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Sample records for digestive tract excluding

  1. Digestive-tract sarcoidosis

    PubMed Central

    Ghrenassia, Etienne; Mekinian, Arsene; Chapelon-Albric, Catherine; Levy, Pierre; Cosnes, Jacques; Sève, Pascal; Lefèvre, Guillaume; Dhôte, Robin; Launay, David; Prendki, Virginie; Morell-Dubois, Sandrine; Sadoun, Danielle; Mehdaoui, Anas; Soussan, Michael; Bourrier, Anne; Ricard, Laure; Benamouzig, Robert; Valeyre, Dominique; Fain, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Digestive tract sarcoidosis (DTS) is rare and case-series are lacking. In this retrospective case–control study, we aimed to compare the characteristics, outcome, and treatment of patients with DTS, nondigestive tract sarcoidosis (NDTS), and Crohn disease. We included cases of confirmed sarcoidosis, symptomatic digestive tract involvement, and noncaseating granuloma in any digestive tract. Each case was compared with 2 controls with sarcoidoisis without digestive tract involvement and 4 with Crohn disease. We compared 25 cases of DTS to 50 controls with NDTS and 100 controls with Crohn disease. The major digestive clinical features were abdominal pain (56%), weight loss (52%), nausea/vomiting (48%), diarrhea (32%), and digestive bleeding (28%). On endoscopy of DTS, macroscopic lesions were observed in the esophagus (9%), stomach (78%), duodenum (9%), colon, (25%) and rectum (19%). As compared with NDTS, DTS was associated with weight loss (odds ratio [OR] 5.8; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.44–23.3) and the absence of thoracic adenopathy (OR 5.0; 95% CI 1.03–25). As compared with Crohn disease, DTS was associated with Afro-Caribbean origin (OR 27; 95% CI 3.6–204) and the absence of ileum or colon macroscopic lesions (OR 62.5; 95% CI 10.3–500). On the last follow-up, patients with DTS showed no need for surgery (versus 31% for patients with Crohn disease; P = 0.0013), and clinical digestive remission was frequent (76% vs. 35% for patients with Crohn disease; P = 0.0002). The differential diagnosis with Crohn disease could be an issue with DTS. Nevertheless, the 2 diseases often have different clinical presentation and outcome. PMID:27442665

  2. Digestive tract morphology and digestion in the wombats (Marsupialia: Vombatidae).

    PubMed

    Barboza, P S; Hume, I D

    1992-01-01

    Wombats consume grasses and sedges which are often highly fibrous. The morphology of the digestive tract and the sequence of digestion were studied in two species of wombats from contrasting habitats: Vombatus ursinus from mesic habitats and Lasiorhinus latifrons from xeric regions. Studies were performed on wild wombats consuming their natural winter diets, and on captive wombats fed a high-fibre pelleted straw diet. Vombatus had a shorter digestive tract (9.2 vs 12.5 times body length) of greater capacity (wet contents 17.9 vs 13.7% body weight) than Lasiorhinus. The most capacious region of the digestive tract was the proximal colon (62-79% of contents). The proportional length and surface area of the proximal colon were greater in Vombatus, but those of the distal colon were greater in Lasiorhinus. These digestive morphologies may reflect adaptations for greater capacity and longer retention of digesta in Vombatus, but greater absorption and lower faecal water loss in Lasiorhinus. Apparent digestion along the digestive tract was estimated by reference to lignin. The proximal colon was the principal site of fibre and dry matter digestion, whereas nitrogen was mainly digested in the small intestine. Depot fats in captive wombats were highly unsaturated and reflected those in the diet. Therefore, lipids, proteins and soluble carbohydrates in the plant cell contents were digested and absorbed in the stomach and small intestine. Conversely, dietary fibre was probably retained and digested by microbial fermentation along the proximal colon.

  3. [Physiology of microflora in the digestive tract].

    PubMed

    Zboril, V

    2002-01-01

    The microflora of the digestive tract is a complex microbial ecosystem, well balanced, which in an aboral direction undergoes specific changes as to the ratio of aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms the functions of which supplement each other--the aerobes ensure for the whole ecosystem the scavenger effect. The microbial profile of the digestive tract is typical by the absence of anaerobic microorganisms in the stomach and conversely their absolute predominance in the distal colon. The basic physiological functions of the microflora of the digestive tract can be characterized as follows: 1. microbial barrier against pathogens and potential pathogens, 2. formation of products of the microflora and their influence on the blood supply of the intestinal mucosa and peristaltics, 3. stimulation of the immune system in the gut, 4. reduction of bacterial translocation, 5. production of vitamins. To this problem in the world literature, contrary to ours, deserved attention has been paid for many years. Knowledge of the problem opens the door to expedient manipulation with the microbial flora of the digestive tract by the use of diet or prebiotics, probiotics as well as antibiotic treatment. The author presents a summary of basic findings which developed on the subject of physiological microflora of the digestive tract successively up to their present shape.

  4. Gas in the Digestive Tract

    MedlinePlus

    ... Español Related Topics Section Navigation Digestive Diseases Abdominal Adhesions Acid Reflux (GER & GERD) in Adults Definition & Facts ... Eating, Diet, & Nutrition Clinical Trials Cyclic Vomiting Syndrome Dental Enamel Defects and Celiac Disease Dermatitis Herpetiformis Dermatitis ...

  5. Toxicologic disease of the digestive tract.

    PubMed

    Garland, T

    2000-03-01

    There is a diverse and long list of toxicants that can affect the digestive system of food-producing animals. The plants and other natural toxicants discussed in this article are those primarily affecting the GI system. A number of other plants may also affect the digestive tract, but the effects from these are considered secondary and less pronounced. Often, plant poisonings affecting the digestive tract present with similar clinical signs, and a good thorough history is necessary to help differentiate between them. Moreover, a careful walk through the pasture with a keen eye to note plants that have been browsed or grazed may greatly assist the history. In cases where toxins are suspected as the cause of a GI disorder, consultation with a veterinary toxicologist at a diagnostic laboratory may be indicated. These professionals are knowledgeable about a wide variety of natural and other toxicants that may be present in your area. They can help with developing a differential diagnosis and the selection of appropriate samples to confirm the diagnosis.

  6. [Autonomic neuropathy--a problem of the circulatory system and digestive tract].

    PubMed

    Punkkinen, Jari; Koskenpato, Jari; Rosengård-Bärlund, Milla

    2014-01-01

    An autonomic disorder of the circulatory system becomes manifest as aberrant heart rate variability and baroreflex sensitivity already years before progressing into symptomatic disease, in which case the condition is no longer curable. Diagnosis is based on tests of autonomic nervous system function. The main thing in the treatment is management of risk factors of cardiovascular diseases in addition to enhanced glucose homeostasis. Autonomic neuropathy may also affect the digestive tract and be accompanied by esophageal motility disorder, gastroparesis, diarrhea, constipation or fecal incontinence. It is essential in the diagnosis to exclude other diseases of the digestive tract.

  7. A Proteomic Analysis of the Body Wall, Digestive Tract, and Reproductive Tract of Brugia malayi.

    PubMed

    Morris, C Paul; Bennuru, Sasisekhar; Kropp, Laura E; Zweben, Jesse A; Meng, Zhaojing; Taylor, Rebekah T; Chan, King; Veenstra, Timothy D; Nutman, Thomas B; Mitre, Edward

    2015-01-01

    Filarial worms are parasitic nematodes that cause devastating diseases such as lymphatic filariasis (LF) and onchocerciasis. Filariae are nematodes with complex anatomy including fully developed digestive tracts and reproductive organs. To better understand the basic biology of filarial parasites and to provide insights into drug targets and vaccine design, we conducted a proteomic analysis of different anatomic fractions of Brugia malayi, a causative agent of LF. Approximately 500 adult female B. malayi worms were dissected, and three anatomical fractions (body wall, digestive tract, and reproductive tract) were obtained. Proteins from each anatomical fraction were extracted, desalted, trypsinized, and analyzed by microcapillary reverse-phase liquid chromatography-tandem-mass spectrometry. In total, we identified 4,785 B. malayi proteins. While 1,894 were identified in all three anatomic fractions, 396 were positively identified only within the digestive tract, 114 only within the body wall, and 1,011 only within the reproductive tract. Gene set enrichment analysis revealed a bias for transporters to be present within the digestive tract, suggesting that the intestine of adult filariae is functional and important for nutrient uptake or waste removal. As expected, the body wall exhibited increased frequencies of cytoskeletal proteins, and the reproductive tract had increased frequencies of proteins involved in nuclear regulation and transcription. In assessing for possible vaccine candidates, we focused on proteins sequestered within the digestive tract, as these could possibly represent "hidden antigens" with low risk of prior allergic sensitization. We identified 106 proteins that are enriched in the digestive tract and are predicted to localize to the surface of cells in the the digestive tract. It is possible that some of these proteins are on the luminal surface and may be accessible by antibodies ingested by the worm. A subset of 27 of these proteins appear

  8. [Neuroendocrine carcinoma of the digestive tract: a literature review].

    PubMed

    Jacob, J; Chargari, C; Helissey, C; Ferrand, F-R; Ceccaldi, B; Le Moulec, S; Bauduceau, O; Fayolle, M; Védrine, L

    2013-11-01

    Neuroendocrine carcinoma is a rare and agressive malignant tumor, mainly developing at the expense of the respiratory and of the digestive tract. Among the digestive tract, appendix, small bowel, and pancreas are the preferential sites of involvement, other locations have been more rarely reported. Neuroendocrine digestive tumors may present with various symptoms in relationship with their localization and a complex pathophysiology. Diagnosis is often made at an advanced stage, explaining partly the bad prognosis of these tumors. The optimal management of digestive neuroendocrine tumors is rendered difficult by their rarity and by a low number of randomized trials. We review the literature regarding epidemiologic and prognostic features of these rare tumors, their diagnostic and therapeutic care. Potential complications are also discussed.

  9. Comparative Screening of Digestion Tract Toxic Genes in Proteus mirabilis.

    PubMed

    Shi, Xiaolu; Lin, Yiman; Qiu, Yaqun; Li, Yinghui; Jiang, Min; Chen, Qiongcheng; Jiang, Yixiang; Yuan, Jianhui; Cao, Hong; Hu, Qinghua; Huang, Shenghe

    2016-01-01

    Proteus mirabilis is a common urinary tract pathogen, and may induce various inflammation symptoms. Its notorious ability to resist multiple antibiotics and to form urinary tract stones makes its treatment a long and painful process, which is further challenged by the frequent horizontal gene transferring events in P. mirabilis genomes. Three strains of P. mirabilis C02011/C04010/C04013 were isolated from a local outbreak of a food poisoning event in Shenzhen, China. Our hypothesis is that new genes may have been acquired horizontally to exert the digestion tract infection and toxicity. The functional characterization of these three genomes shows that each of them independently acquired dozens of virulent genes horizontally from the other microbial genomes. The representative strain C02011 induces the symptoms of both vomit and diarrhea, and has recently acquired a complete type IV secretion system and digestion tract toxic genes from the other bacteria.

  10. Comparative Screening of Digestion Tract Toxic Genes in Proteus mirabilis

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Xiaolu; Lin, Yiman; Qiu, Yaqun; Li, Yinghui; Jiang, Min; Chen, Qiongcheng; Jiang, Yixiang; Yuan, Jianhui; Cao, Hong; Hu, Qinghua; Huang, Shenghe

    2016-01-01

    Proteus mirabilis is a common urinary tract pathogen, and may induce various inflammation symptoms. Its notorious ability to resist multiple antibiotics and to form urinary tract stones makes its treatment a long and painful process, which is further challenged by the frequent horizontal gene transferring events in P. mirabilis genomes. Three strains of P. mirabilis C02011/C04010/C04013 were isolated from a local outbreak of a food poisoning event in Shenzhen, China. Our hypothesis is that new genes may have been acquired horizontally to exert the digestion tract infection and toxicity. The functional characterization of these three genomes shows that each of them independently acquired dozens of virulent genes horizontally from the other microbial genomes. The representative strain C02011 induces the symptoms of both vomit and diarrhea, and has recently acquired a complete type IV secretion system and digestion tract toxic genes from the other bacteria. PMID:27010388

  11. Traditional serrated adenomas of the upper digestive tract

    PubMed Central

    Rubio, CA

    2016-01-01

    For many years, it was generally accepted that the vast majority of the colorectal carcinomas (CRCs) evolved from conventional adenomas, via the adenoma–carcinoma sequence. More recently, serrated colorectal polyps (hyperplastic polyps, sessile serrated polyps and traditional serrated adenomas (TSAs)) have emerged as an alternative pathway of colorectal carcinogenesis. It has been estimated that about 30% of the CRC progress via the serrated pathway. Recently, TSAs were also detected in the upper digestive tract. In this work, we review the literature on TSA in the oesophagus, the stomach, the duodenum, the pancreatic main duct and the gallbladder. The review indicated that 53.4% (n=39) out of the 73 TSA of the upper digestive tract now in record showed a simultaneously growing invasive carcinoma. As a corollary, TSAs of the upper digestive tract are aggressive adenomas that should be radically excised, either endoscopically or surgically, to rule out the possibility of a synchronously growing invasive adenocarcinoma or to prevent cancer progression. The present findings substantiate a TSA pathway of carcinogenesis in the upper digestive tract. PMID:26468393

  12. Lessons from Digestive-Tract Symbioses Between Bacteria and Invertebrates.

    PubMed

    Graf, Joerg

    2016-09-08

    In most animals, digestive tracts harbor the greatest number of bacteria in the animal that contribute to its health: by aiding in the digestion of nutrients, provisioning essential nutrients and protecting against colonization by pathogens. Invertebrates have been used to enhance our understanding of metabolic processes and microbe-host interactions owing to experimental advantages. This review describes how advances in DNA sequencing technologies have dramatically altered how researchers investigate microbe-host interactions, including 16S rRNA gene surveys, metagenome experiments, and metatranscriptome studies. Advantages and challenges of each of these approaches are described herein. Hypotheses generated through omics studies can be directly tested using site-directed mutagenesis, and findings from transposon studies and site-directed experiments are presented. Finally, unique structural aspects of invertebrate digestive tracts that contribute to symbiont specificity are presented. The combination of omics approaches with genetics and microscopy allows researchers to move beyond correlations to identify conserved mechanisms of microbe-host interactions.

  13. [Digestive tract cancer: after ten years in Santa Fe].

    PubMed

    Jiménez, Félix; Elias, Roberto Emanuel; Osella, Francisco Javier; Padilla, Juan Francisco Antonio

    2009-12-01

    In our earlier paper we found that esophageal cancer was the most frequent localization among all the digestive tract cancers. Furthermore, in four departments belonging to our province we also observed a colon-esophagus relationship of virtually 1 to 1. In this study we aimed to: 1) estimate the prevalence of esophagus and stomach tumors: a) in the Endoscopy Department, b) in all the hospital, comparing it with colon cancer and, c) as causes of death in our region of influence, in relation to all the neoplastic pathologies. 2) analyze the histological lineage and the anatomical location, according to sex, age and origin. We evaluated: 3,396 upper digestive tract endoscopies, the diagnoses of digestive tract cancer from the Histopathology Service, the discharges from hospital as the result of digestive tract cancer from the General Archives, all of them from Cullen Hospital, and death register of the province of Santa Fe accounting for digestive tract cancer. A descriptive analysis was carried out and spreadsheet from the Open Office 2.2 version and SPSS 10.0 version were used. We observed that esophageal cancer is still very frequent in the Endoscopy Department and in the Histopathology Service but not in the diagnoses at discharge from hospital. It shares similar epidemiological features to the ones observed in the international literature. The reduction of the relationship between colon and esophageal cancer in the global mortality rate of the country turns out to be surprising. In three departments situated on the north of the province it was observed a colon-esophagus cancer relationship of 1:1.

  14. Alcohol consumption and digestive tract cancer.

    PubMed

    Haas, Stephan L; Ye, Weimin; Löhr, Johannes-Matthias

    2012-09-01

    The data indicating that alcohol is an important factor increasing the risk to develop gastrointestinal cancer are consolidating. The purpose of this review is to summarize current evidence. Acetaldehyde is the first metabolite of ethanol metabolism and has direct carcinogenic and mutagenic effects by modifying DNA via generation of DNA adducts. Oxidative stress has a prominent role in triggering chronic inflammation and carcinogenesis through formation of reactive oxygen species. Recently published large prospective cohort studies with sufficient statistical power and meta-analyses could refine the knowledge regarding the impact of alcohol on gastrointestinal cancer. Functional genetic variants of alcohol-metabolizing enzymes proved to be associated with increased risk for esophageal and gastric cancer.The highest risk increase for malignancy was observed in the upper aerodigestive tract (oral cavity, pharynx, larynx) and esophagus (squamous cell carcinoma), weaker correlations were established regarding gastric, pancreatic, and colorectal neoplasias. Alcohol overconsumption is a serious avoidable risk factor for the development of gastrointestinal tract cancer, both alone but even more in combination with other risk factors such as tobacco and obesity.

  15. Gastroesophageal reflux disease and non-digestive tract diseases.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ying

    2015-05-01

    Over the past decade, incidence of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) showed an increasing trend resulting from factors, including lifestyle and dietary habits; however, both etiology and pathological mechanisms remain controversial. GERD occurs as a result of a variety of mechanisms and there is no single factor. Symptoms of GERD are often non-typical, with a likelihood of being overlooked by non-gastroenterology professionals. Therefore, improving GERD awareness in non-gastroenterology practitioners, along with early diagnosis and treatment, provide potential benefit to clinicians and patients alike. Increasing evidence suggests GERD has specific connections with a variety of non-digestive tract conditions, may contribute an aggravating compounding effect on other diseases, prolong hospitalization, and increase subsequent medical costs. This review considers and emphasizes the association between GERD and non-digestive tract conditions, including atrial fibrillation, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, primary pulmonary fibrosis and energy metabolism related to diet.

  16. [Alcohol and oropharyngolaryngeal and digestive tract cancer].

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, A; Omori, T

    2001-12-01

    Epidemiology has demonstrated that alcoholic beverages are causally related to oropharyngolaryngeal, esophageal, liver, colorectal, and female breast cancer. Among Japanese male alcoholics screened by endoscopy combined with esophageal iodine staining and immunofecal occult blood tests, 4.2% had esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC); 1.2%, oropharyngolaryngeal SCC; 1.4%, stomach adenocarcinoma; 1.9%, colorectal adenocarcinoma. The inactive form of aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 (ALDH2), encoded by the gene ALDH2*1/2*2, which is prevalent in Asians, exposes them to higher levels of acetaldehyde after drinking and was a strong risk factor for these cancers among Japanese heavy drinkers. Inactive ALDH2 was also associated with synchronous and metachronous multiple esophageal cancers. These results suggest a general role of acetaldehyde, an established animal carcinogen, in carcinogenesis of the human alimentary tract. The oropharyngolarynx and esophagus lack ALDH2 activity, suggesting that after exposure to acetaldehyde derived from systemic, mucosal, salivary, or bacterial production or alcoholic beverages, these organs' inefficient degradation of acetaldehyde enhances the chances for local acetaldehyde-associated carcinogenesis. The normal alcohol dehydrogenase-2 (ADH2), encoded by ADH2*1/2*1, is another risk factor for oropharyngolaryngeal and esophageal cancer in Japanese alcoholics. For patients with both normal ADH2 and inactive ALDH2, the risks for oropharyngolaryngeal and esophageal cancer are enhanced in a multiplicative fashion. The responses to a simple questionnaire about both current and past facial flushing after drinking a glass of beer can indicate an individual's ALDH2 phenotype fairly well. Use of this questionnaire to obtain information on ALDH2-associated cancer susceptibility could contribute to the prevention of alcohol-related cancer in Asians.

  17. [Digestive tract malignant neoplasms in patients of No. 11 area IMSS in Nuevo Laredo, Tamaulipas.].

    PubMed

    Neri-Jiménez, U

    2008-01-01

    In the last years, mortality due to malignant neoplasms has shown a reduction in its growing tendencies in developed countries. However,the profile of cancer mortality in developing countries still presents a clear upward pattern, and Mexico is not the exception, for the mortality rate due to malignant tumors has shown an increase recently, which constitutes a great challenge for health institutions. To determine the frequency of malignant neoplasms in the digestive tract in patients treated in the General Hospital Area No. 11 of Mexican Institute of Social Security in Nuevo Laredo, Tamaulipas,Mexico. From 11,386 histopathologic reports carried out in the Department of Pathology of the General Hospital Area No. 11 IMSS in the year 2000-2006, 165 patients were reported,diagnosed with malignant neoplasms of the digestive tract (NMTD); patients age and gender were analyzed as well as affected areas and histological stock. Benign neoplasms and metastasis were excluded. From the study of 165 cases of patients with malignant neoplasms of digestive tract (NMTD),the most affected age was patients between 60-75 years old, predilection for male (63.78%) and female(36.21%) subjects. According to the Pathology report, 24.4% were diagnosed with hepatic cancer,23.03% were colon and rectum cancer, 20.00%were stomach cancer, 13.33% with pancreatic cancer,and 7.27% were cancer of esophagus. The rest was located in other levels. Malignant neoplasms of digestive tract in patients of General Hospital Area No. 11IMSS in Nuevo Laredo are relevant in relation with other Medial Centers may be regional factors contribute to this behavior.

  18. Gastrointestinal decompression after excision and anastomosis of lower digestive tract

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Wen-Zhang; Zhao, Gao-Ping; Cheng, Zhong; Li, Ka; Zhou, Zong-Guang

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To discuss the clinical significance of postoperative gastrointestinal decompression in operation on lower digestive tract. METHODS: Three hundred and sixty-eight patients with excision and anastomosis of lower digestive tract were divided into two groups, i.e. the group with postoperative gastrointestinal decompression and the group without postoperative gastrointestinal decompression. Clinical therapeutic outcome and incidence of complication were compared between two groups. Furthermore, an investigation on application of gastrointestinal decompression was carried out among 200 general surgeons. RESULTS: The volume of gastric juice in decompression group was about 200 mL every day after operation. Both groups had a lower girth before operation than every day after operation. No difference in length of the first passage of gas by anus and defecation after operation was found between two groups. The overall incidence of complications was obviously higher in decompression group than in non-decompression group (28% vs 8.2%, P < 0.001). The incidence of pharyngolaryngitis was up to 23.1%. There was also no difference between two groups regarding the length of hospitalization after operation. The majority (97.5%) of general surgeons held that gastrointestinal decompression should be placed till passage of gas by anus, and only 2.5% of surgeons thought that gastrointestinal decompression should be placed for 2-3 d before passage of gas by anus. Nobody (0%) deemed it unnecessary for placing gastrointestinal compression after operation. CONCLUSION: Application of gastrointestinal decompression after excision and anastomosis of lower digestive tract cannot effectively reduce gastrointestinal tract pressure and has no obvious effect on preventing postoperative complications. On the contrary, it may increase the incidence of pharyngolaryngitis and other complications. Therefore, it is more beneficial to the recovery of patients without undergoing gastrointestinal

  19. [Preclinical experience in stem cell therapy for digestive tract diseases].

    PubMed

    Jeon, Myung Shin; Hong, Soon Sun

    2011-09-25

    Adult stem cells are multipotent and self-renewing cells that contain several functions; i) migration and homing potential: stem cells can migrate to injured and inflamed tissues. ii) differentiation potential: stem cells which migrated to injured tissues can be differentiated into multiple cell types for repairing and regenerating the tissues. iii) immunomodulatory properties: stem cells, especially mesenchymal stem cells can suppress immune system such as inflammation. All those characteristics might be useful for the treatment of the digestive tract diseases which are complex and encompass a broad spectrum of different pathogenesis. Preclinical stem cell therapy showed some promising results, especially in liver failure, pancreatitis, sepsis, and inflammatory bowel disease. If we can understand more about the mechanism of stem cell action, stem cell therapy can become a promising alternative treatment for refractory digestive disease in the near future. In this review, we summarized current preclinical experiences in diseases of the digestive tract using stem cells. (Korean J Gastroenterol 2011;58:133-138).

  20. Meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials of selective decontamination of the digestive tract. Selective Decontamination of the Digestive Tract Trialists' Collaborative Group.

    PubMed Central

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To determine the clinical benefits of selective decontamination of the digestive tract in patients treated in intensive care units. DESIGN--Meta-analysis of 22 randomised trials that compared different combinations of oral non-absorbable antibiotics, with or without a systemic component, with no treatment in controls. SUBJECTS--4142 patients seen in general and specialised intensive care units around the world. 2047 received some form of antibiotic treatment, the remainder no prophylaxis. DATA ANALYSIS--Each trial was reviewed through direct contact with study investigators. Data collected were: the randomisation procedure, number of patients, number excluded from the analysis, and numbers of respiratory tract infections and deaths. Data were combined according to an intention to treat analysis with the Mantel-Haenszel-Peto method. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Respiratory tract infections and total mortality. RESULTS--Selective decontamination of the digestive tract significantly reduced respiratory tract infections (odds ratio 0.37; 95% confidence interval 0.31 to 0.43). The value of the common odds ratio for total mortality (0.90; 0.79 to 1.04) suggested at best a moderate treatment effect, reaching statistical significance only when the subgroup of trials of topical and systemic treatment combined was considered separately (odds ratio 0.80; 0.67 to 0.97). No firm conclusions could be drawn owing to large variations in patient mix and severity within and between trials. CONCLUSIONS--The findings strongly indicate that selective decontamination significantly reduces infection related morbidity in patients receiving intensive care. They also highlight why definite conclusions about the effect of prophylaxis on mortality cannot be drawn despite the large number of trials available. Based on the most favourable results obtained by pooling data from trials in which combined topical and systemic treatment was used it may be estimated that 6 (range 5-9) and 23 (13

  1. The Dynamic Bioenergy of Animals with a Digestive Tract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moxnes, John F.; Hausken, Kjell

    This paper provides a mathematical dynamic description of the bioenergetic time history of bilataria (multicellular animals with a digestive tract) during feeding, growth and activity. We analyze the dynamics of bioenergy using ordinary differential equations on a compartment model, which we believe could constitute a mathematical foundation. Allometric scaling laws of the quarter type are assumed for all scaling relations in accordance with fractal theory. The paper demonstrates the dynamics by which bilataria respond to activity and feeding. The model is tested against some well-known experiments for fishes.

  2. Immunohistochemical study of the digestive tract of Oligosarcus hepsetus

    PubMed Central

    Vieira-Lopes, Danielle A; Pinheiro, Nadja L; Sales, Armando; Ventura, Adriana; Araújo, Francisco G; Gomes, Iracema D; Nascimento, Aparecida A

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To describe the histology of the digestive tract and to investigate the occurrence of endocrine cells in Oligosarcus hepsetus (O. hepsetus). METHODS: The digestive tract (DT) of O. hepsetus was divided into esophagus, two stomach regions (glandular and non-glandular) and two intestinal regions (anterior and posterior). These specimens were processed by routine histological techniques and stained with hematoxylin-eosin, Gomori’s trichrome, periodic acid Schiff (PAS) and Alcian blue (AB). An immunohistochemical method using avidin-biotin-peroxidase was employed. RESULTS: The esophagus is lined with a non-keratinized stratified squamous epithelium that is reactive to PAS and AB. The stomach has a mucosa lined with a simple columnar epithelium with mucus-secreting cells that are reactive only to PAS. The intestine has a simple columnar epithelium with a brush border and goblet cells that are reactive to PAS and AB. Somatostatin, serotonin and cholecystokinin immunoreactive cells were identified throughout the DT. CONCLUSION: This study revealed adaptations for the species’ diet and showed that the distribution and relative frequency of immunoreactive cells are similar to those of other fish. PMID:23569337

  3. [Digestive tract dilation in mice infected with Trypanosoma cruzi].

    PubMed

    Guillén-Pernía, B; Lugo-Yarbuh, A; Moreno, E

    2001-09-01

    This paper will analyze alterations in the digestive tract (DT) of mice with chronic Chagas' disease infection produced by Trypanosoma cruzi from different sources. X-rays of the DT of 18 mice infected with T. cruzi and 6 control mice were compared after the ingestion of a barium sulfate solution over a period of 6 hours. 120 days post-infection (pi) the X-rays of the DT of the 5 mice of group 1A infected with trypanosomes DMI isolated from the opossum Didelphis marsupialis, and 4 mice in group 2A infected with the isolate EP taken from a patient with acute Chagas' disease, showed swelling of the stomach and the colon (C). 180 days pi, the X-rays of the DT of the 5 mice of group 1B infected with isolated DMI and the 4 mice in group 2B infected with isolate EP, showed an even greater swelling of the C. Histological examination of the DT of all infected mice showed extensive changes of the intestinal muscle layer, such as the diminution of the muscular and mucous layers and the loss of colonic folds and myoenteric plexus. These results suggest that T. cruzi populations caused severe alterations in the digestive system of the mice used in the experiment, and that the same alterations could occur in the digestive organs of humans, especially those living in areas where Chagas' disease is endemic, but where these abnormalities have not yet been reported.

  4. The Paramagnetic Pillared Bentonites as Digestive Tract MRI Contrast Agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mojović, Miloš; Daković, Marko; Omerašević, Mia; Mojović, Zorica; Banković, Predrag; Milutinović-Nikolić, Aleksandra; Jovanović, Dušan

    The increased use of imaging techniques in diagnostic studies, such as MRI, has contributed to the development of the wide range of new materials which could be successfully used as image improving agents. However, there is a lack of such substances in the area of gastrointestinal tract MRI. Many of the traditionally popular relaxation altering agents show poor results and disadvantages provoking black bowel, side effects of diarrhea and the presence of artifacts arising from clumping. Paramagnetic species seem to be potentially suitable agents for these studies, but contrast opacification has been reported and less than 60% of the gastrointestinal tract magnetic resonance scans showed improved delineation of abdominal pathologies. The new solution has been proposed as zeolites or smectite clays (hectorite and montmorillonite) enclosing of paramagnetic metal ions obtained by ion-exchange methods. However, such materials have problems of leakage of paramagnetic ions causing the appearance of the various side-effects. In this study we show that Co+2 and Dy+3 paramagnetic-pillared bentonites could be successfully used as MRI digestive tract non-leaching contrast agents, altering the longitudinal and transverse relaxation times of fluids in contact with the clay minerals.

  5. Quantitative Macroscopic Anatomy of the Giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis) Digestive Tract.

    PubMed

    Sauer, C; Bertelsen, M F; Lund, P; Weisbjerg, M R; Clauss, M

    2016-10-01

    Quantitative data on digestive anatomy of the world's largest ruminant, the giraffe, are scarce. Data were collected from a total of 25 wild-caught and 13 zoo-housed giraffes. Anatomical measures were quantified by dimension, area or weight and analysed by allometric regression. The majority of measures scaled positively and isometrically to body mass. Giraffes had lower tissue weight of all stomach compartments and longer large intestinal length than cattle. When compared to other ruminants, the giraffe digestive tract showed many of the convergent morphological adaptations attributed to browsing ruminants, for example lower reticular crests, thinner ruminal pillars and smaller surface area of the omasal laminae. Salivary gland weight of the giraffe, however, resembled that of grazing ruminants. This matches a previous finding of similarly small salivary glands in the other extant giraffid, the okapi (Okapia johnstoni), suggesting that not all convergent characteristics need be expressed in all species and that morphological variation between species is a combination of phylogenetic and adaptational signals.

  6. [The yeast community associated with the digestive tract of the German cockroach Blattella germanica L].

    PubMed

    Zheltikova, T M; Glushakova, A M; Alesho, N A

    2011-01-01

    Data on the yeasts colonizing the digestive tract ofa German cockroach have been first obtained. Cockroach cultures are used in the commercial production of allergy vaccines to treat patients sensitized to cockroach allergens. The enteric microflora of the insects can bring nonshared antigens into the composition of the agents manufactured. An investigation established that out of 10 yeast species isolated from the digestive tract of the cockroaches fed sterile food, 6 species (Candida glabrata, Cryptococcus magnus, Debaryomyces hansenii, Metschikowia pulcherrima, Phodo-torula glutinis, Rhodotorula mucilaginosa) were isolated from both the digestive tract and excrements and 4 (Candida oleophila, Candida shehatae, Cryptococcus albidus, Pichia membmnaefciens) were only from the digestive tract. It seems that the yeast is either digested or inactivated in the digestive tract of the insects and loses their capacity to grow When the cockroaches were fed sterile food for a long time (at least a month), all yeasts virtually disappeared from the digestive tract of the insects except for Candida glabrata, C.shehatae, and Rh.mucilaginosa. However, only C.glabrata achieved a great deal (10(7)-10(8) CFU/g) of cockroaches (both imagoes and larvae of 5-7 ages), which statistically significantly decreased by no less than three orders of magnitude in the excrements after passing through the digestive tract.

  7. In vivo digestion of bovine milk fat globules: effect of processing and interfacial structural changes. II. Upper digestive tract digestion.

    PubMed

    Gallier, Sophie; Zhu, Xiang Q; Rutherfurd, Shane M; Ye, Aiqian; Moughan, Paul J; Singh, Harjinder

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this research was to study the effect of milk processing on the in vivo upper digestive tract digestion of milk fat globules. Fasted rats were serially gavaged over a 5h period with cream from raw, pasteurised, or pasteurised and homogenised milk. Only a few intact dietary proteins and peptides were present in the small intestinal digesta. Significantly (P<0.05) more longer chain (C≥10) fatty acids were present in the digesta of rats gavaged with raw (448 mg g(-1) digesta dry matter (DDM)) and homogenised creams (528 mg g(-1) DDM), as compared to pasteurised and homogenised cream (249 mg g(-1) DDM). Microscopy techniques were used to investigate the structural changes during digestion. Liquid-crystalline lamellar phases surrounding the fat globules, fatty acid soap crystals and lipid-mucin interactions were evident in all small intestinal digesta. Overall, the pasteurised and homogenised cream appeared to be digested to a greater extent. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Persistence of identifiable remains of white sturgeon juveniles in digestive tracts of northern pikeminnow

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gadomski, D.M.; Frost, C.N.

    2004-01-01

    Juvenile white sturgeon, Acipenser transmontanus, have not been commonly identified as prey items in digestive tracts of fishes collected in the wild. In particular, the diet of northern pikeminnow, Ptychocheilus oregonensis, an abundant Pacific Northwest freshwater predator which has been widely studied, has not included juvenile white sturgeon. To aid in interpreting these results and help in planning future feeding studies, we determined the persistence of identifiable remains of white sturgeon juveniles in this predator's digestive tract. Northern pikeminnow (mean total length = 476 mm), were force-fed meals of 2 or 3 juvenile white sturgeon (mean total length = 91 mm). After digestive periods of 4, 8, 16, 24, 28, and 32h at a water temperature of about 17 ??C, fish were sacrificed, digestive tracts removed, and contents examined. Our results indicate that juvenile white sturgeon would be readily discernable in digestive tracts of northern pikeminnow at least a day after feeding, with scutes remaining undigested and identifiable for 28 h.

  9. Synchronous occurrence of gastrointestinal stromal tumors and other digestive tract malignancies in the elderly

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Yuan; Chen, Jiaju; Han, Luyin; Zhang, Bo; Chen, Zhixin; Chen, Jiaping

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims Elderly patients with gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) synchronous with other digestive tract malignancies have been rarely reported. In this study, clinicopathological characteristics were evaluated among elderly patients with GISTs with or without coexisting digestive tract malignancies. Methods A total of 161 patients (≥65 years) were retrospectively reviewed at the West China Hospital, Sichuan University from January 2009 to June 2014. Results Sixty-one patients were diagnosed with synchronous digestive tract malignancies (synchronous group), whereas 100 patients were diagnosed with no synchronous condition (no-synchronous group). The synchronous group exhibited a higher percentage of males (70.49% vs. 53.00%, P = 0.028) and poorer Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status than the no-synchronous group (P = 0.029). The three-year overall survival (OS) rate was significantly lower among patients with synchronous digestive tract malignancies than that among patients without synchronous condition (64.5% vs. 84.0%, P = 0.003). Multivariate analysis showed that the presence of synchronous digestive tract malignancies (P = 0.002), co-morbidity (P = 0.004), and mitotic count ≥10 mitoses/50 high power fields (P = 0.012) were associated with poor OS. Conclusions A synchronous condition with other digestive tract malignancies is common in elderly patients with GISTs. OS primarily depends on synchronous digestive tract malignancies, mitotic count, and co-morbidity. PMID:25826075

  10. Barophilic Bacteria Associated with Digestive Tracts of Abyssal Holothurians

    PubMed Central

    Deming, Jody W.; Colwell, Rita R.

    1982-01-01

    Abyssal holothurians and sediment samples were collected at depths of 4,430 to 4,850 m in the Demerara abyssal plain. Bacterial concentrations in progressive sections of the holothurian digestive tract, as well as in surrounding surface sediments, were determined by epifluorescence microscopy. Total bacterial counts in sediments recently ingested by the animals were 1.5- to 3-fold higher than in surrounding sediments at the deepest station. Lowest counts were observed consistently in the foregut, where the digestive processes of the holothurian are believed to occur. In most animals, counts increased 3- to 10-fold in the hindgut. Microbial activity at 3°C and in situ and atmospheric pressure were determined for gut and sediment samples by measuring the utilization of [14C]glutamic acid, the doubling time of the mixed-population of culturable bacteria, and the percentage of the total bacterial count responsive to yeast extract in the presence of nalidixic acid, using epifluorescence microscopy. A barophilic microbial population, showing elevated activity under deep-sea pressure, was detected by all three methods in sediments removed from the hindgut. Transmission electron micrographs revealed intact bacteria directly associated with the intestinal lining only in the hindgut. The bacteria are believed to be carried as an actively metabolizing, commensal gut flora that transforms organic matter present in abyssal sediments ingested by the holothurian. Using data obtained in this study, it was calculated that sediment containing organic matter altered by microbial activity cleared the holothurian gut every 16 h, suggesting that abyssal holothurians and their associated gut flora are important participants in nutrient cycles of the abyssal benthic ocean. Images PMID:16346137

  11. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and digestive tract cancers - a perspective

    PubMed Central

    Diggs, Deacqunita L.; Huderson, Ashley C.; Harris, Kelly L.; Myers, Jeremy N.; Banks, Leah D.; Rekhadevi, Perumalla V.; Niaz, Mohammad S.; Ramesh, Aramandla

    2011-01-01

    Cancers of the colon are most common in the Western world. In majority of these cases, there is no familial history and sporadic gene damage seems to play an important role in the development of tumors in the colon. Studies have shown that environmental factors, especially diet, play an important role in susceptibility to GI tract cancers. Consequently, environmental chemicals that contaminate food or diet during its preparation becomes important in the development of GI cancers. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are one such family of ubiquitous environmental toxicants. These pollutants enter the human body through consumption of contaminated food, drinking water, inhalation of cigarette smoke, automobile exhausts, and contaminated air from occupational settings. Among these pathways, dietary intake of PAHs constitutes a major source of exposure in humans. Although many reviews and books on PAHs and their ability to cause toxicity and breast or lung cancer have been published, aspects on contribution of diet, smoking and other factors towards development of digestive tract cancers and strategies to assess risk from exposure to PAHs have received much less attention. This review, therefore, focuses on dietary intake of PAHs in humans, animal models, and cell cultures used for GI cancer studies along with epidemiological findings. Bioavailability and biotransformation processes, which influence the disposition of PAHs in body and the underlying causative mechanisms of GI cancers, are also discussed. The existing data gaps and scope for future studies is also emphasized. This information is expected to stimulate research on mechanisms of sporadic GI cancers caused by exposure to environmental carcinogens. PMID:22107166

  12. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and digestive tract cancers: a perspective.

    PubMed

    Diggs, Deacqunita L; Huderson, Ashley C; Harris, Kelly L; Myers, Jeremy N; Banks, Leah D; Rekhadevi, Perumalla V; Niaz, Mohammad S; Ramesh, Aramandla

    2011-10-01

    Cancers of the colon are most common in the Western world. In majority of these cases, there is no familial history and sporadic gene damage seems to play an important role in the development of tumors in the colon. Studies have shown that environmental factors, especially diet, play an important role in susceptibility to gastrointestinal (GI) tract cancers. Consequently, environmental chemicals that contaminate food or diet during preparation become important in the development of GI cancers. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are one such family of ubiquitous environmental toxicants. These pollutants enter the human body through consumption of contaminated food, drinking water, inhalation of cigarette smoke, automobile exhausts, and contaminated air from occupational settings. Among these pathways, dietary intake of PAHs constitutes a major source of exposure in humans. Although many reviews and books on PAHs and their ability to cause toxicity and breast or lung cancer have been published, aspects on contribution of diet, smoking and other factors toward development of digestive tract cancers, and strategies to assess risk from exposure to PAHs have received much less attention. This review, therefore, focuses on dietary intake of PAHs in humans, animal models, and cell cultures used for GI cancer studies along with epidemiological findings. Bioavailability and biotransformation processes, which influence the disposition of PAHs in body and the underlying causative mechanisms of GI cancers, are also discussed. The existing data gaps and scope for future studies is also emphasized. This information is expected to stimulate research on mechanisms of sporadic GI cancers caused by exposure to environmental carcinogens.

  13. Microbial Biogeography and Core Microbiota of the Rat Digestive Tract

    PubMed Central

    Li, Dongyao; Chen, Haiqin; Mao, Bingyong; Yang, Qin; Zhao, Jianxin; Gu, Zhennan; Zhang, Hao; Chen, Yong Q.; Chen, Wei

    2017-01-01

    As a long-standing biomedical model, rats have been frequently used in studies exploring the correlations between gastrointestinal (GI) bacterial biota and diseases. In the present study, luminal and mucosal samples taken along the longitudinal axis of the rat digestive tract were subjected to 16S rRNA gene sequencing-based analysis to determine the baseline microbial composition. Results showed that the community diversity increased from the upper to lower GI segments and that the stratification of microbial communities as well as shift of microbial metabolites were driven by biogeographic location. A greater proportion of lactate-producing bacteria (such as Lactobacillus, Turicibacter and Streptococcus) were found in the stomach and small intestine, while anaerobic Lachnospiraceae and Ruminococcaceae, fermenting carbohydrates and plant aromatic compounds, constituted the bulk of the large-intestinal core microbiota where topologically distinct co-occurrence networks were constructed for the adjacent luminal and mucosal compartments. When comparing the GI microbiota from different hosts, we found that the rat microbial biogeography might represent a new reference, distinct from other murine animals. Our study provides the first comprehensive characterization of the rat GI microbiota landscape for the research community, laying the foundation for better understanding and predicting the disease-related alterations in microbial communities. PMID:28374781

  14. Microbial Biogeography and Core Microbiota of the Rat Digestive Tract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Dongyao; Chen, Haiqin; Mao, Bingyong; Yang, Qin; Zhao, Jianxin; Gu, Zhennan; Zhang, Hao; Chen, Yong Q.; Chen, Wei

    2017-04-01

    As a long-standing biomedical model, rats have been frequently used in studies exploring the correlations between gastrointestinal (GI) bacterial biota and diseases. In the present study, luminal and mucosal samples taken along the longitudinal axis of the rat digestive tract were subjected to 16S rRNA gene sequencing-based analysis to determine the baseline microbial composition. Results showed that the community diversity increased from the upper to lower GI segments and that the stratification of microbial communities as well as shift of microbial metabolites were driven by biogeographic location. A greater proportion of lactate-producing bacteria (such as Lactobacillus, Turicibacter and Streptococcus) were found in the stomach and small intestine, while anaerobic Lachnospiraceae and Ruminococcaceae, fermenting carbohydrates and plant aromatic compounds, constituted the bulk of the large-intestinal core microbiota where topologically distinct co-occurrence networks were constructed for the adjacent luminal and mucosal compartments. When comparing the GI microbiota from different hosts, we found that the rat microbial biogeography might represent a new reference, distinct from other murine animals. Our study provides the first comprehensive characterization of the rat GI microbiota landscape for the research community, laying the foundation for better understanding and predicting the disease-related alterations in microbial communities.

  15. [The microbial flora in the digestive tract and diabetes].

    PubMed

    Svačina, Štěpán

    2015-04-01

    The microbial flora in the digestive tract has been recently studied in relation to metabolic diseases. There are relations to both type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes. The intestinal flora is affected by diet, physical exercise and it significantly changes after bariatric surgeries. Giving birth by caesarean section affects the gut flora development and increases the risk of type 1 diabetes in further life of the child. Obese patients with type 2 diabetes may lack protective microbes which improve glucoregulation in the experiment or on the contrary their patogenous microbes may grow which have been proven to even be able to penetrate into abdominal adipose tissue and play a role, inter alia, in the hepatic impairment and systemic inflammation. Also vaccination against these microbes is under consideration. Microbiome can be also positively affected by metformin treatment. The transfer of intestinal flora by means of fecal transplantation can improve glucoregulation. The influencing of intestinal flora is likely to become a new mechanism of diabetes treatment.

  16. Digestive and respiratory tract motor responses associated with eructation.

    PubMed

    Lang, Ivan M; Medda, Bidyut K; Shaker, Reza

    2013-06-01

    We studied the digestive and respiratory tract motor responses in 10 chronically instrumented dogs during eructation activated after feeding. Muscles were recorded from the cervical area, thorax, and abdomen. The striated muscles were recorded using EMG and the smooth muscles using strain gauges. We found eructation in three distinct functional phases that were composed of different sets of motor responses: gas escape, barrier elimination, and gas transport. The gas escape phase, activated by gastric distension, consists of relaxation of the lower esophageal sphincter and diaphragmatic hiatus and contraction of the longitudinal muscle of the thoracic esophagus and rectus abdominis. All these motor events promote gas escape from the stomach. The barrier elimination phase, probably activated by rapid gas distension of the thoracic esophagus, consists of relaxation of the pharyngeal constrictors and excitation of dorsal and ventral upper esophageal sphincter distracting muscles, as well as rapid contraction of the diaphragmatic dome fibers. These motor events allow esophagopharyngeal air movement by promoting retrograde airflow and opening of the upper esophageal sphincter. The transport phase, possibly activated secondary to diaphragmatic contraction, consists of a retrograde contraction of the striated muscle esophagus that transports the air from the thoracic esophagus to the pharynx. We hypothesize that the esophageal reverse peristalsis is mediated by elementary reflexes, rather than a coordinated peristaltic response like secondary peristalsis. The phases of eructation can be activated independently of one another or in a different manner to participate in physiological events other than eructation that cause gastroesophageal or esophagogastric reflux.

  17. [Upper digestive tract endoscopy in rural Africa: Togo].

    PubMed

    Djibril, M A; M'Ba, K B; Kaaga, Y L; Bagny, A; Edou, K A; Redah, D; Agbetra, A

    2009-02-01

    The purpose of this report was to describe the profile of esogastroduodenal disease diagnosed by upper digestive tract endoscopy (UDTE) in a rural area of Togo. This prospective study combines data collected during two two-week screening campaigns carried out in the Kara region. Patients were informed of the presence of the endoscopy team by means of a bulletin on a rural radio station. All male and female patients 15 years or older were included. A total of 220 UDTE procedure reports were recorded and analyzed including 107 men and 113 women with a mean age of 37.7 years (range: 15-84 years). Disease was detected in 72 procedures mainly in the 21 to 41 year age group (47.2 %) with a higher proportion of men than women: 38% versus 27% respectively. The most frequent indications for UDTE were epigastralgia (47.7 %) including 39% of procedures leading to the discovery of disease and diffuse abdominal pain (21.8 %). The procedure was carried out for follow-up purposes in 19.1% of cases. The most common lesions were peptic ulcer (34.2%), inflammatory disease including esophagitis, gastritis, and bulboduodenitis (32.4%), gastroduodenal bile reflux (9.3%), pylorobulbar stenosis (5.5%), tumoral disease (3.7%), and esophageal varicosities (3.7%). This study based on UDTE diagnostic procedures provided insight into the profile of esogastroduodenal disease in rural Africa. These screening campaigns required special organization using appropriate equipment and personnel.

  18. Evaluation of endoscopic entire 3D image acquisition of the digestive tract using a stereo endoscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshimoto, Kayo; Watabe, Kenji; Fujinaga, Tetsuji; Iijima, Hideki; Tsujii, Masahiko; Takahashi, Hideya; Takehara, Tetsuo; Yamada, Kenji

    2017-02-01

    Because the view angle of the endoscope is narrow, it is difficult to get the whole image of the digestive tract at once. If there are more than two lesions in the digestive tract, it is hard to understand the 3D positional relationship among the lesions. Virtual endoscopy using CT is a present standard method to get the whole view of the digestive tract. Because the virtual endoscopy is designed to detect the irregularity of the surface, it cannot detect lesions that lack irregularity including early cancer. In this study, we propose a method of endoscopic entire 3D image acquisition of the digestive tract using a stereo endoscope. The method is as follows: 1) capture sequential images of the digestive tract by moving the endoscope, 2) reconstruct 3D surface pattern for each frame by stereo images, 3) estimate the position of the endoscope by image analysis, 4) reconstitute the entire image of the digestive tract by combining the 3D surface pattern. To confirm the validity of this method, we experimented with a straight tube inside of which circles were allocated at equal distance of 20 mm. We captured sequential images and the reconstituted image of the tube revealed that the distance between each circle was 20.2 +/- 0.3 mm (n=7). The results suggest that this method of endoscopic entire 3D image acquisition may help us understand 3D positional relationship among the lesions such as early esophageal cancer that cannot be detected by virtual endoscopy using CT.

  19. Human papillomavirus in upper digestive tract tumors from three countries

    PubMed Central

    Castillo, Andres; Koriyama, Chihaya; Higashi, Michiyo; Anwar, Muhammad; Bukhari, Mulazim Hussain; Carrascal, Edwin; Mancilla, Lida; Okumura, Hiroshi; Matsumoto, Masataka; Sugihara, Kazumasa; Natsugoe, Shoji; Eizuru, Yoshito; Akiba, Suminori

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To clarify human papillomavirus (HPV) involvement in carcinogenesis of the upper digestive tract of virological and pathological analyses. METHODS: The present study examined the presence of HPV in squamous cell carcinomas of the oral cavity (n = 71), and esophagus (n = 166) collected from Japan, Pakistan and Colombia, with different HPV exposure risk and genetic backgrounds. The viral load and physical status of HPV16 and HPV16-E6 variants were examined. Comparison of p53 and p16INK4a expression in HPV-positive and HPV-negative cases was also made. RESULTS: HPV16 was found in 39 (55%) oral carcinomas (OCs) and 24 (14%) esophageal carcinomas (ECs). This site-specific difference in HPV detection between OCs and ECs was statistically significant (P < 0.001). There was a significant difference in the geographical distribution of HPV16-E6 variants. Multiple infections of different HPV types were found in 13 ECs, but multiple infections were not found in OCs. This difference was statistically significant (P = 0.001). The geometric means (95% confidence interval) of HPV16 viral load in OCs and ECs were 0.06 (0.02-0.18) and 0.12 (0.05-0.27) copies per cell, respectively. The expression of p16INK4a proteins was increased by the presence of HPV in ECs (53% and 33% in HPV-positive and -negative ECs, respectively; P = 0.036), and the high-risk type of the HPV genome was not detected in surrounding normal esophageal mucosa of HPV-positive ECs. CONCLUSION: Based on our results, we cannot deny the possibility of HPV16 involvement in the carcinogenesis of the esophagus. PMID:22219599

  20. GM crops and the rat digestive tract: a critical review.

    PubMed

    Zdziarski, I M; Edwards, J W; Carman, J A; Haynes, J I

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this review is to examine the relationship between genetically modified (GM) crops and health, based on histopathological investigations of the digestive tract in rats. We reviewed published long-term feeding studies of crops containing one or more of three specific traits: herbicide tolerance via the EPSPS gene and insect resistance via cry1Ab or cry3Bb1 genes. These genes are commonly found in commercialised GM crops. Our search found 21 studies for nine (19%) out of the 47 crops approved for human and/or animal consumption. We could find no studies on the other 38 (81%) approved crops. Fourteen out of the 21 studies (67%) were general health assessments of the GM crop on rat health. Most of these studies (76%) were performed after the crop had been approved for human and/or animal consumption, with half of these being published at least nine years after approval. Our review also discovered an inconsistency in methodology and a lack of defined criteria for outcomes that would be considered toxicologically or pathologically significant. In addition, there was a lack of transparency in the methods and results, which made comparisons between the studies difficult. The evidence reviewed here demonstrates an incomplete picture regarding the toxicity (and safety) of GM products consumed by humans and animals. Therefore, each GM product should be assessed on merit, with appropriate studies performed to indicate the level of safety associated with them. Detailed guidelines should be developed which will allow for the generation of comparable and reproducible studies. This will establish a foundation for evidence-based guidelines, to better determine if GM food is safe for human and animal consumption. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Effects of fatty acid supplements on ruminal and total tract nutrient digestion in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Harvatine, K J; Allen, M S

    2006-03-01

    Saturated and unsaturated fatty acid supplements (FS) were evaluated for effects on ruminal digestion kinetics, and ruminal and postruminal nutrient digestion. Eight early lactation ruminally and duodenally cannulated cows (77 +/- 12 days in milk, mean +/- SD) were used in a replicated 4 x 4 Latin square design experiment with 21-d periods. Treatments were control and a linear substitution of 2.5% fatty acids from supplemented saturated FS (SAT; prilled, hydrogenated free fatty acids) for partially unsaturated FS (UNS; calcium soaps of long-chain fatty acids). All rations contained identical forage and concentrate components including 37.2% forage and 13.5% cottonseed. Saturated FS linearly decreased ruminal digestibility of dry matter and organic matter and linearly decreased ruminal neutral detergent fiber (NDF) digestibility. The reduction in ruminal NDF digestibility was because of a linear decrease in digestion rate and a linear increase in passage rate of potentially digestible NDF with increasing saturated FS. Total tract digestibility of NDF was not different between treatments because of compensatory postruminal digestion. Ruminal fatty acid and C18 fatty acid digestibility tended to increase linearly with increasing unsaturated FS, and postruminal C18 fatty acid digestibility decreased with increasing saturated FS. Saturated FS linearly decreased ruminal organic matter digestibility and decreased intestinal long-chain fatty acid digestibility, although differences in fatty acid digestibility may be partially explained by fatty acid intake.

  2. Association of marine archaea with the digestive tracts of two marine fish species.

    PubMed

    van der Maarel, M J; Artz, R R; Haanstra, R; Forney, L J

    1998-08-01

    Recent studies have shown that archaea which were always thought to live under strict anoxic or extreme environmental conditions are also present in cold, oxygenated seawater, soils, the digestive tract of a holothurian deep-sea-deposit feeder, and a marine sponge. In this study, we show, by using PCR-mediated screening in other marine eukaryotes, that marine archaea are also present in the digestive tracts of flounder and grey mullet, two fish species common in the North Sea, in fecal samples of flounder, and in suspended particulate matter of the North Sea water column. No marine archaea could be detected in the digestive tracts of mussels or the fecal pellets of a copepod species. The archaeal 16S ribosomal DNA clone libraries of feces of flounder and the contents of the digestive tracts of grey mullet and flounder were dominated by group II marine archaea. The marine archaeal clones derived from flounder and grey mullet digestive tracts and feces formed a distinct cluster within the group II marine archaea, with 76.7 to 89. 8% similarity to previously described group II clones. Fingerprinting of the archaeal community of flounder digestive tract contents and feces by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism of archaeal 16S rRNA genes after restriction with HhaI showed a dominant fragment at 249 bp, which is likely to be derived from group II marine archaea. Clones of marine archaea that were closely related to the fish-associated marine archaea clones were obtained from suspended particulate matter of the water column at two stations in the North Sea. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism fingerprinting of the archaeal community present in suspended particulate matter showed the same fragment pattern as was found for the archaeal community of the flounder digestive tract contents and feces. These data demonstrate that marine archaea are present in the digestive tracts and feces of very common marine fish. It is possible that the marine

  3. Morphological and histological changes in digestive tract development during starvation in the miiuy croaker.

    PubMed

    Shan, Xiujuan; Quan, Hanfeng; Dou, Shuozeng

    2016-04-01

    A histological method was used to describe the ontogenetic development of the digestive tract of laboratory-reared miiuy croaker (Miichthys miiuy) and to evaluate the effects of short-term food deprivation on the morphology and histology of the digestive tract. Larvae and juveniles were maintained at 24 °C in a thermostatically controlled system. Three starvation experiments were conducted during different developmental stages: 1-7 days after hatching (dah; prior to benthic swimming); 26-35 dah (during settling); and 42-53 dah (after benthic swimming). According to the structural changes in the ontogenetic development of the digestive tract, three stages were observed. The first stage was from hatching to 3 dah; the digestive tract was undifferentiated in newly hatched larvae and then showed remarkable morphological changes and differentiation. During this period, larvae depended on endogenous nutrition. The second stage (4-20 dah) was a critical period in which larvae transitioned from endogenous feeding to exogenous feeding and the digestive tract fully differentiated into the buccopharynx, oesophagus, stomach, anterior intestine and posterior intestine. Goblet cells and vacuoles appeared in the digestive tract, and pharyngeal teeth and taste buds developed. During the third stage (20-36 dah), the gastric glands developed and the stomach differentiated into the fundic, cardiac and pyloric regions. At 25 dah, pyloric caeca developed and mucosal folds and spiral valves were clearly distinguishable. After 30 dah, the digestive tract did not undergo any noticeable differentiation, indicating the complete development of the digestive system. The wet weight and SGR (specific growth rate) of miiuy croaker larvae and juveniles greatly decreased when they were deprived of food, and compensatory growth was observed in re-feeding juveniles. The livers of starved larvae and juveniles were atrophied and dark coloured, the intestines were transparent and thin, and the stomach

  4. The Digestive Tract of Cephalopods: Toward Non-invasive In vivo Monitoring of Its Physiology.

    PubMed

    Ponte, Giovanna; Sykes, Antonio V; Cooke, Gavan M; Almansa, Eduardo; Andrews, Paul L R

    2017-01-01

    Ensuring the health and welfare of animals in research is paramount, and the normal functioning of the digestive tract is essential for both. Here we critically assess non- or minimally-invasive techniques which may be used to assess a cephalopod's digestive tract functionality to inform health monitoring. We focus on: (i) predatory response as an indication of appetitive drive; (ii) body weight assessment and interpretation of deviations (e.g., digestive gland weight loss is disproportionate to body weight loss in starvation); (iii) oro-anal transit time requiring novel, standardized techniques to facilitate comparative studies of species and diets; (iv) defecation frequency and analysis of fecal color (diet dependent) and composition (parasites, biomarkers, and cytology); (v) digestive tract endoscopy, but passage of the esophagus through the brain is a technical challenge; (vi) high resolution ultrasound that offers the possibility of imaging the morphology of the digestive tract (e.g., food distribution, indigestible residues, obstruction) and recording contractile activity; (vii) needle biopsy (with ultrasound guidance) as a technique for investigating digestive gland biochemistry and pathology without the death of the animal. These techniques will inform the development of physiologically based assessments of health and the impact of experimental procedures. Although intended for use in the laboratory they are equally applicable to cephalopods in public display and aquaculture.

  5. The Digestive Tract of Cephalopods: Toward Non-invasive In vivo Monitoring of Its Physiology

    PubMed Central

    Ponte, Giovanna; Sykes, Antonio V.; Cooke, Gavan M.; Almansa, Eduardo; Andrews, Paul L. R.

    2017-01-01

    Ensuring the health and welfare of animals in research is paramount, and the normal functioning of the digestive tract is essential for both. Here we critically assess non- or minimally-invasive techniques which may be used to assess a cephalopod's digestive tract functionality to inform health monitoring. We focus on: (i) predatory response as an indication of appetitive drive; (ii) body weight assessment and interpretation of deviations (e.g., digestive gland weight loss is disproportionate to body weight loss in starvation); (iii) oro-anal transit time requiring novel, standardized techniques to facilitate comparative studies of species and diets; (iv) defecation frequency and analysis of fecal color (diet dependent) and composition (parasites, biomarkers, and cytology); (v) digestive tract endoscopy, but passage of the esophagus through the brain is a technical challenge; (vi) high resolution ultrasound that offers the possibility of imaging the morphology of the digestive tract (e.g., food distribution, indigestible residues, obstruction) and recording contractile activity; (vii) needle biopsy (with ultrasound guidance) as a technique for investigating digestive gland biochemistry and pathology without the death of the animal. These techniques will inform the development of physiologically based assessments of health and the impact of experimental procedures. Although intended for use in the laboratory they are equally applicable to cephalopods in public display and aquaculture. PMID:28674501

  6. Superior digestive tract side effects after prolonged treatment with NSAIDs in patients with osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Rogoveanu, OC; Streba, CT; Vere, CC; Petrescu, L; Trăistaru, R

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) represent one of the classes of drugs commonly recommended for patients with osteoarthritis. These drugs have side effects that sometimes affect the digestive tract. Patients and Methods: 30 patients with either axial or peripheral osteoarthritis, hospitalized between January 2013 and January 2015 in the Rehabilitation Clinic of the Clinical Emergency County Hospital of Craiova, were followed. All the patients included had upper gastrointestinal endoscopy performed, excluding patients who had a history of gastritis, endoscopically demonstrated ulcer or those with a history of gastrointestinal dyspeptic phenomena. Results: The endoscopic examination found acute erosive gastritis in eight cases, gastric ulcer (four cases) and duodenal ulcer (six cases). No serious complications were encountered. Four patients had no clinical manifestations with endoscopic expression. Lesions were mainly mild esophagitis (Grade I) and only in three cases, esophagitis grade II or III was found. Twelve patients (40%) had Helicobacter pylori infection and had endoscopic changes (gastric ulcer, duodenal ulcer, or gastric lesions). Conclusions: The adverse effects of NSAIDs in patients with osteoarthritis vary in severity. Patient age significantly influences the severity of injuries. We have not found significant differences in the incidence of COX2 selective and non-selective NSAID-induced lesions. Pathogenic interaction between the NSAID and Helicobacter Pylori infection is most often a synergistic effect in the development of gastritis or gastroduodenal ulcer. PMID:26664470

  7. Digestive-tract sarcoidosis: French nationwide case-control study of 25 cases.

    PubMed

    Ghrenassia, Etienne; Mekinian, Arsene; Chapelon-Albric, Catherine; Levy, Pierre; Cosnes, Jacques; Sève, Pascal; Lefèvre, Guillaume; Dhôte, Robin; Launay, David; Prendki, Virginie; Morell-Dubois, Sandrine; Sadoun, Danielle; Mehdaoui, Anas; Soussan, Michael; Bourrier, Anne; Ricard, Laure; Benamouzig, Robert; Valeyre, Dominique; Fain, Olivier

    2016-07-01

    Digestive tract sarcoidosis (DTS) is rare and case-series are lacking. In this retrospective case-control study, we aimed to compare the characteristics, outcome, and treatment of patients with DTS, nondigestive tract sarcoidosis (NDTS), and Crohn disease.We included cases of confirmed sarcoidosis, symptomatic digestive tract involvement, and noncaseating granuloma in any digestive tract. Each case was compared with 2 controls with sarcoidoisis without digestive tract involvement and 4 with Crohn disease.We compared 25 cases of DTS to 50 controls with NDTS and 100 controls with Crohn disease. The major digestive clinical features were abdominal pain (56%), weight loss (52%), nausea/vomiting (48%), diarrhea (32%), and digestive bleeding (28%). On endoscopy of DTS, macroscopic lesions were observed in the esophagus (9%), stomach (78%), duodenum (9%), colon, (25%) and rectum (19%). As compared with NDTS, DTS was associated with weight loss (odds ratio [OR] 5.8; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.44-23.3) and the absence of thoracic adenopathy (OR 5.0; 95% CI 1.03-25). As compared with Crohn disease, DTS was associated with Afro-Caribbean origin (OR 27; 95% CI 3.6-204) and the absence of ileum or colon macroscopic lesions (OR 62.5; 95% CI 10.3-500). On the last follow-up, patients with DTS showed no need for surgery (versus 31% for patients with Crohn disease; P = 0.0013), and clinical digestive remission was frequent (76% vs. 35% for patients with Crohn disease; P = 0.0002).The differential diagnosis with Crohn disease could be an issue with DTS. Nevertheless, the 2 diseases often have different clinical presentation and outcome.

  8. Recovery of Soybean Cyst Nematodes (Heterodera glycines) from the Digestive Tracts of Blackbirds

    PubMed Central

    Epps, J. M.

    1971-01-01

    Digestive tract contents and feces of blackbirds were examined for cysts of Heterodera glycines, the soybean cyst nematode. Birds fed under laboratory conditions and trapped in naturally-infested fields were checked. Infective larvae were recovered from cysts in the excrement of birds 24 and 48 hr after they were fed cysts. Birds that were force-fed eggs and larvae discharged infective larvae in the excrement. Birds which consumed cysts mixed with feed and cysts in feed mixed with soil discharged numerous cysts containing infective larvae. Seven of 54 starlings, trapped and killed in an infested field, contained cysts in their digestive tracts. PMID:19322401

  9. New endoscopic ultrasound techniques for digestive tract diseases: A comprehensive review

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Fan-Sheng; Zhang, Zhao-Hong; Ji, Feng

    2015-01-01

    Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) is one of the most important modalities for the diagnosis of digestive tract diseases. EUS has been evolving ever since it was introduced. New techniques such as elastography and contrast enhancement have emerged, increasing the accuracy, sensitivity and specificity of EUS for the diagnosis of digestive tract diseases including pancreatic masses and lymphadenopathy. EUS-elastography evaluates tissue elasticity and therefore, can be used to differentiate various lesions. Contrast-enhanced EUS can distinguish benign from malignant pancreatic lesions and lymphadenopathy using the intravenous injection of contrast agents. This review discusses the principles and types of these new techniques, as well as their clinical applications and limitations. PMID:25944994

  10. Reduction of Campylobacter jejuni in a simulated chicken digestive tract by Lactobacilli cultures.

    PubMed

    Chang, M H; Chen, T C

    2000-11-01

    Studies were conducted to investigate the impact of a selected lactobacilli mixed culture on Campylobacter jejuni in simulated chicken digestive tract models. Veronal buffer solutions corresponding to the pH of successive segments of the chicken digestive tract were prepared. The lactobacilli mixtures were prepared by mixing four fresh lactobacilli cultures, including Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus fermenentum, Lactobacillus crispatus, and Lactobacillus brevis. The C. jejuni and lactobacilli mixture were mixed with sterile poultry feed, and the previously prepared veronal buffer solutions were then added separately. The mixture was incubated at 41.1 degrees C for various lengths of time with periodic agitation. The feed passage time for five segments of the digestive tract were adopted: crop (pH 4.5), 30 min; proventriculus (pH 4.4), 15 min; gizzard (pH 2.6), 90 min; small intestine (pH 6.2), 90 min; and large intestine (pH 6.3), 15 min. The Campylobacter and lactobacilli were enumerated. An antagonistic effect on C. jejuni by the tested lactobacilli spp. was found in individual sections and the complete simulated digestive tract models. In the simulated complete chicken digestion system, no C. jejuni were found during the final incubation period when a lactobacilli mixture was present. The results of this in vitro study indicate the potential value of future in vivo studies.

  11. Lactic acid bacteria associated with the digestive tract of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.).

    PubMed

    Ringø, E; Bendiksen, H R; Wesmajervi, M S; Olsen, R E; Jansen, P A; Mikkelsen, H

    2000-08-01

    The present study reports the effect of excessive handling stress and starvation on the lactic acid bacteria associated with the digestive tract of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.). A relatively low population level (approximately 2 x 103 bacteria per gram wet tissue) of viable adherent heterotrophic bacteria was associated with the digestive tract (foregut, midgut and hindgut). Of the 752 bacterial isolates isolated from diet, water and the digestive tract, 201 isolates belonged to the carnobacteria. Of these isolates, one from the diet, one from the rearing water and 80 from the gastrointestinal tract, were further identified on the basis of 16S rDNA sequence analysis. All these isolates were identified as being Carnobacterium piscicola-like. Daily repeated stress and starvation of the fish over 11 d had no influence on the total culturable bacterial numbers or population level of C. piscicola associated with the digestive tract. C. piscicola-like isolates colonizing the various intestinal regions (foregut, midgut and hindgut) were also screened for their ability to produce growth inhibitory compounds active against the fish pathogen Aeromonas salmonicida. Of the 199 C. piscicola isolates tested, 139 inhibited growth of the pathogen.

  12. Should the presence of a culture positive urinary tract infection exclude patients from rapid evaluation hematuria protocols?

    PubMed

    Vasdev, Nikhil; Thorpe, Andrew C

    2013-08-01

    Current rapid evaluation protocols for patients with hematuria tend to exclude those with urinary tract infection since this is assumed to be evidence of a benign treatable cause. The likelihood of a urinary tract cancer in such patients is, however, uncertain, and we have therefore analyzed a prospective hematuria clinic database to determine risk. A total of 1,740 patients were enrolled prospectively in this study at our unit's one stop fast track hematuria clinic between April 2003 and March 2006. Evaluation of patients consisted of basic demographics, history and examination, urinalysis, urine culture, urine cytology, and serum creatinine. All patients then underwent a renal ultrasound, intravenous urogram, and cystoscopy. A total of 1,067 males and 673 females with a mean (range) age of 60.8 (16-96) years were included in the study. One hundred sixty-one patients had a positive mid-stream urine (MSU) on a specimen collected at the hematuria clinic. Amongst this group 20% (32) patients had a urologic malignancy diagnosed, of whom 12% (4) had metastatic disease at presentation. Only 1% (3) of patients had a urologic malignancy with a previous history of a treated urinary tract infection (UTI) and negative MSU at the clinic. The risk of urologic malignancy was 24% (303) in the remaining 1,249 patients with no history of a UTI prior to presentation and a negative MSU on a specimen collected at the one stop fast track hematuria clinic. Despite selection bias inherent in this analysis, it appears that the presence of UTI does not decrease the likelihood of having a urologic malignancy diagnosed. Hence, there is no indication to delay prompt evaluation in patients with hematuria and a positive urine culture collected at the hematuria clinic. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Associations among digestive tract lesions and abnormal serum chemistries in cull dairy cattle

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    All animals accrue tissue damage with age, but types and prevalence of damage are not known. Tissue lesions could signal impaired organ function which could affect performance. The study objective was to assess prevalence of microscopic lesions in digestive tracts of cull dairy cows, and determine a...

  14. Pathophysiology of cystic fibrosis and drugs used in associated digestive tract diseases

    PubMed Central

    Haack, Adriana; Aragão, Giselle Gonçalves; Novaes, Maria Rita Carvalho Garbi

    2013-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) causes chronic infections in the respiratory tract and alters the digestive tract. This paper reviews the most important aspects of drug treatment and changes in the digestive tract of patients with CF. This is a review of the literature, emphasizing the discoveries made within the last 15 years by analyzing scientific papers published in journals indexed in the Scientific Electronic Library Online, Sciences Information, United States National Library of Medicine and Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online databases, both in English and Portuguese, using the key words: cystic fibrosis, medication, therapeutic, absorption, digestion. Randomized, observational, experimental, and epidemiological clinical studies were selected, among others, with statistical significance of 5%. This review evaluates the changes found in the digestive tract of CF patients including pancreatic insufficiency, constipation and liver diseases. Changes in nutritional status are also described. Clinical treatment, nutritional supplementation and drug management were classified in this review as essential to the quality of life of CF patients, and became available through public policies for monitoring and treating CF. The information gathered on CF and a multi professional approach to the disease is essential in the treatment of these patients. PMID:24379572

  15. Role of parotid amylase in starch digestion in the gastro-intestinal tracts of diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Kurahashi, M; Inomata, K

    1989-09-01

    In order for the role of parotid amylase in starch digestion in the gastro-intestinal tracts of diabetic rats to be clarified, this study investigated the effect of parotid-duct ligation on both amylase secretion from the parotid glands and pancreas into the gastro-intestinal tract and on starch digestion in the gastro-intestinal contents during feedings. In both diabetic rats and control rats, parotid-duct ligation reduced amylase activity in both the parotid glands during fasting and in the gastric contents after feeding. The amylase activity in the intestinal contents after feeding was reduced by parotid-duct ligation in the diabetic rats. Starch digestion in the gastro-intestinal tract after feeding was reduced by parotid-duct ligation in the diabetic rats. The results suggest that most of the amylase activity in the gastric contents and a large part of the amylase activity in the intestinal contents are derived from the parotid glands, and that parotid amylase plays an important role in starch digestion in the gastro-intestinal tracts of diabetic rats.

  16. Wood degradation in the digestive tract of the Formosan subterranean termite (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Most wood decomposition in the digestive tract of subterranean termite workers occurs in food vacuoles of flagellate protozoan symbionts in the hindgut. This study uses scanning electron microscopy to analyze the degree of degradation of wood particles in different regions of the termite gut. Gut co...

  17. Chickadees with bigger brains have smaller digestive tracts: a multipopulation comparison.

    PubMed

    Kozlovsky, Dovid Y; Brown, Shelby L; Branch, Carrie L; Roth, Timothy C; Pravosudov, Vladimir V

    2014-01-01

    The factors leading to the evolution of large brain size remain controversial. Brains are metabolically expensive and larger brains demand higher maintenance costs. The expensive-tissue hypothesis suggests that when selection favors larger brains, evolutionary changes in brain size can occur without an overall increase in energetic costs when brain size represents a trade-off with the size of other expensive tissues, such as the digestive tract. Still, support for this hypothesis is equivocal. We compared mean brain mass, digestive tract mass (stomach and gut) and heart mass in 9 populations of black-capped chickadees along a gradient of winter climate severity. Mean brain mass and telencephalon volume showed significant population variation with larger brains associated with harsher winter conditions. Mean population brain mass and telencephalon volume were also negatively related to both stomach and gut mass. Mean population heart mass, on the other hand, was not significantly associated with either mean brain mass or winter climate severity. Mean brain mass was negatively associated with body mass, with chickadees from harsher environments being smaller but having larger brains and smaller digestive tracts. Our results are consistent with the expensive-tissue hypothesis, and suggest that a harsher winter climate might favor larger brains, which might be associated with a reduction in size of the digestive tract. These findings could potentially be a result of population differences in the winter climate diet related to the perishability of more efficient invertebrate-based food caches. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Terreneuvian orthothecid (Hyolitha) digestive tracts from northern Montagne Noire, France; taphonomic, ontogenetic and phylogenetic implications.

    PubMed

    Devaere, Léa; Clausen, Sébastien; Alvaro, J Javier; Peel, John S; Vachard, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    More than 285 specimens of Conotheca subcurvata with three-dimensionally preserved digestive tracts were recovered from the Terreneuvian (early Cambrian) Heraultia Limestone of the northern Montagne Noire, southern France. They represent one of the oldest occurrences of such preserved guts. The newly discovered operculum of some complete specimens provides additional data allowing emendation of the species diagnosis. Infestation of the U-shaped digestive tracts by smooth uniseriate, branching to anastomosing filaments along with isolated botryoidal coccoids attests to their early, microbially mediated phosphatisation. Apart from taphonomic deformation, C. subcurvata exhibits three different configurations of the digestive tract: (1) anal tube and gut parallel, straight to slightly undulating; (2) anal tube straight and loosely folded gut; and (3) anal tube straight and gut straight with local zigzag folds. The arrangement of the digestive tracts and its correlation with the mean apertural diameter of the specimens are interpreted as ontogenetically dependent. The simple U-shaped gut, usually considered as characteristic of the Hyolithida, developed in earlier stages of C. subcurvata, whereas the more complex orthothecid type-3 only appears in largest specimens. This growth pattern suggests a distinct phylogenetic relationship between these two hyolith orders through heterochronic processes.

  19. The development of the digestive tract in larval European catfish (Silurus glanis L.).

    PubMed

    Kozarić, Z; Kuzir, S; Petrinec, Z; Gjurcević, E; Bozić, M

    2008-04-01

    The European catfish, Silurus glanis L., has become an important aqua cultural fish in Croatia, and it is cultivated extensively in ponds in polyculture with carps. The development of the digestive tract in S. glanis was studied with the aim of improving intensive fish production. Research was carried out on S. glanis larval stadium from 1- to 19-day post-hatching (DPH). The main histological methods used were: haematoxylin and eosin staining, periodic acid Schiff staining (PAS), Alcian blue (AB) and toluidin blue staining (TB). A yolk sac was present during the first 5 days (1-5-DPH). During the initial 3-DPH period, there was no trace PAS and AB activity in the digestive tract. Differentiation of the digestive tract began at 3- to 5-DPH. The oesophagus was positive for AB at 5-DPH, PAS and TB after 7-DPH. Differentiation of enterocytes began at 5-DPG and the intestines were complete at 11-DPH. Development of liver and pancreas was also studied. The analysis of data obtained in this study suggests that after 5-DPH catfish larvae have morphologically completed digestive tracts.

  20. Terreneuvian Orthothecid (Hyolitha) Digestive Tracts from Northern Montagne Noire, France; Taphonomic, Ontogenetic and Phylogenetic Implications

    PubMed Central

    Devaere, Léa; Clausen, Sébastien; Álvaro, J. Javier; Peel, John S.; Vachard, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    More than 285 specimens of Conotheca subcurvata with three-dimensionally preserved digestive tracts were recovered from the Terreneuvian (early Cambrian) Heraultia Limestone of the northern Montagne Noire, southern France. They represent one of the oldest occurrences of such preserved guts. The newly discovered operculum of some complete specimens provides additional data allowing emendation of the species diagnosis. Infestation of the U-shaped digestive tracts by smooth uniseriate, branching to anastomosing filaments along with isolated botryoidal coccoids attests to their early, microbially mediated phosphatisation. Apart from taphonomic deformation, C. subcurvata exhibits three different configurations of the digestive tract: (1) anal tube and gut parallel, straight to slightly undulating; (2) anal tube straight and loosely folded gut; and (3) anal tube straight and gut straight with local zigzag folds. The arrangement of the digestive tracts and its correlation with the mean apertural diameter of the specimens are interpreted as ontogenetically dependent. The simple U-shaped gut, usually considered as characteristic of the Hyolithida, developed in earlier stages of C. subcurvata, whereas the more complex orthothecid type-3 only appears in largest specimens. This growth pattern suggests a distinct phylogenetic relationship between these two hyolith orders through heterochronic processes. PMID:24533118

  1. Morphohistology of the Digestive Tract of the Damsel Fish Stegastes fuscus (Osteichthyes: Pomacentridae)

    PubMed Central

    Canan, Bhaskara; do Nascimento, Wallace Silva; da Silva, Naisandra Bezerra; Chellappa, Sathyabama

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the morphohistology of the digestive tract and the mean intestinal coefficient of the damsel fish Stegastes fuscus captured from the tidal pools of Northeastern Brazil. The wall of the digestive tract of S. fuscus is composed of the tunica mucosa, tunica muscularis, and tunica serosa. The esophagus is short with sphincter and thick distensible wall with longitudinally folded mucosa. Mucous glands are predominant, and the muscular layer of the esophagus presented striated fibers all along its extension. The transition region close to the stomach shows plain and striated muscular fibers. Between the stomach and intestine, there are three pyloric caeca. The intestine is long and thin with four folds around the stomach. The anterior intestine presents folds similar to those of pyloric caeca. The estimated mean intestinal coefficient and characteristics of the digestive system of S. fuscus present morphological adequacy for both herbivorous and omnivorous feeding habits. PMID:22547996

  2. Quantitative morphometric analysis of the myenteric nervous plexus ganglion structures along the human digestive tract.

    PubMed

    Mandić, Predrag; Filipović, Tatjana; Gasić, Milos; Djukić-Macut, Natasa; Filipović, Milan; Bogosavljević, Ivan

    2016-06-01

    All the functions of the digestive system are controlled, guided and initiated by the autonomic nervous system. A special part of this system placed in the wall of the gastrointestinal tract is known as the enteric or metasympathetic nervous system. The aim of this study was to analyse myenteric nervous plexus in different parts of the digestive tract. We examined the myenteric nervous plexus of the esophagus, stomach, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, transverse colon and rectum in tissue samples taken from 30 cadavers of persons aged 20-84 years. After standard histological processing sections were stained with hematoxylin-eosin, cresyl violet (CV) and AgNO₃ method. Multipurpose test system M42 was used in morphometric analysis. The results were analyzed by t-test and analysis of variance. The number of neurons per cm² surface was the lowest in the esophagus (2.045 ± 310.30) and the largest in the duodenum (65,511 ± 5,639). The statistical processing showed significant differences (P < 0.001) in the number of neurons between the esophagus and all other parts of the digestive tract. The maximal value of the average surface of the myenteric nervous plexus neurons was observed in the esophagus (588.93 ± 30.45 µm²) and the lowest in the stomach (296.46 ± 22.53 µm²). There are differences in the number of ganglion cells among different parts of the human digestive tract. The differences range from a few to several tens of thousands of neuron/cm2. The myenteric nervous plexus of the esophagus was characterized by a significantly smaller number of neurons but their bodies and nuclei are significantly larger compared to other parts of the digestive tract.

