Science.gov

Sample records for digital camera technology

  1. High Speed Digital Camera Technology Review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clements, Sandra D.

    2009-01-01

    A High Speed Digital Camera Technology Review (HSD Review) is being conducted to evaluate the state-of-the-shelf in this rapidly progressing industry. Five HSD cameras supplied by four camera manufacturers participated in a Field Test during the Space Shuttle Discovery STS-128 launch. Each camera was also subjected to Bench Tests in the ASRC Imaging Development Laboratory. Evaluation of the data from the Field and Bench Tests is underway. Representatives from the imaging communities at NASA / KSC and the Optical Systems Group are participating as reviewers. A High Speed Digital Video Camera Draft Specification was updated to address Shuttle engineering imagery requirements based on findings from this HSD Review. This draft specification will serve as the template for a High Speed Digital Video Camera Specification to be developed for the wider OSG imaging community under OSG Task OS-33.

  2. Those Nifty Digital Cameras!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ekhaml, Leticia

    1996-01-01

    Describes digital photography--an electronic imaging technology that merges computer capabilities with traditional photography--and its uses in education. Discusses how a filmless camera works, types of filmless cameras, advantages and disadvantages, and educational applications of the consumer digital cameras. (AEF)

  3. Digital Pinhole Camera

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lancor, Rachael; Lancor, Brian

    2014-01-01

    In this article we describe how the classic pinhole camera demonstration can be adapted for use with digital cameras. Students can easily explore the effects of the size of the pinhole and its distance from the sensor on exposure time, magnification, and image quality. Instructions for constructing a digital pinhole camera and our method for…

  4. Digital Pinhole Camera

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lancor, Rachael; Lancor, Brian

    2014-01-01

    In this article we describe how the classic pinhole camera demonstration can be adapted for use with digital cameras. Students can easily explore the effects of the size of the pinhole and its distance from the sensor on exposure time, magnification, and image quality. Instructions for constructing a digital pinhole camera and our method for…

  5. 2010 A Digital Odyssey: Exploring Document Camera Technology and Computer Self-Efficacy in a Digital Era

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoge, Robert Joaquin

    2010-01-01

    Within the sphere of education, navigating throughout a digital world has become a matter of necessity for the developing professional, as with the advent of Document Camera Technology (DCT). This study explores the pedagogical implications of implementing DCT; to see if there is a relationship between teachers' comfort with DCT and to the…

  6. Technology and Technique Standards for Camera-Acquired Digital Dermatologic Images: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Quigley, Elizabeth A; Tokay, Barbara A; Jewell, Sarah T; Marchetti, Michael A; Halpern, Allan C

    2015-08-01

    Photographs are invaluable dermatologic diagnostic, management, research, teaching, and documentation tools. Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) standards exist for many types of digital medical images, but there are no DICOM standards for camera-acquired dermatologic images to date. To identify and describe existing or proposed technology and technique standards for camera-acquired dermatologic images in the scientific literature. Systematic searches of the PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases were performed in January 2013 using photography and digital imaging, standardization, and medical specialty and medical illustration search terms and augmented by a gray literature search of 14 websites using Google. Two reviewers independently screened titles of 7371 unique publications, followed by 3 sequential full-text reviews, leading to the selection of 49 publications with the most recent (1985-2013) or detailed description of technology or technique standards related to the acquisition or use of images of skin disease (or related conditions). No universally accepted existing technology or technique standards for camera-based digital images in dermatology were identified. Recommendations are summarized for technology imaging standards, including spatial resolution, color resolution, reproduction (magnification) ratios, postacquisition image processing, color calibration, compression, output, archiving and storage, and security during storage and transmission. Recommendations are also summarized for technique imaging standards, including environmental conditions (lighting, background, and camera position), patient pose and standard view sets, and patient consent, privacy, and confidentiality. Proposed standards for specific-use cases in total body photography, teledermatology, and dermoscopy are described. The literature is replete with descriptions of obtaining photographs of skin disease, but universal imaging standards have not been developed

  7. Digital Electronic Still Camera

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holland, Samuel D.; Yeates, Herbert D.

    1993-01-01

    Digital electronic still camera part of electronic recording, processing, tansmitting, and displaying system. Removable hard-disk drive in camera serves as digital electronic equivalent of photographic film. Images viewed, analyzed, or transmitted quickly. Camera takes images of nearly photographic quality and stores them in digital form. Portable, hand-held, battery-powered unit designed for scientific use. Camera used in conjunction with playback unit also serving as transmitting unit if images sent to remote station. Remote station equipped to store, process, and display images. Digital image data encoded with error-correcting code at playback/transmitting unit for error-free transmission to remote station.

  8. Digital camera simulation.

    PubMed

    Farrell, Joyce E; Catrysse, Peter B; Wandell, Brian A

    2012-02-01

    We describe a simulation of the complete image processing pipeline of a digital camera, beginning with a radiometric description of the scene captured by the camera and ending with a radiometric description of the image rendered on a display. We show that there is a good correspondence between measured and simulated sensor performance. Through the use of simulation, we can quantify the effects of individual digital camera components on system performance and image quality. This computational approach can be helpful for both camera design and image quality assessment.

  9. Digital Elevation Model from Non-Metric Camera in Uas Compared with LIDAR Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dayamit, O. M.; Pedro, M. F.; Ernesto, R. R.; Fernando, B. L.

    2015-08-01

    Digital Elevation Model (DEM) data as a representation of surface topography is highly demanded for use in spatial analysis and modelling. Aimed to that issue many methods of acquisition data and process it are developed, from traditional surveying until modern technology like LIDAR. On the other hands, in a past four year the development of Unamend Aerial System (UAS) aimed to Geomatic bring us the possibility to acquire data about surface by non-metric digital camera on board in a short time with good quality for some analysis. Data collectors have attracted tremendous attention on UAS due to possibility of the determination of volume changes over time, monitoring of the breakwaters, hydrological modelling including flood simulation, drainage networks, among others whose support in DEM for proper analysis. The DEM quality is considered as a combination of DEM accuracy and DEM suitability so; this paper is aimed to analyse the quality of the DEM from non-metric digital camera on UAS compared with a DEM from LIDAR corresponding to same geographic space covering 4 km2 in Artemisa province, Cuba. This area is in a frame of urban planning whose need to know the topographic characteristics in order to analyse hydrology behaviour and decide the best place for make roads, building and so on. Base on LIDAR technology is still more accurate method, it offer us a pattern for test DEM from non-metric digital camera on UAS, whose are much more flexible and bring a solution for many applications whose needs DEM of detail.

  10. Image Sensors Enhance Camera Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2010-01-01

    In the 1990s, a Jet Propulsion Laboratory team led by Eric Fossum researched ways of improving complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) image sensors in order to miniaturize cameras on spacecraft while maintaining scientific image quality. Fossum s team founded a company to commercialize the resulting CMOS active pixel sensor. Now called the Aptina Imaging Corporation, based in San Jose, California, the company has shipped over 1 billion sensors for use in applications such as digital cameras, camera phones, Web cameras, and automotive cameras. Today, one of every three cell phone cameras on the planet feature Aptina s sensor technology.

  11. High-quality virus images obtained by transmission electron microscopy and charge coupled device digital camera technology.

    PubMed

    Tiekotter, Kenneth L; Ackermann, Hans-W

    2009-07-01

    The introduction of digital cameras has led to the publication of numerous virus electron micrographs of low magnification, poor contrast, and low resolution. Described herein is the methodology for obtaining highly contrasted virus images in the magnification range of approximately 250,000-300,000x. Based on recent advances in charged couple device (CCD) digital camera technology, methodology is described for optimal imaging parameters for using CCD cameras mounted in side- and bottom-mount position of electron microscopes and the recommendation of higher accelerating voltages, larger objective apertures, and small spot size. The authors are concerned with the principles of image formation and modulation, advocate a better use of imaging software to improve image quality, and recommend either pre- or post-acquisition adjustment for distributing pixel intensities of compressed histograms over the entire range of tonal values.

  12. A Novel Multi-Digital Camera System Based on Tilt-Shift Photography Technology

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Tao; Fang, Jun-yong; Zhao, Dong; Liu, Xue; Tong, Qing-xi

    2015-01-01

    Multi-digital camera systems (MDCS) are constantly being improved to meet the increasing requirement of high-resolution spatial data. This study identifies the insufficiencies of traditional MDCSs and proposes a new category MDCS based on tilt-shift photography to improve ability of the MDCS to acquire high-accuracy spatial data. A prototype system, including two or four tilt-shift cameras (TSC, camera model: Nikon D90), is developed to validate the feasibility and correctness of proposed MDCS. Similar to the cameras of traditional MDCSs, calibration is also essential for TSC of new MDCS. The study constructs indoor control fields and proposes appropriate calibration methods for TSC, including digital distortion model (DDM) approach and two-step calibrated strategy. The characteristics of TSC are analyzed in detail via a calibration experiment; for example, the edge distortion of TSC. Finally, the ability of the new MDCS to acquire high-accuracy spatial data is verified through flight experiments. The results of flight experiments illustrate that geo-position accuracy of prototype system achieves 0.3 m at a flight height of 800 m, and spatial resolution of 0.15 m. In addition, results of the comparison between the traditional (MADC II) and proposed MDCS demonstrate that the latter (0.3 m) provides spatial data with higher accuracy than the former (only 0.6 m) under the same conditions. We also take the attitude that using higher accuracy TSC in the new MDCS should further improve the accuracy of the photogrammetry senior product. PMID:25835187

  13. Foale with digital camera

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-10-25

    ISS007-E-17982 (25 Oct. 2003) --- Astronaut C. Michael Foale, Expedition 8 mission commander and NASA ISS science officer, holds a camera in the Zvezda Service Module on the International Space Station (ISS).

  14. Measuring Distances Using Digital Cameras

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kendal, Dave

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a generic method of calculating accurate horizontal and vertical object distances from digital images taken with any digital camera and lens combination, where the object plane is parallel to the image plane or tilted in the vertical plane. This method was developed for a project investigating the size, density and spatial…

  15. Digital Camera Project Fosters Communication Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Ashley; Lazaros, Edward J.

    2009-01-01

    This article details the many benefits of educators' use of digital camera technology and provides an activity in which students practice taking portrait shots of classmates, manipulate the resulting images, and add language arts practice by interviewing their subjects to produce a photo-illustrated Word document. This activity gives…

  16. Digital Camera Project Fosters Communication Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Ashley; Lazaros, Edward J.

    2009-01-01

    This article details the many benefits of educators' use of digital camera technology and provides an activity in which students practice taking portrait shots of classmates, manipulate the resulting images, and add language arts practice by interviewing their subjects to produce a photo-illustrated Word document. This activity gives…

  17. Teaching with Technology: Step Back and Hand over the Cameras! Using Digital Cameras to Facilitate Mathematics Learning with Young Children in K-2 Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northcote, Maria

    2011-01-01

    Digital cameras are now commonplace in many classrooms and in the lives of many children in early childhood centres and primary schools. They are regularly used by adults and teachers for "saving special moments and documenting experiences." The use of previously expensive photographic and recording equipment has often remained in the domain of…

  18. Digital laser scanning fundus camera.

    PubMed

    Plesch, A; Klingbeil, U; Bille, J

    1987-04-15

    Imaging and documentation of the human retina for clinical diagnostics are conventionally achieved by classical optical methods. We designed a digital laser scanning fundus camera. The optoelectronical instrument is based on scanning laser illumination of the retina and a modified video imaging procedure. It is coupled to a digital image buffer and a microcomputer for image storage and processing. Aside from its high sensitivity the LSF incorporates new ophthalmic imaging methods like polarization differential contrast. We give design considerations as well as a description of the instrument and its performance.

  19. Digitizing Standard & High Resolution High Frame Rate Video Camera Signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simmons, David M.

    1988-03-01

    The digitizing of an analog video camera signal requires special techniques to accurately sample the signal. Careful attention must be paid to both amplitude and timing considerations. Specifications exist which define amplitude and timing parame-ters of so called "standard" cameras. Recent advances in CCD technology have lead to the development of high resolution line scan and area cameras. Unfortunately these cameras do not con-form to any published standard. Hardware designed to digitize these "non-standard" cameras must have a flexible architecture to allow for each cameras' particular interface requirements.

  20. Digital security technology simplified.

    PubMed

    Scaglione, Bernard J

    2007-01-01

    Digital security technology is making great strides in replacing analog and other traditional security systems including CCTV card access, personal identification and alarm monitoring applications. Like any new technology, the author says, it is important to understand its benefits and limitations before purchasing and installing, to ensure its proper operation and effectiveness. This article is a primer for security directors on how digital technology works. It provides an understanding of the key components which make up the foundation for digital security systems, focusing on three key aspects of the digital security world: the security network, IP cameras and IP recorders.

  1. Selecting a digital camera for telemedicine.

    PubMed

    Patricoski, Chris; Ferguson, A Stewart

    2009-06-01

    The digital camera is an essential component of store-and-forward telemedicine (electronic consultation). There are numerous makes and models of digital cameras on the market, and selecting a suitable consumer-grade camera can be complicated. Evaluation of digital cameras includes investigating the features and analyzing image quality. Important features include the camera settings, ease of use, macro capabilities, method of image transfer, and power recharging. Consideration needs to be given to image quality, especially as it relates to color (skin tones) and detail. It is important to know the level of the photographer and the intended application. The goal is to match the characteristics of the camera with the telemedicine program requirements. In the end, selecting a digital camera is a combination of qualitative (subjective) and quantitative (objective) analysis. For the telemedicine program in Alaska in 2008, the camera evaluation and decision process resulted in a specific selection based on the criteria developed for our environment.

  2. Flash photography by digital still camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Yoshitaka

    2001-04-01

    Recently, the number of commercially produced digital still cameras has increases rapidly. However, detailed performance of digital still camera had not been evaluated. One of the purposes of this paper is to devise the method of evaluating the performance of a new camera. Another purpose is to show possibility of taking a picture of a scientific high quality photograph with a camera on the market, and taking a picture of a high-speed phenomenon.

  3. Smart Camera Technology Increases Quality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    When it comes to real-time image processing, everyone is an expert. People begin processing images at birth and rapidly learn to control their responses through the real-time processing of the human visual system. The human eye captures an enormous amount of information in the form of light images. In order to keep the brain from becoming overloaded with all the data, portions of an image are processed at a higher resolution than others, such as a traffic light changing colors. changing colors. In the same manner, image processing products strive to extract the information stored in light in the most efficient way possible. Digital cameras available today capture millions of pixels worth of information from incident light. However, at frame rates more than a few per second, existing digital interfaces are overwhelmed. All the user can do is store several frames to memory until that memory is full and then subsequent information is lost. New technology pairs existing digital interface technology with an off-the-shelf complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) imager to provide more than 500 frames per second of specialty image processing. The result is a cost-effective detection system unlike any other.

  4. High-performance digital color video camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parulski, Kenneth A.; D'Luna, Lionel J.; Benamati, Brian L.; Shelley, Paul R.

    1992-01-01

    Typical one-chip color cameras use analog video processing circuits. An improved digital camera architecture has been developed using a dual-slope A/D conversion technique and two full-custom CMOS digital video processing integrated circuits, the color filter array (CFA) processor and the RGB postprocessor. The system used a 768 X 484 active element interline transfer CCD with a new field-staggered 3G color filter pattern and a lenslet overlay, which doubles the sensitivity of the camera. The industrial-quality digital camera design offers improved image quality, reliability, manufacturability, while meeting aggressive size, power, and cost constraints. The CFA processor digital VLSI chip includes color filter interpolation processing, an optical black clamp, defect correction, white balance, and gain control. The RGB postprocessor digital integrated circuit includes a color correction matrix, gamma correction, 2D edge enhancement, and circuits to control the black balance, lens aperture, and focus.

  5. High-performance digital color video camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parulski, Kenneth A.; Benamati, Brian L.; D'Luna, Lionel J.; Shelley, Paul R.

    1991-06-01

    Typical one-chip color cameras use analog video processing circuits. An improved digital camera architecture has been developed using a dual-slope A/D conversion technique, and two full custom CMOS digital video processing ICs, the 'CFA processor' and the 'RGB post- processor.' The system uses a 768 X 484 active element interline transfer CCD with a new 'field-staggered 3G' color filter pattern and a 'lenslet' overlay, which doubles the sensitivity of the camera. The digital camera design offers improved image quality, reliability, and manufacturability, while meeting aggressive size, power, and cost constraints. The CFA processor digital VLSI chip includes color filter interpolation processing, an optical black clamp, defect correction, white balance, and gain control. The RGB post-processor digital IC includes a color correction matrix, gamma correction, two-dimensional edge-enhancement, and circuits to control the black balance, lens aperture, and focus.

  6. An Inexpensive Digital Infrared Camera

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Allan

    2012-01-01

    Details are given for the conversion of an inexpensive webcam to a camera specifically sensitive to the near infrared (700-1000 nm). Some experiments and practical applications are suggested and illustrated. (Contains 9 figures.)

  7. An Inexpensive Digital Infrared Camera

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Allan

    2012-01-01

    Details are given for the conversion of an inexpensive webcam to a camera specifically sensitive to the near infrared (700-1000 nm). Some experiments and practical applications are suggested and illustrated. (Contains 9 figures.)

  8. Tips and Tricks for Digital Camera Users.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ekhaml, Leticia

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the use of digital cameras in school library media centers and offers suggestions for teachers and students in elementary schools. Describes appropriate image-editing software; explains how to create panoramas, screen savers, and coloring books; and includes useful tips for digital photographers. (LRW)

  9. Camera! Action! Collaborate with Digital Moviemaking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swan, Kathleen Owings; Hofer, Mark; Levstik, Linda S.

    2007-01-01

    Broadly defined, digital moviemaking integrates a variety of media (images, sound, text, video, narration) to communicate with an audience. There is near-ubiquitous access to the necessary software (MovieMaker and iMovie are bundled free with their respective operating systems) and hardware (computers with Internet access, digital cameras, etc.).…

  10. Tips and Tricks for Digital Camera Users.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ekhaml, Leticia

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the use of digital cameras in school library media centers and offers suggestions for teachers and students in elementary schools. Describes appropriate image-editing software; explains how to create panoramas, screen savers, and coloring books; and includes useful tips for digital photographers. (LRW)

  11. Camera! Action! Collaborate with Digital Moviemaking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swan, Kathleen Owings; Hofer, Mark; Levstik, Linda S.

    2007-01-01

    Broadly defined, digital moviemaking integrates a variety of media (images, sound, text, video, narration) to communicate with an audience. There is near-ubiquitous access to the necessary software (MovieMaker and iMovie are bundled free with their respective operating systems) and hardware (computers with Internet access, digital cameras, etc.).…

  12. Overview of Digital Forensics Algorithms in Dslr Cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aminova, E.; Trapeznikov, I.; Priorov, A.

    2017-05-01

    The widespread usage of the mobile technologies and the improvement of the digital photo devices getting has led to more frequent cases of falsification of images including in the judicial practice. Consequently, the actual task for up-to-date digital image processing tools is the development of algorithms for determining the source and model of the DSLR (Digital Single Lens Reflex) camera and improve image formation algorithms. Most research in this area based on the mention that the extraction of unique sensor trace of DSLR camera could be possible on the certain stage of the imaging process into the camera. It is considered that the study focuses on the problem of determination of unique feature of DSLR cameras based on optical subsystem artifacts and sensor noises.

  13. Dental shade matching using a digital camera.

    PubMed

    Tam, W K; Lee, H J

    2012-12-01

    Digital cameras could be substitutes for contact-type instruments in shade selection and overcome their drawbacks. The images taken show morphology and color texture of teeth. A new method was proposed to compare the color of shade tabs taken by a digital camera using appropriate color features. Vita 3D-MASTER shade guide and Canon EOS 1100D digital camera were employed. Shade tab images were compared in two reference strategies. The color of tooth surface was presented by a content manually cropped out of the image. The content was divided into 10 × 2 blocks to encode the color distribution. Color features from commonly used color spaces were evaluated. The top n matches were selected when the least n shade distances between the shade tabs were attained. Using Sa*b* features, the top one accuracy was 0.87, where the feature S is defined in HSV color space, a* and b* features are defined in L*a*b* color space. This rate was higher than previous reports using contact-type instruments. The top three matching accuracy was 0.94. Sa*b* were suitable features for shade matching using a digital cameras in this study. Both the color and texture of the tooth surface could be presented by the proposed content-based descriptor. Clinical use of digital cameras in shade matching became possible. This in vitro study proposed a method for shade matching using digital cameras through the comparisons of the color patterns on the shade tab surfaces. The method overcame some drawbacks from the devices such as colorimeters or spectrophotometers. The results supported the use of digital cameras in shade matching. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. A stereoscopic lens for digital cinema cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lipton, Lenny; Rupkalvis, John

    2015-03-01

    Live-action stereoscopic feature films are, for the most part, produced using a costly post-production process to convert planar cinematography into stereo-pair images and are only occasionally shot stereoscopically using bulky dual-cameras that are adaptations of the Ramsdell rig. The stereoscopic lens design described here might very well encourage more live-action image capture because it uses standard digital cinema cameras and workflow to save time and money.

  15. Development of a digital camera tree evaluation system

    Treesearch

    Neil Clark; Daniel L. Schmoldt; Philip A. Araman

    2000-01-01

    Within the Strategic Plan for Forest Inventory and Monitoring (USDA Forest Service 1998), there is a call to "conduct applied research in the use of [advanced technology] towards the end of increasing the operational efficiency and effectiveness of our program". The digital camera tree evaluation system is part of that research, aimed at decreasing field...

  16. [Analog gamma camera digitalization computer system].

    PubMed

    Rojas, G M; Quintana, J C; Jer, J; Astudillo, S; Arenas, L; Araya, H

    2004-01-01

    Digitalization of analogue gamma cameras systems, using special acquisition boards in microcomputers and appropriate software for acquisition and processing of nuclear medicine images is described in detail. Microcomputer integrated systems interconnected by means of a Local Area Network (LAN) and connected to several gamma cameras have been implemented using specialized acquisition boards. The PIP software (Portable Image Processing) was installed on each microcomputer to acquire and preprocess the nuclear medicine images. A specialized image processing software has been designed and developed for these purposes. This software allows processing of each nuclear medicine exam, in a semiautomatic procedure, and recording of the results on radiological films. . A stable, flexible and inexpensive system which makes it possible to digitize, visualize, process, and print nuclear medicine images obtained from analogue gamma cameras was implemented in the Nuclear Medicine Division. Such a system yields higher quality images than those obtained with analogue cameras while keeping operating costs considerably lower (filming: 24.6%, fixing 48.2% and developing 26%.) Analogue gamma camera systems can be digitalized economically. This system makes it possible to obtain optimal clinical quality nuclear medicine images, to increase the acquisition and processing efficiency, and to reduce the steps involved in each exam.

  17. The Sloan Digital Sky Survey Photometric Camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunn, J. E.; Carr, M.; Rockosi, C.; Sekiguchi, M.; Berry, K.; Elms, B.; de Haas, E.; Ivezić, Ž .; Knapp, G.; Lupton, R.; Pauls, G.; Simcoe, R.; Hirsch, R.; Sanford, D.; Wang, S.; York, D.; Harris, F.; Annis, J.; Bartozek, L.; Boroski, W.; Bakken, J.; Haldeman, M.; Kent, S.; Holm, S.; Holmgren, D.; Petravick, D.; Prosapio, A.; Rechenmacher, R.; Doi, M.; Fukugita, M.; Shimasaku, K.; Okada, N.; Hull, C.; Siegmund, W.; Mannery, E.; Blouke, M.; Heidtman, D.; Schneider, D.; Lucinio, R.; Brinkman, J.

    1998-12-01

    We have constructed a large-format mosaic CCD camera for the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. The camera consists of two arrays, a photometric array that uses 30 2048 x 2048 SITe/Tektronix CCDs (24 μm pixels) with an effective imaging area of 720 cm^2 and an astrometric array that uses 24 400 x 2048 CCDs with the same pixel size, which will allow us to tie bright astrometric standard stars to the objects imaged in the photometric camera. The instrument will be used to carry out photometry essentially simultaneously in five color bands spanning the range accessible to silicon detectors on the ground in the time-delay-and-integrate (TDI) scanning mode. The photometric detectors are arrayed in the focal plane in six columns of five chips each such that two scans cover a filled stripe 2.5d wide. This paper presents engineering and technical details of the camera.

  18. National Guidelines for Digital Camera Systems Certification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yaron, Yaron; Keinan, Eran; Benhamu, Moshe; Regev, Ronen; Zalmanzon, Garry

    2016-06-01

    Digital camera systems are a key component in the production of reliable, geometrically accurate, high-resolution geospatial products. These systems have replaced film imaging in photogrammetric data capturing. Today, we see a proliferation of imaging sensors collecting photographs in different ground resolutions, spectral bands, swath sizes, radiometric characteristics, accuracies and carried on different mobile platforms. In addition, these imaging sensors are combined with navigational tools (such as GPS and IMU), active sensors such as laser scanning and powerful processing tools to obtain high quality geospatial products. The quality (accuracy, completeness, consistency, etc.) of these geospatial products is based on the use of calibrated, high-quality digital camera systems. The new survey regulations of the state of Israel specify the quality requirements for each geospatial product including: maps at different scales and for different purposes, elevation models, orthophotographs, three-dimensional models at different levels of details (LOD) and more. In addition, the regulations require that digital camera systems used for mapping purposes should be certified using a rigorous mapping systems certification and validation process which is specified in the Director General Instructions. The Director General Instructions for digital camera systems certification specify a two-step process as follows: 1. Theoretical analysis of system components that includes: study of the accuracy of each component and an integrative error propagation evaluation, examination of the radiometric and spectral response curves for the imaging sensors, the calibration requirements, and the working procedures. 2. Empirical study of the digital mapping system that examines a typical project (product scale, flight height, number and configuration of ground control points and process). The study examine all the aspects of the final product including; its accuracy, the product pixels size

  19. Enviro-pix: Using Digital Cameras in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clements, Dan

    1997-01-01

    Provides technical information about digital photography including cost, quality, and applications in classrooms. Recommends that digital cameras be used for student classroom presentations and record keeping. (DDR)

  20. Toward a digital camera to rival the human eye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skorka, Orit; Joseph, Dileepan

    2011-07-01

    All things considered, electronic imaging systems do not rival the human visual system despite notable progress over 40 years since the invention of the CCD. This work presents a method that allows design engineers to evaluate the performance gap between a digital camera and the human eye. The method identifies limiting factors of the electronic systems by benchmarking against the human system. It considers power consumption, visual field, spatial resolution, temporal resolution, and properties related to signal and noise power. A figure of merit is defined as the performance gap of the weakest parameter. Experimental work done with observers and cadavers is reviewed to assess the parameters of the human eye, and assessment techniques are also covered for digital cameras. The method is applied to 24 modern image sensors of various types, where an ideal lens is assumed to complete a digital camera. Results indicate that dynamic range and dark limit are the most limiting factors. The substantial functional gap, from 1.6 to 4.5 orders of magnitude, between the human eye and digital cameras may arise from architectural differences between the human retina, arranged in a multiple-layer structure, and image sensors, mostly fabricated in planar technologies. Functionality of image sensors may be significantly improved by exploiting technologies that allow vertical stacking of active tiers.

  1. Practical aspects of adjusting digital cameras.

    PubMed

    Nordberg, Joshua J; Sluder, Greenfield

    2013-01-01

    This chapter introduces the adjustment of digital camera settings using the tools found within image acquisition software and discusses measuring gray-level information such as (1) the histogram, (2) line scan, and (3) other strategies. The pixel values in an image can be measured within many image capture software programs in two ways. The first is a histogram of pixel gray values and the second is a line-scan plot across a selectable axis of the image. Understanding how to evaluate the information presented by these tools is critical to properly adjusting the camera to maximize the image contrast without losing grayscale information. This chapter discusses the 0-255 grayscale resolution of an 8-bit camera; however, the concepts are the same for cameras of any bit depth. This chapter also describes camera settings, such as exposure time, offset, and gain, and the steps for contrast stretching such as setting the exposure time, adjusting offset and gain, and camera versus image display controls.

  2. Digital Earth Watch: Investigating the World with Digital Cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gould, A. D.; Schloss, A. L.; Beaudry, J.; Pickle, J.

    2015-12-01

    Every digital camera including the smart phone camera can be a scientific tool. Pictures contain millions of color intensity measurements organized spatially allowing us to measure properties of objects in the images. This presentation will demonstrate how digital pictures can be used for a variety of studies with a special emphasis on using repeat digital photographs to study change-over-time in outdoor settings with a Picture Post. Demonstrations will include using inexpensive color filters to take pictures that enhance features in images such as unhealthy leaves on plants, or clouds in the sky. Software available at no cost from the Digital Earth Watch (DEW) website that lets students explore light, color and pixels, manipulate color in images and make measurements, will be demonstrated. DEW and Picture Post were developed with support from NASA. Please visit our websites: DEW: http://dew.globalsystemsscience.orgPicture Post: http://picturepost.unh.edu

  3. X-ray imaging using digital cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winch, Nicola M.; Edgar, Andrew

    2012-03-01

    The possibility of using the combination of a computed radiography (storage phosphor) cassette and a semiprofessional grade digital camera for medical or dental radiography is investigated. We compare the performance of (i) a Canon 5D Mk II single lens reflex camera with f1.4 lens and full-frame CMOS array sensor and (ii) a cooled CCD-based camera with a 1/3 frame sensor and the same lens system. Both systems are tested with 240 x 180 mm cassettes which are based on either powdered europium-doped barium fluoride bromide or needle structure europium-doped cesium bromide. The modulation transfer function for both systems has been determined and falls to a value of 0.2 at around 2 lp/mm, and is limited by light scattering of the emitted light from the storage phosphor rather than the optics or sensor pixelation. The modulation transfer function for the CsBr:Eu2+ plate is bimodal, with a high frequency wing which is attributed to the light-guiding behaviour of the needle structure. The detective quantum efficiency has been determined using a radioisotope source and is comparatively low at 0.017 for the CMOS camera and 0.006 for the CCD camera, attributed to the poor light harvesting by the lens. The primary advantages of the method are portability, robustness, digital imaging and low cost; the limitations are the low detective quantum efficiency and hence signal-to-noise ratio for medical doses, and restricted range of plate sizes. Representative images taken with medical doses are shown and illustrate the potential use for portable basic radiography.

  4. Digital Camera Control for Faster Inspection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Katharine; Siekierski, James D.; Mangieri, Mark L.; Dekome, Kent; Cobarruvias, John; Piplani, Perry J.; Busa, Joel

    2009-01-01

    Digital Camera Control Software (DCCS) is a computer program for controlling a boom and a boom-mounted camera used to inspect the external surface of a space shuttle in orbit around the Earth. Running in a laptop computer in the space-shuttle crew cabin, DCCS commands integrated displays and controls. By means of a simple one-button command, a crewmember can view low- resolution images to quickly spot problem areas and can then cause a rapid transition to high- resolution images. The crewmember can command that camera settings apply to a specific small area of interest within the field of view of the camera so as to maximize image quality within that area. DCCS also provides critical high-resolution images to a ground screening team, which analyzes the images to assess damage (if any); in so doing, DCCS enables the team to clear initially suspect areas more quickly than would otherwise be possible and further saves time by minimizing the probability of re-imaging of areas already inspected. On the basis of experience with a previous version (2.0) of the software, the present version (3.0) incorporates a number of advanced imaging features that optimize crewmember capability and efficiency.

  5. The Sloan Digital Sky Survey Photometric Camera

    SciTech Connect

    Gunn, J.E.; Carr, M.; Rockosi, C.; Sekiguchi, M.; Berry, K.; Elms, B.; de Haas, E.; Ivezic, Z.; Knapp, G.; Lupton, R.; Pauls, G.; Simcoe, R.; Hirsch, R.; Sanford, D.; Wang, S.; York, D.; Harris, F.; Annis, J.; Bartozek, L.; Boroski, W.; Bakken, J.; Haldeman, M.; Kent, S.; Holm, S.; Holmgren, D.; Petravick, D.; Prosapio, A.; Rechenmacher, R.; Doi, M.; Fukugita, M.; Shimasaku, K.; Okada, N.; Hull, C.; Siegmund, W.; Mannery, E.; Blouke, M.; Heidtman, D.; Schneider, D.; Lucinio, R.; and others

    1998-12-01

    We have constructed a large-format mosaic CCD camera for the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. The camera consists of two arrays, a photometric array that uses 30 2048 {times} 2048 SITe/Tektronix CCDs (24 {mu}m pixels) with an effective imaging area of 720 cm{sup 2} and an astrometric array that uses 24 400 {times} 2048 CCDs with the same pixel size, which will allow us to tie bright astrometric standard stars to the objects imaged in the photometric camera. The instrument will be used to carry out photometry essentially simultaneously in five color bands spanning the range accessible to silicon detectors on the ground in the time-delay{endash}and{endash}integrate (TDI) scanning mode. The photometric detectors are arrayed in the focal plane in six columns of five chips each such that two scans cover a filled stripe 2&arcdeg;5 wide. This paper presents engineering and technical details of the camera. {copyright} {ital {copyright} 1998.} {ital The American Astronomical Society}

  6. Process simulation in digital camera system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toadere, Florin

    2012-06-01

    The goal of this paper is to simulate the functionality of a digital camera system. The simulations cover the conversion from light to numerical signal and the color processing and rendering. We consider the image acquisition system to be linear shift invariant and axial. The light propagation is orthogonal to the system. We use a spectral image processing algorithm in order to simulate the radiometric properties of a digital camera. In the algorithm we take into consideration the transmittances of the: light source, lenses, filters and the quantum efficiency of a CMOS (complementary metal oxide semiconductor) sensor. The optical part is characterized by a multiple convolution between the different points spread functions of the optical components. We use a Cooke triplet, the aperture, the light fall off and the optical part of the CMOS sensor. The electrical part consists of the: Bayer sampling, interpolation, signal to noise ratio, dynamic range, analog to digital conversion and JPG compression. We reconstruct the noisy blurred image by blending different light exposed images in order to reduce the photon shot noise, also we filter the fixed pattern noise and we sharpen the image. Then we have the color processing blocks: white balancing, color correction, gamma correction, and conversion from XYZ color space to RGB color space. For the reproduction of color we use an OLED (organic light emitting diode) monitor. The analysis can be useful to assist students and engineers in image quality evaluation and imaging system design. Many other configurations of blocks can be used in our analysis.

  7. Use of a computerized digital camera in podiatric medical practice.

    PubMed

    Stacpoole-Shea, S; Shea, G

    1999-03-01

    Multimedia technology was once rarely found outside the realm of commercial production studios or in elaborate computer games. However, with the addition of only a few simple accessories, recent advances have made this technology readily available to the podiatric medical practitioner on a desktop office computer. The role that the application of multimedia technology using a computerized digital camera can play in a podiatric medical practice--including in such areas as record keeping, outcome measurement, patient education, interdisciplinary communications, and practice-management tools--is discussed.

  8. Digital Sensor Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Ted Quinn; Jerry Mauck; Richard Bockhorst; Ken Thomas

    2013-07-01

    The nuclear industry has been slow to incorporate digital sensor technology into nuclear plant designs due to concerns with digital qualification issues. However, the benefits of digital sensor technology for nuclear plant instrumentation are substantial in terms of accuracy, reliability, availability, and maintainability. This report demonstrates these benefits in direct comparisons of digital and analog sensor applications. It also addresses the qualification issues that must be addressed in the application of digital sensor technology.

  9. Adaptation of a digital camera for simultaneous stereophotography in ophthalmology.

    PubMed

    Stingl, Katarina; Hoffmann, Esther; Schiefer, Ulrich

    2010-10-01

    Simultaneous stereoscopic fundus photography is an important tool for classification and follow-up of glaucomatous optic neuropathy. The use of conventional film-based simultaneous stereoscopic fundus cameras is complicated and time-consuming due to film processing and the sensitivity of its mechanical components. Digital simultaneous stereoscopic fundus cameras are not available in Germany, since the existing ones are lacking the CE certificate. The authors realised a solution by transforming a conventional stereophotographic film-based fundus camera into a digital one. The analogue camera of the conventional stereophotographic device was replaced by a digital 36×24 mm full-frame complementary metal oxide (CMOS) camera.

  10. Measurement of solar extinction in tower plants with digital cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballestrín, J.; Monterreal, R.; Carra, M. E.; Fernandez-Reche, J.; Barbero, J.; Marzo, A.

    2016-05-01

    Atmospheric extinction of solar radiation between the heliostat field and the receiver is accepted as a non-negligible source of energy loss in the increasingly large central receiver plants. However, the reality is that there is currently no reliable measurement method for this quantity and at present these plants are designed, built and operated without knowing this local parameter. Nowadays digital cameras are used in many scientific applications for their ability to convert available light into digital images. Its broad spectral range, high resolution and high signal to noise ratio, make them an interesting device in solar technology. In this work a method for atmospheric extinction measurement based on digital images is presented. The possibility of defining a measurement setup in circumstances similar to those of a tower plant increases the credibility of the method. This procedure is currently being implemented at Plataforma Solar de Almería.

  11. Practical target location and accuracy indicator in digital close range photogrammetry using consumer grade cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moriya, Gentaro; Chikatsu, Hirofumi

    2011-07-01

    Recently, pixel numbers and functions of consumer grade digital camera are amazingly increasing by modern semiconductor and digital technology, and there are many low-priced consumer grade digital cameras which have more than 10 mega pixels on the market in Japan. In these circumstances, digital photogrammetry using consumer grade cameras is enormously expected in various application fields. There is a large body of literature on calibration of consumer grade digital cameras and circular target location. Target location with subpixel accuracy had been investigated as a star tracker issue, and many target location algorithms have been carried out. It is widely accepted that the least squares models with ellipse fitting is the most accurate algorithm. However, there are still problems for efficient digital close range photogrammetry. These problems are reconfirmation of the target location algorithms with subpixel accuracy for consumer grade digital cameras, relationship between number of edge points along target boundary and accuracy, and an indicator for estimating the accuracy of normal digital close range photogrammetry using consumer grade cameras. With this motive, an empirical testing of several algorithms for target location with subpixel accuracy and an indicator for estimating the accuracy are investigated in this paper using real data which were acquired indoors using 7 consumer grade digital cameras which have 7.2 mega pixels to 14.7 mega pixels.

  12. Quality criterion for digital still camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bezryadin, Sergey

    2007-02-01

    The main quality requirements for a digital still camera are color capturing accuracy, low noise level, and quantum efficiency. Different consumers assign different priorities to the listed parameters, and camera designers need clearly formulated methods for their evaluation. While there are procedures providing noise level and quantum efficiency estimation, there are no effective means for color capturing accuracy estimation. Introduced in this paper criterion allows to fill this gap. Luther-Ives condition for correct color reproduction system became known in the beginning of the last century. However, since no detector system satisfies Luther-Ives condition, there are always stimuli that are distinctly different for an observer, but which detectors are unable to distinguish. To estimate conformity of a detector set with Luther-Ives condition and calculate a measure of discrepancy, an angle between detector sensor sensitivity and Cohen's Fundamental Color Space may be used. In this paper, the divergence angle is calculated for some typical CCD sensors and a demonstration provided on how this angle might be reduced with a corrective filter. In addition, it is shown that with a specific corrective filter Foveon sensors turn into a detector system with a good Luther-Ives condition compliance.

  13. Camera Ready: Capturing a Digital History of Chester

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehman, Kathy

    2008-01-01

    Armed with digital cameras, voice recorders, and movie cameras, students from Thomas Dale High School in Chester, Virginia, have been exploring neighborhoods, interviewing residents, and collecting memories of their hometown. In this article, the author describes "Digital History of Chester", a project for creating a commemorative DVD.…

  14. Methods for identification of images acquired with digital cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geradts, Zeno J.; Bijhold, Jurrien; Kieft, Martijn; Kurosawa, Kenji; Kuroki, Kenro; Saitoh, Naoki

    2001-02-01

    From the court we were asked whether it is possible to determine if an image has been made with a specific digital camera. This question has to be answered in child pornography cases, where evidence is needed that a certain picture has been made with a specific camera. We have looked into different methods of examining the cameras to determine if a specific image has been made with a camera: defects in CCDs, file formats that are used, noise introduced by the pixel arrays and watermarking in images used by the camera manufacturer.

  15. CMOS Imaging Sensor Technology for Aerial Mapping Cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neumann, Klaus; Welzenbach, Martin; Timm, Martin

    2016-06-01

    In June 2015 Leica Geosystems launched the first large format aerial mapping camera using CMOS sensor technology, the Leica DMC III. This paper describes the motivation to change from CCD sensor technology to CMOS for the development of this new aerial mapping camera. In 2002 the DMC first generation was developed by Z/I Imaging. It was the first large format digital frame sensor designed for mapping applications. In 2009 Z/I Imaging designed the DMC II which was the first digital aerial mapping camera using a single ultra large CCD sensor to avoid stitching of smaller CCDs. The DMC III is now the third generation of large format frame sensor developed by Z/I Imaging and Leica Geosystems for the DMC camera family. It is an evolution of the DMC II using the same system design with one large monolithic PAN sensor and four multi spectral camera heads for R,G, B and NIR. For the first time a 391 Megapixel large CMOS sensor had been used as PAN chromatic sensor, which is an industry record. Along with CMOS technology goes a range of technical benefits. The dynamic range of the CMOS sensor is approx. twice the range of a comparable CCD sensor and the signal to noise ratio is significantly better than with CCDs. Finally results from the first DMC III customer installations and test flights will be presented and compared with other CCD based aerial sensors.

  16. Digital cameras with designs inspired by the arthropod eye.

    PubMed

    Song, Young Min; Xie, Yizhu; Malyarchuk, Viktor; Xiao, Jianliang; Jung, Inhwa; Choi, Ki-Joong; Liu, Zhuangjian; Park, Hyunsung; Lu, Chaofeng; Kim, Rak-Hwan; Li, Rui; Crozier, Kenneth B; Huang, Yonggang; Rogers, John A

    2013-05-02

    In arthropods, evolution has created a remarkably sophisticated class of imaging systems, with a wide-angle field of view, low aberrations, high acuity to motion and an infinite depth of field. A challenge in building digital cameras with the hemispherical, compound apposition layouts of arthropod eyes is that essential design requirements cannot be met with existing planar sensor technologies or conventional optics. Here we present materials, mechanics and integration schemes that afford scalable pathways to working, arthropod-inspired cameras with nearly full hemispherical shapes (about 160 degrees). Their surfaces are densely populated by imaging elements (artificial ommatidia), which are comparable in number (180) to those of the eyes of fire ants (Solenopsis fugax) and bark beetles (Hylastes nigrinus). The devices combine elastomeric compound optical elements with deformable arrays of thin silicon photodetectors into integrated sheets that can be elastically transformed from the planar geometries in which they are fabricated to hemispherical shapes for integration into apposition cameras. Our imaging results and quantitative ray-tracing-based simulations illustrate key features of operation. These general strategies seem to be applicable to other compound eye devices, such as those inspired by moths and lacewings (refracting superposition eyes), lobster and shrimp (reflecting superposition eyes), and houseflies (neural superposition eyes).

  17. A Simple Spectrophotometer Using Common Materials and a Digital Camera

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Widiatmoko, Eko; Widayani; Budiman, Maman; Abdullah, Mikrajuddin; Khairurrijal

    2011-01-01

    A simple spectrophotometer was designed using cardboard, a DVD, a pocket digital camera, a tripod and a computer. The DVD was used as a diffraction grating and the camera as a light sensor. The spectrophotometer was calibrated using a reference light prior to use. The spectrophotometer was capable of measuring optical wavelengths with a…

  18. A Simple Spectrophotometer Using Common Materials and a Digital Camera

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Widiatmoko, Eko; Widayani; Budiman, Maman; Abdullah, Mikrajuddin; Khairurrijal

    2011-01-01

    A simple spectrophotometer was designed using cardboard, a DVD, a pocket digital camera, a tripod and a computer. The DVD was used as a diffraction grating and the camera as a light sensor. The spectrophotometer was calibrated using a reference light prior to use. The spectrophotometer was capable of measuring optical wavelengths with a…

  19. Next-generation digital camera integration and software development issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venkataraman, Shyam; Peters, Ken; Hecht, Richard

    1998-04-01

    This paper investigates the complexities associated with the development of next generation digital cameras due to requirements in connectivity and interoperability. Each successive generation of digital camera improves drastically in cost, performance, resolution, image quality and interoperability features. This is being accomplished by advancements in a number of areas: research, silicon, standards, etc. As the capabilities of these cameras increase, so do the requirements for both hardware and software. Today, there are two single chip camera solutions in the market including the Motorola MPC 823 and LSI DCAM- 101. Real time constraints for a digital camera may be defined by the maximum time allowable between capture of images. Constraints in the design of an embedded digital camera include processor architecture, memory, processing speed and the real-time operating systems. This paper will present the LSI DCAM-101, a single-chip digital camera solution. It will present an overview of the architecture and the challenges in hardware and software for supporting streaming video in such a complex device. Issues presented include the development of the data flow software architecture, testing and integration on this complex silicon device. The strategy for optimizing performance on the architecture will also be presented.

  20. Characterizing Digital Camera Systems: A Prelude to Data Standards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, Robert

    2002-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation profiles: 1) Digital imaging systems; 2) Specifying a digital imagery product; and 3) Characterization of data acquisition systems. Advanced large array digital imaging systems are routinely being used. Digital imagery guidelines are being developed by ASPRS and ISPRS. Guidelines and standards are of little use without standardized characterization methods. Characterization of digital camera systems is important for supporting digital imagery guidelines. Specifications are characterized in the lab and/or the field. Laboratory characterization is critical for optimizing and defining performance. In-flight characterization is necessary for an end-to-end system test.

  1. Digital Actuator Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Ken Thomas; Ted Quinn; Jerry Mauck; Richard Bockhorst

    2014-09-01

    There are significant developments underway in new types of actuators for power plant active components. Many of these make use of digital technology to provide a wide array of benefits in performance of the actuators and in reduced burden to maintain them. These new product offerings have gained considerable acceptance in use in process plants. In addition, they have been used in conventional power generation very successfully. This technology has been proven to deliver the benefits promised and substantiate the claims of improved performance. The nuclear industry has been reluctant to incorporate digital actuator technology into nuclear plant designs due to concerns due to a number of concerns. These could be summarized as cost, regulatory uncertainty, and a certain comfort factor with legacy analog technology. The replacement opportunity for these types of components represents a decision point for whether to invest in more modern technology that would provide superior operational and maintenance benefits. Yet, the application of digital technology has been problematic for the nuclear industry, due to qualification and regulatory issues. With some notable exceptions, the result has been a continuing reluctance to undertake the risks and uncertainties of implementing digital actuator technology when replacement opportunities present themselves. Rather, utilities would typically prefer to accept the performance limitations of the legacy analog actuator technologies to avoid impacts to project costs and schedules. The purpose of this report is to demonstrate that the benefits of digital actuator technology can be significant in terms of plant performance and that it is worthwhile to address the barriers currently holding back the widespread development and use of this technology. It addresses two important objectives in pursuit of the beneficial use of digital actuator technology for nuclear power plants: 1. To demonstrate the benefits of digital actuator

  2. Digital Sensor Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, Ken D.; Quinn, Edward L.; Mauck, Jerry L.; Bockhorst, Richard M.

    2015-02-01

    The nuclear industry has been slow to incorporate digital sensor technology into nuclear plant designs due to concerns with digital qualification issues. However, the benefits of digital sensor technology for nuclear plant instrumentation are substantial in terms of accuracy and reliability. This paper, which refers to a final report issued in 2013, demonstrates these benefits in direct comparisons of digital and analog sensor applications. Improved accuracy results from the superior operating characteristics of digital sensors. These include improvements in sensor accuracy and drift and other related parameters which reduce total loop uncertainty and thereby increase safety and operating margins. An example instrument loop uncertainty calculation for a pressure sensor application is presented to illustrate these improvements. This is a side-by-side comparison of the instrument loop uncertainty for both an analog and a digital sensor in the same pressure measurement application. Similarly, improved sensor reliability is illustrated with a sample calculation for determining the probability of failure on demand, an industry standard reliability measure. This looks at equivalent analog and digital temperature sensors to draw the comparison. The results confirm substantial reliability improvement with the digital sensor, due in large part to ability to continuously monitor the health of a digital sensor such that problems can be immediately identified and corrected. This greatly reduces the likelihood of a latent failure condition of the sensor at the time of a design basis event. Notwithstanding the benefits of digital sensors, there are certain qualification issues that are inherent with digital technology and these are described in the report. One major qualification impediment for digital sensor implementation is software common cause failure (SCCF).

  3. Seeing elements by visible-light digital camera.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Wenyang; Sakurai, Kenji

    2017-03-31

    A visible-light digital camera is used for taking ordinary photos, but with new operational procedures it can measure the photon energy in the X-ray wavelength region and therefore see chemical elements. This report describes how one can observe X-rays by means of such an ordinary camera - The front cover of the camera is replaced by an opaque X-ray window to block visible light and to allow X-rays to pass; the camera takes many snap shots (called single-photon-counting mode) to record every photon event individually; an integrated-filtering method is newly proposed to correctly retrieve the energy of photons from raw camera images. Finally, the retrieved X-ray energy-dispersive spectra show fine energy resolution and great accuracy in energy calibration, and therefore the visible-light digital camera can be applied to routine X-ray fluorescence measurement to analyze the element composition in unknown samples. In addition, the visible-light digital camera is promising in that it could serve as a position sensitive X-ray energy detector. It may become able to measure the element map or chemical diffusion in a multi-element system if it is fabricated with external X-ray optic devices. Owing to the camera's low expense and fine pixel size, the present method will be widely applied to the analysis of chemical elements as well as imaging.

  4. Seeing elements by visible-light digital camera

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Wenyang; Sakurai, Kenji

    2017-01-01

    A visible-light digital camera is used for taking ordinary photos, but with new operational procedures it can measure the photon energy in the X-ray wavelength region and therefore see chemical elements. This report describes how one can observe X-rays by means of such an ordinary camera - The front cover of the camera is replaced by an opaque X-ray window to block visible light and to allow X-rays to pass; the camera takes many snap shots (called single-photon-counting mode) to record every photon event individually; an integrated-filtering method is newly proposed to correctly retrieve the energy of photons from raw camera images. Finally, the retrieved X-ray energy-dispersive spectra show fine energy resolution and great accuracy in energy calibration, and therefore the visible-light digital camera can be applied to routine X-ray fluorescence measurement to analyze the element composition in unknown samples. In addition, the visible-light digital camera is promising in that it could serve as a position sensitive X-ray energy detector. It may become able to measure the element map or chemical diffusion in a multi-element system if it is fabricated with external X-ray optic devices. Owing to the camera’s low expense and fine pixel size, the present method will be widely applied to the analysis of chemical elements as well as imaging. PMID:28361916

  5. Seeing elements by visible-light digital camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Wenyang; Sakurai, Kenji

    2017-03-01

    A visible-light digital camera is used for taking ordinary photos, but with new operational procedures it can measure the photon energy in the X-ray wavelength region and therefore see chemical elements. This report describes how one can observe X-rays by means of such an ordinary camera - The front cover of the camera is replaced by an opaque X-ray window to block visible light and to allow X-rays to pass; the camera takes many snap shots (called single-photon-counting mode) to record every photon event individually; an integrated-filtering method is newly proposed to correctly retrieve the energy of photons from raw camera images. Finally, the retrieved X-ray energy-dispersive spectra show fine energy resolution and great accuracy in energy calibration, and therefore the visible-light digital camera can be applied to routine X-ray fluorescence measurement to analyze the element composition in unknown samples. In addition, the visible-light digital camera is promising in that it could serve as a position sensitive X-ray energy detector. It may become able to measure the element map or chemical diffusion in a multi-element system if it is fabricated with external X-ray optic devices. Owing to the camera’s low expense and fine pixel size, the present method will be widely applied to the analysis of chemical elements as well as imaging.

  6. Calibration and Testing of Digital Zenith Camera System Components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulug, Rasit; Halicioglu, Kerem; Tevfik Ozludemir, M.; Albayrak, Muge; Basoglu, Burak; Deniz, Rasim

    2017-04-01

    Starting from the beginning of the new millennium, thanks to the Charged-Coupled Device (CCD) technology, fully or partly automatic zenith camera systems are designed and used in order to determine astro-geodetic deflections of the vertical components in several countries, including Germany, Switzerland, Serbia, Latvia, Poland, Austria, China and Turkey. The Digital Zenith Camera System (DZCS) of Turkey performed successful observations yet it needs to be improved in terms of automating the system and increasing observation accuracy. In order to optimize the observation time and improve the system, some modifications have been implemented. Through the modification process that started at the beginning of 2016, some DZCS components have been replaced with the new ones and some new additional components have been installed. In this presentation, the ongoing calibration and testing process of the DZCS are summarized in general. In particular, one of the tested system components is the High Resolution Tiltmeter (HRTM), which enable orthogonal orientation of DZCS to the direction of plump line, is discussed. For the calibration of these components, two tiltmeters with different accuracies (1 nrad and 0.001 mrad) were observed nearly 30 days. The data recorded under different environmental conditions were divided into hourly, daily, and weekly subsets. In addition to the effects of temperature and humidity, interoperability of two tiltmeters were also investigated. Results show that with the integration of HRTM and the other implementations, the modified DZCS provides higher accuracy for the determination of vertical deflections.

  7. A digital gigapixel large-format tile-scan camera.

    PubMed

    Ben-Ezra, M

    2011-01-01

    Although the resolution of single-lens reflex (SLR) and medium-format digital cameras has increased in recent years, applications for cultural-heritage preservation and computational photography require even higher resolutions. Addressing this issue, a large-format cameras' large image planes can achieve very high resolution without compromising pixel size and thus can provide high-quality, high-resolution images.This digital large-format tile scan camera can acquire high-quality, high-resolution images of static scenes. It employs unique calibration techniques and a simple algorithm for focal-stack processing of very large images with significant magnification variations. The camera automatically collects overlapping focal stacks and processes them into a high-resolution, extended-depth-of-field image.

