistically significant. The toxicity observed was acceptable. Thus continuous CHOP appears to be an effective protocol for the treatment of intermediate-grade and high-grade lymphomas.

  19. Factors Involved in the Transfer of Innovations: A Summary and Organization of the Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Public Affairs Counseling, San Francisco, CA.

    Originally intended for the Department of Housing and Urban Development, this literature survey can also serve the interests of public officials, participants in demonstration programs, and academics involved in delivering assistance to local officials. Reviewed is the literature relating to innovation, diffusion, organizational behavior, and…

  20. Sources of Information as Determinants of Product and Process Innovation

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we use a panel of manufacturing firms in Spain to examine the extent to which they use internal and external sources of information (customers, suppliers, competitors, consultants and universities) to generate product and process innovation. Our results show that, although internal sources are influential, external sources of information are key to achieve innovation performance. These results are in line with the open innovation literature because they show that firms that are opening up their innovation process and that use different information sources have a greater capacity to generate innovations. We also find that the importance of external sources of information varies depending on the type of innovation (product or process) considered. To generate process innovation, firms mainly rely on suppliers while, to generate product innovation, the main contribution is from customers. The potential simultaneity between product and process innovation is also taken into consideration. We find that the generation of both types of innovation is not independent. PMID:27035456

  1. Sources of Information as Determinants of Product and Process Innovation.

    PubMed

    Gómez, Jaime; Salazar, Idana; Vargas, Pilar

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we use a panel of manufacturing firms in Spain to examine the extent to which they use internal and external sources of information (customers, suppliers, competitors, consultants and universities) to generate product and process innovation. Our results show that, although internal sources are influential, external sources of information are key to achieve innovation performance. These results are in line with the open innovation literature because they show that firms that are opening up their innovation process and that use different information sources have a greater capacity to generate innovations. We also find that the importance of external sources of information varies depending on the type of innovation (product or process) considered. To generate process innovation, firms mainly rely on suppliers while, to generate product innovation, the main contribution is from customers. The potential simultaneity between product and process innovation is also taken into consideration. We find that the generation of both types of innovation is not independent.

  2. Self diffusion of interacting membrane proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Abney, J R; Scalettar, B A; Owicki, J C

    1989-01-01

    A two-dimensional version of the generalized Smoluchowski equation is used to analyze the time (or distance) dependent self diffusion of interacting membrane proteins in concentrated membrane systems. This equation provides a well established starting point for descriptions of the diffusion of particles that interact through both direct and hydrodynamic forces; in this initial work only the effects of direct interactions are explicitly considered. Data describing diffusion in the presence of hard-core repulsions, soft repulsions, and soft repulsions with weak attractions are presented. The effect that interactions have on the self-diffusion coefficient of a real protein molecule from mouse liver gap junctions is also calculated. The results indicate that self diffusion is always inhibited by direct interactions; this observation is interpreted in terms of the caging that will exist at finite protein concentration. It is also noted that, over small distance scales, the diffusion coefficient is determined entirely by the very strong Brownian forces; therefore, as a function of displacement the self-diffusion coefficient decays (rapidly) from its value at infinite dilution to its steady-state interaction-averaged value. The steady-state self-diffusion coefficient describes motion over distance scales that range from approximately 10 nm to cellular dimensions and is the quantity measured in fluorescence recovery after photobleaching experiments. The short-ranged behavior of the diffusion coefficient is important on the interparticle-distance scale and may therefore influence the rate at which nearest-neighbor collisional processes take place. The hard-disk theoretical results presented here are in excellent agreement with lattice Monte-Carlo results obtained by other workers. The concentration dependence of experimentally measured diffusion coefficients of antibody-hapten complexes bound to the membrane surface is consistent with that predicted by the theory. The

  3. Interim Reflections on the Corporate University and SME Academy Business Development Innovation and Its Diffusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dealtry, Richard

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to reflect on and inform about learning points from ECUANET, a two-year duration best practice action research and transnational networking project as it approaches its final stage. Design/methodology/approach: The paper explicates the key positive and obfuscating dynamics that the project team have had to,…

  4. Industrial and Academic Collaboration: Hybrid Models for Research and Innovation Diffusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Freitas, Sara; Mayer, Igor; Arnab, Sylvester; Marshall, Ian

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores how, in the light of global economic downturn and rising student populations, new academic-industrial models for research collaboration based upon specific technological expertise and knowledge can be developed as potential mechanisms for preserving and extending central university research infrastructure. The paper explores…

  5. The fast diffusion of Au IN Pb

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclellan, R. B.; Ko, C.; Brotzen, F. R.

    1990-01-01

    A treatment of the phenomenon of fast diffusion in lead is presented. The model used is based upon the fast diffusion of free solute interstitials. The very large negative enhancement coefficients found in the Pb-(Au, Ag) systems is explained by the formation of first and second order clusters of vacancies and substitutional solute atoms.

  6. THEORY OF DIFFUSION IN ORDERING ALLOYS

    DTIC Science & Technology

    interstitial atoms through the interstices Diffusion of interstitial atoms in alloys with a body - centered cubic lattice Diffusion of...sites of the alloy The case of an alloy with body - centered cubic lattic structure The case of an alloy with a face-centered cubic lattic

  7. Tethered Test of Morpheus -- Innovation Day

    NASA Video Gallery

    Another tethered test of the Morpheus vertical test bed. This flight was on Innovation Day at Johnson Space Center. We had around 300 onlookers during this test. This test looked better than yester...

  8. The Process of Innovation in University Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brew, Angela

    1982-01-01

    Argues that teaching innovation in the university is influenced by teacher attitudes and the existence of satisfactory teaching materials. Teaching packages from the Open University in England are described. (JJD)

  9. NASA Kicks Off Summer of Innovation

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA Administrator Charlie Bolden, astronaut Leland Melvin and others joined students at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in California to kick off the Summer of Innovation, an initiative to engage...

  10. Amyloidosis: diffuse involvement of the retroperitoneum.

    PubMed

    Glynn, T P; Kreipke, D L; Irons, J M

    1989-03-01

    Systemic amyloidosis diffusely involving the retroperitoneum has not, to the authors' knowledge, been previously reported. The computed tomographic scans of a 68-year-old man showed evidence of diffuse, nonenhancing thickening of the entire retroperitoneum. This appearance mimicked retroperitoneal fibrosis, but the diagnosis of amyloidosis was confirmed at autopsy.

  11. Preliminary report on the diffusion of solids

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van Orstrand, C. E.; Dewey, F.P.

    1916-01-01

    Although 19 years has elapsed since Roberts-Austen published his classical paper on the diffusion of solid metals, no attempt seems to have been made to verify his important results and conclusions or to extend the investigations to minerals and to the great number of solids in which diffusion may be expected to occur. Progress has been made by means of chemical and electrical methods in the detection of diffusion in a number of metals in the solid state, some progress has been made in explaining the phenomena of diffusion on the basis of osmotic pressure and the kinetic theory, and recent measurements of the vapor pressures of solids have contributed indirectly to the progress of the science, but investigators have not undertaken the difficult and essential task of making definitive determinations of the coefficients of diffusivity at various pressures and temperatures.

  12. Cross-national diffusion of mental health policy

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Gordon C

    2014-01-01

    Background: Following the tenets of world polity and innovation diffusion theories, I focus on the coercive and mimetic forces that influence the diffusion of mental health policy across nations. International organizations’ mandates influence government behavior. Dependency on external resources, namely foreign aid, also affects governments’ formulation of national policy. And finally, mounting adoption in a region alters the risk, benefits, and information associated with a given policy. Methods: I use post-war, discrete time data spanning 1950 to 2011 and describing 193 nations’ mental health systems to test these diffusion mechanisms. Results: I find that the adoption of mental health policy is highly clustered temporally and spatially. Results provide support that membership in the World Health Organization (WHO), interdependence with neighbors and peers in regional blocs, national income status, and migrant sub-population are responsible for isomorphism. Aid, however, is an insufficient determinant of mental health policy adoption. Conclusion: This study examines the extent to which mental, neurological, and substance use disorder are addressed in national and international contexts through the lens of policy diffusion theory. It also adds to policy dialogues about non-communicable diseases as nascent items on the global health agenda. PMID:25337601

  13. Complex contagion process in spreading of online innovation.

    PubMed

    Karsai, Márton; Iñiguez, Gerardo; Kaski, Kimmo; Kertész, János

    2014-12-06

    Diffusion of innovation can be interpreted as a social spreading phenomenon governed by the impact of media and social interactions. Although these mechanisms have been identified by quantitative theories, their role and relative importance are not entirely understood, as empirical verification has so far been hindered by the lack of appropriate data. Here we analyse a dataset recording the spreading dynamics of the world's largest Voice over Internet Protocol service to empirically support the assumptions behind models of social contagion. We show that the rate of spontaneous service adoption is constant, the probability of adoption via social influence is linearly proportional to the fraction of adopting neighbours, and the rate of service termination is time-invariant and independent of the behaviour of peers. By implementing the detected diffusion mechanisms into a dynamical agent-based model, we are able to emulate the adoption dynamics of the service in several countries worldwide. This approach enables us to make medium-term predictions of service adoption and disclose dependencies between the dynamics of innovation spreading and the socio-economic development of a country.

  14. Fluid dynamics of double diffusive systems

    SciTech Connect

    Koseff, J.R.

    1989-04-07

    A study of mixing processes in doubly diffusive systems is being conducted. Continuous gradients of two diffusing components (heat and salinity in our case) are being used as initial conditions, and forcing is introduced by lateral heating and surface shear. The goals of the proposed work include: (1) quantification of the effects of finite amplitude disturbances on stable, double diffusive systems, particularly with respect to lateral heating, (2) development of an improved understanding of the physical phenomena present in wind-driven shear flows in double diffusive stratified environments, (3) increasing our knowledge-base on turbulent flow in stratified environments and how to represent it, and (4) formulation of a numerical code for such flows. The work is being carried out in an experimental facility which is located in the Stanford Environmental Fluid Mechanics Laboratory, and on laboratory minicomputers and CRAY computers. In particular we are focusing on the following key issues: (1) the formation and propagation of double diffusive intrusions away from a heated wall and the effects of lateral heating on the double diffusive system; (2) the interaction between the double diffusively influenced fluxes and the turbulence induced fluxes; (3) the measurement of heat and mass fluxes; and (4) the influence of double diffusive gradients on mixed layer deepening. 1 fig.

  15. Tactile perception of thermal diffusivity.

    PubMed

    Tiest, Wouter M Bergmann; Kappers, Astrid M L

    2009-04-01

    The thermal diffusivity of an object is a parameter that controls the rate at which heat is extracted from the hand when it touches that object. It is an important feature for distinguishing materials by means of touch. In order to quantitatively describe the ability of human observers to discriminate between materials on the basis of heat extraction rate, we conducted an experiment in which this heat extraction was performed in a controlled way. In different conditions, subjects were repeatedly asked to select from two stimuli the one that cooled faster. The discrimination threshold was around 43% of the extraction rate. A rate that was twice as slow also yielded twice the absolute threshold. When we halved the temperature difference between the beginning and end of the stimulus, the threshold did not change as much. In separate experiments, we investigated the different cues that were available in the stimulus: initial cooling rate and end temperature. Both cues were used for discrimination, but cooling rate seemed to be the most important.

  16. Final results of the condors convective diffusion experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Briggs, G.A.

    1993-01-01

    The Convective Diffusion Observed by Remote Sensors (CONDORS) field experiment conducted at the Boulder Atmospheric Observatory used innovative techniques to obtain three dimensional mappings of plume concentration fields of oil fog detected by lidar and chaff detected by Doppler radar. It included extensive meteorological measurements and, in 1983, tracer gases measured at a single sampling arc. Final results from ten hours of elevated and surface release data are summarized here. Spatial standard deviations (diffusion coefficients) of chaff and oil agree overall and are consistent at short range with velocity standard deviations and statistical theory predictions. Surface release lateral diffusion is enhanced up to 60% at small distances, consistent with the 1956 Prairie Grass measurements and with larger turbulence velocities and reduced wind speed measured near the surface. Decreased lateral diffusion at small dimensionless averaging times is also noted. Finally, convectively scaled concentrations were plotted versus dimensionless distance and height for oil and for chaff, for each 30-60 min period. Aggregated CONDORS fields compare well with laboratory tank and numerical model simulations.

  17. Thermal diffusivity of some crystalline rocks

    SciTech Connect

    Drury, M.J.

    1987-01-01

    Thermal diffusivity data at room temperature and uniaxial pressure of 1 MPa are reported for five sets of crystalline rocks - granite, granodiorite, gabbro, basalt and gneiss. Diffusivity ranges between approximately 0.6 and 1.9 mm/sup 2//s, the lower end of the range being appropriate for basic rocks and the upper end for quartz-bearing acidic rocks. The scatter in diffusivity for each data set is significantly more than that of thermal conductivity, because the diffusivity of water is typically less than 10% of the diffusivity of most common minerals, whereas water conductivity is 25 - 30% of the conductivity of the minerals. For a sample set of uniform mineralogy in which porosity varies, a greater variation of diffusivity than of conductivity is therefore expected. For three of the sets sufficient mineralogical data were available to permit the assessment of methods of estimating thermal diffusivity from mineral content. All models tested yielded higher mean values of diffusivity than the means of the measured values. No model was found to be able to predict diffusivity to better than approximately 20%, but if that accuracy is sufficient, a simple geometrical model, for which only quartz content must be known, is adequate. The diffusivity data have been combined with measurements of thermal conductivity and density to provide estimates of specific heat. These all tend to be higher than those reported in the literature. For some rocks, such as the basalts, this can be explained in terms of relatively high water content and the very high specific heat of water compared with that of most common minerals. For the granites and granodiorites, the new specific heat data redefine the previously published means and ranges, by increasing the data base by approximately an order of magnitude.

  18. Diffusion of Super-Gaussian Profiles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenberg, C.-J.; Anderson, D.; Desaix, M.; Johannisson, P.; Lisak, M.

    2007-01-01

    The present analysis describes an analytically simple and systematic approximation procedure for modelling the free diffusive spreading of initially super-Gaussian profiles. The approach is based on a self-similar ansatz for the evolution of the diffusion profile, and the parameter functions involved in the modelling are determined by suitable…

  19. Nanosecond pulsed laser texturing of optical diffusers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alqurashi, Tawfiq; Sabouri, Aydin; Yetisen, Ali K.; Butt, Haider

    2017-02-01

    High-quality optical glass diffusers have applications in aerospace, displays, imaging systems, medical devices, and optical sensors. The development of rapid and accurate fabrication techniques is highly desirable for their production. Here, a micropatterning method for the fast fabrication of optical diffusers by means of nanosecond pulsed laser ablation is demonstrated (λ=1064 nm, power=7.02, 9.36 and 11.7 W and scanning speed=200 and 800 mm s-1). The experiments were carried out by point-to-point texturing of a glass surface in spiral shape. The laser machining parameters, the number of pulses and their power had significant effect on surface features. The optical characteristics of the diffusers were characterized at different scattering angles. The features of the microscale structures influenced average roughness from 0.8 μm to 1.97 μm. The glass diffusers scattered light at angles up to 20° and their transmission efficiency were measured up to ˜97% across the visible spectrum. The produced optical devices diffuse light less but do so with less scattering and energy losses as compared to opal diffusing glass. The presented fabrication method can be applied to any other transparent material to create optical diffusers. It is anticipated that the optical diffusers presented in this work will have applications in the production of LED spotlights and imaging devices.

  20. Diffusion of triglycine sulfate in aqueous solution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kroes, R. L.; Reiss, D.; Silberman, E.; Morgan, S.

    1985-01-01

    The diffusion coefficient of triglycine sulfate (TGS) in water was measured for several concentrations over a temperature range of 25 to 55 C. The activation energy for diffusion obtained from these measurements was 4180 cal/mol. No concentration dependence was seen. The maximum difference in D for the various ionic species present was determined by Raman spectroscopy to be about 5 percent.

  1. Diffusion of Charged Species in Liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Río, J. A.; Whitaker, S.

    2016-11-01

    In this study the laws of mechanics for multi-component systems are used to develop a theory for the diffusion of ions in the presence of an electrostatic field. The analysis begins with the governing equation for the species velocity and it leads to the governing equation for the species diffusion velocity. Simplification of this latter result provides a momentum equation containing three dominant forces: (a) the gradient of the partial pressure, (b) the electrostatic force, and (c) the diffusive drag force that is a central feature of the Maxwell-Stefan equations. For ideal gas mixtures we derive the classic Nernst-Planck equation. For liquid-phase diffusion we encounter a situation in which the Nernst-Planck contribution to diffusion differs by several orders of magnitude from that obtained for ideal gases.

  2. Diffusion of Charged Species in Liquids.

    PubMed

    Del Río, J A; Whitaker, S

    2016-11-04

    In this study the laws of mechanics for multi-component systems are used to develop a theory for the diffusion of ions in the presence of an electrostatic field. The analysis begins with the governing equation for the species velocity and it leads to the governing equation for the species diffusion velocity. Simplification of this latter result provides a momentum equation containing three dominant forces: (a) the gradient of the partial pressure, (b) the electrostatic force, and (c) the diffusive drag force that is a central feature of the Maxwell-Stefan equations. For ideal gas mixtures we derive the classic Nernst-Planck equation. For liquid-phase diffusion we encounter a situation in which the Nernst-Planck contribution to diffusion differs by several orders of magnitude from that obtained for ideal gases.

