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Sample records for digital dermatitis lesions

  1. A molecular epidemiology of treponemes in beef cattle digital dermatitis lesions and comparative analyses with sheep contagious ovine digital dermatitis and dairy cattle digital dermatitis lesions.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, L E; Evans, N J; Blowey, R W; Grove-White, D H; Clegg, S R; Duncan, J S; Carter, S D

    2015-07-09

    Bovine digital dermatitis (BDD) is an infective foot disease commonly reported in dairy cattle where Treponema are considered as the primary causative infectious agents. There still remains little definitive information on the etiology of BDD in beef cattle suggesting further investigations are warranted. Beef BDD lesions (n=34) and healthy beef foot tissues (n=38) were analysed by PCR for three BDD-associated Treponema phylogroups and also for Dichelobacter nodosus and Fusobacterium necrophorum. Spirochete culture was attempted on all BDD lesion samples. One or more BDD-associated Treponema phylogroups were detected in 100% of beef BDD lesions. "Treponema medium/Treponema vincentii-like", "Treponema phagedenis-like" and Treponema pedis spirochetes were identified in 27/34 (79%), 31/34 (91%) and 24/34 (71%) of BDD lesions, respectively. No BDD-associated treponeme DNA was amplified from beef healthy foot tissues. D. nodosus and F. necrophorum were present in 24/34 (71%) and 15/34 (44%) of lesions and 10/38 (26%) and 12/38 (32%) of healthy foot tissues, respectively. Twenty spirochetes were isolated from beef BDD lesions; 19 were representatives of the three BDD-associated Treponema phylogroups. One spirochete isolate shared less than 97% 16S rRNA gene similarity to the three cultivable BDD-associated Treponema phylogroups and therefore may represent a novel taxa of Treponema. Upon comparison, sheep contagious ovine digital dermatitis (CODD), dairy cattle and beef cattle BDD lesions appear to have extremely similar bacteriological data and therefore provides evidence of a shared etiopathogenesis posing concerns for cross-species transmission.

  2. Treponemes Detected in Digital Dermatitis Lesions in Brazilian Dairy Cattle and Possible Host Reservoirs of Infection

    PubMed Central

    Nascimento, Ligia Valéria; Mauerwerk, Marlise Teresinha; dos Santos, Cibelli Lopes; de Barros Filho, Ivan Roque; Birgel Júnior, Eduardo Harry; Madeira, Humberto Maciel França

    2015-01-01

    The main pathogenic treponemes causing bovine digital dermatitis were identified from 17 infected herds in southern Brazil for the first time in this study using PCR. We did not find a relationship between treponeme phylogroup composition and clinical classification. Treponema phagedenis was present in all lesions. Rumen fluid was implicated as a reservoir location for these pathogens. PMID:25788552

  3. Digital dermatitis: Natural lesion progression and regression in Holstein dairy cattle over 3 years.

    PubMed

    Krull, Adam C; Shearer, Jan K; Gorden, Patrick J; Scott, H Morgan; Plummer, Paul J

    2016-05-01

    Bovine digital dermatitis (DD) is a leading cause of lameness in dairy cattle in the United States, with prevalence estimates as high as 30%. Whereas clinical lesions have been well described, little is known about the morphologic changes that are associated with the early stages of lesion development from normal skin to clinical lesions. This study used the Iowa DD scoring system to evaluate the epidemiology of natural lesion development by digitally photographing the rear legs of a cohort of dairy cows over a 3-yr period. Sixty-one adult Holstein dairy cows were monitored for 1,032 cow foot-months. The incidence rate of lesion development was 4 lesions per 100 cow foot-months, with the average time for a lesion to develop being 133 d. Whereas 20% of the 1,678 foot observations exhibited clinical DD lesions, an additional 55% of all observations exhibited preclinical stage 1 and 2 lesions that were indicative of DD lesion development. Utilizing the dichotomous categorization of preclinical lesions in the Iowa DD scoring system, it was found that first-lactation heifers had a higher rate of the thickened and crusted "B" type lesions, whereas the ulcerative "A" type lesions were more likely to be identified in multiparous animals. For clinical DD lesions that received topical treatment, scoring of the post-treatment lesions using the Iowa DD scoring system was found to be useful in prognosticating both the risk of recrudescence and the time until recrudescence. Systemic disease, systemic antibiotic therapy, and periparturient stress were not associated with an increase or decrease in DD lesion scores. Treatment with a single topical tetracycline wrap was associated with a significant decrease (-1.17) in DD lesion score. The results of this study demonstrate that the complex morphologic changes associated with digital dermatitis can be readily classified using the Iowa DD scoring system and the scores can be used to predict and monitor the effects of treatment and

  4. Altered microbiomes in bovine digital dermatitis lesions, and the gut as a pathogen reservoir.

    PubMed

    Zinicola, Martin; Lima, Fabio; Lima, Svetlana; Machado, Vinicius; Gomez, Marilia; Döpfer, Dörte; Guard, Charles; Bicalho, Rodrigo

    2015-01-01

    Bovine digital dermatitis (DD) is the most important infectious disease associated with lameness in cattle worldwide. Since the disease was first described in 1974, a series of Treponema species concurrent with other microbes have been identified in DD lesions, suggesting a polymicrobial etiology. However, the pathogenesis of DD and the source of the causative microbes remain unclear. Here we characterized the microbiomes of healthy skin and skin lesions in dairy cows affected with different stages of DD and investigated the gut microbiome as a potential reservoir for microbes associated with this disease. Discriminant analysis revealed that the microbiomes of healthy skin, active DD lesions (ulcerative and chronic ulcerative) and inactive DD lesions (healing and chronic proliferative) are completely distinct. Treponema denticola, Treponema maltophilum, Treponema medium, Treponema putidum, Treponema phagedenis and Treponema paraluiscuniculi were all found to be present in greater relative abundance in active DD lesions when compared with healthy skin and inactive DD lesions, and these same Treponema species were nearly ubiquitously present in rumen and fecal microbiomes. The relative abundance of Candidatus Amoebophilus asiaticus, a bacterium not previously reported in DD lesions, was increased in both active and inactive lesions when compared with healthy skin. In conclusion, our data support the concept that DD is a polymicrobial disease, with active DD lesions having a markedly distinct microbiome dominated by T. denticola, T. maltophilum, T. medium, T. putidum, T. phagedenis and T. paraluiscuniculi. Furthermore, these Treponema species are nearly ubiquitously found in rumen and fecal microbiomes, suggesting that the gut is an important reservoir of microbes involved in DD pathogenesis. Additionally, the bacterium Candidatus Amoebophilus asiaticus was highly abundant in active and inactive DD lesions.

  5. Isolation and characterization of Treponema phagedenis-like spirochetes from digital dermatitis lesions in Swedish dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Pringle, Märit; Bergsten, Christer; Fernström, Lise-Lotte; Höök, Helena; Johansson, Karl-Erik

    2008-10-20

    Digital dermatitis in cattle is an emerging infectious disease. Ulcerative lesions are typically located on the plantar skin between the heel bulbs and adjacent to the coronet. Spirochetes of the genus Treponema are found in high numbers in the lesions and are likely to be involved in the pathogenesis. The aim of this study was to obtain pure cultures of spirochetes from cattle with digital dermatitis and to describe them further. Tissue samples and swabs from active digital dermatitis lesions were used for culturing. Pure isolates were subjected to, molecular typing through 16S rRNA gene sequencing, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and an intergenic spacer PCR developed for Treponema spp. as well as API-ZYM and antimicrobial susceptibility tests. The antimicrobial agents used were tiamulin, valnemulin, tylosin, aivlosin, lincomycin and doxycycline. Seven spirochete isolates from five herds were obtained. Both 16S rRNA gene sequences, which were identical except for three polymorphic nucleotide positions, and the intergenic spacer PCR indicated that all isolates were of one yet unnamed species, most closely related to Treponema phagedenis. The enzymatic profile and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern were also similar for all isolates. However it was possible to separate the isolates through their PFGE and RAPD banding pattern. This is the first report on isolation of a Treponema sp. from cattle with digital dermatitis in Scandinavia. The phylotype isolated has previously been cultured from samples from cattle in the USA and the UK and is closely related to T. phagedenis. While very similar, the isolates in this study were possible to differentiate through PFGE and RAPD indicating that these methods are suitable for subtyping of this phylotype. No antimicrobial resistance could be detected among the tested isolates.

  6. Isolation and characterization of Treponema phagedenis-like spirochetes from digital dermatitis lesions in Swedish dairy cattle

    PubMed Central

    Pringle, Märit; Bergsten, Christer; Fernström, Lise-Lotte; Höök, Helena; Johansson, Karl-Erik

    2008-01-01

    Background Digital dermatitis in cattle is an emerging infectious disease. Ulcerative lesions are typically located on the plantar skin between the heel bulbs and adjacent to the coronet. Spirochetes of the genus Treponema are found in high numbers in the lesions and are likely to be involved in the pathogenesis. The aim of this study was to obtain pure cultures of spirochetes from cattle with digital dermatitis and to describe them further. Methods Tissue samples and swabs from active digital dermatitis lesions were used for culturing. Pure isolates were subjected to, molecular typing through 16S rRNA gene sequencing, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and an intergenic spacer PCR developed for Treponema spp. as well as API-ZYM and antimicrobial susceptibility tests. The antimicrobial agents used were tiamulin, valnemulin, tylosin, aivlosin, lincomycin and doxycycline. Results Seven spirochete isolates from five herds were obtained. Both 16S rRNA gene sequences, which were identical except for three polymorphic nucleotide positions, and the intergenic spacer PCR indicated that all isolates were of one yet unnamed species, most closely related to Treponema phagedenis. The enzymatic profile and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern were also similar for all isolates. However it was possible to separate the isolates through their PFGE and RAPD banding pattern. Conclusion This is the first report on isolation of a Treponema sp. from cattle with digital dermatitis in Scandinavia. The phylotype isolated has previously been cultured from samples from cattle in the USA and the UK and is closely related to T. phagedenis. While very similar, the isolates in this study were possible to differentiate through PFGE and RAPD indicating that these methods are suitable for subtyping of this phylotype. No antimicrobial resistance could be detected among the tested isolates. PMID:18937826

  7. Isolation of Digital Dermatitis Treponemes from Hoof Lesions in Wild North American Elk (Cervus elaphus) in Washington State, USA

    PubMed Central

    Mansfield, K. G.; Newbrook, K.; Sullivan, L. E.; Blowey, R. W.; Carter, S. D.; Evans, N. J.

    2014-01-01

    Since 2008, a large increase in the numbers of cases of lameness have been seen in wild North American elk (Cervus elaphus) from Washington State, USA. The most recent cases manifested as foot lesions similar both clinically and pathologically to those seen in digital dermatitis (DD) in cattle and sheep, a disease with a bacterial etiopathogenesis. To determine whether the same bacteria considered responsible for DD are associated with elk lameness, lesion samples were subjected to bacterial isolation studies and PCR assays for three phylogroups of relevant DD treponemes. The DD treponemes were isolated from lesional tissues but not from control feet or other areas of the diseased foot (including the coronary band or interdigital space), suggesting that the bacteria are strongly associated with DD lesions and may therefore be causal. In addition, PCR analysis revealed that all three unique DD treponeme phylotypes were found in elk hoof disease, and in 23% of samples, all 3 DD-associated treponemes were present in lesions. Sequence analysis of the 16S rRNA gene showed that the elk lesion treponemes were phylogenetically almost identical to those isolated from cattle and sheep DD lesions. The isolates were particularly similar to two of the three culturable DD treponeme phylotypes: specifically, the Treponema medium/Treponema vincentii-like and Treponema phagedenis-like DD spirochetes. The third treponeme culturable phylogroup (Treponema pedis), although detected by PCR, was not isolated. This is the first report describing isolation of DD treponemes from a wildlife host, suggesting that the disease may be evolving to include a wider spectrum of cloven-hoofed animals. PMID:25355757

  8. Biochemical and molecular characterization of Treponema phagedenis-like spirochetes isolated from a bovine digital dermatitis lesion

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Bovine papillomatous digital dermatitis (DD) is the leading cause of lameness in dairy cattle and represents a serious welfare and economic burden. Found primarily in high production dairy cattle worldwide, DD is characterized by the development of an often painful red, raw ulcerative or papillomato...

  9. Randomized clinical trial of tetracycline hydrochloride bandage and paste treatments for resolution of lesions and pain associated with digital dermatitis in dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Cutler, J H Higginson; Cramer, G; Walter, J J; Millman, S T; Kelton, D F

    2013-01-01

    Digital dermatitis is an infectious disease that causes lameness in dairy cattle, a primary welfare concern of the dairy industry. One of the common treatments for this painful hoof disease is through the application of an antibiotic bandage that must be removed following treatment. The objectives of this randomized clinical trial were to determine if topical application of tetracycline hydrochloride in a paste would be as therapeutically effective for the treatment of digital dermatitis as a powdered form of tetracycline hydrochloride held in place by a bandage, and to quantify pain associated with digital dermatitis lesions. Two hundred and fourteen Holstein cow hooves with digital dermatitis lesions were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 treatments: a tetracycline hydrochloride paste, tetracycline hydrochloride powder held in place with a bandage for 2 d, or a negative (untreated) control. Lesions were examined at 2 time periods: 3 to 7 d posttreatment and 8 to 12 d posttreatment to determine healing rates. Nociceptive thresholds were measured using a pressure algometer to quantify the pain at the lesion site. The tetracycline hydrochloride paste was as effective as the powdered bandage treatment in terms of healing rates, with 47.4 and 57.1% hooves healed at 8 to 12 d posttreatment, respectively. Both treatments were more effective than the control, in which no lesions healed 8 to 12 d following initial examination. Mean (±SE) nociceptive thresholds for active, healing, and healed lesions differed, with limb-withdrawal response occurring at 7.45 (±0.67) kg, 12.84 (±1.85) kg, and censored to 25 kg (maximum value of algometer) of force applied, respectively. However, active lesions were not consistently associated with pain, as maximum force was tolerated when applied to 19% of active lesions, perhaps due to variability in stoicism between individual cattle or due to changes in pain during the progression of infection. In conclusion, tetracycline hydrochloride paste

  10. A clinical trial to assess the use of sodium hypochlorite and oxytetracycline on the healing of digital dermatitis lesions in cattle

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Abstract The increased frequency of diseases, especially those of the hoof, cause economic losses, such as premature culling of affected animals, decreased milk production, weight loss, reduced fertility, and the high costs of treatment. A great variety of hoof conditions may affect cattle, one of them is digital dermatitis. These conditions are probably due to multiple factorial diseases and present with similar clinical signs. Bovine lameness is typically treated by foot trimming and debridment of the lesions, coupled when necessary with systemic antibiotics and therapeutic footbaths, which results in a clinical cure in the majority of the cases. The objective of this study was to evaluate the topical action of sodium hypochlorite associated with the systemic use of oxytetracycline for the treatment of wounds clinically diagnosed as bovine digital dermatitis. One hundred and twenty Holstein cattle varying ages from 1 to 9 y and presenting the clinical signs of digital dermatitis, were used in this study. Group 1 (G1) received topical treatment with a 1% sodium hypochlorite footbath twice a day for 30 d and 4 treatments of parenteral oxytetracycline (10 mg/kg bodyweight, IM, q48h). Group 2 (G2) received only the topical treatment with 1% sodium hypochlorite, as described for G1. Group 3 (G3) received only with parenteral oxytetracycline, as described for G1. Group 4 (G4) was treated exclusively with a dicloro divynil pirrolidona, ortoiododimetil, para-nitofenil-fosforotioato in a vegetal tar-based ointment, immediately after the surgery. After 45 d, the recovery rates were as follows: G1, 86.67%; G2, 73.33%; G3, 56.67%; and G4, 50%. The surgical treatment of digital dermatitis with subsequent treatment with oxytetracycline systemically and 1% sodium hypochlorite topically was the most effective for the convalescence of cattle bearing wounds similar to digital dermatitis. PMID:15943122

  11. Biochemical and molecular characterization of Treponema phagedenis-like spirochetes isolated from a bovine digital dermatitis lesion

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Bovine papillomatous digital dermatitis (DD) is the leading cause of lameness in dairy cattle and represents a serious welfare and economic burden. Found primarily in high production dairy cattle worldwide, DD is characterized by the development of an often painful red, raw ulcerative or papillomatous lesion frequently located near the interdigital cleft and above the bulbs of the heel. While the exact etiology is unknown, several spirochete species have been isolated from lesion material. Four isolates of Treponema phagedenis-like spirochetes were isolated from dairy cows in Iowa. Given the distinct differences in host, environmental niche, and disease association, a closer analysis of phenotypic characteristics, growth characteristics, and genomic sequences of T. phagedenis, a human genitalia commensal, and the Iowa DD isolates was undertaken. Results Phenotypically, these isolates range from 8.0 to 9.7 μm in length with 6–8 flagella on each end. These isolates, like T. phagedenis, are strictly anaerobic, require serum and volatile fatty acids for growth, and are capable of fermenting fructose, mannitol, pectin, mannose, ribose, maltose, and glucose. Major glucose fermentation products produced are formate, acetate, and butyrate. Further study was conducted with a single isolate, 4A, showing an optimal growth pH of 7.0 (range of 6–8.5) and an optimal growth temperature of 40°C (range of 29°C-43°C). Comparison of partial genomic contigs of isolate 4A and contigs of T. phagedenis F0421 revealed > 95% amino acid sequence identity with amino acid sequence of 4A. In silico DNA-DNA whole genome hybridization and BLAT analysis indicated a DDH estimate of >80% between isolate 4A and T. phagedenis F0421, and estimates of 52.5% or less when compared to the fully sequenced genomes of other treponeme species. Conclusion Using both physiological, biochemical and genomic analysis, there is a lack of evidence for difference between T. phagedenis and

  12. Digital Dermatitis in Cattle: Current Bacterial and Immunological Findings

    PubMed Central

    Wilson-Welder, Jennifer H.; Alt, David P.; Nally, Jarlath E.

    2015-01-01

    Simple Summary Digital dermatitis causes lameness in cattle. Numerous studies have identified multiple bacteria associated with these painful lesions. Several types of a spiral shaped bacteria, Treponema species, are thought to play a role in disease development. Little is known about the immune response to bacteria involved in digital dermatitis. Local inflammatory cells can contribute to the non-healing nature of the disease. Animal models of infection are required to develop effective vaccines and treatments. Abstract Globally; digital dermatitis is a leading form of lameness observed in production dairy cattle. While the precise etiology remains to be determined; the disease is clearly associated with infection by numerous species of treponemes; in addition to other anaerobic bacteria. The goal of this review article is to provide an overview of the current literature; focusing on discussion of the polybacterial nature of the digital dermatitis disease complex and host immune response. Several phylotypes of treponemes have been identified; some of which correlate with location in the lesion and some with stages of lesion development. Local innate immune responses may contribute to the proliferative, inflammatory conditions that perpetuate digital dermatitis lesions. While serum antibody is produced to bacterial antigens in the lesions, little is known about cellular-based immunity. Studies are still required to delineate the pathogenic traits of treponemes associated with digital dermatitis; and other host factors that mediate pathology and protection of digital dermatitis lesions. PMID:26569318

  13. A randomized trial to evaluate the effect of a trace mineral premix on the incidence of active digital dermatitis lesions in cattle.

    PubMed

    Gomez, A; Bernardoni, N; Rieman, J; Dusick, A; Hartshorn, R; Read, D H; Socha, M T; Cook, N B; Döpfer, D

    2014-10-01

    A balanced, parallel-group, single-blinded randomized efficacy study divided into 2 periods was conducted to evaluate the effect of a premix containing higher than typically recommended levels of organic trace minerals and iodine (HOTMI) in reducing the incidence of active digital dermatitis (DD) lesions acquired naturally and induced by an experimental infection challenge model. For the natural exposure phase of the study, 120 healthy Holstein steers 5 to 7 mo of age without signs of hoof disease were randomized into 2 groups of 60 animals. The control group was fed a standard trace mineral supplement and the treatment group was fed the HOTMI premix, both for a period of 60 d. On d 60, 15 steers free of macroscopic DD lesions were randomly selected from each group for the challenge phase and transported to an experimental facility, where they were acclimated and then challenged within a DD infection model. The same diet group allocation was maintained during the 60 d of the challenge phase. The primary outcome measured was the development of an active DD lesion greater than 20mm in diameter across its largest dimension. No lesions were identified during the natural exposure phase. During the challenge phase, 55% (11/20) and 30% (6/20) of feet were diagnosed with an active DD lesion in the control and treatment groups, respectively. Diagnosis of DD was confirmed by histopathologic demonstration of invasive Treponema spp. within eroded and hyperplastic epidermis and ulcerated papillary dermis. All DD confirmed lesions had dark-field microscopic features compatible with DD and were positive for Treponema spp. by PCR. As a secondary outcome, the average DD lesion size observed in all feet was also evaluated. Overall mean (standard deviation) lesion size was 17.1 (2.36) mm and 11.1 (3.33) mm for the control and treatment groups, respectively, with this difference being driven by acute DD lesions >20mm. A trend existed for the HOTMI premix to reduce the total DD

  14. The etiology of digital dermatitis in ruminants: recent perspectives

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Digital dermatitis is a multifactorial polymicrobial infectious disease originally described in dairy cattle but is increasingly recognized in beef cattle, sheep and more recently, elk. Clinical bovine lesions typically appear on the plantar surface of the hind foot from the interdigital space and h...

  15. Contagious ovine digital dermatitis: an emerging disease.

    PubMed

    Duncan, J S; Angell, J W; Carter, S D; Evans, N J; Sullivan, L E; Grove-White, D H

    2014-09-01

    The novel sheep disease, contagious ovine digital dermatitis (CODD) was first described in the UK in 1997. The disease is characterised by severe lameness associated with initial inflammation at the coronary band, followed by progressive separation of the hoof capsule from the underlying tissue. On microbiological examination, treponeme bacteria have been frequently isolated from cases of CODD, including treponemes phylogenetically identical to those associated with bovine digital dermatitis (BDD). Dichelobacter nodosus and Fusobacterium necrophorum have also been isolated from CODD lesions although their role in the pathogenesis remains uncertain. While epidemiological data indicate that the prevalence of CODD is increasing in the UK, the routes of transmission and associated risk factors have not been clearly elucidated. Evidenced-based treatment trials indicate that parenteral administration of long-acting amoxicillin is an efficacious treatment for CODD, while anecdotal evidence suggests other antibiotics, given locally and/or parenterally, may also be beneficial. Further microbiological and epidemiological research is urgently required to develop sustainable control strategies, including the development of vaccines and appropriate biosecurity and farm management protocols. In this review current knowledge of the clinical, aetiological, and epidemiological aspects of CODD is assessed as well as approaches to its control.

  16. Identifying host pathogenic pathways in bovine digital dermatitis by RNA-Seq analysis.

    PubMed

    Scholey, R A; Evans, N J; Blowey, R W; Massey, J P; Murray, R D; Smith, R F; Ollier, W E; Carter, S D

    2013-09-01

    Digital dermatitis is a painful foot disease compromising welfare in dairy cattle. The disease has a complex multibacterial aetiology, but little is known about its pathogenesis. In this study, gene expression in skin biopsies from five bovine digital dermatitis lesions and five healthy bovine feet was compared using RNA-Seq technology. Differential gene expression was determined after mapping transcripts to the Btau 4.0 genome. Pathway analysis identified gene networks involving differentially expressed transcripts. Bovine digital dermatitis lesions had increased expression of mRNA for α2-macroglobulin-like 1, a protein potentially involved in bacterial immune evasion and bacterial survival. There was increased expression of keratin 6A and interleukin 1β mRNA in bovine digital dermatitis lesions, but reduced expression of most other keratin and keratin-associated genes. There was little evidence of local immune reactions to the bacterial infection present in lesions.

  17. The reliability of detecting digital dermatitis in the milking parlour.

    PubMed

    Stokes, J E; Leach, K A; Main, D C J; Whay, H R

    2012-09-01

    Digital dermatitis (DD) is currently the most problematic infectious skin disease in dairy cattle associated with lameness. Reducing the disease prevalence through early detection and treatment is an essential management tool. The traditional detection method involves lifting and inspecting the feet in a cattle crush, but this is a time intensive and costly practice and impractical for regular detection of individual cases or monitoring herd prevalence. This study aimed to establish the accuracy of detecting and classifying DD lesions in traditional (pit) milking parlours compared with a borescope, and a gold standard lifted foot inspection. With the exception of one lesion, parlour screening was as accurate as the lifted foot inspection in determining the presence of 86 DD lesions on 160 hind feet (99% agreement; κ 0.99; sensitivity 1.00; specificity 0.99). Describing lesions by colour, depth or stage of lesion in the parlour or using the borescope reached substantial agreement with the gold standard. The stage of lesion was closely linked to colour and depth descriptors. There was greater agreement when categorising more advanced stages of disease progression. Borescope and parlour inspections led to both over and under recording of actual size, particularly in smaller lesions. Screening cows in traditional milking parlours for the presence of DD was found to be an accurate and practical means of detecting lesions. This method should be considered for on farm use to evaluate DD prevention and treatment strategies.

  18. The effect of pre-calving environment on the development of digital dermatitis in first lactation heifers.

    PubMed

    Laven, R A; Logue, D N

    2007-09-01

    Digital dermatitis is commonly reported to be most severe in first lactation heifers. It has been suggested that this initial infection is followed by the development of a limited immunity to the organisms which cause digital dermatitis. If this is the case then exposure to digital dermatitis prior to calving should reduce its severity after calving. A study was undertaken to examine whether such exposure significantly affected the development of digital dermatitis post-partum. Twelve weeks prior to calving, 60 Holstein heifers were blocked on the basis of their antibody titre to Borrelia burgdorferi and randomly allocated to one of three pre-calving environments: clean straw, used straw or cubicles. There was no significant effect of pre-calving environment on the development of digital dermatitis after calving indicating that "exposure" pre-calving did not reduce the development of digital dermatitis after calving. The most important factors determining the development of digital dermatitis after calving were presence of absence of visible lesions of digital dermatitis at Week-12 and at calving.

  19. Lesion detectability in digital radiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gagne, Robert M.; Boswell, Jonathan S.; Myers, Kyle J.; Peter, Guillaume

    2001-06-01

    The usefulness of Fourier-based measures of imaging performance has come into question for the evaluation of digital imaging systems. Figures of merit such as detective quantum efficiency are relevant for linear, shift-invariant systems with stationary noise. However, no digital imaging system is shift invariant, and realistic images do not satisfy the stationarity condition. Our methods for task- based evaluation of imaging systems, based on lesion detectability, do not require such assumptions. We have computed the performance of Hotelling and nonprewhitening matched-filter observers for the task of lesion detection in digital radiography.

  20. Short communication: scoring of digital dermatitis during milking as an alternative to scoring in a hoof trimming chute.

    PubMed

    Thomsen, P T; Klaas, I C; Bach, K

    2008-12-01

    Digital dermatitis is a serious problem in dairy production in many countries. In many settings, it is important to evaluate the digital dermatitis status of individual cows or an entire dairy herd. Such an evaluation has traditionally been done in a hoof trimming chute. An evaluation in the milking parlor can take place without disturbing the cows to a large extent, it can be done using less labor compared with an evaluation in a hoof trimming chute, and is cheaper than using a chute. The objective was to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of a rapid screening method for digital dermatitis in the milking parlor, without using any specialized tools and taking approximately 15 s/cow. All lactating cows in 3 commercial Danish dairy herds were included. Cows were first scored for the presence of digital dermatitis during milking and the next day all cows were scored during hoof trimming. A 6-point nominal scoring system based on a visual inspection of the digital dermatitis lesions was used. For the analysis, the scores were dichotomized (digital dermatitis positive or digital dermatitis negative). Additionally, lesions were classified as small (diameter 2 cm). Sensitivity and specificity were calculated using observations from the hoof trimming chute as the "gold standard" and observations during milking as the diagnostic test. Relatively large variation was found between herds with an overall sensitivity of 0.65 (95% confidence interval: 0.59 to 0.72) and a specificity of 0.84 (0.81 to 0.87). The sensitivity increased to 0.69 (0.62 to 0.76), when only large lesions were assessed. The method has several advantages compared with evaluation in a chute and may be a useful tool in the daily hoof health management in dairy herds.