  3. LAP2 Is Widely Overexpressed in Diverse Digestive Tract Cancers and Regulates Motility of Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Han, Myoung-Eun; Baek, Sungmin; Sim, Hey-Eun; Yoon, Sik; Baek, Sun-Yong; Kim, Bong-Seon; Kim, Jeong-Hwan; Kim, Seon-Young; Oh, Sae-Ock

    2012-01-01

    Background Lamina-associated polypeptides 2 (LAP2) is a nuclear protein that connects the nuclear lamina with chromatin. Although its critical roles in genetic disorders and hematopoietic malignancies have been described, its expression and roles in digestive tract cancers have been poorly characterized. Methods To examine the expression of LAP2 in patient tissues, we performed immunohistochemistry and real-time PCR. To examine motility of cancer cells, we employed Boyden chamber, wound healing and Matrigel invasion assays. To reveal its roles in metastasis in vivo, we used a liver metastasis xenograft model. To investigate the underlying mechanism, a cDNA microarray was conducted. Results Immunohistochemistry in patient tissues showed widespread expression of LAP2 in diverse digestive tract cancers including stomach, pancreas, liver, and bile duct cancers. Real-time PCR confirmed that LAP2β is over-expressed in gastric cancer tissues. Knockdown of LAP2β did not affect proliferation of most digestive tract cancer cells except pancreatic cancer cells. However, knockdown of LAP2β decreased motility of all tested cancer cells. Moreover, overexpression of LAP2β increased motility of gastric and pancreatic cancer cells. In the liver metastasis xenograft model, LAP2β increased metastatic efficacy of gastric cancer cells and mortality in tested mice. cDNA microarrays showed the possibility that myristoylated alanine-rich C kinase substrate (MARCKS) and interleukin6 (IL6) may mediate LAP2β-regulated motility of cancer cells. Conclusions From the above results, we conclude that LAP2 is widely overexpressed in diverse digestive tract cancers and LAP2β regulates motility of cancer cells and suggest that LAP2β may have utility for diagnostics and therapeutics in digestive tract cancers. PMID:22745766

  4. Impact of barley form on equine total tract fibre digestibility and colonic microbiota.

    PubMed

    Philippeau, C; Sadet-Bourgeteau, S; Varloud, M; Julliand, V

    2015-12-01

    This study aimed at assessing the impact of four barley forms on total tract apparent digestibility of dietary fibre in horses fed a large amount of starch in the morning meal (0.27% BW). Processed barley forms had a greater pre-caecal starch digestibility than the whole form. Based on this result, we hypothesised that using barley-processing methods would limit the potential dumping of undegraded starch in the hindgut of horses and, consequently, the potential negative effect on fibre degradation in the hindgut. In a 4×4 latin square design, four mature geldings fitted with a right ventral colon-fistula were fed a meadow hay : concentrate (62 : 38; dry matter (DM) basis) diet at 1.7% BW. The concentrate was made of 80% barley distributed either as whole grain or as processed forms: 2.5 mm ground, pelleted or steam-flaked. For each period, total tract apparent digestibilities of DM, NDF and ADF were determined over 3 consecutive days by total faecal collection, whereas pH, volatile fatty acids (VFA) concentrations and cultural functional bacteria counts (total anaerobic, cellulolytic bacteria, lactic acid producers, amylolytic bacteria and lactic acid utilisers) in colonic content were evaluated on 1 day 4 h after the morning meal. Total tract apparent digestibility of DM and dietary fibre was influenced (P<0.05) by barley form. Diets including thermo-mechanically treated barley forms led to a higher (P<0.05) total tract apparent digestibility of NDF than those constituted of ground barley and also led to a greater (P<0.05) total tract apparent digestibility of ADF than those made of whole or ground barley forms. However, no significant difference was observed in colonic pH, VFA concentrations and cultural bacteria concentrations. Owing to a high starch supply in the morning meal, the concentration of the functional bacteria in the colonic content averaged 7.8 log CFU/ml, 5.9 NPM/ml, 6.9 and 7.3 CFU/ml for total anaerobic, cellulolytic, amylolytic and lactic acid

  5. Histology and mucin histochemistry of the digestive tract of yellow catfish, Pelteobagrus fulvidraco.

    PubMed

    Cao, X J; Wang, W M

    2009-08-01

    The histology and characteristics of mucins secreted by epithelial mucous cells of the digestive tract in yellow catfish, Pelteobagrus fulvidraco were investigated using light microscope and transmission electron microscope. The digestive tract was divided into a pharynx, oesophagus, U-shaped stomach (with a cardiac, fundic and pyloric part) and intestine, composed of anterior intestine, middle intestine and posterior intestine, which consisted of a mucosa (epithelial layer), lamina propria-submucosa, muscularis and serosa. A large number of isolated longitudinal striated muscular bundles were present in the lamina propria-submucosa of pharynx. Goblet cells were observed throughout the digestive tract, except in the stomach. In the cardiac and fundic stomach, a plenty of gastric glands were observed, whereas they were absent in the pyloric part. Numerous mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum were observed in the columnar epithelial cells of the intestine, especially of the anterior part. The epithelial mucous cells contained neutral or other two mixtures of acid and neutral mucins, the first being the most common. The neutral mucin was the only type of mucins in the stomach, anterior intestine and middle intestine. The results of this study will be helpful for understanding the digestive physiology and diagnosing some gastrointestinal diseases in yellow catfish.

  6. A Rare Disease of the Digestive Tract: Esophageal Melanosis

    PubMed Central

    Destek, Sebahattin; Gul, Vahit Onur; Ahioglu, Serkan; Erbil, Yesim

    2016-01-01

    Esophageal melanosis which is characterized by melanocytic proliferation in the squamous epithelium of the esophagus and melanin accumulatin of esophageal mucosa (EM) is a rare disease of the digestive system. Although esophageal melanosis is considered to be a benign disease, its etiology is not cleared and has been reported to be the precursor lesion of esophageal primary melanomas. In this report, we aimed to note esophageal melanosis in a 55-year-old female case who applied to our clinic with difficulty in swallowing, burning behind the breastbone in the stomach, heartburn, indigestion, and pain in the upper abdomen after endoscopic and pathologic evaluation. Complaints dropped with anti-acid therapy and case was followed by intermittent endoscopic procedures because of precursor melanocytic lesions. PMID:27785326

  7. Structure of the digestive tract of tornaria larva in Enteropneusta (Hemichordata)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dautov, S. Sh.; Nezlin, L. P.; Yushin, V. V.

    1994-03-01

    The ultrastructure of the digestive tract of tornaria larva of enteropneusts was investigated. It showed that the digestive tract consists of three parts: esophagus, stomach, and intestine. The esophagus epithelium consists of two types of multiciliated epithelial cells and solitary muscle cells. Axonal tracts and neurons were found in the ventral wall of the esophagus. The cardiac sphincter contains an anterior band of strongly ciliated cells and a posterior band of cells with long vacuolized processes which partition the sphincter lumen. The stomach consists of three cell types: (1) cells with electron-opaque cytoplasm, bearing a fringed border on their apical sides; (2, 3) sparse cells with electron-light cytoplasm and different patterns of apical microvilli. Cells of the pyloric sphincter bear numerous cilia and almost no microvilli. The intestine consists of three parts. The anterior part is formed of multiciliated cells which bear the fringed border. The middle part consists of flattened cells bearing rare cilia and vast numbers of mace-like microvilli. The posterior part of the intestine is formed of cells bearing numerous cilia and few microvilli. Muscle cells were not found in either stomach or intestine epithelium. One noticed that the structure of the digestive tract of enteropneust tornaria larva differs from that of echinoid pluteus larva.

  8. Digestion of fat and fatty acids along the gastrointestinal tract of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Tancharoenrat, P; Ravindran, V; Zaefarian, F; Ravindran, G

    2014-02-01

    Two experiments were conducted. The first experiment investigated the digestion of fat and fatty acids (FA) from soybean oil and tallow along the gastrointestinal tract of broiler chickens. The second experiment was conducted to determine endogenous fat and FA losses and the FA profile of chicken bile. In experiment 1, 2-wk-old broilers were fed corn-soy diets supplemented with 50 g/kg of soybean oil or tallow for 7 d and digesta were collected from the duodenum, upper jejunum, upper ileum, and lower ileum. Apparent digestibility coefficients were calculated using the titanium marker ratio in diets, and digesta. Digestibility of fat was determined to be negative in the duodenum, indicating marked net secretion of fat into this segment. Fat was rapidly digested in the jejunum, with digestibility coefficients of 0.60 to 0.64 being determined at the end of the jejunum. The digestion of fat continued in the upper ileum. The apparent digestibility coefficient of fat determined at lower ileum in soybean oil diets was higher (P < 0.05) than that in tallow diets (0.82 vs. 0.74). Linoleic acid was digested throughout the intestinal tract, whereas the digestion of palmitic, stearic, and oleic acids started only in the jejunum. Measurements at the lower ileal level showed that the unsaturated FA (linoleic and oleic acids) were well digested (0.90 to 0.94), irrespective of the source of fat. In contrast, the digestibility of saturated FA (palmitic and stearic acids) was influenced (P < 0.05) by the fat source. Digestibility coefficients of palmitic and stearic acids at lower ileum were markedly higher (P < 0.05) in the diet containing soybean oil (0.77 to 0.85) compared with that containing tallow (0.58 to 0.68). In experiment 2, ileal endogenous fat loss was determined to be 1,714 mg/kg of DM intake. Endogenous fat was composed mainly of palmitic (75 g/kg), stearic (131 g/kg), oleic (73 g/kg), linoleic (133 g/kg), and arachidonic (60 g/kg) acids. Fatty acid profile of

  9. The Effect of XPD Polymorphisms on Digestive Tract Cancers Risk: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qian; Chen, Zhipeng; Lu, Kai; Shu, Yongqian; Chen, Tao; Zhu, Lingjun

    2014-01-01

    Background The Xeroderma pigmento-sum group D gene (XPD) plays a key role in nucleotide excision repair. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) located in its functional region may alter DNA repair capacity phenotype and cancer risk. Many studies have demonstrated that XPD polymorphisms are significantly associated with digestive tract cancers risk, but the results are inconsistent. We conducted a comprehensive meta-analysis to assess the association between XPD Lys751Gln polymorphism and digestive tract cancers risk. The digestive tract cancers that our study referred to, includes oral cancer, esophageal cancer, gastric cancer and colorectal cancer. Methods We searched PubMed and EmBase up to December 31, 2012 to identify eligible studies. A total of 37 case-control studies including 9027 cases and 16072 controls were involved in this meta-analysis. Statistical analyses were performed with Stata software (version 11.0, USA). Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to assess the strength of the association. Results The results showed that XPD Lys751Gln polymorphism was associated with the increased risk of digestive tract cancers (homozygote comparison (GlnGln vs. LysLys): OR = 1.12, 95% CI = 1.01–1.24, P = 0.029, P heterogeneity = 0.133). We found no statistical evidence for a significantly increased digestive tract cancers risk in the other genetic models. In the subgroup analysis, we also found the homozygote comparison increased the susceptibility of Asian population (OR = 1.28, 95% CI = 1.01–1.63, P = 0.045, P heterogeneity = 0.287). Stratified by cancer type and source of control, no significantly increased cancer risk was found in these subgroups. Additionally, risk estimates from hospital-based studies and esophageal studies were heterogeneous. Conclusions Our meta-analysis suggested that the XPD 751Gln/Gln genotype was a low-penetrate risk factor for developing digestive tract cancers, especially

  10. Current status of capsule endoscopy through a whole digestive tract.

    PubMed

    Hosoe, Naoki; Naganuma, Makoto; Ogata, Haruhiko

    2015-01-01

    More than a decade has passed since small-bowel capsule endoscopy (CE) was first reported. Small-bowel CE is a non-invasive tool that allows visualization of the entire small-intestinal mucosa and facilitates detection of small-intestinal abnormalities. Several studies have shown benefit of small-bowel CE for certain disorders. Because it is non-invasive, CE has been applied to other organs including the esophagus, stomach, and colon. The main indications for esophageal CE (ECE) are screening for gastroesophageal reflux disease/Barrett's esophagus, and esophageal varices. However, the clinical benefit of ECE is unconfirmed. Magnetically guided CE (MGCE) was developed to visualize the gastric mucosa. MGCE is a new concept with room for improvement of capsule navigation and the preparation protocol. Recently, two new small-bowel CE tools were released. First-generation colon CE (CCE-1) has moderate sensitivity and specificity compared with colonoscopy for colorectal neoplasia surveillance. To obtain higher accuracy, a second-generation CCE (CCE-2) was developed with a high sensitivity for detecting clinically relevant polypoid lesions. A possible application of CCE is for inflammatory bowel disease. In the near future, CE may include diagnostic and therapeutic functions such as magnifying endoscopy systems, targeted biopsy forceps, and drug delivery systems. © 2014 The Authors. Digestive Endoscopy © 2014 Japan Gastroenterological Endoscopy Society.

  11. Hydrogen Sulfide in Physiology and Diseases of the Digestive Tract

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Sudha B.; Lin, Henry C.

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a Janus-faced molecule. On one hand, several toxic functions have been attributed to H2S and exposure to high levels of this gas is extremely hazardous to health. On the other hand, H2S delivery based clinical therapies are being developed to combat inflammation, visceral pain, oxidative stress related tissue injury, thrombosis and cancer. Since its discovery, H2S has been found to have pleiotropic effects on physiology and health. H2S is a gasotransmitter that exerts its effect on different systems, such as gastrointestinal, neuronal, cardiovascular, respiratory, renal, and hepatic systems. In the gastrointestinal tract, in addition to H2S production by mammalian cystathionine-β-synthase (CBS), cystathionine-γ-lyase (CSE), H2S is also generated by the metabolic activity of resident gut microbes, mainly by colonic Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria (SRB) via a dissimilatory sulfate reduction (DSR) pathway. In the gut, H2S regulates functions such as inflammation, ischemia/ reperfusion injury and motility. H2S derived from gut microbes has been found to be associated with gastrointestinal disorders such as ulcerative colitis, Crohn’s disease and irritable bowel syndrome. This underscores the importance of gut microbes and their production of H2S on host physiology and pathophysiology. PMID:27682122

  12. T cell immunity in the teleost digestive tract.

    PubMed

    Tafalla, Carolina; Leal, Esther; Yamaguchi, Takuya; Fischer, Uwe

    2016-11-01

    Fish (along with cyclostomes) constitute the most ancient animal group in which an acquired immune system is present. As in higher vertebrates, both B and T lymphocytes cooperate in implementing an adequate response. Although there is still a debate on whether fish possess a true gut associated lymphoid tissue (GALT), the presence of diffuse B and T lymphocytes throughout all mucosal surfaces has been demonstrated in a wide variety of fish species. The lack of antibodies against T lymphocyte markers has hampered the performance of functional assays in both systemic and mucosal compartments. However, most components associated with T lymphocyte function have been identified in fish through extensive genomic research, suggesting similar functionalities for fish and mammalian T lymphocytes. Thus, the aim of this review is to briefly summarize what is known in teleost concerning the characteristics and functionalities of the different T cell subsets, to then focus on what is known to date regarding their presence and role in the gastrointestinal tract, through either direct functional assays or indirectly by conclusions drawn from transcriptomic analysis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. [Results of the upper digestive tract stenting with self-expanding stents].

    PubMed

    Fedorov, A G; Davydova, S V; Klimov, A E; Lebedev, N V

    2013-01-01

    The work is based on the analysis of the palliative treatment of 66 patients with malignant upper digestive tract obstruction who underwent implantation of 75 self-expanding metallic stents in the period of 2003-2012 yy. Early postoperative complications developed in 10 (15.2%) cases. Procedure-related complications were observed in 8 (12.1%) patients, non-specific complications occurred in 2 (3.0%) patients. In-hospital lethality was 4.5% (3 patients). 51 patients were followed until death. Symptomatic relapse of obstruction was observed in 4 cases. Median survival was 97 days. Stenting with self-expanding metal stents was concluded to be an effective and safe method of palliation of malignant upper digestive tract stenosis.

  14. Taxonomic composition and physiological and biochemical properties of bacteria in the digestive tracts of earthworms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byzov, B. A.; Tikhonov, V. V.; Nechitailo, T. Yu.; Demin, V. V.; Zvyagintsev, D. G.

    2015-03-01

    Several hundred bacterial strains belonging to different taxa were isolated and identified from the digestive tracts of soil and compost earthworms. Some physiological and biochemical properties of the bacteria were characterized. The majority of intestinal bacteria in the earthworms were found to be facultative anaerobes. The intestinal isolates as compared to the soil ones had elevated activity of proteases and dehydrogenases. In addition, bacteria associated with earthworms' intestines are capable of growth on humic acids as a sole carbon source. Humic acid stimulated the growth of the intestinal bacteria to a greater extent than those of the soil ones. In the digestive tracts, polyphenol oxidase activity was found. Along with the data on the taxonomic separation of the intestinal bacteria, the features described testified to the presence of a group of bacteria in the earthworms intestines that is functionally characteristic and is different from the soil bacteria.

  15. Concurrent gastrointestinal stromal tumor and digestive tract carcinoma: a single institution experience in China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Peng; Deng, Rui; Xia, Zefeng; Shuai, Xiaoming; Chang, Weilong; Gao, Jinbo; Wang, Guobin; Tao, Kaixiong

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to review the clinicopathological characteristics and survival outcomes of patients with concurrent gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) and digestive tract carcinoma. Among 585 patients diagnosed with GIST from January 2005 to July 2014, 32 (5.5%) had synchronous digestive tract carcinoma, including 19 (59.4%) men and 13 (40.6%) women. The median age was 64 years (range, 43-84). GIST was located in the stomach (n=24), small intestine (n=6), duodenum (n=1) and retroperitoneum (n=1). GISTs were intra- or postoperatively discovered (n=28) or preoperatively identified (n=4). The tumor size was less than 10 mm (microGIST) in 23 (71.9%) GIST patients. The preoperatively identified GIST subgroup showed a significantly larger tumor size, more mitotic figures and a higher risk grade than the intra- or postoperatively identified GIST subgroup. Concurrent digestive tract carcinomas were most frequently located in the stomach (24 cases, 75%). The other involved sites were the esophagus (n=5), duodenum (n=2) and colon (n=1). With a median follow-up of 32 months (range, 9-80), 24 patients were alive without evidence of disease, 6 patients had died of carcinoma progression, 1 patient had died from an accident, and 1 patient experienced GIST metastasis to the liver. In summary, we discovered that 5.5% of GIST patients also developed a concurrent digestive tract carcinoma in a series of 585 GIST cases. The majority of GISTs are incidentally identified microGISTs. The concurrent carcinoma seems to have a greater unfavorable effect on prognosis than the GIST. However, for a GIST that is identified preoperatively with a high risk of progression, adjuvant therapy is warranted. PMID:26885079

  16. The association between biliary tract inflammation and risk of digestive system cancers

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Tsung-Yu; Lin, Che-Chen; Peng, Cheng-Yuan; Huang, Wen-Hsin; Su, Wen-Pang; Lai, Shih-Wei; Chen, Hsuan-Ju; Lai, Hsueh-Chou

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The relationship between biliary tract inflammation (BTI) and digestive system cancers is unclear. This study aimed to evaluate the association between BTI and the risks of digestive system cancers. Using the Taiwan National Health Insurance claims data, information on a cohort of patients diagnosed with BTI (n = 4398) between 2000 and 2009 was collected. A comparison cohort of sex-, age-, and index year-matched persons without BTI (n = 17,592) was selected from the same database. The disease was defined by the ICD-9-CM. Both cohorts were followed until the end of 2010 and incidences of digestive system cancers were calculated. The results revealed an increase in adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) of biliary tract cancer (24.45; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 9.20–65.02), primary liver cancer (1.53; 95% CI: 1.07–2.18), and pancreatic cancer (3.10; 95% CI: 1.20–8.03) in patients with both gallbladder and BTI. The aHR of stomach cancer was also found to be increased (2.73; 95% CI: 1.28–5.81) in patients with gallbladder inflammation only. There were no differences in esophageal cancer (aHR: 0.82; 95% CI: 0.23–2.87) and colorectal cancer (aHR: 0.92; 95% CI: 0.59–1.45). The aHR for digestive system cancers increased by 3.66 times (95% CI: 2.50–5.35) and 12.20 times (95% CI: 8.66–17.17) in BTI visits frequency averaged 2 to 4 visits per year and frequency averaged ≥5 visits per year, respectively. Patients with BTI have significantly higher risk of digestive system cancers, particularly biliary tract, pancreatic, and primary liver cancers, compared with those who are without it. PMID:27495065

  17. Microencapsulation of tannic acid for oral administration to inhibit carbohydrate digestion in the gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Wei; Iyer, Vidya; Flores, Floirendo P; Donhowe, Erik; Kong, Fanbin

    2013-06-01

    The prevalence of diabetes mellitus and obesity is rapidly rising worldwide. Recently, there is increasing evidence that phytochemicals such as polyphenols in our diet could directly inhibit the activities of key digestive enzymes, representing a novel method of controlling and preventing diabetes mellitus and obesity. More research is required to determine how to effectively utilize phytochemicals within the gastrointestinal (GI) tract to obtain maximum inhibition of digestive enzymes. This study investigated the inhibition efficiency of tannic acid (TA) on α-amylase as compared with other potential inhibitors using an in vitro method. The inhibition mode and kinetics were studied. The results showed that tannic acid (TA) is more effective in inhibiting α-amylase than a commercial starch blocker (Phase 2 Starch Blocker), and some selected flavonoids and polyphenols including quercetin, rutin, and polyphenon from green tea. It is also found that inhibition of α-amylase by TA in the GI tract is difficult if administered orally due to the non-specific and reversible noncompetitive interaction between tannic acid and α-amylase or other proteins. Accordingly, a pH-sensitive delivery system using calcium-alginate microspheres encapsulating tannic acid was successfully developed for oral administration to inhibit carbohydrate digestion in the GI tract. The encapsulated TA in calcium-alginate microspheres could be protected from the proteins in the stomach, and sustain release and inhibit α-amylase activity in the small intestine.

  18. Histopathological study of toxic effects of carbaryl on digestive tract of Bufotes variabilis (Anura: Bufonidae).

    PubMed

    Çakıcı, Özlem

    2016-07-01

    Due to the negative effects of pesticide usage in environment, i.e., decline in amphibian populations, this study was designed to examine histopathologic changes following carbaryl exposure for 96 h in the digestive tract of variable toad, Bufotes variabilis. After exposure to single doses of carbaryl (low dose 50 μg/g, medium dose 100 μg/g, and high dose: 200 μg/g), the toads were euthanized and dissected and digestive tract samples were quickly removed. Histopathology revealed esophageal vacuolization and necrosis in esophageal cells. Hemorrhage was also observed in the esophagus. In the stomach, necrosis in the glandular epithelium, congested blood vessels, edema among gastric glands, dilated tips of the mucosal epithelial layer, gastric glandular atrophy, and hemorrhage were found. In the intestine, edema within villi, hemorrhage, inflammation, vacuolization, and necrosis in epithelial cells of villi were detected. This study clearly showed that carbaryl caused adverse effects on the digestive tract of B. variabilis in all dose groups.

  19. Development of the digestive tract in the ostrich (Struthio camelus).

    PubMed

    Iji, P A; van der Walt, J G; Brand, T S; Boomker, E A; Booyse, D

    2003-06-01

    A study was conducted to investigate changes in the development of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) in relation to body growth of growing ostriches. There was an 11-fold increase (P < 0.001) in body weight between 3 and 72 days of age. The relative (to body weight) weight of the proventriculus/gizzard, caeca and colon also increased (P < 0.001) with age. The relative weight of the small intestine peaked at 41 days of age and then tended to decline (P < 0.05) subsequently. The relative weight of the pancreas peaked at 27 days of age and remained fairly stable thereafter. The activities of chymotrypsin and lipase declined (P < 0.001) with age between 3 and 72 days. At 3 days of age, the protein content of the duodenal mucosal homogenate was higher (P < 0.001) than that of the jejunum or ileum, but at all subsequent periods the jejunal protein content was the highest. The protein content of the intestinal brush-border membrane was higher (P < 0.001) at the jejunum than at the duodenum or ileum. The specific activity of maltase declined (P < 0.001) with age in all three regions, most especially between 3 and 27 days of age. The activity of alkaline phosphatase (AP) at 41 and 55 days of age was higher (P < 0.001) in the duodenum than in the jejunum or ileum. The activity of AP fluctuated with age in the duodenum but there was a more defined decline (P < 0.001) with age in the jejunum and ileum. The relative protein content of the liver increased (P < 0.001) with age, with two peaks at 27 and 55 days of age. Arginase activity was not detected in the liver of 3-day old chicks and was not significantly affected by age between 27 and 72 days of age. The pattern of development observed is similar to that in growing poultry. There is, however, a need for evaluation at closer intervals in early life as well as an in-depth assessment of the morphometry of the intestinal mucosa.

  20. Short-term fate of dietary dieldrin in the digestive tract of juvenile lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stewart, Donald J.; Stein, Roy A.

    1974-01-01

    Short-term fate of dietary dieldrin in the digestive tract of fishes is poorly known. Studies of the uptake, distribution, and elimination of chlorinated hydrocarbons have suggested that uptake or degradation is rapid in the intestine (GROSS 1969; MACEK et al. 1970; GRZENDA et al. 1970, 1971). The present study was designed to determine the short-term fate of a single oral dose of dieldrin in the digestive tract of lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush).

  1. Experience of curing serious obstruction of advanced-stage upper digestive tract tumor using laser under endoscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mu, Hai-Bin; Zhang, Man-Ling; Zhang, Xiao-Qiang; Zhang, Feng-Qiu; Kong, De-Jia; Tang, Li-Bin

    1998-11-01

    The patients who suffer from upper digestive tract tumor, such as cancer of esophagus, cancer of cardia, all have serious obstruction and fail to get nutrition and can not bear the strike of the radiotherapy and chemotherapy. In order to reduce the obstruction symptom and suffering of the patients and to prolong their life time, since 1989, our hospital used the laser to cure the upper digestive tract tumor 11 cases with serious obstruction and got remarkable curative effect.

  2. Formation of the digestive tract in Ciona intestinalis includes two distinct morphogenic processes between its anterior and posterior parts.

    PubMed

    Nakazawa, Keiichi; Yamazawa, Takumi; Moriyama, Yuuta; Ogura, Yosuke; Kawai, Narudo; Sasakura, Yasunori; Saiga, Hidetoshi

    2013-10-01

    In the ascidian Ciona intestinalis, the digestive tract, an essential system for animals, develops during metamorphosis from the two primordial tissues, the endoderm and endodermal strand, located in the larval trunk and tail, respectively. However, it has been largely unknown how the digestive tract develops from these primordial tissues. We examined the metamorphosing larvae for the tubular formation of the digestive tract, focusing on the epithelial organization of the endoderm, by combined confocal microscopy and computational rendering. The tubular structure of the esophagus to the stomach was formed through the folding and closure of the endodermal epithelia in the central-to-right posterior trunk. By contrast, the intestine was formed in the left posterior trunk through the accumulation and rearrangement of the cells originated from the endodermal strand. This was confirmed by the cell-tracing experiment using Kaede expression construct driven in the endodermal strand. Thus, the tubular formation of the digestive tract in C. intestinalis includes distinct morphogenetic processes and cell lineages between its anterior and posterior parts. This study provides the first detailed description of the digestive tract morphogenesis in C. intestinalis and serves as an important basis toward thorough understanding of its digestive tract development. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Morphological and histochemical characterization of the mucosa of the digestive tract in Engraulis anchoita.

    PubMed

    Díaz, A O; García, A M; Devincenti, C V; Goldemberg, A L

    2003-12-01

    The histomorphological aspects as well as the histochemical content and distribution of glycoproteins (GPs) in the mucosa of the digestive tract of the anchovy Engraulis anchoita were studied. The buccopharyngeal cavity is lined by a squamous stratified epithelium with mucous superficial cells; the oesophagus shows two zones, cranial with a squamous stratified epithelium with mucous superficial cells and caudal with a columnar secretory epithelium. Finally, the stomach presents both the cranial and pyloric portion lined with a simple columnar epithelium. Tubular branched glands, formed by a single type of glandular cell, located along the stomach, are more numerous in the cranial portion. The GPs were identified with (1) oxidizable vicinal diols; (2) sialic acids and some of their chain variants, C7 or C9; (3) sialic acid residues with O-acyl substitution at C7 or C8; (4) carboxyl groups and (5) sulphate groups. Histochemical tests showed that the buccopharyngeal cavity presented the largest amount of the different types of mucosubstances. Epithelial secretory cells were found in the oesophagus, which synthesized a large quantity of sialosulphoglycoproteins likely to be related to a protective role. The surface epithelium of the stomach synthesizes and secretes acid and neutral GPs, probably related to the movement of fluids and to the absorption of easily digested substrates, respectively. Although great differences exist between different species, in E. anchoita as in other fish species, the wall of the digestive tract is composed of the four layers classically described for vertebrates. The GPs secreted by the epithelial cells are suggested to be important for the protection and inhibition of microorganisms. In addition, they are involved in enzymatic digestion of food, absorptive functions and lubrication of the alimentary tract.

  4. The digestive tract of the whiteback griffon vulture and its role in disease transmission among wild ungulates.

    PubMed

    Houston, D C; Cooper, J E

    1975-07-01

    The digestive tract of the whiteback vulture (Gyps africanus) is described. Some disease organisms were fed to a captive bird to discover if they could survive passage through the tract, and the role of these scavenging birds in the spread of diseases among wild ungulates is discussed.

  5. [Aging and digestive diseases: at the view of the functional change of gastrointestinal tract].

    PubMed

    Park, Kyung Sik

    2011-07-01

    Although it is difficult to define the term "aging" consensually, in medical fields, usually it means the progressive accumulation of irreversible degenerative changes leading to loss of homeostasis. It is supposable that there is also modest decline in the structure and function of several digestive organs. However, data about this subject are not enough. Main problem in studying aging digestive organ is that discrimination of primary senile change of the organ with secondary one from other senile diseases is not easy. That is, the prevalence of many non-digestive disorders which can badly affect the digestive functions is increasing by aging; for example, diabetes, malignancy, etc. To prove that some phenomenon is as result of pure senile change, it is necessary to exclude secondary one, but, the process is very complicated and difficult. In spite of this limitation, here, I will discuss the senile change of several digestive organs by aging, especially at the view of the gastrointestinal functions, with review of literatures.

  6. Modeling the fate of dietary phosphorus in the digestive tract of growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Létourneau-Montminy, M P; Narcy, A; Lescoat, P; Magnin, M; Bernier, J F; Sauvant, D; Jondreville, C; Pomar, C

    2011-11-01

    Environmental effects of excess P from manure and the soaring price of phosphates are major issues in pig production. To optimize P utilization, it is crucial to improve our capacity to predict the amount of P absorbed, while taking into account the main factors of variation. Mathematical modeling can represent the complexity of the processes and interactions in determining the digestive utilization of P in growing pigs. This paper describes and evaluates a model developed to simulate the fate of the dietary forms of P in the digestive tract of growing pigs, with particular emphasis on the effect of dietary Ca and exogenous phytase on P digestive utilization. The model consists of 3 compartments associated with specific anatomical sections: stomach, proximal small intestine, and distal small intestine. The main metabolic processes occurring in these sections are, respectively, P solubilization/insolubilization and phytate P hydrolysis, and P absorption and P insolubilization. Model parameters governing these flows were derived from in vitro and in vivo literature data. The sensitivity analysis revealed that the model was stable within a large range of model parameter values (±1.5 SD). The model was able to predict the efficacy of Aspergillus niger microbial phytase in accordance with literature values, as well as the decreased efficacy of plant phytase compared with microbial phytase. The prediction capabilities of the model were assessed by comparing actual and simulated P and Ca apparent total-tract digestibility (ATTD) based on published pig data not used for model development. Prediction of P digestibility across 66 experiments and 281 observations was adequate [P ATTD observed = 0.24 (SE, 0.943) + 0.98 (SE, 0.0196) × P ATTD predicted; R(2), 0.90; disturbance error (ED), 96.5%], whereas prediction of Ca digestibility across 47 experiments and 193 observations was less accurate (Ca ATTD observed = 11.1 + 0.75 × Ca ATTD predicted; R(2), 0.78; ED, 20.4%). A

  7. Acid and alkaline phosphatase localization in the digestive tract mucosa of the Hemisorubim platyrhynchos.

    PubMed

    Faccioli, Claudemir Kuhn; Chedid, Renata Alari; Mori, Ricardo Hideo; Amaral, Antônio Carlos do; Franceschini-Vicentini, Irene Bastos; Vicentini, Carlos Alberto

    2016-09-01

    This cytochemical study investigated the acid and alkaline phosphatase of the digestive tract of Hemisorubim platyrhynchos. Acid phosphatase was detected in the lining epithelium throughout the digestive tract, whereas alkaline phosphatase was only observed in the intestine. In the esophagus, an acid phosphatase reaction occurred in the apical cytoplasm of the epithelial cells and was related to epithelial protection and freeing of superficial cells for sloughing. Similar results were also observed in epithelial cells of gastric epithelium. In the gastric glands, acid phosphatase occurred in lysosomes of the oxynticopeptic cells acting in the macromolecule degradation for use as an energy source, whereas in the vesiculotubular system, its presence could be related to secretion processes. Furthermore, acid phosphatase in the intestine occurred in microvilli and lysosomes of the enterocytes and was correlated to absorption and intracellular digestion. However, no difference was reported among the regions of the intestine. However, alkaline phosphatase reaction revealed a large number of reaction dots in the anterior intestine, with the number decreasing toward the posterior intestine. This enzyme has been related to several functions, highlighting its role in the nutrient absorption primarily in the anterior intestine but also being essential in pH regulation because this is a carnivorous species with many gastric glands with secretions that could damage the intestine.

  8. Endogenous fat loss and true total tract digestibility of poultry fat in adult dogs.

    PubMed

    Marx, F R; Trevizan, L; Saad, F M O B; Lisenko, K G; Reis, J S; Kessler, A M

    2017-07-01

    Fat plays an important role in the carnivore diet. It has high digestibility and high energy content and likely improves digestibility of the diet when present in greater amounts, suggesting that endogenous fat adversely affects the apparent digestibility of fat in low-fat diets. This study aimed to determine the endogenous fat loss (EFL) and true total tract digestibility (TTTD) of fat in dogs by using diets having different fat:carbohydrate ratios. Furthermore, the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of macronutrients and energy, food intake, fecal output, and stool quality were evaluated. Twelve adult Beagle dogs were stratified into three 10-d periods in a 6 × 3 balanced incomplete Latin square design. Dietary treatments included a low-fat basal diet (3.4% fat) supplemented with 6 poultry fat levels (1, 4, 10, 12, 16, or 20%). The dogs were individually housed in metabolic cages and fed to meet the maintenance energy requirements. The ME intake was similar across the diets, despite the clearly low palatability of the 1 and 4% fat diets. Dietary ATTD of DM, OM, fat, and GE were improved after fat inclusion ( < 0.001). The ATTD of CP was not affected by dietary fat increase ( > 0.05). The amount of fecal output decreased with increasing level of fat in the diet, but the fecal score was not affected. The stool quality was close to ideal (2.4-2.8) and no different among diets. The EFL was estimated using 2 regression methods and was expressed as 155 mg∙kg BW∙d or 7.9 g/kg of DMI. The TTTD of poultry fat was the same irrespective of the dietary fat level. Poultry fat was 99.3% digestible for the dogs. The relation between EFL and fat intake was higher for the lower-fat diets, explaining the ATTD of fat increase according to the dietary fat inclusion. In conclusion, dietary fat is well digested by dogs irrespective of the level included, close to 100%. The ATTD of fat in low-fat diets is underestimated because the endogenous content is proportionally

  9. Robotic digestive tract reconstruction after total gastrectomy for gastric cancer: a simple way to do it.

    PubMed

    Barchi, Leandro Cardoso; Jacob, Carlos Eduardo; Franciss, Maurice Youssef; Kappaz, Guilherme Tommasi; Rodrigues Filho, Edison Dias; Zilberstein, Bruno

    2016-12-01

    Intracorporeal digestive tract reconstruction after minimally invasive total gastrectomy may be challenging, even when using the da Vinci® Surgical System. This may be due to intrinsic difficulties during oesophago-jejunal anastomosis (EJA). The aim of this study was to describe a simple way to perform digestive tract reconstruction after robotic total gastrectomy (RTG) for gastric cancer and the results of its application in a small series of cases. In the last 2 years, six patients with gastric adenocarcinoma have been treated by RTG, four male and two female, with mean age of 59.8 (range 48-74) years. The tumour was located in the gastric body in three patients, the gastric antrum in two patients and the fundus in one patient with no need of splenectomy. In all cases, D2 lymphadenectomy was completed. A modified robotic reconstruction technique proposed by the authors was used in these operations, which consists in a latero-lateral EJA using a linear stapler. An entero-enterostomy is also performed in the upper abdomen. The mean operative time was 408 (range 340-481) min. The mean time for digestive tract reconstruction was 57 (range 47-68) min. There were no conversions to open or laparoscopic surgery. The number of lymph nodes removed varied in the range 28-52 (average 40). There was no mortality. Postoperative staging showed three T1N0M0s, one T2N0M0, one T3N0M0 and one T3N2M0. This series, which despite being small, demonstrates that this robotic reconstruction technique is safe, with no major complications, demands a relatively short time for its accomplishment, even when dealing with initial experience. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Detection of Helicobacter in the digestive tract of an Atlantic spotted dolphin (Stenella frontalis).

    PubMed

    Suárez, Paula; Contreras, Monica; Fernández-Delgado, Milagro; Salazar, Victor; Peña, Ruth; Michelangeli, Fabian; García-Amado, M Alexandra

    2010-04-01

    Helicobacter spp. occur in the digestive system of a broad range of animal taxa, including marine mammals. Only one formally recognized species, Helicobacter cetorum, has been described in marine mammals. Helicobacter has not been reported in the Atlantic spotted dolphin (Stenella frontalis). The purpose of our study was to examine the digestive tract of a stranded spotted dolphin for Helicobacter. Tissue and content samples were collected at necropsy and examined by histopathology and molecular analyses using Helicobacter genus-specific 16S rDNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and DNA sequencing. Helicobacter was detected in all stomach divisions and the duodenal ampulla. A sequence type of the 16S rRNA gene shared a 98-99% identity to sequences from H. cetorum. This study reports for the first time Helicobacter in S. frontalis.

  11. [Epidemiologic behavior of malignant digestive tract tumors over a five year period in Veracruz, Mexico].

    PubMed

    Roesch-Dietlen, F; Jiménez-García, V A; Remes-Troche, J M; Rubio-Arce, J F; López-Salinas, A; Ruiz-Juárez, I; Grube-Pagola, P; Silva-Cañetas, C F

    2012-01-01

    Tumors of the digestive system are considered to be a public health problem because of their elevated mortality rate. In Mexico, gastric cancer and colon cancer rank fourth and fifth, respectively, following tracheal, bronchial, and lung cancer, and there has been an increase in their frequency in the last few years. However, there are no specific studies that have evaluated their epidemiologic behavior in Veracruz. To determine the frequency of digestive system cancer in five health institutions in the city of Veracruz and to describe its epidemiologic behavior over a five-year period. Annual statistics from the following hospitals were reviewed: the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, the Secretaría de Salud, the Instituto de Seguridad y Servicios Sociales de los Trabajadores del Estado, Petróleos Mexicanos, and the Secretaría de la Defensa Nacional within the time frame of January 2005 to December 2009. Diagnoses based on histopathology were recorded, along with patient age and sex. A total of 1803 cases of digestive tract cancers were detected: 52% were men and 48% were women. A yearly increase in the number of cases was observed with colon cancer being in first place, followed by stomach cancer and rectal cancer. The increase in digestive system cancer cases over the last five years in Veracruz underlines the need to evaluate the implementation of screening programs for the at-risk population and to study the different etiologic factors involved in its manifestation.

  12. Structuring food emulsions in the gastrointestinal tract to modify lipid digestion.

    PubMed

    Singh, Harjinder; Ye, Aiqian; Horne, David

    2009-03-01

    The importance of nutrient lipids in the human diet has led to major advances in understanding the mechanisms of lipid digestion and absorption. With these advances has come new recognition that the matrix in which lipids are presented (i.e. food structure) in the diet could influence the rate of lipid digestion and hence the bioavailability of fatty acids. As a consequence, there is growing interest in understanding how food material properties can be manipulated under physiological conditions to control the uptake of lipids and lipid-soluble components. The lipids in many, if not most, processed foods are normally present as emulsions, which can be end products in themselves or part of a more complex food system. In this review, we discuss the formation and properties of oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions, especially how these emulsions are modified as they traverse through the gastrointestinal tract. Among other factors, the changes in the nature of the droplet adsorbed layer and the droplet size play a major role in controlling the action of lipases and lipid digestion. Greater knowledge and understanding of how the digestive system treats, transports and utilizes lipids will allow the microstructural design of foods to achieve a specific, controlled physiological response.

  13. Parasitic helminths in the digestive tract of six species of owls (Strigiformes) in Spain.

    PubMed

    Ferrer, David; Molina, Rafael; Castellà, Joaquim; Kinsella, John M

    2004-03-01

    A survey was carried out in Catalonia, Spain to determine the prevalence of parasitic helminths infesting the digestive tract of nocturnal raptors (Strigiformes). One hundred birds belonging to six owl species were examined. The number of birds examined ranged between three and 30. The overall level of infestation was 65% and the most frequent helminths present were nematodes, followed by trematodes, cestodes and acanthocephalans. Strigiformes showing the highest levels of infestation were little owls (Athene noctua), 86.7% of which were infested. Helminths with the highest prevalence were Synhimantus spp., intestinal capillarids, Brachylaima spp., cestodes and Centrorhynchus aluconis.

  14. Cancer screening via infrared spectral cytopathology (SCP): results for the upper respiratory and digestive tracts.

    PubMed

    Diem, Max; Miljković, Miloš; Bird, Benjamin; Mazur, Antonella I; Schubert, Jen M; Townsend, Douglas; Laver, Nora; Almond, Max; Old, Oliver

    2016-01-21

    Instrumental advances in infrared micro-spectroscopy have made possible the observation of individual human cells and even subcellular structures. The observed spectra represent a snapshot of the biochemical composition of a cell; this composition varies subtly but reproducibly with cellular effects such as progression through the cell cycle, cell maturation and differentiation, and disease. The aim of this summary is to provide a synopsis of the progress achieved in infrared spectral cytopathology (SCP) - the combination of infrared micro-spectroscopy and multivariate methods of analysis - for the detection of abnormalities in exfoliated human cells of the upper respiratory and digestive tract, namely the oral and nasopharyngeal cavities, and the esophagus.

  15. Helminths isolated from the digestive tract of diurnal raptors in Catalonia, Spain.

    PubMed

    Ferrer, D; Molina, R; Adelantado, C; Kinsella, J M

    2004-01-03

    The prevalence of parasitic helminths in the digestive tract of 119 diurnal raptors (Falconiformes), which had died in a wildlife rehabilitation centre in Catalonia, was studied. The birds belonged to 13 species, with 100 of them (84 per cent) being kestrels (Falco tinnunculus), buzzards (Buteo buteo), sparrowhawks (Accipiter nisus) and goshawks (Accipiter gentilis). Ninety-five of the birds (79.8 per cent) were infected with helminths. Nematodes were the most frequently found helminth (75.6 per cent), followed by trematodes, cestodes and ancanthocephalans. All the buzzards and sparrowhawks and 92 per cent of the goshawks were infected, but only 59 per cent of the kestrels were infected.

  16. Evaluation of dried vegetables residues for poultry: II. Effects of feeding cabbage leaf residues on broiler performance, ileal digestibility and total tract nutrient digestibility.

    PubMed

    Mustafa, A F; Baurhoo, B

    2017-03-01

    A study was conducted to investigate the effects of partial replacing corn and soybean meal with dried cabbage leaf residues (DCR) on broiler growth performance, apparent ileal nutrient digestibility, and apparent total tract nutrient utilization. Dietary treatments include 4 levels of DCR (0, 3, 6, and 9%). Two hundred and twenty-four day-old male broilers were randomly assigned to one of 4 groups (8 cage replicates; 7 birds/cage) and grown over a 35-d experimental period. Results showed that feeding DCR had no effects on daily body weigh gain (average 53.4 g/d), daily feed intake (average 94.9 g/d), and feed conversion ratio (average 1.78 g of feed/g of gain). Inclusion of DCR reduced apparent ileal DM (quadratic effect, P < 0.001), OM (linear effect, P = 0.012), and CP (quadratic effect, P = 0.001) digestibility of younger birds (d 21) while incremental levels of DCR had no effect on apparent ileal nutrient digestibilities of older birds (d 35). Apparent total tract digestibility of DM, OM, and CP increased (linear effect, P < 0.001) as the level of DCR increased. It was concluded that the inclusion of DCR in broiler diets up to 9% had no negative impact on bird performance and apparent ileal digestibility of older birds and improved apparent total tract nutrient digestibility. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  17. Symbiosis of Aeromonas veronii biovar sobria and Hirudo medicinalis, the medicinal leech: a novel model for digestive tract associations.

    PubMed

    Graf, J

    1999-01-01

    Hirudo medicinalis, the medicinal leech, is applied postoperatively in modern medicine. Infections by Aeromonas occur in up to 20% of patients unless a preemptive antibiotic treatment is administered. The associated infections demonstrate the need for a better understanding of the digestive tract flora of H. medicinalis. Early studies reported the presence of a single bacterial species in the digestive tract and suggested that these bacteria were endosymbionts contributing to the digestion of blood. In this study, we cultivated bacteria from the digestive tract and characterized them biochemically. The biochemical test results identified the isolates as Aeromonas veronii biovar sobria. This species identification was supported by sequence comparison of a variable region of the genes coding for 16S rRNA. In a colonization assay, a rifampin-resistant derivative of a symbiotic isolate was fed in a blood meal to H. medicinalis. The strain colonized the digestive tract rapidly and reached a concentration similar to that of the native bacterial flora. For the first 12 h, the in vivo doubling time was 1.2 h at 23 degreesC. After 12 h, at a density of 5 x 10(7) CFU/ml, the increase in viable counts ceased, suggesting a dramatic reduction in the bacterial growth rate. Two human fecal isolates, identified as Aeromonas hydrophila and A. veronii biovar sobria, were also able to colonize the digestive tract. These data demonstrate that the main culturable bacterium in the crop of H. medicinalis is A. veronii biovar sobria and that the medicinal leech can be used as a model for digestive tract association of Aeromonas species.

  18. Symbiosis of Aeromonas veronii Biovar sobria and Hirudo medicinalis, the Medicinal Leech: a Novel Model for Digestive Tract Associations

    PubMed Central

    Graf, Joerg

    1999-01-01

    Hirudo medicinalis, the medicinal leech, is applied postoperatively in modern medicine. Infections by Aeromonas occur in up to 20% of patients unless a preemptive antibiotic treatment is administered. The associated infections demonstrate the need for a better understanding of the digestive tract flora of H. medicinalis. Early studies reported the presence of a single bacterial species in the digestive tract and suggested that these bacteria were endosymbionts contributing to the digestion of blood. In this study, we cultivated bacteria from the digestive tract and characterized them biochemically. The biochemical test results identified the isolates as Aeromonas veronii biovar sobria. This species identification was supported by sequence comparison of a variable region of the genes coding for 16S rRNA. In a colonization assay, a rifampin-resistant derivative of a symbiotic isolate was fed in a blood meal to H. medicinalis. The strain colonized the digestive tract rapidly and reached a concentration similar to that of the native bacterial flora. For the first 12 h, the in vivo doubling time was 1.2 h at 23°C. After 12 h, at a density of 5 × 107 CFU/ml, the increase in viable counts ceased, suggesting a dramatic reduction in the bacterial growth rate. Two human fecal isolates, identified as Aeromonas hydrophila and A. veronii biovar sobria, were also able to colonize the digestive tract. These data demonstrate that the main culturable bacterium in the crop of H. medicinalis is A. veronii biovar sobria and that the medicinal leech can be used as a model for digestive tract association of Aeromonas species. PMID:9864188

  19. Neuroendocrine system of the digestive tract in Rhamdia quelen juvenile: an immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Hernández, D R; Vigliano, F A; Sánchez, S; Bermúdez, R; Domitrovic, H A; Quiroga, M I

    2012-08-01

    In this work, an immunohistochemical study was performed to determine the distribution and relative frequencies of some neuromodulators of the digestive tract of silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen). The digestive tract of silver catfish was divided into six portions; the oesophagus, stomach, intestine (ascendant, descendant and convoluted segments), and rectum. Immunohistochemical method using a pool of specific antisera against-gastrin, -cholecystokinin-8, -leu-enkephalin, -neuropeptide Y, -calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), and -vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) was employed. Immunoreactivity to all antisera was identified in neuroendocrine cells (NECs) localized in the gut epithelium, although no reaction was observed in the oesophagus or stomach. The morphology of NECs immunopositive to each antibody was similar. They were slender in shape, with basally located nucleus, and their main axis perpendicular to the basement membrane. The number of NECs immunoreactive to all antisera was higher in the ascendant and descendant intestine, exhibiting a decreasing trend toward distal segments of the gut. In addition, immunoreactivity to CGRP and VIP was observed in the myenteric plexus and nerve fibers distributed in the mucosal, submucosal and muscular layers. The higher number of immunopositive NECs in the ascendant and descendant intestine may indicate the primary role of these segments in the control of food intake by means of orexigenic and anorexigenic peripheral signals.

  20. Tiliroside, a glycosidic flavonoid, inhibits carbohydrate digestion and glucose absorption in the gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Goto, Tsuyoshi; Horita, Mayuka; Nagai, Hiroyuki; Nagatomo, Akifumi; Nishida, Norihisa; Matsuura, Youichi; Nagaoka, Satoshi

    2012-03-01

    Recent studies have reported that tiliroside, a glycosidic flavonoid, possesses anti-diabetic activities. In the present study, we investigated the effects of tiliroside on carbohydrate digestion and absorption in the gastrointestinal tract. This study showed that tiliroside inhibits pancreatic α-amylase (IC₅₀ = 0.28 mM) in vitro. Tiliroside was found as a noncompetitive inhibitor of α-amylase with K(i) values of 84.2 μM. In male ICR mice, the increase in postprandial plasma glucose levels was significantly suppressed in the tiliroside-administered group. Tiliroside treatment also suppressed hyperinsulinemia after starch administration. Tiliroside administration inhibited the increase of plasma glucose levels in an oral glucose tolerance test, but not in an intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test. In human intestinal Caco-2 cells, the addition of tiliroside caused a significant dose-dependent inhibition of glucose uptake. The inhibitory effects of both sodium-dependent glucose transporter 1 (SGLT1) and glucose transporter 2 (GLUT2) inhibitors (phlorizin and phloretin, respectively) on glucose uptake were significantly inhibited in the presence of tiliroside, suggesting that tiliroside inhibited glucose uptake mediated by both SGLT1 and GLUT2. These findings indicate that the anti-diabetic effects of tiliroside are at least partially mediated through inhibitory effects on carbohydrate digestion and glucose uptake in the gastrointestinal tract. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Kicking in the Guts: Schistosoma mansoni Digestive Tract Proteins are Potential Candidates for Vaccine Development

    PubMed Central

    Figueiredo, Barbara Castro-Pimentel; Ricci, Natasha Delaqua; de Assis, Natan Raimundo Gonçalves; de Morais, Suellen Batistoni; Fonseca, Cristina Toscano; Oliveira, Sergio Costa

    2015-01-01

    Schistosomiasis is a debilitating disease that represents a major health problem in at least 74 tropical and subtropical countries. Current disease control strategies consist mainly of chemotherapy, which cannot prevent recurrent re-infection of people living in endemic area. In the last decades, many researchers made a remarkable effort in the search for an effective vaccine to provide long-term protection. Parasitic platyhelminthes of Schistosoma genus, which cause the disease, live in the blood vessels of definitive hosts where they are bathed in host blood for many years. Among the most promising molecules as vaccine candidates are the proteins present in the host–parasite interface, so numerous tegument antigens have been assessed and the achieved protection never got even close to 100%. Besides the tegument, the digestive tract is the other major site of host–parasite interface. Since parasites feed on blood, they need to swallow a considerable amount of blood for nutrient acquisition. Host blood ingested by schistosomes passes through the esophagus and reaches the gut where many peptidases catalyze the proteolysis of blood cells. Recent studies show the emergence of antigens related to the parasite blood feeding, such as esophageal gland proteins, proteases, and other proteins related to nutrient uptake. Herein, we review what is known about Schistosoma mansoni digestive tract proteins, emphasizing the ones described as potential vaccine candidates. PMID:25674091

  2. Sweetened carbonated drinks do not alter upper digestive tract physiology in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Cuomo, R; Savarese, M F; Sarnelli, G; Vollono, G; Rocco, A; Coccoli, P; Cirillo, C; Asciore, L; Nardone, G; Buyckx, M

    2008-07-01

    Sweetened carbonated beverages are widely consumed, which has fuelled several conflicting opinions about their effects on upper digestive tract functions. We aimed to evaluate the effect of sweetened carbonated drinks, consumed with a standard meal, on gastro-oesophageal reflux, gastric emptying and gallbladder contraction and postmeal sensations in healthy subjects. Thirteen healthy volunteers (seven women, six males; median age 22 years) were tested following the intake of 300 mL sweetened water containing increasing concentrations of carbon dioxide (seven subjects), and of 300 mL sweetened commercial flavoured drink with and without carbon dioxide (six subjects). Gastro-oesophageal reflux, gastric emptying and gallbladder contraction were studied by pH-impedance, octanoic acid breath test and ultrasound respectively. Gastro-oesophageal refluxes were significantly increased 1 h after meal with both water and commercial beverages; only sweetened water without carbon dioxide determined a persistently increasing number of refluxes 2 h postmeal. No differences were found for gastric emptying, gallbladder contraction or postmeal symptoms with any of the beverages tested. This study shows that 300 mL of sweetened carbonated beverage with different levels of carbonation or a commercial soft drink do not modify the physiology of the upper digestive tract.

  3. Performance of Seven Commercial Phytases in an in Vitro Simulation of Poultry Digestive Tract.

    PubMed

    Menezes-Blackburn, Daniel; Gabler, Stefanie; Greiner, Ralf

    2015-07-15

    The aim of this study was to compare the biochemical properties of seven commercially available phytase products as well as their catalytic performance in an in vitro simulation of the digestive tract of poultry. Their enzymatic properties relevant with respect to phytate dephosphorylation in the digestive tract of birds were determined under identical assay conditions. All phytase products included in the study showed an acid pH optimum of activity and were capable of releasing the organically bound phosphate from phytate during the in vitro simulation. However, their overall biochemical properties and relative catalytic performances were remarkably different. The in vitro degradation system was considered as a simple and useful tool to evaluate the suitability of a phytase to be used as a feed supplement. Although relevant factors such as dietary P levels, intestinal phytase, and P absorption are not implemented in the system, this approach might help to reduce the number of feeding trials necessary in the search for a better suited phytase for animal feeding application.

  4. Nutritional support in patients with GVHD of the digestive tract: state of the art.

    PubMed

    van der Meij, B S; de Graaf, P; Wierdsma, N J; Langius, J A E; Janssen, J J W M; van Leeuwen, P A M; Visser, O J

    2013-04-01

    An important complication of allo-SCT is GVHD, which commonly affects the skin, liver and digestive tract. Clinical symptoms of GVHD of the digestive tract (GVHD-DT) include excessive diarrhoea, abdominal pain and cramps, nausea and vomiting, gastrointestinal bleeding, dysphagia, and weight loss. Treatment is complicated and regarding nutritional support, only a few guidelines are available. Our aim was to critically appraise the literature on nutritional assessment, nutritional status and nutritional support for patients with GVHD-DT. Evidence shows that GVHD-DT is often associated with malnutrition, protein losing enteropathy, magnesium derangements, and deficiencies of zinc, vitamin B12 and vitamin D. Limited evidence exists on derangements of magnesium, resting energy expenditure, bone mineral density and pancreatic function, and some beneficial effects of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and pancreatic enzyme replacement therapy. Expert opinions recommend adequate amounts of energy, at least 1.5 g protein/kg body weight, supplied by total parenteral nutrition in cases of severe diarrhoea. When diarrhoea is <500 mL a day, a stepwise oral upgrade diet can be followed. No studies exist on probiotics, prebiotics, dietary fibre and immunonutrition in GVHD-DT patients. Future research should focus on absorption capacity, vitamin and mineral status, and nutritional support strategies.

  5. Morphology and histology of P. argentinus (Crustacea, Decapoda, Caridea) digestive tract.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Liliana; Petriella, Ana María

    2006-08-01

    This work describes the morphology and histology of the P. argentinus digestive tract. The foregut comprises the mouth, oesophagus, and stomach and is lined by a simple cylindrical epithelium overlain by cuticle. There are tegumental glands in the oral region and in the first portion of the oesophagus and of the hindgut. The cardiac stomach is an oval dorsal sac in the cephalothorax and has no calcified structures. The pyloric stomach comprises an upper chamber and a lower gland filter. The filter consists of an outer row of elongated setae and an inner row of dorsally curved setae forming longitudinal channels 16-18 microm wide. The midgut runs from the dorsal chamber of the pyloric stomach to the sixth abdominal somite without caeca. The hindgut runs from the sixth abdominal somite to the ventral anus. The mid-gut epithelium comprises dominant cylindrical cells and small undifferentiated cells in the first portion. The hindgut wall presents longitudinal folds, conspicuous muscular bundles, and a folded cuticle. The digestive tract of P. argentinus is basically similar to that of most of decapods. The absence of calcified structures in the stomach and the width of the longitudinal channels in the filter are related to the predominantly detritivorous diet.

  6. Methane Production and Methanogenic Archaea in the Digestive Tracts of Millipedes (Diplopoda)

    PubMed Central

    Šustr, Vladimír; Chroňáková, Alica; Semanová, Stanislava; Tajovský, Karel; Šimek, Miloslav

    2014-01-01

    Methane production by intestinal methanogenic Archaea and their community structure were compared among phylogenetic lineages of millipedes. Tropical and temperate millipedes of 35 species and 17 families were investigated. Species that emitted methane were mostly in the juliform orders Julida, Spirobolida, and Spirostreptida. The irregular phylogenetic distribution of methane production correlated with the presence of the methanogen-specific mcrA gene. The study brings the first detailed survey of methanogens’ diversity in the digestive tract of millipedes. Sequences related to Methanosarcinales, Methanobacteriales, Methanomicrobiales and some unclassified Archaea were detected using molecular profiling (DGGE). The differences in substrate preferences of the main lineages of methanogenic Archaea found in different millipede orders indicate that the composition of methanogen communities may reflect the differences in available substrates for methanogenesis or the presence of symbiotic protozoa in the digestive tract. We conclude that differences in methane production in the millipede gut reflect differences in the activity and proliferation of intestinal methanogens rather than an absolute inability of some millipede taxa to host methanogens. This inference was supported by the general presence of methanogenic activity in millipede faecal pellets and the presence of the 16S rRNA gene of methanogens in all tested taxa in the two main groups of millipedes, the Helminthophora and the Pentazonia. PMID:25028969

  7. [Aerobic bacterial flora from the digestive tract of the common vampire bat, Desmodus rotundus (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae)].

    PubMed

    Chaverri, Gloriana

    2006-09-01

    This study addresses the composition of microbial flora in the vampire bat (Desmodus rotundus) primarily because all available data are outdated, and because of the economical significance of this bat species. Twenty-one bats were collected and their aerobic bacteria documented separately for stomach and intestine. Bacteria were identified through the Analytical Profile Index (API), and results analyzed with the APILAB software. A total of thirty bacterial species were isolated from sixteen females and five males. The most common species were Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus, although other bacteria, such as Acinetobacterjohnsonii, Enterobacter sakazakii, Staphylococcus chromogenes, S. hyicus and S. xylosus were also common. The number of species found in the stomach and intestine was significantly different, and the intestine presented a higher diversity compared to the stomach. This has previously been found in other mammals and it is attributed to a reduction of acidity. Most of the species found in this study are considered normal components of the digestive tract of mammals, although other bacteria common in the skin of mammals and from aquatic environments were found. Bacteria from the skin may invade the vampire's stomach and/or intestine when the bat has contact with its prey, and may suggest that the vampire's feeding habit facilitates the invasion of other microbes not common in its digestive tract. The fact that bacteria from aquatic environments were also found suggests that D. rotundus, as previously found by other researchers, drinks free water when available, and water may be another source of microbial invasion.

  8. Derivation of DNA probes for enumeration of a specific strain of Lactobacillus acidophilus in piglet digestive tract samples.

    PubMed Central

    Rodtong, S; Dobbinson, S; Thode-Andersen, S; McConnell, M A; Tannock, G W

    1993-01-01

    Four DNA probes were derived that hybridized specifically to DNA from Lactobacillus acidophilus O. The probes were constructed by randomly cloning lactobacillus DNA in plasmid vector pBR322. Two of the probes (pSR1 and pSR2) were composed of vector and plasmid DNA inserts (3.6 and 1.6 kb, respectively); the others (pSR3 and pSR4) were composed of vector and chromosomally derived inserts (6.9 and 1.4 kb, respectively). The probes were used to enumerate, by colony hybridization, strain O in digestive tract samples collected from piglets inoculated 24 hours previously with a culture of the strain. The probes did not hybridize to DNA from lactobacilli inhabiting the digestive tract of uninoculated piglets. Strain O made up about 10% of the total lactobacillus population of the pars esophagea and about 20% of the population in other digestive tract samples. Images PMID:8285690

  9. Digestive Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... Digestive Diseases English English Español Digestive Diseases The digestive system made up of the gastrointestinal tract (GI), liver, ... while others are chronic, or long-lasting. Your Digestive System and How It Works Featured Topics Irritable Bowel ...

  10. Standardized total tract digestibility of phosphorus in various inorganic phosphates fed to growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Woong Bi; Kim, Beob Gyun

    2017-06-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine the standardized total tract digestibility (STTD) of phosphorus (P) in five sources of inorganic phosphate fed to growing pigs, including dicalcium phosphate (DCP), monodicalcium phosphate (MDCP), monocalcium phosphate (MCP), tricalcium phosphate (TCP) and monosodium phosphate (MSP, reagent grade). Six barrows (42.4 ± 1.1 kg) individually housed in metabolism crates were allotted to a 6 × 6 Latin square design with six dietary treatments and six periods. Each experimental period consisted of a 4 day adaptation period and a 5 day collection period. The five experimental diets contained 0.24 to 0.34% of P from each inorganic phosphate as a sole source of P. A P-free diet was also prepared to estimate the basal endogenous loss of P. The STTD of P in MSP (94.9%) was not different from the STTD of P in MCP (93.0%), but was greater (P < 0.05) than that in DCP, MDCP and TCP (87.0, 86.5 and 71.3%, respectively). In conclusion, digestibility of P in reagent-grade MSP was greater than that in feed-grade inorganic phosphates such as DCP, MDCP and TCP, and digestibility of P in DCP and MDCP was greater than that in the TCP. © 2017 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  11. Fungal flora of the digestive tract of 5 species of triatomines vectors of Trypanosoma cruzi, Chagas 1909.

    PubMed

    Moraes, A M; Junqueira, A C; Costa, G L; Celano, V; Oliveira, P C; Coura, J R

    2001-01-01

    A study of the mycobiota in the digestive tract of 5 important species of triatomines, Triatoma brasiliensis, T infestans, T. sordida, T. pseudomaculata and T. vitticeps, was made. The digestive tracts of 164 adults and 535 nymphs of those triatomines were studied and 393 fungal strains were isolated. The genera with the greatest number of species were Penicillium (19 species), Aspergillus (17 species) and Acremonium (5 species) and the most frequent species, in decreasing order, were Penicillium corylophilum, Aspergillus niger, Penicillium felluttanum, Cladosporium herbarum, Penicillium waksmanii, Aspergillus awamori and Paecilomyces variotii. Among the isolated fungi, we found species that are recognized as entomopathogenic and pathogenic for humans and animals.

  12. Effect of fungal biomass in alfalfa hay on intake and total tract digestion in growing beef calves.

    PubMed

    Bossuyt, C V; Wittenberg, K M; Crow, G H

    1996-06-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine effects of fungal biomass (FB), as determined by glucosamine analysis, in alfalfa hay on intake and total tract digestion when fed to growing beef calves. Mycotoxins were not detected in hays used for these experiments. A feedlot trial using 40 weaned Angus calves (270.2 +/- 9.7 kg) showed that DM intake was not affected (P > .05) by FB content of the hay diets. No adaptation response was observed when animals with no previous exposure to molded feed were introduced to hay containing various levels of FB. Hematocrit and plasma cortisol levels were not affected (P > .05) by the presence of FB in the hay. Eight steers were used, in two 4 x 4 Latin squares, for intake and total tract digestibility determinations of two alfalfa hays having similar nutrient profiles but differ in FB concentrations. Hays were fed in long or chopped form. Level of FB did not affect (P > .05) DM intake or total tract DM digestibility. Neutral detergent fiber and ADF digestibilities were 5.4 and 3.7 percentage units higher (P < .05), respectively, for hay with a high vs low FB concentration. Forage chopping reduced (P < .05) DM, NDF, ADF, and CP digestibilities; the effect being similar for the two hay types tested. Results suggest that FB concentrations ranging from 2.9 to 5.5 mg/g of DM do not affect DM intake, however, nutrient digestion can be influenced by molding during field wilting or storage.

  13. Contribution of different segments of the gastrointestinal tract to digestion in growing Saanen goats.

    PubMed

    Leite, R F; Krizsan, S J; Figueiredo, F O M; Carvalho, V B; Teixeira, I A M A; Huhtanen, P

    2015-04-01

    This study examined mean retention time (MRT) of particulate and liquid matter in different segments of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of growing Saanen goats of different sexes and subjected to different levels of feed restriction. In addition, feeding behavior and total tract digestibility were determined for all animals ahead of slaughter. In total, 54 Saanen goats (18 each of females, castrated males, and intact males) with initial BW 15.3 ± 0.4 kg were used in a 3 × 3 factorial arrangement comprising the 3 sexes and 3 levels of feed restriction (unrestricted/ad libitum, moderate, and severe restriction). Six blocks per sex group, each consisting of 3 goats, were randomly formed and the goats within each block were randomly allocated to 1 of 3 different feed restrictions. The daily amounts of feed offered to animals subjected to moderate and severe feed restriction (approximately 75% and 50% of ad libitum rate, respectively) were determined within block based on the DMI by ad libitum fed goats on the previous day. The MRT of particulate matter was determined either using Yb-labeled diet or indigestible NDF (iNDF) determined in situ as markers. Mean retention time of the liquid phase was determined by Cr-EDTA. Orthogonal polynomial contrasts were used to determine linear and quadratic effect of feed restriction, while the effect of sex was compared by Tukey test. The effects of sex and the interaction between sex and feed restriction were not significant on most of variables evaluated. Eating, ruminating, and total chewing time per g DM and NDF intake increased linearly as feed restriction increased (P ≤ 0.03). Diet digestibility increased quadratically for DM and OM, and linearly for NDF as feed intake decreased (P ≤ 0.03). The MRT of iNDF in the reticulorumen, omasum, abomasum, colon, and total GIT increased linearly with increased feed restriction (P ≤ 0.01). Mean retention time in the cecum varied quadratically, being greatest for animals with

  14. Radium-contaminated water: a risk factor for cancer of the upper digestive tract.

    PubMed

    Hirunwatthanakul, Phatcha; Sriplung, Hutcha; Geater, Alan

    2006-01-01

    There is a high incidence of oral, pharynx and esophagus cancer among males in Na Mom district in Songkhla Province in Thailand, an area where radium concentration in shallow well water is found to be higher than other areas in this province. A population-based case control study was conducted from June to November 2004 to determine the association of oral exposure to radium-contaminated water and cancer of the upper digestive tract in the district.Thirty-two confirmed cases and 128 sex and five-year birth cohort matched neighborhood controls were selected by multistage sampling from six villages in four sub-districts. All subjects were verified to have been permanent residents in the district for more than 10 years. Thirty cases were dead at the time of the study, thus their relatives were interviewed to determine their amount of water drinking, tobacco smoking, alcohol drinking, betel chewing and exposure to other potential risk factors in the past. The other two cases and all controls were directly interviewed. The concentration of radium in shallow well water at the subject's houses was estimated using a contour map of Ra-226 in the water at the location of their residence. The results showed a strong and dose-dependent associationb etween consumption of radium-contaminated shallow well water and cancer of the upper digestive tract. In multivariate analysis controlled for important risk factors of the cancer, the odds ratios for exposure to oral radium consumption 50-100 mBq/day and >100 mBq/day compared with <50 mBq/day were 2.83 (95% CI: 0.50-16.19) and 29.76 (95% CI: 4.39-201.6) respectively. The risk also increased with consumption of fresh water fish which might have been contaminated by dissolved radium in the water. This study offers the first evidence of the association between radium and cancer of the upper digestive tract to the world literature. Further studies with other methods such as area-wide correlation of radium-uranium concentration and the

  15. Commercial Dairy Cow Milk microRNAs Resist Digestion under Simulated Gastrointestinal Tract Conditions.

    PubMed

    Benmoussa, Abderrahim; Lee, Chan Ho C; Laffont, Benoit; Savard, Patricia; Laugier, Jonathan; Boilard, Eric; Gilbert, Caroline; Fliss, Ismail; Provost, Patrick

    2016-11-01

    MicroRNAs are small, gene-regulatory noncoding RNA species present in large amounts in milk, where they seem to be protected against degradative conditions, presumably because of their association with exosomes. We monitored the relative stability of commercial dairy cow milk microRNAs during digestion and examined their associations with extracellular vesicles (EVs). We used a computer-controlled, in vitro, gastrointestinal model TNO intestinal model-1 (TIM-1) and analyzed, by quantitative polymerase chain reaction, the concentration of 2 microRNAs within gastrointestinal tract compartments at different points in time. EVs within TIM-1 digested and nondigested samples were studied by immunoblotting, dynamic light scattering, quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and density measurements. A large quantity of dairy milk Bos taurus microRNA-223 (bta-miR-223) and bta-miR-125b (∼10(9)-10(10) copies/300 mL milk) withstood digestion under simulated gastrointestinal tract conditions, with the stomach causing the most important decrease in microRNA amounts. A large quantity of these 2 microRNAs (∼10(8)-10(9) copies/300 mL milk) was detected in the upper small intestine compartments, which supports their potential bioaccessibility. A protocol optimized for the enrichment of dairy milk exosomes yielded a 100,000 × g pellet fraction that was positive for the exosomal markers tumor susceptibility gene-101 (TSG101), apoptosis-linked gene 2-interacting protein X (ALIX), and heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) and containing bta-miR-223 and bta-miR-125b. This approach, based on successive ultracentrifugation steps, also revealed the existence of ALIX(-), HSP70(-/low), and TSG101(-/low) EVs larger than exosomes and 2-6 times more enriched in bta-miR-223 and bta-miR-125b (P < 0.05). Our findings indicate that commercial dairy cow milk contains numerous microRNAs that can resist digestion and are associated mostly with ALIX(-), HSP70(-/low), and TSG101(-/low) EVs. Our results

  16. Assay and digestion of 14C-labelled condensed tannins in the gastrointestinal tract of sheep.

    PubMed

    Terrill, T H; Waghorn, G C; Woolley, D J; McNabb, W C; Barry, T N

    1994-09-01

    Three experiments were conducted to determine the fate of condensed tannins (CT) during digestion in sheep. CT were measured as extractable, protein-bound and fibre-bound fractions using the butanol-HCl procedure. In Expt 1, purified CT were added to digesta from different parts of the digestive tract obtained from a pasture-fed sheep. Recoveries of CT after 0 and 4 h of anaerobic incubation at 39 degrees averaged: rumen 78.9 and 57.5%; abomasum 50.9 and 49.0%; duodenum 64.4 and 46.0% and ileum 43.4 and 38.8%. In Expt 2, [14C]CT was given per abomasum over a 6.5 h period at 15 min intervals to a sheep previously fed on Lotus pedunculatus (which contains CT). The sheep was killed at the end of the period and 92.4% of the label was recovered. Virtually all of the label was in the digesta, and none was detected in the blood, so that the CT-carbon appeared not to be absorbed from the small intestine. In Expt 3, rumen, abomasal and ileal digesta and faeces samples from sheep fed on Lotus pedunculatus were analysed for CT and CT flow along the digestive tract calculated from reference to indigestible markers. Values were low in all digesta samples, indicating disappearance of CT across the rumen and small intestine, and CT recovery in faeces was only about 15% of intake. However, the 14C results from Expt 2 suggested that little if any CT-carbon was absorbed and the low recoveries in Expt 1 are considered to be a consequence of either conformational changes to the CT molecule such that it is no longer detectable by colorimetric methods, an inability of the analytical method to release bound CT for the butanol-HCl assay, or interference from other digesta constituents. It is concluded that the butanol-HCl method of CT analysis is appropriate for quantifying CT in herbages but not in digesta or faeces, and that a substantial part of CT released during protein digestion in the small intestine may not be detectable by normal CT analytical methods.

  17. Host Matters: Medicinal Leech Digestive-Tract Symbionts and Their Pathogenic Potential

    PubMed Central

    Marden, Jeremiah N.; McClure, Emily A.; Beka, Lidia; Graf, Joerg

    2016-01-01

    Digestive-tract microbiota exert tremendous influence over host health. Host-symbiont model systems are studied to investigate how symbioses are initiated and maintained, as well as to identify host processes affected by resident microbiota. The medicinal leech, Hirudo verbana, is an excellent model to address such questions owing to a microbiome that is consistently dominated by two species, Aeromonas veronii and Mucinivorans hirudinis, both of which are cultivable and have sequenced genomes. This review outlines current knowledge about the dynamics of the H. verbana microbiome. We discuss in depth the factors required for A. veronii colonization and proliferation in the leech crop and summarize the current understanding of interactions between A. veronii and its annelid host. Lastly, we discuss leech usage in modern medicine and highlight how leech-therapy associated infections, often attributable to Aeromonas spp., are of growing clinical concern due in part to an increased prevalence of fluoroquinolone resistant strains. PMID:27790190

  18. Digestive tract absorption of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, and biphenyls in a nursing infant

    SciTech Connect

    McLachlan, M.S. )

    1993-11-01

    The digestive tract absorption of environmental contaminants is an important but poorly understood parameter in contaminant is an important but poorly understood parameter in contaminant risk assessments. The net absorption of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, and biphenyls in a nursing infant was measured under natural conditions over 12 days. The levels of the substances in the mother's milk were typical for Germany. It was found that for almost all congeners over 90% of the ingested compound was absorbed. This indicates that the common assumption of 100% absorption in nursing infants is reasonable. No firm conclusions could be drawn regarding the absorption of Cl7- and Cl8DD/F due to high blank levels in the cotton diapers used.

  19. Adenomatous polyposis coli-deficient zebrafish are susceptible to digestive tract neoplasia.

    PubMed

    Haramis, Anna-Pavlina G; Hurlstone, Adam; van der Velden, Yme; Begthel, Harry; van den Born, Maaike; Offerhaus, G Johan A; Clevers, Hans C

    2006-04-01

    Truncation of the tumour suppressor adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) constitutively activates the Wnt/beta-catenin signalling pathway. This event constitutes the primary transforming event in sporadic colorectal cancer in humans. Moreover, humans or mice carrying germline truncating mutations in APC develop large numbers of intestinal adenomas. Here, we report that zebrafish that are heterozygous for a truncating APC mutation spontaneously develop intestinal, hepatic and pancreatic neoplasias that are highly proliferative, accumulate beta-catenin and express Wnt target genes. Treatment with the chemical carcinogen 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene accelerates the induction of these lesions. These observations establish apc-mutant zebrafish as a bona fide model for the study of digestive tract cancer.

  20. [Smoking and digestive tract: a complex relationship. Part 2: Intestinal microblota and cigarette smoking].

    PubMed

    Begon, Jacques; Juillerat, Pascal; Cornuz, Jacques; Clair, Carole

    2015-06-10

    The digestive tract is colonized from birth by a bacterial population called the microbiota which influences the development of the immune system. Modifications in its composition are associated with problems such as obesity or inflammatory bowel diseases. Antibiotics are known to influence the intestinal microbiota but other environmental factors such as cigarette smoking also seem to have an impact on its composition. This influence might partly explain weight gain which is observed after smoking cessation. Indeed there is a modification of the gut microbiota which becomes similar to that of obese people with a microbiotical profile which is more efficient to extract calories from ingested food. These new findings open new fields of diagnostic and therapeutic approaches through the regulation of the microbiota.

  1. Trichomycetes (Zygomycota) in the digestive tract of arthropods in Amazonas, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Alencar, Yamile B; Ríos-Velásquez, Claudia M; Lichtwardt, Robert W; Hamada, Neusa

    2003-09-01

    Eight species of Harpellales and three species of Eccrinales (Zygomycota: Trichomycetes) were found associated with the digestive tract of arthropods from terrestrial and aquatic environments in the central Amazon region of Brazil. New species of Harpellales include: Harpella amazonica, Smittium brasiliense, Genistellospora tropicalis in Simuliidae larvae and Stachylina paucispora in Chironomidae larvae. Axenic cultures of S. brasiliense were obtained. Probable new species of Enterobryus (Eccrinales), Harpella, and Stachylina (Harpellales) are described but not named. Also reported are the previously known species of Eccrinales, Passalomyces compressus and Leidyomyces attenuatus in adult Coleoptera (Passalidae), and Smittium culisetae and Smittium aciculare (Harpellales) in Culicidae and Simuliidae larvae, respectively. Comments on the distribution of some of these fungi and their hosts in the Neotropics are provided.

  2. Interaction of Vibrio spp. with the Inner Surface of the Digestive Tract of Penaeus monodon.

    PubMed

    Soonthornchai, Wipasiri; Chaiyapechara, Sage; Jarayabhand, Padermsak; Söderhäll, Kenneth; Jiravanichpaisal, Pikul

    2015-01-01

    Several species of Vibrio are the causative agent of gastroenteritis in humans. In aquaculture, Vibrio harveyi (Vh) and V. parahaemolyticus (Vp) have long been considered as shrimp pathogens in freshwater, brackish and marine environments. Here we show by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) that Penaeus monodon orally inoculated with each of these two pathogens via an Artemia diet had numerous bacteria attached randomly across the stomach surface, in single and in large biofilm-like clusters 6 h post-infection. A subsequent marked proliferation in the number of V. harveyi within the biofilm-like formations resulted in the development of infections in the stomach, the upper and middle midgut, but neither in the posterior midgut nor the hindgut. SEM also revealed the induced production of peritrichous pili-like structures by the Vp attaching to the stomach lining, whilst only a single polar fibre was seen forming an apparent physical bridge between Vh and the host's epithelium. In contrast to these observations, no such adherences or linkages were seen when trials were conducted with non-pathogenic Vibrio spp. or with Micrococcus luteus, with no obvious resultant changes to the host's gut surface. In naive shrimp, the hindgut was found to be a favorable site for bacteria notably curved, short-rod shaped bacteria which probably belong to Vibrio spp. Data from the current study suggests that pathogens of P. monodon must be able to colonize the digestive tract, particularly the stomach, where chitin is present, and then they use an array of virulent factors and enzymes to infect their host resulting in disease. Oral infection is a better way of mimicking natural routes of infection; investigating the host-bacteria interactions occurring in the digestive tract may lead to new strategies for the prevention or control of bacterial infections in penaeids.