  8. Small Orbital Stereo Tracking Camera Technology Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryan, Tom; Macleod, Todd; Gagliano, Larry

    2015-01-01

    On-Orbit Small Debris Tracking and Characterization is a technical gap in the current National Space Situational Awareness necessary to safeguard orbital assets and crew. This poses a major risk of MOD damage to ISS and Exploration vehicles. In 2015 this technology was added to NASA's Office of Chief Technologist roadmap. For missions flying in or assembled in or staging from LEO, the physical threat to vehicle and crew is needed in order to properly design the proper level of MOD impact shielding and proper mission design restrictions. Need to verify debris flux and size population versus ground RADAR tracking. Use of ISS for In-Situ Orbital Debris Tracking development provides attitude, power, data and orbital access without a dedicated spacecraft or restricted operations on-board a host vehicle as a secondary payload. Sensor Applicable to in-situ measuring orbital debris in flux and population in other orbits or on other vehicles. Could enhance safety on and around ISS. Some technologies extensible to monitoring of extraterrestrial debris as well to help accomplish this, new technologies must be developed quickly. The Small Orbital Stereo Tracking Camera is one such up and coming technology. It consists of flying a pair of intensified megapixel telephoto cameras to evaluate Orbital Debris (OD) monitoring in proximity of International Space Station. It will demonstrate on-orbit optical tracking (in situ) of various sized objects versus ground RADAR tracking and small OD models. The cameras are based on Flight Proven Advanced Video Guidance Sensor pixel to spot algorithms (Orbital Express) and military targeting cameras. And by using twin cameras we can provide Stereo images for ranging & mission redundancy. When pointed into the orbital velocity vector (RAM), objects approaching or near the stereo camera set can be differentiated from the stars moving upward in background.

  9. Small Orbital Stereo Tracking Camera Technology Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryan, Tom; MacLeod, Todd; Gagliano, Larry

    2016-01-01

    On-Orbit Small Debris Tracking and Characterization is a technical gap in the current National Space Situational Awareness necessary to safeguard orbital assets and crew. This poses a major risk of MOD damage to ISS and Exploration vehicles. In 2015 this technology was added to NASA's Office of Chief Technologist roadmap. For missions flying in or assembled in or staging from LEO, the physical threat to vehicle and crew is needed in order to properly design the proper level of MOD impact shielding and proper mission design restrictions. Need to verify debris flux and size population versus ground RADAR tracking. Use of ISS for In-Situ Orbital Debris Tracking development provides attitude, power, data and orbital access without a dedicated spacecraft or restricted operations on-board a host vehicle as a secondary payload. Sensor Applicable to in-situ measuring orbital debris in flux and population in other orbits or on other vehicles. Could enhance safety on and around ISS. Some technologies extensible to monitoring of extraterrestrial debris as well To help accomplish this, new technologies must be developed quickly. The Small Orbital Stereo Tracking Camera is one such up and coming technology. It consists of flying a pair of intensified megapixel telephoto cameras to evaluate Orbital Debris (OD) monitoring in proximity of International Space Station. It will demonstrate on-orbit optical tracking (in situ) of various sized objects versus ground RADAR tracking and small OD models. The cameras are based on Flight Proven Advanced Video Guidance Sensor pixel to spot algorithms (Orbital Express) and military targeting cameras. And by using twin cameras we can provide Stereo images for ranging & mission redundancy. When pointed into the orbital velocity vector (RAM), objects approaching or near the stereo camera set can be differentiated from the stars moving upward in background.

  10. Small Orbital Stereo Tracking Camera Technology Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gagliano, L.; Bryan, T.; MacLeod, T.

    On-Orbit Small Debris Tracking and Characterization is a technical gap in the current National Space Situational Awareness necessary to safeguard orbital assets and crew. This poses a major risk of MOD damage to ISS and Exploration vehicles. In 2015 this technology was added to NASAs Office of Chief Technologist roadmap. For missions flying in or assembled in or staging from LEO, the physical threat to vehicle and crew is needed in order to properly design the proper level of MOD impact shielding and proper mission design restrictions. Need to verify debris flux and size population versus ground RADAR tracking. Use of ISS for In-Situ Orbital Debris Tracking development provides attitude, power, data and orbital access without a dedicated spacecraft or restricted operations on-board a host vehicle as a secondary payload. Sensor Applicable to in-situ measuring orbital debris in flux and population in other orbits or on other vehicles. Could enhance safety on and around ISS. Some technologies extensible to monitoring of extraterrestrial debris as well To help accomplish this, new technologies must be developed quickly. The Small Orbital Stereo Tracking Camera is one such up and coming technology. It consists of flying a pair of intensified megapixel telephoto cameras to evaluate Orbital Debris (OD) monitoring in proximity of International Space Station. It will demonstrate on-orbit optical tracking (in situ) of various sized objects versus ground RADAR tracking and small OD models. The cameras are based on Flight Proven Advanced Video Guidance Sensor pixel to spot algorithms (Orbital Express) and military targeting cameras. And by using twin cameras we can provide Stereo images for ranging & mission redundancy. When pointed into the orbital velocity vector (RAM), objects approaching or near the stereo camera set can be differentiated from the stars moving upward in background.

  11. Design and implementation of digital airborne multispectral camera system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Zhaorong; Zhang, Xuguo; Wang, Li; Pan, Deai

    2012-10-01

    The multispectral imaging equipment is a kind of new generation remote sensor, which can obtain the target image and the spectra information simultaneously. A digital airborne multispectral camera system using discrete filter method had been designed and implemented for unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) and manned aircraft platforms. The digital airborne multispectral camera system has the advantages of larger frame, higher resolution, panchromatic and multispectral imaging. It also has great potential applications in the fields of environmental and agricultural monitoring and target detection and discrimination. In order to enhance the measurement precision and accuracy of position and orientation, Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) is integrated in the digital airborne multispectral camera. Meanwhile, the Temperature Control Unit (TCU) guarantees that the camera can operate in the normal state in different altitudes to avoid the window fogging and frosting which will degrade the imaging quality greatly. Finally, Flying experiments were conducted to demonstrate the functionality and performance of the digital airborne multispectral camera. The resolution capability, positioning accuracy and classification and recognition ability were validated.

  12. Reconstructing spectral reflectance from digital camera through samples selection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Bin; Liao, Ningfang; Yang, Wenming; Chen, Haobo

    2016-10-01

    Spectral reflectance provides the most fundamental information of objects and is recognized as the "fingerprint" of them, since reflectance is independent of illumination and viewing conditions. However, reconstructing high-dimensional spectral reflectance from relatively low-dimensional camera outputs is an illposed problem and most of methods requaired camera's spectral responsivity. We propose a method to reconstruct spectral reflectance from digital camera outputs without prior knowledge of camera's spectral responsivity. This method respectively averages reflectances of selected subset from main training samples by prescribing a limit to tolerable color difference between the training samples and the camera outputs. Different tolerable color differences of training samples were investigated with Munsell chips under D65 light source. Experimental results show that the proposed method outperforms classic PI method in terms of multiple evaluation criteria between the actual and the reconstructed reflectances. Besides, the reconstructed spectral reflectances are between 0-1, which make them have actual physical meanings and better than traditional methods.

  13. Review of up-to date digital cameras interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linkemann, Joachim

    2013-04-01

    Over the past 15 years, various interfaces on digital industrial cameras have been available on the market. This tutorial will give an overview of interfaces such as LVDS (RS644), Channel Link and Camera Link. In addition, other interfaces such as FireWire, Gigabit Ethernet, and now USB 3.0 have become more popular. Owing to their ease of use, these interfaces cover most of the market. Nevertheless, for certain applications and especially for higher bandwidths, Camera Link and CoaXPress are very useful. This tutorial will give a description of the advantages and disadvantages, comment on bandwidths, and provide recommendations on when to use which interface.

  14. Quantifying biodiversity using digital cameras and automated image analysis.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roadknight, C. M.; Rose, R. J.; Barber, M. L.; Price, M. C.; Marshall, I. W.

    2009-04-01

    Monitoring the effects on biodiversity of extensive grazing in complex semi-natural habitats is labour intensive. There are also concerns about the standardization of semi-quantitative data collection. We have chosen to focus initially on automating the most time consuming aspect - the image analysis. The advent of cheaper and more sophisticated digital camera technology has lead to a sudden increase in the number of habitat monitoring images and information that is being collected. We report on the use of automated trail cameras (designed for the game hunting market) to continuously capture images of grazer activity in a variety of habitats at Moor House National Nature Reserve, which is situated in the North of England at an average altitude of over 600m. Rainfall is high, and in most areas the soil consists of deep peat (1m to 3m), populated by a mix of heather, mosses and sedges. The cameras have been continuously in operation over a 6 month period, daylight images are in full colour and night images (IR flash) are black and white. We have developed artificial intelligence based methods to assist in the analysis of the large number of images collected, generating alert states for new or unusual image conditions. This paper describes the data collection techniques, outlines the quantitative and qualitative data collected and proposes online and offline systems that can reduce the manpower overheads and increase focus on important subsets in the collected data. By converting digital image data into statistical composite data it can be handled in a similar way to other biodiversity statistics thus improving the scalability of monitoring experiments. Unsupervised feature detection methods and supervised neural methods were tested and offered solutions to simplifying the process. Accurate (85 to 95%) categorization of faunal content can be obtained, requiring human intervention for only those images containing rare animals or unusual (undecidable) conditions, and

  15. Using a Digital Video Camera to Study Motion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abisdris, Gil; Phaneuf, Alain

    2007-01-01

    To illustrate how a digital video camera can be used to analyze various types of motion, this simple activity analyzes the motion and measures the acceleration due to gravity of a basketball in free fall. Although many excellent commercially available data loggers and software can accomplish this task, this activity requires almost no financial…

  16. Using a Digital Video Camera to Study Motion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abisdris, Gil; Phaneuf, Alain

    2007-01-01

    To illustrate how a digital video camera can be used to analyze various types of motion, this simple activity analyzes the motion and measures the acceleration due to gravity of a basketball in free fall. Although many excellent commercially available data loggers and software can accomplish this task, this activity requires almost no financial…

  17. Bringing the Digital Camera to the Physics Lab

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rossi, M.; Gratton, L. M.; Oss, S.

    2013-01-01

    We discuss how compressed images created by modern digital cameras can lead to even severe problems in the quantitative analysis of experiments based on such images. Difficulties result from the nonlinear treatment of lighting intensity values stored in compressed files. To overcome such troubles, one has to adopt noncompressed, native formats, as…

  18. Bringing the Digital Camera to the Physics Lab

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rossi, M.; Gratton, L. M.; Oss, S.

    2013-01-01

    We discuss how compressed images created by modern digital cameras can lead to even severe problems in the quantitative analysis of experiments based on such images. Difficulties result from the nonlinear treatment of lighting intensity values stored in compressed files. To overcome such troubles, one has to adopt noncompressed, native formats, as…

  19. Digital Optical Circuit Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dove, B. L. (Editor)

    1985-01-01

    The Proceedings for the 48th Meeting of the AGARD Avionics Panel contain the 18 papers presented a Technical Evaluation Report, and discussions that followed the presentations of papers. Seven papers were presented in the session devoted to optical bistability. Optical logic was addressed by three papers. The session on sources, modulators and demodulators presented three papers. Five papers were given in the final session on all optical systems. The purpose of this Specialists' Meeting was to present the research and development status of digital optical circuit technology and to examine its relevance in the broad context of digital processing, communication, radar, avionics and flight control systems implementation.

  20. Using digital technology to enhance restorative dentistry.

    PubMed

    Fasbinder, Dennis

    2012-10-01

    While there are many benefits for dental practices that incorporate digital systems into their workflow, the dental team must first master the learning curve involved in order to maximize their advantages for creating well-fitting restorations. This article describes the current systems-both digital impression systems and chairside CAD/CAM systems-including software and digital cameras and scanners. The author emphasizes that to consistently capture accurate impressions with this technology, the dental team must continue to rely on traditional skills such as achieving optimal soft-tissue retraction and maintaining moisture control and isolation.

  1. Comparison of 10 digital SLR cameras for orthodontic photography.

    PubMed

    Bister, D; Mordarai, F; Aveling, R M

    2006-09-01

    Digital photography is now widely used to document orthodontic patients. High quality intra-oral photography depends on a satisfactory 'depth of field' focus and good illumination. Automatic 'through the lens' (TTL) metering is ideal to achieve both the above aims. Ten current digital single lens reflex (SLR) cameras were tested for use in intra- and extra-oral photography as used in orthodontics. The manufacturers' recommended macro-lens and macro-flash were used with each camera. Handling characteristics, colour-reproducibility, quality of the viewfinder and flash recharge time were investigated. No camera took acceptable images in factory default setting or 'automatic' mode: this mode was not present for some cameras (Nikon, Fujifilm); led to overexposure (Olympus) or poor depth of field (Canon, Konica-Minolta, Pentax), particularly for intra-oral views. Once adjusted, only Olympus cameras were able to take intra- and extra-oral photographs without the need to change settings, and were therefore the easiest to use. All other cameras needed adjustments of aperture (Canon, Konica-Minolta, Pentax), or aperture and flash (Fujifilm, Nikon), making the latter the most complex to use. However, all cameras produced high quality intra- and extra-oral images, once appropriately adjusted. The resolution of the images is more than satisfactory for all cameras. There were significant differences relating to the quality of colour reproduction, size and brightness of the viewfinders. The Nikon D100 and Fujifilm S 3 Pro consistently scored best for colour fidelity. Pentax and Konica-Minolta had the largest and brightest viewfinders.

  2. Aerotriangulation Supported by Camera Station Position Determined via Physical Integration of LIDAR and SLR Digital Camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitishita, E.; Martins, M.; Centeno, J.; Hainosz, F.

    2011-09-01

    Nowadays lidar and photogrammetric surveys have been used together in many mapping procedures due to their complementary characteristics. Lidar survey is capable to promptly acquire reliable elevation information that is sometimes difficult via photogrammetric procedure. On the other hand, photogrammetric survey is easily able to get semantic information of the objects. Accessibility, availability, the increasing sensor size and quick image acquisition and processing are properties that have raised the use of SLR digital cameras in photogrammetry. Orthoimage generation is a powerful photogrammetric mapping procedure, where the advantages of the integration of lidar and image datasets are very well characterized. However, to perform this application both datasets must be within a common reference frame. In this paper, a procedure to have digital images positioned and oriented in the same lidar frame via a combination of direct and indirect georeferencing is studied. The SLR digital camera was physically connected with the lidar system to calculate the camera station's position in lidar frame. After that, the aerotriangulation supported by camera station's position is performed to get image's exterior orientation parameters (EOP).

  3. Development of digital shade guides for color assessment using a digital camera with ring flashes.

    PubMed

    Tung, Oi-Hong; Lai, Yu-Lin; Ho, Yi-Ching; Chou, I-Chiang; Lee, Shyh-Yuan

    2011-02-01

    Digital photographs taken with cameras and ring flashes are commonly used for dental documentation. We hypothesized that different illuminants and camera's white balance setups shall influence color rendering of digital images and affect the effectiveness of color matching using digital images. Fifteen ceramic disks of different shades were fabricated and photographed with a digital camera in both automatic white balance (AWB) and custom white balance (CWB) under either light-emitting diode (LED) or electronic ring flash. The Commission Internationale d'Éclairage L*a*b* parameters of the captured images were derived from Photoshop software and served as digital shade guides. We found significantly high correlation coefficients (r² > 0.96) between the respective spectrophotometer standards and those shade guides generated in CWB setups. Moreover, the accuracy of color matching of another set of ceramic disks using digital shade guides, which was verified by ten operators, improved from 67% in AWB to 93% in CWB under LED illuminants. Probably, because of the inconsistent performance of the flashlight and specular reflection, the digital images captured under electronic ring flash in both white balance setups revealed less reliable and relative low-matching ability. In conclusion, the reliability of color matching with digital images is much influenced by the illuminants and camera's white balance setups, while digital shade guides derived under LED illuminants with CWB demonstrate applicable potential in the fields of color assessments.

  4. Use of the Digital Camera To Increase Student Interest and Learning in High School Biology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tatar, Denise; Robinson, Mike

    2003-01-01

    Attempts to answer two research questions: (1) Does the use of a digital camera in laboratory activities increase student learning?; and (2) Does the use of digital cameras motivate students to take a greater interest in laboratory work? Results indicate that the digital camera did increase student learning of process skills in two biology…

  5. Multispectral synthesis of daylight using a commercial digital CCD camera.

    PubMed

    Nieves, Juan L; Valero, Eva M; Nascimento, Sérgio M C; Hernández-Andrés, Javier; Romero, Javier

    2005-09-20

    Performance of multispectral devices in recovering spectral data has been intensively investigated in some applications, as in spectral characterization of art paintings, but has received little attention in the context of spectral characterization of natural illumination. This study investigated the quality of the spectral estimation of daylight-type illuminants using a commercial digital CCD camera and a set of broadband colored filters. Several recovery algorithms that did not need information about spectral sensitivities of the camera sensors nor eigenvectors to describe the spectra were tested. Tests were carried out both with virtual data, using simulated camera responses, and real data obtained from real measurements. It was found that it is possible to recover daylight spectra with high spectral and colorimetric accuracy with a reduced number of three to nine spectral bands.

  6. Demosaicing images from colour cameras for digital image correlation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forsey, A.; Gungor, S.

    2016-11-01

    Digital image correlation is not the intended use for consumer colour cameras, but with care they can be successfully employed in such a role. The main obstacle is the sparsely sampled colour data caused by the use of a colour filter array (CFA) to separate the colour channels. It is shown that the method used to convert consumer camera raw files into a monochrome image suitable for digital image correlation (DIC) can have a significant effect on the DIC output. A number of widely available software packages and two in-house methods are evaluated in terms of their performance when used with DIC. Using an in-plane rotating disc to produce a highly constrained displacement field, it was found that the bicubic spline based in-house demosaicing method outperformed the other methods in terms of accuracy and aliasing suppression.

  7. Observation of Planetary Motion Using a Digital Camera

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyn, Jan-Peter

    2008-01-01

    A digital SLR camera with a standard lens (50 mm focal length, f/1.4) on a fixed tripod is used to obtain photographs of the sky which contain stars up to 8[superscript m] apparent magnitude. The angle of view is large enough to ensure visual identification of the photograph with a large sky region in a stellar map. The resolution is sufficient to…

  8. Observation of Planetary Motion Using a Digital Camera

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyn, Jan-Peter

    2008-01-01

    A digital SLR camera with a standard lens (50 mm focal length, f/1.4) on a fixed tripod is used to obtain photographs of the sky which contain stars up to 8[superscript m] apparent magnitude. The angle of view is large enough to ensure visual identification of the photograph with a large sky region in a stellar map. The resolution is sufficient to…

  9. Database Technology in Digital Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preston, Carole; Lin, Binshan

    2002-01-01

    Reviews issues relating to database technology and digital libraries. Highlights include resource sharing; ongoing digital library projects; metadata; user interfaces; query processing; interoperability; data quality; copyright infringement; and managerial implications, including electronic versus printed materials, accessibility,…

  10. Using digital cameras for continuous monitoring of crop status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakamoto, T.; Gitelson, A. A.; Nguy-Robertson, A. L.; Arkebauer, T. J.; Wardlow, B.; Shibayama, M.

    2011-12-01

    Crop physiological and phenological status is an important factor that characterizes crop yield as well as carbon exchange between the atmosphere and the terrestrial biosphere in agroecosystems. It is difficult to establish high frequency observations of crop status in multiple locations using conventional approaches such as agronomical sampling and also remote sensing techniques that use spectral radiometers because of the labor intensive work required for field surveys and the high cost of radiometers designed for scientific use. This study explored the potential utility of an inexpensive camera observation system called crop phenology recording system (CPRS) as an alternative approach for the fixed-point observation of seasonal change in crop growth. The CPRS consisting of two compact digital cameras was used to capture visible and near infrared (NIR) images of maize in 2009 and soybean in 2010 every hour day and night, continuously. In addition, a four channel sensor SKYE measured crop reflectance and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellite images were acquired over crop fields. The six different camera- radiometer- and MODIS-derived vegetation indices (VIs) were calculated and compared with the ground-measured crop biophysical parameters. In addition to VIs that use digital numbers, we proposed to use daytime exposure value-adjusted VIs. The camera-derived VIs were compared with the VIs calculated from spectral reflectance observations based on SKYE and MODIS. It was found that new camera-derived VIs using daytime exposure values are good proxies of crop biophysical parameters. Camera-derived normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) was more sensitive to high biomass conditions of maize and soybean than the SKYE-derived NDVI. The performance of several camera-derived VIs are comparable to VIs derived from the spectral-reflectance data based on SKYE and MODIS. As a result, camera-derived green chlorophyll index (CIgreen), simple

  11. Measuring magnification of virtual images using digital cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kutzner, Mickey D.; Snelling, Samantha

    2016-11-01

    The concept of virtual images and why they lead to angular rather than linear magnification of optical images can be vague for students. A particularly straightforward method of obtaining quantitative magnification for simple magnifiers, microscopes, and telescopes uses the technology that students carry in their backpacks—their camera phones.

  12. X-ray imaging using a consumer-grade digital camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winch, N. M.; Edgar, A.

    2011-10-01

    The recent advancements in consumer-grade digital camera technology and the introduction of high-resolution, high sensitivity CsBr:Eu 2+ storage phosphor imaging plates make possible a new cost-effective technique for X-ray imaging. The imaging plate is bathed with red stimulating light by high-intensity light-emitting diodes, and the photostimulated image is captured with a digital single-lens reflex (SLR) camera. A blue band-pass optical filter blocks the stimulating red light but transmits the blue photostimulated luminescence. Using a Canon D5 Mk II camera and an f1.4 wide-angle lens, the optical image of a 240×180 mm 2 Konica CsBr:Eu 2+ imaging plate from a position 230 mm in front of the camera lens can be focussed so as to laterally fill the 35×23.3 mm 2 camera sensor, and recorded in 2808×1872 pixel elements, corresponding to an equivalent pixel size on the plate of 88 μm. The analogue-to-digital conversion from the camera electronics is 13 bits, but the dynamic range of the imaging system as a whole is limited in practice by noise to about 2.5 orders of magnitude. The modulation transfer function falls to 0.2 at a spatial frequency of 2.2 line pairs/mm. The limiting factor of the spatial resolution is light scattering in the plate rather than the camera optics. The limiting factors for signal-to-noise ratio are shot noise in the light, and dark noise in the CMOS sensor. Good quality images of high-contrast objects can be recorded with doses of approximately 1 mGy. The CsBr:Eu 2+ plate has approximately three times the readout sensitivity of a similar BaFBr:Eu 2+ plate.

  13. Digital SPC switching technology: Foreign technology assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischman, Kurt; Jorstad, Norman D.

    1990-12-01

    This paper provides a foreign technology assessment of digital switching technology. Leading suppliers of digital switching technology are identified; although the United States holds a large part of the market, major companies in France, Sweden, Japan, the U.K., and Germany are also important. These countries, along with Belgium and Canada, are the most innovative and technically advanced. A listing is provided of transfers of digital switching technology to non-COCOM countries through licensing and joint ventures which reflects the widespread dissemination of this technology. Detailed technical specifications are provided for selected digital switching systems worldwide. The report concludes that considering the degree to which the technology is in place, that control of digital switching technology may not be feasible.

  14. The systematic error in digital image correlation induced by self-heating of a digital camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Shaopeng; Pang, Jiazhi; Ma, Qinwei

    2012-02-01

    The systematic strain measurement error in digital image correlation (DIC) induced by self-heating of digital CCD and CMOS cameras was extensively studied, and an experimental and data analysis procedure has been proposed and two parameters have been suggested to examine and evaluate this. Six digital cameras of four different types were tested to define the strain errors, and it was found that each camera needed between 1 and 2 h to reach a stable heat balance, with a measured temperature increase of around 10 °C. During the temperature increase, the virtual image expansion will cause a 70-230 µɛ strain error in the DIC measurement, which is large enough to be noticed in most DIC experiments and hence should be eliminated.

  15. Establishing imaging sensor specifications for digital still cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kriss, Michael A.

    2007-02-01

    Digital Still Cameras, DSCs, have now displaced conventional still cameras in most markets. The heart of a DSC is thought to be the imaging sensor, be it Full Frame CCD, and Interline CCD, a CMOS sensor or the newer Foveon buried photodiode sensors. There is a strong tendency by consumers to consider only the number of mega-pixels in a camera and not to consider the overall performance of the imaging system, including sharpness, artifact control, noise, color reproduction, exposure latitude and dynamic range. This paper will provide a systematic method to characterize the physical requirements of an imaging sensor and supporting system components based on the desired usage. The analysis is based on two software programs that determine the "sharpness", potential for artifacts, sensor "photographic speed", dynamic range and exposure latitude based on the physical nature of the imaging optics, sensor characteristics (including size of pixels, sensor architecture, noise characteristics, surface states that cause dark current, quantum efficiency, effective MTF, and the intrinsic full well capacity in terms of electrons per square centimeter). Examples will be given for consumer, pro-consumer, and professional camera systems. Where possible, these results will be compared to imaging system currently on the market.

  16. Simulating the functionality of a digital camera pipeline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toadere, Florin

    2013-10-01

    The goal of this paper is to simulate the functionality of a digital camera system. The simulations cover the conversion from light to numerical signal, color processing, and rendering. A spectral image processing algorithm is used to simulate the radiometric properties of a digital camera. In the algorithm, we take into consideration the spectral image and the transmittances of the light source, lenses, filters, and the quantum efficiency of a complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) image sensor. The optical part is characterized by a multiple convolution between the different point spread functions optical components such as the Cooke triplet, the aperture, the light fall off, and the optical part of the CMOS sensor. The electrical part consists of the Bayer sampling, interpolation, dynamic range, and analog to digital conversion. The reconstruction of the noisy blurred image is performed by blending different light exposed images in order to reduce the noise. Then, the image is filtered, deconvoluted, and sharpened to eliminate the noise and blur. Next, we have the color processing and rendering blocks interpolation, white balancing, color correction, conversion from XYZ color space to LAB color space, and, then, into the RGB color space, the color saturation and contrast.

  17. A large distributed digital camera system for accelerator beam diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catani, L.; Cianchi, A.; Di Pirro, G.; Honkavaara, K.

    2005-07-01

    Optical diagnostics, providing images of accelerated particle beams using radiation emitted by particles impinging a radiator, typically a fluorescent screen, has been extensively used, especially on electron linacs, since the 1970's. Higher intensity beams available in the last decade allow extending the use of beam imaging techniques to perform precise measurements of important beam parameters such as emittance, energy, and energy spread using optical transition radiation (OTR). OTR-based diagnostics systems are extensively used on the superconducting TESLA Test Facility (TTF) linac driving the vacuum ultraviolet free electron laser (VUV-FEL) at the Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron facility. Up to 30 optical diagnostic stations have been installed at various positions along the 250-m-long linac, each equipped with a high-performance digital camera. This paper describes the new approach to the design of the hardware and software setups required by the complex topology of such a distributed camera system.

  18. Self-calibration of digital aerial camera using combined orthogonal models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babapour, Hadi; Mokhtarzade, Mehdi; Valadan Zoej, Mohamad Javad

    2016-07-01

    The emergence of new digital aerial cameras and the diverse design and technology used in this type of cameras require in-situ calibration. Self-calibration methods, e.g. the Fourier model, are primarily used; however, additional parameters employed in such methods have not yet met the expectations to desirably model the complex multiple distortions existing in the digital aerial cameras. The present study proposes the Chebyshev-Fourier (CHF) and Jacobi-Fourier (JF) combined orthogonal models. The models are evaluated for the multiple distortions using both simulated and real data, the latter being derived from an UltraCam digital camera. The results indicate that the JF model is superior to the other methods where, e.g., in the UltraCam scenario, it improves the planimetric and vertical accuracy over the Fourier model by 18% and 22%, respectively. Furthermore, a 30% and 16% of reduction in external and internal correlation is obtained via this approach which is very promising.

  19. Preparation of a Low-Cost Digital Camera System for Remote Sensing

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Off-the-shelf consumer digital cameras are convenient and user-friendly. However, the use of these cameras in remote sensing is limited because convenient methods for concurrently determining visible and near-infrared (NIR) radiation have not been developed. Two Nikon COOLPIX 4300 digital cameras ...

  20. Fast measurement of temporal noise of digital camera's photosensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheremkhin, Pavel A.; Evtikhiev, Nikolay N.; Krasnov, Vitaly V.; Rodin, Vladislav G.; Starikov, Rostislav S.; Starikov, Sergey N.

    2015-10-01

    Currently photo- and videocameras are widespread parts of both scientific experimental setups and consumer applications. They are used in optics, radiophysics, astrophotography, chemistry, and other various fields of science and technology such as control systems and video-surveillance monitoring. One of the main information limitations of photoand videocameras are noises of photosensor pixels. Camera's photosensor noise can be divided into random and pattern components. Temporal noise includes random noise component while spatial noise includes pattern noise component. Spatial part usually several times lower in magnitude than temporal. At first approximation spatial noises might be neglected. Earlier we proposed modification of the automatic segmentation of non-uniform targets (ASNT) method for measurement of temporal noise of photo- and videocameras. Only two frames are sufficient for noise measurement with the modified method. In result, proposed ASNT modification should allow fast and accurate measurement of temporal noise. In this paper, we estimated light and dark temporal noises of four cameras of different types using the modified ASNT method with only several frames. These cameras are: consumer photocamera Canon EOS 400D (CMOS, 10.1 MP, 12 bit ADC), scientific camera MegaPlus II ES11000 (CCD, 10.7 MP, 12 bit ADC), industrial camera PixeLink PLB781F (CMOS, 6.6 MP, 10 bit ADC) and video-surveillance camera Watec LCL-902C (CCD, 0.47 MP, external 8 bit ADC). Experimental dependencies of temporal noise on signal value are in good agreement with fitted curves based on a Poisson distribution excluding areas near saturation. We measured elapsed time for processing of shots used for temporal noise estimation. The results demonstrate the possibility of fast obtaining of dependency of camera full temporal noise on signal value with the proposed ASNT modification.

  1. Practical use of digital cameras for microphotography through the operating microscope.

    PubMed

    Gurunluoglu, Raffi; Shafighi, Maziar; Ozer, Kagan; Piza-Katzer, Hildegunde

    2003-07-01

    A practical use of personal digital cameras for taking digital photographs in the microsurgical field through an operating microscope is described. This inexpensive and practical method for acquiring microscopic images at the desired magnification combines the advantages of the digital camera and the operating microscope.

  2. Social Justice through Literacy: Integrating Digital Video Cameras in Reading Summaries and Responses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Rong; Unger, John A.; Scullion, Vicki A.

    2014-01-01

    Drawing data from an action-oriented research project for integrating digital video cameras into the reading process in pre-college courses, this study proposes using digital video cameras in reading summaries and responses to promote critical thinking and to teach social justice concepts. The digital video research project is founded on…

  3. Influence of Digital Camera Errors on the Photogrammetric Image Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sužiedelytė-Visockienė, Jūratė; Bručas, Domantas

    2009-01-01

    The paper deals with the calibration of digital camera Canon EOS 350D, often used for the photogrammetric 3D digitalisation and measurements of industrial and construction site objects. During the calibration data on the optical and electronic parameters, influencing the distortion of images, such as correction of the principal point, focal length of the objective, radial symmetrical and non-symmetrical distortions were obtained. The calibration was performed by means of the Tcc software implementing the polynomial of Chebichev and using a special test-field with the marks, coordinates of which are precisely known. The main task of the research - to determine how parameters of the camera calibration influence the processing of images, i. e. the creation of geometric model, the results of triangulation calculations and stereo-digitalisation. Two photogrammetric projects were created for this task. In first project the non-corrected and in the second the corrected ones, considering the optical errors of the camera obtained during the calibration, images were used. The results of analysis of the images processing is shown in the images and tables. The conclusions are given.

  4. Temperature Mapping in Hydrogel Matrices Using Unmodified Digital Camera.

    PubMed

    Darwish, Ghinwa H; Fakih, Hassan H; Karam, Pierre

    2017-02-09

    We report a simple, generally applicable, and noninvasive fluorescent method for mapping thermal fluctuations in hydrogel matrices using an unmodified commercially available digital single-lens reflex camera (DSLR). The nanothermometer is based on the complexation of short conjugated polyelectrolytes, poly(phenylene ethynylene) carboxylate, with an amphiphilic polymer, polyvinylpyrrolidone, which is in turn trapped within the porous network of a gel matrix. Changes in the temperature lead to a fluorescent ratiometric response with a maximum relative sensitivity of 2.0% and 1.9% at 45.0 °C for 0.5% agarose and agar, respectively. The response was reversible with no observed hysteresis when samples were cycled between 20 and 40 °C. As a proof of concept, the change in fluorescent signal/color was captured using a digital camera. The images were then dissected into their red-green-blue (RGB) components using a Matlab routine. A linear correlation was observed between the hydrogel temperature and the green and blue intensity channels. The reported sensor has the potential to provide a wealth of information when thermal fluctuations mapped in soft gels matrices are correlated with chemical or physical processes.

  5. Development of camera technology for monitoring nests. Chapter 15

    Treesearch

    W. Andrew Cox; M. Shane Pruett; Thomas J. Benson; Scott J. Chiavacci; Frank R., III Thompson

    2012-01-01

    Photo and video technology has become increasingly useful in the study of avian nesting ecology. However, researchers interested in using camera systems are often faced with insufficient information on the types and relative advantages of available technologies. We reviewed the literature for studies of nests that used cameras and summarized them based on study...

  6. Digital ureteroscopes: technology update

    PubMed Central

    Gridley, Chad M; Knudsen, Bodo E

    2017-01-01

    The field of ureteroscopy has undergone a continual evolution since the first ureteroscopes were introduced. Over the past 10 years, we have entered into the digital era of ureteroscopy with both semirigid and flexible options becoming available. The following review looks at the benefits and drawbacks of digital flexible ureteroscopes as well as the current commercially available options. PMID:28203551

  7. Digital ureteroscopes: technology update.

    PubMed

    Gridley, Chad M; Knudsen, Bodo E

    2017-01-01

    The field of ureteroscopy has undergone a continual evolution since the first ureteroscopes were introduced. Over the past 10 years, we have entered into the digital era of ureteroscopy with both semirigid and flexible options becoming available. The following review looks at the benefits and drawbacks of digital flexible ureteroscopes as well as the current commercially available options.

  8. Digital Intelligence Fostered by Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Nan B.

    2004-01-01

    Through interaction with digital technologies for work, play, and communication, the pattern for intellectual development is being altered. The multiple intelligences theoretical framework developed by Gardner (1983) is easily employed to provide evidence that yet another intelligence, digital intelligence, has emerged. In a postmodern pluralistic…

  9. Art Education Technology: Digital Storytelling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chung, Sheng Kuan

    2007-01-01

    The application of digital storytelling to art education is an interdisciplinary, inquiry-based, hands-on project that integrates the arts, education, local communities, technology, and storytelling. Through digital storytelling, students develop and apply multiliteracy skills, aesthetic sensitivities, and critical faculties to address greater…

  10. Comparison of the effectiveness of three retinal camera technologies for malarial retinopathy detection in Malawi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soliz, Peter; Nemeth, Sheila C.; Barriga, E. Simon; Harding, Simon P.; Lewallen, Susan; Taylor, Terrie E.; MacCormick, Ian J.; Joshi, Vinayak S.

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the suitability of three available camera technologies (desktop, portable, and iphone based) for imaging comatose children who presented with clinical symptoms of malaria. Ultimately, the results of the project would form the basis for a design of a future camera to screen for malaria retinopathy (MR) in a resource challenged environment. The desktop, portable, and i-phone based cameras were represented by the Topcon, Pictor Plus, and Peek cameras, respectively. These cameras were tested on N=23 children presenting with symptoms of cerebral malaria (CM) at a malaria clinic, Queen Elizabeth Teaching Hospital in Malawi, Africa. Each patient was dilated for binocular indirect ophthalmoscopy (BIO) exam by an ophthalmologist followed by imaging with all three cameras. Each of the cases was graded according to an internationally established protocol and compared to the BIO as the clinical ground truth. The reader used three principal retinal lesions as markers for MR: hemorrhages, retinal whitening, and vessel discoloration. The study found that the mid-priced Pictor Plus hand-held camera performed considerably better than the lower price mobile phone-based camera, and slightly the higher priced table top camera. When comparing the readings of digital images against the clinical reference standard (BIO), the Pictor Plus camera had sensitivity and specificity for MR of 100% and 87%, respectively. This compares to a sensitivity and specificity of 87% and 75% for the i-phone based camera and 100% and 75% for the desktop camera. The drawback of all the cameras were their limited field of view which did not allow complete view of the periphery where vessel discoloration occurs most frequently. The consequence was that vessel discoloration was not addressed in this study. None of the cameras offered real-time image quality assessment to ensure high quality images to afford the best possible opportunity for reading by a remotely located

  11. [An applied research on effective health care planning using cellular phone with the digital still camera function].

    PubMed

    Yoshiyama, Naoki; Hashimoto, Akihiro; Nakajima, Kieko; Hattori, Shin; Sugita, Fukashi

    2004-12-01

    In order to make effective health care plans for elder home care patients, we have tried an easy communication tool between medical doctors and their patients. This tool is the cellular phone with digital still camera function (CP-DSC). We have achieved successful results using this type of technology.

  12. Encrypting Digital Camera with Automatic Encryption Key Deletion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oakley, Ernest C. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A digital video camera includes an image sensor capable of producing a frame of video data representing an image viewed by the sensor, an image memory for storing video data such as previously recorded frame data in a video frame location of the image memory, a read circuit for fetching the previously recorded frame data, an encryption circuit having an encryption key input connected to receive the previously recorded frame data from the read circuit as an encryption key, an un-encrypted data input connected to receive the frame of video data from the image sensor and an encrypted data output port, and a write circuit for writing a frame of encrypted video data received from the encrypted data output port of the encryption circuit to the memory and overwriting the video frame location storing the previously recorded frame data.

  13. Camera system resolution and its influence on digital image correlation

    DOE PAGES

    Reu, Phillip L.; Sweatt, William; Miller, Timothy; ...

    2014-09-21

    Digital image correlation (DIC) uses images from a camera and lens system to make quantitative measurements of the shape, displacement, and strain of test objects. This increasingly popular method has had little research on the influence of the imaging system resolution on the DIC results. This paper investigates the entire imaging system and studies how both the camera and lens resolution influence the DIC results as a function of the system Modulation Transfer Function (MTF). It will show that when making spatial resolution decisions (including speckle size) the resolution limiting component should be considered. A consequence of the loss ofmore » spatial resolution is that the DIC uncertainties will be increased. This is demonstrated using both synthetic and experimental images with varying resolution. The loss of image resolution and DIC accuracy can be compensated for by increasing the subset size, or better, by increasing the speckle size. The speckle-size and spatial resolution are now a function of the lens resolution rather than the more typical assumption of the pixel size. The study will demonstrate the tradeoffs associated with limited lens resolution.« less

  14. Camera system resolution and its influence on digital image correlation

    SciTech Connect

    Reu, Phillip L.; Sweatt, William; Miller, Timothy; Fleming, Darryn

    2014-09-21

    Digital image correlation (DIC) uses images from a camera and lens system to make quantitative measurements of the shape, displacement, and strain of test objects. This increasingly popular method has had little research on the influence of the imaging system resolution on the DIC results. This paper investigates the entire imaging system and studies how both the camera and lens resolution influence the DIC results as a function of the system Modulation Transfer Function (MTF). It will show that when making spatial resolution decisions (including speckle size) the resolution limiting component should be considered. A consequence of the loss of spatial resolution is that the DIC uncertainties will be increased. This is demonstrated using both synthetic and experimental images with varying resolution. The loss of image resolution and DIC accuracy can be compensated for by increasing the subset size, or better, by increasing the speckle size. The speckle-size and spatial resolution are now a function of the lens resolution rather than the more typical assumption of the pixel size. The study will demonstrate the tradeoffs associated with limited lens resolution.

  15. Development of Digital SLR Camera: PENTAX K-7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawauchi, Hiraku

    The DSLR "PENTAX K-7" comes with an easy-to-carry, minimal yet functional small form factor, a long inherited identities of the PENTAX brand. Nevertheless for its compact body, this camera has up-to-date enhanced fundamental features such as high-quality viewfinder, enhanced shutter mechanism, extended continuous shooting capabilities, reliable exposure control, and fine-tuned AF systems, as well as strings of newest technologies such as movie recording capability and automatic leveling function. The main focus of this article is to reveal the ideas behind the concept making of this product and its distinguished features.

  16. DR with a DSLR: Digital Radiography with a Digital Single-Lens Reflex camera.

    PubMed

    Fan, Helen; Durko, Heather L; Moore, Stephen K; Moore, Jared; Miller, Brian W; Furenlid, Lars R; Pradhan, Sunil; Barrett, Harrison H

    2010-02-15

    An inexpensive, portable digital radiography (DR) detector system for use in remote regions has been built and evaluated. The system utilizes a large-format digital single-lens reflex (DSLR) camera to capture the image from a standard fluorescent screen. The large sensor area allows relatively small demagnification factors and hence minimizes the light loss. The system has been used for initial phantom tests in urban hospitals and Himalayan clinics in Nepal, and it has been evaluated in the laboratory at the University of Arizona by additional phantom studies. Typical phantom images are presented in this paper, and a simplified discussion of the detective quantum efficiency of the detector is given.

  17. The Challenge of Digital Imaging Technologies: A Practical View of the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamber, Anthony

    1994-01-01

    Discusses digital imaging technologies. Topics include information technology; reprographics; scientific imaging processing; political considerations of telecommunications and the information superhighway; digital cameras; slide and transparency scanners; desktop prepress processing; digital proofing devices; direct-to-plate and direct-to-press…

  18. Use of a Digital Camera To Document Student Observations in a Microbiology Laboratory Class.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, David A.; Kelley, Kevin; Jones, Michael

    2001-01-01

    Points out the lack of microscopic images of wine-related microbes. Uses a digital camera during a wine microbiology laboratory to capture student-generated microscope images. Discusses the advantages of using a digital camera in a teaching lab. (YDS)

  19. Use of a Digital Camera To Document Student Observations in a Microbiology Laboratory Class.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, David A.; Kelley, Kevin; Jones, Michael

    2001-01-01

    Points out the lack of microscopic images of wine-related microbes. Uses a digital camera during a wine microbiology laboratory to capture student-generated microscope images. Discusses the advantages of using a digital camera in a teaching lab. (YDS)

  20. Teleconsultation with the mobile camera-phone in digital soft-tissue injury: a feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Ching-Hua; Tsai, Hui-Hong; Yin, Jir-Wen; Chen, Chih-Yuan; Yang, Johnson Chia-Shen; Jeng, Seng-Feng

    2004-12-01

    in 20 cases (25 percent), and the difference in triaging was partly attributed to the inability to show instances of tiny exposed digital bone or tendon in some cases under the low-resolution digital image and the situation of a bloody oozing wound. In some cases, the difficulty in evaluating the probability of primary closure of severely avulsed skin edges or the probability of executing replantation for finger amputation also contributed to different triaging outcomes. Two neglected diagnoses of transected digital nerves were found and influenced triaging, highlighting the importance of on-site physical examination during teleconsultation. The telemedicine system using a mobile camera-phone based on the global system for mobile communication is feasible and valuable for early diagnosis and triaging of digital soft-tissue injury in emergency cases, with on-line verbal communication and review of the transmitted captured image. This system has the advantages of ease of use, low cost, high portability, and mobility. With advances in hardware for digital imaging and transmission technology and the development of the third-generation advanced mobile phone system in the foreseeable future, this system has potential for future applications in telemedicine and telecare.

  1. Development of High Speed Digital Camera: EXILIM EX-F1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nojima, Osamu

    The EX-F1 is a high speed digital camera featuring a revolutionary improvement in burst shooting speed that is expected to create entirely new markets. This model incorporates a high speed CMOS sensor and a high speed LSI processor. With this model, CASIO has achieved an ultra-high speed 60 frames per second (fps) burst rate for still images, together with 1,200 fps high speed movie that captures movements which cannot even be seen by human eyes. Moreover, this model can record movies at full High-Definition. After launching it into the market, it was able to get a lot of high appraisals as an innovation camera. We will introduce the concept, features and technologies about the EX-F1.

  2. Passive auto-focus for digital still cameras and camera phones: Filter-switching and low-light techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gamadia, Mark Noel

    In order to gain valuable market share in the growing consumer digital still camera and camera phone market, camera manufacturers have to continually add and improve existing features to their latest product offerings. Auto-focus (AF) is one such feature, whose aim is to enable consumers to quickly take sharply focused pictures with little or no manual intervention in adjusting the camera's focus lens. While AF has been a standard feature in digital still and cell-phone cameras, consumers often complain about their cameras' slow AF performance, which may lead to missed photographic opportunities, rendering valuable moments and events with undesired out-of-focus pictures. This dissertation addresses this critical issue to advance the state-of-the-art in the digital band-pass filter, passive AF method. This method is widely used to realize AF in the camera industry, where a focus actuator is adjusted via a search algorithm to locate the in-focus position by maximizing a sharpness measure extracted from a particular frequency band of the incoming image of the scene. There are no known systematic methods for automatically deriving the parameters such as the digital pass-bands or the search step-size increments used in existing passive AF schemes. Conventional methods require time consuming experimentation and tuning in order to arrive at a set of parameters which balance AF performance in terms of speed and accuracy ultimately causing a delay in product time-to-market. This dissertation presents a new framework for determining an optimal set of passive AF parameters, named Filter- Switching AF, providing an automatic approach to achieve superior AF performance, both in good and low lighting conditions based on the following performance measures (metrics): speed (total number of iterations), accuracy (offset from truth), power consumption (total distance moved), and user experience (in-focus position overrun). Performance results using three different prototype cameras

  3. Digital Camera with Apparatus for Authentication of Images Produced from an Image File

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedman, Gary L. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    A digital camera equipped with a processor for authentication of images produced from an image file taken by the digital camera is provided. The digital camera processor has embedded therein a private key unique to it, and the camera housing has a public key that is so uniquely related to the private key that digital data encrypted with the private key may be decrypted using the public key. The digital camera processor comprises means for calculating a hash of the image file using a predetermined algorithm, and second means for encrypting the image hash with the private key, thereby producing a digital signature. The image file and the digital signature are stored in suitable recording means so they will be available together. Apparatus for authenticating the image file as being free of any alteration uses the public key for decrypting the digital signature, thereby deriving a secure image hash identical to the image hash produced by the digital camera and used to produce the digital signature. The authenticating apparatus calculates from the image file an image hash using the same algorithm as before. By comparing this last image hash with the secure image hash, authenticity of the image file is determined if they match. Other techniques to address time-honored methods of deception, such as attaching false captions or inducing forced perspectives, are included.

  4. Digital camera with apparatus for authentication of images produced from an image file

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedman, Gary L. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A digital camera equipped with a processor for authentication of images produced from an image file taken by the digital camera is provided. The digital camera processor has embedded therein a private key unique to it, and the camera housing has a public key that is so uniquely based upon the private key that digital data encrypted with the private key by the processor may be decrypted using the public key. The digital camera processor comprises means for calculating a hash of the image file using a predetermined algorithm, and second means for encrypting the image hash with the private key, thereby producing a digital signature. The image file and the digital signature are stored in suitable recording means so they will be available together. Apparatus for authenticating at any time the image file as being free of any alteration uses the public key for decrypting the digital signature, thereby deriving a secure image hash identical to the image hash produced by the digital camera and used to produce the digital signature. The apparatus calculates from the image file an image hash using the same algorithm as before. By comparing this last image hash with the secure image hash, authenticity of the image file is determined if they match, since even one bit change in the image hash will cause the image hash to be totally different from the secure hash.

  5. High-end aerial digital cameras and their impact on the automation and quality of the production workflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paparoditis, Nicolas; Souchon, Jean-Philippe; Martinoty, Gilles; Pierrot-Deseilligny, Marc

    The IGN digital camera project was established in the early 1990s. The first research surveys were carried out in 1996 and the digital camera was first used in production in 2000. In 2004 approximately 10 French departments (accounting for 10% of the territory) were covered with a four-head camera system and since summer 2005 all IGN imagery has been acquired digitally. Nevertheless the camera system is still evolving, with tests on new geometric configurations being continuously undertaken. The progressive integration of the system in IGN production workflows has allowed IGN to keep the system evolving in accordance with production needs. Remaining problems are due to specific camera characteristics such as CCD format, the optical quality of off-the-shelf lenses, and because some production tools are ill-adapted to digital images with a large dynamic range. However, when considering the pros and cons of integrating these images into production lines, the disadvantages are largely balanced by the numerous benefits this technology offers.

  6. Advanced digital image archival system using MPEG technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Wo

    2009-08-01

    Digital information and records are vital to the human race regardless of the nationalities and eras in which they were produced. Digital image contents are produced at a rapid pace from cultural heritages via digitalization, scientific and experimental data via high speed imaging sensors, national defense satellite images from governments, medical and healthcare imaging records from hospitals, personal collection of photos from digital cameras. With these mass amounts of precious and irreplaceable data and knowledge, what standards technologies can be applied to preserve and yet provide an interoperable framework for accessing the data across varieties of systems and devices? This paper presents an advanced digital image archival system by applying the international standard of MPEG technologies to preserve digital image content.

  7. Digital Downsides: Exploring University Students' Negative Engagements with Digital Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selwyn, Neil

    2016-01-01

    Digital technologies are now an integral feature of university study. As such, academic research has tended to concentrate on the potential of digital technologies to support, extend and even "enhance" student learning. This paper, in contrast, explores the rather more messy realities of students' engagements with digital technology. In…

  8. Digital Downsides: Exploring University Students' Negative Engagements with Digital Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selwyn, Neil

    2016-01-01

    Digital technologies are now an integral feature of university study. As such, academic research has tended to concentrate on the potential of digital technologies to support, extend and even "enhance" student learning. This paper, in contrast, explores the rather more messy realities of students' engagements with digital technology. In…

  9. Aerosol retrieval from twilight photographs taken by a digital camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, M.; Iwabuchi, H.

    2014-12-01

    Twilight sky, one of the most beautiful sights seen in our daily life, varies day by day, because atmospheric components such as ozone and aerosols also varies day by day. Recent studies have revealed the effects of tropospheric aerosols on twilight sky. In this study, we develop a new algorithm for aerosol retrievals from twilight photographs taken by a digital single reflex-lens camera in solar zenith angle of 90-96˚ with interval of 1˚. A radiative transfer model taking spherical-shell atmosphere, multiple scattering and refraction into account is used as a forward model, and the optimal estimation is used as an inversion calculation to infer the aerosol optical and radiative properties. The sensitivity tests show that tropospheric (stratospheric) aerosol optical thickness is responsible to the distribution of twilight sky color and brightness near the horizon (in viewing angles of 10˚ to 20˚) and aerosol size distribution is responsible to the angular distribution of brightness near the solar direction. The AOTs are inferred with small uncertainties and agree very well with that from the Skyradiometer. In this conference, several case studies using the algorithm will be shown.

  10. The role of camera-bundled image management software in the consumer digital imaging value chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, Milton; Mundkur, Anuradha; Balasubramanian, Ashok; Chirania, Virat

    2005-02-01

    This research was undertaken by the Convergence Center at the Syracuse University School of Information Studies (www.digital-convergence.info). Project ICONICA, the name for the research, focuses on the strategic implications of digital Images and the CONvergence of Image management and image CApture. Consumer imaging - the activity that we once called "photography" - is now recognized as in the throes of a digital transformation. At the end of 2003, market researchers estimated that about 30% of the households in the U.S. and 40% of the households in Japan owned digital cameras. In 2004, of the 86 million new cameras sold (excluding one-time use cameras), a majority (56%) were estimated to be digital cameras. Sales of photographic film, while still profitable, are declining precipitously.

  11. Real-time object tracking for moving target auto-focus in digital camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, Haike; Niinami, Norikatsu; Liu, Tong

    2015-02-01

    Focusing at a moving object accurately is difficult and important to take photo of the target successfully in a digital camera. Because the object often moves randomly and changes its shape frequently, position and distance of the target should be estimated at real-time so as to focus at the objet precisely. We propose a new method of real-time object tracking to do auto-focus for moving target in digital camera. Video stream in the camera is used for the moving target tracking. Particle filter is used to deal with problem of the target object's random movement and shape change. Color and edge features are used as measurement of the object's states. Parallel processing algorithm is developed to realize real-time particle filter object tracking easily in hardware environment of the digital camera. Movement prediction algorithm is also proposed to remove focus error caused by difference between tracking result and target object's real position when the photo is taken. Simulation and experiment results in digital camera demonstrate effectiveness of the proposed method. We embedded real-time object tracking algorithm in the digital camera. Position and distance of the moving target is obtained accurately by object tracking from the video stream. SIMD processor is applied to enforce parallel real-time processing. Processing time less than 60ms for each frame is obtained in the digital camera with its CPU of only 162MHz.

  12. DR with a DSLR: Digital Radiography with a Digital Single-Lens Reflex camera

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Helen; Durko, Heather L.; Moore, Stephen K.; Moore, Jared; Miller, Brian W.; Furenlid, Lars R.; Pradhan, Sunil; Barrett, Harrison H.

    2010-01-01

    An inexpensive, portable digital radiography (DR) detector system for use in remote regions has been built and evaluated. The system utilizes a large-format digital single-lens reflex (DSLR) camera to capture the image from a standard fluorescent screen. The large sensor area allows relatively small demagnification factors and hence minimizes the light loss. The system has been used for initial phantom tests in urban hospitals and Himalayan clinics in Nepal, and it has been evaluated in the laboratory at the University of Arizona by additional phantom studies. Typical phantom images are presented in this paper, and a simplified discussion of the detective quantum efficiency of the detector is given. PMID:21516238

  13. Impact of New Camera Technologies on Discoveries in Cell Biology.

    PubMed

    Stuurman, Nico; Vale, Ronald D

    2016-08-01

    New technologies can make previously invisible phenomena visible. Nowhere is this more obvious than in the field of light microscopy. Beginning with the observation of "animalcules" by Antonie van Leeuwenhoek, when he figured out how to achieve high magnification by shaping lenses, microscopy has advanced to this day by a continued march of discoveries driven by technical innovations. Recent advances in single-molecule-based technologies have achieved unprecedented resolution, and were the basis of the Nobel prize in Chemistry in 2014. In this article, we focus on developments in camera technologies and associated image processing that have been a major driver of technical innovations in light microscopy. We describe five types of developments in camera technology: video-based analog contrast enhancement, charge-coupled devices (CCDs), intensified sensors, electron multiplying gain, and scientific complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor cameras, which, together, have had major impacts in light microscopy.