  3. The risks of innovation in health care.

    PubMed

    Enzmann, Dieter R

    2015-04-01

    Innovation in health care creates risks that are unevenly distributed. An evolutionary analogy using species to represent business models helps categorize innovation experiments and their risks. This classification reveals two qualitative categories: early and late diversification experiments. Early diversification has prolific innovations with high risk because they encounter a "decimation" stage, during which most experiments disappear. Participants face high risk. The few decimation survivors can be sustaining or disruptive according to Christensen's criteria. Survivors enter late diversification, during which they again expand, but within a design range limited to variations of the previous surviving designs. Late diversifications carry lower risk. The exception is when disruptive survivors "diversify," which amplifies their disruption. Health care and radiology will experience both early and late diversifications, often simultaneously. Although oversimplifying Christensen's concepts, early diversifications are likely to deliver disruptive innovation, whereas late diversifications tend to produce sustaining innovations. Current health care consolidation is a manifestation of late diversification. Early diversifications will appear outside traditional care models and physical health care sites, as well as with new science such as molecular diagnostics. They warrant attention because decimation survivors will present both disruptive and sustaining opportunities to radiology. Radiology must participate in late diversification by incorporating sustaining innovations to its value chain. Given the likelihood of disruptive survivors, radiology should seriously consider disrupting itself rather than waiting for others to do so. Disruption entails significant modifications of its value chain, hence, its business model, for which lessons may become available from the pharmaceutical industry's current simultaneous experience with early and late diversifications.

  4. Evaluation of the National Diffusion Network. Final Report. Volume I: Findings and Recommendations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanford Research Inst., Menlo Park, CA.

    Major findings, interpretations, and policy recommendations developed from a national, in-depth evaluation of the National Diffusion Network (NDN) are presented. Features of the NDN approach to the dissemination of educational innovation include: local change as a goal, use of specialized change agents, emphasis on interpersonal tactics to effect…

  5. Diffusion of uranium in compacted sodium bentonite

    SciTech Connect

    Muurinen, A.; Ollila, K.; Lehikoinen, J.

    1993-12-31

    In this study the diffusion of uranium dissolved from uranium oxide fuel was studied experimentally in compacted sodium bentonite (Wyoming bentonite MX-80). The parameters varied in the study were the density of bentonite, the salt content of the solution and the redox conditions. In the studies with non-saline water of total dissolved solids about 300 ppm, uranium was both in aerobic and anaerobic experiments as anionic complexes and followed the anionic diffusion mechanism. Anion exclusion decreased effective diffusion coefficients, especially in more dense samples. In the studies with saline water of total dissolves solids about 35000 ppm, uranium appeared in the aerobic experiments probably as cationic complexes and followed the cationic diffusion mechanism. Uranium in the saline, anaerobic experiment was probably U(OH){sub 4} and followed the diffusion mechanism of neutral species.

  6. Diffusion of dextran inside microtubule sample

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prodan, Camelia

    2005-03-01

    Microtubules (Mts) are the bones of the cell. Their exterior has been extensively studied but little is known about their interior. We have studied the diffusion of fluorescein labeled dextran in the presence of GDP Mts and taxol stabilized GDP Mts. The diffusion coefficient, D, of different size dextran (10 kD, 40 kD, 70 kD, 500 kD) was measured using fluorescence recovery after photo-bleaching (FRAP). If dextran was present during the assembling of Mts, D was smaller then free diffusion coefficient. When dextran was added after the assembling, D was the same as the free diffusion coefficient. For taxol stabilized Mts (0.90 fill ratio), D was also found the same as the free diffusion coefficient .

  7. Eagles, Otters, and Unicorns: An Anatomy of Innovation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grossman, Stephen R.; King, Margaret J.

    1990-01-01

    This article describes three archetypal workers: eagles who innovate by improvements, otters who innovate by extension, and unicorns who innovate by paradigm. Each of these innovators is discussed in terms of domain-relevant skills, manipulative skills, and motivation. Needs of each type in terms of business culture are discussed. (PB)

  8. Diffusion of Salt in Tap Water

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Booth, C.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    A simple experiment is described to measure the diffusion coefficient of a solute in a fluid. Laboratory-made floats are used to monitor the density changes associated with diffusion behavior. The experiment is ideally suited for undergraduate project work. (BB)

  9. The dynamics of unsteady detonation with diffusion

    SciTech Connect

    Aslam, Tariq Dennis; Romick, Christopher; Powers, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    Here we consider an unsteady detonation with diffusion included. This introduces an interaction between the reaction length scales and diffusion length scales. Detailed kinetics introduce multiple length scales as shown though the spatial eigenvalue analysis of hydrogen-oxygen system; the smallest length scale is {approx} 10{sup 7} m and the largest {approx} 10{sup -2} m; away from equilibrium, the breadth can be larger. In this paper, we consider a simpler set of model equations, similar to the inviscid reactive compressible fluid equations, but include diffusion (in the form of thermal/energy, momentum, and mass diffusion). We will seek to reveal how the complex dynamics already discovered in one-step systems in the inviscid limit changes with the addition of diffusion.

  10. The Diffusion Process of Patient Education in Dutch Community Pharmacy: An Exploration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pronk, M. C. M.; Blom, A. Th. G.; Van Burg, A.; Jonkers, R.

    2001-01-01

    Identifies barriers and facilitators to the implementation of patient education in community pharmacies and classifies these barriers and facilitators into the diffusion stages of Rogers'"Innovations in Organizations" model. Discusses the implementation of patient education activities that require individual and organizational change in…

  11. Innovation attributes and adoption decisions: perspectives from leaders of a national sample of addiction treatment organizations.

    PubMed

    Knudsen, Hannah K; Roman, Paul M

    2015-02-01

    Drawing on diffusion theory to further knowledge about evidence-based practices (EBPs) in the treatment of substance use disorders (SUDs), this study describes the perceived importance of innovation attributes in adoption decisions within a national sample of SUD treatment organizations. Face-to-face interviews were conducted with leaders of 307 organizations. A typology differentiated organizations reporting: (1) adoption of a treatment innovation in the past year ("recent adoption"), (2) plans to adopt an innovation in the upcoming year ("planned adoption"), or (3) no actual or planned adoption ("non-adoption"). About 30.7% of organizations reported recent adoption, 20.5% indicated planned adoption, and 48.8% were non-adopters. Leaders of organizations reporting recent adoption (n=93) or planned adoption (n=62) rated the importance of innovation attributes, including relative advantage, compatibility, complexity, and observability, on these adoption decisions using a Likert scale that ranged from 0 to 5. Innovation attributes most strongly endorsed were consistency with the program's treatment philosophy (mean=4.47, SD=1.03), improvement in the program's reputation with referral sources (mean=4.00, SD=1.33), reputational improvement with clients and their families (mean=3.98, SD=1.31), and reductions in treatment dropout (mean=3.75, SD=1.54). Innovation characteristics reflecting organizational growth and implementation costs were less strongly endorsed. Adopters and planners were generally similar in their importance ratings. There were modest differences in importance ratings when pharmacological innovations were compared to psychosocial interventions. These findings are consistent with diffusion theory and suggest that efforts to link EBPs with client satisfaction and potential reputational benefits may enhance the diffusion of EBPs. Attention to these attributes when developing and evaluating SUD treatment interventions may enhance efforts to increase

  12. Diffusion and Large-Scale Adoption of Computer-Supported Training Simulations in the Military Domain

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-01

    on diffusion of innovations theory originated in 19th Century European studies of cultural change. This review lists David Emile Durkheim (1858–1917...RESEARCH QUESTIONS ................................19 D. SCOPE .............................................20 E . THESIS CONTRIBUTIONS...44 D. TECHNOLOGY ADOPTION FRAMEWORKS ....................46 E . SERVICE AND GENERAL POPULATION DATA SETS ..........49 1. Service

  13. Factors Affecting Adoption and Diffusion of Distance Education among Health Education Faculty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, James W.

    2013-01-01

    Background: In the past decade, distance education enrollment has become more common in colleges and universities, increasing from 1.6 million students in 1998 to an estimated 6.7 million in 2012. The purpose of this study was to identify which constructs in Rogers' (2003) diffusion of innovation theory are more likely to contribute to adoption…

  14. Photopyroelectric measurement of thermal diffusivity of meat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dadarlat, D.; Frandas, A.; Surducan, V.; Nagy, G.; Bicanic, D.

    1999-03-01

    The thermal diffusivity of various meat samples (pork, fish), and its temperature dependence, in the -5 to +70 °C temperature range, was measured using the photopyroelectric calorimetry in the back configuration (with thermally thick sample and sensor, and optically opaque sample). An almost temperature independent behavior of the thermal diffusivity, for temperatures higher than melting point of ice was confirmed. The results can be used to optimize the meat sterilisation process.

  15. The Use of Two Innovation Games in a Staff Development Programme.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sowden, Susette; Harden, Ronald

    1984-01-01

    Describes two innovation games--Diffusion Strategies Game and Printing Press Game--used for staff development at the Centre for Medical Education, University of Dundee, Scotland; reports on what happened when they were played; compares players' views on educational value and playing complexity; and presents authors' views about staff development…

  16. Size of diffusion pore of Alcaligenes faecalis.

    PubMed Central

    Ishii, J; Nakae, T

    1988-01-01

    The diffusion pore of the outer membrane of Alcaligenes faecalis was shown to be substantially smaller than the Escherichia coli porin pore. In experiments with intact cells, pentoses and hexoses penetrated into the NaCl-expanded periplasm, whereas saccharides of Mr greater than 342 did not. Cells treated with 0.5 M saccharides of Mr greater than 342 weighed 33 to 38% less than cells treated with isotonic solution, suggesting that these saccharides do not permeate through the outer membrane. The diffusion rates of various solutes through the liposome membranes reconstituted from the Mr-43,000 outer membrane protein showed the following characteristics. (i) The relative diffusion rates of pentoses, hexoses, and methylhexoses appeared to be about 1.0, 0.6, and negligibly small, respectively. (ii) The diffusion rate of glucose appeared to be about 1/10th that with the E. coli B porin. (iii) The diffusion rate of gluconic acid was five to seven times higher than that of glucose. (iv) The diffusion rates of beta-lactam antibiotics appeared to be 40 to less than 10% of those with the E. coli B porin. Images PMID:2835003

  17. The Impact of Organizational Learning on Innovativeness in Spanish Companies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Pablo González Del Campo, Jesús David Sánchez; Škerlavaj, Miha

    Innovativeness is a key factor regarding the survival and progress of a company in modern business environments. The question is how to facilitate innovativeness in organizations. This article studies the impact of the organizational learning process on innovativeness. We understand innovativeness as a combination of (1) innovative culture and (2) technological and process innovation. Organizational learning is a consecutive process of (1) information acquisition, (2) information distribution, (3) information interpretation, and (4) behavioral and cognitive changes. New knowledge obtained through organizational learning improves innovativeness. As a methodological framework, we use the partial least square (PLS) approach to structural equation modeling on data from 107 Spanish companies. The results show that organizational learning has a strong positive direct impact on process, product, and service innovations. In addition, the impact of organizational learning on innovation is also indirect, via innovative culture.

  18. Innovativeness as an emergent property: a new alignment of comparative and experimental research on animal innovation

    PubMed Central

    Griffin, Andrea S.

    2016-01-01

    Innovation and creativity are key defining features of human societies. As we face the global challenges of the twenty-first century, they are also facets upon which we must become increasingly reliant. But what makes Homo sapiens so innovative and where does our high innovation propensity come from? Comparative research on innovativeness in non-human animals allows us to peer back through evolutionary time and investigate the ecological factors that drove the evolution of innovativeness, whereas experimental research identifies and manipulates underpinning creative processes. In commenting on the present theme issue, I highlight the controversies that have typified this research field and show how a paradigmatic shift in our thinking about innovativeness will contribute to resolving these tensions. In the past decade, innovativeness has been considered by many as a trait, a direct product of cognition, and a direct target of selection. The evidence I review here suggests that innovativeness will be hereon viewed as one component, or even an emergent property of a larger array of traits, which have evolved to deal with environmental variation. I illustrate how research should capitalize on taxonomic diversity to unravel the full range of psychological processes that underpin innovativeness in non-human animals. PMID:26926287

  19. Innovativeness as an emergent property: a new alignment of comparative and experimental research on animal innovation.

    PubMed

    Griffin, Andrea S

    2016-03-19

    Innovation and creativity are key defining features of human societies. As we face the global challenges of the twenty-first century, they are also facets upon which we must become increasingly reliant. But what makes Homo sapiens so innovative and where does our high innovation propensity come from? Comparative research on innovativeness in non-human animals allows us to peer back through evolutionary time and investigate the ecological factors that drove the evolution of innovativeness, whereas experimental research identifies and manipulates underpinning creative processes. In commenting on the present theme issue, I highlight the controversies that have typified this research field and show how a paradigmatic shift in our thinking about innovativeness will contribute to resolving these tensions. In the past decade, innovativeness has been considered by many as a trait, a direct product of cognition, and a direct target of selection. The evidence I review here suggests that innovativeness will be hereon viewed as one component, or even an emergent property of a larger array of traits, which have evolved to deal with environmental variation. I illustrate how research should capitalize on taxonomic diversity to unravel the full range of psychological processes that underpin innovativeness in non-human animals.

  20. Measurements of the diffuse ultraviolet radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fix, John D.; Craven, John D.; Frank, Louis A.

    1989-01-01

    The imaging instrumentation on the Dynamics Explorer 1 satellite has been used to measure the intensity of the diffuse ultraviolet radiation on two great circles about the sky. It is found that the isotropic component of the diffuse ultraviolet radiation (possibly of extragalactic origin) has an intensity of 530 + or - 80 units (a unit is 1 photon per sq cm s A sr) at a wavelength of 150 nm. The Galactic component of the diffuse ultraviolet radiation has a dependence on Galactic latitude which requires strongly forward scattering particles if it is produced by dust above the Galactic plane.

  1. CFD analysis of a rocket exhaust diffuser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bose, Tarit K.; Thanawala, R. H.; Annamalai, K.

    1992-11-01

    The nature of the complex shock structure responsible for the pressure recovery phenomenon in supersonic diffusers is investigated by means of a theoretical CFD analysis using a newly developed computer program for Navier-Stokes solution of an ejector system, and the Prandtl mixing length to model the turbulent boundary layer. The pressure recovery characteristics of an ejector diffuser system was studied for various geometric and flow conditions. A comparison of the results with those of pressure measurements along the diffuser length in an experimental facility showed discrepancies, which are attributed to the boundary conditions imposed.

  2. Computerized Analysis Of Thermal-Diffusivity Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chmielewski, Artur B.; Wood, Charles; Vandersande, Jan W.

    1988-01-01

    Improved data-acquisition and data-analysis system for thermal-diffusivity measurements using flash method incorporates digital oscilloscope and microcomputer for rapid reduction of experimental data. In thermal-diffusivity apparatus thin specimen heated on one face by pulsed xenon flashlamp, subsequent temperature rise on opposite face monitored by infrared detector. Thermal diffusivity estimated from thickness of specimen and from time after initial pulse during which temperature rise reaches half maximum value. Accuracy of estimate improved by correcting temperature measurements for radiative loss of heat from specimen and for finite duration and specific waveform of flashlamp pulse. System devised for use in high-temperature measurements of thermoelectric materials.

  3. Diffusion properties of a radiochromic hydrogel dosimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skyt, P. S.; Kinnari, T. S.; Wahlstedt, I.; Yates, E. S.; Muren, L. P.; Petersen, J. B. B.; Balling, P.

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the diffusion properties of a radiochromic hydrogel dosimeter based on leuco malachite green dye in a gelatine matrix. One half of each dosimeter was irradiated while the other half was left un-irradiated creating dose gradients over which diffusion could be investigated. Read-out of the optical response was performed with a high-resolution optical scanner. The dosimeters were found to exhibit a low diffusion rate but a high auto-oxidation level leading to a fading of the contrast in the dose response with time.

  4. Computing Challenges And The Principles Of Innovations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ionson, James

    1986-02-01

    Thank you, John (Caulfield), Dr. Coffey, Dr. Potter, Ladies and Gentlemen. Having the opportunity to address the world's most innovative scientists in advanced computing is an honor, especially since the explosion in computing and data processing power has become modern folklore. Of all disciplines, computing has been blessed with the highest degree of innovation - and it's a good thing too because otherwise there might be building-sized slide rules with all sorts of crane-sized active control mechanisms manipulating the center bar. In fact, if not for innovation this could have very well been an SPIE Special Institute on the Structural Dynamics of Large Scale Calculating Machines. Sounds a little ridiculous, doesn't it? But then you don't suffer from the intellectual battle fatigue that forces most to hypothesize from the dark corners of "conventional wisdom." By definition, "conventional wisdom" does not spawn innovation and is inconsistent with the fact that major advances are frequently made by those who are exploring the challenge of their own far out ideas, rather than by those who have been directed to seek goals dictated by learned committees of "problem solvers." Most breakthroughs spring from the inspiration of a hunch rather than organized theoretical understanding and detailed systematic measurement programs. Sure - there will be failures but any innovator knows that success is built upon those failures.

  5. The Regional Structure of Technical Innovation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Neale, Dion

    2014-03-01

    There is strong evidence that the productivity per capita of cities and regions increases with population. One likely explanation for this phenomenon is that densely populated regions bring together otherwise unlikely combinations of individuals and organisations with diverse, specialised capabilities, leading to increased innovation and productivity. We have used the REGPAT patent database to construct a bipartite network of geographic regions and the patent classes for which those regions display a revealed comparative advantage. By analysing this network, we can infer relationships between different types of patent classes - and hence the structure of (patentable) technology. The network also provides a novel perspective for studying the combinations of technical capabilities in different geographic regions. We investigate measures such as the diversity and ubiquity of innovations within regions and find that diversity (resp. ubiquity) is positively (resp. negatively) correlated with population. We also find evidence of a nested structure for technical innovation. That is, specialised innovations tend to occur only when other more general innovations are already present.