  3. Interaction of Vibrio spp. with the Inner Surface of the Digestive Tract of Penaeus monodon

    PubMed Central

    Soonthornchai, Wipasiri; Chaiyapechara, Sage; Jarayabhand, Padermsak; Söderhäll, Kenneth; Jiravanichpaisal, Pikul

    2015-01-01

    Several species of Vibrio are the causative agent of gastroenteritis in humans. In aquaculture, Vibrio harveyi (Vh) and V. parahaemolyticus (Vp) have long been considered as shrimp pathogens in freshwater, brackish and marine environments. Here we show by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) that Penaeus monodon orally inoculated with each of these two pathogens via an Artemia diet had numerous bacteria attached randomly across the stomach surface, in single and in large biofilm-like clusters 6 h post-infection. A subsequent marked proliferation in the number of V. harveyi within the biofilm-like formations resulted in the development of infections in the stomach, the upper and middle midgut, but neither in the posterior midgut nor the hindgut. SEM also revealed the induced production of peritrichous pili-like structures by the Vp attaching to the stomach lining, whilst only a single polar fibre was seen forming an apparent physical bridge between Vh and the host’s epithelium. In contrast to these observations, no such adherences or linkages were seen when trials were conducted with non-pathogenic Vibrio spp. or with Micrococcus luteus, with no obvious resultant changes to the host’s gut surface. In naive shrimp, the hindgut was found to be a favorable site for bacteria notably curved, short-rod shaped bacteria which probably belong to Vibrio spp. Data from the current study suggests that pathogens of P. monodon must be able to colonize the digestive tract, particularly the stomach, where chitin is present, and then they use an array of virulent factors and enzymes to infect their host resulting in disease. Oral infection is a better way of mimicking natural routes of infection; investigating the host-bacteria interactions occurring in the digestive tract may lead to new strategies for the prevention or control of bacterial infections in penaeids. PMID:26285030

  4. Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase Rearrangement in Digestive Tract Cancer: Implication for Targeted Therapy in Chinese Population

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jian; Guo, Lei; Qiu, Tian; Ling, Yun; Shan, Ling; Zhou, Haitao; Zhao, Dongbing; Wang, Jian; Liang, Jianwei; Zhao, Jianjun; Jiao, Yuchen; Lu, Ning; Zhao, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Background Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) rearrangements define a subgroup of lung cancer which is eligible to targeted kinase inhibition. The aim of this study is to observe the incidence rate of ALK fusion in a large cohort of Chinese digestive tract cancer patients. Patients and Methods Tissue microarray (TMA) was constructed from 808 digestive tract cancer cases, including 169 esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, 182 gastric cancer and 457 colorectal cancer (CRC) cases. We tested all cases for ALK expression via a fully automated immunohistochemistry (IHC) assay. The IHC-positive cases were subjected to fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), target gene enrichment and sequencing for confirmation of ALK gene rearrangement and discovery of novel fusion partner. Results Among the tested cases, 2 (0.44%) CRC cases showed positive both by IHC and FISH. By qRT-PCR, EML4–ALK fusion was found in one IHC-positive CRC case. In another IHC-positive CRC case, target gene enrichment and sequencing revealed ALK was fused to a novel partner, spectrin beta non-erythrocytic 1 (SPTBN1). One gastric cancer case showed partially positive IHC result, but no fusion was found by FISH and gene sequencing. Conclusions The incidence rate of ALK gene fusion in Chinese CRC patients was 0.44%,but not detectable in gastric and esophageal cancers. The novel SPTBN1 -ALK fusion, together with other ALK fusion genes, may become a potential target for anti-ALK therapy. PMID:26678488

  5. Effect of corn silage hybrids differing in starch and neutral detergent fiber digestibility on lactation performance and total-tract nutrient digestibility by dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Ferraretto, L F; Fonseca, A C; Sniffen, C J; Formigoni, A; Shaver, R D

    2015-01-01

    Selection for hybrids with greater starch and NDF digestibility may be beneficial for dairy producers. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of feeding a TMR containing a floury-leafy corn silage hybrid (LFY) compared with a brown midrib corn silage hybrid (BMR) for intake, lactation performance, and total-tract nutrient digestibility in dairy cows. Ninety-six multiparous Holstein cows, 105±31d in milk at trial initiation, were stratified by DIM and randomly assigned to 12 pens of 8 cows each. Pens were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatments, BMR or LFY, in a completely randomized design; a 2-wk covariate period with cows fed a common diet followed by a 14-wk treatment period with cows fed their assigned treatment diet. Starch digestibilities, in situ, in vitro, and in vivo, were greater for LFY compared with BMR; the opposite was observed for NDF digestibility. Cows fed BMR consumed 1.7kg/d more dry matter than LFY. Although, actual-, energy-, and solids-corrected milk yields were greater for BMR than LFY, feed conversions (kg of milk or component-corrected milk per kg of DMI) did not differ. Fat-corrected milk and milk fat yield were similar, as milk fat content was greater for cows fed LFY (4.05%) than BMR (3.83%). Cows fed BMR had lower milk urea nitrogen concentration, but greater milk protein and lactose yields compared with LFY. Body weight change and condition score were unaffected by treatment. Total-tract starch digestibility was greater for cows fed the LFY corn silage; however, dry matter intake and milk and protein yields were greater for cows fed the BMR corn silage. Although total-tract starch digestibility was greater for cows fed the LFY corn silage, feed efficiency was not affected by hybrid type due to greater dry matter intake and milk and protein yields by cows fed the BMR corn silage.

  6. Complete Genome Sequence of Streptococcus salivarius HSISS4, a Human Commensal Bacterium Highly Prevalent in the Digestive Tract.

    PubMed

    Mignolet, Johann; Fontaine, Laetitia; Kleerebezem, Michiel; Hols, Pascal

    2016-02-04

    The human commensal bacterium Streptococcus salivarius plays a major role in the equilibrium of microbial communities of the digestive tract. Here, we report the first complete genome sequence of a Streptococcus salivarius strain isolated from the small intestine, namely, HSISS4. Its circular chromosome comprises 1,903 coding sequences and 2,100,988 nucleotides. Copyright © 2016 Mignolet et al.

  7. Downregulation of programmed cell death 4 (PDCD4) in tumorigenesis and progression of human digestive tract cancers.

    PubMed

    Ma, Gang; Zhang, Hao; Dong, Ming; Zheng, Xinyu; Ozaki, Iwata; Matsuhashi, Sachiko; Guo, Kejian

    2013-12-01

    Nowadays, digestive tract cancers become the commonest neoplasia and one of the leading causes of cancer deaths worldwide. The development of diagnosis and therapy is urgently required. Programmed cell death 4 (PDCD4), a new tumor suppressor, has been documented to be a potential diagnostic tool and treatment target for neoplasia due to the inhabitation of tumor promotion/progression and metastasis. However, its role in human digestive tract cancers is few available up to now. In this study, we examined the expression of PDCD4 in human digestive tract cancers (61 gastric cancer, 65 colorectal cancer, and 69 pancreatic cancer patients) by Western blot analysis, reverse transcription (RT)-PCR, and immunohistochemistry. Western blot, RT-PCR, and immunohistochemistry examination showed that expressions of PDCD4 were significantly lower in cancers specimens than in noncancerous tissues. Among the different differentiated cancer tissues, PDCD4 expression was significantly lower in moderately or poorly differentiated cancers than in well-differentiated cancers (p < 0.05). Our findings suggested that PDCD4 might be a potentially valuable molecular target in diagnosis and therapy for human digestive tract cancers.

  8. Distribution of endocrine cells in the digestive tract of Alligator sinensis during the active and hibernating period.

    PubMed

    Wang, Huan; Zhang, Shengzhou; Zhou, Naizhen; Wang, Chaolin; Wu, Xiaobing

    2014-10-01

    The digestive tract is the largest endocrine organ in the body; the distribution pattern of endocrine cells varies with different pathological and physiological states. The aim of the present study was to investigate the distributed density of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), gastrin (GAS), somatostatin (SS) and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) immunoreactive (IR) cells in the digestive tract of Alligator sinensis during the active and hibernating period by immunohistochemical (IHC) method. The results indicated that 5-HT-IR cells were distributed throughout the entire digestive tract, which were most predominant in duodenum and jejunum. The density increased significantly in stomach and duodenum during hibernation. GAS-IR cells were limited in small stomach and small intestine. The density decreased significantly in small stomach during hibernation, while increased in duodenum. What's more, most of the endocrine cells in duodenum were generally spindle shaped with long cytoplasmic processes ending in the lumen during hibernation. SS-IR cells were limited in stomach and small stomach. The density increased in stomach while decreased in small stomach during hibernation, meanwhile, fewer IR cells occurred in small intestine. VIP-IR cells occurred in stomach and small stomach. The density decreased in small stomach, while increased in stomach during hibernation. These results indicated that the endocrine cells in different parts of digestive tract varied differently during hibernation, their changes were adaptive response to the hibernation.

  9. A cooperative study on the standardized total-tract digestible phosphorus requirement of twenty-kilogram pigs

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cooperative studies comprising growth performance, bone mineralization, and nutrient balance experiments were conducted at 11 stations to determine the standardized total-tract digestible (STTD) P requirement of 20-kg pigs using broken-line regression analysis. Monocalcium phosphate and limestone we...

  10. Fabrication and Performance of a Miniaturized and Integrated Endoscope Ultrasound Convex Array for Digestive Tract Imaging.

    PubMed

    Peng, Jue; Peng, Xiaojian; Tang, Hu; Li, Xiaozhen; Chen, Ruimin; Li, Yang; Wang, Tianfu; Chen, Siping; Shung, Koping; Zhou, Qifa

    2017-04-24

    This work presents the design, fabrication and testing of a miniaturized and integrated ultrasound endoscope for use as an in situ digestive diagnostic device to facilitate real-time ultrasound guidance of intervention treatments. We designed an optimal structure to integrate an auto-focus 5-megapixel camera module with an 8-MHz, 64-element curvilinear ultrasonic array in one miniaturized package. A novel three-axis auto-focusing voice coil motor (VCM) was designed and manufactured for the camera module to move the lens position for auto-focusing and to adjust the lens tilt. The results showed that the array had a center frequency of 8.09 MHz and a -6-dB fractional bandwidth of 83%. At the center frequency, the two-way insertion loss was 40.6 dB. Endoscopic ultrasound imaging demonstrated satisfactory performance for imaging an anthropomorphic phantom of the esophagus. By slightly adjusting the tilt angle of the optical axis of the lens, the optical image captured by the auto-focusing lens obtained improved definition regardless of changes in the view angle of the camera with respect to the objects being captured. The integrated convex ultrasound endoscope, possessing minimal size, improved optical imaging definition, and good ultrasound imaging performance, can become a useful tool in digestive tract imaging. The miniaturized and integrated convex ultrasound endoscope can facilitate real-time ultrasound intervention guidance, reducing risks associated with the operation.

  11. Development of new drug strategies in infrequent digestive tumors: esophageal, biliary tract, and anal cancers.

    PubMed

    Capdevila, Jaume; Ramos, Francisco Javier; Macarulla, Teresa; Elez, Elena; Ruiz-Echarri, Manuel; Perez-Garcia, Jose; Tabernero, Josep

    2009-07-01

    In the last years, interesting advances have been reported in the treatment of infrequent digestive tumors. The increasing development of new targeted therapies in human cancer has also impacted in these rare gastrointestinal malignancies providing a wide range of possibilities in the design of future clinical trials. The inhibition of angiogenesis and the blockage of the epidermal growth factor receptor pathway have provided the most interesting activity in recently reported studies for esophageal and biliary tract carcinomas. Additionally, several targeted therapies have been developed to target the main kinase proteins of the most important pathways of these malignancies. The results of the biggest phase III trial in locally advanced anal carcinoma have been recently published. Finally, the inhibition of epidermal growth factor receptor has also showed promising activity in anal carcinomas. Recent advances in the knowledge of molecular mechanism of carcinogenesis have led to meaningful changes in the management of gastrointestinal cancers. Although the major advances in targeted therapy have been introduced in the treatment of colorectal cancer, new interesting approaches have been reported in less frequent gastrointestinal tumors such as esophageal, biliary tract, and anal canal carcinoma opening a new hope in the treatment of these rare tumors in the molecular targeted therapy era.

  12. Hedgehog signaling controls mesenchymal growth in the developing mammalian digestive tract.

    PubMed

    Mao, Junhao; Kim, Byeong-Moo; Rajurkar, Mihir; Shivdasani, Ramesh A; McMahon, Andrew P

    2010-05-01

    Homeostasis of the vertebrate digestive tract requires interactions between an endodermal epithelium and mesenchymal cells derived from the splanchnic mesoderm. Signaling between these two tissue layers is also crucial for patterning and growth of the developing gut. From early developmental stages, sonic hedgehog (Shh) and indian hedgehog (Ihh) are secreted by the endoderm of the mammalian gut, indicative of a developmental role. Further, misregulated hedgehog (Hh) signaling is implicated in both congenital defects and cancers arising from the gastrointestinal tract. In the mouse, only limited gastrointestinal anomalies arise following removal of either Shh or Ihh. However, given the considerable overlap in their endodermal expression domains, a functional redundancy between these signals might mask a more extensive role for Hh signaling in development of the mammalian gut. To address this possibility, we adopted a conditional approach to remove both Shh and Ihh functions from early mouse gut endoderm. Analysis of compound mutants indicates that continuous Hh signaling is dispensable for regional patterning of the gut tube, but is essential for growth of the underlying mesenchyme. Additional in vitro analysis, together with genetic gain-of-function studies, further demonstrate that Hh proteins act as paracrine mitogens to promote the expansion of adjacent mesenchymal progenitors, including those of the smooth muscle compartment. Together, these studies provide new insights into tissue interactions underlying mammalian gastrointestinal organogenesis and disease.

  13. Mobilization of PAH and PCB from contaminated soil using a digestive tract model.

    PubMed

    Hack, A; Selenka, F

    1996-11-01

    Environmental contaminants are mainly incorporated by ingestion. In general only those contaminants mobilized by the digestive juices are available for absorption in the digestive tract, while pollutants still fixed to indigestible particles leave the body without any effect. To evaluate the different health risks arising from the ingestion of individual types of polluted soil or other materials, we developed an in vitro test system which simulates the transition of pollutants from contaminated materials into digestive juices by means of a standardized artificial gastro-intestinal model. The test system simulates the influence of the acidic environment of the stomach (gastric model) followed by the neutral or slightly alkaline environment of the small intestine (gastro-intestinal model). Investigations on small amounts of polluted soil, sewage sludge, asphalt, metal scrap and blast sand showed that the mobilization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) by artificial gastric juice reaches 3% up to 22% of the pollutant concentration introduced into the test system. Elutions of the contaminated materials under gastric and subsequently under intestinal conditions with bile concentrations of 3 g/l resulted in PAH- and PCB-mobilizations in the range of 5% up to 40%. The degree of mobilization depends considerably on supplementary food material added to the test system. Lyophilized milk increased the fraction of mobilized PAH and PCB to 40%-85%. Application of the test system on 22 different contaminated soils showed that the mobilization of PAH under gastro-intestinal conditions with the addition of lyophilized milk ranged from 7% up to 95%, and the mobilization of PCB ranged from 32% up to 83%. This indicates that the test system can be a useful tool for evaluating the individual health risks arising from polluted soil or other materials.

  14. Composition of the adult digestive tract bacterial microbiome based on seven mouth surfaces, tonsils, throat and stool samples

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background To understand the relationship between our bacterial microbiome and health, it is essential to define the microbiome in the absence of disease. The digestive tract includes diverse habitats and hosts the human body's greatest bacterial density. We describe the bacterial community composition of ten digestive tract sites from more than 200 normal adults enrolled in the Human Microbiome Project, and metagenomically determined metabolic potentials of four representative sites. Results The microbiota of these diverse habitats formed four groups based on similar community compositions: buccal mucosa, keratinized gingiva, hard palate; saliva, tongue, tonsils, throat; sub- and supra-gingival plaques; and stool. Phyla initially identified from environmental samples were detected throughout this population, primarily TM7, SR1, and Synergistetes. Genera with pathogenic members were well-represented among this disease-free cohort. Tooth-associated communities were distinct, but not entirely dissimilar, from other oral surfaces. The Porphyromonadaceae, Veillonellaceae and Lachnospiraceae families were common to all sites, but the distributions of their genera varied significantly. Most metabolic processes were distributed widely throughout the digestive tract microbiota, with variations in metagenomic abundance between body habitats. These included shifts in sugar transporter types between the supragingival plaque, other oral surfaces, and stool; hydrogen and hydrogen sulfide production were also differentially distributed. Conclusions The microbiomes of ten digestive tract sites separated into four types based on composition. A core set of metabolic pathways was present across these diverse digestive tract habitats. These data provide a critical baseline for future studies investigating local and systemic diseases affecting human health. PMID:22698087

  15. [Relationship between N-nitrosodimethylamine and risk of digestive tract cancers: a Meta analysis based on cohort studies].

    PubMed

    Cui, J; Guo, X M; Bao, H L; Tan, J B

    2016-05-01

    To analyze the relationship between N-nitrosodimethylamine(NDMA)and the risk of digestive tract cancers. The papers about the relationship between NDMA and the risk of digestive tract cancers published from 1980 to 2012 were retrieved following databases: Chinese BioMedical Literature Database(CBM), the Chinese Journal Full-text Database(CNKI), Wanfang Database, PubMed and EBSCO. The fix and random effect model was used and statistical analyses were conducted by using RevMan 5.1 software. Thirteen papers were found, in which 7 about digestive tract cancers were used in this Meta analysis. The NDMA had significant positive effect on the incidence of digestive tract cancers(RR=1.12, 95% CI: 1.03-1.21). The relationship between NDMA and esophageal cancer was not significant(RR=1.18, 95%CI: 0.98-1.41)but NDMA could increase the risk of gastric cancer(RR=1.08, 95% CI: 1.00-1.18). For the subtypes of esophageal and gastric cancer, NDMA had positive relationship with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma(RR=1.72, 95% CI: 1.01-2.96), but had no significant relationship with esophageal adenocarcinoma, cardiac carcinoma and gastric adenocarcinoma. The population-based cohort studies have showed that the NDMA could significantly increase the risk of digestive tract cancers, but the effects differed with subtypes of esophageal and gastric cancer. However, it is necessary to collect more evidence due to the limited studies and obvious differences in the study design, sampling and exposure measurement of these cohort studies.

  16. The Digestive Tract of Cephalopods: a Neglected Topic of Relevance to Animal Welfare in the Laboratory and Aquaculture

    PubMed Central

    Sykes, António V.; Almansa, Eduardo; Cooke, Gavan M.; Ponte, Giovanna; Andrews, Paul L. R.

    2017-01-01

    Maintenance of health and welfare of a cephalopod is essential whether it is in a research, aquaculture or public display. The inclusion of cephalopods in the European Union legislation (Directive 2010/63/EU) regulating the use of animals for scientific purposes has prompted detailed consideration and review of all aspects of the care and welfare of cephalopods in the laboratory but the information generated will be of utility in other settings. We overview a wide range of topics of relevance to cephalopod digestive tract physiology and their relationship to the health and welfare of these animals. Major topics reviewed include: (i) Feeding cephalopods in captivity which deals with live food and prepared diets, feeding frequency (ad libitum vs. intermittent) and the amount of food provided; (ii) The particular challenges in feeding hatchlings and paralarvae, as feeding and survival of paralarvae remain major bottlenecks for aquaculture e.g., Octopus vulgaris; (iii) Digestive tract parasites and ingested toxins are discussed not only from the perspective of the impact on digestive function and welfare but also as potential confounding factors in research studies; (iv) Food deprivation is sometimes necessary (e.g., prior to anesthesia and surgery, to investigate metabolic control) but what is the impact on a cephalopod, how can it be assessed and how does the duration relate to regulatory threshold and severity assessment? Reduced food intake is also reviewed in the context of setting humane end-points in experimental procedures; (v) A range of experimental procedures are reviewed for their potential impact on digestive tract function and welfare including anesthesia and surgery, pain and stress, drug administration and induced developmental abnormalities. The review concludes by making some specific recommendations regarding reporting of feeding data and identifies a number of areas for further investigation. The answer to many of the questions raised here will rely

  17. Effect of early enteral nutrition on patients with digestive tract surgery: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

    PubMed Central

    Shu, Xiao-Liang; Kang, Kai; Gu, Li-Juan; Zhang, Yong-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Postoperative early enteral nutrition (EEN) is useful for the effective recovery of patients that have undergone surgery. However, the feasibility and efficacy of EEN in patients with digestive tract surgery remain inconclusive. In the present meta-analysis, the PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, The Cochrane Library, China National Knowledge Infrastructure and VIP databases were searched to identify controlled trials of patients with and without EEN following digestive tract surgery between October, 1966 and December, 2014. Methodological quality assessment was carried out for each of the included studies. For estimation of the analysis indexes, relative risk (RR) was used as the effect size of the the categorical variable, while the weighted mean difference (MD) was used as the effect size of the continuous variable. The meta-analysis was conducted using RevMan 5.2 software. Eleven randomized controlled trials involving 1,095 patients were included in the meta-analysis. The results revealed that, EEN in patients with digestive tract surgery was more effective in decreasing the incidence of infectious [RR=0.50, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.38, 0.67; P<0.01] and non-infectious complications (RR=0.72, 95% CI: 0.43, 1.22; P<0.05) and shortening the length of first bowel action (MD=−4.10, 95% CI: −5.38, −2.82; P<0.05). It also had a significant influence on increasing the serum albumin (MD=2.87, 95% CI: 1.03, 4.71; P<0.05) and serum prealbumin (MD=0.04, 95% CI: 0.02, 0.05; P<0.05) levels. In conclusion, the results of the study have shown that EEN in patients with digestive tract surgery improved the nutritional status, reduced the risk of postoperative complications, shortened the length of hospital stay and promoted the functional recovery of the digestive system. PMID:27698702

  18. Effects of Saccharomyces cerevisiae supplementation on apparent total tract digestibility of nutrients and fermentation profile in healthy horses.

    PubMed

    Mackenthun, E; Coenen, M; Vervuert, I

    2013-05-01

    Supplementation with Saccharomyces cerevisiae (SC) in horses may have some potential to modify microbial populations and thereby improve fibre digestibility. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of SC on apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of nutrients, with a special focus on fibre digestion in healthy horses. The fermentation profile of microbial populations was another focus of interest. Twelve geldings were randomly assigned to three groups. The basal diet consisted of cracked corn (2 g starch/kg body weight [BW]) and hay (1.2 kg/100 kg BW). During adaptation (3 weeks) and the total faecal collection period (5 days), cracked corn was fed once daily either as control (0 g SC) or supplemented with 1 or 3 g SC (1 g SC = 2 × 10(10) colony-forming units [cfu]). There was a 4-week wash-out period between the different SC regimes. Faeces were sampled by rectal collection for the analysis of pH, nitrogen, lactic acid, short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) and SC. In faeces, mean SC cfu was significantly lower than the quantity supplemented: 0 g SC, no detection; 1 g SC, 1.1 × 10(6) cfu; 3 g SC, 3.6 × 10(6) cfu. Apparent total tract digestibility of crude fibre varied approximately 40% without any treatment-related effects. Short-chain fatty acids, lactic acids and pH in faeces were not significantly affected by SC supplementation. Saccharomyces cerevisiae supplementation was not associated with any changes in the fermentation profiles, and fibre digestion accordingly remained unchanged in intact and healthy horses. Taking into account that fibre digestion remained unchanged and recovery rate of SC in faeces was mariginal, colonization and proliferation of SC in the healthy equine intestinal tract seems to be unlikely.

  19. Prevalence of digestive tract colonization of carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii in hospitals in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Aljindan, Reem; Bukharie, Huda; Alomar, Amer; Abdalhamid, Baha

    2015-04-01

    Carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii is a major health problem worldwide, especially in intensive care units (ICUs). This study aimed to detect the prevalence of A. baumannii colonization of the gastrointestinal tract of patients admitted to the ICU in two hospitals in Saudi Arabia. In addition, it aimed to characterize the molecular mechanisms of carbapenem resistance in these isolates. From January to June 2014, 565 rectal swab specimens were screened for Acinetobacer strains and carbapenem resistance using CHROMagar Acinetobacter and CHROMagar KPC agar plates, respectively. Organism identification and susceptibility were detected using the Vitek 2 system. A total of 47 Acinetobacter spp. were detected, and 35 were resistant to carbapenem, making the prevalence of Acinetobacter spp. 8.3% (47/565) and carbapenem resistance (6.2%, 35/565). The 47 strains showed remarkable clonal diversity as revealed by PFGE. Using PCR, OXA-51, a chromosomal marker for A. baumannii, was detected in 46 strains. OXA-23 β-lactamase was detected in all 35 carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii. No IMP, VIM, SPM, SIM, GIM, KPC or NDM β-lactamases were detected in these isolates. Thus, OXA-23 was the main mechanism of carbapenem resistance in these isolates. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to detect the prevalence of Acinetobacter colonization in the digestive tract of ICU patients in Saudi Arabia. This study revealed the importance of having well-established protocols for early identification of these multidrug-resistant organisms, optimizing infection-control strategies and having active surveillance studies to reduce morbidity, mortality and cost.

  20. Molecular analysis of microbiota along the digestive tract of juvenile Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.).

    PubMed

    Navarrete, P; Espejo, R T; Romero, J

    2009-04-01

    Dominant bacterial microbiota of the gut of juvenile farmed Atlantic salmon was investigated using a combination of molecular approaches. Bacterial community composition from the stomach, the pyloric caeca, and the intestine was assessed by extracting DNA directly from each gut compartment. Temporal temperature gradient gel electrophoresis (TTGE) analysis of 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) amplicons showed very similar bacterial compositions throughout the digestive tract. Band sequencing revealed a narrow diversity of species with a dominance of Pseudomonas in the three compartments. However, cloning revealed more diversity among the Pseudomonas sequences. To confirm these results, we analyzed the bacterial community by amplifying the variable 16S-23S rDNA intergenic spacer region (ITS). Similar ITS profiles were observed among gastrointestinal compartments of salmon, confirming the TTGE results. Moreover, the dominant ITS band at 650 bp, identified as Pseudomonas, was observed in the ITS profile from fish collected in two seasons (July 2003 and 2004). In contrast, aerobic culture analysis revealed Shewanella spp. as the most prevalent isolate. This discrepancy was resolved by evaluating 16S rDNA and ITS polymerase chain reaction amplification efficiency from both Shewanella and Pseudomonas isolates. Very similar efficiencies were observed in the two bacteria. Hence, this discrepancy may be explained by preferential cultivation of Shewanella spp. under the experimental conditions. Also, we included analyses of pelleted feed and the water influent to explore environmental influences on the bacterial composition of the gut microbiota. Overall, these results indicate a homogeneous composition of the bacterial community composition along the gastrointestinal tract of reared juvenile salmon. This community is mainly composed of Pseudomonas spp., which could be derived from water influent and may be selectively associated with salmon in this hatchery.

  1. The effects of starvation on digestive tract function and structure in juvenile southern catfish (Silurus meridionalis Chen).

    PubMed

    Zeng, Ling-Qing; Li, Feng-Jie; Li, Xiu-Ming; Cao, Zhen-Dong; Fu, Shi-Jian; Zhang, Yao-Guang

    2012-07-01

    The size and functional capacity of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and associated organs vary in response to environmental cues. The GI tract and associated organs are also very metabolically active in animals. Hence, animals may reduce the size and function of their GI tract to conserve energy when deprived of food. The main aims of this study were to investigate how Silurus meridionalis regulates the function and structure of its GI tract and associated organs during starvation. Starvation induced a decrease in both maintenance metabolism (MO(2rest), decreased by approximately 50%) and respiratory frequency (indicated by double side gill activity and notated as f(R), decreased by 29%). Lipase, trypsin and aminopeptidase-A showed a similar reduction in mass-specific activities during starvation, but pepsin and α-amylase did not. The starvation of experimental fish resulted in a significant reduction in body weight, the wet mass of the liver and the digestive-somatic system, the hepato-somatic index and the condition factor whereas the wet masses of the GI tract, pancreas, gall bladder and the relative intestinal length did not vary significantly during starvation. The reduction in liver wet mass was the main reason for the decrease in the wet mass of digestive-somatic system in this species. Only the mucosal area of the PI was affected significantly by starvation, decreasing by 34% at the end of the experiment. S. meridionalis displayed a decreasing intestinal mucosal area towards the distal intestine, and this gradient was not affected by starvation. The morphology and structure of both the GI tract and the liver were greatly down-regulated, as indicated by decreases in liver cell size, the mucosal thickness of the stomach and intestine, the density of goblet cells and microvilli surface area (MVSA), implying that food deprivation greatly impaired the digestive and absorptive functions of the GI tract in S. meridionalis. When deprived of food, S. meridionalis

  2. Evolution of digestion of carbohydrates in the separate parts of the digestive tract of the edible snail Helix lucorum (Gastropoda: Pulmonata: Stylommatophora) during a complete 24-hour cycle and the first days of starvation.

    PubMed

    Flari, V; Lazaridou-Dimitriadou, M

    1996-01-01

    In the present study we examined carbohydrase activities during a complete 24-h cycle and during the first days of starvation in both adult and juvenile snails. The results indicated the predominant role of the digestive gland in the secretions of the enzymes responsible for degradation of most of the carbohydrates tested. Salivary glands secreted some digestive enzymes but in amounts lower than secreted by digestive gland. Enzymatic activities fluctuated during the first hours of digestion and also after the digestive tract was empty. The relatively high enzymatic activities recorded 24 h after the intake of food and during starvation could be due to the circadian rhythm of this species and/or to the participation of an existing microflora in the digestive tract of Helix lucorum. The double origin (exogenous and endogenous) of some digestive enzymes such as cellulases is discussed.

  3. Morphology of epithelial cells lining the digestive tract of the giant keyhole limpet, Megathura crenulata (Mollusca; Vetigastropoda).

    PubMed

    Martin, Gary G; Bessette, Tracy; Martin, Alanna; Cotero, Renae; Vumbaco, Kathryn; Oakes, Christopher

    2010-09-01

    To understand the digestive functions in the giant keyhole limpet, it is important to know the types of cells present in each region of the gut and their roles in the secretion of digestive enzymes and absorption of nutrients. This study describes the morphology of cells lining the entire gut and identifies sites that may be secreting materials to aid digestion. Previous studies involving electron microscopy and enzyme analysis have focused on the salivary and digestive glands of several gastropods. Studies on the rest of the gut tract typically include only histological descriptions of the epithelia and although several types of cells have been described, they appear very similar. The purpose of this study is to determine if electron microscopy can provide better insights into the functions of cells in these poorly studied regions of the gut. Our ultrastructural observations suggest that only two types of cells, mucus secreting cells and apocrine secretory cells make up the epithelium in the esophagus, style sac, and intestine. These regions account for 85% of the length of the entire digestive tract. Apocrine secretory cells contain pigment granules, bear cilia, and/or microvilli at their apices, and release product into the gut lumen via apocrine secretion. This suggests that the secretory processes involved with digestion are occurring in most regions of the gut and that apocrine secretion is the primary mode by which materials are introduced into the gut lumen. The lips, salivary glands, stomach, and digestive gland lack apocrine secretory cells and the epithelial cells are similar to those described in other gastropods. J. Morphol. 271:1134-1151, 2010. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. The mucosa of the digestive tract in Micropogonias furnieri: a light and electron microscope approach.

    PubMed

    Diaz, A O; García, A M; Figueroa, D E; Goldemberg, A L

    2008-08-01

    The histomorphological aspects as well as the histochemical content and distribution of glycoproteins (GPs) in the mucosa of the digestive tract of the white croaker Micropogonias furnieri were studied. The buccopharyngeal cavity and the esophagous showed a squamous stratified epithelium with mucous cells. The stomach presented three portions: cardias, fundus and pylorus. Tubular glands formed by a single type of gland cell were located along the cardias and fundus. Histochemical tests showed that the buccopharyngeal cavity and the esophagous presented the largest amount of the different types of mucosubstances. Both organs showed abundant secretory mucous cells that synthesize large quantities of neutral, sulphated and sialylated GPs. The surface epithelium in the cardias and fundus synthesized and secreted scarce sialylated and neutral GPs whereas the secretions of the apical surface were abundant. The pylorus secreted large amounts of neutral as well as sulphated and sialylated GPs. Gland cells secreted neutral GPs. The ultrastructural features of the gut cells were quite similar to those of other teleosts. The buccopharyngeal cavity and the esophagous surface epithelial cells, identified by their superficial localization, were characterized by cytoplasmic vesicles of different size. Abundant goblet cells with secretory mucous granules were also present. Gastric glands in the stomach contained just one form of cell with a fine structure similar to cells that secrete pepsinogen.

  5. Preventive obesity agent montmorillonite adsorbs dietary lipids and enhances lipid excretion from the digestive tract

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Pengfei; Dai, Shu; Wang, Jing; Zhang, Jun; Liu, Jin; Wang, Fang; Zhai, Yonggong

    2016-01-01

    Western diets are typically high in fat and are associated with long-term complications such as obesity and hepatic steatosis. Because of the enjoyable taste of high-fat diets (HFDs), we are interested in determining how to decrease lipid absorption and enhance lipid excretion from the digestive tract after the consumption of eating fatty foods. Montmorillonite was initially characterized as a gastrointestinal mucosal barrier protective agent for the treatment of diarrhoea. Dietary lipid adsorbent- montmorillonite (DLA-M) was isolated and purified from Xinjiang montmorillonite clay via the water extraction method. Here, we show that DLA-M has an unexpected role in preventing obesity, hyperlipidaemia and hepatic steatosis in HFD-fed rats. Interestingly, combined application of polarized light microscopy and lipid staining analyses, showed that DLA-M crystals have dietary lipid-adsorbing ability in vitro and in vivo, which enhances lipid excretion via bowel movements. In summary, our results indicate that DLA-M prevent HFD-induced obesity. This novel dietary lipid-adsorbing agent can help prevent obesity and its comorbidities. PMID:26891902

  6. Non-Hodgkin's malignant lymphomas of upper digestive and respiratory tracts

    SciTech Connect

    Plantenga, K.F.; Hart, G.; Van Heerde, P.; Tierie, A.H.

    1981-10-01

    The history of 102 patients with primary Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of the upper digestive and respiratory tract is reviewed. An analysis is presented of the histopathologic, clinical and prognostic features of these patients, who presented to the Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital in Amsterdam between 1958-1976. The histological slides were reviewed in 91 patients. Ilio-lumbar lymphography and bone marrow examination were performed in 44 and 66 patients respectively: 4 lymphograms and 4 bone marrows were found to be abnormal. Of 82 patients with Stage I and II disease, there were 72 remissions with locoregional irradiation. Among these patients 36 suffered a relapse, 27 (75%) during the first year after treatment. The median survival was 14 months for all stages. The survival at 5 years was 28% for Stage I and 12% for Stage II patients. Prognosis was influenced by follicular cb/cc lymphomas, histiocytic poorly differentiated cell type, stage, size of primary tumor, and the radiation dose. We recommend adjuvant chemotherapy in Stage I and II patients after primary radiation treatment because of the high rate of primary relapse in distant sites.

  7. Microplastic fragments and microbeads in digestive tracts of planktivorous fish from urban coastal waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Kosuke; Takada, Hideshige

    2016-09-01

    We investigated microplastics in the digestive tracts of 64 Japanese anchovy (Engraulis japonicus) sampled in Tokyo Bay. Plastic was detected in 49 out of 64 fish (77%), with 2.3 pieces on average and up to 15 pieces per individual. All of the plastics were identified by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Most were polyethylene (52.0%) or polypropylene (43.3%). Most of the plastics were fragments (86.0%), but 7.3% were beads, some of which were microbeads, similar to those found in facial cleansers. Eighty percent of the plastics ranged in size from 150 μm to 1000 μm, smaller than the reported size range of floating microplastics on the sea surface, possibly because the subsurface foraging behavior of the anchovy reflected the different size distribution of plastics between surface waters and subsurface waters. Engraulis spp. are important food for many humans and other organisms around the world. Our observations further confirm that microplastics have infiltrated the marine ecosystem, and that humans may be exposed to them. Because microplastics retain hazardous chemicals, increase in fish chemical exposure by the ingested plastics is of concern. Such exposure should be studied and compared with that in the natural diet.

  8. Neuroendocrine tumours of the digestive tract report of two cases and literature review.

    PubMed

    Nouira, Ramzi; Janabi, Iman; Ben Achour, Jamel; Guesmi, Fethi; Hani, Mohamed Aziz; Cherif, Ali; Daghfous, Mounir; Bouasker, Ibtissem; Zribi, Riadh; Ben Osman, Samia; Zoghlami, Ayoub; Najah, Nabil

    2003-07-01

    Neuroendocrine tumors (NET) of the digestive system are rare. They comprise only 1% of all the tumors of the gastrointestinal tract. The aim of this study is to report two cases of exceptional localization of non secretary neuroendocrine tumors. Their difficulty in diagnosis, treatment and controversy in chemotherapy merit their study in depth. These are two patients that were treated in the department of general surgery (Beau Séjour) in Charles Nicolle Hospital for non secretary (NET) of the pancreas and stomach. The first was presented as a painless epigastria mass with frequent diarrhea. The second was presented as a painful mass in the left hypochondriac area without any other symptoms. Biochemical evaluation confirmed their non secretary properties. Surgery remains the first line of treatment. It was possible for the gastric, but not for the pancreatic tumor. Both were very advanced and had metastasis. Histopathological evaluation and immunohistochemical study using the method of peroxydase antiperoxydase (PAP) complexes for some special monoclonal antibodies confirmed the diagnosis. Chemotherapy of both cases was mal tolerated and was discussed in details.

  9. Inositol hexaphosphate increases mucin loss from the digestive tract of ducks.

    PubMed

    Onyango, E M; Adeola, O

    2012-06-01

    The effects of different forms of inositol hexaphosphate (IP6, phytate) on mucin excretion from the digestive tract of ducks were investigated. Forty-eight ten-wk-old male ducks were grouped by weight into eight blocks of six cages with one bird per cage. On the first day of experimentation, birds received by intubation six dextrose-based diets arranged in a 2 × 3 factorial consisting of phytase (0 or 1000 units) and a form of IP6 (no IP6, free phytic acid or magnesium-potassium phytate). During the 54 h following feeding, excreta were continuously collected and frozen until analysed. The amount of mucin and amino acids, threonine, valine and tyrosine, in excreta increased in ducks fed with either magnesium-potassium phytate or free phytic acid. The increase in mucin excretion was more in birds fed with magnesium-potassium phytate than those fed with free phytic acid. The loss of arginine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine and phenylyalanine in excreta was reduced by the presence of microbial phytase. It is concluded that the form of IP6 fed to ducks affects the extent of mucin excretion and also the extent and nature of endogenous amino acid losses in the excreta. Supplementation with exogenous microbial phytase reduced some of the IP6 feeding-induced endogenous intestinal amino acid losses. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  10. Microplastic fragments and microbeads in digestive tracts of planktivorous fish from urban coastal waters.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Kosuke; Takada, Hideshige

    2016-09-30

    We investigated microplastics in the digestive tracts of 64 Japanese anchovy (Engraulis japonicus) sampled in Tokyo Bay. Plastic was detected in 49 out of 64 fish (77%), with 2.3 pieces on average and up to 15 pieces per individual. All of the plastics were identified by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Most were polyethylene (52.0%) or polypropylene (43.3%). Most of the plastics were fragments (86.0%), but 7.3% were beads, some of which were microbeads, similar to those found in facial cleansers. Eighty percent of the plastics ranged in size from 150 μm to 1000 μm, smaller than the reported size range of floating microplastics on the sea surface, possibly because the subsurface foraging behavior of the anchovy reflected the different size distribution of plastics between surface waters and subsurface waters. Engraulis spp. are important food for many humans and other organisms around the world. Our observations further confirm that microplastics have infiltrated the marine ecosystem, and that humans may be exposed to them. Because microplastics retain hazardous chemicals, increase in fish chemical exposure by the ingested plastics is of concern. Such exposure should be studied and compared with that in the natural diet.

  11. Promotion of the Toxic Action of Cyclophosphamide by Digestive Tract Luminal Ammonia in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Ivnitsky, Jury Ju.; Schäfer, Timur V.; Rejniuk, Vladimir L.

    2011-01-01

    To estimate the influence of the digestive tract luminal ammonia pool on acute toxic effects of cyclophosphamide, the dynamics of blood ammonia, glutamine and urea level, symptoms of toxic action and the survival time have been studied in rats, intraperitoneally treated with cyclophosphamide, at the background of the gavage with non-lethal dose of ammonium acetate (12 mmol/kg, i.e., 0.35 LD50). Ammonium acetate enhanced the hyperammonaemic action of cyclophosphamide while promoting its lethal action: the mean survival time decreased 1.5, 2.1, 2.8, or 6.1 times at the background of cyclophosphamide i/p doses 200, 600, 1000, or 1400 mg/kg, respectively. Animals exposed to the combination of toxicants, manifested symptoms which were characteristic of the effect of lethal doses of ammonia salts. These data provide the evidence of the detrimental role of gastrointestinal luminal ammonia in the acute high-dose cyclophosphamide toxicity. PMID:23724282

  12. Structural analysis of a MIP family protein from the digestive tract of Cicadella viridis.

    PubMed

    Beuron, F; Le Cahérec, F; Guillam, M T; Cavalier, A; Garret, A; Tassan, J P; Delamarche, C; Schultz, P; Mallouh, V; Rolland, J P

    1995-07-21

    Homopteran insects, and especially Cicadella viridis, display in their digestive tract a specialized epithelial differentiation, the filter chamber (FC) acting as a water-shunting complex. The main intrinsic membrane protein of the FC is a 25,000-Da polypeptide (P25). In this paper we demonstrate that this P25 polypeptide is a member of the MIP family of membrane channel proteins, and that P25 forms homotetramers in the native membranes. Using polymerase chain reaction, a 360-base pair cDNA, named cic, was isolated from RNA of the FC. cic encodes a 119-amino acid polypeptide (CIC) whose homologies with MIP26, AQP1 (CHIP), AQP2, and gamma-TIP are 38, 38, 34, and 20%, respectively. Using a specific antibody raised against a 15-amino acid peptide from the CIC sequence, we concluded that CIC and P25 are identical entities, and hence that P25 belongs to the MIP family. We investigated the quaternary structure of P25 in the membranes of the FC using biophysical analysis of P25 nondenaturing detergent micelles, scanning transmission electron microscopy, and image processing of conventional transmission electron microscopic images. All those different approaches converged to the conclusion that P25 exists as an homotetramer forming a regular two-dimensional array in the membranes.

  13. Llamas and alpacas in Europe: Endoparasites of the digestive tract and their pharmacotherapeutic control.

    PubMed

    Franz, Sonja; Wittek, Thomas; Joachim, Anja; Hinney, Barbara; Dadak, Agnes M

    2015-06-01

    There are distinctive specifications for veterinary medical care of South American camelids (SACs), namely, llamas, alpacas, vicunas and guanacos. Camelids are classified as food-producing animals, but as veterinary medicinal products are often only licensed for domestic food-producing species such as horses, goats, sheep and cattle, treatment of SACs generally requires off-label use of drugs. Endoparasitism is a major health concern in camelids and can result in severe clinical diseases and economic losses. There is still a lack of work on the pharmacokinetics, safety and efficacy for most antiparasitic drugs used in SACs. Even when choosing an appropriate route of administration, several aspects must be considered such as the fact that pour-on formulations are largely ineffective in camelids due to the unique features of llama and alpaca skin and hair that result in extremely low drug bioavailability. This review focuses on the main endoparasites of the digestive tract in llamas and alpacas in Europe and pharmacotherapeutic options based on current knowledge.

  14. Sulphate-bicarbonate mineral waters in the treatment of biliary and digestive tract diseases.

    PubMed

    Fraioli, A; Menunni, G; Petraccia, L; Fontana, M; Nocchi, S; Grassi, M

    2010-01-01

    The authors point out the therapeutic properties of sulphate-bicarbonate mineral waters. After summarizing the general mechanism of action of mineral waters, the main indications of such waters in thermal treatment are examined including: biliary sand, biliary dyskinesia, functional dyspepsia, irritable colon, chronic primitive constipation. The dysfunctions of biliary and digestive tracts are growing, mainly in the affluent world, because of the increase for stress, dietary habits, modern life style. Now they affect from 2,4% of general population to 7% of men and 20% of women, according to different studies. Mineral waters can improve symptoms and care some physiopathological underlying mechanisms. Authors stress the efficacy of sulphate-bicarbonate mineral waters in the therapy of biliary dyskinesias, namely gallbladder hypokinesia and Oddi's sphincter spasm, caused by their content in SO4 = anion and Mg++ cation and related effects on paracrine-endocrine gastrointestinal system. In addition, they report the effects of sulphate-bicarbonate mineral waters in the lithogenic bile (sand bile), because of their diluting and washing activity. Among the sulphate-bicarbonate mineral waters, the Authors outline the well-documented therapeutic activity of Acqua Santa and Fucoli of Chianciano Terme. Acqua Santa has stimulating effect on cholecystis's motility, as proved by controlled clinical trials. Finally, the therapeutic use of sulphate-bicarbonate mineral water is discussed in functional dyspepsia, chronic primitive constipation and irritable bowel syndrome.

  15. Normal yeast flora of the upper digestive tract of some wild columbids

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kocan, R.M.; Hasenclever, H.F.

    1972-01-01

    Seven species of pigeons and doves were cultured for yeasts in the upper digestive tract. The following list gives the isolation rate for each columbid species and the yeasts cultured from them: feral pigeon Columba Livia (Gmelin) 95% -Candida albicans (Robin) Berkhout, C. tropicalis (Castellani) Berkhout, C. krusei (Cast.) Berkhout, C. guilliermondii (Cast.) Langeron et Guerra, Torulopsis glabrata (Anderson) Lodder et De Vries, Saccharomyces telluris Van der Walt, and Geotrichum sp.; white-crowned pigeon (C. leucocephala Linnaeus) 56% -- S. telluris; mourning dove (Zenaidura rnacroura Linnaeus) 24% -- C. albicans, C. tropicalis, C. guilliermondii, and Geotrichurn sp.; passerine ground dove (Collumbigallina passerina Linnaeus) 20% -- C. parapsilosis (Ashford) Langeron et Talice, Kloeckera apiculata (Reess Emend. Klocker) Janke; zenaida dove (Zenaida aurita Temminck) 16% -- C. albicans, C. guilliermondii, and T. glabrata; one moustasche dove (Geotrygon mystacea Gosse) -- C. guillierrnondii; ringed turtle dove (Streptopelia rizoria Linnaeus) 14% -- C. albicans and Geotrichurn sp. No signs of disease could be seen in the 139 birds that were examined, and it was concluded that these yeasts comprise a part of the columbid's normal microbial flora.

  16. Microplastic fragments and microbeads in digestive tracts of planktivorous fish from urban coastal waters

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Kosuke; Takada, Hideshige

    2016-01-01

    We investigated microplastics in the digestive tracts of 64 Japanese anchovy (Engraulis japonicus) sampled in Tokyo Bay. Plastic was detected in 49 out of 64 fish (77%), with 2.3 pieces on average and up to 15 pieces per individual. All of the plastics were identified by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Most were polyethylene (52.0%) or polypropylene (43.3%). Most of the plastics were fragments (86.0%), but 7.3% were beads, some of which were microbeads, similar to those found in facial cleansers. Eighty percent of the plastics ranged in size from 150 μm to 1000 μm, smaller than the reported size range of floating microplastics on the sea surface, possibly because the subsurface foraging behavior of the anchovy reflected the different size distribution of plastics between surface waters and subsurface waters. Engraulis spp. are important food for many humans and other organisms around the world. Our observations further confirm that microplastics have infiltrated the marine ecosystem, and that humans may be exposed to them. Because microplastics retain hazardous chemicals, increase in fish chemical exposure by the ingested plastics is of concern. Such exposure should be studied and compared with that in the natural diet. PMID:27686984

  17. The effect of dietary wheat middlings and enzyme supplementation II: apparent nutrient digestibility, digestive tract size, gut viscosity, and gut morphology in two strains of leghorn hens.

    PubMed

    Jaroni, D; Scheideler, S E; Beck, M M; Wyatt, C

    1999-12-01

    An experiment was conducted with two strains of Leghorn hens, DeKalb Delta (D) and Hisex White (H), to investigate the effect of a commercial poultry enzyme preparation (EZ; xylanase plus protease) on the digestibility of protein, fat, Ca, and P and to determine any changes in the relative size of the digestive tract, gut morphology, and gut viscosity (GV) of birds fed wheat middlings (WM) over an 18-wk period. Three hundred birds (150 birds per strain) were randomly assigned to six diets: Diet 1, control (corn-soybean); Diets 2 and 3, 8% and 16% WM, respectively; Diet 4, 8% WM and 0.1% enzyme (EZ); and Diets 5 and 6, 16% WM and 0.1% and 0.2% EZ, respectively. There were five replicates per diet per strain. At 50 wk, protein digestibility increased significantly with supplementation of EZ, but, at 60 wk, all responses were similar. Protein digestibility was greater in DeKalb Deltas for WM with EZ compared with Hisex on the same treatment. Fat digestibility was greater for Diet 1 than the other diets at 50 wk but showed a similar response at 60 wk. The H strain showed a reduction in fat digestibility with WM diets with EZ. The control diet showed greater Ca digestibility than the other diets at 50 wk but did not differ at 60 wk. Phosphorus digestibility increased significantly for WM diets with or without EZ at 60 wk. Intestinal weight was significantly higher for WM with or without EZ at 50 wk, but was equal to the control diet at 60 wk. At 60 wk, gizzard weights (GW) were also lower in birds fed WM and WM with EZ compared with birds fed the control, but GV was not affected by dietary treatments. Histological observations on jejunum of birds fed WM without EZ showed shortening, thickening, and atrophy of the villi, all of which improved when EZ was included in the diet. Availability of some nutrients in WM diets was improved with supplementation of enzyme. Gastrointestinal (GI) tract and organ size were increased, and gut morphology appeared to be improved.

  18. Antioxidative properties of 4-methylumbelliferone are related to antibacterial activity in the silkworm (Bombyx mori) digestive tract.

    PubMed

    Fang, Yan; Wang, Hua; Zhu, Wenjuan; Wang, Lu; Liu, Hengjiang; Xu, Xu; Yin, Weimin; Sima, Yanghu; Xu, Shiqing

    2014-08-01

    Umbelliferones have gained significant attention due to their tumor-inhibitory effects in vitro. This study was undertaken to examine the impact of umbelliferones in an invertebrate model organism, Bombyx mori, to assess the underlying antimicrobial activities via antioxidation in vivo. Oral administration of 4 mM 4-methylumbelliferone (4-MU), a model umbelliferone drug, in B. Mori larvae caused a rapid increase in reactive oxygen species, such as hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and antimicrobial activity in the digestive tract. In addition, a significant increase in total antioxidant capacity as well as superoxide anion radical-inhibiting activity and reduced glutathione were detected. The antioxidant defense system was activated following induction of H2O2, resulting in a significant rise in catalase (50-66 %) and glutathione peroxidase (175 %) activities, which were helpful in defending digestive tract cells against oxidative injury. These results help in understanding the anticancer mechanism of 4-MU based on its antioxidation in organisms.

  19. Evaluation of fat sources (lecithin, mono-glyceride and mono-diglyceride) in weaned pigs: Apparent total tract and ileal nutrient digestibilities

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Jin Ho; Chen, Ying Jie; Yoo, Jong Sang; Kim, Wan Tae; Chung, Il Byung

    2008-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of lecithin, mono-glyceride and mono-diglyceride on apparent total tract and ileal nutrient digestibilities in nursery pigs. Twenty [(Landrace × Yorkshire) × Duroc] barrows were surgically fitted with simple T-cannulas. Dietary treatments included 1) CON (basal diet: soy oil), 2) LO (lecithin 0.5%), 3) MO (mono-glyceride 0.5%), 4) MG (mono-glyceride 1.0%) and 5) MDG (mono-diglyceride 1.0%). In apparent total tract nutrient digestibility, dry matter (DM) and gross energy (GE) digestibilities of MDG treatments were higher than LO and MG treatments (p<0.05). In nitrogen (N) digestibility, LO treatment showed the lowest compared to others (p<0.05). The digestibility of crude fat was higher in MDG treatment than CON and LO treatments (p<0.05). In apparent ileal nutrient digestibility, DM digestibility was higher in MDG treatment than LO and MG treatments (p<0.05). GE digestibility was higher in MDG treatment than LO, MO and MG treatments (p<0.05). N digestibility of MDG treatment was greater than LO treatment (p<0.05). Also, the digestibility of crude fat was higher in MDG treatment than CON and LO treatments (p<0.05). In conclusion, mono-diglyceride can increase apparent total tract nutrient and apparent ileal nutrient digestibilities of DM, GE, N and crude fat. PMID:20126377

  20. [Effect of antidotes on the rate of absorption of 2,4-dinitrophenol from the digestive tract into the blood].

    PubMed

    Sen'chuk, V; Adamska, T

    1977-01-01

    An investigation of the rate of the 2,4-dinitrophenol absorption from the digestive tract into the blood with the use of an antidote and its components (activated charcoal, tannin, magnesium oxide), stach water and paraffin oil demonstrated the activated charcoal and magnesium oxide to be the best antidotes among the ones studied. The antidote exerts a somewhat less marked, but still quite a strong action.

  1. The association between biliary tract inflammation and risk of digestive system cancers: A population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Tsung-Yu; Lin, Che-Chen; Peng, Cheng-Yuan; Huang, Wen-Hsin; Su, Wen-Pang; Lai, Shih-Wei; Chen, Hsuan-Ju; Lai, Hsueh-Chou

    2016-08-01

    The relationship between biliary tract inflammation (BTI) and digestive system cancers is unclear. This study aimed to evaluate the association between BTI and the risks of digestive system cancers.Using the Taiwan National Health Insurance claims data, information on a cohort of patients diagnosed with BTI (n = 4398) between 2000 and 2009 was collected. A comparison cohort of sex-, age-, and index year-matched persons without BTI (n = 17,592) was selected from the same database. The disease was defined by the ICD-9-CM. Both cohorts were followed until the end of 2010 and incidences of digestive system cancers were calculated.The results revealed an increase in adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) of biliary tract cancer (24.45; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 9.20-65.02), primary liver cancer (1.53; 95% CI: 1.07-2.18), and pancreatic cancer (3.10; 95% CI: 1.20-8.03) in patients with both gallbladder and BTI. The aHR of stomach cancer was also found to be increased (2.73; 95% CI: 1.28-5.81) in patients with gallbladder inflammation only. There were no differences in esophageal cancer (aHR: 0.82; 95% CI: 0.23-2.87) and colorectal cancer (aHR: 0.92; 95% CI: 0.59-1.45). The aHR for digestive system cancers increased by 3.66 times (95% CI: 2.50-5.35) and 12.20 times (95% CI: 8.66-17.17) in BTI visits frequency averaged 2 to 4 visits per year and frequency averaged ≥5 visits per year, respectively.Patients with BTI have significantly higher risk of digestive system cancers, particularly biliary tract, pancreatic, and primary liver cancers, compared with those who are without it.

  2. Measurement of true ileal digestibility and total tract retention of phosphorus in corn and canola meal for broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Mutucumarana, R K; Ravindran, V; Ravindran, G; Cowieson, A J

    2014-02-01

    The study reported herein was conducted to determine and compare the nonphytate P, digestible P, and retainable P contents of corn and canola meal for broiler chickens. Four semipurified diets were formulated from each of ingredient to contain graded concentrations of nonphytate P. The experiment was conducted as a randomized complete block design with 4 weight blocks of 8 cages each (6 birds per cage). A total of 192 broilers (Ross 308), 21 d old, were assigned to the 8 test diets. Ileal digestibility and total tract retention coefficients of P were determined by the indicator and total collection methods, respectively, and linear regression method was used to determine the true P digestibility and true P retention coefficients. The apparent ileal digestibility of P in corn was influenced (quadratic, P < 0.05) by increasing dietary nonphytate P concentrations, whereas P retention was unaffected (P > 0.05). The apparent ileal P digestibility in broilers fed diets based on canola meal was similar (P > 0.05) at different P concentrations. Phosphorus retention in broilers fed diets based on canola meal (linear, P < 0.01) decreased with increasing P concentrations. True ileal P digestibility and true P retention coefficients of corn were determined to be 0.676 and 0.632, respectively. The corresponding values for canola meal were 0.469 and 0.486, respectively. In both ingredients, the determined true ileal digestibility and total tract retention coefficients were not different (P > 0.05). Total P, nonphytate P, true digestible P, and true retainable P contents of corn were determined to be 2.5, 0.8, 1.7, and 1.6 g/kg (as received), respectively. The corresponding values for canola meal were 9.7, 2.8, 4.6, and 4.7 g/kg (as received), respectively. The present data demonstrated that the regression method can be successfully used to measure true P digestibility of low and high P feed ingredients and that both true ileal digestibility and retention coefficients are

  3. Examination of digestive enzyme distribution in gut tract and functions of intestinal caecum, in megascolecid earthworms (Oligochaeta: Megascolecidae) in Japan.

    PubMed

    Nozaki, Mana; Ito, Katsutoshi; Miura, Chiemi; Miura, Takeshi

    2013-09-01

    Earthworms ingest various materials in addition to food items, such as soil particles. Most earthworms of the family Megascolecidae, a dominant family in Japan, have intestinal caeca connected directly to the intestinal tract. The function of the caeca has not been demonstrated, although it is thought to be associated with digestion. We investigated the activity of the digestive enzymes amylase, phosphatase, cellulase, and protease in different regions of the gut, including the intestinal caeca, in three species of megascolecid earthworms, Pheretima heteropoda, Pheretima hilgendorfi, and Pheretima sieboldi. Activities of several enzymes were high in the intestinal caeca; in particular, protease activity was higher in the caeca than that in the anterior gut, foregut, midgut, and hindgut in all three species. Moreover, the ratio of enzyme activities in the intestinal caeca to whole-gut tended to be higher in manicate intestinal caeca than in simple intestinal caeca. These results suggest that the digestive system of earthworms relies on the intestinal caeca.

  4. Association between Changing Mortality of Digestive Tract Cancers and Water Pollution: A Case Study in the Huai River Basin, China

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Hongyan; Wan, Xia; Yang, Fei; Shi, Xiaoming; Xu, Jianwei; Zhuang, Dafang; Yang, Gonghuan

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between the ever-increasing cancer mortality and water pollution is an important public concern in China. This study aimed to explore the association between serious water pollution and increasing digestive cancer mortality in the Huai River Basin (HRB) in China. A series of frequency of serious pollution (FSP) indices including water quality grade (FSPWQG), biochemical oxygen demand (FSPBOD), chemical oxygen demand (FSPCOD), and ammonia nitrogen (FSPAN) were used to characterize the surface water quality between 1997 and 2006. Data on the county-level changing mortality (CM) due to digestive tract cancers between 1975 and 2006 were collected for 14 counties in the study area. Most of investigated counties (eight) with high FSPWQG (>50%) distributed in the northern region of the HRB and had larger CMs of digestive tract cancers. In addition to their similar spatial distribution, significant correlations between FSP indices and CMs were observed by controlling for drinking water safety (DWS), gross domestic product (GDP), and population (POP). Furthermore, the above-mentioned partial correlations were clearly increased when only controlling for GDP and POP. Our study indicated that county-level variations of digestive cancer mortality are remarkably associated with water pollution, and suggested that continuous measures for improving surface water quality and DWS and hygienic interventions should be effectively implemented by local governments. PMID:25546281

  5. Association between changing mortality of digestive tract cancers and water pollution: a case study in the Huai River Basin, China.

    PubMed

    Ren, Hongyan; Wan, Xia; Yang, Fei; Shi, Xiaoming; Xu, Jianwei; Zhuang, Dafang; Yang, Gonghuan

    2014-12-23

    The relationship between the ever-increasing cancer mortality and water pollution is an important public concern in China. This study aimed to explore the association between serious water pollution and increasing digestive cancer mortality in the Huai River Basin (HRB) in China. A series of frequency of serious pollution (FSP) indices including water quality grade (FSPWQG), biochemical oxygen demand (FSPBOD), chemical oxygen demand (FSPCOD), and ammonia nitrogen (FSPAN) were used to characterize the surface water quality between 1997 and 2006. Data on the county-level changing mortality (CM) due to digestive tract cancers between 1975 and 2006 were collected for 14 counties in the study area. Most of investigated counties (eight) with high FSPWQG (>50%) distributed in the northern region of the HRB and had larger CMs of digestive tract cancers. In addition to their similar spatial distribution, significant correlations between FSP indices and CMs were observed by controlling for drinking water safety (DWS), gross domestic product (GDP), and population (POP). Furthermore, the above-mentioned partial correlations were clearly increased when only controlling for GDP and POP. Our study indicated that county-level variations of digestive cancer mortality are remarkably associated with water pollution, and suggested that continuous measures for improving surface water quality and DWS and hygienic interventions should be effectively implemented by local governments.

  6. Identification and characterization of a novel intelectin in the digestive tract of Xenopus laevis.

    PubMed

    Nagata, Saburo

    2016-06-01

    The intelectin (Intl) family is a group of secretory lectins in chordates that serve multiple functions, including innate immunity, through Ca(2+)-dependent recognition of carbohydrate chains. Although six Intl family lectins have so far been reported in Xenopus laevis, none have been identified in the intestine. Using a monoclonal antibody to the Xenopus embryonic epidermal lectin (XEEL or Intl-1), I identified cross-reactive proteins in the intestines. The proteins were purified by affinity chromatography on a galactose-Sepharose column and found to be oligomers consisting of N-glycosylated 39 kDa and 40.5 kDa subunit peptides. N-terminal amino acid sequencing of these peptides, followed by cDNA cloning, identified two novel Intls (designated Intl-3 and Intl-4) that showed 59-79% amino acid identities with known Xenopus Intl family proteins. From the amino acid sequence, immunoreactivity, and properties of the recombinant protein, Intl-3 was considered the intestinal lectin identified by the anti-XEEL antibody. The purified Intl-3 protein could potentially bind to Escherichia coli and its lipopolysaccharides (LPS), and to Staphylococcus aureus and its peptidoglycans, depending on Ca(2+). In addition, the Intl-3 protein agglutinated E. coli cells in the presence of Ca(2+). Intraperitoneal injection of LPS increased the intestinal and rectal contents of Intl-3 and XCL-1 (or 35K serum lectin) proteins within three days; however, unlike XCL-1, Intl-3 was detectable in neither the sera nor the other tissues regardless of LPS stimulation. Immunohistochemical analyses revealed accumulation of the Intl-3 protein in mucus secretory granules of intestinal goblet cells. The results of this study suggest that Xenopus Intl-3 is involved in the innate immune protection of the digestive tract against bacterial infections. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Effects of Coated Compound Proteases on Apparent Total Tract Digestibility of Nutrients and Apparent Ileal Digestibility of Amino Acids for Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Pan, L.; Zhao, P. F.; Yang, Z. Y.; Long, S. F.; Wang, H. L.; Tian, Q. Y.; Xu, Y. T.; Xu, X.; Zhang, Z. H.; Piao, X. S.

    2016-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate effects of coated compound proteases (CC protease) on apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of nitrogen (N) and energy, and apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of amino acids (AA) and nutrients in diets for pigs. In Exp. 1, 12 crossbred barrows (initial body weight: 20.14±1.71 kg) were housed in individual metabolism crates and allotted into 2 treatments with 6 piglets per treatment according to weight in a randomized complete block design. The 2 diets were corn-soybean meal basal diets with (0.2 g/kg) or without CC protease supplementation. The CC protease supplementation increased (p<0.05) the digestible and metabolizable N and energy values and the digestibility and retention rate of N in the diet. The ATTD of energy and nutrients had been improved (p<0.05) in the diet supplemented with CC protease. In Exp. 2, 12 crossbred barrows (initial body weight: 20.79±1.94 kg), fitted with T-cannulas at the distal ileum, were blocked by body weight into 2 groups with 6 pigs each. The diets were the same as those in Exp. 1. The CC protease increased (p<0.05) the AID of crude protein and some essential AA including arginine, isoleucine and leucine. The AID and ATTD of energy and nutrients had been improved (p<0.05) by supplemental CC protease, but the hindgut digestibility of nutrients was unaffected. Overall, the CC protease improved the ATTD of N and energy and AID of some indispensible AA and nutrients in the corn-soybean meal diet for pigs. Therefore, the CC protease supplement could improve the utilization of protein in the corn-soybean meal diet and thus contribute to lower N excretion to the environment. PMID:27004811

  8. Effects of Coated Compound Proteases on Apparent Total Tract Digestibility of Nutrients and Apparent Ileal Digestibility of Amino Acids for Pigs.

    PubMed

    Pan, L; Zhao, P F; Yang, Z Y; Long, S F; Wang, H L; Tian, Q Y; Xu, Y T; Xu, X; Zhang, Z H; Piao, X S

    2016-12-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate effects of coated compound proteases (CC protease) on apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of nitrogen (N) and energy, and apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of amino acids (AA) and nutrients in diets for pigs. In Exp. 1, 12 crossbred barrows (initial body weight: 20.14±1.71 kg) were housed in individual metabolism crates and allotted into 2 treatments with 6 piglets per treatment according to weight in a randomized complete block design. The 2 diets were corn-soybean meal basal diets with (0.2 g/kg) or without CC protease supplementation. The CC protease supplementation increased (p<0.05) the digestible and metabolizable N and energy values and the digestibility and retention rate of N in the diet. The ATTD of energy and nutrients had been improved (p<0.05) in the diet supplemented with CC protease. In Exp. 2, 12 crossbred barrows (initial body weight: 20.79±1.94 kg), fitted with T-cannulas at the distal ileum, were blocked by body weight into 2 groups with 6 pigs each. The diets were the same as those in Exp. 1. The CC protease increased (p<0.05) the AID of crude protein and some essential AA including arginine, isoleucine and leucine. The AID and ATTD of energy and nutrients had been improved (p<0.05) by supplemental CC protease, but the hindgut digestibility of nutrients was unaffected. Overall, the CC protease improved the ATTD of N and energy and AID of some indispensible AA and nutrients in the corn-soybean meal diet for pigs. Therefore, the CC protease supplement could improve the utilization of protein in the corn-soybean meal diet and thus contribute to lower N excretion to the environment.

  9. Assimilation of water and dietary ions by the gastrointestinal tract during digestion in seawater-acclimated rainbow trout.

    PubMed

    Bucking, Carol; Fitzpatrick, John L; Nadella, Sunita R; McGaw, Iain J; Wood, Chris M

    2011-07-01

    Recent studies focusing on the consequences of feeding for ion and water balance in freshwater fish have revealed the need for similar comparative studies in seawater fish. A detailed time course sampling of gastrointestinal (GI) tract contents following the ingestion of a single meal of a commercial diet revealed the assimilation of both water and dietary ions (Na(+), Cl(-), K(+), Ca(2+), Mg(2+)) along the GI tract of seawater-acclimated rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) which had been fasted for 1 week. Consumption of the meal did not change the drinking rate. There was a large secretion of fluid into the anterior intestine and caecae (presumably bile and/or pancreatic secretions). As a result, net assimilation (63%) of the ingested water along the GI tract was lower than generally reported for fasted trout. Mg(2+) was neither secreted into nor absorbed from the GI tract on a net basis. Only K(+) (93% assimilated) and Ca(2+) (43% assimilated) were absorbed in amounts in excess of those provided by ingested seawater, suggesting that dietary sources of K(+) and Ca(2+) may be important to seawater teleosts. The oesophagus-stomach served as a major site of absorption for Na(+), Cl(-), K(+), Ca(2+), and Mg(2+), and the anterior intestine and caecae as a major site of net secretion for all of these ions, except Cl(-). Despite large absorptive fluxes of these ions, the ionic composition of the plasma was maintained during the digestion of the meal. The results of the present study were compared with previous work on freshwater-acclimated rainbow trout, highlighting some important differences, but also several similarities on the assimilation of water and ions along the gastrointestinal tract during digestion. This study highlights the complicated array of ion and water transport that occurs in the intestine during digestion while revealing the importance of dietary K(+) and Ca(2+) to seawater-acclimated rainbow trout. Additionally, this study reveals that digestion

  10. Insights into bread melanoidins: fate in the upper digestive tract and impact on the gut microbiota using in vitro systems.

    PubMed

    Helou, Cynthia; Denis, Sylvain; Spatz, Madeleine; Marier, David; Rame, Véronique; Alric, Monique; Tessier, Frédéric J; Gadonna-Widehem, Pascale

    2015-12-01

    Bread melanoidins are heterogeneous, nitrogen-containing, brown macromolecules generated during the last stages of the Maillard reaction in bread. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact and fate of these bread melanoidins in the human gastrointestinal tract using in vitro systems. Batch systems as well as the TNO gastrointestinal tract were used for studying the digestion of various bread samples. These samples included bread crumb, bread crust and two bread-crust-simulating models: a fiber-free model (gluten, starch and glucose heated together) and its control, free of Maillard reaction products (gluten heated separately than starch and glucose). Furthermore, the impact of these two bread-crust-simulating models on the gut microbiota was assessed using a static anaerobic batch system. Bread melanoidins from bread crust and its model were shown to be partially digested by amylases and proteases, suggesting that these melanoidins have peptidic as well as glycosidic bonds in their skeleton. The impact of bread melanoidins from the bread-crust-simulating models and their digestion products on the gut microbiota revealed an individual-dependent response for most flora except for enterobacteria. This flora decreased by -22%, -48% & -100% depending on the individual. Thus, bread melanoidins seem to exert an anti-inflammatory effect by inhibiting enterobacteria.

  11. Examination of the stability of hydrophobic (CdSe)ZnS quantum dots in the digestive tract of rats.

    PubMed

    Karabanovas, Vitalijus; Zakarevicius, Eugenijus; Sukackaite, Angele; Streckyte, Giedre; Rotomskis, Ricardas

    2008-06-01

    Semiconductor quantum dots show promise as alternatives to organic dyes for biological labelling because of their bright and stable photoluminescence. The typical quantum dots is CdSe because colloidal synthesis for nanocrystals of this semiconductor is well established. CdSe is usually passivated with zinc sulfide. While the cytotoxicity of bulk CdSe is well documented, questions about (CdSe)ZnS potential toxicity and behaviour in vivo remain unanswered. The distribution and stability of (CdSe)ZnS quantum dots in Wistar line rats' digestive tract were investigated. Hydrophobic quantum dots were mixed with fat or sonificated in water and administered orally. The distribution and stability of quantum dots moving through the digestive system of rats was followed by fluorescence spectroscopy. In both ways prepared quantum dots were degraded in the digestive tract of animals. Quantum dots mixed with fat were more stable and degraded more slowly than quantum dots sonificated in water. The data obtained suggest possible toxicity of (CdSe)ZnS quantum dots due to the liberation of Cd(2+).

  12. Effect of Antimicrobial Consumption and Production Type on Antibacterial Resistance in the Bovine Respiratory and Digestive Tract

    PubMed Central

    Catry, Boudewijn; Dewulf, Jeroen; Maes, Dominiek; Pardon, Bart; Callens, Benedicte; Vanrobaeys, Mia; Opsomer, Geert; de Kruif, Aart; Haesebrouck, Freddy

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between antimicrobial use and the occurrence of antimicrobial resistance in the digestive and respiratory tract in three different production systems of food producing animals. A longitudinal study was set up in 25 Belgian bovine herds (10 dairy, 10 beef, and 5 veal herds) for a 2 year monitoring of antimicrobial susceptibilities in E. coli and Pasteurellaceae retrieved from the rectum and the nasal cavity, respectively. During the first year of observation, the antimicrobial use was prospectively recorded on 15 of these farms (5 of each production type) and transformed into the treatment incidences according to the (animal) defined daily dose (TIADD) and (actually) used daily dose (TIUDD). Antimicrobial resistance rates of 4,174 E. coli (all herds) and 474 Pasteurellaceae (beef and veal herds only) isolates for 12 antimicrobial agents demonstrated large differences between intensively reared veal calves (abundant and inconstant) and more extensively reared dairy and beef cattle (sparse and relatively stable). Using linear mixed effect models, a strong relation was found between antimicrobial treatment incidences and resistance profiles of 1,639 E. coli strains (p<0.0001) and 309 Pasteurellaceae (p≤0.012). These results indicate that a high antimicrobial selection pressure, here found to be represented by low dosages of oral prophylactic and therapeutic group medication, converts not only the commensal microbiota from the digestive tract but also the opportunistic pathogenic bacteria in the respiratory tract into reservoirs of multi-resistance. PMID:26820134

  13. Effect of Antimicrobial Consumption and Production Type on Antibacterial Resistance in the Bovine Respiratory and Digestive Tract.

    PubMed

    Catry, Boudewijn; Dewulf, Jeroen; Maes, Dominiek; Pardon, Bart; Callens, Benedicte; Vanrobaeys, Mia; Opsomer, Geert; de Kruif, Aart; Haesebrouck, Freddy

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between antimicrobial use and the occurrence of antimicrobial resistance in the digestive and respiratory tract in three different production systems of food producing animals. A longitudinal study was set up in 25 Belgian bovine herds (10 dairy, 10 beef, and 5 veal herds) for a 2 year monitoring of antimicrobial susceptibilities in E. coli and Pasteurellaceae retrieved from the rectum and the nasal cavity, respectively. During the first year of observation, the antimicrobial use was prospectively recorded on 15 of these farms (5 of each production type) and transformed into the treatment incidences according to the (animal) defined daily dose (TIADD) and (actually) used daily dose (TIUDD). Antimicrobial resistance rates of 4,174 E. coli (all herds) and 474 Pasteurellaceae (beef and veal herds only) isolates for 12 antimicrobial agents demonstrated large differences between intensively reared veal calves (abundant and inconstant) and more extensively reared dairy and beef cattle (sparse and relatively stable). Using linear mixed effect models, a strong relation was found between antimicrobial treatment incidences and resistance profiles of 1,639 E. coli strains (p<0.0001) and 309 Pasteurellaceae (p≤0.012). These results indicate that a high antimicrobial selection pressure, here found to be represented by low dosages of oral prophylactic and therapeutic group medication, converts not only the commensal microbiota from the digestive tract but also the opportunistic pathogenic bacteria in the respiratory tract into reservoirs of multi-resistance.

  14. [The Effect of Coprophagy on the Size of Plant Fibers in the Digestive Tract of Hares Lepus europaeus and L. timidus (Lagomorpha, Leporidae)].

    PubMed

    Naumova, E I; Zharova, G K; Chistova, T Yu; Kuznetsova, T A

    2015-01-01

    We have studied the distribution of plant fibers of different sizes in the digestive tracts of two hare species: the brown hare (Lepus euopaeus) and the mountain hare (L. timidus). In all studied hares (18 specimens), the highest amount of fine-sized fibers (less than 0.25 mm length) was observed in the cecum (50-70% of the total fiber mass). It was found out that the fine-sized content in the digestive tract, and especially in the cecum, is provided not only by the separation mechanism of the colon, but also by coprophagy. It was shown that repeated passage of food through the digestive tract compensates small volume of the cecum and increases the period of digestion of the same portions of food.

  15. Health Effects of Alkaline Diet and Water, Reduction of Digestive-tract Bacterial Load, and Earthing.

    PubMed

    Mousa, Haider Abdul-Lateef

    2016-04-01

    In the article, the author discusses the issue of chronic, low-grade acidosis that is thought to be brought about primarily by 2 factors: (1) advancing age, with a consequent decline in renal function; and (2) diet. An acid-forming diet can induce low-grade metabolic acidosis, which causes very small decreases in blood pH and plasma bicarbonate (HCO3-) that remain within the range considered to be normal. However, if the duration of the acidosis is prolonged or chronically present, even a low degree of acidosis can become significant. This article reviews supporting evidence in the literature that has shown that consumption of abundant alkaline-forming foods can result in improvement in bone mineral density (BMD) and muscle mass, protection from chronic illnesses, reduced tumor-cell invasion and metastasis, and effective excretion of toxins from the body. In addition, a large number of studies showing the benefits of alkaline water (mineral water) have revealed that people consuming water with a high level of total dissolved solids (TDS) (ie, with a high mineral content) have shown a lower incidence of coronary heart disease (CHD), cardiovascular disease (CVD), and cancer and lower total mortality rates. Consumption of alkaline water also may prevent osteoporosis and protect pancreatic beta cells with its antioxidant effects. In addition, this article discusses the literature that shows that reducing digestive-tract bacterial load can play an important role in increasing blood alkalinity toward the normal upper limit. That change occurs through good oral hygiene, flossing of teeth, perfect chewing of food, and bowel evacuation as soon as possible. Finally, the author reviews the literature that shows that earthing (ie, the direct contact of the human body with the earth) can supply a current of plentiful electrons. Earthing has been shown to reduce acute and chronic inflammation, blood glucose in patients with diabetes, red blood cell (RBC) aggregation, and blood

  16. Gallbladder and Biliary Tract

    MedlinePlus

    ... switch to the Professional version Home Digestive Disorders Biology of the Digestive System Gallbladder and Biliary Tract ... Version. DOCTORS: Click here for the Professional Version Biology of the Digestive System Overview of the Digestive ...

  17. Bacteraemia due to Streptococcus gallolyticus subspecies pasteurianus is associated with digestive tract malignancies and resistance to macrolides and clindamycin.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Wang-Huei; Chuang, Yu-Chung; Teng, Lee-Jene; Hsueh, Po-Ren

    2014-08-01

    This study was intended to delineate the association between digestive tract malignancies and bacteraemia due to Streptococcus gallolyticus subspecies pasteurianus. We reviewed the medical records and microbiological results of patients with bacteraemia due to Streptococcus bovis during the period 2000-2012. Species and subspecies identification of isolates originally classified as S. bovis was confirmed by 16S rRNA sequencing and PCR restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) assays. Minimum inhibitory concentrations of antimicrobial agents were determined by the broth microdilution method. Of the 172 S. bovis complex isolates obtained from 172 patients (age range, <1-94 years, median age, 66) with bacteraemia, 31 isolates were identified to be S. gallolyticus subspecies gallolyticus, 126 were S. gallolyticus subspecies pasteurianus, and 15 were shown to be Streptococcus infantarius. The majority (n = 104, 60%) of patients were male and had underlying malignancies (n = 87, 51%). Bacteraemia due to S. gallolyticus subspecies gallolyticus was significantly associated with endocarditis while S. gallolyticus subspecies pasteurianus was more likely to be associated with malignancies of the digestive tract, including gastric, pancreatic, hepatobiliary and colorectal cancers. Septic shock at presentation was the only factor associated with mortality among patients with bacteraemia due to either subspecies of S. bovis. Isolates of S. gallolyticus subspecies pasteurianus had higher rates of resistance to macrolides and clindamycin than isolates of S. gallolyticus subspecies gallolyticus. Extensive diagnostic work-up for digestive tract malignancies and trans-esophageal echocardiogram should be investigated in patients with bacteraemia caused by S. gallolyticus. Copyright © 2014 The British Infection Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Narrow band imaging and high definition television in the endoscopic evaluation of upper aero-digestive tract cancer.

    PubMed

    Piazza, C; Cocco, D; Del Bon, F; Mangili, S; Nicolai, P; Peretti, G

    2011-04-01

    Narrow band imaging and high definition television are recent innovations in upper aero-digestive tract endoscopy. Aim of this prospective, non-randomized, unblinded study was to establish the diagnostic advantage of these procedures in the evaluation of squamous cell cancer arising from various upper aero-digestive tract sites. Between April 2007 and January 2010, 444 patients affected by upper aero-digestive tract squamous cell cancer, or previously treated for it, were evaluated by white light and narrow band imaging ± high definition television endoscopy, both in the pre-/intra-operative setting and during follow-up. Tumour resection was performed taking into account narrow band imaging and high definition television information to obtain histopathologic confirmation of their validity. Endoscopic and pathologic data were subsequently matched to obtain sensitivity, specificity, positive, negative predictive values, and accuracy. Overall, 110 (25%) patients showed adjunctive findings by narrow band imaging ± high definition television when compared to standard white light endoscopy. Of these patients, 98 (89%) received histopatological confirmation. The sensitivity, specificity, positive, negative predictive values, and accuracy for white light-high definition television were 41%, 92%, 87%, 82%, and 67%, for narrow band imaging alone 75%, 87%, 87%, 74%, and 80%, and for narrow band imaging-high definition television 97%, 84%, 88%, 96%, and 92%. The highest diagnostic gain was observed in the oral cavity and oropharynx (25%). Narrow band imaging and high definition television were of value in the definition of superficial tumour extension, and in the detection of synchronous lesions in the pre-/intra-operative settings. These technologies also played an important role during post-treatment surveillance for early detection of persistences, recurrences, and metachronous tumours.