  1. Digital dermatitis in cattle: current bacterial and immunological findings

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Globally, digital dermatitis is a leading form of lameness observed in production dairy cattle. While the precise etiology remains to be determined, the disease is clearly associated with infection by numerous Treponema species in addition to other anaerobic bacteria. Multiple treponeme phylotypes, ...

  2. A Highly Effective Protocol for the Rapid and Consistent Induction of Digital Dermatitis in Holstein Calves

    PubMed Central

    Krull, Adam C.; Cooper, Vickie L.; Coatney, John W.; Shearer, Jan K.; Gorden, Patrick J.; Plummer, Paul J.

    2016-01-01

    Bovine Digital Dermatitis (DD) is a leading cause of lameness in dairy cattle. DD is reportedly increasing in prevalence in beef cattle feedlots of the US. The exact etiologic agent(s) responsible for the disease have yet to be determined. Multiple studies have demonstrated the presence of a variety of Treponema spp. within lesions. Attempts to reproduce clinically relevant disease using pure cultures of these organisms has failed to result in lesions that mirror the morphology and severity of naturally occurring lesions. This manuscript details the systematic development of an experimental protocol that reliably induces digital dermatitis lesions on a large enough scale to allow experimental evaluation of treatment and prevention measures. In total, 21 protocols from five experiments were evaluated on their effectiveness in inducing DD lesions in 126 Holstein calves (504 feet). The protocols varied in the type and concentration of inoculum, frequency of inoculation, duration the feet were wrapped, and type of experimental controls need to validate a successful induction. Knowledge gained in the first four experiments resulted in a final protocol capable of inducing DD lesions in 42 of 44 (95%) feet over a 28 day period. All induced lesions were macroscopically and microscopically identified as clinical DD lesions by individuals blinded to protocols. Lesions were also located at the site of inoculation in the palmer aspect of the interdigital space, and induced clinically measurable lameness in a significant portion of the calves. Collectively these results validate the model and provide a rapid and reliable means of inducing DD in large groups of calves. PMID:27119564

  3. Salvia plebeia suppresses atopic dermatitis-like skin lesions.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jin Kyeong; Oh, Hyun-Mee; Lee, Soyoung; Kwon, Taeg Kyu; Shin, Tae-Yong; Rho, Mun-Chual; Kim, Sang-Hyun

    2014-01-01

    Salvia plebeia R. Br. (Lamiaceae) has been used for folk medicines in Asian countries, including Korea and China, to treat skin inflammatory diseases and asthma. In this study, we investigated the effects of S. plebeia extract (SPE) on atopic dermatitis (AD)-like skin lesions and defined underlying mechanisms of action. We established an AD model in BALB/c mice by repeated local exposure of house dust mite extract (Dermatophagoides farinae extract, DFE) and 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) to the ears. Repeated alternative treatment of DFE/DNCB caused AD-like skin lesions. The oral administration of SPE decreased AD symptoms based on ear thickness and histopathological analysis, in addition to serum IgE and IgG2a levels. SPE suppressed mast cell infiltration into the ear and serum histamine level. SPE inhibited Th1/Th2/Th17 phenotype CD4(+) T lymphocytes expansion in the lymph node and the expression of Th1/Th2/Th17 cytokines in the ear tissue. To define the underlying mechanisms of action, the tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interferon (IFN)-γ activated human keratinocytes (HaCaT) model was used. SPE significantly suppressed the expression of cytokines and chemokines through the down-regulation of mitogen-activated protein kinases, nuclear factor-κB, and STAT1 in HaCaT cells. Taken together, our results suggest that SPE might be a candidate for the treatment of AD.

  4. Effect of a tea tree oil and organic acid footbath solution on digital dermatitis in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Smith, A C; Wood, C L; McQuerry, K J; Bewley, J M

    2014-01-01

    Copper sulfate is the industry gold standard footbath ingredient for controlling dairy cow digital dermatitis. However, when used footbath solutions are deposited on soil, high levels of copper in the soil may result, which can have toxic and negative effects on plant growth. An alternative to copper sulfate is Provita Hoofsure Endurance (Provita Eurotech Ltd., Omagh, UK), which is a biodegradable solution containing organic acids, tea tree oil, and wetting agents. The objective of this study was to quantify changes in digital dermatitis frequency when using Provita Hoofsure Endurance and copper sulfate in a split footbath in 3 commercial dairy herds. This study was conducted from January 5, 2012, to March 19, 2012, in 3 commercial Kentucky dairies with 120, 170, and 200 milking Holstein cows. None of the herds was using a footbath for digital dermatitis control before the study. Footbath solutions were delivered using a split footbath. During the study, a 3% Hoofsure Endurance solution for the left hooves and a 5% copper sulfate solution for the right hooves was used. Digital dermatitis was scored every 3wk using the M0 to M4 system, where M0=a claw free of signs of digital dermatitis; M1=a lesion <2cm that is not painful; M2=the ulcerative stage, with lesion diameter of >2cm, and painful to the touch; M3=the healing stage and covered by a scab; and M4=the chronic stage and characterized by dyskeratosis or proliferation of the surface that is generally not painful. McNemar's test statistic suggested that a statistically significant difference existed in the proportions of M1 and M2 lesions between the beginning and end of the study for both treatments. This indicates that each solution was effective in decreasing the proportion of M1 or M2 lesions from baseline to the last time point. A chi-square test calculated using PROC FREQUENCY of SAS (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC) indicated that no statistically significant relationship existed between the treatments among

  5. Detection and Isolation of Digital Dermatitis Treponemes from Bovine Pressure Sores.

    PubMed

    Clegg, S R; Crosby-Durrani, H E; Bell, J; Blundell, R; Blowey, R W; Carter, S D; Evans, N J

    2016-05-01

    Pressure sores cause severe pain and discomfort in hospitalized people and in farmed cattle and are often infected with unknown bacteria. Pressure sores occur on the upper legs of 6-10% of recumbent cattle and are generally considered to be caused by constant pressure, commonly on bony areas of the limbs. This study analyzed pressure sores taken from the upper limbs of 14 cattle using isolation in culture and nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to detect treponemes associated with digital dermatitis (DD). A 100% association of DD treponemes with the pressure sores was demonstrated, but treponemes were shown not to be part of the normal skin microbiota. Immunohistochemistry showed an association of DD treponemes with lesions and particularly with the hair follicles in lesions, identifying the bacteria deep within wounds, thereby suggesting that they could contribute to lesion pathogenesis. The bacteria isolated from the pressure sore lesions were similar or identical on analysis of the 16S rRNA gene to those found in DD foot lesions in cattle, suggesting the same bacteria can infect multiple lesions. Indeed, the results of this study suggest that these spirochaetal bacteria may be expanding in host range and in their ability to colonize different tissues and contribute to a range of disease manifestations in farm animals.

  6. Effectiveness of salicylic acid paste for treatment of digital dermatitis in dairy cows compared with tetracycline spray and hydrotherapy.

    PubMed

    Kofler, Johann; Innerebner, Carmen; Pesenhofer, Robert; Hangl, Andreas; Tichy, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    The effectiveness of salicylic acid paste (PASTE) was tested for topical treatment of 25 acute and 25 chronic digital dermatitis (DD) lesions. Control groups with the same number of acute and chronic DD lesions were treated with topical oxytetracycline spray (SPRAY) and by washing only with water (HYDRO) respectively. The therapeutic effects were evaluated using a pain score, the healing rate, the lesion size and other parameters. Pre-treatment and control examinations were carried out on day 0, 4, 14 and 21. In the PASTE group, 76.0% of acute DD lesions were pain free and 64.0% of acute DD lesions were healed on day 21 showing a normal skin surface (MO). Only 28.0% of acute DD lesions treated with SPRAY and 16.0% treated with HYDRO had healed on day 21. A significantly higher healing rate was revealed in acute lesions for the PASTE compared to the HYDRO group (p < 0.05) for all three re-checks, and for the PASTE group compared with the SPRAY group (p < 0.05) for day 4 and day 14. Healing rates of chronic DD lesions were higher in the PASTE group with 44.0% on day 14 and 36.0% on day 21, compared with 16.0% in the SPRAY and 32.0% in the HYDRO group on day 14, and 20.0% (SPRAY) and 28.0% (HYDRO) on day 21 respectively. The recurrence rate of lesions after they had healed during the study period was 14.5% in total. Digital dermatitis lesions treated with salicylic acid paste and a wrap showed significantly higher healing rates within the study period, odds ratios for healing of acute lesions with PASTE were 4.5 to 6.7 times higher than with SPRAY, and 9.3 to 36.4 higher compared with HYDRO.

  7. Microbial diversity in bovine papillomatous digital dermatitis in Holstein dairy cows from upstate New York.

    PubMed

    Santos, Thiago M A; Pereira, Richard V; Caixeta, Luciano S; Guard, Charles L; Bicalho, Rodrigo C

    2012-02-01

    Papillomatous digital dermatitis (PDD) is one of the most prevalent diseases of cattle, adversely affecting the dairy industry by its negative effect on milk production and reproductive performance. Our objective was to use culture-independent methods to determine the microbial diversity in different strata of PDD lesions of three Holstein dairy cows, analyzing whether major differences exist compared to foot skin of three non-infected cows. Both group-specific 16S rRNA gene PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and clone library sequencing of broad-range 16S rRNA gene showed differences between the microbial composition of healthy dairy cows and the different strata of the lesion. The predominant bacterial community in the lesion, regardless of the stratum, consisted of 166 specific phylotypes belonging to seven bacterial phyla. Spirochetes (particularly, treponemes) was the most prominent group detected in PDD deep biopsies and was only found in samples from the lesion. Additionally, one phylotype phylogenetically affiliated with uncultured Euryarchaeota was detected in two strata of the lesion. Sequences from healthy foot skin samples revealed 86 specific phylotypes that were affiliated with Firmicutes and Proteobacteria. Our study corroborates the theory that treponemes are involved in PDD disease etiology and suggests, for the first time, the presence of archaeal members in this particular bovine infection. © 2011 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Short communication: Efficacy of copper sulfate hoof baths against digital dermatitis--Where is the evidence?

    PubMed

    Thomsen, Peter T

    2015-04-01

    Digital dermatitis is a major problem in modern dairy production because of decreased animal welfare and financial losses. Individual cow treatments are often seen as too time consuming by farmers, and walk-through hoof baths have therefore been used extensively to control digital dermatitis. For decades, copper sulfate hoof baths have been used to treat and prevent digital dermatitis. Copper sulfate has been referred to as the industry gold standard when it comes to hoof-bath chemicals. In several scientific studies testing the efficacy of other hoof-care products, copper sulfate has been used as a positive control, thereby indicating that copper sulfate has a known positive effect. However, this may not be the case. A dilemma may exist between (1) copper sulfate generally being perceived as being effective against digital dermatitis and (2) a possible lack of well-documented scientific evidence of this effect. The objective of this study was to evaluate the existing scientific literature to determine whether the efficacy of copper sulfate used in hoof baths against digital dermatitis has in fact been demonstrated scientifically. A systematic literature search identified 7 peer-reviewed journal articles describing the efficacy of copper sulfate in hoof baths as treatment or prevention of bovine digital dermatitis. Only 2 of the 7 studies compared copper sulfate to a negative control; most studies were relatively small, and often no clear positive effect of copper sulfate was demonstrated. In conclusion, the frequent claim that copper sulfate is widely reported to be effective is supported by little scientific evidence. Well-designed clinical trials evaluating the effect of copper sulfate against digital dermatitis compared with a negative control are needed. Until such studies have been made, the efficacy of copper sulfate in hoof baths against digital dermatitis remains largely unproven. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier

  9. Shotgun Metagenomic Sequencing Reveals Functional Genes and Microbiome Associated with Bovine Digital Dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Zinicola, Martin; Higgins, Hazel; Lima, Svetlana; Machado, Vinicius; Guard, Charles; Bicalho, Rodrigo

    2015-01-01

    Metagenomic methods amplifying 16S ribosomal RNA genes have been used to describe the microbial diversity of healthy skin and lesion stages of bovine digital dermatitis (DD) and to detect critical pathogens involved with disease pathogenesis. In this study, we characterized the microbiome and for the first time, the composition of functional genes of healthy skin (HS), active (ADD) and inactive (IDD) lesion stages using a whole-genome shotgun approach. Metagenomic sequences were annotated using MG-RAST pipeline. Six phyla were identified as the most abundant. Firmicutes and Actinobacteria were the predominant bacterial phyla in the microbiome of HS, while Spirochetes, Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria were highly abundant in ADD and IDD. T. denticola-like, T. vincentii-like and T. phagedenis-like constituted the most abundant species in ADD and IDD. Recruitment plots comparing sequences from HS, ADD and IDD samples to the genomes of specific Treponema spp., supported the presence of T. denticola and T. vincentii in ADD and IDD. Comparison of the functional composition of HS to ADD and IDD identified a significant difference in genes associated with motility/chemotaxis and iron acquisition/metabolism. We also provide evidence that the microbiome of ADD and IDD compared to that of HS had significantly higher abundance of genes associated with resistance to copper and zinc, which are commonly used in footbaths to prevent and control DD. In conclusion, the results from this study provide new insights into the HS, ADD and IDD microbiomes, improve our understanding of the disease pathogenesis and generate unprecedented knowledge regarding the functional genetic composition of the digital dermatitis microbiome.

  10. Deep Sequencing Analysis Reveals Temporal Microbiota Changes Associated with Development of Bovine Digital Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Krull, Adam C.; Shearer, Jan K.; Gorden, Patrick J.; Cooper, Vickie L.; Phillips, Gregory J.

    2014-01-01

    Bovine digital dermatitis (DD) is a leading cause of lameness in dairy cattle throughout the world. Despite 35 years of research, the definitive etiologic agent associated with the disease process is still unknown. Previous studies have demonstrated that multiple bacterial species are associated with lesions, with spirochetes being the most reliably identified organism. This study details the deep sequencing-based metagenomic evaluation of 48 staged DD biopsy specimens collected during a 3-year longitudinal study of disease progression. Over 175 million sequences were evaluated by utilizing both shotgun and 16S metagenomic techniques. Based on the shotgun sequencing results, there was no evidence of a fungal or DNA viral etiology. The bacterial microbiota of biopsy specimens progresses through a systematic series of changes that correlate with the novel morphological lesion scoring system developed as part of this project. This scoring system was validated, as the microbiota of each stage was statistically significantly different from those of other stages (P < 0.001). The microbiota of control biopsy specimens were the most diverse and became less diverse as lesions developed. Although Treponema spp. predominated in the advanced lesions, they were in relatively low abundance in the newly described early lesions that are associated with the initiation of the disease process. The consortium of Treponema spp. identified at the onset of disease changes considerably as the lesions progress through the morphological stages identified. The results of this study support the hypothesis that DD is a polybacterial disease process and provide unique insights into the temporal changes in bacterial populations throughout lesion development. PMID:24866801

  11. Deep sequencing analysis reveals temporal microbiota changes associated with development of bovine digital dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Krull, Adam C; Shearer, Jan K; Gorden, Patrick J; Cooper, Vickie L; Phillips, Gregory J; Plummer, Paul J

    2014-08-01

    Bovine digital dermatitis (DD) is a leading cause of lameness in dairy cattle throughout the world. Despite 35 years of research, the definitive etiologic agent associated with the disease process is still unknown. Previous studies have demonstrated that multiple bacterial species are associated with lesions, with spirochetes being the most reliably identified organism. This study details the deep sequencing-based metagenomic evaluation of 48 staged DD biopsy specimens collected during a 3-year longitudinal study of disease progression. Over 175 million sequences were evaluated by utilizing both shotgun and 16S metagenomic techniques. Based on the shotgun sequencing results, there was no evidence of a fungal or DNA viral etiology. The bacterial microbiota of biopsy specimens progresses through a systematic series of changes that correlate with the novel morphological lesion scoring system developed as part of this project. This scoring system was validated, as the microbiota of each stage was statistically significantly different from those of other stages (P < 0.001). The microbiota of control biopsy specimens were the most diverse and became less diverse as lesions developed. Although Treponema spp. predominated in the advanced lesions, they were in relatively low abundance in the newly described early lesions that are associated with the initiation of the disease process. The consortium of Treponema spp. identified at the onset of disease changes considerably as the lesions progress through the morphological stages identified. The results of this study support the hypothesis that DD is a polybacterial disease process and provide unique insights into the temporal changes in bacterial populations throughout lesion development. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  12. Increased numbers of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in lesional skin of cats with allergic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Roosje, P J; van Kooten, P J; Thepen, T; Bihari, I C; Rutten, V P; Koeman, J P; Willemse, T

    1998-07-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize T cells in the skin of cats with an allergic dermatitis histologically compatible with atopic dermatitis, since T cells play an important role in the pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis in humans. We observed a significantly greater number of T cells in lesional skin of domestic short-haired cats with allergic dermatitis (n = 10; median age 5.8 years) than in the skin of healthy control animals (n = 10; median age 5.0 years). In the skin of the healthy control animals, one or two CD4+ cells and no CD8+ cells were found. A predominant increase of CD4+ T cells and a CD4+/CD8+ ratio (mean +/- SD: 3.9 +/- 2.0) was found in the lesional skin of 10 cats with allergic dermatitis. The CD4+/CD8+ cell ratio in the skin of healthy control animals could not be determined because of the absence of CD8+ cells. The CD4+/CD8+ cell ratio in the peripheral blood of 10 cats with allergic dermatitis (mean +/- SD: 1.9 +/- 0.4) did not differ significantly from that in 10 healthy control animals (2.2 +/- 0.4). The CD4+/CD8+ cell ratio and predominance of CD4+ T cells in the lesional skin of cats with allergic dermatitis is comparable to that found in atopic dermatitis in humans. In addition, the observed increase of CD4+ T cells in the nonlesional skin of cats with allergic dermatitis compared to the skin of healthy cats is similar to what is seen in humans. Cytokines produced by T cells and antigen-specific T cells are important mediators in the inflammatory cascade resulting in atopic dermatitis in humans. This study is a first step to investigate their role in feline allergic dermatitis.

  13. Clinical and gross pathologic findings of complicated vertical fissures with digital dermatitis in a dairy herd.

    PubMed

    Nouri, Mohsen; Ashrafi Helan, Javad

    2012-01-01

    Careful antemortem examination and interpretation of findings, assisted by good clinical records, do much to throw light on the nature of vertical fissure in cattle. During an eight month period of investigation, 13 (3.2%) lame cows with vertical fissure out of 52 Holstein cows with different claw fissures were selected for clinical and gross pathological purposes in a commercial dairy farm with 400 milking cows in Nazarabad, Iran. The cows were 2.5 to10.5 years old. The prevalence rate of vertical fissure was 3.2 per cent. The prevalence rate of claw lesion in the hind limb (69.2%) was higher than that of fore limb (30.7%). The type of vertical fissures were 4 (38.4%), 5 (23.0%), 2 (23.0%) and 3 (15.3%), respectively. Locomotion scoring assessment of 13 culled lame cows showed score ranged from grade 3 (30.7%) to 4 (61.5%). The herd had endemic digital dermatitis infection with prevalence in the adult herd of over 34.2%. The affected claws were more boxy than normal and the abaxial wall was convex in all directions. The lame cows had typical stance such as hobbyhorse or cross legged stance. This study shows that more research is needed both on the economic impact of vertical fissures in dairy cows and on the microbiological study of spirochaetes of the genus Treponema. This study recommends that owners of dairy farm should try to control digital dermatitis with preventative herd strategies.

  14. Histomorphology and Immunophenotype of Eczematous Skin Lesions Revisited-Skin Biopsies Are Not Reliable in Differentiating Allergic Contact Dermatitis, Irritant Contact Dermatitis, and Atopic Dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Frings, Verena G; Böer-Auer, Almut; Breuer, Kristine

    2017-03-10

    Lesions of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD), irritant contact dermatitis (ICD), and atopic dermatitis (AD) share similar clinical features and thus, their diagnosis can be challenging. The aim of this study was to reassess histopathology and immunophenotyping properties to distinguish between ACD, ICD, and AD. Charts of patients with eczema, who had undergone complete routine diagnostic workup (skin biopsies, patch tests, skin prick tests, and respectively or serum IgE levels), were reviewed. Thirty-five skin biopsy specimens of 28 patients (mean age 64 ± 15 years; ♀ = 13 ♂ = 15) with clear diagnosis of ACD (n = 15), ICD (n = 6), or AD (n = 14) were analyzed. Histomorphological and immunohistochemical (CD3, CD4, CD8, CD11c, CD34, CD123, S100, and IL-17) parameters were evaluated using Kruskal-Wallis test, Wilcoxon test, Fisher exact test, and decision tree analysis. Eosinophils were statistically significant (P = 0.0184), more often observed in AD than in ACD or ICD. No other statistically significant differences were found with regard to epidermal patterns, patterns of dermal infiltrates, or immunophenotyping. Using predictive modeling approaches, dermal eosinophils were found to be associated with AD, necrotic epidermal keratinocytes with ICD, and a focal type of parakeratosis with ACD. As an additional finding, pseudo-Pautrier microabscesses, which were present in the skin of 2 AD and 2 ACD patients, contained myeloid dendritic cells (CD11c-+). Differentiation of ACD, ICD, and AD should be based on clinical features and results of allergy tests. Histopathology does not reliably differentiate between ACD, ICD, and AD, but helps to exclude psoriasis, tinea, or T-cell lymphoma.

  15. Risk factors for increased rates of sole ulcers, white line disease, and digital dermatitis in dairy cattle from twenty-seven farms in England and Wales.

    PubMed

    Barker, Z E; Amory, J R; Wright, J L; Mason, S A; Blowey, R W; Green, L E

    2009-05-01

    Claw lesion treatment records were recorded by farmers on 27 dairy farms (3,074 cows, 36,432 records) in England and Wales between February 2003 and February 2004. These were combined with farm environment and management data collected using a combination of direct observations, interviews with farmers, and milk recording data. Multilevel models were constructed for the 3 most frequently reported lesions related to lameness, namely, sole ulcers, white line disease, and digital dermatitis. Risks associated with an increased incidence of sole ulcers were parity 4 or greater, the use of roads or concrete cow tracks between the parlor and grazing, the use of lime on free stalls, and housing in free stalls with sparse bedding for 4 mo or more. The risks for white line disease were increasing parity and increasing herd size, cows at pasture by day and housed at night, and solid grooved concrete floors in yards or alleys. Solid grooved flooring was also associated with an increased risk of digital dermatitis, and cows 6 or more months after calving had a decreased risk of a first case of digital dermatitis. These results improve our understanding of the specific risks for 3 important lesions associated with bovine lameness and could be used as interventions in future clinical studies targeted at the reduction of specific lesions.

  16. Targeting the treponemal microbiome of digital dermatitis infections by high-resolution phylogenetic analyses and comparison with fluorescent in situ hybridization.

    PubMed

    Klitgaard, Kirstine; Foix Bretó, Antoni; Boye, Mette; Jensen, Tim K

    2013-07-01

    Modern pyrosequencing technology allows for a more comprehensive approach than traditional Sanger sequencing for elucidating the etiology of bovine digital dermatitis. We sought to describe the composition and diversity of treponemes in digital dermatitis lesions by using deep sequencing of the V3 and V4 hypervariable regions of the 16S rRNA gene coupled with species-level taxonomic identification. Treponema-specific 16S rRNA gene PCRs and pyrosequencing were performed on biopsy specimens originating from 10 different Catalan dairy herds (n = 36) with digital dermatitis, and this analysis yielded 75,297 sequences. We identified 20 different taxa, including a potentially novel phylotype that displayed 95% sequence identity to members of the Treponema denticola/Treponema pedis-like cluster. Species frequencies and abundances that were determined by pyrosequencing analysis were highly correlated with the results of fluorescent in situ hybridization using phylotype-specific oligonucleotide probes. In a limited number of animals from a single geographic region, we detected most of the Treponema phylotypes that were described in previous investigations of digital dermatitis. Additionally, we identified a number of phylotypes that mapped to oral treponemes of humans and dogs that had not been reported for digital dermatitis lesions. The results presented here support previous observations of a polytreponemal etiology of infections, with Treponema phagedenis-like, Treponema medium/Treponema vincentii-like, and T. denticola/T. pedis-like phylotypes being highly associated with disease. Using this new approach, it has become feasible to study large herds and their surrounding environments, which might provide a basis for a better understanding of the pathogenesis of this disease.

  17. Bovine digital dermatitis: Current concepts from laboratory to farm.

    PubMed

    Evans, N J; Murray, R D; Carter, S D

    2016-05-01

    Bovine digital dermatitis (DD) is a severe infectious disease causing lameness in dairy cattle worldwide and is an important ruminant welfare problem that has considerable economic issues. Bovine DD is endemic in many regions worldwide and it is important to understand this major disease so that effective control strategies can be identified. There is substantial evidence that specific treponeme phylotypes play an important causative role in bovine DD. This review considers current research, including DD Treponema spp. investigations, associated DD pathobiology, and current and potential treatment and control options. Epidemiological data, alongside new microbiological data, help delineate important transmission routes and reservoirs of infection that allow effective interventions to be identified. Better on-farm housing hygiene, pasture access, routine footbathing and claw trimming with disinfected equipment need to be implemented to significantly reduce the incidence of DD. There is a paucity of peer reviewed research into both commonly used and novel treatments. In vitro antimicrobial susceptibility studies of DD treponemes and effective treatment of human treponematoses clearly indicate that antibiotics frequently selected for DD treatments are not the most efficacious. Whilst there are understandable concerns over milk withdrawal times in dairy cattle, more needs to be done to identify, license and implement more appropriate antibiotic treatments, since continued overuse of less efficacious antibiotics, applied incorrectly, will lead to increased disease recurrence and transmission. More research is needed into methods of preventing DD that circumvent the use of antibiotics, including vaccination and transmission blocking studies, to reduce or hopefully eradicate DD in the future. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Staphylococcus aureus Colonization in Acute and Chronic Skin Lesions of Patients with Atopic Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hae-Young; Kim, Cho-Rok; Huh, Ik-Soo; Jung, Mi-Young; Seo, Eun-Young; Park, Ji-Hye; Lee, Dong-Youn

    2013-01-01

    Background Staphylococcus aureus (SA) has peculiar abilities to colonize the skin in atopic dermatitis (AD) patients. Objective We sought to determine the colonization rates of SA in acute and chronic skin lesions of AD patients, to find any difference in colonization rates according to age and to find the influences of total immunoglobulin E (IgE) and eosinophil counts to the colonization of SA. Methods We evaluated the total IgE level and eosinophil counts, and cultured SA from the skin lesions of 687 AD patients (131 acute and 556 chronic skin lesions) and 247 control urticaria patients (July 2009 to November 2010; Samsung Medical Center Dermatology Clinic, Seoul, Korea). Results The SA colonization rates were 74%, 38% and 3% in acute, chronic skin lesions and control skin, respectively, and they were increased with age in AD patients. The colonization rate in chronic skin lesions was higher in the high IgE/eosinophilia groups as compared to the normal IgE/eosinophil groups. Conclusion The SA colonization rate was higher in AD patients and especially in acute lesions, and had a tendency to increase with age. As the colonization rates were only higher in the high IgE/eosinophilia groups of chronic skin lesions, we suggested that SA may invade the skin through barrier defects in acute skin lesions, but the colonization in chronic lesions may be orchestrated through many different factors. PMID:24371386

  19. Efficacy of salicylic acid in the treatment of digital dermatitis in dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Schultz, N; Capion, N

    2013-11-01

    Digital dermatitis (DD) is one of the most important causes of lameness in dairy cattle worldwide. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of salicylic acid in the treatment of the disease. A total of 201 DD lesions from 173 cows from four commercial dairy herds were evaluated at day 0 during routine hoof trimming and were allocated into two groups, namely, a control group given chlortetracycline spray, and a treatment group given 10 g of salicylic acid powder applied topically within a bandage. Pain, lesion size and clinical appearance (scored M0 to M4) were evaluated on days 3, 14 and 34 post-treatment. A change to M0 was defined as healing, while changes of M2 or M4 to M1 or M3 were classified as clinical improvements. Healing rates did not differ significantly between treatment groups at days 3 and 14. By day 34 the healing rate was fivefold better (P=0.01) for the treatment vs. the control group, with healing rates of 13.6% and 3.1%, respectively. By day 3, the rate of improvement was 2.5-fold better (P=0.02) for the controls. By day 34 the overall positive effect (i.e. healing and improvement) was 1.75-fold better (P=0.05) for the treatment group. Lesions from the control group were 2.2 times more likely (P=0.09) to have a pain score equal to 2 by day 14. The proportion of lesions getting smaller by days 14 and 34 was 2.5 times higher (P<0.08) for the treatment vs. the control group. The findings suggest salicylic acid should be considered as an alternative to chlortetracycline for the treatment of DD as it appears more efficacious and would assist in reducing antibiotic use.