  6. Diffusion in the special theory of relativity.

    PubMed

    Herrmann, Joachim

    2009-11-01

    The Markovian diffusion theory is generalized within the framework of the special theory of relativity. Since the velocity space in relativity is a hyperboloid, the mathematical stochastic calculus on Riemanian manifolds can be applied but adopted here to the velocity space. A generalized Langevin equation in the fiber space of position, velocity, and orthonormal velocity frames is defined from which the generalized relativistic Kramers equation in the phase space in external force fields is derived. The obtained diffusion equation is invariant under Lorentz transformations and its stationary solution is given by the Jüttner distribution. Besides, a nonstationary analytical solution is derived for the example of force-free relativistic diffusion.

  7. Enhanced diffusion of phosphorus at grain boundaries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheng, L. J.; Shyu, C. M.; Stika, K. M.; Daud, T.; Crotty, G. T.

    1982-01-01

    Enhanced diffusion of phosphorus at grain boundaries in cast polycrystalline photovoltaic materials (Wacker, HEM, and Semix) was studied. It was found that the enhancements for the three materials were the same, indicating that the properties of boundaries are similar, even though they were grown by different techniques. In addition, it was observed that grain boundaries capable of enhancing the diffusion always have strong recombination activities. Both phenomena could be related to dangling bonds existing at the boundaries. The present study gives the first evidence that incoherent second order twins of 111/115-plane type are diffusion-active.

  8. Measurement of vorticity diffusion by NMR microscopy.

    PubMed

    Brown, Jennifer R; Callaghan, Paul T

    2010-05-01

    In a Newtonian fluid, vorticity diffuses at a rate determined by the kinematic viscosity. Here we use rapid NMR velocimetry, based on a RARE sequence, to image the time-dependent velocity field on startup of a fluid-filled cylinder and therefore measure the diffusion of vorticity. The results are consistent with the solution to the vorticity diffusion equation where the angular velocity on the outside surface of the fluid, at the cylinder's rotating wall, is fixed. This method is a means of measuring kinematic viscosity for low viscosity fluids without the need to measure stress.

  9. Role of Brokerage in Evolving Innovation Systems: A Case of the Fodder Innovation Project in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madzudzo, Elias

    2011-01-01

    This paper looks at brokerage functions in a project on building innovation capacity through improved networking. Innovation capacity influences how actors respond to changes in their environments. In such dynamic environments well connected sets of actors are at an advantage in that they can combine skills to address the emerging opportunities…

  10. INNOVATIONS IN THE ANALYSIS OF CHANDRA-ACIS OBSERVATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Broos, Patrick S.; Townsley, Leisa K.; Feigelson, Eric D.; Getman, Konstantin V.; Garmire, Gordon P.; Bauer, Franz E.

    2010-05-10

    As members of the instrument team for the Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer (ACIS) on NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory and as Chandra General Observers, we have developed a wide variety of data analysis methods that we believe are useful to the Chandra community, and have constructed a significant body of publicly available software (the ACIS Extract package) addressing important ACIS data and science analysis tasks. This paper seeks to describe these data analysis methods for two purposes: to document the data analysis work performed in our own science projects and to help other ACIS observers judge whether these methods may be useful in their own projects (regardless of what tools and procedures they choose to implement those methods). The ACIS data analysis recommendations we offer here address much of the workflow in a typical ACIS project, including data preparation, point source detection via both wavelet decomposition and image reconstruction, masking point sources, identification of diffuse structures, event extraction for both point and diffuse sources, merging extractions from multiple observations, nonparametric broadband photometry, analysis of low-count spectra, and automation of these tasks. Many of the innovations presented here arise from several, often interwoven, complications that are found in many Chandra projects: large numbers of point sources (hundreds to several thousand), faint point sources, misaligned multiple observations of an astronomical field, point source crowding, and scientifically relevant diffuse emission.

  11. Diffusion of spherical particles in microcavities.

    PubMed

    Imperio, A; Padding, J T; Briels, W J

    2011-04-21

    The diffusive motion of a colloidal particle trapped inside a small cavity filled with fluid is reduced by hydrodynamic interactions with the confining walls. In this work, we study these wall effects on a spherical particle entrapped in a closed cylinder. We calculate the diffusion coefficient along the radial, azimuthal, and axial direction for different particle positions. At all locations the diffusion is smaller than in a bulk fluid and it becomes anisotropic near the container's walls. We present a simple model which reasonably well describes the simulation results for the given dimensions of the cylinder, which are taken from the recent experimental work.

  12. Flux Control in Networks of Diffusion Paths

    SciTech Connect

    A. I. Zhmoginov and N. J. Fisch

    2009-07-08

    A class of optimization problems in networks of intersecting diffusion domains of a special form of thin paths has been considered. The system of equations describing stationary solutions is equivalent to an electrical circuit built of intersecting conductors. The solution of an optimization problem has been obtained and extended to the analogous electrical circuit. The interest in this network arises from, among other applications, an application to wave-particle diffusion through resonant interactions in plasma.

  13. Sensitivity study of diffuser angle and brim height parameters for the design of 3 kW Diffuser Augmented Wind Turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lipian, Michał; Karczewski, Maciej; Olasek, Krzysztof

    2015-08-01

    The Diffuser Augmented Wind Turbine (DAWT) is an innovative mean to increase the power harvested by wind turbine. By encompassing the rotor with a diffusershaped duct it is possible to increase the flow speed through the turbine by about 40-50%. The study presents the development of a numerical model and its validation by the experiments performed in the wind tunnel of the Institute of Turbomachinery, TUL. Then, the numerical model is used for the geometry sensitivity study to optimize the shape of a diffuser. The paper presents that the DAWT technology has the potential to even double the power outcome of wind turbine when compared to a bare rotor version.

  14. Diffusion in active suspension of microswimmers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Climent, Eric; Delmotte, Blaise; Plouraboue, Franck; Keaveny, Eric; Martin, Matthieu; Rafai, Salima; Peyla, Philippe; Bertin, Eric; IMFT Team; IC Team; LiPhy Team

    2015-11-01

    The presence of microswimmers in a fluid generates flow agitation due to multi-body hydrodynamic interactions. This agitation of the fluid leads to random trajectories of passive tracers particles and the swimmers themselves, and from a macroscopic point view, it can be interpreted as a diffusive mechanism. By means of experiments (videomicroscopy of suspensions of chlamydomonas reinhardtii)and numerical simulations (Stokesian fluid populated with squirmers), we investigate the evolution of the effective diffusion coefficient when the volumetric concentration of the active suspension varies. By comparing the experimental and numerical results, we quantify the role of active swimming on the measured diffusion and identify the physical mechanisms that lead to diffusion enhancement. Our results aim to provide a better understanding of how swimming organisms affect micron-scale transport in the environment.

  15. Translational diffusion of proteins in nanochannels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kannam, Sridhar Kumar; Downton, Matthew T.

    2017-02-01

    Hydrodynamic interactions play an important role in the transport of analytes through nanoscale devices. Of particular note is the role that no-slip boundary conditions have on the drag coefficient of confined particles and molecules. In this work, we use a coarse grained molecular dynamics model to measure the diffusion coefficients of proteins confined within cylindrical nanochannels of similar dimension. Finite-size corrected bulk diffusion coefficients are found to agree with experimental data, while in channels, a good match is found between theoretical expressions based on continuum fluid mechanics and the reduction of the translational diffusion coefficient across a range of protein to channel size ratios. These results demonstrate that it is possible to directly use molecular simulation to make quantitative predictions of the effects of hydrodynamics on diffusion at length scales of order 1 nm.

  16. Determination of Matrix Diffusion Properties of Granite

    SciTech Connect

    Holtta, Pirkko; Siitari-Kauppi, Marja; Huittinen, Nina; Poteri, Antti

    2007-07-01

    Rock-core column experiments were introduced to estimate the diffusion and sorption properties of Kuru Grey granite used in block-scale experiments. The objective was to examine the processes causing retention in solute transport through rock fractures, especially matrix diffusion. The objective was also to estimate the importance of retention processes during transport in different scales and flow conditions. Rock-core columns were constructed from cores drilled into the fracture and were placed inside tubes to form flow channels in the 0.5 mm gap between the cores and the tube walls. Tracer experiments were performed using uranin, HTO, {sup 36}Cl, {sup 131}I, {sup 22}Na and {sup 85}Sr at flow rates of 1-50 {mu}L.min{sup -1}. Rock matrix was characterized using {sup 14}C-PMMA method, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray micro analysis (EDX) and the B.E.T. method. Solute mass flux through a column was modelled by applying the assumption of a linear velocity profile and molecular diffusion. Coupling of the advection and diffusion processes was based on the model of generalised Taylor dispersion in the linear velocity profile. Experiments could be modelled applying a consistent parameterization and transport processes. The results provide evidence that it is possible to investigate matrix diffusion at the laboratory scale. The effects of matrix diffusion were demonstrated on the slightly-sorbing tracer breakthrough curves. Based on scoping calculations matrix diffusion begins to be clearly observable for non-sorbing tracer when the flow rate is 0.1 {mu}L.min{sup -1}. The experimental results presented here cannot be transferred directly to the spatial and temporal scales that prevail in an underground repository. However, the knowledge and understanding of transport and retention processes gained from this study is transferable to different scales from laboratory to in-situ conditions. (authors)

  17. Innovative Design of Complex Engineering Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noor, Ahmed K. (Compiler)

    2004-01-01

    The document contains the proceedings of the training workshop on Innovative Design of Complex Engineering Systems. The workshop was held at the Peninsula Higher Education Center, Hampton, Virginia, March 23 and 24, 2004. The workshop was jointly sponsored by Old Dominion University and NASA. Workshop attendees came from NASA, other government agencies, industry and universities. The objectives of the workshop were to a) provide broad overviews of the diverse activities related to innovative design of high-tech engineering systems; and b) identify training needs for future aerospace work force development in the design area. The format of the workshop included fifteen, half-hour overview-type presentations, a panel discussion on how to teach and train engineers in innovative design, and three exhibits by commercial vendors.

  18. Effects of Diffusive Property Heterogeneity on Effective MatrixDiffusion Coefficient for Fractured Rock

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Yingqi; Liu, Hui-hai; Zhou, Quanlin; Finsterle, Stefan

    2005-08-16

    Heterogeneities of diffusion properties are likely toinfluence the effective matrix diffusion coefficient determined fromtracer breakthrough curves. The objectives of this study are (1) toexamine if it is appropriate to use a single, effective matrix diffusioncoefficient to predict breakthrough curves in a fractured formation, (2)to examine if a postulated scale dependence of the effective matrixdiffusion coefficient is caused by heterogeneity in diffusion properties,and (3) to examine whether multirate diffusion results in the previouslyobserved time dependence of the effective matrix diffusion coefficient.The results show that the use of a single effective matrix diffusioncoefficient is appropriate only if the interchannel and intrachannelvariability of diffusion properties is small. The scale dependence of theeffective matrix diffusion coefficient is not caused by the studied typesof heterogeneity. Finally, the multirate diffusion process does notresult in the time dependence of the effective matrix diffusioncoefficient. oefficient is appropriate only if the inter- andintrachannel variability of diffusion properties is small. The scaledependence of the effective matrix diffusion coefficient is not caused byeither type of the studied heterogeneity. Finally, the multi-ratediffusion process does not result in the time dependence of the effectivematrix diffusion coefficient.

  19. Roles of innovation in education delivery.

    PubMed

    Blouin, Robert A; Riffee, William H; Robinson, Evan T; Beck, Diane E; Green, Charles; Joyner, Pamela U; Persky, Adam M; Pollack, Gary M

    2009-12-17

    This paper reviews trends in higher education, characterizing both the current learning environments in pharmacy education as well as a vision for future learning environments, and outlines a strategy for successful implementation of innovations in educational delivery. The following 3 areas of focus are addressed: (1) rejecting the use of the majority of classroom time for the simple transmission of factual information to students; (2) challenging students to think critically, communicate lucidly, and synthesize broadly in order to solve problems; and (3) adopting a philosophy of "evidence-based education" as a core construct of instructional innovation and reform.

  20. Roles of Innovation in Education Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Riffee, William H.; Robinson, Evan T.; Beck, Diane E.; Green, Charles; Joyner, Pamela U.; Persky, Adam M.; Pollack, Gary M.

    2009-01-01

    This paper reviews trends in higher education, characterizing both the current learning environments in pharmacy education as well as a vision for future learning environments, and outlines a strategy for successful implementation of innovations in educational delivery. The following 3 areas of focus are addressed: (1) rejecting the use of the majority of classroom time for the simple transmission of factual information to students; (2) challenging students to think critically, communicate lucidly, and synthesize broadly in order to solve problems; and (3) adopting a philosophy of “evidence-based education” as a core construct of instructional innovation and reform. PMID:20221347

  1. Diffusion studies of anamorphic GRIN lenses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekh, Md. Asraful; SoodBiswas, Nisha; Sarkar, Samir; Basuray, Amitabha

    2016-12-01

    The present paper reports the diffusion study of cylindrical GRIN rod with elliptical cross section, developed by ion exchange process. The diffusion equation takes the form of Mathieu equations when transform into elliptic coordinate system and the solutions are derived in terms of angular and radial Mathieu functions. Computations of eigenvalues and expansion coefficients as well as angular and radial Mathieu functions are made which shows good agreement with the existing results. Simpler expression for ionic concentration is derived using asymptotic formulae of the functions which are used for final computation of ionic concentration of diffusing cations in elliptic GRIN. The plot of change in concentration versus diffusion depth along different directions approximately correlates with the results obtained by an earlier experimental study.

  2. "Essential Cogs in the Innovation Machine": The Discourse of Innovation in Ontario Educational Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moffatt, Ken; Panitch, Melanie; Parada, Henry; Todd, Sarah; Barnoff, Lisa; Aslett, Jordan

    2016-01-01

    In this article the authors explore a Canadian example of how the language of innovation reproduces discourses of neoliberalism in postsecondary education policy documents. How innovation is defined and used in postsecondary education is explored through the analysis of international and regional policy documents. Through their research they ask…

  3. General theory of heat diffusion dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tröster, A.; Schranz, W.

    2002-11-01

    A detailed theoretical investigation of the influence of heat diffusion processes on the low-frequency dispersion in macroscopic elastic susceptibilities is presented. In particular, a general solution of the heat diffusion equation is derived for arbitrary boundary conditions and externally imposed periodic and spatially inhomogeneous stress. In contrast to other calculations found in the literature, our results indicate that in elastic experiments on monodomain samples of macroscopic dimensions the isothermal-adiabatic crossover function necessarily reduces to a Debye-like dispersion. Experimentally, this is illustated by measurements of the complex dynamic elastic susceptibilities of KSCN and KMnF3. Our approach also allows to discuss heat diffusion in polydomain crystals and heterogeneous systems, for which one obtains dispersions of a non-Debye type. While explicitly derived in an elastic context, the present theory also applies to heat diffusion in dielectric materials.

  4. The innovation value chain.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Morten T; Birkinshaw, Julian

    2007-06-01

    The challenges of coming up with fresh ideas and realizing profits from them are different for every company. One firm may excel at finding good ideas but may have weak systems for bringing them to market. Another organization may have a terrific process for funding and rolling out new products and services but a shortage of concepts to develop. In this article, Hansen and Birkinshaw caution executives against using the latest and greatest innovation approaches and tools without understanding the unique deficiencies in their companies' innovation systems. They offer a framework for evaluating innovation performance: the innovation value chain. It comprises the three main phases of innovation (idea generation, conversion, and diffusion) as well as the critical activities performed during those phases (looking for ideas inside your unit; looking for them in other units; looking for them externally; selecting ideas; funding them; and promoting and spreading ideas companywide). Using this framework, managers get an end-to-end view of their innovation efforts. They can pinpoint their weakest links and tailor innovation best practices appropriately to strengthen those links. Companies typically succumb to one of three broad "weakest-link" scenarios. They are idea poor, conversion poor, or diffusion poor. The article looks at the ways smart companies - including Intuit, P&G, Sara Lee, Shell, and Siemens- modify the best innovation practices and apply them to address those organizations' individual needs and flaws. The authors warn that adopting the chain-based view of innovation requires new measures of what can be delivered by each link in the chain. The approach also entails new roles for employees "external scouts" and "internal evangelists," for example. Indeed, in their search for new hires, companies should seek out those candidates who can help address particular weaknesses in the innovation value chain.

  5. Diffusion of residual monomer in polymer resins.

    PubMed Central

    Piver, W T

    1976-01-01

    A simplified mathematical model which made use of Fick's laws of diffusion written in spherical coordinates was developed to describe the rate of diffusion of residual monomers from polymer resins. The properties of the monomer-polymer system which influenced the amount of monomer remaining in the polymer as a function of time were the diffusivity and solubility of the monomer in the polymer, and the particle size of the polymer resin. This model was used to analyze literature data on the diffusion of residual vinyl chloride monomer in polyvinyl chloride resins made by the suspension process. It was concluded that particle size of the resin was a significant parameter which should be taken advantage of in process equipment designed to remove residual monomer from PVC resins. The diffusivity of the monomer in the polymer was a function of the solubility of the monomer in the polymer. Monomer solubility can be determined from Henry's law. It was suggested that this model could be adapted to describe diffusion of monomers from any monomer-polymer system, and would be a useful approach to modeling the transport of nonreactive chemical additives from plastics. PMID:1026410

  6. Numerical evaluation of lateral diffusion inside diffusive gradients in thin films samplers.

    PubMed

    Santner, Jakob; Kreuzeder, Andreas; Schnepf, Andrea; Wenzel, Walter W

    2015-05-19

    Using numerical simulation of diffusion inside diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) samplers, we show that the effect of lateral diffusion inside the sampler on the solute flux into the sampler is a nonlinear function of the diffusion layer thickness and the physical sampling window size. In contrast, earlier work concluded that this effect was constant irrespective of parameters of the sampler geometry. The flux increase caused by lateral diffusion inside the sampler was determined to be ∼8.8% for standard samplers, which is considerably lower than the previous estimate of ∼20%. Lateral diffusion is also propagated to the diffusive boundary layer (DBL), where it leads to a slightly stronger decrease in the mass uptake than suggested by the common 1D diffusion model that is applied for evaluating DGT results. We introduce a simple correction procedure for lateral diffusion and demonstrate how the effect of lateral diffusion on diffusion in the DBL can be accounted for. These corrections often result in better estimates of the DBL thickness (δ) and the DGT-measured concentration than earlier approaches and will contribute to more accurate concentration measurements in solute monitoring in waters.