  14. Radiometric calibration of digital cameras using Gaussian processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schall, Martin; Grunwald, Michael; Umlauf, Georg; Franz, Matthias O.

    2015-05-01

    Digital cameras are subject to physical, electronic and optic effects that result in errors and noise in the image. These effects include for example a temperature dependent dark current, read noise, optical vignetting or different sensitivities of individual pixels. The task of a radiometric calibration is to reduce these errors in the image and thus improve the quality of the overall application. In this work we present an algorithm for radiometric calibration based on Gaussian processes. Gaussian processes are a regression method widely used in machine learning that is particularly useful in our context. Then Gaussian process regression is used to learn a temperature and exposure time dependent mapping from observed gray-scale values to true light intensities for each pixel. Regression models based on the characteristics of single pixels suffer from excessively high runtime and thus are unsuitable for many practical applications. In contrast, a single regression model for an entire image with high spatial resolution leads to a low quality radiometric calibration, which also limits its practical use. The proposed algorithm is predicated on a partitioning of the pixels such that each pixel partition can be represented by one single regression model without quality loss. Partitioning is done by extracting features from the characteristic of each pixel and using them for lexicographic sorting. Splitting the sorted data into partitions with equal size yields the final partitions, each of which is represented by the partition centers. An individual Gaussian process regression and model selection is done for each partition. Calibration is performed by interpolating the gray-scale value of each pixel with the regression model of the respective partition. The experimental comparison of the proposed approach to classical flat field calibration shows a consistently higher reconstruction quality for the same overall number of calibration frames.

  15. Applying and extending ISO/TC42 digital camera resolution standards to mobile imaging products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Don; Burns, Peter D.

    2007-01-01

    There are no fundamental differences between today's mobile telephone cameras and consumer digital still cameras that suggest many existing ISO imaging performance standards do not apply. To the extent that they have lenses, color filter arrays, detectors, apertures, image processing, and are hand held, there really are no operational or architectural differences. Despite this, there are currently differences in the levels of imaging performance. These are driven by physical and economic constraints, and image-capture conditions. Several ISO standards for resolution, well established for digital consumer digital cameras, require care when applied to the current generation of cell phone cameras. In particular, accommodation of optical flare, shading non-uniformity and distortion are recommended. We offer proposals for the application of existing ISO imaging resolution performance standards to mobile imaging products, and suggestions for extending performance standards to the characteristic behavior of camera phones.

  16. Design and application of a digital array high-speed camera system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wei; Yao, Xuefeng; Ma, Yinji; Yuan, Yanan

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, a digital array high-speed camera system is designed and applied in dynamic fracture experiment. First, the design scheme for 3*3 array digital high-speed camera system is presented, including 3*3 array light emitting diode (LED) light source unit, 3*3 array charge coupled device (CCD) camera unit, timing delay control unit, optical imaging unit and impact loading unit. Second, the influence of geometric optical parameters on optical parallax is analyzed based on the geometric optical imaging mechanism. Finally, combining the method of dynamic caustics with the digital high-speed camera system, the dynamic fracture behavior of crack initiation and propagation in PMMA specimen under low-speed impact is investigated to verify the feasibility of the high-speed camera system.

  17. 77 FR 43858 - Certain Mobile Telephones and Wireless Communication Devices Featuring Digital Cameras, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Certain Mobile Telephones and Wireless Communication Devices Featuring Digital Cameras, and... States after importation of certain mobile telephones and wireless communication devices featuring...

  18. Remote detection of photoplethysmographic systolic and diastolic peaks using a digital camera.

    PubMed

    McDuff, Daniel; Gontarek, Sarah; Picard, Rosalind W

    2014-12-01

    We present a new method for measuring photoplethysmogram signals remotely using ambient light and a digital camera that allows for accurate recovery of the waveform morphology (from a distance of 3 m). In particular, we show that the peak-to-peak time between the systolic peak and diastolic peak/inflection can be automatically recovered using the second-order derivative of the remotely measured waveform. We compare measurements from the face with those captured using a contact fingertip sensor and show high agreement in peak and interval timings. Furthermore, we show that results can be significantly improved using orange, green, and cyan color channels compared to the tradition red, green, and blue channel combination. The absolute error in interbeat intervals was 26 ms and the absolute error in mean systolic-diastolic peak-to-peak times was 12 ms. The mean systolic-diastolic peak-to-peak times measured using the contact sensor and the camera were highly correlated, ρ = 0.94 (p 0.001). The results were obtained with a camera frame-rate of only 30 Hz. This technology has significant potential for advancing healthcare.

  19. Onufrienko holds the Digital Camera System (DCS) in Zvezda SM during Expedition Four

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2002-01-02

    ISS004-E-5324 (December 2001) --- Cosmonaut Yuri I. Onufrienko, Expedition Four mission commander representing Rosaviakosmos, takes Earth observation photos with an electronic still camera equipped with an 800mm lens. Onufrienko is in the Zvezda Service Module on the International Space Station (ISS). The image was taken with a digital still camera.

  20. Arthropod eye-inspired digital camera with unique imaging characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Jianliang; Song, Young Min; Xie, Yizhu; Malyarchuk, Viktor; Jung, Inhwa; Choi, Ki-Joong; Liu, Zhuangjian; Park, Hyunsung; Lu, Chaofeng; Kim, Rak-Hwan; Li, Rui; Crozier, Kenneth B.; Huang, Yonggang; Rogers, John A.

    2014-06-01

    In nature, arthropods have a remarkably sophisticated class of imaging systems, with a hemispherical geometry, a wideangle field of view, low aberrations, high acuity to motion and an infinite depth of field. There are great interests in building systems with similar geometries and properties due to numerous potential applications. However, the established semiconductor sensor technologies and optics are essentially planar, which experience great challenges in building such systems with hemispherical, compound apposition layouts. With the recent advancement of stretchable optoelectronics, we have successfully developed strategies to build a fully functional artificial apposition compound eye camera by combining optics, materials and mechanics principles. The strategies start with fabricating stretchable arrays of thin silicon photodetectors and elastomeric optical elements in planar geometries, which are then precisely aligned and integrated, and elastically transformed to hemispherical shapes. This imaging device demonstrates nearly full hemispherical shape (about 160 degrees), with densely packed artificial ommatidia. The number of ommatidia (180) is comparable to those of the eyes of fire ants and bark beetles. We have illustrated key features of operation of compound eyes through experimental imaging results and quantitative ray-tracing-based simulations. The general strategies shown in this development could be applicable to other compound eye devices, such as those inspired by moths and lacewings (refracting superposition eyes), lobster and shrimp (reflecting superposition eyes), and houseflies (neural superposition eyes).

  1. Recent advances in ultrasensitive CCD camera technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christenson, Mark; Guntupalli, Ravi K.

    2002-06-01

    The current trend in diagnostic assay development is toward the use of smaller and smaller biological samples. The assay will then be required to identify a trace amount of a particular protein, nucleic acid or chemical species within a complex mixture of molecules. Due to the inherently low amount of analyte in these samples, a very sensitive detection device is required to make the measurement. In addition, many assays are becoming multi-parametric in order to reduce cost and lower the turnaround time of analysis. The increase in sample numbers can be dealt with by highly parallel analysis of samples either in an array format or in adjacent micro-channels. Another factor pushing the development toward highly parallel analysis is the desire to use high throughput methods to do measurements on multiple source samples in parallel. The highly parallel analysis can be readily achieved with imaging methods in contrast to the point measurements usually employed in current instrumentation. This paper will examine the recent trends in scientific grade CCD based imaging systems that are being driven by new development in CCD sensors, intensifiers and camera designs.

  2. Meteor Film Recording with Digital Film Cameras with large CMOS Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slansky, P. C.

    2016-12-01

    In this article the author combines his professional know-how about cameras for film and television production with his amateur astronomy activities. Professional digital film cameras with high sensitivity are still quite rare in astronomy. One reason for this may be their costs of up to 20 000 and more (camera body only). In the interim, however,consumer photo cameras with film mode and very high sensitivity have come to the market for about 2 000 EUR. In addition, ultra-high sensitive professional film cameras, that are very interesting for meteor observation, have been introduced to the market. The particular benefits of digital film cameras with large CMOS sensors, including photo cameras with film recording function, for meteor recording are presented by three examples: a 2014 Camelopardalid, shot with a Canon EOS C 300, an exploding 2014 Aurigid, shot with a Sony alpha7S, and the 2016 Perseids, shot with a Canon ME20F-SH. All three cameras use large CMOS sensors; "large" meaning Super-35 mm, the classic 35 mm film format (24x13.5 mm, similar to APS-C size), or full format (36x24 mm), the classic 135 photo camera format. Comparisons are made to the widely used cameras with small CCD sensors, such as Mintron or Watec; "small" meaning 12" (6.4x4.8 mm) or less. Additionally, special photographic image processing of meteor film recordings is discussed.

  3. Issues in implementing services for a wireless web-enabled digital camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venkataraman, Shyam; Sampat, Nitin; Fisher, Yoram; Canosa, John; Noel, Nicholas

    2001-05-01

    The competition in the exploding digital photography market has caused vendors to explore new ways to increase their return on investment. A common view among industry analysts is that increasingly it will be services provided by these cameras, and not the cameras themselves, that will provide the revenue stream. These services will be coupled to e- Appliance based Communities. In addition, the rapidly increasing need to upload images to the Internet for photo- finishing services as well as the need to download software upgrades to the camera is driving many camera OEMs to evaluate the benefits of using the wireless web to extend their enterprise systems. Currently, creating a viable e- appliance such as a digital camera coupled with a wireless web service requires more than just a competency in product development. This paper will evaluate the system implications in the deployment of recurring revenue services and enterprise connectivity of a wireless, web-enabled digital camera. These include, among other things, an architectural design approach for services such as device management, synchronization, billing, connectivity, security, etc. Such an evaluation will assist, we hope, anyone designing or connecting a digital camera to the enterprise systems.

  4. Works starts on building world's largest digital camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruesi, Liz

    2015-10-01

    The $473m Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) has moved one step closer to completion after the US Department of Energy (DOE) approved the start of construction for the telescope's $168m 3.2-gigapixel camera.

  5. Hadfield uses digital camera in the Cupola Module

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-01-07

    ISS034-E-027234 (7 Jan. 2013) --- Canadian Space Agency astronaut Chris Hadfield, Expedition 34 flight engineer, uses a camera to photograph the topography of a point on Earth from a window in the Cupola of the International Space Station.

  6. Digital-Centric RF CMOS Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuzawa, Akira

    Analog-centric RFCMOS technology has played an important role in motivating the change of technology from conventional discrete device technology or bipolar IC technology to CMOS technology. However it introduces many problems such as poor performance, susceptibility to PVT fluctuation, and cost increase with technology scaling. The most important advantage of CMOS technology compared with legacy RF technology is that CMOS can use more high performance digital circuits for very low cost. In fact, analog-centric RF-CMOS technology has failed the FM/AM tuner business and the digital-centric CMOS technology is becoming attractive for many users. It has many advantages; such as high performance, no external calibration points, high yield, and low cost. From the above facts, digital-centric CMOS technology which utilizes the advantages of digital technology must be the right path for future RF technology. Further investment in this technology is necessary for the advancement of RF technology.

  7. How to improve microscopic images obtained with consumer-type digital cameras.

    PubMed

    Regitnig, P; van Paasen, R; Tsybrovskyy, O

    2003-05-01

    Digital imaging is useful in conventional photography because it immediately provides images, and the image quality can be improved afterwards by the use of computer programs. The major disadvantages of consumer-type digital cameras mounted on microscopes are (i) unequal illumination through the image, and (ii) a coloured background. A computer program was specifically adapted and refined to improve images obtained with consumer-type digital cameras mounted on microscopes. An approach using a division operation between the specimen image and a background image leads to homogeneous illumination throughout the image, with automatically corrected brightness and white background. The correct colour spectrum is preserved by correction of the histogram. This approach was obtained from the freeware computer program 'Image Arithmetic'. In a test, three different consumer-type digital cameras (Sony, Nikon, Olympus) on different microscopes were used to obtain images of different types of histological specimens (cervical smear, bone marrow biopsy, and colonic biopsy). The computer program dramatically improved the quality of images obtained with all tested cameras. Using this approach, even low-cost digital cameras mounted on microscopes produce brilliant images with homogeneous illumination and a white background, the image quality being comparable with expensive cameras especially designed for microscopes.

  8. Investigation of a consumer-grade digital stereo camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menna, Fabio; Nocerino, Erica; Remondino, Fabio; Shortis, Mark

    2013-04-01

    The paper presents a metric investigation of the Fuji FinePix Real 3D W1 stereo photo-camera. The stereo-camera uses a synchronized Twin Lens-CCD System to acquire simultaneously two images using two Fujinon 3x optical zoom lenses arranged in an aluminum die-cast frame integrated in a very compact body. The nominal baseline is 77 mm and the resolution of the each CCD is 10 megapixels. Given the short baseline and the presence of two optical paths, the investigation aims to evaluate the accuracy of the 3D data that can be produced and the stability of the camera. From a photogrammetric point of view, the interest in this camera is its capability to acquire synchronized image pairs that contain important 3D metric information for many close-range applications (human body parts measurement, rapid prototyping, surveying of archeological artifacts, etc.). Calibration values - for the left and right cameras - at different focal lengths, derived with an in-house software application, are reported together with accuracy analyses. The object coordinates obtained from the bundle adjustment computation for each focal length were compared to reference coordinates of a test range by means of a similarity transformation. Additionally, the article reports on the investigation of the asymmetrical relative orientation between the left and right camera.

  9. Direct digital conversion detector technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandl, William J.; Fedors, Richard

    1995-06-01

    Future imaging sensors for the aerospace and commercial video markets will depend on low cost, high speed analog-to-digital (A/D) conversion to efficiently process optical detector signals. Current A/D methods place a heavy burden on system resources, increase noise, and limit the throughput. This paper describes a unique method for incorporating A/D conversion right on the focal plane array. This concept is based on Sigma-Delta sampling, and makes optimum use of the active detector real estate. Combined with modern digital signal processors, such devices will significantly increase data rates off the focal plane. Early conversion to digital format will also decrease the signal susceptibility to noise, lowering the communications bit error rate. Computer modeling of this concept is described, along with results from several simulation runs. A potential application for direct digital conversion is also reviewed. Future uses for this technology could range from scientific instruments to remote sensors, telecommunications gear, medical diagnostic tools, and consumer products.

  10. Technological Effects on Aesthetic Evaluation: Vermeer and the Camera Obscura

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hantula, Donald A.; Sudduth, Mary Margaret; Clabaugh, Alison

    2009-01-01

    The question of whether an artist's use of technology to create art results in a detectable aesthetic difference was investigated in the case of Dutch realist painter Johannes Vermeer and his use of the camera obscura. In Experiment 1, participants evaluated 20 Vermeer paintings on 6 aesthetic dimensions and preferred paintings created with the…

  11. Technological Effects on Aesthetic Evaluation: Vermeer and the Camera Obscura

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hantula, Donald A.; Sudduth, Mary Margaret; Clabaugh, Alison

    2009-01-01

    The question of whether an artist's use of technology to create art results in a detectable aesthetic difference was investigated in the case of Dutch realist painter Johannes Vermeer and his use of the camera obscura. In Experiment 1, participants evaluated 20 Vermeer paintings on 6 aesthetic dimensions and preferred paintings created with the…

  12. Small Orbital Stereo Tracking Camera Technology Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryan, Tom; MacLeod, Todd; Gagliano, Larry

    2017-01-01

    Any exploration vehicle assembled or Spacecraft placed in LEO or GTO must pass through this debris cloud and survive. Large cross section, low thrust vehicles will spend more time spiraling out through the cloud and will suffer more impacts.Better knowledge of small debris will improve survival odds. Current estimated Density of debris at various orbital attitudes with notation of recent collisions and resulting spikes. Orbital Debris Tracking and Characterization has now been added to NASA Office of Chief Technologists Technology Development Roadmap in Technology Area 5 (TA5.7)[Orbital Debris Tracking and Characterization] and is a technical gap in the current National Space Situational Awareness necessary to safeguard orbital assets and crews due to the risk of Orbital Debris damage to ISS Exploration vehicles. The Problem: Traditional orbital trackers looking for small, dim orbital derelicts and debris typically will stare at the stars and let any reflected light off the debris integrate in the imager for seconds, thus creating a streak across the image. The Solution: The Small Tracker will see Stars and other celestial objects rise through its Field of View (FOV) at the rotational rate of its orbit, but the glint off of orbital objects will move through the FOV at different rates and directions. Debris on a head-on collision course (or close) will stay in the FOV at 14 Km per sec. The Small Tracker can track at 60 frames per sec allowing up to 30 fixes before a near-miss pass. A Stereo pair of Small Trackers can provide range data within 5-7 Km for better orbit measurements.

  13. Using commercial photo camera's RAW-based images in optical-digital correlator for pattern recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starikov, Sergey N.; Konnik, Mikhail V.

    2008-03-01

    In optical-digital correlators for pattern recognition, linear registration of correlation signals is significant for both of recognition reliability and possible input image restoration. This usually achieves with scientific graduated technical cameras, but most of commercial digital cameras now have an option of RAW data output. With appropriate software and parameters of processing, it is possible to get linearized image data from photo camera's RAW file. Application of such photo cameras makes optical-digital systems cheaper, more flexible and brings along their wider propagation. For linear registration of correlation signals, open-source Dave Coffins's RAW converter DCRAW was used in this work. Data from photo camera were linearized by DCRAW converter in "totally RAW documental mode" with 16-bit output. Experimental results of comparison between linearized and non-linearized correlation signals and digitally restored input scene images are presented. It is shown, that applied linearization allows to increase linear dynamic range for used Canon EOS 400D camera more that 3 times.

  14. Detection of age-related macular degeneration using a nonmydriatic digital camera and a standard film fundus camera.

    PubMed

    Klein, Ronald; Meuer, Stacy M; Moss, Scot E; Klein, Barbara E K; Neider, Michael W; Reinke, Jennifer

    2004-11-01

    To compare gradings of lesions associated with age-related macular degeneration (AMD) from digital and stereoscopic film images. Instrument validation study. Sixty-two subjects (124 eyes) with varying degrees of AMD, including no AMD. Images of the optic disc and macula were taken using a 45 degrees digital camera (6.3 megapixels) through dark-adapted pupils and pharmacologically dilated pupils. In addition, 30 degrees stereoscopic retinal film images were taken through pharmacologically dilated pupils of the same eyes. All images were graded for drusen size, type, and area; pigmentary abnormalities; geographic atrophy; and neovascular lesions using the modified Wisconsin Age-Related Maculopathy Grading System. Exact agreement and unweighted kappa scores were calculated for paired gradings resulting from digital and film images. Agreement between gradings obtained from stereoscopic slide transparencies and digital nonstereoscopic images. Exact agreement between gradings of digital and stereoscopic film images taken through pharmacologically dilated pupils was 91% (kappa = 0.85) for the categories of none, early AMD, and late AMD. Exact agreement for gradings of digital images taken through dark-adapted pupils compared with gradings of film images was 80% (kappa = 0.69). Exact agreement for gradings of digital images captured through dark-adapted and pharmacologically dilated pupils was 86% (kappa = 0.78). In addition, kappa scores for agreement between different approaches for individual lesions were moderate to almost perfect. Gradings resulting from high-resolution digital images, especially when the pupil is pharmacologically dilated, are comparable with those resulting from film-based images. We conclude that digital imaging of the retina is useful for epidemiological studies of AMD.

  15. DigiCam: fully digital compact camera for SST-1M telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguilar, J. A.; Bilnik, W.; Bogacz, L.; Bulik, T.; Christov, A.; della Volpe, D.; Dyrda, M.; Frankowski, A.; Grudzinska, M.; Grygorczuk, J.; Heller, M.; Idźkowski, B.; Janiak, M.; Jamrozy, M.; Karczewski, M.; Kasperek, J.; Lyard, E.; Marszałek, A.; Michałowski, J.; Moderski, R.; Montaruli, T.; Neronov, A.; Nicolau-Kukliński, J.; Niemiec, J.; Ostrowski, M.; Paśko, P.; Płatos, Ł.; Prandini, E.; Pruchniewicz, R.; Rafalski, J.; Rajda, P. J.; Rameez, M.; Rataj, M.; Rupiński, M.; Rutkowski, K.; Seweryn, K.; Sidz, M.; Stawarz, Ł.; Stodulska, M.; Stodulski, M.; Tokarz, M.; Toscano, S.; Troyano Pujadas, I.; Walter, R.; Wawer, P.; Wawrzaszek, R.; Wiśniewski, L.; Zietara, K.; Ziółkowski, P.; Żychowski, P.

    2014-08-01

    The single mirror Small Size Telescopes (SST-1M), being built by a sub-consortium of Polish and Swiss Institutions of the CTA Consortium, will be equipped with a fully digital camera with a compact photodetector plane based on silicon photomultipliers. The internal trigger signal transmission overhead will be kept at low level by introducing a high level of integration. It will be achieved by massively deploying state-of-the-art multi-gigabit transceivers, beginning from the ADC flash converters, through the internal data and trigger signals transmission over backplanes and cables, to the camera's server 10Gb/s Ethernet links. Such approach will allow fitting the size and weight of the camera exactly to the SST-1M needs, still retaining the flexibility of a fully digital design. Such solution has low power consumption, high reliability and long lifetime. The concept of the camera will be described, along with some construction details and performance results.

  16. Digital micromirror device camera with per-pixel coded exposure for high dynamic range imaging.

    PubMed

    Feng, Wei; Zhang, Fumin; Wang, Weijing; Xing, Wei; Qu, Xinghua

    2017-05-01

    In this paper, we overcome the limited dynamic range of the conventional digital camera, and propose a method of realizing high dynamic range imaging (HDRI) from a novel programmable imaging system called a digital micromirror device (DMD) camera. The unique feature of the proposed new method is that the spatial and temporal information of incident light in our DMD camera can be flexibly modulated, and it enables the camera pixels always to have reasonable exposure intensity by DMD pixel-level modulation. More importantly, it allows different light intensity control algorithms used in our programmable imaging system to achieve HDRI. We implement the optical system prototype, analyze the theory of per-pixel coded exposure for HDRI, and put forward an adaptive light intensity control algorithm to effectively modulate the different light intensity to recover high dynamic range images. Via experiments, we demonstrate the effectiveness of our method and implement the HDRI on different objects.

  17. Photogrammetry of a 5m Inflatable Space Antenna With Consumer Digital Cameras

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pappa, Richard S.; Giersch, Louis R.; Quagliaroli, Jessica M.

    2000-01-01

    This paper discusses photogrammetric measurements of a 5m-diameter inflatable space antenna using four Kodak DC290 (2.1 megapixel) digital cameras. The study had two objectives: 1) Determine the photogrammetric measurement precision obtained using multiple consumer-grade digital cameras and 2) Gain experience with new commercial photogrammetry software packages, specifically PhotoModeler Pro from Eos Systems, Inc. The paper covers the eight steps required using this hardware/software combination. The baseline data set contained four images of the structure taken from various viewing directions. Each image came from a separate camera. This approach simulated the situation of using multiple time-synchronized cameras, which will be required in future tests of vibrating or deploying ultra-lightweight space structures. With four images, the average measurement precision for more than 500 points on the antenna surface was less than 0.020 inches in-plane and approximately 0.050 inches out-of-plane.

  18. Digital Technology and Student Cognitive Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavanaugh, J. Michael; Giapponi, Catherine C.; Golden, Timothy D.

    2016-01-01

    Digital technology has proven a beguiling, some even venture addictive, presence in the lives of our 21st century (millennial) students. And while screen technology may offer select cognitive benefits, there is mounting evidence in the cognitive neuroscience literature that digital technology is restructuring the way our students read and think,…

  19. Digital Technology and Student Cognitive Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavanaugh, J. Michael; Giapponi, Catherine C.; Golden, Timothy D.

    2016-01-01

    Digital technology has proven a beguiling, some even venture addictive, presence in the lives of our 21st century (millennial) students. And while screen technology may offer select cognitive benefits, there is mounting evidence in the cognitive neuroscience literature that digital technology is restructuring the way our students read and think,…

  20. An assessment of the utility of a non-metric digital camera for measuring standing trees

    Treesearch

    Neil Clark; Randolph H. Wynne; Daniel L. Schmoldt; Matthew F. Winn

    2000-01-01

    Images acquired with a commercially available digital camera were used to make measurements on 20 red oak (Quercus spp.) stems. The ranges of diameter at breast height (DBH) and height to a 10 cm upper-stem diameter were 16-66 cm and 12-20 m, respectively. Camera stations located 3, 6, 9, 12, and 15 m from the stem were studied to determine the best distance to be...

  1. Field Portable Digital Ophthalmoscope/Fundus Camera. Phase I

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-05-01

    robbing injuries and pathologies. Included are retinal detachments, laser damage, CMV retinitis , retinitis pigmentosa , glaucoma, tumors, and the like...RMI-S, Fort Detrick, Frederick, Maryland 21702-5012. 13. ABSTRACT (Maximum 200 Retinal imaging is key for diagnoses and treatment of various eye-sight...personnel, and generally only used by ophthalmologists or in hospital settings. The retinal camera of this project will revolutionize retinal imaging

  2. Applications of the Lambert W function to analyze digital camera sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villegas, Daniel

    2014-05-01

    The Lambert W function is applied via Maple to analyze the operation of the modern digital camera sensors. The Lambert W function had been applied previously to understand the functioning of diodes and solar cells. The parallelism between the physics of solar cells and digital camera sensors will be exploited. Digital camera sensors use p-n photodiodes and such photodiodes can be studied using the Lambert W function. At general, the bulk transformation of light into photocurrent is described by an equivalent circuit which determines a dynamical equation to be solved using the Lambert W function. Specifically, in a camera senor, the precise measurement of light intensity by filtering through color filters is able to create a measurable photocurrent that is proportional to image point intensity; and such photocurrent is given in terms of the Lambert W function. It is claimed that the drift between neighboring photocells at long wavelengths affects the ability to resolve an image and such drift can be represented effectively using the Lambert W function. Also is conjectured that the recombination of charge carries in the digital sensors is connected to the notion of "noise" in photography and such "noise" could be described by certain combinations of Lambert W functions. Finally, it is suggested that the notion of bias, and varying the width of the depletion zone, has a relationship to the ISO "sped· of the camera sensor; and such relationship could be described using Lambert W functions.

  3. Digital synchroballistic schlieren camera for high-speed photography of bullets and rocket sleds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buckner, Benjamin D.; L'Esperance, Drew

    2013-08-01

    A high-speed digital streak camera designed for simultaneous high-resolution color photography and focusing schlieren imaging is described. The camera uses a computer-controlled galvanometer scanner to achieve synchroballistic imaging through a narrow slit. Full color 20 megapixel images of a rocket sled moving at 480 m/s and of projectiles fired at around 400 m/s were captured, with high-resolution schlieren imaging in the latter cases, using conventional photographic flash illumination. The streak camera can achieve a line rate for streak imaging of up to 2.4 million lines/s.

  4. Accurate measurement of spatial noise portraits of photosensors of digital cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheremkhin, P. A.; Evtikhiev, N. N.; Krasnov, V. V.; Kulakov, M. N.; Starikov, R. S.

    2016-08-01

    Method of measurement of accurate portraits of light and dark spatial noise of photosensors is described. The method consists of four steps: creation of spatially homogeneous illumination; shooting light and dark frames; digital processing and filtering. Unlike standard technique, this method uses iterative creation of spatially homogeneous illumination by display, compensation of photosensor dark spatial noise portrait and improved procedure of elimination of dark temporal noise. Portraits of light and dark spatial noise of photosensors of a scientific digital camera were found. Characteristics of the measured portraits were compared with values of photo response and dark signal non-uniformities of camera's photosensor.

  5. Estimation of spectral distribution of sky radiance using a commercial digital camera.

    PubMed

    Saito, Masanori; Iwabuchi, Hironobu; Murata, Isao

    2016-01-10

    Methods for estimating spectral distribution of sky radiance from images captured by a digital camera and for accurately estimating spectral responses of the camera are proposed. Spectral distribution of sky radiance is represented as a polynomial of the wavelength, with coefficients obtained from digital RGB counts by linear transformation. The spectral distribution of radiance as measured is consistent with that obtained by spectrometer and radiative transfer simulation for wavelengths of 430-680 nm, with standard deviation below 1%. Preliminary applications suggest this method is useful for detecting clouds and studying the relation between irradiance at the ground and cloud distribution.

  6. In-plane displacement and strain measurements using a camera phone and digital image correlation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Liping; Pan, Bing

    2014-05-01

    In-plane displacement and strain measurements of planar objects by processing the digital images captured by a camera phone using digital image correlation (DIC) are performed in this paper. As a convenient communication tool for everyday use, the principal advantages of a camera phone are its low cost, easy accessibility, and compactness. However, when used as a two-dimensional DIC system for mechanical metrology, the assumed imaging model of a camera phone may be slightly altered during the measurement process due to camera misalignment, imperfect loading, sample deformation, and temperature variations of the camera phone, which can produce appreciable errors in the measured displacements. In order to obtain accurate DIC measurements using a camera phone, the virtual displacements caused by these issues are first identified using an unstrained compensating specimen and then corrected by means of a parametric model. The proposed technique is first verified using in-plane translation and out-of-plane translation tests. Then, it is validated through a determination of the tensile strains and elastic properties of an aluminum specimen. Results of the present study show that accurate DIC measurements can be conducted using a common camera phone provided that an adequate correction is employed.

  7. The trustworthy digital camera: Restoring credibility to the photographic image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedman, Gary L.

    1994-02-01

    The increasing sophistication of computers has made digital manipulation of photographic images, as well as other digitally-recorded artifacts such as audio and video, incredibly easy to perform and increasingly difficult to detect. Today, every picture appearing in newspapers and magazines has been digitally altered to some degree, with the severity varying from the trivial (cleaning up 'noise' and removing distracting backgrounds) to the point of deception (articles of clothing removed, heads attached to other people's bodies, and the complete rearrangement of city skylines). As the power, flexibility, and ubiquity of image-altering computers continues to increase, the well-known adage that 'the photography doesn't lie' will continue to become an anachronism. A solution to this problem comes from a concept called digital signatures, which incorporates modern cryptographic techniques to authenticate electronic mail messages. 'Authenticate' in this case means one can be sure that the message has not been altered, and that the sender's identity has not been forged. The technique can serve not only to authenticate images, but also to help the photographer retain and enforce copyright protection when the concept of 'electronic original' is no longer meaningful.

  8. Lights, Camera, Reflection! Digital Movies: A Tool for Reflective Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Genereux, Annie Prud'homme; Thompson, William A.

    2008-01-01

    At the end of a biology course entitled Ecology, Evolution, and Genetics, students were asked to consider how their learning experience had changed their perception of either ecology or genetics. Students were asked to express their thoughts in the form of a "digital story" using readily available software to create movies for the purpose of…

  9. The trustworthy digital camera: Restoring credibility to the photographic image

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedman, Gary L.

    1994-01-01

    The increasing sophistication of computers has made digital manipulation of photographic images, as well as other digitally-recorded artifacts such as audio and video, incredibly easy to perform and increasingly difficult to detect. Today, every picture appearing in newspapers and magazines has been digitally altered to some degree, with the severity varying from the trivial (cleaning up 'noise' and removing distracting backgrounds) to the point of deception (articles of clothing removed, heads attached to other people's bodies, and the complete rearrangement of city skylines). As the power, flexibility, and ubiquity of image-altering computers continues to increase, the well-known adage that 'the photography doesn't lie' will continue to become an anachronism. A solution to this problem comes from a concept called digital signatures, which incorporates modern cryptographic techniques to authenticate electronic mail messages. 'Authenticate' in this case means one can be sure that the message has not been altered, and that the sender's identity has not been forged. The technique can serve not only to authenticate images, but also to help the photographer retain and enforce copyright protection when the concept of 'electronic original' is no longer meaningful.

  10. Lights, Camera, Reflection! Digital Movies: A Tool for Reflective Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Genereux, Annie Prud'homme; Thompson, William A.

    2008-01-01

    At the end of a biology course entitled Ecology, Evolution, and Genetics, students were asked to consider how their learning experience had changed their perception of either ecology or genetics. Students were asked to express their thoughts in the form of a "digital story" using readily available software to create movies for the purpose of…

  11. [Nitrogen status diagnosis and yield prediction of spring maize after green manure incorporation by using a digital camera].

    PubMed

    Bai, Jin-Shun; Cao, Wei-Dong; Xiong, Jing; Zeng, Nao-Hua; Shimizu, Katshyoshi; Rui, Yu-Kui

    2013-12-01

    In order to explore the feasibility of using the image processing technology to diagnose the nitrogen status and to predict the maize yield, a field experiment with different nitrogen rates with green manure incorporation was conducted. Maize canopy digital images over a range of growth stages were captured by digital camera. Maize nitrogen status and the relationships between image color indices derived by digital camera for maize at different growth stages and maize nitrogen status indicators were analyzed. These digital camera sourced image color indices at different growth stages for maize were also regressed with maize grain yield at maturity. The results showed that the plant nitrogen status for maize was improved by green manure application. The leaf chlorophyll content (SPAD value), aboveground biomass and nitrogen uptake for green manure treatments at different maize growth stages were all higher than that for chemical fertilization treatments. The correlations between spectral indices with plant nitrogen indicators for maize affected by green manure application were weaker than that affected by chemical fertilization. And the correlation coefficients for green manure application were ranged with the maize growth stages changes. The best spectral indices for diagnosis of plant nitrogen status after green manure incorporation were normalized blue value (B/(R+G+B)) at 12-leaf (V12) stage and normalized red value (R/(R+G+B)) at grain-filling (R4) stage individually. The coefficients of determination based on linear regression were 0. 45 and 0. 46 for B/(R+G+B) at V12 stage and R/(R+G+B) at R4 stage respectively, acting as a predictor of maize yield response to nitrogen affected by green manure incorporation. Our findings suggested that digital image technique could be a potential tool for in-season prediction of the nitrogen status and grain yield for maize after green manure incorporation when the suitable growth stages and spectral indices for diagnosis

  12. Chemistry on Camera: Integrating Technology into the Science Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hargis, Jace; Stehr, Jim

    2001-01-01

    Describes a relevant, innovative laboratory exercise that promotes the construction of ideas that can be used to further science processing. Integrates technology in the form of digital photography, a portable computer, and a projection device. This activity fits well in a high school chemistry class. (SAH)

  13. Chemistry on Camera: Integrating Technology into the Science Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hargis, Jace; Stehr, Jim

    2001-01-01

    Describes a relevant, innovative laboratory exercise that promotes the construction of ideas that can be used to further science processing. Integrates technology in the form of digital photography, a portable computer, and a projection device. This activity fits well in a high school chemistry class. (SAH)

  14. Film cameras or digital sensors? The challenge ahead for aerial imaging

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Light, D.L.

    1996-01-01

    Cartographic aerial cameras continue to play the key role in producing quality products for the aerial photography business, and specifically for the National Aerial Photography Program (NAPP). One NAPP photograph taken with cameras capable of 39 lp/mm system resolution can contain the equivalent of 432 million pixels at 11 ??m spot size, and the cost is less than $75 per photograph to scan and output the pixels on a magnetic storage medium. On the digital side, solid state charge coupled device linear and area arrays can yield quality resolution (7 to 12 ??m detector size) and a broader dynamic range. If linear arrays are to compete with film cameras, they will require precise attitude and positioning of the aircraft so that the lines of pixels can be unscrambled and put into a suitable homogeneous scene that is acceptable to an interpreter. Area arrays need to be much larger than currently available to image scenes competitive in size with film cameras. Analysis of the relative advantages and disadvantages of the two systems show that the analog approach is more economical at present. However, as arrays become larger, attitude sensors become more refined, global positioning system coordinate readouts become commonplace, and storage capacity becomes more affordable, the digital camera may emerge as the imaging system for the future. Several technical challenges must be overcome if digital sensors are to advance to where they can support mapping, charting, and geographic information system applications.

  15. Infrared detectors and test technology of cryogenic camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xiaole; Liu, Xingxin; Xing, Mailing; Ling, Long

    2016-10-01

    Cryogenic camera which is widely used in deep space detection cools down optical system and support structure by cryogenic refrigeration technology, thereby improving the sensitivity. Discussing the characteristics and design points of infrared detector combined with camera's characteristics. At the same time, cryogenic background test systems of chip and detector assembly are established. Chip test system is based on variable cryogenic and multilayer Dewar, and assembly test system is based on target and background simulator in the thermal vacuum environment. The core of test is to establish cryogenic background. Non-uniformity, ratio of dead pixels and noise of test result are given finally. The establishment of test system supports for the design and calculation of infrared systems.

  16. Digital Technologies: From Vision to Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armistead, Stuart

    2016-01-01

    The interest and uptake in utilising digital technologies in education appears to be exponential. With the rollout of ultrafast broadband and the development of the Network for Learning in New Zealand, school leaders face the challenges and opportunity of deciding when, what and how they go about implementing digital technologies in their schools.…

  17. Can Commercial Digital Cameras Be Used as Multispectral Sensors? A Crop Monitoring Test

    PubMed Central

    Lebourgeois, Valentine; Bégué, Agnès; Labbé, Sylvain; Mallavan, Benjamin; Prévot, Laurent; Roux, Bruno

    2008-01-01

    The use of consumer digital cameras or webcams to characterize and monitor different features has become prevalent in various domains, especially in environmental applications. Despite some promising results, such digital camera systems generally suffer from signal aberrations due to the on-board image processing systems and thus offer limited quantitative data acquisition capability. The objective of this study was to test a series of radiometric corrections having the potential to reduce radiometric distortions linked to camera optics and environmental conditions, and to quantify the effects of these corrections on our ability to monitor crop variables. In 2007, we conducted a five-month experiment on sugarcane trial plots using original RGB and modified RGB (Red-Edge and NIR) cameras fitted onto a light aircraft. The camera settings were kept unchanged throughout the acquisition period and the images were recorded in JPEG and RAW formats. These images were corrected to eliminate the vignetting effect, and normalized between acquisition dates. Our results suggest that 1) the use of unprocessed image data did not improve the results of image analyses; 2) vignetting had a significant effect, especially for the modified camera, and 3) normalized vegetation indices calculated with vignetting-corrected images were sufficient to correct for scene illumination conditions. These results are discussed in the light of the experimental protocol and recommendations are made for the use of these versatile systems for quantitative remote sensing of terrestrial surfaces. PMID:27873930

  18. Color calibration of a CMOS digital camera for mobile imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eliasson, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    As white balance algorithms employed in mobile phone cameras become increasingly sophisticated by using, e.g., elaborate white-point estimation methods, a proper color calibration is necessary. Without such a calibration, the estimation of the light source for a given situation may go wrong, giving rise to large color errors. At the same time, the demands for efficiency in the production environment require the calibration to be as simple as possible. Thus it is important to find the correct balance between image quality and production efficiency requirements. The purpose of this work is to investigate camera color variations using a simple model where the sensor and IR filter are specified in detail. As input to the model, spectral data of the 24-color Macbeth Colorchecker was used. This data was combined with the spectral irradiance of mainly three different light sources: CIE A, D65 and F11. The sensor variations were determined from a very large population from which 6 corner samples were picked out for further analysis. Furthermore, a set of 100 IR filters were picked out and measured. The resulting images generated by the model were then analyzed in the CIELAB space and color errors were calculated using the ΔE94 metric. The results of the analysis show that the maximum deviations from the typical values are small enough to suggest that a white balance calibration is sufficient. Furthermore, it is also demonstrated that the color temperature dependence is small enough to justify the use of only one light source in a production environment.

  19. 75 FR 7519 - In the Matter of Certain Digital Cameras; Notice of Commission Determination Not To Review an...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-19

    ... COMMISSION In the Matter of Certain Digital Cameras; Notice of Commission Determination Not To Review an..., based on a complaint filed by Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd. of Korea and Samsung Electronics America... importation, or the sale within the United States after importation of certain digital cameras by reason...

  20. Estimating the Infrared Radiation Wavelength Emitted by a Remote Control Device Using a Digital Camera

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Catelli, Francisco; Giovannini, Odilon; Bolzan, Vicente Dall Agnol

    2011-01-01

    The interference fringes produced by a diffraction grating illuminated with radiation from a TV remote control and a red laser beam are, simultaneously, captured by a digital camera. Based on an image with two interference patterns, an estimate of the infrared radiation wavelength emitted by a TV remote control is made. (Contains 4 figures.)

  1. Estimating the Infrared Radiation Wavelength Emitted by a Remote Control Device Using a Digital Camera

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Catelli, Francisco; Giovannini, Odilon; Bolzan, Vicente Dall Agnol

    2011-01-01

    The interference fringes produced by a diffraction grating illuminated with radiation from a TV remote control and a red laser beam are, simultaneously, captured by a digital camera. Based on an image with two interference patterns, an estimate of the infrared radiation wavelength emitted by a TV remote control is made. (Contains 4 figures.)

  2. On the Complexity of Digital Video Cameras in/as Research: Perspectives and Agencements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bangou, Francis

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this article is to consider the potential for digital video cameras to produce as part of a research agencement. Our reflection will be guided by the current literature on the use of video recordings in research, as well as by the rhizoanalysis of two vignettes. The first of these vignettes is associated with a short video clip shot by…

  3. On the Complexity of Digital Video Cameras in/as Research: Perspectives and Agencements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bangou, Francis

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this article is to consider the potential for digital video cameras to produce as part of a research agencement. Our reflection will be guided by the current literature on the use of video recordings in research, as well as by the rhizoanalysis of two vignettes. The first of these vignettes is associated with a short video clip shot by…

  4. Development of an XYZ Digital Camera with Embedded Color Calibration System for Accurate Color Acquisition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kretkowski, Maciej; Jablonski, Ryszard; Shimodaira, Yoshifumi

    Acquisition of accurate colors is important in the modern era of widespread exchange of electronic multimedia. The variety of device-dependent color spaces causes troubles with accurate color reproduction. In this paper we present the outlines of accomplished digital camera system with device-independent output formed from tristimulus XYZ values. The outstanding accuracy and fidelity of acquired color is achieved in our system by employing an embedded color calibration system based on emissive device generating reference calibration colors with user-defined spectral distribution and chromaticity coordinates. The system was tested by calibrating the camera using 24 reference colors spectrally reproduced from 24 color patches of the Macbeth Chart. The average color difference (CIEDE2000) has been found to be ΔE =0.83, which is an outstanding result compared to commercially available digital cameras.

  5. Digital technologies and chronic disease management.

    PubMed

    Georgeff, Michael

    2014-12-01

    Digital technologies will become a major part of our healthcare system, with particular impact in primary care. However, many healthcare professionals are not sufficiently informed of the digital technologies available today and how they and their patients can gain substantial benefit from adoption of these technologies. To raise awareness of the potential benefits of using digital technologies for improving practice efficiencies and patient health outcomes. Implementing best practice care for patients with chronic and complex conditions is one of the greatest challenges facing general practice and other primary care providers. It has been suggested that digital technologies could assist by decreasing the administrative burden of care delivery, improving quality of care, increasing practice efficiencies and better supporting patient self-management. In this paper, we consider some areas in the management of chronic and long-term conditions where digital and mobile health solutions can make a difference today.

  6. Digital Photography and Journals in a Kindergarten-First-Grade Classroom: Toward Meaningful Technology Integration in Early Childhood Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ching, Cynthia Carter; Wang, X. Christine; Shih, Mei-Li; Kedem, Yore

    2006-01-01

    To explore meaningful and effective technology integration in early childhood education, we investigated how kindergarten-first-grade students created and employed digital photography journals to support social and cognitive reflection. These students used a digital camera to document their daily school activities and created digital photo…

  7. A versatile digital camera trigger for telescopes in the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwanke, U.; Shayduk, M.; Sulanke, K.-H.; Vorobiov, S.; Wischnewski, R.

    2015-05-01

    This paper describes the concept of an FPGA-based digital camera trigger for imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes, developed for the future Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA). The proposed camera trigger is designed to select images initiated by the Cherenkov emission of extended air showers from very-high energy (VHE, E > 20 GeV) photons and charged particles while suppressing signatures from background light. The trigger comprises three stages. A first stage employs programmable discriminators to digitize the signals arriving from the camera channels (pixels). At the second stage, a grid of low-cost FPGAs is used to process the digitized signals for camera regions with 37 pixels. At the third stage, trigger conditions found independently in any of the overlapping 37-pixel regions are combined into a global camera trigger by few central FPGAs. Trigger prototype boards based on Xilinx FPGAs have been designed, built and tested and were shown to function properly. Using these components a full camera trigger with a power consumption and price per channel of about 0.5 W and 19 €, respectively, can be built. With the described design the camera trigger algorithm can take advantage of pixel information in both the space and the time domain allowing, for example, the creation of triggers sensitive to the time-gradient of a shower image; the time information could also be exploited to online adjust the time window of the acquisition system for pixel data. Combining the results of the parallel execution of different trigger algorithms (optimized, for example, for the lowest and highest energies, respectively) on each FPGA can result in a better response over all photons energies (as demonstrated by Monte Carlo simulation in this work).

  8. Parallel phase-shifting digital holography system using a high-speed camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Awatsuji, Yasuhiro; Kakue, Takashi; Tahara, Tatsuki; Xia, Peng; Nishio, Kenzo; Ura, Shogo; Kubota, Toshihiro; Matoba, Osamu

    2012-11-01

    A technique of single-shot phase-shifting interferometry called as parallel phase-shifting digital holography is described. This technique records multiple holograms required for phase-shifting digital holography using space-division multiplexing technique. The authors constructed a system based on the parallel phase-shifting digital holography consisting of a Mach-Zehnder interferometer and a high-speed polarization imaging camera. High-speed motion pictures of three-dimensional image and phase image of dynamically moving objects at the rate up to180,000 and 262,500 frames per second were achieved, respectively, for the 128 × 128-pixel images.

  9. Digitalization and the global technology trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ignat, V.

    2017-08-01

    Digitalization, connected products and services, and shortening innovation cycles are widely discussed topics in management practice and theory and demand for new concepts. We analysed how companies innovated their business models and how are the new the technology trends. We found out, that have a positive approach to digitalization but the technology strategy still runs its original business model. Digitalization forces to new solution orientation. For companies it is necessary to master the digital transformation, new innovations have to be developed. Furthermore, digitalization / Industry 4.0 linking the real-life factory with virtual reality, will play an increasingly important role in global manufacturing. Companies have to obtain new digital capabilities, in order to make their company sustainable for the future. A long term growth and welfare in Europe could be guaranteed only by new technology innovation.

  10. Fundamentals of in Situ Digital Camera Methodology for Water Quality Monitoring of Coast and Ocean

    PubMed Central

    Goddijn-Murphy, Lonneke; Dailloux, Damien; White, Martin; Bowers, Dave

    2009-01-01

    Conventional digital cameras, the Nikon Coolpix885® and the SeaLife ECOshot®, were used as in situ optical instruments for water quality monitoring. Measured response spectra showed that these digital cameras are basically three-band radiometers. The response values in the red, green and blue bands, quantified by RGB values of digital images of the water surface, were comparable to measurements of irradiance levels at red, green and cyan/blue wavelengths of water leaving light. Different systems were deployed to capture upwelling light from below the surface, while eliminating direct surface reflection. Relationships between RGB ratios of water surface images, and water quality parameters were found to be consistent with previous measurements using more traditional narrow-band radiometers. This current paper focuses on the method that was used to acquire digital images, derive RGB values and relate measurements to water quality parameters. Field measurements were obtained in Galway Bay, Ireland, and in the Southern Rockall Trough in the North Atlantic, where both yellow substance and chlorophyll concentrations were successfully assessed using the digital camera method. PMID:22346729

  11. Evaluation of natural color and color infrared digital cameras as a remote sensing tool for natural resource management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bobbe, Thomas J.; McKean, Jim; Zigadlo, Joseph P.

    1995-09-01

    Digital cameras are a recent development in electronic imaging that provide a unique capability to acquire high resolution digital imagery in near real-time. The USDA Forest Service Nationwide Forestry Applications Program has recently evaluated natural color and color infrared digital camera systems as a remote sensing tool to collect resource information. Digital cameras are well suited for small projects and complement the use of other remote sensing systems to perform environmental monitoring, sample surveys and accuracy assessments, and update geographic information systems (GIS) data bases.

  12. Trends in the use of cameras and computer technology among dermatologists in New York City 2001-2002.

    PubMed

    Scheinfeld, Noah S; Flanigan, Kelly; Moshiyakhov, Mark; Weinberg, Jeffrey M

    2003-08-01

    Photography and computers can enhance dermatologic visit documentation and care. To determine dermatologists' use of cameras and computers. We surveyed computer and camera use during the Dermatologic Society of Greater New York's meetings in January 2001 and 2002. Approximately 75% of dermatologists can use computers. Between 2001 and 2002, 35-mm film camera use by attending and resident dermatologists fell from 60% to 47% and 43% to 32%, respectively, and digital camera increased from 25% to 38% and 35% to 59%, respectively. Approximately 50% of dermatologists use instant cameras. Approximately 15% of dermatologists use no camera. Most find images useful; however, medical dermatologists usually image only interesting patients, and dermatologic surgeons image almost all patients. Approximately 15% of dermatologist used electronic medical records (EMRs). Computers and cameras are widely used but have not changed dermatologic practice. Images are not used to track skin disease or integrated with EMRs nor are EMRs widely used, probably because of difficulty of use and limited computer literacy. Where images appear to add value, for example, for preoperative and postoperative documentation among dermatologic surgeons, camera use is common, suggesting that utility drives technology adoption.

  13. [Medical and dental digital photography. Choosing a cheap and user-friendly camera].

    PubMed

    Chossegros, C; Guyot, L; Mantout, B; Cheynet, F; Olivi, P; Blanc, J-L

    2010-04-01

    Digital photography is more and more important in our everyday medical practice. Patient data, medico-legal proof, remote diagnosis, forums, and medical publications are some of the applications of digital photography in medical and dental fields. A lot of small, light, and cheap cameras are on the market. The main issue is to obtain good, reproducible, cheap, and easy-to-shoot pictures. Every medical situation, portrait in esthetic surgery, skin photography in dermatology, X-ray pictures or intra-oral pictures, for example, has its own requirements. For these reasons, we have tried to find an "ideal" compact digital camera. The Sony DSC-T90 (and its T900 counterpart with a wider screen) seems a good choice. Its small size makes it usable in every situation and its price is low. An external light source and a free photo software (XnView((R))) can be useful complementary tools. The main adjustments and expected results are discussed.

  14. [Progress in digital PCR technology and application].

    PubMed

    Lin, Jiaqi; Su, Guocheng; Su, Wenjin; Zhou, Changyi

    2017-02-25

    Digital PCR is an emerging analysis technology for absolute quantification after realtime-PCR. Through digital PCR, single DNA molecules are distributed into isolated reactions, and the product with fluorescence signal can be detected and analyzed after amplification. With the advantages of higher sensitivity and accuracy, digital PCR, independent of a standard curve, is developing rapidly and applied widely to the next generation sequencing and detection fields, such as gene mutation, copy number variation, microorganism, and genetically modified food. In this article, we reviewed the quantitative method and research progress of digital PCR technology in the main application fields.

  15. Digital scanner infrared focal plane technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortiz, M. A.; Malone, N. R.; Harris, M.; Shin, J.; Byers, S.; Price, D.; Vampola, J.

    2011-09-01

    Advancements in finer geometry and technology advancements in circuit design now allow placement of digital architecture on cryogenic focal planes while using less power than heritage analog designs. These advances in technology reduce the size, weight, and power of modern focal planes. In addition, the interface to the focal plane is significantly simplified and is more immune to Electromagnetic Interference (EMI). The cost of the customer's instrument after integration with the digital scanning Focal Plane Array (FPA) has been significantly reduced by placing digital architecture such as Analog to digital convertors and Low Voltage Differential Signaling (LVDS) Inputs and Outputs (I/O) on the Read Out Integrated Circuit (ROIC).

  16. High Speed and Slow Motion: The Technology of Modern High Speed Cameras

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vollmer, Michael; Mollmann, Klaus-Peter

    2011-01-01

    The enormous progress in the fields of microsystem technology, microelectronics and computer science has led to the development of powerful high speed cameras. Recently a number of such cameras became available as low cost consumer products which can also be used for the teaching of physics. The technology of high speed cameras is discussed,…

  17. High Speed and Slow Motion: The Technology of Modern High Speed Cameras

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vollmer, Michael; Mollmann, Klaus-Peter

    2011-01-01

    The enormous progress in the fields of microsystem technology, microelectronics and computer science has led to the development of powerful high speed cameras. Recently a number of such cameras became available as low cost consumer products which can also be used for the teaching of physics. The technology of high speed cameras is discussed,…

  18. Reading Out Single-Molecule Digital RNA and DNA Isothermal Amplification in Nanoliter Volumes with Unmodified Camera Phones.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Manzano, Jesus; Karymov, Mikhail A; Begolo, Stefano; Selck, David A; Zhukov, Dmitriy V; Jue, Erik; Ismagilov, Rustem F

    2016-03-22

    Digital single-molecule technologies are expanding diagnostic capabilities, enabling the ultrasensitive quantification of targets, such as viral load in HIV and hepatitis C infections, by directly counting single molecules. Replacing fluorescent readout with a robust visual readout that can be captured by any unmodified cell phone camera will facilitate the global distribution of diagnostic tests, including in limited-resource settings where the need is greatest. This paper describes a methodology for developing a visual readout system for digital single-molecule amplification of RNA and DNA by (i) selecting colorimetric amplification-indicator dyes that are compatible with the spectral sensitivity of standard mobile phones, and (ii) identifying an optimal ratiometric image-process for a selected dye to achieve a readout that is robust to lighting conditions and camera hardware and provides unambiguous quantitative results, even for colorblind users. We also include an analysis of the limitations of this methodology, and provide a microfluidic approach that can be applied to expand dynamic range and improve reaction performance, allowing ultrasensitive, quantitative measurements at volumes as low as 5 nL. We validate this methodology using SlipChip-based digital single-molecule isothermal amplification with λDNA as a model and hepatitis C viral RNA as a clinically relevant target. The innovative combination of isothermal amplification chemistry in the presence of a judiciously chosen indicator dye and ratiometric image processing with SlipChip technology allowed the sequence-specific visual readout of single nucleic acid molecules in nanoliter volumes with an unmodified cell phone camera. When paired with devices that integrate sample preparation and nucleic acid amplification, this hardware-agnostic approach will increase the affordability and the distribution of quantitative diagnostic and environmental tests.