  20. Increased transepidermal water loss and decreased ceramide content in lesional and non-lesional skin of dogs with atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Shimada, Kenichiro; Yoon, Ji-Seon; Yoshihara, Toru; Iwasaki, Toshiroh; Nishifuji, Koji

    2009-10-01

    This study evaluated changes in transepidermal water loss (TEWL), skin hydration and intercorneal lipid content in dogs with atopic dermatitis (AD). TEWL and skin hydration were measured in the inguinal skin of 10 dogs with AD and 30 normal dogs. TEWL was significantly higher in both lesional skin (94.3 +/- 38.8 g/m(2)/h) and non-lesional skin (28.8 +/- 9.5) of dogs with AD than healthy controls (12.3 +/- 2.3) (P < 0.05). Water content in the lesional skin of dogs with AD (15.8 +/- 7.0 AU) was significantly lower than that of controls (24.2 +/- 8.8) (P < 0.05), whereas no significant differences were recognized in water content between non-lesional skin of dogs with AD and controls. To compare the lipid content between lesional and non-lesional skin of dogs with AD and controls, intercorneal lipids, extracted from the stratum corneum, were quantified by thin-layer chromatography. The relative amounts of ceramides in the lesional skin (24.4 +/- 5.6%) and non-lesional skin (25.6 +/- 3.8%) of dogs with AD were significantly lower than those in controls (31.4 +/- 6.9%) (P < 0.05). Conversely, no significant differences were recognized in the relative amounts of cholesterols and free fatty acids (FFA) between dogs with AD and controls. Moreover, there are statistical correlations between TEWL and the relative amounts of ceramides, but not those of cholesterols and FFA, in both lesional and non-lesional skin of dogs with AD. These results strongly suggest that decreased ceramide content accelerates TEWL in dogs with AD, similar to the situation seen in the corresponding human disease.

  1. Farm and cow-level prevalence of bovine digital dermatitis on dairy farms in Taranaki, New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Yang, D A; Heuer, C; Laven, R; Vink, W D; Chesterton, R N

    2017-09-01

    The aims of this cross-sectional study were to investigate the herd and cow-level prevalence of bovine digital dermatitis (BDD) in dairy farms in the northern Taranaki region of New Zealand, and to identify whether there was any spatial clustering of herds with the disease. A survey of 224 dairy farms in the northern Taranaki region of New Zealand was undertaken from September 2014 to February 2015. Following training in robust criteria to confirm BDD visually, a technician inspected the rear feet of every milking cow on the farms during milking. The identity of cows with lesions and the feet involved were recorded. The proportion of cows affected among the inspected population (cow-level prevalence), the proportion of a herd affected (farm-level prevalence), and proportion of farms with ≥1 cow with lesions, were calculated. A bivariate K function analysis was then used to assess whether farms with ≥1 cow with lesions were clustered, after accounting for the distribution of the farms involved in the study. Bovine digital dermatitis lesions were observed on 143/224 (63.8 (95% CI=57.5-70.1)%) farms. Within-farm prevalence was 0% on 81 (36.2%) farms, between >0 and <3% on 120 (53.5%) farms, with a maximum prevalence of 12.7% on one farm. Overall, cow-level prevalence was 707/60,455 (1.2 (95% CI=0.9-3.0)%), and on affected farms was 707/41,116 (1.7 (95% CI=1.4-2.1)%). In affected cows, 268/707 (37.9%) had a lesion on left foot only, 262/707 (37.1%) on the right foot only and 177/707 (25.0%) on both feet. The K function analysis showed no evidence of clustering of farms with BDD. Bovine digital dermatitis was widespread among the survey farms, but there was no evidence that there was any clustering of herds with BDD. The cow-level prevalence on affected farms was much lower than reported elsewhere. Although the prevalence at the cow level was low, if these data are representative of other regions of New Zealand, BDD could easily become a major problem on dairy farms

  2. Curative effect of topical treatment of digital dermatitis with a gel containing activated copper and zinc chelate

    PubMed Central

    Holzhauer, M.; Bartels, C. J.; van Barneveld, M.; Vulders, C.; Lam, T.

    2011-01-01

    The efficacy of two topical treatments for painful ulcerative stage (M2) of bovine digital dermatitis (BDD) lesions was compared in a clinical trial conducted on five dairy farms in 2009 to 2010. The first treatment was a water-based gel with active components copper and zinc (Intra Hoof-fit gel [IHF]) and the second treatment was a topical chlortetracycline spray (CTC spray). The experimental unit for this study was the hindleg with the presence of a BDD lesion. Cure was defined as the transition of an M2 lesion into a healed (M0) or a non-painful chronic stage (M4) of BDD at D28. On day 0, cows with M2 BDD lesions were photographed and were treated with either IHF or CTC. Subsequently, feet were photographed and scored on D28. The cure rate of M2 BDD lesions treated with IHF at D28 was 0.92 (CI 0.84 to 0.96) and was significantly better than for M2 BDD lesions treated with CTC, which was 0.58 (CI 0.47 to 0.68). PMID:21957114

  3. Short communication: Prevalence of digital dermatitis in Canadian dairy cattle classified as high, average, or low antibody- and cell-mediated immune responders.

    PubMed

    Cartwright, S L; Malchiodi, F; Thompson-Crispi, K; Miglior, F; Mallard, B A

    2017-10-01

    Lameness is a major animal welfare issue affecting Canadian dairy producers, and it can lead to production, reproduction, and health problems in dairy cattle herds. Although several different lesions affect dairy cattle hooves, studies show that digital dermatitis is the most common lesion identified in Canadian dairy herds. It has also been shown that dairy cattle classified as having high immune response (IR) have lower incidence of disease compared with those animals with average and low IR; therefore, it has been hypothesized that IR plays a role in preventing infectious hoof lesions. The objective of this study was to compare the prevalence of digital dermatitis in Canadian dairy cattle that were classified for antibody-mediated (AMIR) and cell-mediated (CMIR) immune response. Cattle (n = 329) from 5 commercial dairy farms in Ontario were evaluated for IR using a patented test protocol that captures both AMIR and CMIR. Individuals were classified as high, average, or low responders based on standardized residuals for AMIR and CMIR. Residuals were calculated using a general linear model that included the effects of herd, parity, stage of lactation, and stage of pregnancy. Hoof health data were collected from 2011 to 2013 by the farm's hoof trimmer using Hoof Supervisor software (KS Dairy Consulting Inc., Dresser, WI). All trim events were included for each animal, and lesions were assessed as a binary trait at each trim event. Hoof health data were analyzed using a mixed model that included the effects of herd, stage of lactation (at trim date), parity (at trim date), IR category (high, average, and low), and the random effect of animal. All data were presented as prevalence within IR category. Results showed that cows with high AMIR had significantly lower prevalence of digital dermatitis than cattle with average and low AMIR. No significant difference in prevalence of digital dermatitis was observed between high, average, and low CMIR cows. These results

  4. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of bovine digital dermatitis treponemes identifies macrolides for in vivo efficacy testing.

    PubMed

    Evans, N J; Brown, J M; Hartley, C; Smith, R F; Carter, S D

    2012-12-07

    Digital dermatitis (DD) is a major infectious lameness of dairy cattle and sheep considered to be caused by treponemes. The aim of this study was to identify antibiotics effective against DD treponemes that might be useful in the treatment of ruminant DD in the future or to identify antibiotics useful in isolation studies. Here, a microdilution method was used to identify in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility of treponemes cultured from DD lesions to eight relevant antibiotics. DD treponemes exhibited highest susceptibility to amoxicillin, azithromycin and gamithromycin. Unfortunately, amoxicillin whilst having potential for DD treatment in other animals (e.g. sheep) would require milk withhold periods in dairy cattle. DD treponemes were not particularly susceptible to two cephalosporins: cefalexin and ceftiofur, which do not require milk withhold. The bacteria demonstrated low susceptibility to trimethoprim and especially colistin suggesting these antimicrobials may be particularly useful in isolation of DD treponemes. The most promising high susceptibility results for macrolides indicate a rationale to consider veterinary licensed macrolides as DD treatments. Furthermore, given the DD treponeme antibiotic susceptibility similarities to established treatments for human treponematoses, identification of treponemacidal, long acting β-lactam analogues not requiring milk withhold may allow for development of a successful treatment for dairy cattle DD.

  5. Inhibitory effect of galangin on atopic dermatitis-like skin lesions.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jin Kyeong; Kim, Sang-Hyun

    2014-06-01

    Galangin is a member of the flavonol class of flavonoids having anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative potential. Previously we reported the inhibitory effect of galangin on the mast cell-mediated allergic inflammation. For incremental research, we investigated the effects of galangin on atopic dermatitis (AD)-like skin lesions and underlying mechanisms of action. We established an atopic dermatitis model in BALB/c mice by repeated local exposure of house dust mite (Dermatophagoides farinae) extract (DFE) and 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) to the ears. Repeated alternative treatment of DFE/DNCB caused AD-like skin lesions. Topical application of galangin reduced AD symptoms based on ear thickness and histopathological analysis, in addition to serum IgE and IgG2a levels. Galangin inhibited mast cell infiltration into the ear and serum histamine level. Galangin suppressed DFE/DNCB-induced expression of interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5, IL-13, IL-31, IL-32, and interferon (IFN)-γ in the ear tissue. To define the underlying mechanisms of action, tumor necrosis factor-α/IFN-γ-activated human keratinocytes (HaCaT) model was used. Galangin significantly inhibited the expression of cytokines and chemokine by the down-regulation of nuclear factor-κB and mitogen-activated protein kinases in HaCaT cells. Taken together, the results demonstrate that galangin inhibited AD-like symptoms, suggesting that galangin might be a candidate for the treatment of AD.

  6. [Visceral lesions in mammals and birds exposed to agents of human cercarial dermatitis].

    PubMed

    Bayssade-Dufour, Ch; Vuong, P N; René, M; Martin-Loehr, C; Martins, C

    2002-11-01

    Over the past few years, the cercarial dermatitis has become a new problem of public health, obviously linked to the prolonged stay of migrant birds on our territory. This is a skin affection characterized by pruriginous and papulous eruptions caused by penetration of avian bilharzian larvae under the skin. These larvae are emitted by molluscs, mostly limneids. In aquatic birds, especially in migrating Anatidae, these larvae reach the visceral vessels, become adults in a few weeks, lay eggs, then degenerate. Corresponding miracidia contaminate new limneids. Since 1993, the total number of annual cases of cercarial dermatitis has increased from only ten to thousands in France and the affection rages in pools where limneids, migrating water birds and swimmers gather together. Fever, respiratory and/or digestive allergic symptoms appear in some cases. This clinical pattern has encouraged to undertake research on the future of these bilharzian larvae in mammals organism. A preliminary investigation on a rodent model showed that, once the skin barrier had been crossed, the schistosomulae migrated into the lungs of the host; there they survived a week and induced lesions. The goal of this study is to carry on the research, over a longer period, after exposure to cercariae, simultaneously in mammals and birds, with two species of bilharziae present in France. The selected models are the gerbil Meriones unguiculatus for mammals, and the ducks Anas platyrhynchos and Cairina moschata, for birds. 5 M. unguiculatus and 2 A. platyrhynchos were exposed to cercariae emitted by Radix auricularia; 2 gerbils and 5 A. platyryhnchos to larvae of R. peregra, 3 C. moschata to larvae emitted by two species of molluscs: 70-230 from R. auricularia and 330-585 from R. peregra. 5 gerbils died between 2 and 5 weeks after exposure, 2 gerbils sacrificed early, served as control animals for skin manifestations. Eight ducks were sacrificed between 2 and 4 weeks after; the 2 last ones, exposed

  7. Topical Application of Eupatilin Ameliorates Atopic Dermatitis-Like Skin Lesions in NC/Nga Mice.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ji Hyun; Lee, Ye Jin; Lee, Jun Young; Park, Young Min

    2017-02-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is an inflammatory skin disorder with severe pruritus. Despite advancements in medicine, therapeutic treatments for AD are still limited. Eupatilin (5,7-dihydroxy-30,40,6-trimethoxyflavone) is one of the lipophilic flavonoids from Artemisia umbelliformis Lam. and Artemisia genipi Weber. Although it has been reported to act a role in improving inflammation, its action on AD is uncertain. In this study, we examined the role of eupatilin on AD-like skin lesions in NC/Nga mice. 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene was repeatedly applied to the ear of NC/Nga mice to produce AD-like skin lesions. Eupatilin (1%, once a day for 5 consecutive days/week) was applied topically for four weeks for the evaluation of its therapeutic effects. 1% eupatilin cream significantly reduced the clinical severity score of AD-like lesions, compared to the vehicle (p<0.005). A histopathological analysis revealed that 1% eupatilin cream significantly decreased the mast cell infiltration as well as inflammatory cell infiltration, compared to the vehicle (p<0.005). We showed that 1% eupatilin cream significantly reduced the expression of thymic stromal lymphopoietin, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-4, and interleukin-19, but not interferon-γ, compared to the vehicle (p<0.005). Considering the therapeutic reaction of eupatilin on AD-like lesions as in this study, the substance has a promising to be an adjuvant topical agent for the control of AD.

  8. Topical Application of Eupatilin Ameliorates Atopic Dermatitis-Like Skin Lesions in NC/Nga Mice

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ji Hyun; Lee, Ye Jin; Lee, Jun Young

    2017-01-01

    Background Atopic dermatitis (AD) is an inflammatory skin disorder with severe pruritus. Despite advancements in medicine, therapeutic treatments for AD are still limited. Eupatilin (5,7-dihydroxy-30,40,6-trimethoxyflavone) is one of the lipophilic flavonoids from Artemisia umbelliformis Lam. and Artemisia genipi Weber. Objective Although it has been reported to act a role in improving inflammation, its action on AD is uncertain. In this study, we examined the role of eupatilin on AD-like skin lesions in NC/Nga mice. Methods 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene was repeatedly applied to the ear of NC/Nga mice to produce AD-like skin lesions. Eupatilin (1%, once a day for 5 consecutive days/week) was applied topically for four weeks for the evaluation of its therapeutic effects. Results 1% eupatilin cream significantly reduced the clinical severity score of AD-like lesions, compared to the vehicle (p<0.005). A histopathological analysis revealed that 1% eupatilin cream significantly decreased the mast cell infiltration as well as inflammatory cell infiltration, compared to the vehicle (p<0.005). We showed that 1% eupatilin cream significantly reduced the expression of thymic stromal lymphopoietin, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-4, and interleukin-19, but not interferon-γ, compared to the vehicle (p<0.005). Conclusion Considering the therapeutic reaction of eupatilin on AD-like lesions as in this study, the substance has a promising to be an adjuvant topical agent for the control of AD. PMID:28223748

  9. Effectiveness of different footbath solutions in the treatment of digital dermatitis in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Speijers, M H M; Baird, L G; Finney, G A; McBride, J; Kilpatrick, D J; Logue, D N; O'Connell, N E

    2010-12-01

    Three experiments were conducted to test the effectiveness of different footbath solutions and regimens in the treatment of digital dermatitis (DD) in dairy cows. During the study, groups of cows walked through allocated footbath solutions after milking on 4 consecutive occasions. All cows were scored weekly for DD lesion stage on the hind feet during milking. A "transition grade" was assigned on the basis of whether the DD lesions improved (1) or deteriorated or did not improve (0) from week to week. This grade per cow was averaged for all cows in the group. In experiment 1, 118 cows were allocated to 1 of 3 footbath treatments for 5 wk: (1) 5% CuSO(4) each week, (2) 2% ClO(-) each week, or (3) no footbath (control). The mean transition grade, and proportion of cows without DD lesions at the end of the trial were significantly higher for treatment 1 above (0.36, 0.13, and 0.11, respectively; standard error of the difference, SED = 0.057). In experiment 2, 117 cows were allocated to 1 of 4 footbath treatment regimens for 8 wk: (1) 5% CuSO(4) each week, (2) 2% CuSO(4) each week, (3) 5% CuSO(4) each fortnight, or (4) 2% CuSO(4) each fortnight. For welfare reasons, cows allocated to the weekly and fortnightly footbath regimens had an average prevalence of >60% and ≤25% active DD at the start of the trial, respectively. Significantly more cows had no DD lesions (0.53 vs. 0.36, respectively; SED = 0.049), and the mean transition grade of DD lesions was higher in the 5% compared with the 2% weekly CuSO(4) treatment (0.52 vs. 0.38, respectively; SED = 0.066). Similarly, significantly more cows had no DD lesions in the 5% compared with the 2% fortnightly CuSO(4) treatments (0.64 vs. 0.47, respectively; SED = 0.049). In experiment 3, 95 cows were allocated to 1 of 3 footbath treatments: (1) each week alternating 5% CuSO(4) with 10% salt water, (2) each week alternating 5% CuSO(4) with water, or (3) 5% CuSO(4) each fortnight (control). After 10 wk, more cows had no DD in

  10. Coriander alleviates 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene-induced contact dermatitis-like skin lesions in mice.

    PubMed

    Park, Gunhyuk; Kim, Hyo Geun; Lim, Soonmin; Lee, Wonil; Sim, Yeomoon; Oh, Myung Sook

    2014-08-01

    Contact dermatitis (CD) is a pattern of inflammatory responses in the skin that occurs through contact with external factors. The clinical picture is a polymorphic pattern of skin inflammation characterized by a wide range of clinical features, including itching, redness, scaling, and erythema. Coriandrum sativum L. (CS), commonly known as coriander, is a member of the Apiaceae family and is cultivated throughout the world for its nutritional and culinary values. Linoleic acid and linolenic acid in CS have various pharmacological activities. However, no study of the inhibitory effects of CS on CD has been reported. In this study, we demonstrated the protective effect of CS against 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene-induced CD-like skin lesions. CS, at doses of 0.5-1%, applied to the dorsal skin inhibited the development of CD-like skin lesions. Moreover, the Th2-mediated inflammatory cytokines, immunoglobulin E, tumor necrosis factor-α, interferon-γ, interleukin (IL)-1, IL-4, and IL-13, were significantly reduced. In addition, CS increased the levels of total glutathione and heme oxygenase-1 protein. Thus, CS can inhibit the development of CD-like skin lesions in mice by regulating immune mediators and may be an effective alternative therapy for contact diseases.

  11. Coriander Alleviates 2,4-Dinitrochlorobenzene-Induced Contact Dermatitis-Like Skin Lesions in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Park, Gunhyuk; Kim, Hyo Geun; Lim, Soonmin; Lee, Wonil; Sim, Yeomoon

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Contact dermatitis (CD) is a pattern of inflammatory responses in the skin that occurs through contact with external factors. The clinical picture is a polymorphic pattern of skin inflammation characterized by a wide range of clinical features, including itching, redness, scaling, and erythema. Coriandrum sativum L. (CS), commonly known as coriander, is a member of the Apiaceae family and is cultivated throughout the world for its nutritional and culinary values. Linoleic acid and linolenic acid in CS have various pharmacological activities. However, no study of the inhibitory effects of CS on CD has been reported. In this study, we demonstrated the protective effect of CS against 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene-induced CD-like skin lesions. CS, at doses of 0.5–1%, applied to the dorsal skin inhibited the development of CD-like skin lesions. Moreover, the Th2-mediated inflammatory cytokines, immunoglobulin E, tumor necrosis factor-α, interferon-γ, interleukin (IL)-1, IL-4, and IL-13, were significantly reduced. In addition, CS increased the levels of total glutathione and heme oxygenase-1 protein. Thus, CS can inhibit the development of CD-like skin lesions in mice by regulating immune mediators and may be an effective alternative therapy for contact diseases. PMID:24963872

  12. Efficacy of formalin, copper sulfate, and a commercial footbath product in the control of digital dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, A G V; Machado, V S; Caixeta, L S; Pereira, R V; Bicalho, R C

    2010-08-01

    The objective was to evaluate the relative efficacy of a novel, commercially available disinfectant agent (T-Hexx Dragonhyde HBC, Hydromer, Branchburg, NJ) compared with formalin and copper sulfate. The hypothesis was 2 sided; therefore, the hypothesis was that the new agent would be better or worse compared with the industry gold standard footbath agents, formalin and copper sulfate. The study was conducted in a large commercial dairy farm located near Ithaca, New York, from June 18, 2009 to October 26, 2009. Two identical studies were conducted, the first comparing Dragonhyde (5% solution, twice weekly) and formalin (5% solution, twice weekly) and the second comparing Dragonhyde (5% solution, twice weekly) and copper sulfate (10% solution, twice weekly). The study design was identical for both studies with 4 pens (physically identical), 2 treatments (Dragonhyde vs. formalin and Dragonhyde vs. copper sulfate), 2 periods (crossing over the treatment within pen), and 3 repeated measures (3 observations per cow: enrollment, wk 2, and wk 4). For study 1, 406 cows were enrolled (n=201 formalin and 205 Dragonhyde). For study 2, 356 cows were enrolled (n=189 copper sulfate and 167 Dragonhyde). The adjusted odds of digital dermatitis lesion (DDL) throughout the study period were analyzed by mixed logistic regression model. In study 1, the odds of DDL were 1.36 times higher for the formalin group compared with the Dragonhyde group. In study 2, the data were analyzed by a similar statistical model and the variable treatment did not significantly affect the overall prevalence of DDL. In conclusion, the performance of 3 hoof care products was evaluated and it was concluded that Dragonhyde performed better than formalin and that there was no difference between copper sulfate and Dragonhyde.

  13. Functional polysaccharides from Grifola frondosa aqueous extract inhibit atopic dermatitis-like skin lesions in NC/Nga mice.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyeon Soo; Hwang, Yong Hyeon; Kim, Mun Ki; Hong, Gyeong Eun; Lee, Ho Jeong; Nagappan, Arulkumar; Yumnam, Silvia; Kim, Eun Hee; Heo, Jeong Doo; Lee, Sang Joon; Won, Chung Kil; Kim, Gon Sup

    2015-01-01

    Grifola frondosa (GF), distributed widely in far east Asia including Korea, is popularly used as traditional medicines and health supplementary foods, especially for enhancing the immune functions of the body. To extend the application of GF polysaccharides (GFP) for atopic dermatitis (AD), we investigated the effects of GFP on the 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene-induced AD-like skin lesion in NC/Nga mice. GFP treatment significantly reduced the dorsa skin dermatitis score and combination treatment with GFP, and dexamethasone has a synergistic effect in AD-like skin lesion by reduced Serum IgE, mast cells infiltration, and cytokines expression. These results indicate that GFP suppressed the AD-like skin lesions by controlling the Th-1/Th-2-type cytokines in NC/Nga mice. These findings strongly suggest that GFP can be useful for AD patients as a novel therapeutic agent and might be used for corticosteroids replacement or supplement agent.

  14. Plasmodium berghei infection ameliorates atopic dermatitis-like skin lesions in NC/Nga mice.

    PubMed

    Kishi, C; Amano, H; Suzue, K; Ishikawa, O

    2014-10-01

    Atopic diseases are more prevalent in industrialized countries than in developing countries. In addition, significant differences in the prevalence of allergic diseases are observed between rural and urban areas within the same country. This difference in prevalence has been attributed to what is called the 'hygiene hypothesis'. Although parasitic infections are known to protect against allergic reactions, the mechanism is still unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate whether or not malarial infections can inhibit atopic dermatitis (AD)-like skin lesions in a mouse model of AD. We used NC/Nga mice which are a model for AD. The NC/Nga mice were intraperitoneally infected with 1 × 10(5) Plasmoduim berghei (Pb) XAT-infected erythrocytes. Malarial infections ameliorated AD-like skin lesions in the NC/Nga mice. This improvement was blocked by the administration of anti-asialo GM1 antibodies, which are anti-natural killer (NK) cells. Additionally, adoptive transfer of NK cells markedly improved AD-like skin lesions in conventional NC/Nga mice; these suggest that the novel protective mechanism associated with malaria parasitic infections is at least, in part, dependent on NK cells. We have experimentally demonstrated for the first time that malarial infections ameliorated AD-like skin lesions in a mouse model of AD. Our study could explain in part the mechanism of the 'hygiene hypothesis', which states that parasitic infections can inhibit the development of allergic diseases. © 2014 The Authors. Allergy Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Comparison of topical application of oxytetracycline and four nonantibiotic solutions for treatment of papillomatous digital dermatitis in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Hernandez, J; Shearer, J K; Elliott, J B

    1999-03-01

    To compare efficacy of topical treatment with oxytetracycline solution or 1 of 4 nonantibiotic solutions among dairy cows with papillomatous digital dermatitis (PDD). Randomized field trial. 66 cows in a single herd. Cows were randomly assigned to be treated with oxytetracycline solution; a commercial formulation of soluble copper, peroxide compound, and a cationic agent; 5% copper sulfate solution; acidified ionized copper solution; hydrogen peroxide-peroxyacetic acid solution; or tap water. Cows were examined 14 and 30 days after initial treatment. During each examination, pain and lesion scores were recorded. On the basis of pain and lesion scores, oxytetracycline and the commercial formulation appeared equally effective for treatment of PDD and significantly more effective than 5% copper sulfate solution, acidified ionized copper solution, hydrogen peroxide-peroxyacetic acid solution, and tap water. Proportions of cows with signs of pain or visible lesions after treatment were significantly lower for cows treated with oxytetracycline or the commercial formulation than for cows in the other groups. Oxytetracycline and a commercial formulation of soluble copper, peroxide compound, and a cationic agent appeared to be effective for treatment of PDD in dairy cows.

  16. Genetic heterogeneity among strains of Treponema phagedenis-like spirochetes isolated from dairy cattle with papillomatous digital dermatitis in Japan.

    PubMed

    Yano, Takahisa; Yamagami, Ryoko; Misumi, Kazuhiro; Kubota, Chikara; Moe, Kyaw Kyaw; Hayashi, Tetsuya; Yoshitani, Kazunori; Ohtake, Osamu; Misawa, Naoaki

    2009-03-01

    Papillomatous digital dermatitis (PDD) is an infectious foot disease of cattle that is prevalent throughout the world. Although it has been prevalent in Japan since the first case was reported in 1992, full epidemiological and bacteriological examinations have not been conducted. We collected 91 lesions of PDD from 80 dairy cattle on 12 farms in eight regions of Japan to isolate the spirochetes that are frequently detected in lesions. We isolated 40 strains of spirochetes from 24 cattle (30.0%) by a simple two-step culture technique, in which the biopsy samples were incubated at 4 degrees C for 48 to 72 h in an enrichment broth supplemented with antibiotics, which improved the rate of isolation, and then inoculated on selective agar plates. All spirochetes examined were catalase positive and oxidase negative and showed weak beta-hemolytic activity. Enzyme activities were identical to those of Treponema phagedenis ATCC 27087. Sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene showed that all strains isolated had >99% identity to those of the T. phagedenis type strain and of T. phagedenis-like strains isolated from PDD lesions in the United States and Europe. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and PCR-based random amplified polymorphism DNA methods revealed considerable diversity among strains isolated not only from different cattle but also from the same individuals. These findings may provide further evidence for the role of these treponemes in the pathogenesis of persistent PDD.