  7. Numerical Evaluation of Lateral Diffusion Inside Diffusive Gradients in Thin Films Samplers

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Using numerical simulation of diffusion inside diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) samplers, we show that the effect of lateral diffusion inside the sampler on the solute flux into the sampler is a nonlinear function of the diffusion layer thickness and the physical sampling window size. In contrast, earlier work concluded that this effect was constant irrespective of parameters of the sampler geometry. The flux increase caused by lateral diffusion inside the sampler was determined to be ∼8.8% for standard samplers, which is considerably lower than the previous estimate of ∼20%. Lateral diffusion is also propagated to the diffusive boundary layer (DBL), where it leads to a slightly stronger decrease in the mass uptake than suggested by the common 1D diffusion model that is applied for evaluating DGT results. We introduce a simple correction procedure for lateral diffusion and demonstrate how the effect of lateral diffusion on diffusion in the DBL can be accounted for. These corrections often result in better estimates of the DBL thickness (δ) and the DGT-measured concentration than earlier approaches and will contribute to more accurate concentration measurements in solute monitoring in waters. PMID:25877251

  8. Conceptual Foundations of Diffusion in Magnetic Resonance

    PubMed Central

    Koay, Cheng Guan; Özarslan, Evren

    2016-01-01

    A thorough review of the q-space technique is presented starting from a discussion of Fick's laws. The work presented here is primarily conceptual, theoretical and hopefully pedagogical. We offered the notion of molecular concentration to unify Fick's laws and diffusion MRI within a coherent conceptual framework. The fundamental relationship between diffusion MRI and the Fick's laws are carefully established. The conceptual and theoretical basis of the q-space technique is investigated from first principles. PMID:26997923

  9. Strategic alliances fit pattern of industry innovation

    SciTech Connect

    Crump, J.G.

    1997-03-31

    The strategic alliance, vitally important as an isolated practice in the oil and gas business, also fits a broad pattern of innovation by which the industry is redefining itself for prosperity in a new energy age. The industry is experiencing a renaissance in almost every aspect, from technological breakthroughs to innovative business practices to new products and markets. An inevitable outgrowth of such rapid and fundamental change is an evolution in business relationships. The strategic alliance is at the forefront of this trend. Development of new relationships capitalizes on, and partly results from, enormous advances in technology and finance. The paper discusses new relationships, the outsourcing rage, integrating work flows, and technological advances.

  10. Diffuse inelastic scattering of atoms from surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Manson, J.R.; Celli, V.

    1989-02-15

    We consider the large-angle diffuse scattering of thermal-energy atoms by defects or adsorbates on a surface. We obtain the Debye-Waller factor for the thermal attenuation of the incoherent elastic peak. When the Debye exponent is small, the diffuse inelastic contribution is dominated by the single-phonon exchange, and is proportional to the frequency distribution function of the defect or adsorbate. We discuss its magnitude compared to the multiphonon background.

  11. The Turbulent Diffusivity of Convective Overshoot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lecoanet, Daniel; Schwab, Josiah; Quataert, Eliot; Bildsten, Lars; Timmes, Frank; Burns, Keaton; Vasil, Geoffrey; Oishi, Jeffrey; Brown, Benjamin

    2016-11-01

    There are many natural systems with convectively unstable fluid adjacent to stably stratified fluid; including the Earth's atmosphere, most stars, and perhaps even the Earth's liquid core. The convective motions penetrating into the stable region can enhance mixing, leading to changes in transport within the stable region. This work describes convective overshoot simulations. To study the extra mixing due to overshoot, we evolve a passive tracer field. The horizontal average of the passive tracer quickly approaches a self-similar state. The self-similar state is the solution to a diffusion equation with a spatially dependent turbulent diffusivity. We find the extra mixing due to convection can be accurately modeled as a turbulent diffusivity, and discuss implications of this turbulent diffusivity for the astrophysical problem of mixing in convectively bounded carbon flames.

  12. Stochastic Analysis of Reaction–Diffusion Processes

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Jifeng; Kang, Hye-Won

    2013-01-01

    Reaction and diffusion processes are used to model chemical and biological processes over a wide range of spatial and temporal scales. Several routes to the diffusion process at various levels of description in time and space are discussed and the master equation for spatially discretized systems involving reaction and diffusion is developed. We discuss an estimator for the appropriate compartment size for simulating reaction–diffusion systems and introduce a measure of fluctuations in a discretized system. We then describe a new computational algorithm for implementing a modified Gillespie method for compartmental systems in which reactions are aggregated into equivalence classes and computational cells are searched via an optimized tree structure. Finally, we discuss several examples that illustrate the issues that have to be addressed in general systems. PMID:23719732

  13. Diffusion tensor spectroscopy (DTS) of human brain.

    PubMed

    Ellegood, Jacob; Hanstock, Chris C; Beaulieu, Christian

    2006-01-01

    The diffusion tensor of N-acetyl aspartate (NAA), creatine and phosphocreatine (tCr), and choline (Cho) was measured at 3T using a diffusion weighted STEAM (1)H-MRS sequence in the healthy human brain in 6 distinct regions (4 white matter and 2 cortical gray matter). The Trace/3 apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of each metabolite was significantly greater in white matter than gray matter. The Trace/3 ADC values of tCr and Cho were found to be significantly greater than NAA in white matter, whereas all 3 metabolites had similar Trace/3 ADC in cortical gray matter. Fractional anisotropy (FA) values for all 3 metabolites were consistent with water FA values in the 4 white matter regions; however, metabolite FA values were found to be higher than expected in the cortical gray matter. The principal diffusion direction derived for NAA was in good agreement with expected anatomic tract directions in the white matter.

  14. Correlation and prediction of gaseous diffusion coefficients.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marrero, T. R.; Mason, E. A.

    1973-01-01

    A new correlation method for binary gaseous diffusion coefficients from very low temperatures to 10,000 K is proposed based on an extended principle of corresponding states, and having greater range and accuracy than previous correlations. There are two correlation parameters that are related to other physical quantities and that are predictable in the absence of diffusion measurements. Quantum effects and composition dependence are included, but high-pressure effects are not. The results are directly applicable to multicomponent mixtures.

  15. Measurement tensors in diffusion MRI: generalizing the concept of diffusion encoding.

    PubMed

    Westin, Carl-Fredrik; Szczepankiewicz, Filip; Pasternak, Ofer; Ozarslan, Evren; Topgaard, Daniel; Knutsson, Hans; Nilsson, Markus

    2014-01-01

    In traditional diffusion MRI, short pulsed field gradients (PFG) are used for the diffusion encoding. The standard Stejskal-Tanner sequence uses one single pair of such gradients, known as single-PFG (sPFG). In this work we describe how trajectories in q-space can be used for diffusion encoding. We discuss how such encoding enables the extension of the well-known scalar b-value to a tensor-valued entity we call the diffusion measurement tensor. The new measurements contain information about higher order diffusion propagator covariances not present in sPFG. As an example analysis, we use this new information to estimate a Gaussian distribution over diffusion tensors in each voxel, described by its mean (a diffusion tensor) and its covariance (a 4th order tensor).

  16. A model for 'reverse innovation' in health care.

    PubMed

    Depasse, Jacqueline W; Lee, Patrick T

    2013-08-30

    'Reverse innovation,' a principle well established in the business world, describes the flow of ideas from emerging to more developed economies. There is strong and growing interest in applying this concept to health care, yet there is currently no framework for describing the stages of reverse innovation or identifying opportunities to accelerate the development process. This paper combines the business concept of reverse innovation with diffusion of innovation theory to propose a model for reverse innovation as a way to innovate in health care. Our model includes the following steps: (1) identifying a problem common to lower- and higher-income countries; (2) innovation and spread in the low-income country (LIC); (3) crossover to the higher-income country (HIC); and (4) innovation and spread in the HIC. The crucial populations in this pathway, drawing from diffusion of innovation theory, are LIC innovators, LIC early adopters, and HIC innovators. We illustrate the model with three examples of current reverse innovations. We then propose four sets of specific actions that forward-looking policymakers, entrepreneurs, health system leaders, and researchers may take to accelerate the movement of promising solutions through the reverse innovation pipeline: (1) identify high-priority problems shared by HICs and LICs; (2) create slack for change, especially for LIC innovators, LIC early adopters, and HIC innovators; (3) create spannable social distances between LIC early adopters and HIC innovators; and (4) measure reverse innovation activity globally.

  17. Polymer Diffusion in the Presence of Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winey, Karen

    2014-03-01

    The center-of-mass diffusion of polymers within a polymer melt proceeds by the mechanism of reptation wherein the polymer is confined to a tube that is defined by neighboring entanglements and moves along its contour. Polymer diffusion is perturbed when the melt contains nanoparticles that are comparable in size to the radius of gyration (Rg) of the polymers. Within this talk, we will present tracer diffusion coefficients (D) results for three types of nanocomposite: spherical nanoparticles with surface functionalization, spherical nanoparticles with brushes, and cylindrical nanoparticles (aspect ratio = 5 to 50). When functionalized spherical nanoparticles have neutral or attractive interactions with the polymer matrix, a monotonic decrease in the diffusion coefficient is observed across a wide range of polymer molecular weight, nanoparticle size, and nanoparticle concentration. These data collapse onto a master curve when plotted as D normalized by the diffusion coefficient into a neat homopolymer (D/Do) versus our confinement parameter defined as the interparticle distance divided by 2Rg (ID/2Rg). Polymer diffusion in systems with grafted spherical nanoparticles exhibit the same D/Do versus ID/2Rg, when ID accounts for the extent to which the tracer polymer penetrates the polymer brush. For various cylindrical nanoparticles D/Do versus nanoparticle concentration exhibits a minimum when 2Rg is both larger than the nanoparticle diameter and smaller than the nanoparticle length. Complimentary molecular dynamics simulations and neutron scattering results will also be presented.

  18. What Factors Cultivate Innovation within the MBA: Studying Three Examples of Curricular Innovation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schramm, John David, II

    2012-01-01

    This research explores the phenomenon of peerless curricular innovation, defined as an innovative course that exists at a top-50 business school, but has not been directly replicated by peer schools. These outliers achieve a demonstrated impact on their intended audience, and result from multiple collaborators--not simply a single course created…

  19. Defining Innovation: Using Soft Systems Methodology to Approach the Complexity of Innovation in Educational Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, Glenda

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores what educational technologists in one South African Institution consider innovation to be. Ten educational technologists in various faculties across the university were interviewed and asked to define and answer questions about innovation. Their answers were coded and the results of the overlaps in coding have been assimilated…

  20. Competition of information channels in the spreading of innovations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kocsis, Gergely; Kun, Ferenc

    2011-08-01

    We study the spreading of information on technological developments in socioeconomic systems where the social contacts of agents are represented by a network of connections. In the model, agents get informed about the existence and advantages of new innovations through advertising activities of producers, which are then followed by an interagent information transfer. Computer simulations revealed that varying the strength of external driving and of interagent coupling, furthermore, the topology of social contacts, the model presents a complex behavior with interesting novel features: On the macrolevel the system exhibits logistic behavior typical for the diffusion of innovations. The time evolution can be described analytically by an integral equation that captures the nucleation and growth of clusters of informed agents. On the microlevel, small clusters are found to be compact with a crossover to fractal structures with increasing size. The distribution of cluster sizes has a power-law behavior with a crossover to a higher exponent when long-range social contacts are present in the system. Based on computer simulations we construct an approximate phase diagram of the model on a regular square lattice of agents.

  1. Mutual diffusion of interacting membrane proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Abney, J R; Scalettar, B A; Owicki, J C

    1989-01-01

    The generalized Stokes-Einstein equation is used, together with the two-dimensional pressure equation, to analyze mutual diffusion in concentrated membrane systems. These equations can be used to investigate the role that both direct and hydrodynamic interactions play in determining diffusive behavior. Here only direct interactions are explicitly incorporated into the theory at high densities; however, both direct and hydrodynamic interactions are analyzed for some dilute solutions. We look at diffusion in the presence of weak attractions, soft repulsions, and hard-core repulsions. It is found that, at low densities, attractions retard mutual diffusion while repulsions enhance it. Mechanistically, attractions tend to tether particles together and oppose the dissipation of gradients or fluctuations in concentration, while repulsions provide a driving force that pushes particles apart. At higher concentrations, changes in the structure of the fluid enhance mutual diffusion even in the presence of attractions. It is shown that the theoretical description of postelectrophoresis relaxation and fluorescence correlation spectroscopy experiments must be modified if interacting systems are studied. The effects of interactions on mutual diffusion coefficients have probably already been seen in postelectrophoresis relaxation experiments. PMID:2775829

  2. Measuring the style of innovative thinking among engineering students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Passig, David; Cohen, Lizi

    2014-01-01

    Background: Many tools have been developed to measure the ability of workers to innovate. However, all of them are based on self-reporting questionnaires, which raises questions about their validity Purpose: The aim was to develop and validate a tool, called Ideas Generation Implementation (IGI), to objectively measure the style and potential of engineering students in generating innovative technological ideas. The cognitive framework of IGI is based on the Architectural Innovation Model (AIM). Tool description: The IGI tool was designed to measure the level of innovation in generating technological ideas and their potential to be implemented. These variables rely on the definition of innovation as 'creativity, implemented in a high degree of success'. The levels of innovative thinking are based on the AIM and consist of four levels: incremental innovation, modular innovation, architectural innovation and radical innovation. Sample: Sixty experts in technological innovation developed the tool. We checked its face validity and calculated its reliability in a pilot study (kappa = 0.73). Then, 145 undergraduate students were sampled at random from the seven Israeli universities offering engineering programs and asked to complete the questionnaire. Design and methods: We examined the construct validity of the tool by conducting a variance analysis and measuring the correlations between the innovator's style of each student, as suggested by the AIM, and the three subscale factors of creative styles (efficient, conformist and original), as suggested by the Kirton Adaptors and Innovators (KAI) questionnaire. Results: Students with a radical innovator's style inclined more than those with an incremental innovator's style towards the three creative cognitive styles. Students with an architectural innovator's style inclined moderately, but not significantly, towards the three creative styles. Conclusions: The IGI tool objectively measures innovative thinking among students

  3. Quantitative law of diffusion induced fracture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, H.-J.; Wang, H.-L.; Liu, B.; Wang, C.-A.

    2016-08-01

    Through dimension analysis, an almost analytical model for the maximum diffusion induced stress (DIS) and critical temperature (or concentration) difference at which cracks begin to initiate in the diffusion process is developed. It interestingly predicts that the spacing of diffusion-induced cracks is constant, independent of the thickness of specimen and the temperature difference. These conclusions are validated by our thermal shock experiments on alumina plates. Furthermore, the proposed model can interpret observed hierarchical crack patterns for high temperature jump cases, and a three-stage relation between the residual strength and the temperature difference. The prediction for crack spacing can guide the biomimetic thermal-shock-failure proof design, in which the hard platelets smaller than the predicted diffusion induced by constant crack-spacing are embedded in a soft matrix, and, therefore, no fracture will happen. This may guide the design of the thermal protection system and the lithium ion battery. Finally we present the maximum normalized DISes for various geometry and boundary conditions by single-variable curves for the stress-independent diffusion process and two-variable contour plots for the stress-dependent diffusion process, which can provide engineers and materialists a simple and easy way to quickly evaluate the reliability of related materials and devices.

  4. The importance of basic factors in innovation processes and their effects on innovation capability of Malaysian-owned manufacturing companies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suradi, Nur Riza Mohd; Omar, Aminuddin; Shahabuddin, Faridatulazna Ahmad

    2015-02-01

    Innovation is the core ingredient in the competitiveness of today's businesses. Any company that cannot innovate will be losing its competitiveness. While the study on innovation at conceptual level is widely available, there is still lack of deep understanding of how innovation factors impact each stage of the processes of innovation that happen in Malaysian companies. This process-factor approach and understanding may help the government focuses its assistance on relevant factors at relevant process according to the size of the company. This study examines how companies are affected by fundamental factors needed in innovation. Based on results of MYTIC Study 2012 on the level of Technological Innovation Capability (TIC) of Malaysian companies using the RDCB framework, the significance of each innovation factor in each innovation process is determined. This study shows that human resource factor gives more impact than other factors in most processes. Also, financial and human resource factors are likely dictated by the size of the company.