  19. Macroscopic digestive tract anatomy of two small antelopes, the blackbuck (Antilope cervicapra) and the Arabian sand gazelle (Gazella subgutturosa marica).

    PubMed

    Sauer, Cathrine; Bertelsen, Mads F; Hammer, Sven; Lund, Peter; Weisbjerg, Martin R; Clauss, Marcus

    2016-10-01

    The digestive tract anatomy of 14 blackbucks (Antilope cervicapra) and seven Arabian sand gazelles (Gazella subgutturosa marica) was quantified by dimensions, area and weight. Data from the two small-sized antilopinae were evaluated against a larger comparative data set from other ruminants classified as having either a 'cattle-type' or 'moose-type' digestive system. The digestive anatomy of the blackbuck resembled that of 'cattle-type' ruminants, which corresponds to their feeding ecology and previous studies of solute and particle retention time; however, a surprising exception was the remarkably small omasum in this species, which makes the blackbuck stand out from the general rule of a relatively large omasum in grazing ruminants. Sand gazelles had morphological features that corresponded more to the 'moose type' or an intermediate position, although previous studies of solute and particle retention time had led to the expectation of a more 'cattle-type' anatomy. The results show that outliers to general morphological trends exist, that findings on physiology and anatomy do not always match completely and that differences in the digestive morphology among ruminant species are more difficult to demonstrate at the lower end of the body mass range.

  20. Effect of soaking, germination, and enzyme treatment of whole barley on nutritional value and digestive tract parameters of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Svihus, B; Newman, R K; Newman, C W

    1997-09-01

    1. An experiment was carried out to determine the effect of soaking at 0 degrees C, soaking at room temperature, germination, or enzyme treatment of whole barley on feeding value and digestive tract parameters of 2- to 4-week old broiler chickens given diets with 700g/kg whole barley. 2. Soaking or germination decreased the soluble and total beta-glucan content (P < 0.05) and, except for soaking at 0 degrees C, the acid extract viscosity of the grain also decreased (P < 0.05). Germination and soaking in the presence of enzymes produced the lowest beta-glucan content and viscosity. 3. Except for soaking in cold water, the soaking, germination and enzyme treatments increased weight gain and decreased food:gain ratio (P < 0.05). Correspondingly, the digestibility of protein, fat, and ash, and the digestible energy content, increased (P < 0.05) after enzyme treatment or germination. 4. Chickens fed on enzyme-treated or germinated barley diets had intestinal contents with a greater proportion of dry matter and lower viscosity than chickens fed on untreated barley (P < 0.05). Consequently, the cages and chickens were cleaner (P < 0.05) and the weight of digestive organs as proportion of live weight was lower. 5. Particle size analysis of excreta revealed that whole barley was efficiently ground by the gizzards of 16-d-old chickens, and very few whole kernels were found.

  1. Present-day potentialities of endoscopic diagnostics and treatment of early cancer in respiratory and digestive tracts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokolov, Victor V.; Zharkova, Natalia N.; Filonenko, E. V.; Telegina, L. V.; Karpova, E. S.

    1999-12-01

    The paper presents the latest potentialities of the endoscopic fluorescent diagnostics as well as endoscopic electric-, laser surgery and photodynamic therapy (PDT) of the early cancer in the respiratory and digestive tracts. We present in detail indication and factors determining the application of the endoscopic resection of the tumor. The advantages of the combination application of PDT, electro-, Nd:YAG laser surgery and brachitherapy are stressed. The near and remote results of endoscopic treatment of the early cancer in larynx (37), lung (109), esophagus (39) and stomach (58) are shown.

  2. Smoking and the Risk of Upper Aero Digestive Tract Cancers for Men and Women in the Asia-Pacific Region

    PubMed Central

    Ansary-Moghaddam, Alireza; Martiniuk, Alexandra; Lam, Tai-Hing; Jamrozik, Konrad; Tamakoshi, Akiko; Fang, Xianghua; Suh, Il; Barzi, Federica; Huxley, Rachel; Woodward, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Although smoking is an established causal factor for upper aero digestive tract cancer (UADTC), most of the evidence originates from the West. Thus, we analysed data from 455,409 subjects in the Asia Pacific Cohort Studies Collaboration. Over a median of around six years follow-up, 371 deaths from UADTC were observed. The hazard ratio (95% confidence interval) for current smokers, compared with those who had never smoked, was 2.36 (1.76 – 3.16), adjusted for age and alcohol drinking. Tobacco control policies are urgently required in Asia to prevent millions of deaths from UADTC that smoking will otherwise cause. PMID:19440523

  3. Digestive tract morphology of the Neotropical piscivorous fish Cichla kelberi (Perciformes: Cichlidae) introduced into an oligotrophic Brazilian reservoir.

    PubMed

    dos Santos, Alejandra Filippo Gonzalez Neves; dos Santos, Luciano Neves; Araújo, Francisco Gerson

    2011-09-01

    Despite being one of the most well-known cichlid fish of importance to artisanal and sport fishing, and among the largest fishes in the Neotropics, data on digestive tract anatomy of peacock basses (Cichla spp.) are largely lacking, especially for non-native populations. In this paper, we describe for the first time the digestive tract morphology of Cichla kelberi, a voracious piscivore that was introduced in the 1950s into an oligotrophic and physically low-complex impoundment in Brazil. Peacock basses were collected between 1994 and 2002 in Lajes Reservoir, through gillnets (25 to 55mm mesh; 20-50 x 2m), seines (10 x 2.5m; 8.0mm mesh), cast nets and angling. All the fishes were kept on ice in the field and then transferred to the laboratory, where they were identified, measured, weighed and dissected for digestive tract analyses. The Index of Relative Importance-IRI was calculated for diet characterization while linear and non-linear regressions were performed to assess growth patterns of four morphological characters related to feeding (e.g. mouth width, mouth height, stomach length and intestine length) and the number of gill rakers during the C. kelberi ontogeny. Most digestive tract structures were directly related to the piscivorous diet of C. kelberi, indicating that peacock bass is a diurnal, bathypelagic and gape-size limited predator that feeds largely on shallow-water prey species within the littoral zone. Mouth width and height grew allometrically (b > 1) with the size of peacock bass, broadening the size range in which prey can be eaten, but especially for predators smaller than -400mm of total length. Differently, stomach and intestine lengths increased isometrically (b = 1), which could constrain prey consumption for adult C. kelberi, especially those at advanced stages of gonadal maturation. The presence of longer-drawn, sharp and furcated gill rakers in C. kelberi may be related to increased prey retention in the resource-limited Lajes Reservoir

  4. Morphological and histochemical characterization of the digestive tract of the puffer fish Sphoeroides testudineus (Linnaeus 1758) (Tetraodontiformes: Tetraodontidae).

    PubMed

    Fagundes, Kainã R C; Rotundo, Matheus M; Mari, Renata B

    2016-01-01

    Morphological analysis of the digestive tract of Sphoeroides testudineus showed an esophagus with an anterior and a posterior portion, the abdominal pouch. No stomach was observed between the abdominal pouch and the intestine. The intestine was arranged in three segments and two loops, and the distal portion had the rectum opening into the anus. Histochemical analyses showed that the esophagus secreted acid mucosecretions, and that there was a qualitative increase in goblet cells from the proximal to distal area of the intestine. The rectum showed cells secreting acid and neutral mucus. Given these features, this species presents a morphology which creates a link between its ecology and behavior.

  5. Comparative ruminal and total tract digestion of a finishing diet containing fresh vs air-dry steam-flaked corn.

    PubMed

    Zinn, R A; Barrajas, R

    1997-07-01

    Ten Holstein steers (465 +/- 6 kg) with cannulas in the rumen and proximal duodenum were used in a crossover design experiment to evaluate the influence of air-dry vs fresh steam-flaked corn on characteristics of ruminal and total tract digestion. The basal diet contained 77% steam-flaked corn (DM basis). Air-dry steam-flaked corn (SFC-AD) was obtained from a single batch that had been allowed to air-dry for 5 d before beginning the trial. Fresh steam-flaked corn (SFC-F) was produced daily Monday through Friday. Following production, the SFC-F was placed in air-tight polybags and stored at 4 degrees C until the time of feeding. There was little difference (P > .20) between SFC-AD and SFC-F with respect to site and extent of digestion of OM, starch, and fiber. Moreover, the two treatments did not differ (P > .20) in ruminal degradability of feed N. Apparent total tract N digestion was slightly greater (2.4%, P < .05) for SFC-F than for SFC-AD. Treatments did not affect ruminal pH (P > .20); however, VFA concentration of ruminal fluid tended to be greater (8.3%, P < .10) for SFC-F than for SFC-AD, indicating that the initial rate of fermentation may have been greater with SFC-F. Ruminal molar proportions of acetate were not affected by treatments (P > .20), but ruminal molar proportions of propionate tended to be greater (9.7%, P < .10) and molar proportions of butyrate tended to be less (10.0%, P < .10) for SFC-F than for SFC-AD. We conclude that the characteristics of digestion and the feeding value of steam-flaked corn is not altered by air drying before feeding.

  6. Conservation of ParaHox genes' function in patterning of the digestive tract of the marine gastropod Gibbula varia

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Presence of all three ParaHox genes has been described in deuterostomes and lophotrochozoans, but to date one of these three genes, Xlox has not been reported from any ecdysozoan taxa and both Xlox and Gsx are absent in nematodes. There is evidence that the ParaHox genes were ancestrally a single chromosomal cluster. Colinear expression of the ParaHox genes in anterior, middle, and posterior tissues of several species studied so far suggest that these genes may be responsible for axial patterning of the digestive tract. So far, there are no data on expression of these genes in molluscs. Results We isolated the complete coding sequences of the three Gibbula varia ParaHox genes, and then tested their expression in larval and postlarval development. In Gibbula varia, the ParaHox genes participate in patterning of the digestive tract and are expressed in some cells of the neuroectoderm. The expression of these genes coincides with the gradual formation of the gut in the larva. Gva-Gsx patterns potential neural precursors of cerebral ganglia as well as of the apical sensory organ. During larval development this gene is involved in the formation of the mouth and during postlarval development it is expressed in the precursor cells involved in secretion of the radula, the odontoblasts. Gva-Xolx and Gva-Cdx are involved in gut patterning in the middle and posterior parts of digestive tract, respectively. Both genes are expressed in some ventral neuroectodermal cells; however the expression of Gva-Cdx fades in later larval stages while the expression of Gva-Xolx in these cells persists. Conclusions In Gibbula varia the ParaHox genes are expressed during anterior-posterior patterning of the digestive system. This colinearity is not easy to spot during early larval stages because the differentiated endothelial cells within the yolk permanently migrate to their destinations in the gut. After torsion, Gsx patterns the mouth and foregut, Xlox the midgut gland or

  7. Histology of the digestive tract of the freshwater stingray Himantura signifer Compagno and Roberts, 1982 (Elasmobranchii, Dasyatidae).

    PubMed

    Chatchavalvanich, Kannika; Marcos, Ricardo; Poonpirom, Jintana; Thongpan, Amara; Rocha, Eduardo

    2006-10-01

    We investigated the histology and histochemistry (of carbohydrates and proteins) of the digestive tract of the freshwater stingray Himantura signifier. The alimentary tract consists of a mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach (with a descending cardiac and ascending pyloric part), anterior intestine (with an initial portion and a spiral intestine) and posterior intestine, ending in a cloaca. Histologically, three layers--mucosa, muscularis and adventitia/serosa--were defined from the mouth to esophagus and in the posterior intestine, whereas in the stomach and anterior intestine four layers were present, including a submucosa. The epithelial lining of mouth, pharynx and cloaca was of the stratified cuboidal type, whereas that of the esophagus and posterior intestine was stratified columnar. The stomach and anterior intestine were lined by a simple columnar epithelium with microvilli. Goblet cells were observed along the alimentary tract, except in the stomach. In the descending cardiac portion of this organ, gastric glands composed of oxyntic, oxyntic-peptic and peptic cells were observed. The anterior intestine presented a spiral valve with 11 folds, formed by mucosa and submucosa. The posterior intestine was particular in displaying a three-layered muscularis. Mucosubstances secreted along the alimentary tract contained both neutral and acid mucins, but in the stomach only neutral mucins were detected. The stomach presented intense protein content in the epithelial lining of the gastric pits. Enteroendocrine cells were identified in the stomach and intestine. Overall, our data offer a baseline for comparative purposes and future detailed ultrastructural and immunohistochemical studies.

  8. Relative distribution of gastrin-, CCK-8-, NPY- and CGRP-immunoreactive cells in the digestive tract of dorado (Salminus brasiliensis).

    PubMed

    Pereira, R T; Costa, L S; Oliveira, I R C; Araújo, J C; Aerts, M; Vigliano, F A; Rosa, P V

    2015-04-01

    The endocrine cells (ECs) of the gastrointestinal mucosa form the largest endocrine system in the body, not only in terms of cell numbers but also in terms of the different produced substances. Data describing the association between the relative distributions of the peptide-specific ECs in relation to feeding habits can be useful tools that enable the creation of a general expected pattern of EC distribution. We aimed to investigate the distribution of ECs immunoreactive for the peptides gastrin (GAS), cholecystokinin (CCK-8), neuropeptide Y (NPY), and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) in different segments of the digestive tract of carnivorous fish dorado (Salminus brasiliensis) by using immunohistochemistry procedures. The distribution of endocrine cells immunoreactive for gastrin (GAS), cholecystokinin (CCK-8), neuropeptide Y (NPY), and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) in digestive tract of dorado S. brasiliensis was examined by immunohistochemistry. The results describe the association between the distribution of the peptide-specific endocrine cells and feeding habits in different carnivorous fish. The largest number of endocrine cells immunoreactive for GAS, CCK-8, and CGRP were found in the pyloric stomach region and the pyloric caeca. However, NPY-immunoreactive endocrine cells were markedly restricted to the midgut. The distribution pattern of endocrine cells identified in S. brasiliensis is similar to that found in other carnivorous fishes.

  9. Carbaryl-induced histopathologic alterations in the digestive tract of the Levantine frog, Pelophylax bedriagae (Anura: Ranidae).

    PubMed

    Çakici, Özlem

    2014-08-01

    In this study, histopathologic changes following carbaryl exposure for 96 hr were investigated in the digestive tract of Levantine frog, Pelophylax bedriagae. Adult frogs were exposed to carbaryl once by oral gavage in concentrations of 0.05, 0.1, and 0.2 mg/g. Histopathological changes were more prominent in medium- (0.1 mg/g) and high-dose (0.2 mg/g) groups than in the low-dose (0.05 mg/g) group. Esophageal cells showed vacuolization, cellular swelling, nuclear pyknosis, karyolysis, and necrosis. Additionally, esophageal glandular atrophy and infiltration of inflammatory cells around esophageal glands were observed at medium and high doses. In the stomach, there were prominent histopathologic defects such as cellular swelling and necrosis in gastric glands, necrotic cells within the interstitial spaces, separation of epithelial cell layer, congested vessels, and hemorrhage at medium and high doses. In the intestine, detachment of epithelial layer, epithelial cell disorganization, inflammation, and necrosis were detected at medium and high doses. The results of this study showed that carbaryl caused adverse effects on the digestive tract of the Levantine frog, P. bedriagae. © 2013 by The Author(s).

  10. Emerging and established global life-style risk factors for cancer of the upper aero-digestive tract.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Bhawna; Johnson, Newell W

    2014-01-01

    Upper aero-digestive tract cancer is a multidimensional problem, international trends showing complex rises and falls in incidence and mortality across the globe, with variation across different cultural and socio-economic groups. This paper seeks some explanations and identifies some research and policy needs. The literature illustrates the multifactorial nature of carcinogenesis. At the cellular level, it is viewed as a multistep process involving multiple mutations and selection for cells with progressively increasing capacity for proliferation, survival, invasion, and metastasis. Established and emerging risk factors, in addition to changes in incidence and prevalence of cancers of the upper aero-digestive tract, were identified. Exposure to tobacco and alcohol, as well as diets inadequate in fresh fruits and vegetables, remain the major risk factors, with persistent infection by particular so-called "high risk" genotypes of human papillomavirus increasingly recognised as also playing an important role in a subset of cases, particularly for the oropharynx. Chronic trauma to oral mucosa from poor restorations and prostheses, in addition to poor oral hygiene with a consequent heavy microbial load in the mouth, are also emerging as significant risk factors. Understanding and quantifying the impact of individual risk factors for these cancers is vital for health decision-making, planning and prevention. National policies and programmes should be designed and implemented to control exposure to environmental risks, by legislation if necessary, and to raise awareness so that people are provided with the information and support they need to adopt healthy lifestyles.

  11. Standardized Total Tract Digestibility of Phosphorus in Copra Expellers, Palm Kernel Expellers, and Cassava Root Fed to Growing Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Son, A. R.; Shin, S. Y.; Kim, B. G.

    2013-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) and standardized total tract digestibility (STTD) of phosphorus (P) in copra expellers (CE), palm kernel expellers (PKE), and cassava root (CR). Eight barrows (initial BW of 40.0 kg, SD = 4.5) were individually housed in metabolism crates. A replicated 4×3 incomplete Latin square design was employed involving 4 dietary treatments, 3 periods, and 8 animals. Three experimental diets contained 40% CE, PKE or CR as the only source of P. A P-free diet mainly based on corn starch, sucrose, and gelatin was also prepared to estimate the basal endogenous loss of P. The marker-to-marker method was used for fecal collection. Values for the ATTD of P in the CE and PKE were greater than in the CR (46.0 and 39.7 vs −14.0%; p<0.05). However, the STTD of P did not differ greatly among the test ingredients (56.5, 49.0, and 43.2% in the CE, PKE, and CR, respectively). In conclusion, the ATTD of P values in CE and PKE were greater than that in CR, but the STTD of P did not differ greatly among CE, PKE, and CR. PMID:25049748

  12. Dry matter and digesta particle size gradients along the goat digestive tract on grass and browse diets.

    PubMed

    Clauss, M; Fritz, J; Tschuor, A; Braun, U; Hummel, J; Codron, D

    2017-02-01

    Physical properties of the digesta vary along the ruminant digestive tract. They also vary within the forestomach, leading to varying degrees of rumen contents stratification in 'moose-type' (browsing) and 'cattle-type' (intermediate and grazing) ruminants. We investigated the dry matter concentration (DM) and the mean digesta particle size (MPS) within the forestomach and along the digestive tract in 10 goats fed grass hay or dried browse after a standardized 12-h fast, euthanasia and freezing in the natural position. In all animals, irrespective of diet, DM showed a peak in the omasum and an increase from caecum via colon towards the faeces and a decrease in MPS between the reticulum and the omasum. Both patterns are typical for ruminants in general. In the forestomach, there was little systematic difference between more cranial and more caudal locations ('horizontal stratification'), with the possible exception of large particle segregation in the dorsal rumen blindsac on the grass diet. In contrast, the typical (vertical) contents stratification was evident for DM (with drier contents dorsally) and, to a lower degree, for MPS (with larger particles dorsally). Although evident in both groups, this stratification was more pronounced on the grass diet. The results support the interpretation that differences in rumen contents stratification between ruminants are mainly an effect of species-specific physiology, but can be enhanced due to the diet consumed.

  13. Differential cellular expression of galectin family mRNAs in the epithelial cells of the mouse digestive tract.

    PubMed

    Nio, Junko; Kon, Yasuhiro; Iwanaga, Toshihiko

    2005-11-01

    Galectin is an animal lectin that recognizes beta-galactosides of glycoconjugates and is abundant in the gut. This study revealed the cellular expression of galectin subtypes throughout the mouse digestive tract by in situ hybridization. Signals for five subtypes (galectin-2, -3, -4/6, and -7) were detected exclusively in the epithelia. In the glandular stomach, galectin-2 and -4/6 were predominantly expressed from gastric pits to neck of gastric glands, where mucous cells were the main cellular sources. The small intestine exhibited intense, maturation-associated expressions of galectin-2, -3, and -4/6 mRNAs. Galectin-2 was intensely expressed from crypts to the base of villi, whereas transcripts of galectin-3 gathered at villous tips. Signals for galectin-4/6 were most intense at the lower half of villi. Galectin-2 was also expressed in goblet cells of the small intestine but not in those of the large intestine. In the large intestine, galectin-4/6 predominated, and the upper half of crypts simultaneously contained transcripts of galectin-3. Stratified epithelium from the lip to forestomach and anus intensely expressed galectin-7 with weak expressions of galectin-3. Because galectins in the digestive tract may be multi-functional, information on their cell/stage-specific expression contributes to a better understanding of the functions and pathological involvements of galectins.

  14. Neurogenic inflammation in the upper digestive tract of the mule duck: effect of a chemical algogen and force-feeding.

    PubMed

    Servière, J; Carriere, M; Duvaux-Ponter, C; Guy, G; Roussel, S

    2011-12-01

    1.The objectives were to quantify the presence of neurogenic inflammation in 4 regions of the upper digestive tract of anaesthetised ducks (post-pharynx, pseudo-crop, transition between the pseudo-crop and the proventriculus, and proventriculus) after application of HCl stimulation of up to 4 M in the pseudo-crop. 2.The second objective was to quantify the presence of neurogenic inflammation in the same digestive tract regions as mentioned above during 4 feeding periods of foie gras production (rearing, preparation to force-feeding, and second and last meals of the force-feeding period). 3. Extravasation increased above a HCl stimulation threshold of 2 M. Furthermore, more extravasation was observed in the proventriculus compared to the other regions (P < 0·001). 4.Highest extravasation responses were observed in the proventriculus and the pseudo-crop at the end of the preparation period, and in the proventriculus after the second forced meal, compared with the rearing period (P < 0·01), with a return to rearing level at the end of force-feeding. 5.Such a kinetic could be indicative of a relative mildness of the irritant components associated with this feeding practice.

  15. [Bariatric surgery, stomas and other digestive tract reductions: Insufficient data and recommendations to adapt medicines regimens in therapeutic practice].

    PubMed

    Bernard, Élodie; Charpiat, Bruno; Mabrut, Jean-Yves; Dode, Xavier; Garcia, Stephan; Le Duff, Michel; Rose, François-Xavier; Ducerf, Christian

    2015-11-01

    Surgery modifying digestive tract may alter drugs pharmacokinetics. To maintain concentrations of active substance in their therapeutic ranges, a dosage adjustment or change of drug may be necessary. This is particularly important when no pharmacological or pharmacodynamic parameter reflecting the medication effectiveness is easily measurable. Our objective was to gather the information and documentary tools that can guide prescription in these patients with rearranged digestive tract. We searched information on the documentary portals of French agencies, on gray literature, on MEDLINE and in the summaries product characteristics. No information was found on the website of French agencies, sparse data were identified in gray literature. Some document are discordant, most are imprecise. One hundred and ten studies or case reports referenced on MEDLINE describe 79 medications pharmacokinetics after gastrointestinal surgery. Four are not available in France. Six literature reviews were found. Four summaries of product characteristics provided information related to drug absorption. No documentary tool adapted to clinical routine exists. This unsatisfactory situation is a barrier to optimal patients care. Information is available. It is however necessary to gather under an ergonomic shape adapted to clinical routine, bringing the surgery type, pharmacokinetic changes induced and what to do about the dose adjustment.

  16. Steam-processed corn and sorghum grain flaked at different densities alter ruminal, small intestinal, and total tract digestibility of starch by steers.

    PubMed

    Theurer, C B; Lozano, O; Alio, A; Delgado-Elorduy, A; Sadik, M; Huber, J T; Zinn, R A

    1999-10-01

    Crossbred steers (n = 7; 400 kg BW), fitted with T-type cannulas in the duodenum and ileum, were used to examine the effects of processing method, dry-rolled (DR) vs. steam-flaked (SF) sorghum grain, and degree of processing (flake density; FD) of SF corn (SFC) and SF sorghum (SFS) grain on site and extent of DM, starch, and N digestibilities and to measure extent of microbial N flow to the duodenum. In Exp. 1, diets contained 77% DRS or 77% SFS with FD of 437, 360, and 283 g/L (SF34, SF28, and SF22). In Exp. 2, diets contained 77% SFC with FD of SF34 or SF22. For sorghum and corn diets, respective average daily intakes were as follows: DM, 6.7 and 8.1 kg; starch, 3.8 and 4.7 kg; N, 136 and 149 g. Steers fed SFS vs. DRS increased (P = .01) starch digestibilities (percentage of intake) in the rumen (82 vs. 67%) and total tract (98.9 vs. 96.5%) and decreased digestibilities in the small intestine (16 vs. 28%; P = .01) and large intestine (.5 vs 1.2%; P = .05). As a percentage of starch entering the segment, digestibility was increased (P = .01) within the small intestine (91 vs. 85%) but was not altered within the large intestine by steers fed SFS vs. DRS. Decreasing FD of SFS and of SFC, respectively, linearly increased starch digestibilities (percentage of intake) in the rumen (P = .03, .02) and total tract (P = .03, .09) and linearly diminished starch digestibilities in the small intestine (P = .04, .09). Starch digestibilities (percentage of entry) within the small or large intestine were not changed by FD. The percentage of dietary corn or sorghum starch digested in the large intestine was very small, less than 2% of intake. Microbial N flow to the duodenum was not altered by SFS compared to DRS, or by decreasing FD of SFS and SFC. Reducing FD of SFS, but not of SFC, tended to decrease (P = .07) microbial efficiency linearly and tended to increase (P = .06) total tract N digestibilities linearly. Steam flaking compared to dry rolling of sorghum grain and

  17. Comparison of acid mucin goblet cell distribution and Hox13 expression patterns in the developing vertebrate digestive tract.

    PubMed

    Theodosiou, Nicole A; Hall, Daniel A; Jowdry, Andrea L

    2007-07-15

    The digestive tract of vertebrates is a complex organ system required for the digestion of food and the absorption of nutrients. The colon evolved as a water absorption organ essential for vertebrates to survive on land. In contrast to land vertebrates, the Chondrichthyes (sharks, skates and rays) are nearly iso-osmotic with their ocean environment and do not reabsorb water from food waste. To understand the origin of the vertebrate colon, we examined the distribution of sulfated and sialyated mucus-producing cells in the little skate, Raja erinacea, as an indication of water absorption function in the chondrichthian digestive tract. The percentage of acid mucin producing goblet cells was analyzed in the spiral valve and hindgut of little skate and the small intestine and colon of mouse embryos. Levels of acid mucins in the hindgut of the little skate was comparable to that of the small intestines of terrestrial vertebrates, whereas the distal region of the spiral valve contained high levels of acid mucin producing cells similar to the colon of mouse and chick. The low numbers of acid mucins in the little skate hindgut confirms that a functional colon for water absorption is absent in the Chondrichthyes. Interestingly, the presence of high levels of acid mucins in the posterior spiral valve provides evidence for a possible primordial water-absorbing organ in the elasmobranchs. Hoxd13 patterns acid mucins in the colons of terrestrial vertebrates. Expression of Hoxd13 and Hoxa13 in R. erinacea suggests conserved roles for Hox genes in patterning the early hindgut.

  18. Molecular analysis of autochthonous microbiota along the digestive tract of juvenile grouper Epinephelus coioides following probiotic Bacillus pumilus administration.

    PubMed

    Sun, Y-Z; Yang, H-L; Ma, R-L; Song, K; Lin, W-Y

    2011-04-01

      To evaluate the diversity of dominant autochthonous microbiota along the digestive tract of juvenile Epinephelus coioides following the dietary administration of probiotic Bacillus pumilus for 60 days.   Polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) with subsequently sequencing analysis was used to assess the gut microbiota. Generally similar DGGE patterns were observed in the foregut, midgut and hindgut of E. coioides, while the similarity dendrogram clearly revealed three different clusters depending on the three compartments of the GI tract. Dietary administration of B. pumilus stimulated its colonization in each compartment of the digestive tract. Samples collected from the probiotic group and the control group showed similar DGGE patterns, and no significant difference in the total number of bands and the Shannon index were detected between the probiotic group and the control group, suggested that B. pumilus exert no significant effect on the gut microbiota. However, various potentially beneficial bacteria, such as uncultured Bacillus sp. clone QJNY94-like, Nitratireductor sp. YCSC5-like, Methylobacterium hispanicum-like and Microbacterium sp. YACS1-like bacteria were stimulated by probiotic B. pumilus, while the potential harmful Staphylococcus saprophyticus-like bacterium was depressed.   Autochthonous gut microbiota of E. coioides was modulated to some degree, not significant, by probiotic B. pumilus, various potentially beneficial bacteria were selectively stimulated, while one potential harmful species was depressed.   This work represents the first report that dietary administration of probiotic B. pumilus modulated the gut microbiota of E. coioides. These findings broaden our understanding of probiotic effects at the gut level, which is helpful in understanding the mechanisms that underpin host benefits. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Applied Microbiology © 2011 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  19. Endosymbiotic and Host Proteases in the Digestive Tract of the Invasive Snail Pomacea canaliculata: Diversity, Origin and Characterization

    PubMed Central

    Godoy, Martín S.; Castro-Vasquez, Alfredo; Vega, Israel A.

    2013-01-01

    Digestive proteases of the digestive tract of the apple snail Pomacea canaliculata were studied. Luminal protease activity was found in the crop, the style sac and the coiled gut and was significantly higher in the coiled gut. Several protease bands and their apparent molecular weights were identified in both tissue extracts and luminal contents by gel zymography: (1) a 125 kDa protease in salivary gland extracts and in the crop content; (2) a 30 kDa protease throughout all studied luminal contents and in extracts of the midgut gland and of the endosymbionts isolated from this gland; (3) two proteases of 145 and 198 kDa in the coiled gut content. All these proteases were inhibited by aprotinin, a serine-protease inhibitor, and showed maximum activity between 30°C and 35°C and pH between 8.5 and 9.5. Tissue L-alanine-N-aminopeptidase activity was determined in the wall of the crop, the style sac and the coiled gut and was significantly higher in the coiled gut. Our findings show that protein digestion in P. canaliculata is carried out through a battery of diverse proteases originated from the salivary glands and the endosymbionts lodged in the midgut gland and by proteases of uncertain origin that occur in the coiled gut lumen. PMID:23818959

  20. Molecular cloning and characterization of a glycosyl hydrolase family 9 cellulase distributed throughout the digestive tract of the cricket Teleogryllus emma.

    PubMed

    Kim, Namjung; Choo, Young Moo; Lee, Kwang Sik; Hong, Seong Jin; Seol, Kwang Youl; Je, Yeon Ho; Sohn, Hung Dae; Jin, Byung Rae

    2008-08-01

    A novel endogenous beta-1,4-endoglucanase (EG) gene belonging to the glycosyl hydrolase family 9 (GHF 9) that is distributed throughout the digestive tract of the cricket Teleogryllus emma was cloned and characterized. This gene, named TeEG-I, consists of eight exons encoding 453 amino acid residues and exists as a single copy in the T. emma genome. TeEG-I possesses all the features, including signature motifs and catalytic domains, of GHF 9 members, sharing high levels of identity with the termite, Mastotermes darwiniensis (64% protein sequence identity), and the cockroach, Panesthia cribrata (62%), GHF 9 cellulases. Recombinant TeEG-I, which is expressed as a 47-kDa polypeptide in baculovirus-infected insect Sf9 cells, showed an optimal pH and temperature of pH 5.0 and 40 degrees C. The K(m) and V(max) values for digestion of carboxymethyl cellulose were 5.4 mg/ml and 3118.4 U/mg, respectively. Northern and Western blot analyses revealed that TeEG-I is present throughout the digestive tract, which correlated with the TeEG-I distribution and cellulase activity in the digestive tract as assayed by immunofluorescence staining and enzyme activity assay, respectively. These results indicate that TeEG-I is distributed throughout the entire digestive tract of T. emma, suggesting a functional role of endogenous TeEG-I in a sequential cellulose digestion process throughout the T. emma digestion tract.

  1. Immunohistochemical study on the neuroendocrine system of the digestive tract of turbot, Scophthalmus maximus (L.), infected by Enteromyxum scophthalmi (Myxozoa).

    PubMed

    Bermúdez, R; Vigliano, F; Quiroga, M I; Nieto, J M; Bosi, G; Domeneghini, C

    2007-03-01

    In recent years a new parasite, causing severe losses, has been detected in farmed turbot, Scophthalmus maximus (L.), in Northwestern Spain. Dead fish showed emaciation and cachexia caused by severe necrotizing enteritis, which affected all areas of the digestive tract. The parasite was classified as a myxosporean and named Enteromyxum scophthalmi. This study was designed to assess the response of the turbot neuroendocrine system against E. scophthalmi infection. Immunohistochemical tests were applied to sections of the gastrointestinal tract of uninfected and E. scophthalmi-infected turbot, and the presence of cholecystokinin (CCK-8), serotonin (5-HT), substance P (SP), calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) were documented. A higher abundance of both endocrine epithelial cells (ECs) and nerve cell bodies and fibres for CCK-8, 5-HT and SP were recorded in the gastrointestinal tract of infected turbot, whereas VIP-like substance decreased. The results indicate that E. scophthalmi infection in turbot induced changes in the neuroendocrine system, which may cause alterations in gut motility, electrolyte and fluid secretion, and vascular and immune functions.

  2. ICU Acquisition Rate, Risk Factors, and Clinical Significance of Digestive Tract Colonization With Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamase-Producing Enterobacteriaceae: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Detsis, Marios; Karanika, Styliani; Mylonakis, Eleftherios

    2017-04-01

    To evaluate the acquisition rate, identify risk factors, and estimate the risk for subsequent infection, associated with the colonization of the digestive tract with extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae during ICU-hospitalization. PubMed, EMBASE, and reference lists of all eligible articles. Included studies provided data on ICU-acquired colonization with extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae in previously noncolonized and noninfected patients and used the double disk synergy test for extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae phenotypic confirmation. Studies reporting extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae outbreaks or data on pediatric population were excluded. Two authors independently assessed study eligibility and performed data extraction. Thirteen studies (with 15,045 ICUs-patients) were evaluated using a random-effect model and a meta-regression analysis. The acquisition rate of digestive tract colonization during ICU stay was 7% (95% CI, 5-10) and it varies from 3% (95% CI, 2-4) and 4% (95% CI, 2-6) in the Americas and Europe to 21% (95% CI, 9-35) in the Western Pacific region. Previous hospitalization (risk ratio, 1.57 [95% CI, 1.07-2.31]) or antibiotic use (risk ratio, 1.65 [95% CI, 1.15-2.37]) and exposure to beta-lactams/beta-lactamase inhibitors (risk ratio, 1.78 [95% CI, 1.24-2.56]) and carbapenems (risk ratio, 2.13 [95% CI, 1.49-3.06]) during the ICU stay were independent risk factors for ICU-acquired colonization. Importantly, colonized patients were more likely to develop an extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae infection (risk ratio, 49.62 [95% CI, 20.42-120.58]). The sensitivity and specificity of prior colonization to predict subsequent extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae infection were 95.1% (95% CI, 54.7-99.7) and 89.2% (95% CI, 77.2-95.3), respectively. The ICU acquisition rate of extended-spectrum beta

  3. Digestive Organ in the Female Reproductive Tract Borrows Genes from Multiple Organ Systems to Adopt Critical Functions

    PubMed Central

    Meslin, Camille; Plakke, Melissa S.; Deutsch, Aaron B.; Small, Brandon S.; Morehouse, Nathan I.; Clark, Nathan L.

    2015-01-01

    Persistent adaptive challenges are often met with the evolution of novel physiological traits. Although there are specific examples of single genes providing new physiological functions, studies on the origin of complex organ functions are lacking. One such derived set of complex functions is found in the Lepidopteran bursa copulatrix, an organ within the female reproductive tract that digests nutrients from the male ejaculate or spermatophore. Here, we characterized bursa physiology and the evolutionary mechanisms by which it was equipped with digestive and absorptive functionality. By studying the transcriptome of the bursa and eight other tissues, we revealed a suite of highly expressed and secreted gene products providing the bursa with a combination of stomach-like traits for mechanical and enzymatic digestion of the male spermatophore. By subsequently placing these bursa genes in an evolutionary framework, we found that the vast majority of their novel digestive functions were co-opted by borrowing genes that continue to be expressed in nonreproductive tissues. However, a number of bursa-specific genes have also arisen, some of which represent unique gene families restricted to Lepidoptera and may provide novel bursa-specific functions. This pattern of promiscuous gene borrowing and relatively infrequent evolution of tissue-specific duplicates stands in contrast to studies of the evolution of novelty via single gene co-option. Our results suggest that the evolution of complex organ-level phenotypes may often be enabled (and subsequently constrained) by changes in tissue specificity that allow expression of existing genes in novel contexts, such as reproduction. The extent to which the selective pressures encountered in these novel roles require resolution via duplication and sub/neofunctionalization is likely to be determined by the need for specialized reproductive functionality. Thus, complex physiological phenotypes such as that found in the bursa offer

  4. Dietary fat supplementation effects on in vitro nutrient disappearance and in vivo nutrient intake and total tract digestibility by horses.

    PubMed

    Bush, J A; Freeman, D E; Kline, K H; Merchen, N R; Fahey, G C

    2001-01-01

    Addition of fat to the diet of the equine is a popular method of increasing energy density of the diet while reducing feed intake. Reducing feed intake is of interest to race horse trainers because additional feed is seen as additional weight and, therefore, a hindrance to performance. Limited information is available regarding the interactions of fat with other dietary components, particularly fiber, in the equine digestive system. The effect of dietary fat on in vitro nutrient disappearance in equine cecal fluid was studied in Exp. 1 using a split-plot design within a 2 x 2 Latin square. Two ponies were fed alfalfa (ALF) alone or alfalfa plus 100 g/d corn oil. Five substrates were used to determine in vitro DM disappearance, OM disappearance, NDF disappearance, and total dietary fiber (TDF) disappearance. The substrates included: ALF, tall fescue (TF), red clover (RC), soybean hulls (SBH), and rolled oats (RO). Fat supplementation did not affect in vitro DM, OM, or NDF disappearance. Addition of fat to the diet increased (P < 0.05) the disappearance of NDF in RO. Among substrates, in vitro DM and OM disappearance were highest (P < 0.05) for RO, followed by SBH, ALF, RC, and TF. In vitro NDF and TDF disappearance were highest (P < 0.05) for SBH, followed by RO, ALF, RC, and TF. In Exp. 2, the effects of varying levels of fat on nutrient intake and total tract digestibility were examined using a 4 x 4 Latin square design. Four mature mares were fed a 60% forage-40% concentrate diet containing different concentrations of fat: 0% supplemental fat control (C); 5% supplemental corn oil (5% CO); 10% supplemental corn oil (10% CO); or 15% supplemental corn oil (15% CO). Treatment did not affect intake of the concentrate portion of the diet or CP, gross energy, or NDF intake. Mares consuming the C diet had the highest (P < 0.05) intake of alfalfa cubes, DM, and OM, followed by those on the 10, 5, and 15% CO treatments, respectively. Treatment did not affect nutrient

  5. [Antagonistic interrelationships of Bifidobacterium bifidum i Proteus vulgaris in vitro in the digestive tract of gnotobiotic chicks].

    PubMed

    Timoshko, M A; Vil'shanskaia, F L; Pospelova, V V; Rakhimova, N G

    1979-07-01

    The antagonistic relations between Bacterium bifidum, strain I/850 phi, and Proteus vulgaris, strain F-30, were studied. These organisms, when introduced together in equal doses into the digestive tract of gnotobiotic chickens in a single administration, were shown to create certain ecological correlations in various organs with the prevalence of bifidobacteria which exerted no negative influence on Proteus vulgaris. The additional daily administration of bifidobacteria for 3 days running in doses 1000 times as great as the initial dose, the content of both dibifobacteria and Proteus vulgaris in the intestine being at that time at its maximum, resulted in the suppression of the growth of Proteus vulgaris. Our findings indicate that the influence of the pH of the medium should be considered in order to obtain the evidence of significantly pronounced antagonistic relations between the two organisms in vitro.

  6. Endogenous intestinal losses of calcium and true total tract digestibility of calcium in canola meal fed to growing pigs.

    PubMed

    González-Vega, J C; Walk, C L; Liu, Y; Stein, H H

    2013-10-01

    An experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that values for apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of Ca in pigs are influenced by endogenous Ca lost from the gastrointestinal tract. The objective was to determine the endogenous loss of Ca, the ATTD of Ca, and the true total tract digestibility (TTTD) of Ca in canola meal without and with microbial phytase. The second objective was to determine the balance of Ca in pigs fed diets based on canola meal without or with microbial phytase. Forty-eight growing barrows (initial BW: 16.72 ± 2.52 kg) were allotted to 8 dietary treatments in a randomized complete block design with 6 pigs per treatment. Diets were based on sucrose, cornstarch, potato protein isolate, corn gluten meal, and canola meal. Diets were formulated to contain 0.08, 0.16, 0.24, or 0.32% Ca from canola meal. All diets were formulated with 0 or 1,500 units/kg of microbial phytase and contained 0.32% digestible P. Feces and urine samples were collected from d 6 to 11. Total endogenous losses of Ca were determined using the regression procedure. Results indicated that ATTD of Ca and Ca retention increased (P < 0.05) if dietary Ca increased and also increased (P < 0.01) when phytase was added to the diets. The estimated total endogenous loss of Ca was 0.160 and 0.189 g/kg DMI for canola meal without and with microbial phytase, respectively, and these values were not different. The TTTD of Ca increased (P < 0.01) if phytase was used but was not affected by the level of dietary Ca. As dietary Ca increased, the amount of Ca absorbed and retained increased (P < 0.01) to a greater extent if phytase was used than when no phytase was included in the diet (interaction, P < 0.05). Fecal P excretion increased (P < 0.01) as dietary Ca increased but was reduced (P < 0.01) by the use of phytase. The ATTD of P decreased (P < 0.01) with increasing dietary Ca to a lesser extent if phytase was used than when no phytase was used (interaction, P < 0.01). In

  7. Helminth parasites of the digestive tract of the oystercatcher, Haematopus ostralegus, in the Wadden Sea, The Netherlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borgsteede, F. H. M.; Van den Broek, E.; Swennen, C.

    The digestive tracts of 90 oystercatchers (equal numbers of males and females and of juveniles, subadults and adults) wintering in the Dutch Wadden Sea were examined for helminth parasites. The nematodes Capillaria sp. (36.7%) and Streptocara crassicauda (7.8%) were found in the stomach. Unidentified cestodes (76.7%) and the trematodes Psilostomum brevicolle (42.2%), Notocotylus sp. (81.1%), and unidentified gymnophallids (100%) were found in the intestine and caeca. Two birds were infected with Gymnophallidae only, while all other birds contained additional helminth species. Compared with subadult and adult birds, the juveniles had significantly more infections with Capillaria sp. and cestodes. Moreover, the juveniles were infected with a greater variety of species. No further relation was found between the presence of helminths or worm numbers and age groups or sexes of birds.

  8. Passage rate through the anterior digestive tract of broiler chickens fed on diets with ground and whole wheat.

    PubMed

    Svihus, B; Hetland, H; Choct, M; Sundby, F

    2002-12-01

    1. Birds were fed diets containing ground or whole wheat and titanium dioxide for 10 min, followed by dissection of 4 birds per treatment after 30, 60, 90, 120, 150 and 180 min. 2. The crop, proventriculus and gizzard, duodenum, jejunum, and ileum from each bird were dried and combusted, and titanium content in each section was determined. 3. Significant amounts of titanium were found in the small intestine of the birds as soon as 30 min after being given feed containing titanium, and significant amounts had passed the small intestine after 120 to 150 min. 4. Titanium contents equivalent to approximately 5 g feed were eliminated from the gizzard per hour independently of whether ground or whole wheat was used. Thus, a hypothesis that the use of whole grain would slow down passage rate through the upper digestive tract was not supported by the current results.

  9. Morphallactic regeneration as revealed by region-specific gene expression in the digestive tract of Enchytraeus japonensis (Oligochaeta, Annelida).

    PubMed

    Takeo, Makoto; Yoshida-Noro, Chikako; Tochinai, Shin

    2008-05-01

    Enchytraeus japonensis is a small oligochaete, which primarily reproduces asexually by fragmentation and regeneration. For precise analysis of the pattern formation during regeneration, we isolated three region-specific genes (EjTuba, mino, and horu) expressed in the digestive tract. In growing worms, the expression of EjTuba in the head and mino in the trunk region just posterior to the head were observed in defined body segments, while the expression areas of EjTuba in the trunk and horu were proportional to the total number of body segments. In the regeneration process, expression of these genes disappeared once and recovered to their original pattern by day 7. In abnormal regeneration such as a bipolar head, mino was still expressed in the region next to both the normal and the ectopic heads. These results suggest that there is morphallactic as well as epimorphic or inductive regulation of the body patterning during regeneration of E. japonensis.

  10. Validation of an in vitro model for predicting rumen and total-tract fiber digestibility in dairy cows fed corn silages with different in vitro neutral detergent fiber digestibilities at 2 levels of dry matter intake.

    PubMed

    Lopes, F; Cook, D E; Combs, D K

    2015-01-01

    An in vivo study was performed to validate an in vitro procedure that predicts rate of fiber digestion and total-tract neutral detergent fiber digestibility (TTNDFD). Two corn silages that differed in fiber digestibility were used in this trial. The corn silage with lower fiber digestibility (LFDCS) had the TTNDFD prediction of 36.0% of total NDF, whereas TTNDFD for the corn silage with higher fiber digestibility (HFDCS) was 44.9% of total neutral detergent fiber (NDF). Two diets (1 with LFDCS and 1 with HFDCS) were formulated and analyzed using the in vitro assay to predict the TTNDFD and rumen potentially digestible NDF (pdNDF) digestion rate. Similar diets were fed to 8 ruminally cannulated, multiparous, high-producing dairy cows in 2 replicated 4×4 Latin squares with 21-d periods. A 2×2 factorial arrangement of treatments was used with main effects of intake (restricted to approximately 90% of ad libitum intake vs. ad libitum) and corn silage of different fiber digestibility. Treatments were restricted and ad libitum LFDCS as well as restricted and ad libitum HFDCS. The input and output values predicted from the in vitro model were compared with in vivo measurements. The pdNDF intake predicted by the in vitro model was similar to pdNDF intake observed in vivo. Also, the pdNDF digestion rate predicted in vitro was similar to what was observed in vivo. The in vitro method predicted TTNDFD of 50.2% for HFDCS and 42.9% for LFDCS as a percentage of total NDF in the diets, whereas the in vivo measurements of TTNDFD averaged 50.3 and 48.6% of total NDF for the HFDCS and LFDCS diets, respectively. The in vitro TTNDFD assay predicted total-tract NDF digestibility of HFDCS diets similar to the digestibility observed in vivo, but for LFDCS diets the assay underestimated the digestibility compared with in vivo. When the in vitro and in vivo measurements were compared without intake effect (ad libitum and restricted) considering only diet effect of silage fiber

  11. Expression pattern of peptide and amino acid genes in digestive tract of transporter juvenile turbot ( Scophthalmus maximus L.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Dandan; He, Gen; Mai, Kangsen; Zhou, Huihui; Xu, Wei; Song, Fei

    2016-04-01

    Turbot ( Scophthalmus maximus L.), a carnivorous fish species with high dietary protein requirement, was chosen to examine the expression pattern of peptide and amino acid transporter genes along its digestive tract which was divided into six segments including stomach, pyloric caeca, rectum, and three equal parts of the remainder of the intestine. The results showed that the expression of two peptide and eleven amino acid transporters genes exhibited distinct patterns. Peptide transporter 1 (PepT1) was rich in proximal intestine while peptide transporter 2 (PepT2) was abundant in distal intestine. A number of neutral and cationic amino acid transporters expressed richly in whole intestine including B0-type amino acid transporter 1 (B0AT1), L-type amino acid transporter 2 (LAT2), T-type amino acid transporter 1 (TAT1), proton-coupled amino acid transporter 1 (PAT1), y+L-type amino acid transporter 1 (y+LAT1), and cationic amino acid transporter 2 (CAT2) while ASC amino acid transporter 2 (ASCT2), sodium-coupled neutral amino acid transporter 2 (SNAT2), and y+L-type amino acid transporter 2 (y+LAT2) abundantly expressed in stomach. In addition, system b0,+ transporters (rBAT and b0,+AT) existed richly in distal intestine. These findings comprehensively characterized the distribution of solute carrier family proteins, which revealed the relative importance of peptide and amino acid absorption through luminal membrane. Our findings are helpful to understand the mechanism of the utilization of dietary protein in fish with a short digestive tract.

  12. Identification of iron and heme utilization genes in Aeromonas and their role in the colonization of the leech digestive tract

    PubMed Central

    Maltz, Michele; LeVarge, Barbara L.; Graf, Joerg

    2015-01-01

    It is known that many pathogens produce high-affinity iron uptake systems like siderophores and/or proteins for utilizing iron bound to heme-containing molecules, which facilitate iron-acquisition inside a host. In mutualistic digestive-tract associations, iron uptake systems have not been as well studied. We investigated the importance of two iron utilization systems within the beneficial digestive-tract association Aeromonas veronii and the medicinal leech, Hirudo verbana. Siderophores were detected in A. veronii using chrome azurol S. Using a mini Tn5, a transposon insertion in viuB generated a mutant unable to utilize iron using siderophores. The A. veronii genome was then searched for genes potentially involved in iron utilization bound to heme-containing molecules. A putative outer membrane heme receptor (hgpB) was identified with a transcriptional activator, termed hgpR, downstream. The hgpB gene was interrupted with an antibiotic resistance cassette in both the parent strain and the viuB mutant, yielding an hgpB mutant and a mutant with both iron uptake systems inactivated. In vitro assays indicated that hgpB is involved in utilizing iron bound to heme and that both iron utilization systems are important for A. veronii to grow in blood. In vivo colonization assays revealed that the ability to acquire iron from heme-containing molecules is critical for A. veronii to colonize the leech gut. Since iron and specifically heme utilization is important in this mutualistic relationship and has a potential role in virulence factor of other organisms, genomes from different Aeromonas strains (both clinical and environmental) were queried with iron utilization genes of A. veronii. This analysis revealed that in contrast to the siderophore utilization genes heme utilization genes are widely distributed among aeromonads. The importance of heme utilization in the colonization of the leech further confirms that symbiotic and pathogenic relationships possess similar

  13. Glycemic index, glycemic load, and risk of digestive tract neoplasms: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Mulholland, Helen G; Murray, Liam J; Cardwell, Chris R; Cantwell, Marie M

    2009-02-01

    Habitual consumption of diets with a high glycemic index (GI) and a high glycemic load (GL) may influence cancer risk via hyperinsulinemia and the insulin-like growth factor axis. The objective was to conduct a systematic review to assess the association between GI, GL, and risk of digestive tract cancers. Medline and Embase were searched for relevant publications from inception to July 2008. When possible, adjusted results from a comparison of cancer risk of the highest compared with the lowest category of GI and GL intake were combined by using random-effects meta-analyses. Cohort and case-control studies that examined the risk between GI or GL intake and colorectal cancer (n = 12) and adenomas (n = 2), pancreatic cancer (n = 6), gastric cancer (n = 2), and squamous-cell esophageal carcinoma (n = 1) were retrieved. Most case-control studies observed positive associations between GI and GL intake and these cancers. However, pooled cohort study results showed no associations between colorectal cancer risk and GI intake [relative risk (RR): 1.04; 95% CI: 0.92, 1.12; n = 7 studies] or GL intake (RR: 1.06; 95% CI: 0.95, 1.17; n = 8 studies). Furthermore, no significant associations were observed in meta-analyses of cohort study results of colorectal cancer subsites and GI and GL intake. Similarly, no significant associations emerged between pancreatic cancer risk and GI intake (RR: 0.99; 95% CI: 0.83, 1.19; n = 5 studies) or GL intake (RR: 1.01; 95% CI: 0.86, 1.19; n = 6 studies) in combined cohort studies. The findings from our meta-analyses indicate that GI and GL intakes are not associated with risk of colorectal or pancreatic cancers. There were insufficient data available regarding other digestive tract cancers to make any conclusions about GI or GL intake and risk.

  14. Screening for upper digestive tract cancer with an occult blood bead detector. Investigation of a normal north China population.

    PubMed

    Qin, D X; Wang, G Q; Yuan, F L; Tang, M Z; Li, M S; Zhang, Z L

    1988-09-01

    Screening of the general population for cancer of the upper digestive tract using an occult blood bead detector supplemented by fibergastroscopy was able to detect 126 cancers of the esophagus, gastric cardia, and stomach. This screening was carried out in two of the high-risk areas, Yangzhong and Wun counties, located in central eastern and north China. The occult blood bead detector, swallowed and retained in the stomach for 3 minutes, was able to sort out the suspected persons by its coloration from sky blue (+) to dark blue ( ) on removal. The subsequent fibergastroscopy could make a definite diagnosis by biopsy specimen. A preliminary trial performed on patients with established cancers was 100% (18 of 18) positive for stomach cancer and 81% (13 of 16) positive for esophageal cancer. A public survey of the high-risk areas, screening 38,073 normal persons ranging in age from 35 to 70 years, showed positive results in 9204 (24.2%) persons. Subsequent fibergastroscopy carried out in 4023 occult blood bead detector positive persons showed 126 cancers (41 of the esophagus, 46 of the gastric cardia, and 39 of the stomach). Factors influencing the cancer detection rate were sex, age, and degree of positivity of the occult blood bead detector test. Seventy per cent (89 of 126) of the cancers discovered were in an early stage. The occult blood bead detector costs the primary screened person only 30 cents and may be practical for the large-scale screening of cancer of the upper digestive tract in developing areas.

  15. Growth performance and total tract nutrient digestion for Holstein heifers limit-fed diets high in distillers grains with different forage particle size

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This study evaluated dairy heifer growth performance and total tract nutrient digestion when fed diets high in dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) with different forage particle size. An 8-wk randomized complete block design study was conducted utilizing twenty-two Holstein heifers (123 ±...

  16. Bacterial communities associated with the digestive tract of the predatory ground beetle, Poecilus chalcites, and their response to laboratory rearing and antibiotic treatment

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Ground beetles such as Poecilus chalcites (Coleoptera:Carabidae) are beneficial insects in agricultural systems where they contribute to the control of insect and weed pests. We determined the number and identity of bacterial populations occurring in the digestive tracts of field-collected P. chalc...

  17. Corn or sorghum wet distiller's grains with solubles in combination with steam-flaked corn: Feedlot cattle performance, carcass characteristics, and apparent total tract digestibility

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Two studies were conducted to evaluate corn (CDG) and sorghum (SDG) wet distiller's grains with solubles on feedlot cattle performance, carcass characteristics, apparent total tract digestion of nutrients, and marker retention time. In Experiment 1, 224 steers were used in a randomized complete bloc...

  18. Expression patterns suggest that despite considerable functional redundancy, galectin-4 and -6 play distinct roles in normal and damaged mouse digestive tract.

    PubMed

    Houzelstein, Denis; Reyes-Gomez, Edouard; Maurer, Marie; Netter, Pierre; Higuet, Dominique

    2013-05-01

    The galectin-4 protein is mostly expressed in the digestive tract and is associated with lipid raft stabilization, protein apical trafficking, wound healing, and inflammation. While most mammalian species, including humans, have a single Lgals4 gene, some mice have two paralogues: Lgals4 and Lgals6. So far, their significant similarities have hindered the analysis of their respective expression and function. We took advantage of two antibodies that discriminate between the galectin-4 and galectin-6 proteins to document their patterns of expression in the normal and the dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-damaged digestive tract in the mouse. In the normal digestive tract, their pattern of expression from tongue to colon is quite similar, which suggests functional redundancy. However, the presence of galectin-4, but not galectin-6, in the lamina propria of the DSS-damaged colon, its association with luminal colonic bacteria, and differences in subcellular localization of these proteins suggest that they also have distinct roles in the normal and the damaged mouse digestive tract. Our results provide a rare example of ancestral and derived functions evolving after tandem gene duplication.

  19. Expression Patterns Suggest that Despite Considerable Functional Redundancy, Galectin-4 and -6 Play Distinct Roles in Normal and Damaged Mouse Digestive Tract

    PubMed Central

    Reyes-Gomez, Edouard; Maurer, Marie; Netter, Pierre; Higuet, Dominique

    2013-01-01

    The galectin-4 protein is mostly expressed in the digestive tract and is associated with lipid raft stabilization, protein apical trafficking, wound healing, and inflammation. While most mammalian species, including humans, have a single Lgals4 gene, some mice have two paralogues: Lgals4 and Lgals6. So far, their significant similarities have hindered the analysis of their respective expression and function. We took advantage of two antibodies that discriminate between the galectin-4 and galectin-6 proteins to document their patterns of expression in the normal and the dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-damaged digestive tract in the mouse. In the normal digestive tract, their pattern of expression from tongue to colon is quite similar, which suggests functional redundancy. However, the presence of galectin-4, but not galectin-6, in the lamina propria of the DSS-damaged colon, its association with luminal colonic bacteria, and differences in subcellular localization of these proteins suggest that they also have distinct roles in the normal and the damaged mouse digestive tract. Our results provide a rare example of ancestral and derived functions evolving after tandem gene duplication. PMID:23360694

  20. [Bulgarian potassium-calcium zeolite in the prophylaxis of digestive tract disorders in calves].

    PubMed

    Petkova, E; Venkov, T; Chushkov, P; Dzhurov, A; Stefanov, Ts

    1982-01-01

    Scientific and economic trials were carried out to test the prophylactic effect of Bulgarian K-Ca zeolite products in the prevention of digestive troubles in calves, corresponding to the State Standard production branch requirements of 33675789-79, and to 0.00-0.01 mm (France). When applied at the rate of 2 per cent constituent of the daily milk ration from the first to the fifteenth day after calving it was found to produce a good prophylactic effect against digestive disturbances. It was also found that there was enhancement of the general resistance in calves. This resulted in lower morbidity and mortality rates, and shortening the period of illness in calves that received zeolite. By the end of the experimental period there was a definite rise of the blood albumins, the sum total of the gamma-globulins, the hemoglobin value, and the absolute values of granulocytes and lymphocytes.

  1. Stunting syndrome in broilers: effect of age and exogenous amylase and protease on performance, development of the digestive tract, digestive enzyme activity, and apparent digestibility.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, F; Nir, I

    1995-12-01

    Day-old male, meat-type chicks raised in brooder batteries were infected by orally administering an inoculum prepared from intestines of broiler chicks infected with stunting syndrome (SS). Naive controls were kept in a parallel room. The chicks were fed a commercial starter diet supplemented with two levels of enzyme preparations to 14 d of age. The experiment was continued to the age of 6 wk in order to estimate compensatory feed intake and growth. In a parallel study, digestibility of the feed was determined from 1 to 3 wk of age with control or inoculated chicks. The enzymes amylase and proteases were produced by Bacillus subtilis and Penicillium emersonii. Enzyme supplementation had no effect on feed intake, growth, or feed utilization, or on digestibility of fat, starch, protein, or energy. Because enzyme supplementation did not consistently affect performance of chicks and no interactions were observed between enzyme supplementation and infection status, data are presented for effects of infection only. Inoculation of SS-infective material reduced performance to 4 wk. Compensatory growth and feed intake were observed from the age of 4 wk onward. At the age of 6 wk the slight retardation of the inoculated chicks was not significant. On Week 1, retention of fat, starch, protein, and energy was significantly depressed in the inoculated chicks. At the age of 2 wk, retention of starch was not depressed, and at the age of 3 wk, the only consistent depression was that observed for fat. The proventriculus weight and content were consistently higher in inoculated chicks, as were the small intestine and intestinal content. The pH of the gizzard content was higher, and that of the small intestine content was lower, in the inoculated birds than in their control counterparts. Stunting syndrome infection was accompanied by a significant depression of trypsin activity in the pancreas at the age of 1 and 2 wk. At these periods, amylase and chymotrypsin were not affected. At

  2. The morphology of the digestive tract and respiratory organs of the holothurian Cladolabes schmeltzii (Holothuroidea, Dendrochirotida).

    PubMed

    Kamenev, Ya O; Dolmatov, I Yu; Frolova, L T; Khang, Nguyen An

    2013-04-01

    The microanatomy of the digestive and respiratory systems of the holothurian Cladolabes schmeltzii was studied. The digestive tube of C. schmeltzii is divided into seven parts. The pharynx, esophagus, and stomach are lined with cuticular immersed epithelium. In these regions, the epithelial cells are connected via desmosomes, septate junctions, and rivet-like structures. The presence of the cuticle and rivet-like structures suggests an ectodermal origin for these parts of the digestive tube. The luminal intestinal epithelium is formed by vesicular enterocytes, which have different structures in different intestinal regions. Moreover, the epithelium of the first descending part of the intestine contains the granular enterocytes. The respiratory system consists of paired respiratory trees lined by a luminal epithelium that is formed by cells of irregular shape. The apical surface of these epithelial cells has few lamellae. The cells are connected to each other through a system of intercellular junctions, consisting of both desmosomes and well-developed septate junctions. The coelomic epithelium of the intestine and the respiratory trees consists of peritoneal and myoepithelial cells. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Effects of dietary supplementation of waste date’s vinegar on performance and improvement of digestive tract in broiler chicks

    PubMed Central

    Tasharofi, Shima; Yazdanpanah Goharrizi, Laleh; Mohammadi, Farhad

    2017-01-01

    Two hundred 1-day-old commercial broilers (Ross 308) were used to determine the effects of diets supplementation with waste date’s vinegar (WDV) on the growth and performance of digestive tract over a 42-days growing period. Chicks were randomly allocated to one of five experimental diets supplementing as 0 (control), 1, 2, and 3% of WDV and 2% industrial vinegar (IV). Broilers and their feed consumptions were weighed at the trial beginning and days 10, 21, 35 and 42 of experimental period. Moreover, one chick from every replicate was killed at days 21 and 42 to measure development of digestive tissues and morphology and microbiology of small intestine. Although the final body weight was higher following IV and 1% WDV usage, feed conversion ratio was negatively affected by IV usage compared to control (p < 0.05). Relative weight of different parts of small intestine was not affected by experimental diets. Villus height and width were reduced linearly in WDV, IV and control groups (p < 0.05), but crypt depth was not different among experimental diets. Also, ileum microbiota was not affected by treatments. Results indicated that diet supplementation with WDV has positive effects on growth performance and histomorphology of jejunum in broilers. PMID:28785388

  4. Changes in apparent metabolizable energy and digestive tract of broiler chickens fed diets containing irradiated meat-bone meal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Masri, M. R.

    2003-05-01

    Experiments have been carried out to study the effect of feeding broiler chickens with irradiated meat-bone meal (0, 5, 10, 25, 50 kGy), at a rate of 100 g/kg diet, on the apparent metabolizable energy (AME) values, using total collection of feed and excreta, during different age periods (14-21, 21-28, 28-35 and 35-42 days) and on the biological aspects of the digestive organs during the last 4 weeks of chickens'age (14-42 days). Results indicated that feeding of broiler chickens with diets containing irradiated meat-bone meal had insignificant effects on the AME values which amounted to an average of 18.6 MJ/kg diet during the four weeks of experimental periods. The AME values increased significantly by 0.36-0.99 MJ/kg diet during the late fourth age period compared with the other earlier three age periods. No significant difference was noticed in the AME values between the second and third experimental age periods. Feeding chickens with irradiated meat-bone meal for 4 weeks (14-42 day of age) had no significant effects on the relative weights of crop, proventriculus, gizzard, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, caeca, colon, pancreas and liver. Therefore, radiation sterilized meat-bone meal could be used as feedstuff in poultry diets without any deleterious effect on the diet energy utilization and biological aspects of chickens'digestive tract.

  5. Survival and digestibility of orally-administered immunoglobulin preparations containing IgG through the gastrointestinal tract in humans.

    PubMed

    Jasion, Victoria S; Burnett, Bruce P

    2015-03-07

    Oral immunoglobulin (Ig) preparations are prime examples of medicinal nutrition from natural sources. Plasma products containing Ig have been used for decades in animal feed for intestinal disorders to mitigate the damaging effects of early weaning. These preparations reduce overall mortality and increase feed utilization in various animal species leading to improved growth. Oral administration of Ig preparations from human serum as well as bovine colostrum and serum have been tested and proven to be safe as well as effective in human clinical trials for a variety of enteric microbial infections and other conditions which cause diarrhea. In infants, children, and adults, the amount of intact IgG recovered in stool ranges from trace amounts up to 25% of the original amount ingested. It is generally understood that IgG can only bind to antigens within the GI tract if the Fab structure is intact and has not been completely denatured through acidic pH or digestive proteolytic enzymes. This is a comprehensive review of human studies regarding the survivability of orally-administered Ig preparations, with a focus on IgG. This review also highlights various biochemical studies on IgG which potentially explain which structural elements are responsible for increased stability against digestion.

  6. Lipid Encapsulation Provides Insufficient Total-Tract Digestibility to Achieve an Optimal Transfer Efficiency of Fatty Acids to Milk Fat.

    PubMed

    Bainbridge, Melissa; Kraft, Jana

    2016-01-01

    Transfer efficiencies of rumen-protected n-3 fatty acids (FA) to milk are low, thus we hypothesized that rumen-protection technologies allow for biohydrogenation and excretion of n-3 FA. The objectives of this study were to i) investigate the ruminal protection and post-ruminal release of the FA derived from the lipid-encapsulated echium oil (EEO), and ii) assess the bioavailability and metabolism of the EEO-derived FA through measuring the FA content in plasma lipid fractions, feces, and milk. The EEO was tested for rumen stability using the in situ nylon bag technique, then the apparent total-tract digestibility was assessed in vivo using six Holstein dairy cattle. Diets consisted of a control (no EEO); 1.5% of dry matter (DM) as EEO and 1.5% DM as encapsulation matrix; and 3% DM as EEO. The EEO was rumen-stable and had no effect on animal production. EEO-derived FA were incorporated into all plasma lipid fractions, with the highest proportion of n-3 FA observed in cholesterol esters. Fecal excretion of EEO-derived FA ranged from 7-14%. Biohydrogenation products increased in milk, plasma, and feces with EEO supplementation. In conclusion, lipid-encapsulation provides inadequate digestibility to achieve an optimal transfer efficiency of n-3 FA to milk.

  7. Impact of reference geosorbents on oral bioaccessibility of PAH in a human in vitro digestive tract model.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Wiebke; Kons, Sandra; Achten, Christine

    2015-04-01

    Former studies on human oral bioaccessibility of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) from natural soil samples using human in vitro digestive tract models (physiologically based extraction tests, PBET) show highly variable results (0-100% of mobilized PAH). Apart from other factors, the type and amount of present geosorbents are assumed to be significant for the degree of desorption/release of PAH into the digestive juice. Therefore, in this study, the reference geosorbents pure quartz sand, Na-montmorillonite clay, Pahokee peat, and charcoal "Sommerhit" were spiked with selected deuterated PAH and employed as single materials in a PBET. Lowest bioaccessibility was determined in charcoal, representing black carbon (0.1 ± 0.1 % for ∑10 PAH-d) in contrast to higher bioaccessibility in peat (6.4 ± 2.2%) and clay (4.8 ± 1.1%). Highest bioaccessibility was determined in sand (26.9 ± 7.5%). The results show a systematic impact of heterogeneous geosorbents on human oral bioaccessibility of PAH and particularly black carbon acting as a very strong geosorbent that reduces human health risk.

  8. Lipid Encapsulation Provides Insufficient Total-Tract Digestibility to Achieve an Optimal Transfer Efficiency of Fatty Acids to Milk Fat

    PubMed Central

    Bainbridge, Melissa; Kraft, Jana

    2016-01-01

    Transfer efficiencies of rumen-protected n-3 fatty acids (FA) to milk are low, thus we hypothesized that rumen-protection technologies allow for biohydrogenation and excretion of n-3 FA. The objectives of this study were to i) investigate the ruminal protection and post-ruminal release of the FA derived from the lipid-encapsulated echium oil (EEO), and ii) assess the bioavailability and metabolism of the EEO-derived FA through measuring the FA content in plasma lipid fractions, feces, and milk. The EEO was tested for rumen stability using the in situ nylon bag technique, then the apparent total-tract digestibility was assessed in vivo using six Holstein dairy cattle. Diets consisted of a control (no EEO); 1.5% of dry matter (DM) as EEO and 1.5% DM as encapsulation matrix; and 3% DM as EEO. The EEO was rumen-stable and had no effect on animal production. EEO-derived FA were incorporated into all plasma lipid fractions, with the highest proportion of n-3 FA observed in cholesterol esters. Fecal excretion of EEO-derived FA ranged from 7–14%. Biohydrogenation products increased in milk, plasma, and feces with EEO supplementation. In conclusion, lipid-encapsulation provides inadequate digestibility to achieve an optimal transfer efficiency of n-3 FA to milk. PMID:27741299

  9. Pathological analysis of collision (double primary) cancer in the upper digestive tract concomitant with gastric stromal tumor: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xun; Zou, Yabin; Hao, Yueming; Cheng, Hongjing; Zhou, Changli; Meng, Xiangwei

    2015-01-01

    Carcinoma of the esophagus and cardiac cancer are common malignancies, while multiple primary cancers in the esophagus and cardia is rarely encountered and easily misdiagnosed. Multiple primary cancers mean the same organs (tissues) or different organs (tissues) have two or more than two primary malignant tumors at the same time or in sequence in the same individual. The case below of two independent primary lesions is double primary carcinoma which meets the diagnosis standard of multiple primary cancers. Gastrointestinal stromal tumor is the most common stromal tumor, which is usually considered as originating from Cajal cells in the gastrointestinal tract or mesenchymal stem cells with the mutation of KIT or PDGFRA gene. Study on stromal tumor with digestive tract cancer is less both at home and abroad, while double primary carcinoma with stromal tumor is rare, which has not been reported at present. Although scholars have different viewpoints on the prognosis, but the full understanding of this disease can be as a warning for the future work and to avoid misdiagnosis. PMID:26722567

  10. Influence of the Biliary System on Biliary Bacteria Revealed by Bacterial Communities of the Human Biliary and Upper Digestive Tracts.

    PubMed

    Ye, Fuqiang; Shen, Hongzhang; Li, Zhen; Meng, Fei; Li, Lei; Yang, Jianfeng; Chen, Ying; Bo, Xiaochen; Zhang, Xiaofeng; Ni, Ming

    2016-01-01

    Biliary bacteria have been implicated in gallstone pathogenesis, though a clear understanding of their composition and source is lacking. Moreover, the effects of the biliary environment, which is known to be generally hostile to most bacteria, on biliary bacteria are unclear. Here, we investigated the bacterial communities of the biliary tract, duodenum, stomach, and oral cavity from six gallstone patients by using 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing. We found that all observed biliary bacteria were detectable in the upper digestive tract. The biliary microbiota had a comparatively higher similarity with the duodenal microbiota, versus those of the other regions, but with a reduced diversity. Although the majority of identified bacteria were greatly diminished in bile samples, three Enterobacteriaceae genera (Escherichia, Klebsiella, and an unclassified genus) and Pyramidobacter were abundant in bile. Predictive functional analysis indicated enhanced abilities of environmental information processing and cell motility of biliary bacteria. Our study provides evidence for the potential source of biliary bacteria, and illustrates the influence of the biliary system on biliary bacterial communities.

  11. Effect of phytate, microbial phytase, fiber, and soybean oil on calculated values for apparent and standardized total tract digestibility of calcium and apparent total tract digestibility of phosphorus in fish meal fed to growing pigs.

    PubMed

    González-Vega, J C; Walk, C L; Stein, H H

    2015-10-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the effects of phytate, phytase, fiber, and soybean oil on apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) and standardized total tract digestibility (STTD) of Ca and on ATTD of P in fish meal fed to growing pigs. In Exp. 1, 40 growing pigs (initial average BW: 19.16 ± 2.04 kg) were randomly allotted to 1 of 5 diets with 8 pigs per treatment and placed in metabolism crates. Four diets were used in a 2 ´ 2 factorial design with 2 levels of phytate (0 or 0.7%) and 2 levels of microbial phytase (0 or 500 phytase units/kg). The diet containing no phytate was based on sucrose, cornstarch, fish meal, casein, and soybean oil, and the diet containing 0.7% phytate was based on corn, corn germ, fish meal, casein, and soybean oil. A Ca-free diet was used to determine basal endogenous losses of Ca. Feces were collected from d 6 to 13 after a 5-d adaptation period. Results indicated that the ATTD and STTD of Ca in fish meal and the ATTD of P increased ( < 0.001) if phytase was used and were greater ( < 0.05) in the diets based on corn and corn germ. Experiment 2 was conducted to determine the effects of fiber and soybean oil on the ATTD and STTD of Ca and the ATTD of P in fish meal. Fifty growing pigs (initial average BW: 19.36 ± 0.99 kg) were randomly allotted to 1 of 5 diets with 10 pigs per treatment. Two diets contained sucrose, cornstarch, fish meal, casein, and either 0 or 8% of a synthetic source of fiber. Two additional diets contained fish meal, casein, corn, and either 1 or 7% soybean oil. A Ca-free diet was also used. Pigs were housed individually in metabolism crates and fecal samples were collected. Results indicated that fiber increased ( < 0.001) the ATTD and STTD of Ca and the ATTD of P, but the ATTD and STTD of Ca or the ATTD of P were not affected by soybean oil. In agreement with the results of Exp. 1, the ATTD and STTD of Ca and the ATTD of P in the corn-based diet were greater ( < 0.05) than those in the cornstarch

  12. An Insight into the Transcriptome of the Digestive Tract of the Bloodsucking Bug, Rhodnius prolixus

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro, José M. C.; Genta, Fernando A.; Sorgine, Marcos H. F.; Logullo, Raquel; Mesquita, Rafael D.; Paiva-Silva, Gabriela O.; Majerowicz, David; Medeiros, Marcelo; Koerich, Leonardo; Terra, Walter R.; Ferreira, Clélia; Pimentel, André C.; Bisch, Paulo M.; Leite, Daniel C.; Diniz, Michelle M. P.; Junior, João Lídio da S. G. V.; Da Silva, Manuela L.; Araujo, Ricardo N.; Gandara, Ana Caroline P.; Brosson, Sébastien; Salmon, Didier; Bousbata, Sabrina; González-Caballero, Natalia; Silber, Ariel Mariano; Alves-Bezerra, Michele; Gondim, Katia C.; Silva-Neto, Mário Alberto C.; Atella, Georgia C.; Araujo, Helena; Dias, Felipe A.; Polycarpo, Carla; Vionette-Amaral, Raquel J.; Fampa, Patrícia; Melo, Ana Claudia A.; Tanaka, Aparecida S.; Balczun, Carsten; Oliveira, José Henrique M.; Gonçalves, Renata L. S.; Lazoski, Cristiano; Rivera-Pomar, Rolando; Diambra, Luis; Schaub, Günter A.; Garcia, Elói S.; Azambuja, Patrícia; Braz, Glória R. C.; Oliveira, Pedro L.

    2014-01-01

    The bloodsucking hemipteran Rhodnius prolixus is a vector of Chagas' disease, which affects 7–8 million people today in Latin America. In contrast to other hematophagous insects, the triatomine gut is compartmentalized into three segments that perform different functions during blood digestion. Here we report analysis of transcriptomes for each of the segments using pyrosequencing technology. Comparison of transcript frequency in digestive libraries with a whole-body library was used to evaluate expression levels. All classes of digestive enzymes were highly expressed, with a predominance of cysteine and aspartic proteinases, the latter showing a significant expansion through gene duplication. Although no protein digestion is known to occur in the anterior midgut (AM), protease transcripts were found, suggesting secretion as pro-enzymes, being possibly activated in the posterior midgut (PM). As expected, genes related to cytoskeleton, protein synthesis apparatus, protein traffic, and secretion were abundantly transcribed. Despite the absence of a chitinous peritrophic membrane in hemipterans - which have instead a lipidic perimicrovillar membrane lining over midgut epithelia - several gut-specific peritrophin transcripts were found, suggesting that these proteins perform functions other than being a structural component of the peritrophic membrane. Among immunity-related transcripts, while lysozymes and lectins were the most highly expressed, several genes belonging to the Toll pathway - found at low levels in the gut of most insects - were identified, contrasting with a low abundance of transcripts from IMD and STAT pathways. Analysis of transcripts related to lipid metabolism indicates that lipids play multiple roles, being a major energy source, a substrate for perimicrovillar membrane formation, and a source for hydrocarbons possibly to produce the wax layer of the hindgut. Transcripts related to amino acid metabolism showed an unanticipated priority for

  13. An insight into the transcriptome of the digestive tract of the bloodsucking bug, Rhodnius prolixus.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, José M C; Genta, Fernando A; Sorgine, Marcos H F; Logullo, Raquel; Mesquita, Rafael D; Paiva-Silva, Gabriela O; Majerowicz, David; Medeiros, Marcelo; Koerich, Leonardo; Terra, Walter R; Ferreira, Clélia; Pimentel, André C; Bisch, Paulo M; Leite, Daniel C; Diniz, Michelle M P; da S G V Junior, João Lídio; Da Silva, Manuela L; Araujo, Ricardo N; Gandara, Ana Caroline P; Brosson, Sébastien; Salmon, Didier; Bousbata, Sabrina; González-Caballero, Natalia; Silber, Ariel Mariano; Alves-Bezerra, Michele; Gondim, Katia C; Silva-Neto, Mário Alberto C; Atella, Georgia C; Araujo, Helena; Dias, Felipe A; Polycarpo, Carla; Vionette-Amaral, Raquel J; Fampa, Patrícia; Melo, Ana Claudia A; Tanaka, Aparecida S; Balczun, Carsten; Oliveira, José Henrique M; Gonçalves, Renata L S; Lazoski, Cristiano; Rivera-Pomar, Rolando; Diambra, Luis; Schaub, Günter A; Garcia, Elói S; Azambuja, Patrícia; Braz, Glória R C; Oliveira, Pedro L

    2014-01-01

    The bloodsucking hemipteran Rhodnius prolixus is a vector of Chagas' disease, which affects 7-8 million people today in Latin America. In contrast to other hematophagous insects, the triatomine gut is compartmentalized into three segments that perform different functions during blood digestion. Here we report analysis of transcriptomes for each of the segments using pyrosequencing technology. Comparison of transcript frequency in digestive libraries with a whole-body library was used to evaluate expression levels. All classes of digestive enzymes were highly expressed, with a predominance of cysteine and aspartic proteinases, the latter showing a significant expansion through gene duplication. Although no protein digestion is known to occur in the anterior midgut (AM), protease transcripts were found, suggesting secretion as pro-enzymes, being possibly activated in the posterior midgut (PM). As expected, genes related to cytoskeleton, protein synthesis apparatus, protein traffic, and secretion were abundantly transcribed. Despite the absence of a chitinous peritrophic membrane in hemipterans - which have instead a lipidic perimicrovillar membrane lining over midgut epithelia - several gut-specific peritrophin transcripts were found, suggesting that these proteins perform functions other than being a structural component of the peritrophic membrane. Among immunity-related transcripts, while lysozymes and lectins were the most highly expressed, several genes belonging to the Toll pathway - found at low levels in the gut of most insects - were identified, contrasting with a low abundance of transcripts from IMD and STAT pathways. Analysis of transcripts related to lipid metabolism indicates that lipids play multiple roles, being a major energy source, a substrate for perimicrovillar membrane formation, and a source for hydrocarbons possibly to produce the wax layer of the hindgut. Transcripts related to amino acid metabolism showed an unanticipated priority for

  14. Utility of models of the gastrointestinal tract for assessment of the digestion and absorption of engineered nanomaterials released from food matrices.

    PubMed

    Lefebvre, David E; Venema, Koen; Gombau, Lourdes; Valerio, Luis G; Raju, Jayadev; Bondy, Genevieve S; Bouwmeester, Hans; Singh, R Paul; Clippinger, Amy J; Collnot, Eva-Maria; Mehta, Rekha; Stone, Vicki

    2015-05-01

    Engineered metal/mineral, lipid and biochemical macromolecule nanomaterials (NMs) have potential applications in food. Methodologies for the assessment of NM digestion and bioavailability in the gastrointestinal tract are nascent and require refinement. A working group was tasked by the International Life Sciences Institute NanoRelease Food Additive project to review existing models of the gastrointestinal tract in health and disease, and the utility of these models for the assessment of the uptake of NMs intended for food. Gastrointestinal digestion and absorption could be addressed in a tiered approach using in silico computational models, in vitro non-cellular fluid systems and in vitro cell culture models, after which the necessity of ex vivo organ culture and in vivo animal studies can be considered. Examples of NM quantification in gastrointestinal tract fluids and tissues are emerging; however, few standardized analytical techniques are available. Coupling of these techniques to gastrointestinal models, along with further standardization, will further strengthen methodologies for risk assessment.