  17. The DD Check App for prevention and control of digital dermatitis in dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Tremblay, Marlène; Bennett, Tom; Döpfer, Dörte

    2016-09-15

    Digital dermatitis (DD) is the most important infectious claw disease in the cattle industry causing outbreaks of lameness. The clinical course of disease can be classified using 5 clinical stages. M-stages represent not only different disease severities but also unique clinical characteristics and outcomes. Monitoring the proportions of cows per M-stage is needed to better understand and address DD and factors influencing risks of DD in a herd. Changes in the proportion of cows per M-stage over time or between groups may be attributed to differences in management, environment, or treatment and can have impact on the future claw health of the herd. Yet trends in claw health regarding DD are not intuitively noticed without statistical analysis of detailed records. Our specific aim was to develop a mobile application (app) for persons with less statistical training, experience or supporting programs that would standardize M-stage records, automate data analysis including trends of M-stages over time, the calculation of predictions and assignments of Cow Types (i.e., Cow Types I-III are assigned to cows without active lesions, single and repeated cases of active DD lesions, respectively). The predictions were the stationary distributions of transitions between DD states (i.e., M-stages or signs of chronicity) in a class-structured multi-state Markov chain population model commonly used to model endemic diseases. We hypothesized that the app can be used at different levels of record detail to discover significant trends in the prevalence of M-stages that help to make informed decisions to prevent and control DD on-farm. Four data sets were used to test the flexibility and value of the DD Check App. The app allows easy recording of M-stages in different environments and is flexible in terms of the users' goals and the level of detail used. Results show that this tool discovers trends in M-stage proportions, predicts potential outbreaks of DD, and makes comparisons among

  18. Digital Dermatitis in Dairy Cows: A Review of Risk Factors and Potential Sources of Between-Animal Variation in Susceptibility

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, Maeve A.; O’Connell, Niamh E.

    2015-01-01

    Simple Summary Dairy cow lameness is a major problem for the industry, causing reduced animal welfare and economic loss. Digital dermatitis (DD) is a bacterial disease causing painful lesions, generally on the heels of the rear feet, and is an important cause of lameness. There appears to be individual variation between animals in susceptibility to this disease. Particular physical, physiological and behavioural factors might influence individual susceptibility, but further work is required to clarify the influence of these factors and to determine how this information could be used to develop breeding and management strategies to reduce DD prevalence. Abstract Digital dermatitis (DD) is a bacterial disease that primarily affects the skin on the heels of cattle. It is a major cause of lameness in dairy cows and a significant problem for the dairy industry in many countries, causing reduced animal welfare and economic loss. A wide range of infection levels has been found on infected farms, prompting investigations into both farm level and animal level risk factors for DD occurrence. There also appears to be individual variation between animals in susceptibility to the disease. The identification of factors affecting individual variation in susceptibility to DD might allow changes in breeding policies or herd management which could be used to reduce DD prevalence. Factors mentioned in the literature as possibly influencing individual variation in susceptibility to DD include physical factors such as hoof conformation and properties of the skin, physiological factors such as the efficacy of the immune response, and behavioural factors such as standing half in cubicles. Further work is required to determine the influence of these factors, identify the genetic basis of variation, clarify the level of heritability of DD susceptibility and to determine how this is correlated with production and health traits currently used in breeding programmes. PMID:26479371

  19. The Gastrointestinal Tract as a Potential Infection Reservoir of Digital Dermatitis-Associated Treponemes in Beef Cattle and Sheep

    PubMed Central

    Carter, S. D.; Duncan, J. S.; Grove-White, D. H.; Angell, J. W.; Evans, N. J.

    2015-01-01

    Digital dermatitis (DD) is an important cause of lameness in dairy cattle worldwide. It has now been reported in beef cattle and also sheep (contagious ovine digital dermatitis [CODD]). Three Treponema phylogroups are consistently isolated from lesions, Treponema medium-like, Treponema phagedenis-like, and Treponema pedis. The gastrointestinal (GI) tract and feces are suggested sites of treponemal infection in dairy cattle; however, isolation of DD-associated treponemes from these areas has previously failed. This study surveyed gingival tissues, rectal tissues, and feces of beef cattle and sheep for the molecular presence (PCR) and isolation of the three cultivable DD-treponeme phylogroups. Of the sheep gingival (n = 40) and rectal (n = 40) tissues, 1/40 gingival tissues was positive for DD-associated treponemes (T. pedis), as were 3/40 rectal tissues (one containing T. medium-like and two containing T. pedis). No DD-associated treponeme DNA was amplified from beef cattle rectal tissues (n = 40); however, 4/40 beef gingival tissues were positive for DD-associated treponemes (all containing T. phagedenis-like). A T. phagedenis-like DD-associated treponeme was isolated from the rectal tissue of a CODD symptomatic sheep. Beef cattle (n = 41) and sheep (n = 79) feces failed to amplify DD-associated Treponema DNA. Twenty-two treponemes were isolated from sheep feces; however, upon phylogenetic analysis, these clustered with the considered nonpathogenic treponemes. This study detected DD-associated treponemes in the GI tract tissues of sheep and beef cattle and successfully isolated a DD-associated treponeme from ruminant rectal tissue. This gives evidence that the GI tract is an important infection reservoir of DD-associated treponemes in multiple DD-infected species. PMID:26276110

  20. Paederus Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Paederus dermatitis is a peculiar, irritant contact dermatitis characterized by a sudden onset of erythematobullous lesions on exposed areas of the body. The disease is provoked by an insect belonging to the genus Paederus. This beetle does not bite or sting, but accidental brushing against or crushing the beetle over the skin provokes the release of its coelomic fluid, which contains paederin, a potent vesicant agent. This article describes this dermatitis, which occurred in three healthcare personnel aboard a medical mission boat on the Amazon River. The epidemiology and pathogenesis of paederus dermatitis is reviewed as well its treatment and prevention. PMID:22125660

  1. Prevalence of digital dermatitis in young stock in Alberta, Canada, using pen walks.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, C; Orsel, K; Barkema, H W

    2017-08-30

    Digital dermatitis (DD), an infectious bacterial foot lesion prevalent in dairy cattle worldwide, reduces both animal welfare and production. This disease was recently identified in replacement dairy heifers, with implications including increased risk of DD and decreased milk production in first lactation, poor reproductive performance, and altered hoof conformation. Therefore, a simple and effective method is needed to identify DD in young stock and to determine risk factors for DD in this group so that effective control strategies can be implemented. The objectives of this study were to (1) determine prevalence of DD in young stock (based on pen walks); and (2) identify potential risk factors for DD in young stock. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 28 dairy farms in Alberta, Canada; pen walks were used to identify DD (present/absent) on the hind feet of group-housed, young dairy stock. A subset of 583 young stock on 5 farms were selected for chute inspection of feet to determine the accuracy of pen walks for DD detection. Pen walks as a means of identifying DD lesions on the hind feet in young stock had sensitivity and specificity at the animal level of 65 and 98%, with positive and negative predictive values of 94 and 83%, respectively, at a prevalence of 37%. At the foot level, pen walks had sensitivity and specificity of 62 and 98%, respectively, with positive and negative predictive values of 92 and 88%, respectively, at a prevalence of 26%. Pen walks identified DD in 79 [2.9%; 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 2.3-3.6%] of 2,815 young stock on 11 (39%; 95% CI: 22-59%) of 28 farms, with all 79 DD-positive young stock ≥309 d of age. Apparent within-herd prevalence estimates ranged from 0 to 9.3%, with a mean of 1.4%. True within-herd prevalence of DD in young stock, calculated using the sensitivity and specificity of the pen walks, ranged from 0 to 12.6%, with a mean of 1.4%. On the 11 DD-positive farms, the proportion of young stock >12 mo of age

  2. Gene expression is differently affected by pimecrolimus and betamethasone in lesional skin of atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Jensen, J M; Scherer, A; Wanke, C; Bräutigam, M; Bongiovanni, S; Letzkus, M; Staedtler, F; Kehren, J; Zuehlsdorf, M; Schwarz, T; Weichenthal, M; Fölster-Holst, R; Proksch, E

    2012-03-01

    Topical corticosteroids and calcineurin inhibitors are well-known treatments of atopic dermatitis (AD) but differ in their efficacy and side effects. We recently showed that betamethasone valerate (BM) although clinically more efficient impaired skin barrier repair in contrast to pimecrolimus in AD. This study elucidates the mode of action of topical BM and pimecrolimus cream in AD. Lesional AD skin samples after topical treatment with either BM or pimecrolimus were subjected to gene expression profile analysis. Betamethasone valerate resulted in a significant reduction in mRNA levels of genes encoding markers of immune cells and inflammation, dendritic cells, T cells, cytokines, chemokines, and serine proteases, whereas pimecrolimus exerted minor effects only. This corroborates the clinical finding that BM reduces inflammation more effectively than pimecrolimus. Genes encoding molecules important for skin barrier function were differently affected. Both BM and pimecrolimus normalized the expression of filaggrin and loricrin. BM, but not pimecrolimus, significantly reduced the expression of rate-limiting enzymes for lipid synthesis and the expression of involucrin and small proline-rich proteins, which covalently bind ceramides. This may explain the lack of restoration of functional stratum corneum layers observed after BM treatment. The gene expression profiles are consistent with our previous findings that corticosteroids may exert a more potent anti-inflammatory effect but may impair the restoration of the skin barrier. Corticosteroids are still the main treatment for severe and acutely exacerbated AD; pimecrolimus may be preferable for long-term treatment and stabilization. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  3. Seborrheic dermatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... skin condition that causes flaky, white to yellowish scales to form on oily areas such as the ... symptoms of seborrheic dermatitis include: Skin lesions with scales Plaques over large area Greasy, oily areas of ...

  4. HPV16-E7 Expression in skin induces TSLP secretion, type 2 ILC infiltration and atopic dermatitis-like lesions

    PubMed Central

    Bergot, Anne-Sophie; Monnet, Nastasia; Tran, Le Son; Mittal, Deepak; Al-Kouba, Jane; Steptoe, Raymond J.; Grimbaldeston, Michele A.; Frazer, Ian H.; Wells, James W.

    2014-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis is a common pruritic and inflammatory skin disorder with unknown etiology. Most commonly occurring during early childhood, atopic dermatitis is associated with eczematous lesions and lichenification, in which the epidermis becomes hypertrophied resulting in thickening of the skin. In this study, we report an atopic dermatitis-like pathophysiology results in a murine model following the expression of the high-risk Human Papillomavirus (HPV) 16 oncoprotein E7 in keratinocytes under the Keratin 14 promoter. We show that HPV 16 E7 expression in the skin is associated with skin thickening, acanthosis and light spongiosis. Locally, HPV 16 E7 expressing skin secreted high levels of TSLP and contained increased numbers of ILCs. High levels of circulating IgE were associated with increased susceptibility to skin allergy in a model of cutaneous challenge, and to airway bronchiolar inflammation, enhanced airway goblet cell metaplasia and mucus production in a model of atopic march. Surprisingly, skin pathology occurred independently of T-cells and mast cells. Thus, our findings suggest that the expression of a single HPV oncogene in the skin can drive the onset of atopic dermatitis-like pathology through the induction of TSLP and type 2 ILC infiltration. PMID:25601274

  5. Investigating the genetic background of bovine digital dermatitis using improved definitions of clinical status.

    PubMed

    Schöpke, K; Gomez, A; Dunbar, K A; Swalve, H H; Döpfer, D

    2015-11-01

    Bovine digital dermatitis (DD) is an increasing claw health problem in all cattle production systems worldwide. The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of an improved scoring of the clinical status for DD via M-scores accounting for the dynamics of the disease; that is, the transitions from one stage to another. The newly defined traits were then subjected to a genetic analysis to determine the genetic background for susceptibility to DD. Data consisted of 6,444 clinical observations from 729 Holstein heifers in a commercial dairy herd, collected applying the M-score system. The M-score system is a classification scheme for stages of DD that allows a macroscopic scoring based on clinical inspections of the bovine foot, thus it describes the stages of lesion development. The M-scores were used to define new DD trait definitions with different complexities. Linear mixed models and logistic models were used to identify fixed environmental effects and to estimate variance components. In total, 68% of all observations showed no DD status, whereas 11% were scored as infectious for and affected by DD, and 21% of all observations exhibited an affected but noninfectious status. For all traits, the probability of occurrence and clinical status were associated with age at observation and period of observation. Risk of becoming infected increased with age, and month of observation significantly affected all traits. Identification of the optimal month concerning DD herd status was consistent for all trait definitions; the last month of the trial was identified. In contrast, months exhibiting the highest least squares means of transformed scores differed depending on trait definition. In this respect, traits that can distinguish between healthy, infectious, and noninfectious stages of DD can account for the infectious potential of the herd and can serve as an alert tool. Estimates of heritabilities of traits studied ranged between 0.19 (±0.11) and 0.52 (±0

  6. Inhibitory effects of Juglans mandshurica leaf on allergic dermatitis-like skin lesions-induced by 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene in mice.

    PubMed

    Park, Gunhyuk; Oh, Myung Sook

    2014-03-01

    Allergic dermatitis among common skin diseases is a chronic and recurrent inflammatory skin disorder caused by genetic, environmental, allergens as well as microbial factors. Allergic dermatitis patients clinically present skin erythematous plaques, eruption, elevated serum immunoglobulin E (IgE) and T helper cell type 2 (Th2) cytokine levels. The leaf of walnut tree Juglans mandshurica Maxim (JM) is consumed food and traditional phytomedicine in Asia, China, Siberia and Korea. JM has been reported to have various pharmacological activities, such as anti-tumor, anti-oxidative, and anti-bacterial effects. However, no study of the inhibitory effects of JM on allergic dermatitis has been reported. Here, we demonstrated the effect of JM against 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene-induced allergic dermatitis-like skin lesions. 0.5% JM or 1% dexamethasone (positive control) applied to the dorsal skin inhibited development of allergic dermatitis-like skin lesions and scratching behavior. Moreover, the Th2-mediated inflammatory cytokines IgE, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-1, and IL-13, were significantly reduced by JM treatment. Thus JM can inhibit development of allergic dermatitis-like skin lesions in mice by regulating immune mediators, and may be an effective alternative therapy for allergic dermatitis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. Contribution of itch-associated scratch behavior to the development of skin lesions in Dermatophagoides farinae-induced dermatitis model in NC/Nga mice.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Mina; Haruna, Takayo; Ueda, Chihiro; Asano, Yumi; Takahashi, Hisashi; Iduhara, Miho; Takaki, Shigeki; Yasui, Kiyoshi; Matsuo, Yoshiyuki; Arimura, Akinori

    2009-10-01

    Recently, we have reported that the pathophysiological features of dermatitis induced by the repeated application with Dermatophagoides farinae (Df) extract ointment in NC/Nga mice were similar to those observed in the patients with atopic dermatitis. In the present study, we first examined whether the application of Df in other mouse strains could induce dermatitis. The repeated application of Df body (Dfb) ointment to the barrier-disrupted back of ICR, C57BL/6, and Balb/c mice did not cause any apparent skin lesions, although transient increase in serum immunoglobulin E (IgE) levels during antigen application was observed. On the other hand, in NC/Nga mice, dermatitis scores and serum IgE levels increased remarkably, and then these changes sustained for at least 10 days after stopping of antigen elicitation. Using NC/Nga mice, we investigated the contribution of scratching behavior to the development and maintenance of Dfb-induced dermatitis. In correlation with the increase in scratching behavior, erythema, hemorrhage, edema, scarring, erosion and excoriation were observed. Cutting off the hind toenails of mice exhibiting chronic skin lesions dramatically alleviated the dermatitis. From these findings, the onset of skin lesions and its chronically sustained course in Dfb-induced dermatitis in NC/Nga mice were closely associated with increased scratching behavior.

  8. Effect of a 308-nm excimer laser on atopic dermatitis-like skin lesions in NC/Nga mice.

    PubMed

    Oh, Chang Taek; Kwon, Tae-Rin; Seok, Joon; Choi, Eun Ja; Kim, Soon Re; Jang, Yu-Jin; Mun, Seog Kyun; Kim, Chan Woong; Lee, Sungeun; Lee, Jongmin; Kim, Myeung Nam; Choi, Sun Young; Kim, Beom Joon

    2016-08-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common inflammatory skin disease that can affect all age groups. It has a relapsing course, which dramatically affects the quality of life of patients. A 308-nm excimer laser has been reported to be a safe and effective treatment for inflammatory skin diseases, although the range of potential application has not been fully explored. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the therapeutic effects of a 308-nm laser on AD-like skin lesions in NC/Nga mice. Dermatophagoides farinae-exposed NC/Nga mice with a clinical score of 12 were treated with either a 308-nm excimer laser or narrowband-UVB (NB-UVB). The effects of the 308-nm excimer laser were evaluated by dermatitis scores, skin histology, skin barrier function, and immunological parameters, including IgE and Th2-mediated cytokines. The 308-nm excimer laser significantly reduced the severity of skin lesions and decreased the total serum levels of IgE and Th2-mediated cytokines. The excimer laser also significantly reduced the inflammatory cellular infiltrate into AD-induced skin lesions. Moreover, treatment with the 308-nm excimer laser led to recovery of skin barrier function in AD-induced skin lesions. The 308-nm excimer laser can be considered a valid and safe therapeutic option for the treatment of localized AD. Lasers Surg. Med. 48:629-637, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Bee venom acupuncture alleviates trimellitic anhydride-induced atopic dermatitis-like skin lesions in mice.

    PubMed

    Sur, Bongjun; Lee, Bombi; Yeom, Mijung; Hong, Ju-Hee; Kwon, Sunoh; Kim, Seung-Tae; Lee, Hyang Sook; Park, Hi-Joon; Lee, Hyejung; Hahm, Dae-Hyun

    2016-01-29

    Bee venom acupuncture (BVA), a novel type of acupuncture therapy in which purified bee venom is injected into the specific acupuncture point on the diseased part of the body, is used primarily for relieving pain and other musculoskeletal symptoms. In the present study, therapeutic potential of BVA to improve atopic dermatitis, a representative allergic dysfunction, was evaluated in the mouse model of trimellitic anhydride (TMA)-induced skin impairment. Mice were treated with 5% TMA on the dorsal flank for sensitization and subsequently treated with 2% TMA on the dorsum of both ears for an additional 12 days after a 3-day interval. From the 7(th) day of 2% TMA treatment, bilateral subcutaneous injection of BV (BV, 0.3 mg/kg) was performed daily at BL40 acupuncture points (located behind the knee) 1 h before 2% TMA treatment for 5 days. BVA treatment markedly inhibited the expression levels of both T helper cell type 1 (Th1) and Th2 cytokines in ear skin and lymph nodes of TMA-treated mice. Clinical features of AD-like symptoms such as ear skin symptom severity and thickness, inflammation, and lymph node weight were significantly alleviated by BV treatment. BV treatment also inhibited the proliferation and infiltration of T cells, the production of Th1 and Th2 cytokines, and the synthesis of interleukin (IL)-4 and immunoglobulin E (IgE)-typical allergic Th2 responses in blood. The inhibitory effect of BVA was more pronounced at BL40 acupoint than non-acupuncture point located at the base of the tail. These results indicate that BV injection at specific acupuncture points effectively alleviates AD-like skin lesions by inhibiting inflammatory and allergic responses in a TMA-induced contact hypersensitivity mouse model.

  10. Pathogenesis of skin lesions in mice with chronic proliferative dermatitis (cpdm/cpdm).

    PubMed Central

    Gijbels, M. J.; Zurcher, C.; Kraal, G.; Elliott, G. R.; HogenEsch, H.; Schijff, G.; Savelkoul, H. F.; Bruijnzeel, P. L.

    1996-01-01

    Chronic proliferative dermatitis is a spontaneous mutation in C57BL/Ka mice (cpdm/cpdm), showing alopecia, epithelial hyperproliferation, infiltration by eosinophils and macrophages, and vascular dilatation. To further elucidate its pathogenesis, organs of 1-, 2-, 3-, 4-, 5-, and 6-week-old cpdm/cpdm mice were examined. At 4 weeks, the epidermal thickness was increased, whereas already at 3 weeks, the bromodeoxyuridine incorporation was increased in the basal keratinocytes. However, already at the age of 1 week, skin, lungs, and lymph nodes were infiltrated by eosinophils although no macroscopic lesions were present. Compared with control animals, 6-week-old cpdm/cpdm mice had decreased serum IgE levels and increased numbers of mast cells. From the age of 1 week these mast cells became increasingly IgE positive. In contrast, the mast cells of the control animals remained IgE negative. Mast cells of control and cpdm/cpdm mice were interleukin-4 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha positive. A likely explanation for the tissue infiltration of eosinophils could be the release of interleukin-4 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha from activated mast cells. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha may lead to the expression of E-selectin on endothelial cells, facilitating interleukin-4-mediated eosinophil transendothelial migration. Although various pathogenetic aspects of the cpdm/cpdm mouse need further elucidation, this model can be a tool to study eosinophil infiltration, leukocyte-endothelial cell interactions, and mast cell proliferation. Furthermore, the cpdm/cpdm mouse can be used to study chronic inflammatory skin disease because of the severe epidermal proliferation. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 6 PMID:8774148

  11. Bovine Immune Response to Papillomatous Digital Dermatitis (PDD)-associated Spirochetes is Skewed in Isolate Reactivity and Subclass Elicitation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Papillomatous digital dermatitis (PDD), also known as hairy heel wart, is a growing cause of lameness of cows in the U.S. dairy industry. Farms with PDD-afflicted cows experience economic loss due to treatment costs, decreased milk production, lower reproductive efficiency and premature culling. Cow...

  12. Digital Chromoendoscopy for Diagnosis of Diminutive Colorectal Lesions

    PubMed Central

    dos Santos, Carlos Eduardo Oliveira; Malaman, Daniele; Lopes, César Vivian; Pereira-Lima, Júlio Carlos; Parada, Artur Adolfo

    2012-01-01

    Introduction. To compare the accuracy of digital and real-time chromoendoscopy for the differential diagnosis of diminutive (<5 mm) neoplastic and nonneoplastic colorectal lesions. Materials and Methods. This is a prospective randomized study comparing the Fujinon intelligent color enhancement (FICE) system (65 patients/95 lesions) and indigo carmine (69 patients/120 lesions) in the analysis of capillary meshwork and pit pattern, respectively. All lesions were less than 5 mm in diameter, and magnification was used in both groups. Histopathology was the gold standard examination. Results. Of 215 colorectal lesions, 153 (71.2%) were adenomas, and 62 were hyperplastic polyps (28.8%). Morphological analysis revealed 132 (61.4%) superficial lesions, with 7 (3.3%) depressed lesions, and 83 (38.6%) protruding lesions. Vascular meshwork analysis using FICE and magnification resulted in 91.7% sensitivity, 95.7% specificity, and 92.6% accuracy in differentiating neoplastic from nonneoplastic lesions. Pit pattern analysis with indigo carmine and magnification showed 96.5% sensitivity, 88.2% specificity, and 94.2% accuracy for the same purpose. Conclusion. Both magnifying virtual chromoendoscopy and indigo carmine chromoendoscopy showed high accuracy in the histopathological diagnosis of colorectal lesions less than 5 mm in diameter. PMID:23082070

  13. DA-9601 suppresses 2, 4-dinitrochlorobenzene and dust mite extract-induced atopic dermatitis-like skin lesions.

    PubMed

    Choi, Eun-Ju; Lee, Soyoung; Hwang, Ji-Sun; Im, Sin-Hyeog; Jun, Chang-Duk; Lee, Hyun-Shik; Kim, Sang-Hyun

    2011-09-01

    DA-9601 (Stillen™) is a novel anti-peptic formulation prepared from the ethanol extracts of Artemisia asiatica possessing anti-oxidative, anti-allergic and anti-inflammatory activities. However, their effect on atopic dermatitis (AD) has not been studied yet. In this study, we report that topical application of DA-9601 suppressed house dust mite extract (Dermatophagoides farinae extract, DFE) and 2, 4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB)-induced AD-like skin lesions in BALB/c mice model. We established atopic dermatitis model in BALB/c mice by repeated local exposure of DFE/DNCB to the ears. Repeated alternative treatment of DFE/DNCB caused AD-like lesions. DA-9601 reduced AD-like skin lesions based on ear thickness and histopathological analysis, and serum IgE levels. DA-9601 inhibited mast cell infiltration into the ear and elevation of serum histamine in AD model. In addition, DA-9601 suppressed DFE/DNCB-induced expression of IL-4, IL-13, IL-31, and TNF-α in the ears. Taken together, our results showed that topical application of DA-9601 exerts beneficial effects in animal model of AD, suggesting that DA-9601 might be a candidate for the treatment of AD.

  14. Whole-flock, metaphylactic tilmicosin failed to eliminate contagious ovine digital dermatitis and footrot in sheep: a cluster randomised trial

    PubMed Central

    Angell, J. W.; Grove-White, D. H.; Williams, H. J.; Duncan, J. S.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical success of whole-flock systemic tilmicosin and enhanced biosecurity in eliminating active contagious ovine digital dermatitis (CODD) from sheep flocks. Thirty flocks in the UK were randomly allocated to receive either treatment as usual (as per the farmer's normal routine) or whole-flock treatment with tilmicosin, together with isolation and extended treatment of clinically affected individuals and isolation and treatment of purchased sheep during the study period. All flocks were visited once at onset of the trial to examine all sheep. One year later, all sheep were re-examined to determine the presence/absence of clinical lesions. The primary outcome was the clinical elimination of CODD from flocks. Secondary outcomes were reduction in prevalence of CODD, clinical elimination of footrot and reduction in prevalence of footrot. The analysis included 11 control flocks and 13 intervention flocks, with initially 3460 and 4686 sheep, respectively. For CODD: at follow-up, in the intervention group, 6/13 (46 per cent) flocks had a prevalence of zero compared with 1/11 (9 per cent) in the control group (P=0.12). For footrot: at follow-up, no flocks had a prevalence of zero. Therefore, the intervention is not recommended for the elimination of CODD or footrot in the UK. PMID:27450091

  15. Contact dermatitis

    MedlinePlus

    Dermatitis - contact; Allergic dermatitis; Dermatitis - allergic; Irritant contact dermatitis; Skin rash - contact dermatitis ... There are 2 types of contact dermatitis. Irritant dermatitis: This ... can be by contact with acids, alkaline materials such as soaps ...

  16. Optimized lesion detection in digital breast tomosynthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chawla, Amarpreet S.; Samei, Ehsan; Lo, Joseph Y.