  5. Innovativeness and the Organizational Attributes of Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eidell, Terry L.; And Others

    Five papers focus on the interrelated themes of school organization and innovation. They report on some preliminary analyses of field studies conducted during 1968 on such structural, sociocultural, and sociopsychological variables as division of labor, performance of organizational functions, decision making studies and processes, hierarchies of…

  6. Processes of Secondary Curriculum Innovation in Kenya.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lillis, Kevin M.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses problems associated with reform of secondary school curricula in Kenya in the period immediately after independence. Follows the course of two innovations--School Mathematics of East Africa (SMEA) and the Africanization of the literature curriculum--and discusses various reasons for their failure and for Kenya's continued dependence on…

  7. Review of enhanced vapor diffusion in porous media

    SciTech Connect

    Webb, S.W.; Ho, C.K.

    1998-08-01

    Vapor diffusion in porous media in the presence of its own liquid has often been treated similar to gas diffusion. The gas diffusion rate in porous media is much lower than in free space due to the presence of the porous medium and any liquid present. However, enhanced vapor diffusion has also been postulated such that the diffusion rate may approach free-space values. Existing data and models for enhanced vapor diffusion, including those in TOUGH2, are reviewed in this paper.

  8. Influence of point defects on grain boundary diffusion in oxides

    SciTech Connect

    Stubican, V.S.

    1991-03-15

    The influence of point defects on grain boundary diffusion of Co ions in NiO was studied using polycrystalline films and bicrystals. Grain boundary diffusion was studied at 750 C at oxygen partial pressure. Two diffusion regions were found. At low oxygen pressures, extrinsic diffusion was observed. Above oxygen pressure of 10{sup {minus}7}, influence of intrinsic point defects was detected. It was determined that grain boundary diffusion was > 3 orders of magnitude faster than volume diffusion. However, it seems that grain boundary diffusion is influenced by the point defects in a similar way as the volume diffusion. 4 figs.

  9. A Longitudinal Investigation of Individual Implementation of Educational Innovations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Gene E.

    Implementation is a key factor in shaping school policies. The Procedures for Adopting Educational Innovations Project conducted longitudinal studies of innovation implementation based on the Concerns-Based Adoption Model (CBAM). A key dimension of CBAM, Levels of Use of the Innovation (LoU), was assessed in three longitudinal studies over a…

  10. Innovative uses of psychodynamic group psychotherapy.

    PubMed

    Buchele, B J

    1994-01-01

    Psychodynamic group psychotherapy is gaining renewed attention as an effective form of treatment, due in part to increasing economic constraints that make other forms of treatment less accessible. The author highlights some innovative applications of both extended and time-limited groups. She also describes specific issues that can be addressed effectively in homogeneous time-limited group therapy.

  11. Corporate Universities: Driving Force of Knowledge Innovation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rademakers, Martijn

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to explain the rapid emergence of corporate universities on the basis of fundamental developments presently shaping the economy and society on a world-wide scale. Design/methodology/approach: Four key forms of innovation are identified and combined with the corporate university concept. The paper explains why corporate…

  12. Research on Efficiency of Knowledge Transfer in Technical Innovation Alliances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang-sheng, Jiang

    The knowledge transfer efficiency (KTE) is closely relative to the success or failure of technology innovation in strategic alliances. This paper takes the KTE as the essential variable to establish the benefit function model of technology innovations to explore the KTE's influences on partners' innovative decisions under two different modes: independent innovations and alliance innovations. It is found that the higher the KTE, the greater the reducing extent of production costs is. The results could provide some theoretical supports for selections of the optimal competitive-ooperative relationship and managerial flexibility in technical innovation alliances.

  13. Diffusion of water in cat ventricular myocardium

    PubMed Central

    1978-01-01

    The rates of diffusion of tritiated water (THO) and [14C]sucrose across cat right ventricular myocardium were studied at 23 degrees C in an Ussing-type diffusion cell, recording the time-course of increase in concentration of tracer in one chamber over 4--6 h after adding tracers to the other. Sucrose data were fitted with a model for a homogeneous sheet of uneven thickness in which the tissue is considered to be an array of parallel independent pathways (parallel pathway model) of varying length. The volume of the sucrose diffusion space, presumably a wholly extracellular pathway, was 23% of the tissue or 27.4 +/-1.7% (mean +/- SEM; n=11) of the tissue water. The effective intramyocardial sucrose diffusion coefficient, D8, was 1.51 +/- 0.19 X 10(-6)cm2.s-1 (n=11). Combining these data with earlier data, D8 was 22.6 +/- 1.1% (n=95) of the free diffusion coefficient in aqueous solution D degrees 8. The parallel pathway model and a dead-end pore model, which might have accounted for intracellular sequestration of water, gave estimates of DW/D degrees W (observed/free) of 15%. Because hindrance to water diffusion must be less than for sucrose (where D8/D degrees 8=22.6%), this showed the inadequacy of these models to account simultaneously for the diffusional resistance and the tissue water content. The third or cell-matrix model, a heterogeneous system of permeable cells arrayed in the extracellular matrix, allowed logical and geometrically reasonable interpretations of the steady-state data and implied estimates of DW in the cellular and extracellular fluid of approximately 25% of the aqueous diffusion coefficient. PMID:722277

  14. Effects of Diffusion Time on Short-Range Hyperpolarized 3He Diffusivity Measurements in Emphysema

    PubMed Central

    Gierada, David S.; Woods, Jason C.; Bierhals, Andrew J.; Bartel, Seth T.; Ritter, Jon H.; Choong, Cliff K.; Das, Nitin A.; Hong, Cheng; Pilgram, Thomas K.; Chang, Yulin V.; Jacob, Richard E.; Hogg, James C.; Battafarano, Richard J.; Cooper, Joel D.; Meyers, Bryan F.; Patterson, G. Alexander; Yablonskiy, Dmitriy A.; Conradi, Mark S.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To characterize the effect of diffusion time on short-range hyperpolarized 3He MR diffusion measurements across a wide range of emphysema severity. Materials and Methods 3He diffusion MR imaging was performed on 19 lungs or lobes resected from 18 subjects with varying degrees of emphysema using 3 diffusion times (1.6 msec, 5 msec, and 10 msec) at constant b value. Emphysema severity was quantified as the mean apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and as the percentage of pixels with ADC higher than multiple thresholds from 0.30–0.55 cm2/sec (ADC index). Quantitative histology (mean linear intercept) was obtained in 10 of the lung specimens from 10 of the subjects. Results The mean ADCs with diffusion times of 1.6, 5.0, and 10.0 msec were 0.46, 0.40, and 0.37 cm2/sec, respectively (P <0.0001, ANOVA). There was no relationship between the ADC magnitude and the effect of diffusion time on ADC values. Mean linear intercept correlated with ADC (r=0.91–0.94, P<0.001) and ADC index (r=0.78–0.92, P<0.01) at all diffusion times. Conclusion Decreases in ADC with longer diffusion time were unrelated to emphysema severity. The strong correlations between the ADC at all diffusion times tested and quantitative histology demonstrate that the ADC is a robust measure of emphysema. PMID:19787725

  15. Innovativeness and Variety of Internet Shopping.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blake, Brian F.; Neuendorf, Kimberly A.; Valdiserri, Colin M.

    2003-01-01

    This survey of 208 Internet users examined the factors underlying Internet usage and shopping. Data were gathered on Information shopping (IS) innovativeness, overall IS frequency, visit variety, purchase variety, network prevalence, education, age, gender, employment, extensiveness of Internet use, and non-shopping Internet applications. (MES)

  16. Individual Innovativeness Levels of Educational Administrators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coklar, Ahmet Naci

    2012-01-01

    In the present study carried out with 190 educational administrators, the individual innovativeness of educational administrators was examined. As a result of the study, it was found out that the educational administrators considered themselves as early adaptors. It was also revealed that professional seniority was not important in terms of…

  17. INNOVATIONS IN THE STRUCTURE OF EDUCATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    COLEMAN, JAMES S.

    THIS PAPER EXAMINES THE KINDS OF CHANGE IN EDUCATION, ESPECIALLY AT THE SECONDARY LEVEL, THAT WESTERN SOCIETIES ARE PRESENTLY UNDERGOING AND CAN EXPECT TO CONTINUE TO UNDERGO IN THE NEAR FUTURE. CERTAIN MODIFICATIONS IN THE CONCEPTION OF SCHOOLING WHICH THESE CHANGES REQUIRE ARE SUGGESTED. THE AUTHOR DISCUSSES INNOVATIONS BY WHICH CHILDREN LEARN…

  18. Tales of Technology Innovation Gone Wrong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mallery, Mary

    2008-01-01

    People do not want to talk about failure, and technological innovations that do not work out are especially difficult for librarians to discuss. Technological failures are expensive in terms of money and time lost, and they are often minimized by library directors in their annual reports in favor of reporting more positive outcomes. Today's…

  19. The Role of Trust in Innovation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dovey, Ken

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the role of trust in the collaborative learning processes that underpin innovation as a competitive strategy in organizations. Design/methodology/approach: As a conceptual paper, the argument is framed by academic perspectives, drawn from the academic literature on the topic and by professional and…

  20. The Social Shaping of Industrial Innovations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vergragt, Philip J.

    1988-01-01

    Investigates the choice processes within innovation processes in industrial research laboratories. Develops a conceptual framework for the analysis of the processes through two case studies. Discusses the potential of the framework both for enriching the analysis and for enhancing social influences over industrial research. (Author/YP)

  1. Development of an Educational Innovation Incubator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jurkowski, Odin; Kerr, Shantia

    2010-01-01

    The Educational Innovation Incubator is an electronic classroom designed to evolve at the University of Central Missouri. This newly enacted endeavor is a place for faculty and students to combine the scholarship of teaching and learning into their courses by experimenting with the latest technologies in education. This paper describes the process…

  2. Bibliography of Indian Education and Curriculum Innovation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scoon, Annabelle R.

    This bibliography of ERIC documents (both journal and non-journal materials) contains more than 200 entries with abstracts. The work is intended for those seeking to gain insight into the cultural and sociological background of the American Indian student, his academic strengths and weaknesses, and current innovations in the development of…

  3. Personal Contacts and the Adoption of Innovations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alleyne, E. Patrick; Verner, Coolie

    A study undertaken among commercial strawberry growers in the Fraser Valley of British Columbia, Canada, sought to define the network of personal contacts as used by the farmers in obtaining information relevant to growing practices. Growers were divided into four adopter categories: laggards, late majority, early majority, and innovator-early…

  4. Influence networks among substance abuse treatment clinics: implications for the dissemination of innovations.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Kimberly; Quanbeck, Andrew; Maus, Adam; Gustafson, David H; Dearing, James W

    2015-09-01

    Understanding influence networks among substance abuse treatment clinics may speed the diffusion of innovations. The purpose of this study was to describe influence networks in Massachusetts, Michigan, New York, Oregon, and Washington and test two expectations, using social network analysis: (1) Social network measures can identify influential clinics; and (2) Within a network, some weakly connected clinics access out-of-network sources of innovative evidence-based practices and can spread these innovations through the network. A survey of 201 clinics in a parent study on quality improvement provided the data. Network measures and sociograms were obtained from adjacency matrixes created by UCINet. We used regression analysis to determine whether network status relates to clinics' adopting innovations. Findings suggest that influential clinics can be identified and that loosely linked clinics were likely to join the study sooner than more influential clinics but were not more likely to have improved outcomes than other organizations. Findings identify the structure of influence networks for SUD treatment organizations and have mixed results on how those structures impacted diffusion of the intervention under study. Further study is necessary to test whether use of knowledge of the network structure will have an effect on the pace and breadth of dissemination of innovations.

  5. Use of web mining in studying innovation.

    PubMed

    Gök, Abdullah; Waterworth, Alec; Shapira, Philip

    As enterprises expand and post increasing information about their business activities on their websites, website data promises to be a valuable source for investigating innovation. This article examines the practicalities and effectiveness of web mining as a research method for innovation studies. We use web mining to explore the R&D activities of 296 UK-based green goods small and mid-size enterprises. We find that website data offers additional insights when compared with other traditional unobtrusive research methods, such as patent and publication analysis. We examine the strengths and limitations of enterprise innovation web mining in terms of a wide range of data quality dimensions, including accuracy, completeness, currency, quantity, flexibility and accessibility. We observe that far more companies in our sample report undertaking R&D activities on their web sites than would be suggested by looking only at conventional data sources. While traditional methods offer information about the early phases of R&D and invention through publications and patents, web mining offers insights that are more downstream in the innovation process. Handling website data is not as easy as alternative data sources, and care needs to be taken in executing search strategies. Website information is also self-reported and companies may vary in their motivations for posting (or not posting) information about their activities on websites. Nonetheless, we find that web mining is a significant and useful complement to current methods, as well as offering novel insights not easily obtained from other unobtrusive sources.

  6. Comparison of diffusion approximation and higher order diffusion equations for optical tomography of osteoarthritis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Zhen; Zhang, Qizhi; Sobel, Eric; Jiang, Huabei

    2009-09-01

    In this study, a simplified spherical harmonics approximated higher order diffusion model is employed for 3-D diffuse optical tomography of osteoarthritis in the finger joints. We find that the use of a higher-order diffusion model in a stand-alone framework provides significant improvement in reconstruction accuracy over the diffusion approximation model. However, we also find that this is not the case in the image-guided setting when spatial prior knowledge from x-rays is incorporated. The results show that the reconstruction error between these two models is about 15 and 4%, respectively, for stand-alone and image-guided frameworks.

  7. Imitate or innovate? Children's innovation is influenced by the efficacy of observed behaviour.

    PubMed

    Carr, Kayleigh; Kendal, Rachel L; Flynn, Emma G

    2015-09-01

    This study investigated the age at which children judge it futile to imitate unreliable information, in the form of a visibly ineffective demonstrated solution, and deviate to produce novel solutions ('innovations'). Children aged 4-9 years were presented with a novel puzzle box, the Multiple-Methods Box (MMB), which offered multiple innovation opportunities to extract a reward using different tools, access points and exits. 209 children were assigned to conditions in which eight social demonstrations of a reward retrieval method were provided; each condition differed incrementally in terms of the method's efficacy (0%, 25%, 75%, and 100% success at extracting the reward). An additional 47 children were assigned to a no-demonstration control condition. Innovative reward extractions from the MMB increased with decreasing efficacy of the demonstrated method. However, imitation remained a widely used strategy irrespective of the efficacy of the method being reproduced (90% of children produced at least one imitative attempt, and imitated on an average of 4.9 out of 8 attempt trials). Children were more likely to innovate in relation to the tool than exit, even though the latter would have been more effective. Overall, innovation was rare: only 12.4% of children innovated by discovering at least one novel reward exit. Children's prioritisation of social information is consistent with theories of cultural evolution indicating imitation is a prepotent response following observation of behaviour, and that innovation is a rarity; so much so, that even maladaptive behaviour is copied.

  8. Molecular dynamics simulation of fractal aggregate diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pranami, Gaurav; Lamm, Monica H.; Vigil, R. Dennis

    2010-11-01

    The diffusion of fractal aggregates constructed with the method by Thouy and Jullien [J. Phys. A 27, 2953 (1994)10.1088/0305-4470/27/9/012] comprised of Np spherical primary particles was studied as a function of the aggregate mass and fractal dimension using molecular dynamics simulations. It is shown that finite-size effects have a strong impact on the apparent value of the diffusion coefficient (D) , but these can be corrected by carrying out simulations using different simulation box sizes. Specifically, the diffusion coefficient is inversely proportional to the length of a cubic simulation box, and the constant of proportionality appears to be independent of the aggregate mass and fractal dimension. Using this result, it is possible to compute infinite dilution diffusion coefficients (Do) for aggregates of arbitrary size and fractal dimension, and it was found that Do∝Np-1/df , as is often assumed by investigators simulating Brownian aggregation of fractal aggregates. The ratio of hydrodynamic radius to radius of gyration is computed and shown to be independent of mass for aggregates of fixed fractal dimension, thus enabling an estimate of the diffusion coefficient for a fractal aggregate based on its radius of gyration.

  9. Preventive innovation: an Australian case study on HPV vaccination.

    PubMed

    D'Souza, Clare; Mort, Gillian Sullivan; Zyngier, Suzanne; Robinson, Priscilla; Schlotterlein, Morgan

    2013-01-01

    Much of the literature has been conducted on innovation; this research provides new insights for preventive innovations that increase our understanding of vaccination diffusion and the reasons underlying the complexity of preventive diffusion. The research uses adoption of Rogers' ( 1983 ) perceived characteristics and considers the rate by which a product diffuses in a market. Qualitative empirical evidence collected via focus groups is used to identify human papillomavirus vaccine issues against the salience of perceived characteristics. Several impediments are identified and the application of marketing strategies is suggested for preventive innovations to improve the diffusion process and for designing proactive adoption.

  10. Modeling the Determinants Influencing the Diffusion of Mobile Internet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alwahaishi, Saleh; Snášel, Václav

    2013-04-01

    Understanding individual acceptance and use of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) is one of the most mature streams of information systems research. In Information Technology and Information System research, numerous theories are used to understand users' adoption of new technologies. Various models were developed including the Innovation Diffusion Theory, Theory of Reasoned Action, Theory of Planned Behavior, Technology Acceptance Model, and recently, the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology. This research composes a new hybrid theoretical framework to identify the factors affecting the acceptance and use of Mobile Internet -as an ICT application- in a consumer context. The proposed model incorporates eight constructs: Performance Expectancy (PE), Effort Expectancy (EE), Facilitating Conditions (FC), Social Influences (SI), Perceived Value (PV), Perceived Playfulness (PP), Attention Focus (AF), and Behavioral intention (BI). Individual differences-namely, age, gender, education, income, and experience are moderating the effects of these constructs on behavioral intention and technology use.