  19. Reading Out Single-Molecule Digital RNA and DNA Isothermal Amplification in Nanoliter Volumes with Unmodified Camera Phones

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Digital single-molecule technologies are expanding diagnostic capabilities, enabling the ultrasensitive quantification of targets, such as viral load in HIV and hepatitis C infections, by directly counting single molecules. Replacing fluorescent readout with a robust visual readout that can be captured by any unmodified cell phone camera will facilitate the global distribution of diagnostic tests, including in limited-resource settings where the need is greatest. This paper describes a methodology for developing a visual readout system for digital single-molecule amplification of RNA and DNA by (i) selecting colorimetric amplification-indicator dyes that are compatible with the spectral sensitivity of standard mobile phones, and (ii) identifying an optimal ratiometric image-process for a selected dye to achieve a readout that is robust to lighting conditions and camera hardware and provides unambiguous quantitative results, even for colorblind users. We also include an analysis of the limitations of this methodology, and provide a microfluidic approach that can be applied to expand dynamic range and improve reaction performance, allowing ultrasensitive, quantitative measurements at volumes as low as 5 nL. We validate this methodology using SlipChip-based digital single-molecule isothermal amplification with λDNA as a model and hepatitis C viral RNA as a clinically relevant target. The innovative combination of isothermal amplification chemistry in the presence of a judiciously chosen indicator dye and ratiometric image processing with SlipChip technology allowed the sequence-specific visual readout of single nucleic acid molecules in nanoliter volumes with an unmodified cell phone camera. When paired with devices that integrate sample preparation and nucleic acid amplification, this hardware-agnostic approach will increase the affordability and the distribution of quantitative diagnostic and environmental tests. PMID:26900709

  20. Using a Digital Camera to Teach Physically Challenged Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wassmuth, Birgit L.

    1998-01-01

    Describes how an innovative application of new technology, in a Graphics of Journalism course, not only accommodated a physically challenged student but empowered her to fully participate in the learning process, and allowed her discover and develop talents and skills that may lead to career opportunities not previously imagined. (SR)

  1. Digital Radiography: A Technology Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnold, Ben A.

    1982-12-01

    Digital radiography, a term hardly recognized two years ago, has grown to become the talk of the radiology community and the excitement of many commercial companies. M2st of this attention has been directed toward digital subtraction intravenous angiography), although during this same time period, a variety of digital radiography apparatus and image processing techniques have been under development. In November of 1980 at the RSNA Conference in Chicago, three commercial digital angiography systems were announced by Philips, Technicare and ADAC Corporations. During this same time period, the University of Arizona was discussing the concept of a photo electronic radiology department2, the University of Pittsburg and Stanford University were investigating line scan radiography3,4 and approximately five laboratories were carrying out clinical IV angiography with digital video systems.5-9 These developments followed basic research programs in digital electronic and computerized imaging at various locations around the world. 10-18 In the spring of 1981 we attempted to review the state of digital radiography, focusing on the various detector systems and image acquisition approaches.19 Since that time, rapid advancements in digital radiography have occurred. A major conference was held on digital radiography at Stanford UniversityzO, a new area detector system for digital radiography was announced by Fuji Film Corporation, clinical testing began on the Picker line scan digital chest unit21, and improvements were made in selenium detectors for digital radiography. Several additional companies announced digital video angiography systems, bringing the total now to approximately 15 companies worldwide. Digital video subtraction angiography is now well established as an important clinical diagnostic procedure and a variety of improvements and extensions of digital angiography systems are now ongoing. Digital acquisition and storage systems are increasing in both speed and

  2. A pilot study of digital camera resolution metrology protocols proposed under ISO 12233, edition 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Don; Wueller, Dietmar; Matherson, Kevin; Yoshida, Hideaka; Hubel, Paul

    2008-01-01

    Edition 2 of ISO 12233, Resolution and Spatial Frequency Response (SFR) for Electronic Still Picture Imaging, is likely to offer a choice of techniques for determining spatial resolution for digital cameras different from the initial standard. These choices include 1) the existing slanted-edge gradient SFR protocols but with low contrast features, 2) polar coordinate sine wave SFR technique using a Siemens star element, and 3) visual resolution threshold criteria using a continuous linear spatial frequency bar pattern features. A comparison of these methods will be provided. To establish the level of consistency between the results of these methods, theoretical and laboratory experiments were performed by members of ISO TC42/WG18 committee. Test captures were performed on several consumer and SLR digital cameras using the on-board image processing pipelines. All captures were done in a single session using the same lighting conditions and camera operator. Generally, there was good conformance between methods albeit with some notable differences. Speculation on the reason for these differences and how this can be diagnostic in digital camera evaluation will be offered.

  3. Comparison of fractional vegetation cover derived from digital camera and MODIS NDVI in Mongolia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaebeom, K.; Jang, K.; Kang, S.

    2014-12-01

    Satellite remote sensing can continuously observe the land surface vegetation with repetitive error over large area, though it requires complex processes to correct errors occurred from atmosphere and topography. On the other hand, the imageries captured by digital camera provide several benefits such as high spatial resolution, simple shooting method, and relatively low-priced instrument. Furthermore, digital camera has less of atmospheric effect such as path radiance than satellite imagery, and have advantage of the shooting with actual land cover. The objective of this study is the comparison of fractional vegetation cover derived from digital camera and MODIS Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) in Mongolia. 670 imageries for the above ground including green leaves and soil surface captured by digital camera at the 134 sites in Mongolia from 2011 to 2014 were used to classify the vegetation cover fraction. Thirteen imageries captured by Mongolia and South Korea were selected to determine the best classification method. Various classification methods including the 4 supervised classifications, 2 unsupervised classifications, and histogram methods were used to separate the green vegetation in camera imageries that were converted to two color spaces such as Red-Green-Blue (RGB) and Hue-Intensity-Saturation (HIS). Those results were validated using the manually counted dataset from the local plant experts. The maximum likelihood classification (MLC) with HIS color space among classification methods showed a good agreement with manually counted dataset. The correlation coefficient and the root mean square error were 1.008 and 7.88%, respectively. Our preliminary result indicates that the MLC with HIS color space has a potential to classify the green vegetation in Mongolia.

  4. Temporal monitoring of groundcover change using digital cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zerger, A.; Gobbett, D.; Crossman, C.; Valencia, P.; Wark, T.; Davies, M.; Handcock, R. N.; Stol, J.

    2012-10-01

    This paper describes the development and testing of an automated method for detecting change in groundcover vegetation in response to kangaroo grazing using visible wavelength digital photography. The research is seen as a precursor to the future deployment of autonomous vegetation monitoring systems (environmental sensor networks). The study was conducted over six months with imagery captured every 90 min and post-processed using supervised image processing techniques. Synchronous manual assessments of groundcover change were also conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of the automated procedures. Results show that for particular cover classes such as Live Vegetation and Bare Ground, there is excellent temporal concordance between automated and manual methods. However, litter classes were difficult to consistently differentiate. A limitation of the method is the inability to effectively deal with change in the vertical profile of groundcover. This indicates that the three dimensional structure related to species composition and plant traits play an important role in driving future experimental designs. The paper concludes by providing lessons for conducting future groundcover monitoring experiments.

  5. CMOS image sensor noise reduction method for image signal processor in digital cameras and camera phones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoo, Youngjin; Lee, SeongDeok; Choe, Wonhee; Kim, Chang-Yong

    2007-02-01

    Digital images captured from CMOS image sensors suffer Gaussian noise and impulsive noise. To efficiently reduce the noise in Image Signal Processor (ISP), we analyze noise feature for imaging pipeline of ISP where noise reduction algorithm is performed. The Gaussian noise reduction and impulsive noise reduction method are proposed for proper ISP implementation in Bayer domain. The proposed method takes advantage of the analyzed noise feature to calculate noise reduction filter coefficients. Thus, noise is adaptively reduced according to the scene environment. Since noise is amplified and characteristic of noise varies while the image sensor signal undergoes several image processing steps, it is better to remove noise in earlier stage on imaging pipeline of ISP. Thus, noise reduction is carried out in Bayer domain on imaging pipeline of ISP. The method is tested on imaging pipeline of ISP and images captured from Samsung 2M CMOS image sensor test module. The experimental results show that the proposed method removes noise while effectively preserves edges.

  6. Combining laser scan and photogrammetry for 3D object modeling using a single digital camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Hanwei; Zhang, Hong; Zhang, Xiangwei

    2009-07-01

    In the fields of industrial design, artistic design and heritage conservation, physical objects are usually digitalized by reverse engineering through some 3D scanning methods. Laser scan and photogrammetry are two main methods to be used. For laser scan, a video camera and a laser source are necessary, and for photogrammetry, a digital still camera with high resolution pixels is indispensable. In some 3D modeling tasks, two methods are often integrated to get satisfactory results. Although many research works have been done on how to combine the results of the two methods, no work has been reported to design an integrated device at low cost. In this paper, a new 3D scan system combining laser scan and photogrammetry using a single consumer digital camera is proposed. Nowadays there are many consumer digital cameras, such as Canon EOS 5D Mark II, they usually have features of more than 10M pixels still photo recording and full 1080p HD movie recording, so a integrated scan system can be designed using such a camera. A square plate glued with coded marks is used to place the 3d objects, and two straight wood rulers also glued with coded marks can be laid on the plate freely. In the photogrammetry module, the coded marks on the plate make up a world coordinate and can be used as control network to calibrate the camera, and the planes of two rulers can also be determined. The feature points of the object and the rough volume representation from the silhouettes can be obtained in this module. In the laser scan module, a hand-held line laser is used to scan the object, and the two straight rulers are used as reference planes to determine the position of the laser. The laser scan results in dense points cloud which can be aligned together automatically through calibrated camera parameters. The final complete digital model is obtained through a new a patchwise energy functional method by fusion of the feature points, rough volume and the dense points cloud. The design

  7. Recovering fluorescent spectra with an RGB digital camera and color filters using different matrix factorizations.

    PubMed

    Nieves, Juan L; Valero, Eva M; Hernández-Andrés, Javier; Romero, Javier

    2007-07-01

    The aim of a multispectral system is to recover a spectral function at each image pixel, but when a scene is digitally imaged under a light of unknown spectral power distribution (SPD), the image pixels give incomplete information about the spectral reflectances of objects in the scene. We have analyzed how accurately the spectra of artificial fluorescent light sources can be recovered with a digital CCD camera. The red-green-blue (RGB) sensor outputs are modified by the use of successive cutoff color filters. Four algorithms for simplifying the spectra datasets are used: nonnegative matrix factorization (NMF), independent component analysis (ICA), a direct pseudoinverse method, and principal component analysis (PCA). The algorithms are tested using both simulated data and data from a real RGB digital camera. The methods are compared in terms of the minimum rank of factorization and the number of sensors required to derive acceptable spectral and colorimetric SPD estimations; the PCA results are also given for the sake of comparison. The results show that all the algorithms surpass the PCA when a reduced number of sensors is used. The experimental results suggest a significant loss of quality when more than one color filter is used, which agrees with the previous results for reflectances. Nevertheless, an RGB digital camera with or without a prefilter is found to provide good spectral and colorimetric recovery of indoor fluorescent lighting and can be used for color correction without the need of a telespectroradiometer.

  8. Quantitative Evaluation of Surface Color of Tomato Fruits Cultivated in Remote Farm Using Digital Camera Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashimoto, Atsushi; Suehara, Ken-Ichiro; Kameoka, Takaharu

    To measure the quantitative surface color information of agricultural products with the ambient information during cultivation, a color calibration method for digital camera images and a remote monitoring system of color imaging using the Web were developed. Single-lens reflex and web digital cameras were used for the image acquisitions. The tomato images through the post-ripening process were taken by the digital camera in both the standard image acquisition system and in the field conditions from the morning to evening. Several kinds of images were acquired with the standard RGB color chart set up just behind the tomato fruit on a black matte, and a color calibration was carried out. The influence of the sunlight could be experimentally eliminated, and the calibrated color information consistently agreed with the standard ones acquired in the system through the post-ripening process. Furthermore, the surface color change of the tomato on the tree in a greenhouse was remotely monitored during maturation using the digital cameras equipped with the Field Server. The acquired digital color images were sent from the Farm Station to the BIFE Laboratory of Mie University via VPN. The time behavior of the tomato surface color change during the maturing process could be measured using the color parameter calculated based on the obtained and calibrated color images along with the ambient atmospheric record. This study is a very important step in developing the surface color analysis for both the simple and rapid evaluation of the crop vigor in the field and to construct an ambient and networked remote monitoring system for food security, precision agriculture, and agricultural research.

  9. Digital microscopy. Bringing new technology into focus.

    PubMed

    2010-06-01

    Digital microscopy enables the scanning of microscope slides so that they can be viewed, analyzed, and archived on a computer. While the technology is not yet widely accepted by pathologists, a switch to digital microscopy systems seems to be inevitable in the near future.

  10. Digitizing Technologies for Preservation. SPEC Kit 214.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kellerman, L. Suzanne, Comp.; Wilson, Rebecca, Comp.

    The Association of Research Libraries distributed a survey to its 119 member libraries to assess the use of state-of-the-art digital technologies as a preservation method. Libraries were asked to report detailed data on all projects designed specifically to: (1) enhance images of faded or brittle originals, (2) provide access to digital images…

  11. Digital Literacy and New Technological Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feola, Elvia Ilaria

    2016-01-01

    This paper aims to reflect on the implications and challenges that experts in the field have to deal with when you want to evaluate the performance in the use of digital technologies in teaching. The argument stems from a contextual and social assessment, and then proceeds to an application and methodological connotation of digital literacy…

  12. Low-complexity camera digital signal imaging for video document projection system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsia, Shih-Chang; Tsai, Po-Shien

    2011-04-01

    We present high-performance and low-complexity algorithms for real-time camera imaging applications. The main functions of the proposed camera digital signal processing (DSP) involve color interpolation, white balance, adaptive binary processing, auto gain control, and edge and color enhancement for video projection systems. A series of simulations demonstrate that the proposed method can achieve good image quality while keeping computation cost and memory requirements low. On the basis of the proposed algorithms, the cost-effective hardware core is developed using Verilog HDL. The prototype chip has been verified with one low-cost programmable device. The real-time camera system can achieve 1270 × 792 resolution with the combination of extra components and can demonstrate each DSP function.

  13. Images and test results of MOSAD all-digital 640 x 480 MWIR prototype camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandl, William J.; Shen, Chyau N.; Martin, Phillip

    2000-11-01

    A large format prototype infrared camera based on the MOSAD (Multiplexed OverSample A/D converter) concept was developed and demonstrated. Each pixel readout buffer is composed of a two integrator one bit modulator that converts the accumulating photon induced charge to a digital value. This camera is designed around a 640 X 480 pixel focal plane array with an A/D converter at each pixel. The focal plane is a CMOS design readout hybridized to a MWIR (3 - 5 micron) N on P Mercury Cadmium Telluride detector array with pixels placed on 27 micron centers. Amain developed and tested the readout, camera and electronics. Rockwell Science Center provided the detectors which they hybridized to the Amain readout.

  14. Design of a high-numerical-aperture digital micromirror device camera with high dynamic range.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Yang; Xu, Xiping; Liu, Tao; Pan, Yue

    2015-01-01

    A high-NA imaging system with high dynamic range is presented based on a digital micromirror device (DMD). The DMD camera consists of an objective imaging system and a relay imaging system, connected by a DMD chip. With the introduction of a total internal reflection prism system, the objective imaging system is designed with a working F/# of 1.97, breaking through the F/2.45 limitation of conventional DMD projection lenses. As for the relay imaging system, an off-axis design that could correct off-axis aberrations of the tilt relay imaging system is developed. This structure has the advantage of increasing the NA of the imaging system while maintaining a compact size. Investigation revealed that the dynamic range of a DMD camera could be greatly increased, by 2.41 times. We built one prototype DMD camera with a working F/# of 1.23, and the field experiments proved the validity and reliability our work.

  15. Project PANOPTES: a citizen-scientist exoplanet transit survey using commercial digital cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gee, Wilfred T.; Guyon, Olivier; Walawender, Josh; Jovanovic, Nemanja; Boucher, Luc

    2016-08-01

    Project PANOPTES (http://www.projectpanoptes.org) is aimed at establishing a collaboration between professional astronomers, citizen scientists and schools to discover a large number of exoplanets with the transit technique. We have developed digital camera based imaging units to cover large parts of the sky and look for exoplanet transits. Each unit costs approximately $5000 USD and runs automatically every night. By using low-cost, commercial digital single-lens reflex (DSLR) cameras, we have developed a uniquely cost-efficient system for wide field astronomical imaging, offering approximately two orders of magnitude better etendue per unit of cost than professional wide-field surveys. Both science and outreach, our vision is to have thousands of these units built by schools and citizen scientists gathering data, making this project the most productive exoplanet discovery machine in the world.

  16. Digital camera workflow for high dynamic range images using a model of retinal processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamburrino, Daniel; Alleysson, David; Meylan, Laurence; Süsstrunk, Sabine

    2008-02-01

    We propose a complete digital camera workflow to capture and render high dynamic range (HDR) static scenes, from RAW sensor data to an output-referred encoded image. In traditional digital camera processing, demosaicing is one of the first operations done after scene analysis. It is followed by rendering operations, such as color correction and tone mapping. In our workflow, which is based on a model of retinal processing, most of the rendering steps are performed before demosaicing. This reduces the complexity of the computation, as only one third of the pixels are processed. This is especially important as our tone mapping operator applies local and global tone corrections, which is usually needed to well render high dynamic scenes. Our algorithms efficiently process HDR images with different keys and different content.

  17. A 3D technique for simulation of irregular electron treatment fields using a digital camera

    SciTech Connect

    Bassalow, Roustem; Sidhu, Narinder P

    2003-09-30

    Cerrobend inserts, which define electron field apertures, are manufactured at our institution using perspex templates. Contours are reproduced manually on these templates at the simulator from the field outlines drawn on the skin or mask of a patient. A previously reported technique for simulation of electron treatment fields uses a digital camera to eliminate the need for such templates. However, avoidance of the image distortions introduced by non-flat surfaces on which the electron field outlines were drawn could only be achieved by limiting the application of this technique to surfaces which were flat or near flat. We present a technique that employs a digital camera and allows simulation of electron treatment fields contoured on an anatomical surface of an arbitrary three-dimensional (3D) shape, such as that of the neck, extremities, face, or breast. The procedure is fast, accurate, and easy to perform.

  18. Unsupervised illuminant estimation from natural scenes: an RGB digital camera suffices.

    PubMed

    Nieves, Juan L; Plata, Clara; Valero, Eva M; Romero, Javier

    2008-07-10

    A linear pseudo-inverse method for unsupervised illuminant recovery from natural scenes is presented. The algorithm, which uses a digital RGB camera, selects the naturally occurring bright areas (not necessarily the white ones) in natural images and converts the RGB digital counts directly into the spectral power distribution of the illuminants using a learning-based spectral procedure. Computations show a good spectral and colorimetric performance when only three sensors (a three-band RGB camera) are used. These results go against previous findings concerning the recovery of spectral reflectances and radiances, which claimed that the greater the number of sensors, the better the spectral performance. Combining the device with the appropriate computations can yield spectral information about objects and illuminants simultaneously, avoiding the need for spectroradiometric measurements. The method works well and needs neither a white reference located in the natural scene nor direct measurements of the spectral power distribution of the light.

  19. A digital underwater video camera system for aquatic research in regulated rivers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Martin, Benjamin M.; Irwin, Elise R.

    2010-01-01

    We designed a digital underwater video camera system to monitor nesting centrarchid behavior in the Tallapoosa River, Alabama, 20 km below a peaking hydropower dam with a highly variable flow regime. Major components of the system included a digital video recorder, multiple underwater cameras, and specially fabricated substrate stakes. The innovative design of the substrate stakes allowed us to effectively observe nesting redbreast sunfish Lepomis auritus in a highly regulated river. Substrate stakes, which were constructed for the specific substratum complex (i.e., sand, gravel, and cobble) identified at our study site, were able to withstand a discharge level of approximately 300 m3/s and allowed us to simultaneously record 10 active nests before and during water releases from the dam. We believe our technique will be valuable for other researchers that work in regulated rivers to quantify behavior of aquatic fauna in response to a discharge disturbance.

  20. Measuring the Orbital Period of the Moon Using a Digital Camera

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Stephen W.

    2006-01-01

    A method of measuring the orbital velocity of the Moon around the Earth using a digital camera is described. Separate images of the Moon and stars taken 24 hours apart were loaded into Microsoft PowerPoint and the centre of the Moon marked on each image. Four stars common to both images were connected together to form a "home-made" constellation.…

  1. Measuring the Orbital Period of the Moon Using a Digital Camera

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Stephen W.

    2006-01-01

    A method of measuring the orbital velocity of the Moon around the Earth using a digital camera is described. Separate images of the Moon and stars taken 24 hours apart were loaded into Microsoft PowerPoint and the centre of the Moon marked on each image. Four stars common to both images were connected together to form a "home-made" constellation.…

  2. Primary-consistent soft-decision color demosaicking for digital cameras (patent pending).

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiaolin; Zhang, Ning

    2004-09-01

    Color mosaic sampling schemes are widely used in digital cameras. Given the resolution of CCD sensor arrays, the image quality of digital cameras using mosaic sampling largely depends on the performance of the color demosaicking process. A common problem with existing color demosaicking algorithms is an inconsistency of sample interpolations in different primary color channels, which is the cause of the most objectionable color artifacts. To cure the problem, we propose a new primary-consistent soft-decision framework (PCSD) of color demosaicking. In the PCSD framework, we make multiple estimates of a missing color sample under different hypotheses on edge or texture directions. The estimates are made via a primary consistent interpolation, meaning that all three primary components of a color are interpolated in the same direction. The final estimate of a color sample is obtained by testing different interpolation hypotheses in the reconstructed full-resolution color image and selecting the best via an optimal statistical decision or inference process. A concrete color demosaicking method of the PCSD framework is presented. This new method eliminates certain types of color artifacts of existing color demosaicking methods. Extensive experimental results demonstrate that the PCSD approach can significantly improve the image quality of digital cameras in both subjective and objective measures. In some instances, our gain over the competing methods can be as much as 7 dB.

  3. Two detector, active digital holographic camera for 3D imaging and digital holographic interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Żak, Jakub; Kujawińska, Małgorzata; Józwik, Michał

    2015-09-01

    In this paper we present the novel design and proof of concept of an active holographic camera consisting of two array detectors and Liquid Crystal on Silicon (LCOS) Spatial Light Modulator (SLM). The device allows sequential or simultaneous capture of two Fresnel holograms of 3D object/scene. The two detectors configuration provides an increased viewing angle of the camera, allows to capture two double exposure holograms with different sensitivity vectors and even facilitate capturing a synthetic aperture hologram for static objects. The LCOS SLM, located in a reference arm, serves as an active element, which enables phase shifting and proper pointing of reference beams towards both detectors in the configuration which allows miniaturization of the camera. The laboratory model of the camera has been tested for different modes of work namely for capture and reconstruction of 3D scene and for double exposure holographic interferometry applied for an engineering object under load. The future extension of the camera functionalities for Fourier holograms capture is discussed.

  4. Introduction of A New Toolbox for Processing Digital Images From Multiple Camera Networks: FMIPROT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melih Tanis, Cemal; Nadir Arslan, Ali

    2017-04-01

    Webcam networks intended for scientific monitoring of ecosystems is providing digital images and other environmental data for various studies. Also, other types of camera networks can also be used for scientific purposes, e.g. usage of traffic webcams for phenological studies, camera networks for ski tracks and avalanche monitoring over mountains for hydrological studies. To efficiently harness the potential of these camera networks, easy to use software which can obtain and handle images from different networks having different protocols and standards is necessary. For the analyses of the images from webcam networks, numerous software packages are freely available. These software packages have different strong features not only for analyzing but also post processing digital images. But specifically for the ease of use, applicability and scalability, a different set of features could be added. Thus, a more customized approach would be of high value, not only for analyzing images of comprehensive camera networks, but also considering the possibility to create operational data extraction and processing with an easy to use toolbox. At this paper, we introduce a new toolbox, entitled; Finnish Meteorological Institute Image PROcessing Tool (FMIPROT) which a customized approach is followed. FMIPROT has currently following features: • straightforward installation, • no software dependencies that require as extra installations, • communication with multiple camera networks, • automatic downloading and handling images, • user friendly and simple user interface, • data filtering, • visualizing results on customizable plots, • plugins; allows users to add their own algorithms. Current image analyses in FMIPROT include "Color Fraction Extraction" and "Vegetation Indices". The analysis of color fraction extraction is calculating the fractions of the colors in a region of interest, for red, green and blue colors along with brightness and luminance parameters. The

  5. Use of a digital camera to monitor the growth and nitrogen status of cotton.

    PubMed

    Jia, Biao; He, Haibing; Ma, Fuyu; Diao, Ming; Jiang, Guiying; Zheng, Zhong; Cui, Jin; Fan, Hua

    2014-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to develop a nondestructive method for monitoring cotton growth and N status using a digital camera. Digital images were taken of the cotton canopies between emergence and full bloom. The green and red values were extracted from the digital images and then used to calculate canopy cover. The values of canopy cover were closely correlated with the normalized difference vegetation index and the ratio vegetation index and were measured using a GreenSeeker handheld sensor. Models were calibrated to describe the relationship between canopy cover and three growth properties of the cotton crop (i.e., aboveground total N content, LAI, and aboveground biomass). There were close, exponential relationships between canopy cover and three growth properties. And the relationships for estimating cotton aboveground total N content were most precise, the coefficients of determination (R(2)) value was 0.978, and the root mean square error (RMSE) value was 1.479 g m(-2). Moreover, the models were validated in three fields of high-yield cotton. The result indicated that the best relationship between canopy cover and aboveground total N content had an R(2) value of 0.926 and an RMSE value of 1.631 g m(-2). In conclusion, as a near-ground remote assessment tool, digital cameras have good potential for monitoring cotton growth and N status.

  6. Use of a Digital Camera to Monitor the Growth and Nitrogen Status of Cotton

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Biao; He, Haibing; Ma, Fuyu; Diao, Ming; Jiang, Guiying; Zheng, Zhong; Cui, Jin; Fan, Hua

    2014-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to develop a nondestructive method for monitoring cotton growth and N status using a digital camera. Digital images were taken of the cotton canopies between emergence and full bloom. The green and red values were extracted from the digital images and then used to calculate canopy cover. The values of canopy cover were closely correlated with the normalized difference vegetation index and the ratio vegetation index and were measured using a GreenSeeker handheld sensor. Models were calibrated to describe the relationship between canopy cover and three growth properties of the cotton crop (i.e., aboveground total N content, LAI, and aboveground biomass). There were close, exponential relationships between canopy cover and three growth properties. And the relationships for estimating cotton aboveground total N content were most precise, the coefficients of determination (R2) value was 0.978, and the root mean square error (RMSE) value was 1.479 g m−2. Moreover, the models were validated in three fields of high-yield cotton. The result indicated that the best relationship between canopy cover and aboveground total N content had an R2 value of 0.926 and an RMSE value of 1.631 g m−2. In conclusion, as a near-ground remote assessment tool, digital cameras have good potential for monitoring cotton growth and N status. PMID:24723817

  7. Tweens' Characterization of Digital Technologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brito, Pedro Quelhas

    2012-01-01

    The tweens are a transitional age group undergoing deep physical and psychological transformations. Based on a thirteen-focus group research design involving 103 students, and applying a tweens-centered approach, the characteristics of SMS, IM, Internet, digital photos, electronic games, and email were analyzed. Categories such as moral issues,…

  8. Tweens' Characterization of Digital Technologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brito, Pedro Quelhas

    2012-01-01

    The tweens are a transitional age group undergoing deep physical and psychological transformations. Based on a thirteen-focus group research design involving 103 students, and applying a tweens-centered approach, the characteristics of SMS, IM, Internet, digital photos, electronic games, and email were analyzed. Categories such as moral issues,…

  9. Technology Counts 2007: A Digital Decade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Week, 2007

    2007-01-01

    "Technology Counts 2007" looks back, and ahead, after a decade of enormous upheaval in the educational technology landscape. This special issue of "Education Week" includes the following articles: (1) A Digital Decade; (2) Getting Up to Speed (Andrew Trotter); (3) E-Rate's Imprint Seen in Schools (Andrew Trotter); (4) Teaching…

  10. Leveraging Digital Technology in Social Studies Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundy, Sarah Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Today's K-12 classrooms are increasingly comprised of students who accomplish much of their informal learning through digital media and technology. In response, a growing number of educators are considering how they might draw upon these informal learning experiences to support student engagement and learning in the classroom through technology.…

  11. Technology Counts 2007: A Digital Decade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Week, 2007

    2007-01-01

    "Technology Counts 2007" looks back, and ahead, after a decade of enormous upheaval in the educational technology landscape. This special issue of "Education Week" includes the following articles: (1) A Digital Decade; (2) Getting Up to Speed (Andrew Trotter); (3) E-Rate's Imprint Seen in Schools (Andrew Trotter); (4) Teaching…

  12. Digital technology in the orthodontic laboratory.

    PubMed

    Hurt, Arlen J

    2012-02-01

    Four relatively new technologies are now key in orthodontic specialty laboratories: digital photography, laser welding, computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing, and intraoral scanners. The purposes of this article are to briefly describe these technologies and to explain how they are used in the orthodontic laboratory. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Greenness indices from digital cameras predict the timing and seasonal dynamics of canopy-scale photosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Toomey, Michael; Friedl, Mark A; Frolking, Steve; Hufkens, Koen; Klosterman, Stephen; Sonnentag, Oliver; Baldocchi, Dennis D; Bernacchi, Carl J; Biraud, Sebastien C; Bohrer, Gil; Brzostek, Edward; Burns, Sean P; Coursolle, Carole; Hollinger, David Y; Margolis, Hank A; Mccaughey, Harry; Monson, Russell K; Munger, J William; Pallardy, Stephen; Phillips, Richard P; Torn, Margaret S; Wharton, Sonia; Zeri, Marcelo; And, Andrew D; Richardson, Andrew D

    2015-01-01

    The proliferation of digital cameras co-located with eddy covariance instrumentation provides new opportunities to better understand the relationship between canopy phenology and the seasonality of canopy photosynthesis. In this paper we analyze the abilities and limitations of canopy color metrics measured by digital repeat photography to track seasonal canopy development and photosynthesis, determine phenological transition dates, and estimate intra-annual and interannual variability in canopy photosynthesis. We used 59 site-years of camera imagery and net ecosystem exchange measurements from 17 towers spanning three plant functional types (deciduous broadleaf forest, evergreen needleleaf forest, and grassland/crops) to derive color indices and estimate gross primary productivity (GPP). GPP was strongly correlated with greenness derived from camera imagery in all three plant functional types. Specifically, the beginning of the photosynthetic period in deciduous broadleaf forest and grassland/crops and the end of the photosynthetic period in grassland/crops were both correlated with changes in greenness; changes in redness were correlated with the end of the photosynthetic period in deciduous broadleaf forest. However, it was not possible to accurately identify the beginning or ending of the photosynthetic period using camera greenness in evergreen needleleaf forest. At deciduous broadleaf sites, anomalies in integrated greenness and total GPP were significantly correlated up to 60 days after the mean onset date for the start of spring. More generally, results from this work demonstrate that digital repeat photography can be used to quantify both the duration of the photosynthetically active period as well as total GPP in deciduous broadleaf forest and grassland/crops, but that new and different approaches are required before comparable results can be achieved in evergreen needleleaf forest.

  14. Response-initiated imaging of operant behavior using a digital camera.

    PubMed

    Iversen, Iver H

    2002-05-01

    A miniature digital camera, QuickCam Pro 3000, intended for use with video e-mail, was modified so that snapshots were triggered by operant behavior emitted in a standard experimental chamber. With only minor modification, the manual shutter button on the camera was replaced with a simple switch closure via an I/O interface controlled by a PC computer. When the operant behavior activated the I/O switch, the camera took a snapshot of the subject's behavior at that moment. To illustrate the use of the camera, a simple experiment was designed to examine stereotypy and variability in topography of operant behavior under continuous reinforcement and extinction in 6 rats using food pellets as reinforcement. When a rat operated an omnidirectional pole suspended from the ceiling, it also took a picture of the topography of its own behavior at that moment. In a single session after shaping of pole movement (if necessary), blocks of continuous reinforcement, in which each response was reinforced, alternated with blocks of extinction (no reinforcement), with each block ending when 20 responses had occurred. The software supplied with the camera automatically stored each image and named image files successively within a session. The software that controlled the experiment also stored quantitative data regarding the operant behavior such as consecutive order, temporal location within the session, and response duration. This paper describes how the two data types--image information and numerical performance characteristics-can be combined for visual analysis. The experiment illustrates in images how response topography changes during shaping of pole movement, how response topography quickly becomes highly stereotyped during continuous reinforcement, and how response variability increases during extinction. The method of storing digital response-initiated snapshots should be useful for a variety of experimental situations that are intended to examine behavior change and

  15. Response-initiated imaging of operant behavior using a digital camera.

    PubMed Central

    Iversen, Iver H

    2002-01-01

    A miniature digital camera, QuickCam Pro 3000, intended for use with video e-mail, was modified so that snapshots were triggered by operant behavior emitted in a standard experimental chamber. With only minor modification, the manual shutter button on the camera was replaced with a simple switch closure via an I/O interface controlled by a PC computer. When the operant behavior activated the I/O switch, the camera took a snapshot of the subject's behavior at that moment. To illustrate the use of the camera, a simple experiment was designed to examine stereotypy and variability in topography of operant behavior under continuous reinforcement and extinction in 6 rats using food pellets as reinforcement. When a rat operated an omnidirectional pole suspended from the ceiling, it also took a picture of the topography of its own behavior at that moment. In a single session after shaping of pole movement (if necessary), blocks of continuous reinforcement, in which each response was reinforced, alternated with blocks of extinction (no reinforcement), with each block ending when 20 responses had occurred. The software supplied with the camera automatically stored each image and named image files successively within a session. The software that controlled the experiment also stored quantitative data regarding the operant behavior such as consecutive order, temporal location within the session, and response duration. This paper describes how the two data types--image information and numerical performance characteristics-can be combined for visual analysis. The experiment illustrates in images how response topography changes during shaping of pole movement, how response topography quickly becomes highly stereotyped during continuous reinforcement, and how response variability increases during extinction. The method of storing digital response-initiated snapshots should be useful for a variety of experimental situations that are intended to examine behavior change and

  16. A simple method for vignette correction of airborne digital camera data

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, A.T.; Stow, D.A.; Hope, A.S.

    1996-11-01

    Airborne digital camera systems have gained popularity in recent years due to their flexibility, high geometric fidelity and spatial resolution, and fast data turn-around time. However, a common problem that plagues these types of framing systems is vignetting which causes falloff in image brightness away from principle nadir point. This paper presents a simple method for vignetting correction by utilizing laboratory images of a uniform illumination source. Multiple lab images are averaged and inverted to create digital correction templates which then are applied to actual airborne data. The vignette correction was effective in removing the systematic falloff in spectral values. We have shown that the vignette correction is a necessary part of the preprocessing of raw digital airborne remote sensing data. The consequences of not correcting for these effects are demonstrated in the context of monitoring of salt marsh habitat. 4 refs.

  17. Digital optical tape: Technology and standardization issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Podio, Fernando L.

    1996-01-01

    During the coming years, digital data storage technologies will continue an aggressive growth to satisfy the user's need for higher storage capacities, higher data transfer rates and long-term archival media properties. Digital optical tape is a promising technology to satisfy these user's needs. As any emerging data storage technology, the industry faces many technological and standardization challenges. The technological challenges are great, but feasible to overcome. Although it is too early to consider formal industry standards, the optical tape industry has decided to work together by initiating prestandardization efforts that may lead in the future to formal voluntary industry standards. This paper will discuss current industry optical tape drive developments and the types of standards that will be required for the technology. The status of current industry prestandardization efforts will also be discussed.

  18. CMOS digital pixel sensors: technology and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skorka, Orit; Joseph, Dileepan

    2014-04-01

    CMOS active pixel sensor technology, which is widely used these days for digital imaging, is based on analog pixels. Transition to digital pixel sensors can boost signal-to-noise ratios and enhance image quality, but can increase pixel area to dimensions that are impractical for the high-volume market of consumer electronic devices. There are two main approaches to digital pixel design. The first uses digitization methods that largely rely on photodetector properties and so are unique to imaging. The second is based on adaptation of a classical analog-to-digital converter (ADC) for in-pixel data conversion. Imaging systems for medical, industrial, and security applications are emerging lower-volume markets that can benefit from these in-pixel ADCs. With these applications, larger pixels are typically acceptable, and imaging may be done in invisible spectral bands.

  19. Digital technology and the conservation of nature.

    PubMed

    Arts, Koen; van der Wal, René; Adams, William M

    2015-11-01

    Digital technology is changing nature conservation in increasingly profound ways. We describe this impact and its significance through the concept of 'digital conservation', which we found to comprise five pivotal dimensions: data on nature, data on people, data integration and analysis, communication and experience, and participatory governance. Examining digital innovation in nature conservation and addressing how its development, implementation and diffusion may be steered, we warn against hypes, techno-fix thinking, good news narratives and unverified assumptions. We identify a need for rigorous evaluation, more comprehensive consideration of social exclusion, frameworks for regulation and increased multi-sector as well as multi-discipline awareness and cooperation. Along the way, digital technology may best be reconceptualised by conservationists from something that is either good or bad, to a dual-faced force in need of guidance.

  20. Whole-field thickness strain measurement using multiple camera digital image correlation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Junrui; Xie, Xin; Yang, Guobiao; Zhang, Boyang; Siebert, Thorsten; Yang, Lianxiang.

    2017-03-01

    Three Dimensional digital image correlation(3D-DIC) has been widely used by industry, especially for strain measurement. The traditional 3D-DIC system can accurately obtain the whole-field 3D deformation. However, the conventional 3D-DIC system can only acquire the displacement field on a single surface, thus lacking information in the depth direction. Therefore, the strain in the thickness direction cannot be measured. In recent years, multiple camera DIC (multi-camera DIC) systems have become a new research topic, which provides much more measurement possibility compared to the conventional 3D-DIC system. In this paper, a multi-camera DIC system used to measure the whole-field thickness strain is introduced in detail. Four cameras are used in the system. two of them are placed at the front side of the object, and the other two cameras are placed at the back side. Each pair of cameras constitutes a sub stereo-vision system and measures the whole-field 3D deformation on one side of the object. A special calibration plate is used to calibrate the system, and the information from these two subsystems is linked by the calibration result. Whole-field thickness strain can be measured using the information obtained from both sides of the object. Additionally, the major and minor strain on the object surface are obtained simultaneously, and a whole-field quasi 3D strain history is acquired. The theory derivation for the system, experimental process, and application of determining the thinning strain limit based on the obtained whole-field thickness strain history are introduced in detail.

  1. Making Sure What You See Is What You Get: Digital Video Technology and the Preparation of Teachers of Elementary Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bueno de Mesquita, Paul; Dean, Ross F.; Young, Betty J.

    2010-01-01

    Advances in digital video technology create opportunities for more detailed qualitative analyses of actual teaching practice in science and other subject areas. User-friendly digital cameras and highly developed, flexible video-analysis software programs have made the tasks of video capture, editing, transcription, and subsequent data analysis…

  2. "I Know How Much This Child Has Learned. I Have Proof!": Employing Digital Technologies for Documentation Processes in Kindergarten

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boardman, Margot

    2007-01-01

    This study set out to investigate the use of digital cameras and voice recorders to accurately capture essential components of early learners' achievements. The project was undertaken by 29 early childhood educators within kindergarten settings in Tasmania and the Australian Capital Territory. Data collected indicated that digital technologies,…

  3. Calibration error for dual-camera digital image correlation at microscale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Kai; Wang, Qiang; Wu, Jia; Yu, Haiyang; Zhang, Dongsheng

    2012-07-01

    Digital image correlation (DIC) has been widely conducted in many engineering applications. This paper describes a dual-camera system which is mounted on a stereo light microscope to achieve 3D displacement measurement at microscale. A glass plate etched with precision grids was used as the calibration plate and a translation calibration procedure was introduced to obtain the intrinsic and extrinsic parameters of the cameras as well as the aberration of the imaging system. Two main error sources, including grid positioning and stage translation, were discussed. It was found that the subpixel positioning errors had limited influences on displacement measurement, while the incorrect grid positioning can be avoided by analyzing the standard deviation between the grid spacing. The systematic translation error of the stage must be eliminated to achieve accurate displacement measurement. Based on the above analysis, a precisely controlled motorized calibration stage was developed to fulfill fully automatic calibration for the microscopic dual-camera system. An application for measuring the surface texture of the human incisor has been presented. It is concluded that the microscopic dual-camera system is an economic, precise system for 3D profilometry and deformation measurement.

  4. Improvements in remote cardiopulmonary measurement using a five band digital camera.

    PubMed

    McDuff, Daniel; Gontarek, Sarah; Picard, Rosalind W

    2014-10-01

    Remote measurement of the blood volume pulse via photoplethysmography (PPG) using digital cameras and ambient light has great potential for healthcare and affective computing. However, traditional RGB cameras have limited frequency resolution. We present results of PPG measurements from a novel five band camera and show that alternate frequency bands, in particular an orange band, allowed physiological measurements much more highly correlated with an FDA approved contact PPG sensor. In a study with participants (n = 10) at rest and under stress, correlations of over 0.92 (p 0.01) were obtained for heart rate, breathing rate, and heart rate variability measurements. In addition, the remotely measured heart rate variability spectrograms closely matched those from the contact approach. The best results were obtained using a combination of cyan, green, and orange (CGO) bands; incorporating red and blue channel observations did not improve performance. In short, RGB is not optimal for this problem: CGO is better. Incorporating alternative color channel sensors should not increase the cost of such cameras dramatically.

  5. An innovative silicon photomultiplier digitizing camera for gamma-ray astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heller, M.; Schioppa, E., Jr.; Porcelli, A.; Pujadas, I. Troyano; Ziȩtara, K.; Volpe, D. della; Montaruli, T.; Cadoux, F.; Favre, Y.; Aguilar, J. A.; Christov, A.; Prandini, E.; Rajda, P.; Rameez, M.; Bilnik, W.; Błocki, J.; Bogacz, L.; Borkowski, J.; Bulik, T.; Frankowski, A.; Grudzińska, M.; Idźkowski, B.; Jamrozy, M.; Janiak, M.; Kasperek, J.; Lalik, K.; Lyard, E.; Mach, E.; Mandat, D.; Marszałek, A.; Miranda, L. D. Medina; Michałowski, J.; Moderski, R.; Neronov, A.; Niemiec, J.; Ostrowski, M.; Paśko, P.; Pech, M.; Schovanek, P.; Seweryn, K.; Sliusar, V.; Skowron, K.; Stawarz, Ł.; Stodulska, M.; Stodulski, M.; Walter, R.; Wiȩcek, M.; Zagdański, A.

    2017-01-01

    The single-mirror small-size telescope (SST-1M) is one of the three proposed designs for the small-size telescopes (SSTs) of the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) project. The SST-1M will be equipped with a 4 m-diameter segmented reflector dish and an innovative fully digital camera based on silicon photo-multipliers. Since the SST sub-array will consist of up to 70 telescopes, the challenge is not only to build telescopes with excellent performance, but also to design them so that their components can be commissioned, assembled and tested by industry. In this paper we review the basic steps that led to the design concepts for the SST-1M camera and the ongoing realization of the first prototype, with focus on the innovative solutions adopted for the photodetector plane and the readout and trigger parts of the camera. In addition, we report on results of laboratory measurements on real scale elements that validate the camera design and show that it is capable of matching the CTA requirements of operating up to high moonlight background conditions.

  6. Determination of visual range during fog and mist using digital camera images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, John R.; Moogan, Jamie C.

    2010-08-01

    During the winter of 2008, daily time series of images of five "unit-cell chequerboard" targets were acquired using a digital camera. The camera and targets were located in the Majura Valley approximately 3 km from Canberra airport. We show how the contrast between the black and white sections of the targets is related to the meteorological range (or standard visual range), and compare estimates of this quantity derived from images acquired during fog and mist conditions with those from the Vaisala FD-12 visibility meter operated by the Bureau of Meteorology at Canberra Airport. The two sets of ranges are consistent but show the variability of visibility in the patchy fog conditions that often prevail in the Majura Valley. Significant spatial variations of the light extinction coefficient were found to occur over the longest 570 m optical path sampled by the imaging system. Visual ranges could be estimated out to ten times the distance to the furthest target, or approximately 6 km, in these experiments. Image saturation of the white sections of the targets was the major limitation on the quantitative interpretation of the images. In the future, the camera images will be processed in real time so that the camera exposure can be adjusted to avoid saturation.

  7. Geocam Space: Enhancing Handheld Digital Camera Imagery from the International Space Station for Research and Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stefanov, William L.; Lee, Yeon Jin; Dille, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Handheld astronaut photography of the Earth has been collected from the International Space Station (ISS) since 2000, making it the most temporally extensive remotely sensed dataset from this unique Low Earth orbital platform. Exclusive use of digital handheld cameras to perform Earth observations from the ISS began in 2004. Nadir viewing imagery is constrained by the inclined equatorial orbit of the ISS to between 51.6 degrees North and South latitude, however numerous oblique images of land surfaces above these latitudes are included in the dataset. While unmodified commercial off-the-shelf digital cameras provide only visible wavelength, three-band spectral information of limited quality current cameras used with long (400+ mm) lenses can obtain high quality spatial information approaching 2 meters/ground pixel resolution. The dataset is freely available online at the Gateway to Astronaut Photography of Earth site (http://eol.jsc.nasa.gov), and now comprises over 2 million images. Despite this extensive image catalog, use of the data for scientific research, disaster response, commercial applications and visualizations is minimal in comparison to other data collected from free-flying satellite platforms such as Landsat, Worldview, etc. This is due primarily to the lack of fully-georeferenced data products - while current digital cameras typically have integrated GPS, this does not function in the Low Earth Orbit environment. The Earth Science and Remote Sensing (ESRS) Unit at NASA Johnson Space Center provides training in Earth Science topics to ISS crews, performs daily operations and Earth observation target delivery to crews through the Crew Earth Observations (CEO) Facility on board ISS, and also catalogs digital handheld imagery acquired from orbit by manually adding descriptive metadata and determining an image geographic centerpoint using visual feature matching with other georeferenced data, e.g. Landsat, Google Earth, etc. The lack of full geolocation

  8. Reflectance measurement using digital camera and a protecting dome with built in light source.

    PubMed

    Välisuo, Petri; Harju, Toni; Alander, Jarmo

    2011-08-01

    The reflectance of the skin reveals the chemical and physical changes of the skin as well as many metabolic changes. The reflectance measurement is an important method for medical diagnosis, follow-up and screening. This article concentrates on designing and validating an imaging system, based on a digital camera. The proposed system can measure the reflectance of the skin with high spatial and currently four channel spectral resolution, in the range of 450 nm to 980 nm. The accuracy of the system is determined by imaging a colour checker board and comparing the obtained values with both given values and spectrometer measurements. The diffuse interreflections of both, the integrating sphere and the lighting dome of the imaging system, is compensated with a correction factor. The accuracy of the proposed system is only slightly weaker than the spectrometer. The imaging system characteristics are independent of the camera characteristics.

  9. Removal of parasitic image due to metal specularity based on digital micromirror device camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Shou-Bo; Zhang, Fu-Min; Qu, Xing-Hua; Chen, Zhe; Zheng, Shi-Wei

    2014-06-01

    Visual inspection for a highly reflective surface is commonly faced with a serious limitation, which is that useful information on geometric construction and textural defects is covered by a parasitic image due to specular highlights. In order to solve the problem, we propose an effective method for removing the parasitic image. Specifically, a digital micromirror device (DMD) camera for programmable imaging is first described. The strength of the optical system is to process scene ray before image formation. Based on the DMD camera, an iterative algorithm of modulated region selection, precise region mapping, and multimodulation provides removal of the parasitic image and reconstruction of a correction image. Finally, experimental results show the performance of the proposed approach.

  10. Technique for improving the quality of images from digital cameras using ink-jet printers and smoothed RGB transfer curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sampat, Nitin; Grim, John F.; O'Hara, James E.

    1998-04-01

    The digital camera market is growing at an explosive rate. At the same time, the quality of photographs printed on ink- jet printers continues to improve. Most of the consumer cameras are designed with the monitor as the target output device and ont the printer. When a user is printing his images from a camera, he/she needs to optimize the camera and printer combination in order to maximize image quality. We describe the details of one such method for improving image quality using a AGFA digital camera and an ink jet printer combination. Using Adobe PhotoShop, we generated optimum red, green and blue transfer curves that match the scene content to the printers output capabilities. Application of these curves to the original digital image resulted in a print with more shadow detail, no loss of highlight detail, a smoother tone scale, and more saturated colors. The image also exhibited an improved tonal scale and visually more pleasing images than those captured and printed without any 'correction'. While we report the results for one camera-printer combination we tested this technique on numbers digital cameras and printer combinations and in each case produced a better looking image. We also discuss the problems we encountered in implementing this technique.

  11. Instrument-quality digital camera that transitioned to low-cost high-volume production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandl, William J.

    2002-12-01

    MOSAD(copyright), Multiplexed OverSample Analog to Digital conversion, is a low power on focal plane analog to digital, A/D, process that places an oversample A/D at each pixel site. Two full custom designs for a visible light staring array were developed with this approach. One design approach uses a silicon photo diode in combination with photo gates at the pixel and the other approach uses an all photo gate sensor for detection. Both arrays were designed with a 320x240 format with the pixels placed on 16 micron centers. The system includes the camera assembly, driver interface assembly, a frame grabber board with integrated decimator and Windows 2000 compatible software for real time image display. The camera includes the sensor, either photo gate or photo diode, mounted on a PC card with support electronics. A custom lens mount attaches the camera to C or CS mount lens. Testing was done with a Tamron 13VM2812 CCTV CS mount lens. Both an RS644 and an RS422 parallel interface card assembly was developed to attach to the frame grabber board. The final iteration cameras were tested at the Amain facility and pictures were taken. At 400 samples per second, measured on chip power consumption is under 10 milliwatts. Noise measurements at sample rates from 400 samples per second to 1,600 samples per second were taken for both parts. The photo diode worked and produced images but it had a sense amplifier problem that prevented adequate noise measurement. At 28 times oversample, the photo gate achieved typical 9 to 11 bits signal to noise with best case measured at 13 bits. Nonuniformity variation was below the noise floor.

  12. Digital imaging technology assessment: Digital document storage project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    An ongoing technical assessment and requirements definition project is examining the potential role of digital imaging technology at NASA's STI facility. The focus is on the basic components of imaging technology in today's marketplace as well as the components anticipated in the near future. Presented is a requirement specification for a prototype project, an initial examination of current image processing at the STI facility, and an initial summary of image processing projects at other sites. Operational imaging systems incorporate scanners, optical storage, high resolution monitors, processing nodes, magnetic storage, jukeboxes, specialized boards, optical character recognition gear, pixel addressable printers, communications, and complex software processes.

  13. Using stereophotogrammetric technology for obtaining intraoral digital impressions of implants.

    PubMed

    Pradíes, Guillermo; Ferreiroa, Alberto; Özcan, Mutlu; Giménez, Beatriz; Martínez-Rus, Francisco

    2014-04-01

    The procedure for making impressions of multiple implants continues to be a challenge, despite the various techniques proposed to date. The authors' objective in this case report is to describe a novel digital impression method for multiple implants involving the use of stereophotogrammetric technology. The authors present three cases of patients who had multiple implants in which the impressions were obtained with this technology. Initially, a stereo camera with an infrared flash detects the position of special flag abutments screwed into the implants. This process is based on registering the x, y and z coordinates of each implant and the distances between them. This information is converted into a stereolithographic (STL) file. To add the soft-tissue information, the user must obtain another STL file by using an intraoral or extraoral scanner. In the first case presented, this information was acquired from the plaster model with an extraoral scanner; in the second case, from a Digital Imaging and Communication in Medicine (DICOM) file of the plaster model obtained with cone-beam computed tomography; and in the third case, through an intraoral digital impression with a confocal scanner. In the three cases, the frameworks manufactured from this technique showed a correct clinical passive fit. At follow-up appointments held six, 12 and 24 months after insertion of the prosthesis, no complications were reported. Stereophotogrammetric technology is a viable, accurate and easy technique for making multiple implant impressions. Clinicians can use stereophotogrammetric technology to acquire reliable digital master models as a first step in producing frameworks with a correct passive fit.

  14. Cataract screening by minimally trained remote observer with non-mydriatic digital fundus camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Ann; Hjelmstad, David; Taibl, Jessica N.; Sayegh, Samir I.

    2013-03-01

    We propose a method that allows an inexperienced observer, through the examination of the digital fundus image of a retina on a computer screen, to simply determine the presence of a cataract and the necessity to refer the patient for further evaluation. To do so, fundus photos obtained with a non-mydriatic camera were presented to an inexperienced observer that was briefly instructed on fundus imaging, nature of cataracts and their probable effect on the image of the retina and the use of a computer program presenting fundus image pairs. Preliminary results of pair testing indicate the method is very effective.