  15. Effect of microbial phytase on phytate P degradation and apparent digestibility of total P and Ca throughout the gastrointestinal tract of the growing pig.

    PubMed

    Rutherfurd, S M; Chung, T K; Moughan, P J

    2014-01-01

    The effect of a dietary microbial phytase on mineral digestibility throughout the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of the growing pig was studied. Thirty-two entire male pigs (~22 kg BW) were allocated equally to 4 corn-soybean meal diets. One diet was adequate in total P and Ca, the second diet was deficient in total P and Ca (low-P diet), and the third and fourth diets were the low-P diet with microbial phytase added at 1,107 U/kg or 2,215 U/kg, respectively. Titanium dioxide (3 g/kg) was included in the diets as an indigestible marker. The pigs were fed their respective diets for 42 d. Fecal samples were collected from d 38 to 41 and stomach chyme, terminal jejunal, and terminal ileal digesta samples were collected after euthanasia on d 42. Phytate P degradability and apparent total P and Ca digestibility were determined at the gastric, jejunal, ileal, and total tract levels. Phytate P degradation and apparent total P and Ca digestibility were not significantly different between the 2 microbial phytase inclusion levels. Across both microbial phytase-low-P diets, phytase supplementation increased (P < 0.05) phytate P degradability at the jejunal, ileal, and total tract levels by 101%, 77%, and 10%, respectively, but not at the gastric level. Total tract phytate P degradation was greater (P < 0.05) than ileal phytate P degradation for both the unsupplemented (52% units greater) and phytase-supplemented, low-P (26% units greater) diets. The latter result was not reflected by the apparent total P digestibility estimate, which was not significantly different between the ileal and total tract levels for both the unsupplemented and phytase-supplemented, low-P diets. Consequently, there appeared to be considerable phytate degradation in the hindgut, presumably due to the action of hindgut microbes, but the phytate P released in the hindgut did not appear to be absorbed. Apparent Ca digestibility was not significantly different among jejunal, ileal, and total tract levels

  16. Hyaluronic Acid: Perspectives in Upper Aero-Digestive Tract. A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Casale, Manuele; Moffa, Antonio; Sabatino, Lorenzo; Pace, Annalisa; Oliveto, Giuseppe; Vitali, Massimiliano; Baptista, Peter; Salvinelli, Fabrizio

    2015-01-01

    Background To date, topical therapies guarantee a better delivery of high concentrations of pharmacologic agents to the mucosa of the upper aerodigestive tract (UADT). The use of topical drugs, which are able to reduce mucosal inflammation and to improve healing tissues, can represent a relevant therapeutic advance. Topical sodium hyaluronate (SH) has recently been recognized as adjuvant treatment in the chronic inflammatory disease of the UADT. Aims The aim of our work was to review the published literature regarding all the potential therapeutic effects of SH in the chronic inflammatory disease of UADT. Methods Relevant published studies were searched in Pubmed, Google Scholar, Ovid using keywords (“sodium hyaluronate” and “upper airways”) or Medical Subject Headings. Results At the end of our selection process, sixteen publications have been included. Six of them in the post-operative period of nasal-sinus surgery, 2 of them in pediatric patients affected by recurrent upper respiratory tract infections, 4 of them in reducing symptoms and preventing exacerbations of chronic upper airways in adult population, 4 of them in patients with chronic inflammatory disease of UADT, including gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD). Conclusions Topical administration of SH plays a pivotkey role in the postoperative phase of patients undergoing FESS and nasal surgery, and positive results are generally observed in all the patients suffering from UADT chronic inflammatory disease. PMID:26120837

  17. [Smoking and digestive tract: a complex relationship. Part 1: Inflammatory bowel disease and cigarette smoking].

    PubMed

    Begon, Jacques; Juillerat, Pascal; Cornuz, Jacques; Clair, Carole

    2015-06-10

    Little is known about the effects of smoking on inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). However the co-occurrence of smoking and IBD often happens in ambulatory care. Smokers have a doubled risk of developing a Crohn's disease with a more active disease course. After quitting, a decrease in risk can be observed after only one year. An inverse relationship is found between smoking and ulcerative colitis. Smoking seems protective for the development of the disease and its course is less active among smokers. Smoking cessation transitorily increases the risk of developing ulcerative colitis. Nevertheless, continuing smoking cannot be justified among those patients given the risks of long-term extra-digestive effects. It is thus important to counsel all smokers with an IBD to quit smoking.

  18. Histopathological changes in the upper digestive tract of pigeons infected with Hadjelia truncata.

    PubMed

    Oryan, Ahmad; Rakhshandehroo, Ehsan; Kamali, S Amir; Taebi Pour, Mohammad Jafar

    2016-09-01

    Thirty-five pigeons from ten different farms in Fars area, southern Iran were submitted for post mortem inspection. Based on the clinical observations and gross pathological examinations, all the birds showed severe weight loss, diarrhea and to some extent ventricular enlargement. Furthermore, all the cases demonstrated large numbers of nematodes attached to the mucosa and submucosa of the ventriculus. Parasitological examinations revealed that the recovered parasites were Hadjelia truncata. The histopathological changes showed necrosis of the mucosal cells with moderate infiltration of lymphocytes, macrophages, heterophils and eosinophils in the lamina properia and muscularis mucosa in the infected animals. Based on the parasitological and pathological findings it can be concluded that the nematode H. truncate could be assigned as a pathogenic agent in the upper tract of pigeons.

  19. Effect of Bt corn on broiler growth performance and fate of feed-derived DNA in the digestive tract.

    PubMed

    Rossi, F; Morlacchini, M; Fusconi, G; Pietri, A; Mazza, R; Piva, G

    2005-07-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect on broiler performance of transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) corn containing the Cry1A(b) protein compared with the corresponding near isogenic corn and to analyze the degradation of the Cry1A(b) gene in the digestive tract. Ross male broilers (432) were fed for 42 consecutive days with diets containing Bt or isogenic corn. Diet, Bt corn, and the isogenic form of the Bt corn were analyzed for composition and aflatoxin B1, fumonisin B1, and deoxynivalenol contents. Broiler body weight and feed intake were recorded at regular intervals (d 0, 21, and 42). The presence of the Cry1A(b) gene and plant-specific genes Zein and Sh-2 in gut contents of crop, gizzard, jejunum, cecum, and samples of blood was determined in 10 animals per treatment at the end of the trial using a PCR technique. Chemical composition was not different between Bt and its isogenic form, whereas the fumonisin B1 content for Bt was lower than for isogenic corn (2,039 vs. 1,1034 ppb; P < 0.05). The results of the growth study showed no difference for average daily weight gain (129.4 vs. 126.0 g/d), feed intake (63.4 vs. 61.8 g/d), and feed conversion ratio (1.95 vs. 2.02) among the groups. No significant relationship was observed between mycotoxins content and growth performances. Feed-derived DNA is progressively degraded along the digestive tract. Detection frequency of short fragments of maize-specific high copy number Zein gene was high but significantly decreased in distal sectors. An 1,800-bp fragment of the Cry1A(b) gene, corresponding to the minimal functional unit, was detected only in crop and gizzard of birds fed Bt corn. Sh-2 showed the same detection frequency of Cry1A(b) and was also found in birds fed isogenic corn. Blood samples were positive with low frequency only for the Zein gene fragment. No significant difference in DNA detection was observed between birds fed Bt and isogenic corn, indicating that DNA derived from transgenic

  20. Effects of microbial phytase on apparent and standardized total tract digestibility of calcium in calcium supplements fed to growing pigs.

    PubMed

    González-Vega, J C; Walk, C L; Stein, H H

    2015-05-01

    An experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that differences in the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) and standardized total tract digestibility (STTD) of Ca exist among Ca supplements and that inclusion of microbial phytase increases the ATTD and STTD of Ca. One hundred and four growing barrows (average initial BW of 17.73 ± 2.53 kg) were allotted to a randomized complete block design with 13 dietary treatments and 8 pigs per treatment. A basal diet containing corn, cornstarch, potato protein isolate, soybean oil, calcium carbonate, monosodium phosphate, vitamins, and minerals was formulated. Five additional diets were formulated by adding monocalcium phosphate (MCP), dicalcium phosphate (DCP), calcium carbonate, Lithothamnium calcareum Ca, or a high-Ca sugar beet co-product to the basal diet at the expense of cornstarch. Six additional diets that were similar to the previous 6 diets with the exception that they also contained 500 units per kilogram of microbial phytase were also formulated. A Ca-free diet was used to determine basal endogenous losses of Ca. Feces were collected using the marker-to-marker approach. Results indicated that regardless of inclusion of microbial phytase, MCP had the greatest (P < 0.05) ATTD and STTD of Ca. The ATTD and STTD of Ca in DCP were greater (P < 0.05) than in calcium carbonate, L. calcareumC a, or in the sugar beet co-product, but no differences were observed among the ATTD and STTD of Ca in calcium carbonate, L. calcareum Ca, or sugar beet co-product. Inclusion of microbial phytase increased (P < 0.05) the ATTD and STTD of Ca in the diets, but this was not the case in the Ca supplements. Regardless of inclusion of microbial phytase, the ATTD of P was greater ( P< 0.05) in pigs fed basal, MCP, or DCP diets than in pigs fed calcium carbonate, L. calcareum Ca, or the sugar beet co-product, but pigs fed calcium carbonate diets had greater ( P< 0.05) ATTD of P than pigs fed L. calcareumCa or the sugar beet co

  1. Stable Isotope Labeled n-Alkanes to Assess Digesta Passage Kinetics through the Digestive Tract of Ruminants

    PubMed Central

    Warner, Daniel; Ferreira, Luis M. M.; Breuer, Michel J. H.; Dijkstra, Jan; Pellikaan, Wilbert F.

    2013-01-01

    We describe the use of carbon stable isotope (13C) labeled n-alkanes as a potential internal tracer to assess passage kinetics of ingested nutrients in ruminants. Plant cuticular n-alkanes originating from intrinsically 13C labeled ryegrass plants were pulse dosed intraruminally in four rumen-cannulated lactating dairy cows receiving four contrasting ryegrass silage treatments that differed in nitrogen fertilization level (45 or 90 kg nitrogen ha−1) and maturity (early or late). Passage kinetics through the gastrointestinal tract were derived from the δ13C (i.e. the ratio 13C:12C) in apparently undigested fecal material. Isotopic enrichment was observed in a wide range of long-chain n-alkanes (C27–C36) and passage kinetics were determined for the most abundant C29, C31 and C33 n-alkanes, for which a sufficiently high response signal was detected by combustion isotope ratio mass spectrometry. Basal diet treatment and carbon chain length of n-alkanes did not affect fractional passage rates from the rumen (K1) among individual n-alkanes (3.71–3.95%/h). Peak concentration time and transit time showed a quantitatively small, significant (p≤0.002) increase with carbon chain length. K1 estimates were comparable to those of the 13C labeled digestible dry matter fraction (3.38%/h; r = 0.61 to 0.71; p≤0.012). A literature review has shown that n-alkanes are not fermented by microorganisms in the rumen and affirms no preferential depletion of 13C versus 12C. Our results suggest that 13C labeled n-alkanes can be used as nutrient passage tracers and support the reliability of the δ13C signature of digestible feed nutrients as a tool to measure nutrient-specific passage kinetics. PMID:24124493

  2. Effects of an S6 strain of Mycoplasma gallisepticum challenge at onset of lay on digestive and reproductive tract characteristics in commercial layers.

    PubMed

    Parker, T A; Branton, S L; Jones, M S; Peebles, E D; Gerard, P D; Willeford, K O; Pharr, G T; Maslin, W R

    2003-01-01

    Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG), a reproductive/respiratory pathogen in poultry, has been implicated in suboptimum egg production and decreased hatchability. Commercial layer hens raised in a controlled environment were inoculated with the S6 strain of MG at 20 wk of age. The S6 inoculation had no effect on bird weight, egg production, digestive tract weight and length, or histopathologic lesion scores, although significant differences were noted in the lengths and weights of various portions of the reproductive tract. This study shows that S6MG inoculation does not detrimentally affect layer hen performance when in the absence of environmental stressors customary to a caged layer facility.

  3. Nonruminant Nutrition Symposium: Involvement of gut neural and endocrine systems in pathological disorders of the digestive tract.

    PubMed

    Furness, J B; Poole, D P

    2012-04-01

    The functioning of the gastrointestinal tract is under the control of the most extensive system of peripheral neurons in the body, the enteric nervous system, and the largest endocrine system of the body, the GEP endocrine system. The enteric nervous system in large mammals contains 500 million neurons, and the GEP endocrine system produces more than 30 hormones. Numerous enteric neuropathies affecting both humans and animals have been described and digestive disorders affect commercially important species, such as horses and cattle. The most severe enteric neuropathies (e.g., lethal white syndrome in horses or Hirschsprung's disease in humans) can be fatal. Also, horses with ileus or other digestive disorders are commonly euthanized. In this review we discuss examples of enteric neuropathies that affect agricultural animals and humans: prion disease, postoperative ileus, distal enteric aganglionosis, and infective diarrhea. Enteric neurons and glia are a location of prion proteins and are involved in transmission of the infection from gut to brain and brain to gut. Postoperative ileus is a complex disorder involving the local inhibitory effects of sympathetic nervous system activation and the release of opioids, presumably from enteric neurons. Intestinal inflammation, especially of the external muscle that includes enteric ganglia, also occurs in ileus. Congenital distal bowel aganglionosis, responsible for lethal white syndrome in horses, Hirschsprung's disease in humans, and similar conditions in mice and rats, is a fatal condition if untreated. Mutations of the same genes can cause the condition in each of these species. The only effective current treatment is surgical removal of the aganglionic bowel. Infectious diarrheas involve activation of enteric secretomotor neurons by pathogens and the toxins they produce, which causes substantial fluid loss. Strategies to target enteric neurons in the treatment of secretory diarrheas have not been developed. Disorders

  4. Deep metabotyping of the murine gastrointestinal tract for the visualization of digestion and microbial metabolism.

    PubMed

    Heinzmann, Silke S; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe

    2015-05-01

    Despite the gut's longitudinal specialization for digestion and microbiome organization, most studies focus on the analysis of its end product, feces. To determine the metabolic and physiological functions of different sections of the gut, we aimed to define a comprehensive list of characteristic metabolites for the physiological gut sections and to quantify the selected pathways. We investigated the metabolic composition of seven different gut sections from four C57Bl/6N mice with nontargeted metabolite profiling using high-resolution NMR spectroscopy, which returned a comprehensive metabolite overview with a single analytical measurement per sample. Here we deliver a list of characteristic metabolites, describe metabolite changes along the gut, and highlight the site specificity for selected metabolite pathways. We find that the largest metabolic changes happen in the cecum, where the microbiome produces microbial metabolites. Furthermore, we show the evolution of bile acids along the gut and describe their site-specific conversion. We establish a metabolic basis for future investigations of metabolic perturbations, which can be introduced by dietary challenges or gene knockouts and provide valuable information for tailored study design and targeted sample collection.

  5. The current evidence on stapled versus hand-sewn anastomoses in the digestive tract.

    PubMed

    Korolija, Dragan

    2008-01-01

    The innovation process and developments in technology have given surgeons new products which can improve their performance and benefit our patients. Before the era of laparoscopic surgery one of the most important applications in surgical practice was the introduction of staplers. In this article, the evidence supporting the decision whether to use a mechanical device (stapler) or to make a hand-sewn anastomosis is presented. A sytematic review of the literature was performed. The search included published meta-anaylses, randomized clinical trials and comparative studies. Key words for the initial search were: surgical anastomosis, stapler, hand-sewn. There was no language restriction. The reference lists from the selected articles were also checked by the author. Literature data on main outcomes concerning the application of one or the other surgical technique have been analysed. The literature search yielded published data on various procedures in digestive surgery. Most of the available high-quality evidence was for gastric and colorectal resections. Resection of the esophagus, use of staplers in emergency procedures and some initial reports on pancreatic surgery were also retrieved. The evidence from the literature shows that stapler anastomoses take less operative time and are more costly than hand-sewn anastomoses. Regarding the morbidity and leaks rate the staplers give equal or better results when compared with the hand-sewn technique. Nevertheless, proper handling of staplers and experience remain crucial issues if one wants to gain benefits when using these devices.

  6. Retention of solute and particle markers in the digestive tract of chinchillas (Chinchilla laniger).

    PubMed

    Hagen, K B; Dittmann, M T; Ortmann, S; Kreuzer, M; Hatt, J-M; Clauss, M

    2016-10-01

    The chinchilla (Chinchilla laniger) is a herbivorous hystricomorph South American rodent for which no mean digesta retention times have been reported so far. Six animals (mean body mass ± standard deviation: 513 ± 99 g) on a diet of grass hay and lucerne-based pellets were given a pulse dose of a solute (cobalt-EDTA) and a particle (chromium-mordanted fibre, <2 mm) marker with subsequent frequent faecal collection. Dry matter intake was 45.2 ± 8.0 g/kg(0.75) /day. Mean retention times were 22.2 ± 5.3 h for solutes and 25.4 ± 5.2 h for particles, with the difference being not significant within individuals. This indicates the presence of a 'mucus-trap' colonic separation mechanism, which is in accord with morphological descriptions of the typical colonic furrow in chinchillas. Corresponding to a strategy of colonic digesta separation and caecotroph formation, secondary marker excretion peaks indicated coprophagic events that were spaced approximately 12 h apart. Given that these retention times appear longer than measures reported for rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) or guinea pigs (Cavia procellus), it would be interesting to compare the digestive efficiency of chinchillas on high levels of dietary fibre to other species.

  7. [Physiopathology and therapy of foreign bodies in the upper digestive tract].

    PubMed

    Franzini, M; Piscioli, F; Reveanne, P; Dal Rì, P; Zecchi, E; Vodicenska Jovcheva, N

    Fibroendoscopy is the treatment of choice for foreign oesophageal and gastric bodies. Whereas the presence of objects in the oesophagus demands immediate endoscopic removal, gastric localization does not require any emergency treatment except for cases of perforation or incarceration, as most foreign bodies (80-90%) are eliminated naturally. Only two weeks after ingestion, in the case of failed expulsion, is it necessary to proceed to endoscopic removal so as to prevent decubitus or perforation erosions. Endoscopic extraction is made difficult by the length and weight of the object, on by its smallness and lack of texture, which make it hard to get hold of. In the case of suture stitches, it may be hard to cut them because of the presence of a gastric mucosa reactive granulomatous inflammatory process. Contraindications to endoscopic extraction are the failure of the patient to cooperate, acute oesophagitis (peptic and due to caustics) and perforating in the stomach, due to congenital or acquired malformations, means that surgery is necessary. The elimination of foreign bodies depends on the correlation between shape and size of object and the anatomo-functional components of the digestive ways. With reference to an approximate geometric schematization of transit organs, the physiopathology of foreign bodies may be expressed by means of mathematical formulae whose manifold variables sometimes make the natural elimination of the bodies unpredictable.

  8. CpG island methylator phenotype in adenocarcinomas from the digestive tract: Methods, conclusions, and controversies

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Vega, Francisco; Gotea, Valer; Chen, Yun-Ching; Elnitski, Laura

    2017-01-01

    Over the last two decades, cancer-related alterations in DNA methylation that regulate transcription have been reported for a variety of tumors of the gastrointestinal tract. Due to its relevance for translational research, great emphasis has been placed on the analysis and molecular characterization of the CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP), defined as widespread hypermethylation of CpG islands in clinically distinct subsets of cancer patients. Here, we present an overview of previous work in this field and also explore some open questions using cross-platform data for esophageal, gastric, and colorectal adenocarcinomas from The Cancer Genome Atlas. We provide a data-driven, pan-gastrointestinal stratification of individual samples based on CIMP status and we investigate correlations with oncogenic alterations, including somatic mutations and epigenetic silencing of tumor suppressor genes. Besides known events in CIMP such as BRAF V600E mutation, CDKN2A silencing or MLH1 inactivation, we discuss the potential role of emerging actors such as Wnt pathway deregulation through truncating mutations in RNF43 and epigenetic silencing of WIF1. Our results highlight the existence of molecular similarities that are superimposed over a larger backbone of tissue-specific features and can be exploited to reduce heterogeneity of response in clinical trials. PMID:28344746

  9. Multiple Magnetic Foreign Bodies Causing Severe Digestive Tract Injuries in a Child

    PubMed Central

    Si, Xinmin; Du, Baofeng; Huang, Lei

    2016-01-01

    Foreign body (FB) ingestion is a common emergency as well as a major cause of accidental injury and represents a severe public health problem in childhood, especially in infants. Most cases of FB ingestion reported in children aged between 6 months and 3 years depend primarily on the fact that young children are more likely to explore objects using their mouth and are not able to distinguish edible objects from nonedible ones, their teeth are physiologically lacking, and they have poor swallowing coordination. Although, sometimes it can cause serious complications, FB ingestion generally has a low mortality rate. However, accidental ingestion of magnetic toys, as a rare kind of FB mostly encountered in children, has now become more common due to the increased availability of objects and toys with magnetic elements. The majority of magnetic FB traverse the gastrointestinal (GI) system spontaneously without complication, but in rare cases may cause severe damages to the GI tract due to its special pathogenesis [Kay and Wyllie: Curr Gastroenterol Rep 2005;7: 212-218]. Ingestion of multiple magnets may be related to increased morbidity resulting in a delay of recognition of FB injury that can lead to serious complications and require surgical resolution. PMID:28100992

  10. Mucin-bacterial interactions in the human oral cavity and digestive tract

    PubMed Central

    van Passel, Mark WJ; van de Bovenkamp, Jeroen HB; Schipper, Raymond G; de Vos, Willem M; Dekker, Jan

    2010-01-01

    Mucins are a family of heavily glycosylated proteins that are the major organic components of the mucus layer, the protective layer covering the epithelial cells in many human and animal organs, including the entire gastro-intestinal tract. Microbes that can associate with mucins benefit from this interaction since they can get available nutrients, experience physico-chemical protection and adhere, resulting in increased residence time. Mucin-degrading microorganisms, which often are found in consortia, have not been extensively characterized as mucins are high molecular weight glycoproteins that are hard to study because of their size, complexity and heterogeneity. The purpose of this review is to discuss how advances in mucus and mucin research, and insight in the microbial ecology promoted our understanding of mucin degradation. Recent insight is presented in mucin structure and organization, the microorganisms known to use mucin as growth substrate, with a specific attention on Akkermansia muciniphila, and the molecular basis of microbial mucin degradation owing to availability of genome sequences. PMID:21327032

  11. A study of the anatomy, histology and ultrastructure of the digestive tract of Orthrias angorae Steindachner, 1897.

    PubMed

    Suíçmez, Menderes; Ulus, Emel

    2005-01-01

    The anatomy, histology and ultrastructure of the digestive tract of Orthrias angorae (Steindachner, 1897) were investigated using light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The histological structure consists of four layers: mucosa, submucosa, muscularis and serosa. The esophageal mucosa consists of undifferentiated basal epithelial cells, mucous cells and surface epithelial cells. It was observed that the J-shaped stomach had a meshwork of folds in the cardiac region, and longitudinal folds in the fundic and pyloric regions. A single layer of columnar cells, PAS positive only in their apical portions, forms the epithelium. The convoluted tube-shape intestine is lined by simple columnar epithelial cells, which have microvilli at the apical surface. The wall of the esophagus and stomach are thicker than that of the intestine because of the thick muscle layer. There were numerous goblet cells in the intestine. There were numerous gastric glands in the submucosa layer ofthe cardiac stomach, but none were present in the pyloric region of the stomach. There were no pyloric caeca between the stomach and intestine. The enterocytes with microvilli contained rough endoplasmic reticulum, ribosomes and rounded bodies, and the gastric cells contained a well-developed Golgi apparatus.

  12. Isolation and identification of a bacterium from marine shrimp digestive tract: A new degrader of starch and protein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jiqiu; Tan, Beiping; Mai, Kangsen

    2011-09-01

    It is a practical approach to select candidate probiotic bacterial stains on the basis of their special traits. Production of digestive enzyme was used as a trait to select a candidate probiotic bacterial strain in this study. In order to select a bacterium with the ability to degrade both starch and protein, an ideal bacterial strain STE was isolated from marine shrimp ( Litopenaeus vannamei) intestines by using multiple selective media. The selected isolate STE was identified on the basis of its morphological, physiological, and biochemical characteristics as well as molecular analyses. Results of degradation experiments confirmed the ability of the selected isolate to degrade both starch and casein. The isolate STE was aerobic, Gram-negative, rod-shaped, motile and non-spore-forming, and had catalase and oxidase activities but no glucose fermentation activity. Among the tested carbon/nitrogen sources, only Tween40, alanyl-glycine, aspartyl-glycine, and glycyl-l-glutamic acid were utilized by the isolate STE. Results of homology comparison analyses of the 16S rDNA sequences showed that the isolate STE had a high similarity to several Pseudoalteromonas species and, in the phylogenetic tree, grouped with P. ruthenica with maximum bootstrap support (100%). In conclusion, the isolate STE was characterized as a novel strain belonging to the genus Pseudoalteromonas. This study provides a further example of a probiotic bacterial strain with specific characteristics isolated from the host gastrointestinal tract.

  13. Automated segmentation of upper digestive tract from abdominal contrast-enhanced CT data using hierarchical statistical modeling of organ interrelations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirayama, S.; Otake, Y.; Okada, T.; Hori, M.; Tomiyama, N.; Sato, Y.

    2016-03-01

    We have been studying the automatic segmentation of multi-organ region from abdominal CT images. In previous work, we proposed an approach using a hierarchical statistical modeling using a relationship between organs. In this paper, we have proposed automatic segmentation of the upper digestive tract from abdominal contrast-enhanced CT using previously segmented multiple organs. We compared segmentation accuracy of the esophagus, stomach and duodenum between our proposed method using hierarchical statistical modeling and a conventional statistical atlas method. Additionally, preliminary experiment was performed which added the region representing gas to the candidate region at the segmentation step. The segmentation results were evaluated quantitatively by Dice coefficient, Jaccard index and the average symmetric surface distance of the segmented region and correct region data. Percentage of the average of Dice coefficient of esophagus, stomach and duodenum were 58.7, 68.3, and 38.6 with prediction-based method and 23.7, 51.1, and 24.4 with conventional atlas method.

  14. A Phylogenomic View of Ecological Specialization in the Lachnospiraceae, a Family of Digestive Tract-Associated Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Meehan, Conor J.; Beiko, Robert G.

    2014-01-01

    Several bacterial families are known to be highly abundant within the human microbiome, but their ecological roles and evolutionary histories have yet to be investigated in depth. One such family, Lachnospiraceae (phylum Firmicutes, class Clostridia) is abundant in the digestive tracts of many mammals and relatively rare elsewhere. Members of this family have been linked to obesity and protection from colon cancer in humans, mainly due to the association of many species within the group with the production of butyric acid, a substance that is important for both microbial and host epithelial cell growth. We examined the genomes of 30 Lachnospiraceae isolates to better understand the origin of butyric acid capabilities and other ecological adaptations within this group. Butyric acid production-related genes were detected in fewer than half of the examined genomes with the distribution of this function likely arising in part from lateral gene transfer (LGT). An investigation of environment-specific functional signatures indicated that human gut-associated Lachnospiraceae possess genes for endospore formation, whereas other members of this family lack key sporulation-associated genes, an observation supported by analysis of metagenomes from the human gut, oral cavity, and bovine rumen. Our analysis demonstrates that adaptation to an ecological niche and acquisition of defining functional roles within a microbiome can arise through a combination of both habitat-specific gene loss and LGT. PMID:24625961

  15. Modification and application of an in vitro assay to examine inositol phosphate degradation in the digestive tract of poultry.

    PubMed

    Sommerfeld, Vera; Schollenberger, Margit; Hemberle, Luca; Rodehutscord, Markus

    2017-09-01

    An in vitro assay was modified to study the disappearance of inositol hexakisphosphate (InsP6 ) and the formation of lower inositol phosphate (InsP) isomers in the poultry digestive tract, and three experiments investigated the influence of diets with different ingredients and additives. Using the poultry diet as a matrix, the assay simulated the conditions (e.g. pH, temperature, proteolytic enzymes, water content, and retention time) of the crop, stomach, and small intestine, and extraction and analysis of InsP isomers were immediately conducted. The assay produced highly reproducible results with coefficients of variation ≤10% for an InsP isomer concentration ≥0.4 µmol g(-1) DM (n = 3), and it was sensitive to the factors that varied in the three experiments. The described assay is a suitable tool that can be used to screen feed enzymes and to investigate the effects of supplements in the absence of endogenous phytases. The ease of handling and high reproducibility of the assay indicated that the assay is a rapid and feasible method that can be used to examine the degradation pathway of phytate in feed under gastrointestinal conditions. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. [One layer sutures of digestive tract knotted in the lumen, in dogs: perforating stitch versus serosubmucosal suture].

    PubMed

    Azevedo, João Luiz Moreira Coutinho; Da Silva, Cássio Edvan Paulino; Azevedo, Otávio Cansanção; Simões, Manoel De Jesus

    2005-01-01

    To compare hand sewn digestive tract single layer anastomosis with knots tied in the lumen: total stitches versus serosubmucosal. Six mongrel dogs were submitted to laparotomy, each one with two transversal jejunum sections, 30 and 70 cm far from Treizt angle and suture, serosubmucosal and total stitches, both with knots tied in the lumen, over the mucosa, at the posterior wall. After slaughter (7th post-operative day) was evaluated the peritoneal adhesions at posterior wall. The macro and microscopic features was observed. Wilcox on rank sum test was applied for the histhometry. More profuse adhesions with the serosubmucosal stitches tied in the lumen with adherence tissue over the suture line, avoiding the serosa, within or without healing deformation of the suture lines, doing an anastomosis angle. There was good serosa reconstitution with total stitches. The epithelium was perfectly reconstituted at serosubmucosa, but not at total stitches, where was residual focus of acute inflammation. The reline and regeneration of wall components (except the serosa, whose regeneration was impaired by peritoneal adherences) were better with serosubmucosal then total stitches. The muscularis never regeneration in anyone suture. The polimorphonuclear cells, macrophages, fibroblasts, and collagen fibers was more numerous (statistical significance) at total stitches. Total stitches with knots tied in the lumen, at posterior wall, over the mucosa are safe full, despite of major inflammation. Serosubmucosal with knots tied in the lumen, at posterior wall, over the mucosa, allows peritoneal adherences formation, and should be avoided.

  17. Spread of an Enterococcus faecalis sequence type 6 (CC2) clone in patients undergoing selective decontamination of the digestive tract.

    PubMed

    Muruzábal-Lecumberri, Izaskun; Girbau, Cecilia; Canut, Andrés; Alonso, Rodrigo; Fernández-Astorga, Aurora

    2015-03-01

    Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis) is a common cause of nosocomial infection in immunocompromised patients. The presence and dissemination of high-risk clonal complexes, such as CC2, is an ongoing problem in hospitals. The aim of this work was to characterize 24 E. faecalis isolates from ICU patients undergoing selective decontamination of the digestive tract (SDD) by phenotypical (antimicrobial susceptibility) and genotypical (presence of virulence genes, RAPD-PCR and MLST) methods. Our results showed high prevalence of the ST6 E. faecalis clone (91.6%), especially adapted to the hospital environment, with a multidrug resistance pattern and a multitude of putative virulence genes. In addition, ST179 (4.2%) and ST191 (4.2%) were detected. By RAPD-PCR analysis, the 22 isolates identified as ST6 showed six different DNA patterns, while the two remaining isolates, ST179 and ST191, showed two additional profiles. CC2 is a known clonal complex with high adaptability to hospital environment and worldwide distribution. The high prevalence of the ST6 clone in the studied population could be related to the presence of gentamicin in the SDD mixture since most strains were gentamicin resistant. Consequently, strict surveillance should be applied for rapid detection and control of this clone to prevent future spread outside the ICU.

  18. Occurrence, absorption and metabolism of short chain fatty acids in the digestive tract of mammals.

    PubMed

    Bugaut, M

    1987-01-01

    Short chain fatty acids (SCFA) also named volatile fatty acids, mainly acetate, propionate and butyrate, are the major end-products of the microbial digestion of carbohydrates in the alimentary canal. The highest concentrations are observed in the forestomach of the ruminants and in the large intestine (caecum and colon) of all the mammals. Butyrate and caproate released by action of gastric lipase on bovine milk triacylglycerols ingested by preruminants or infants are of nutritional importance too. Both squamous stratified mucosa of rumen and columnar simple epithelium of intestine absorb readily SCFA. The mechanisms of SCFA absorption are incompletely known. Passive diffusion of the unionized form across the cell membrane is currently admitted. In the lumen, the necessary protonation of SCFA anions could come first from the hydration of CO2. The ubiquitous cell membrane process of Na+-H+ exchange can also supply luminal protons. Evidence for an acid microclimate (pH = 5.8-6.8) suitable for SCFA-protonation on the surface of the intestinal lining has been provided recently. This microclimate would be generated by an epithelial secretion of H+ ions and would be protected by the mucus coating from the variable pH of luminal contents. Part of the absorbed SCFA does not reach plasma because it is metabolized in the gastrointestinal wall. Acetate incorporation in mucosal higher lipids is well-known. However, the preponderant metabolic pathway for all the SCFA is catabolism to CO2 except in the rumen wall where about 80% of butyrate is converted to ketone bodies which afterwards flow into bloodstream. Thus, SCFA are an important energy source for the gut mucosa itself.

  19. Profiling of proteins and proteases in the products of the salivary gland, digestive tract and excretions from larvae of the camel nasal botfly, Cephalopina titillator (Clark).

    PubMed

    Yousef, Hesham A; Afify, Amira; Meguid, Afaf Abdel; Hassan, Hany M

    2015-07-01

    Proteins and proteolytic activities in the contents of the salivary gland (SGc), digestive tract (DTc) and excretory-secretory products (ESP) from larvae of the camel nasal botfly Cephalopina titillator were separated electrophoretically, and characterized. The protein profiles of the different samples were qualitatively quite similar in the larval stages L2 and L3. Zymogram analysis of proteases in the samples indicated that the digestive tract contained a greater variety of proteases than the salivary gland or the excretory-secretory products. They are mainly serine proteases. Proteases of ESP and DTc (especially of 3rd instar) contain trypsin- and chymotrypsin-like serine proteases, while the serine proteases of SGc are not of the trypsin- or chemotrypsin-type.

  20. [Endoscopic control of hemorrhage in the upper part of the digestive tract using hemostatic clips].

    PubMed

    St'ovícek, J; Keil, R; Buresová, M; Golánová, J; Hrdlicka, L

    2004-02-01

    One of the endoscopy methods to stop upper gastrointestinal tract (GIT) bleeding in the limelight these days is hemostasis using metal clips. This method is indicated especially in patients with bleeding from an eroded artery and in patients where other hemostatic methods proved to be unsuccessful. Goal of our work was to assess successfulness of hemostasis, percentage of early rebleedings, and lethality of patients managed with this method. At the same time we present indications and locations of bleedings in these patients. We have retrospectively evaluated a group of 75 patients indicated for urgent endoscopy for GIT bleeding in a period from August 2000 till the end of February 2002. An average age of these patients was 69.7 years. We haven't managed to stop bleeding in 2 cases. In 12 patients (15.1%) rebleeding appeared within two days following intervention. From all the patients with early rebleeding: 4 patients had an ulcer and an eroded artery in stomach (4 died from bleeding, one of them undergone a surgery), 4 patients had an ulcer in duodenal bulb with artery at base (3 undergone surgery, 1 died), three patients had esophageal bleeding, and one patient had bleeding from the suture in stomach wall (undergone surgery and died). In majority of cases (82.8%) patients were managed with a combined technique (clip + adrenaline injection). With regard to a location of lesions treated with clip application, following locations were treated: esophagus 9.5%, stomach 40.5%, pylori channel 2.7%, duodenal bulb 39.2%, gastroenteroanastomosis 4.1%, D2 4.1%. Bleeding in 76% of patients was from an ulcer and artery (Forrest Ia, IIa). Results confirmed high effectiveness of hemostatic clips in primary hemostasis of GIT bleeding--in our sample more than 95%. An early rebleeding appeared in 15% of patients. Results presented correspond with data presented in world literature.

  1. Standardized total tract digestibility of phosphorus in flaxseed meal fed to growing and finishing pigs without or with phytase supplementation.

    PubMed

    Kim, J W; Ndou, S P; Mejicanos, G A; Nyachoti, C M

    2017-02-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) and standardized total tract digestibility (STTD) of P in flaxseed meal (FM) and the effect of dietary microbial phytase on the digestibility of P in FM fed to growing and finishing pigs. In Exp. 1, eighteen growing barrows (26.6 ± 1.8 kg BW) were allotted to 1 of 3 experimental diets consisting of a diet containing 32% FM that was fed with or without phytase at 500 phytase units (FTU/kg and a P-free diet in a completely randomized design to give 6 replicates per diet. The experimental period lasted 12 d including first 7 d for adaptation and 5 d for total collection of feces. Pigs were fed their assigned diets at 4% of BW at the beginning of the experiment. The daily feed allowance was offered in 2 equal portions at 0800 and 1600 h. All experimental diets were provided in mash form. Results indicated that pigs fed the diets containing FM with dietary phytase had less ( < 0.05) fecal P concentration and daily P output than those fed the diets without phytase supplementation. Also, phytase supplementation increased ( < 0.05) the ATTD of P of the diets containing FM from 37.3% to 51.8% and STTD of P of the diets containing FM from 43.2% to 57.7%. The basal endogenous P losses (EPL) was calculated at 140 ± 11 mg/kg of DMI in growing pigs fed the P-free diet. In Exp. 2, eighteen finishing pigs (78.7 ± 2.4 kg BW) were randomly allotted to 1 of 3 dietary treatments. The experimental diets and procedures were similar to those described in Exp. 1. Similar to Exp. 1, pigs fed FM diets with phytase supplementation had less ( < 0.05) P concentration in feces than those fed diets without phytase supplementation. Also, daily P output was reduced ( = 0.08) when pigs were fed the FM diets with phytase compared to those fed the FM diets without phytase. The ATTD of P in FM diets was increased ( < 0.01) from 31.4% to 45.8%, whereas the STTD of P in FM diets was increased ( < 0.01) from 37

  2. Persistence of antibiotic-resistant and -sensitive Proteus mirabilis strains in the digestive tract of the housefly (Musca domestica) and green bottle flies (Calliphoridae).

    PubMed

    Wei, Ting; Miyanaga, Kazuhiko; Tanji, Yasunori

    2014-10-01

    Synanthropic flies have been implicated in the rapid dissemination of antibiotic-resistant bacteria and resistance determinants in the biosphere. These flies stably harbor a considerable number of bacteria that exhibit resistance to various antibiotics, but the mechanisms underlying this phenomenon remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the persistence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in the digestive tract of houseflies and green bottle flies, using Proteus mirabilis as a model microorganism. One resistant strain carried the blaTEM and aphA1 genes, and another carried a plasmid containing qnrD gene. Quantitative PCR and 454 pyrosequencing were used to monitor the relative abundance of the Proteus strains, as well as potential changes in the overall structure of the whole bacterial community incurred by the artificial induction of Proteus cultures. Both antibiotic-resistant and -sensitive P. mirabilis strains persisted in the fly digestive tract for at least 3 days, and there was no significant difference in the relative abundance of resistant and sensitive strains despite the lower growth rate of resistant strains when cultured in vitro. Therefore, conditions in the fly digestive tract may allow resistant strains to survive the competition with sensitive strains in the absence of antibiotic selective pressure. The composition of the fly-associated bacterial community changed over time, but the contribution of the artificially introduced P. mirabilis strains to these changes was not clear. In order to explain these changes, it will be necessary to obtain more information about bacterial interspecies antagonism in the fly digestive tract.

  3. The site of net absorption of Ca from the intestinal tract of growing pigs and effect of phytic acid, Ca level and Ca source on Ca digestibility.

    PubMed

    González-Vega, J Caroline; Walk, Carrie L; Liu, Yanhong; Stein, Hans H

    2014-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that the standardised digestibility of Ca in calcium carbonate and Lithothamnium calcareum Ca is not different regardless of the level of dietary Ca, and that phytic acid affects the digestibility of Ca in these two ingredients to the same degree. The objectives were to determine where in the intestinal tract Ca absorption takes place and if there are measurable quantities of basal endogenous Ca fluxes in the stomach, small intestine or large intestine. Diets contained calcium carbonate or L. calcareum Ca as the sole source of Ca, 0% or 1% phytic acid and 0.4% or 0.8% Ca. A Ca-free diet was also formulated and used to measure endogenous fluxes and losses of Ca. Nine growing pigs (initial body weight 23.8 ± 1.3 kg) were cannulated in the duodenum and in the distal ileum, and faecal, ileal and duodenal samples were collected. Duodenal endogenous fluxes of Ca were greater (p < 0.05) than ileal endogenous fluxes and total tract endogenous losses of Ca, but ileal endogenous fluxes were less (p < 0.05) than total tract endogenous losses. Standardised digestibility of Ca was not affected by the level of phytic acid, but decreased (p < 0.05) as Ca level increased in L. calcareum Ca diets, but that was not the case if calcium carbonate was the source of Ca (interaction, p < 0.05). The standardised duodenal digestibility (SDD), standardised ileal digestibility (SID) and standardised total tract digestibility (STTD) of Ca were not different if calcium carbonate was the source of dietary Ca. However, the STTD of Ca in L. calcareum Ca was greater (p < 0.05) than the SID and SDD of Ca. The SDD, SID and STTD of Ca in calcium carbonate were greater (p < 0.05) than those of L. calcareum Ca. In conclusion, under the conditions of this experiment, standardised digestibility of Ca is not affected by the level of phytic acid, but may be affected by dietary Ca level depending on the Ca source. Calcium from calcium carbonate is mostly

  4. Non-pylori Helicobacteraceae in the upper digestive tract of asymptomatic Venezuelan subjects: detection of Helicobacter cetorum-like and Candidatus Wolinella africanus-like DNA.

    PubMed

    García-Amado, M Alexandra; Al-Soud, Waleed Abu; Borges-Landaéz, Pedro; Contreras, Monica; Cedeño, Samandhy; Baéz-Ramírez, Estalina; Domínguez-Bello, M Gloria; Wadström, Torkel; Gueneau, Pulchérie

    2007-10-01

    The spectrum of human non-pylori Helicobacter infections is expanding, with species such as H. heilmannii and H. felis occasionally being associated with gastritis. However, the existence of non-pylori Helicobacter colonization in asymptomatic subjects has not been evaluated. The aim of this study was to investigate whether Helicobacter species other than pylori are present in the upper digestive tract of asymptomatic human subjects. A Helicobacteraceae-specific semi-nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was used to detect Helicobacter-like organisms in the upper digestive tract of 91 Venezuelan volunteers (aged 18-68 years, 41 females, 50 males). Species were identified by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis and sequencing of the PCR products. We detected DNA sharing 99-100% sequence identity in over 300-400 bp with the 16S rRNA genes of H. pylori, H. cetorum, and Candidatus Wolinella africanus in 76%, 16%, and 15% of the subjects, respectively. Multiple colonization was documented in 10% of the subjects: H. cetorum and Candidatus W. africanus (4%), H. pylori and Candidatus W. africanus (4%), and H. pylori and H. cetorum (2%). Our results suggest that non-pylori Helicobacteraceae colonization is relatively common in the Venezuelan asymptomatic population. This is the first report documenting the presence of H. cetorum DNA in the human upper digestive tract, and the second report of the recently discovered Candidatus W. africanus.

  5. Concentration of dietary calcium supplied by calcium carbonate does not affect the apparent total tract digestibility of calcium, but decreases digestibility of phosphorus by growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Stein, H H; Adeola, O; Cromwell, G L; Kim, S W; Mahan, D C; Miller, P S

    2011-07-01

    A regional experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that the concentration of dietary Ca does not affect the digestibility of Ca or P in diets fed to growing pigs. Six diets based on corn, potato protein isolate, cornstarch, and soybean oil were formulated. All diets also contained monosodium phosphate, crystalline AA, salt, and a vitamin-micromineral premix. The only difference among the diets was that varying concentrations of calcium carbonate were used to create diets containing 0.33, 0.46, 0.51, 0.67, 0.92, and 1.04% Ca. All diets contained between 0.40 and 0.43% P. Six universities participated in the experiment and each university contributed 2 replicates to the experiment for a total of 12 replicates (initial BW: 23.1 ± 4.4 kg). Pigs were placed in metabolism cages that allowed total, but separate, collection of feces and urine from the pigs. Pigs within each replicate were randomly allotted to the 6 diets and fed experimental diets for 14 d with urine and feces being collected over a 5-d period. Diets, feces, and urine samples were analyzed for Ca and P, and the daily balance, the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD), and the retention of Ca and P were calculated. Results indicated that intake, fecal excretion, and urinary excretion of Ca increased (linear, P<0.05) as dietary Ca concentration increased. The daily intake of P was not affected by the dietary concentration of Ca, but fecal excretion of P increased (linear, P<0.05) as dietary Ca concentrations increased. In contrast, urinary P output was decreased (linear, P<0.05) as dietary Ca increased. The retention of Ca increased (linear, P<0.05) from 1.73 to 4.60 g/d, whereas the retention of P decreased (linear, P<0.05) from 1.98 to 1.77 g/d as dietary Ca concentrations increased. However, if calculated as a percentage of intake, both Ca and P retention were decreased (linear, P<0.05) as dietary Ca concentration increased (from 55.4 to 46.1% and from 48.4 to 43.5%, respectively). The ATTD

  6. Metabolic surgery and intestinal gene expression: Digestive tract and diabetes evolution considerations.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Marcos Ricardo da Silva; Santo, Marco Aurelio; Favero, Giovani Marino; Vieira, Elaine Cristina; Artoni, Roberto Ferreira; Nogaroto, Viviane; de Moura, Egberto Gaspar; Lisboa, Patricia; Milleo, Fabio Quirillo

    2015-06-14

    hypoglycemic medications in all patients, who were taking at least 2 hypoglycemic drugs preoperatively. GLP-1 levels significantly increased after surgery (149.96 ± 31.25 vs 220.23 ± 27.55) (P < 0.05), while GIP levels decreased but not significantly. p53 gene expression significantly increased in the duodenal mucosa (P < 0.05, 2.06 fold) whereas the tumor growth factor-β gene expression significantly increased (P < 0.05, 2.52 fold) in the ileal mucosa after surgery. Metabolic surgery ameliorated diabetes in all of the patients, accompanied by increased anti-proliferative intestinal gene expression in non-excluded segments of the intestine.

  7. Influence of prepelleting inclusion of whole corn on performance, nutrient utilization, digestive tract measurements, and cecal microbiota of young broilers.

    PubMed

    Singh, Y; Ravindran, V; Wester, T J; Molan, A L; Ravindran, G

    2014-12-01

    The objective of the present study was to examine the effects of prepelleting inclusion of graded levels of whole corn on performance, digestive tract measurements, nutrient utilization, and cecal microbiota in broiler starters. Five diets, containing 600 g/kg of ground corn or 150, 300, 450, and 600 g/kg of whole corn replacing (wt/wt) ground corn, were formulated and cold-pelleted at 65°C. Each diet was offered ad libitum to 6 replicates (8 birds per replicate cage) from d 1 to 21 posthatch. The proportion of coarse particles (>1 mm) increased with increasing prepelleting inclusion of whole corn. Pellet quality, measured as pellet durability index, increased (quadratic effect, P < 0.001) with the inclusion of whole corn to 450 g/kg and then plateaued. Weight gain and feed intake decreased (linear effect, P < 0.001) with increasing prepelleting inclusion of whole corn. Feed per gain (quadratic effect, P < 0.05) increased as the inclusion level of whole corn increased to 300 g/kg and then plateaued with further inclusions. Relative gizzard weight (quadratic effect, P < 0.05) increased with increasing inclusion of whole corn up to 300 g/kg and then levelled off. The AME (quadratic effect, P < 0.05) increased up to 300 g/kg of whole corn inclusion and then decreased with further inclusion. Apparent ileal digestibility of DM (P < 0.001), N (linear effect, P = 0.07), and starch (linear effect, P < 0.001) increased with increasing inclusion levels of whole corn. Based on the fluorescence in situ hybridization method, a linear (P < 0.05) effect was determined for cecal microbiota numbers. Lactobacillus spp. counts increased and counts of Clostridium spp., Campylobacterium spp., and Bacteroides spp. decreased with increasing inclusion levels of whole corn. The present data showed that, despite increased gizzard weight and nutrient utilization, weight gain of broilers was poorer with prepelleting inclusion of whole corn due to reductions in the feed intake. ©2014 Poultry

  8. Phytase improves apparent total tract digestibility of phosphorus and calcium in piglets fed diets with adequate or reduced phosphorus content.

    PubMed

    Kühn, I; Partanen, K

    2012-12-01

    The effect of a thermotolerant 6-phytase produced by Trichoderma reesei on performance and apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of P and Ca was evaluated in 192 weaned piglets (randomized block design; 16 replicates; 2 piglets each). Diets based on wheat (Triticum aestivum), barley (Hordeum vulgare), oat (Avena sativa), soybean (Glycine max) meal, and whey protein with adequate [positive control (PC)] or reduced [negative control (NC)] Ca and P levels were fed for 46 d after weaning. The PC and NC diets contained 8.0 and 6.4 g/kg Ca and 2.9 and 1.9 g/kg digestible P, respectively. Pelleted diets contained 0, 500, or 1000 phytase units (FTU)/kg. Growth performance and G:F were measured during starter (25 d) and weaner pig (21 d) periods. The ATTD of Ca and P was determined by spot sampling at the end of the weaner pig period (8 pens per treatment over 5 consecutive d). Data were analyzed using a mixed model with random block effect and fixed effect of dietary P and phytase level and their interaction. Dietary P level did not affect ADG or G:F of piglets over the entire feeding period (P > 0.10) whereas phytase increased G:F (P < 0.05). During the starter period, phytase linearly enhanced (P < 0.05) ADG (258, 266, and 292 g) and G:F (639, 677, and 664 g gain/kg feed DM) without further increase in the weaner pig period (P > 0.10). A P × phytase interaction (P < 0.05) was observed for ATTD of P, more so for NC (48, 61, and 68%, respectively) than PC diets (52, 62, and 61%). The ATTD of Ca was higher (P < 0.05) for PC than NC diets (68 vs. 58%) and increased quadratically by phytase (61, 65, and 63%). In conclusion, the phytase tested enhanced piglet performance during the postweaning period and increased ATTD of P and Ca.

  9. [Diagnostics and treatment of neuroendocrine tumors of the digestive tract in the light of the present standards].

    PubMed

    Szczeblowska, Dorota

    2007-05-01

    Neuroendocrine tumors (NET) constitute 0.5% of all cancers appearing at the man and 2% of all tumors of the digestive tract. They constitute 70% of all NET i.e., of tumors coming from endocrine cells dispersed in the entire body of the man, creating diffuse endocrine system (DES). It is estimated that the incidence of gastroenteropatic neuroendocrine tumors (GEP) is about 3 cases/year/100000 inhabitants. The characteristic feature of these tumors is that they have the ability to produce, store and secrete peptic hormones and biogenic amines. These substances are evoking characteristic symptoms which let suspect the development of certain diseases by their influence on the human organism. Little percentage of tumors coming from cells of the endocrine system does not secrete characteristic substances - these are so-called tumors hormonaly non active. The purpose of the work is to pay attention to the diagnostic-therapeutic possibility associated with the progress of medical sciences which let more frequent recognizing and more effective treatment hence the improvement of prognosis of a sick patient with GEP. In the work, I will introduce characteristics of individual GEP tumors associated with peculiar signs and diagnostic and therapeutic possibilities. In the case of neuroendocrine tumor suspection the determination made of unique and nonunique markers NET should be directed. The attempt to localise changes is based on scintigraphy with using somatostatin analogues, endoscopic ultrasonography, the computer tomography, the magnetic resonance and positron emission tomography The histopathological examination carried out on the base of guidelines of the World Health Organization from 2000 which assembly anatomical, clinical- pathological and functional features of the tumor which let making conclusive diagnosis. In the case of the GEP diagnosis, the procedure by choice is surgical treatment which, however, as a result of its high level of advancement, is often

  10. Impact of tylosin phosphate and distillers dried grains with solubles on energy and nutrient digestibility and flow through the gastrointestinal tract in growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Pilcher, C M; Arentson, R; Patience, J F

    2013-12-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of tylosin phosphate (TP) on energy and nutrient digestibility and flow through the gastrointestinal tract in growing pigs fed corn-soybean meal or corn-soybean meal-distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) based diets. Eighteen barrows (initial BW = 32.6 ± 1.2 kg) were surgically fitted with a T-cannula in the distal ileum and allotted to a Youden square design with 6 diets and 3 replicate periods. Treatments were arranged in a 2 × 2 factorial: TP (0 vs. 44 mg/kg) and DDGS (0 vs. 25%). Two N-free dietary treatments (0 vs. 44 mg/kg TP) were also included for determining basal ileal endogenous AA losses (IAAend) and the effect of TP on basal IAAend. Replicate periods included 4 d of adaptation to treatments and 2 sampling periods. Fecal collection occurred on d 5 and 6 and ileal digesta collection occurred on d 7 and 8 for sampling period 1 whereas sampling period 2 included fecal collection on d 11 and 12 and ileal digesta collection on d 13 and 14. Apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) were calculated for DM, energy, and NDF. The AID and standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of AA were calculated. Inclusion of DDGS reduced AID (68.0 vs. 72.8%; P < 0.001) and ATTD (79.9 vs. 85.0%; P < 0.001) of energy. There were no effects of TP on energy digestibility. The DDGS inclusion increased the amount of GE (1.47 vs. 1.18 Mcal/kg DMI; P < 0.001) and NDF (94 vs. 60 g/kg DMI; P < 0.001) remaining at the terminal ileum; however, hindgut disappearance of energy (0.55 vs. 0.53 Mcal/kg DMI) and NDF (13 vs. 15 g/kg DMI) was similar between the corn-soybean meal-DDGS and corn-soybean meal based diets. There were no effects of TP on basal IAAend; therefore, SID AA values were calculated using means of the 2 N-free diets. The SID of Lys (79.6 vs. 84.1%; P < 0.001) and all other indispensible AA, except Leu, was lower in the DDGS diets. Inclusion of TP did not influence SID of AA

  11. Polymorphisms of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors and survival of lung cancer and upper aero-digestive tract cancers.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ying; Burke, Rita V; Jeon, Christie Y; Chang, Shen-Chih; Chang, Po-Yin; Morgenstern, Hal; Tashkin, Donald P; Mao, Jenny; Cozen, Wendy; Mack, Thomas M; Rao, Jianyu; Zhang, Zuo-Feng

    2014-09-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are transcriptional factors involved in several biological processes such as inflammation, cancer growth, progression and apoptosis that are important in lung and upper aero-digestive tract (UADT) cancer outcomes. Nonetheless, there are no published studies of the relationship between PPARs gene polymorphisms and survival of patients with lung cancer or UADT cancers. 1212 cancer patients (611 lung, 303 oral, 100 pharyngeal, 90 laryngeal, and 108 esophageal) were followed for a median duration of 11 years. We genotyped three potentially functional single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) using Taqman - rs3734254 of the gene PPARD and rs10865710 and rs1801282 of the gene PPARG - and investigated their associations with lung and UADT cancer survival using Cox regression. A semi-Bayesian shrinkage approach was used to reduce the potential for false positive findings when examining multiple associations. The variant homozygote CC (vs. TT) of PPARD rs3734254 was inversely associated with mortality of both lung cancer (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR]=0.63, 95% confidence interval [CI]=0.42, 0.96) and UADT cancers (aHR=0.51, 95% CI=0.27, 0.99). Use of the semi-Bayesian shrinkage approach yielded a posterior aHR for lung cancer of 0.66 (95% posterior limits=0.44, 0.98) and a posterior aHR for UADT cancers of 0.58 (95% posterior limits=0.33, 1.03). Our findings suggest that lung-cancer patients with the CC variant of PPARD rs3734254 may have a survival advantage over lung-cancer patients with other gene variants. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Breast- v. formula-feeding: impacts on the digestive tract and immediate and long-term health effects.

    PubMed

    Le Huërou-Luron, Isabelle; Blat, Sophie; Boudry, Gaëlle

    2010-06-01

    The health benefits of breast-feeding have been recognised for a long time. In particular, breast-feeding is associated with lower incidence of necrotising enterocolitis and diarrhoea during the early period of life and with lower incidence of inflammatory bowel diseases, type 2 diabetes and obesity later in life. The higher nutritional and protective degree of human milk is related to its nutritional composition that changes over the lactation period and to the biological activities of specific components while lower growth rate of breast-fed infants may be attributed to their self-regulation of milk intake at a lower level than formula-fed infants. Many results now suggest that the developmental changes in intestinal and pancreatic function that occur postnatally are modulated by the diet. Indeed, formula-feeding induces intestinal hypertrophy and accelerates maturation of hydrolysis capacities; it increases intestinal permeability and bacterial translocation, but does not induce evident differences in microbiota composition. Whether these changes would be beneficial for enhancing absorptive capacities and for educating the gut-associated immune system remains to be further studied. Moreover, it is evident that formula-feeding increases basal blood glucose and decreases plasma ketone body concentrations, while discrepancies on postprandial glycaemia, insulin and incretin responses in both human studies and experimental studies are inconclusive. Manipulating the composition of formula, by reducing protein content, adding prebiotics, growth factors or secretory IgA can modulate intestinal and pancreatic function development, and thereby may reduce the differential responses between breast-fed and formula-fed neonates. However, the developmental responses of the digestive tract to different feeding strategies must be elucidated in terms of sensitivity to developing diseases, taking into account the major role of the intestinal microbiota.

  13. Influence of whole wheat and xylanase on broiler performance and microbial composition and activity in the digestive tract.

    PubMed

    Engberg, R M; Hedemann, M S; Steenfeldt, S; Jensen, B B

    2004-06-01

    An experiment was carried out to study the effect of different forms of wheat (airtight silo stored whole wheat, conventionally stored whole wheat, and ground wheat included in pellets) and dietary xylanase addition on production results and gastrointestinal characteristics of broiler chickens. Ileal viscosity, pancreatic digestive enzyme activities, and the composition and activity of the intestinal microflora were considered as response parameters. Differences between the 2 types of whole wheat with respect to the various measured parameters were marginal, whereas distinct differences were found between pellet-fed birds and birds receiving whole wheat. Whole wheat feeding improved feed conversion ratio and reduced water consumption (P < 0.001). Compared with pellets, whole wheat increased the relative weight of pancreas and gizzard and the dry matter concentration of gizzard content (P < 0.001). Whole wheat feeding reduced the pH in the gizzard contents (P < 0.01) and increased ileal viscosity. The addition of xylanase reduced ileal viscosity in birds receiving whole wheat to the same level as in pellet-fed birds. Whole wheat feeding resulted in lower activities of amylase in pancreatic tissue (P = 0.054), whereas xylanase addition increased chymotrypsin (P = 0.030) and lipase activities (P = 0.052). Whole wheat feeding resulted in lower intestinal numbers of lactose-negative enterobacteria (P < 0.05) and tended to reduce the ileal and cecal numbers of Clostridium perfringens (P < or = 0.08). It is concluded that whole wheat feeding stimulates gizzard function, which in turn prevents potentially pathogenic bacteria from entering the intestinal tract.

  14. Polymorphisms of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors and survival of lung cancer and upper aero-digestive tract cancers

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ying; Burke, Rita V.; Jeon, Christie Y.; Chang, Shen-Chih; Chang, Po-Yin; Morgenstern, Hal; Tashkin, Donald P.; Mao, Jenny; Cozen, Wendy; Mack, Thomas M.; Rao, Jianyu; Zhang, Zuo-Feng

    2014-01-01

    Background Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are transcriptional factors involved in several biological processes such as inflammation, cancer growth, progression and apoptosis that are important in lung and upper aero-digestive tract (UADT) cancer outcomes. Nonetheless, there are no published studies of the relationship between PPARs gene polymorphisms and survival of patients with lung cancer or UADT cancers. Methods 1,212 cancer patients (611 lung, 303 oral, 100 pharyngeal, 90 laryngeal, and 108 esophageal) were followed for a median duration of 11 years. We genotyped three potentially functional single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) using Taqman--rs3734254 of the gene PPARD and rs10865710 and rs1801282 of the gene PPARG--and investigated their associations with lung and UADT cancer survival using Cox regression. A semi-Bayesian shrinkage approach was used to reduce the potential for false positive findings when examining multiple associations. Results The variant homozygote CC (vs. TT) of PPARD rs3734254 was inversely associated with mortality of both lung cancer (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] = 0.63, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.42, 0.96) and UADT cancers (aHR = 0.51, 95% CI = 0.27, 0.99). Use of the semi-Bayesian shrinkage approach yielded a posterior aHR for lung cancer of 0.66 (95% posterior limits = 0.44, 0.98) and a posterior aHR for UADT cancers of 0.58 (95% posterior limits = 0.33, 1.03). Conclusion Our findings suggest that lung-cancer patients with the CC variant of PPARD rs3734254 may have a survival advantage over lung-cancer patients with other gene variants. PMID:25043640

  15. The arylalkylamine-N-acetyltransferase (AANAT) acetylates dopamine in the digestive tract of goldfish: a role in intestinal motility.

    PubMed

    Nisembaum, Laura Gabriela; Tinoco, A B; Moure, A L; Alonso Gómez, A L; Delgado, M J; Valenciano, A I

    2013-05-01

    Melatonin has been found in the digestive tract of many vertebrates. However, the enzymatic activity of the arylalkylamine-N-acetyltransferase (AANAT) and the hydroxindole-O-methyltransferase (HIOMT), the last two enzymes of melatonin biosynthesis, have been only measured in rat liver. Therefore, the first objective of the present study is to investigate the functionality of these enzymes in the liver and gut of goldfish, analyzing its possible daily changes and comparing its catalytic properties with those from the retina isoforms. The daily rhythms with nocturnal acrophases in retinal AANAT and HIOMT activities support their role in melatonin biosynthesis. In foregut AANAT activity also show a daily rhythm while in liver and hindgut significant but not rhythmic levels of AANAT activity are found. HIOMT activity is not detected in any of these peripheral tissues suggesting an alternative role for AANAT besides melatonin synthesis. The failure to detect functional HIOMT activity in both, liver and gut, led us to investigate other physiological substrates for the AANAT, as dopamine, searching alternative roles for this enzyme in the goldfish gut. Dopamine competes with tryptamine and inhibits retinal, intestinal and hepatic N-acetyltryptamine production, suggesting that the active isoform in gut is AANAT1. Besides, gut and liver produces N-acetyldopamine in presence of acetyl coenzyme-A and dopamine. This production is not abolished by the presence of folic acid (arylamine N-acetyltransferase inhibitor) in any studied tissue, but a total inhibition occurs in the presence of CoA-S-N-acetyltryptamine (AANAT inhibitor) in liver. Therefore, AANAT1 seems to be an important enzyme in the regulation of dopamine and N-acetyldopamine content in liver. Finally, for the first time in fish we found that dopamine, but not N-acetyldopamine, regulates the gut motility, underlying the broad physiological role of AANAT in the gut. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The effect of diet on ontogenic development of the digestive tract in juvenile reared long snout seahorse Hippocampus guttulatus.

    PubMed

    Palma, J; Bureau, D P; Andrade, J P

    2014-06-01

    Ontogenetic development of the digestive tract and associated organs in long snout seahorse Hippocampus guttulatus juveniles was morphologically and histologically examined from the time of release from the male's pouch until 72 h after the first meal. When released from the male's pouch, juvenile seahorses are small adult replicates. This means that unlike other teleost fish larvae, the first developmental phase has already taken place, and juveniles are morphologically prepared and able to feed on live prey immediately following parturition. At this stage, the buccopharynx, oesophagus, and intestine already appear to be fully developed. The intestine is divided into the midgut and hindgut by an intestinal valve, and intestinal villi are visible in the midgut. When fed with DHA-Selco(®) enriched Artemia, H. guttulatus juveniles developed a severe condition of overinflation of the gas bladder. The continuous overinflation of the gas bladder forced air into the gut (48 h after the first meal), resulting in overinflation of both the gut and the gas bladder (72 h after the first meal), and death occurred within 120 h after the first meal. When fed natural copepods, H. guttulatus juveniles continued a normal feeding activity with no signs of intestinal disorders, and the gas bladder and intestine maintained their normal shape. This is the first study to positively associate gas bladder overinflation of juvenile seahorses with nutritionally unbalanced diets, and not to gas supersaturation alone. It is therefore necessary to develop more adequate feed and/or enrichment products to improve the survival of juvenile seahorses in captivity.

  17. Constitutive Delivery of Bovine β-Lactoglobulin to the Digestive Tracts of Gnotobiotic Mice by Engineered Lactobacillus casei▿

    PubMed Central

    Hazebrouck, S.; Oozeer, R.; Adel-Patient, K.; Langella, P.; Rabot, S.; Wal, J.-M.; Corthier, G.

    2006-01-01

    The gut microbiota is critical for maturation of the immune system. Recent evidence suggests that early establishment of lactobacilli in the intestinal microbiota, during neonatal colonization or by probiotic supplementation, could prevent the development of allergic disorders. Postnatal maturation of the gut immune system with allergen-producing lactobacilli colonizing the digestive tract could then affect the development of further allergic sensitization. In this paper, we describe construction of a recombinant Lactobacillus casei strain that can constitutively deliver bovine β-lactoglobulin (BLG), a major cow's milk allergen, to the guts of gnotobiotic mice. The blg gene was inserted into the L. casei chromosome downstream of an endogenous promoter. BLG production was improved by fusing the propeptide LEISSTCDA (LEISS) to the BLG mature moiety. This led to a 10-fold increase in LEISS-BLG production compared to the production obtained without the propeptide and also led to enhanced secretion corresponding to 5% of the total production. After inoculation into germfree C3H/HeN mice, the genetic stability of the recombinant strain and in vivo BLG production were confirmed for at least 10 weeks. BLG stimulation of spleen cells from mice monoassociated with the BLG-producing lactobacilli induced secretion of the Th1 cytokine gamma interferon and, to a lesser extent, the Th2 cytokine interleukin-5. No BLG-specific immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1), IgG2a, or IgA was detected in sera or in fecal samples. These results suggest that gut colonization with allergen-producing lactobacilli could provide a useful model for studying the modulation of allergic disorders. PMID:16997983

  18. Constitutive delivery of bovine beta-lactoglobulin to the digestive tracts of gnotobiotic mice by engineered Lactobacillus casei.

    PubMed

    Hazebrouck, S; Oozeer, R; Adel-Patient, K; Langella, P; Rabot, S; Wal, J-M; Corthier, G

    2006-12-01

    The gut microbiota is critical for maturation of the immune system. Recent evidence suggests that early establishment of lactobacilli in the intestinal microbiota, during neonatal colonization or by probiotic supplementation, could prevent the development of allergic disorders. Postnatal maturation of the gut immune system with allergen-producing lactobacilli colonizing the digestive tract could then affect the development of further allergic sensitization. In this paper, we describe construction of a recombinant Lactobacillus casei strain that can constitutively deliver bovine beta-lactoglobulin (BLG), a major cow's milk allergen, to the guts of gnotobiotic mice. The blg gene was inserted into the L. casei chromosome downstream of an endogenous promoter. BLG production was improved by fusing the propeptide LEISSTCDA (LEISS) to the BLG mature moiety. This led to a 10-fold increase in LEISS-BLG production compared to the production obtained without the propeptide and also led to enhanced secretion corresponding to 5% of the total production. After inoculation into germfree C3H/HeN mice, the genetic stability of the recombinant strain and in vivo BLG production were confirmed for at least 10 weeks. BLG stimulation of spleen cells from mice monoassociated with the BLG-producing lactobacilli induced secretion of the Th1 cytokine gamma interferon and, to a lesser extent, the Th2 cytokine interleukin-5. No BLG-specific immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1), IgG2a, or IgA was detected in sera or in fecal samples. These results suggest that gut colonization with allergen-producing lactobacilli could provide a useful model for studying the modulation of allergic disorders.

  19. A cooperative study on the standardized total-tract digestible phosphorus requirement of twenty-kilogram pigs.

    PubMed

    Adeola, O; Azain, M J; Carter, S D; Crenshaw, T D; Estienne, M J; Kerr, B J; Lindemann, M D; Maxwell, C V; Miller, P S; Shannon, M C; van Heugten, E

    2015-12-01

    A cooperative study comprising growth performance, bone mineralization, and nutrient balance experiments was conducted at 11 stations to determine the standardized total-tract digestible (STTD) P requirement of 20-kg pigs using broken-line regression analysis. Monocalcium phosphate and limestone were added to a corn-soybean meal-based diet at the expense of cornstarch to establish 6 concentrations of STTD P from 1.54 to 5.15 g/kg in increments of 0.62 g/kg at a constant Ca:total P of 1.52:1.0. Diets were fed to 936 pigs (average initial BW of 19 kg) in 240 pens for 20 replicate pens of barrows and 20 replicate pens of gilts per diet. As STTD P increased from 1.54 to 5.15 g/kg of the diet for d 0 to 14, 14 to 28, and 0 to 28, the ADG, ADFI, and G:F increased ( < 0.01). Barrows gained and ate more ( < 0.05) than gilts during d 14 to 28 and 0 to 28. There was no interaction between sex and STTD P concentration for any of the growth performance response criteria. There were both linear and quadratic increases ( < 0.05) in mineral density and content of ash, Ca, and P in the femur expressed as a percentage of dry, fat-free metacarpal as dietary STTD P increased. Furthermore, the maximum load of the femur and mineral density and content and maximum load as well as the Ca and P expressed as a percentage of metacarpal ash linearly increased ( < 0.01) with increasing dietary concentrations of STTD P. There were both linear and quadratic increases ( < 0.01) in apparent digestibility and retention of P with increasing concentrations of STTD P in the diets. Digestibility and retention of Ca linearly ( < 0.01) increased with increasing dietary concentrations of STTD P. Breakpoints determined from nonlinear broken-line regression analyses revealed estimates of 4.20 ± 0.102, 3.20 ± 0.036, or 3.87 ± 0.090 g/kg for ADG during d 0 to 14, 14 to 28, or 0 to 28, respectively. Corresponding estimates using G:F as the response criterion were 4.34 ± 0.146, 3.38 ± 0.139, or 4.08 ± 0

  20. Bacterial communities associated with the digestive tract of the predatory ground beetle, Poecilus chalcites, and their response to laboratory rearing and antibiotic treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Lehman

    2008-06-01

    Ground beetles such as Poecilus chalcites (Coleoptera: Carabidae) are beneficial insects in agricultural systems where they contribute to the control of insect and weed pests. We assessed the complexity of bacterial communities occurring in the digestive tracts of field-collected P. chalcites using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analyses of polymerase chain reaction-amplified 16S rRNA genes. Bacterial identification was performed by the construction of 16S rRNA gene clone libraries and sequence analysis. Intestinal bacteria in field-collected beetles were then compared to those from groups of beetles that were reared in the lab on an artificial diet with and without antibiotics. Direct cell counts estimated 1.5 × 10S bacteria per milliliter of gut. The digestive tract of field-collected P. chalcites produced an average of 4.8 terminal restriction fragments (tRF) for each beetle. The most abundant clones were affiliated with the genus Lactobacillus, followed by the taxa Enterobacteriaceae, Clostridia, and Bacteriodetes. The majority of the sequences recovered were closely related to those reported from other insect gastrointestinal tracts. Lab-reared beetles produced fewer tRF, an average of 3.1 per beetle, and a reduced number of taxa with a higher number of clones from the family Enterobacteriaceae compared to the field-collected beetles. Antibiotic treatment significantly (p < 0.05) reduced the number of tRF per beetle and selected for a less diverse set of bacterial taxa. We conclude that the digestive tract of P. chalcites is colonized by a simple community of bacteria that possess autochthonous characteristics. Laboratory-reared beetles harbored the most common bacteria found in field-collected beetles, and these bacterial communities may be manipulated in the laboratory with the addition of antibiotics to the diet to allow study of functional roles.

  1. Casein Supplementation Does Not Affect the Estimates of True Total Tract Digestibility of Phosphorus in Soybean Meal for Growing Pigs Determined by the Regression Method

    PubMed Central

    Liu, J. B.; Adeola, O.

    2016-01-01

    Forty-eight barrows with an average initial body weight of 25.5±0.3 kg were assigned to 6 dietary treatments arranged in a 3×2 factorial of 3 graded levels of P at 1.42, 2.07, or 2.72 g/kg, and 2 levels of casein at 0 or 50 g/kg to compare the estimates of true total tract digestibility (TTTD) of P in soybean meal (SBM) for pigs fed diets with or without casein supplementation. The SBM is the only source of P in diets without casein, and in the diet with added casein, 1.0 to 2.4 g/kg of total dietary P was supplied by SBM as dietary level of SBM increased. The experiment consisted of a 5-d adjustment period and a 5-d total collection period with ferric oxide as a maker to indicate the initiation and termination of fecal collection. There were interactive effects of casein supplementation and total dietary P level on the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) and retention of P (p<0.05). Dietary P intake, fecal P output, digested P and retained P were increased linearly with graded increasing levels of SBM in diets regardless of casein addition (p<0.01). Compared with diets without casein, there was a reduction in fecal P in the casein-supplemented diets, which led to increases in digested P, retained P, ATTD, and retention of P (p<0.01). Digested N, ATTD of N, retained N, and N retention were affected by the interaction of casein supplementation and dietary P level (p<0.05). Fecal N output, urinary N output, digested N, and retained N increased linearly with graded increasing levels of SBM for each type of diet (p<0.01). The estimates of TTTD of P in SBM, derived from the regression of daily digested P against daily P intake, for pigs fed diets without casein and with casein were calculated to be 37.3% and 38.6%, respectively. Regressing daily digested N against daily N intake, the TTTD of N in SBM were determined at 94.3% and 94.4% for diets without casein and with added casein, respectively. There was no difference in determined values of TTTD of P or N in

  2. Effects of day of gestation and feeding regimen in Holstein × Gyr cows: I. Apparent total-tract digestibility, nitrogen balance, and fat deposition.

    PubMed

    Rotta, P P; Filho, S C Valadares; Gionbelli, T R S; Costa E Silva, L F; Engle, T E; Marcondes, M I; Machado, F S; Villadiego, F A C; Silva, L H R

    2015-05-01

    This study investigated how feeding regimen (FR) alters apparent total-tract digestibility, performance, N balance, excretion of purine derivatives, and fat deposition in Holstein × Gyr cows at different days of gestation (DG). Forty-four pregnant multiparous Holstein × Gyr cows with an average initial body weight of 480±10.1 kg and an initial age of 5±0.5 yr old were allocated to 1 of 2 FR: ad libitum (AL; n=20) and maintenance level (ML; n=24). Maintenance level was considered to be 1.15% of body weight on a dry matter (DM) basis and met 100% of the energy requirements, whereas AL provided 190% of total net energy requirements. Data for hot and cold carcass dressing, fat deposition, average daily gain, empty body gain, and average daily gain without the gravid uterus were analyzed as a 4×2 factorial design. Intake, apparent total-tract digestibility, N balance, urinary concentration of urea, and purine derivatives data were analyzed as repeated measurements taken over the 28-d period (122, 150, 178, 206, 234, and 262 d of gestation). Cows were individually fed a corn silage-concentrate based diet composed of 93% roughage and 7% concentrate (DM basis) as a total mixed ration. Pregnant cows were slaughtered on 4 different DG: 139 (n=11), 199 (n=11), 241 (n=11), and 268 d (n=11). Overall, DM intake decreased as DG increased. This decrease observed in DM intake may be associated with the reduction in ruminal volume caused by the rapid increase in fetal size during late gestation. We observed an interaction for DM and organic matter apparent total-tract digestibility between FR and DG; at 150, 178, and 206 d of gestation, ML-fed cows had greater DM and organic matter apparent total-tract digestibility values than AL-fed cows. Rib fat thickness, mesentery, and kidney, pelvic, and heart fat were greater in AL-fed than in ML-fed cows at all DG, with the exception of rib fat thickness on d 139. Ad libitum-fed cows excreted more N in their feces and urine compared

  3. Some morphological, biochemical and immunological blood parameters in European bison with or without lesions in the digestive, respiratory, urinary and reproductive tracts.

    PubMed

    Anusz, K; Kita, J; Zaleska, M; Salwa, A; Malicka, E; Bielecki, W; Osińska, B

    2007-01-01

    Ninety-seven bison (39 males and 58 females) were culled out during three successive winter seasons. No infection with BHV-1 and BHV-5 or other viruses was detected by PCR and SN methods. Advanced pathological lesions observed in males exhibiting symptoms of posthitis/balanoposthitis are probably due to secondary infection by microorganisms present in the prepuce (Corynebacterium spp., Bacillus spp., Fusobacterium necrophorum, Staphylococcus spp. (coagulase negative) and Staphylococcus hyicus). Histopathological examinations of sections from prepuce and lips of pudendum showed the presence of Onchocercinae nematode (Onchocerca sp.). A comparison of biochemical and morphological blood parameters in the bison with or without lesions in the digestive (presence of parasites), respiratory, urinary and reproductive tracts revealed that the most variable parameter during reproductive organ disorder is the leukocyte count, while disorders in the urinary and digestive tracts coincided with the age of animals. In cases of digestive disorder most changes were observed in the number of neutrophils and concentration of urea. The number of red blood cells, monocytes, the level of alkaline phosphatase (AP) and hematocrit negatively correlated with age. Negative correlation was also observed between the number of neutrophils, level of creatinine and lymphocyte proliferation index. However, positive correlation was seen between erythrocyte sedimentation rate (Spearman's correlation coefficient), level of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and protein, and age of the bison. Positive correlation was also observed between the lymphocyte count and lymphocyte proliferation index. The attempt to determine the reference values for blood biochemical and morphological parameters showed similarities to those of cattle.

  4. Fluorescence imaging of spatial location of lipids and proteins during digestion of protein-stabilized oil-in-water emulsions: A simulated gastrointestinal tract study.

    PubMed

    Mun, Saehun; Kim, Jisu; McClements, David Julian; Kim, Yong-Ro; Choi, Yongdoo

    2017-03-15

    A whey protein isolate-rhodamine B conjugate (WPI-RB) was synthesized to visualize changes in the location of a protein emulsifier in oil-in-water emulsions during digestion. An oil-soluble dye (Nile Red) was used to visualize changes in the lipid phase during digestion. Protein-labeled and lipid-labeled emulsions were passed through a simulated gastrointestinal tract consisting of mouth, stomach, and intestinal phases, and changes in protein and lipid location and morphology were monitored using confocal laser scanning microscopy. The proteins remained attached to the lipid droplet surfaces in the mouth and stomach, but formed large aggregates in the small intestine. The lipid droplets were highly flocculated in the mouth, highly coalesced in the stomach, and fully digested in the small intestine. Our results show that conjugation of fluorescence dyes to protein emulsifiers is useful for direct visualization of their location, as well as for understanding the behavior of food emulsions within the gastrointestinal tract. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Performance and apparent total tract phosphorus and calcium digestibility in grower-finisher pigs fed diets with and without phytase.