  11. For Export Only: Diffusion Professionals and Population Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, Deborah; Kurzman, Charles; Shanahan, Suzanne

    2010-01-01

    Export-only diffusion occurs when innovators do not adopt an innovation themselves, but rather promote it to others for adoption. Potential adopters do not take their cues from early adopters, but rather from diffusion professionals who make it their job to spread a practice or institution. The global spread of national-level, population control…

  12. A new procedure to measure effective molecular diffusion coefficients of salts solutions in building materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delgado, J. M. P. Q.

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this work is to present a mathematical and experimental formulation of a new simple procedure for the measurement of effective molecular diffusion coefficients of a salt solution in a water-saturated building material. This innovate experimental procedure and mathematical formulation is presented in detail and experimental values of "effective" molecular diffusion coefficient of sodium chloride in a concrete sample ( w/ c = 0.45), at five different temperatures (between 10 and 30 °C) and four different initial NaCl concentrations (between 0.1 and 0.5 M), are reported. The experimental results obtained are in good agreement with the theoretical and experimental values of molecular diffusion coefficient presented in literature. An empirical correlation is presented for the prediction of "effective" molecular diffusion coefficient over the entire range of temperatures and initial salt concentrations studied.

  13. Technology diffusion of energy-related products in residential markets

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, L.J.; Bruneau, C.L.

    1987-05-01

    Acceptance of energy-related technologies by end residential consumers, manufacturers of energy-related products, and other influential intermediate markets such as builders will influence the potential for market penetration of innovative energy-related technologies developed by the Department of Energy, Office of Building and Community Systems (OBCS). In this report, Pacific Northwest Laboratory reviewed the available information on technology adoption, diffusion, and decision-making processes to provide OBCS with a background and understanding of the type of research that has previously been conducted on this topic. Insight was gained as to the potential decision-making criteria and motivating factors that influence the decision-maker(s) selection of new technologies, and some of the barriers to technology adoption faced by potential markets for OBCS technologies.

  14. The Social Origins of Networks and Diffusion.

    PubMed

    Centola, Damon

    2015-03-01

    Recent research on social contagion has demonstrated significant effects of network topology on the dynamics of diffusion. However, network topologies are not given a priori. Rather, they are patterns of relations that emerge from individual and structural features of society, such as population composition, group heterogeneity, homophily, and social consolidation. Following Blau and Schwartz, the author develops a model of social network formation that explores how social and structural constraints on tie formation generate emergent social topologies and then explores the effectiveness of these social networks for the dynamics of social diffusion. Results show that, at one extreme, high levels of consolidation can create highly balkanized communities with poor integration of shared norms and practices. As suggested by Blau and Schwartz, reducing consolidation creates more crosscutting circles and significantly improves the dynamics of social diffusion across the population. However, the author finds that further reducing consolidation creates highly intersecting social networks that fail to support the widespread diffusion of norms and practices, indicating that successful social diffusion can depend on moderate to high levels of structural consolidation.

  15. Medical innovation then and now: perspectives of innovators responsible for transformative drugs.

    PubMed

    Xu, Shuai; Kesselheim, Aaron S

    2014-01-01

    Effective medical innovation is a common goal of policymakers, physicians, researchers, and patients both in the private and public sectors. With the recent slowdown in approval of new transformative prescription drugs, many have looked back to the "golden years" of the 1980s and 1990s when numerous breakthrough products emerged. We conducted a qualitative study of innovators (n=127) directly involved in creation of groundbreaking drugs during that era to determine what made their work successful and how the process of conducting medical innovation has changed over the past 3 decades. Transcripts were analyzed using standard coding techniques and the constant comparative method of qualitative data analysis to identify the positive features of and challenges posed by the past and present therapeutic innovation environments (70 of the 127 interviewees explicitly addressed these issues). Interviewees emphasized the continued central role played by individuals and the institutions they were a part of in driving innovation. In addition, respondents discussed the importance of collaboration between individuals and institutions to share resources and expertise. Strong underlying basic science was also cited to be a major contributing factor to the success of an innovation. The climate for modern-day medical innovation involves a greater emphasis on patenting in academia, difficulty negotiating the technology transfer process, and funding constraints. Regulatory demands or reimbursement concerns were not commonly cited as factors that influenced transformative innovation. This study suggests that generating future transformative innovation will require a simplification of the current technology transfer process, continued commitment to basic science research, and policy changes that promote meaningful collaboration between individuals from disparate institutions.

  16. The emergence and diffusion of DNA microarray technology

    PubMed Central

    Lenoir, Tim; Giannella, Eric

    2006-01-01

    The network model of innovation widely adopted among researchers in the economics of science and technology posits relatively porous boundaries between firms and academic research programs and a bi-directional flow of inventions, personnel, and tacit knowledge between sites of university and industry innovation. Moreover, the model suggests that these bi-directional flows should be considered as mutual stimulation of research and invention in both industry and academe, operating as a positive feedback loop. One side of this bi-directional flow – namely; the flow of inventions into industry through the licensing of university-based technologies – has been well studied; but the reverse phenomenon of the stimulation of university research through the absorption of new directions emanating from industry has yet to be investigated in much detail. We discuss the role of federal funding of academic research in the microarray field, and the multiple pathways through which federally supported development of commercial microarray technologies have transformed core academic research fields. Our study confirms the picture put forward by several scholars that the open character of networked economies is what makes them truly innovative. In an open system innovations emerge from the network. The emergence and diffusion of microarray technologies we have traced here provides an excellent example of an open system of innovation in action. Whether they originated in a startup company environment that operated like a think-tank, such as Affymax, the research labs of a large firm, such as Agilent, or within a research university, the inventors we have followed drew heavily on knowledge resources from all parts of the network in bringing microarray platforms to light. Federal funding for high-tech startups and new industrial development was important at several phases in the early history of microarrays, and federal funding of academic researchers using microarrays was fundamental

  17. Showcase of Innovation: Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate

    NASA Video Gallery

    On June 2, 2016, NASA’s Office of the Chief Technologist hosted the Showcase of Innovation Challenges in Washington to present and discuss ideas for innovation across the agency, the government, in...

  18. A compressed-sensing approach for super-resolution reconstruction of diffusion MRI

    PubMed Central

    Ning, Lipeng; Setsompop, Kawin; Michailovich, Oleg; Makris, Nikos; Westin, Carl-Fredrik; Rathi, Yogesh

    2015-01-01

    We present an innovative framework for reconstructing high-spatial-resolution diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI) from multiple low-resolution (LR) images. Our approach combines the twin concepts of compressed sensing (CS) and classical super-resolution to reduce acquisition time while increasing spatial resolution. We use sub-pixel-shifted LR images with down-sampled and non-overlapping diffusion directions to reduce acquisition time. The diffusion signal in the high resolution (HR) image is represented in a sparsifying basis of spherical ridgelets to model complex fiber orientations with reduced number of measurements. The HR image is obtained as the solution of a convex optimization problem which can be solved using the proposed algorithm based on the alternating direction method of multipliers (ADMM). We qualitatively and quantitatively evaluate the performance of our method on two sets of in-vivo human brain data and show its effectiveness in accurately recovering very high resolution diffusion images. PMID:26221667

  19. Diffusion of Radionuclides in Concrete and Soil

    SciTech Connect

    Mattigod, Shas V.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Bovaird, Chase C.; Parker, Kent E.; Recknagle, Kurtis P.; Clayton, Libby N.; Wood, Marcus I.

    2012-04-25

    One of the methods being considered for safely disposing of Category 3 low-level radioactive wastes is to encase the waste in concrete. Such concrete encasement would contain and isolate the waste packages from the hydrologic environment and would act as an intrusion barrier. Any failure of concrete encasement may result in water intrusion and consequent mobilization of radionuclides from the waste packages. The mobilized radionuclides may escape from the encased concrete by mass flow and/or diffusion and move into the surrounding subsurface environment. Therefore, it is necessary to assess the performance of the concrete encasement structure and the ability of the surrounding soil to retard radionuclide migration. The objective of our study was to measure the diffusivity of Re, Tc and I in concrete containment and the surrounding vadose zone soil. Effects of carbonation, presence of metallic iron, and fracturing of concrete and the varying moisture contents in soil on the diffusivities of Tc and I were evaluated.

  20. Diffusion-convection function of cosmic rays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, G.; Yang, G.

    1985-01-01

    The fundamental properties and some numerical results of the solution of the diffusion equation of an impulsive cosmic-ray point source in an uniform, unbounded and spherically symmetrical moving medium is presented. The diffusion-convection(D-C) function is an elementary composite function of the solution of the D-C equation for the particles injected impulsively from a diffusive point source into the medium. It is the analytic solution derived by the dimensional method for the propagation equation of solar cosmic rays in the heliosphere, i.e. the interplanetary space. Because of the introduction of convection effect of solar wind, a nonhomogeneous term appears in the propagation equation, it is difficult to express its solution in terms of the ordinary special functions. The research made so far has led to a solution containing only the first order approximation of the convection effect.

  1. Isotope effect of mercury diffusion in air

    PubMed Central

    Koster van Groos, Paul G.; Esser, Bradley K.; Williams, Ross W.; Hunt, James R.

    2014-01-01

    Identifying and reducing impacts from mercury sources in the environment remains a considerable challenge and requires process based models to quantify mercury stocks and flows. The stable isotope composition of mercury in environmental samples can help address this challenge by serving as a tracer of specific sources and processes. Mercury isotope variations are small and result only from isotope fractionation during transport, equilibrium, and transformation processes. Because these processes occur in both industrial and environmental settings, knowledge of their associated isotope effects is required to interpret mercury isotope data. To improve the mechanistic modeling of mercury isotope effects during gas phase diffusion, an experimental program tested the applicability of kinetic gas theory. Gas-phase elemental mercury diffusion through small bore needles from finite sources demonstrated mass dependent diffusivities leading to isotope fractionation described by a Rayleigh distillation model. The measured relative atomic diffusivities among mercury isotopes in air are large and in agreement with kinetic gas theory. Mercury diffusion in air offers a reasonable explanation of recent field results reported in the literature. PMID:24364380

  2. Diffusion of water in rhyolitic glasses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Youxue; Stolper, E. M.; Wasserburg, G. J.

    1991-01-01

    The process of water diffusion in 11 natural rhyolitic glasses was considered using the results of measurements by FTIR spectroscopy of concentration profiles of both H2O and OH at different temperatures. The diffusion coefficients of H2O and OH, D(H2O) and D(OH), respectively, were calculated from concentration profiles. Results indicate that, at 400-530 C, the value of D(OH) is negligible compared to that of D(H2O), and that OH does not contribute significantly to the diffusion of total water even at water concentrations as low as 0.2 percent, which is minute compared to that of OH. In the activation energy vs radius plot, the D(H2O) followed the same trend as that of noble gases.

  3. [Ultrasound diagnostics of diffuse liver diseases].

    PubMed

    Jung, E M; Wiggermann, P; Stroszczynski, C; Reiser, M F; Clevert, D-A

    2012-08-01

    The current improvements in modern high resolution ultrasound technology, like Tissue Harmonic Imaging (THI), Speckle Reduction Imaging (SRI), partial color coding of B-mode (Color Coded Imaging), and also the advent of ultrasound based elastography as well as contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) offer fundamentally new ways to characterize diffuse alterations of the liver parenchyma. Besides metabolic disease, disorders of liver fat distribution, infectious and malignant diseases can cause diffuse alterations of the liver parenchyma. In case of liver fibrosis, only a combination of different ultrasound techniques including CEUS, allows the differentiation between benign dysplastic and malignant lesions. Ultrasound elastography allows assessing the extent of the fibrosis. This article focuses on the different ultrasound based diagnostic possibilities in case of diffuse liver disease.

  4. Diffusion and solubility of oxygen in silver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eichenauer, W.; Miller, G.

    1985-01-01

    The diffusion and solubility of oxygen in Ag in the temperature range between 412 and 862 C was determined. The following interpolation formula was found for the solubility: L = 8.19.1/100.exp(-11 860/RT)Mol O2/g.At.Ag.at 1/.5. The process obeys the Sieverts square root law within the limits of error. The dissolution of oxygen in Ag may be accompanied by the dissociation of the oxygen molecules into atoms. The tests on Ag-foils reveal that below a temperature of about 500 C a higher solubility is simulated by the adsorption of oxygen. The diffusion coefficient of oxygen in silver obeys the following equation: D = 2.72.1/100.exp(-11 000/RT)sq cm/s. The relatively low activation energy of 11 kcal/g.At suggests that the diffusion of oxygen takes places over interstitial sites.

  5. [Diffusion and diffusion-osmosis models of the charged macromolecule transfer in barriers of biosystems].

    PubMed

    Varakin, A I; Mazur, V V; Arkhipova, N V; Serianov, Iu V

    2009-01-01

    Mathematical models of the transfer of charged macromolecules have been constructed on the basis of the classical equations of electromigration diffusion of Helmholtz-Smolukhovskii, Goldman, and Goldman-Hodgkin-Katz. It was shown that ion transfer in placental (mimicking lipid-protein barriers) and muscle barriers occurs by different mechanisms. In placental barriers, the electromigration diffusion occurs along lipid-protein channels formed due to the conformational deformation of phospholipid and protein molecules with the coefficients of diffusion D = (2.6-3.6) x 10(-8) cm2/s. The transfer in muscle barriers is due to the migration across charged interfibrillar channels with the negative diffusion activation energy, which is explained by changes in the structure of muscle fibers and expenditures of thermal energy for the extrusion of Cl- from channel walls with the diffusion coefficient D = (6.0-10.0) x 10(-6) cm2/s.

  6. Thomson Reuters innovation award research brief: the use of patent analytics in measuring innovation in India.

    PubMed

    Stembridge, Bob

    2009-09-01

    There are six different factors that can be used to assess the inventiveness of an organization and to determine how efficiently they apply invention resources to innovate effectively. This research briefing describes the techniques used to measure certain aspects of patenting activity by Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs) headquartered in India. The techniques are used to identify the most innovative SMEs in India in order to determine the winners of the Innovation Award 2009 from Thomson Reuters, awarded at InfoVision 2009 in Bangalore.

  7. Diffusion of contaminants in the ocean

    SciTech Connect

    Ozmidov, R.V.

    1990-01-01

    An understanding of the laws governing contaminant diffusion in the ocean makes it possible to choose correct methods of calculating the transport of biogenic elements, dissolved gases, and pollutants in the oceans. The study of the transport of material of any origin (biological or chemical) in the oceans is very complicated since it is influenced by many factors. This book pays much attention to the study of concentration fluctuations and diffusion of contaminants. The results of various experiments are added to the theoretical study. Recommendations for handling marine waste disposal are also presented. The book is directed at researchers in oceanography, marine technology, and the environmental sciences.

  8. ASYMMETRIC DIFFUSION OF MAGNETIC FIELD LINES

    SciTech Connect

    Beresnyak, Andrey

    2013-04-20

    Stochasticity of magnetic field lines is important for particle transport properties. Magnetic field lines separate faster than diffusively in turbulent plasma, which is called superdiffusion. We discovered that this superdiffusion is pronouncedly asymmetric, so that the separation of field lines along the magnetic field direction is different from the separation in the opposite direction. While the symmetry of the flow is broken by the so-called imbalance or cross-helicity, the difference between forward and backward diffusion is not directly due to imbalance, but a non-trivial consequence of both imbalance and non-reversibility of turbulence. The asymmetric diffusion perpendicular to the mean magnetic field entails a variety of new physical phenomena, such as the production of parallel particle streaming in the presence of perpendicular particle gradients. Such streaming and associated instabilities could be significant for particle transport in laboratory, space, and astrophysical plasmas.

  9. Phase Transitions in Diffusion of Light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezvani Naraghi, Roxana; Dogariu, Aristide

    2016-12-01

    It has been a long time belief that, with increasing the scattering strength of multiple scattering media, the transport of light gradually slows down and, eventually, comes to a halt corresponding to a localized state. Here we present experimental evidence that different stages emerge in this evolution, which cannot be described by classical diffusion with conventional scaling arguments. A microscopic model captures the relevant aspects of electromagnetic wave propagation and explains the competing mechanisms that prevent the three-dimensional wave localization. We demonstrate that strong evanescent-field couplings hinder the localization of wave resonances and, therefore, impede the slowing down of diffusion. The emerging out of equilibrium steady-state process resembles the diffusion of classical particles in spatially correlated random potentials and the thermalization of matter waves due to atomic collisions.

  10. Efficient Anisotropic Filtering of Diffusion Tensor Images

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Qing; Anderson, Adam W.; Gore, John C.; Ding, Zhaohua

    2009-01-01

    To improve the accuracy of structural and architectural characterization of living tissue with diffusion tensor imaging, an efficient smoothing algorithm is presented for reducing noise in diffusion tensor images. The algorithm is based on anisotropic diffusion filtering, which allows both image detail preservation and noise reduction. However, traditional numerical schemes for anisotropic filtering have the drawback of inefficiency and inaccuracy due to their poor stability and first order time accuracy. To address this, an unconditionally stable and second order time accuracy semi-implicit Craig-Sneyd scheme is adapted in our anisotropic filtering. By using large step size, unconditional stability allows this scheme to take much fewer iterations and thus less computation time than the explicit scheme to achieve a certain degree of smoothing. Second order time accuracy makes the algorithm reduce noise more effectively than a first order scheme with the same total iteration time. Both the efficiency and effectiveness are quantitatively evaluated based on synthetic and in vivo human brain diffusion tensor images, and these tests demonstrate that our algorithm is an efficient and effective tool for denoising diffusion tensor images. PMID:20061113

  11. Diffusion of vibrations in disordered systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beltukov, Y. M.; Kozub, V. I.; Parshin, D. A.