    2009-02-01

    While diagnostic improvement via breast tomosynthesis has been notable, the full potential of tomosynthesis has not yet been realized. This is because of the complex task of optimizing multiple parameters that constitute image acquisition and thus affect tomosynthesis performance. Those parameters include dose, number of angular projections, and the total angular span of those projections. In this study, we investigated the effects of acquisition parameters, independent of each other, on the overall diagnostic image quality of tomosynthesis. Five mastectomy specimens were imaged using a prototype tomosynthesis system. 25 angular projections of each specimen were acquired at 6.2 times typical single-view mammographic dose level. Images at lower dose levels were then simulated using a noise modification routine. Each projection image was supplemented with 84 simulated 3 mm 3D lesions embedded at the center of 84 non-overlapping ROIs. The projection images were then reconstructed using a filtered-back projection (FBP) algorithm at 224 different combinations of acquisition parameters to investigate which one of the many possible combinations maximized performance. Performance was evaluated in terms of a Laguerre-Gauss channelized Hotelling observer model-based measure of lesion detectability. Results showed that performance improved with an increase in the total acquisition dose level and the angular span. At a constant dose level and angular span, the performance rolled-off beyond a certain number of projections, indicating that simply increasing the number of projections in tomosynthesis may not necessarily improve its performance. The best performance was obtained with 15-17 projections spanning an angular arc of ~45° - the maximum tested in our study, and for an acquisition dose equal to single-view mammography. The optimization framework developed in this framework is applicable to other reconstruction techniques and other multi-projection systems.

  17. Effectiveness of different footbathing frequencies using copper sulfate in the control of digital dermatitis in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Speijers, M H M; Finney, G A; McBride, J; Watson, S; Logue, D N; O'Connell, N E

    2012-06-01

    Two experiments were conducted to test the effectiveness of different footbathing frequencies using CuSO₄ in the control of digital dermatitis (DD) in groups of dairy cows with low and high DD prevalence in an endemically infected herd. During the study, groups of cows walked through allocated footbath solutions after milking on 4 consecutive milkings each week, 2 wk, or monthly, depending on treatment. The footbath solutions were changed either after 200 cows had passed through the footbath or within 24 h. All cows were scored weekly during milking for DD lesion stage on the hind feet using a 5-point nominal scale. A transition grade was assigned based on whether the DD lesions improved (1) or deteriorated or did not improve (0) from week to week, and was averaged for all cows in the group. Furthermore, from the longitudinal study data, all transitions between different DD lesion stages between the different time points were used in a discrete, first-order Markov chain (state transition matrix) model. In experiment 1, 70 Holstein-Friesian cows with DD lesions present on at least one of their hind feet were allocated to 1 of 2 footbath treatments for 14 wk: (1) 5% CuSO₄ each week or (2) 5% CuSO₄ every 2 wk. At the end of the study, no active DD lesions were observed in cows in either treatment group, but significantly more cows had no DD lesions (0.48 ± 0.097 vs. 0.24 ± 0.094) and fewer cows had lesions in the healing stage (0.52 ± 0.104 vs. 0.77 ± 0.090) for the weekly compared with the 2-wk footbathing regimen. The number of active DD lesions that the transition matrix model predicted over time was 3 and 8% for weekly and every 2 wk footbathing treatments, respectively. In experiment 2, 64 cows with no DD lesions on either of their hind feet were allocated to 1 of 2 footbath treatment regimens for 14 wk: (1) 5% CuSO₄ every 2 wk or (2) 5% CuSO₄ each month. At the end of the trial, significantly more cows had no DD (0.80 ± 0.088 vs. 0.65 ± 0

  18. Estimation of the relative impact of treatment and herd management practices on prevention of digital dermatitis in French dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Relun, A; Lehebel, A; Bruggink, M; Bareille, N; Guatteo, R

    2013-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to concurrently estimate the effect of different digital dermatitis (DD) treatment regimens and herd management practices on the occurrence of a new DD lesion. A controlled clinical trial was conducted and involved 4678 dairy cows from 52 French dairy farms where DD was endemic. Farms were allocated by minimisation to one of 4 treatment regimens, varying through the mode (footbath or collective spraying) and the frequency of application (2 days every 4 weeks or fortnightly). They were visited 7 times every 4 weeks by 14 trained investigators. Frailty Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate the relative effect of potential risk factors and treatment practices on the time until the first occurrence of a DD lesion. At herd level, high initial DD prevalence strongly increased the risk for DD occurrence (HR=1.93, CI 1.23-3.04), as well as absence of hoof-trimming (HR=1.75, CI 1.36-2.27) and poor leg cleanliness (HR=2.44, CI 1.80-3.31). At animal level, Holstein breed (HR=1.92, CI 1.35-3.57) and high-productive cows (HR=1.26, CI 1.01-1.56) were identified to be at higher risk for DD compared to Normande breed and low-productive cows, respectively. Compared to individual topical antibiotic treatments alone, collective treatments tended to decrease the risk of DD occurrence only when applied over 2 days at least every fortnight (HR range=0.64-0.73).

  19. Potential bacterial core species associated with digital dermatitis in cattle herds identified by molecular profiling of interdigital skin samples.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Martin W; Strube, Mikael L; Isbrand, Anastasia; Al-Medrasi, Worood D H M; Boye, Mette; Jensen, Tim K; Klitgaard, Kirstine

    2016-04-15

    Although treponemes are consistently identified in tissue from bovine digital dermatitis (DD) lesions, the definitive etiology of this debilitating polymicrobial disease is still unresolved. To study the microbiomes of 27 DD-infected and 10 healthy interdigital skin samples, we used a combination of different molecular methods. Deep sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene variable regions V1-V2 showed that Treponema, Mycoplasma, Fusobacterium and Porphyromonas were the genera best differentiating the DD samples from the controls. Additional deep sequencing analysis of the most abundant genus, Treponema, targeting another variable region of the 16S rRNA gene, V3-V4, identified 15 different phylotypes, among which Treponema phagedenis-like and Treponema refringens-like species were the most abundant. Although the presence of Treponema spp., Fusobacterium necrophorum and Porphyromonas levii was confirmed by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), the results for Mycoplasma spp. were inconclusive. Extensive treponemal epidermal infiltration, constituting more than 90% of the total bacterial population, was observed in 24 of the 27 DD samples. F. necrophorum and P. levii were superficially located in the epidermal lesions and were present in only a subset of samples. RT-qPCR analysis showed that treponemes were also actively expressing a panel of virulence factors at the site of infection. Our results further support the hypothesis that species belonging to the genus Treponema are major pathogens of DD and also provide sufficient clues to motivate additional research into the role of M. fermentans, F. necrophorum and P. levii in the etiology of DD. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Multimodal digital color imaging system for facial skin lesion analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bae, Youngwoo; Lee, Youn-Heum; Jung, Byungjo

    2008-02-01

    In dermatology, various digital imaging modalities have been used as an important tool to quantitatively evaluate the treatment effect of skin lesions. Cross-polarization color image was used to evaluate skin chromophores (melanin and hemoglobin) information and parallel-polarization image to evaluate skin texture information. In addition, UV-A induced fluorescent image has been widely used to evaluate various skin conditions such as sebum, keratosis, sun damages, and vitiligo. In order to maximize the evaluation efficacy of various skin lesions, it is necessary to integrate various imaging modalities into an imaging system. In this study, we propose a multimodal digital color imaging system, which provides four different digital color images of standard color image, parallel and cross-polarization color image, and UV-A induced fluorescent color image. Herein, we describe the imaging system and present the examples of image analysis. By analyzing the color information and morphological features of facial skin lesions, we are able to comparably and simultaneously evaluate various skin lesions. In conclusion, we are sure that the multimodal color imaging system can be utilized as an important assistant tool in dermatology.

  1. Clinical, histologic, and bacteriologic findings in dairy cows with digital dermatitis (footwarts) one month after topical treatment with lincomycin hydrochloride or oxytetracycline hydrochloride.

    PubMed

    Berry, Steven L; Read, Deryck H; Walker, Richard L; Famula, Thomas R

    2010-09-01

    To compare the effectiveness of lincomycin and oxytetracycline for treatment of digital dermatitis (DD) in dairy cows through gross visual examination, histologic evaluation, and bacteriologic evaluation. Randomized controlled clinical trial. 25 cows with DD lesions from a commercial Holstein dairy herd. Cows with DD lesions were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 groups: topical treatment with 10 g of lincomycin hydrochloride (n = 11), topical treatment with 10 g of oxytetracycline hydrochloride (11), and no treatment (3) on days 1 and 2 (d1). Biopsy specimens were obtained for histologic examination from DD lesions prior to treatment and 28 or 31 days (d30) after treatment for histologic examination. Cows were clinically examined on d1, days 12 or 14 (d14), and d30. No difference was evident in clinical responses to lincomycin and oxytetracycline, so data were pooled; at d30, 8 of 11 of lincomycin-treated lesions and 7 of 11 oxytetracycline-treated lesions appeared visually healed, respectively. Gross visual examination suggested 73% (16/22) of treated cows were healed at d14 and 68% (15/22) of treated cows were healed on d30. Of the 15 lesions that appeared healed on d30, 7 of 15 were classified histologically as active (ulceration and bacterial invasion; 2/15) or incipient (5/15). Clinical responses to lincomycin and oxytetracycline did not differ. Agreement was good between gross visual and histologic assessments of DD lesions before treatment; agreement 1 month after treatment was variable. Histologic evaluation could not distinguish incomplete healing from lesion recurrence.

  2. Automatic detection of red lesions in digital color fundus photographs.

    PubMed

    Niemeijer, Meindert; van Ginneken, Bram; Staal, Joes; Suttorp-Schulten, Maria S A; Abràmoff, Michael D

    2005-05-01

    The robust detection of red lesions in digital color fundus photographs is a critical step in the development of automated screening systems for diabetic retinopathy. In this paper, a novel red lesion detection method is presented based on a hybrid approach, combining prior works by Spencer et al. (1996) and Frame et al. (1998) with two important new contributions. The first contribution is a new red lesion candidate detection system based on pixel classification. Using this technique, vasculature and red lesions are separated from the background of the image. After removal of the connected vasculature the remaining objects are considered possible red lesions. Second, an extensive number of new features are added to those proposed by Spencer-Frame. The detected candidate objects are classified using all features and a k-nearest neighbor classifier. An extensive evaluation was performed on a test set composed of images representative of those normally found in a screening set. When determining whether an image contains red lesions the system achieves a sensitivity of 100% at a specificity of 87%. The method is compared with several different automatic systems and is shown to outperform them all. Performance is close to that of a human expert examining the images for the presence of red lesions.

  3. Seamless lesion insertion in digital mammography: methodology and reader study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pezeshk, Aria; Petrick, Nicholas; Sahiner, Berkman

    2016-03-01

    Collection of large repositories of clinical images containing verified cancer locations is costly and time consuming due to difficulties associated with both the accumulation of data and establishment of the ground truth. This problem poses a significant challenge to the development of machine learning algorithms that require large amounts of data to properly train and avoid overfitting. In this paper we expand the methods in our previous publications by making several modifications that significantly increase the speed of our insertion algorithms, thereby allowing them to be used for inserting lesions that are much larger in size. These algorithms have been incorporated into an image composition tool that we have made publicly available. This tool allows users to modify or supplement existing datasets by seamlessly inserting a real breast mass or micro-calcification cluster extracted from a source digital mammogram into a different location on another mammogram. We demonstrate examples of the performance of this tool on clinical cases taken from the University of South Florida Digital Database for Screening Mammography (DDSM). Finally, we report the results of a reader study evaluating the realism of inserted lesions compared to clinical lesions. Analysis of the radiologist scores in the study using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) methodology indicates that inserted lesions cannot be reliably distinguished from clinical lesions.

  4. Reevaluation of the non-lesional dry skin in atopic dermatitis by acute barrier disruption: an abnormal permeability barrier homeostasis with defective processing to generate ceramide.

    PubMed

    Sugiura, Ayumi; Nomura, Tsuyoshi; Mizuno, Atsuko; Imokawa, Genji

    2014-07-01

    Atopic dermatitis is characterized by disruption of the cutaneous barrier due to reduced ceramide levels even in non-lesional dry skin. Following further acute barrier disruption by repeated tape strippings, we re-characterized the non-lesional dry skin of subjects with atopic dermatitis, which shows significantly reduced levels of barrier function and ceramide but not of beta-glucocerebrosidase activity. For the first time, we report an abnormal trans-epidermal water loss homeostasis in which delayed recovery kinetics of trans-epidermal water loss occurred on the first day during the 4 days after acute barrier disruption compared with healthy control skin. Interestingly, whereas the higher ceramide level in the stratum corneum of healthy control skin was further significantly up-regulated at 4 days post-tape stripping, the lower ceramide level in the stratum corneum of subjects with atopic dermatitis was not significantly changed. In a parallel study, whereas beta-glucocerebrosidase activity at 4 days post-tape stripping was significantly up-regulated in healthy control skin compared with before tape stripping, the level of that activity remained substantially unchanged in atopic dermatitis. These findings indicate that subjects with atopic dermatitis have a defect in sphingolipid-metabolic processing that generates ceramide in the interface between the stratum corneum and the epidermis. The results also support the notion that the continued disruption of barrier function in atopic dermatitis non-lesional skin is associated with the impaired homeostasis of a ceramide-generating process, which underscores an atopy-specific inflammation-triggered ceramide deficiency that is distinct from other types of dermatitis.

  5. Topical Application of Josamycin Inhibits Development of Atopic Dermatitis-Like Skin Lesions in NC/Nga Mice.

    PubMed

    Matsui, Katsuhiko; Tachioka, Kanta; Onodera, Kei; Ikeda, Reiko

    2017-01-01

    Patients with atopic dermatitis (AD) have superficial skin colonization by Staphylococcus aureus and an increased number of T helper type 2 (Th2) cells in their peripheral blood. Our previous study showed that josamycin, a macrolide antibiotic, had excellent bactericidal activity against S. aureus strains isolated from AD patients and simultaneously inhibited Th1 and Th2 cell development mediated by Langerhans cells. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effect of topical application of josamycin on AD-like skin lesions in NC/Nga mice. Josamycin (0.1%) was topically administered to NC/Nga mice with AD-like skin lesions induced by 2, 4, 6-trinitrochlorobenzene (TNCB). The therapeutic effects of josamycin were assessed by measurement of the skin severity scores, histological changes in the lesioned skin, serum levels of total IgE, and expression of interferon (IFN)-γ and interleukin (IL)-4 in lymph nodes and skin lesions. Topical treatment with josamycin significantly suppressed the increase in the skin severity score in NC/Nga mice. This suppressive effect was equal to that of betamethasone, and was associated with a decrease in the density of cellular infiltration into the dermis, the mast cell count in the dermis and the serum IgE level. Furthermore, topical application of josamycin reduced the expression of IFN-γ and IL-4 in auricular lymph node cells and the skin lesions. The present results show that topical application of josamycin inhibits the development of AD-like skin lesions in NC/Nga mice. This suggests that topical application of josamycin to AD lesions colonized by S. aureus would be beneficial for control of AD by acting on superficially located S. aureus and by inhibiting the development of Th1 and Th2 cells.This article is open to POST-PUBLICATION REVIEW. Registered readers (see "For Readers") may comment by clicking on ABSTRACT on the issue's contents page.

  6. 3D lesion insertion in digital breast tomosynthesis images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaz, Michael S.; Besnehard, Quentin; Marchessoux, Cédric

    2011-03-01

    Digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) is a new volumetric breast cancer screening modality. It is based on the principles of computed tomography (CT) and shows promise for improving sensitivity and specificity compared to digital mammography, which is the current standard protocol. A barrier to critically evaluating any new modality, including DBT, is the lack of patient data from which statistically significant conclusions can be drawn; such studies require large numbers of images from both diseased and healthy patients. Since the number of detected lesions is low in relation to the entire breast cancer screening population, there is a particular need to acquire or otherwise create diseased patient data. To meet this challenge, we propose a method to insert 3D lesions in the DBT images of healthy patients, such that the resulting images appear qualitatively faithful to the modality and could be used in future clinical trials or virtual clinical trials (VCTs). The method facilitates direct control of lesion placement and lesion-to-background contrast and is agnostic to the DBT reconstruction algorithm employed.

  7. Identification of Malassezia species in the facial lesions of Chinese seborrhoeic dermatitis patients based on DNA sequencing.

    PubMed

    Lian, C-h; Shen, L-l; Gao, Q-y; Jiang, M; Zhao, Z-j; Zhao, J-j

    2014-12-01

    The genus Malassezia is important in the aetiology of facial seborrhoeic dermatitis (FSD), which is the most common clinical type. The purpose of this study was to analyse the distribution of Malassezia species in the facial lesions of Chinese seborrhoeic dermatitis (SD) patients and healthy individuals. Sixty-four isolates of Malassezia were isolated from FSD patients and 60 isolates from healthy individuals. Sequence analysis of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region was used to identify the isolates. The most frequently identified Malassezia species associated with FSD was M. furfur (76.56%), followed by M. sympodialis (12.50%) and M. japonica (9.38%). The most frequently isolated species in healthy individuals were M. furfur (61.67%), followed by M. sympodialis (25.00%), M. japonica (6.67%), M. globosa (3.33%), and M. obtusa (3.33%). Overall, our study revealed that while M. furfur is the predominant Malassezia species in Chinese SD patients, there is no significant difference in the distribution of Malassezia species between Chinese SD patients and healthy individuals.

  8. The effect of pimecrolimus on expression of genes associated with skin barrier dysfunction in atopic dermatitis skin lesions.

    PubMed

    Grzanka, Alicja; Zebracka-Gala, Jadwiga; Rachowska, Regina; Bozek, Andrzej; Kowalska, Małgorzata; Jarzab, Jerzy

    2012-03-01

    The mechanism of action of pimecrolimus (PIM) on atopic lesions is still under consideration. Thus far, we have evidence of its anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory activity, and recent papers focus on its effect on epidermal barrier function. This study analysed changes in the expression of genes associated with skin barrier dysfunction in atopic dermatitis (AD) skin lesions after 2 weeks of exposure to PIM 1% cream. A real-time quantitative PCR analysis of selected epidermal differentiation complex genes and three alternative pathway keratins was performed in skin biopsies from 11 individuals with AD before and after PIM exposure. The real-time quantitative PCR analysis was compared to non-lesional skin in the same patients. Involucrin, a small proline-rich region (SPRR) 2C gene, and alternative pathway keratin 16 showed significant over-expression in lesional skin followed by significant decrease after PIM therapy. The SPRR1A gene, S100A9, and keratin 6A were also increased; however, the decrease after PIM treatment was not significant. The changes in S100 A2, A7 and A8 followed a similar course with borderline significance. SPRR4 had a significant decrease in expression in lesional versus non-lesional skin, which persisted after PIM treatment. No significant changes were detected in mRNA expression levels of filaggrin and loricrin. Our results suggest that PIM can be effective in restoring the epidermal barrier in patients with AD at least in part by its impact on expression of genes, which are important for the normal barrier function of skin.

  9. Therapeutic effects of full spectrum light on the development of atopic dermatitis-like lesions in NC/Nga mice.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Tae-Rin; Mun, Seog Kyun; Oh, Chang Taek; Hong, Hyuckki; Choi, Yeon Shik; Kim, Bong-Jun; Kim, Beom Joon

    2014-01-01

    Full spectrum light (FSL) includes UVA, visible light and infrared light. Many studies have investigated the application of FSL in severe cases of atopic dermatitis (AD) in humans; however, FSL has not yet been studied in an animal model. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the therapeutic effects of FSL on AD-like skin lesions using NC/Nga mice, with the aim of mitigating itching and attenuating the expression of adhesion molecules. We examined the effects of FSL on mite allergen-treated NC/Nga mice by assessing skin symptom severity, ear thickness, serum IgE levels, and the cytokine expression. We examined the histology of lesions using hematoxylin-eosin, toluidine blue and immunohistochemical staining. Our findings suggest that FSL phototherapy exerts positive therapeutic effects on Dermatophagoides farinae (Df)-induced AD-like skin lesions in NC/Nga mice by reducing IgE levels, thus promoting recovery of the skin barrier. The mechanisms by which FSL phototherapy exerts its effects may also involve the inhibition of scratching behavior, reduction of IL-6 levels and reductions in adhesion molecule expression. The present study indicates that FSL phototherapy inhibits the development of AD in NC/Nga mice by suppressing cytokine, chemokine and adhesion molecule expression, and thus, could potentially be useful in treating AD. © 2014 The American Society of Photobiology.

  10. Dermatitis artefacta

    PubMed Central

    Nayak, Surajit; Acharjya, Basanti; Debi, Basanti; Swain, Sarada P.

    2013-01-01

    A 27-year old lady presented to our department with multiple erosive lesions over extremities, which had a very bizarre pattern and was only over accessible parts of body. A thorough history was taken and a diagnosis of dermatitis artefacta was made. We present this interesting case for its rarity and future reference. PMID:23825858

  11. Presence of digital dermatitis treponemes on cattle and sheep hoof trimming equipment.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, L E; Blowey, R W; Carter, S D; Duncan, J S; Grove-White, D H; Page, P; Iveson, T; Angell, J W; Evans, N J

    2014-08-30

    Digital dermatitis (DD) is an infectious foot disease causing severe lameness in dairy cattle (worldwide) and sheep (UK). This study investigated whether DD Treponema phylogroups can be present on equipment used to trim ruminant hooves and, therefore, consider this trimming equipment as a possible vector for the transmission of DD. Equipment was tested after being used to trim DD symptomatic and asymptomatic cattle and sheep hooves, and subsequently after disinfection of equipment. After trimming, 'Treponema medium/Treponema vincentii-like', 'Treponema phagedenis-like' and 'Treponema denticola/T putidum-like' DD spirochaetes, were shown to be present on 23/37 (62%), 21/37 (57%) and 20/37 (54%) of knives, respectively. After disinfection, detection rates for the DD treponemes were 9/37 (24%), 6/37 (16%) and 3/37 (8%), respectively. Following culture of a swab, an isolate belonging to the T phagedenis-like spirochaetes was identified from a knife sample after trimming a DD positive cow. No isolates were obtained from knife samples after disinfection. This new data has, for the first time, identified treponemes in the farm environment, and highlighted disinfection of hoof trimming equipment between animals and between farms, as a logical precaution to limit the spread of DD. British Veterinary Association.

  12. Early Activation of Th2/Th22 Inflammatory and Pruritogenic Pathways in Acute Canine Atopic Dermatitis Skin Lesions.

    PubMed

    Olivry, Thierry; Mayhew, David; Paps, Judy S; Linder, Keith E; Peredo, Carlos; Rajpal, Deepak; Hofland, Hans; Cote-Sierra, Javier

    2016-10-01

    Determining inflammation and itch pathway activation in patients with atopic dermatitis (AD) is fraught with the inability to precisely assess the age of skin lesions, thus affecting the analysis of time-dependent mediators. To characterize inflammatory events occurring during early experimental acute AD lesions, biopsy samples were collected 6, 24, and 48 hours after epicutaneous application of Dermatophagoides farinae house dust mites to sensitized atopic dogs. The skin transcriptome was assessed using a dog-specific microarray and quantitative PCR. Acute canine AD skin lesions had a significant up-regulation of genes encoding T helper (Th) 2 (e.g., IL4, IL5, IL13, IL31, and IL33), Th9 (IL9), and Th22 (IL22) cytokines as well as Th2-promoting chemokines such as CCL5 and CCL17. Proinflammatory (e.g., IL6, LTB, and IL18) cytokines were also up-regulated. Other known pruritogenic pathways were also activated: there was significant up-regulation of genes encoding proteases cathepsin S (CTSS), mast cell chymase (CMA1), tryptase (TPS1) and mastin, neuromedin-B (NMB), nerve growth factor (NGF), and leukotriene-synthesis enzymes (ALOX5, ALOX5AP, and LTA4H). Experimental acute canine house dust mite-induced AD lesions exhibit an activation of innate and adaptive immune responses and pruritogenic pathways similar to those seen in humans with acute AD, thereby validating this model to test innovative therapeutics modalities for this disease. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Inhibitory Effect of Valencene on the Development of Atopic Dermatitis-Like Skin Lesions in NC/Nga Mice

    PubMed Central

    Yang, In Jun

    2016-01-01

    Valencene (VAL) isolated from Cyperus rotundus possesses various biological effects such as antiallergic and antimelanogenesis activity. We investigated the effect of VAL on atopic dermatitis (AD) skin lesions and their molecular mechanisms. We topically applied VAL to 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (DNCB) sensitized NC/Nga mice. Modified scoring atopic dermatitis index, scratching behavior, and histological/immunohistochemical staining were used to monitor disease severity. RT-PCR, western blotting, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay were used to determine the level of IgE, proinflammatory cytokines/chemokines production, and skin barrier proteins expression. Topical application of VAL significantly reduced AD-like symptoms and recovered decreased expression of filaggrin in DNCB-sensitized NC/Nga mice. The levels of serum IgE, IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-13 in skin/splenic tissue were reduced. In vitro studies using TNF-α and IFN-γ treated HaCaT cells revealed that VAL inhibited the exaggerated expression of Th2 chemokines including TARC/CCL17, MDC/CCL22, and proinflammatory chemokines such as CXCL8, GM-CSF, and I-CAM through blockade of the NF-κB pathway. In addition, expression of the skin barrier protein, involucrin, was also increased by VAL treatment. VAL inhibited the production and expression of proinflammatory cytokines IL-1β and IL-6 in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. These results suggest that VAL may serve as a potential therapeutic option for AD. PMID:27630735

  14. Pigmented Skin Lesion Biopsies After Computer-Aided Multispectral Digital Skin Lesion Analysis.

    PubMed

    Winkelmann, Richard R; Tucker, Natalie; White, Richard; Rigel, Darrell S

    2015-11-01

    The incidence of melanoma has been rising over the past century. With 37% of patients presenting to their primary care physician with at least 1 skin problem, primary care physicians and other nondermatologist practitioners have substantial opportunity to make an impact at the forefront of the disease process. New diagnostic aids have been developed to augment physician analysis of suspicious pigmented skin lesions (PSLs). To determine the effects of computer-aided multispectral digital skin lesion analysis (MSDSLA) on dermatologists' and nondermatologist clinicians' decisions to biopsy suspicious PSLs after clinical and dermatoscopic evaluation. Participants were shown 6 images of PSLs. For each PSL, participants were asked 3 times if they would biopsy the lesion: first after reviewing a clinical image of the PSL, again after reviewing a high-resolution dermatoscopic image, and again after reviewing MSDSLA probability findings. An answer was right if a melanoma or high-risk lesion was selected for biopsy or a low-risk lesion was not selected for biopsy. An answer was wrong if a melanoma or high-risk lesion was not selected for biopsy or a low-risk lesion was selected for biopsy. Clinicians' decisions to biopsy were evaluated using χ² analysis for proportions. Data were analyzed from a total of 212 participants, 177 of whom were dermatologists. Overall, sensitivity of clinical image review was 63%; dermatoscopic image review, 5%; and MSDSLA, 83%. Specificity of clinical image review was 59%; dermatoscopic image review, 40%; and MSDSLA, 76%. Biopsy decision accuracy was 61% after review of clinical images, 52% after review of dermatoscopic images, and 80% after review of MSDSLA findings. The number of lesions participants indicated that they would biopsy increased significantly, from 52% after reviewing clinical images to 63% after reviewing dermatoscopic images (P<.001). However, the overall number of specimens that participants indicated they would biopsy did

  15. A field trial of infrared thermography as a non-invasive diagnostic tool for early detection of digital dermatitis in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Alsaaod, M; Syring, C; Dietrich, J; Doherr, M G; Gujan, T; Steiner, A

    2014-02-01

    Infrared thermography (IRT) was used to detect digital dermatitis (DD) prior to routine claw trimming. A total of 1192 IRT observations were collected from 149 cows on eight farms. All cows were housed in tie-stalls. The maximal surface temperatures of the coronary band (CB) region and skin (S) of the fore and rear feet (mean value of the maximal surface temperatures of both digits for each foot separately, CBmax and Smax) were assessed. Grouping was performed at the foot level (presence of DD, n=99; absence, n=304), or at the cow level (all four feet healthy, n=24) or where there was at least one DD lesion on the rear feet, n=37). For individual cows (n=61), IRT temperature difference was determined by subtracting the mean sum of CBmax and Smax of the rear feet from that of the fore feet. Feet with DD had higher CBmax and Smax (P<0.001) than healthy feet. Smax was significantly higher in feet with infectious DD lesions (M-stage: M2+M4; n=15) than in those with non-infectious M-lesions (M1+M3; n=84) (P=0.03), but this was not the case for CBmax (P=0.12). At the cow level, an optimal cut-off value for detecting DD of 0.99°C (IRT temperature difference between rear and front feet) yielded a sensitivity of 89.1% and a specificity of 66.6%. The results indicate that IRT may be a useful non-invasive diagnostic tool to screen for the presence of DD in dairy cows by measuring CBmax and Smax.