    PubMed

    Kühn, I; Männer, K

    2012-12-01

    The efficacy of a thermotolerant 6-phytase on performance and apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of P and Ca was evaluated in 96 crossbred barrows (8 replicates with 3 pigs each) fed 4 diets. Diets based on corn (Zea mays), a heat-treated grain mix, and soybean (Glycine max) meal with recommended [positive control (PC)] or reduced [negative control (NC)] P and Ca levels were fed from 25 to 115 kg BW. The PC diets contained 0.61% P and 0.72% Ca from 25 to 45 kg, 0.59% P and 0.66% Ca from 45 to 70 kg, and 0.48% P and 0.51% Ca from 70 kg to final BW. The NC diets were reduced in digestible P by 2.0, 2.0, and 1.1 g/kg and in Ca by 1.4, 1.0, and 0.8 g/kg, respectively, for the 3 phases. Phytase was added at 0, 250, and 500 phytase units (FTU)/kg to the NC diet. Performance was measured at the end of each feeding period and ATTD of P and Ca evaluated for a 3-d collection following a 7-d adaptation at an average BW of 45, 70, and 116 kg. Final BW of NC pigs (111.9 kg) was increased (P < 0.05) by P addition (120.3 kg; PC) and by phytase inclusion at both rates (116.5 and 117.6 kg, respectively). The ADG of NC pigs (781 g) was increased (P < 0.05) by both phytase levels (5.5 and 6.6%); pigs fed 500 FTU/kg achieved similar ADG as PC pigs (833 and 858 g, respectively). The G:F was reduced (P < 0.05) in NC pigs (0.308) compared to pigs fed the PC diet (0.328) or diets with 250 or 500 FTU phytase/kg (0.324 and 0.330, respectively). The ATTD of P was lowest in all periods for pigs fed NC diets (35.5% in starter, 32.2% in grower, and 32.1% in finisher period). Phytase increased (P < 0.05) ATTD of P in all periods at both application rates. Pigs fed 500 FTU/kg diet had a higher (P < 0.05) ATTD of P than pigs fed 250 FTU/kg and an ATTD of P at least similar to pigs fed PC. Similar but less pronounced effects were observed for ATTD of Ca. The phytase added to grower-finisher diets with reduced P and Ca nearly restored performance to the level of pigs fed diets with adequate P

  6. Comparative gut microbiota and resistome profiling of intensive care patients receiving selective digestive tract decontamination and healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Buelow, Elena; Bello González, Teresita D J; Fuentes, Susana; de Steenhuijsen Piters, Wouter A A; Lahti, Leo; Bayjanov, Jumamurat R; Majoor, Eline A M; Braat, Johanna C; van Mourik, Maaike S M; Oostdijk, Evelien A N; Willems, Rob J L; Bonten, Marc J M; van Passel, Mark W J; Smidt, Hauke; van Schaik, Willem

    2017-08-14

    The gut microbiota is a reservoir of opportunistic pathogens that can cause life-threatening infections in critically ill patients during their stay in an intensive care unit (ICU). To suppress gut colonization with opportunistic pathogens, a prophylactic antibiotic regimen, termed "selective decontamination of the digestive tract" (SDD), is used in some countries where it improves clinical outcome in ICU patients. Yet, the impact of ICU hospitalization and SDD on the gut microbiota remains largely unknown. Here, we characterize the composition of the gut microbiota and its antimicrobial resistance genes ("the resistome") of ICU patients during SDD and of healthy subjects. From ten patients that were acutely admitted to the ICU, 30 fecal samples were collected during ICU stay. Additionally, feces were collected from five of these patients after transfer to a medium-care ward and cessation of SDD. Feces from ten healthy subjects were collected twice, with a 1-year interval. Gut microbiota and resistome composition were determined using 16S rRNA gene phylogenetic profiling and nanolitre-scale quantitative PCRs. The microbiota of the ICU patients differed from the microbiota of healthy subjects and was characterized by lower microbial diversity, decreased levels of Escherichia coli and of anaerobic Gram-positive, butyrate-producing bacteria of the Clostridium clusters IV and XIVa, and an increased abundance of Bacteroidetes and enterococci. Four resistance genes (aac(6')-Ii, ermC, qacA, tetQ), providing resistance to aminoglycosides, macrolides, disinfectants, and tetracyclines, respectively, were significantly more abundant among ICU patients than in healthy subjects, while a chloramphenicol resistance gene (catA) and a tetracycline resistance gene (tetW) were more abundant in healthy subjects. The gut microbiota of SDD-treated ICU patients deviated strongly from the gut microbiota of healthy subjects. The negative effects on the resistome were limited to selection

  7. Uptake of cadmium in meals from the digestive tract of young non-smoking Japanese female volunteers.

    PubMed

    Kikuchi, Yuriko; Nomiyama, Tetsuo; Kumagai, Nami; Dekio, Fumiko; Uemura, Takamoto; Takebayashi, Toru; Nishiwaki, Yuji; Matsumoto, Yukio; Sano, Yuri; Hosoda, Kanae; Watanabe, Shaw; Sakurai, Haruhiko; Omae, Kazuyuki

    2003-01-01

    To estimate rates of cadmium (Cd) uptake from the digestive tract and changes in Cd in biological specimens after intake of Cd mainly in rice. Twenty-five young non-smoking Japanese female volunteers (20-23 in age) were recruited and a 20-d experimental study was conducted. With polished rice containing 0.004 ppm and 0.340 ppm of Cd, Meal L and Meal H were prepared. Approximately 12% of total Cd in Meal L and 92% of total Cd in Meal H originated in rice. The volunteers ate Meal L for 11 d to achieve a stable intake-output balance of Cd. Fifteen of the 25 volunteers ate Meal H on the 12(th) day (Group D1), and the remaining 10 ate Meal H on the 12(th), 13(th) and 14(th) day (Group D3). All 25 subjects then resumed the consumption of Meal L to the end of the study (20(th) day). All meals, feces and urine were collected during the study, and Cd intake from the daily meals (Cd-I), Cd in feces (Cd-F) and Cd in urine (Cd-U) were determined. For measurement of Cd in blood (Cd-B), venous blood was collected from all volunteers on the day before the study and again on the 12(th) and 20(th) day; venous blood was also collected from 4-8 volunteers at additional time points. Mean Cd-I was 4.51 microg/d (range: 1.85-6.93) or 48.48 microg/d (range: 27.98-56.27) when they ate Meal L or Meal H. Cd-F and Cd-B exhibited faster responses to the change in Cd-I than did Cd-U. The Cd(uptake) rate, defined as (1-Cd-F(excess) /Cd-I(excess)) (Fig. 1), was 47.2% (range: -9.4-83.3%) in Group D1 and 36.6% (range: -9.2-73.5%) in Group D3, and the Cd(balance) rate, defined as (1-Cd-F(output) /Cd-I(intake)), was 23.9% (range: -4.0-37.7%) in Group D1 and 23.7% (range: -8.2-56.9%) in Group D3. Cd-F and Cd-B are better biological monitoring parameters for assessing change in Cd-I than Cd-U. The Cd(uptake) and Cd(balance) rates appeared to be higher than those in previous papers when ingested Cd mainly originated in rice.

  8. Microtus species as new herbivorous laboratory animals: reproduction; bacterial flora and fermentation in the digestive tracts; and nutritional physiology.

    PubMed

    Kudo, H; Oki, Y

    1984-05-01

    In a study of the possible introduction of Japanese field vole (Microtus montebelli ) and Hungarian voles (M. arvalis) as herbivorous experimental animals, the following biological characteristics were investigated: breeding and reproductive performance; bacterial flora and fermentation in the digestive tracts; and nutritional physiology. The animals are polyestrus , show postpartum estrus on the day of parturition, and there is little or no delay in implantation due to lactation, especially in M. arvalis. On examination of vaginal smears, Japanese field vole did not show any definite pattern, whereas most Hungarian voles showed 6- to 18- day cycles. From the esophageal sac of voles fed rations with a high fiber content, cellulolytic bacteria similar to Ruminococcus albus, Ruminococcus flavefaciens , and Bacteroides succinogenes were isolated. More than 1 000 000/g anaerobic bacteria were present in the esophageal sac and the pattern and the types of bacteria resembled those found in the rumen. Gastric fermentation took place in the esophageal sac. The pH and total VFAs were much smaller in the fundic and pyloric regions of the stomach than in the esophageal sac. Acetic and lactic acids were the major fermentation products in the esophageal sac. Following deficiency or lowering of the cellulose decomposing abilities, a decrease of VFAs and an increase in lactic acid production in the esophageal sac were observed. These effects resulted in high glucose, FFA and ketone bodies in the blood, and a higher incidence of glucosuria. Diabetes induced by administrations of drugs such as alloxan, streptozotocin and phloridzin were compared using Microtus and mice. Microtus had low sensitivity to alloxan but high sensitivity to streptozotocin. The influence of monensin on Microtus was also investigated by using diets containing 20 and 80 mg/kg monensin. Diets containing 80 mg/kg monensin led to 50 % mortality in 7 weeks and growth was hindered. Gas production from the

  9. Bombiscardovia coagulans gen. nov., sp. nov., a new member of the family Bifidobacteriaceae isolated from the digestive tract of bumblebees.

    PubMed

    Killer, J; Kopečný, J; Mrázek, J; Havlík, J; Koppová, I; Benada, O; Rada, V; Kofroňová, O

    2010-11-01

    One hundred and eighty-seven fructose-6-phosphate phosphoketolase positive strains were isolated from the digestive tract of three different bumblebee species. Analyses of the partial 16S rRNA gene sequences of the representative strains showed only 92.8% and 92.5% similarity to Bifidobacterium coryneforme YIT 4092(T) and Bifidobacterium indicum JCM 1302(T), 92.2% similarity to Alloscardovia omnicolens CCUG 18650 and slightly reduced similarity of 91% to other members of the family Bifidobacteriaceae. On the other hand, analyses of the partial heat-shock protein 60 (hsp60) gene sequence revealed that the proposed type strain BLAPIII-AGV(T) was affiliated only to the 60 kDa chaperonin sequence of uncultured bacteria from human vagina (79-80%) and the hsp60 gene sequence of A. omnicolens CCUG 31649(T) (75.5%). The peptidoglycan type was A4α with an l-Lys-d-Asp interpeptide bridge. The polar lipids contained diphosphatidylglycerol, an unknown phospholipid, six glycolipids and two phosphoglycolipids. The major fatty acids were C(18:1), C(20:0) and C(18:0). These and other analyses indicated that the isolates represented a new genus within the family Bifidobacteriaceae. This observation was further substantiated by determination of the DNA G+C contents (46.1-47.1 mol%). Affinity of the strains to some scardovial genera (Aeriscardovia, Alloscardovia and Metascardovia) was also confirmed by their ability to grow under aerobic conditions. Besides the above mentioned differences, Bombiscardovia coagulans was found to differ from all scardovial genera in the ability to grow at temperatures as low as 5°C, which was another major phenotypically different characteristic of this new member of the family Bifidobacteriaceae. Hence, on the basis of phylogenetic analyses using partial 16S rRNA and hsp60 gene sequence data, and the temperature related phenotypic difference, we propose a novel taxa, B. coagulans gen. nov., sp. nov. (type strain=BLAPIII-AGV(T)=DSM 22924(T)=ATCC BAA

  10. Immunoexpression of constitutive and inducible cyclo-oxygenase isoforms in the rat foetal and maternal digestive tract.

    PubMed

    Burdan, F; Szumiło, J; Gajjar, B; Dudka, J; Korobowicz, A; Patel, S; Nat, A; Nat, A S; Dworzański, W; Kwaśniewski, W

    2008-02-01

    seen in the maternal parietal and/or mucous-secreting surface stomach cells. Some epithelial cells of the crypts both in the small and large bowel were also COX-2 positive. In conclusion, constitutive and inducible COX isoforms were detected in the digestive tract of pregnant female and in foetuses. COX-1 was the predominant isoform in both the adult and foetal organs.

  11. Establishment of systemic Brucella melitensis infection through the digestive tract requires urease, the type IV secretion system, and lipopolysaccharide O antigen.

    PubMed

    Paixão, Tatiane A; Roux, Christelle M; den Hartigh, Andreas B; Sankaran-Walters, Sumathi; Dandekar, Satya; Santos, Renato L; Tsolis, Renée M

    2009-10-01

    Human brucellosis is caused mainly by Brucella melitensis, which is often acquired by ingesting contaminated goat or sheep milk and cheese. Bacterial factors required for food-borne infection of humans by B. melitensis are poorly understood. In this study, a mouse model of oral infection was characterized to assess the roles of urease, the VirB type IV secretion system, and lipopolysaccharide for establishing infection through the digestive tract. B. melitensis strain 16M was consistently recovered from the mesenteric lymph node (MLN), spleen, and liver beginning at 3 or 7 day postinfection (dpi). In the gut, persistence of the inoculum was observed up to 21 dpi. No inflammatory lesions were observed in the ileum or colon during infection. Mutant strains lacking the ureABC genes of the ure1 operon, virB2, or pmm encoding phosphomannomutase were constructed and compared to the wild-type strain for infectivity through the digestive tract. Mutants lacking the virB2 and pmm genes were attenuated in the spleen (P < 0.05) and MLN (P < 0.001), respectively. The wild-type and mutant strains had similar levels of resistance to low pH and 5 or 10% bile, suggesting that the reduced colonization of mutants was not the result of reduced resistance to acid pH or bile salts. In an in vitro lymphoepithelial cell (M-cell) model, B. melitensis transited rapidly through polarized enterocyte monolayers containing M-like cells; however, transit through monolayers containing only enterocytes was reduced or absent. These results indicate that B. melitensis is able to spread systemically from the digestive tract after infection, most likely through M cells of the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue.

  12. Glutamine Supplementation of Parenteral Nutrition Does Not Improve Intestinal Permeability, Nitrogen Balance, or Outcome in Newborns and Infants Undergoing Digestive-Tract Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Albers, Marcel J. I. J.; Steyerberg, Ewout W.; Hazebroek, Frans W. J.; Mourik, Marjan; Borsboom, Gerard J. J. M.; Rietveld, Trinet; Huijmans, Jan G. M.; Tibboel, Dick

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To assess the effect of isocaloric isonitrogenous parenteral glutamine supplementation on intestinal permeability and nitrogen loss in newborns and infants after major digestive-tract surgery. Summary Background Data: Glutamine supplementation in critically ill and surgical adults may normalize intestinal permeability, attenuate nitrogen loss, improve survival, and lower the incidence of nosocomial infections. Previous studies in critically ill children were limited to very-low-birthweight infants and had equivocal results. Methods: Eighty newborns and infants were included in a double-blind, randomized trial comparing standard parenteral nutrition (sPN; n = 39) to glutamine-supplemented parenteral nutrition (GlnPN; glutamine target intake, 0.4 g kg−1 day−1; n = 41), starting on day 2 after major digestive-tract surgery. Primary endpoints were intestinal permeability, as assessed by the urinary excretion ratio of lactulose and rhamnose (weeks 1 through 4); nitrogen balance (days 4 through 6), and urinary 3-methylhistidine excretion (day 5). Secondary endpoints were mortality, length of stay in the ICU and the hospital, number of septic episodes, and usage of antibiotics and ICU resources. Results: Glutamine intake plateaued at 90% of the target on day 4. No differences were found between patients assigned sPN and patients assigned GlnPN regarding any of the endpoints. Glutamine supplementation was not associated with adverse effects. Conclusions: In newborns and infants after major digestive-tract surgery, we did not identify beneficial effects of isonitrogenous, isocaloric glutamine supplementation of parenteral nutrition. Glutamine supplementation in these patients therefore is not warranted until further research proves otherwise. PMID:15798461

  13. Immunotherapy with subcutaneous low-dose interleukin-2 and the pineal indole melatonin as a new effective therapy in advanced cancers of the digestive tract.

    PubMed Central

    Lissoni, P.; Barni, S.; Tancini, G.; Ardizzoia, A.; Rovelli, F.; Cazzaniga, M.; Brivio, F.; Piperno, A.; Aldeghi, R.; Fossati, D.

    1993-01-01

    The advanced tumours of the digestive tract are generally less responsive to conventional chemotherapies. Moreover, preliminary results with IL-2 immunotherapy also seem to show a low efficacy. On the basis of our previous studies suggesting s synergistic action between IL-2 and some neurohormones, such as the pineal indole MLT, a clinical trial was performed to investigate the clinical efficacy and tolerability of an immunotherapy with IL-2 plus MLT in patients with advanced neoplasms of the digestive tract. The study included 35 patients (colorectal cancer: 14; gastric cancer: 8; hepatocarcinoma: 6; pancreas adenocarcinoma: 7). Distant organ metastases were present in 31/35 patients. MLT was given orally at a daily dose of 50 mg at 8.00 p.m., starting 7 days before IL-2, which was given subcutaneously at a dose of 3 million IU/day at 8.00 p.m. for 6 days/week for 4 weeks, corresponding to one cycle of immunotherapy. In nonprogressed patients, a second cycle was given after a 21-day rest period. A complete response was achieved in two patients (gastric cancer: 1; hepatocarcinoma: 1). Six other patients obtained a partial response: (gastric cancer: 2; hepatocarcinoma: 2; colon cancer: 1; pancreas cancer: 1). Therefore, the overall response rate was 8/35 (23%). Stable disease was obtained in 11/35 (31%) patients, whereas the remaining 16 patients (46%) progressed. The response rate was significantly higher in untreated patients than in those previously treated with chemotherapy. Toxicity was low in all patients, who received the treatment as a home therapy. This study shows that the immunotherapy with low-dose IL-2 plus the pineal hormone MLT is a new well tolerated and effective therapy of advanced tumours of the digestive tract, mainly in gastric cancer and hepatocarcinoma. PMID:8512825

  14. Simultaneous restoration of voice function and digestive tract continuity in patients with synchronous primaries of hypopharynx and thoracic esophagus with pedicled ileocolon flap.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hung-Chi; Gharb, Bahar Bassiri; Rampazzo, Antonio; Perrone, Francesco; Chen, Shih-Heng; Trignano, Emilio

    2011-05-01

    Defects involving hypopharynx, cervical, and thoracic esophagus are challenging to reconstruct, and the available procedures usually leave patients voiceless. We describe our experience with a modified pedicled ileocolon flap for the reconstruction of alimentary conduit and voice in patients undergoing hypopharyngo-laryngectomy and total esophagectomy. Between January 1995 and December 2008, 7 patients underwent reconstruction of the digestive tract and voice function with a pedicled ileocolon flap because of extensive defects involving larynx, hyphopharynx, cervical, and thoracic esophagus. Patient's charts were reviewed and appropriate clinical data were evaluated. All patients were male with a mean age of 58 years. The continuity of the digestive tract was restored with ileum-colon (n = 1) or colon (n = 6). The voice tube was reconstructed with appendix (n = 1) or with terminal ileum (n = 6). The middle colic artery (n = 1) and left ascending colic artery (n = 6) were used as a pedicle. Five flaps were supercharged using ileocolic vessels. All the flaps survived completely. No intraoperative or in-hospital mortalities occurred. The mean hospital stay was 40 days. The mean follow-up was 22.4 months. Two patients died of local recurrence (1 patient) and distant metastasis (1 patient). One patient died of the complications of pre-existing disease. At the last follow-up, the median deglutition score was 5/7. The median speech score for intelligibility and fluency was 3, and 4 for loudness. The maximum phonation time was 7.57 s. The average sound pressure loudness and fundamental frequency were, respectively, 59 ± 3 dB and 133 ± 33 Hz. The pedicled ileocolon flap as used in this series proved to be a safe and reliable technique for simultaneous reconstruction of voice and digestive tract. Copyright © 2011 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. [Dyspepsia among the principal diseases of the upper tract of the digestive apparatus. Analysis of the symptom in 700 cases subjected to gastroduodenoscopy].

    PubMed

    Secchi, G C; Negri, E; Monti, M A; Bertazzi, P A; Zocchetti, C

    1983-12-15

    700 cases subjected to endoscopic examination were investigated to find the relationship between dyspepsia and personal characteristics, lifestyle, family and pathological history and formulated diagnosis. Dyspepsia is taken to represent: epigastric heaviness following meals, prolonged and difficult digestion accompanied by the sensation of slow gastric emptying and fullness. Dyspepsia occurs with equal frequency in both series and is more common during the first decades of life. Dyspepsia is not affected by whether or not the patient lives in the town or the country, smokes, drinks significant amounts of alcohol or coffee. Neither a family history of gastroduodenal or intestinal complaints or gall bladder stones or chronic liver diseases have many bearing on dyspepsia. An attempt to connect endoscopic diagnosis with dyspepsia had no positive result. Dyspepsia was observed with the same frequency in subjects free from upper digestive tract diseases, subjects with organic disease and subjects with functional diseases.

  16. The influence of grinding and pelleting of feed on the microbial composition and activity in the digestive tract of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Engberg, R M; Hedemann, M S; Jensen, B B

    2002-09-01

    1. The influence of feed grinding (coarsely or finely ground feed) and feed form (mash or pellets) on the intestinal environment was investigated in a growth experiment with broiler chickens taking the intestinal microflora, intestinal viscosity, and the activities of pancreatic digestive enzymes into consideration. 2. As compared to mash the feeding of pellets was associated with a significantly higher body weight due to increased feed intake and improved feed utilisation. 3. Pellet-fed birds had significantly decreased gizzard weights, a higher gizzard pH and a lower intestinal pH than mash-fed birds. 4. Pellet-fed birds had significantly lower relative pancreas weights and lower activities of pancreatic digestive enzymes (amylase, lipase, chymotrypsin), which indicates the existence of a feedback mechanism, which may have been triggered by the intestinal concentration of enzymatically hydrolysed products or of the respective digestive enzymes. 5. Pellet-fed birds had larger numbers of coliform bacteria and enterococci in the ileum and a reduced number of Clostridium perfringens and lactobacilli in the distal end of the digestive tract (caeca and rectum). Microbial fermentation in terms of volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentration was found to be significantly higher in the caeca of pellet-fed birds than in mash-fed birds.

  17. Effects of flaxseed, raw soybeans and calcium salts of fatty acids on apparent total tract digestibility, energy balance and milk fatty acid profile of transition cows.

    PubMed

    Gandra, J R; Mingoti, R D; Barletta, R V; Takiya, C S; Verdurico, L C; Freitas, J E; Paiva, P G; Jesus, E F; Calomeni, G D; Rennó, F P

    2016-08-01

    Oilseeds offer some protection to the access of ruminal microorganisms and may be an alternative to calcium salts of fatty acids (FA), which are not fully inert in the ruminal environment. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of different sources of FA supplementation on apparent total tract nutrient digestibility, milk yield and composition, and energy balance (EB) of cows during the transition period and early lactation. We compared diets rich in C18:2 and C18:3 FA. Multiparous Holstein cows were randomly assigned to receive one of the four diets: control (n=11); whole flaxseed (WF, n=10), 60 and 80 g/kg (diet dry matter (DM) basis) of WF during the prepartum and postpartum periods, respectively; whole raw soybeans (WS, n=10), 120 and 160 g/kg (diet DM basis) of WS during the prepartum and postpartum periods, respectively; and calcium salts of unsaturated fatty acids (CSFA, n=11), 24 and 32 g/kg (diet DM basis) of CSFA during the prepartum and postpartum periods, respectively. Dry cows fed WF had higher DM and net energy of lactation (NEL) intake than those fed WS or CSFA. The FA supplementation did not alter DM and NDF apparent total tract digestibility, dry cows fed WF exhibited greater NDF total tract digestion than cows fed WS or CSFA. Feeding WS instead of CSFA did not alter NEL intake and total tract digestion of nutrients, but increased milk fat yield and concentration. Calculated efficiency of milk yield was not altered by diets. FA supplementation increased EB during the postpartum period. Experimental diets increased long-chain FA (saturated and unsaturated FA) in milk. In addition, cows fed WS and CSFA had higher C18:1 trans-11 FA and C18:2 cis, and lower C18:3 FA in milk than those fed WF. Furthermore, cows fed CSFA had higher C18:1 trans-11 and cis-9, trans-11 FA than cows fed WS. Although supplemental C18:2 and C18:3 FA did not influence the milk yield of cows, they positively affected EB and increased unsaturated long-chain FA in milk fat.

  18. True total-tract digestibility of phosphorus in corn and soybean meal for fifteen-kilogram pigs are additive in corn-soybean meal diet.

    PubMed

    Zhai, H; Adeola, O

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to verify the additivity of true total-tract P digestibility (TPD) in corn and soybean meal (SBM) for 15-kg pigs. Fifty-four barrows with an average initial BW of 14.7±1.6 kg were used in a randomized complete block design with a 3×2 factorial arrangement of 6 diets. Three P sources included corn, SBM, and their mixture at a ratio of 2:1. Each P source was provided at low or high level. The diets were fed for a 5-d adjustment period followed by a total collection period of 7 d with ferric oxide as a marker to determine the initiation and termination of fecal collection. The results showed the high P level of each P source increased (P<0.001) P intake, fecal P output, and digested P compared with the low P level. The respective apparent total-tract digestibility of P were 35.66 and 40.57% for low and high P levels in corn, 35.72 and 38.04% for low and high P levels in SBM, and 41.85 and 38.53% for low and high P levels in the corn-soybean meal mixture without significant difference between P levels within P sources. Regressing daily digested P against daily P intake, the TPD was estimated at 40.53, 35.96, and 37.52% for corn, SBM, and their mixture, respectively. The expected TPD in corn and SBM mixture was calculated to be 37.92% based upon the P contribution coefficient calculated to be 0.428 for corn and 0.572 for SBM. The determined TPD (37.52%) in the mixture was not statistically different from the expected (37.92%). In conclusion, the TPD in corn and SBM are additive in corn-soybean meal diet for pigs.

  19. Biodistribution and stability of CdSe core quantum dots in mouse digestive tract following per os administration: Advantages of double polymer/silica coated nanocrystals

    SciTech Connect

    Loginova, Y.F.; Dezhurov, S.V.; Zherdeva, V.V.; Kazachkina, N.I.; Wakstein, M.S.; Savitsky, A.P.

    2012-03-02

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer New QDs coated with combination of polythiol ligands and silica shell were synthesized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We examine the QDs stability in digestive tract of mice after per os administration. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The polymer/silica shell prevents QDs degradation and fluorescence quenching in vivo. -- Abstract: CdSe-core, ZnS-capped semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) are of great potential for biomedical applications. However, applications in the gastrointestinal tract for in vivo imaging and therapeutic purposes are hampered by their sensitivity to acidic environments and potential toxicity. Here we report the use of coatings with a combination of polythiol ligands and silica shell (QDs PolyT-APS) to stabilize QDs fluorescence under acidic conditions. We demonstrated the stability of water-soluble QDs PolyT-APS both in vitro, in strong acidic solutions, and in vivo. The biodistribution, stability and photoluminescence properties of QDs in the gastrointestinal tract of mice after per os administration were assessed. We demonstrated that QDs coated with current traditional materials - mercapto compounds (QDs MPA) and pendant thiol group (QDs PolyT) - are not capable of protecting QDs from chemically induced degradation and surface modification. Polythiol ligands and silica shell quantum dots (QDs PolyT-APS) are suitable for biological and biomedical applications in the gastrointestinal tract.

  20. Effect of dietary supplementation with live-cell yeast at two dosages on lactation performance, ruminal fermentation, and total-tract nutrient digestibility in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Ferraretto, L F; Shaver, R D; Bertics, S J

    2012-07-01

    The experimental objective was to determine the effect of dietary supplementation with live-cell yeast (LCY; Procreatin-7, Lesaffre Feed Additives, Milwaukee, WI) at 2 dosages in high-starch (HS) diets [30% starch in dry matter (DM)] on lactation performance, ruminal fermentation, and total-tract nutrient digestibility in dairy cows compared with HS or low-starch (LS; 20% starch in DM) non-LCY diets. Sixty-four multiparous Holstein cows (114 ± 37 d in milk and 726 ± 74 kg of body weight at trial initiation) were randomly assigned to 32 electronic gate feeders (2 cows per feeder), which were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatments in a completely randomized design. A 2-wk covariate adjustment period with cows fed a 50:50 mixture of the HS and LS diets was followed by a 12-wk treatment period with cows fed their assigned treatment diets. The HS diets were fed without (HS0) and with 2 (HS2) or 4 (HS4) g/cow per day of LCY. The LS diet did not contain LCY (LS0) and was formulated by partially replacing dry ground shelled corn with soy hulls. Cows fed LS0 consumed more DM than cows fed HS diets during wk 3, 10, 11, and 12. Yields of actual (44.5 kg/d, on average), fat-, energy-, and solids-corrected milk were unaffected by treatment. Milk fat content tended to be greater for LS0 than for HS0 and HS2 but not different from HS4. Milk urea nitrogen contents were greater for cows fed LS0 than for cows fed the HS diets. Feed conversion (kg of milk/kg of DM intake) was numerically greater for HS diets than for LS0. Ruminal pH was unaffected by treatment. Ruminal molar proportion of acetate was greater, whereas that of propionate was lower, for LS0 compared with HS diets. Dry matter and organic matter digestibilities were greater for HS2 and HS4 than for HS0. Digestibility of neutral detergent fiber was greater for HS4 than for HS0 and HS2. Dry matter, organic matter, and neutral detergent fiber digestibilities were greater for LS0 than for HS diets; starch digestibility was

  1. Effects of fasting and refeeding on the digestive tract of zebrafish (Danio rerio) fed with Spirulina (Arthrospira platensis), a high protein feed source.

    PubMed

    Lo Cascio, Patrizia; Calabrò, Concetta; Bertuccio, Clara; Paterniti, Irene; Palombieri, Deborah; Calò, Margherita; Albergamo, Ambrogina; Salvo, Andrea; Gabriella Denaro, Maria

    2017-07-01

    In the present work, morphological and molecular effects of short-term feed deprivation and refeeding with Spirulina (Arthrospira platensis) on zebrafish digestive tract were determined. Once elucidated the proximate composition of Spirulina feed, immunohistochemical and western blot analyses of peptide transporter (PepT1) and cholecystokinin (CCK8) were carried out in the gastrointestinal tract of zebrafish, previously morphologically investigated. Two and five fasting days caused not only morphostructural alterations, but also the downregulation of PepT1 and CCK8 proteins. Conversely, the recovery of normal morphological conditions, along with an increased PepT1 and CCK8 expression, were observed after refeeding with Spirulina. The increase of PepT1 expression in zebrafish may be responsible for the enhanced CCK8 secretion, so that both proteins may contribute to an improved digestion process during refeeding. These observations could be supported not only by compensatory mechanisms induced by fasting and refeeding but also by an higher protein quality of Spirulina-based diet.

  2. Cyanophycin-degrading bacteria in digestive tracts of mammals, birds and fish and consequences for possible applications of cyanophycin and its dipeptides in nutrition and therapy.

    PubMed

    Sallam, A; Steinbüchel, A

    2009-08-01

    To determine the susceptibility of cyanophycin granule polypeptide (CGP) to degradation by several mammalian, avian and fish gut flora. Samples of gut flora were investigated for the occurrence of bacteria capable of CGP degradation. With all samples, a complete anaerobic degradation of CGP was achieved over incubation periods of only 12-48 h at 37 degrees C. CGP-degrading bacteria were detected in all samples, and they occurred in particular high titres in caecum flora from rabbit and sheep and in the digestive tract of carp fish. A total of 62 axenic cultures were isolated. All degraded CGP aerobically, 46 of them degraded CGP also anaerobically over incubation periods ranging from 24 h to 7 days. HPLC analysis revealed that all isolates degraded CGP to its constituting dipeptides. Eight strains were identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing and were affiliated to the genera Bacillus, Brevibacillus, Pseudomonas, Streptomyces and Micromonospora. These data demonstrate for the first time the occurrence of a natural niche for CGP in the digestive tracts of animals. The biodegradability of CGP by gut flora provides a first confirmation for the potential applications of CGP and its dipeptides in nutrition and therapy as highly bio-available sources for arginine, lysine, aspartate and possibly also other amino acids.

  3. Severe Bone Marrow Suppression Accompanying Pulmonary Infection and Hemorrhage of the Digestive Tract Associated with Leflunomide and Low-dose Methotrexate Combination Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Qu, Caihong; Lu, Ying; Liu, Weimin

    2017-01-01

    A 60-year-old male patient developed hyperpyrexia, cough, expectoration with blood-stained sputum, mouth ulcers, and suppurative tonsillitis after receiving 35 days of combination treatment with leflunomide (LEF) and low-dose methotrexate (MTX) for active rheumatoid arthritis. On admission, routine blood tests showed severe thrombocytopenia, agranulocytosis, and decreased hemoglobin concentration compared with the relatively normal results of 1 month previously during the first hospitalization. Chest radiography revealed inflammation in both lungs, and a fecal occult blood test was positive. Given this presentation, severe bone marrow suppression accompanying pulmonary infection and hemorrhage of the digestive tract associated with LEF and MTX combination therapy was diagnosed. After 28 days of symptomatic treatment, the patient's complications subsided gradually. This case highlighted that bone marrow suppression associated with MTX and LEF combination therapy could be very serious, even at a normal dose or especially at the beginning of treatment. MTX and LEF combination therapy should be used with caution or be limited in those with a history of pulmonary disease, hemorrhage of the digestive tract, or other relevant diseases. PMID:28405135

  4. Peritrophin-like protein from Litopenaeus vannamei (LvPT) involved in white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection in digestive tract challenged with reverse gavage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Shijun; Li, Fuhua; Zhang, Xiaojun; Zhang, Jiquan; Xiang, Jianhai

    2017-05-01

    The peritrophic membrane plays an important role in the defense system of the arthropod gut. The digestive tract is considered one of the major tissues targeted by white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) in shrimp. In this study, the nucleotide sequence encoding peritrophin-like protein of Litopenaeus vannamei (LvPT) was amplified from a yeast two-hybrid library of L. vannamei. The epitope peptide of LvPT was predicted with the GenScript OptimumAntigen™ design tool. An anti-LvPT polyclonal antibody was produced and shown to specifically bind a band at 27 kDa, identified as LvPT. The LvPT protein was expressed and its concentration determined. LvPT dsRNA (4 μg per shrimp) was used to inhibit LvPT expression in shrimp, and a WSSV challenge experiment was then performed with reverse gavage. The pleopods, stomachs, and guts were collected from the shrimp at 0, 24, 48, and 72 h post-infection (hpi). Viral load quantification showed that the levels of WSSV were significantly lower in the pleopods, stomachs, and guts of shrimp after LvPT dsRNA interference than in those of the controls at 48 and 72 hpi. Our results imply that LvPT plays an important role during WSSV infection of the digestive tract.

  5. Microcystin-LR and embryo-larval development of medaka fish, Oryzias latipes. I. Effects on the digestive tract and associated systems.

    PubMed

    Huynh-Delerme, Céline; Edery, Marc; Huet, Hélène; Puiseux-Dao, Simone; Bernard, Cécile; Fontaine, Jean-Jacques; Crespeau, François; de Luze, Amaury

    2005-07-01

    The cyanobacterial hepatotoxin microcystin-LR (MC-LR) is a specific potent PP1 and PP2A protein phosphatase inhibitor. In view to obtain an integrated whole-body, understanding of the key target organs of MC-LR subsequent to embryonic exposure on the anatomy of medaka fish hatchlings, embryos at stage 19 were microinjected with a sublethal dose of MC-LR corresponding to 0.2 pg/vitellus. MC-LR-induced histo-pathological modifications of the alimentary system (i.e. digestive tract, pancreas, liver) were analysed in newly hatched embryos. Our data are indicative of an MC-LR-induced inhibition of both yolk sac resorption and gas concentrating swimbladder expansion. In contrast to control hatchlings, (i) no mucus-secreting cells in the oesophagus, (ii) a decreased folding of the stomach and intestine, (iii) a clear reduction in size of the exocrine pancreas associated with a destructuration of acinar units, and (iv) a strong decrease in the mass and size of the liver were observed in MC-LR treated embryos. Furthermore, as an indication of MC-LR-induced hepatic glycogen store depletion, unstained cytoplasmic areas present in control hatchling hepatocytes, were fully absent in all liver examined in treated embryos. Finally, as a general observation in MC-LR-treated embryos, our data clearly indicated terminal differentiation disorders in all organs associated with the digestive tract.

  6. Supplementation of diets containing pea meal with exogenous enzymes: effects on weight gain, feed conversion, nutrient digestibility and gross morphology of the gastrointestinal tract of growing broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Cowieson, A J; Acamovic, T; Bedford, M R

    2003-07-01

    1. The potential for the nutritional improvement of pea-based diets by supplementation with a cocktail of exogenous carbohydrases was investigated using growing broiler chicks. 2. Pea meals (grown in the UK) were included in wheat-based diets at 300 g/kg as a partial replacement for an approximately isonitrogenous mixture of wheat and soybean meal. A wheat/soybean meal diet served as a control and each diet was supplemented with a cocktail of alpha-amylase, pectinase and cellulase. The diets were fed to 1-d-old broiler chicks for a period of 21 d. Weight gain and feed conversion were monitored weekly and excreta were collected during the final week in order to determine nutrient digestibility coefficients and metabolisable energy. On d 21, the gastrointestinal (GI) tract was excised and gross morphology measured. 3. Inclusion of pea meal reduced weight gain, feed conversion, nutrient digestibility and also increased the relative sizes of the distal sections of the GI tract. 4. Enzyme addition partially ameliorated the detrimental effects of pea meal inclusion although similar improvements were also noted for birds fed on the control diet. 5. It is concluded that the nutritive value of pea-meal-based diets can be improved by the addition of carbohydrases, and that some pea cultivars show considerable potential as vegetable protein sources for broiler chicks.

  7. R-plasmic transfer from Serratia liquefaciens to Escherichia coli in vitro and in vivo in the digestive tract of gnotobiotic mice associated with human fecal flora.

    PubMed Central

    Duval-Iflah, Y; Raibaud, P; Tancrede, C; Rousseau, M

    1980-01-01

    It was shown that a strain of Serratia liquefaciens harbors a conjugative R-plasmid responsible for reistance to the following 14 antibiotics: ampicillin, carbenicillin, cephalothin, butirosin, neomycin, paramomycin, kanamycin, lividomycin, gentamicin, tobramycin, streptomycin, tetracycline, sulfonamide, and chloramphenicol, which belong to five families, the beta-lactamines, the aminoglycosides, the tetracyclines, the sulfonamides, and the phenicols. Resistance to th 14 antibiotics was cotransferred by in vitro conjugation between S. liquefaciens and strains of Escherichia coli. Mating between S. liquefaciens and E. coli also occurred in vivo, in the digestive tract of axenic mice and gnotobiotic mice associated with the whole human fecal flora. It was also shown that mating between these two strains occurred even when the donor S. liquefaciens strain was only transient in the digestive tract of the gnotobiotic host animals. A dense population of Bacteroides (10(10) viable cells per g of fresh feces) did not hinder this mating. All the matings occurred in the absence of an antibiotic selection pressure, and the resulting transferred strain of E. coli did not have the same colonizing capacity as the recipient parental strain. However, during antibiotic administration to mice, and even after the end of the drug intake, the transconjugant became established in the dominant population and replaced the parental recipient strain. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:6995330

  8. R-plasmic transfer from Serratia liquefaciens to Escherichia coli in vitro and in vivo in the digestive tract of gnotobiotic mice associated with human fecal flora.

    PubMed

    Duval-Iflah, Y; Raibaud, P; Tancrede, C; Rousseau, M

    1980-06-01

    It was shown that a strain of Serratia liquefaciens harbors a conjugative R-plasmid responsible for reistance to the following 14 antibiotics: ampicillin, carbenicillin, cephalothin, butirosin, neomycin, paramomycin, kanamycin, lividomycin, gentamicin, tobramycin, streptomycin, tetracycline, sulfonamide, and chloramphenicol, which belong to five families, the beta-lactamines, the aminoglycosides, the tetracyclines, the sulfonamides, and the phenicols. Resistance to th 14 antibiotics was cotransferred by in vitro conjugation between S. liquefaciens and strains of Escherichia coli. Mating between S. liquefaciens and E. coli also occurred in vivo, in the digestive tract of axenic mice and gnotobiotic mice associated with the whole human fecal flora. It was also shown that mating between these two strains occurred even when the donor S. liquefaciens strain was only transient in the digestive tract of the gnotobiotic host animals. A dense population of Bacteroides (10(10) viable cells per g of fresh feces) did not hinder this mating. All the matings occurred in the absence of an antibiotic selection pressure, and the resulting transferred strain of E. coli did not have the same colonizing capacity as the recipient parental strain. However, during antibiotic administration to mice, and even after the end of the drug intake, the transconjugant became established in the dominant population and replaced the parental recipient strain.

  9. Early development of the digestive tract (pharynx and gut) in the embryos and pre-larvae of the European sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax.

    PubMed

    Sucré, E; Charmantier-Daures, M; Grousset, E; Charmantier, G; Cucchi-Mouillot, P

    2009-10-01

    The European sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax is a marine teleost important in Mediterranean aquaculture. The development of the entire digestive tract of D. labrax, including the pharynx, was investigated from early embryonic development to day 5 post hatching (dph), when the mouth opens. The digestive tract is initialized at stage 12 somites independently from two distinct infoldings of the endodermal sheet. In the pharyngeal region, the anterior infolding forms the pharynx and the first gill slits at stage 25 somites. The other three gill arches and slits are formed between 1 and 5 dph. Posteriorly, in the gut tube region, a posterior infolding forms the foregut, midgut and hindgut. The anus opens before hatching, at stage 28 somites. Associated organs (liver, pancreas and gall bladder) are all discernable from 3 dph. Some aspects of the development of the two independent initial infoldings seem original compared with data in the literature. These results are discussed and compared with embryonic and post-embryonic development patterns in other teleosts.

  10. Corn or sorghum wet distillers grains with solubles in combination with steam-flaked corn: feedlot cattle performance, carcass characteristics, and apparent total tract digestibility.

    PubMed

    May, M L; DeClerck, J C; Quinn, M J; DiLorenzo, N; Leibovich, J; Smith, D R; Hales, K E; Galyean, M L

    2010-07-01

    Two studies were conducted to evaluate the effects of corn (CDG) and sorghum (SDG) wet distillers grains with solubles on feedlot cattle performance, carcass characteristics, and apparent total tract digestion of nutrients. In Exp. 1, 224 steers were used in a randomized complete block design (initial BW 391.1 +/- 9.51 kg) and fed steam-flaked corn (SFC)-based diets consisting of (DM basis) 0% distillers grains (CON), 15% SDG, 30% SDG, 15% CDG, 30% CDG, 15% of a 50:50 blend of SDG and CDG, and 30% of a 50:50 blend of CDG and SDG. Decreased carcass-adjusted final BW and HCW (P < or = 0.05) were noted as the inclusion amount of distillers grains increased in the diet. Body weight gain efficiency did not differ among the CDG, 50:50 SDG and CDG blend, and CON treatments, but G:F was numerically less with either amount of SDG than for CON, and decreased (P < or = 0.05) as distillers grains were increased from 15 to 30%. Cattle fed CON had greater carcass yield grades than those fed the distillers grain diets (P < or = 0.05). In Exp. 2, crossbred beef steers (n = 36; initial BW 567.3 +/- 53.1 kg) were used in a generalized randomized block design and fed SFC-based diets with 0% distillers grains (CON) and 15% (DM basis) CDG or SDG. Digestibility was determined with a pulse dose of Cr(2)O(3). Feeding steers 15% CDG or SDG increased intakes of CP and NDF (P < or = 0.05), but intakes of DM, OM, and starch did not differ among treatments (P >o r = 0.07). Apparent total tract digestibilities of DM, OM, CP, NDF, and starch (P > or = 0.25) did not differ among the 3 treatments. Fecal pH averaged over all sampling times was not affected by treatment, nor were average fecal pH values for prefeeding samples (0, 24, 48, and 72 h after the pulse dose) or for samples taken after feeding (12, 36, and 60 h after the pulse dose; P > or = 0.11). Results suggest that with 15% distillers grains in the DM, G:F was similar for cattle fed the CDG, 50:50 SDG and CDG blend, and CON diets

  11. Group B Streptococcus infection: epidemiology, serotypes, and antimicrobial susceptibility of selected isolates in the population beyond infancy (excluding females with genital tract- and pregnancy-related isolates) at the University Malaya Medical Centre, Kuala Lumpur.

    PubMed

    Karunakaran, Rina; Raja, Nadeem Sajjad; Hafeez, Asma; Puthucheary, Savithri D

    2009-05-01

    Group B Streptococcus (GBS) infection was studied in 49 patients collected at convenience (convenience sampling), excluding infants and women with genital tract- and pregnancy-related isolates, according to the availability of stocked isolates and easy accessibility to epidemiological data. The data were examined both prospectively and retrospectively from 2003-2005 at a tertiary-level multidisciplinary hospital in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Skin and soft-tissue infections in 35 patients (71.4%) were the most common clinical presentation, while diabetes mellitus was the most common underlying condition (35 patients, 71.4%). All GBS isolates were sensitive to penicillin, and most isolates tested were sensitive to erythromycin (97.7%). Serotyping of 45 GBS isolates using a commercial serotyping kit revealed that the most common serotype was Ia (22.2%), followed by VI (17.8%), III and V (13.3% each). Others included Ib, II, IV, VIII, and VII; 13.3% were nontypeable. The findings of this pilot study are limited by the small sample size, the sampling method and the possibility that the cases are not wholly representative of the University Malaya Medical Centre population. Further studies from our hospital with larger numbers and using probabilistic sampling techniques are required to confirm the relatively high occurrence of serotype VI (the second most common serotype) in the population studied.

  12. Fluid and particle retention in the digestive tract of the addax antelope (Addax nasomaculatus)--adaptations of a grazing desert ruminant.

    PubMed

    Hummel, Jürgen; Steuer, Patrick; Südekum, Karl-Heinz; Hammer, Sven; Hammer, Catrin; Streich, W Jürgen; Clauss, Marcus

    2008-02-01

    Retention time of food in the digestive tract is a major aspect describing the digestive physiology of herbivores. Differences in feed retention times have been described for different ruminant feeding types. In this study, a dominantly grazing desert ruminant, the addax (Addax nasomaculatus), was investigated in this respect. Eight animals with a body weight (BW) of 87+/-5.3 kg on an ad libitum grass hay (Chloris gayana) diet were available. Co-EDTA and Cr-mordanted fibers (<2 mm) were used as pulse-dose markers. Mean retention time (MRT) in the digestive tract was calculated from faecal marker excretion. Average daily intake of the addax was found to be 1.7 kg dry matter (DM) or 60+/-8.3 g DM/kg BW(0.75). The MRT of fluid and particles in the reticulo-rumen (MRT(fluid)RR and MRT(particle)RR) were quantified to be 20+/-5.8 and 42+/-7.0 h respectively. When compared to literature data, MRT(fluid)RR was significantly longer than in cattle species, and MRT(particle)RR was significantly longer than in 11 taxa of all feeding types. The ratio of MRT(particle)RR/MRT(fluid)RR (2.3+/-0.5) was found to be within the range described for grazing ruminants. The long retention times found in the addax can be interpreted as an adaptation to a diet including a high proportion of slow fermenting grasses, while the long retention time of the fluid phase can be interpreted as a consequence of water saving mechanisms of the desert-adapted addax with a potentially low water turnover and capacious water storing rumen.

  13. The effect of an exogenous amylase on performance and total-tract digestibility in lactating dairy cows fed a high-byproduct diet.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, M M; Engstrom, M A; Azem, E; Gressley, T F

    2013-05-01

    The objective of this experiment was to determine the performance and digestibility response of lactating dairy cows fed a reduced-starch diet containing a commercial amylase product. Treatments consisted of a normal-starch total mixed ration (NS-), a reduced-starch total mixed ration (RS-), and a reduced-starch total mixed ration with exogenous amylase (RS+) added to the concentrate. Treatments were assigned according to a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square design with 28-d periods. Twenty-three cows completed the study. Starch concentrations in NS-, RS-, and RS+ total mixed rations were 27.7, 23.5, and 22.7%, respectively. Effects of treatment on intake, milk production, milk composition, and total-tract apparent nutrient digestibility were evaluated during the last week of each period. Effects of amylase on in vitro starch digestibility of the NS- and RS- grain mixes were also measured. We hypothesized that the reduction in dietary starch in the RS- ration would decrease diet digestibility and limit milk production compared with NS- due to a decrease in available energy, and that RS+ would alleviate some of this decrease by increasing nutrient digestibility. Contrary to this hypothesis, the RS- diet did not affect intake or milk production relative to the NS- diet, except for increased milk urea nitrogen and a tendency for a decrease in milk protein yield. This lack of response is attributed to both low milk fat concentrations across treatments and greater than predicted dietary energy content preventing the energy deficit that was intended to occur with the reduced-starch rations. Cows fed the RS+ ration had the lowest production performance, with reduced milk, fat-corrected milk, protein, and lactose yields relative to cows fed NS-. Cows fed RS+ also had reduced lactose yield and tended to have reduced milk and fat-corrected milk relative to cows fed RS-. Despite the negative effects of the RS+ treatment on performance, exogenous amylase did increase both in vitro

  14. Influence of whole wheat inclusion and a blend of essential oils on the performance, nutrient utilisation, digestive tract development and ileal microbiota profile of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Amerah, A M; Péron, A; Zaefarian, F; Ravindran, V

    2011-02-01

    1. The aim of the present experiment was to examine the influence of whole wheat inclusion and a blend of essential oils (EO; cinnamaldehyde and thymol) supplementation on the performance, nutrient utilisation, digestive tract development and ileal microbiota profile of broiler chickens. 2. The experimental design was a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments evaluating two wheat forms (ground wheat [GW] and whole wheat [WW]; 100 and 200 g/kg WW replacing GW during starter [1 to 21 d] and finisher [22 to 35 d] diets respectively) and two levels of EO inclusion (0 or 100 g/tonne diet). All dietary treatments were supplemented with 2000 xylanase units/kg feed. Broiler starter and finisher diets based on wheat and soybean meal were formulated and each diet fed ad libitum to 6 pens of 8 male broilers. 3. During the trial period (1-35 d), wheat form had no significant effect on weight gain or feed intake. However, WW inclusion tended (P = 0.06) to improve feed per gain. Essential oil supplementation significantly improved weight gain in both diets, but the improvements were greater in the GW diet as indicated by a significant wheat form × EO interaction. 4. Main effects of wheat form and EO on the relative weight, length and digesta content of various segments of the digestive tract were not significant. Significant interactions, however, were found for relative gizzard and caecal weights. Essential oil supplementation significantly increased the relative gizzard weight and lowered relative caecal weight in birds fed on the GW based diet, but had no effect in those fed on the WW based diet. 5. Whole wheat inclusion and EO supplementation significantly improved apparent ileal nitrogen digestibility. Apparent ileal digestible energy was not significantly influenced by the dietary treatments. 6. Ileal microbiota profiling, using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, showed that the ileal microbiota composition was influenced by feed form. The mean numbers of

  15. Feeding fat from distillers dried grains with solubles to dairy heifers: I. Effects on growth performance and total-tract digestibility of nutrients.

    PubMed

    Anderson, J L; Kalscheur, K F; Garcia, A D; Schingoethe, D J

    2015-08-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if increased dietary fat from dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) in diets of growing heifers affected dry matter intake, average daily gain (ADG), growth performance, and nutrient digestibility. Thirty-three Holstein heifers (133±18 d old) were used in a 24-wk randomized complete block design. Treatments were (1) control (CON) containing ground corn and soybean products, (2) low-fat (LFDG) containing low-fat, high-protein DDGS and ground corn, and (3) high-fat (HFDG) with traditional DDGS. All diets contained 39.8% grass hay, 24.8% corn silage, and 1.5% vitamins and minerals. The HFDG diet was formulated to contain 4.8% fat compared with 2.8% in the CON and LFDG diets, which were greater in nonfibrous carbohydrate. Diets had a net energy gain of 1.0Mcal/kg of dry matter and were limit-fed at 2.45% of body weight. Heifers were weighed every 2wk and rations were adjusted accordingly. Heart girth, hip and wither heights, body length, and body condition score were recorded every 2wk. Total-tract digestion of nutrients was evaluated during wk16 using fecal grab sampling and an external marker. No treatments by time interactions were found. Dry matter intakes, body weights, ADG, and gain-to-feed ratio were similar among treatments; however, ADG averaged 0.96kg/d among treatments, which is greater than recommended. All body frame measurements and body condition scores were similar among treatments. Total-tract digestibilities of dry matter and organic matter were not different among treatments. However, crude protein and neutral detergent fiber digestibility were increased in the HFDG diet compared with the CON and LFDG diets. These results demonstrate that using DDGS or low-fat DDGS with corn in growing heifer rations can maintain performance. Utilizing the fat in DDGS as a dietary energy source in replacement of starch from corn did not influence growth performance or negatively affect nutrient digestion.

  16. Apparent total tract macronutrient digestibility, fecal characteristics, and fecal fermentative end-product concentrations of healthy adult dogs fed bioprocessed soy protein.

    PubMed

    Beloshapka, A N; de Godoy, M R C; Detweiler, K B; Newcomb, M; Ellegård, K H; Fahey, G C; Swanson, K S

    2016-09-01

    Animal proteins are commonly used in extruded dog foods. Plant-based proteins have a more consistent nutrient profile than animal sources but may contain antinutritional factors, including trypsin inhibitors and oligosaccharides. Bioprocessed soy protein (SP; HP-300; Hamlet Protein, Inc., Findlay, OH) is a processed soy-based product with low antinutritional factor concentrations and high protein quality. The objective was to evaluate the effects of SP on apparent total tract macronutrient digestibility, fecal characteristics, and fecal fermentative end products. Furthermore, this study aimed to identify if SP can be a replacement for poultry byproduct meal (PBPM) in dog food and determine if there are practical limits to its use. Three palatability experiments were conducted to evaluate 1) 0 vs. 12% SP, 2) 0 vs. 48% SP, and 3) 12 vs. 48% SP. For digestibility, 48 healthy adult Beagle dogs (20 females and 28 males; 3.4 yr mean age and 10.0 kg mean BW) were randomly allotted to 1 of 6 dietary treatments, 0 (control), 4, 8, 12, 24, and 48% SP, in a completely randomized design. All diets were formulated to meet Association of American Feed Control Officials nutrient profiles and contained approximately 30% CP and 16% fat. The treatment period consisted of a 10-d diet adaptation phase followed by a 4-d fresh and total fecal collection phase. The palatability results suggest that of the 3 inclusion levels tested (0, 12, or 48% SP), the best inclusion of SP is 12%, which was preferred over 0 and 48% SP. Digestibility and fecal data were evaluated for linear and quadratic effects using SAS. Stool output (on both an as-is and a DM basis) did not differ from the control except for the 48% SP treatment ( < 0.01). Fecal output per unit food intake differed ( < 0.01) from the control only at the 24 and 48% SP inclusion rates. No significant effects of feeding SP were found on stool consistency scores. Digestibility of DM, OM, and energy did not differ from the control at any

  17. The beta-defensin gallinacin-6 is expressed in the chicken digestive tract and has antimicrobial activity against food-borne pathogens.

    PubMed

    van Dijk, Albert; Veldhuizen, Edwin J A; Kalkhove, Stefanie I C; Tjeerdsma-van Bokhoven, Johanna L M; Romijn, Roland A; Haagsman, Henk P

    2007-03-01

    Food-borne pathogens are responsible for most cases of food poisoning in developed countries and are often associated with poultry products, including chicken. Little is known about the role of beta-defensins in the chicken digestive tract and their efficacy. In this study, the expression of chicken beta-defensin gallinacin-6 (Gal-6) and its antimicrobial activity against food-borne pathogens were investigated. Reverse transcription-PCR analysis showed high expression of Gal-6 mRNA in the esophagus and crop, moderate expression in the glandular stomach, and low expression throughout the intestinal tract. Putative transcription factor binding sites for nuclear factor kappa beta, activator protein 1, and nuclear factor interleukin-6 were found in the Gal-6 gene upstream region, which suggests a possible inducible nature of the Gal-6 gene. In colony-counting assays, strong bactericidal and fungicidal activity was observed, including bactericidal activity against food-borne pathogens Campylobacter jejuni, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, Clostridium perfringens, and Escherichia coli. Treatment with 16 mug/ml synthetic Gal-6 resulted in a 3 log unit reduction in Clostridium perfringens survival within 60 min, indicating fast killing kinetics. Transmission electron microscopy examination of synthetic-Gal-6-treated Clostridium perfringens cells showed dose-dependent changes in morphology after 30 min, including intracellular granulation, cytoplasm retraction, irregular septum formation in dividing cells, and cell lysis. The high expression in the proximal digestive tract and broad antimicrobial activity suggest that chicken beta-defensin gallinacin-6 plays an important role in chicken innate host defense.

  18. Influence of the main cereal and feed form of the diet on performance and digestive tract traits of brown-egg laying pullets.

    PubMed

    Frikha, M; Safaa, H M; Serrano, M P; Arbe, X; Mateos, G G

    2009-05-01

    The influence of the main cereal and feed form of the diet on performance and digestive tract traits was studied in 576 brown-egg laying pullets from 1 to 120 d of age. From 1 to 45 d of age, 4 diets arranged factorially with 2 cereals (corn vs. wheat) and 2 feed forms (mash vs. pellets) were used. Each treatment was replicated 6 times (24 pullets per replicate). From 46 to 120 d of age, all diets were offered in mash form and the only difference among diets was the cereal used. Cumulatively, pullets fed the corn diets had higher BW gain (P < 0.05) but similar feed conversion ratio as pullets fed the wheat diets. From 1 to 45 d of age, pullets fed pellets consumed more feed (P < 0.001) and had higher BW gain (P < 0.001) than those fed mash. Most of the beneficial effects of pelleting on productive performance were still evident at 120 d of age. At 45 d of age, gizzard weight (g/kg of BW) was higher (P < 0.01) in pullets fed corn than in pullets fed wheat diets. Feeding pellets reduced the relative weight of the digestive tract and the gizzard (P < 0.001) as well as the length (cm/kg of BW) of the small intestine (P < 0.01) at both ages. The pH of gizzard contents at 120 d of age was not affected by cereal but was lower in pullets that were fed mash from 1 to 45 d of age (P < 0.01). We conclude that wheat can be used in substitution of corn in pullet diets with only a slight reduction in BW gain and that feeding pellets from 1 to 45 d of age increased BW gain and pH of the gizzard and reduced the relative weight of the gizzard and the length of the gastrointestinal tract at 120 d of age.

  19. Effects of temperature, pH and NaCl on protease activity in digestive tract of young turbot, Scophthalmus maximus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Muyan; Zhang, Xiumei; Gao, Tianxiang; Chen, Chao

    2006-09-01

    The protease activity in digestive tract of young turbot Scophthalmus maximum was studied, and the optimal pH, temperature and NaCl concentration were determined for different portions of the fish's internal organs. The optimal activity in the fish's stomach was at pH of 2.2, while that in the intestinal extracts was within the alkaline range from 9.5 to 10.0. In hepatopancreas, the optimal pH was in low alkalinity at 8.5. The optimal reaction temperature was above 40°C in stomach, intestine and hepatopancreas. With increasing temperature, the pH value increased in stomach, while in the intestine, an opposite tendency was observed due to combined effect of pH and temperature. NaCl concentration showed inhibitory impact on protein digestion in hepatopancreas. The main protease for protein digestion in turbot seemed to be pepsin. Moreover, the maximum protease activity in different segments of intestine existed in the hindgut.

  20. Equine pre-caecal and total tract digestibility of individual carbohydrate fractions and their effect on caecal pH response.

    PubMed

    Brøkner, Christine; Austbø, Dag; Næsset, Jon Anders; Knudsen, Knud Erik Bach; Tauson, Anne-Helene

    2012-12-01

    The working hypothesis was that a minor postprandial caecal pH decline would affect apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of the fibre fraction in horses and, hence, that soluble fibre would amplify fermentation and consequently increase ATTD of fibre. This study was a 4 × 4 Latin Square design with a sequence of 17 days adaptation to the ration followed by 8 sampling days. The feed rations consisted of only timothy hay (Group H), hay plus molassed sugar beet pulp combined with either whole oats (Group OB) or barley (Group BB) and hay plus loose chaff based concentrate (Group M). Four horses fitted with permanent caecal cannulas and collection harnesses were used. A pH electrode with logger was inserted through the cannula and caecal pH was recorded at 1 min intervals for 8 h. The mobile nylon bag technique was used to quantify pre-caecal loss (PCL) of individual feedstuffs. Fibre was analysed as dietary fibre (DF), non-starch polysaccharides, soluble non-cellulosic polysaccharides (S-NCP), insoluble non-cellulosic polysaccharide (I-NCP) and neutral detergent fibre. The ATTD of the S-NCP fraction was above 0.8, which was 60% higher than for the I-NCP fraction. The PCL of starch were 0.98 (oats) and 0.75 (barley). The BB diet lowered (p < 0.001) postprandial caecal pH more than the other diets and a significant correlation was found between the lowest pH and ATTD of I-NCP (r = -0.66; p = 0.005). In conclusion, this study successfully measured the in vivo digestibility of individual fibre fractions and found that S-NCP was more digestible than the I-NCP, and that a single meal of unprocessed barley was sufficient to decrease caecal pH to such an extent that the fibre digestibility of the whole diet was negatively affected.

  1. Nebulised amphotericin B to eradicate Candida colonisation from the respiratory tract in critically ill patients receiving selective digestive decontamination: a cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Colonisation of the lower respiratory tract with Candida species occurs in 25% of mechanically ventilated critically ill patients, and is associated with increased morbidity. Nebulised amphotericin B has been used to eradicate Candida as part of selective decontamination of the digestive tract (SDD) protocols, but its effectiveness is unknown. We aimed to determine the effectiveness of nebulised amphotericin B in eradicating Candida respiratory tract colonisation in patients receiving SDD. Methods We included consecutive mechanically ventilated patients during a four-year period. Microbiological screening was performed upon admission and twice weekly thereafter according to a standardised protocol. A colonisation episode was defined as the presence of Candida species in two consecutive sputum samples taken at least one day apart. To correct for time-varying bias and possible confounding, we used a multistate approach and performed time-varying Cox regression with adjustment for age, disease severity, Candida load at baseline and concurrent corticosteroid use. Results Among 1,819 patients, colonisation with Candida occurred 401 times in 363 patients; 333 of these events were included for analysis. Decolonisation occurred in 51 of 59 episodes (86%) and in 170 of 274 episodes (62%) in patients receiving and not receiving nebulised amphotericin B, respectively. Nebulised amphotericin B was associated with an increased rate of Candida eradication (crude HR 2.0; 95% CI 1.4 to 2.7, adjusted HR 2.2; 95% CI 1.6 to 3.0). Median times to decolonisation were six and nine days, respectively. The incidence rate of ventilator-associated pneumonia, length of stay and mortality did not differ between both groups. Conclusions Nebulised amphotericin B reduces the duration of Candida colonisation in the lower respiratory tracts of mechanically ventilated critically ill patients receiving SDD, but data remain lacking that this is associated with a meaningful improvement in

  2. Influence of conditioning temperature on the performance, nutrient utilisation and digestive tract development of broilers fed on maize- and wheat-based diets.

    PubMed

    Abdollahi, M R; Ravindran, V; Wester, T J; Ravindran, G; Thomas, D V

    2010-10-01

    1. The influence of conditioning temperature on the performance, nutrient utilisation and digestive tract development of broilers fed on maize- and wheat-based diets was examined up to 21 d of age. The experimental design was a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement of treatments evaluating two grain types (maize and wheat) and three conditioning temperatures (60°C, 75°C and 90°C). Broiler starter diets, each based on one grain (maize or wheat), were formulated and pelleted at the three temperatures. 2. Increasing conditioning temperature decreased the body-weight gain and feed intake in wheat-based diets, but birds fed on maize-based diets conditioned at 60°C and 90°C had higher body-weight gain and feed intake than those fed on the diet conditioned at 75°C. Increasing conditioning temperature increased feed per body-weight gain in both grain-type diets but improved pellet durability index (PDI) only in wheat-based diets; PDI was unaffected in maize-based diets. 3. In wheat-based diets, increasing conditioning temperature decreased the ileal digestibility of nitrogen and starch. Ileal nitrogen digestibility of maize-based diets conditioned at 60°C and 90°C was higher than at 75°C. Starch digestibility was unaffected by conditioning temperature in maize-based diets. No effect of conditioning temperature was found for apparent metabolisable energy (AME). Increasing conditioning temperature decreased digestible protein and AME intakes in wheat-based diets but, in maize-based diets, birds fed on the diet conditioned at 75°C had lower digestible protein and AME intakes compared to those fed on diets conditioned at 60°C and 90°C. 4. Small intestine was longer in birds fed on diets conditioned at 75°C and 90°C compared with those fed on diets conditioned at 60°C. 5. Overall, the data suggest that while the effects of conditioning temperature on body-weight gain and feed intake of broilers to 21 d of age differed depending on the grain type, feed per body-weight gain

  3. The influence of dietary fibre source and level on the development of the gastrointestinal tract, digestibility and energy metabolism in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Jørgensen, H; Zhao, X Q; Knudsen, K E; Eggum, B O

    1996-03-01

    The present study was undertaken to provide detailed information about the effect of fibre source (pea fibre, wheat bran or oat bran) at inclusion levels of 0, 187 and 375 g/kg diet on the development of the digestive tract, nutrient digestibility and energy and protein metabolism in broiler chickens. Heat production was measured using open-air-circuit respiration chambers. Diets with increasing levels of pea fibre decreased the DM in droppings and increased excreta output (2.5-fold) relative to DM intake. Adaptation to increased dietary fibre levels included increases in the size of the digestive system, with pea fibre exerting a stronger impact than wheat bran or oat bran. The length of the intestine, and particularly the length and weight of the caecum, increased with the fibre level. The digestibility of all nutrients also decreased with increasing fibre level. The decrease in the digestibility in relation to NSP for the three fibre sources was bigger for oat bran (0.0020 per g dietary NSP) than for pea fibre and wheat bran (0.0014 and 0.0016 per g dietary NSP) indicating that the cell walls in oat bran (aleurone and subaleurone) had a significant negative effect on the digestibility of cellular nutrients, i.e. protein and fat. The degradation of the NSP constituents was far lower in chickens than found in other animal species such as pigs and rats, thus supporting the view that chickens do not ferment fibre polymers to a great extent. Excretion of organic acids (mainly lactic acid and acetic acid) accounted for up to 2% of metabolizable energy (ME) intake with the highest excretion for the high-fibre diets. H2 excretion was related to the amount of NSP degraded and indicated higher microbial fermentation with increasing fibre levels. The chickens' feed intake responded to a great extent to dietary ME concentration but expressed in terms of metabolic body size (W0.75) ME intake was depressed at the high fibre levels. Dietary NSP was able to explain between 86

  4. The effects of adding fat to diets of lactating dairy cows on total-tract neutral detergent fiber digestibility: A meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Weld, K A; Armentano, L E

    2017-03-01

    The objective of this meta-analysis was to determine the effects of supplemental fat on fiber digestibility in lactating dairy cattle. Published papers that evaluated the effects of adding fat to the diets of lactating dairy cattle on total-tract neutral detergent fiber digestibility (ttNDFd) and dry matter intake (DMI) were compiled. The final data set included 108 fat-supplemented treatment means, not including low-fat controls, from 38 publications. The fat-supplemented treatment means exhibited a wide range of ttNDFd (49.4% ± 9.3, mean ± standard deviation) and DMI (21.3 kg/d ± 3.5). Observations were summarized as the difference between the treatment means for fat-supplemented diets minus their respective low-fat control means. Additionally, those differences were divided by the difference in diet fatty acid (FA) concentration between the treatment and control diets. Treatment means were categorized by the type of fat supplement. Supplementing 3% FA in the diet as medium-chain fats (containing predominately 12- and 14-carbon saturated FA) or unsaturated vegetable oil decreased ttNDFd by 8.0 and 1.2 percentage units, respectively. Adding 3% calcium salts of long-chain FA or saturated fats increased ttNDFd by 3.2 and 1.3 percentage units, respectively. No other fat supplement type affected ttNDFd. Except for saturated fats and animal-vegetable fats, supplementing dietary fat decreased DMI. When the values for changes in ttNDFd are regressed on changes in DMI there was a positive relationship, though the coefficient of determination is only 0.20. When changes in ttNDFd were regressed on changes in DMI, within individual fat supplement types, there was no relationship within calcium salt supplements. There was a positive relationship between changes in ttNDFd and changes in DMI for saturated fats. Neither relationship suggested that the increased ttNDFd with calcium salts or saturated FA was due to decreased DMI for these fat sources. A subset of the means

  5. True and standardized total tract phosphorus digestibility in canola meals from Brassica napus black and Brassica juncea yellow fed to growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Adhikari, P A; Heo, J M; Nyachoti, C M

    2015-01-01

    The aim was to determine the true total tract digestibility (TTTD) and standardized total tract digestibility (STTD) of P in canola meals from Brassica napus black (BNB) and Brassica juncea yellow (BJY) fed to growing pigs. Fifty-four barrows with an initial BW of 19.9 ± 0.22 kg (mean ± SEM) were allocated in 3 consecutive blocks to 1 of 9 dietary treatments in a randomized complete block design to give 6 replicate pigs per diet. Dietary treatments were cornstarch based with increasing concentrations of P, that is, 0.8, 1.6, 2.4, and 3.3 g/kg (as-fed basis) from either BNB or BJY as the sole source of P and a gelatin-based P-free diet. Limestone was added to maintain a Ca:total P ratio of 1.2:1 in all diets. All diets contained titanium dioxide (3 g/kg) as an indigestible marker. Daily feed allowance was calculated to supply 2.6 times the maintenance energy requirement based on the BW at the beginning of each period and offered in 2 equal portions at 0800 and 1600 h as a dry mash. Pigs were individually housed in metabolism crates and fed experimental diets for 16 d, including 9 d for adaptation to feed and 5 d for total but separate collection of feces and urine. The apparent total tract digestibility values of P increased from 19.0 to 30.0% for BNB and from 17.3 to 28.3% for BJY as the dietary P content increased from 0.8 to 3.3 g/kg DM. The TTTD of P was determined using the regression analysis as dietary P content increased from 0.8 to 3.3 g/kg whereas the STTD of P was calculated for the diet with the highest P content (i.e., 3.3 g/kg, as-fed basis) using the P-free diet to estimate endogenous P losses (EPL). The total and basal EPL estimates obtained with regression analysis and the P-free diet were 665 ± 0.03 and 209 ± 96 mg/kg DMI, respectively. The TTTD of P was 33.3 and 32.0% in BNB and BJY, respectively. Respective STTD values were 31.0 and 28.3%. The results indicated that the TTTD and STTD of P were comparable in the 2 canola meals from BNB and BJY

  6. Effects of duration of moderate increases in grain feeding on endotoxins in the digestive tract and acute phase proteins in peripheral blood of yearling calves.

    PubMed

    Plaizier, J C; Li, S; Le Sciellour, M; Schurmann, B L; Górka, P; Penner, G B

    2014-11-01

    Effects of duration of grain feeding on the concentration of endotoxic lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in digesta throughout the digestive tract and on acute phase proteins and LPS in peripheral blood were determined in Holstein yearling calves. Twenty-five Holstein yearling steer calves received either a forage-based diet containing 92% hay and 8% of a mineral and vitamin pellet on a dry matter basis (CON) or a moderate-grain diet, obtained by replacing 41.5% of the hay in the forage-based diet with barley grain, for 3 (MG3), 7 (MG7), 14 (MG14), or 21 d (MG21) before slaughter. Immediately before slaughter, blood samples were collected from the jugular vein. Immediately after slaughter, digesta samples were collected from the rumen, jejunum, ileum, cecum, colon, and rectum. Rumen liquid digesta, digesta from the intestines, and peripheral blood plasma were analyzed for LPS. Peripheral blood plasma and serum were analyzed for the acute phase proteins amyloid A, haptoglobin, and LPS-binding protein. Feeding the grain diet increased the LPS concentration in rumen fluid linearly from 15,488 endotoxin units (EU)/mL for CON to 70,146 EU/mL for MG7. Concentrations of LPS in rumen fluid in MG14 and MG21 were 61,944 and 56,234 EU/mL, respectively, and did not differ. The LPS concentrations in jejunal digesta were much lower than that in digesta elsewhere in the digestive tract, which suggests that ruminal LPS is broken down in the abomasum or proximal jejunum. The concentration of digesta LPS in the ileum was higher than that of digesta elsewhere in the intestines and similar to that in rumen fluid. The duration of grain feeding increased the LPS concentration in digesta in the ileum and cecum and tended to increase that in the colon cubically. Concentrations of LPS in this part of the digestive tract were highest in the MG3 and MG21 groups. The highest concentrations of LPS in digesta in the cecum, colon, and rectum were 3.7, 3.8, and 5.6 times higher than that in CON

  7. Influence of low protein diets on gene expression of digestive enzymes and hormone secretion in the gastrointestinal tract of young weaned piglets*

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Zhi-mei; Ma, Xian-yong; Yang, Xue-fen; Fan, Qiu-li; Xiong, Yun-xia; Qiu, Yue-qin; Wang, Li; Wen, Xiao-lu; Jiang, Zong-yong

    2016-01-01

    To investigate dietary protein level effects on digestive mechanisms, weaned piglets were fed for 45 d with diets containing 20%, 17%, or 14% crude protein (CP) supplemented to meet requirements for essential amino acids. This article describes the influence of dietary protein on gastrointestinal hormones and expression of an array of digestive enzymes in the gastrointestinal tract and pancreas. Results indicated that there were no significant differences in expression of enzymes involved in carbohydrate digestion, except for maltase in the duodenum. In the jejunum, amylase expression in pigs fed 20% CP was much higher than that in pigs fed other diets (P<0.05) and maltase expression in those fed 17% CP was higher than that in other treatments (P<0.05). Although there were no remarkable differences in expression of aminopeptidase in the small intestine or carboxypeptidase in the pancreas (P>0.05), there was a trend towards higher expression of various proteases in pigs fed 17% CP. The duodenal expression of enteropeptidase in diets with 14% and 17% CP was significantly higher than that with 20% CP (P<0.05), but treatment differences did not existed in jejunum (P>0.05). The expression of GPR93 as a nutrient-responsive G protein-coupled receptor in 14% and 17% CP diets was significantly higher than that in 20% CP diet in the small intestine (P<0.05). The expressions of genes for pancreatic enzymes, lipase and elastase, were significantly higher in pigs fed diets with low CP, while similar trends occurred for carboxypeptidase, chymotrypsin and amylase. Conversely, the gastric expressions of pepsinogen A and progastricsin were lower with the 17% CP diet. Differences between treatments were found in the gastric antral contents of cholecystokinin and somatostatin: both increased in pigs fed 17% CP, accompanied by decreased content of motilin, which was also seen in plasma concentrations. These patterns were not reflected in duodenal contents. In general, 17% dietary CP

  8. [Angiosarcoma, Raynaud's disease and arteriovenous malformation of the digestive tract. A causal relationship or a chance association?].

    PubMed

    Vaz, F; de Castro, J T; Tomé, V; Marques, J M; de Carvalho, V

    1994-02-01

    A case of angiosarcoma, Raynaud's disease and arteriovenous malformation of the intestinal tract is presented. We propose the association of these three vascular diseases, which has not yet been described. The study of more cases is important in order to understand the physiopathological mechanisms involved.

  9. Interactive effects of bulk density of steam-flaked corn and concentration of Sweet Bran on feedlot cattle performance, carcass characteristics, and apparent total tract nutrient digestibility.

    PubMed

    Domby, E M; Anele, U Y; Gautam, K K; Hergenreder, J E; Pepper-Yowell, A R; Galyean, M L

    2014-03-01

    Two hundred twenty-four steers (initial BW = 363 ± 1.57 kg) were used in a 2 × 3 + 1 factorial arrangement of treatments to evaluate the interactive effects of concentration of wet corn gluten feed (WCGF) and bulk density (BD) of steam-flaked corn (SFC) on feedlot performance, carcass characteristics, and apparent total tract digestibility. Diets consisted of 0, 15, or 30% WCGF (DM basis) with a BD of SFC at 283 or 360 g/L. The additional treatment consisted of 15% WCGF, SFC at 283 g/L, and a 6% inclusion of alfalfa hay vs. 9% for all other treatments. Steers were fed once daily for an average of 163 d. During a 5-d digestion period, DMI was measured, and fecal samples were collected for measurement of nutrient digestibility using dietary acid insoluble ash as a marker. There were few WCGF × BD interactions for feedlot performance, carcass characteristics, and digestibility. Similarly, contrasts between the treatment containing 15% WCGF/360 g/L SFC and 15% WCGF/360 g/L with 6% hay yielded few differences for performance and carcass data. Final BW responded quadratically (P ≤ 0.02) to WCGF inclusion and showed increased (P ≤ 0.007) BW for greater BD. As WCGF inclusion increased, G:F and calculated NE values (P ≤ 0.03) decreased quadratically. Steers consuming 360 g/L SFC had greater (P < 0.05) G:F than those fed 283 g/L SFC. Marbling score, HCW, 12th-rib fat thickness, and calculated yield grade increased quadratically (P ≤ 0.04) with increased inclusion of WCGF. Percentage of cattle grading premium Choice or greater responded quadratically (P = 0.04) to WCGF concentration. Increasing BD increased (P ≤ 0.01) HCW, dressing percent, marbling score, and 12th-rib fat thickness and decreased calculated yield grade and percentage of cattle grading Select; however, lower BD tended (P = 0.09) to increase LM area. Intake of DM, OM, CP, and NDF and fecal output during the digestibility period increased linearly (P ≤ 0.01) with increasing WCGF, and greater BD

  10. Preileal digestibility of coconut fat and soybean oil in horses and their influence on metabolites of microbial origin of the proximal digestive tract.

    PubMed

    Meyer, H; Flothow, C; Radicke, S

    1997-01-01

    Three horses (approximately 190 kg BW) fitted with a permanent fistula at the end of the jejunum were used. To a control diet (1/3 hay, 2/3 mixed feed) one of two fat types (coconut fat or soybean oil) were added at 2 levels resulting in fat intakes of 0.1 g (control diet) to 0.5 or 1 g/kg BW 0.5 d, respectively. Each experimental period consisted of 2 weeks adaptation, 2 days of breath tests (before and hourly after the morning meal) and 5 days sampling of chyme. Crude fat, crude protein, concentrations of organic acids (SCFA, lactic acid), pH, and the minerals calcium, magnesium and phosphorus were determined in the chyme; H2 and CH4 in the expired air. The following results were obtained: 1) Fat feeding significantly (P < 0.01) stimulated (independent of amount or kind of fat) the jejunoileal flow of chyme. 2) Preileal fat digestibility increased significantly (P < 0.01) from 30-38% during the control periods to 73-80% (moderate fat intake) and 82-86% (high fat intake). Differences between the fat sources were not significant. 3) Fat addition resulted dose dependent in a reduction (P < 0.05) of lactic acid as well as SCFA concentrations of chyme (at 5th h postprandial). 4) Fat intake caused a reduction in the H2-concentration of the exhaled air (P < 0.05). Such effect was not found with the CH4-concentration, except the high soybean oil level which tended to reduce the concentration. 5) The addition of fat had no significant effects on preileal net absorption of magnesium and calcium, whilst the net secretion of phosphorus significantly increased (P < 0.01). 6) The preileal protein digestibility (control periods 48-53%) was slightly decreased (P < 0.05), due to the fat inclusion.

  11. Retinal and choroidal ischemic syndrome, digestive tract and renal small vessel hyalinosis, intracerebral calcifications and phenotypic abnormalities: a new family syndrome.

    PubMed

    van Effenterre, G; Haut, J; Brezin, A; Le Mer, Y; Rambaud, J C; Galian, A; Touchard, G; Rothschild, E

    1989-01-01

    A new family syndrome is described that affected three of seven siblings and another patient who had been abandoned at birth but came from the same area of France. All four patients were young women with a very peculiar phenotype, poikiloderma and greying of the hair, and idiopathic non-arteriosclerotic cerebral calcifications. Pathological studies demonstrated small-vessel hyalinosis due to basal membrane thickening, mainly in the digestive tract, kidneys and calcified areas of the brain. The clinical and biological expressions of these vascular changes varied. Peripheral retinal ischemic syndrome and chorioretinal scars were found in the ocular fundi of three patients. Malabsorption and protein-losing enteropathy was the main problem in all four, and was the cause of one patient's death. A subarachnoid hemorrhage due to a right sylvian aneurysm also occurred in two of the three sisters and was lethal for one. Nephropathy with renal failure and systemic hypertension is the major problem of the two surviving patients.

  12. Effect of Lactobacillus plantarum isolated from digestive tract of wild shrimp on growth and survival of white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) challenged with Vibrio harveyi.