    2013-01-01

    We consider diffusion of vibrations in random lattices with translational invariance. Above the frequency ωIR corresponding to the Ioffe-Regel crossover (and depending on the strength of disorder), phonons cannot propagate through the lattice and transfer energy. At the same time, most of the vibrations in this range are not localized. We show that these delocalized excitations are similar to diffusons introduced by P. B. Allen, J. L. Feldman, J. Fabian, and F. Wooten (see, e.g., Phil. Mag. B 79, 1715 (1999)) to describe heat transport in glasses. In this range the energy in the lattice is transferred by means of diffusion of vibrational excitations. We have calculated the diffusivity of the modes D(ω) using both the direct numerical solution of Newton equations and the Edwards-Thouless formula. It is nearly constant above ωIR and goes to zero at the localization threshold.

  12. Anomalous Diffusion of Single Particles in Cytoplasm

    PubMed Central

    Regner, Benjamin M.; Vučinić, Dejan; Domnisoru, Cristina; Bartol, Thomas M.; Hetzer, Martin W.; Tartakovsky, Daniel M.; Sejnowski, Terrence J.

    2013-01-01

    The crowded intracellular environment poses a formidable challenge to experimental and theoretical analyses of intracellular transport mechanisms. Our measurements of single-particle trajectories in cytoplasm and their random-walk interpretations elucidate two of these mechanisms: molecular diffusion in crowded environments and cytoskeletal transport along microtubules. We employed acousto-optic deflector microscopy to map out the three-dimensional trajectories of microspheres migrating in the cytosolic fraction of a cellular extract. Classical Brownian motion (BM), continuous time random walk, and fractional BM were alternatively used to represent these trajectories. The comparison of the experimental and numerical data demonstrates that cytoskeletal transport along microtubules and diffusion in the cytosolic fraction exhibit anomalous (nonFickian) behavior and posses statistically distinct signatures. Among the three random-walk models used, continuous time random walk provides the best representation of diffusion, whereas microtubular transport is accurately modeled with fractional BM. PMID:23601312

  13. Diffusion tensor imaging of peripheral nerves.

    PubMed

    Jambawalikar, Sachin; Baum, Jeremy; Button, Terry; Li, Haifang; Geronimo, Veronica; Gould, Elaine S

    2010-11-01

    Magnetic resonance diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) allows the directional dependence of water diffusion to be studied. Analysis of the resulting image data allows for the determination of fractional anisotropy (FA), apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), as well as allowing three-dimensional visualization of the fiber tract (tractography). We visualized the ulnar nerve of ten healthy volunteers with DTI. We found FA to be 0.752 ± 0.067 and the ADC to be 0.96 ± 0.13 × 10(-3) mm(2)/s. A nuts-and-bolts description of the physical aspects of DTI is provided as an educational process for readers.

  14. Controlling diffusion of lithium in silicon nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Chan, Tzu-Liang; Chelikowsky, James R

    2010-03-10

    The ability to control the diffusion of dopants or impurities is a controlling factor in the functionalization of materials used in devices both at the macro- and nanoscales. At the nanoscale, manipulating diffusion of dopants is complicated by a number of factors such as the role of quantum confinement and the large surface to volume ratio. Here we examine Li in Si nanostructures, as atoms with low atomic mass such as Li can be used as a carrier for energy storage with high specific energy capacity. Specifically, Li-ion batteries with specific energy capacity as high as 4200 mA h g(-1) using Si nanowires as anodes have been achieved. Using ab initio calculations, we determine how the factors of size and dimensionality can be used to achieve an optimal diffusion of Li atoms in Si nanostructures.

  15. Universal Scaling of Polymer Diffusion in Nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Jihoon; Hore, Michael J. A.; Meth, Jeffrey S.; Clarke, Nigel; Winey, Karen I.; Composto, Russell J.

    2013-03-01

    The tracer diffusion of deuterated polystyrene (dPS) is measured in a polystyrene (PS) nanocomposite containing hard and soft silica nanoparticles (NPs). The soft NPs are grafted with a PS brush (87 kg/mol). The matrix for both NPs is PS (160 kg/mol). The diffusion coefficients for dPS (23 - 1,866 kg/mol) decrease as the hard and soft NP volume fractions increase. To accurately determine the interparticle distances (ID) relevant to each dPS (M) diffusing through the PS(160k):soft NP matrix, self consistent field theory and small angle neutron scattering studies were performed; both theory and experiment show that short dPS chains can deeply penetrate the brush, whereas longer dPS chains only penetrate the periphery and mainly remain in the matrix. The reduced diffusion coefficient (D/D0), plotted against the confinement parameter, namely ID relative to tracer size (2Rg), collapses onto a master curve independent of NP type. These experiments demonstrate that polymer diffusion in nanocomposites is captured by the confinement parameter over an extremely wide range of ID/2Rg and, hopefully, motivate new models to capture the dynamics in confined (ID/2Rg < 10) regimes.

  16. Diffusion of silver over atomically clean silicon surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Dolbak, A. E. Ol'shanetskii, B. Z.

    2013-06-15

    The diffusion of silver the (111), (100), and (110) silicon surfaces is studied by Auger electron spectroscopy and low-energy electron diffraction. The mechanisms of diffusion over the (111) and (110) surfaces are revealed, and the temperature dependences of diffusion coefficients are measured. An anisotropy of silver diffusion over the (110) surface is detected.

  17. Electrostatic waves and the strong diffusion of magnetospheric electrons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kennel, C. F.; Ashour-Abdalla, M.

    1982-01-01

    A comprehensive review of electron pitch angle scattering in the magnetosphere and the plasma waves responsible for it is presented, emphasizing the strong diffusion of diffuse auroral electrons by electrostatic electron cyclotron harmonic waves. The weak diffusion of energetic radiation belt electrons within the plasmasphere is reviewed briefly. Several new suggestions concerning the quasilinear diffusion from and saturation of electrostatic waves are included.

  18. An Examination of the Disruptive Innovation Paradox: The Application of the Innovators Dilemma to SME's

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagle, Tadhg; Golden, William

    Managing strategic contradiction and paradoxical situations has been gaining importance in technological, innovation and management domains. As a result, more and more paradoxical instances and types have been documented in literature. The innovators dilemma is such an instance that gives a detailed description of how disruptive innovations affect firms. However, the innovators dilemma has only been applied to large organisations and more specifically industry incumbents. Through a multiple case study of six eLearning SME’s, this paper investigates the applicability of the innovators dilemma as well as the disruptive effects of Web 2.0 on the organisations. Analysing the data collected over 18 months, it was found that the innovators dilemma did indeed apply to SME’s. However, inline with the original thesis the dilemma only applied to the SME’s established (pre-2002) before the development of Web 2.0 technologies began. Furthermore, the study highlights that the post-2002 firms were also partly vulnerable to the dilemma but were able to avoid any negative effects though technological visionary leadership. In contrast, the pre-2002 firms were lacking this visionary ability and were also constrained by low risk profiles.

  19. Creating a Culture of Innovation in the Community College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Banion, Terry; Weidner, Laura; Wilson, Cynthia

    2011-01-01

    As we approach the second decade of the new millennium, there is a renaissance of innovation in education, a resurgence of interest and experimentation that begs for analysis and review. To that end, the League for Innovation in the Community College proposed to conduct a national study on the nature of innovation in the community college using…

  20. A Pilot Study on the Perception of Innovation and Entrepreneurship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aslan, A. Esra; Duman, Burcu; Sen, Dunya; Duran, Cem; Atarbay, Sinem

    2016-01-01

    Problem Statement: The concepts of innovation and entrepreneurship must be understood and adopted to ensure such transformation in the university after "Entrepreneurial and Innovative University Index" publication. The basic problem of this research is an analysis of how entrepreneurs define the concepts of innovation and…

  1. Models of anomalous diffusion: the subdiffusive case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piryatinska, A.; Saichev, A. I.; Woyczynski, W. A.

    2005-04-01

    The paper discusses a model for anomalous diffusion processes. Their one-point probability density functions (p.d.f.) are exact solutions of fractional diffusion equations. The model reflects the asymptotic behavior of a jump (anomalous random walk) process with random jump sizes and random inter-jump time intervals with infinite means (and variances) which do not satisfy the Law of Large Numbers. In the case when these intervals have a fractional exponential p.d.f., the fractional Komogorov-Feller equation for the corresponding anomalous diffusion is provided and methods of finding its solutions are discussed. Finally, some statistical properties of solutions of the related Langevin equation are studied. The subdiffusive case is explored in detail. The emphasis is on a rigorous presentation which, however, would be accessible to the physical sciences audience.

  2. US Military Innovation: Fostering Creativity in a Culture of Compliance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    Views September–October 2014 Air & Space Power Journal | 128 US Military Innovation Fostering Creativity in a Culture of Compliance Col John F. Price... creativity . Understanding Innovation The landscape of American military dialogue on innovation has be- come cluttered over the last two decades with...REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2014 to 00-00-2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE US Military Innovation: Fostering Creativity in a Culture of

  3. Mathematical modeling of molecular diffusion through mucus

    PubMed Central

    Cu, Yen; Saltzman, W. Mark

    2008-01-01

    The rate of molecular transport through the mucus gel can be an important determinant of efficacy for therapeutic agents delivered by oral, intranasal, intravaginal/rectal, and intraocular routes. Transport through mucus can be described by mathematical models based on principles of physical chemistry and known characteristics of the mucus gel, its constituents, and of the drug itself. In this paper, we review mathematical models of molecular diffusion in mucus, as well as the techniques commonly used to measure diffusion of solutes in the mucus gel, mucus gel mimics, and mucosal epithelia. PMID:19135488

  4. Catalogue of diffuse interstellar band measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snow, T. P., Jr.; York, D. G.; Welty, D. E.

    1976-01-01

    Diffuse-band data have been collected from the literature and reduced statistically to a common measurement system, enabling correlation analyses to be made with a larger quantity of data than previously possible. A full listing of the catalogued data is presented, along with some discussion of the correlations. One important application of such studies is the identification of cases of peculiar diffuse-band behavior, and a table is given showing all cases of band strengths deviating by more than twice the mean dispersion from the best-fit correlations. This table may be useful in planning further observations.

  5. What Are the Best Approaches for Encouraging the Diffusion of a New Instructional Technology among Faculty Members in Higher Education? a Look at Eportfolio Use at Stony Brook University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kardasz, Sara M.

    2013-01-01

    This article will summarize and explain the Diffusion of Innovations Theory put forth by Everett M. Rogers (2003). It will then share some of the other research that has been conducted relevant to diffusion, especially those researchers who have looked at the diffusion of instructional technology in higher education. It will consider criticisms of…

  6. The diffusion of stars through phase space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Binney, James; Lacey, Cedric

    1988-01-01

    An orbit-averaged Fokker-Planck equation has been derived to study the secular evolution of stellar systems with regular orbits and the heating of stellar disks. It is shown that a population of stars with an initially Maxwellian peculiar-velocity distribution will remain Maxwellian as it diffuses through orbit space only if: (1) a second-order diffusion tensor is proportional to epicycle energy; and (2) the population's velocity dispersion grows as the square root of time. Scattering by ephemeral spiral waves is able to account for the observed kinematics of the solar neighborhood only if the waves have wavelengths in excess of 9 kpc and constantly drifting pattern speeds.

  7. Innovation Roles: From Souls of Fire to Devil's Advocates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Marcy

    2000-01-01

    Examines self-report data from organizational members of a federal government health information and education network piloting innovative intervention strategies to disseminate cancer information to the public. Suggests the existence of a new innovation role: the Devil's advocate. Explores the nature of resisting innovation, existing innovation…

  8. Tension as an Enabling Characteristic of Innovating in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perillo, Suzanne

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to argue that school innovation is a complex process requiring a detailed accounting of the relational activity characterising everyday innovating activity. It is further proposed that complex accounts of innovation practice that describe social factors only are insufficient. Design/methodology/approach: Using…

  9. On Strategies of Educational Innovation: Between Substitution and Transformation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westera, Wim

    2004-01-01

    The innovation of education seems to be self-evident. Boosted by a wide range of new technologies, educational institutes all over the world are innovating their educational systems, in order to extend their services, to improve their performances or to reduce costs. The apparent self-evidence of educational innovation hardly prompts the…

  10. Single particle raster image analysis of diffusion.

    PubMed

    Longfils, M; Schuster, E; Lorén, N; Särkkä, A; Rudemo, M

    2017-04-01

    As a complement to the standard RICS method of analysing Raster Image Correlation Spectroscopy images with estimation of the image correlation function, we introduce the method SPRIA, Single Particle Raster Image Analysis. Here, we start by identifying individual particles and estimate the diffusion coefficient for each particle by a maximum likelihood method. Averaging over the particles gives a diffusion coefficient estimate for the whole image. In examples both with simulated and experimental data, we show that the new method gives accurate estimates. It also gives directly standard error estimates. The method should be possible to extend to study heterogeneous materials and systems of particles with varying diffusion coefficient, as demonstrated in a simple simulation example. A requirement for applying the SPRIA method is that the particle concentration is low enough so that we can identify the individual particles. We also describe a bootstrap method for estimating the standard error of standard RICS.

  11. The magnitude of innovation and its evolution in social animals.

    PubMed

    Arbilly, Michal; Laland, Kevin N

    2017-02-08

    Innovative behaviour in animals, ranging from invertebrates to humans, is increasingly recognized as an important topic for investigation by behavioural researchers. However, what constitutes an innovation remains controversial, and difficult to quantify. Drawing on a broad definition whereby any behaviour with a new component to it is an innovation, we propose a quantitative measure, which we call the magnitude of innovation, to describe the extent to which an innovative behaviour is novel. This allows us to distinguish between innovations that are a slight change to existing behaviours (low magnitude), and innovations that are substantially different (high magnitude). Using mathematical modelling and evolutionary computer simulations, we explored how aspects of social interaction, cognition and natural selection affect the frequency and magnitude of innovation. We show that high-magnitude innovations are likely to arise regularly even if the frequency of innovation is low, as long as this frequency is relatively constant, and that the selectivity of social learning and the existence of social rewards, such as prestige and royalties, are crucial for innovative behaviour to evolve. We suggest that consideration of the magnitude of innovation may prove a useful tool in the study of the evolution of cognition and of culture.

  12. Oscillatory Extinction Of Spherical Diffusion Flames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Law, C. K.; Yoo, S. W.; Christianson, E. W.

    2003-01-01

    Since extinction has been observed in an oscillatory manner in Le greater than 1 premixed flames, it is not unreasonable to expect that extinction could occur in an unsteady manner for diffusion flames. Indeed, near-limit oscillations have been observed experimentally under microgravity conditions for both candle flames and droplet flames. Furthermore, the analysis of Cheatham and Matalon on the unsteady behavior of diffusion flames with heat loss, identified an oscillatory regime which could be triggered by either a sufficiently large Lewis number (even without heat loss) or an appreciable heat loss (even for Le=1). In light of these recent understanding, the present investigation aims to provide a well-controlled experiment that can unambiguously demonstrate the oscillation of diffusion flames near both the transport- and radiation-induced limits. That is, since candle and jet flames are stabilized through flame segments that are fundamentally premixed in nature, and since premixed flames are prone to oscillate, there is the possibility that the observed oscillation of these bulk diffusion flames could be triggered and sustained by the oscillation of the premixed flame segments. Concerning the observed oscillatory droplet extinction, it is well-known that gas-phase oscillation in heterogeneous burning can be induced by and is thereby coupled with condensed-phase unsteadiness. Consequently, a convincing experiment on diffusion flame oscillation must exclude any ingredients of premixed flames and other sources that may either oscillate themselves or promote the oscillation of the diffusion flame. The present experiment on burner-generated spherical flames with a constant reactant supply endeavored to accomplish this goal. The results are further compared with those from computational simulation for further understanding and quantification of the flame dynamics and extinction.

  13. Effective diffusion of confined active Brownian swimmers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandoval, Mario; Dagdug, Leonardo

    2014-11-01

    We find theoretically the effect of confinement and thermal fluctuations, on the diffusivity of a spherical active swimmer moving inside a two-dimensional narrow cavity of general shape. The explicit formulas for the effective diffusion coefficient of a swimmer moving inside two particular cavities are presented. We also compare our analytical results with Brownian Dynamics simulations and we obtain excellent agreement. L.D. thanks Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnologia (CONACyT) Mexico, for partial support by Grant No. 176452. M. S. thanks CONACyT and Programa de Mejoramiento de Profesorado (PROMEP) for partially funding this work under Grant No. 103.5/13/6732.

  14. Reaction-diffusion basis of retroviral infectivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadiq, S. Kashif

    2016-11-01

    Retrovirus particle (virion) infectivity requires diffusion and clustering of multiple transmembrane envelope proteins (Env3) on the virion exterior, yet is triggered by protease-dependent degradation of a partially occluding, membrane-bound Gag polyprotein lattice on the virion interior. The physical mechanism underlying such coupling is unclear and only indirectly accessible via experiment. Modelling stands to provide insight but the required spatio-temporal range far exceeds current accessibility by all-atom or even coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations. Nor do such approaches account for chemical reactions, while conversely, reaction kinetics approaches handle neither diffusion nor clustering. Here, a recently developed multiscale approach is considered that applies an ultra-coarse-graining scheme to treat entire proteins at near-single particle resolution, but which also couples chemical reactions with diffusion and interactions. A model is developed of Env3 molecules embedded in a truncated Gag lattice composed of membrane-bound matrix proteins linked to capsid subunits, with freely diffusing protease molecules. Simulations suggest that in the presence of Gag but in the absence of lateral lattice-forming interactions, Env3 diffuses comparably to Gag-absent Env3. Initial immobility of Env3 is conferred through lateral caging by matrix trimers vertically coupled to the underlying hexameric capsid layer. Gag cleavage by protease vertically decouples the matrix and capsid layers, induces both matrix and Env3 diffusion, and permits Env3 clustering. Spreading across the entire membrane surface reduces crowding, in turn, enhancing the effect and promoting infectivity. This article is part of the themed issue 'Multiscale modelling at the physics-chemistry-biology interface'.