  16. Short communication: Automatic washing of hooves can help control digital dermatitis in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Thomsen, Peter T; Ersbøll, Annette Kjær; Sørensen, Jan Tind

    2012-12-01

    The objectives of this study were to develop and test a system for automatic washing of the hooves of dairy cows and to evaluate the effect of frequent automatic washing on the prevalence of digital dermatitis (DD). An automatic hoof washer was developed in an experimental dairy herd and tested in 6 commercial dairy herds in 2 experiments (1 and 2). In the experimental herd, automatic hoof washing resulted in cleaner hooves. In experiments 1 and 2, cows were washed after each milking on the left side only, leaving the right side unwashed as a within-cow control. In experiment 1, hooves were washed with a water and 0.4% soap solution. In experiment 2, hooves were washed with water only. In each experiment, DD was scored in a hoof-trimming chute approximately 60 d after the start of hoof washing. Data were analyzed using a generalized linear mixed model. The outcome was the DD status of each leg (DD positive or DD negative). Herd and cow within herd were included as random effects, and treatment (washing or control) was included as a fixed effect. The statistical analyses showed that the odds ratio of having DD was 1.48 in the control leg compared with the washed leg in experiment 1. In experiment 2, the odds ratio of having DD was 1.27 in the control leg compared with the washed leg. We concluded that automatic washing of hooves with water and soap can help decrease the prevalence of DD in commercial dairy herds. Copyright © 2012 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Associations between biosecurity practices and bovine digital dermatitis in Danish dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Victor H S; Sørensen, Jan T; Thomsen, Peter T

    2017-08-09

    The relationship between biosecurity and digital dermatitis (DD) was evaluated in 8,269 cows from a convenience sample of 39 freestall dairy herds. The hypothesis was that poor implementation of biosecurity was associated with higher within-herd prevalence of DD. All lactating cows were scored as negative or positive for DD at the hind legs during milking in the milking parlor. Information about biosecurity was obtained through questionnaires addressed to farmers, on-farm observations, and information from the Danish Cattle Database (www.seges.dk). These assessment tools covered potential infection sources of DD pathogens to susceptible cows (e.g., via animals, humans, manure, vehicles, equipment, and facilities). External and internal biosecurity measures were explanatory variables in 2 separate logistic regression models, whereas within-herd DD prevalence was the outcome. Overall DD prevalence among cows and herds were 24 and 97%, respectively; the within-herd DD prevalence ranged from 0 to 56%. Poor external biosecurity measures associated with higher prevalence of DD were recent animal purchase, access to pasture, lack of boots available for visitors, farm staff working at other dairy farms as well, hoof trimming without a professional attending, and animal transporters having access to cattle area. For internal biosecurity, higher DD prevalence were associated with infrequent hoof bathing, manure scraping less than 8 times a day, manure removal direction from cows to heifers, animal pens' exit without water hoses, manure-handling vehicle used in other activities, and water troughs contaminated with manure. These findings showed that improvements on biosecurity may be beneficial for controlling DD in dairy herds. The study is relevant for farmers facing problems with DD, as well as hoof trimmers, advisors, and veterinarians, who can use the results for optimized recommendations regarding biosecurity in relation to DD. Furthermore, our results might be

  18. Oral administration of Lactobacillus plantarum lysates attenuates the development of atopic dermatitis lesions in mouse models.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hangeun; Kim, Hye Rim; Kim, Na-Ra; Jeong, Bong Jun; Lee, Jong Suk; Jang, Soojin; Chung, Dae Kyun

    2015-01-01

    Lactobacillus plantarum is a well-documented probiotic that has been used in clinical trials for the regulation of the immune system and treatment of gastrointestinal diseases. In this study, we evaluated the effects of L. plantarum cell lysates on the immune regulation through the in vitro and in vivo studies. L. plantarum lysates were prepared by sonication method, and we observed that the repetition of disruption step increased indicator components within the bacterial lysates. Indicator components might affect TNF-α production. L. plantarum lysates did not induce TNF-α production, while LPS-induced TNF-α production was dramatically inhibited in a sonication-dependent manner in THP-1 cells. Oral administration of L. plantarum lysates effectively attenuated the horny layer formation and decreased epidermal thickening in NC/Nga mice skin. The damage to barrier function after the 8 weeks oral administration was reduced by L. plantarum lysates as compared to that in the atopic dermatitis (AD) mice. Further study revealed that L. plantarum lysates polarized Th1 response via induction of IL-12 and IFN-γ production and inhibition of IL-4 and IgE production in NC/Nga mice. Together, our results suggest that L. plantarum lysates are remarkable material for host homeostasis and it could be used for the treatment of inflammatory diseases.

  19. Bee Venom Phospholipase A2 Ameliorates House Dust Mite Extract Induced Atopic Dermatitis Like Skin Lesions in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Kyung-Hwa; Baek, Hyunjung; Kang, Manho; Kim, Namsik; Lee, Seung Young; Bae, Hyunsu

    2017-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a biphasic inflammatory skin disease that is provoked by epidermal barrier defects, immune dysregulation, and increased skin infections. Previously, we have demonstrated that bvPLA2 evoked immune tolerance by inducing regulatory T cells (Treg), and thus alleviated Th2 dominant allergic asthma in mice. Here, we would like to determine whether treatment with bvPLA2 exacerbates the AD-like allergic inflammations induced by house dust mite extract (DFE) in a murine model. Epidermal thickness, immune cell infiltration, serum immunoglobulin, and cytokines were measured. Ear swelling, skin lesions, and the levels of total serum IgE and Th1/Th2 cytokines were elevated in DFE/DNCB-induced AD mice. Topical application of bvPLA2 elicited significant suppression of the increased AD symptoms, including ear thickness, serum IgE concentration, inflammatory cytokines, and histological changes. Furthermore, bvPLA2 treatment inhibited mast cell infiltration into the ear. On the other hand, Treg cell depletion abolished the anti-atopic effects of bvPLA2, suggesting that the effects of bvPLA2 depend on the existence of Tregs. Taken together, the results revealed that topical exposure to bvPLA2 aggravated atopic skin inflammation, suggesting that bvPLA2 might be a candidate for the treatment of AD. PMID:28218721

  20. Performance of digital RGB reflectance color extraction for plaque lesion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashim, Hadzli; Taib, Mohd Nasir; Jailani, Rozita; Sulaiman, Saadiah; Baba, Roshidah

    2005-01-01

    Several clinical psoriasis lesion groups are been studied for digital RGB color features extraction. Previous works have used samples size that included all the outliers lying beyond the standard deviation factors from the peak histograms. This paper described the statistical performances of the RGB model with and without removing these outliers. Plaque lesion is experimented with other types of psoriasis. The statistical tests are compared with respect to three samples size; the original 90 samples, the first size reduction by removing outliers from 2 standard deviation distances (2SD) and the second size reduction by removing outliers from 1 standard deviation distance (1SD). Quantification of data images through the normal/direct and differential of the conventional reflectance method is considered. Results performances are concluded by observing the error plots with 95% confidence interval and findings of the inference T-tests applied. The statistical tests outcomes have shown that B component for conventional differential method can be used to distinctively classify plaque from the other psoriasis groups in consistent with the error plots finding with an improvement in p-value greater than 0.5.

  1. Sheep and farm level factors associated with contagious ovine digital dermatitis: A longitudinal repeated cross-sectional study of sheep on six farms.

    PubMed

    Angell, J W; Grove-White, D H; Duncan, J S

    2015-11-01

    Contagious ovine digital dermatitis (CODD) is a cause of severe lameness in sheep in the UK currently affecting approximately 50% of farms. Six farms were studied in North Wales to investigate (1) the prevalence dynamics of CODD, (2) the association between sheep with CODD and potential risk factors and (3) the impact of CODD on lameness in sheep. The farms were visited at approximately two-month intervals between June 2012 and October 2013 and 6515 sheep were examined. The mean sheep level prevalence of CODD varied between farms (2.5-11.9%). Within farms, prevalence may increase in the late summer/early autumn and after housing. Environmental risk factors included larger flocks, lowland pasture, lush pasture and poached pasture. Co-infection of a foot with footrot was strongly associated with CODD in that foot (OR: 7.7 95% CI: 3.9-15.5 P<0.001) but negatively associated with co-infection of a foot with interdigital dermatitis (OR: 0.04 95% CI: 0.02-0.1 P<0.001). Reinfection with CODD was observed in 78 individual sheep but there was no re-infection at foot level. Lameness on all farms reduced during the study and seasonal changes in lameness followed similar patterns to those for CODD. Infection with CODD leads to a greater increase in locomotion score compared to footrot or interdigital dermatitis and CODD lesion grade was strongly associated with being lame. Sheep with CODD in more than one foot were more likely to be lame (OR: 25.0 95% CI: 12.5-49.9 P<0.001) than those with just one foot affected (OR:10.0 95% CI: 8.6-11.6 P<0.001). The biggest risk factor for CODD is co-infection with footrot and therefore control of footrot should help reduce the risk of CODD on affected farms. Furthermore environmental risk factors for CODD are similar to those for footrot adding weight for control strategies that target both diseases in tandem. The routine repeated gathering of sheep for the purposes of treating all lame sheep might be an effective control strategy for

  2. Evidence of Multiple Treponema Phylotypes Involved in Bovine Digital Dermatitis as Shown by 16S rRNA Gene Analysis and Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization▿

    PubMed Central

    Klitgaard, Kirstine; Boye, Mette; Capion, Nynne; Jensen, Tim K.

    2008-01-01

    The etiopathogenesis of the skin disease digital dermatitis (DD), an important cause of lameness in cattle, remains uncertain. Microscopically, the disease appears to be polymicrobial, with spirochetes as the predominant bacteria. The objective of this study was to identify the main part of the bacteria involved in DD lesions of cattle by using culture-independent molecular methods. Ten different phylotypes of Treponema were identified either by 16S rRNA gene sequencing of bacteria from DD lesions or by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis using phylotype-specific 16S rRNA-directed oligonucleotide probes. Two phylotypes, phylotype 1 (PT1) and PT2, were not closely related to any characterized treponemal species. PT7 was 99.3% identical to Treponema denticola, while PT9 resembled T. vincentii by 96%. The remaining phylotypes, PT3, PT4, PT5, PT6, and PT8, and Treponema brennaborense had previously been isolated from DD lesions. Forty DD biopsy specimens were examined for Treponema by FISH. With one exception, all of the biopsy specimens revealed epidermotropic, intermingled infection with three or more different phylotypes (mean, 4.7). The most prevalent species were PT1 (95%), PT6 (93%), and PT3 (85%). While colonization by PT3 was confined to the surface of the epidermis, both PT1 and PT6 invaded deep into the stratum spinosum and were seen in ulcerated dermal papillae. In two cases, all 10 phylotypes were demonstrated. Furthermore, FISH with a Treponema group-specific probe showed that Treponema accounted for more than 90% of the total bacterial population in the biopsy specimens. These data strongly suggest that a group of apparently symbiotic Treponema species are involved as primary bacterial pathogens in DD. PMID:18562583

  3. Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in IL8 and TLR4 Genes as Candidates for Digital Dermatitis Resistance/Susceptibility in Holstein Cattle.

    PubMed

    El-Shafaey, El-Sayed; Ateya, Ahmed; Ramadan, Hazem; Saleh, Rasha; Elseady, Yousef; Abo El Fadl, Eman; El-Khodery, Sabry

    2017-04-03

    Relatedness between single nucleotide polymorphisms in IL8 and TLR4 genes and digital dermatitis resistance/susceptibility was investigated in seventy Holstein dairy cows. Animals were assigned into two groups, affected group (n = 35) and resistant group (n = 35) based on clinical signs and previous history of farm clinical records. Blood samples were collected for DNA extraction to ampliy fragments of 267-bp and 382-bp for IL8 and TLR4 genes, respectively. PCR-DNA sequencing revealed three SNPs in each of IL8 and TLR4 genes. The identified SNPs associated with digital dermatitis resistance were C94T, A220G, and T262A for IL8 and C118T for TLR4. However, the G349C and C355A SNPs in TLR4 gene were associated with digital dermatitis susceptibility. Chi-square analysis for comparison the distribution of all identified SNPs in both IL8 and TLR4 genes between resistant and affected animals showed no significant variation among the identified SNPs in IL8 gene. Meanwhile, there was a significant variation in case of TLR4 gene. As a pilot study, the present results revealed that identified SNPs in IL8 and TLR4 genes can be used as a genetic marker and predisposing factor for resistance/susceptibility to digital dermatitis in dairy cows. However, TLR4 gene may be a potential candidate for such disease.

  4. Luffa cylindrica suppresses development of Dermatophagoides farinae-induced atopic dermatitis-like skin lesions in Nc/Nga mice.

    PubMed

    Ha, Hyekyung; Lim, Hye-Sun; Lee, Mee-Young; Shin, In-Sik; Jeon, Woo Young; Kim, Jung-Hoon; Shin, Hyeun Kyoo

    2015-04-01

    The fruit pulp of Luffa cylindrica Roemer (Cucurbitaceae) (LC) has been used to induce hemostasis, resolve phlegm and clear fever in traditional Korean medicine. However, the efficacy of LC has not been examined in atopic dermatitis (AD). A 70% ethanol extract of LC was evaluated to determine anti-inflammation and anti-AD effects in vitro and in vivo. The inhibitory effects of LC on the production of PGE2 and histamine were respectively measured in lipopolysaccharide-treated (1 μg/mL) RAW264.7 macrophages and phorbol-12 myristate 13-acetate (50 nM) and A23187 (1 µM)-stimulated HMC-1 mast cells. The production of AD-related chemokines (RANTES, TARC, and MDC) were evaluated in IFN-γ and TNF-α-stimulated (10 ng/mL, each) HaCaT keratinocytes. LC (10 mg/mouse/d) was topically applied to the dorsal skin and ears of Dermatophagoides farina (Pyroglyphidae)-sensitized Nc/Nga mice for 4 weeks. The IC50 values of LC on PGE2 and histamine production were 16.89 and 139.9 μg/mL, individually. The production of TARC and RANTES were inhibited 20% and 12% by LC (50 μg/mL) in HaCaT cells, respectively (p < 0.05). In sensitized-NC/Nga mice, the plasma levels of IgE and histamine were suppressed 36% and 41% by LC, respectively (p < 0.05). LC also reduced hemorrhage, hypertrophy, and hyperkeratosis of the epidermis and infiltration of mast cells in the dorsal skin and ear. LC can inhibit AD-like skin lesions and reduce the generation of IgE via inhibition of the inflammatory responses. LC has potential as a therapeutic agent to treat allergic diseases, including AD.

  5. Application of concentrated deep sea water inhibits the development of atopic dermatitis-like skin lesions in NC/Nga mice

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Mineral water from deep-sea bedrock, formed over thousands of years, is rich in minerals such as Ca, Mg, Na, K, Fe and others. Our present study was to investigate the preventive effects of natural deep-sea water on developing atopic dermatitis (AD). Methods We elicited AD by application of DNCB (2,4-dinitro-chlorobezene) in Nc/Nga mouse dorsal skin. Deep Sea water (DSW) was filtered and concentrated by a nanofiltration process and reverse osmosis. We applied concentrated DSW (CDSW) to lesions five times per week for six weeks, followed by evaluation. 1% pimecrolimus ointment was used as positive control. The severity of skin lesions was assessed macroscopically and histologically. Levels of inflammatory mediators and cytokines in the serum were detected by Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and the levels of CD4+ and CD8+ spleen lymphocytes were determined by flow cytometry analysis. Results DNCB-treated mice showed atopic dermatitis-like skin lesions. Treatment of mice with CDSW reduced the severity of symptoms in the skin lesions, including edema, erythema, dryness, itching, and transepidermal water loss (TEWL). Histological analyses demonstrated that epidermal thickness and infiltration of inflammatory cells were decreased after CDSW treatment. Given these interesting observations, we further evaluated the effect of CDSW on immune responses in this AD model. Treatment AD mice with CDSW inhibited up-regulation of IgE, histamine, and pro-inflammatory cytokines in the serum. Also, the CD4+/CD8+ ratio in spleen lymphocyte was down-regulated after treatment with CDSW. Finally, cytokines, especially IL-4 and IL-10 which are important for Th2 cell development, were reduced. Conclusions Our data suggests that topical application of CDSW could be useful in preventing the development of atopic dermatitis. PMID:22834904

  6. Downregulation of immunological mediators in 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene-induced atopic dermatitis-like skin lesions by hydrocortisone-loaded chitosan nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, Zahid; Katas, Haliza; Amin, Mohd Cairul Iqbal Mohd; Kumolosasi, Endang; Sahudin, Shariza

    2014-01-01

    Background Atopic dermatitis is a chronic, noncontiguous, and exudative disorder accompanied by perivascular infiltration of immune mediators, including T-helper (Type 1 helper/Type 2 helper) cells, mast cells, and immunoglobulin E. The current study explores the immunomodulatory and histological effects of nanoparticle (NP)-based transcutaneous delivery of hydrocortisone (HC). Methods In this study, HC, the least potent topical glucocorticoid, was administered transcutaneously as chitosan NPs. The pharmacological and immunological effects of the NP-based HC delivery on the alleviation of 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene-induced atopic dermatitis (AD)-like skin lesions were evaluated using the NC/Nga mouse model. Results In vivo Dino-Lite® microscopic assessment revealed that the NP-based formulation displayed a remarkable ability to reduce the severity of the pathological features of AD (dermatitis index, 3.0). The AD suppressive activity of the NP-based topical formulation was expected owing to the interruption of a series of immunopathological events, including the production of immunoglobulin E, release of histamine, and expression of prostaglandin-E2 and vascular endothelial growth factor-α in the sera and skin of the tested animals. Analysis of the cytokine expression in AD-like skin lesions further revealed that the NP-based formulation inhibited the pathological expression of interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-13, IL-12p70, interferon-γ, and tumor necrosis factor-α in serum and skin homogenates of NC/Nga mice. Further, our histological findings indicated that the NP-based formulation inhibited fibroblast infiltration and fragmentation of elastic fibers, further supporting the clinical importance of these formulations in maintaining the integrity of elastic connective tissues. Conclusion The current investigation suggests that NP-mediated transcutaneous delivery of HC could be considered an effective therapeutic approach to manage dermatitis. PMID:25395851

  7. A digital image acquisition system for skin lesions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maglogiannis, Ilias G.; Kosmopoulos, Dimitrios I.

    2003-05-01

    A major issue concerning the design and implementation of an acquisition system for digital images of skin lesions is the ability of capturing reproducible images. The reproducibility is considered essential for image analysis classification and for the comparison of sequential images during follow-up studies. This paper describes a complete image acquisition system used for the collection of reproducible images of patients having melanoma and compares them with images displaying dysplastic nevus for diagnostic purposes. The system includes a standardized illumination and capturing geometry with polarizing filters and a series of software corrections: Calibration to Black, White, Internal and External camera parameters, Shading correction and Median filtering. The validity of the calibration procedure and the ability of the implemented system to produce reproducible images were tested by capturing sample images in 3 different lighting conditions of the surrounding environment: dark, medium and intense lighting. For each case the average values of the three-color planes RGB and their standard deviations were calculated and the measured error differences ranged between 0,4 and 13,2 (in the 0-255 scale). Preliminary experiments for stereo measurements provided repeatability of about 0.3mm. The above numbers demonstrate the reproducibility of the captured images at a satisfactory level.

  8. [Seborrheic dermatitis].

    PubMed

    Aschoff, R; Kempter, W; Meurer, M

    2011-04-01

    Seborrheic dermatitis is a frequent skin disorder in infancy and adulthood. It also often occurs in patients with HIV or neurologic disorders like Parkinson disease or mood disorders. It is characterized by greasy, yellow flakes or scales in areas of high sebaceous gland activity like the scalp, face, chest and upper back. Additionally, erythema and itching can be present. The etiology and pathogenesis of seborrheic dermatitis is unknown; however, the focus lies on the involvement of Malassezia yeasts or fatty acid metabolites of Malassezia, on hormones and immunologic factors. The diagnosis is usually a clinical one, based on history and the appearance and site of lesions. The therapy consists mainly of antifungal agents, corticosteroids, immunomodulators, and keratolytics. Because of the chronicity of the illness with frequent relapses, a treatment strategy in which effectiveness and potential side effects are weighed should be used.

  9. Discovery of Bovine Digital Dermatitis-Associated Treponema spp. in the Dairy Herd Environment by a Targeted Deep-Sequencing Approach

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, Martin W.; Ingerslev, Hans-Christian; Boye, Mette; Jensen, Tim K.

    2014-01-01

    The bacteria associated with the infectious claw disease bovine digital dermatitis (DD) are spirochetes of the genus Treponema; however, their environmental reservoir remains unknown. To our knowledge, the current study is the first report of the discovery and phylogenetic characterization of rRNA gene sequences from DD-associated treponemes in the dairy herd environment. Although the spread of DD appears to be facilitated by wet floors covered with slurry, no DD-associated treponemes have been isolated from this environment previously. Consequently, there is a lack of knowledge about the spread of this disease among cows within a herd as well as between herds. To address the issue of DD infection reservoirs, we searched for evidence of DD-associated treponemes in fresh feces, in slurry, and in hoof lesions by deep sequencing of the V3 and V4 hypervariable regions of the 16S rRNA gene coupled with identification at the operational-taxonomic-unit level. Using treponeme-specific primers in this high-throughput approach, we identified small amounts of DNA (on average 0.6% of the total amount of sequence reads) from DD-associated treponemes in 43 of 64 samples from slurry and cow feces collected from six geographically dispersed dairy herds. Species belonging to the Treponema denticola/Treponema pedis-like and Treponema phagedenis-like phylogenetic clusters were among the most prevalent treponemes in both the dairy herd environment and the DD lesions. By the high-throughput approach presented here, we have demonstrated that cow feces and environmental slurry are possible reservoirs of DD-associated treponemes. This method should enable further clarification of the etiopathogenesis of DD. PMID:24814794

  10. The therapeutic effect of evening primrose oil in atopic dermatitis patients with dry scaly skin lesions is associated with the normalization of serum gamma-interferon levels.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Sungpil; Lee, Jooheung; Lee, Seungchul

    2002-01-01

    To see if evening primrose oil (EPO) could be more effective in a certain type of atopic dermatitis, we administered EPO to 14 atopic dermatitis patients characterized by itchy dry scaly skin. Furthermore, we measured serum levels of gamma-interferon (IFN-gamma) and IgE in addition to the clinical severity before and after the treatment to find out whether the treatment effect of EPO is related with an immunological mechanism. After the treatment, the extent of the skin lesions and the pruritus were markedly reduced in all patients. While serum IFN-gamma levels were significantly increased (p < 0.01) after the treatment up to those of the normal control group, serum IgE levels showed a significant decrease (p < 0.05), failing to normalize completely. We concluded that EPO could be highly effective in the treatment of a grossly noninflammatory type of atopic dermatitis. The restoration of serum IFN-gamma levels indicates that EPO might exert its effect through the modulation of the immunological mechanism involving IFN-gamma.

  11. Allergic contact dermatitis in children.

    PubMed

    Fontana, E; Belloni Fortina, A

    2014-12-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis is an inflammatory skin disease (delayed type hypersensitivity reaction) that accounts for up to 20% of all childhood dermatitis. Allergic contact dermatitis represents a clinical manifestation of contact sensitization and usually occurs at skin sites that have come into contact with the allergen. The clinical features of allergic contact dermatitis are itchy eczematous lesions. Prevalence of contact sensitization varies between 27% and 96% of children with suspected contact dermatitis. The relationship between contact sensitization and atopic dermatitis has been widely discussed but only conflicting data have been reported. Epicutaneous patch testing is the gold standard for the diagnosis of allergic contact dermatitis. The most common allergens detected in children are: metals, topical medicaments, fragrances, and preservatives. The first line management of allergic contact dermatitis in children is to avoid the offending allergens identified with the patch test and a topical corticosteroid therapy.

  12. Luffa cylindrica suppresses development of Dermatophagoides farinae-induced atopic dermatitis-like skin lesions in Nc/Nga mice

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Hyekyung; Lim, Hye-Sun; Lee, Mee-Young; Shin, In-Sik; Jeon, Woo Young; Kim, Jung-Hoon

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Context The fruit pulp of Luffa cylindrica Roemer (Cucurbitaceae) (LC) has been used to induce hemostasis, resolve phlegm and clear fever in traditional Korean medicine. However, the efficacy of LC has not been examined in atopic dermatitis (AD). Objective A 70% ethanol extract of LC was evaluated to determine anti-inflammation and anti-AD effects in vitro and in vivo. Materials and methods The inhibitory effects of LC on the production of PGE2 and histamine were respectively measured in lipopolysaccharide-treated (1 μg/mL) RAW264.7 macrophages and phorbol-12 myristate 13-acetate (50 nM) and A23187 (1 µM)-stimulated HMC-1 mast cells. The production of AD-related chemokines (RANTES, TARC, and MDC) were evaluated in IFN-γ and TNF-α-stimulated (10 ng/mL, each) HaCaT keratinocytes. LC (10 mg/mouse/d) was topically applied to the dorsal skin and ears of Dermatophagoides farina (Pyroglyphidae)-sensitized Nc/Nga mice for 4 weeks. Results The IC50 values of LC on PGE2 and histamine production were 16.89 and 139.9 μg/mL, individually. The production of TARC and RANTES were inhibited 20% and 12% by LC (50 μg/mL) in HaCaT cells, respectively (p < 0.05). In sensitized-NC/Nga mice, the plasma levels of IgE and histamine were suppressed 36% and 41% by LC, respectively (p < 0.05). LC also reduced hemorrhage, hypertrophy, and hyperkeratosis of the epidermis and infiltration of mast cells in the dorsal skin and ear. Discussion and conclusion LC can inhibit AD-like skin lesions and reduce the generation of IgE via inhibition of the inflammatory responses. LC has potential as a therapeutic agent to treat allergic diseases, including AD. PMID:25327534

  13. Efficacy and safety of oclacitinib for the control of pruritus and associated skin lesions in dogs with canine allergic dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Cosgrove, Sallie B; Wren, Jody A; Cleaver, Dawn M; Martin, David D; Walsh, Kelly F; Harfst, Jessica A; Follis, Stacey L; King, Vickie L; Boucher, Joseph F; Stegemann, Michael R

    2013-01-01

    Background Oclacitinib (Apoquel®) inhibits the function of a variety of pro-inflammatory, pro-allergic and pruritogenic cytokines that are dependent on Janus kinase enzyme activity. Oclacitinib selectively inhibits Janus kinase 1. Hypothesis/Objectives We aimed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of oclacitinib for the control of pruritus associated with allergic dermatitis in a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial. Methods Client-owned dogs (n = 436) with moderate to severe owner-assessed pruritus and a presumptive diagnosis of allergic dermatitis were enrolled. Dogs were randomized to either oclacitinib at 0.4–0.6 mg/kg orally twice daily or an excipient-matched placebo. An enhanced 10 cm visual analog scale (VAS) was used by the owners to assess the severity of pruritus from day 0 to 7 and by veterinarians to assess the severity of dermatitis on days 0 and 7. Dogs could remain on the study for 28 days. Results Pretreatment owner and veterinary VAS scores were similar for the two treatment groups. Oclacitinib produced a rapid onset of efficacy within 24 h. Mean oclacitinib Owner Pruritus VAS scores were significantly better than placebo scores (P < 0.0001) on each assessment day. Pruritus scores decreased from 7.58 to 2.59 cm following oclacitinib treatment. The day 7 mean oclacitinib Veterinarian Dermatitis VAS scores were also significantly better (P < 0.0001) than placebo scores. Diarrhoea and vomiting were reported with similar frequency in both groups. Conclusions and clinical importance In this study, oclacitinib provided rapid, effective and safe control of pruritus associated with allergic dermatitis, with owners and veterinarians noting substantial improvements in pruritus and dermatitis VAS scores. PMID:23829933

  14. Oral administration of the extract from Hatakeshimeji (Lyophyllum decastes sing.) mushroom inhibits the development of atopic dermatitis-like skin lesions in NC/Nga mice.