  15. Determination of the diffusion coefficient between corn syrup and distilled water using a digital camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ray, E.; Bunton, P.; Pojman, J. A.

    2007-10-01

    A simple technique for determining the diffusion coefficient between two miscible liquids is presented based on observing concentration-dependent ultraviolet-excited fluorescence using a digital camera. The ultraviolet-excited visible fluorescence of corn syrup is proportional to the concentration of the syrup. The variation of fluorescence with distance from the transition zone between the fluids is fit by the Fick's law solution to the diffusion equation. By monitoring the concentration at successive times, the diffusion coefficient can be determined in otherwise transparent materials. The technique is quantitative and makes measurement of diffusion accessible in the advanced undergraduate physics laboratory.

  16. Acquisition of Diagnostic Screen and Synchrotron Radiation Images Using IEEE1394 Digital Cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rehm, G.

    2004-11-01

    In the LINAC, booster synchrotron and transfer lines of DIAMOND a number of screens (YAG:Ce and OTR) as well as synchrotron radiation ports will be used to acquire information about the transverse beam distribution. Digital IEEE1394 cameras have been selected for their range of sensor sizes and resolutions available, their easy triggering to single events, and their noise-free transmission of the images into the control system. Their suitability for use under influence of high-energy radiation has been verified. Images from preliminary tests at the SRS Daresbury are presented.

  17. Design of high speed camera based on CMOS technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Sei-Hun; An, Jun-Sick; Oh, Tae-Seok; Kim, Il-Hwan

    2007-12-01

    The capacity of a high speed camera in taking high speed images has been evaluated using CMOS image sensors. There are 2 types of image sensors, namely, CCD and CMOS sensors. CMOS sensor consumes less power than CCD sensor and can take images more rapidly. High speed camera with built-in CMOS sensor is widely used in vehicle crash tests and airbag controls, golf training aids, and in bullet direction measurement in the military. The High Speed Camera System made in this study has the following components: CMOS image sensor that can take about 500 frames per second at a resolution of 1280*1024; FPGA and DDR2 memory that control the image sensor and save images; Camera Link Module that transmits saved data to PC; and RS-422 communication function that enables control of the camera from a PC.

  18. Adopting Digital Technologies in the Classroom: 10 Assessment Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staley, David J.

    2004-01-01

    Technology has long been a part of the classroom space. Sometime in the 1990s, the word technology was co-opted to refer only to digital tools. "Technology in the classroom" or "technology stocks" or "the dangers posed by technology" came to refer only to digital technology rather than to technology as a whole. As such, much of the discussion…

  19. Adopting Digital Technologies in the Classroom: 10 Assessment Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staley, David J.

    2004-01-01

    Technology has long been a part of the classroom space. Sometime in the 1990s, the word technology was co-opted to refer only to digital tools. "Technology in the classroom" or "technology stocks" or "the dangers posed by technology" came to refer only to digital technology rather than to technology as a whole. As such, much of the discussion…

  20. Conversion from light to numerical signal in a digital camera pipeline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toadere, Florin

    2010-11-01

    The goal of this paper is to simulate the conversion from light to numerical signal which occurs during the image propagations through the digital camera pipeline. We focus on the spectral and resolution analysis of the optical system, the Bayer sampling, the photon shot and fixed pattern noise, the high dynamic range image, the amplitude and bilateral filters and the analog to digital conversion. The image capture system consists of a flash illumination source, a Cooke triplet photographic objective and a passive pixel CMOS sensor. We use a spectral image in order to simulate the illumination and the propagation of the light through the optical system components. The Fourier optics is used to compute the point spread function specific to each optical component. We consider the image acquisition system to be linear shift invariant and axial. The light propagation is orthogonal to the system.

  1. Mobile technology and the digitization of healthcare

    PubMed Central

    Bhavnani, Sanjeev P.; Narula, Jagat; Sengupta, Partho P.

    2016-01-01

    The convergence of science and technology in our dynamic digital era has resulted in the development of innovative digital health devices that allow easy and accurate characterization in health and disease. Technological advancements and the miniaturization of diagnostic instruments to modern smartphone-connected and mobile health (mHealth) devices such as the iECG, handheld ultrasound, and lab-on-a-chip technologies have led to increasing enthusiasm for patient care with promises to decrease healthcare costs and to improve outcomes. This ‘hype’ for mHealth has recently intersected with the ‘real world’ and is providing important insights into how patients and practitioners are utilizing digital health technologies. It is also raising important questions regarding the evidence supporting widespread device use. In this state-of-the-art review, we assess the current literature of mHealth and aim to provide a framework for the advances in mHealth by understanding the various device, patient, and clinical factors as they relate to digital health from device designs and patient engagement, to clinical workflow and device regulation. We also outline new strategies for generation and analysis of mHealth data at the individual and population-based levels. PMID:26873093

  2. Panoramic radiography: digital technology fosters efficiency.

    PubMed

    Benson, Byron W; Liang, Hui; Flint, Diane J

    2011-01-01

    Panoramic imaging continues to be a clinically popular tool in the diagnosis and assessment of dental patients. Digital technology improves the efficiency of the imaging system, may reduce overall costs and radiation risk, and aids in optimal interpretation of the image.

  3. Mobile technology and the digitization of healthcare.

    PubMed

    Bhavnani, Sanjeev P; Narula, Jagat; Sengupta, Partho P

    2016-05-07

    The convergence of science and technology in our dynamic digital era has resulted in the development of innovative digital health devices that allow easy and accurate characterization in health and disease. Technological advancements and the miniaturization of diagnostic instruments to modern smartphone-connected and mobile health (mHealth) devices such as the iECG, handheld ultrasound, and lab-on-a-chip technologies have led to increasing enthusiasm for patient care with promises to decrease healthcare costs and to improve outcomes. This 'hype' for mHealth has recently intersected with the 'real world' and is providing important insights into how patients and practitioners are utilizing digital health technologies. It is also raising important questions regarding the evidence supporting widespread device use. In this state-of-the-art review, we assess the current literature of mHealth and aim to provide a framework for the advances in mHealth by understanding the various device, patient, and clinical factors as they relate to digital health from device designs and patient engagement, to clinical workflow and device regulation. We also outline new strategies for generation and analysis of mHealth data at the individual and population-based levels. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2016. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. High-resolution image digitizing through 12x3-bit RGB-filtered CCD camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Andrew Y. S.; Pau, Michael C. Y.

    1996-09-01

    A high resolution computer-controlled CCD image capturing system is developed by using a 12 bits 1024 by 1024 pixels CCD camera and motorized RGB filters to grasp an image with color depth up to 36 bits. The filters distinguish the major components of color and collect them separately while the CCD camera maintains the spatial resolution and detector filling factor. The color separation can be done optically rather than electronically. The operation is simply by placing the capturing objects like color photos, slides and even x-ray transparencies under the camera system, the necessary parameters such as integration time, mixing level and light intensity are automatically adjusted by an on-line expert system. This greatly reduces the restrictions of the capturing species. This unique approach can save considerable time for adjusting the quality of image, give much more flexibility of manipulating captured object even if it is a 3D object with minimal setup fixers. In addition, cross sectional dimension of a 3D capturing object can be analyzed by adapting a fiber optic ring light source. It is particularly useful in non-contact metrology of a 3D structure. The digitized information can be stored in an easily transferable format. Users can also perform a special LUT mapping automatically or manually. Applications of the system include medical images archiving, printing quality control, 3D machine vision, and etc.

  5. The PANOPTES project: discovering exoplanets with low-cost digital cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guyon, Olivier; Walawender, Josh; Jovanovic, Nemanja; Butterfield, Mike; Gee, Wilfred T.; Mery, Rawad

    2014-07-01

    The Panoptic Astronomical Networked OPtical observatory for Transiting Exoplanets Survey (PANOPTES, www.projectpanoptes.org) project is aimed at identifying transiting exoplanets using a wide network of low-cost imaging units. Each unit consists of two commercial digital single lens reflex (DSLR) cameras equipped with 85mm F1.4 lenses, mounted on a small equatorial mount. At a few $1000s per unit, the system offers a uniquely advantageous survey eficiency for the cost, and can easily be assembled by amateur astronomers or students. Three generations of prototype units have so far been tested, and the baseline unit design, which optimizes robustness, simplicity and cost, is now ready to be duplicated. We describe the hardware and software for the PANOPTES project, focusing on key challenging aspects of the project. We show that obtaining high precision photometric measurements with commercial DSLR color cameras is possible, using a PSF-matching algorithm we developed for this project. On-sky tests show that percent-level photometric precision is achieved in 1 min with a single camera. We also discuss hardware choices aimed at optimizing system robustness while maintaining adequate cost. PANOPTES is both an outreach project and a scientifically compelling survey for transiting exoplanets. In its current phase, experienced PANOPTES members are deploying a limited number of units, acquiring the experience necessary to run the network. A much wider community will then be able to participate to the project, with schools and citizen scientists integrating their units in the network.

  6. Flame colour characterization in the visible and infrared spectrum using a digital camera and image processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Hua-Wei; Zhang, Yang

    2008-08-01

    An attempt has been made to characterize the colour spectrum of methane flame under various burning conditions using RGB and HSV colour models instead of resolving the real physical spectrum. The results demonstrate that each type of flame has its own characteristic distribution in both the RGB and HSV space. It has also been observed that the averaged B and G values in the RGB model represent well the CH* and C*2 emission of methane premixed flame. Theses features may be utilized for flame measurement and monitoring. The great advantage of using a conventional camera for monitoring flame properties based on the colour spectrum is that it is readily available, easy to interface with a computer, cost effective and has certain spatial resolution. Furthermore, it has been demonstrated that a conventional digital camera is able to image flame not only in the visible spectrum but also in the infrared. This feature is useful in avoiding the problem of image saturation typically encountered in capturing the very bright sooty flames. As a result, further digital imaging processing and quantitative information extraction is possible. It has been identified that an infrared image also has its own distribution in both the RGB and HSV colour space in comparison with a flame image in the visible spectrum.

  7. NDVI derived from IR-enabled digital cameras: applicability across different plant functional types

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filippa, Gianluca; Cremonese, Edoardo; Galvagno, Marta; Migliavacca, Mirco; Sonnentag, Oliver; Hufkens, Koen; Ryu, Youngryel; Humphreys, Elyn; Morra di Cella, Umberto; Richardson, Andrew D.

    2017-04-01

    Phenological time-series based on the deployment of radiometric measurements are now being constructed at different spatial and temporal scales ranging from weekly satellite observations to sub-hourly in situ measurements by means of e.g. radiometers or digital cameras. In situ measurements are strongly required to provide high-frequency validation data for satellite-derived vegetation indices. In this study we used a recently developed method to calculate NDVI from NIR-enabled digital cameras (NDVIC) at 17 sites encompassing 6 plant functional types and totalizing 74 year-sites of data from the PHENOCAM network. The seasonality of NDVIC was comparable to both NDVI measured by ground light emitting diode (LED) sensors and by MODIS, whereas site-specific scaling factors are required to compare absolute values of NDVIC to standard NDVI measurements. We also compared green chromatic coordinate (GCC) extracted from RGB-only images to NDVIC and found that the two are characterized by slight different dynamics, dependent on the plant functional type. During senescence, NDVIC lags behind GCC in deciduous broad-leaf forests and grasslands, suggesting that GCC is more sensitive to leaf decoloration and NDVIC to the biomass reduction resulting from leaf abscission and green to dry biomass ratio of the canopy. In evergreen forests, NDVIC peaks later than GCC in spring, likely tracking the processes of shoot elongation and new needle formation. Our findings suggest therefore that NDVIC and GCC can complement each other in describing ecosystem phenology.

  8. Cloud Height Estimation with a Single Digital Camera and Artificial Neural Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carretas, Filipe; Janeiro, Fernando M.

    2014-05-01

    Clouds influence the local weather, the global climate and are an important parameter in the weather prediction models. Clouds are also an essential component of airplane safety when visual flight rules (VFR) are enforced, such as in most small aerodromes where it is not economically viable to install instruments for assisted flying. Therefore it is important to develop low cost and robust systems that can be easily deployed in the field, enabling large scale acquisition of cloud parameters. Recently, the authors developed a low-cost system for the measurement of cloud base height using stereo-vision and digital photography. However, due to the stereo nature of the system, some challenges were presented. In particular, the relative camera orientation requires calibration and the two cameras need to be synchronized so that the photos from both cameras are acquired simultaneously. In this work we present a new system that estimates the cloud height between 1000 and 5000 meters. This prototype is composed by one digital camera controlled by a Raspberry Pi and is installed at Centro de Geofísica de Évora (CGE) in Évora, Portugal. The camera is periodically triggered to acquire images of the overhead sky and the photos are downloaded to the Raspberry Pi which forwards them to a central computer that processes the images and estimates the cloud height in real time. To estimate the cloud height using just one image requires a computer model that is able to learn from previous experiences and execute pattern recognition. The model proposed in this work is an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) that was previously trained with cloud features at different heights. The chosen Artificial Neural Network is a three-layer network, with six parameters in the input layer, 12 neurons in the hidden intermediate layer, and an output layer with only one output. The six input parameters are the average intensity values and the intensity standard deviation of each RGB channel. The output

  9. [Digital technology in clinical surgery and rehabilitation].

    PubMed

    Karpov, O E; Vetshev, P S; Daminov, V D; Epifanov, S A; Zuev, A A; Kuzmin, P D; Makhnev, D A

    This article is devoted to a very actual and insufficiently imagine in the literature theme - innovation and digital technologies in clinical surgery and rehabilitation. To schow posibilities of modern digital and information technologies in clinical practice based on the experience of the Pirogov Center. Analysis of experience in the application of innovative technologies, robotic surgery, intraoperative navigation computer, robotic systems in medical rehabilitation, integrated operating room, surgical video communication systems in service of those doing the Pirogov Center for the past 10 years. Shows the feasibility of the considered technologies in modern clinical practice clinics. The experience of the Pirogov Center indicates that the extensive use in clinical practice of modern health care facilities of the latest high-tech equipment in conjunction with the introduction of process automation and digital integrated technology management and medical-diagnostic activity is an essential reserve to increase the activity of providing specialized, including high-tech medical care, carrying out a variety of scientific and educational activities.

  10. A digital auto-focusing method based on CCD mosaicing for aerial camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yan; Liu, Yang; Chen, Xing-lin

    2011-08-01

    A novel focusing method of the remote sensing camera is proposed in this paper. To evaluate the quality of the image obtained by the aerial camera, an assessing function was constructed based on the Wavelet transform. And the characteristic of the CCD mosaicing structure was taken use to solve the problem that the evaluating values can not be compared for the images captured by the aerial camera are variable. On the basis of the wavelet evaluating function, the quality of the image was assessed. Then the CCD mosaicing structure was utilized to perform auto-focusing process, a simulation was made to validate the novel method in the end. There are three major contributions in the paper. Firstly, the weights of the wavelet coefficients in the evaluating function were set according to the characteristic of the Wavelet transform and human vision system (HVS). By those, the assessing result is close to our subjective feel and insensitive to noise. Secondly, in order to make the function adaptive to images with different high-frequency components, the properties of the wavelet basis were analyzed. By comparing the evaluating effect of different images, the wavelet basis with the best effect is symlet2 and the level of decomposing is three. Finally, by making use of the CCD mosaicing structure, the problem that auto-focusing of the aerial camera can't use digital images processing directly was solved, and the region with the highest frequency component was chosen as the evaluating area so as to improve the sensitivity of the function.

  11. Portable retinal imaging for eye disease screening using a consumer-grade digital camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barriga, Simon; Larichev, Andrey; Zamora, Gilberto; Soliz, Peter

    2012-03-01

    The development of affordable means to image the retina is an important step toward the implementation of eye disease screening programs. In this paper we present the i-RxCam, a low-cost, hand-held, retinal camera for widespread applications such as tele-retinal screening for eye diseases like diabetic retinopathy (DR), glaucoma, and age-related ocular diseases. Existing portable retinal imagers do not meet the requirements of a low-cost camera with sufficient technical capabilities (field of view, image quality, portability, battery power, and ease-of-use) to be distributed widely to low volume clinics, such as the offices of single primary care physicians serving rural communities. The i-RxCam uses a Nikon D3100 digital camera body. The camera has a CMOS sensor with 14.8 million pixels. We use a 50mm focal lens that gives a retinal field of view of 45 degrees. The internal autofocus can compensate for about 2D (diopters) of focusing error. The light source is an LED produced by Philips with a linear emitting area that is transformed using a light pipe to the optimal shape at the eye pupil, an annulus. To eliminate corneal reflex we use a polarization technique in which the light passes through a nano-wire polarizer plate. This is a novel type of polarizer featuring high polarization separation (contrast ratio of more than 1000) and very large acceptance angle (>45 degrees). The i-RxCam approach will yield a significantly more economical retinal imaging device that would allow mass screening of the at-risk population.

  12. A historical perspective on digital hearing AIDS: how digital technology has changed modern hearing AIDS.

    PubMed

    Levitt, Harry

    2007-03-01

    This article provides the author's perspective on the development of digital hearing aids and how digital signal processing approaches have led to changes in hearing aid design. Major landmarks in the evolution of digital technology are identified, and their impact on the development of digital hearing aids is discussed. Differences between analog and digital approaches to signal processing in hearing aids are identified.

  13. Characterization of digital cameras for reflected ultraviolet photography; implications for qualitative and quantitative image analysis during forensic examination.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Jair E; Wilksch, Philip A; Spring, Gale; Philp, Peta; Dyer, Adrian

    2014-01-01

    Reflected ultraviolet imaging techniques allow for the visualization of evidence normally outside the human visible spectrum. Specialized digital cameras possessing extended sensitivity can be used for recording reflected ultraviolet radiation. Currently, there is a lack of standardized methods for ultraviolet image recording and processing using digital cameras, potentially limiting the implementation and interpretation. A methodology is presented for processing ultraviolet images based on linear responses and the sensitivity of the respective color channels. The methodology is applied to a FujiS3 UVIR camera, and a modified Nikon D70s camera, to reconstruct their respective spectral sensitivity curves between 320 and 400 nm. This method results in images with low noise and high contrast, suitable for qualitative and/or quantitative analysis. The application of this methodology is demonstrated in the recording of latent fingerprints. © 2013 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  14. Estimating the spatial position of marine mammals based on digital camera recordings

    PubMed Central

    Hoekendijk, Jeroen P A; de Vries, Jurre; van der Bolt, Krissy; Greinert, Jens; Brasseur, Sophie; Camphuysen, Kees C J; Aarts, Geert

    2015-01-01

    Estimating the spatial position of organisms is essential to quantify interactions between the organism and the characteristics of its surroundings, for example, predator–prey interactions, habitat selection, and social associations. Because marine mammals spend most of their time under water and may appear at the surface only briefly, determining their exact geographic location can be challenging. Here, we developed a photogrammetric method to accurately estimate the spatial position of marine mammals or birds at the sea surface. Digital recordings containing landscape features with known geographic coordinates can be used to estimate the distance and bearing of each sighting relative to the observation point. The method can correct for frame rotation, estimates pixel size based on the reference points, and can be applied to scenarios with and without a visible horizon. A set of R functions was written to process the images and obtain accurate geographic coordinates for each sighting. The method is applied to estimate the spatiotemporal fine-scale distribution of harbour porpoises in a tidal inlet. Video recordings of harbour porpoises were made from land, using a standard digital single-lens reflex (DSLR) camera, positioned at a height of 9.59 m above mean sea level. Porpoises were detected up to a distance of ∽3136 m (mean 596 m), with a mean location error of 12 m. The method presented here allows for multiple detections of different individuals within a single video frame and for tracking movements of individuals based on repeated sightings. In comparison with traditional methods, this method only requires a digital camera to provide accurate location estimates. It especially has great potential in regions with ample data on local (a)biotic conditions, to help resolve functional mechanisms underlying habitat selection and other behaviors in marine mammals in coastal areas. PMID:25691982

  15. Estimating the spatial position of marine mammals based on digital camera recordings.

    PubMed

    Hoekendijk, Jeroen P A; de Vries, Jurre; van der Bolt, Krissy; Greinert, Jens; Brasseur, Sophie; Camphuysen, Kees C J; Aarts, Geert

    2015-02-01

    Estimating the spatial position of organisms is essential to quantify interactions between the organism and the characteristics of its surroundings, for example, predator-prey interactions, habitat selection, and social associations. Because marine mammals spend most of their time under water and may appear at the surface only briefly, determining their exact geographic location can be challenging. Here, we developed a photogrammetric method to accurately estimate the spatial position of marine mammals or birds at the sea surface. Digital recordings containing landscape features with known geographic coordinates can be used to estimate the distance and bearing of each sighting relative to the observation point. The method can correct for frame rotation, estimates pixel size based on the reference points, and can be applied to scenarios with and without a visible horizon. A set of R functions was written to process the images and obtain accurate geographic coordinates for each sighting. The method is applied to estimate the spatiotemporal fine-scale distribution of harbour porpoises in a tidal inlet. Video recordings of harbour porpoises were made from land, using a standard digital single-lens reflex (DSLR) camera, positioned at a height of 9.59 m above mean sea level. Porpoises were detected up to a distance of ∽3136 m (mean 596 m), with a mean location error of 12 m. The method presented here allows for multiple detections of different individuals within a single video frame and for tracking movements of individuals based on repeated sightings. In comparison with traditional methods, this method only requires a digital camera to provide accurate location estimates. It especially has great potential in regions with ample data on local (a)biotic conditions, to help resolve functional mechanisms underlying habitat selection and other behaviors in marine mammals in coastal areas.

  16. Payette National Forest aerial survey project using the Kodak digital color infrared camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greer, Jerry D.

    1997-11-01

    Staff of the Payette National Forest located in central Idaho used the Kodak Digital Infrared Camera to collect digital photographic images over a wide variety of selected areas. The objective of this aerial survey project is to collect airborne digital camera imagery and to evaluate it for potential use in forest assessment and management. The data collected from this remote sensing system is being compared with existing resource information and with personal knowledge of the areas surveyed. Resource specialists are evaluating the imagery to determine if it may be useful for; identifying cultural sites (pre-European settlement tribal villages and camps); recognizing ecosystem landscape pattern; mapping recreation areas; evaluating the South Fork Salmon River road reconstruction project; designing the Elk Summit Road; assessing the impact of sediment on anadramous fish in the South Fork Salmon River; assessing any contribution of sediment to the South Fork from the reconstructed road; determining post-wildfire stress development in conifer timber; in assessing the development of insect populations in areas initially determined to be within low intensity wildfire burn polygons; and to search for Idaho Ground Squirrel habitat. Project sites include approximately 60 linear miles of the South Fork of the Salmon River; a parallel road over about half that distance; 3 archaeological sites; two transects of about 6 miles each for landscape patterns; 3 recreation areas; 5 miles of the Payette River; 4 miles of the Elk Summit Road; a pair of transects 4.5 miles long for stress assessment in timber; a triplet of transects about 3 miles long for the assessment of the identification of species; and an area of about 640 acres to evaluate habitat for the endangered Idaho Ground Squirrel. Preliminary results indicate that the imagery is an economically viable way to collect site specific resource information that is of value in the management of a national forest.

  17. Digital video technology and production 101: lights, camera, action.

    PubMed

    Elliot, Diane L; Goldberg, Linn; Goldberg, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    Videos are powerful tools for enhancing the reach and effectiveness of health promotion programs. They can be used for program promotion and recruitment, for training program implementation staff/volunteers, and as elements of an intervention. Although certain brief videos may be produced without technical assistance, others often require collaboration and contracting with professional videographers. To get practitioners started and to facilitate interactions with professional videographers, this Tool includes a guide to the jargon of video production and suggestions for how to integrate videos into health education and promotion work. For each type of video, production principles and issues to consider when working with a professional videographer are provided. The Tool also includes links to examples in each category of video applications to health promotion.

  18. Interactive Digital Technologies' Use in Southwest Nigerian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agbatogun, Alaba Olaoluwakotansibe

    2013-01-01

    The interactive digital technologies in education is an effective means used to widen educational opportunities. However, many faculty members do not use or adopt digital technologies as instructional tools. The purpose of this study was to predict faculty members' use of digital technologies in Nigerian Universities. 492 university lecturers from…

  19. Preservice Teachers' Perceptions of Using Digital Technologies in Literacy Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierczynski, Melissa

    2015-01-01

    In order to best prepare our preservice teachers to incorporate digital technologies into future literacy instruction, we must first explore how they perceive implementation of digital technologies in literacy instruction. Limited research exists which examines the employment of digital technologies in literacy instruction, and even less considers…

  20. Preservice Teachers' Perceptions of Using Digital Technologies in Literacy Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierczynski, Melissa

    2015-01-01

    In order to best prepare our preservice teachers to incorporate digital technologies into future literacy instruction, we must first explore how they perceive implementation of digital technologies in literacy instruction. Limited research exists which examines the employment of digital technologies in literacy instruction, and even less considers…

  1. Realization of the FPGA based TDI algorithm in digital domain for CMOS cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Shuping; Jin, Guang; Zhang, Xuyan; Qu, Hongsong

    2012-10-01

    In order to make the CMOS image sensors suitable for space high resolution imaging applications, a new method realizing TDI in digital domain by FPGA is proposed in this paper, which improves the imaging mode for area array CMOS sensors. The TDI algorithm accumulates the corresponding pixels of adjoining frames in digital domain, so the gray values increase by M times, where M is for the integration number, and the image's quality in signal-to-noise ratio can be improved. In addition, the TDI optimization algorithm is discussed. Firstly, the signal storage is optimized by 2 slices of external RAM, where memory depth expanding and the table tennis operation mechanism are used. Secondly, the FIFO operation mechanism reduces the reading and writing operation on memory by M×(M-1) times, It saves so much signal transfer time as is proportional to the square of integration number M2, that the frame frequency is able to increase greatly. At last, the CMOS camera based on TDI in digital domain is developed, and the algorithm is validated by experiments on it.

  2. A compact high-definition low-cost digital stereoscopic video camera for rapid robotic surgery development.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Jay; Kowalczuk, Jędrzej; Psota, Eric; Pérez, Lance C

    2012-01-01

    Robotic surgical platforms require vision feedback systems, which often consist of low-resolution, expensive, single-imager analog cameras. These systems are retooled for 3D display by simply doubling the cameras and outboard control units. Here, a fully-integrated digital stereoscopic video camera employing high-definition sensors and a class-compliant USB video interface is presented. This system can be used with low-cost PC hardware and consumer-level 3D displays for tele-medical surgical applications including military medical support, disaster relief, and space exploration.

  3. Combining multi-spectral proximal sensors and digital cameras for monitoring grazed tropical pastures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Handcock, R. N.; Gobbett, D. L.; González, L. A.; Bishop-Hurley, G. J.; McGavin, S. L.

    2015-11-01

    Timely and accurate monitoring of pasture biomass and ground-cover is necessary in livestock production systems to ensure productive and sustainable management of forage for livestock. Interest in the use of proximal sensors for monitoring pasture status in grazing systems has increased, since such sensors can return data in near real-time, and have the potential to be deployed on large properties where remote sensing may not be suitable due to issues such as spatial scale or cloud cover. However, there are unresolved challenges in developing calibrations to convert raw sensor data to quantitative biophysical values, such as pasture biomass or vegetation ground-cover, to allow meaningful interpretation of sensor data by livestock producers. We assessed the use of multiple proximal sensors for monitoring tropical pastures with a pilot deployment of sensors at two sites on Lansdown Research Station near Townsville, Australia. Each site was monitored by a Skye SKR-four-band multi-spectral sensor (every 1 min), a digital camera (every 30 min), and a soil moisture sensor (every 1 min), each operated over 18 months. Raw data from each sensor were processed to calculate a number of multispectral vegetation indices. Visual observations of pasture characteristics, including above-ground standing biomass and ground cover, were made every 2 weeks. A methodology was developed to manage the sensor deployment and the quality control of the data collected. The data capture from the digital cameras was more reliable than the multi-spectral sensors, which had up to 63 % of data discarded after data cleaning and quality control. We found a strong relationship between sensor and pasture measurements during the wet season period of maximum pasture growth (January to April), especially when data from the multi-spectral sensors were combined with weather data. RatioNS34 (a simple band ratio between the near infrared (NIR) and lower shortwave infrared (SWIR) bands) and rainfall since 1

  4. Aerospace Numerical Simulation and Digital Prototyping Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Yao; Xie, Lijun; Zou, Jianfeng; Chen, Jianjun; Zhang, Jifa

    2010-05-01

    A High End Digital Prototyping system (HEDP) designed for aerospace numerical simulation is introduced in this paper. This system is a problem solving environment equipped with capability of parallel mesh generation, immersive visual steering, large-scale visualization and parallel computation. All enabling technologies are realized as separate modules and coupled through a software bus, which makes them integrated seamlessly. Detailed design principles and a numerical simulation of turbulent combustion in the HyShot Scramjet whitin the HEDP system is addressed.

  5. Digital technology in fixed implant prosthodontics.

    PubMed

    Joda, Tim; Ferrari, Marco; Gallucci, German O; Wittneben, Julia-Gabriela; Brägger, Urs

    2017-02-01

    Digital protocols are increasingly influencing prosthodontic treatment concepts. Implant-supported single-unit and short-span reconstructions will benefit mostly from the present digital trends. In these protocols, monolithic implant crowns connected to prefabricated titanium abutments, which are created based on data obtained from an intraoral scan followed by virtual design and production, without the need of a physical master cast, have to be considered in lieu of conventional manufacturing techniques for posterior implant restorations. No space for storage is needed in the complete digital workflow, and if a remake is required a replica of the original reconstruction can be produced quickly and inexpensively using rapid prototyping. The technological process is split into subtractive methods, such as milling or laser ablation, and additive processing, such as three-dimensional printing and selective laser melting. The dimensions of the supra-implant soft-tissue architecture can be calculated in advance of implant placement, according to the morphologic copy, and consequently are individualized for each patient. All these technologies have to be considered before implementing new digital dental workflows in daily routine. The correct indication and application are prerequisite and crucial for the success of the overall therapy, and, finally, for a satisfied patient. This includes a teamwork approach and equally affects the clinician, the dental assistant and the technician as well. The digitization process has the potential to change the entire dental profession. The major benefits will be reduced production costs, improvement in time efficiency and fulfilment of patients' perceptions of a modernized treatment concept.

  6. Digital camera image analysis of faeces in detection of cholestatic jaundice in infants.

    PubMed

    Parinyanut, Parinya; Bandisak, Tai; Chiengkriwate, Piyawan; Tanthanuch, Sawit; Sangkhathat, Surasak

    2016-01-01

    Stool colour assessment is a screening method for biliary tract obstruction in infants. This study is aimed to be a proof of concept work of digital photograph image analysis of stool colour compared to colour grading by a colour card, and the stool bilirubin level test. The total bilirubin (TB) level contents in stool samples from 17 infants aged less than 1 year, seven with confirmed cholestatic jaundice and ten healthy subjects was measured, and outcome correlated with the physical colour of the stool. The seven infants with cholestasis included 6 cases of biliary atresia and 1 case of pancreatic mass. All pre-operative stool samples in these cases were indicated as grade 1 on the stool card (stool colour in healthy infants ranges from 4 to 6). The average stool TB in the pale stool group was 43.07 μg/g compared to 101.78 μg/g in the non-pale stool group. Of the 3 colour channels assessed in the digital photographs, the blue and green light were best able to discriminate accurately between the pre-operative stool samples from infants with cholestasis and the samples from the healthy controls. With red, green, and blue (RGB) image analysis using wave level as the ANN input, the system predicts the stool TB with a relationship coefficient of 0.96, compared to 0.61 when stool colour card grading was used. Input from digital camera images of stool had a higher predictive capability compared to the standard stool colour card, indicating using digital photographs may be a useful tool for detection of cholestasis in infants.

  7. Noctilucent clouds: modern ground-based photographic observations by a digital camera network.

    PubMed

    Dubietis, Audrius; Dalin, Peter; Balčiūnas, Ričardas; Černis, Kazimieras; Pertsev, Nikolay; Sukhodoev, Vladimir; Perminov, Vladimir; Zalcik, Mark; Zadorozhny, Alexander; Connors, Martin; Schofield, Ian; McEwan, Tom; McEachran, Iain; Frandsen, Soeren; Hansen, Ole; Andersen, Holger; Grønne, Jesper; Melnikov, Dmitry; Manevich, Alexander; Romejko, Vitaly

    2011-10-01

    Noctilucent, or "night-shining," clouds (NLCs) are a spectacular optical nighttime phenomenon that is very often neglected in the context of atmospheric optics. This paper gives a brief overview of current understanding of NLCs by providing a simple physical picture of their formation, relevant observational characteristics, and scientific challenges of NLC research. Modern ground-based photographic NLC observations, carried out in the framework of automated digital camera networks around the globe, are outlined. In particular, the obtained results refer to studies of single quasi-stationary waves in the NLC field. These waves exhibit specific propagation properties--high localization, robustness, and long lifetime--that are the essential requisites of solitary waves.

  8. Optical wide field monitor AROMA-W using multiple digital single-lens reflex cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Ichiro; Tsunashima, Kosuke; Tatsuhito, Takeda; Saori, Ono; Kazutaka, Yamaoka; Yoshida, Atsumasa

    2010-12-01

    We have developed and operated the automatic optical observation device Aoyama Gakuin University Robotic Optical Monitor for Astrophysical objects - Wide field (AROMA-W). It covers a large field of view of about 45 degrees W 30 degrees at a time by the multiple digital single-lens reflex cameras, and provides photometric data in four bands with a limiting V magnitude of about 12-13 magnitude (20 seconds, 3 sigma level). The automatic analysis pipeline which can analyze in parallel with observation has been constructed so far. It can draw the light curves of all stars in the field of view of AROMA-W. We are aiming at the simultaneous observation of the transients (e.g., X-ray nova, Supernova, GRB) that MAXI discovered by using the AROMA-W. We report the developmental status, the observational results of AROMA-W and a possibility of the simultaneous observation to the X-ray transients discovered with MAXI.

  9. Nonlinear color-image decomposition for image processing of a digital color camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Takahiro; Aizawa, Haruya; Yamada, Daisuke; Komatsu, Takashi

    2009-01-01

    This paper extends the BV (Bounded Variation) - G and/or the BV-L1 variational nonlinear image-decomposition approaches, which are considered to be useful for image processing of a digital color camera, to genuine color-image decomposition approaches. For utilizing inter-channel color cross-correlations, this paper first introduces TV (Total Variation) norms of color differences and TV norms of color sums into the BV-G and/or BV-L1 energy functionals, and then derives denoising-type decomposition-algorithms with an over-complete wavelet transform, through applying the Besov-norm approximation to the variational problems. Our methods decompose a noisy color image without producing undesirable low-frequency colored artifacts in its separated BV-component, and they achieve desirable high-quality color-image decomposition, which is very robust against colored random noise.

  10. 3D digital image correlation using single color camera pseudo-stereo system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Junrui; Dan, Xizuo; Xu, Wan; Wang, Yonghong; Yang, Guobiao; Yang, Lianxiang

    2017-10-01

    Three dimensional digital image correlation (3D-DIC) has been widely used by industry to measure the 3D contour and whole-field displacement/strain. In this paper, a novel single color camera 3D-DIC setup, using a reflection-based pseudo-stereo system, is proposed. Compared to the conventional single camera pseudo-stereo system, which splits the CCD sensor into two halves to capture the stereo views, the proposed system achieves both views using the whole CCD chip and without reducing the spatial resolution. In addition, similarly to the conventional 3D-DIC system, the center of the two views stands in the center of the CCD chip, which minimizes the image distortion relative to the conventional pseudo-stereo system. The two overlapped views in the CCD are separated by the color domain, and the standard 3D-DIC algorithm can be utilized directly to perform the evaluation. The system's principle and experimental setup are described in detail, and multiple tests are performed to validate the system.

  11. Skin hydration imaging using a long-wavelength near-infrared digital camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Attas, E. Michael; Posthumus, Trevor B.; Schattka, Bernhard J.; Sowa, Michael G.; Mantsch, Henry H.; Zhang, Shuliang L.

    2001-07-01

    Skin hydration is a key factor in skin health. Hydration measurements can provide diagnostic information on the condition of skin and can indicate the integrity of the skin barrier function. Near-infrared spectroscopy measures the water content of living tissue by its effect on tissue reflectance at a particular wavelength. Imaging has the important advantage of showing the degree of hydration as a function of location. Short-wavelength (650-1050 nm) near infrared spectroscopic reflectance imaging has previously been used in-vivo to determine the relative water content of skin under carefully controlled laboratory conditions. We have recently developed a novel spectroscopic imaging system to acquire image sets in the long-wavelength region of the near infrared (960 to 1700 nm), where the water absorption bands are more intense. The LW-NIR systems uses a liquid- crystal tunable filter in front of the objective lens and incorporates a 12-bit digital camera with a 320-by-240-pixel indium-gallium arsenide array sensor. Custom software controls the camera and tunable filter, allowing image sets to be acquired and displayed in near-real time. Forearm skin hydration was measured in a clinical context using the long- wavelength imaging system, a short-wavelength imaging system, and non-imaging instrumentation. Among these, the LW-NIR system appears to be the most sensitive at measuring dehydration of skin.

  12. Counterfeit deterrence and digital imaging technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Church, Sara E.; Fuller, Reese H.; Jaffe, Annette B.; Pagano, Lorelei W.

    2000-04-01

    The US government recognizes the growing problem of counterfeiting currency using digital imaging technology, as desktop systems become more sophisticated, less expensive and more prevalent. As the rate of counterfeiting with this type of equipment has grown, the need for specific prevention methods has become apparent to the banknote authorities. As a result, the Treasury Department and Federal Reserve have begun to address issues related specifically to this type of counterfeiting. The technical representatives of these agencies are taking a comprehensive approach to minimize counterfeiting using digital technology. This approach includes identification of current technology solutions for banknote recognition, data stream intervention and output marking, outreach to the hardware and software industries and enhancement of public education efforts. Other aspects include strong support and cooperation with existing international efforts to prevent counterfeiting, review and amendment of existing anti- counterfeiting legislation and investigation of currency design techniques to make faithful reproduction more difficult. Implementation of these steps and others are to lead to establishment of a formal, permanent policy to address and prevent the use of emerging technologies to counterfeit currency.

  13. UCXp camera imaging principle and key technologies of data post-processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Fangyan; Li, Guoqing; Zuo, Zhengli; Liu, Jianmin; Wu, Liang; Yu, Xiaoping; Zhao, Haitao

    2014-03-01

    The large format digital aerial camera product UCXp was introduced into the Chinese market in 2008, the image consists of 17310 columns and 11310 rows with a pixel size of 6 mm. The UCXp camera has many advantages compared with the same generation camera, with multiple lenses exposed almost at the same time and no oblique lens. The camera has a complex imaging process whose principle will be detailed in this paper. On the other hand, the UCXp image post-processing method, including data pre-processing and orthophoto production, will be emphasized in this article. Based on the data of new Beichuan County, this paper will describe the data processing and effects.

  14. Calibration of Low Cost Digital Camera Using Data from Simultaneous LIDAR and Photogrammetric Surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitishita, E.; Debiasi, P.; Hainosz, F.; Centeno, J.

    2012-07-01

    Digital photogrammetric products from the integration of imagery and lidar datasets are a reality nowadays. When the imagery and lidar surveys are performed together and the camera is connected to the lidar system, a direct georeferencing can be applied to compute the exterior orientation parameters of the images. Direct georeferencing of the images requires accurate interior orientation parameters to perform photogrammetric application. Camera calibration is a procedure applied to compute the interior orientation parameters (IOPs). Calibration researches have established that to obtain accurate IOPs, the calibration must be performed with same or equal condition that the photogrammetric survey is done. This paper shows the methodology and experiments results from in situ self-calibration using a simultaneous images block and lidar dataset. The calibration results are analyzed and discussed. To perform this research a test field was fixed in an urban area. A set of signalized points was implanted on the test field to use as the check points or control points. The photogrammetric images and lidar dataset of the test field were taken simultaneously. Four strips of flight were used to obtain a cross layout. The strips were taken with opposite directions of flight (W-E, E-W, N-S and S-N). The Kodak DSC Pro SLR/c digital camera was connected to the lidar system. The coordinates of the exposition station were computed from the lidar trajectory. Different layouts of vertical control points were used in the calibration experiments. The experiments use vertical coordinates from precise differential GPS survey or computed by an interpolation procedure using the lidar dataset. The positions of the exposition stations are used as control points in the calibration procedure to eliminate the linear dependency of the group of interior and exterior orientation parameters. This linear dependency happens, in the calibration procedure, when the vertical images and flat test field are

  15. Multi-ion detection by one-shot optical sensors using a colour digital photographic camera.

    PubMed

    Lapresta-Fernández, Alejandro; Capitán-Vallvey, Luis Fermín

    2011-10-07

    The feasibility and performance of a procedure to evaluate previously developed one-shot optical sensors as single and selective analyte sensors for potassium, magnesium and hardness are presented. The procedure uses a conventional colour digital photographic camera as the detection system for simultaneous multianalyte detection. A 6.0 megapixel camera was used, and the procedure describes how it is possible to quantify potassium, magnesium and hardness simultaneously from the images captured, using multianalyte one-shot sensors based on ionophore-chromoionophore chemistry, employing the colour information computed from a defined region of interest on the sensing membrane. One of the colour channels in the red, green, blue (RGB) colour space is used to build the analytical parameter, the effective degree of protonation (1-α(eff)), in good agreement with the theoretical model. The linearization of the sigmoidal response function increases the limit of detection (LOD) and analytical range in all cases studied. The increases were from 5.4 × 10(-6) to 2.7 × 10(-7) M for potassium, from 1.4 × 10(-4) to 2.0 × 10(-6) M for magnesium and from 1.7 to 2.0 × 10(-2) mg L(-1) of CaCO(3) for hardness. The method's precision was determined in terms of the relative standard deviation (RSD%) which was from 2.4 to 7.6 for potassium, from 6.8 to 7.8 for magnesium and from 4.3 to 7.8 for hardness. The procedure was applied to the simultaneous determination of potassium, magnesium and hardness using multianalyte one-shot sensors in different types of waters and beverages in order to cover the entire application range, statistically validating the results against atomic absorption spectrometry as the reference procedure. Accordingly, this paper is an attempt to demonstrate the possibility of using a conventional digital camera as an analytical device to measure this type of one-shot sensor based on ionophore-chromoionophore chemistry instead of using conventional lab

  16. A simple method for evaluating image quality of screen-film system using a high-performance digital camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujita, Naotoshi; Yamazaki, Asumi; Ichikawa, Katsuhiro; Kodera, Yoshie

    2009-02-01

    Screen-film systems are used in mammography even now. Therefore, it is important to measure their physical properties such as modulation transfer function (MTF) or noise power spectrum (NPS). The MTF and NPS of screen-film systems are mostly measured by using a microdensitometer. However, since microdensitometers are not commonly used in general hospitals, it is difficult to carry out these measurements regularly. In the past, Ichikawa et al. have measured and evaluated the physical properties of medical liquid crystal displays by using a high-performance digital camera. By this method, the physical properties of screen-film systems can be measured easily without using a microdensitometer. Therefore, we have proposed a simple method for measuring the MTF and NPS of screen-film systems by using a high-performance digital camera. The proposed method is based on the edge method (for evaluating MTF) and the one-dimensional fast Fourier transform (FFT) method (for evaluating NPS), respectively. As a result, the MTF and NPS evaluated by using the high-performance digital camera approximately corresponded with those evaluated by using a microdensitometer. It is possible to substitute the calculation of MTF and NPS by using a high-performance digital camera for that by using a microdensitometer. Further, this method also simplifies the evaluation of the physical properties of screen-film systems.

  17. Digital mammography performed with computed radiography technology.

    PubMed

    Jouan, B

    1999-07-01

    Introduced by Fuji Photo Film Japan in the early 1980s, computed radiography (CR) technology has developed considerably since then to become the mature widely installed technology it is today (about 7500 systems worldwide). Various mammographic examinations require high performance results to which CR complies on demand or following some procedures such as geometrical magnification carried out during the examination. The basic CR principles and digital image processing as well as technical improvements are detailed in this study, which also includes a synthesis of the articles on CR mammographic applications referenced in the bibliography, focusing on strong points, limits and current methods of surpassing these limits. New CR technology development perspectives in mammography and computed assisted diagnosis (CAD) algorithms will allow wider use of this method in the near future.

  18. Deconstructing Digital Natives: Young People, Technology, and the New Literacies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Michael, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    There have been many attempts to define the generation of students who emerged with the Web and new digital technologies in the early 1990s. The term "digital native" refers to the generation born after 1980, which has grown up in a world where digital technologies and the internet are a normal part of everyday life. Young people…

  19. Deconstructing Digital Natives: Young People, Technology, and the New Literacies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Michael, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    There have been many attempts to define the generation of students who emerged with the Web and new digital technologies in the early 1990s. The term "digital native" refers to the generation born after 1980, which has grown up in a world where digital technologies and the internet are a normal part of everyday life. Young people…

  20. Differentiating Digital Writing Instruction: The Intersection of Technology, Writing Instruction, and Digital Genre Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Nicole M.; Lambert, Claire

    2015-01-01

    U.S. adolescents' prior technology experiences and exposure to digital genres vary, but they will often write digital texts as they enter college and adulthood. We explored middle school students' digital writing instructional experience in the context of a university-based summer digital writing camp. The sixth- through eighth-grade adolescents…

  1. Differentiating Digital Writing Instruction: The Intersection of Technology, Writing Instruction, and Digital Genre Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Nicole M.; Lambert, Claire

    2015-01-01

    U.S. adolescents' prior technology experiences and exposure to digital genres vary, but they will often write digital texts as they enter college and adulthood. We explored middle school students' digital writing instructional experience in the context of a university-based summer digital writing camp. The sixth- through eighth-grade adolescents…

  2. On digital image processing technology and application in geometric measure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Jiugen; Xing, Ruonan; Liao, Na

    2014-04-01

    Digital image processing technique is an emerging science that emerging with the development of semiconductor integrated circuit technology and computer science technology since the 1960s.The article introduces the digital image processing technique and principle during measuring compared with the traditional optical measurement method. It takes geometric measure as an example and introduced the development tendency of digital image processing technology from the perspective of technology application.

  3. New Stereo Vision Digital Camera System for Simultaneous Measurement of Cloud Base Height and Atmospheric Visibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janeiro, F. M.; Carretas, F.; Palma, N.; Ramos, P. M.; Wagner, F.

    2013-12-01

    Clouds play an important role in many aspects of everyday life. They affect both the local weather as well as the global climate and are an important parameter on climate change studies. Cloud parameters are also important for weather prediction models which make use of actual measurements. It is thus important to have low-cost instrumentation that can be deployed in the field to measure those parameters. This kind of instruments should also be automated and robust since they may be deployed in remote places and be subject to adverse weather conditions. Although clouds are very important in environmental systems, they are also an essential component of airplane safety when visual flight rules (VFR) are enforced, such as in most small aerodromes where it is not economically viable to install instruments for assisted flying. Under VFR there are strict limits on the height of the cloud base, cloud cover and atmospheric visibility that ensure the safety of the pilots and planes. Although there are instruments, available in the market, to measure those parameters, their relatively high cost makes them unavailable in many local aerodromes. In this work we present a new prototype which has been recently developed and deployed in a local aerodrome as proof of concept. It is composed by two digital cameras that capture photographs of the sky and allow the measurement of the cloud height from the parallax effect. The new developments consist on having a new geometry which allows the simultaneous measurement of cloud base height, wind speed at cloud base height and atmospheric visibility, which was not previously possible with only two cameras. The new orientation of the cameras comes at the cost of a more complex geometry to measure the cloud base height. The atmospheric visibility is calculated from the Lambert-Beer law after the measurement of the contrast between a set of dark objects and the background sky. The prototype includes the latest hardware developments that

  4. Using digital time-lapse cameras to monitor species-specific understorey and overstorey phenology in support of wildlife habitat assessment.

    PubMed

    Bater, Christopher W; Coops, Nicholas C; Wulder, Michael A; Hilker, Thomas; Nielsen, Scott E; McDermid, Greg; Stenhouse, Gordon B

    2011-09-01

    Critical to habitat management is the understanding of not only the location of animal food resources, but also the timing of their availability. Grizzly bear (Ursus arctos) diets, for example, shift seasonally as different vegetation species enter key phenological phases. In this paper, we describe the use of a network of seven ground-based digital camera systems to monitor understorey and overstorey vegetation within species-specific regions of interest. Established across an elevation gradient in western Alberta, Canada, the cameras collected true-colour (RGB) images daily from 13 April 2009 to 27 October 2009. Fourth-order polynomials were fit to an RGB-derived index, which was then compared to field-based observations of phenological phases. Using linear regression to statistically relate the camera and field data, results indicated that 61% (r (2) = 0.61, df = 1, F = 14.3, p = 0.0043) of the variance observed in the field phenological phase data is captured by the cameras for the start of the growing season and 72% (r (2) = 0.72, df = 1, F = 23.09, p = 0.0009) of the variance in length of growing season. Based on the linear regression models, the mean absolute differences in residuals between predicted and observed start of growing season and length of growing season were 4 and 6 days, respectively. This work extends upon previous research by demonstrating that specific understorey and overstorey species can be targeted for phenological monitoring in a forested environment, using readily available digital camera technology and RGB-based vegetation indices.

  5. Measuring visual opacity using digital imaging technology.

    PubMed

    McFarland, Michael J; Terry, Spencer H; Calidonna, Michael J; Stone, Daniel A; Kerch, Paul E; Rasmussen, Steven L

    2004-03-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Reference Method 9 (Method 9) is the preferred enforcement approach for verifying facility compliance with federal visible opacity standards. Supporters of Method 9 have cited its flexibility and low cost as important technological and economic advantages of the methodology. The Digital Opacity Compliance System (DOCS), an innovative technology that employs digital imaging technology for quantifying visible opacity, has been proposed as a technically defensible and economically competitive alternative to Method 9. Results from the field application of the DOCS at EPA-approved Method 9 smoke schools located in Ogden, UT, Augusta, GA, and Columbus, OH, demonstrated that, under clear sky conditions, the DOCS consistently met the opacity error rate established under Method 9. Application of hypothesis testing on the smoke school data set confirmed that the DOCS was equivalent to Method 9 under clear sky conditions. Under overcast sky conditions, human observers seemed to be more accurate than the DOCS in measuring opacity. However, within the smoke school environment, human observers routinely employ backgrounds other than sky (e.g., trees, telephone poles, billboards) to quantify opacity on overcast days. Under conditions that compel the use of sky as plume background (e.g., emission stacks having heights above the tree line), the DOCS appears to be a more accurate methodology for quantifying opacity than are human observers.

  6. Evaluation of FLIR/IR camera technology for airport surface surveillance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castaldo, Rick; Franck, Charmaine C.; Smith, Alexander B.

    1996-05-01

    The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) is evaluating Forward Looking Infrared (FLIR) and IR focal plane array technology as part of the Airport Surface Traffic Automation program. Under this program a new application for these technologies in aviation will be developed. The goal of the program is to evaluate FLIR and IR cameras for enhanced Air Traffic Control surface surveillance in all weather conditions for some major airports. Initially, FLIR cameras will be installed at airports with varying traffic densities to analyze and compare their capabilities along with other IR camera systems, displays and security/surveillance software. These cameras will be evaluated for both technical and operational performance. This paper discusses the initial studies that demonstrated the usefulness of FLIR technology for search and rescue situations and multiple coverage for integration with automatic surveillance systems. The general operation of the three IR camera systems to be evaluated in this study is presented. Finally, a concept for the possible integration of FLIR and IR technology with current automatic surface surveillance systems under development such as the Airport Movement Area Safety System and the Airport Traffic Identification System programs is proposed. This paper will conclude with a review of the FAA's future plans for evaluating a microbolometer based, uncooled IR camera system.

  7. Today's CAD/CAM: flexible digital technologies expanding workflow options.

    PubMed

    Ferencz, Jonathan L

    2015-03-01

    CAD/CAM and digital scanning technologies have become essential components of dentistry. Digital impression scanning, restoration design, and manufacturing techniques yield greater treatment predictability, high-level esthetics, and functional accuracy using a variety of materials.

  8. How to optimize radiological images captured from digital cameras, using the Adobe Photoshop 6.0 program.

    PubMed

    Chalazonitis, A N; Koumarianos, D; Tzovara, J; Chronopoulos, P

    2003-06-01

    Over the past decade, the technology that permits images to be digitized and the reduction in the cost of digital equipment allows quick digital transfer of any conventional radiological film. Images then can be transferred to a personal computer, and several software programs are available that can manipulate their digital appearance. In this article, the fundamentals of digital imaging are discussed, as well as the wide variety of optional adjustments that the Adobe Photoshop 6.0 (Adobe Systems, San Jose, CA) program can offer to present radiological images with satisfactory digital imaging quality.

  9. Digital camera measurements of soot temperature and soot volume fraction in axisymmetric flames.

    PubMed

    Guo, Haiqing; Castillo, Jose A; Sunderland, Peter B

    2013-11-20

    New diagnostics are presented that use a digital camera to measure full-field soot temperatures and soot volume fractions in axisymmetric flames. The camera is a Nikon D700 with 12 megapixels and 14 bit depth in each color plane, which was modified by removing the infrared and anti-aliasing filters. The diagnostics were calibrated with a blackbody furnace. The flame considered here was an 88 mm long ethylene/air co-flowing laminar jet diffusion flame on a round 11.1 mm burner. The resolution in the flame plane is estimated at between 0.1 and 0.7 mm. Soot temperatures were measured from soot radiative emissions, using ratio pyrometry at 450, 650, and 900 nm following deconvolution. These had a range of 1600-1850 K, a temporal resolution of 125 ms, and an estimated uncertainty of ±50  K. Soot volume fractions were measured two ways: from soot radiative emissions and from soot laser extinction at 632.8 nm, both following deconvolution. Soot volume fractions determined from emissions had a range of 0.1-10 ppm, temporal resolutions of 125 ms, and an estimated uncertainty of ±30%. Soot volume fractions determined from laser extinction had a range of 0.2-10 ppm, similar temporal resolutions, and an estimated uncertainty of ±10%. The present measurements agree with past measurements in this flame using traversing optics and probes; however, they avoid the long test times and other complications of such traditional methods.