  15. On the Cultivation of Innovative Talents in Colleges and Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Changli; Jia, Hongchun

    2009-01-01

    It is the sure pursuit for the Colleges and Universities to cultivate the innovative talents for the society. The cultivation of innovative talents in Colleges and Universities plays a crucial role not only in economic and social development, but also in schools' and personal development. The internal quality of innovative talents includes the…

  16. Creating a Nation of Innovators. A Brief Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fluellen, Jerry E., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    The Learning and Brain Conference for 2011 featured talks on a handful of themes including creativity, technology, education tomorrow, five minds for the future and innovation. Of these, innovation took center stage. Tony Wagner's opening plenary session became the conference prologue, examining innovation from several perspectives including seven…

  17. Organizational Climate and the Adoption of Educational Innovations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Homer M.; Marcum, R. Laverne

    Fifteen of the most innovative schools and 15 of the least innovative schools in Oregon, Washington, Idaho, Nevada, and Utah, as identified by the Educational Innovation Checklist developed by Hinman, were examined to (1) determine whether there are significant differences between their organizational climates, (2) determine if differences exist…

  18. Diffusion of Small Solute Particles in Viscous Liquids: Cage Diffusion, a Result of Decoupling of Solute-Solvent Dynamics, Leads to Amplification of Solute Diffusion.

    PubMed

    Acharya, Sayantan; Nandi, Manoj K; Mandal, Arkajit; Sarkar, Sucharita; Bhattacharyya, Sarika Maitra

    2015-08-27

    We study the diffusion of small solute particles through solvent by keeping the solute-solvent interaction repulsive and varying the solvent properties. The study involves computer simulations, development of a new model to describe diffusion of small solutes in a solvent, and also mode coupling theory (MCT) calculations. In a viscous solvent, a small solute diffuses via coupling to the solvent hydrodynamic modes and also through the transient cages formed by the solvent. The model developed can estimate the independent contributions from these two different channels of diffusion. Although the solute diffusion in all the systems shows an amplification, the degree of it increases with solvent viscosity. The model correctly predicts that when the solvent viscosity is high, the solute primarily diffuses by exploiting the solvent cages. In such a scenario the MCT diffusion performed for a static solvent provides a correct estimation of the cage diffusion.

  19. Thermal Diffusivity Mapping of Solids by Scanning Photoacoustic Piezoelectric Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Binxing; Gao, Chunming; Yan, Laijun; Wang, Yafei

    2016-12-01

    Quantitative thermal diffusivity mapping of solid samples was achieved using the scanning photoacoustic piezoelectric (PAPE) technique. Based on the frequency-domain PAPE theoretical model, the methodology of the scanning PAPE thermal diffusivity mapping is introduced. An experimental setup capable of spatial and frequency scanning was established. Thermal diffusivity mapping of homogeneous and inhomogeneous samples was carried out. The obtained thermal diffusivity images are consistent with the optical images in image contrast and consistent with the reference values in thermal diffusivity. Results show that the scanning PAPE technique is able to determine the thermal diffusivity distribution of solids, hence providing an effective method for thermal diffusivity mapping.

  20. Transverse diffusion of electrons in a magnetoplasma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcintyre, Bernard

    1987-01-01

    Plasma density and temperature profiles were measured for plasma electrons which were generated by a plasma source and ionization from a 1 kev electron beam. Electron plasma parameters were measured with a cylindrical Langmuir probe which was moved perpendicular to the axis of the beam and field. Electron densities decreased exponentially from the beam center and the decay constant varied with magnetic field in accordance with the Bohm theory of cross field diffusion. This enhanced diffusion effect due to instabilities generated by the electron beam is orders of magnitude larger than that due to particle collisions.

  1. Radiant extinction of gaseous diffusion flames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atreya, Arvind; Agrawal, Sanjay; Shamim, Tariq; Pickett, Kent; Sacksteder, Kurt R.; Baum, Howard R.

    1995-01-01

    The absence of buoyancy-induced flows in microgravity significantly alters the fundamentals of many combustion processes. Substantial differences between normal-gravity and microgravity flames have been reported during droplet combustion, flame spread over solids, candle flames, and others. These differences are more basic than just in the visible flame shape. Longer residence time and higher concentration of combustion products create a thermochemical environment which changes the flame chemistry. Processes such as flame radiation, that are often ignored under normal gravity, become very important and sometimes even controlling. This is particularly true for conditions at extinction of a microgravity diffusion flame. Under normal-gravity, the buoyant flow, which may be characterized by the strain rate, assists the diffusion process to transport the fuel and oxidizer to the combustion zone and remove the hot combustion products from it. These are essential functions for the survival of the flame which needs fuel and oxidizer. Thus, as the strain rate is increased, the diffusion flame which is 'weak' (reduced burning rate per unit flame area) at low strain rates is initially 'strengthened' and eventually it may be 'blown-out'. Most of the previous research on diffusion flame extinction has been conducted at the high strain rate 'blow-off' limit. The literature substantially lacks information on low strain rate, radiation-induced, extinction of diffusion flames. At the low strain rates encountered in microgravity, flame radiation is enhanced due to: (1) build-up of combustion products in the flame zone which increases the gas radiation, and (2) low strain rates provide sufficient residence time for substantial amounts of soot to form which further increases the flame radiation. It is expected that this radiative heat loss will extinguish the already 'weak' diffusion flame under certain conditions. Identifying these conditions (ambient atmosphere, fuel flow rate, fuel

  2. The Practice: An Analysis of the Factors Influencing the Training of Health Care Participants through Innovative Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gattoni, Ali; Tenzek, Kelly E.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to develop a theoretical framework for understanding how new technologies become a part of culture and change our traditional images of health care and providers. Using the diffusion of innovations theory provides an understanding of how providers can adopt technology into practice. More specifically, this paper focuses on…

  3. Measures for Predictors of Innovation Adoption.

    PubMed

    Chor, Ka Ho Brian; Wisdom, Jennifer P; Olin, Su-Chin Serene; Hoagwood, Kimberly E; Horwitz, Sarah M

    2015-09-01

    Building on a narrative synthesis of adoption theories by Wisdom et al. (2013), this review identifies 118 measures associated with the 27 adoption predictors in the synthesis. The distribution of measures is uneven across the predictors and predictors vary in modifiability. Multiple dimensions and definitions of predictors further complicate measurement efforts. For state policymakers and researchers, more effective and integrated measurement can advance the adoption of complex innovations such as evidence-based practices.

  4. Measures for Predictors of Innovation Adoption

    PubMed Central

    Chor, Ka Ho Brian; Wisdom, Jennifer P.; Olin, Su-Chin Serene; Hoagwood, Kimberly E.; Horwitz, Sarah M.

    2014-01-01

    Building on a narrative synthesis of adoption theories by Wisdom et al. (2013), this review identifies 118 measures associated with the 27 adoption predictors in the synthesis. The distribution of measures is uneven across the predictors and predictors vary in modifiability. Multiple dimensions and definitions of predictors further complicate measurement efforts. For state policymakers and researchers, more effective and integrated measurement can advance the adoption of complex innovations such as evidence-based practices. PMID:24740175

  5. Discovery of Diffuse Aurora on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stiepen, A.; Schneider, N. M.; Jain, S. K.; Deighan, J.; Stewart, A. I. F.; Evans, J. S.; Stevens, M. H.; Larson, D.; Mitchell, D.; Montmessin, F.; Chaffin, M. H.; McClintock, W. E.; Clarke, J. T.; Holsclaw, G. M.; Jakosky, B. M.

    2015-10-01

    The Imaging Ultraviolet Spectrograph (IUVS, McClintock et al., 2014) onboard the MAVEN spacecraft has discovered diffuse aurora in Mars'northern hemisphere spanning a wide range of geographic latitudes and longitudes (Figure 1). This widespread aurora differs from the small auroral patches discovered by the SPICAM instrument onboard the Mars Express spacecraft (Bertaux et al., 2005; Leblanc et al., 2008; Gérard et al., submitted; Soret et al., submitted) restricted to regions of crustal magnetic fields in the southern hemisphere. Furthermore, the northern diffuse aurora appears to peak at altitudes below 100 km, while the crustal field aurora peaked around 120 km.

  6. Key Knowledge Providers as Sources of Business Innovation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandez-Esquinas, Manuel; Merchan-Hernandez, Carmen; Ramos-Vielba, Irene; Martinez-Fernandez, Cristina

    2010-01-01

    Studies of innovation are giving increasing attention to the relationships that businesses maintain with different participants in the innovation process. It is generally assumed that interaction with other businesses, universities and government organizations can generate knowledge that will improve the ability to innovate. However, there is…

  7. An Exploration of Open Innovation: An Environmental Scanning Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elci, Nuray

    2009-01-01

    Globalization and direction toward a knowledge economy, along with an economic downturn, is creating a competitive environment that calls for corporations to become more innovative. As the business environment becomes more competitive and dynamic, corporations are looking for new ways of achieving innovation. Open innovation is one approach that…

  8. 78 FR 60918 - Innovation Corps Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-02

    ... Innovation Corps Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting In accordance with the Federal Advisory Committee Act...: Innovation Corps (I-Corps) for Advisory Committee, 80463. Date/Time: October 28, 2013, 3:00 p.m.-5:00 p.m..., Program Director, Innovation Corps (I-Corps), Engineering Directorate, National Science Foundation,...

  9. Diffuse and specular characteristics of leaf reflectance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grant, Lois

    1987-01-01

    In this paper, the evolution of current understanding of the mechanisms of leaf reflectance is reviewed. The use of measurements of polarized reflectance to separate leaf reflectance into diffuse and specular components is discussed. A section on the factors influencing leaf reflectance - leaf structure and physiological disturbances - is included along with discussion on the manner in which these influences are manifested.

  10. Long Capillary Diffusion Experiments in Space: Problems Associated with the Fabrication of Diffusion Couples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirkhanzadeh, Morteza

    A series of liquid metal diffusion experiments were conducted in early 1990's by Smith and co-workers onboard the US Space Shuttles and MIR Space Station (1-3) to study the effect of g and g-jitter on the diffusion of solutes in liquid metals. A method called ` cast coating technique' was employed to prepare diffusion couples that involved casting the alloy portion of the diffusion couples directly on top of the pure metal portion in a specially designed mould. Using this method, a series of long capillary experiments were carried out during an extended period of time in space. The objective of the mission was to obtain high quality diffusion data for validating theoretical models. Evidence will be presented that shows that diffusion couples with accurate dimensions suitable for the precise measurement of diffusion coefficients could not be fabricated in a reproducible manner by the cast coating technique. The lack of reproducibility in fabricating diffusion couples is a major factor affecting the reliability of the microgravity data that are widely reported. References: 1.Reginald W. Smith, Xiaohe Zhu, Mark C. Tunnicliffe, Timothy J. N. Smith, Lowell Misener, and Josee Adamson. 2002. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 974:57-67 (2002) (retracted). 2.R. W. Smith, B. J. Yang, and W. D. Huang, Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 1027: 110-128 (2004) (retracted). 3.R.W. Smith, Microgravity Sci. Technol. XI (2) 78-84 (1998).

  11. Practical skills of the future innovator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaurov, Vitaliy

    2015-03-01

    Physics graduates face and often are disoriented by the complex and turbulent world of startups, incubators, emergent technologies, big data, social network engineering, and so on. In order to build the curricula that foster the skills necessary to navigate this world, we will look at the experiences at the Wolfram Science Summer School that gathers annually international students for already more than a decade. We will look at the examples of projects and see the development of such skills as innovative thinking, data mining, machine learning, cloud technologies, device connectivity and the Internet of things, network analytics, geo-information systems, formalized computable knowledge, and the adjacent applied research skills from graph theory to image processing and beyond. This should give solid ideas to educators who will build standard curricula adapted for innovation and entrepreneurship education.

  12. Quality Certification, Institutions and Innovation in Local Agro-Food Systems: Protected Designations of Origin of Olive Oil in Spain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canada, Javier Sanz; Vazquez, Alfredo Macias

    2005-01-01

    This article examines the interrelations between establishment of territorial quality certification systems (Protected Designations of Origin or PDOs), diffusion of innovations through local agro-food chains, and the role of the institutions overseeing geographical designations. Empirical analysis is applied to olive oil PDOs in Spain and entails…

  13. Innovation at U.S Medical Schools: A Multiple Case Study of Leaders' Perceptions of Educational Techology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parisky, Alex

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative case study was to better understand the implementation of educational technology in selected medical schools. This study utilized Rogers' Diffusion of Innovation theory to investigate the perspectives of educational technology leaders at four different medical schools in the United States. In the coming years,…

  14. Development of an instrument measuring the perceived attributes of implementing a healthy diet innovation in the Lower Mississippi Delta

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this research was to develop a valid and reliable instrument to assess individuals' perceived attributes of implementing a healthy diet. Using the Diffusion of Innovations (DOI) theory as a conceptual framework, this descriptive study consisted of three phases. Phase 1 included group ...

  15. Understanding Innovation Adoption in the Air Force

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-01

    Production Management, 22: 152-194 (Spring 2002). Frambach, Ruud T. “An Integrated Model of Organizational Adoption and Diffusion of Innovations...European Journal of Marketing, 27: 22-41 (May 1993). Frambach, Ruud T. and Niels Schillewaert. “Organizational Innovation Adoption. A Multi

  16. The structure of hydrophobic gas diffusion electrodes.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giner, J.

    1972-01-01

    The 'flooded agglomerate' model of the Teflon-bonded gas diffusion electrode is discussed. A mathematical treatment of the 'flooded agglomerate' model is given; it can be used to predict the performance of the electrode as a function of measurable physical parameters.

  17. The Role of Innovation in Organizational Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-06-01

    productivity. At Emery Air Freight, for example, an exten- sive program of positive reinforcement was introduced in an effort to increase productivity...noted and that positive reinforcement was used primarily to motivate employees to use that innovation. The author points with satisfaction to a...organizations in which they work. We have already noted how in the study of the Emery Freight Com- pany, positive reinforcement was used to encourage

  18. A Revitalized USAF Culture of Innovation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-11-01

    i   SQUADRON OFFICER COLLEGE AIR UNIVERSITY A REVITALIZED USAF CULTURE OF INNOVATION By Capt Vito Bussmann, Capt Gabriel Gassie, Capt...NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Air University,Squadron Officer College ,Maxwell AFB,AL...inputs from senior leadership on-site at Air University and Squadron Officer College to guide the direction of our research. Our research placed an

  19. Infusion of innovative technologies for mission operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donati, Alessandro

    2010-11-01

    The Advanced Mission Concepts and Technologies Office (Mission Technologies Office, MTO for short) at the European Space Operations Centre (ESOC) of ESA is entrusted with research and development of innovative mission operations concepts systems and provides operations support to special projects. Visions of future missions and requests for improvements from currently flying missions are the two major sources of inspiration to conceptualize innovative or improved mission operations processes. They include monitoring and diagnostics, planning and scheduling, resource management and optimization. The newly identified operations concepts are then proved by means of prototypes, built with embedded, enabling technology and deployed as shadow applications in mission operations for an extended validation phase. The technology so far exploited includes informatics, artificial intelligence and operational research branches. Recent outstanding results include artificial intelligence planning and scheduling applications for Mars Express, advanced integrated space weather monitoring system for the Integral space telescope and a suite of growing client applications for MUST (Mission Utilities Support Tools). The research, development and validation activities at the Mission technologies office are performed together with a network of research institutes across Europe. The objective is narrowing the gap between enabling and innovative technology and space mission operations. The paper first addresses samples of technology infusion cases with their lessons learnt. The second part is focused on the process and the methodology used at the Mission technologies office to fulfill its objectives.

  20. Timescales of Geological Processes: a Diffuse Spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, S.; Costa, F.; Trepmann, C. A.; Dueffels, K.; Dohmen, R.

    2004-12-01

    One of the most significant recent advances in the study of geological processes is the ability to identify and quantify a hierarchy of time scales ranging from days to millions of years. Modeling diffusion related processes provides one of the most versatile tools for studying the lower end of this temporal spectrum. We will demonstrate this versatility with two examples chosen from very different milieus. (1) Volcanic processes in the Chilean Andes: We use somewhat novel modeling techniques to show that magma mixing can cause igneous differentiation in a subduction zone setting over decadal time scales. This provides a link between processes occurring over thousands to millions of years (melt generation and transport) and pre-eruptive processes that occur over days to months. (2) Plutonism and mid-crustal metamorphic processes in the Alps. Here, dike emplacement was triggered over time scales of days, cooling in magma chambers occurred over hundreds of years while metamorphism in the mid crustal level lasted millions of years. The regional distribution of such rates allows us to infer differential uplift across a section of the Alps. Traditionally, diffusion modeling has been plagued by large uncertainties arising from a number of sources. Large extrapolations of diffusion coefficients measured at high temperatures, simplified numerical models and inadequate understanding of diffusion mechanisms are some of these. Technical and theoretical developments now allow us to circumvent many of these problems. For example, the ability to manipulate complex silicate compositions on the nanometer scale through the use of thin film technology (e.g. pulsed laser ablation) allows us to measure diffusion coefficients at conditions that were inaccessible only a few years ago. In addition, these experiments are faster and more accurate. Consequently, it is now possible to determine parameters such as enhancement of diffusion rates in defective crystals or due to reactive