    PubMed

    Ukawa, Yuuichi; Izumi, Yoshiya; Ohbuchi, Takayuki; Takahashi, Tetsunari; Ikemizu, Shoichi; Kojima, Yasushi

    2007-06-01

    We examined whether the extract from Hatakeshimeji (Lyophyllum decastes, LD) mushrooms suppresses the development of atopic dermatitis (AD)-like skin lesions induced by repeated application of picryl chloride (PiCl) in NC/Nga mice. Oral administration of LD extract to NC/Nga mice inhibited the development of AD-like skin lesions based on lower total skin severity scores and serum immunoglobulin E (IgE) levels. Splenic lymphocytes were stimulated with the T cell mitogen concanavalin A, and secretion of a Th1 cytokine (IFN-gamma) and a Th2 cytokine (IL-4) was determined by ELISA. IFN-gamma production was not inhibited by treatment with LD extract. On the other hand, IL-4 production was significantly decreased by treatment with LD extract. These results suggest that LD extract exerts anti-allergic actions by suppressing the serum IgE and Th2-type immune responses.

  15. Ameliorative effects of Artemisia argyi Folium extract on 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene-induced atopic dermatitis-like lesions in BALB/c mice

    PubMed Central

    Han, Hyoung-Min; Kim, Seung-Ju; Kim, Jong-Sik; Kim, Bum Hoi; Lee, Hai Woong; Lee, Yong Tae; Kang, Kyung-Hwa

    2016-01-01

    Artemisia argyi Folium has been used to treat skin diseases, including eczema and dermatitis, in South Korean medicine. The present study investigated the curative effects of Artemisia argyi Folium extract (AAFE) on 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB)-induced atopic dermatitis (AD)-like skin lesions in a BALB/c mouse model. Briefly, the dorsal skin of the BALB/c mice was sensitized three times with DNCB, whereas the ears were challenged twice. Repeated treatment with DNCB induced AD-like lesions. The effects of AAFE on AD-like lesions were evaluated by clinical observation, histopathological analysis, immunohistochemistry and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. In addition, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and western blotting were performed. Treatment with AAFE reduced AD-like lesions, as determined by clinical observation, histopathological analysis, and detection of the serum levels of histamine, immunoglobulin E and cytokines. With regards to its mechanism of action, AAFE inhibited the phosphorylation of Lck/yes-related novel tyrosine kinase (Lyn), spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk), mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt and IκBα, which have essential roles in the production of various cytokines in lymph nodes. The suppressive activity of AAFE may be due to the inhibition of a series of immunopathological events, including the release of proinflammatory cytokines. The results of the present study strongly suggest that AAFE exerts an anti-AD effect by inhibiting the Lyn, Syk, MAPKs, PI3K/Akt and IκBα pathways. Therefore, AAFE may be considered an effective herbal remedy for the treatment of AD. PMID:27571702

  16. Comparing whole slide digital images versus traditional glass slides in the detection of common microscopic features seen in dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Vyas, Nikki S.; Markow, Michael; Prieto-Granada, Carlos; Gaudi, Sudeep; Turner, Leslie; Rodriguez-Waitkus, Paul; Messina, Jane L.; Jukic, Drazen M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The quality and limitations of digital slides are not fully known. We aimed to estimate intrapathologist discrepancy in detecting specific microscopic features on glass slides and digital slides created by scanning at ×20. Methods: Hematoxylin and eosin and periodic acid–Schiff glass slides were digitized using the Mirax Scan (Carl Zeiss Inc., Germany). Six pathologists assessed 50–71 digital slides. We recorded objective magnification, total time, and detection of the following: Mast cells; eosinophils; plasma cells; pigmented macrophages; melanin in the epidermis; fungal bodies; neutrophils; civatte bodies; parakeratosis; and sebocytes. This process was repeated using the corresponding glass slides after 3 weeks. The diagnosis was not required. Results: The mean time to assess digital slides was 176.77 s and 137.61 s for glass slides (P < 0.001, 99% confidence interval [CI]). The mean objective magnification used to detect features using digital slides was 18.28 and 14.07 for glass slides (P < 0.001, 99.99% CI). Parakeratosis, civatte bodies, pigmented macrophages, melanin in the epidermis, mast cells, eosinophils, plasma cells, and neutrophils, were identified at lower objectives on glass slides (P = 0.023–0.001, 95% CI). Average intraobserver concordance ranged from κ = 0.30 to κ = 0.78. Features with poor to fair average concordance were: Melanin in the epidermis (κ = 0.15–0.58); plasma cells (κ = 0.15–0.49); and neutrophils (κ = 0.12–0.48). Features with moderate average intrapathologist concordance were: parakeratosis (κ = 0.21–0.61); civatte bodies (κ = 0.21–0.71); pigment-laden macrophages (κ = 0.34–0.66); mast cells (κ = 0.29–0.78); and eosinophils (κ = 0.31–0.79). The average intrapathologist concordance was good for sebocytes (κ = 0.51–1.00) and fungal bodies (κ = 0.47–0.76). Conclusions: Telepathology using digital slides scanned at ×20 is sufficient for detection of histopathologic features routinely

  17. Optimized perception of lesion growth in mammograms using digital display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Engeland, Saskia; Snoeren, Peter R.; Karssemeijer, Nico; Hendriks, Jan H. C. L.

    2003-05-01

    In this study we investigate two ways of presenting prior and current mammograms on a mammography workstation: next to each other and alternating at the same display (toggle). The experiment consisted of 420 trials with prior-current mammogram pairs, displayed on a dedicated mammography workstation. In two-alternative forced-choice (2AFC) experiment, observers were asked to select the image containing the largest lesion. The stimuli were created by pasting extracted lesions into normal mammograms. Results showed that the observers preformed more accurate in selecting the largest lesion when using the toggle option.

  18. Evaluation of digital dermoscopy in a pigmented lesion clinic: clinician versus computer assessment of malignancy risk.

    PubMed

    Boldrick, Jennifer C; Layton, Christle J; Nguyen, Josephine; Swetter, Susan M

    2007-03-01

    Digital dermoscopy systems employ computer-based algorithms to quantitate features of pigmented skin lesions (PSLs) and provide an assessment of malignancy risk. We evaluated interobserver concordance of PSL malignancy risk between a pigmented lesion specialist and an artificial neural network (ANN)-based automated digital dermoscopy system. While digital dermoscopy provides a reliable means of image capture, storage, and comparison of PSLs over time, the ANN algorithm requires further training and validation before the malignancy risk assessment feature can be widely used in clinical practice.

  19. Sofa dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Schad, Karin; Nobbe, Stephan; French, Lars E; Ballmer-Weber, Barbara

    2010-11-01

    Furniture components can cause contact allergies. In the last years several cases of eczema after sofa contact have been reported. Typically the skin lesions develop on the back, the buttocks, the dorsal aspects of the thighs and arms and are often very resistant to topical corticoid therapy. Dimethylfumarate (DMF) is postulated to be the causative agent for this Type IV hypersensitivity reaction. DMF is an antimicrobial substance, which is used in asian upholstered furniture industry amongst others. We report the case of a 65-year old patient with generalised severely itching maculopapular, partly eczematous skin lesions on the buttocks, back, abdomen and arms. The resistance to therapy, several relapses after discharge from hospital as well as the detailed history lead us to the tentative diagnosis. The sofa dermatitis was proven by positive patch testing with furniture material and dimethylfumarate.

  20. Development of real-time PCR and loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assays for the differential detection of digital dermatitis associated treponemes

    PubMed Central

    Kulow, Megan; Yamazaki, Wataru; Döpfer, Dörte

    2017-01-01

    Bovine digital dermatitis (DD) is a severe infectious cause of lameness in cattle worldwide, with important economic and welfare consequences. There are three treponeme phylogroups (T. pedis, T. phagedenis, and T. medium) that are implicated in playing an important causative role in DD. This study was conducted to develop real-time PCR and loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assays for the detection and differentiation of the three treponeme phylogroups associated with DD. The real-time PCR treponeme phylogroup assays targeted the 16S-23S rDNA intergenic space (ITS) for T. pedis and T. phagedenis, and the flagellin gene (flaB2) for T. medium. The 3 treponeme phylogroup LAMP assays targeted the flagellin gene (flaB2) and the 16S rRNA was targeted for the Treponeme ssp. LAMP assay. The real-time PCR and LAMP assays correctly detected the target sequence of all control strains examined, and no cross-reactions were observed, representing 100% specificity. The limit of detection for each of the three treponeme phylogroup real-time PCR and LAMP assays was ≤ 70 fg/μl. The detection limit for the Treponema spp. LAMP assay ranged from 7–690 fg/μl depending on phylogroup. Treponemes were isolated from 40 DD lesion biopsies using an immunomagnetic separation culture method. The treponeme isolation samples were then subjected to the real-time PCR and LAMP assays for analysis. The treponeme phylogroup real-time PCR and LAMP assay results had 100% agreement, matching on all isolation samples. These results indicate that the developed assays are a sensitive and specific test for the detection and differentiation of the three main treponeme phylogroups implicated in DD. PMID:28542573

  1. High prevalence of methicillin resistance and PVL genes among Staphylococcus aureus isolates from the nares and skin lesions of pediatric patients with atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Cavalcante, F S; Abad, E D; Lyra, Y C; Saintive, S B; Ribeiro, M; Ferreira, D C; Santos, K R N dos

    2015-07-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is highly prevalent among patients with atopic dermatitis (AD), and this pathogen may trigger and aggravate AD lesions. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of S. aureus in the nares of pediatric subjects and verify the phenotypic and molecular characteristics of the isolates in pediatric patients with AD. Isolates were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility, SCCmec typing, and Panton-Valentine Leukocidin (PVL) genes. Lineages were determined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). AD severity was assessed with the Scoring Atopic Dermatitis (SCORAD) index. Among 106 patients, 90 (85%) presented S. aureus isolates in their nares, and 8 also presented the pathogen in their skin infections. Two patients had two positive lesions, making a total of 10 S. aureus isolates from skin infections. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) was detected in 24 (26.6%) patients, and PVL genes were identified in 21 (23.3%), including 6 (75%) of the 8 patients with skin lesions but mainly in patients with severe and moderate SCORAD values (P=0.0095). All 24 MRSA isolates were susceptible to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, while 8 isolates had a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) to mupirocin >1024 μg/mL. High lineage diversity was found among the isolates including USA1100/ST30, USA400/ST1, USA800/ST5, ST83, ST188, ST718, ST1635, and ST2791. There was a high prevalence of MRSA and PVL genes among the isolates recovered in this study. PVL genes were found mostly among patients with severe and moderate SCORAD values. These findings can help clinicians improve the therapies and strategies for the management of pediatric patients with AD.

  2. Inhibitory effects of Chelidonium majus extract on atopic dermatitis-like skin lesions in NC/Nga mice.

    PubMed

    Yang, Gabsik; Lee, Kyungjin; Lee, Mi-Hwa; Kim, So-Hyung; Ham, In-Hye; Choi, Ho-Young

    2011-11-18

    Chelidonium majus (CM) has traditionally been used for treatment of various inflammatory diseases including atopic dermatitis (AD). However its action on atopic dermatitis (AD) is unclear. Therefore, we investigated the effect of CM on AD using NC/Nga mice as an AD model. The effect of CM on 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (DNCB) induced NC/Nga mice was evaluated by examining skin symptom severity, itching behavior, ear thickness, levels of serum immunoglobulin E (IgE), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and interlukin-4 (IL-4), skin histology. The CM significantly reduced the total clinical severity score, itching behavior, ear thickness and the level of serum IgE in AD mouse model. CM not only decreased TNF-α but also IL-4. These results suggest that CM may be a potential therapeutic modality for AD. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. External application of NF-κB inhibitor DHMEQ suppresses development of atopic dermatitis-like lesions induced with DNCB/OX in BALB/c mice.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xiaoxue; Lan, Yi; Wei, Bing; Dai, Cailing; Gu, Yaru; Ma, Jun; Liu, Xiaoyan; Umezawa, Kazuo; Zhang, Yuyang

    2017-06-01

    Dehydroxymethylepoxyquinomicin (DHMEQ) which is originally developed as an analog of antibiotic epoxyquinomicin C is a specific and potent inhibitor of NF-κB and has been shown to possess promising potential as an anti-inflammatory and anti-tumor agent. This study examines DHMEQ's effect on therapeutic potential for atopic dermatitis (AD)-like lesions. AD lesions were chronically induced by the repetitive and alternative application of 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) and oxazolone (OX) on ears in BALB/c mice. The mice were then externally treated with DHMEQ ointment. Macroscopic and microscopic changes of the skin lesions were observed and recorded. DHMEQ inhibited ear swelling and relieved clinical symptoms of the AD-like lesions induced by DNCB/OX in BALB/c mice. Histopathology examination illustrated that it significantly decreased DNCB/OX-induced epidermal thickness, the infiltration of inflammatory cells, and the count of mast cell. The elevated level of immunoglobulin E (IgE) in serum and the mRNA levels of interferon γ (IFN-γ), interleukin 4 (IL-4) and IL-13 in the ear tissues, were also suppressed by DHMEQ. This study indicated that DHMEQ would be useful for the treatment of AD.

  4. [Contact dermatitis from Agave americana].

    PubMed

    de la Cueva, Pablo; González-Carrascosa, Mateo; Campos, Minia; Leis, Vicente; Suárez, Ricardo; Lázaro, Pablo

    2005-10-01

    Numerous plant species and their derivatives can cause skin reactions through a variety of mechanisms: irritative contact dermatitis, allergic contact dermatitis, contact urticaria and photodermatitis. We present a case of irritative contact dermatitis after exposure to the sap of Agave americana. The skin symptoms in this case have only been described on rare occasions; although this condition usually presents with a papulovesicular rash, in this patient it appeared as purpuric lesions in the contact area.

  5. Floral markers of cornflower (Centaurea cyanus) honey and its peroxide antibacterial activity for an alternative treatment of digital dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Oelschlaegel, Stefanie; Pieper, Laura; Staufenbiel, Rudolf; Gruner, Margit; Zeippert, Linda; Pieper, Bernd; Koelling-Speer, Isabelle; Speer, Karl

    2012-11-28

    Cornflower (Centaurea cyanus) honey can be characterized by a greenish yellow color and an intense flavor with a bitter aftertaste. Because cornflower honey contains only a limited amount of pollen for the verification of its floral origin, one objective was the characterization of its polyphenol and norisoprenoid contents to assign floral markers. Here, lumichrome (18.8-43.5 mg/kg), 7-carboxylumichrome, (Z/E)-3-oxo-retro-α-ionol, and 3-oxo-α-ionol appeared to be quite suitable for distinguishing cornflower honey from other unifloral honeys. Additionally, due to its comparably high hydrogen peroxide content (0.5-0.9 mM/h) and the associated antibacterial activity, cornflower honey was used as an alternative treatment of digital dermatitis on an organic dairy farm. Cows affected by this hoof disease often show severe lameness and a subsequent decline in milk yield and loss of body condition. The cows' hooves treated with cornflower honey showed significantly faster healing than the control group without any treatment.

  6. Digital Dermatitis in Dairy Cows: A Review of Risk Factors and Potential Sources of Between-Animal Variation in Susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Maeve A; O'Connell, Niamh E

    2015-07-13

    Digital dermatitis (DD) is a bacterial disease that primarily affects the skin on the heels of cattle. It is a major cause of lameness in dairy cows and a significant problem for the dairy industry in many countries, causing reduced animal welfare and economic loss. A wide range of infection levels has been found on infected farms, prompting investigations into both farm level and animal level risk factors for DD occurrence. There also appears to be individual variation between animals in susceptibility to the disease. The identification of factors affecting individual variation in susceptibility to DD might allow changes in breeding policies or herd management which could be used to reduce DD prevalence. Factors mentioned in the literature as possibly influencing individual variation in susceptibility to DD include physical factors such as hoof conformation and properties of the skin, physiological factors such as the efficacy of the immune response, and behavioural factors such as standing half in cubicles. Further work is required to determine the influence of these factors, identify the genetic basis of variation, clarify the level of heritability of DD susceptibility and to determine how this is correlated with production and health traits currently used in breeding programmes.

  7. Short communication: minimum bactericidal concentration of disinfectants evaluated for bovine digital dermatitis-associated Treponema phagedenis-like spirochetes.

    PubMed

    Hartshorn, R E; Thomas, E C; Anklam, K; Lopez-Benavides, M G; Buchalova, M; Hemling, T C; Döpfer, D

    2013-05-01

    The bacterial spirochetes, Treponema spp., are thought to be a major contributor to the etiology of bovine digital dermatitis (DD), a skin disease with worldwide economic impact. Hoofbath strategies are commonly used in an attempt to control and prevent the development of DD and continuing research has been done to develop an optimal hoofbath strategy for this purpose. The aim of this study was to develop a protocol that can be used as part of the screening process for candidate hoofbath disinfectants. This protocol allows an accurate determination of the in vitro minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration of a series of disinfectants for Treponema microorganisms. Assays were performed in triplicate for each of the disinfectants at 30-s and 10-min exposure times and exposed to 10 and 20% manure (vol/vol). The results of this study can be used to categorize disinfectants based on the effect of exposure and manure concentration regarding their ability to inhibit Treponema growth. This information can then aid in optimizing strategies for hoofbath-based control of DD development and spread. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Hydrogen water ameliorates the severity of atopic dermatitis-like lesions and decreases interleukin-1β, interleukin-33, and mast cell infiltration in NC/Nga mice.

    PubMed

    Kajisa, Takuya; Yamaguchi, Takuji; Hu, Ailing; Suetake, Nobuhiro; Kobayashi, Hiroyuki

    2017-09-01

    To examine the effect of hydrogen water (HW) on the severity of atopic dermatitis (AD) and elucidate the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms. For this experimental study between March 2015 and December 2015, NC/Nga mice characterized by mild AD severity were given either HW (n=11) or purified water (PW) (n=9) ad libitum; specific-pathogen-free mice (n=9) were used as AD-free control. Atopic dermatitis severity score and transepidermal water loss (TEWL) were examined at baseline (0 week), and after 4 weeks of HW/PW treatment. Levels of serum thymus and activation-regulated chemokine (TARC) and cytokines in the AD lesion were measured by ELISA; and mRNA expression of TARC  and aquaporin (AQP-3) genes in the skin was examined by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Results: Mice treated with HW for 4 weeks demonstrated a significant decrease in the AD severity score compared with PW-treated mice (p less than 0.01). Hydrogen water administration also significantly reduced TEWL and serum TARC levels (p less than 0.01), infiltration of mast cells (p less than 0.05), and secretion of the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-33 (p less than 0.05) in skin lesions compared with PW. However, no difference was observed between PW and HW groups in interferon-γ secretion and expression of AQP-3 and TARC genes. Conclusion: Hydrogen water suppressed inflammation in AD mice, leading to amelioration of disease severity, which suggests the therapeutic potential of HW in AD treatment.

  9. Estimation of the environmental effect of natural volatile organic compounds from Chamaecyparis obtusa and their effect on atopic dermatitis-like skin lesions in mice.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hyun; Ahn, Changhwan; Choi, In-Gyu; Choi, Won-Sil; Park, Mi-Jin; Lee, Sung-Suk; Choi, Don-Ha; Jeung, Eui-Bae

    2015-07-01

    Aromatherapy has been suggested as an alternative therapeutic method for the treatment of atopic dermatitis (AD), eczema and other skin diseases. In the current study, the anti-atopic properties of the volatile organic compounds of Chamaecyparis obtusa (VOCCo) were examined to determine whether they are amenable for use as a pharmaceutical candidate. The alterations in histological features, serum IgE levels and mast cell infiltration following exposure to VOCCo were determined in a 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB)-induced AD-like mouse model. The results of these experiments demonstrated that VOCCo inhibited the development of AD-like skin lesions by reducing the serum IgE level and mast cell infiltration into the dermal and subcutaneous layers. This was supported by screening of immune cytokine mRNAs, including interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6 from the skin of DNCB-treated mice. The expression of IL-1β and IL-6 in the skin lesions of mice was dose-dependently inhibited by treatment with VOCCo. Furthermore, treatment with VOCCo resulted in the recovery of histopathological features in AD-like skin lesions. These results suggest that VOCCo may have therapeutic and preventive effects for the development of AD.

  10. Advanced Methods for the Computer-Aided Diagnosis of Lesions in Digital Mammograms

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-07-01

    classification of mammographic mass lesions. Radiology 213: 200, 1999. " Nishikawa R, Giger ML, Yarusso L, Kupinski M, Baehr A, Venta L,: Computer-aided...detection of mass lesions in digital mammography using radial gradient index filtering. Radiology 213: 229, 1999. " Maloney M, Huo Z, Giger ML, Venta L...Nishikawa R, Huo Z, Jiang Y, Venta L, Doi K: Computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) in breast imaging. Radiology 213: 507, 1999. -Final Report DAMD 17-96-1-6058 19

  11. Occupational Contact Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Occupational contact dermatitis accounts for 90% of all cases of work-related cutaneous disorders. It can be divided into irritant contact dermatitis, which occurs in 80% of cases, and allergic contact dermatitis. In most cases, both types will present as eczematous lesions on exposed parts of the body, notably the hands. Accurate diagnosis relies on meticulous history taking, thorough physical examination, careful reading of Material Safety Data Sheets to distinguish between irritants and allergens, and comprehensive patch testing to confirm or rule out allergic sensitization. This article reviews the pathogenesis and clinical manifestations of occupational contact dermatitis and provides diagnostic guidelines and a rational approach to management of these often frustrating cases. PMID:20525126

  12. Noneczematous Contact Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Foti, Caterina; Vestita, Michelangelo; Angelini, Gianni

    2013-01-01

    Irritant or allergic contact dermatitis usually presents as an eczematous process, clinically characterized by erythematoedematovesicous lesions with intense itching in the acute phase. Such manifestations become erythematous-scaly as the condition progresses to the subacute phase and papular-hyperkeratotic in the chronic phase. Not infrequently, however, contact dermatitis presents with noneczematous features. The reasons underlying this clinical polymorphism lie in the different noxae and contact modalities, as well as in the individual susceptibility and the various targeted cutaneous structures. The most represented forms of non-eczematous contact dermatitis include the erythema multiforme-like, the purpuric, the lichenoid, and the pigmented kinds. These clinical entities must obviously be discerned from the corresponding “pure” dermatitis, which are not associated with contact with exogenous agents. PMID:24109520

  13. Dermatitis herpetiformis.

    PubMed

    Yost, John Montgomery; Hale, Christopher S; Meehan, Shane A; McLellan, Beth N

    2014-12-16

    Dermatitis herpetiformis (DH) is an autoimmune bullous disease, which represents the cutaneous manifestation of gluten sensitivity, in the setting of celiac disease. Although classical DH is characterized clinically by grouped, vesicles on an erythematous base, primary lesions often are absent owing to the intense, associated pruritus. Instead, many cases present only with erythematous erosions with numerous overlying excoriations. As in celiac disease, the core pathogenic mechanisms of DH are likely mediated by immunoglobulin A class autoantibodies against one of several transglutaminase enzymes. As the production of these autoantibodies is directly correlated with gastrointestinal exposure to gliadin, which is an alcohol-soluble fraction of gluten, a gluten-free diet represents the cornerstone of a DH management regimen. In cases refractory to dietary management alone, dapsone is the first-line agent for the treatment of DH, although many other agents have been anecdotally reported as effective.

  14. Paederus dermatitis featuring chronic contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Stanimirović, Andrija; Skerlev, Mihael; Culav-Košćak, Ivana; Kovačević, Maja

    2013-01-01

    Paederus dermatitis is a distinct variant of acute irritant contact dermatitis caused by mucocutaneous contact with the specific toxin of an insect belonging to the genus Paederus. It is characterized by the sudden onset of erythema and vesiculobullous lesions on exposed skin, with special predilection for the periorbital region. Paederus species have been mostly identified in Africa, Asia, Australia, and Central/South America. We report a 51-year-old woman who experienced 4 recurrences of periorbital erythema and edema in the previous year. No consistent etiology could be established at the beginning. Only after taking a detailed medical history was it discovered that 1 year before our examination, the patient had traveled to Kenya, where she had experienced contact with the insect. This fact led us to the diagnosis of Paederus dermatitis. After appropriate treatment, a complete regression was observed over a 3-week period.

  15. Parthenium dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Vinod K; Sethuraman, Gomathy

    2007-12-01

    Parthenium hysterophorus and Tanacetum parthenium, members of the Compositae family, are important causes of allergic contact dermatitis due to plants. Parthenium dermatitis is a major problem in India and Australia. Parthenium hysterophorus causes a spectrum of clinical patterns. Parthenium dermatitis, in its classical form known as airborne contact dermatitis, primarily affects the exposed areas and the flexures. Other clinical patterns are a seborrheic pattern, widespread dermatitis, and exfoliative dermatitis. The trend of the clinical pattern is changing. The classic airborne contact dermatitis may change to photodermatitis resembling chronic actinic dermatitis or mixed pattern dermatitis. The allergens responsible for contact dermatitis are sesquiterpene lactones and are present in the oleoresin fraction of the leaf, the stem, and the flower and also in pollen. The allergens can be extracted in various solvents (such as acetone, alcohol, ether, and water) and then used for patch testing. Acetone extract of Parthenium is better than aqueous extract in eliciting contact sensitivity. Treatment of Parthenium dermatitis is mostly symptomatic. Topical steroids, antihistamines, and avoidance of Parthenium are the mainstay of treatment for localized dermatitis. Systemic corticosteroids and azathioprine are frequently needed for severe or persistent dermatitis.

  16. Atopiform dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Bos, J D

    2002-09-01

    It is proposed to introduce the term 'atopiform dermatitis' to describe patients who have dermatitis with many of the characteristics of true atopic dermatitis, but who are not atopic. Atopy should be defined as the genetically determined and environmentally influenced syndrome in which the primary immunological abnormality is the production of allergen-specific IgE. It is suggested that by making a distinction between atopiform dermatitis and true atopic dermatitis, subsequent genetic, immunological and therapeutic studies will be improved. Furthermore, atopiform dermatitis would be a more appropriate diagnosis for the atopic dermatitis-like skin diseases that may occur in syndromes such as phenylketonuria, Schwachman's syndrome, Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome, Netherton's syndrome, Job's syndrome, selective IgA deficiency, agammaglobulinaemia and ataxia telangiectasia. In contrast to patients with true atopy, patients with atopiform dermatitis can logically be advised that allergen avoidance is not required, as they have no allergen-specific IgE.