    PubMed

    Kongnum, Khanitta; Hongpattarakere, Tipparat

    2012-01-01

    Two hundred and two strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from digestive tracts of cultivated and wild adult shrimp, including Litopenaeus vannamei, Metapenaeus brevicornis and Penaeus merguiensis were selected based on their antibacterial activity against Vibrio harveyi. LAB strain of MRO3.12 exhibiting highest reduction of V. harveyi was identified as Lactobacillus plantarum MRO3.12 based on the nucleotide sequence of its 16S rDNA, which showed 99% (780/786 bp) homology to L. plantarum strain L5 (GenBank accession number DQ 239698.1). Co-cultivation of V. harveyi and L. plantarum MRO3.12 showed complete reduction of V. harveyi at 24 h under aerobic and anaerobic conditions, whereas L. plantarum increased from 5.29 to 9.47 log CFU ml(-1). After 6-week feeding trial with L. plantarum supplemented diet, white shrimp (L. vannamei) exhibited significant differences (p < 0.05) in relative growth rate (% RGR), feed conversion ratio (FCR) and survival compared to the control group fed with non-supplemented diet. LAB-fed group showed 98.89% survival, whereas only 68.89% survival was observed in the control group. LAB from the digestive tract of probiotic-fed shrimp showed higher level of 5.0 ± 0.14 log CFU/g than the non-supplemented ones (3.34 ± 0.21 log CFU/g). However, total bacterial and non-fermenting vibrios counts decreased in shrimps fed on L. plantarum. Ten days after infection with V. harveyi (5.3-5.5 log CFU ml(-1)), significant survival (p < 0.05) of 77% was observed in LAB supplemented shrimp, while only 67% survival was observed in the control.

  13. [Effects of afferent vagal stimulation and distention of the upper digestive tract on the micturition reflex and activity of the pontine micturition center in dogs].

    PubMed

    Moda, Y

    1992-12-01

    (1) The study was performed to elucidate the effects of afferent vagal stimulation and distension of the digestive tract on the micturition reflex in 21 acute decerebrate dogs immobilized with gallamine. Electrical stimulation of the central cut end of the cervical vagus nerve with high voltage (17.5-25 V) and moderate frequency (10-50 Hz) elicited in most cases inhibition of the periodic bladder contractions and of outflows of the pelvic vesical branch which were induced by a sustained intravesical pressure of 10-15 cmH2O. Distension of the thoracic esophagus, the stomach, and the duodenum also induced inhibition of the bladder contractions and of the pelvic outflow to the bladder. Such inhibitions were abolished after bilateral cervical vagotomies except a few cases of distension of the duodenum. (2) Another series of experiments were undertaken to clear the effect of afferent vagal stimulation on the electrical activity of the pontine micturition center in 10 acute decerebrate dogs. By means of an extracellular glass microelectrode method, unitary discharges synchronized with the grouping discharges in the pelvic vesical branch with a rhythm of 2.2-2.5 Hz were recorded from the pontine micturition center in the dorsolateral pontine tegmentum. Such a type of discharges was detected in 6 of 59 units which discharged by afferent stimulation of the pelvic vesical branch. This type of discharges was inhibited by afferent vagal stimulation at the supradiaphragmatic level. From these results, it may be concluded that the afferent pathway of the bladder relaxation reflex induced by distension of the upper digestive tract is mainly involved in the vagal nerves, but in some cases of the strong distension of the duodenum, the pathway is in splanchnic nerves, and that inhibition of the bladder contraction after stimulation of vagal nerve is induced by suppression of the pontine micturition centers.

  14. Effects of dietary supplementation with antimicrobial peptide-P5 on growth performance, apparent total tract digestibility, faecal and intestinal microflora and intestinal morphology of weanling pigs.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Jung Ho; Ingale, Santosh Laxman; Kim, Jin Soo; Kim, Kwang Hyun; Lohakare, Jayant; Park, Yoon Kyung; Park, Jun Cheol; Kwon, Ill Kyong; Chae, Byung Jo

    2013-02-01

    The increase in drug-resistant bacteria and the ban on antibiotic growth promoters worldwide make the search for novel means of preventing bacterial infection and promoting growth performance imperative. In this sense, antimicrobial peptides are thought to be ideal candidates owing to their antimicrobial properties, broad spectrum of activity and low propensity for development of bacterial resistance. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of dietary supplementation with antimicrobial peptide-P5 (AMP-P5) on weanling pig nutrition. A total of 240 weanling pigs were allotted to four treatments on the basis of initial body weight. There were four replicates in each treatment, with 15 pigs per replicate. Dietary treatments were negative control (NC, basal diet without antimicrobial), positive control (PC, basal diet + 1.5 g kg(-1) apramycin), basal diet with 40 mg kg(-1) AMP-P5 (P5-40) and basal diet with 60 mg kg(-1) AMP-P5 (P5-60). Pigs fed the PC or P5-60 diet showed improved (P < 0.05) overall growth performance, apparent total tract digestibility of dry matter, crude protein and gross energy and reduced (P < 0.05) faecal and intestinal coliforms compared with pigs fed the NC diet. The results obtained in this study indicate that dietary supplementation with 60 mg kg(-1) AMP-P5 has the potential to improve the growth performance and apparent total tract digestibility of nutrients and reduce coliforms in weanling pigs. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Brevibacillus laterosporus isolated from the digestive tract of honeybees has high antimicrobial activity and promotes growth and productivity of honeybee's colonies.

    PubMed

    Khaled, Jamal M; Al-Mekhlafi, Fahd A; Mothana, Ramzi A; Alharbi, Naiyf S; Alzaharni, Khalid E; Sharafaddin, Anwar H; Kadaikunnan, Shine; Alobaidi, Ahmed S; Bayaqoob, Noofal I; Govindarajan, Marimuthu; Benelli, Giovanni

    2017-09-09

    The development of novel antimicrobial drugs, as well as the discovery of novel compounds able to promote honeybee's growth, represents major challenges for modern entomology. The main aim of this study was to investigate whether Brevibacillus laterosporus isolated from the digestive tract of Saudi honeybees, Apis mellifera, was able to stimulate colony strength parameters of honeybees and to evaluate its ability to produce antimicrobial agents. Honeybees were collected in Dirab, Riyadh Region, Saudi Arabia, and microorganisms were isolated and identified by 16S ribosomal RNA analysis. Microscopic identification of the microorganism in its native state was facilitated by atomic force microscopy at high-resolution imaging. Active biological compounds were produced by submerged fermentation with B. laterosporus. The fermented broth was subjected to extraction and purification, and then semi-pure compounds were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The effectiveness of the crude extract and semi-pure compounds as antimicrobial agents was evaluated by susceptibility assays. More than 22% of the microorganisms isolated from the digestive tract of healthy honeybees have been identified as B. laterosporus, this kind of species has a unique shape and morphological structure. The cyclic dipeptide cyclo(Leu-Pro) produced by B. laterosporus showed biological activity against several pathogenic microorganisms. Furthermore, the total counts of workers, closed brood, and open brood, as well as the production of bee pollen and honey, were better in honeybees treated with a B. laterosporus suspension. The data indicated that the B. laterosporus strain isolated from a healthy honeybee might be a novel probiotic and a producer of important biological compounds.

  16. Intake of fruits and vegetables and risk of cancer of the upper aero-digestive tract: the prospective EPIC-study.

    PubMed

    Boeing, Heiner; Dietrich, Thomas; Hoffmann, Kurt; Pischon, Tobias; Ferrari, Pietro; Lahmann, Petra H; Boutron-Ruault, Marie Christine; Clavel-Chapelon, Francoise; Allen, Naomi; Key, Tim; Skeie, Guri; Lund, Eiliv; Olsen, Anja; Tjonneland, Anne; Overvad, Kim; Jensen, Majken K; Rohrmann, Sabine; Linseisen, Jakob; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Bamia, Christina; Psaltopoulou, Theodora; Weinehall, Lars; Johansson, Ingegerd; Sánchez, Maria-José; Jakszyn, Paula; Ardanaz, Eva; Amiano, Pilar; Chirlaque, Maria Dolores; Quirós, J Ramón; Wirfalt, Elisabet; Berglund, Göran; Peeters, Petra H; van Gils, Carla H; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Büchner, Frederike L; Berrino, Franco; Palli, Domenico; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Tumino, Rosario; Panico, Salvatore; Bingham, Sheila; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Slimani, Nadia; Norat, Teresa; Jenab, Mazda; Riboli, Elio

    2006-09-01

    Epidemiologic studies suggest that a high intake of fruits and vegetables is associated with decreased risk of cancers of the upper aero-digestive tract. We studied data from 345,904 subjects of the prospective European Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) recruited in seven European countries, who had completed a dietary questionnaire in 1992-1998. During 2,182,560 person years of observation 352 histologically verified incident squamous cell cancer (SCC) cases (255 males; 97 females) of the oral cavity, pharynx, larynx, and esophagus were identified. Linear and restricted cubic spline Cox regressions were fitted on variables of intake of fruits and vegetables and adjusted for potential confounders. We observed a significant inverse association with combined total fruits and vegetables intake (estimated relative risk (RR) = 0.91; 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.83-1.00 per 80 g/d of consumption), and nearly significant inverse associations in separate analyses with total fruits and total vegetables intake (RR: 0.97 (95% CI: 0.92-1.02) and RR = 0.89 (95% CI: 0.78-1.02) per 40 g/d of consumption). Overall, vegetable subgroups were not related to risk with the exception of intake of root vegetables in men. Restricted cubic spline regression did not improve the linear model fits except for total fruits and vegetables and total fruits with a significant decrease in risk at low intake levels (<120 g/d) for fruits. Dietary recommendations should consider the potential benefit of increasing fruits and vegetables consumption for reducing the risk of cancers of the upper aero-digestive tract, particularly at low intake.

  17. Concomitantly elevated serum matrix metalloproteinases 3 and 9 can predict survival of synchronous squamous cell carcinoma of the upper aero-digestive tract.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wen-Lun; Chang, Wei-Lun; Yeh, Yi-Chun; Lee, Ching-Tai; Chang, Chi-Yang; Lin, Jaw-Town; Sheu, Bor-Shyang

    2013-06-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are elevated in patients with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) over either the head and neck (HNSCC) or the esophagus (ESCC). Synchronous SCC with both HNSCC and ESCC predispose to worse survival. This study tested if serum MMP levels correlate with clinical features and predict survival for HNSCC, ESCC, and synchronous SCC. One hundred and thirty patients with SCCs in upper aero-digestive tract (70 ESCC, 20 HNSCC, and 40 synchronous SCC) and 74 healthy controls were assessed for serum MMP-3, -7, and -9 titers by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The titers were validated to their correlations to clinical features and survival rates of the different SCC groups. Patients with SCCs had significantly higher serum MMP-3, -7, and -9 titers than the controls (P < 0.001) but there was no difference among the three SCC groups. Based on the optimal MMP cut-off values by ROC curve, elevated MMP-3 and MMP-9, but not MMP-7, correlated with distant metastasis and poor survival (P < 0.05). Concomitantly elevated MMP-3 (>14 ng/mL) and MMP-9 (>329.3 ng/mL) independently correlated with poor two-year survival (P = 0.002, by log rank test). Cox regression confirmed that such concomitant elevation was superior to the tumor stage of either ESCC or HNSCC in predicting survival for synchronous SCC. Serum MMPs are elevated in SCC of the upper aero-digestive tract. Especially for synchronous SCC, concomitantly elevated MMP-3 and MMP-9 levels serve as better biomarkers to predict prognosis than TNM staging of ESCC or HNSCC.

  18. Effect of phytase on apparent total tract digestibility of phosphorus in corn-soybean meal diets fed to finishing pigs.

    PubMed

    Kerr, B J; Weber, T E; Miller, P S; Southern, L L

    2010-01-01

    Five experiments were conducted to investigate the ability of different phytase products to improve P digestibility in finishing pigs. A corn-soybean meal basal diet containing 0.50% Ca, 0.32% P, and 0.40% Cr(2)O(3) was used to calculate apparent P and GE digestibility. Pigs were individually penned and fed their respective diet for ad libitum intake for 12 d before fecal sampling on d 13 and 14 and blood collection on d 14 for plasma P determination. Experiments 1 through 4 used gilts with across-trial average initial and final BW of 84 and 97 kg, respectively. Pigs were fed Natuphos (Exp. 1), OptiPhos (Exp. 2), Phyzyme (Exp. 3), or RonozymeP (Exp. 4) at 0, 200, 400, 600, 800, or 1,000 phytase units (FTU)/kg (where 1 FTU is defined as the quantity of enzyme required to liberate 1 micromol of inorganic P per min, at pH 5.5, from an excess of 15 micromol/L of sodium phytate at 37 degrees C). Experiment 5 used barrows with initial and final BW of 98 and 111 kg, respectively, and were fed diets containing 0, 500, or 1,000 FTU/kg of Natuphos, OptiPhos, Phyzyme, or RonozymeP. Pigs fed Natuphos (Exp. 1) and OptiPhos (Exp. 2) exhibited a linear and quadratic (P < 0.01) improvement in P digestibility with increasing levels of dietary phytase, whereas pigs fed Phyzyme (Exp. 3) and RonozymeP (Exp. 4) exhibited a linear (P < 0.01) improvement in apparent P digestibility with increasing levels of dietary phytase. In Exp. 5, the improvement in apparent P digestibility with increasing levels of dietary phytase was linear (P < 0.01) for Natuphos, Phyzyme, and RonozymeP, but was linear and quadratic (P < 0.01) for OptiPhos. Based on regression analysis, inorganic P release at 500 FTU/kg was predicted to be 0.070, 0.099, 0.038, and 0.030% for Natuphos, OptiPhos, Phyzyme, and RonozymeP, respectively. These estimates are comparable with those of pigs in Exp. 5, for which the estimated inorganic P release at 500 FTU/kg was 0.102, 0.039, and 0.028% for OptiPhos, Phyzyme, and Ronozyme

  19. Use of whey protein beads as a new carrier system for recombinant yeasts in human digestive tract.

    PubMed

    Hébrard, Géraldine; Blanquet, Stéphanie; Beyssac, Eric; Remondetto, Gabriel; Subirade, Muriel; Alric, Monique

    2006-12-15

    A new immobilizing protocol using whey protein isolates was developed to entrap recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The model yeast strain expresses the heterologous P45073A1 that converts trans-cinnamic acid into p-coumaric acid. Beads resulted from a cold-induced gelation of a whey protein solution (10%) containing yeasts (7.5 x 10(7)cells ml(-1)) into 0.1M CaCl(2). The viability and growth capability of yeasts were not altered by our entrapment process. The release and activity of immobilized yeasts were studied in simulated human gastric conditions. During the first 60 min of digestion, 2.2+/-0.9% (n=3) of initial entrapped yeasts were recovered in the gastric medium suggesting that beads should cross the gastric barrier in human. The P45073A1 activity of entrapped yeasts remained significantly higher (p<0.05) than that of free ones throughout digestion (trans-cinnamic acid conversion rate of 63.4+/-1.6% versus 51.5+/-1.8% (n=3) at 120 min). The protein matrix seemed to create a microenvironment favoring the activity of yeasts in the stringent gastric conditions. These results open up new opportunities for the development of drug delivery system using recombinant yeasts entrapped in whey protein beads. The main potential medical applications include biodetoxication or the correction of digestive enzyme deficiencies.

  20. Modes of transmission of Glugea plecoglossi (Microspora) via the skin and digestive tract in an experimental infection model using rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum).

    PubMed

    Lee, S-J; Yokoyama, H; Ogawa, K

    2004-08-01

    Glugea plecoglossi (Microspora) is a significant cause of economic loss in cultured ayu, Plecoglossus altivelis, in Japan, due to the unsightly appearance of infected fish harbouring xenomas in the body cavity. Modes of transmission of G. plecoglossi via the skin and digestive tract were studied in an experimental infection model using rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss. Combined with Uvitex 2B and in situ hybridization (ISH) assays, the early development of G. plecoglossi was successfully traced. Following a bath exposure of fish Uvitex 2B-labelled G. plecoglossi spores were observed to attach to microscopic injuries (trypan blue-positive sites) of fish skin, after which ISH-positive sporoplasms were found to invade the epidermis as early as 5 min post-infection (PI), migrating rapidly to the subdermis. It was also shown that G. plecoglossi entering via the skin does not spread into the internal organs but develops into subdermal xenomas. After rainbow trout were exposed to G. plecoglossi spores by oral intubation, spores germinated in the intestinal lumen, followed by penetration of sporoplasms into the gut mucosal epithelium 5 min PI. In vitro trials determining stimulation factors (fish mucus, changes in pH, digestive enzymes) for the extrusion of the polar tube were inconclusive. The present study indicates that skin wounds and the gut epithelium can be portals of entry of G. plecoglossi and that natural infection in fish seems to occur perorally rather than via the skin.

  1. Eosinophilic density in graft biopsies positive for rejection and blood eosinophil count can predict development of post-transplant digestive tract eosinophilia.

    PubMed

    Bush, Jonathan W; Mohammad, Saeed; Melin-Aldana, Hector; Kagalwalla, Amir F; Arva, Nicoleta C

    2016-06-01

    EGID is a known post-transplant complication. Its etiology has been related to antirejection medication, but other factors may also play a role as only few transplant recipients develop EGID despite standardized treatment. This study aimed to determine whether EGID is associated with rejection events and with a specific phenotype of the rejection-positive graft biopsies in children with solid organ transplant. All patients with liver, heart, and kidney transplant followed at our institution were included in the study. Digestive tract eosinophilia was more common in heart and liver recipients and was a rare event after renal transplantation. Subjects with EGID had higher incidence of rejection and elevated peripheral blood AEC. The first rejection event and high AEC values preceded EGID diagnosis in the majority of patients. Histologically, the initial rejection-positive graft biopsy revealed accentuated eosinophilia in EGID patients compared with non-EGID cohort, which correlated with higher blood eosinophil counts at the time of first rejection episode. Prominent graft tissue and peripheral blood eosinophilia prior to EGID diagnosis suggests a predisposition for eosinophil activation in patients with post-transplant digestive eosinophilic disorder. These parameters can be used as markers for subsequent development of EGID. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Effect of K-diformate in starter diets on acidity, microbiota, and the amount of organic acids in the digestive tract of piglets, and on gastric alterations.

    PubMed

    Canibe, N; Steien, S H; Overland, M; Jensen, B B

    2001-08-01

    The aim of this investigation was to study the effect of K-diformate on the intraluminal pH, microbial composition in digesta and feces, organic acids along the digestive tract, and alterations of the gastric epithelium of pigs. Pigs (n = 36) weaned at 28 d of age were allotted to two groups and fed without (control diet) or with 1.8% supplemental K-diformate. Fecal samples were taken from the rectum on d 0, 1, 3, 5, 7, 14, 21, and 28 postweaning. Half of the animals from each group were killed on d 7 and the other half on d 29 postweaning. Growth performance was not different for both groups (P > or = 0.73). The gastric epithelium was not negatively affected by K-diformate (P = 0.25). Potassium-diformate decreased (P < or = 0.04) or tended to decrease (P < or = 0.10) the counts of total anaerobic bacteria, lactic acid bacteria, and yeasts in feces and digesta samples from the stomach, distal small intestine, cecum, and middle segment of the colon. The pH along the gastrointestinal tract of piglets was not affected by K-diformate (P > or = 0.30). On d 7, the concentration of lactic acid along the gastrointestinal tract was similar with both diets (P = 0.15). On d 29, the concentrations of lactic acid tended to be lower along the small intestine (P < or = 0.08) and the stomach (P = 0.11) of the pigs fed K-diformate. Formic acid in digesta was detected at significant levels only in the distal segment of the small intestine of the control pigs (from 4 to 11 mmol/kg of wet digesta), whereas considerable amounts were measured in the stomach (from 23 to 40 mmol/kg of wet digesta) and all segments of the small intestine (from 7 to 25 mmol/kg of wet digesta) in the K-diformate-fed pigs on both days. On d 7, pigs fed the K-diformate diet had a tendency (P < or = 0.08) to have higher concentrations of organic acids (acetic + propionic + butyric) in the digesta of the distal small intestine, cecum, and proximal colon. On d 29, both groups had similar concentrations of these

  3. Vitreous amyloidosis with autonomic neuropathy of the digestive tract associated with a novel transthyretin p.Gly87Arg variant in a Bangladeshi patient: a case report.

    PubMed

    Terrier, Benjamin; Colombat, Magali; Beugnet, Caroline; Quéant, Astrid; London, Jonathan; Daudin, Jean-Baptiste; Le Jeunne, Claire; Mouthon, Luc; Monnet, Dominique; Cauquil, Cécile; Lacroix, Catherine; Adams, David; Brézin, Antoine; Valleix, Sophie

    2017-08-13

    Hereditary transthyretin amyloidosis is an autosomal dominant inherited disorder, first described in families with sensorimotor and autonomic neuropathy. Since its first description, more than 120 amyloidogenic transthyretin mutations have been reported with various geographic distributions and associated with a wide range of phenotypes involving the peripheral nerve, the heart, the gastrointestinal tract, the eyes, the central nervous system, or the kidneys. In some cases of transthyretin amyloidosis, the first clinical manifestation is vitreous opacity. A 46-year-old Bangladeshi woman presented with vitreous amyloidosis and progressive autonomic neuropathy of the digestive tract as initial clinical manifestations, with no clinical evidence of cardiac, renal, central nervous system, or peripheral nerve dysfunction. A novel transthyretin mutation, p.Gly87Arg, was identified in the heterozygous state in this proband of Bangladeshi origin. Histological examination of accessory salivary glands and gastric biopsies revealed Congo-red-positive deposits. Laser microdissection of salivary gland Congo-red deposits and tandem mass spectrometry-based proteomic analysis identified the mutated transthyretin peptide containing the arginine residue at position 87 of the mature protein. Vitreous amyloidosis should be considered a differential diagnosis of uveitis, in particular transthyretin amyloidosis. Proteomics data from our case, consistent with the genetic findings, highly suggests that this new p.Gly87Arg variant is amyloidogenic. Here, we described the second case of transthyretin amyloidosis reported in a Bangladeshi patient.

  4. Protozoa and digestive tract parameters in blue wildebeest (Connochaetes taurinus) and black wildebeest (Connochaetes gnou), with description of Entodinium taurinus n. sp.

    PubMed

    Booyse, Dirk G; Dehority, Burk A

    2012-11-01

    Rumen contents from four blue wildebeest (Connochaetes taurinus) and six black wildebeest (Connochaetes gnou) were collected from two locations during two winter culling seasons. A total of 16 species of protozoa were found in blue wildebeest with Dasytricha ruminantium, Opisthotrichum janus and Ostracodinium gracile occurring in all four animals. In black wildebeest, 23 species of protozoa were observed with only Diplodinium bubalidis (caudal spine morphotype) and Ostracodinium damaliscus being present in all animals. In the blue wildebeest, the total number of species in an individual animal varied from 9 to 11 and in the black wildebeest, the number ranged from 4 to 14. Concentrations of cells per ml ranged from 1110 to 5880 in the blue wildebeest and 3120 to 6240 in the black wildebeest. This study is the first report on protozoa species in the blue and black wildebeest. A new species of Entodinium is described, Entodinium taurinus n. sp., observed in the rumen contents of three blue wildebeest. Several physical parameters of the digestive tract were also measured, including distribution, pH and density of gastrointestinal contents in different sections of the total tract. In vitro gas production was estimated for rumen, cecum and colon contents. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  5. Evaluation of two milk replacers fed to hand-reared cheetah cubs (Acinonyx jubatus): nutrient composition, apparent total tract digestibility, and comparison to maternal cheetah milk.

    PubMed

    Bell, Katherine M; Rutherfurd, Shane M; Cottam, Yvette H; Hendriks, Wouter H

    2011-01-01

    Commercially prepared milk replacers are frequently used to provide the sole source of nutrition for hand-reared cheetah cubs (Acinonyx jubatus). The nutrient composition of two commonly used milk replacers was determined. Using titanium dioxide as an indigestible marker, nutrient digestibility was calculated from the analyses of fecal samples collected from each cub (n = 4 on formula 1, and n = 2 on formula 2). Mean apparent total tract digestibility for both formulas was >90% for all nutrients analyzed (crude protein, amino acids, crude fat (CF), and dry matter). However, the total CF content and the concentration of the essential fatty acids, such as α-linolenic, linolenic, and arachidonic acid, of both formulas was lower than reported for maternal cheetah milk. Additionally, one formula contained a comparatively high amount of carbohydrate, at the expense of protein. Although data were lacking for cheetah maternal milk, comparison with domestic cat milk revealed high concentrations of a number of minerals (K, Fe, Zn, and Cu), while vitamin D(3) was not detected in one formula. Both formulas were low in the majority of essential amino acids compared with domestic cat maternal milk. Despite their apparently high digestibility, neither formula was complete or balanced in terms of nutrient concentrations and ratios when maternal cheetah milk and/or the requirements established for growth in domestic cats were used as estimates of ideal. On this basis, although all cubs in this study were healthy and maintained good body conditions for the duration of the trial, the results of dietary analyses indicate that these milk replacers may not provide optimal nutrition for growth in cheetah cubs when used for extended periods. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. Comparison of values for standardized total tract digestibility and relative bioavailability of phosphorus in dicalcium phosphate and distillers dried grains with solubles fed to growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Baker, S R; Kim, B G; Stein, H H

    2013-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to compare values for the standardized total tract digestibility (STTD) and the relative bioavailability of P in dicalcium phosphate (DCP) and distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) when fed to growing pigs. In Exp. 1, the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD), the basal endogenous P loss (EPL), and the STTD of P in DCP and DDGS were determined. Eighteen pigs (initial BW: 34.93±1.04 kg) were allotted to 3 cornstarch-based diets in a randomized complete block design and housed individually in metabolism cages. Two diets contained DCP and DDGS, respectively, as the sole source of P and the last diet was a P-free diet that was used to measure EPL from the pigs. Results indicated that the ATTD of P in DCP and DDGS were 86.1 and 58.8%, respectively, and the STTD of P in DCP and DDGS were 93.1 and 63.1%, respectively. The EPL was determined at 174 mg/kg DMI. In Exp. 2, 42 pigs (initial BW: 29.02±2.03 kg) were allotted to 7 dietary treatments in a randomized complete block design. Pigs were housed individually and allowed ad libitum access to feed and water. A basal diet (0.22% P) based on corn, casein, cornstarch, and potato protein concentrate was formulated. Three additional diets were formulated by adding 0.04, 0.08, or 0.12% P from DCP to the basal diet to create diets containing 0.26, 0.30, or 0.34% P. The last 3 diets were formulated by adding 0.04, 0.08, or 0.12% P from DDGS to the basal diet at the expense of cornstarch. Pigs were fed experimental diets for 28 d. They were then euthanized and the third and fourth metacarpals from the right front foot were collected. Metacarpal bone ash and bone P were regressed against P intake for each ingredient and via slope ratio methodology, it was determined that the bioavailability of P in DDGS was 87% relative to that in DCP. It was concluded from this work that the value for relative bioavailability of P in DDGS overestimates the digestibility of P in DDGS and values for the

  7. Effects of tallow, choice white grease, palm oil, corn oil, or soybean oil on apparent total tract digestibility of minerals in diets fed to growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Merriman, L A; Walk, C L; Parsons, C M; Stein, H H

    2016-10-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine the effect of supplementing diets fed to growing pigs with fat sources differing in their composition of fatty acids on the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of minerals. A diet based on corn, potato protein isolate, and 7% sucrose was formulated. Five additional diets that were similar to the previous diet with the exception that sucrose was replaced by 7% tallow, choice white grease, palm oil, corn oil, or soybean oil were also formulated. Diets were formulated to contain 0.70% Ca and 0.33% standardized total tract digestible P. Growing barrows ( = 60; 15.99 ± 1.48 kg initial BW) were allotted to a randomized complete block design with 2 blocks of 30 pigs, 6 dietary treatments, and 10 replicate pigs per treatment. Experimental diets were provided for 12 d with the initial 5 d being the adaptation period. Total feces were collected for a 5-d collection period using the marker-to-marker approach, and the ATTD of minerals, ether extract, and acid hydrolyzed ether extract was calculated for all diets. Digestibility of DM was greater ( < 0.05) in the diet containing soybean oil compared with the diet containing choice white grease or the basal diet, with all other diets being intermediate. The ATTD of Ca, S, and P was greater ( < 0.05) for pigs fed diets containing soybean oil, corn oil, palm oil, or tallow than for pigs fed the basal diet or the diet containing choice white grease. The ATTD of Mg, Zn, Mn, Na, and K were not different among dietary treatments. The ATTD of ether extract was greater ( < 0.05) in diets containing palm oil, corn oil, or soybean oil compared with the diet containing choice white grease, and the ATTD of acid hydrolyzed ether extract in the diet containing soybean oil was also greater ( < 0.05) than in the diet containing choice white grease. In conclusion, supplementation of a basal diet with tallow, palm oil, corn oil, or soybean oil may increase the ATTD of some macrominerals, but that

  8. Plastic debris in the digestive tract of sheep and goats: an increasing environmental contamination in Birjand, Iran.

    PubMed

    Omidi, Arash; Naeemipoor, Hossein; Hosseini, Mahdi

    2012-05-01

    A total of 230 goats and 185 sheep were evaluated in this cross-sectional observational study. After emptying the gastrointestinal tract, the size, location, adhesion and obstruction were examined. Twenty seven and half percent of sheep and 24 point 3 % of goats had foreign bodies. Most foreign bodies were plastic materials in sheep and goats. Forty percent of pregnant animals had foreign bodies. Drought and lack of adequate pastures in the past years have been a major cause of the swallowing of foreign objects by sheep and goats.

  9. [Study of various factors affecting the colonization of the digestive tract in white mice by Candida albicans].

    PubMed

    Auger, P; Joly, J

    1976-03-01

    This paper deals with the quantitative localization of Candida albicans in different parts of white micr gastrointestinal tract after oral inoculation of the yeast. Animals are previously treated with ampicillin, cortisone, or estradiol. Female pregnant and normal adult mice are also used. Our results show that the number of yeasts increases respectively in small intestine, stomach, caecum, and sigmoid. As compared with normal adult mice, C. albicans is more abundant in mice treated wtih ampicillin or cortisone whereas the yeast growth is lower in pregnant animals or in mice receiving estradiol. Moreover, male animals ordinarily show higher values than those found in female mice.

  10. Clinicopathological Significance of RhoA Expression in Digestive Tract Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ping; Li, Wanyu; Peng, Jifeng; Qi, Shengnan; Song, Lingxie; Liu, Chunxia; Li, Feng

    2016-10-01

    RhoA protein expression has been reported in different types of cancer. We performed an up-to-date meta-analysis to evaluate the clinicopathological characteristics of RhoA protein expression in patients with gastrointestinal cancer. We searched in several databases, including MEDLINE (PubMed) and China National Knowledge Infrastructure, to identify studies examining the association between RhoA protein and cancer. The quality of the included studies was assessed. Cochrane Collaboration's Software Review Manager 5.3 was utilized to test the heterogeneity, overall effect, and publication bias of the combined studies. The reported odds ratio and 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated by using fixed and random effects models depending on the heterogeneity of the included studies. A total of 15 studies met the inclusion criteria of the meta-analysis. RhoA expression was significantly higher in gastrointestinal cancer than in normal tissues. RhoA protein expression in digestive system neoplasms was significantly associated with tumor clinical staging, metastatic status and differentiated degree. However, no association with gender was found. RhoA mRNA expression was no associated with clinicopathological significance. Current evidence supports the conclusion that RhoA expression is associated with clinical staging, metastatic status, and differentiated degree in digestive system neoplasms. RhoA expression may play an important role in the carcinogenesis and metastasis of gastrointestinal cancer.

  11. Expression and distribution of leptin and its receptors in the digestive tract of DIO (diet-induced obese) zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Mania, M; Maruccio, L; Russo, F; Abbate, F; Castaldo, L; D'Angelo, L; de Girolamo, P; Guerrera, M C; Lucini, C; Madrigrano, M; Levanti, M; Germanà, A

    2017-07-01

    The expression and localization of leptin (A and B) and its receptor family in control and diet-induced obese (DIO) adult male zebrafish gut, after 5-weeks overfeeding, administering Artemia nauplii, as fat-rich food, were investigated. Recently, the obese adult zebrafish was considered an experimental model with pathophysiological pathways similar to mammalian obesity. Currently, there are no reports about leptin in fish obesity, or in a state of altered energy balance. By qRT-PCR, leptin A and leptin B expression levels were significantly higher in DIO zebrafish gut than in the control group (CTRL), and the lowest levels of leptin receptor mRNA appeared in DIO zebrafish gut. The presence of leptin and its receptor proteins in the intestinal tract was detected by western blot analysis in both control and DIO zebrafish. By single immunohistochemical staining, leptin and leptin receptor immunoreactive endocrine cells were identified in the intestinal tract either in DIO or control zebrafish. Moreover, leptin immunopositive enteric nervous system elements were observed in both groups. By double immunohistochemical staining, leptin and its receptor were colocalized especially in DIO zebrafish. Thus, our study represents a starting point in the investigation of a possible involvement of leptin in control of energy homeostasis in control and DIO zebrafish. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  12. Temporal and spatial expression of Muc2 and Muc5ac mucins during rat respiratory and digestive tracts development.

    PubMed

    Ferretti, V A; Segal-Eiras, A; Barbeito, C G; Croce, M V

    2016-02-01

    Secreted mucins constitute a crucial part of the gel that protects respiratory and digestive epithelia, being MUC2/Muc2 the predominant gel-forming mucin of the intestine while MUC5AC/Muc5ac is one of the gel-forming mucins most expressed at the airways. In this study, we have analyzed Muc2 and Muc5ac during rat development by using immunohistochemistry, Western blotting and RT-PCR. We demonstrated that rat Muc2 was expressed in fetal intestinal goblet cells of surface epithelium of villi and developing Lieberkühn crypts. In neonates and adults, Muc2 was expressed at luminal goblet cells of small and large intestine and at gastric mucous and glandular cells. Muc5ac protein was observed in embryonic gastric and lung samples; expression increased during development and postnatal and adult life. After birth, a low reaction was detected at the tracheal surface epithelium and glands, which increased in adults.

  13. Arousal and re-feeding rapidly restores digestive tract morphology following aestivation in green-striped burrowing frogs.

    PubMed

    Cramp, Rebecca L; Franklin, Craig E

    2005-12-01

    During aestivation, the gut of the green-striped burrowing frog, Cyclorana alboguttata undergoes significant morphological down-regulation. Despite the potential impact such changes might have on the re-feeding efficiency of these animals following aestivation, they appear to be as efficient at digesting their first meals as active, non-aestivating animals. Such efficiency might come about by the rapid restoration of intestinal morphology with both arousal from aestivation and the initial stages of re-feeding. Consequently, this study sought to determine what morphological changes to the intestine accompany arousal and re-feeding following 3 months of aestivation. Arousal from aestivation alone had a marked impact on many morphological parameters, including small and large intestine masses, small intestinal length, LF heights, enterocyte cross-sectional area and microvilli height and density. In addition, the onset of re-feeding was correlated with an immediate reversal of many morphological parameters affected by 3 months of aestivation. Those parameters that had not returned to control levels within 36 h of feeding generally had returned to control values by the completion of digestion (i.e. defecation of the meal). Re-feeding was also associated with several changes in enterocyte morphology including the incorporation in intracytoplasmic lipid droplets and the return of enterocyte nuclear material to the 'active' euchromatin state. In conclusion, morphological changes to the gut of aestivating frogs which occur during aestivation are transitory and rapidly reversible with both arousal from aestivation and re-feeding. The proximate causes behind these transitions and their functional significance are discussed.

  14. Particle size of calcium carbonate does not affect apparent and standardized total tract digestibility of calcium, retention of calcium, or growth performance of growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Merriman, L A; Stein, H H

    2016-09-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate particle size of calcium carbonate used in diets fed to growing pigs. Experiment 1 was conducted to determine apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD), standardized total tract digestibility (STTD), and retention of Ca among diets containing calcium carbonate produced to different particle sizes, and Exp. 2 was conducted to determine if growth performance of weanling pigs is affected by particle size of calcium carbonate. In Exp. 1, 4 diets based on corn and potato protein isolate were formulated to contain 0.70% Ca and 0.33% standardized total tract digestible P, but the calcium carbonate used in the diets was ground to 4 different particle sizes (200, 500, 700, or 1,125 μm). A Ca-free diet was formulated to determine basal endogenous losses of Ca. In Exp. 2, 4 diets were based on corn and soybean meal and the only difference among diets was that each diet contained calcium carbonate ground to the 4 particle sizes used in Exp. 1. In Exp. 1, 40 barrows (15.42 ± 0.70 kg initial BW) were allotted to the 5 diets with 8 replicate pigs per diet using a randomized complete block design, and in Exp. 2, 128 pigs with an initial BW of 9.61 ± 0.09 kg were randomly allotted to 4 experimental diets. Results of Exp. 1 indicated that basal endogenous losses of Ca were 0.329 g/kg DMI. The ATTD of Ca was 70.0 ± 3.2, 74.3 ± 2.7, 70.0 ± 2.9, and 72.1 ± 2.7 and the STTD of Ca was 74.2 ± 3.2, 78.5 ± 2.7, 74.1 ± 2.9, and 76.2 ± 2.7 for calcium carbonate ground to 200, 500, 700, or 1,125 μm, respectively. Retention of Ca was 67.4 ± 3.1, 70.4 ± 2.6, 63.9 ± 2.8, and 67.2 ± 2.2 for diets containing calcium carbonate ground to 200, 500, 700, or 1,125 μm, respectively. There were no differences among diets for ATTD of Ca, STTD of Ca, or retention of Ca. The ATTD of P was 64.5 ± 1.7, 66.8 ± 2.6, 64.2 ± 3.0, and 63.2 ± 1.7% and retention of P was 61.4 ± 1.4, 63.8 ± 2.8, 61.9 ± 2.8, and 60.9 ± 1.5 for diets containing calcium

  15. Spontaneous Implantation of Antibiotic-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae in the Digestive Tract of Chickens in the Absence of Selective Pressure

    PubMed Central

    Guillot, J. F.; Chaslus-Dancla, Elisabeth; Lafont, J. P.

    1977-01-01

    In the absence of selective pressure by antibiotics, resistant enterobacteria implanted rapidly in the intestinal tract of chickens, where these organisms subsequently persisted in high numbers. Food could be an important source of this contamination: resistant Escherichia coli present in small numbers in the diet became rapidly and persistently established in the gut. The human caretaker played a passive role in the spread of antibiotic-resistant bacteria between separate groups of chickens. Resistant enteric organisms colonized the gut of animals, with different population sizes. Some strains were able to reach high numbers (107 to 109/g), and other strains established themselves at a lower level (103 to 105/g), whereas a third type seemed to be only transient inhabitants, unable to persist. PMID:931367

  16. Interaction of molasses and monensin in alfalfa hay- or corn silage-based diets on rumen fermentation, total tract digestibility, and milk production by Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Oelker, E R; Reveneau, C; Firkins, J L

    2009-01-01

    Sugar supplementation can stimulate rumen microbial growth and possibly fiber digestibility; however, excess ruminal carbohydrate availability relative to rumen-degradable protein (RDP) can promote energy spilling by microbes, decrease rumen pH, or depress fiber digestibility. Both RDP supply and rumen pH might be altered by forage source and monensin. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate interactions of a sugar source (molasses) with monensin and 2 forage sources on rumen fermentation, total tract digestibility, and production and fatty acid composition of milk. Seven ruminally cannulated lactating Holstein cows were used in a 5 x 7 incomplete Latin square design with five 28-d periods. Four corn silage diets consisted of 1) control (C), 2) 2.6% molasses (M), 3) 2.6% molasses plus 0.45% urea (MU), or 4) 2.6% molasses plus 0.45% urea plus monensin sodium (Rumensin, at the intermediate dosage from the label, 16 g/909 kg of dry matter; MUR). Three chopped alfalfa hay diets consisted of 1) control (C), 2) 2.6% molasses (M), or 3) 2.6% molasses plus Rumensin (MR). Urea was added to corn silage diets to provide RDP comparable to alfalfa hay diets with no urea. Corn silage C and M diets were balanced to have 16.2% crude protein; and the remaining diets, 17.2% crude protein. Dry matter intake was not affected by treatment, but there was a trend for lower milk production in alfalfa hay diets compared with corn silage diets. Despite increased total volatile fatty acid and acetate concentrations in the rumen, total tract organic matter digestibility was lower for alfalfa hay-fed cows. Rumensin did not affect volatile fatty acid concentrations but decreased milk fat from 3.22 to 2.72% in corn silage diets but less in alfalfa hay diets. Medium-chain milk fatty acids (% of total fat) were lower for alfalfa hay compared with corn silage diets, and short-chain milk fatty acids tended to decrease when Rumensin was added. In whole rumen contents, concentrations of

  17. Total tract nutrient digestion and milk fatty acid profile of dairy cows fed diets containing different levels of whole raw soya beans.

    PubMed

    Venturelli, B C; de Freitas Júnior, J E; Takiya, C S; de Araújo, A P C; Santos, M C B; Calomeni, G D; Gardinal, R; Vendramini, T H A; Rennó, F P

    2015-12-01

    Whole oilseeds such as soya beans have been utilized in dairy rations to supply additional fat and protein. However, antinutritional components contained in soya beans, such as trypsin inhibitors and haemagglutinins (lectins) may alter digestibility of nutrients and consequently affect animal performance. The objective of the present experiment was to quantify the effect of different levels of whole raw soya beans in diets of dairy cows on nutrient intake, total tract digestion, nutrient balances and milk yield and composition. Sixteen mid to late-lactation cows (228 ± 20 days in milk; mean ± SD) were used in four replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design experiment with 21-d periods. Cows were assigned to each square according to milk yield and DIM. The animals were randomly allocated to treatments: control (without soya beans addition; CO), WS9, WS18 and WS27, with addition of 9%, 18% and 27% of whole raw soya bean in diet on a dry matter (DM) basis respectively. All diets contained identical forage and concentrate components and consisted of maize silage and concentrate based on ground corn and soya beans at a ratio of 60:40. There were no differences in OM, CP, NDF and NEL intakes (kg/day and MJ/day) among the treatments (p > 0.05). However, DM and NFC intakes were negatively affected (p = 0.04 and p < 0.01, respectively) and ether extract (EE) intake was positively affected (p < 0.01). Total tract digestion increased linearly with whole raw soya beans for EE (p < 0.01) and NDF (p = 0.01). The excretion (kg/day) of digested soya beans grains increased linearly according to addition of whole raw soya beans. However, the nutritive characteristics of excreted grains were not altered. Milk (kg), milk lactose (kg) and protein (kg) yield decreased linearly (p < 0.01, p < 0.01 and p = 0.04, respectively) milk fat content (%) increased linearly (p < 0.01) with whole raw soya beans inclusion. Increasing addition of whole raw soya beans affected milk fatty acid profile

  18. Gasterophilosis in horses in Sardinia (Italy): effect of meteorological variables on adult egg-laying activity and presence of larvae in the digestive tract, and update of species.

    PubMed

    Pilo, Cristian; Altea, Antonella; Scala, Antonio

    2015-05-01

    Gasterophilus larvae are common obligate parasites of the digestive tract of the equids. Horses become infected with this parasite by ingesting the larvae hatched from eggs laid by the female flies. In this study carried out monthly, we (i) counted the Gasterophilus eggs deposited by female flies on the coat of 30 grazing horses, (ii) counted and identified the Gasterophilus larvae retrieved from the digestive tract of 128 slaughtered horses, and (iii) compared these results to meteorological data. Eggs were deposited on all monitored horses, and were present from October to January and from May to September, whereas they were absent from February to April. The number of laid eggs was significantly different between the months, body regions, genders, and age classes (p < 0.05). Larvae were recovered in 112 (87.5%) horses, and 6 species of Gasterophilus were identified. The prevailing species were Gasterophilus intestinalis (recovered in 110 horses; 85.9%) and Gasterophilus nasalis (69 horses; 53.9 %), recovered in all months. Gasterophilus inermis (5 horses; 3.9%), Gasterophilus pecorum (3 horses; 2.3%), Gasterophilus haemorrhoidalis (3 horses; 2.3%)¸ and Gasterophilus meridionalis (2 horses; 1.6%) larvae were also found. Significant differences were found among monthly larval burdens for both Gasterophilus spp. and G. intestinalis (p < 0.05), but not for G. nasalis (p > 0.05). Larval burdens and prevalences did not differed significantly between both genders and age classes (p > 0.05). Monthly eggs and larvae trends were not significantly correlated (p > 0.05). With regard to the meteorological variables, minimum air temperature was significantly correlated with the eggs trend (rho = 1.000; p < 0.001) and maximum air temperature with the Gasterophilus spp. (rho = 0.972; p < 0.001) and G. intestinalis (rho = 0.972; p < 0.001) larvae trends. In addition, the number of hours with a temperature below +10 °C was

  19. Influence of insoluble fibre and whole wheat inclusion on the performance, digestive tract development and ileal microbiota profile of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Amerah, A M; Ravindran, V; Lentle, R G

    2009-05-01

    1. An experiment of 21-d duration was conducted to examine the effects of diluting wheat-based diets with insoluble fibre sources and whole wheat inclusion on the performance, nutrient utilisation, digestive tract development and ileal microbiota profile of broiler chickens. The treatments were as follows: Treatment 1, control diet based on ground wheat; Treatment 2, where 200 g/kg whole wheat replaced the ground wheat pre-pelleting; and Treatments 3 and 4 where the control diet was diluted with fine cellulose and wood shavings, respectively, at a ratio of 6 : 100 (w/w). 2. Weight gains and apparent metabolisable energy were unaffected by dietary treatment. Gain : feed ratio was not influenced by the inclusion of whole wheat or wood shavings, but decreased with cellulose inclusion. However, when gain:feed of birds was corrected by subtracting the amount of cellulose and wood shavings from the total feed consumption, it was found that the inclusion of wood shavings increased gain : feed, while cellulose inclusion had no effect. Similarly, AME(N) was unaffected by dietary treatment. However, when AME(N) was corrected for energy contribution from cellulose or wood shavings, improvements in AME(N) were observed in these two treatments. 3. Wood shavings increased the relative gizzard weights and improved ileal starch digestibility compared to other dietary treatments. All gut components were shorter in birds given diets containing cellulose and wood shavings compared to those receiving the control and whole wheat diets. 4. Ileal microbiota profiling, using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, showed that microbial composition was affected by dietary treatment and that the treatments were grouped into two main clusters. The two groupings showed similarity between birds receiving the control and cellulose diets and similarity between birds fed on the whole wheat and wood shavings diets. 5. The findings suggest that the effects of insoluble fibre on broiler performance

  20. [Revision of of the subfamily of Metaracoelophryinae de Puytorac 1972 (Oligohymenophora: Hoplytophryida: Hoplytophryidae), astome ciliates of the digestive tract of Oligochaeta worms of Africa: description of five new species].

    PubMed

    Fokam, Z; Ngassam, P; Nana, P A; Bricheux, G; Bouchard, P; Sime Ngando, T

    2012-02-01

    Five new species belonging to the astome ciliates, living in the digestive tract of Oligochaeta worms belonging to the genus Alma from Cameroon, have been described. The techniques used are: vital staining, staining of the nucleus with Diamidino Phenyl Indol (DAPI), scanning electron microscopy and silver staining method (Fernandez Galiano, 1976, 1994). This work confirms the presence of the genus Paracoelophrya and Dicoelophrya in the digestive track of the oligochaete Alma from Gabon and Cameroon; it helps to understand the general taxonomy of this Metaracoelophryinae subfamily. Moreover, the homogeneity of this group is confirmed and the phylogenetic relationship inside the Hoplitophryida order need more studies to be solved.

  1. Effect of slow-release urea inclusion in diets containing modified corn distillers grains on total tract digestibility and ruminal fermentation in feedlot cattle.

    PubMed

    Ceconi, I; Ruiz-Moreno, M J; DiLorenzo, N; DiCostanzo, A; Crawford, G I

    2015-08-01

    Ruminal degradable intake protein (DIP) deficit may result when cattle are fed diets containing a greater inclusion of processed corn grain and small to moderate inclusion of corn distillers grains (DG). This deficit may arise from greater proportions of rapidly fermentable carbohydrates and RUP in corn grain. Urea-derived N is 100% DIP; however, rates of degradation of carbohydrates and conventional urea (CU) may not match. Therefore, beneficial effects may result from the use of slow-release urea (SRU) sources over CU when added to DIP-deficient diets. An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of increasing DIP concentration through inclusion of 1 of 2 SRU sources or CU in DG-containing feedlot diets on ruminal fermentation and total tract digestibility. In addition, an in situ experiment was conducted to characterize N disappearance of urea sources from polyester bags. Four ruminally cannulated steers (initial BW = 588 ± 8 kg) were arranged in a 4 × 4 Latin square design and assigned randomly to 1 of 4 dietary treatments containing 0% (CON) or 0.6% urea in the form of CU (UREA) or SRU as Optigen II (polymer-encapsulated urea; OPTI) or NitroShure (lipid-encapsulated urea; NITRO), and 30% corn earlage, 20% modified corn DG with solubles, 7.8% corn silage, 4.3% dry supplement, and dry-rolled corn (DM basis). Dietary DIP was estimated at 6.6% and 8.3% for CON and urea-containing dietary treatments, respectively. Steers were fed ad libitum once daily. Differences in purine derivatives-to-creatinine (PDC) index between treatments were used as indicators of differences in microbial CP synthesis. Intake of OM, digestibility of OM, NDF, CP, and starch, ruminal pH, total VFA ruminal concentration, and PDC index were not affected by treatment ( ≥ 0.21). Concentration of ammonia-N noticeably peaked at 4 h after feed delivery for cattle fed UREA (treatment × time, = 0.06) and measured at least 5.5 mg/dL for any treatment and at any hour after feed delivery

  2. Avian digestive tract simulation to study the effect of grit geochemistry and food on Pb shot bioaccessibility.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Haro, Monica; Taggart, Mark A; Green, Andy J; Mateo, Rafael

    2009-12-15

    Lead shot dissolution was investigated in a dynamic in vitro simulated avian gizzard-intestine system. The method allows simulated digestive fluid to pass (at intervals) from a gizzardlike environment to an intestine-based one, and then considers the dissolution of Pb shot (0-3 pellets) in the presence of differing grit geochemistries (siliceous and calcareous) and variable amounts of food (0-4 g of partially milled wheat seed). Dissolved Pb levels in simulated gizzards were consistently higher in the presence of siliceous, than with calcareous, grit. This was also seen in simulated intestines, except when less food was used (0-1 g), when Pb levels in solution were higher in calcareous systems. The Pb concentrations in gizzard and intestine solutions increased directly with the number of Pb shot used. In all treatments Pb levels in intestine liquids were lower than in gizzard liquids. Calcareous grit simulations maintained 2.5-34 times more Ca in solution than those that used siliceous grit. Dietary supplementation with calcareous grit may reduce Pb bioaccessibility of ingested Pb shot in birds by reducing gizzard acidity, by enhancing Pb precipitation (as Pb-carbonate), and by promoting higher dissolved Ca levels in the intestine, which may then compete with Pb for intestinal absorption.

  3. Hot topic: apparent total-tract nutrient digestibilities measured commercially using 120-hour in vitro indigestible neutral detergent fiber as a marker are related to commercial dairy cattle performance.

    PubMed

    Schalla, A; Meyer, L; Meyer, Z; Onetti, S; Schultz, A; Goeser, J

    2012-09-01

    Measuring individual feed nutrient concentration is common practice for field dairy nutritionists. However, accurately measuring nutrient digestibility and using digestion values in total digestible nutrients models is more challenging. Our objective was to determine if in vivo apparent total-tract nutrient digestibility measured with a practical approach was related to commercial milk production parameters. Total mixed ration and fecal samples were collected from high-producing cows in pens on 39 commercial dairies and analyzed at a commercial feed and forage testing laboratory for nutrient concentration and 120-h indigestible NDF (iNDF) content using the Combs-Goeser in vitro digestion technique. The 120-h iNDF was used as an internal marker to calculate in vivo apparent nutrient digestibilities. Two samples were taken from each dairy and were separated in time by at least 3 wk. Samples were targeted to be taken within 7d of Dairy Herd Improvement (DHI) herd testing. Approved DHI testers measured individual cow milk weights as well as fat and protein concentrations. Individual cow records were averaged by pen corresponding to the total mixed ration and fecal samples. Formulated diet and dry matter intake (DMI) records for each respective pen were also collected. Mixed model regression analysis with dairy specified as a random effect was used to relate explanatory variables (diet nutrient concentrations, formulated DMI, in vivo apparent nutrient digestibilities, and fecal nutrient concentrations) to milk production measures. Dry matter intake, organic matter (OM) digestibility, fecal crude protein (CP) concentration, and fecal ether extract concentration were related to milk, energy-corrected milk, and fat yields. Milk protein concentration was related to CP digestibility, and milk protein yield was related to DMI, OM digestibility, CP digestibility, and ether extract digestibility. Although many studies have related DMI and OM digestibility to milk production

  4. Apoptosis in the digestive tract of herbivorous Rana pipiens larvae and carnivorous Ceratophrys ornata larvae: an immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Kaltenbach, Jane C; Fry, Anne E; Colpitts, Katherine M; Faszewski, Ellen E

    2012-01-01

    The lifespan of herbivorous Rana pipiens larvae is ∼3 months, while that of carnivorous Ceratophrys ornata larvae is only about 2 weeks. During metamorphic climax, the larval gut shortens dramatically, especially in R. pipiens, and its luminal epithelium is replaced by adult-type epithelium. To determine when programmed cell death occurs during the metamorphic restructuring of the gut, we prepared cross-sections of the stomach, small intestine, and large intestine from representative larval stages and from juvenile frogs of both species. The sections were incubated with monoclonal antibody against active caspase-3, one of the key enzymes in the apoptotic cascade. We observed apoptosis in some luminal epithelial cells in each of the three regions of the larval gastrointestinal tract of both species. However, apoptotic cells appeared earlier in larval stages of R. pipiens than C. ornata and few were seen in juvenile frogs of either species. The results demonstrate the occurrence of apoptosis in the metamorphic remodeling of the gut of both R. pipiens larvae and C. ornata larvae. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. The Antiproliferative Effect of Chakasaponins I and II, Floratheasaponin A, and Epigallocatechin 3-O-Gallate Isolated from Camellia sinensis on Human Digestive Tract Carcinoma Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Kitagawa, Niichiro; Morikawa, Toshio; Motai, Chiaki; Ninomiya, Kiyofumi; Okugawa, Shuhei; Nishida, Ayaka; Yoshikawa, Masayuki; Muraoka, Osamu

    2016-01-01

    Acylated oleanane-type triterpene saponins, namely chakasaponins I (1) and II (2), floratheasaponin A (3), and their analogs, together with catechins—including (–)-epigallocatechin 3-O-gallate (4), flavonoids, and caffeine—have been isolated as characteristic functional constituents from the extracts of “tea flower”, the flower buds of Camellia sinensis (Theaceae), which have common components with that of the leaf part. These isolates exhibited antiproliferative activities against human digestive tract carcinoma HSC-2, HSC-4, MKN-45, and Caco-2 cells. The antiproliferative activities of the saponins (1–3, IC50 = 4.4–14.1, 6.2–18.2, 4.5–17.3, and 19.3–40.6 µM, respectively) were more potent than those of catechins, flavonoids, and caffeine. To characterize the mechanisms of action of principal saponin constituents 1–3, a flow cytometric analysis using annexin-V/7-aminoactinomycin D (7-AAD) double staining in HSC-2 cells was performed. The percentage of apoptotic cells increased in a concentration-dependent manner. DNA fragmentation and caspase-3/7 activation were also detected after 48 h. These results suggested that antiproliferative activities of 1–3 induce apoptotic cell death via activation of caspase-3/7. PMID:27898032

  6. Digestive tract and renal small vessel hyalinosis, idiopathic nonarteriosclerotic intracerebral calcifications, retinal ischemic syndrome, and phenotypic abnormalities. A new familial syndrome.

    PubMed

    Rambaud, J C; Galian, A; Touchard, G; Morel-Maroger, L; Mikol, J; Van Effenterre, G; Leclerc, J P; Le Charpentier, Y; Haut, J; Matuchansky, C

    1986-04-01

    A new familial syndrome that affected 3 of 7 siblings is described. All 3 patients were young women with a very peculiar phenotype, poikilodermia and hair greying, and idiopathic nonarteriosclerotic cerebral calcifications. Pathological studies demonstrated a marked and progressive hyalinosis involving capillaries and often arterioles and small veins of the digestive tract, kidneys, and calcified areas of the brain. Using electron microscopy, we found that the hyalin substance in the intestinal capillaries consisted of several concentric layers of basal membrane-like deposits within a finely granular fluffy material. Huge deposits of this material were present in the subepithelial and mesangial spaces of the kidneys. Endothelial cells and, in the kidneys, mesangial cells were markedly abnormal, and a true mesangiolysis pattern was present in 2 patients. The clinical and biologic expression of these vascular changes was variable. Diarrhea, rectal bleeding, malabsorption, and protein-losing enteropathy were the main and lethal clinical problems in the proband. Hypertension appeared in the early stage of a second pregnancy in 1 sister, and mild proteinuria was found in all 3 affected patients. Peripheral retinal ischemic syndrome and chorioretinal scars were found in the ocular fundi of both affected sisters of the proband. A subarachnoid hemorrhage, due to a right sylvian aneurism, also occurred in both sisters and was lethal in 1 sister. None of the known causes of distal vessel hyalinosis could be ascertained.

  7. Effects of mannan level and β-mannanase supplementation on growth performance, apparent total tract digestibility and blood metabolites of growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Kim, J S; Ingale, S L; Hosseindoust, A R; Lee, S H; Lee, J H; Chae, B J

    2017-02-01

    The exogenous enzymes are less consistent in their effects as their beneficial effects depend upon the types and level non-starch polysaccharides (NSP) present in the diets. Therefore, exogenous enzymes should be selected on the basis of types and amount of the NSP in the pig diets. The objectives of the present experiments were to investigate the effects of dietary level of mannan and β-mannanase supplementation on growth performance, apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of energy and nutrients, and blood metabolites of growing pigs. In Exp. 1, 96 barrows were randomly allotted to four treatments on the basis of BW. There were four replicates in each treatment with six pigs per replicate. The dietary treatments were a corn-soybean meal (SBM)-based control diet and three other diets consisted of the control diet supplemented with 400, 800 or 1600 U of β-mannanase/kg diet. The final BW, average daily gain (ADG) and blood glucose increased (linear, P0.05) on the concentrations of blood total cholesterol, triacylglycerides and blood urea nitrogen. These results indicate that supplementation of β-mannanase to low- or high-mannan diets have potential to improve the performance of growing pigs. In addition, palm kernel meal may partially replace corn and SBM without reducing pig performance if β-mannanase is added to diet.

  8. The type II secretion system is essential for erythrocyte lysis and gut colonization by the leech digestive tract symbiont Aeromonas veronii.

    PubMed

    Maltz, Michele; Graf, Joerg

    2011-01-01

    Hemolysin and the type II secretion system (T2SS) have been shown to be important for virulence in many pathogens, but very few studies have shown their importance in beneficial microbes. Here, we investigated the importance of the type II secretion pathway in the beneficial digestive-tract association of Aeromonas veronii and the medicinal leech Hirudo verbana and revealed a critical role for the hemolysis of erythrocytes. A mutant with a miniTn5 insertion in exeM, which is involved in forming the inner membrane platform in the T2SS, was isolated by screening mutants for loss of hemolysis on blood agar plates. A hemolysis assay was used to quantify the mutant's deficiency in lysing sheep erythrocytes and revealed a 99.9% decrease compared to the parent strain. The importance of the T2SS in the colonization of the symbiotic host was assessed. Colonization assays revealed that the T2SS is critical for initial colonization of the leech gut. The defect was tied to the loss of hemolysin production by performing a colonization assay with blood containing lysed erythrocytes. This restored the colonization defect in the mutant. Complementation of the mutant using the promoter region and exeMN revealed that the T2SS is responsible for secreting hemolysin into the extracellular space and that both the T2SS and hemolysin export by the T2SS are critical for initial establishment of A. veronii in the leech gut.

  9. Evaluation of the rabbit as a model for Chagas disease-II. Histopathologic studies of the heart, digestive tract and skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    da Silva, A M; Eduardo Ramirez, L; Vargas, M; Chapadeiro, E; Brener, Z

    1996-01-01

    In order to investigate the value of the rabbit as an experimental model for Chagas' disease, seventy one animals were inoculated with different Trypanosoma cruzi strains and routes. The rabbits were submitted to necropsy in acute (earlier than three months of infection), recent chronic (three to six months) and late chronic (later than six months) phases. Myocarditis, generally focal and endomysial, occurred in 94.1%, 66.7% and 70.8% of the infected rabbits respectively in the acute, recent chronic and late chronic phases. The myocardial inflammatory exudate was composed by mononuclear cells, and also polymorphonuclear cells in the acute phase. In most cases of the late chronic phase, the myocarditis was similar to that described in the indeterminate form of human chagasic patients. Initial fibrosis occurred in the three phases but was more severe and frequent in the early chronic. Advanced fibrosis occurred only in the late chronic phase. Tissue parasites occurred only in the acute phase. The digestive tract and skeletal muscles showed mild and occasional lesions. Our data indicate that experimentally infected chagasic rabbits repeat some lesions similar to that of humans chagasic patients, specially that of the indeterminate form. So, it may be a useful, however not an ideal, model.

  10. Two new species of cystidicolid nematodes from the digestive tract of the deep-sea fish Coryphaenoides mediterraneus (Giglioli) (Macrouridae) from the Mid-Atlantic Ridge.

    PubMed

    Moravec, Frantisek; Klimpel, Sven

    2009-05-01

    Two new nematode species, Ascarophis longiovata n. sp. and Neoascarophis longispicula n. sp. (Cystidicolidae), are described from the digestive tract of the marine deep-water fish, the Mediterranean grenadier Coryphaenoides mediterraneus (Giglioli), from the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. The former species is characterised mainly by the structure of the mouth (large pseudolabia, each with well-developed dorsal and ventral extension and small apical protrusion; submedian labia almost absent), the large, elongate-oval, non-filamented eggs (60-66 x 18-27 microm), a cervical inflation of the cuticle, bifurcate deirids, and the length of the spicules (315-360 and 120-147 microm), whereas the latter (only males available) can be distinguished by the length of the spicules (960-1,149 and 258-351 microm) and their length ratio (1:1.91-2.71), the shape of the deirids (bifurcate, with long, narrow posterior arms), and the location of the excretory pore and deirids well posterior to the level of the nerve-ring.

  11. Role of the PhoP-PhoQ gene regulatory system in adaptation of Yersinia pestis to environmental stress in the flea digestive tract.

    PubMed

    Vadyvaloo, Viveka; Viall, Austin K; Jarrett, Clayton O; Hinz, Angela K; Sturdevant, Daniel E; Joseph Hinnebusch, B

    2015-06-01

    The Yersinia pestis PhoPQ gene regulatory system is induced during infection of the flea digestive tract and is required to produce adherent biofilm in the foregut, which greatly enhances bacterial transmission during a flea bite. To understand the in vivo context of PhoPQ induction and to determine PhoP-regulated targets in the flea, we undertook whole-genome comparative transcriptional profiling of Y. pestis WT and ΔphoP strains isolated from infected fleas and from temperature-matched in vitro planktonic and flow-cell biofilm cultures. In the absence of PhoP regulation, the gene expression program indicated that the bacteria experienced diverse physiological stresses and were in a metabolically less active state. Multiple stress response genes, including several toxin-antitoxin loci and YhcN family genes responsible for increased acid tolerance, were upregulated in the phoP mutant during flea infection. The data implied that PhoPQ was induced by low pH in the flea gut, and that PhoP modulated physiological adaptation to acid and other stresses encountered during infection of the flea. This adaptive response, together with PhoP-dependent modification of the bacterial outer surface that includes repression of pH 6 antigen fimbriae, supports stable biofilm development in the flea foregut.

  12. Temporal and spatial fate of GFP-expressing motile and nonmotile Aeromonas hydrophila in the house fly digestive tract.

    PubMed

    McGaughey, Joseph; Nayduch, Dana

    2009-01-01

    To gain insight into the transmissibility of bacteria by house flies, the temporal and spatial fate of green fluorescent protein (GFP)-expressing motile and nonmotile strains of Aeromonas hydrophila was examined within the alimentary canal. Liquid food consumed by house flies is first stored in the crop and then is regurgitated and/or passed into the midgut. Once within the midgut, food is contained inside a double-layered peritrophic matrix (PM), with the inner layer enveloping digested material and forming fecal pellets for excretion. Between 1 and 12 h after ingestion, and irrespective of motility, live GFP+ A. hydrophila adhered to the luminal surfaces of the crop and inner PM of bacteria-fed flies. However, some nonadherent, motile bacteria moved freely within the PM lumen in the anteromedial midgut, whereas fecal pellets (lysed bacteria) continued passing posteriorly. At 12-24 h, adhered bacteria of both strains were lysed in the distal midgut, compressed into fecal pellets, and excreted. Viable bacteria in the crop visually exceeded numbers within these fecal pellets. Culture recovery at the same time points showed a 1,000-fold increase of viable bacteria at 2 h, presumably in the crop, with a temporal decline thereafter. Further, viable bacteria were recovered from vomit specks and orally contaminated substrates up to 2 h after feeding but never from feces. These results suggest that A. hydrophila is a transient resident of the house fly alimentary canal and is only orally transmissible for a short time after ingestion. Thus, regurgitation may be more significant than fecal transmission in the spread of some house fly transmitted bacterial diseases.

  13. [Anaerobic digestion of lignocellulosic biomass with animal digestion mechanisms].

    PubMed

    Wu, Hao; Zhang, Pan-Yue; Guo, Jian-Bin; Wu, Yong-Jie

    2013-02-01

    Lignocellulosic material is the most abundant renewable resource in the earth. Herbivores and wood-eating insects are highly effective in the digestion of plant cellulose, while anaerobic digestion process simulating animal alimentary tract still remains inefficient. The digestion mechanisms of herbivores and wood-eating insects and the development of anaerobic digestion processes of lignocellulose were reviewed for better understanding of animal digestion mechanisms and their application in design and operation of the anaerobic digestion reactor. Highly effective digestion of lignocellulosic materials in animal digestive system results from the synergistic effect of various digestive enzymes and a series of physical and biochemical reactions. Microbial fermentation system is strongly supported by powerful pretreatment, such as rumination of ruminants, cellulase catalysis and alkali treatment in digestive tract of wood-eating insects. Oxygen concentration gradient along the digestive tract may stimulate the hydrolytic activity of some microorganisms. In addition, the excellent arrangement of solid retention time, digesta flow and end product discharge enhance the animal digestion of wood cellulose. Although anaerobic digestion processes inoculated with rumen microorganisms based rumen digestion mechanisms were developed to treat lignocellulose, the fermentation was more greatly limited by the environmental conditions in the anaerobic digestion reactors than that in rumen or hindgut. Therefore, the anaerobic digestion processes simulating animal digestion mechanisms can effectively enhance the degradation of wood cellulose and other organic solid wastes.

  14. Carbohydrate Metabolism Is Essential for the Colonization of Streptococcus thermophilus in the Digestive Tract of Gnotobiotic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Muriel; Wrzosek, Laura; Ben-Yahia, Leila; Noordine, Marie-Louise; Gitton, Christophe; Chevret, Didier; Langella, Philippe; Mayeur, Camille; Cherbuy, Claire; Rul, Françoise

    2011-01-01

    Streptococcus thermophilus is the archetype of lactose-adapted bacterium and so far, its sugar metabolism has been mainly investigated in vitro. The objective of this work was to study the impact of lactose and lactose permease on S. thermophilus physiology in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of gnotobiotic rats. We used rats mono-associated with LMD-9 strain and receiving 4.5% lactose. This model allowed the analysis of colonization curves of LMD-9, its metabolic profile, its production of lactate and its interaction with the colon epithelium. Lactose induced a rapid and high level of S. thermophilus in the GIT, where its activity led to 49 mM of intra-luminal L-lactate that was related to the induction of mono-carboxylic transporter mRNAs (SLC16A1 and SLC5A8) and p27Kip1 cell cycle arrest protein in epithelial cells. In the presence of a continuous lactose supply, S. thermophilus recruited proteins involved in glycolysis and induced the metabolism of alternative sugars as sucrose, galactose, and glycogen. Moreover, inactivation of the lactose transporter, LacS, delayed S. thermophilus colonization. Our results show i/that lactose constitutes a limiting factor for colonization of S. thermophilus, ii/that activation of enzymes involved in carbohydrate metabolism constitutes the metabolic signature of S. thermophilus in the GIT, iii/that the production of lactate settles the dialogue with colon epithelium. We propose a metabolic model of management of carbohydrate resources by S. thermophilus in the GIT. Our results are in accord with the rationale that nutritional allegation via consumption of yogurt alleviates the symptoms of lactose intolerance. PMID:22216112

  15. Carbohydrate metabolism is essential for the colonization of Streptococcus thermophilus in the digestive tract of gnotobiotic rats.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Muriel; Wrzosek, Laura; Ben-Yahia, Leila; Noordine, Marie-Louise; Gitton, Christophe; Chevret, Didier; Langella, Philippe; Mayeur, Camille; Cherbuy, Claire; Rul, Françoise

    2011-01-01

    Streptococcus thermophilus is the archetype of lactose-adapted bacterium and so far, its sugar metabolism has been mainly investigated in vitro. The objective of this work was to study the impact of lactose and lactose permease on S. thermophilus physiology in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of gnotobiotic rats. We used rats mono-associated with LMD-9 strain and receiving 4.5% lactose. This model allowed the analysis of colonization curves of LMD-9, its metabolic profile, its production of lactate and its interaction with the colon epithelium. Lactose induced a rapid and high level of S. thermophilus in the GIT, where its activity led to 49 mM of intra-luminal L-lactate that was related to the induction of mono-carboxylic transporter mRNAs (SLC16A1 and SLC5A8) and p27(Kip1) cell cycle arrest protein in epithelial cells. In the presence of a continuous lactose supply, S. thermophilus recruited proteins involved in glycolysis and induced the metabolism of alternative sugars as sucrose, galactose, and glycogen. Moreover, inactivation of the lactose transporter, LacS, delayed S. thermophilus colonization. Our results show i/that lactose constitutes a limiting factor for colonization of S. thermophilus, ii/that activation of enzymes involved in carbohydrate metabolism constitutes the metabolic signature of S. thermophilus in the GIT, iii/that the production of lactate settles the dialogue with colon epithelium. We propose a metabolic model of management of carbohydrate resources by S. thermophilus in the GIT. Our results are in accord with the rationale that nutritional allegation via consumption of yogurt alleviates the symptoms of lactose intolerance. © 2011 Thomas et al.

  16. Standardized total tract digestibility of phosphorus in copra meal, palm kernel expellers, palm kernel meal, and soybean meal fed to growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Almaguer, B L; Sulabo, R C; Liu, Y; Stein, H H

    2014-06-01

    Sixty-six barrows (initial BW: 27.4 ± 2.8 kg) were used to determine the standardized total tract digestibility (STTD) of P in copra meal (CM), palm kernel expellers from Indonesia (PKE-IN), palm kernel expellers from Costa Rica (PKE-CR), palm kernel meal from Costa Rica (PKM), and soybean meal (SBM) without or with exogenous phytase. Pigs were housed individually in metabolism cages and allotted to 11 diets with 6 replicate pigs per diet in a generalized randomized block design. Five diets were formulated by mixing cornstarch and sugar with CM, PKE-IN, PKE-CR, PKM, or SBM. Five additional diets, which were identical to the initial 5 diets but supplemented with 800 units of phytase, were also formulated. A P-free diet was used to measure basal endogenous losses of P by the pigs. Feces were collected for 5 d using the marker to marker approach after a 5-d adaptation period. Analyzed total P in CM, PKE-IN, PKE-CR, PKM, and SBM was 0.52, 0.51, 0.53, 0.54, and 0.67%, respectively. Phytate P was 0.22, 0.35, 0.38, 0.32, and 0.44% in CM, PKE-IN, PKE-CR, PKM, and SBM, respectively. Addition of phytase increased (P < 0.05) the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of P from 60.6 to 80.8, 27.3 to 56.5, 32.6 to 59.9, 48.9 to 64.1, and 41.1 to 72.2% in CM, PKE-IN, PKE-CR, PKM, and SBM, respectively. The ATTD of P in CM was greater (P < 0.05) than in any of the other ingredients. The ATTD of P in SBM and PKM was greater (P < 0.05) than in PKE-IN, with PKE-CR being intermediate. The STTD of P increased (P < 0.05) from 70.6 to 90.3, 37.6 to 66.4, 43.2 to 69.9, 57.9 to 73.5, and 49.6 to 81.1% in CM, PKE-IN, PKE-CR, PKM, and SBM, respectively, when microbial phytase was added to the diets. When expressed as a percentage of total P, phytate P concentration in the ingredient negatively affected (P < 0.05) the ATTD of P (107.09 - 1.0564 × % phytate P; R(2) = 87.1) and the STTD of P (116.3 - 1.0487 × % phytate P; R(2) = 89.4). In conclusion, microbial phytase increased P

  17. Performance and phosphorus balance of pigs fed diets formulated on the basis of values for standardized total tract digestibility of phosphorus.

    PubMed

    Almeida, F N; Stein, H H

    2010-09-01

    Three experiments were conducted to test the hypotheses that pigs fed diets that are equal in digestible P will perform equally regardless of the concentration of total P in the diets, and that the addition of microbial phytase, distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS), or a combination of phytase and DDGS will result in a reduction in P excretion. In Exp. 1, a P-free diet and 6 diets containing corn, soybean meal (SBM), or DDGS without or with microbial phytase (500 phytase units per kg) were formulated. Diets were fed for 12 d to 42 pigs (initial BW = 13.5 +/- 3.9 kg) housed in metabolism cages that allowed for total collections of feces. Basal endogenous P losses were determined to be 199 mg/kg of DMI for pigs fed the P-free diet. Addition of phytase increased (P < 0.01) the standardized total tract digestibility (STTD) of P in corn (64.4 vs. 26.4%) and SBM (74.9 vs. 48.3%), but there was no effect (P > 0.10) of the addition of phytase on the STTD of P in DDGS (75.5 vs. 72.9%). In Exp. 2, a total of 160 pigs (initial BW = 11.25 +/- 1.95 kg; 4 pigs/pen) were allotted to 4 corn- and SBM-based diets with 2 amounts of phytase (0 or 500 phytase units per kg) and 2 amounts of DDGS (0 or 20%) in a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. All diets were formulated to contain 0.32% STTD of P according to the STTD values determined in Exp. 1. Diets were fed for 21 d and results indicated that inclusion of phytase in the diet containing no DDGS tended (P < 0.10) to decrease G:F, but inclusion of 20% DDGS in the diets tended (P < 0.10) to increase ADG, ADFI, and final BW. In Exp. 3, the diets used in Exp. 2 were fed to 24 pigs (initial BW = 14.6 +/- 1.4 kg) that were placed in metabolism cages individually. Feces and urine were collected for 5 d. Phytase and DDGS increased (P < 0.01) the apparent total tract digestibility of P in the diets. Absorption of P was greater (P < 0.05) in pigs fed corn-SBM-DDGS diets than pigs fed corn-SBM diets, and phytase, DDGS, or the

  18. [Protein digestibility and the absorption of amino acids in various segments of the digestive tract of pigs. 4. Digestibility of crude protein and amino acids and rate of passage through the duodenum and ileum and the total digestive tract of growing pigs].

    PubMed

    Buraczewska, L; Zebrowska, T; Wünsche, J; Hennig, U; Krawielitzki, K; Kreienbring, F; Meinl, M; Borgmann, E; Bock, H D

    1979-01-01

    The crude protein digestibility and the amino acid absorption of six female pigs (average live weight 61 kg) with duodenal and ileocecal re-entrant cannulae, which were fed with a wheat + wheat gluten + lysine ration and an N-free ration, were determined in various segments of the intestines. Comparative experiments concerning the N-metabolism with pigs without and with cannulae showed that the animals renormalised their metabolism 14 days after narcosis and fistulation of the intestines. The extents of secretion and absorption of the various amino acids vary as it is shown from the values of the apparent and true digestibility resp. rate of passage through various segments of the intestines. While for methionine and glutamic acid absorption exceeds endogenous secretion already in the duodenum, the amino acids with a high endogenous quota (glycine, alanine, threonine, tryptophan) are, even at the terminal ileum, not as well absorbed as the others. Methionine is obviously synthesised on a large scale by the colon flora and excreted in feces. The fractionation of the duodenal and ileum chyme after feeding wheat + wheat gluten + lysine as well as N-free mixture, into the fractions "solid particles", "peptides-free amino acids" and "proteines precipitable by trichlor-acetic acid" supplies information on the degree of protein degradation in various segments of the intestines.

  19. Severe erosive lesions in the digestive tract of patients with Henoch-Schönlein Purpura (HSP) and its impact on prognosis - presentation of two cases and statistical review of adult-onset Japanese HSP.

    PubMed

    Tobino, K; Shimizu, Y; Miura, S; Sugawara, K; Takeda, K; Tomino, Y

    2011-02-01

    Although many pediatric patients with Henoch-Schönlein Purpura (HSP) recover spontaneously, disease activity in adult patients often cannot be controlled by treatment. To assess the specific signs not formerly considered to be those of uncontrollable adult HSP patients. Clinical records of 2 adult patients who died during HSP were reviewed and previous reports on HSP were consulted. Both patients had lesions in the digestive tract diagnosed as hemorrhagic erosion in the small intestine and colon. They were elderly and showed renal dysfunction. They died from severe infection after potent immunosuppressive treatment. A univariate analysis showed that age of over 60 years, severe renal symptoms (nephrotic syndrome and/or end-stage renal failure), Birmingham Vasculitis Activity Score (BVAS) of more than 18 points, massive immunosuppression and melena had significantly higher prevalence among patients who died. Multivariate statistical analysis with theoretical quantification analysis II revealed that age of over 60 and severe renal symptoms (nephrotic syndrome and/or end-stage renal failure) contributed to poor prognosis. The presence of melena did not contribute to poor prognosis despite results of the univariate analysis and our clinical impressions. In multivariate statistical analysis, melena was selected as a sign of severe erosive lesions in the digestive tract because some of the patients were not examined by fiberscopy. Melena is caused by various lesions in the digestive tract and each of them has different effects on prognosis. Elderly HSP patients with severe renal impairment should be carefully treated. Examination of the digestive tract by fiberscopy is recommended when melena is observed in these patients.

  20. Cooking Has Variable Effects on the Fermentability in the Large Intestine of the Fraction of Meats, Grain Legumes, and Insects That Is Resistant to Digestion in the Small Intestine in an in Vitro Model of the Pig's Gastrointestinal Tract.

    PubMed

    Poelaert, Christine; Despret, Xavier; Sindic, Marianne; Beckers, Yves; Francis, Frédéric; Portetelle, Daniel; Soyeurt, Hélène; Théwis, André; Bindelle, Jérôme

    2017-01-18

    This study aimed to evaluate the fermentation in the large intestine of indigestible dietary protein sources from animal, insect, and plant origin using an in vitro model of the pig's gastrointestinal tract. Protein sources were used raw and after a cooking treatment. Results showed that the category of the ingredient (meats, insects, or grain legumes) exerts a stronger impact on enzymatic digestibility, fermentation patterns, and bacterial metabolites such as short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) than the cooking treatment. The digestibility and the fermentation characteristics of insects were more affected by the cooking procedure than the other categories. Per gram of consumed food, ingredients from animal origin, namely, meats and insects, were associated with fewer fermentation end-products (gas, H2S, SCFA) than ingredients from plant origin, which is related to their higher small intestinal digestibility.

  1. Impacts of dietary calcium, phytate, and phytase on inositol hexakisphosphate degradation and inositol phosphate release in different segments of digestive tract of broilers.

    PubMed

    Li, W; Angel, R; Kim, S-W; Brady, K; Yu, S; Plumstead, P W

    2017-10-01

    A total of 720 straight-run Heritage 56 M × fast feathering Cobb 500F broiler chickens was fed from 11 to 13 d of age to determine the impacts of dietary calcium (Ca), phytate phosphorus (PP), and phytase concentrations on inositol phosphate (IP3-6) profile in different digestive tract (GI) segments. The experiment was a 2 × 2 × 3 randomized block design with 2 Ca (0.7 and 1.0%) and 2 PP (0.23 and 0.34%) concentrations and 3 doses of Buttiauxella sp. phytase (0, 500, and 1,000 FTU/kg). The experiment was replicated in time (block) with 3 replicates per treatment (Trt) of 10 birds per block. Concentrations of IP3-6 in the crop, proventriculus (Prov) plus (+) gizzard (Giz), and distal ileum, as well as the ileal IP6 and P disappearance were determined at 13 d of age. The detrimental impact of Ca on IP6 and P disappearance was observed only in the ileum, where 11% reduction in both IP6 and P disappearance was seen when Ca increased from 0.7 to 1.0% (P < 0.05). Higher IP5 and IP6 concentrations were seen in both the crop and Prov+Giz at 0.34% PP as compared to birds fed to 0.23% PP diets, regardless of Ca or phytase (P < 0.05), whereas IP3 and IP4 concentrations were not affected by PP (P > 0.05). Inclusion of phytase, at both 500 and 1,000 FTU/kg, resulted in lower IP6 and the accumulation of lower IP ester (IP3-5) concentrations in all GI segments (P < 0.05). Improved IP6 and P disappearance was seen as a result of phytase inclusion, despite the degree of improvement affected by PP (P < 0.05). On average, 5.5 and 6.7 times improvement in IP6 was observed with 500 and 1,000 FTU phytase/kg inclusion, respectively, resulting in 41 and 64% greater P digestibility, respectively. In conclusion, phytase can effectively degrade IP6 to lower esters and increase P utilization. However, the efficacy of phytase can be affected by diet Ca and PP concentrations. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Poultry Science Association.