  10. Digitized Hand Skateboard Based on IR-Camera for Upper Limb Rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chih-Chen; Liu, Chun-Yen; Ciou, Shih-Hsiang; Chen, Shih-Ching; Chen, Yu-Luen

    2017-02-01

    Abnormal upper limb function seriously impacts a patient's daily life. After receiving emergency treatment patient should receive function-rebuilding and recovery training. The objective of this study is to integrate IR-camera, an infrared emitter, with a conventional passive hand skateboard training device for conventional upper limb training and the training process is comprehensively recorded and analyzed. Patients participating in the occupational therapy have a binding band attached to hand skateboard on the table to guide the patient in moving the hand skateboard along the designated path to train the patient's upper limbs. Six people with normal upper limb function participated in the stability test. The device repeatability and test results were verified acceptable. Eight patients with abnormal upper limb function (their upper limb function was damaged due to stroke, MMSE > =27) were trained for 4 weeks. The patient scores in finishing rate and finishing time showed significant improvement. The paired T test results (satisfy p < 0.05 or p < 0.01) between wk-1 and wk-2 are significant. The paired T test results (satisfy p < 0.01) between wk-1 and wk-4 are extremely significant. The new IR-Camera system focuses continuously on the "Figure of eight" curve. The system is light weight and convenient for stroke in home use. The study applies IR-camera technology to the conventional hand skateboard for upper limb training. The experiments show that the hardware of the proposed device no longer delays in response and can result in obvious clinical advances. The proposed device is verified worthy of promotion.

  11. New trends in digital circuit multiplication technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piasetzky, J.

    1990-12-01

    The emerging technologies currently being implemented in the second generation of digital circuit multiplication systems (DCMS) are described. It is concluded that a number of advantages can be achieved by these techniques. A major improvement in DCMS gain may be achieved by implementation of facsimile demodulation, and the design considerations of this technique are discussed. Also, a significant increase in DCMS gain for speech signals is achieved by implementing the low delay code excited linear predictive algorithm with variable bit rate operation between 12.8 and 24 kb/s. Other potential advantages provided by these technologies are an effective and flexible solution for traffic congestion on thin routes and a simple solution for avoiding accumlation of quantization distortion units when DCME/S terminals are operated in tandem.

  12. A Historical Perspective on Digital Hearing Aids: How Digital Technology Has Changed Modern Hearing Aids

    PubMed Central

    Levitt, Harry

    2007-01-01

    This article provides the author's perspective on the development of digital hearing aids and how digital signal processing approaches have led to changes in hearing aid design. Major landmarks in the evolution of digital technology are identified, and their impact on the development of digital hearing aids is discussed. Differences between analog and digital approaches to signal processing in hearing aids are identified. PMID:17301334

  13. Digital Technology for Geological Field Mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rourke, Peter; Smith, Stuart; Vaughan, Alan; Ellis, Jenny

    2014-05-01

    The amount of time that students and professionals spend in the field has reduced over the past 25 years (Gibbs, 2012). Recent advances in technology are changing the way students and professionals are able to conduct geological field study. Applications such as Midland Valley Exploration's FieldMove Clino now allow the geologist to use their smartphone as a fast, georeferenced measuring device compared with a traditional compass-clinometer. Although we support the view that an understanding of field mapping and model building, taught at university level, is essential to give the geologist the ability to think in three and four dimensions, new technologies that automate the ability to digitise and visualise data in the field lead to a better appreciation of the geometry, scale, and evolution of geological structures and trapping mechanisms that will be encountered during a career in industry. The majority of future industry professionals own a smartphone or tablet device: A recent study found that four-fifths of new students own a smartphone and one-fifth own a tablet device (UCAS Media, 2013). This figure is increasing with each new intake of geoscience students. With the increased availability and affordability of smartphone and tablet devices, new techniques are being examined for digital data collection in the field. If the trend continues that geoscience students are likely to spend less time in the field than their predecessors, then the time available must be spent as effectively as possible. Digital devices allow students and professionals alike to optimise the time spent in the field, allowing more time to think about geological relationships, and highlighting areas of uncertainty that can be studied further. This poster will examine the use of new digital smartphone and tablet devices for the collection of geological field data.

  14. Quantifying the yellow signal driver behavior based on naturalistic data from digital enforcement cameras.

    PubMed

    Bar-Gera, H; Musicant, O; Schechtman, E; Ze'evi, T

    2016-11-01

    The yellow signal driver behavior, reflecting the dilemma zone behavior, is analyzed using naturalistic data from digital enforcement cameras. The key variable in the analysis is the entrance time after the yellow onset, and its distribution. This distribution can assist in determining two critical outcomes: the safety outcome related to red-light-running angle accidents, and the efficiency outcome. The connection to other approaches for evaluating the yellow signal driver behavior is also discussed. The dataset was obtained from 37 digital enforcement cameras at non-urban signalized intersections in Israel, over a period of nearly two years. The data contain more than 200 million vehicle entrances, of which 2.3% (∼5million vehicles) entered the intersection during the yellow phase. In all non-urban signalized intersections in Israel the green phase ends with 3s of flashing green, followed by 3s of yellow. In most non-urban signalized roads in Israel the posted speed limit is 90km/h. Our analysis focuses on crossings during the yellow phase and the first 1.5s of the red phase. The analysis method consists of two stages. In the first stage we tested whether the frequency of crossings is constant at the beginning of the yellow phase. We found that the pattern was stable (i.e., the frequencies were constant) at 18 intersections, nearly stable at 13 intersections and unstable at 6 intersections. In addition to the 6 intersections with unstable patterns, two other outlying intersections were excluded from subsequent analysis. Logistic regression models were fitted for each of the remaining 29 intersection. We examined both standard (exponential) logistic regression and four parameters logistic regression. The results show a clear advantage for the former. The estimated parameters show that the time when the frequency of crossing reduces to half ranges from1.7 to 2.3s after yellow onset. The duration of the reduction of the relative frequency from 0.9 to 0.1 ranged

  15. Applying Digital Sensor Technology: A Problem-Solving Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seedhouse, Paul; Knight, Dawn

    2016-01-01

    There is currently an explosion in the number and range of new devices coming onto the technology market that use digital sensor technology to track aspects of human behaviour. In this article, we present and exemplify a three-stage model for the application of digital sensor technology in applied linguistics that we have developed, namely,…

  16. Applying Digital Sensor Technology: A Problem-Solving Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seedhouse, Paul; Knight, Dawn

    2016-01-01

    There is currently an explosion in the number and range of new devices coming onto the technology market that use digital sensor technology to track aspects of human behaviour. In this article, we present and exemplify a three-stage model for the application of digital sensor technology in applied linguistics that we have developed, namely,…

  17. Dry imaging cameras.

    PubMed

    Indrajit, Ik; Alam, Aftab; Sahni, Hirdesh; Bhatia, Mukul; Sahu, Samaresh

    2011-04-01

    Dry imaging cameras are important hard copy devices in radiology. Using dry imaging camera, multiformat images of digital modalities in radiology are created from a sealed unit of unexposed films. The functioning of a modern dry camera, involves a blend of concurrent processes, in areas of diverse sciences like computers, mechanics, thermal, optics, electricity and radiography. Broadly, hard copy devices are classified as laser and non laser based technology. When compared with the working knowledge and technical awareness of different modalities in radiology, the understanding of a dry imaging camera is often superficial and neglected. To fill this void, this article outlines the key features of a modern dry camera and its important issues that impact radiology workflow.

  18. Dry imaging cameras

    PubMed Central

    Indrajit, IK; Alam, Aftab; Sahni, Hirdesh; Bhatia, Mukul; Sahu, Samaresh

    2011-01-01

    Dry imaging cameras are important hard copy devices in radiology. Using dry imaging camera, multiformat images of digital modalities in radiology are created from a sealed unit of unexposed films. The functioning of a modern dry camera, involves a blend of concurrent processes, in areas of diverse sciences like computers, mechanics, thermal, optics, electricity and radiography. Broadly, hard copy devices are classified as laser and non laser based technology. When compared with the working knowledge and technical awareness of different modalities in radiology, the understanding of a dry imaging camera is often superficial and neglected. To fill this void, this article outlines the key features of a modern dry camera and its important issues that impact radiology workflow. PMID:21799589

  19. Seismic Rayleigh Wave Digital Processing Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jie, Li

    2013-04-01

    In Rayleigh wave exploration, the digital processing of data plays a very important position. This directly affects the interpretation of ground effect. Therefore, the use of accurate processing software and effective method in the Rayleigh wave exploration has important theoretical and practical significance. Previously, Rayleigh wave dispersion curve obtained by the one-dimensional phase analysis. This method requires channel spacing should be less than the effective wavelength. And minimal phase error will cause great changes in the phase velocity of Rayleigh wave. Damped least square method is a local linear model. It is easy to cause that inversion objective function cannot find the global optimal solution. Therefore, the method and the technology used in the past are difficult to apply the requirements of the current Rayleigh wave exploration. This study focused on the related technologies and algorithms of F-K domain dispersion curve extraction and GA global non-linear inversion, and combined with the impact of Rayleigh wave data acquisition parameters and the characteristics. Rayleigh wave exploration data processing software design and process technology research is completed. Firstly, the article describes the theoretical basis of Rayleigh wave method. This is also part of the theoretical basis of following treatment. The theoretical proof of existence of Rayleigh wave Dispersive in layered strata. Secondly, F-K domain dispersion curve extraction tests showed that the method can overcome the one-dimensional digital processing technology deficiencies, and make full use of multi-channel Rayleigh wave data record information. GA global non-linear inversion indicated that the inversion is not easy getting into local optimal solution. Thirdly, some examples illustrate each mode Rayleigh wave dispersion curve characteristics in the X-T domain. Tests demonstrated the impact on their extraction of dispersion curves. Parameters change example (including the X

  20. Real-time Simultaneous DKG and 2D DKG Using High-speed Digital Camera.

    PubMed

    Kang, Duck-Hoon; Wang, Soo-Geun; Park, Hee-June; Lee, Jin-Choon; Jeon, Gye-Rok; Choi, Ill-Sang; Kim, Seon-Jong; Shin, Bum-Joo

    2017-03-01

    For the evaluation of voice disorders, direct observation of vocal cord vibration is important. Among the various methods, laryngeal videostroboscopy (LVS) is widely used, but it was not a true image because it collects images from different cycles. In contrast, high-speed videoendoscopy and videokymography have much higher frame rates and can assess functional and mobility disorders. The purpose of the study is to describe real-time, simultaneous digital kymography (DKG), two-dimensional scanning (2D) DKG, and multi-frame (MF) LVS system using a high-speed digital camera, and identify the efficacy of this system in evaluating vibratory patterns of pathologic voice. The pattern of vocal fold vibration was evaluated in a vocally healthy subject and in subjects with vocal polyp, vocal nodules, vocal cord scar, and vocal cord paralysis. We used both quantitative (left-right phase symmetry, amplitude symmetry index) and qualitative (anterior-posterior phase symmetry) parameters for assessment of vocal fold vibration. Our system could record videos within seconds and required relatively little memory. The speed of replay in the DKG, 2D DKG, MF LVS, and high-speed videoendoscopy was controllable. The number of frame per cycle with MF LVS was almost the same as the fundamental frequency. Our system can provide images of various modalities simultaneously in real time and analyze morphological and functional vibratory patterns. It can be possible to provide a greater level of information for the diagnosis and treatment of vibratory disorders. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Space-bandwidth extension in parallel phase-shifting digital holography using a four-channel polarization-imaging camera.

    PubMed

    Tahara, Tatsuki; Ito, Yasunori; Xia, Peng; Awatsuji, Yasuhiro; Nishio, Kenzo; Ura, Shogo; Kubota, Toshihiro; Matoba, Osamu

    2013-07-15

    We propose a method for extending the space bandwidth (SBW) available for recording an object wave in parallel phase-shifting digital holography using a four-channel polarization-imaging camera. A linear spatial carrier of the reference wave is introduced to an optical setup of parallel four-step phase-shifting interferometry using a commercially available polarization-imaging camera that has four polarization-detection channels. Then a hologram required for parallel two-step phase shifting, which is a technique capable of recording the widest SBW in parallel phase shifting, can be obtained. The effectiveness of the proposed method was numerically and experimentally verified.

  2. Transitioning towards the Digital Native: Examining Digital Technologies, Video Games, and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salomon, John

    2010-01-01

    Although digital technologies have become commonplace among people who grew up around them, little is known about the effect that such technology will have on learners or its impact on traditional methods of educational delivery. This dissertation examines how certain technologies affect digital natives and seeks to understand specific…

  3. A new lunar digital elevation model from the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter and SELENE Terrain Camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barker, M. K.; Mazarico, E.; Neumann, G. A.; Zuber, M. T.; Haruyama, J.; Smith, D. E.

    2016-07-01

    We present an improved lunar digital elevation model (DEM) covering latitudes within ±60°, at a horizontal resolution of 512 pixels per degree (∼60 m at the equator) and a typical vertical accuracy ∼3 to 4 m. This DEM is constructed from ∼ 4.5 ×109 geodetically-accurate topographic heights from the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) onboard the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, to which we co-registered 43,200 stereo-derived DEMs (each 1° × 1°) from the SELENE Terrain Camera (TC) (∼1010 pixels total). After co-registration, approximately 90% of the TC DEMs show root-mean-square vertical residuals with the LOLA data of <5 m compared to ∼ 50% prior to co-registration. We use the co-registered TC data to estimate and correct orbital and pointing geolocation errors from the LOLA altimetric profiles (typically amounting to <10 m horizontally and <1 m vertically). By combining both co-registered datasets, we obtain a near-global DEM with high geodetic accuracy, and without the need for surface interpolation. We evaluate the resulting LOLA + TC merged DEM (designated as "SLDEM2015") with particular attention to quantifying seams and crossover errors.

  4. Product quality-based eco-efficiency applied to digital cameras.

    PubMed

    Park, Pil-Ju; Tahara, Kiyotaka; Inaba, Atsushi

    2007-04-01

    When calculating eco-efficiency, there are considerable confusion and controversy about what the product value is and how it should be quantified. We have proposed here a quantification method for eco-efficiency that derives the ratio of the multiplication value of the product quality and the life span of a product to its whole environmental impact based on Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). In this study, product quality was used as the product value and quantified by the following three steps: (1) normalization based on a value function, (2) determination of the subjective weighting factors of the attributes, and (3) calculation of product quality of the chosen products. The applicability of the proposed method to an actual product was evaluated using digital cameras. The results show that the eco-efficiency values of products equipped with rechargeable batteries were higher than those products that use alkaline batteries, because of higher quality values and lower environmental impacts. The sensitivity analysis shows that the proposed method was superior to the existing methods, because it enables to identify the quality level of the chosen products by considering all products that have the same functions in the market and because, when adding a new product, the calculated quality values in the proposed method do not have to be changed.

  5. A New Lunar Digital Elevation Model from the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter and SELENE Terrain Camera

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barker, M. K.; Mazarico, E.; Neumann, G. A.; Zuber, M. T.; Haruyama, J.; Smith, D. E.

    2015-01-01

    We present an improved lunar digital elevation model (DEM) covering latitudes within +/-60 deg, at a horizontal resolution of 512 pixels per degree ( approx.60 m at the equator) and a typical vertical accuracy approx.3 to 4 m. This DEM is constructed from approx.4.5 ×10(exp 9) geodetically-accurate topographic heights from the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) onboard the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, to which we co-registered 43,200 stereo-derived DEMs (each 1 deg×1 deg) from the SELENE Terrain Camera (TC) ( approx.10(exp 10) pixels total). After co-registration, approximately 90% of the TC DEMs show root-mean-square vertical residuals with the LOLA data of < 5 m compared to approx.50% prior to co-registration. We use the co-registered TC data to estimate and correct orbital and pointing geolocation errors from the LOLA altimetric profiles (typically amounting to < 10 m horizontally and < 1 m vertically). By combining both co-registered datasets, we obtain a near-global DEM with high geodetic accuracy, and without the need for surface interpolation. We evaluate the resulting LOLA + TC merged DEM (designated as "SLDEM2015") with particular attention to quantifying seams and crossover errors.

  6. Examination of the semi-automatic calculation technique of vegetation cover rate by digital camera images.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takemine, S.; Rikimaru, A.; Takahashi, K.

    The rice is one of the staple foods in the world High quality rice production requires periodically collecting rice growth data to control the growth of rice The height of plant the number of stem the color of leaf is well known parameters to indicate rice growth Rice growth diagnosis method based on these parameters is used operationally in Japan although collecting these parameters by field survey needs a lot of labor and time Recently a laborsaving method for rice growth diagnosis is proposed which is based on vegetation cover rate of rice Vegetation cover rate of rice is calculated based on discriminating rice plant areas in a digital camera image which is photographed in nadir direction Discrimination of rice plant areas in the image was done by the automatic binarization processing However in the case of vegetation cover rate calculation method depending on the automatic binarization process there is a possibility to decrease vegetation cover rate against growth of rice In this paper a calculation method of vegetation cover rate was proposed which based on the automatic binarization process and referred to the growth hysteresis information For several images obtained by field survey during rice growing season vegetation cover rate was calculated by the conventional automatic binarization processing and the proposed method respectively And vegetation cover rate of both methods was compared with reference value obtained by visual interpretation As a result of comparison the accuracy of discriminating rice plant areas was increased by the proposed

  7. Side oblique real-time orthophotography with the 9Kx9K digital framing camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorin, Brian A.

    2003-08-01

    BAE SYSTEMS has reported on a new framing camera incorporating an ultra high resolution CCD detector array comprised of 9,216 x 9,216 pixels fabricated on one silicon wafer. The detector array features a 1:2 frame-per-second readout capable of stereo imagery with Nyquist resolution of 57 lp/mm from high velocity, low altitude (V/H) airborne platforms. Flight tests demonstrated the capability of the focal plane electronics for differential image motion compensation (IMC) with Nyquist performance utilizing a focal plane shutter (FPS) to enable both nadir and significant side and forward oblique imaging angles. The impact of FPS for differential image motion compensation is evaluated with the exterior orientation calibration parameters, which include the existing shutter velocity and flight dynamics from sample mapping applications. System requirements for GPS/INS are included with the effect of vertical error and side oblique angle impact of the digital elevation map (DEM) required to create the orthophoto. Results from the differentiated "collinearity equations" which relate the image coordinates to elements of interior and exterior orientation are combined with the DEM impact to provide useful guidelines for side oblique applications. The application of real-time orthophotography is described with the implications for system requirements for side oblique orthophoto capability.

  8. 3D Reconstruction of Static Human Body with a Digital Camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Remondino, Fabio

    2003-01-01

    Nowadays the interest in 3D reconstruction and modeling of real humans is one of the most challenging problems and a topic of great interest. The human models are used for movies, video games or ergonomics applications and they are usually created with 3D scanner devices. In this paper a new method to reconstruct the shape of a static human is presented. Our approach is based on photogrammetric techniques and uses a sequence of images acquired around a standing person with a digital still video camera or with a camcorder. First the images are calibrated and orientated using a bundle adjustment. After the establishment of a stable adjusted image block, an image matching process is performed between consecutive triplets of images. Finally the 3D coordinates of the matched points are computed with a mean accuracy of ca 2 mm by forward ray intersection. The obtained point cloud can then be triangulated to generate a surface model of the body or a virtual human model can be fitted to the recovered 3D data. Results of the 3D human point cloud with pixel color information are presented.

  9. Digital chemiluminescence imaging of DNA sequencing blots using a charge-coupled device camera.

    PubMed Central

    Karger, A E; Weiss, R; Gesteland, R F

    1992-01-01

    Digital chemiluminescence imaging with a cryogenically cooled charge-coupled device (CCD) camera is used to visualize DNA sequencing fragments covalently bound to a blotting membrane. The detection is based on DNA hybridization with an alkaline phosphatase(AP) labeled oligodeoxyribonucleotide probe and AP triggered chemiluminescence of the substrate 3-(2'-spiro-adamantane)-4-methoxy-4-(3"-phosphoryloxy)phenyl- 1,2-dioxetane (AMPPD). The detection using a direct AP-oligonucleotide conjugate is compared to the secondary detection of biotinylated oligonucleotides with respect to their sensitivity and nonspecific binding to the nylon membrane by quantitative imaging. Using the direct oligonucleotide-AP conjugate as a hybridization probe, sub-attomol (0.5 pg of 2.7 kb pUC plasmid DNA) quantities of membrane bound DNA are detectable with 30 min CCD exposures. Detection using the biotinylated probe in combination with streptavidin-AP was found to be background limited by nonspecific binding of streptavidin-AP and the oligo(biotin-11-dUTP) label in equal proportions. In contrast, the nonspecific background of AP-labeled oligonucleotide is indistinguishable from that seen with 5'-32P-label, in that respect making AP an ideal enzymatic label. The effect of hybridization time, probe concentration, and presence of luminescence enhancers on the detection of plasmid DNA were investigated. Images PMID:1480487

  10. Comparison of Floc Sizes From a LISST-100 and a Digital Floc Camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikkelsen, O. A.; Chant, R.; Hill, P. S.; Milligan, T. G.

    2003-12-01

    A LISST-100 in situ laser particle sizer was deployed together with a digital floc camera (DFC) in estuarine and continental shelf settings on several occasions. The LISST-100 can measure particle sizes in the range 2.5-500μ m, whereas the DFC can detect particles larger than 125μ m; the two instruments thus overlap in the 125-500μ m size range. The particle sizes from the two instruments are compared. At a first glance, the LISST-100 underestimates the floc median diameter (D50) by a factor of 2-4 when compared to the DFC. However, when the data from the two instruments are "trimmed", so that only particles in the overlapping size ranges are considered, the two instruments yield nearly identical values for D50. Thus, the LISST-100 and the DFC both appear to detect particles in their overlapping size ranges correctly. Since the DFC only detects particles larger than 125μ m, it will usually overestimate D50, whereas the LISST-100 will usually underestimate D50. Using the two instruments in conjunction, floc size spectra from 2.5μ m and up can be measured, hence better estimates of the D50 can be obtained.

  11. New long-zoom lens for 4K super 35mm digital cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorpe, Laurence J.; Usui, Fumiaki; Kamata, Ryuhei

    2015-05-01

    The world of television production is beginning to adopt 4K Super 35 mm (S35) image capture for a widening range of program genres that seek both the unique imaging properties of that large image format and the protection of their program assets in a world anticipating future 4K services. Documentary and natural history production in particular are transitioning to this form of production. The nature of their shooting demands long zoom lenses. In their traditional world of 2/3-inch digital HDTV cameras they have a broad choice in portable lenses - with zoom ranges as high as 40:1. In the world of Super 35mm the longest zoom lens is limited to 12:1 offering a telephoto of 400mm. Canon was requested to consider a significantly longer focal range lens while severely curtailing its size and weight. Extensive computer simulation explored countless combinations of optical and optomechanical systems in a quest to ensure that all operational requests and full 4K performance could be met. The final lens design is anticipated to have applications beyond entertainment production, including a variety of security systems.

  12. PCA-based spatially adaptive denoising of CFA images for single-sensor digital cameras.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Lei; Lukac, Rastislav; Wu, Xiaolin; Zhang, David

    2009-04-01

    Single-sensor digital color cameras use a process called color demosiacking to produce full color images from the data captured by a color filter array (CAF). The quality of demosiacked images is degraded due to the sensor noise introduced during the image acquisition process. The conventional solution to combating CFA sensor noise is demosiacking first, followed by a separate denoising processing. This strategy will generate many noise-caused color artifacts in the demosiacking process, which are hard to remove in the denoising process. Few denoising schemes that work directly on the CFA images have been presented because of the difficulties arisen from the red, green and blue interlaced mosaic pattern, yet a well-designed "denoising first and demosiacking later" scheme can have advantages such as less noise-caused color artifacts and cost-effective implementation. This paper presents a principle component analysis (PCA)-based spatially-adaptive denoising algorithm, which works directly on the CFA data using a supporting window to analyze the local image statistics. By exploiting the spatial and spectral correlations existing in the CFA image, the proposed method can effectively suppress noise while preserving color edges and details. Experiments using both simulated and real CFA images indicate that the proposed scheme outperforms many existing approaches, including those sophisticated demosiacking and denoising schemes, in terms of both objective measurement and visual evaluation.

  13. A CMOS One-chip Wireless Camera with Digital Image Transmission Function for Capsule Endoscopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itoh, Shinya; Kawahito, Shoji; Terakawa, Susumu

    This paper presents the design and implementation of a one-chip camera device for capsule endoscopes. This experimental chip integrates functional circuits required for capsule endoscopes and digital image transmission function. The integrated functional blocks include an image array, a timing generator, a clock generator, a voltage regulator, a 10b cyclic A/D converter, and a BPSK modulator. It can be operated autonomously with 3 pins (VDD, GND, and DATAOUT). A prototype image sensor chip which has 320x240 effective pixels was fabricated using 0.25μm CMOS image sensor process and the autonomous imaging was demonstrated. The chip size is 4.84mmx4.34mm. With a 2.0 V power supply, the analog part consumes 950μW and the total power consumption at 2 frames per second (fps) is 2.6mW. Error-free image transmission over a distance of 48cm at 2.5Mbps corresponding to 2fps has been succeeded with inductive coupling.

  14. Zoom lens design for 10.2-megapixel APS-C digital SLR cameras.

    PubMed

    Sun, Wen-Shing; Chu, Pu-Yi; Tien, Chuen-Lin; Chung, Meng-Feng

    2017-01-20

    A zoom lens design for a 10.2-megapixel digital single-lens reflex (SLR) camera with an advanced photo system type-C (APS-C) CCD image sensor is presented. The proposed zoom lens design consists of four groups of 3× zoom lenses with a focal length range of 17-51 mm. In the optimization process, 107 kinds of Schott glass combined with 26 kinds of plastic materials, as listed in Code V, are used. The best combination of glass and plastic materials is found based on the nd-Vd diagram. The modulation transfer function (MTF) was greater than 0.509 at 42  lp/mm, the lateral chromatic aberration was less than 5 μm, the optical distortion was less than 1.97%, and the relative illumination was greater than 80.05%. We also performed the tolerance analysis with the 2σ (97.7%) position selected and given tolerance tables and results for three zooming positions, which made the design more practical for manufacturing.

  15. A New Lunar Digital Elevation Model from the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter and SELENE Terrain Camera

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barker, M. K.; Mazarico, E.; Neumann, G. A.; Zuber, M. T.; Haruyama, J.; Smith, D. E.

    2015-01-01

    We present an improved lunar digital elevation model (DEM) covering latitudes within +/-60 deg, at a horizontal resolution of 512 pixels per degree ( approx.60 m at the equator) and a typical vertical accuracy approx.3 to 4 m. This DEM is constructed from approx.4.5 ×10(exp 9) geodetically-accurate topographic heights from the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) onboard the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, to which we co-registered 43,200 stereo-derived DEMs (each 1 deg×1 deg) from the SELENE Terrain Camera (TC) ( approx.10(exp 10) pixels total). After co-registration, approximately 90% of the TC DEMs show root-mean-square vertical residuals with the LOLA data of < 5 m compared to approx.50% prior to co-registration. We use the co-registered TC data to estimate and correct orbital and pointing geolocation errors from the LOLA altimetric profiles (typically amounting to < 10 m horizontally and < 1 m vertically). By combining both co-registered datasets, we obtain a near-global DEM with high geodetic accuracy, and without the need for surface interpolation. We evaluate the resulting LOLA + TC merged DEM (designated as "SLDEM2015") with particular attention to quantifying seams and crossover errors.

  16. A calibration technology for multi-camera system with various focal lengths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Ruihua; Zhang, Jin; Deng, Huaxia; Yu, Liandong

    2016-01-01

    Calibration is the basis of three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction for machine vision technology. Nowadays, the most widely used calibration method among computer vision is the technique for binocular stereo measurement. However, binocular stereo vision has limited view field which is difficult to measure large-scale mechanical components synchronously. Thus, enlarging the view field is urgent in need for the large scale measurement. With the application of multi-camera system, the calibration for cameras with different focal lengths is required. In this paper, a method aiming at calibration problems for multi-camera system of different focal lengths is proposed. An imaging model for multi-camera system with various focal lengths is analyzed. The Harris corner detector is applied to determine the relationship between signal camera and checkerboard. Finally, the external parameters of different cameras can be obtained by the link with the checkerboard. The calibration results indicate that the calculation method used in this work can calibrate multi-camera with various focal lengths.

  17. Digital technology and human development: a charter for nature conservation.

    PubMed

    Maffey, Georgina; Homans, Hilary; Banks, Ken; Arts, Koen

    2015-11-01

    The application of digital technology in conservation holds much potential for advancing the understanding of, and facilitating interaction with, the natural world. In other sectors, digital technology has long been used to engage communities and share information. Human development-which holds parallels with the nature conservation sector-has seen a proliferation of innovation in technological development. Throughout this Perspective, we consider what nature conservation can learn from the introduction of digital technology in human development. From this, we derive a charter to be used before and throughout project development, in order to help reduce replication and failure of digital innovation in nature conservation projects. We argue that the proposed charter will promote collaboration with the development of digital tools and ensure that nature conservation projects progress appropriately with the development of new digital technologies.

  18. Study on key techniques for camera-based hydrological record image digitization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shijin; Zhan, Di; Hu, Jinlong; Gao, Xiangtao; Bo, Ping

    2015-10-01

    With the development of information technology, the digitization of scientific or engineering drawings has received more and more attention. In hydrology, meteorology, medicine and mining industry, the grid drawing sheet is commonly used to record the observations from sensors. However, these paper drawings may be destroyed and contaminated due to improper preservation or overuse. Further, it will be a heavy workload and prone to error if these data are manually transcripted into the computer. Hence, in order to digitize these drawings, establishing the corresponding data base will ensure the integrity of data and provide invaluable information for further research. This paper presents an automatic system for hydrological record image digitization, which consists of three key techniques, i.e., image segmentation, intersection point localization and distortion rectification. First, a novel approach to the binarization of the curves and grids in the water level sheet image has been proposed, which is based on the fusion of gradient and color information adaptively. Second, a fast search strategy for cross point location is invented and point-by-point processing is thus avoided, with the help of grid distribution information. And finally, we put forward a local rectification method through analyzing the central portions of the image and utilizing the domain knowledge of hydrology. The processing speed is accelerated, while the accuracy is still satisfying. Experiments on several real water level records show that our proposed techniques are effective and capable of recovering the hydrological observations accurately.

  19. Snow melt and phenology of a subalpine grassland: analysis through the use of digital camera images.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Julitta, Tommaso; Cremonese, Edoardo; Colombo, Roberto; Rossini, Micol; Fava, Franceso; Cogliati, Sergio; Galvagno, Marta; Panigada, Cinzia; Siniscalco, Consolata; Morra di Cella, Umberto; Migliavacca, Mirco

    2013-04-01

    Plant phenology is a good indicator of the impact of climate change on ecosystems. On mountain systems the main environmental constraints governing phenological timing are air and soil temperature, photoperiod and presence of snow. Recent studies showed the potentiality of using automated repeat digital photography for monitoring vegetative phenological events. In the present study, digital images collected with a CC640 Campbell Scientific Camera over 3 years (2009, 2010, 2011) in a subalpine grassland were used to analyse the spatial patterns of phenological events and their relationship with the timing of snowmelt. Yearly time series of green chromatic coordinates (gcc) were computed from hourly images. In order to analyse the spatial pattern of phenological metrics, gcc time series for each 10x10 pixel region of the target ecosystem were computed and the start of the season for the 10x10 regions was extracted. Based on the same grid dimension a snowmelt date map corresponding to the day of the year in which the snow disappears from the ground was obtained. Our main result showed that despite the snowmelt occurs rapidly, as maximum in seven days, several distinct spatial patterns were identified. The comparison of spatial patterns of snowmelt and phenological dynamics led to quite unexpected results. In fact, a negative correlation was found between the two variables, meaning that the growing season begins later in convex areas characterized by an early snowmelt, and vice versa in concave areas. A detailed field vegetational analysis revealed that these patterns were related to different plant communities. In particular differences in terms of species abundance seem to be related to convex and concave areas, mainly covered by grasses and by forbs respectively suggesting that different patterns of snow accumulation and of water availability during the growing season due to micromorphology affect the vegetation community and so indirectly phenology. These

  20. Performance analysis of digital cameras versus chromatic white light (CWL) sensors for the localization of latent fingerprints in crime scenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jankow, Mathias; Hildebrandt, Mario; Sturm, Jennifer; Kiltz, Stefan; Vielhauer, Claus

    2012-06-01

    In future applications of contactless acquisition techniques for latent fingerprints the automatic localization of potential fingerprint traces in crime scenes is required. Our goal is to study the application of a camera-based approach1 comparing with the performance of chromatic white light (CWL) techniques2 for the latent fingerprint localization in coarse and the resulting acquisition using detailed scans. Furthermore, we briefly evaluate the suitability of the camera-based acquisition for the detection of malicious fingerprint traces using an extended camera setup in comparison to Kiltz et al.3 Our experimental setup includes a Canon EOS 550D4 digital single-lens reflex (DSLR) camera and a FRT MicroProf2005 surface measurement device with CWL6002 sensor. We apply at least two fingerprints to each surface in our test set with 8 different either smooth, textured and structured surfaces to evaluate the detection performance of the two localization techniques using different pre-processing and feature extraction techniques. Printed fingerprint patterns as reproducible but potentially malicious traces3 are additionally acquired and analyzed on foil and compact discs. Our results indicate positive tendency towards a fast localization using the camera-based technique. All fingerprints that are located using the CWL sensor are found using the camera. However,the disadvantage of the camera-based technique is that the size of the region of interest for the detailed scan for each potential latent fingerprint is usually slightly larger compared to the CWL-based localization. Furthermore, this technique does not acquire 3D data and the resulting images are distorted due to the necessary angle between the camera and the surface. When applying the camera-based approach, it is required to optimize the feature extraction and classification. Furthermore, the required acquisition time for each potential fingerprint needs to be estimated to determine the time-savings of the

  1. Three-dimensional displacement measurement for diffuse object using phase-shifting digital holography with polarization imaging camera.

    PubMed

    Kiire, Tomohiro; Nakadate, Suezou; Shibuya, Masato; Yatagai, Toyohiko

    2011-12-01

    The amount of displacement of a diffused object can be measured using phase-shifting digital holography with a polarization imaging camera. Four digital holograms in quadrature are extracted from the polarization imaging camera and used to calculate the phase hologram. Two Fourier transforms of the phase holograms are calculated before and after the displacement of the object. A phase slope is subsequently obtained from the phase distribution of division between the two Fourier transforms. The slope of the phase distribution is proportional to the lateral displacement of the object. The sensitivity is less than one pixel size in the lateral direction of the movement. The longitudinal component of the displacement can be also measured separately from the intercept on the phase axis along the phase distribution of the division between two Fourier transforms of the phase holograms. © 2011 Optical Society of America

  2. Comparative spectral analysis between the functionality of the human eye and of the optical part of a digital camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toadere, Florin

    2015-02-01

    A software that comparatively analysis the spectral functionality of the optical part of the human eye and of the optical image acquisition system of the digital camera, is presented. Comparisons are done using demonstrative images which present the spectral color transformations of an image that is considered the test object. To perform the simulations are presented the spectral models and are computed their effects on the colors of the spectral image, during the propagation of the D48 sun light through the eye and the optics of the digital camera. The simulations are made using a spectral image processing algorithm which converts the spectral image into XYZ color space, CIE CAM02 color appearance model and then into RGB color space.

  3. Benchmarking of depth of field for large out-of-plane deformations with single camera digital image correlation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Mieghem, Bart; Ivens, Jan; Van Bael, Albert

    2017-04-01

    A problem that arises when performing stereo digital image correlation in applications with large out-of-plane displacements is that the images may become unfocused. This unfocusing could result in correlation instabilities or inaccuracies. When performing DIC measurements and expecting large out-of-plane displacements researchers either trust on their experience or use the equations from photography to estimate the parameters affecting the depth of field (DOF) of the camera. A limitation of the latter approach is that the definition of sharpness is a human defined parameter and that it does not reflect the performance of the digital image correlation system. To get a more representative DOF value for DIC applications, a standardised testing method is presented here, making use of real camera and lens combinations as well as actual image correlation results. The method is based on experimental single camera DIC measurements of a backwards moving target. Correlation results from focused and unfocused images are compared and a threshold value defines whether or not the correlation results are acceptable even if the images are (slightly) unfocused. By following the proposed approach, the complete DOF of a specific camera/lens combination as function of the aperture setting and distance from the camera to the target can be defined. The comparison between the theoretical and the experimental DOF results shows that the achievable DOF for DIC applications is larger than what theoretical calculations predict. Practically this means that the cameras can be positioned closer to the target than what is expected from the theoretical approach. This leads to a gain in resolution and measurement accuracy.

  4. Two Years of Digital Terrain Model Production Using the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Narrow Angle Camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burns, K.; Robinson, M. S.; Speyerer, E.; LROC Science Team

    2011-12-01

    One of the primary objectives of the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC) is to gather stereo observations with the Narrow Angle Camera (NAC). These stereo observations are used to generate digital terrain models (DTMs). The NAC has a pixel scale of 0.5 to 2.0 meters but was not designed for stereo observations and thus requires the spacecraft to roll off-nadir to acquire these images. Slews interfere with the data collection of the other instruments, so opportunities are currently limited to four per day. Arizona State University has produced DTMs from 95 stereo pairs for 11 Constellation Project (CxP) sites (Aristarchus, Copernicus crater, Gruithuisen domes, Hortensius domes, Ina D-caldera, Lichtenberg crater, Mare Ingenii, Marius hills, Reiner Gamma, South Pole-Aitkin Rim, Sulpicius Gallus) as well as 30 other regions of scientific interest (including: Bhabha crater, highest and lowest elevation points, Highland Ponds, Kugler Anuchin, Linne Crater, Planck Crater, Slipher crater, Sears Crater, Mandel'shtam Crater, Virtanen Graben, Compton/Belkovich, Rumker Domes, King Crater, Luna 16/20/23/24 landing sites, Ranger 6 landing site, Wiener F Crater, Apollo 11/14/15/17, fresh craters, impact melt flows, Larmor Q crater, Mare Tranquillitatis pit, Hansteen Alpha, Moore F Crater, and Lassell Massif). To generate DTMs, the USGS ISIS software and SOCET SET° from BAE Systems are used. To increase the absolute accuracy of the DTMs, data obtained from the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) is used to coregister the NAC images and define the geodetic reference frame. NAC DTMs have been used in examination of several sites, e.g. Compton-Belkovich, Marius Hills and Ina D-caldera [1-3]. LROC will continue to acquire high-resolution stereo images throughout the science phase of the mission and any extended mission opportunities, thus providing a vital dataset for scientific research as well as future human and robotic exploration. [1] B.L. Jolliff (2011) Nature

  5. Digital X-ray camera for quality evaluation three-dimensional topographic reconstruction of single crystals of biological macromolecules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borgstahl, Gloria (Inventor); Lovelace, Jeff (Inventor); Snell, Edward Holmes (Inventor); Bellamy, Henry (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    The present invention provides a digital topography imaging system for determining the crystalline structure of a biological macromolecule, wherein the system employs a charge coupled device (CCD) camera with antiblooming circuitry to directly convert x-ray signals to electrical signals without the use of phosphor and measures reflection profiles from the x-ray emitting source after x-rays are passed through a sample. Methods for using said system are also provided.

  6. STS-116 MS Fuglesang uses digital camera on the STBD side of the S0 Truss during EVA 4

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2006-12-19

    S116-E-06882 (18 Dec. 2006) --- European Space Agency (ESA) astronaut Christer Fuglesang, STS-116 mission specialist, uses a digital still camera during the mission's fourth session of extravehicular activity (EVA) while Space Shuttle Discovery was docked with the International Space Station. Astronaut Robert L. Curbeam Jr. (out of frame), mission specialist, worked in tandem with Fuglesang, using specially-prepared, tape-insulated tools, to guide the array wing neatly inside its blanket box during the 6-hour, 38-minute spacewalk.

  7. [Impact of digital technology on clinical practices: perspectives from surgery].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Y; Liu, X J

    2016-04-09

    Digital medical technologies or computer aided medical procedures, refer to imaging, 3D reconstruction, virtual design, 3D printing, navigation guided surgery and robotic assisted surgery techniques. These techniques are integrated into conventional surgical procedures to create new clinical protocols that are known as "digital surgical techniques". Conventional health care is characterized by subjective experiences, while digital medical technologies bring quantifiable information, transferable data, repeatable methods and predictable outcomes into clinical practices. Being integrated into clinical practice, digital techniques facilitate surgical care by improving outcomes and reducing risks. Digital techniques are becoming increasingly popular in trauma surgery, orthopedics, neurosurgery, plastic and reconstructive surgery, imaging and anatomic sciences. Robotic assisted surgery is also evolving and being applied in general surgery, cardiovascular surgery and orthopedic surgery. Rapid development of digital medical technologies is changing healthcare and clinical practices. It is therefore important for all clinicians to purposefully adapt to these technologies and improve their clinical outcomes.

  8. Planning for optical disk technology with digital cartography.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Light, D.L.

    1986-01-01

    A major shortfall that still exists in digital systems is the need for very large mass storage capacity. The decade of the 1980s has introduced laser optical disk storage technology, which may be the breakthrough needed for mass storage. This paper addresses system concepts for digital cartography during the transition period. Emphasis will be placed on determining USGS mass storage requirements and introducing laser optical disk technology for handling storage problems for digital data in this decade.-from Author

  9. Digital Technology at the National Science Museum of Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lydens, Lois; Saito, Yasuji; Inoue, Tohru

    2007-01-01

    The National Science Museum (NSM) in Japan has recently completed a project using different types of visitor-oriented digital technologies. With sponsorship from the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS), the NSM team carried out a four-year study to examine how digital technologies can be used to enhance as well as educationally…

  10. Digital Technology at the National Science Museum of Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lydens, Lois; Saito, Yasuji; Inoue, Tohru

    2007-01-01

    The National Science Museum (NSM) in Japan has recently completed a project using different types of visitor-oriented digital technologies. With sponsorship from the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS), the NSM team carried out a four-year study to examine how digital technologies can be used to enhance as well as educationally…

  11. Digital Media and Technology in Afterschool Programs, Libraries, and Museums

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herr-Stephenson, Becky; Rhoten, Diana; Perkel, Dan; Sims, Christo

    2011-01-01

    Digital media and technology have become culturally and economically powerful parts of contemporary middle-class American childhoods. Immersed in various forms of digital media as well as mobile and Web-based technologies, young people today appear to develop knowledge and skills through participation in media. This MacArthur Report examines the…

  12. Secondary School Teachers' Approaches to Teaching Composition Using Digital Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wise, Stuart

    2016-01-01

    The music industry in the 21 century uses digital technology in a wide range of applications including in performance, in composition and in recording and publishing. In this article, I consider how the impact of digital technologies may be affecting pedagogical processes adopted by secondary music teachers, particularly in the area of…

  13. Digital Media and Technology in Afterschool Programs, Libraries, and Museums

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herr-Stephenson, Becky; Rhoten, Diana; Perkel, Dan; Sims, Christo

    2011-01-01

    Digital media and technology have become culturally and economically powerful parts of contemporary middle-class American childhoods. Immersed in various forms of digital media as well as mobile and Web-based technologies, young people today appear to develop knowledge and skills through participation in media. This MacArthur Report examines the…

  14. Secondary School Teachers' Approaches to Teaching Composition Using Digital Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wise, Stuart

    2016-01-01

    The music industry in the 21 century uses digital technology in a wide range of applications including in performance, in composition and in recording and publishing. In this article, I consider how the impact of digital technologies may be affecting pedagogical processes adopted by secondary music teachers, particularly in the area of…

  15. Per-Pixel Coded Exposure for High-Speed and High-Resolution Imaging Using a Digital Micromirror Device Camera.

    PubMed

    Feng, Wei; Zhang, Fumin; Qu, Xinghua; Zheng, Shiwei

    2016-03-04

    High-speed photography is an important tool for studying rapid physical phenomena. However, low-frame-rate CCD (charge coupled device) or CMOS (complementary metal oxide semiconductor) camera cannot effectively capture the rapid phenomena with high-speed and high-resolution. In this paper, we incorporate the hardware restrictions of existing image sensors, design the sampling functions, and implement a hardware prototype with a digital micromirror device (DMD) camera in which spatial and temporal information can be flexibly modulated. Combined with the optical model of DMD camera, we theoretically analyze the per-pixel coded exposure and propose a three-element median quicksort method to increase the temporal resolution of the imaging system. Theoretically, this approach can rapidly increase the temporal resolution several, or even hundreds, of times without increasing bandwidth requirements of the camera. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our method via extensive examples and achieve 100 fps (frames per second) gain in temporal resolution by using a 25 fps camera.

  16. Per-Pixel Coded Exposure for High-Speed and High-Resolution Imaging Using a Digital Micromirror Device Camera

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Wei; Zhang, Fumin; Qu, Xinghua; Zheng, Shiwei

    2016-01-01

    High-speed photography is an important tool for studying rapid physical phenomena. However, low-frame-rate CCD (charge coupled device) or CMOS (complementary metal oxide semiconductor) camera cannot effectively capture the rapid phenomena with high-speed and high-resolution. In this paper, we incorporate the hardware restrictions of existing image sensors, design the sampling functions, and implement a hardware prototype with a digital micromirror device (DMD) camera in which spatial and temporal information can be flexibly modulated. Combined with the optical model of DMD camera, we theoretically analyze the per-pixel coded exposure and propose a three-element median quicksort method to increase the temporal resolution of the imaging system. Theoretically, this approach can rapidly increase the temporal resolution several, or even hundreds, of times without increasing bandwidth requirements of the camera. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our method via extensive examples and achieve 100 fps (frames per second) gain in temporal resolution by using a 25 fps camera. PMID:26959023

  17. Deformation monitoring with off-the-shelf digital cameras for civil engineering fatigue testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Detchev, I.; Habib, A.; He, F.; El-Badry, M.

    2014-06-01

    Deformation monitoring of civil infrastructure systems is important in terms of both their safety and serviceability. The former refers to estimating the maximum loading capacity during the design stages of a building project, and the latter means performing regularly scheduled maintenance of an already existing structure. Traditionally, large structures have been monitored using surveying techniques, while fine-scale monitoring of structural components such as beams and trusses has been done with strain gauge instrumentation. In the past decade, digital photogrammetric systems coupled with image processing techniques have also been used for deformation monitoring. The major advantage of this remote sensing method for performing deformation monitoring is that there is no need to access the object of interest while testing is in progress. The paper is a result of an experiment where concrete beams with polymer support sheets are subjected to dynamic loading conditions by a hydraulic actuator in a structures laboratory. This type of loading is also known as fatigue testing, and is used to simulate the typical use of concrete beams over a long period of time. From a photogrammetric point of view, the challenge for this type of experiment is to avoid motion artifacts by maximizing the sensor frame rate, and at the same time to have a good enough image quality in order to achieve satisfactory reconstruction precision. This research effort will investigate the optimal camera settings (e.g., aperture, shutter speed, sensor sensitivity, and file size resolution) in order to have a balance between high sensor frame rate and good image quality. The results will be first evaluated in terms of their repeatability, and then also in terms of their accuracy. The accuracy of the results will be checked against another set of results coming from high quality laser transducers.

  18. IR camera system with an advanced image processing technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohkubo, Syuichi; Tamura, Tetsuo

    2016-05-01

    We have developed image processing technologies for resolving issues caused by the inherent UFPA (uncooled focal plane array) sensor characteristics to spread its applications. For example, large time constant of an uncooled IR (infra-red) sensor limits its application field, because motion blur is caused in monitoring the objective moving at high speed. The developed image processing technologies can eliminate the blur and retrieve almost the equivalent image observed in still motion. This image processing is based on the idea that output of the IR sensor is construed as the convolution of radiated IR energy from the objective and impulse response of the IR sensor. With knowledge of the impulse response and moving speed of the objective, the IR energy from the objective can be de-convolved from the observed images. We have successfully retrieved the image without blur using the IR sensor of 15 ms time constant under the conditions in which the objective is moving at the speed of about 10 pixels/60 Hz. The image processing for reducing FPN (fixed pattern noise) has also been developed. UFPA having the responsivity in the narrow wavelength region, e.g., around 8 μm is appropriate for measuring the surface of glass. However, it suffers from severe FPN due to lower sensitivity compared with 8-13 μm. The developed image processing exploits the images of the shutter itself, and can reduce FPN significantly.

  19. Single-camera stereo-digital image correlation with a four-mirror adapter: optimized design and validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Liping; Pan, Bing

    2016-12-01

    A low-cost, easy-to-implement but practical single-camera stereo-digital image correlation (DIC) system using a four-mirror adapter is established for accurate shape and three-dimensional (3D) deformation measurements. The mirrors assisted pseudo-stereo imaging system can convert a single camera into two virtual cameras, which view a specimen from different angles and record the surface images of the test object onto two halves of the camera sensor. To enable deformation measurement in non-laboratory conditions or extreme high temperature environments, an active imaging optical design, combining an actively illuminated monochromatic source with a coupled band-pass optical filter, is compactly integrated to the pseudo-stereo DIC system. The optical design, basic principles and implementation procedures of the established system for 3D profile and deformation measurements are described in detail. The effectiveness and accuracy of the established system are verified by measuring the profile of a regular cylinder surface and displacements of a translated planar plate. As an application example, the established system is used to determine the tensile strains and Poisson's ratio of a composite solid propellant specimen during stress relaxation test. Since the established single-camera stereo-DIC system only needs a single camera and presents strong robustness against variations in ambient light or the thermal radiation of a hot object, it demonstrates great potential in determining transient deformation in non-laboratory or high-temperature environments with the aid of a single high-speed camera.

  20. A pilot project combining multispectral proximal sensors and digital cameras for monitoring tropical pastures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Handcock, Rebecca N.; Gobbett, D. L.; González, Luciano A.; Bishop-Hurley, Greg J.; McGavin, Sharon L.

    2016-08-01

    Timely and accurate monitoring of pasture biomass and ground cover is necessary in livestock production systems to ensure productive and sustainable management. Interest in the use of proximal sensors for monitoring pasture status in grazing systems has increased, since data can be returned in near real time. Proximal sensors have the potential for deployment on large properties where remote sensing may not be suitable due to issues such as spatial scale or cloud cover. There are unresolved challenges in gathering reliable sensor data and in calibrating raw sensor data to values such as pasture biomass or vegetation ground cover, which allow meaningful interpretation of sensor data by livestock producers. Our goal was to assess whether a combination of proximal sensors could be reliably deployed to monitor tropical pasture status in an operational beef production system, as a precursor to designing a full sensor deployment. We use this pilot project to (1) illustrate practical issues around sensor deployment, (2) develop the methods necessary for the quality control of the sensor data, and (3) assess the strength of the relationships between vegetation indices derived from the proximal sensors and field observations across the wet and dry seasons. Proximal sensors were deployed at two sites in a tropical pasture on a beef production property near Townsville, Australia. Each site was monitored by a Skye SKR-four-band multispectral sensor (every 1 min), a digital camera (every 30 min), and a soil moisture sensor (every 1 min), each of which were operated over 18 months. Raw data from each sensor was processed to calculate multispectral vegetation indices. The data capture from the digital cameras was more reliable than the multispectral sensors, which had up to 67 % of data discarded after data cleaning and quality control for technical issues related to the sensor design, as well as environmental issues such as water incursion and insect infestations. We recommend

  1. Imaging Emission Spectra with Handheld and Cellphone Cameras

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sitar, David

    2012-01-01

    As point-and-shoot digital camera technology advances it is becoming easier to image spectra in a laboratory setting on a shoestring budget and get immediate results. With this in mind, I wanted to test three cameras to see how their results would differ. Two undergraduate physics students and I used one handheld 7.1 megapixel (MP) digital Cannon…

  2. Imaging Emission Spectra with Handheld and Cellphone Cameras

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sitar, David

    2012-01-01

    As point-and-shoot digital camera technology advances it is becoming easier to image spectra in a laboratory setting on a shoestring budget and get immediate results. With this in mind, I wanted to test three cameras to see how their results would differ. Two undergraduate physics students and I used one handheld 7.1 megapixel (MP) digital Cannon…

  3. Are Digital Natives a Myth or Reality? University Students' Use of Digital Technologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Margaryan, Anoush; Littlejohn, Allison; Vojt, Gabrielle

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the extent and nature of university students' use of digital technologies for learning and socialising. The findings show that students use a limited range of mainly established technologies. Use of collaborative knowledge creation tools, virtual worlds, and social networking sites was low. "Digital natives" and students of…

  4. Use of Digital Image Technology to 'Clearly' Depict Global Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molnia, B. F.; Carbo, C. L.

    2014-12-01

    Earth is dynamic and beautiful. Understanding why, when, how, and how fast its surface changes yields information and serves as a source of inspiration. The artistic use of geoscience information can inform the public about what is happening to their planet in a non-confrontational and apolitical way. While individual images may clearly depict a landscape, photographic comparisons are necessary to clearly capture and display annual, decadal, or century-scale impacts of climate and environmental change on Earth's landscapes. After years of effort to artistically communicate geoscience concepts with unenhanced individual photographs or pairs of images, the authors have partnered to maximize this process by using digital image enhancement technology. This is done, not to manipulate the inherent artistic content or information content of the photographs, but to insure that the comparative photo pairs produced are geometrically correct and unambiguous. For comparative photography, information-rich historical photographs are selected from archives, websites, and other sources. After determining the geographic location from which the historical photograph was made, the original site is identified and eventually revisited. There, the historical photos field of view is again photographed, ideally from the original location. From nearly 250 locations revisited, about 175 pairs have been produced. Every effort is made to reoccupy the original historical site. However, vegetation growth, visibility reduction, and co-seismic level change may make this impossible. Also, inherent differences in lens optics, camera construction, and image format may result in differences in the geometry of the new photograph when compared to the old. Upon selection, historical photos are cleaned, contrast stretched, brightness adjusted, and sharpened to maximize site identification and information extraction. To facilitate matching historical and new images, digital files of each are overlain in

  5. Redefining Student Affairs through Digital Technology: A Ten-Year Historiography of Digital Technology Use by Student Affairs Administrators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cabellon, Edmund T.