  2. The effect of dietary carbohydrate composition on apparent total tract digestibility, feed mean retention time, nitrogen and water balance in horses.

    PubMed

    Jensen, R B; Austbø, D; Bach Knudsen, K E; Tauson, A-H

    2014-11-01

    A total of four diets with different carbohydrate composition were investigated in a 4×4 Latin square design experiment with four Norwegian Coldblooded trotter horses. The objective of the present study was to increase the fermentable fibre content and reduce the starch intake of the total ration obtained by partly substituting mature hay and barley with sugar beet pulp (SBP), a soluble fibre source. The diets investigated were hay only (HAY), hay (85% of dry matter intake (DMI)) and molassed SBP (15% of DMI) (SBP), hay (68% of DMI) and barley (32% of DMI) (BAR), and hay (68% of DMI), barley (26% of DMI) and SBP (6% of DMI) (BAR+SBP). The feeding level was 18.5, 17.3, 15.7 and 15.7 g DM/kg BW per day for the HAY, SBP, BAR and BAR+SBP diets, respectively. Each diet was fed for 18 days followed by 10 days of data collection, where apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD), total mean retention time (TMRT) of ytterbium-labelled hay, water balance, digestible energy (DE) intake and nitrogen balance were measured. An enzymatic chemical dietary fibre (DF) method was used to get detailed information on the composition and ATTD of the fibre fraction. Inclusion of SBP in the diet increased the ATTD of the constituent sugars galactose and arabinose (P<0.01). Feeding the HAY and SBP diets resulted in a lower TMRT owing to a higher DF intake than the BAR and BAR+SBP diets (P<0.01). There was no difference in water intake between HAY and SBP, but faecal dry matter was lower for HAY than the other diets (P=0.017), indicating that water was more tightly bound to fibre in the HAY diet. The diets were iso-energetic and provided enough DE and protein for light to moderate exercise for a 550 kg horse. In conclusion, this study showed that the DF intake had a larger effect on TMRT than partly substituting hay or barley with SBP, and that highly fermentable pectin-rich soluble DF from SBP maintains high nutrient utilization in horses.

  3. Salvage of blood urea nitrogen in sheep is highly dependent on plasma urea concentration and the efficiency of capture within the digestive tract.

    PubMed

    Sunny, N E; Owens, S L; Baldwin, R L; El-Kadi, S W; Kohn, R A; Bequette, B J

    2007-04-01

    The aims of this study were 1) to determine whether transfer of blood urea to the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) or the efficiency of capture of urea N within the GIT is more limiting for urea N salvage, and 2) to establish the relationship between plasma urea concentration and recycling of urea N to the GIT. We used an i.v. urea infusion model in sheep to elevate the urea entry rate and plasma concentrations, thus avoiding direct manipulation of the rumen environment that otherwise occurs when feeding additional N. Four growing sheep (28.1 +/- 0.6 kg of BW) were fed a low-protein (6.8% CP, DM basis) diet and assigned to 4 rates of i.v. urea infusion (0, 3.8, 7.5, or 11.3 g of urea N/d; 10-d periods) in a balanced 4 x 4 Latin square design. Nitrogen retention (d 6 to 9), urea kinetics([(15)N2]urea infusion over 80 h), and plasma AA were determined. Urea infusion increased apparent total tract digestibility of N (29.9 to 41.3%) and DM (47.5 to 58.9%), and N retention (1.45 to 5.46 g/d). The plasma urea N entry rate increased (5.1 to 21.8 g/d) with urea infusion, as did the amount of urea N entering the GIT (4.1 to 13.2 g/d). Urea N transfer to the GIT increased with plasma urea concentration, but the increases were smaller at greater concentrations of plasma urea. Anabolic use of urea N within the GIT also increased with urea infusion (1.43 to 2.98 g/d; P = 0.003), but anabolic use as a proportion of GIT entry was low and decreased (35 to 22%; P = 0.003) with urea infusions. Consequently, much (44 to 67%) of the urea N transferred to the GIT returned to the liver for resynthesis of urea (1.8 to 9.2 g/d; P < 0.05). The present results suggest that transfer of blood urea to the GIT is 1) highly related to blood urea concentration, and 2) less limiting for N retention than is the efficiency of capture of recycled urea N by microbes within the GIT.

  4. Effects of microbial phytase on the apparent and standardized total tract digestibility of phosphorus in rice coproducts fed to growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Casas, G A; Stein, H H

    2015-07-01

    The objectives of this experiment were to determine the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) and the standardized total tract digestibility (STTD) of P and the effect of microbial phytase on ATTD and STTD of P in full-fat rice bran (FFRB), defatted rice bran (DFRB), brown rice, broken rice, and rice mill feed when fed to pigs. Ninety-six barrows (initial BW of 19.4 ± 1.4 kg) were allotted to 12 diets with 8 replicate pigs per diet in a randomized complete block design. A basal diet based on corn and soybean meal was formulated. Five additional diets containing corn, soybean meal, and each rice coproduct were also formulated, and the ratio between corn and soybean meal in these diets was similar to that in the basal diet. Six additional diets that were similar to the initial 6 diets with the exception that 1,000 units of microbial phytase were added to the diets were also formulated. The ATTD and STTD of P were calculated for each diet using the direct procedure, and the ATTD and STTD of P in each rice coproduct were calculated using the difference procedure. Results of the experiment indicated that the concentration of P in feces was reduced (P < 0.05) from pigs fed diets with microbial phytase compared with pigs fed diets without phytase. No differences were observed between the basal diet and the broken rice diet, but the ATTD and the STTD of P in those diets was greater (P < 0.05) than in all other diets both without and with phytase. Among the rice coproducts, the greatest (P < 0.05) ATTD and STTD of P were observed for broken rice regardless of inclusion of phytase. If no microbial phytase was used, the values for STTD of P in brown rice, FFRB, DFRB, and rice mill feed were not different, but if microbial phytase was included in the diet, ATTD and STTD of P in brown rice was greater (P < 0.05) than in FFRB, DFRB, and rice mill feed. The STTD of P in brown rice, FFRB, and rice mill feed was greater (P < 0.05) if microbial phytase was used than if no

  5. Effect of a grain challenge on ruminal, urine, and fecal pH, apparent total-tract starch digestibility, and milk composition of Holstein and Jersey cows.

    PubMed

    Luan, S; Cowles, K; Murphy, M R; Cardoso, F C

    2016-03-01

    The effects of a grain challenge on ruminal, urine, and fecal pH, apparent total-tract starch digestibility, and milk composition were determined. Six Holstein cows, 6 rumen-cannulated Holstein cows, and 6 Jersey cows were used in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square design balanced to measure carryover effects. Periods (10 d) were divided into 4 stages (S): S1, d 1 to 3, served as baseline with regular total mixed ration ad libitum; S2, d 4, served as restricted feeding, with cows offered 50% of the total mixed ration fed on S1 (dry matter basis); S3, d 5, a grain challenge was performed, in which cows were fed total mixed ration ad libitum and not fed (CON) or fed an addition of 10% (MG) or 20% (HG) pellet wheat-barley (1:1) top-dressed onto the total mixed ration, based on dry matter intake obtained in S1; S4, d 6 to 10, served as recovery stage with regular total mixed ration fed ad libitum. Overall, cows had a quadratic treatment effect for milk yield where CON (22.6 kg/d) and HG (23.5 kg/d) had lower milk yield than cows in MG (23.7 kg/d). Jersey cows had a quadratic treatment effect for dry matter intake where cows in CON (13.2 kg/d) and HG (12.4 kg/d) had lower dry matter intake than cows in MG (14 kg/d). Holstein cows had a linear treatment effect for dry matter intake (17.7, 18.4, and 18.6 kg/d for CON, MG, and HG, respectively). Rumen pH for the rumen-cannulated cows had a linear treatment effect (6.45, 6.35, and 6.24 for CON, MG, and HG, respectively). Cows in HG spent more time with rumen pH below 5.8 (4.33 h) than MG (2 h) or CON (2.17 h) as shown by the quadratic treatment effect. Holstein cows in HG (8.46) had lower urine pH than MG (8.51) or CON (8.54) as showed by the linear treatment effect for urine pH. Apparent total-tract starch digestibility had a tendency for a linear treatment effect on S3 (97.62 ± 1.5, 97.47 ± 1.5, and 91.84 ± 1.6%, for CON, MG, and HG, respectively). Fecal pH was associated with rumen pH depression as early as 15 h after

  6. Effects of dietary lipid sources on performance and apparent total tract digestibility of lipids and energy when fed to nursery pigs.

    PubMed

    Mendoza, S M; van Heugten, E

    2014-02-01

    Acidulated fats and oils are by-products of the fat-refining industry. They contain high levels of FFA and are 10% to 20% less expensive than refined fats and oils. Two studies were designed to measure the effects of dietary lipid sources low or high in FFA on growth performance and apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of lipids and GE in nursery pigs. In Exp. 1, 189 pigs at 14 d postweaning (BW of 9.32 ± 0.11 kg) were used for 21 d with 9 replicate pens per treatment and 3 pigs per pen. Dietary treatments consisted of a control diet without added lipids and 6 diets with 6% inclusion of lipids. Four lipid sources were combined to create the dietary treatments with 2 levels of FFA (0.40% or 54.0%) and 3 degrees of fat saturation (iodine value [IV] = 77, 100, or 123) in a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement. Lipid sources were soybean oil (0.3% FFA and IV = 129.4), soybean-cottonseed acid oil blend (70.5% FFA and IV = 112.9), choice white grease (0.6% FFA and IV = 74.8), and choice white acid grease (56.0% FFA and IV = 79.0). Addition of lipid sources decreased ADFI (810 vs. 872 g/d; P = 0.018) and improved G:F (716 vs. 646 g/kg; P < 0.001). Diets high in FFA tended (P = 0.08) to improve final BW (21.35 vs. 21.01 kg) and ADG (576 vs. 560 g/d). Lipid-supplemented diets had greater ATTD of lipids than control diets (67.4% vs. 29.7%; P < 0.001). Apparent total tract digestibility of lipids was greater in diets with low FFA (69.9% vs. 64.9%; P < 0.001) and decreased linearly with increasing IV (73.2%, 69.1%, and 67.2%). For GE, ATTD was greater in diets with low FFA (83.1% vs. 80.9%; P = 0.001). In Exp. 2, 252 pigs at 7 d postweaning (BW of 7.0 ± 0.2 kg) were used for 28 d with 9 replicate pens per treatment and 4 pigs per pen. Diets included a control diet without added lipids and 6 treatments with 2.5%, 5.0%, or 7.5% of lipids from either poultry fat (1.9% FFA) or acidulated poultry fat (37.8% FFA) in a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement. Addition of lipids increased (P < 0

  7. Long-Term Alcohol Consumption and Breast, Upper Aero-Digestive Tract and Colorectal Cancer Risk: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Jayasekara, Harindra; MacInnis, Robert J; Room, Robin; English, Dallas R

    2016-05-01

    Cancers of female breast, upper aero-digestive tract (UADT) (oral cavity, pharynx, larynx, oesophagus) and colorectum are causally related to alcohol consumption. Although alcohol consumption is likely to vary during life, the few studies that have explicitly measured lifetime consumption or intake over time have not been summarised. We therefore conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis. Studies were identified by searching the Medline, CINAHL (Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature) and Scopus databases through January 2015 using broad search criteria. Studies reporting relative risks (RR) for quantitatively defined categories of alcohol consumption over time for breast, UADT or colorectal cancer were eligible. A two-stage random-effects meta-analysis was used to estimate a dose-response relationship between alcohol intake and each cancer site. RRs were also calculated for the highest relative to the lowest intake category. Sixteen articles for breast, 16 for UADT and 7 for colorectal cancer met the eligibility criteria. We observed a weak non-linear dose-response relationship for breast cancer and positive linear dose-response relationships for UADT and colorectal cancer. The pooled RRs were 1.28 (95% confidence interval, CI: 1.07, 1.52) for breast, 2.83 (95% CI: 1.73, 4.62) for UADT, 4.84 (95% CI: 2.51, 9.32) for oral cavity and pharynx, 2.25 (95% CI: 1.49, 3.42) for larynx, 6.71 (95% CI: 4.21, 10.70) for oesophageal and 1.49 (95% CI: 1.27, 1.74) for colorectal cancer. Our findings confirm dose-dependent associations between long-term alcohol intake and breast, UADT and colorectal cancer. © The Author 2015. Medical Council on Alcohol and Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  8. Mucinivorans hirudinis gen. nov., sp. nov., an anaerobic, mucin-degrading bacterium isolated from the digestive tract of the medicinal leech Hirudo verbana

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Michael C.; Bomar, Lindsey; Maltz, Michele

    2015-01-01

    Three anaerobic bacterial strains were isolated from the digestive tract of the medicinal leech Hirudo verbana, using mucin as the primary carbon and energy source. These strains, designated M3T, M4 and M6, were Gram-stain-negative, non-spore-forming and non-motile. Cells were elongated bacilli approximately 2.4 µm long and 0.6 µm wide. Growth only occurred anaerobically under mesophilic and neutral pH conditions. All three strains could utilize multiple simple and complex sugars as carbon sources, with glucose fermented to acid by-products. The DNA G+C contents of strains M3T, M4 and M6 were 44.9, 44.8 and 44.8 mol%, respectively. The major cellular fatty acid of strain M3T was iso-C15 : 0. Phylogenetic analysis of full-length 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that the three strains shared >99 % similarity with each other and represent a new lineage within the family Rikenellaceae of the order Bacteroidales, phylum Bacteroidetes. The most closely related bacteria to strain M3T based on 16S rRNA gene sequences were Rikenella microfusus DSM 15922T (87.3 % similarity) and Alistipes finegoldii AHN 2437T (87.4 %). On the basis of phenotypic, genotypic and physiological evidence, strains M3T, M4 and M6 are proposed as representing a novel species of a new genus within the family Rikenellaceae, for which the name Mucinivorans hirudinis gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of Mucinivorans hirudinis is M3T ( = ATCC BAA-2553T = DSM 27344T). PMID:25563920

  9. Influence of feed particle size on the performance, energy utilization, digestive tract development, and digesta parameters of broiler starters fed wheat- and corn-based diets.

    PubMed

    Amerah, A M; Ravindran, V; Lentle, R G; Thomas, D G

    2008-11-01

    The influence of particle size and grain type on the performance, AME(n), and on gross morphological and histological parameters of the various segments of the digestive tract of broilers fed wheat- or corn-based diets was investigated. The experimental design was a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments evaluating 2 particle sizes (fine and coarse) and 2 grain types (wheat and corn). The 2 particle sizes were achieved by grinding the whole grains in a hammer mill to pass through 1-mm and 7-mm screen sizes. Broiler starter diets, based on wheat- or corn-soybean meal, were formulated, pelleted, and each diet was offered to 6 cages of 8 male broilers each from d 1 to 21 posthatching. The results showed that the differences in particle size distribution still existed between diets after pelleting especially in the proportion of coarse particles (1 mm and over). In corn-based diets, coarse grinding improved (P = 0.06) weight gains compared with fine grinding, but this particle size effect was not observed in wheat-based diets. In both diets, coarse grinding lowered (P < 0.001) feed per gain of broilers compared with fine grinding. In wheat-based diets, coarse grinding improved (P = 0.06) AME(n) compared with fine grinding. Heavier (P < 0.05) gizzard weights were observed in birds fed the coarse corn-based diet, but particle size had no effect on the gizzard size in birds fed wheat-based diets. Villus height, crypt depth, and epithelial thickness in the duodenum were unaffected (P > 0.05) by particle size and grain type. Overall, the present results showed that the effect of feed particle size varies depending on grain type.

  10. Modern approach for determination of lactulose, mannitol and sucrose in human urine using HPLC-MS/MS for the studies of intestinal and upper digestive tract permeability.

    PubMed

    Kubica, Paweł; Kot-Wasik, Agata; Wasik, Andrzej; Namieśnik, Jacek; Landowski, Piotr

    2012-10-15

    A new analytical procedure was described for the simultaneous determination of lactulose, mannitol and sucrose in urine, in which HILIC chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry detection are used. Sugars are orally administered for the estimation of intestinal permeability in children digestive tract. Samples were purified by dispersive solid phase extraction (d-SPE) using Amberlite MB150 resin. Raffinose was selected as an internal standard. The chosen chromatographic separation was carried out on ZIC(®)-HILIC column in 10 min at a flow rate of 0.3 mL/min, using mixture of acetonitrile (ACN) and ammonium acetate (NH(4)Ac) in water (H(2)O) as the mobile phase. Within-run precision (CV) measured at three concentrations was 1.08%, 0.32% and 0.49% for lactulose; 1.88%, 0.47% and 0.75% for mannitol, 2.95%, 1.31% and 0.6% for sucrose. Between-run CVs were 0.75%, 1.1% and 1.2% for lactulose; 1.1%, 1.02% and 1.01% for mannitol; 1.17%, 1.4% and 1.05% for sucrose. Analytical recovery of all three sugar probes was 95.06-99.92%. The detection limits were: 15.94 ng/mL for lactulose, 17.10 ng/mL for sucrose and 11.48 ng/mL for mannitol. The proposed method is rapid, simple, sensitive and suitable for the determination of intestinal permeability of the sugar derivatives in children. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Detection and Localisation of the Abalone Probiotic Vibrio midae SY9 and Its Extracellular Protease, VmproA, within the Digestive Tract of the South African Abalone, Haliotis midae

    PubMed Central

    Huddy, Robert J.; Coyne, Vernon E.

    2014-01-01

    Probiotics have been widely reported to increase the growth rate of commercially important fish and shellfish by enhancing the digestion of ingested feed through the production of extracellular enzymes such as proteases and alginases. In order to investigate this further, the objective of this study was to localise the bacterial probiont Vibrio midae SY9 and one of the extracellular proteases it produces in the digestive tract of the South African abalone Haliotis midae. This was accomplished by inserting a promotorless gfp gene into the chromosome of the bacterium which was incorporated in an artificial, fishmeal-based abalone feed. In situ histological comparison of abalone fed either a basal diet or the basal diet supplemented with V. midae SY9::Tn10.52 using a cocktail of DNA probes to the gfp gene localised the probiont to the crop/stomach and intestinal regions of the H. midae digestive tract. Generally, the ingested probiotic bacterium occurred in association with feed and particulate matter within the crop/stomach and intestinal regions, as well as adhered to the wall of the crop/stomach. Histological immunohistochemical examination using polyclonal anti-VmproA antibodies localised an extracellular protease produced by V. midae SY9 to the H. midae crop/stomach and intestine where it appeared to be associated with feed and/or other particulate matter in the abalone gut. Thus the data suggests that V. midae SY9 colonises and/or adheres to the mucous lining of the abalone gut. Furthermore, the close association observed between the bacterium, its extracellular protease and ingested feed particles supports the theory that V. midae SY9 elevates in situ digestive enzyme levels and thus enhances feed digestion in farmed abalone. PMID:24466176

  12. Detection and localisation of the abalone probiotic Vibrio midae SY9 and its extracellular protease, VmproA, within the digestive tract of the South African abalone, Haliotis midae.

    PubMed

    Huddy, Robert J; Coyne, Vernon E

    2014-01-01

    Probiotics have been widely reported to increase the growth rate of commercially important fish and shellfish by enhancing the digestion of ingested feed through the production of extracellular enzymes such as proteases and alginases. In order to investigate this further, the objective of this study was to localise the bacterial probiont Vibrio midae SY9 and one of the extracellular proteases it produces in the digestive tract of the South African abalone Haliotis midae. This was accomplished by inserting a promotorless gfp gene into the chromosome of the bacterium which was incorporated in an artificial, fishmeal-based abalone feed. In situ histological comparison of abalone fed either a basal diet or the basal diet supplemented with V. midae SY9::Tn10.52 using a cocktail of DNA probes to the gfp gene localised the probiont to the crop/stomach and intestinal regions of the H. midae digestive tract. Generally, the ingested probiotic bacterium occurred in association with feed and particulate matter within the crop/stomach and intestinal regions, as well as adhered to the wall of the crop/stomach. Histological immunohistochemical examination using polyclonal anti-VmproA antibodies localised an extracellular protease produced by V. midae SY9 to the H. midae crop/stomach and intestine where it appeared to be associated with feed and/or other particulate matter in the abalone gut. Thus the data suggests that V. midae SY9 colonises and/or adheres to the mucous lining of the abalone gut. Furthermore, the close association observed between the bacterium, its extracellular protease and ingested feed particles supports the theory that V. midae SY9 elevates in situ digestive enzyme levels and thus enhances feed digestion in farmed abalone.

  13. Influence of pellet diameter and length on the quality of pellets and performance, nutrient utilisation and digestive tract development of broilers fed on wheat-based diets.

    PubMed

    Abdollahi, M R; Ravindran, V; Wester, T J; Ravindran, G; Thomas, D V

    2013-06-01

    1. The influence of pellet diameter and length on the quality of pellets and performance, nutrient utilisation and digestive tract development of broilers given wheat-based diets was examined from 10 to 42 d of age. The experimental design was a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments evaluating two pellet diameters (3 and 4.76 mm) and two pellet lengths (3 and 6 mm). From 0 to 9 d of age, all birds were offered a common starter diet pelleted with a 3-mm diameter die and 3-mm length. Broiler grower (d 10 to 21) and finisher (d 22 to 42) diets, based on wheat, were formulated and then subjected to the 4 different treatments. 2. In grower diets, increasing pellet diameter and pellet length reduced the gelatinised starch (GS) content of the diets. In finisher diets, GS content of 3-mm diameter pellets did not change with increasing pellet length but decreased in 4.76-mm diameter pellets. 3. In grower and finisher diets, increments in intact pellet weight, pellet durability index and pellet hardness with increasing pellet length were greater in 3-mm diameter pellets than those with 4.76-mm diameter. 4. Increasing pellet length from 3 to 6 mm increased apparent metabolisable energy values. Neither the interaction nor main effects were significant for the ileal digestibility of nitrogen and starch. 5. During the grower period (d 10 to 21), birds given pellets of 6-mm length had greater body-weight gain than those given 3-mm length pellets. Feeding 6-mm length pellets decreased feed per body-weight gain compared to 3-mm length pellets. During the finisher (d 22 to 42) and whole grow-out (d 10 to 42) periods, while different pellet lengths had no effect on feed per body-weight gain values at 3-mm pellet diameter, increasing the pellet length decreased feed per body-weight gain at 4.76-mm pellet diameter. 6. Increasing pellet diameter and pellet length reduced the relative length of duodenum. Birds given 3-mm diameter pellets had heavier proventriculus compared to

  14. Engineering Digestion: Multiscale Processes of Food Digestion.

    PubMed

    Bornhorst, Gail M; Gouseti, Ourania; Wickham, Martin S J; Bakalis, Serafim

    2016-03-01

    Food digestion is a complex, multiscale process that has recently become of interest to the food industry due to the developing links between food and health or disease. Food digestion can be studied by using either in vitro or in vivo models, each having certain advantages or disadvantages. The recent interest in food digestion has resulted in a large number of studies in this area, yet few have provided an in-depth, quantitative description of digestion processes. To provide a framework to develop these quantitative comparisons, a summary is given here between digestion processes and parallel unit operations in the food and chemical industry. Characterization parameters and phenomena are suggested for each step of digestion. In addition to the quantitative characterization of digestion processes, the multiscale aspect of digestion must also be considered. In both food systems and the gastrointestinal tract, multiple length scales are involved in food breakdown, mixing, absorption. These different length scales influence digestion processes independently as well as through interrelated mechanisms. To facilitate optimized development of functional food products, a multiscale, engineering approach may be taken to describe food digestion processes. A framework for this approach is described in this review, as well as examples that demonstrate the importance of process characterization as well as the multiple, interrelated length scales in the digestion process.

  15. Effect of dietary coarsely ground corn on broiler live performance, gastrointestinal tract development, apparent ileal digestibility of energy and nitrogen, and digesta particle size distribution and retention time

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Y.; Stark, C. R.; Ferket, P. R.; Williams, C. M.; Pacheco, W. J.; Brake, J.

    2015-01-01

    Dietary structural material has been reported to improve broiler live performance and gastrointestinal tract (GIT) function. In this 50 d cage study, the effects of coarsely ground corn (CC) inclusion on broiler live performance, GIT development, apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of energy and nitrogen (N), and digesta particle size distribution and retention time were investigated. This study included 3 CC inclusions (0, 25, and 50% fine corn [FC] replaced by CC), with 6 replicate cages of 10 birds per treatment. The feed conversion ratio (FCR) at 35 and 42 d was improved (P < 0.01) as the dietary inclusion of CC increased without effect on feed intake. The 50% CC diet increased absolute and relative gizzard weight at 42 d of age as compared to diets with 0 and 25% CC (P < 0.01). Dietary CC increased absolute proventriculus weight at 28 d of age (P < 0.05). A numerically lower gizzard digesta pH (P < 0.08) was observed at 28 d but not 42 d of age, and there was no difference in proventriculus, jejunum, or ileum digesta pH at 28 or 42 d of age. The 25 and 50% CC treatments increased the digesta retention time at 30 and 45 d of age (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01, respectively). The 25 and 50% CC treatments improved AID of energy by 7.1 and 8.2%, respectively, when compared with the 0% CC treatment, and they improved AID of N by 12.2 and 12.4%, respectively (P < 0.01). The digesta particles in the jejunum exhibited a similar distribution, with a dgw (geometric mean diameter by mass) of 218, 204, and 181 μm when 0, 25, of 50% CC diets were consumed, respectively. In conclusion, birds fed pelleted and screened diets that contained 25 and 50% CC exhibited increased BW, improved FCR, and increased AID of energy and N, which was probably due to enhanced gizzard development and greater digesta retention time. PMID:25568134

  16. Effects of dietary coarsely ground corn and litter type on broiler live performance, litter characteristics, gastrointestinal tract development, apparent ileal digestibility of energy and nitrogen, and intestinal morphology.

    PubMed

    Xu, Y; Stark, C R; Ferket, P R; Williams, C M; Auttawong, S; Brake, J

    2015-03-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effects of the dietary inclusion of 2 coarsely ground corn (CC) levels (0 or 50%) in diets of broilers reared on 2 litter types (new wood shavings or used litter) on live performance, litter characteristics, gastrointestinal tract (GIT) development, apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of energy and nitrogen (N), and intestinal morphology. No interaction effects between CC level and litter type were observed on live performance. No litter effect was observed on live performance. Dietary inclusion of 50% CC increased BW at 35 d (P<0.01) and improved cumulative feed conversion ratio (FCR) at 35 and 49 d of age (P<0.01). The 50% CC treatment increased absolute and relative gizzard weight (P<0.01) and decreased jejunum unit weight (g/cm) (P<0.01). The new litter treatment (litter N) increased absolute and relative proventriculus weight (P<0.05) but did not affect gizzard weight. An interaction effect between CC level and litter type was observed for litter N, where the 50% CC treatment reduced litter N regardless of litter type (P<0.01), but litter N was reduced by new litter only among birds fed 0% CC (P<0.05). The 50% CC inclusion increased litter pH (P<0.05) and improved the AID of energy and N by 6.8% (P<0.01) and 3.5% (P<0.05), respectively. The 50% CC treatment increased jejunum villi tip width (P<0.05) and villi surface area (P<0.01), and decreased the muscularis layer thickness (P<0.01), whereas new litter increased jejunum villi and ileum villi height (P<0.05), jejunum villi surface area (P<0.01), and the ratio of jejunum villi height to crypt depth (P<0.01). This study showed that birds fed pelleted and screened diets containing 50% CC exhibited improved BW, FCR, and AID of energy and N, in conjunction with altered morphology of the GIT and intestinal mucosa. Litter type affected some GIT traits and functions but did not affect live performance.

  17. Influence of method of whole wheat inclusion and xylanase supplementation on the performance, apparent metabolisable energy, digestive tract measurements and gut morphology of broilers.

    PubMed

    Wu, Y B; Ravindran, V; Thomas, D G; Birtles, M J; Hendriks, W H

    2004-06-01

    1. The aim of the present study was to examine the influence of whole wheat inclusion and xylanase supplementation on the performance, apparent metabolisable energy (AME), digesta viscosity, and digestive tract measurements of broilers fed on wheat-based diets. The influence of the method of whole wheat inclusion (pre- or post-pelleting) was also compared. A 3 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments was used with three diet forms (648 g/kg ground wheat [GW], GW replaced by 200 g/kg of whole wheat before [WW1] or after cold-pelleting [WW2]) and two xylanase levels (0 and 1000 XU/kg diet). 2. Birds given diets containing whole wheat had improved weight gains, feed efficiency and AME compared to those fed on diets containing ground wheat. The relative gizzard weight of birds fed WW2 diets was higher than in those fed GW and WW1 diets. Pre-pelleting inclusion of whole wheat had no effect on relative gizzard weight. Post-pelleting inclusion of whole wheat resulted in greater improvements in feed efficiency and AME than the pre-pelleting treatment. 3. Xylanase supplementation significantly improved weight gain, feed efficiency and AME, irrespective of the wheat form used. Viscosity of the digesta in the duodenum, jejunum and ileum were reduced by xylanase addition. Xylanase supplementation reduced the relative weight of the pancreas. 4. Neither xylanase supplementation nor whole wheat inclusion influenced the relative weight and length of the small intestine. 5. Xylanase supplementation increased ileal villus height. A significant interaction between diet form and xylanase was observed for ileal crypt depth. Xylanase supplementation had no effect on crypt depth in birds fed on diets containing GW, but increased the crypt depth in WW2 diets. No significant effects of diet form and xylanase supplementation were observed for the thickness of the tunica muscularis layer of gizzard or villus height, crypt depth, goblet cell numbers or epithelial thickness in the ileum. 6

  18. A Case Report of NK-Cell Lymphoproliferative Disease With a Wide Involvement of Digestive Tract Develop Into Epstein–Barr Virus Associated NK/T Cell Lymphoma in an Immunocompetent Patient

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Haotian; Zhang, Yu; Jiang, Zhinong; Zhou, Wei; Cao, Qian

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) plays an important role in various diseases. EBV-associated lymphoproliferative disease (LPD) is a rare disease with a canceration tendency. It is difficult to differentiate LPD with involvement of digestive tract from Crohn disease due to similar clinical and endoscopic manifestations. We present a case report of multiple ulcers with esophagus, small bowel and the entire colon involved, proved to be NK-Cell LPD, developed into EBV-associated NK/T Cell lymphoma, in an immunocompetent man who was initially misdiagnosed as Crohn disease. This report underscores that intestinal ulcers should be cautiously diagnosed, for it sometimes could be a precancerous lesion. PMID:27015206

  19. Apparent total tract energy and macronutrient digestibility and fecal fermentative end-product concentrations of domestic cats fed extruded, raw beef-based, and cooked beef-based diets.

    PubMed

    Kerr, K R; Vester Boler, B M; Morris, C L; Liu, K J; Swanson, K S

    2012-02-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine differences in apparent total tract energy and macronutrient digestibility, fecal and urine characteristics, and serum chemistry of domestic cats fed raw and cooked meat-based diets and extruded diet. Nine adult female domestic shorthair cats were utilized in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square design. Dietary treatments included a high-protein extruded diet (EX; 57% CP), a raw beef-based diet (RB; 53% CP), and a cooked beef-based diet (CB; 52% CP). Cats were housed individually in metabolic cages and fed to maintain BW. The study consisted of three 21-d periods. Each period included diet adaptation during d 0 to 16; fecal and urine sample collections during d 17 to 20; and blood sample collection at d 21. Food intake was measured daily. Total feces and urine were collected for determination of nutrient digestibility. In addition, a fresh urine sample was collected from each cat for urinalysis, and a fresh fecal sample was collected from each cat for determination of DM percentage and ammonia, short-chain fatty acid (SCFA), and branched-chain fatty acid (BCFA) concentrations. All feces were scored after collection using a scale ranging from 1 (hard, dry pellets) to 5 (watery, liquid that can be poured). Blood was analyzed for serum metabolites. Apparent total tract DM, OM, CP, fat, and GE digestibilities were greater (P ≤ 0.05) in cats fed RB and CB than those fed EX. Total fecal SCFA concentrations did not differ among dietary treatments; however, molar ratios of SCFA were modified by diet, with cats fed RB and CB having an increased (P ≤ 0.05) proportion of fecal propionate and decreased (P ≤ 0.05) proportion of fecal butyrate compared with cats fed EX. Fecal concentrations of ammonia, isobutyrate, valerate, isovalerate, and total BCFA were greater (P ≤ 0.05) in cats fed EX compared with cats fed RB and CB. Our results indicated that cooking a raw meat diet does not alter apparent total tract energy and

  20. Effects of graded levels of microbial phytase on the standardized total tract digestibility of phosphorus in corn and corn coproducts fed to pigs.

    PubMed

    Almeida, F N; Stein, H H

    2012-04-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine the influence of adding graded levels of microbial phytase to corn, distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS), high-protein distillers dried grains (HP-DDG), and corn germ on the standardized total tract digestibility (STTD) of P. A second objective was to develop regression equations to predict the response of adding phytase to each of these ingredients. Four corn-based diets, 4 DDGS-based diets, 4 HP-DDG-based diets, and 4 corn germ-based diets were formulated. The 4 diets with each ingredient were formulated to contain 0, 500, 1,000, or 1,500 phytase units (FTU)/kg. A P-free diet was also formulated to determine basal endogenous losses of P. A total of 102 pigs (initial BW: 18.2 ± 2.1 kg) were individually housed in metabolism cages equipped with a feeder, a nipple drinker, and a screen floor that allowed for total collection of feces. Pigs were allotted to the 17 diets in a randomized complete block design with 6 replicate pigs per diet. Pigs were fed their respective diets for 12 d, and feces were collected quantitatively from d 6 to 11. Supplementation with 500, 1,000, or 1,500 FTU of microbial phytase/kg increased (linear, P < 0.01; quadratic, P < 0.05) the STTD of P in corn from 40.9 to 67.5, 64.5, and 74.9%, respectively, tended to increase (linear, P = 0.07) the STTD of P in DDGS from 76.9 to 82.9, 82.5, and 83.0%, respectively, increased (linear, P < 0.01; quadratic, P < 0.05) the STTD of P in HP-DDG from 77.1 to 88.0, 84.1, and 86.9%, respectively, and increased (linear and quadratic, P < 0.01) the STTD of P in corn germ from 40.7 to 59.0, 64.4, and 63.2%, respectively. Regression equations were developed to calculate the STTD of P in corn and corn germ, and R(2) values were 0.63 and 0.79, respectively. However, for DDGS and HP-DDG, the R(2) values were only 0.20 and 0.36, respectively, and these equations were, therefore, not considered adequate to predict the STTD of P. In conclusion, the increase in the

  1. Quantitative relationships between standardized total tract digestible phosphorus and total calcium intakes and their retention and excretion in growing pigs fed corn-soybean meal diets.

    PubMed

    Gutierrez, N A; Serão, N V L; Elsbernd, A J; Hansen, S L; Walk, C L; Bedford, M R; Patience, J F

    2015-05-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine the quantitative relationships between standardized total tract digestible P (STTD P) and total Ca intakes with their retention and excretion by growing pigs fed corn-soybean meal diets. Forty-eight crossbred barrows (BW = 22.7 ± 2.9 kg) were allotted to 1 of 8 diets, housed individually in pens for 3 wk, and then moved to metabolism crates and allowed 4 d for adaptation and 5 d for collection of urine and fecal samples. Eight corn-soybean meal diets were formulated for similar NE, fat, and AA concentrations but to increase the STTD P from 0.16 to 0.62% using monocalcium phosphate. Dietary treatments were formulated for a constant Ca:STTD P ratio (2.2:1). The STTD P intake increased (P < 0.001) from 64 to 242% of the daily requirement (4.59 g/d of STTD P). Fecal and total excretion of P and Ca were linearly associated with mineral intake (P < 0.001). Constant urinary P excretion of 0.03 g/d P was observed, but at 4.96 g/d of STTD P intake, the urinary P excretion increased (P < 0.001). In contrast, Ca excretion in urine decreased (P < 0.001) with Ca intake, but constant excretion of 0.40 g/d Ca was reached at 17.97 g/d of Ca intake. The daily intakes of STTD P and Ca moderately explained the variation in urinary excretion of P (R2= 0.41) and Ca (R2= 0.64). The absorption and retention of P increased linearly (P< 0.001) with dietary P intake, whereas absorption and retention of Ca showed a quadratic response (P < 0.001). Absorption and retention of P and Ca were highly predictable from the STTD P and Ca intakes, with of 0.87 and 0.90, respectively. The femur mineral content (FMC) increased by 2.71 g with STTD P intake (P < 0.001) but reached a plateau (29.54 g of FMC) at 8.84 g/d of STTD P intake. The FMC was highly predictable from the STTD P intake (R2 = 0.89). The FMC affected the urinary P excretion ( P< 0.01), but moderately (R2= 0.19) explained the variation in urinary P. In conclusion, constant excretion of P in urine

  2. Monitoring of the Parasite Load in the Digestive Tract of Rhodnius prolixus by Combined qPCR Analysis and Imaging Techniques Provides New Insights into the Trypanosome Life Cycle

    PubMed Central

    Dias, Felipe de Almeida; Guerra, Barbara; Vieira, Larissa Rezende; Perdomo, Hugo Diego; Gandara, Ana Caroline Paiva; do Amaral, Raquel Juliana Vionette; Vollú, Renata Estebanez; Gomes, Suzete Araujo Oliveira; Lara, Flavio Alves; Sorgine, Marcos Henrique Ferreira; Medei, Emiliano; de Oliveira, Pedro Lagerblad; Salmon, Didier

    2015-01-01

    Background Here we report the monitoring of the digestive tract colonization of Rhodnius prolixus by Trypanosoma cruzi using an accurate determination of the parasite load by qPCR coupled with fluorescence and bioluminescence imaging (BLI). These complementary methods revealed critical steps necessary for the parasite population to colonize the insect gut and establish vector infection. Methodology/Principal Findings qPCR analysis of the parasite load in the insect gut showed several limitations due mainly to the presence of digestive-derived products that are thought to degrade DNA and inhibit further the PCR reaction. We developed a real-time PCR strategy targeting the T. cruzi repetitive satellite DNA sequence using as internal standard for normalization, an exogenous heterologous DNA spiked into insect samples extract, to precisely quantify the parasite load in each segment of the insect gut (anterior midgut, AM, posterior midgut, PM, and hindgut, H). Using combined fluorescence microscopy and BLI imaging as well as qPCR analysis, we showed that during their journey through the insect digestive tract, most of the parasites are lysed in the AM during the first 24 hours independently of the gut microbiota. During this short period, live parasites move through the PM to establish the onset of infection. At days 3–4 post-infection (p.i.), the parasite population begins to colonize the H to reach a climax at day 7 p.i., which is maintained during the next two weeks. Remarkably, the fluctuation of the parasite number in H remains relatively stable over the two weeks after refeeding, while the populations residing in the AM and PM increases slightly and probably constitutes the reservoirs of dividing epimastigotes. Conclusions/Significance These data show that a tuned dynamic control of the population operates in the insect gut to maintain an equilibrium between non-dividing infective trypomastigote forms and dividing epimastigote forms of the parasite, which is

  3. Slowly digestible starch influences mRNA abundance of glucose and short-chain fatty acid transporters in the porcine distal intestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Woodward, A D; Regmi, P R; Gänzle, M G; van Kempen, T A T G; Zijlstra, R T

    2012-12-01

    The relationship between starch chemistry and intestinal nutrient transporters is not well characterized. We hypothesized that inclusion of slowly instead of rapidly digestible starch in pig diets will decrease glucose and increase short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) transporter expression in the distal gut. Weaned barrows (n = 32) were fed 4 diets containing 70% starch [ranging from 0 to 63% amylose and from 1.06 (rapidly) to 0.22%/min (slowly) rate of in vitro digestion] at 3 × maintenance energy requirement in a complete randomized block design. Ileal and colon mucosa was collected on day 21 to quantify mRNA abundance of Na(+)-dependent glucose transporter 1 (SGLT1), monocarboxylic acid transporter 1 (MCT1), and Na(+)-coupled monocarboxylate transporter (SMCT). Messenger RNA was extracted and cDNA manufactured prior to relative quantitative reverse transcription PCR. Data were analyzed using the 2(-Δ ΔC)(T) method, with β-actin and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase as reference genes, and regression analysis was performed. As in vitro rate of digestion decreased, SGLT1 linearly increased (P < 0.05) in the ileum. Contrary to SGLT1, MCT1 tended to linearly decrease (P = 0.08) in the ileum and increased quadratically (P < 0.001) in the colon with decreasing rate of digestion. Starch digestion rate did not affect SMCT in the ileum; however, colonic SMCT quadratically decreased (P < 0.01) with decreasing rate of digestion. In conclusion, in contrast to our hypothesis, slowly digestible starch increased ileal glucose and decreased ileal SCFA transporter mRNA abundance, possibly due to an increased glucose in the luminal ileum. Effects of starch on colonic SCFA transporter mRNA abundance were inconsistent.

  4. T2 Toxin-Induced Changes in Cocaine- and Amphetamine-Regulated Transcript (CART)-Like Immunoreactivity in the Enteric Nervous System Within Selected Fragments of the Porcine Digestive Tract.

    PubMed

    Makowska, Krystyna; Gonkowski, Slawomir; Zielonka, Lukasz; Dabrowski, Michal; Calka, Jaroslaw

    2017-01-01

    T-2 toxin is a mycotoxin produced by some Fusarium species, which may affect the synthesis of DNA and RNA and causes various pathological processes. Till now, the influence of T-2 toxin on the enteric nervous system (ENS) located in the wall of gastrointestinal tract has not been studied. On the other hand, cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) is one of enteric neuronal factors, whose exact functions in the intestines still remain not fully explained. The present study describes the influence of low doses of T-2 toxin on CART-positive neuronal structures in porcine stomach, duodenum, and descending colon. Distribution of CART was studied using the double immunofluorescence technique in the plexuses of the ENS, as well as in nerve fibers within the circular muscle and mucosal layers of porcine gastrointestinal tract. Generally, after T-2 toxin administration the greater number of CART-LI structures were studied, but intensity of changes depended on part of the ENS and digestive tract fragment studied. The obtained results show that even low doses of T-2 toxin may change the expression of CART in the ENS.

  5. The digestive system: part 1.

    PubMed

    Johnstone, Carolyn; Hendry, Charles; Farley, Alistair; McLafferty, Ella

    This article, which forms part of the life sciences series and is the first of two articles on the digestive system, explores the structure and function of the digestive system. It is important that nurses understand how the digestive system works and its role in maintaining health. The article describes the gross structure of the gastrointestinal tract along with relevant physiology. It also outlines several disorders of the gastrointestinal tract and their treatment and nursing management. The second article will explain the liver, pancreas and gall bladder and their digestive functions, and provides a brief overview of the disorders of chronic liver disease, pancreatitis and gallstones.

  6. The excluder aortic endograft.

    PubMed

    Alterman, Daniel M; Stevens, Scott L

    2008-06-01

    Since its introduction, more than 59000 patients have been treated with Gore Excluder endoprosthesis (GORE) for abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) in the past 11 years. It has become clearer that differences in device delivery and design provide certain advantages that may favor one anatomical milieu over another. Behavior of the aneurysm sac also seems to be graft dependent as more long-term data become available. The currently available low-permeability GORE seems to have addressed the problem of endotension noted with previous designs. Cumulative data are reviewed, and the data demonstrate very low perioperative morbidity and mortality and excellent protection from aneurysm-related complications with the GORE device. Superior ease of use, excellent trackability, and rare failures requiring acute open conversion characterize the GORE device. By addressing clinical demands of aortic endografting, Gore has eclipsed other endografts in the industry to now dominate the US market. The aim of this review is to describe the history, experience, advantages, and future goals with the GORE for the treatment of AAA.

  7. Apparent total tract energy and macronutrient digestibility of one- to three-day-old, adult ground, extruded, and canned chicken-based diets in domestic cats (Felis silvestris catus).

    PubMed

    Kerr, K R; Morris, C L; Burke, S L; Swanson, K S

    2014-08-01

    There has been a recent increase in the popularity of feeding unconventional diets, including whole prey diets, to domestic cats (Felis silvestris catus). Data are needed that allow animal caretakers to choose and formulate diets that meet the nutritional requirements of their cats. Our objective was to evaluate the effects of feeding 1- to 3-d-old whole chicks (WHO), ground adult chicken product (GRO), a chicken-based canned diet (CAN), and a chicken-based extruded diet (EXT) on apparent total tract energy and macronutrient digestibility, N balance, and blood metabolites of domestic cats (n = 11). Macronutrient, energy, and moisture concentrations of diets varied greatly (e.g., CP: 35 to 72% DM); however, cats fed all diets maintained BW and N balance. In general, cats fed WHO had lower nutrient digestibility than those fed CAN and EXT. Cats fed GRO had greater nutrient digestibility than cats fed commercial diets. For example, apparent OM and GE digestibility coefficients were greater (P ≤ 0.05) for cats fed CAN (86 and 88%, respectively), EXT (88 and 88%), and GRO (94 and 95%) compared with those fed WHO (83 and 83%) and greater (P ≤ 0.05) for cats fed GRO compared with those fed CAN and EXT. Many blood metabolites were modified by diet, but most remained within reference ranges for domestic cats. Serum cholesterol was elevated above the reference range for all treatments and greater (P ≤ 0.05) for cats fed WHO compared with those fed CAN, EXT, and GRO. Serum creatinine concentrations were above the reference range for all treatments and greater (P ≤ 0.05) for cats fed GRO compared with those fed CAN or WHO. These data indicate that the whole prey tested herein maintained short-term health and are adequately digestible for use in companion animal diets. Research is needed to determine the global and long-term health implications of feeding whole or ground diets to domestic cats, which may be different in terms of macronutrient, energy, and moisture

  8. Impact of selective decontamination of the digestive tract on carriage and infection due to Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria: a systematic review of randomised controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Silvestri, L; van Saene, H K F; Casarin, A; Berlot, G; Gullo, A

    2008-05-01

    Meta-analyses of randomised controlled trials of selective digestive decontamination have clinical outcome measures, mainly pneumonia and mortality. This meta-analysis has a microbiological endpoint and explores the impact of selective digestive decontamination on Gram-negative and Gram-positive carriage and severe infections. We searched electronic databases, Cochrane Register of Controlled Trials, previous meta-analyses and conference proceedings with no language restrictions. We included randomised controlled trials which compared the selective digestive decontamination protocol with no treatment or placebo. Three reviewers independently applied selection criteria, performed the quality assessment and extracted the data. The outcome measures were carriage and severe infection due to Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. Odds ratios were pooled with the random effect model. Fifty-four randomised controlled trials comprising 9473 patients were included; 4672 patients received selective digestive decontamination and 4801 were controls. Selective digestive decontamination significantly reduced oropharyngeal carriage (odds ratio [OR] 0.13, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.07 to 0.23), rectal carriage (OR 0.15, 95% CI 0.07 to 0.31), overall infection (OR 0.17, 95% CI 0.10 to 0.28), lower respiratory tract infection (OR 0.11, 95% CI 0.06 to 0.20) and bloodstream infection (OR 0.35, 95% CI 0.21 to 0.67) due to Gram-negative bacteria. Reduction in Gram-positive carriage was not significant. Gram-positive lower airway infections were significantly reduced (OR 0.52, 95% CI 0.34 to 0.78). Gram-positive bloodstream infections were not significantly increased (OR 1.03, 95% CI 0.75 to 1.41). The association of parenteral and enteral antimicrobials was superior to enteral antimicrobials in reducing carriage and severe infections due to Gram-negative bacteria. This meta-analysis confirms that selective digestive decontamination mainly targets Gram-negative bacteria; it does

  9. Effects of dry-rolled or steam-flaked corn finishing diets with or without twenty-five percent dried distillers grains on ruminal fermentation and apparent total tract digestion.

    PubMed

    May, M L; Quinn, M J; Reinhardt, C D; Murray, L; Gibson, M L; Karges, K K; Drouillard, J S

    2009-11-01

    A metabolism study was conducted to evaluate ruminal fermentation and apparent total tract digestibilities of cattle finishing diets. Holstein steers (n = 16, 351 kg of BW) with ruminal cannulas were fed diets consisting of 0 or 25% dried corn distillers grains (DDG), using dry-rolled corn (DRC) or steam-flaked corn (SFC) as the principal energy source (2 x 2 factorial arrangement). The study was conducted in 2 periods, with 4 steers per treatment in each period. Periods consisted of a 12-d adaptation phase and a 3-d collection phase. Compared with DRC, feeding SFC decreased intakes of DM, OM, starch, NDF, and ether extract (P < 0.01), and steers fed SFC excreted less DM, OM, starch, NDF, and ether extract (P < 0.01). Compared with SFC, feeding DRC decreased ruminal concentrations of acetate, butyrate, isobutyrate, and isovalerate, and decreased the acetate-to-propionate ratio (P < 0.01). Compared with SFC, DRC decreased ruminal propionate, valerate, and lactate concentrations (P < 0.01). When compared with cattle fed SFC, ruminal pH of cattle fed DRC was less at 0 h and greater at 6 h postfeeding (P < 0.01). Ruminal ammonia concentrations were greater for DRC vs. SFC at h 0, 6, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18, 20, and 22 postfeeding (P < 0.05). Feeding DDG decreased consumption of starch and ether extract, but increased NDF intake (P < 0.01). Fecal excretion of ether extract was increased by adding DDG compared with diets without DDG (P < 0.05), resulting in less apparent total tract digestibility of ether extract for cattle fed DDG (P < 0.01). Ruminal lactate concentrations were increased with addition of DDG compared with diets without DDG (P = 0.01). Ruminal ammonia concentrations were less for steers fed 25 vs. 0% DDG at 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 h postfeeding (P < 0.05). We conclude, based on these results, that ruminal fermentation and apparent total tract digestibility of DDG are affected by grain processing.

  10. Influence of feeding increasing levels of dry corn distillers grains plus solubles in whole corn grain-based finishing diets on total tract digestion, nutrient balance, and excretion in beef steers.

    PubMed

    Salim, H; Wood, K M; Abo-Ismail, M K; McEwen, P L; Mandell, I B; Miller, S P; Cant, J P; Swanson, K C

    2012-12-01

    Four crossbred steers (average BW = 478 ± 33 kg) were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square design to determine the effects of dietary concentration of dry corn distillers grains plus solubles (DDGS) in whole corn-based finishing diets on total tract digestion and nutrient balance and excretion. The DDGS were fed at 0% (control), 16.7%, 33.3%, and 50% of dietary DM. All diets contained 10% (DM basis) alfalfa/grass haylage and were formulated to meet or exceed the estimated requirements for CP. Steers were fed the experimental diets ad libitum for a 14-d adaptation period followed by a 5-d period for fecal and urine collection. Increasing concentration of DDGS in diets from 0 to 50% of DM linearly decreased (P < 0.05) total tract DM and starch digestibility (from 77.8 to 72.9%, and 89.2 to 81.5%, respectively). Daily N and P intakes linearly increased (P = 0.06 and P = 0.01, respectively) with increasing DDGS concentration. Fecal and urinary N, P, S, Mg, and K excretion linearly increased (P < 0.05) with increasing DDGS concentration; however, Se and Na excretion did not differ (P > 0.38) among treatments. Retention (g/d; intake minus urinary and fecal excretion) of N did not differ (P > 0.16) among treatments. Retention of P tended (P = 0.07) to linearly increase and retention of S (g/d) linearly increased (P = 0.004), with increasing DDGS concentration. There were no effects (P > 0.16) of dietary treatment on digestion and retention of Se, Mg, K, and Na. Plasma P and S concentrations increased (P = 0.03 and 0.01, respectively) with increasing DDGS concentration. These data indicate that feeding DDGS up to 50% of dietary DM in whole corn grain-based finishing diets does not have a negative effect on nutrient retention but decreases digestibility. Total excretion of N, P, Ca, Mg, S, and K increased as DDGS concentration increased.

  11. Comparison of direct and indirect estimates of apparent total tract digestibility in swine with effort to reduce variation by pooling of multiple day fecal samples

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The intent of this study was to establish a fecal sampling procedure for the indicator method (IM) to provide digestibility values similar to those obtained by the total collection (TC) method. A total of 24 pigs (52.6 kg) were fed 1 of 4 diets with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of virginiamycin and...

  12. Effect of Phytase on Apparent Total Tract Digestibility of Phosphorus in Corn-Soybean Meal Diets Fed to 100 kg Pigs

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Five experiments were conducted to investigate the ability of different sources of phytase supplemented to the diet at graded levels to improve apparent P digestibility in finishing pigs. A corn-soybean meal basal diet containing 0.50% Ca and 0.32% P (0.06% available P) was used in all experiments a...

  13. Feeding fat from distillers dried grains with solubles to dairy heifers: I. Effects on growth performance and total tract digestibility of nutrients

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objective of this study was to determine if increased dietary fat from dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) in diets of growing heifers affected dry matter intake (DMI), average daily gain (ADG), growth performance, and nutrient digestibility. Thirty-three Holstein heifers (133 ± 18 d ol...

  14. Early upper digestive tract side effects of zidovudine with tenofovir plus emtricitabine in West African adults with high CD4 counts

    PubMed Central

    Ouattara, Eric; Danel, Christine; Moh, Raoul; Gabillard, Delphine; Peytavin, Gilles; Konan, Romuald; Carrou, Jérome Le; Bohoussou, Franck; Eholie, Serge P; Anglaret, Xavier

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Tenofovir (TDF) with emtricitabine (FTC) and zidovudine (ZDV) is a recognized alternate first-line antiretroviral (ART) regimen for patients who cannot start treatment with non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs). Clinical studies comparing TDF+FTC+ZDV to other regimens are lacking. Methods Participants in a trial of early ART in Côte d'Ivoire (Temprano ANRS 12136) started treatment with TDF/FTC plus either efavirenz (EFV) or ZDV (HIV-1+2 dually infected patients and women refusing contraception or previously treated with nevirapine). We compared rates of upper digestive serious adverse events (sAEs) between TDF/FTC+EFV and TDF/FTC+ZDV patients during the first six months of treatment. sAEs were defined as either grade 3–4 AEs or persistent grade 1–2 AEs leading to drug discontinuation. Results A total of 197 patients (76% women, median CD4 count 395/mm3) started therapy with TDF/FTC, 126 with EFV and 71 with ZDV. During the first six months of ART, 94 patients had digestive AEs (nausea/vomiting) of any grade (EFV 36/126, 29%; ZDV 58/71, 82%, p<0.0001), including 20 sAEs (EFV 3/126, 5%; ZDV 17/71, 24%, p<0.0001). In-patients on TDF/FTC+ZDV with digestive AEs, the median time to the first symptom was two days (IQR: 1–4). Plasma ZDV (Cmax) distributions and pill ZDV dosages were normal. Patients with digestive AEs had higher haemoglobin levels and tended to have higher body mass indices and more frequent past histories of cotrimoxazole (CTX) prophylaxis. Conclusions We observed an unexpectedly high rate of digestive sAEs in West African adults, mostly women, who started a 3-nuc ART with TDF/FTC+ZDV in Côte d'Ivoire. These adults were participating in a trial of early ART and had much higher CD4 counts than those who currently routinely start ART in sub-Saharan Africa. They all received CTX concomitantly with ZDV. We suggest that further early prescriptions of TDF+XTC+ZDV should be carefully monitored and that whenever possible

  15. Isolation and nucleotide sequence analysis of the of Rhinella arenarum β-catenin: an mRNA and protein expression study during the larval stages of the digestive tract development.

    PubMed

    Galetto, C D; Izaguirre, M F; Bessone, V; Casco, V H

    2012-12-15

    β-catenin interacts with several proteins mediating key biological processes, such as cadherin-mediated cell-cell adhesion as well as signal transduction. This work was done to establish the molecular basis and regulation of the formation pattern of cadherin/β-catenin-mediated adherens junctions, using an animal model of unknown gene sequence, the toad Rhinella arenarum. A Rhinella arenarum β-catenin homolog was isolated from larval tissue, their sequence compared and analyzed with those of eight other vertebrates using bioinformatics tools. The mRNA and protein expression levels of β-catenin were determined during the development of Rhinella arenarum digestive tract both by Reverse Transcriptase-Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) and immunohistochemistry-morphometry respectively. Using Xenopus laevis frog specific primers, a fragment 539 bp of Rhinella arenarum toad β-catenin cDNA was obtained and sequenced. The resulting putative sequence of 177 amino acids showed high similarity at the amino acid level (97%) when compared to other six vertebrates (Xenopus laevis, Xenopus tropicalis, Mus musculus, Rattus norvegicus, Bos taurus and Homo sapiens), with sequences and structural domains characteristic of catenins. Subsequently, using primers specifically designed for Rhinella arenarum nucleotide sequence, β-catenin-mRNA increasing levels were found during the Rhinella arenarum metamorphosis. Finally, increasing β-catenin protein expression during development has confirmed the specificity the detection of Rhinella arenarum β-catenin. Summarizing, we have isolated and sequenced a β-catenin-homologue sequence from the Rhinella arenarum toad, which is highly conserved between species, and following we have detected β-catenin mRNA and protein levels during their digestive tract development.

  16. Apparent total tract digestibility of dietary calcium and phosphorus and their efficiency in bone mineral retention are affected by body mineral status in growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Létourneau-Montminy, M P; Lovatto, P A; Pomar, C

    2014-09-01

    Improving dietary P utilization without modifying pig performance is crucial for production sustainability. A feeding program comprising three 28-d phases (20 to 40, 40 to 70, and 70 to 100 kg) was used to feed 72 pigs with an initial BW of 20 kg. The ability of the pigs to modify the digestive and metabolic utilization of P when fed either a control (CON) diet or a low-P (LOW) diet providing 40% less digestible P with a constant Ca:digestible P was studied using different sequences of dietary P and Ca restriction (i.e., depletion [LOW]) and recovery (i.e., repletion [CON]), namely CON-CON-CON, CON-CON-LOW, CON-LOW-LOW, LOW-CON-CON, LOW-LOW-CON, and LOW-LOW-LOW. Bone mineral content (BMC) was measured in the lumbar region (L2-L4) by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at the beginning and end of each feeding phase. Total feces and urine were collected during phases 2 and 3. At the end of phase 1, BMC was lower in the LOW pigs than in the C pigs (29%; P < 0.001). During phase 2, the BMC gain was greater in the LOW-CON pigs than in the CON-CON pigs (16%; P < 0.001). During phase 3, the LOW-LOW-CON pigs absorbed 26% more Ca (P < 0.001) and retained 56% more BMC (P < 0.001) than the CON-CON-CON pigs did. Digestive and metabolic adaptations allowed the LOW-LOW-CON and LOW-CON-CON pigs to reach BMC similar to that of the CON-CON-CON pigs. These metabolic adaptations are promising, but practical applications of these results requires a better understanding of the underlying mechanisms to fine-tune the degree of depletion, pig age, and the duration of P and Ca depletion and repletion periods.

  17. Influence of polymer-coated slow-release urea on total tract apparent digestibility, ruminal fermentation and performance of Nellore steers

    PubMed Central

    Gardinal, R.; Calomeni, G. D.; Cônsolo, N. R. B.; Takiya, C. S.; Freitas, J. E.; Gandra, J. R.; Vendramini, T. H. A.; Souza, H. N.; Rennó, F. P.

    2017-01-01

    Objective Two experiments were performed to evaluate the effects of coated slow-release urea on nutrient digestion, ruminal fermentation, nitrogen utilization, blood glucose and urea concentration (Exp 1), and average daily gain (ADG; Exp 2) of steers. Methods Exp 1: Eight ruminally fistulated steers [503±28.5 kg body weight (BW)] were distributed into a d 4×4 Latin square design and assigned to treatments: control (CON), feed grade urea (U2), polymer-coated slow-release urea A (SRA2), and polymer-coated slow-release urea B (SRB2). Dietary urea sources were set at 20 g/kg DM. Exp 2: 84 steers (350.5±26.5 kg initial BW) were distributed to treatments: CON, FGU at 10 or 20 g/kg diet DM (U1 and U2, respectively), coated SRA2 at 10 or 20 g/kg diet DM (SRA1 and SRA2, respectively), and coated SRB at 10 or 20 g/kg diet DM (SRB1 and SRB2, respectively). Results Exp 1: Urea treatments (U2+SRA2+SRB2) decreased (7.4%, p = 0.03) the DM intake and increased (11.4%, p<0.01) crude protein digestibility. Coated slow-release urea (SRA2+SRB2) showed similar nutrient digestibility compwared to feed grade urea (FGU). However, steers fed SRB2 had higher (p = 0.02) DM digestibility compared to those fed SRA2. Urea sources did not affect ruminal fermentation when compared to CON. Although, coated slow-release urea showed lower (p = 0.01) concentration of NH3-N (−10.4%) and acetate to propionate ratio than U2. Coated slow-release urea showed lower (p = 0.02) urinary N and blood urea concentration compared to FGU. Exp 2: Urea sources decreased (p = 0.01) the ADG in relation to CON. Animals fed urea sources at 10 g/kg DM showed higher (12.33%, p = 0.01) ADG compared to those fed urea at 20 g/kg DM. Conclusion Feeding urea decreased the nutrient intake without largely affected the nutrient digestibility. In addition, polymer-coated slow-release urea sources decreased ruminal ammonia concentration and increased ruminal propionate production. Urea at 20 g/kg DM, regardless of source

  18. Effect of divergence in phenotypic residual feed intake on methane emissions, ruminal fermentation, and apparent whole-tract digestibility of beef heifers across three contrasting diets.

    PubMed

    McDonnell, R P; Hart, K J; Boland, T M; Kelly, A K; McGee, M; Kenny, D A

    2016-03-01

    This study aimed to examine the effect of divergent phenotypic ranking for residual feed intake (RFI) on ruminal CH emissions, diet digestibility, and indices of ruminal fermentation in heifers across 3 commercially relevant diets. Twenty-eight Limousin × Friesian heifers were used and were ranked on the basis of phenotypic RFI: 14 low-RFI and 14 high-RFI animals. Ruminal CH emissions were estimated over 5 d using the SF tracer gas technique on 3 successive occasions: 1) at the end of a 6-wk period (Period 1) on grass silage (GS), 2) at the end of an 8-wk period (Period 2) at pasture, and 3) at the end of a 5-wk period (Period 3) on a 30:70 corn silage:concentrate total mixed ration (TMR). Animals were allowed ad libitum access to feed and water at all times. Individual DMI was estimated during CH measurement and rumen samples were taken at the end of each CH measurement period. Diet type affected all feed intake and CH traits measured ( < 0.01) but was unavoidably confounded with animal age/size and experimental period. Correlation coefficients between RFI and DMI were significant ( < 0.05) only when animals were fed the TMR. Daily CH correlated with DMI ( = 0.42, < 0.05) only when animals grazed pasture. Daily DMI was lower in low-RFI animals ( = 0.047) but only when expressed as grams per kilogram metabolic BW. Absolute CH emissions did not differ between RFI groups ( > 0.05), but CH yield was greatest in low-RFI heifers ( = 0.03) as a proportion of both DMI and GE intake. Interactions between the main effects were observed ( < 0.05) for CP digestibility (CPD), DM digestibility (DMD), ruminal propionate, and the acetate:propionate ratio. Low-RFI animals had greater ( < 0.05) CPD and DMD than their high-RFI contemporaries when offered GS but not the other 2 diets. Low-RFI heifers also had greater OM digestibility ( = 0.027). Additionally, low-RFI heifers had a lower concentration of propionate ( < 0.05) compared with high-RFI heifers when fed GS, resulting in a

  19. Efficacy of medium-chain triglycerides compared with long-chain triglycerides in total parenteral nutrition in patients with digestive tract cancer undergoing surgery.

    PubMed

    Chen, Fang-Ming; Wang, Jaw-Yuan; Sun, Li-Chu; Juang, Rue-Fen; Huang, Tsung-Jen; Hsieh, Jan-Sing

    2005-11-01

    The objectives of this prospective, randomized study were to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of the short-term use of medium-chain triglyceride/long-chain triglyceride (MCT/LCT) fat emulsions, and to compare the hematologic and biochemical effects of MCT/LCT fat emulsions with LCT fat emulsions in gastrointestinal (GI) tract cancer patients following surgery. Thirty patients with GI tract cancer requiring total parenteral nutrition (TPN) were equally randomized to receive MCT/LCT or LCT emulsions for 7 days. After 7 days, no sign of complications directly related to administration of fat emulsions was observed and there were no marked differences in anthropometry, length of hospital stay, and surgical complication rates between the two groups. However, MCT/LCT significantly improved plasma prealbumin concentration (p = 0.005). Changes in complements C3 and C4, total lymphocyte count, and immunoglobulins after TPN were not significantly different between the groups. Serum triglyceride and cholesterol levels remained constant. The serum insulin level in the MCT/LCT group was higher than in the LCT group (p = 0.048). Our data revealed that MCT/LCT fat emulsions significantly enhanced nutritional status in patients with GI tract cancer, indicated by higher prealbumin levels, which might be partially due to the higher circulating insulin levels in the MCT/LCT group.

  20. Biodistribution and stability of CdSe core quantum dots in mouse digestive tract following per os administration: advantages of double polymer/silica coated nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Loginova, Y F; Dezhurov, S V; Zherdeva, V V; Kazachkina, N I; Wakstein, M S; Savitsky, A P

    2012-03-02

    CdSe-core, ZnS-capped semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) are of great potential for biomedical applications. However, applications in the gastrointestinal tract for in vivo imaging and therapeutic purposes are hampered by their sensitivity to acidic environments and potential toxicity. Here we report the use of coatings with a combination of polythiol ligands and silica shell (QDs PolyT-APS) to stabilize QDs fluorescence under acidic conditions. We demonstrated the stability of water-soluble QDs PolyT-APS both in vitro, in strong acidic solutions, and in vivo. The biodistribution, stability and photoluminescence properties of QDs in the gastrointestinal tract of mice after per os administration were assessed. We demonstrated that QDs coated with current traditional materials - mercapto compounds (QDs MPA) and pendant thiol group (QDs PolyT) - are not capable of protecting QDs from chemically induced degradation and surface modification. Polythiol ligands and silica shell quantum dots (QDs PolyT-APS) are suitable for biological and biomedical applications in the gastrointestinal tract. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Biofuel feedstock and blended coproducts compared with deoiled corn distillers grains in feedlot diets: Effects on cattle growth performance, apparent total tract nutrient digestibility, and carcass characteristics.

    PubMed

    Opheim, T L; Campanili, P R B; Lemos, B J M; Ovinge, L A; Baggerman, J O; McCuistion, K C; Galyean, M L; Sarturi, J O; Trojan, S J

    2016-01-01

    Crossbred steers (British × Continental; = 192; initial BW 391 ± 28 kg) were used to evaluate the effects of feeding ethanol coproducts on feedlot cattle growth performance, apparent nutrient digestibility, and carcass characteristics. Steers were blocked by initial BW and assigned randomly to 1 of 6 dietary treatments within block. Treatments (replicated in 8 pens with 4 steers/pen) included 1) control, steam-flaked corn-based diet (CTL), 2) corn dried distillers grains with solubles (DGS; DRY-C), 3) deoiled corn dried DGS (DRY-CLF), 4) blended 50/50 corn/sorghum dried DGS (DRY-C/S), 5) sorghum dried DGS (DRY-S), and 6) sorghum wet DGS (WET-S). Inclusion of DGS was 25% (DM basis). The DGS diets were isonitrogenous, CTL was formulated for 13.5% CP, and all diets were balanced for ether extract. Final shrunk BW, ADG, and DMI did not differ among CTL and DGS treatments ( ≥ 0.19). Overall G:F did not differ from CTL for DRY-C, DRY-CLF, or WET-S ( ≥ 0.12); however, G:F was 9.6% less for DRY-S compared with CTL ( < 0.01) and tended ( = 0.09) to be less for DRY-C/S than CTL. For grain source, ADG and G:F were less for DRY-S vs. DRY-C ( < 0.05), but blending DRY-C/S tended ( = 0.07) to increase ADG and increased ( = 0.05) carcass-adjusted G:F vs. DRY-S. For WET-S, final BW and ADG were greater ( < 0.05), and G:F tended ( = 0.06) to be greater than for DRY-S. There was no difference in ADG, DMI, or G:F of steers fed DRY-C vs. DRY-CLF ( ≥ 0.35). Apparent DM and OM digestibility did not differ for CTL, DRY-C, DRY-CLF, and WET-S ( ≥ 0.30) but were lower for DRY-C/S and DRY-S ( < 0.05). Nutrient digestibility was lower for DRY-S vs. DRY-C ( < 0.01), but apparent digestibility of OM, DM, NDF, ADF, CP, ether extract, and starch were increased ( < 0.01) for DRY-C/S vs. DRY-S. Although starch digestibility did not differ between DRY-S and WET-S ( 0.18), digestibility of other measured nutrients was greater for WET-S vs. DRY-S ( < 0.01). Ether extract digestibility was

  2. Digestive Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... cells and provide energy. This process is called digestion. Your digestive system is a series of hollow ... are also involved. They produce juices to help digestion. There are many types of digestive disorders. The ...

  3. Digestive System

    MedlinePlus

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Digestive System KidsHealth > For Parents > Digestive System A A A ... the body can absorb and use. About the Digestive System Almost all animals have a tube-type digestive ...

  4. Effects of Xylanase Supplementation on Growth Performance, Nutrient Digestibility and Non-starch Polysaccharide Degradation in Different Sections of the Gastrointestinal Tract of Broilers Fed Wheat-based Diets

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, L.; Xu, J.; Lei, L.; Jiang, Y.; Gao, F.; Zhou, G. H.

    2014-01-01

    This experiment was performed to investigate the effects of exogenous xylanase supplementation on performance, nutrient digestibility and the degradation of non-starch polysaccharides (NSP) in different sections of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of broilers fed wheat-based diets. A total of 120 7-day-old Arbor Acres broiler chicks were randomly allotted to two wheat-based experimental diets supplemented with 0 or 1.0 g/kg xylanase. Each treatment was composed of 6 replicates with 10 birds each. Diets were given to the birds from 7 to 21 days of age. The results showed that xylanase supplementation did not affect feed intake, but increased body weight gain of broiler at 21 day of age by 5.8% (p<0.05) and improved feed-to-gain ratio by 5.0% (p<0.05). Xylanase significantly increased (p<0.05) ileal digestibilities of crude protein (CP) by 3.5%, starch by 9.3%, soluble NSP by 43.9% and insoluble NSP by 42.2% relative to the control group, respectively. Also, compared with the control treatment, xylanase addition increased (p<0.05) total tract digestibilities of dry matter by 5.7%, CP by 4.1%, starch by 6.3%, soluble NSP by 50.8%, and had a tendency to increase (p = 0.093) insoluble NSP by 19.9%, respectively. The addition of xylanase increased the concentrations of arabinose and xylose in the digesta of gizzard, duodenum, jejunum, and ileum (p<0.05), and the order of their concentration was ileum>jejunum>duodenum>>gizzard> caecum. The supplementation of xylanse increased ileal isomaltriose concentration (p<0.05), but did not affect the concentrations of isomaltose, panose and 1-kestose in the digesta of all GIT sections. These results suggest that supplementation of xylanase to wheat-based diets cuts the arabinoxylan backbone into small fragments (mainly arabinose and xylose) in the ileum, jejunum and duodenum, and enhances digestibilites of nutrients by decreasing digesta viscosity. The release of arabinose and xylose in the small intestine may also be the important

  5. Aluminium sulfate exposure: A set of effects on hydrolases from brain, muscle and digestive tract of juvenile Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Vagne Melo; Assis, Caio Rodrigo Dias; Costa, Helane Maria Silva; Silva, Raquel Pereira Freitas; Santos, Juliana Ferreira; Carvalho, Luiz Bezerra; Bezerra, Ranilson Souza

    2017-01-01

    Aluminium is a major pollutant due to its constant disposal in aquatic environments through anthropogenic activities. The physiological effects of this metal in fish are still scarce in the literature. This study investigated the in vivo and in vitro effects of aluminium sulfate on the activity of enzymes from Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus): brain acetylcholinesterase (AChE), muscle cholinesterases (AChE-like and BChE-like activities), pepsin, trypsin, chymotrypsin and amylase. Fish were in vivo exposed during 14days when the following experimental groups were assayed: control group (CG), exposure to Al2(SO4)3 at 1μg·mL(-1) (G1) and 3μg·mL(-1) (G3) (concentrations compatible with the use of aluminium sulfate as coagulant in water treatment). In vitro exposure was performed using animals of CG treatment. Both in vivo and in vitro exposure increased cholinesterase activity in relation to controls. The highest cholinesterase activity was observed for muscle BChE-like enzyme in G3. In contrast, the digestive enzymes showed decreased activity in both in vivo and in vitro exposures. The highest inhibitory effect was observed for pepsin activity. The inhibition of serine proteases was also quantitatively analyzed in zymograms using pixel optical densitometry as area under the peaks (AUP) and integrated density (ID). These results suggest that the inhibition of digestive enzymes in combination with activation of cholinesterases in O. niloticus is a set of biochemical effects that evidence the presence of aluminium in the aquatic environment. Moreover, these enzymatic alterations may support further studies on physiological changes in this species with implications for its neurological and digestive metabolisms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Determination of the adequate dose of garlic diallyl disulfide and diallyl trisulfide for effecting changes in growth performance, total-tract nutrient and energy digestibility, ileal characteristics, and serum immune parameters in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Horn, Nathan L; Ruch, Frank; Miller, Guy; Ajuwon, Kolapo M; Adeola, Olayiwola

    2016-10-01

    The objective of the current experiment was to determine the adequate dose and impact of graded concentrations of garlic diallyl disulfide (DADS) and diallyl trisulfide (DATS) on growth performance, total-tract nutrient and energy digestibility, serum immune parameters, and ileal morphology in broiler chickens. At 28-d post-hatch, male broiler chickens were allotted on the basis of initial body weight (1.34 ± 0.106 kg) in a randomized complete block desing ( RCBD: ) to one of six treatments that consisted of an oral gavage of 0, 0.45, 0.90, 1.80, 3.6, or 7.2 mg of DADS + DATS per kg bodyweight (BW) with 8 replicate cages per treatment and 4 birds per cage. The DADS + DATS was administered to birds by daily oral gavage for a period of 6 d. Growth performance was recorded and excreta were collected for analysis of DM, nitrogen ( N: ), and energy ( E: ) digestibility and on the last day of the experiment, the median bird in each cage was euthanized and the mid ileum was excised for morphological and gene expression measurements and blood was collected for serum natural antibody and complement assays. Body weight gain and villus height were linearly increased (P < 0.01) with oral gavage of DADS + DATS. There was a quadratic effect (P < 0.01) of the oral gavage on digestibility of DM, N, and E that corresponded to an average broken-line regression-derived adequate dose of 1.16 mg DADS + DATS per kg BW. Supplementation of DADS + DATS by oral gavage had no impact on gene expression markers although there was a tendency for an increase (P = 0.10) in serum natural antibody activity due to treatment. Results from the current study indicate that supplementation of a gavage containing DADS + DATS improves BW gain, ileal morphology, and digestibility of DM, N, and E and may affect serum immune parameters in broiler chickens. The average broken-line regression-derived adequate dose to optimize BW gain and villus height response was 2.51 mg DADS + DATS per kg BW. © 2016

  7. Effect of stocking density on performance, diet selection, total-tract digestion, and nitrogen balance among heifers grazing cool-season annual forages.

    PubMed

    Brunsvig, B R; Smart, A J; Bailey, E A; Wright, C L; Grings, E E; Brake, D W

    2017-08-01

    Grazing annual cool-season forages after oat grain harvest in South Dakota may allow an opportunity to increase efficient use of tillable land. However, data are limited regarding effects of stocking density on diet selection, nutrient digestion, performance, and N retention by cattle grazing annual cool-season forage. Heifers were blocked by initial BW (261 ± 11.7 kg) and randomly assigned to 1 of 12 paddocks (1.1 ha) to graze a mixture of grass and brassica for 48 d. Each paddock contained 3, 4, or 5 heifers to achieve 4 replicates of each stocking density treatment. Ruminally cannulated heifers were used to measure diet and nutrient intake. Effects of stocking density on diet and nutrient selection were measured after 2, 24, and 46 d of grazing, and BW was measured at the beginning, middle, and end of the experiment as the average of d 1 and 2, d 22 and 23, and d 47 and 48 BW, respectively. Measures of DMI and DM, OM, NDF, and ADF digestion were collected from d 18 to 23. Increased stocking density increased intake of brassica relative to grass on d 24 (quadratic, = 0.02), but increased stocking density decreased (linear, ≤ 0.01) intake of brassica compared with grass on d 48 (stocking density × time, < 0.01). Increased stocking density increased DM (quadratic, < 0.01), OM (quadratic, = 0.01), and NDF (quadratic, = 0.05) digestion, and stocking density tended to increase DMI (quadratic, = 0.07). Additionally, increased stocking density quadratically increased ( = 0.05) N retention but did not affect overall BW gains. Increased stocking density did, however, contribute to linearly decreased ( = 0.05) BW gains from d 1 to 22 of grazing, but BW gains during the latter half of the experiment were greater than BW gains from d 1 to 22. Ruminal concentration of acetate:propionate was least on d 24 of grazing, and ruminal nitrate concentration tended to linearly decrease ( = 0.06) with greater amounts of time on pasture. Ruminal liquid and particulate fill and

  8. Effect of feed grinding methods with and without expansion on prececal and total tract mineral digestibility as well as on interior and exterior egg quality in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Hafeez, A; Mader, A; Ruhnke, I; Männer, K; Zentek, J

    2016-01-01

    The grinding of cereals by various milling methods as well as thermal treatment of feed may influence mineral digestibility and egg quality. The present study investigated the effect of feed produced by disc mill (D) and wedge-shaped disc mill (WSD), as mash (M) or expandate (E) on apparent ileal absorption (AIA) and apparent total digestibility (ATD) of calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, zinc, manganese, copper and iron, as well as on egg quality in laying hens. A total of 192 hens (Lohmann Brown) aged 19 wk, were assigned using a randomized design with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement. Four experimental diets were offered ad libitum. Eggs were analyzed for weight, shape index, area, shell weight per unit surface area, yolk color, air cell, blood spot, Haugh unit, albumen and yolk measures (index, weight, height, width and length), shell measures (surface area, stability, density, thickness and membrane weight), as well as percent contents of albumen, yolk, shell, and shell membrane. The ATD for phosphorus, manganese, and copper was higher in WSD compared with D treatment (P = 0.028, P = 0.028 and P = 0.016, respectively). The interaction between milling methods and thermal treatment influenced ATD of copper (P = 0.033), which was higher in WSD+M group (41.0 ± 20.2) compared with D+E group (-3.21 ± 25.1), whereas no differences were observed for D+M (1.90 ± 37.8) and WSD+E (8.02 ± 36.2) groups. Egg stability tended to be higher in E compared with M treatment (P = 0.055). Albumen weight, percentage albumen weight, and albumen: yolk were higher and percentage yolk weight was lower in D compared with WSD treatment (P = 0.043, P = 0.027, P = 0.024, and P = 0.041, respectively). Number of blood spots was higher in E than M treatment (P = 0.053). In conclusion, use of a wedge-shaped disc mill resulted in higher ATD for phosphorus, manganese, and copper than use of a disc mill; however, digestibility for majority of minerals as well as egg quality parameters was

  9. The effects of feeding resistant starch on apparent total tract mac