    2016-01-01

    The student affairs profession is at a crossroads (Torres & Walbert, 2010) given digital technology's growth and the academy's administrative expansion (Bowen, 2013). Student affairs administrators must simultaneously respond to digital technology's implications in students' lives (Kirschner & Karpinski, 2010) and to new state and federal…

  6. Redefining Student Affairs through Digital Technology: A Ten-Year Historiography of Digital Technology Use by Student Affairs Administrators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cabellon, Edmund T.

    2016-01-01

    The student affairs profession is at a crossroads (Torres & Walbert, 2010) given digital technology's growth and the academy's administrative expansion (Bowen, 2013). Student affairs administrators must simultaneously respond to digital technology's implications in students' lives (Kirschner & Karpinski, 2010) and to new state and federal…

  7. Differences in glance behavior between drivers using a rearview camera, parking sensor system, both technologies, or no technology during low-speed parking maneuvers.

    PubMed

    Kidd, David G; McCartt, Anne T

    2016-02-01

    This study characterized the use of various fields of view during low-speed parking maneuvers by drivers with a rearview camera, a sensor system, a camera and sensor system combined, or neither technology. Participants performed four different low-speed parking maneuvers five times. Glances to different fields of view the second time through the four maneuvers were coded along with the glance locations at the onset of the audible warning from the sensor system and immediately after the warning for participants in the sensor and camera-plus-sensor conditions. Overall, the results suggest that information from cameras and/or sensor systems is used in place of mirrors and shoulder glances. Participants with a camera, sensor system, or both technologies looked over their shoulders significantly less than participants without technology. Participants with cameras (camera and camera-plus-sensor conditions) used their mirrors significantly less compared with participants without cameras (no-technology and sensor conditions). Participants in the camera-plus-sensor condition looked at the center console/camera display for a smaller percentage of the time during the low-speed maneuvers than participants in the camera condition and glanced more frequently to the center console/camera display immediately after the warning from the sensor system compared with the frequency of glances to this location at warning onset. Although this increase was not statistically significant, the pattern suggests that participants in the camera-plus-sensor condition may have used the warning as a cue to look at the camera display. The observed differences in glance behavior between study groups were illustrated by relating it to the visibility of a 12-15-month-old child-size object. These findings provide evidence that drivers adapt their glance behavior during low-speed parking maneuvers following extended use of rearview cameras and parking sensors, and suggest that other technologies which

  8. Cameras Monitor Spacecraft Integrity to Prevent Failures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2014-01-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory contracted Malin Space Science Systems Inc. to outfit Curiosity with four of its cameras using the latest commercial imaging technology. The company parlayed the knowledge gained under working with NASA to develop an off-the-shelf line of cameras, along with a digital video recorder, designed to help troubleshoot problems that may arise on satellites in space.

  9. Can New Digital Technologies Support Parasitology Teaching and Learning?

    PubMed

    Jabbar, Abdul; Gasser, Robin B; Lodge, Jason

    2016-07-01

    Traditionally, parasitology courses have mostly been taught face-to-face on campus, but now digital technologies offer opportunities for teaching and learning. Here, we give a perspective on how new technologies might be used through student-centred teaching approaches. First, a snapshot of recent trends in the higher education is provided; then, a brief account is given of how digital technologies [e.g., massive open online courses (MOOCs), flipped classroom (FC), games, quizzes, dedicated Facebook, and digital badges] might promote parasitology teaching and learning in digital learning environments. In our opinion, some of these digital technologies might be useful for competency-based, self-regulated, learner-centred teaching and learning in an online or blended teaching environment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Low Power Camera-on-a-Chip Using CMOS Active Pixel Sensor Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fossum, E. R.

    1995-01-01

    A second generation image sensor technology has been developed at the NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory as a result of the continuing need to miniaturize space science imaging instruments. Implemented using standard CMOS, the active pixel sensor (APS) technology permits the integration of the detector array with on-chip timing, control and signal chain electronics, including analog-to-digital conversion.

  11. 76 FR 61746 - Western Digital Technologies, Inc.: Hard Drive Development Engineering Group Irvine (Formerly at...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-05

    ... Employment and Training Administration Western Digital Technologies, Inc.: Hard Drive Development Engineering... voluntary remand to conduct further investigation in Former Employees of Western Digital Technologies, Inc... Western Digital Technologies, Inc., Hard Drive Development Engineering Group, Lake Forest, California...

  12. Digital dispersion compensation for ultrabroad-bandwidth single-camera spectral-domain polarization-sensitive OCT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oldenburg, Amy L.; Chhetri, Raghav K.

    2011-03-01

    Polarization-sensitive OCT is used to examine tissue microstructure by providing imaging of birefringent properties. Single-camera spectral-domain polarization-sensitive OCT has been of recent interest, whereby a custom spectrometer is employed to simultaneously measure orthogonal polarization states scattered from the sample. This avoids synchronization and triggering issues associated with multiple-camera setups. It also has the advantage that the optic axis can be extracted without polarization modulating the incident light. However, the disadvantage is that the line camera pixel-to-wavenumber nonlinearity requires either careful spectrometer alignment, or digital compensation. In fact, this problem is further exacerbated in high resolution PSOCT systems as they require compensation over larger bandwidths. Here we report the construction of an ultrabroad-bandwidth PSOCT system using a single camera spectrometer similar to Baumann et al. In order to enjoy the benefits of this instrument, we outline a method for digital dispersion compensation that removes the necessity for special camera alignment. We find that there are three non-negligible types of dispersion to consider: 1) the aforementioned camera pixel-to-wavenumber nonlinearity, 2) the refractive index dispersion in the sample itself, and 3) the dispersion imbalance between the arms of the OCT interferometer. The latter two were previously recognized for time-domain high-resolution OCT, where a digital dispersion compensation method was successfully employed to treat them both. For our SDOCT application, we find that dispersion types 1 and 2 have the same functional effect and can be combined into one compensation step, and as such, much of the previous compensation method can be used. However, we find that it is necessary to add two steps to the analysis technique whereby the relative scaling and positioning of the two polarization images is adjusted to align the scatterers. We also find that better

  13. Measurement of the spatial frequency response (SFR) of digital still-picture cameras using a modified slanted-edge method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Wei-Feng; Hsu, Yun C.; Chuang, Kai W.

    2000-06-01

    Spatial resolution is one of the main characteristics of electronic imaging devices such as the digital still-picture camera. It describes the capability of a device to resolve the spatial details of an image formed by the incoming optical information. The overall resolving capability is of great interest although there are various factors, contributed by camera components and signal processing algorithms, affecting the spatial resolution. The spatial frequency response (SFR), analogous to the MTF of an optical imaging system, is one of the four measurements for analysis of spatial resolution defined in ISO/FDIS 12233, and it provides a complete profile of the spatial response of digital still-picture cameras. In that document, a test chart is employed to estimate the spatial resolving capability. The calculations of SFR were conducted by using the slanted edge method in which a scene with a black-to- white or white-to-black edge tilted at a specified angle is captured. An algorithm is used to find the line spread function as well as the SFR. We will present a modified algorithm in which no prior information of the angle of the tilted black-to-white edge is needed. The tilted angle was estimated by assuming that a region around the center of the transition between black and white regions is linear. At a tilted angle of 8 degree the minimum estimation error is about 3%. The advantages of the modified slanted edge method are high accuracy, flexible use, and low cost.

  14. The future of consumer cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battiato, Sebastiano; Moltisanti, Marco

    2015-03-01

    In the last two decades multimedia, and in particular imaging devices (camcorders, tablets, mobile phones, etc.) have been dramatically diffused. Moreover the increasing of their computational performances, combined with an higher storage capability, allows them to process large amount of data. In this paper an overview of the current trends of consumer cameras market and technology will be given, providing also some details about the recent past (from Digital Still Camera up today) and forthcoming key issues.

  15. Digital video technology - today and tomorrow: 11th office information technology conference

    SciTech Connect

    Liberman, J.

    1994-10-01

    Digital video is probably computing`s fastest moving technology today. Just three years ago, the zenith of digital video technology on the PC was the successful marriage of digital text and graphics with analog audio and video by means of expensive analog laser disc players and video overlay boards. The state of the art involves two different approaches to fully digital video on computers: hardware-assisted and software-only solutions.

  16. Small Field of View Scintimammography Gamma Camera Integrated to a Stereotactic Core Biopsy Digital X-ray System

    SciTech Connect

    Andrew Weisenberger; Fernando Barbosa; T. D. Green; R. Hoefer; Cynthia Keppel; Brian Kross; Stanislaw Majewski; Vladimir Popov; Randolph Wojcik

    2002-10-01

    A small field of view gamma camera has been developed for integration with a commercial stereotactic core biopsy system. The goal is to develop and implement a dual-modality imaging system utilizing scintimammography and digital radiography to evaluate the reliability of scintimammography in predicting the malignancy of suspected breast lesions from conventional X-ray mammography. The scintimammography gamma camera is a custom-built mini gamma camera with an active area of 5.3 cm /spl times/ 5.3 cm and is based on a 2 /spl times/ 2 array of Hamamatsu R7600-C8 position-sensitive photomultiplier tubes. The spatial resolution of the gamma camera at the collimator surface is < 4 mm full-width at half-maximum and a sensitivity of /spl sim/ 4000 Hz/mCi. The system is also capable of acquiring dynamic scintimammographic data to allow for dynamic uptake studies. Sample images of preliminary clinical results are presented to demonstrate the performance of the system.

  17. Digital imaging technology applied to crewstation display measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, Leonard Y.; Green, John R.

    1993-12-01

    A `slow scan' CCD camera has been adapted for luminance and radiance measurement of displays used in night vision goggle (NVG) compatible aircraft. A video lightmeter offers several advantages compared to conventional test methods including high speed image capture and color coding of the digital image data. The color coding feature facilitates evaluation of the test display uniformity. Numerical values for luminance and infrared radiance are also extracted from the image data.

  18. Technological innovations in mental healthcare: harnessing the digital revolution.

    PubMed

    Hollis, Chris; Morriss, Richard; Martin, Jennifer; Amani, Sarah; Cotton, Rebecca; Denis, Mike; Lewis, Shôn

    2015-04-01

    Digital technology has the potential to transform mental healthcare by connecting patients, services and health data in new ways. Digital online and mobile applications can offer patients greater access to information and services and enhance clinical management and early intervention through access to real-time patient data. However, substantial gaps exist in the evidence base underlying these technologies. Greater patient and clinician involvement is needed to evaluate digital technologies and ensure they target unmet needs, maintain public trust and improve clinical outcomes. Royal College of Psychiatrists.

  19. Neurocognitive mechanisms of real-world autobiographical memory retrieval: insights from studies using wearable camera technology.

    PubMed

    Chow, Tiffany E; Rissman, Jesse

    2017-05-01

    In recent years, investigation into the cognitive and neural mechanisms of autobiographical memory has been aided by the use of experimental paradigms incorporating wearable camera technology. By effortlessly capturing first-person images of one's life events, these cameras provide a rich set of naturalistic stimuli that can later be used to trigger the recall of specific episodes. Here, we chronicle the development and progression of such studies in behavioral and neuroimaging examinations of both clinical and nonclinical adult populations. Experiments examining the effects of periodic review of first-person images of life events have documented enhancements of autobiographical memory retrieval. Such benefits are most pronounced in patients with memory impairments, but there is mounting evidence that cognitively healthy individuals may benefit as well. Findings from functional magnetic resonance imaging experiments using wearable camera stimuli as retrieval probes have produced results that, although largely consistent with the broader episodic memory literature, have significantly extended prior findings concerning the underlying mnemonic processes and the neural representation of autobiographical information. Taken together, wearable camera technology provides a unique opportunity for studies of autobiographical memory to more closely approximate real-world conditions, thus offering enhanced ecological validity and opening up new avenues for experimental work. © 2017 New York Academy of Sciences.

  20. Application of real-time single camera SLAM technology for image-guided targeting in neurosurgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Yau-Zen; Hou, Jung-Fu; Tsao, Yi Hsiang; Lee, Shih-Tseng

    2012-10-01

    In this paper, we propose an application of augmented reality technology for targeting tumors or anatomical structures inside the skull. The application is a combination of the technologies of MonoSLAM (Single Camera Simultaneous Localization and Mapping) and computer graphics. A stereo vision system is developed to construct geometric data of human face for registration with CT images. Reliability and accuracy of the application is enhanced by the use of fiduciary markers fixed to the skull. The MonoSLAM keeps track of the current location of the camera with respect to an augmented reality (AR) marker using the extended Kalman filter. The fiduciary markers provide reference when the AR marker is invisible to the camera. Relationship between the markers on the face and the augmented reality marker is obtained by a registration procedure by the stereo vision system and is updated on-line. A commercially available Android based tablet PC equipped with a 320×240 front-facing camera was used for implementation. The system is able to provide a live view of the patient overlaid by the solid models of tumors or anatomical structures, as well as the missing part of the tool inside the skull.

  1. Diabetic Retinopathy Screening Ratio Is Improved When Using a Digital, Nonmydriatic Fundus Camera Onsite in a Diabetes Outpatient Clinic

    PubMed Central

    Roser, Pia; Kalscheuer, Hannes; Groener, Jan B.; Lehnhoff, Daniel; Klein, Roman; Auffarth, Gerd U.; Nawroth, Peter P.; Schuett, Florian; Rudofsky, Gottfried

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate the effect of onsite screening with a nonmydriatic, digital fundus camera for diabetic retinopathy (DR) at a diabetes outpatient clinic. Research Design and Methods. This cross-sectional study included 502 patients, 112 with type 1 and 390 with type 2 diabetes. Patients attended screenings for microvascular complications, including diabetic nephropathy (DN), diabetic polyneuropathy (DP), and DR. Single-field retinal imaging with a digital, nonmydriatic fundus camera was used to assess DR. Prevalence and incidence of microvascular complications were analyzed and the ratio of newly diagnosed to preexisting complications for all entities was calculated in order to differentiate natural progress from missed DRs. Results. For both types of diabetes, prevalence of DR was 25.0% (n = 126) and incidence 6.4% (n = 32) (T1DM versus T2DM: prevalence: 35.7% versus 22.1%, incidence 5.4% versus 6.7%). 25.4% of all DRs were newly diagnosed. Furthermore, the ratio of newly diagnosed to preexisting DR was higher than those for DN (p = 0.12) and DP (p = 0.03) representing at least 13 patients with missed DR. Conclusions. The results indicate that implementing nonmydriatic, digital fundus imaging in a diabetes outpatient clinic can contribute to improved early diagnosis of diabetic retinopathy. PMID:26904690

  2. Active hyperspectral imaging using a quantum cascade laser (QCL) array and digital-pixel focal plane array (DFPA) camera.

    PubMed

    Goyal, Anish; Myers, Travis; Wang, Christine A; Kelly, Michael; Tyrrell, Brian; Gokden, B; Sanchez, Antonio; Turner, George; Capasso, Federico

    2014-06-16

    We demonstrate active hyperspectral imaging using a quantum-cascade laser (QCL) array as the illumination source and a digital-pixel focal-plane-array (DFPA) camera as the receiver. The multi-wavelength QCL array used in this work comprises 15 individually addressable QCLs in which the beams from all lasers are spatially overlapped using wavelength beam combining (WBC). The DFPA camera was configured to integrate the laser light reflected from the sample and to perform on-chip subtraction of the passive thermal background. A 27-frame hyperspectral image was acquired of a liquid contaminant on a diffuse gold surface at a range of 5 meters. The measured spectral reflectance closely matches the calculated reflectance. Furthermore, the high-speed capabilities of the system were demonstrated by capturing differential reflectance images of sand and KClO3 particles that were moving at speeds of up to 10 m/s.

  3. Use of commercial off-the-shelf digital cameras for scientific data acquisition and scene-specific color calibration.

    PubMed

    Akkaynak, Derya; Treibitz, Tali; Xiao, Bei; Gürkan, Umut A; Allen, Justine J; Demirci, Utkan; Hanlon, Roger T

    2014-02-01

    Commercial off-the-shelf digital cameras are inexpensive and easy-to-use instruments that can be used for quantitative scientific data acquisition if images are captured in raw format and processed so that they maintain a linear relationship with scene radiance. Here we describe the image-processing steps required for consistent data acquisition with color cameras. In addition, we present a method for scene-specific color calibration that increases the accuracy of color capture when a scene contains colors that are not well represented in the gamut of a standard color-calibration target. We demonstrate applications of the proposed methodology in the fields of biomedical engineering, artwork photography, perception science, marine biology, and underwater imaging.

  4. Photometric-based recovery of illuminant-free color images using a red-green-blue digital camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luis Nieves, Juan; Plata, Clara; Valero, Eva M.; Romero, Javier

    2012-01-01

    Albedo estimation has traditionally been used to make computational simulations of real objects under different conditions, but as yet no device is capable of measuring albedo directly. The aim of this work is to introduce a photometric-based color imaging framework that can estimate albedo and can reproduce the appearance both indoors and outdoors of images under different lights and illumination geometry. Using a calibration sample set composed of chips made of the same material but different colors and textures, we compare two photometric-stereo techniques, one of them avoiding the effect of shadows and highlights in the image and the other ignoring this constraint. We combined a photometric-stereo technique and a color-estimation algorithm that directly relates the camera sensor outputs with the albedo values. The proposed method can produce illuminant-free images with good color accuracy when a three-channel red-green-blue (RGB) digital camera is used, even outdoors under solar illumination.

  5. Single-camera high-speed stereo-digital image correlation for full-field vibration measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Liping; Pan, Bing

    2017-09-01

    A low-cost, easy-to-implement single-camera high-speed stereo-digital image correlation (SCHS stereo-DIC) method using a four-mirror adapter is proposed for full-field 3D vibration measurement. With the aid of the four-mirror adapter, surface images of calibration target and test objects can be separately imaged onto two halves of the camera sensor through two different optical paths. These images can be further processed to retrieve the vibration responses on the specimen surface. To validate the effectiveness and accuracy of the proposed approach, dynamic parameters including natural frequencies, damping ratios and mode shapes of a rectangular cantilever plate were extracted from the directly measured vibration responses using the established system. The results reveal that the SCHS stereo-DIC is a simple, practical and effective technique for vibration measurements and dynamic parameters identification.

  6. Use of commercial off-the-shelf digital cameras for scientific data acquisition and scene-specific color calibration

    PubMed Central

    Akkaynak, Derya; Treibitz, Tali; Xiao, Bei; Gürkan, Umut A.; Allen, Justine J.; Demirci, Utkan; Hanlon, Roger T.

    2014-01-01

    Commercial off-the-shelf digital cameras are inexpensive and easy-to-use instruments that can be used for quantitative scientific data acquisition if images are captured in raw format and processed so that they maintain a linear relationship with scene radiance. Here we describe the image-processing steps required for consistent data acquisition with color cameras. In addition, we present a method for scene-specific color calibration that increases the accuracy of color capture when a scene contains colors that are not well represented in the gamut of a standard color-calibration target. We demonstrate applications of the proposed methodology in the fields of biomedical engineering, artwork photography, perception science, marine biology, and underwater imaging. PMID:24562030

  7. Digital storytelling: an innovative technological approach to nursing education.

    PubMed

    Price, Deborah M; Strodtman, Linda; Brough, Elizabeth; Lonn, Steven; Luo, Airong

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of using digital stories in promoting deeper understanding in nursing students about palliative care concepts. Students (N = 134) created a 5-minute narrated digital story utilizing VoiceThread technology that synthesized and applied knowledge that had been presented in class and course readings. Postsurvey and focus group evaluation data revealed that through the writing and sharing of digital stories, students embraced the personal and complex nature of palliative care.

  8. Current State of Digital Reference in Primary and Secondary Education; The Technological Challenges of digital Reference; Question Negotiation and the Technological Environment; Evaluation of Chat Reference Service Quality; Visual Resource Reference: Collaboration between Digital Museums and Digital Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lankes, R. David; Penka, Jeffrey T.; Janes, Joseph; Silverstein, Joanne; White, Marilyn Domas; Abels, Eileen G.; Kaske, Neal; Goodrum, Abby A.

    2003-01-01

    Includes five articles that discuss digital reference in elementary and secondary education; the need to understand the technological environment of digital reference; question negotiation in digital reference; a pilot study that evaluated chat reference service quality; and collaborative digital museum and digital library reference services. (LRW)

  9. Current State of Digital Reference in Primary and Secondary Education; The Technological Challenges of digital Reference; Question Negotiation and the Technological Environment; Evaluation of Chat Reference Service Quality; Visual Resource Reference: Collaboration between Digital Museums and Digital Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lankes, R. David; Penka, Jeffrey T.; Janes, Joseph; Silverstein, Joanne; White, Marilyn Domas; Abels, Eileen G.; Kaske, Neal; Goodrum, Abby A.

    2003-01-01

    Includes five articles that discuss digital reference in elementary and secondary education; the need to understand the technological environment of digital reference; question negotiation in digital reference; a pilot study that evaluated chat reference service quality; and collaborative digital museum and digital library reference services. (LRW)

  10. Increasing signal-to-noise ratio of reconstructed digital holograms by using light spatial noise portrait of camera's photosensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheremkhin, Pavel A.; Evtikhiev, Nikolay N.; Krasnov, Vitaly V.; Rodin, Vladislav G.; Starikov, Sergey N.

    2015-01-01

    Digital holography is technique which includes recording of interference pattern with digital photosensor, processing of obtained holographic data and reconstruction of object wavefront. Increase of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of reconstructed digital holograms is especially important in such fields as image encryption, pattern recognition, static and dynamic display of 3D scenes, and etc. In this paper compensation of photosensor light spatial noise portrait (LSNP) for increase of SNR of reconstructed digital holograms is proposed. To verify the proposed method, numerical experiments with computer generated Fresnel holograms with resolution equal to 512×512 elements were performed. Simulation of shots registration with digital camera Canon EOS 400D was performed. It is shown that solo use of the averaging over frames method allows to increase SNR only up to 4 times, and further increase of SNR is limited by spatial noise. Application of the LSNP compensation method in conjunction with the averaging over frames method allows for 10 times SNR increase. This value was obtained for LSNP measured with 20 % error. In case of using more accurate LSNP, SNR can be increased up to 20 times.

  11. Evaluation of a novel laparoscopic camera for characterization of renal ischemia in a porcine model using digital light processing (DLP) hyperspectral imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olweny, Ephrem O.; Tan, Yung K.; Faddegon, Stephen; Jackson, Neil; Wehner, Eleanor F.; Best, Sara L.; Park, Samuel K.; Thapa, Abhas; Cadeddu, Jeffrey A.; Zuzak, Karel J.

    2012-03-01

    Digital light processing hyperspectral imaging (DLP® HSI) was adapted for use during laparoscopic surgery by coupling a conventional laparoscopic light guide with a DLP-based Agile Light source (OL 490, Optronic Laboratories, Orlando, FL), incorporating a 0° laparoscope, and a customized digital CCD camera (DVC, Austin, TX). The system was used to characterize renal ischemia in a porcine model.

  12. Bridging storytelling traditions with digital technology

    PubMed Central

    Cueva, Melany; Kuhnley, Regina; Revels, Laura J.; Cueva, Katie; Dignan, Mark; Lanier, Anne P.

    2013-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this project was to learn how Community Health Workers (CHWs) in Alaska perceived digital storytelling as a component of the “Path to Understanding Cancer” curriculum and as a culturally respectful tool for sharing cancer-related health messages. Design A pre-course written application, end-of-course written evaluation, and internet survey informed this project. Methods Digital storytelling was included in seven 5-day cancer education courses (May 2009–2012) in which 67 CHWs each created a personal 2–3 minute cancer-related digital story. Participant-chosen digital story topics included tobacco cessation, the importance of recommended cancer screening exams, cancer survivorship, loss, grief and end-of-life comfort care, and self-care as patient care providers. All participants completed an end-of-course written evaluation. In July 2012, contact information was available for 48 participants, of whom 24 completed an internet survey. Results All 67 participants successfully completed a digital story which they shared and discussed with course members. On the written post-course evaluation, all participants reported that combining digital storytelling with cancer education supported their learning and was a culturally respectful way to provide health messages. Additionally, 62 of 67 CHWs reported that the course increased their confidence to share cancer information with their communities. Up to 3 years post-course, all 24 CHW survey respondents reported they had shown their digital story. Of note, 23 of 24 CHWs also reported change in their own behavior as a result of the experience. Conclusions All CHWs, regardless of computer skills, successfully created a digital story as part of the cancer education course. CHWs reported that digital stories enhanced their learning and were a culturally respectful way to share cancer-related information. Digital storytelling gave the power of the media into the hands of CHWs to increase their

  13. Bridging storytelling traditions with digital technology.

    PubMed

    Cueva, Melany; Kuhnley, Regina; Revels, Laura J; Cueva, Katie; Dignan, Mark; Lanier, Anne P

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to learn how Community Health Workers (CHWs) in Alaska perceived digital storytelling as a component of the "Path to Understanding Cancer" curriculum and as a culturally respectful tool for sharing cancer-related health messages. A pre-course written application, end-of-course written evaluation, and internet survey informed this project. Digital storytelling was included in seven 5-day cancer education courses (May 2009-2012) in which 67 CHWs each created a personal 2-3 minute cancer-related digital story. Participant-chosen digital story topics included tobacco cessation, the importance of recommended cancer screening exams, cancer survivorship, loss, grief and end-of-life comfort care, and self-care as patient care providers. All participants completed an end-of-course written evaluation. In July 2012, contact information was available for 48 participants, of whom 24 completed an internet survey. All 67 participants successfully completed a digital story which they shared and discussed with course members. On the written post-course evaluation, all participants reported that combining digital storytelling with cancer education supported their learning and was a culturally respectful way to provide health messages. Additionally, 62 of 67 CHWs reported that the course increased their confidence to share cancer information with their communities. Up to 3 years post-course, all 24 CHW survey respondents reported they had shown their digital story. Of note, 23 of 24 CHWs also reported change in their own behavior as a result of the experience. All CHWs, regardless of computer skills, successfully created a digital story as part of the cancer education course. CHWs reported that digital stories enhanced their learning and were a culturally respectful way to share cancer-related information. Digital storytelling gave the power of the media into the hands of CHWs to increase their cancer knowledge, facilitate patient and community cancer

  14. Digital image measurement of specimen deformation based on CCD cameras and Image J software: an application to human pelvic biomechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Yongwei; Cheng, Liming; Yu, Guangrong; Lou, Yongjian; Yu, Yan; Chen, Bo; Ding, Zuquan

    2008-03-01

    A method of digital image measurement of specimen deformation based on CCD cameras and Image J software was developed. This method was used to measure the biomechanics behavior of human pelvis. Six cadaveric specimens from the third lumbar vertebra to the proximal 1/3 part of femur were tested. The specimens without any structural abnormalities were dissected of all soft tissue, sparing the hip joint capsules and the ligaments of the pelvic ring and floor. Markers with black dot on white background were affixed to the key regions of the pelvis. Axial loading from the proximal lumbar was applied by MTS in the gradient of 0N to 500N, which simulated the double feet standing stance. The anterior and lateral images of the specimen were obtained through two CCD cameras. Based on Image J software, digital image processing software, which can be freely downloaded from the National Institutes of Health, digital 8-bit images were processed. The procedure includes the recognition of digital marker, image invert, sub-pixel reconstruction, image segmentation, center of mass algorithm based on weighted average of pixel gray values. Vertical displacements of S1 (the first sacral vertebrae) in front view and micro-angular rotation of sacroiliac joint in lateral view were calculated according to the marker movement. The results of digital image measurement showed as following: marker image correlation before and after deformation was excellent. The average correlation coefficient was about 0.983. According to the 768 × 576 pixels image (pixel size 0.68mm × 0.68mm), the precision of the displacement detected in our experiment was about 0.018 pixels and the comparatively error could achieve 1.11\\perthou. The average vertical displacement of S1 of the pelvis was 0.8356+/-0.2830mm under vertical load of 500 Newtons and the average micro-angular rotation of sacroiliac joint in lateral view was 0.584+/-0.221°. The load-displacement curves obtained from our optical measure system

  15. Digital Learning Resources and Ubiquitous Technologies in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camilleri, Mark Anthony; Camilleri, Adriana Caterina

    2017-01-01

    This research explores the educators' attitudes and perceptions about their utilisation of digital learning technologies. The methodology integrates measures from "the pace of technological innovativeness" and the "technology acceptance model" to understand the rationale for further ICT investment in compulsory education. A…

  16. Colloquium: Digital Technologies--Help or Hindrance for the Humanities?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Elton; Bissell, Chris; Hardwick, Lorna; Jones, Allan; Ridge, Mia; Wolffe, John

    2012-01-01

    This article offers reflections arising from a recent colloquium at the Open University on the implications of the development of digital humanities for research in arts disciplines, and also for their interactions with computing and technology. Particular issues explored include the ways in which the digital turn in humanities research is also a…

  17. Debating Digital Childhoods: Questions Concerning Technologies, Economies and Determinisms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbons, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    The learning child, the child that is the object of interest through modernity and into mutated modernity, in the knowledge economy, is a digital age identity of great interest. Talk about childhood and the digital age invokes a range of questions about what is happening at this time and with these technologies and that creates more or less of a…

  18. Colloquium: Digital Technologies--Help or Hindrance for the Humanities?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Elton; Bissell, Chris; Hardwick, Lorna; Jones, Allan; Ridge, Mia; Wolffe, John

    2012-01-01

    This article offers reflections arising from a recent colloquium at the Open University on the implications of the development of digital humanities for research in arts disciplines, and also for their interactions with computing and technology. Particular issues explored include the ways in which the digital turn in humanities research is also a…

  19. Debating Digital Childhoods: Questions Concerning Technologies, Economies and Determinisms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbons, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    The learning child, the child that is the object of interest through modernity and into mutated modernity, in the knowledge economy, is a digital age identity of great interest. Talk about childhood and the digital age invokes a range of questions about what is happening at this time and with these technologies and that creates more or less of a…

  20. New technology in dietary assessment: a review of digital methods in improving food record accuracy.

    PubMed

    Stumbo, Phyllis J

    2013-02-01

    Methods for conducting dietary assessment in the United States date back to the early twentieth century. Methods of assessment encompassed dietary records, written and spoken dietary recalls, FFQ using pencil and paper and more recently computer and internet applications. Emerging innovations involve camera and mobile telephone technology to capture food and meal images. This paper describes six projects sponsored by the United States National Institutes of Health that use digital methods to improve food records and two mobile phone applications using crowdsourcing. The techniques under development show promise for improving accuracy of food records.

  1. Effective Use of Digital Technologies of High School Teachers as Digital Immigrants in Six Rural Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pattee, Andy

    2012-01-01

    Problem: A widening experiential gap of effective use of technology in K-12 schools between "digital immigrants" and "digital natives" (Prensky, 2001) is becoming more evident as digital natives become classroom teachers and showcase pedagogical strategies with digital technologies. There is a dearth of research on digital…

  2. The Digital Literacy Debate: An Investigation of Digital Propensity and Information and Communication Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nasah, Angelique; DaCosta, Boaventura; Kinsell, Carolyn; Seok, Soonhwa

    2010-01-01

    Research suggests students' use of information and communication technology (ICT) may be more a matter of digital literacy and access rather than a generational trait. We sought to identify ICT preferences of post-secondary students (N = 580) through a Digital Propensity Index (DPI), investigating communication methods, Internet practices and the…

  3. The Digital Literacy Debate: An Investigation of Digital Propensity and Information and Communication Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nasah, Angelique; DaCosta, Boaventura; Kinsell, Carolyn; Seok, Soonhwa

    2010-01-01

    Research suggests students' use of information and communication technology (ICT) may be more a matter of digital literacy and access rather than a generational trait. We sought to identify ICT preferences of post-secondary students (N = 580) through a Digital Propensity Index (DPI), investigating communication methods, Internet practices and the…

  4. Conceptual design for an AIUC multi-purpose spectrograph camera using DMD technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rukdee, S.; Bauer, F.; Drass, H.; Vanzi, L.; Jordan, A.; Barrientos, F.

    2017-02-01

    Current and upcoming massive astronomical surveys are expected to discover a torrent of objects, which need groundbased follow-up observations to characterize their nature. For transient objects in particular, rapid early and efficient spectroscopic identification is needed. In particular, a small-field Integral Field Unit (IFU) would mitigate traditional slit losses and acquisition time. To this end, we present the design of a Digital Micromirror Device (DMD) multi-purpose spectrograph camera capable of running in several modes: traditional longslit, small-field patrol IFU, multi-object and full-field IFU mode via Hadamard spectra reconstruction. AIUC Optical multi-purpose CAMera (AIUCOCAM) is a low-resolution spectrograph camera of R 1,600 covering the spectral range of 0.45-0.85 μm. We employ a VPH grating as a disperser, which is removable to allow an imaging mode. This spectrograph is envisioned for use on a 1-2 m class telescope in Chile to take advantage of good site conditions. We present design decisions and challenges for a costeffective robotized spectrograph. The resulting instrument is remarkably versatile, capable of addressing a wide range of scientific topics.

  5. Digital bus technology in new coal-fired plants

    SciTech Connect

    Blaney, J.; Murray, J.

    2007-10-15

    The main issues associated with including digital bus technology such as Foundation fieldbus, Profibus-DP or DeviceNet, in a coal-fired power plant are deciding which systems to install and determining how to implement it. Although still new, digital bus experiences to date have shown that the technology performs solidly and when wiring best practices are followed a significantly shorted commissioning cycle can be achieved. 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  6. The introduction of digital dental technology into BDS curricula.

    PubMed

    Chatham, C; Spencer, M H; Wood, D J; Johnson, A

    2014-12-05

    The aim of this study was to determine the degree to which digital dental technologies have been introduced into the curricula of UK dental schools. A survey was carried out of all the UK dental schools that teach undergraduate dental students. The survey contained six questions and was designed to determine if digital dental technology techniques or systems were being taught in the curricula, what these techniques were, and whether the school dental laboratories supported these techniques. Sixteen schools were surveyed and 11 replied: a response rate of 69%. Forty-five percent of the schools that replied did not teach digital dental technology in their curriculum. Of the 55% of schools who did teach digital dental technology, 50% gave lectures or demonstrations while the other 50% allowed practical involvement by the student. Two thirds of these stated that not all the students participated in practical usage. Seventy-three percent of the schools that replied had dental laboratories using some, but not all the digital dental technology techniques listed. Eighty percent of the schools that were not teaching digital dental technology said it was because it was not included in the curriculum, and 20% stated it was due to a lack of technical expertise or support.

  7. 3D camera technology trade-off and breadboard demonstration for space applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christy, Julien; Bohn, Preben; Schumann-Olsen, Henrik; Biggio, Andrea; Kowaltschek, Steeve

    2015-06-01

    In previous decades, the vision-based navigation problem based on 2D imaging has been largely studied and applied in space, for rendezvous and docking, as well as rover navigation, or entry, descent and landing. By providing measurement of the third dimension (range), 3D camera technology looks a promising alternative for many applications. Stereoscopic camera is one option to measure the third coordinate, but relies on significant CPU capabilities, which are generally not available for space applications. Scanning LIDAR (LIght detection and ranging) is also an existing solution, but it is relatively large and heavy and the refresh rate, lifetime and reliability are mainly determined by moving parts. 3D time-of-flight (TOF) technology (including flash LIDARs) offers a reliable alternative. By illuminating a whole scene at a time and thus providing a whole array image, there is no need for complex processing nor moving mechanisms, which clearly appears as an advantage for space applications. This paper presents the ongoing study conducted under ESA contract in the field of 3D TOF technology. Its goal is to evaluate the suitability of a 3D TOF camera for space applications, to derive requirements and a preliminary design, and finally to create and test a breadboard model. Performance budget, cost, and a development plan of a versatile spatialized 3D TOF camera are also outputs of the study, in addition to a high-fidelity simulator, allowing further studies by generating representative images and depth maps. To fulfill this project, a European team has been created, gathering Thales Alenia Space, Terma and SINTEF.

  8. Vicious cycles: digital technologies and determinants of health in Australia.

    PubMed

    Baum, Fran; Newman, Lareen; Biedrzycki, Katherine

    2014-06-01

    Digital technologies are increasingly important as ways to gain access to most of the important social determinants of health including employment, housing, education and social networks. However, little is known about the impact of the new technologies on opportunities for health and well-being. This paper reports on a focus group study of the impact of these technologies on people from low socio-economic backgrounds. We use Bourdieu's theories of social inequities and the ways in which social, cultural and economic capitals interact to reinforce and reproduce inequities to examine the ways in which digital technologies are contributing to these processes. Six focus group discussions with 55 people were held to examine their access to and views about using digital technologies. These data are analysed in light of Bourdieu's theory to determine how people's existing capitals shape their access to and use of digital technologies and what the implications of exclusion from the technologies are likely to be for the social determinants of health. The paper concludes that some people are being caught in a vicious cycle whereby lack of digital access or the inability to make beneficial use reinforces and amplifies existing disadvantage including low levels of reading and writing literacy. The paper concludes with a consideration of actions health promoters could take to interrupt this cycle and so contribute to reducing health inequities.

  9. Dgnss/ins Van Project For Road Survey In The Cei Countries: The Problem of Digital Cameras Calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deruda, G.; Falchi, E.; Sanna, G.; Vacca, G.

    In order to assess the influence of distortion of objective lens on digital photocameras and videocameras a series of experiments, using a digital photocamera by Nikon, a videocamera by Samsung and a webcam by Creative have been performed with the aim to test the possibility to enhance camera images by means of resampling tech- niques. For this purpose a network of fiducial points has been materialized on two walls of a building in the Faculty of Engineering of Cagliari. Points coordinate have been obtained by means of a topographic survey. Images and video sequences of the fronts have been taken at several distances and different focal lens, obtaining an esti- mate of the lens behaviour, on the basis of witch a regular grid of the displacement of points on the photo has been generated for each camera. The grid has been used in a resampling procedure to remove distortion influence by the images. The improvement of accuracy has been estimated between about 30 and 50%.

  10. Digital three-dimensional photogrammetry: evaluation of anthropometric precision and accuracy using a Genex 3D camera system.

    PubMed

    Weinberg, Seth M; Scott, Nicole M; Neiswanger, Katherine; Brandon, Carla A; Marazita, Mary L

    2004-09-01

    To determine the precision and accuracy of facial anthropometric measurements obtained through digital three-dimensional (3D) photogrammetry. Nineteen standard craniofacial measurements were repeatedly obtained on 20 subjects by two independent observers, using calipers and 3D photos (obtained with a Genex 3D camera system), both with and without facial landmarks labeled. Four different precision estimates were then calculated and compared statistically across techniques. In addition, mean measurements from 3D photos were compared statistically with those from direct anthropometry. In terms of measurement precision, the 3D photos were clearly better than direct anthropometry. In almost all cases, the 3D photo with landmarks labeled had the highest overall precision. In addition, labeling landmarks prior to taking measurements improved precision, regardless of method. Good congruence was observed between means derived from the 3D photos and direct anthropometry. Statistically significant differences were noted for seven measurements; however, the magnitude of these differences was often clinically insignificant (< 2 mm). Digital 3D photogrammetry with the Genex camera system is sufficiently precise and accurate for the anthropometric needs of most medical and craniofacial research designs.

  11. The application of camera calibration in range-gated 3D imaging technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiao-quan; Wang, Xian-wei; Zhou, Yan

    2013-09-01

    Range-gated laser imaging technology was proposed in 1966 by LF Gillespiethe in U.S. Army Night Vision Laboratory(NVL). Using pulse laser and intensified charge-coupled device(ICCD) as light source and detector respectively, range-gated laser imaging technology can realize space-slice imaging while restraining the atmospheric backs-catter, and in turn detect the target effectively, by controlling the delay between the laser pulse and strobe. Owing to the constraints of the development of key components such as narrow pulse laser and gated imaging devices, the research has been progressed slowly in the next few decades. Until the beginning of this century, as the hardware technology continues to mature, this technology has developed rapidly in fields such as night vision, underwater imaging, biomedical imaging, three-dimensional imaging, especially range-gated three-dimensional(3-D) laser imaging field purposing of access to target spatial information. 3-D reconstruction is the processing of restoration of 3-D objects visible surface geometric structure from three-dimensional(2-D) image. Range-gated laser imaging technology can achieve gated imaging of slice space to form a slice image, and in turn provide the distance information corresponding to the slice image. But to inverse the information of 3-D space, we need to obtain the imaging visual field of system, that is, the focal length of the system. Then based on the distance information of the space slice, the spatial information of each unit space corresponding to each pixel can be inversed. Camera calibration is an indispensable step in 3-D reconstruction, including analysis of the internal structure of camera parameters and the external parameters . In order to meet the technical requirements of the range-gated 3-D imaging, this paper intends to study the calibration of the zoom lens system. After summarizing the camera calibration technique comprehensively, a classic calibration method based on line is

  12. Digital Technology in Science by Doing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bothun, G.

    1998-05-01

    In partnernship with a pilot program of K12 teachers, we are significantly reshaping the traditional manner which astronomy is taught. Our focus is to incoporate the use of modern digital detectors and data analysis directly into the curriculum. The main goal of this project is to allow students to do real observations, either by remote observation with the Pine Mountain Observatory (PMO) 1-m telescope, or by accessing the HST digital archive. To assist students with data reduction we will provide them with JAVA reduction tools already under development. We will also train teachers on how to use this digital machinery in an effective manner so as to activate the innate curiosity of students and to instill in them an appreciation for the process of science. Our project will emphasize active student experimentation and collaboration (through coordinated observations). All results and observations will be maintained and archived on the Web server in residence at PMO.

  13. Trend of digital camera and interchangeable zoom lenses with high ratio based on patent application over the past 10 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sensui, Takayuki

    2012-10-01

    Although digitalization has tripled consumer-class camera market scale, extreme reductions in prices of fixed-lens cameras has reduced profitability. As a result, a number of manufacturers have entered the market of the System DSC i.e. digital still camera with interchangeable lens, where large profit margins are possible, and many high ratio zoom lenses with image stabilization functions have been released. Quiet actuators are another indispensable component. Design with which there is little degradation in performance due to all types of errors is preferred for good balance in terms of size, lens performance, and the rate of quality to sub-standard products. Decentering, such as that caused by tilting, sensitivity of moving groups is especially important. In addition, image stabilization mechanisms actively shift lens groups. Development of high ratio zoom lenses with vibration reduction mechanism is confronted by the challenge of reduced performance due to decentering, making control over decentering sensitivity between lens groups everything. While there are a number of ways to align lenses (axial alignment), shock resistance and ability to stand up to environmental conditions must also be considered. Naturally, it is very difficult, if not impossible, to make lenses smaller and achieve a low decentering sensitivity at the same time. 4-group zoom construction is beneficial in making lenses smaller, but decentering sensitivity is greater. 5-group zoom configuration makes smaller lenses more difficult, but it enables lower decentering sensitivities. At Nikon, the most advantageous construction is selected for each lens based on specifications. The AF-S DX NIKKOR 18-200mm f/3.5-5.6G ED VR II and AF-S NIKKOR 28-300mm f/3.5-5.6G ED VR are excellent examples of this.

  14. Digital photogrammetric analysis of the IMP camera images: Mapping the Mars Pathfinder landing site in three dimensions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kirk, R.L.; Howington-Kraus, E.; Hare, T.; Dorrer, E.; Cook, D.; Becker, K.; Thompson, K.; Redding, B.; Blue, J.; Galuszka, D.; Lee, E.M.; Gaddis, L.R.; Johnson, J. R.; Soderblom, L.A.; Ward, A.W.; Smith, P.H.; Britt, D.T.

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes our photogrammetric analysis of the Imager for Mars Pathfinder data, part of a broader program of mapping the Mars Pathfinder landing site in support of geoscience investigations. This analysis, carried out primarily with a commercial digital photogrammetric system, supported by our in-house Integrated Software for Imagers and Spectrometers (ISIS), consists of three steps: (1) geometric control: simultaneous solution for refined estimates of camera positions and pointing plus three-dimensional (3-D) coordinates of ???103 features sitewide, based on the measured image coordinates of those features; (2) topographic modeling: identification of ???3 ?? 105 closely spaced points in the images and calculation (based on camera parameters from step 1) of their 3-D coordinates, yielding digital terrain models (DTMs); and (3) geometric manipulation of the data: combination of the DTMs from different stereo pairs into a sitewide model, and reprojection of image data to remove parallax between the different spectral filters in the two cameras and to provide an undistorted planimetric view of the site. These processes are described in detail and example products are shown. Plans for combining the photogrammetrically derived topographic data with spectrophotometry are also described. These include photometric modeling using surface orientations from the DTM to study surface microtextures and improve the accuracy of spectral measurements, and photoclinometry to refine the DTM to single-pixel resolution where photometric properties are sufficiently uniform. Finally, the inclusion of rover images in a joint photogrammetric analysis with IMP images is described. This challenging task will provide coverage of areas hidden to the IMP, but accurate ranging of distant features can be achieved only if the lander is also visible in the rover image used. Copyright 1999 by the American Geophysical Union.

  15. Greenness indices from digital cameras predict the timing and seasonal dynamics of canopy-scale photosynthesis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The proliferation of tower-mounted cameras co-located with eddy covariance instrumentation provides a novel opportunity to better understand the relationship between canopy phenology and the seasonality of canopy photosynthesis. In this paper, we describe the abilities and limitations of webcams to ...

  16. Low-cost camera modifications and methodologies for very-high-resolution digital images

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Aerial color and color-infrared photography are usually acquired at high altitude so the ground resolution of the photographs is < 1 m. Moreover, current color-infrared cameras and manned aircraft flight time are expensive, so the objective is the development of alternative methods for obtaining ve...

  17. Accurate pixel-to-pixel correspondence adjustment in a digital micromirror device camera by using the phase-shifting moiré method.

    PubMed

    Ri, Shien; Fujigaki, Motoharu; Matui, Toru; Morimoto, Yoshiharu

    2006-09-20

    A camera based on the digital micromirror device (DMD) technology has been previously developed. In this optical system, the correspondence of each mirror of the DMD to each pixel of the CCD cannot readily be done since the pixel sizes of the DMD and the CCD are very small. An accurate pixel-to-pixel correspondence adjustment in the DMD camera by means of the phase-shifting moiré method is proposed. To perform high accurate adjustment of the optical system, the phase distribution of a moiré fringe pattern is analyzed when the CCD pixels and the DMD mirrors have a mismatch and/or misalignment with each other. This technique does not need a complicated setting or complex image processing to generate the moiré fringe pattern, and it needs only one captured image. In the adjustment experiment, the proposed method provided very accurate adjustment whose error was less than 1/25 pixel. An experiment of phase analysis to demonstrate the usefulness was performed.

  18. Acquisition method improvement for Bossa Nova Technologies' full Stokes, passive polarization imaging camera SALSA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Ketara, M.; Vedel, M.; Breugnot, S.

    2016-05-01

    For some applications, the need for fast polarization acquisition is essential (if the scene observed is moving or changing quickly). In this paper, we present a new acquisition method for Bossa Nova Technologies' full Stokes passive polarization imaging camera, the SALSA. This polarization imaging camera is based on "Division of Time polarimetry" architecture. The use of this technique presents the advantage of preserving the full resolution of the image observed all the while reducing the speed acquisition time. The goal of this new acquisition method is to overcome the limitations associated with Division of Time acquisition technique as well as to obtain high-speed polarization imaging while maintaining the image resolution. The efficiency of this new method is demonstrated in this paper through different experiments.

  19. Technological Implications for Assessment Ecosystems: Opportunities for Digital Technology to Advance Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Behrens, John T.; DiCerbo, Kristen E.

    2014-01-01

    Background: It would be easy to think the technological shifts in the digital revolution are simple incremental progressions in societal advancement. However, the nature of digital technology is resulting in qualitative differences in nearly all parts of daily life. Purpose: This paper investigates how the new possibilities for understanding,…

  20. Technological Implications for Assessment Ecosystems: Opportunities for Digital Technology to Advance Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Behrens, John T.; DiCerbo, Kristen E.

    2014-01-01

    Background: It would be easy to think the technological shifts in the digital revolution are simple incremental progressions in societal advancement. However, the nature of digital technology is resulting in qualitative differences in nearly all parts of daily life. Purpose: This paper investigates how the new possibilities for understanding,…

  1. Enhancing surgical safety using digital multimedia technology.

    PubMed

    Dixon, Jennifer L; Mukhopadhyay, Dhriti; Hunt, Justin; Jupiter, Daniel; Smythe, William R; Papaconstantinou, Harry T

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether incorporating digital and video multimedia components improved surgical time-out performance of a surgical safety checklist. A prospective pilot study was designed for implementation of a multimedia time-out, including a patient video. Perceptions of the staff participants were surveyed before and after intervention (Likert scale: 1, strongly disagree to 5, strongly agree). Employee satisfaction was high for both time-out procedures. However, employees appreciated improved clarity of patient identification (P < .05) and operative laterality (P < .05) with the digital method. About 87% of the respondents preferred the digital version to the standard time-out (75% anesthesia, 89% surgeons, 93% nursing). Although the duration of time-outs increased (49 and 79 seconds for standard and digital time-outs, respectively, P > .001), there was significant improvement in performance of key safety elements. The multimedia time-out allows improved participation by the surgical team and is preferred to a standard time-out process. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Digital Storytelling: Using Technology to Spark Creativity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tackvic, Charlene

    2012-01-01

    For any curriculum area that entails writing, digital storytelling could transform students' perceptions of and their actual abilities to express themselves through the written word. The use of two Web sites has helped the students of one school go from staring apprehensively at blank pages to eagerly publishing stories.

  3. Digital Schools: How Technology Can Transform Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Darrell M.

    2013-01-01

    Nearly a century ago, famed educator John Dewey said that "if we teach today's students as we taught yesterday's, we rob them of tomorrow." That wisdom resonates more strongly than ever today, and that maxim underlies this insightful look at the present and future of education in the digital age. As Darrell West makes clear, today's…

  4. Born Digital: Integrating Media Technology in the Political Science Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mancillas, Linda K.; Brusoe, Peter W.

    2016-01-01

    U.S. higher education institutions spend a large amount of time, money, and energy on technology. Educators face a student population that has never been without the Internet--they are "Born Digital." Students expect that faculty and universities utilize more technology. Higher education is faced with the question whether technology…

  5. New Digital Technologies: Educational Opportunities for Australian Indigenous Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Shalini

    2013-01-01

    This article presents a number of possibilities that digital technologies can offer to increase access for Indigenous people to higher education in Australia. Such technologies can assist Indigenous high school students acquire the knowledge and skills they require to be accepted into higher education courses. They can also assist Indigenous…

  6. Technology Tools to Support Reading in the Digital Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biancarosa, Gina; Griffiths, Gina G.

    2012-01-01

    Advances in digital technologies are dramatically altering the texts and tools available to teachers and students. These technological advances have created excitement among many for their potential to be used as instructional tools for literacy education. Yet with the promise of these advances come issues that can exacerbate the literacy…

  7. New Digital Technologies: Educational Opportunities for Australian Indigenous Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Shalini

    2013-01-01

    This article presents a number of possibilities that digital technologies can offer to increase access for Indigenous people to higher education in Australia. Such technologies can assist Indigenous high school students acquire the knowledge and skills they require to be accepted into higher education courses. They can also assist Indigenous…

  8. Born Digital: Integrating Media Technology in the Political Science Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mancillas, Linda K.; Brusoe, Peter W.

    2016-01-01

    U.S. higher education institutions spend a large amount of time, money, and energy on technology. Educators face a student population that has never been without the Internet--they are "Born Digital." Students expect that faculty and universities utilize more technology. Higher education is faced with the question whether technology…

  9. Airborne Digital Sensor System and GPS-aided inertial technology for direct geopositioning in rough terrain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sanchez, Richard D.

    2004-01-01

    High-resolution airborne digital cameras with onboard data collection based on the Global Positioning System (GPS) and inertial navigation systems (INS) technology may offer a real-time means to gather accurate topographic map information by reducing ground control and eliminating aerial triangulation. Past evaluations of this integrated system over relatively flat terrain have proven successful. The author uses Emerge Digital Sensor System (DSS) combined with Applanix Corporation?s Position and Orientation Solutions for Direct Georeferencing to examine the positional mapping accuracy in rough terrain. The positional accuracy documented in this study did not meet large-scale mapping requirements owing to an apparent system mechanical failure. Nonetheless, the findings yield important information on a new approach for mapping in Antarctica and other remote or inaccessible areas of the world.

  10. Diagnostic accuracy and image quality using a digital camera for teledermatology.

    PubMed

    Krupinski, E A; LeSueur, B; Ellsworth, L; Levine, N; Hansen, R; Silvis, N; Sarantopoulos, P; Hite, P; Wurzel, J; Weinstein, R S; Lopez, A M

    1999-01-01

    The study was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of digital photography for dermatologic diagnoses and compare it with in-person diagnoses. Patients referred for specialty consultations (n = 308) were recruited from a university dermatology clinic. Patients were examined in-person by one of three board-certified dermatologists who provided clinical diagnoses. Digital photos were obtained on all patients and were evaluated as computer images by a panel of dermatologists. There was 83% concordance between in-person versus digital photo diagnoses. Intradermatologist concordance averaged 84%, and interdermatologist concordance averaged 81%. Decision confidence was rated as "very definite" to "definite" 62% of the time. Concordance with biopsy results was achieved in 76% of the cases. Image sharpness and color quality were rated "good" to "excellent" 83% and 93% of the time, respectively. Digital photography for store-and-forward teledermatology produces high-quality images and diagnostic concordance rates that compare favorably with in-person clinical diagnoses.

  11. Digital Technology, Schools and Teachers' Workplace Learning: Policy, Practice and Identity. Digital Education and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Michael

    2016-01-01

    This book advances an alternative reading of the social, political and cultural issues surrounding schools and technology and develops a comprehensive overview of the interplay between policy, practice and identity in school workplaces. It explores how digital technologies have become an integral element of the politics and socially negotiated…

  12. Evaluation of Digital Technology and Software Use among Business Education Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Richard S.; Okpala, Comfort O.

    2004-01-01

    Digital video cameras are part of the evolution of multimedia digital products that have positive applications for educators, students, and industry. Multimedia digital video can be utilized by any personal computer and it allows the user to control, combine, and manipulate different types of media, such as text, sound, video, computer graphics,…

  13. Evaluation of Digital Technology and Software Use among Business Education Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Richard S.; Okpala, Comfort O.

    2004-01-01

    Digital video cameras are part of the evolution of multimedia digital products that have positive applications for educators, students, and industry. Multimedia digital video can be utilized by any personal computer and it allows the user to control, combine, and manipulate different types of media, such as text, sound, video, computer graphics,…

  14. Use of a Non-Metric Digital Camera for Tree Stem Evaluation

    Treesearch

    Neil Clark; Randolph H. Wynne; Daniel L. Schmoldt; Philip A. Araman; Matthew F. Winn

    1998-01-01

    We are investigating the use of a commercially-available solid-state matrix camera as a dendrometer for tree stem measurements. Thirty-two images of four hardwood stems were used to measure 54 diameters at various heights on the stems ranging from 1.4 m to 21 m. These measurements were compared to caliper measurements taken at the same heights. The percent inaccuracy...

  15. Two Persons with Multiple Disabilities Use Camera-Based Microswitch Technology to Control Stimulation with Small Mouth and Eyelid Responses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lancioni, Giulio E.; Bellini, Domenico; Oliva, Doretta; Singh, Nirbhay N.; O'Reilly, Mark F.; Sigafoos, Jeff; Lang, Russell

    2012-01-01

    Background: A camera-based microswitch technology was recently developed to monitor small facial responses of persons with multiple disabilities and allow those responses to control environmental stimulation. This study assessed such a technology with 2 new participants using slight variations of previous responses. Method: The technology involved…

  16. Two Persons with Multiple Disabilities Use Camera-Based Microswitch Technology to Control Stimulation with Small Mouth and Eyelid Responses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lancioni, Giulio E.; Bellini, Domenico; Oliva, Doretta; Singh, Nirbhay N.; O'Reilly, Mark F.; Sigafoos, Jeff; Lang, Russell

    2012-01-01

    Background: A camera-based microswitch technology was recently developed to monitor small facial responses of persons with multiple disabilities and allow those responses to control environmental stimulation. This study assessed such a technology with 2 new participants using slight variations of previous responses. Method: The technology involved…

  17. A Digital Readout System For The CSO Microwave Kinetic Inductance Camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Max-Moerbeck, Walter; Mazin, B. A.; Zmuidzinas, J.

    2007-12-01

    Submillimeter galaxies are important to the understanding of galaxy formation and evolution. Determination of the spectral energy distribution in the millimeter and submillimeter regimes allows important and powerful diagnostics. Our group is developing a camera for the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory (CSO) using Microwave Kinetic Inductance Detectors (MKIDs). MKIDs are superconducting devices whose impedance changes with the absorption of photons. The camera will have 600 spatial pixels and 4 bands at 750 μm, 850 μm, 1.1 mm and 1.3 mm. For each spatial pixel of the camera the radiation is coupled to the MKIDs using phased-array antennas. This signal is split into 4 different bands using filters and detected using the superconductor as part of a MKID's resonant circuit. The detection process consists of measurement of the changes in the transmission through the resonator when it is illuminated. By designing resonant circuits to have different resonant frequencies and high transmission out resonance, MKIDs can be frequency-domain multiplexed. This allows the simultaneous readout of many detectors through a single coaxial cable. The readout system makes use of microwave IQ modulation and is based on commercial electronics components operating at room temperature. The basic readout has been demonstrated on the CSO. We are working on the implementation of an improved design to be tested on a prototype system with 6x6 pixels and 4 colors next April on the CSO.

  18. Single-camera microscopic stereo digital image correlation using a diffraction grating.

    PubMed

    Pan, Bing; Wang, Qiong

    2013-10-21

    A simple, cost-effective but practical microscopic 3D-DIC method using a single camera and a transmission diffraction grating is proposed for surface profile and deformation measurement of small-scale objects. By illuminating a test sample with quasi-monochromatic source, the transmission diffraction grating placed in front of the camera can produce two laterally spaced first-order diffraction views of the sample surface into the two halves of the camera target. The single image comprising negative and positive first-order diffraction views can be used to reconstruct the profile of the test sample, while the two single images acquired before and after deformation can be employed to determine the 3D displacements and strains of the sample surface. The basic principles and implementation procedures of the proposed technique for microscopic 3D profile and deformation measurement are described in detail. The effectiveness and accuracy of the presented microscopic 3D-DIC method is verified by measuring the profile and 3D displacements of a regular cylinder surface.

  19. Technology research for digital flight control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carestia, R. A.

    1983-01-01

    The use of advanced digital systems for flight control and guidance for a specific mission is investigated. The research areas include advanced electronic system architectures, tests with the global positioning system (GPS) in a helicopter, and advanced integrated systems concept for rotorcraft. Emphasis is on a search and rescue mission, differential global positioning systems to provide a data base of performance information for navigation, and a study to determine the present usage and trends of microcomputers and microcomputer components in the avionics industries.

  20. Digital Tablet PCs as New Technologies of Writing and Learning: A Survey of Perceptions of Digital Ink Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reins, Kevin

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate effective uses of digital ink technology in an elementary mathematics methods course. A survey methodology was used in the study to examine the participants' perceptions toward this technology for teaching and learning. All of the items on the survey produced response means between 5.0 and 6.0, with a…

  1. Digital Tablet PCs as New Technologies of Writing and Learning: A Survey of Perceptions of Digital Ink Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reins, Kevin

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate effective uses of digital ink technology in an elementary mathematics methods course. A survey methodology was used in the study to examine the participants' perceptions toward this technology for teaching and learning. All of the items on the survey produced response means between 5.0 and 6.0, with a…

  2. Detecting Chlorophyll and Phycocyanin in Lake Texoma Using in Situ Photo from GPS Digital Camera and Landsat 8 OLI Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, J.; Hambright, K.; Xiao, X.

    2013-12-01

    Characterizing the temporal and spatial change of algae blooms across lake systems is difficult through conventional sampling methodologies. The application of remote sensing to lake water quality has improved significantly over recent years. However there are seldom reports about in situ photos from GPS digital camera and the new satellite Landsat 8 OLI monitoring algae blooms in freshwater lakes. A pilot study was carried out in Lake Texoma in Oklahoma on April 25th 2013. At each site (12 sites in total), pigments (chlorophyll a and phycocyanin concentration), in situ spectral data and digital photos had been acquired using Hydrolab DS5X sonde (calibrated routinely against laboratory standards), ASD FieldSpec and GPS camera, respectively. The field spectral data sets were transformed to blue, green and red ranges which match the spectral resolution of Landsat 8 OLI images by average spectral reflectance signature to the first four Landsat 8 OLI bands. Comparing with other ratio indices, red/ blue was the best ratio index which can be employed in predicting phycocyanin and chlorophyll a concentration; and pigments (phycocyanin and chlorophyll a) concentration in whole depth should be selected to be detected using remote sensing method in Lake Texoam in the followed analysis. An image based darkest pixel subtraction method was used to process atmospheric correction of Landsat 8 OLI images. After atmospheric correction, the DN values were extracted and used to compute ratio of band4 (Red)/ band1(Blue). Higher correlation coefficients existed in both between resampled spectral reflectance and ratio of red/ blue of photo DN values (R2=0.9425 n=12) and between resampled spectral reflectance and ratio of red/ blue of Landsat 8 OLI images DN values (R2=0.8476 n=12). Finally, we analyzed the correlation between pigments concentrations in whole depth and DN values ratio red/ blue of both Landsat 8 OLI images and digital photos. There were higher correlation coefficients

  3. Application of digital/electric systems to advanced technology aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, A. R.

    1985-01-01

    Potential improvements in weight and performance of the digital/electric airplane of the 1990s are investigated, using data based on the Integrated Digital/Electric Airplane (IDEA) study, a nine-month investigation of integrated digital/electric concepts. A baseline configuration was compared to these IDEA configurations in terms of economic performance, fuel efficiency, and significant system and aircraft configuration characteristics. The 1990 baseline configuration represents a six to eight percent performance improvement over current technology; however, the IDEA airplane shows an additional three percent improvement in fuel burn performance. This improvement is due to a reduction of over 3000 pounds in systems weight alone.

  4. Documentation of surgical specimens using digital video technology.

    PubMed

    Melín-Aldana, Héctor; Carter, Barbara; Sciortino, Debra

    2006-09-01

    Digital technology is commonly used for documentation of specimens in anatomic pathology and has been mainly limited to still photographs. Technologic innovations, such as digital video, provide additional, in some cases better, options for documentation. To demonstrate the applicability of digital video to the documentation of surgical specimens. A Canon Elura MC40 digital camcorder was used, and the unedited movies were transferred to a Macintosh PowerBook G4 computer. Both the camcorder and specimens were hand-held during filming. The movies were edited using the software iMovie. Annotations and histologic photographs may be easily incorporated into movies when editing, if desired. The finished movies are best viewed in computers which contain the free program QuickTime Player. Movies may also be incorporated onto DVDs, for viewing in standard DVD players or appropriately equipped computers. The final movies are on average 2 minutes in duration, with a file size between 2 and 400 megabytes, depending on the intended use. Because of file size, distribution is more practical via CD or DVD, but movies may be compressed for distribution through the Internet (e-mail, Web sites) or through internal hospital networks. Digital video is a practical, easy, and affordable methodology for specimen documentation, permitting a better 3-dimensional understanding of the specimens. Discussions with colleagues, student education, presentation at conferences, and other educational activities can be enhanced with the implementation of digital video technology.

  5. New Trends of Emerging Technologies in Digital Pathology.

    PubMed

    Bueno, Gloria; Fernández-Carrobles, M Milagro; Deniz, Oscar; García-Rojo, Marcial

    2016-01-01

    The future paradigm of pathology will be digital. Instead of conventional microscopy, a pathologist will perform a diagnosis through interacting with images on computer screens and performing quantitative analysis. The fourth generation of virtual slide telepathology systems, so-called virtual microscopy and whole-slide imaging (WSI), has allowed for the storage and fast dissemination of image data in pathology and other biomedical areas. These novel digital imaging modalities encompass high-resolution scanning of tissue slides and derived technologies, including automatic digitization and computational processing of whole microscopic slides. Moreover, automated image analysis with WSI can extract specific diagnostic features of diseases and quantify individual components of these features to support diagnoses and provide informative clinical measures of disease. Therefore, the challenge is to apply information technology and image analysis methods to exploit the new and emerging digital pathology technologies effectively in order to process and model all the data and information contained in WSI. The final objective is to support the complex workflow from specimen receipt to anatomic pathology report transmission, that is, to improve diagnosis both in terms of pathologists' efficiency and with new information. This article reviews the main concerns about and novel methods of digital pathology discussed at the latest workshop in the field carried out within the European project AIDPATH (Academia and Industry Collaboration for Digital Pathology).

  6. Integrating Digital Technologies in Teaching Learning Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagarajan, R.; Velmanirajan, K.; Kanna, K. Sankesh

    2013-01-01

    India has made impressive strides in the application of information and communication technology in recent years and this has reflected in a vibrant and fast growing economy. It is now an acknowledged world leader in the knowledge industry. In this paper an attempt is made to highlight the role of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in…

  7. Educational Perspectives on Digital Communications Technologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brett, Clare

    2009-01-01

    This article examines key issues in how new technologies are impacting upon how we teach, learn and collaborate, and uses an educational research project called GRAIL (Graduate Researcher's Academic Identity Online) under development to illustrate some fundamental issues in adopting new technologies. A significant challenge to the effective use of…

  8. Educational Perspectives on Digital Communications Technologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brett, Clare

    2009-01-01

    This article examines key issues in how new technologies are impacting upon how we teach, learn and collaborate, and uses an educational research project called GRAIL (Graduate Researcher's Academic Identity Online) under development to illustrate some fundamental issues in adopting new technologies. A significant challenge to the effective use of…

  9. Implementation of an IMU Aided Image Stacking Algorithm in a Digital Camera for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles.

    PubMed

    Audi, Ahmad; Pierrot-Deseilligny, Marc; Meynard, Christophe; Thom, Christian

    2017-07-18

    Images acquired with a long exposure time using a camera embedded on UAVs (Unmanned Aerial Vehicles) exhibit motion blur due to the erratic movements of the UAV. The aim of the present work is to be able to acquire several images with a short exposure time and use an image processing algorithm to produce a stacked image with an equivalent long exposure time. Our method is based on the feature point image registration technique. The algorithm is implemented on the light-weight IGN (Institut national de l'information géographique) camera, which has an IMU (Inertial Measurement Unit) sensor and an SoC (System on Chip)/FPGA (Field-Programmable Gate Array). To obtain the correct parameters for the resampling of the images, the proposed method accurately estimates the geometrical transformation between the first and the N-th images. Feature points are detected in the first image using the FAST (Features from Accelerated Segment Test) detector, then homologous points on other images are obtained by template matching using an initial position benefiting greatly from the presence of the IMU sensor. The SoC/FPGA in the camera is used to speed up some parts of the algorithm in order to achieve real-time performance as our ultimate objective is to exclusively write the resulting image to save bandwidth on the storage device. The paper includes a detailed description of the implemented algorithm, resource usage summary, resulting processing time, resulting images and block diagrams of the described architecture. The resulting stacked image obtained for real surveys does not seem visually impaired. An interesting by-product of this algorithm is the 3D rotation estimated by a photogrammetric method between poses, which can be used to recalibrate in real time the gyrometers of the IMU. Timing results demonstrate that the image resampling part of this algorithm is the most demanding processing task and should also be accelerated in the FPGA in future work.

  10. Implementation of an IMU Aided Image Stacking Algorithm in a Digital Camera for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

    PubMed Central

    Audi, Ahmad; Pierrot-Deseilligny, Marc; Meynard, Christophe

    2017-01-01

    Images acquired with a long exposure time using a camera embedded on UAVs (Unmanned Aerial Vehicles) exhibit motion blur due to the erratic movements of the UAV. The aim of the present work is to be able to acquire several images with a short exposure time and use an image processing algorithm to produce a stacked image with an equivalent long exposure time. Our method is based on the feature point image registration technique. The algorithm is implemented on the light-weight IGN (Institut national de l’information géographique) camera, which has an IMU (Inertial Measurement Unit) sensor and an SoC (System on Chip)/FPGA (Field-Programmable Gate Array). To obtain the correct parameters for the resampling of the images, the proposed method accurately estimates the geometrical transformation between the first and the N-th images. Feature points are detected in the first image using the FAST (Features from Accelerated Segment Test) detector, then homologous points on other images are obtained by template matching using an initial position benefiting greatly from the presence of the IMU sensor. The SoC/FPGA in the camera is used to speed up some parts of the algorithm in order to achieve real-time performance as our ultimate objective is to exclusively write the resulting image to save bandwidth on the storage device. The paper includes a detailed description of the implemented algorithm, resource usage summary, resulting processing time, resulting images and block diagrams of the described architecture. The resulting stacked image obtained for real surveys does not seem visually impaired. An interesting by-product of this algorithm is the 3D rotation estimated by a photogrammetric method between poses, which can be used to recalibrate in real time the gyrometers of the IMU. Timing results demonstrate that the image resampling part of this algorithm is the most demanding processing task and should also be accelerated in the FPGA in future work. PMID:28718788

  11. Digital multi-focusing from a single photograph taken with an uncalibrated conventional camera.

    PubMed

    Cao, Yang; Fang, Shuai; Wang, Zengfu

    2013-09-01

    The demand to restore all-in-focus images from defocused images and produce photographs focused at different depths is emerging in more and more cases, such as low-end hand-held cameras and surveillance cameras. In this paper, we manage to solve this challenging multi-focusing problem with a single image taken with an uncalibrated conventional camera. Different from all existing multi-focusing approaches, our method does not need to include a deconvolution process, which is quite time-consuming and will cause ringing artifacts in the focused region and low depth-of-field. This paper proposes a novel systematic approach to realize multi-focusing from a single photograph. First of all, with the optical explanation for the local smooth assumption, we present a new point-to-point defocus model. Next, the blur map of the input image, which reflects the amount of defocus blur at each pixel in the image, is estimated by two steps. 1) With the sharp edge prior, a rough blur map is obtained by estimating the blur amount at the edge regions. 2) The guided image filter is applied to propagate the blur value from the edge regions to the whole image by which a refined blur map is obtained. Thus far, we can restore the all-in-focus photograph from a defocused input. To further produce photographs focused at different depths, the depth map from the blur map must be derived. To eliminate the ambiguity over the focal plane, user interaction is introduced and a binary graph cut algorithm is used. So we introduce user interaction and use a binary graph cut algorithm to eliminate the ambiguity over the focal plane. Coupled with the camera parameters, this approach produces images focused at different depths. The performance of this new multi-focusing algorithm is evaluated both objectively and subjectively by various test images. Both results demonstrate that this algorithm produces high quality depth maps and multi-focusing results, outperforming the previous approaches.

  12. Digital imaging microscopy: the marriage of spectroscopy and the solid state CCD camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jovin, Thomas M.; Arndt-Jovin, Donna J.

    1991-12-01

    Biological samples have been imaged using microscopes equipped with slow-scan CCD cameras. Examples are presented of studies based on the detection of light emission signals in the form of fluorescence and phosphorescence. They include applications in the field of cell biology: (a) replication and topology of mammalian cell nuclei; (b) cytogenetic analysis of human metaphase chromosomes; and (c) time-resolved measurements of DNA-binding dyes in cells and on isolated chromosomes, as well as of mammalian cell surface antigens, using the phosphorescence of acridine orange and fluorescence resonance energy transfer of labeled lectins, respectively.

  13. Implementation of a Real-Time Stacking Algorithm in a Photogrammetric Digital Camera for Uavs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Audi, A.; Pierrot-Deseilligny, M.; Meynard, C.; Thom, C.

    2017-08-01

    In the recent years, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) have become an interesting tool in aerial photography and photogrammetry activities. In this context, some applications (like cloudy sky surveys, narrow-spectral imagery and night-vision imagery) need a longexposure time where one of the main problems is the motion blur caused by the erratic camera movements during image acquisition. This paper describes an automatic real-time stacking algorithm which produces a high photogrammetric quality final composite image with an equivalent long-exposure time using several images acquired with short-exposure times. Our method is inspired by feature-based image registration technique. The algorithm is implemented on the light-weight IGN camera, which has an IMU sensor and a SoC/FPGA. To obtain the correct parameters for the resampling of images, the presented method accurately estimates the geometrical relation between the first and the Nth image, taking into account the internal parameters and the distortion of the camera. Features are detected in the first image by the FAST detector, than homologous points on other images are obtained by template matching aided by the IMU sensors. The SoC/FPGA in the camera is used to speed up time-consuming parts of the algorithm such as features detection and images resampling in order to achieve a real-time performance as we want to write only the resulting final image to save bandwidth on the storage device. The paper includes a detailed description of the implemented algorithm, resource usage summary, resulting processing time, resulting images, as well as block diagrams of the described architecture. The resulting stacked image obtained on real surveys doesn't seem visually impaired. Timing results demonstrate that our algorithm can be used in real-time since its processing time is less than the writing time of an image in the storage device. An interesting by-product of this algorithm is the 3D rotation estimated by a

  14. Testing the accuracy of timing reports in visual timing tasks with a consumer-grade digital camera.

    PubMed

    Smyth, Rachael E; Oram Cardy, Janis; Purcell, David

    2016-06-20

    This study tested the accuracy of a visual timing task using a readily available and relatively inexpensive consumer grade digital camera. A visual inspection time task was recorded using short high-speed video clips and the timing as reported by the task's program was compared to the timing as recorded in the video clips. Discrepancies in these two timing reports were investigated further and based on display refresh rate, a decision was made whether the discrepancy was large enough to affect the results as reported by the task. In this particular study, the errors in timing were not large enough to impact the results of the study. The procedure presented in this article offers an alternative method for performing a timing test, which uses readily available hardware and can be used to test the timing in any software program on any operating system and display.

  15. Field test comparison of an autocorrelation technique for determining grain size using a digital 'beachball' camera versus traditional methods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barnard, P.L.; Rubin, D.M.; Harney, J.; Mustain, N.

    2007-01-01

    This extensive field test of an autocorrelation technique for determining grain size from digital images was conducted using a digital bed-sediment camera, or 'beachball' camera. Using 205 sediment samples and >1200 images from a variety of beaches on the west coast of the US, grain size ranging from sand to granules was measured from field samples using both the autocorrelation technique developed by Rubin [Rubin, D.M., 2004. A simple autocorrelation algorithm for determining grain size from digital images of sediment. Journal of Sedimentary Research, 74(1): 160-165.] and traditional methods (i.e. settling tube analysis, sieving, and point counts). To test the accuracy of the digital-image grain size algorithm, we compared results with manual point counts of an extensive image data set in the Santa Barbara littoral cell. Grain sizes calculated using the autocorrelation algorithm were highly correlated with the point counts of the same images (r2 = 0.93; n = 79) and had an error of only 1%. Comparisons of calculated grain sizes and grain sizes measured from grab samples demonstrated that the autocorrelation technique works well on high-energy dissipative beaches with well-sorted sediment such as in the Pacific Northwest (r2 ??? 0.92; n = 115). On less dissipative, more poorly sorted beaches such as Ocean Beach in San Francisco, results were not as good (r2 ??? 0.70; n = 67; within 3% accuracy). Because the algorithm works well compared with point counts of the same image, the poorer correlation with grab samples must be a result of actual spatial and vertical variability of sediment in the field; closer agreement between grain size in the images and grain size of grab samples can be achieved by increasing the sampling volume of the images (taking more images, distributed over a volume comparable to that of a grab sample). In all field tests the autocorrelation method was able to predict the mean and median grain size with ???96% accuracy, which is more than

  16. Using immersive media and digital technology to communicate Earth Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kapur, Ravi

    2016-04-01

    A number of technologies in digital media and interactivity have rapidly advanced and are now converging to enable rich, multi-sensoral experiences which create opportunities for both digital art and science communication. Techniques used in full-dome film-making can now be deployed in virtual reality experiences; gaming technologies can be utilised to explore real data sets; and collaborative interactivity enable new forms of public artwork. This session will explore these converging trends through a number of emerging and forthcoming projects dealing with Earth science, climate change and planetary science.

  17. Quantitative single-particle digital autoradiography with α-particle emitters for targeted radionuclide therapy using the iQID camera.

    PubMed

    Miller, Brian W; Frost, Sofia H L; Frayo, Shani L; Kenoyer, Aimee L; Santos, Erlinda; Jones, Jon C; Green, Damian J; Hamlin, Donald K; Wilbur, D Scott; Fisher, Darrell R; Orozco, Johnnie J; Press, Oliver W; Pagel, John M; Sandmaier, Brenda M

    2015-07-01

    Alpha-emitting radionuclides exhibit a potential advantage for cancer treatments because they release large amounts of ionizing energy over a few cell diameters (50-80 μm), causing localized, irreparable double-strand DNA breaks that lead to cell death. Radioimmunotherapy (RIT) approaches using monoclonal antibodies labeled with α emitters may thus inactivate targeted cells with minimal radiation damage to surrounding tissues. Tools are needed to visualize and quantify the radioactivity distribution and absorbed doses to targeted and nontargeted cells for accurate dosimetry of all treatment regimens utilizing α particles, including RIT and others (e.g., Ra-223), especially for organs and tumors with heterogeneous radionuclide distributions. The aim of this study was to evaluate and characterize a novel single-particle digital autoradiography imager, the ionizing-radiation quantum imaging detector (iQID) camera, for use in α-RIT experiments. The iQID camera is a scintillator-based radiation detection system that images and identifies charged-particle and gamma-ray/x-ray emissions spatially and temporally on an event-by-event basis. It employs CCD-CMOS cameras and high-performance computing hardware for real-time imaging and activity quantification of tissue sections, approaching cellular resolutions. In this work, the authors evaluated its characteristics for α-particle imaging, including measurements of intrinsic detector spatial resolutions and background count rates at various detector configurations and quantification of activity distributions. The technique was assessed for quantitative imaging of astatine-211 ((211)At) activity distributions in cryosections of murine and canine tissue samples. The highest spatial resolution was measured at ∼20 μm full width at half maximum and the α-particle background was measured at a rate as low as (2.6 ± 0.5) × 10(-4) cpm/cm(2) (40 mm diameter detector area). Simultaneous imaging of multiple tissue sections was

  18. Quantitative single-particle digital autoradiography with α-particle emitters for targeted radionuclide therapy using the iQID camera

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Brian W.; Frost, Sofia H. L.; Frayo, Shani L.; Kenoyer, Aimee L.; Santos, Erlinda; Jones, Jon C.; Green, Damian J.; Hamlin, Donald K.; Wilbur, D. Scott; Orozco, Johnnie J.; Press, Oliver W.; Pagel, John M.; Sandmaier, Brenda M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Alpha-emitting radionuclides exhibit a potential advantage for cancer treatments because they release large amounts of ionizing energy over a few cell diameters (50–80 μm), causing localized, irreparable double-strand DNA breaks that lead to cell death. Radioimmunotherapy (RIT) approaches using monoclonal antibodies labeled with α emitters may thus inactivate targeted cells with minimal radiation damage to surrounding tissues. Tools are needed to visualize and quantify the radioactivity distribution and absorbed doses to targeted and nontargeted cells for accurate dosimetry of all treatment regimens utilizing α particles, including RIT and others (e.g., Ra-223), especially for organs and tumors with heterogeneous radionuclide distributions. The aim of this study was to evaluate and characterize a novel single-particle digital autoradiography imager, the ionizing-radiation quantum imaging detector (iQID) camera, for use in α-RIT experiments. Methods: The iQID camera is a scintillator-based radiation detection system that images and identifies charged-particle and gamma-ray/x-ray emissions spatially and temporally on an event-by-event basis. It employs CCD-CMOS cameras and high-performance computing hardware for real-time imaging and activity quantification of tissue sections, approaching cellular resolutions. In this work, the authors evaluated its characteristics for α-particle imaging, including measurements of intrinsic detector spatial resolutions and background count rates at various detector configurations and quantification of activity distributions. The technique was assessed for quantitative imaging of astatine-211 (211At) activity distributions in cryosections of murine and canine tissue samples. Results: The highest spatial resolution was measured at ∼20 μm full width at half maximum and the α-particle background was measured at a rate as low as (2.6 ± 0.5) × 10−4 cpm/cm2 (40 mm diameter detector area). Simultaneous imaging of

  19. Quantitative single-particle digital autoradiography with α-particle emitters for targeted radionuclide therapy using the iQID camera

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Brian W.; Frost, Sofia H. L.; Frayo, Shani L.; Kenoyer, Aimee L.; Santos, Erlinda; Jones, Jon C.; Orozco, Johnnie J.; Green, Damian J.; Press, Oliver W.; Pagel, John M.; Sandmaier, Brenda M.; Hamlin, Donald K.; Wilbur, D. Scott; Fisher, Darrell R.

    2015-07-15

    Purpose: Alpha-emitting radionuclides exhibit a potential advantage for cancer treatments because they release large amounts of ionizing energy over a few cell diameters (50–80 μm), causing localized, irreparable double-strand DNA breaks that lead to cell death. Radioimmunotherapy (RIT) approaches using monoclonal antibodies labeled with α emitters may thus inactivate targeted cells with minimal radiation damage to surrounding tissues. Tools are needed to visualize and quantify the radioactivity distribution and absorbed doses to targeted and nontargeted cells for accurate dosimetry of all treatment regimens utilizing α particles, including RIT and others (e.g., Ra-223), especially for organs and tumors with heterogeneous radionuclide distributions. The aim of this study was to evaluate and characterize a novel single-particle digital autoradiography imager, the ionizing-radiation quantum imaging detector (iQID) camera, for use in α-RIT experiments. Methods: The iQID camera is a scintillator-based radiation detection system that images and identifies charged-particle and gamma-ray/x-ray emissions spatially and temporally on an event-by-event basis. It employs CCD-CMOS cameras and high-performance computing hardware for real-time imaging and activity quantification of tissue sections, approaching cellular resolutions. In this work, the authors evaluated its characteristics for α-particle imaging, including measurements of intrinsic detector spatial resolutions and background count rates at various detector configurations and quantification of activity distributions. The technique was assessed for quantitative imaging of astatine-211 ({sup 211}At) activity distributions in cryosections of murine and canine tissue samples. Results: The highest spatial resolution was measured at ∼20 μm full width at half maximum and the α-particle background was measured at a rate as low as (2.6 ± 0.5) × 10{sup −4} cpm/cm{sup 2} (40 mm diameter detector area

  20. Airborne hyperspectral surface and cloud bi-directional reflectivity observations in the Arctic using a commercial, digital camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehrlich, A.; Bierwirth, E.; Wendisch, M.; Herber, A.; Gayet, J.-F.

    2011-09-01

    Spectral radiance measurements by a digital single-lens reflex camera were used to derive the bi-directional reflectivity of clouds and different surfaces in the Arctic. The camera has been calibrated radiometrically and spectrally to provide accurate radiance measurements with high angular resolution. A comparison with spectral radiance measurements with the SMART-Albedometer showed an agreement within the uncertainties of both instruments. The bi-directional reflectivity in terms of the hemispherical directional reflectance factor HDRF was obtained for sea ice, ice free ocean and clouds. The sea ice, with an albedo of ρ = 0.96, showed an almost isotropic HDRF, while sun glint was observed for the ocean HDRF (ρ = 0.12). For the cloud observations with ρ = 0.62, the fog bow - a backscatter feature typically for scattering by liquid water droplets - was covered by the camera. For measurements above a heterogeneous stratocumulus clouds, the required number of images to obtain a mean HDRF which clearly exhibits the fog bow has been estimated with about 50 images (10 min flight time). A representation of the HDRF as function of the scattering angle only reduces the image number to about 10 (2 min flight time). The measured cloud and ocean HDRF have been compared to radiative transfer simulations. The ocean HDRF simulated with the observed surface wind speed of 9 m s-1 agreed best with the measurements. For the cloud HDRF, the best agreement was obtained by a broad and weak fog bow simulated with a cloud droplet effective radius of Reff = 4 μm. This value agrees with the particle sizes from in situ measurements and retrieved from the spectral radiance of the SMART-Albedometer.

  1. Digital high-speed camera system for combustion research using UV-laser diagnostic under microgravity at Bremen drop tower

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renken, Hartmut; Bolik, T.; Eigenbrod, Ch.; Koenig, Jens; Rath, Hans J.

    1997-04-01

    A digital high-speed camera- and recording system for 2D UV- laser spectroscopy was recently completed at Bremen drip tower. At the moment the primary users are the microgravity combustion researchers. The current project studies the reaction zones during the process of combustion. Particularly OH-radicals are detected 2D by using the method of laser induced predissociation fluorescence (LIPF). A pulsed high-energy excimer lasersystem combined with a two- staged intensified CCD-camera allows a repetition rate of 250 images per second, according to the maximum laser pulse repetition. The laser system is integrated at the top of the 110 m high evacuatable drop tube. Motorized mirrors are necessary to achieve a stable beam position within the area of interest during the drop of the experiment-capsule. The duration of 1 drop will be 4.7 seconds. About 1500 images are captured and stored onboard the drop capsule 96 Mbyte RAM image storagesystem. After saving capsule and data, a special PC-based image processing software visualizes the movies and extracts physical information out of the images. Now, after two and a half years of development the system is working operational and capable of high temporal 2D LIPF- measuring of OH, H2O, O2 and CO concentrations and 2D temperature distribution of these species.

  2. Technology tools to support reading in the digital age.

    PubMed

    Biancarosa, Gina; Griffiths, Gina G

    2012-01-01

    Advances in digital technologies are dramatically altering the texts and tools available to teachers and students. These technological advances have created excitement among many for their potential to be used as instructional tools for literacy education. Yet with the promise of these advances come issues that can exacerbate the literacy challenges identified in the other articles in this issue. In this article Gina Biancarosa and Gina Griffiths characterize how literacy demands have changed in the digital age and how challenges identified in other articles in the issue intersect with these new demands. Rather than seeing technology as something to be fit into an already crowded education agenda, Biancarosa and Griffiths argue that technology can be conceptualized as affording tools that teachers can deploy in their quest to create young readers who possess the higher levels of literacy skills and background knowledge demanded by today's information-based society. Biancarosa and Griffiths draw on research to highlight some of the ways technology has been used to build the skills and knowledge needed both by children who are learning to read and by those who have progressed to reading to learn. In their review of the research, Biancarosa and Griffiths focus on the hardware and software used to display and interface with digital text, or what they term e-reading technology. Drawing on studies of e-reading technology and computer technology more broadly, they also reflect on the very real, practical challenges to optimal use of e-reading technology. The authors conclude by presenting four recommendations to help schools and school systems meet some of the challenges that come with investing in e-reading technology: use only technologies that support Universal Design for Learning; choose evidence-based tools; provide technology users with systemic supports; and capitalize on the data capacities and volume of information that technology provides.

  3. Point Cloud Derived Fromvideo Frames: Accuracy Assessment in Relation to Terrestrial Laser Scanningand Digital Camera Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delis, P.; Zacharek, M.; Wierzbicki, D.; Grochala, A.

    2017-02-01

    The use of image sequences in the form of video frames recorded on data storage is very useful in especially when working with large and complex structures. Two cameras were used in this study: Sony NEX-5N (for the test object) and Sony NEX-VG10 E (for the historic building). In both cases, a Sony α f = 16 mm fixed focus wide-angle lens was used. Single frames with sufficient overlap were selected from the video sequence using an equation for automatic frame selection. In order to improve the quality of the generated point clouds, each video frame underwent histogram equalization and image sharpening. Point clouds were generated from the video frames using the SGM-like image matching algorithm. The accuracy assessment was based on two reference point clouds: the first from terrestrial laser scanning and the second generated based on images acquired using a high resolution camera, the NIKON D800. The performed research has shown, that highest accuracies are obtained for point clouds generated from video frames, for which a high pass filtration and histogram equalization had been performed. Studies have shown that to obtain a point cloud density comparable to TLS, an overlap between subsequent video frames must be 85 % or more. Based on the point cloud generated from video data, a parametric 3D model can be generated. This type of the 3D model can be used in HBIM construction.

  4. A digital architecture for striping noise compensation in push-broom hyperspectral cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valenzuela, Wladimir E.; Figueroa, Miguel; Pezoa, Jorge E.; Meza, Pablo

    2015-09-01

    We present a striping noise compensation architecture for hyperspectral push-broom cameras, implemented on a Field-Programmable Gate Array (FPGA). The circuit is fast, compact, low power, and is capable of eliminating the striping noise in-line during the image acquisition process. The architecture implements a multi dimensional neural network (MDNN) algorithm for striping noise compensation previously reported by our group. The algorithm relies on the assumption that the amount of light impinging at the neighboring photo-detectors is approximately the same in the spatial and spectral dimensions. Under this assumption, two striping noise parameters are estimated using spatial and spectral information from the raw data. We implemented the circuit on a Xilinx ZYNQ XC7Z2010 FPGA and tested it with images obtained from a NIR N17E push-broom camera, with a frame rate of 25fps and a band-pixel rate of 1.888 MHz. The setup consists of a loop of 320 samples of 320 spatial lines and 236 spectral bands between 900 and 1700 nanometers, in laboratory condition, captured with a rigid push-broom controller. The noise compensation core can run at more than 100 MHZ and consumes less than 30mW of dynamic power, using less than 10% of the logic resources available on the chip. It also uses one of two ARM processors available on the FPGA for data acquisition and communication purposes.

  5. Bringing Superconductor Digital Technology to the Market Place

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nisenoff, Martin

    The unique properties of superconductivity can be exploited to provide the ultimate in electronic technology for systems such as ultra-precise analogue-to-digital and digital-to-analogue converters, precise DC and AC voltage standards, ultra high speed logic circuits and systems (both digital and hybrid analogue-digital systems), and very high throughput network routers and supercomputers which would have superior electrical performance at lower overall electrical power consumption compared to systems with comparable performance which are fabricated using conventional room temperature technologies. This potential for high performance electronics with reduced power consumption would have a positive impact on slowing the increase in the demand for electrical utility power by the information technology community on the overall electrical power grid. However, before this technology can be successfully brought to the commercial market place, there must be an aggressive investment of resources and funding to develop the required infrastructure needed to yield these high performance superconductor systems, which will be reliable and available at low cost. The author proposes that it will require a concerted effort by the superconductor and cryogenic communities to bring this technology to the commercial market place or make it available for widespread use in scientific instrumentation.

  6. New ultrahigh-speed CCD camera achieves sub-electron read noise using on-chip multiplication gain (EMCCD) technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guntupalli, Ravi K.; Hagan, Vern; Cooper, Andrew; Simpson, Raymond W.

    2005-03-01

    The imaging performance of a high speed camera utilizing novel "on-chip electron multiplication gain CCD (EMCCD)" technology is presented. The EMCCD technology has become a popular choice for low-light, high-speed scientific imaging and spectroscopy applications. By amplifying the signal right on the CCD, the new technology overcomes the read noise limitation, typical of high speed CCD cameras. Using all solid-state technology, the EMCCDs alleviate the shortcomings of the traditional amplification technologies using external photocathode materials such as intensified CCD (ICCD) and electron-bombarded CCD (EBCCD) cameras. For example, the technology is not susceptible to burn-in or damage in high light conditions and does not suffer from potential loss of spatial resolution in the photocathode material. A new camera, Cascade:128+, was developed using back illuminated, frame transfer EMCCD with 128x128 pixels to achieve frame rates in excess of 510 full frames per second and the system read noise below one electron rms. Custom data acquisition hardware and software allow real time access to the image data. The camera is ideal for high-frame rate, low-light level imaging applications in physical and biological sciences including adaptive optics, plasma diagnostics, neural-imaging and single molecule tracking.

  7. Study on camera calibration technique of 3D color digitization system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yuchen; Ge, Baozhen

    2006-11-01

    3D (three-dimensional) color digitization of an object is fulfilled by light-stripe method based on laser triangle principle and direct capturing method based on the color photo of the object. With this system, information matching between 3D and color sensor and data registration of different sensors are fulfilled by a sensor calibration process. The process uses the same round filament target to calibrate all of the sensors together. The principle and procedure of the process are presented in detail. Finally, a costume model is 3D color digitized and the obtaining data sets are processed by the method discussed, the results verify the correctness and feasibility of the algorithm.

  8. Digital video technologies and their network requirements

    SciTech Connect

    R. P. Tsang; H. Y. Chen; J. M. Brandt; J. A. Hutchins

    1999-11-01

    Coded digital video signals are considered to be one of the most difficult data types to transport due to their real-time requirements and high bit rate variability. In this study, the authors discuss the coding mechanisms incorporated by the major compression standards bodies, i.e., JPEG and MPEG, as well as more advanced coding mechanisms such as wavelet and fractal techniques. The relationship between the applications which use these coding schemes and their network requirements are the major focus of this study. Specifically, the authors relate network latency, channel transmission reliability, random access speed, buffering and network bandwidth with the various coding techniques as a function of the applications which use them. Such applications include High-Definition Television, Video Conferencing, Computer-Supported Collaborative Work (CSCW), and Medical Imaging.

  9. Canadian community pharmacists' use of digital health technologies in practice.

    PubMed

    Leung, Valerie; Tharmalingam, Sukirtha; Cooper, Janet; Charlebois, Maureen

    2016-01-01

    In 2010, a pan-Canadian study on the current state and benefits of provincial drug information systems (DIS) found that substantial benefits were being realized and that pharmacists perceived DIS to be a valuable tool in the evolving models of pharmacy practice. To understand changes in digital health and the impact on practice since that time, a survey of community pharmacists in Canada was conducted. In 2014, Canada Health Infoway (Infoway) and the Canadian Pharmacists Association (CPhA) invited community pharmacists to participate in a Web-based survey to understand their use and perceived benefits of digital health in practice. The survey was open from April 15 to May 12, 2014. Of the 447 survey responses, almost all used some form of digital health in practice. Those with access to DIS and provincial laboratory information systems (LIS) reported increased productivity and better quality of care. Those without access to these systems would overwhelmingly like access. There have been significant advances in digital health and community pharmacy practice over the past several years. In addition to digital health benefits in the areas of productivity and quality of care, pharmacists are also experiencing substantial benefits in areas related to recently expanded scope of practice activities such as ordering lab tests. Community pharmacists frequently use digital health in practice and recognize the benefits of these technologies. Digital health is, and will continue to be, a key enabler for practice transformation and improved quality of care. Can Pharm J (Ott) 2016;149:xx-xx.

  10. Imaging Emission Spectra with Handheld and Cellphone Cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sitar, David

    2012-12-01

    As point-and-shoot digital camera technology advances it is becoming easier to image spectra in a laboralory setting on a shoestring budget and get immediale results. With this in mind, I wanted to test three cameras to see how their results would differ. Two undergraduate physics students and I used one handheld 7.1 megapixel (MP) digital Cannon point-and-shoot auto focusing camera and two different cellphone cameras: one at 6.1 MP and the other at 5.1 MP.

  11. New camera-based microswitch technology to monitor small head and mouth responses of children with multiple disabilities.

    PubMed

    Lancioni, Giulio E; Bellini, Domenico; Oliva, Doretta; Singh, Nirbhay N; O'Reilly, Mark F; Green, Vanessa A; Furniss, Fred

    2014-06-01

    Assessing a new camera-based microswitch technology, which did not require the use of color marks on the participants' face. Two children with extensive multiple disabilities participated. The responses selected for them consisted of small, lateral head movements and mouth closing or opening. The intervention was carried out according to a multiple probe design across responses. The technology involved a computer with a CPU using a 2-GHz clock, a USB video camera with a 16-mm lens, a USB cable connecting the camera and the computer, and a special software program written in ISO C++ language. The new technology was satisfactorily used with both children. Large increases in their responding were observed during the intervention periods (i.e. when the responses were followed by preferred stimulation). The new technology may be an important resource for persons with multiple disabilities and minimal motor behavior.

  12. Digital Paper Technologies for Topographical Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-19

    script read to each participant. Overall training included not only the indoor /outdoor training in the specific method, but also training on the...integration, and are objects of distraction and theft. Smartphones and tablets currently are popular devices, but share many of the...experience with technology/ navigation , 1st language For public release, distribution unlimited

  13. Cultivating Wisdom through Digital Learning Technologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kok, Ayse

    2009-01-01

    The word "wisdom" is rarely seen in contemporary technology and learning discourse. This conceptual paper aims to provide some clear principles that answer the question: How can we establish wisdom in complex learning networks? By considering the nature of contemporary calls for wisdom the paper provides a metatheoretical framework to…

  14. Digital Citizenship: Addressing Appropriate Technology Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ribble, Mike S.; Bailey, Gerald D.; Ross, Tweed W.

    2004-01-01

    Recently, the popular press has pointed to increasing evidence of misuse and abuse of emerging technologies in U.S. schools. Some examples include using Web sites to intimidate or threaten students, downloading music illegally from the Internet, plagiarizing information using the Internet, using cellular phones during class time, and playing games…

  15. Noncontact imaging of plethysmographic pulsation and spontaneous low-frequency oscillation in skin perfusion with a digital red-green-blue camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishidate, Izumi; Hoshi, Akira; Aoki, Yuta; Nakano, Kazuya; Niizeki, Kyuichi; Aizu, Yoshihisa

    2016-03-01

    A non-contact imaging method with a digital RGB camera is proposed to evaluate plethysmogram and spontaneous lowfrequency oscillation. In vivo experiments with human skin during mental stress induced by the Stroop color-word test demonstrated the feasibility of the method to evaluate the activities of autonomic nervous systems.

  16. Plasma technology and its use in flat panel digital radiography.

    PubMed

    Zur, Albert

    2010-01-01

    Plasma DR technology is used to produce a cost effective flat panel x-ray detector that acquires digital x-ray images with excellent diagnostic quality. The detector is radiation hard and permanently zero defect, with a full virtual pixel matrix that has no dead lines, pixels, or dead pixel clusters. The technology also allows the full potential of large area amorphous Selenium imaging to finally be realized (see Figure 4).

  17. Digital Waveform Technology and the Next Generation of Mass Spectrometers.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Nathan M; Gotlib, Zachary P; Opačić, Bojana; Huntley, Adam P; Moon, Ashley M; Donahoe, Katherine E G; Brabeck, Gregory F; Reilly, Peter T A

    2017-10-02

    Ion traps and guides are integral parts of current commercial mass spectrometers. They are currently operated with sinusoidal waveform technology that has been developed over many years. Recently, digital waveform technology has begun to emerge and promises to supplant its older cousin because it presents new capabilities that result from the ability to instantaneously switch the frequency and duty cycle of the waveforms. This manuscript examines these capabilities and reveals their uses and effects on instrumentation. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  18. Camera-Based Microswitch Technology for Eyelid and Mouth Responses of Persons with Profound Multiple Disabilities: Two Case Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lancioni, Giulio E.; Bellini, Domenico; Oliva, Doretta; Singh, Nirbhay N.; O'Reilly, Mark F.; Sigafoos, Jeff

    2010-01-01

    These two studies assessed camera-based microswitch technology for eyelid and mouth responses of two persons with profound multiple disabilities and minimal motor behavior. This technology, in contrast with the traditional optic microswitches used for those responses, did not require support frames on the participants' face but only small color…

  19. Camera-Based Microswitch Technology to Monitor Mouth, Eyebrow, and Eyelid Responses of Children with Profound Multiple Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lancioni, Giulio E.; Bellini, Domenico; Oliva, Doretta; Singh, Nirbhay N.; O'Reilly, Mark F.; Lang, Russell; Didden, Robert

    2011-01-01

    A camera-based microswitch technology was recently used to successfully monitor small eyelid and mouth responses of two adults with profound multiple disabilities (Lancioni et al., Res Dev Disab 31:1509-1514, 2010a). This technology, in contrast with the traditional optic microswitches used for those responses, did not require support frames on…

  20. Camera-Based Microswitch Technology for Eyelid and Mouth Responses of Persons with Profound Multiple Disabilities: Two Case Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lancioni, Giulio E.; Bellini, Domenico; Oliva, Doretta; Singh, Nirbhay N.; O'Reilly, Mark F.; Sigafoos, Jeff

    2010-01-01

    These two studies assessed camera-based microswitch technology for eyelid and mouth responses of two persons with profound multiple disabilities and minimal motor behavior. This technology, in contrast with the traditional optic microswitches used for those responses, did not require support frames on the participants' face but only small color…

  1. Camera-Based Microswitch Technology to Monitor Mouth, Eyebrow, and Eyelid Responses of Children with Profound Multiple Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lancioni, Giulio E.; Bellini, Domenico; Oliva, Doretta; Singh, Nirbhay N.; O'Reilly, Mark F.; Lang, Russell; Didden, Robert

    2011-01-01

    A camera-based microswitch technology was recently used to successfully monitor small eyelid and mouth responses of two adults with profound multiple disabilities (Lancioni et al., Res Dev Disab 31:1509-1514, 2010a). This technology, in contrast with the traditional optic microswitches used for those responses, did not require support frames on…

  2. Supporting Teachers Developing Mathematical Tasks with Digital Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ratnayake, Iresha; Oates, Greg; Thomas, Mike

    2016-01-01

    A crucial step towards improving the conceptual use of digital technology (DT) in the mathematics classroom is to increase teacher involvement in the development of tasks. Hence, this research considers some teacher factors that might influence DT algebra task development and implementation in secondary schools. We observed and assisted one group…

  3. Composing with New Technology: Teacher Reflections on Learning Digital Video

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruce, David L.; Chiu, Ming Ming

    2015-01-01

    This study explores teachers' reflections on their learning to compose with new technologies in the context of teacher education and/or teacher professional development. English language arts (ELA) teachers (n = 240) in 15 courses learned to use digital video (DV), completed at least one DV group project, and responded to open-ended survey…

  4. Supporting Student Research with Semantic Technologies and Digital Archives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez-Garcia, Agustina; Corti, Louise

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses how the idea of higher education students as producers of knowledge rather than consumers can be operationalised by means of student research projects, in which processes of research archiving and analysis are enabled through the use of semantic technologies. It discusses how existing digital repository frameworks can be…

  5. Pre-Service Teacher Self-Efficacy in Digital Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemon, Narelle; Garvis, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    Self-efficacy is an important motivational construct for primary school teachers (teachers of children aged 5-12 years) within Australia. Teacher self-efficacy beliefs will determine the level of teacher confidence and competence to engage with a task. In this study, we explore engagement with digital technology and the associated learning and…

  6. Limited Digital Response. Satellite Technology Demonstration, Technical Report No. 0426.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laurence, Dennis; Woughter, William

    The VHF system used by the Satellite Technology Demonstration had a built-in digital response system to collect data about student programing. This paper describes the hardware and software required to implement and operate the system. In addition, information on the applications of this device is provided along with the results of a field…

  7. Digital Images: Capturing America's Past with the Technology of Today

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berson, Michael J.

    2004-01-01

    The use of digital photography in the social studies classroom offers students an application of technology that can help them develop the skills necessary to access, analyze, and evaluate all forms of information and communication. Students learn to recognize how images represent diverse perspectives, connect disparate pieces of information, and…

  8. Educational Digital Technologies in Developing Countries Challenge Third Party Providers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Passey, Don; Laferrière, Thérèse; Ahmad, Manal Yazbak-Abu; Bhowmik, Miron; Gross, Diana; Price, Janet; Resta, Paul; Shonfeld, Miri

    2016-01-01

    In this conceptual paper, we consider issues and challenges of third party and governmental organisations in planning and implementing access to and uses of digital technologies for learning and teaching in developing countries. We consider failures and weaknesses in the planning and implementation processes highlighted by research in developed…

  9. Digital Mindsets: Teachers' Technology Use in Personal Life and Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tour, Ekaterina

    2015-01-01

    Over the last few years there have been important calls for new literacies to become an integral part of language education. Yet traditional approaches to technology continue to persist in many contexts. Although the role of teachers in this problem has been acknowledged, little is known about how teachers' everyday digital literacy practices…

  10. The Role of Digital Technologies in Numeracy Teaching and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geiger, Vince; Goos, Merrilyn; Dole, Shelley

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a model of numeracy that integrates the use of digital technologies among other elements of teaching and learning mathematics. Drawing on data from a school-based project, which includes records of classroom observations, semi-structured teacher interviews and artefacts such as student work samples, a classroom-based vignette…

  11. Digital technology: dentistry must not overlook the big picture.

    PubMed

    Rosenfeld, Alan L

    2014-01-01

    While the influx of digital technology has dramatically impacted dentistry, clinicians have a responsibility to promote safety, efficacy, and efficiency. Maintaining a dynamic approach to oral healthcare whereby patients and dental team members enter a process of co-discovery ensures a thorough diagnosis and treatment plan.

  12. Web Surveys to Digital Movies: Technological Tools of the Trade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fetterman, David M.

    2002-01-01

    Highlights some of the technological tools used by educational researchers today, focusing on data collection related tools such as Web surveys, digital photography, voice recognition and transcription, file sharing and virtual office, videoconferencing on the Internet, instantaneous chat and chat rooms, reporting and dissemination, and digital…

  13. Bridging Divides through Technology Use: Transnationalism and Digital Literacy Socialization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nogueron, Silvia Cecilia

    2011-01-01

    In this study, I investigate the digital literacy practices of adult immigrants, and their relationship with transnational processes and practices. Specifically, I focus on their conditions of access to information and communication technologies (ICTs) in their life trajectories, their conditions of learning in a community center, and their…

  14. Screen Capture Technology: A Digital Window into Students' Writing Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seror, Jeremie

    2013-01-01

    Technological innovations and the prevalence of the computer as a means of producing and engaging with texts have dramatically transformed how literacy is defined and developed in modern society. This rise in digital writing practices has led to a growing number of tools and methods that can be used to explore second language (L2) writing…

  15. Bridging Divides through Technology Use: Transnationalism and Digital Literacy Socialization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nogueron, Silvia Cecilia

    2011-01-01

    In this study, I investigate the digital literacy practices of adult immigrants, and their relationship with transnational processes and practices. Specifically, I focus on their conditions of access to information and communication technologies (ICTs) in their life trajectories, their conditions of learning in a community center, and their…

  16. Buckets: A New Digital Library Technology for Preserving NASA Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Michael L.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the need for preserving and disseminating scientific and technical information through digital libraries and describes buckets, an intelligent construct for publishing that contains data and metadata and methods for accessing them. Explains SODA (Smart Object, Dumb Archive) and discusses experiences using these technologies in NASA and…

  17. Technology and Music Education in a Digitized, Disembodied, Posthuman World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thwaites, Trevor

    2014-01-01

    Digital forms of sound manipulation are eroding traditional methods of sound development and transmission, causing a disjuncture in the ontology of music. Sound, the ambient phenomenon, is becoming disrupted and decentred by the struggles between long established controls, beliefs and desires as well as controls from within technologized contexts.…

  18. Supporting Student Research with Semantic Technologies and Digital Archives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez-Garcia, Agustina; Corti, Louise

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses how the idea of higher education students as producers of knowledge rather than consumers can be operationalised by means of student research projects, in which processes of research archiving and analysis are enabled through the use of semantic technologies. It discusses how existing digital repository frameworks can be…

  19. Buckets: A New Digital Library Technology for Preserving NASA Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Michael L.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the need for preserving and disseminating scientific and technical information through digital libraries and describes buckets, an intelligent construct for publishing that contains data and metadata and methods for accessing them. Explains SODA (Smart Object, Dumb Archive) and discusses experiences using these technologies in NASA and…

  20. Gadgets in the Gymnasium: Physical Educators' Use of Digital Technologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Daniel B.; Randall, Lynn

    2017-01-01

    This article highlights results from a recent study that investigated Atlantic Canadian physical educators' adoption and implementation of various digital technologies. Employing a mixed-methods research design (survey participants, n = 206; focus group participants, n = 12), the research intended to provide a clear overview of physical educators'…