  17. Clinical and cytological effects of pimecrolimus cream 1% after resolution of active atopic dermatitis lesions by topical corticosteroids: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Bangert, Christine; Strober, Bruce E; Cork, Michael; Ortonne, Jean-Paul; Luger, Thomas; Bieber, Thomas; Ferguson, Adam; Ecker, Rupert C; Kopp, Tamara; Weise-Riccardi, Sophia; Guettner, Achim; Stingl, Georg

    2011-02-01

    Topical pimecrolimus may maintain remissions of atopic dermatitis (AD) by inhibiting subclinical inflammation. To evaluate clinical and cytological effects of pimecrolimus in topical corticosteroid-treated and resolved AD lesions. Patients (n=67) with resolved AD lesions were randomized to 3-week double-blind treatment with either pimecrolimus cream 1% or vehicle cream. Outcome measures were reduction in Eczema Area and Severity Index (EASI) and number of leukocytes in skin biopsies in all randomized patients who were evaluable at the end of study. The proportion of patients with a localized EASI<2 at the end of study was higher with pimecrolimus cream 1% than with vehicle cream (73.5 vs. 39.4%, respectively). There was a significant decrease in the number of infiltrating CD45+ cells in pimecrolimus cream 1% compared with placebo cream (-88.2 vs. 43.2 cells/mm(2), respectively, p=0.047) and a slight but nonsignificant reduction in the number of dermal dendritic cells, Langerhans cells, T cells and macrophages with pimecrolimus versus vehicle cream. This was an exploratory study. Topical pimecrolimus was effective at maintaining betamethasone-17α-valerate-induced AD remission by inhibiting recurrences of the inflammatory infiltrate in the skin. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Correlation Between the Evaluation of Pigmented Lesions by a Multi-spectral Digital Skin Lesion Analysis Device and the Clinical and Histological Features of Melanoma.

    PubMed

    Winkelmann, Richard R; Rigel, Darrell S; Ferris, Laura; Sober, Arthur; Tucker, Natalie; Cockerell, Clay J

    2016-03-01

    To correlate Multi-spectral Digital Skin Lesion Analysis classifier scores with histopathological severity of pigmented lesions and clinical features of melanoma. Classifier scores were computed for 1,632 skin lesions. Dermatologists evaluated the same lesions for Asymmetry, Border Irregularity, Color variegation, Diameter >6mm, Evolution, Patient's Concern, Regression, and/or "Ugly Duckling" sign. Classifier scores were correlated to the number of clinical risk features and for six histopathological severity levels of pigmented lesions. Average classifier score, Welch's t-test, and chi-square analysis. Melanomas had higher mean classifier scores (3.5) than high-grade dysplastic nevi (2.7, p=0.002), low-grade dysplastic nevi (1.7, p<0.0001), non-dysplastic nevi (1.6, p<0.0001), and benign non-melanocytic lesions (2.0, p<0.0001). Classifier score and the number of clinical risk characteristics directly correlated (Pearson coefficient 0.32, p<0.0001). Correlation of classifier scores to clinical and histological melanoma features supports the effectiveness of Multi-spectral Digital Skin Lesion Analysis in assessing the risk of pigmented lesions requiring biopsy. Optimizing outcomes of dermatologist decisions to biopsy suspicious pigmented lesions may be enhanced utilizing Multi-spectral Digital Skin Lesion Analysis.

  19. A dual-stage method for lesion segmentation on digital mammograms

    SciTech Connect

    Yuan Yading; Giger, Maryellen L.; Li Hui; Suzuki, Kenji; Sennett, Charlene

    2007-11-15

    Mass lesion segmentation on mammograms is a challenging task since mass lesions are usually embedded and hidden in varying densities of parenchymal tissue structures. In this article, we present a method for automatic delineation of lesion boundaries on digital mammograms. This method utilizes a geometric active contour model that minimizes an energy function based on the homogeneities inside and outside of the evolving contour. Prior to the application of the active contour model, a radial gradient index (RGI)-based segmentation method is applied to yield an initial contour closer to the lesion boundary location in a computationally efficient manner. Based on the initial segmentation, an automatic background estimation method is applied to identify the effective circumstance of the lesion, and a dynamic stopping criterion is implemented to terminate the contour evolution when it reaches the lesion boundary. By using a full-field digital mammography database with 739 images, we quantitatively compare the proposed algorithm with a conventional region-growing method and an RGI-based algorithm by use of the area overlap ratio between computer segmentation and manual segmentation by an expert radiologist. At an overlap threshold of 0.4, 85% of the images are correctly segmented with the proposed method, while only 69% and 73% of the images are correctly delineated by our previous developed region-growing and RGI methods, respectively. This resulting improvement in segmentation is statistically significant.

  20. Dermatitis gangrenosa infantum.

    PubMed

    Himi, A; Ishizaki, H; Okada, T

    1977-04-01

    A case of a 4-month-old girl with dermatitis gangrenosa infantum is reported. The lesions were seen on the cheeks and later at the site of blood examination on the earlobes. The patient was successfully treated with antibiotics and then by skin grafting.

  1. Organic diseases mimicking acral lick dermatitis in six dogs.

    PubMed

    Denerolle, Philippe; White, Stephen D; Taylor, Tara S; Vandenabeele, Sophie I J

    2007-01-01

    Acral lick dermatitis ("lick granuloma") in dogs is often thought to have a behavioral etiology. However, other diseases may cause lesions on the distal legs, mimicking acral lick dermatitis. In this report, six dogs were presented with acral lick dermatitis-like lesions from different underlying causes-namely lymphoma, an orthopedic pin, deep pyoderma, mast cell tumor, leishmaniasis, and (presumptive) sporotrichosis.

  2. Douchi (fermented Glycine max Merr.) alleviates atopic dermatitis-like skin lesions in NC/Nga mice by regulation of PKC and IL-4.

    PubMed

    Jung, A-Ram; Ahn, Sang-Hyun; Park, In-Sik; Park, Sun-Young; Jeong, Seung-Il; Cheon, Jin-Hong; Kim, Kibong

    2016-10-24

    Douchi (fermented Glycine max Merr.) is produced from fermented soybeans, which is widely used in traditional herbal medicine. In this study, we investigated whether Douchi attenuates protein kinase C (PKC) and interleukin (IL)-4 response and cutaneous inflammation in Atopic dermatitis (AD)-like NC/Nga mice. To induce AD-like skin lesions, D. farinae antigen was applied to the dorsal skin of 3-week-old NC/Nga mice. After inducing AD, Douchi extract was administered 20 mg/kg daily for 3 weeks to the Douchi-treated mice group. We identified the changes of skin barrier and Th2 differentiation through PKC and IL-4 by immunohistochemistry. Douchi treatment of NC/Nga mice significantly reduced clinical scores (p < 0.01) and histological features. The levels of PKC and IL-4 were significantly reduced in the Douchi-treated group (p < 0.01). The reduction of IL-4 and PKC led to decrease of inflammatory factors such as substance P, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and Matrix metallopeptidase 9 (MMP-9) (all p < 0.01). Douchi also down-regulated Th1 markers (IL-12, TNF-α) as well as Th2 markers (IL-4, p-IκB) (p < 0.01). Douchi alleviates AD-like skin lesions through suppressing of PKC and IL-4. These results also lead to diminish levels of substance P, iNOS and MMP-9 in skin lesions. Therefore, Douchi may have potential applications for the prevention and treatment of AD.

  3. Suppressive effect of an aqueous extract of Diospyros kaki calyx on dust mite extract/2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene-induced atopic dermatitis-like skin lesions.

    PubMed

    Yu, Ju-Hee; Jin, Meiling; Choi, Young-Ae; Jeong, Na-Hee; Park, Jeong-Sook; Shin, Tae-Yong; Kim, Sang-Hyun

    2017-08-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common chronic inflammatory skin disease, affecting 10-20% of individuals worldwide. Therefore, the discovery of drugs for treating AD is an attractive subject and important to human health. Diospyros kaki and Diospyros kaki (D. kaki) folium exert beneficial effects on allergic inflammation. However, the effect of D. kaki calyx on AD remains elusive. The present study evaluated the effects of an aqueous extract of D. kaki calyx (AEDKC) on AD-like skin lesions using mouse and keratinocyte models. We used a mouse AD model by the repeated skin exposure of house dust mite extract [Dermatophagoides farinae extract (DFE)] and 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) to the ears. In addition, to determine the underlying mechanism of its operation, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interferon-γ (IFN-γ)-activated keratinocytes (HaCaT) were used. Oral administration of AEDKC decreased AD-like skin lesions, as demonstrated by the reduced ear thickness, serum immunoglobulin E (IgE), DFE-specific IgE, IgG2a, histamine level and inflammatory cell infiltration. AEDKC inhibited the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and a chemokine via downregulation of nuclear factor-κB and signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 in HaCaT cells. On examination of the AD-related factors in vivo and in vitro, it was confirmed that AEDKC decreased AD-like skin lesions. Taken together, the results suggest that AEDKC is a potential drug candidate for the treatment of AD.

  4. Parthenium dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Vinod Kumar; Verma, Parul; Maharaja, K

    2013-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) to Parthenium hysterophorus is the most common cause of plant dermatitis in India. Parthenium dermatitis is caused by dry powder of leaves and flowers and hair-like structures (trichomes). Sesquiterpene lactones (SQLs) are the most important allergens responsible for ACD to parthenium. The different patterns include classical airborne contact dermatitis, chronic actinic dermatitis (CAD), exfoliative and widespread dermatitis. There is a definite trend towards a change from an airborne pattern to a CAD pattern in the natural history of parthenium dermatitis. In CAD, there is a reported increased sensitivity to UVB, UVA and even visible light. However, SQLs including parthenin, the major allergen in the Parthenium hysterophorus, has neither documented photoallergic nor phototoxic properties. Recently, the high photoreactivity of α-methylene-γ-butyrolactone ring toward thymidine and resulting photoadducts has been proposed as an explanation of the progressive evolution of allergic contact dermatitis toward chronic actinic dermatitis. However, more data is required to reach a conclusion on the mechanism of photosensitivity in parthenium dermatitis. Sunlight, especially UV radiation, may have a role in increasing the germination capacity and the amount of allergens in the Compositae family, especially in parthenium plants under appropriate conditions like summer and spring, which may contribute to high prevalence of parthenium dermatitis especially in northern India.

  5. Fluoxetine Ameliorates Atopic Dermatitis-Like Skin Lesions in BALB/c Mice through Reducing Psychological Stress and Inflammatory Response

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yanxi; Chen, Long; Du, Yehong; Huang, Daochao; Han, Huili; Dong, Zhifang

    2016-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common chronic inflammatory skin disorder, and patients with AD suffer from severe psychological stress, which markedly increases the prevalence rate of depression and anxiety disorders in later life. Fluoxetine, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, has recently been reported to exert anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive effects. However, it is unclear whether fluoxetine is effective in the treatment of AD through reducing psychological stress and inflammatory reaction. Here, we reported that a BALB/c mouse model of AD was induced by application of 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) onto hairless dorsal skin. Chronic fluoxetine treatment (10 mg/kg per day, i.p.) significantly attenuated AD-like symptoms, as reflected by a dramatic decrease in scratching bouts, as well as a decrease in anxiety- and depressive-like behaviors. Furthermore, these behavioral changes were accompanied by a significant decrease in epidermal thickness, the number of mast cells in skin tissue, mRNA levels of interleukin-4 (IL-4) and IL-13 in the spleen, as well as serum immunoglobulin E (IgE) in the DNCB-treated mice by treatment with fluoxetine. Taken together, these results indicate that fluoxetine may suppress psychological stress and inflammatory response during AD development, and subsequently ameliorate AD symptoms, suggesting that fluoxetine may be a potential therapeutic agent against AD in clinic. PMID:27679577

  6. Therapeutic Effects of Fermented Flax Seed Oil on NC/Nga Mice with Atopic Dermatitis-Like Skin Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Joonhyoung; Min, Sangyeon

    2017-01-01

    Background. Atopic Dermatitis (AD) is one of the most common chronic inflammatory skin diseases. Objective. This experiment aimed to study the effects of Fermented Flax Seed Oil (FFSO) on symptoms such as redness, eczema, and pruritus induced by AD. Materials and Methods. AD-induced NC/Nga mice were used to observe the immunological and therapeutic effects of FFSO on skin in vivo. Raw 264.7 cells were used to investigate the effects of FFSO in cells. Fc receptor expression and concentration of beta-hexosaminidase were measured. Nitric oxide assay, Western blotting, real-time PCR, image analysis, and statistical analysis were performed in vitro. Results. In the immunohistochemical results, p-ERK 1/2 expression decreased, fibrogenesis strongly increased, and distribution reduction is observed. Distribution of IL-4-positive cells in the corium near the basal portion of the epithelium in the AT group was reduced. FFSO treatment reduced the number of cells showing NF-κB p65 and iNOS expression. The level of LXR in the AT group was higher than that in the AE group, and elevation of PKC expression was significantly reduced by FFSO treatment. Conclusion. FFSO could alleviate symptoms of AD such as epithelial damage, redness, swelling, and pruritus. PMID:28197211

  7. Digital mucous cyst: surgical closure technique based on self-grafting using skin overlying the lesion.

    PubMed

    Di Chiacchio, Nilton G; Fonseca Noriega, Leandro; Ocampo-Garza, Jorge; Di Chiacchio, Nilton

    2017-04-01

    Digital mucous cysts or myxoid cysts are relatively common, benign pseudocysts of the digits typically located at the distal interphalangeal joints or in the proximal nail fold. There are several therapeutic modalities for its treatment ranging from conservative to surgical procedures; however, there is no consensus about the best approach. We describe a surgical technique based on the excision of the digital mucous cyst and reconstruction using a self-grafting from the overlying skin lesion. The use of the cyst's overlying skin as a partial cutaneous graft followed by a long-term Brown's dressing, in this case, provided a satisfactory functional and esthetic result. This technique is a new option for the reconstruction of digital mucous cyst defects that decreases the surgical time and avoids a graft removal of healthy skin and consequently a new scar. © 2017 The International Society of Dermatology.

  8. Ethanol Extract of Sanguisorbae Radix Inhibits Mast Cell Degranulation and Suppresses 2,4-Dinitrochlorobenzene-Induced Atopic Dermatitis-Like Skin Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ju-Hye; Yoo, Jae-Myung; Cho, Won-Kyung; Ma, Jin Yeul

    2016-01-01

    Sanguisorbae Radix (SR) is well known as herbal medicine named “Zi-Yu” in Korea, which is the dried roots of Sanguisorba officinalis L. (Rosacease). We investigated the underlying mechanism on the inhibition of atopic dermatitis (AD) of an ethanol extract of SR (ESR) using 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene- (DNCB-) induced AD mice model. Oral administration of ESR significantly suppressed DNCB-induced AD-like symptoms such as scratching behavior, ear thickness, epidermal thickness, and IgE levels. To investigate the effects of ESR treatment on degranulation of IgE/Ag-activated mouse bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMCs), we measured the release of β-hexosaminidase (β-HEX, degranulation marker). ESR decreased the infiltration of eosinophils and mast cells into the AD skin lesions. Furthermore, ESR significantly inhibited degranulation of IgE/Ag-activated BMMCs. We have demonstrated that ESR decreased AD symptoms in mice and inhibits degranulation of IgE/Ag-activated mast cells. Our study suggests that ESR may serve as a potential therapeutic candidate for the treatment of AD symptoms. PMID:27065570

  9. Weissella cibaria WIKIM28 ameliorates atopic dermatitis-like skin lesions by inducing tolerogenic dendritic cells and regulatory T cells in BALB/c mice

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Seul Ki; Kwon, Min-Sung; Lee, Jieun; Oh, Young Joon; Jang, Ja-Young; Lee, Jong-Hee; Park, Hae Woong; Nam, Young-Do; Seo, Myung-Ji; Roh, Seong Woon; Choi, Hak-Jong

    2017-01-01

    The occurrence of atopic dermatitis (AD), a chronic inflammatory skin disease, has been increasing steadily in children and adults in recent decades. In this study, we evaluated the ability of the lactic acid bacterium Weissella cibaria WIKIM28 isolated from gatkimchi, a Korean fermented vegetable preparation made from mustard leaves, to suppress the development of AD induced by 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene in a murine model. Oral administration of W. cibaria WIKIM28 reduced AD-like skin lesions, epidermal thickening, and serum immunoglobulin E levels. Furthermore, the production of type 2 helper T (Th2) cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5, and IL-13 decreased in peripheral lymph node cells. Moreover, the intake of W. cibaria WIKIM28 increased the proportion of CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ regulatory T (Treg) cells in mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs) and IL-10 levels in polyclonally stimulated MLN cells. In conclusion, the oral administration of W. cibaria WIKIM28 isolated from gatkimchi ameliorated AD-like symptoms by suppressing allergic Th2 responses and inducing Treg responses. These results suggest that W. cibaria WIKIM28 may be applicable as a probiotic for the prevention and amelioration of AD. PMID:28067304

  10. The Hot-Water Extract of Smilacis Chinae Rhizome Suppresses 2,4-Dinitrochlorobenzene and House Dust Mite-Induced Atopic Dermatitis-Like Skin Lesions in Mice.

    PubMed

    Ki, Nam Yong; Park, Eun-Ji; Sung, In sung; Ju, Seul A; Kim, Kyoung Un; Kim, Mi Rae; Song, Do Yeon; Lee, Min-Ju; Kim, Hak-Soo; Kang, Boo-Hyon; Chung, Hun-Jong; Choi, Eun-Ju; Yoon, Ki-Hun; Lee, Min Won; Yun, Seongho; Min, Bokkee; Kwon, Suk Hyung; Shin, Hwa-Sup

    2016-04-01

    Smilacis Chinae Rhizome (SCR) has been used as an oriental folk medicine for various biological activities. However, its effect on atopic dermatitis (AD) remains undetermined to date. We assessed the effect of orally administered hot-water extract of SCR on AD-like skin lesions in mice and its underlying mechanisms. AD-like murine model was prepared by repeated alternate application of house dust mite (Dermatophagoides farinae) extract (DFE) and 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) for 4 weeks, topically to the ears. Daily oral administration of SCR for 3 and 4 weeks significantly reduced inflammatory ear thickening, with the effect being enhanced at the earlier start and longer period of administration. This effect was accompanied by a significant decrease in both Th2 and Th1 serum antibodies (total IgE, DFE-specific IgE, and IgG2a). Histological analysis showed that SCR markedly decreased the epidermal/dermal ear thickening and the dermal infiltration of inflammatory cells. Furthermore, SCR suppressed DFE/DNCB-induced expression of IL-4, IL-13, IL-17, IL-18, TSLP, and IFN-γ genes in the ear tissue. Taken together, our observations demonstrate that chronic oral administration of SCR exerts beneficial effect in mouse AD model, suggesting that SCR has the therapeutic potential as an orally active treatment of AD by modulating both Th1 and Th2 responses.

  11. Weissella cibaria WIKIM28 ameliorates atopic dermatitis-like skin lesions by inducing tolerogenic dendritic cells and regulatory T cells in BALB/c mice.

    PubMed

    Lim, Seul Ki; Kwon, Min-Sung; Lee, Jieun; Oh, Young Joon; Jang, Ja-Young; Lee, Jong-Hee; Park, Hae Woong; Nam, Young-Do; Seo, Myung-Ji; Roh, Seong Woon; Choi, Hak-Jong

    2017-01-09

    The occurrence of atopic dermatitis (AD), a chronic inflammatory skin disease, has been increasing steadily in children and adults in recent decades. In this study, we evaluated the ability of the lactic acid bacterium Weissella cibaria WIKIM28 isolated from gatkimchi, a Korean fermented vegetable preparation made from mustard leaves, to suppress the development of AD induced by 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene in a murine model. Oral administration of W. cibaria WIKIM28 reduced AD-like skin lesions, epidermal thickening, and serum immunoglobulin E levels. Furthermore, the production of type 2 helper T (Th2) cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5, and IL-13 decreased in peripheral lymph node cells. Moreover, the intake of W. cibaria WIKIM28 increased the proportion of CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+) regulatory T (Treg) cells in mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs) and IL-10 levels in polyclonally stimulated MLN cells. In conclusion, the oral administration of W. cibaria WIKIM28 isolated from gatkimchi ameliorated AD-like symptoms by suppressing allergic Th2 responses and inducing Treg responses. These results suggest that W. cibaria WIKIM28 may be applicable as a probiotic for the prevention and amelioration of AD.

  12. Diagnostic impact of digital tomosynthesis in oncologic patients with suspected pulmonary lesions on chest radiography.

    PubMed

    Quaia, Emilio; Baratella, Elisa; Poillucci, Gabriele; Gennari, Antonio Giulio; Cova, Maria Assunta

    2016-08-01

    To assess the actual diagnostic impact of digital tomosynthesis (DTS) in oncologic patients with suspected pulmonary lesions on chest radiography (CXR). A total of 237 patients (135 male, 102 female; age, 70.8 ± 10.4 years) with a known primary malignancy and suspected pulmonary lesion(s) on CXR and who underwent DTS were retrospectively identified. Two radiologists (experience, 10 and 15 years) analysed in consensus CXR and DTS images and proposed a diagnosis according to a confidence score: 1 or 2 = definitely or probably benign pulmonary or extrapulmonary lesion, or pseudolesion; 3 = indeterminate; 4 or 5 = probably or definitely pulmonary lesion. DTS findings were proven by CT (n = 114 patients), CXR during follow-up (n = 105) or histology (n = 18). Final diagnoses included 77 pulmonary opacities, 26 pulmonary scars, 12 pleural lesions and 122 pulmonary pseudolesions. DTS vs CXR presented a higher (P < 0.05) sensitivity (92 vs 15 %), specificity (91 vs 9 %), overall accuracy (92 vs 12 %), and diagnostic confidence (area under ROC, 0.997 vs 0.619). Mean effective dose of CXR vs DTS was 0.06 vs 0.107 mSv (P < 0.05). DTS improved diagnostic accuracy and confidence in comparison to CXR alone in oncologic patients with suspected pulmonary lesions on CXR with only a slight, though significant, increase in radiation dose. • Digital tomosynthesis (DTS) improves accuracy of chest radiography (CXR) in oncologic patients. • DTS improves confidence of CXR in oncologic patients. • DTS allowed avoidance of CT in about 50 % of oncologic patients.

  13. Medium dose ultraviolet A1 phototherapy and mRNA expression of interleukin 8, interferon γ, and chemokine receptor 4 in acute skin lesions in atopic dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Malinowska, Karolina; Sysa-Jedrzejowska, Anna; Wozniacka, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Mechanisms responsible for UVA1 efficacy in atopic dermatitis (AD) are not fully elucidated. Aim To investigate IL-8, CCR-4, and IFN-γ mRNA expression in AD before and after UVA1, to identify correlations among them, and to determine whether and to what degree mRNA expression is influenced by UVA1. Material and methods Twenty-five patients with AD underwent medium dose UVA1-phototherapy at daily dosages of 10, 20, 30, 45, and then continuing 45 J/cm2 up to 20 days, from Monday to Friday for 4 weeks. Before and after UVA1, biopsies from acute skin lesions were studied using reverse-transcription and RT-PCR. Results The levels of CCR-4 mRNA correlated with those of IFN-γ, both before and after UVA1 phototherapy (p < 0.05). A significant correlation was found after UVA1 between mRNA levels of IL-8 and IFN-γ (p < 0.05). After UVA1 an increase in IL-8 mRNA expression in comparison to the baseline assessment (p = 0.02) was found, while no significant difference was revealed in the expression of CCR-4 and IFN-γ mRNA. UVA1 improved both SCORAD and severity of AD (p < 0.001). SCORAD and the severity of AD did not correlate with the degree of expression of measured cytokine mRNA, neither before nor after UVA1. Conclusions CCR-4 is expressed in parallel with IFN-γ in acute skin lesions of patients with AD both before and after UVA1 phototherapy. UVA1 significantly improves SCORAD index, lessens the severity of AD and increases the expression of IL-8, with no direct effects on other studied molecules. PMID:27512350

  14. Single-digit arithmetic processing—anatomical evidence from statistical voxel-based lesion analysis

    PubMed Central

    Mihulowicz, Urszula; Willmes, Klaus; Karnath, Hans-Otto; Klein, Elise

    2014-01-01

    Different specific mechanisms have been suggested for solving single-digit arithmetic operations. However, the neural correlates underlying basic arithmetic (multiplication, addition, subtraction) are still under debate. In the present study, we systematically assessed single-digit arithmetic in a group of acute stroke patients (n = 45) with circumscribed left- or right-hemispheric brain lesions. Lesion sites significantly related to impaired performance were found only in the left-hemisphere damaged (LHD) group. Deficits in multiplication and addition were related to subcortical/white matter brain regions differing from those for subtraction tasks, corroborating the notion of distinct processing pathways for different arithmetic tasks. Additionally, our results further point to the importance of investigating fiber pathways in numerical cognition. PMID:24847238

  15. Single-digit arithmetic processing-anatomical evidence from statistical voxel-based lesion analysis.

    PubMed

    Mihulowicz, Urszula; Willmes, Klaus; Karnath, Hans-Otto; Klein, Elise

    2014-01-01

    Different specific mechanisms have been suggested for solving single-digit arithmetic operations. However, the neural correlates underlying basic arithmetic (multiplication, addition, subtraction) are still under debate. In the present study, we systematically assessed single-digit arithmetic in a group of acute stroke patients (n = 45) with circumscribed left- or right-hemispheric brain lesions. Lesion sites significantly related to impaired performance were found only in the left-hemisphere damaged (LHD) group. Deficits in multiplication and addition were related to subcortical/white matter brain regions differing from those for subtraction tasks, corroborating the notion of distinct processing pathways for different arithmetic tasks. Additionally, our results further point to the importance of investigating fiber pathways in numerical cognition.

  16. Effects of topically applied rapamycin and mycophenolic acid on TNCB-induced atopic dermatitis-like skin lesions in NC/Nga mice.

    PubMed

    Jung, Kyung Eun; Lee, Ye Jin; Ryu, Yun Hee; Kim, Jung Eun; Kim, Hei Sung; Kim, Beom Joon; Kang, Hoon; Park, Young Min

    2015-06-01

    Rapamycin (RPM) and mycophenolic acid (MPA) are immunosuppressive drugs approved for use in preventing transplant rejection. These drugs have also been used in the field of dermatology as glucocorticoid sparing agents for autoimmune and inflammatory disorders such as atopic dermatitis (AD). The aim of this study was to investigate the therapeutic effect of topically applied RPM and/or MPA on AD-like skin lesions in NC/Nga mice. RPM (0.04% - 4%), MPA (0.2% - 5%), and formulations of both agents at various ratios were administrated topically to NC/Nga mice with 2-chloro-1,3,5-trinitrobenzene (TNCB)-induced AD-like skin lesions. The therapeutic effects of topical RPM, MPA, and the mixed formulations in TNCB-treated NC/Nga mice were assessed by measuring skin severity scores, ear thickness, and histological changes in the lesioned skin including mast cell count and total serum IgE levels. Expression of interleukin (IL)-4, and interferon (IFN)-γ was also assessed. Topical 4% RPM and/or 1% MPA treatment significantly improved clinical signs of AD such as erythema, edema, excoriation, and dryness on day 29 (P<0.05). In addition, 4% RPM, 1% MPA, and the mixed formulations significantly decreased epidermal thickening, dermal edema, and cellular infiltration into the dermis compared with the vehicle. RPM (4%) and/or MPA (1%) significantly reduced the expression of IL-4 and IFN-γ mRNA and protein levels compared with the vehicle (P<0.05). No significant change in the levels of total serum IgE was induced by topical 4% RPM and/or 1% MPA. The present results demonstrated that topical 4% RPM and/or 1% MPA improved TNCB-induced AD-like lesions of NC/Nga mice by suppressing expression of Th2-related cytokines (IL-4) and Th1-related cytokines (IFN-γ). These findings suggest that RPM and/or MPA may be promising topical therapeutic candidates for the treatment of AD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Melanoma patients under vemurafenib: prospective follow-up of melanocytic lesions by digital dermoscopy.

    PubMed

    Perier-Muzet, Marie; Thomas, Luc; Poulalhon, Nicolas; Debarbieux, Sébastien; Bringuier, Pierre-Paul; Duru, Gerard; Depaepe, Lauriane; Balme, Brigitte; Dalle, Stephane

    2014-05-01

    Second primary melanomas (SPMs) induced by vemurafenib have been recently described. The aim of this study was to define the dermoscopical signs of melanoma in this context. Patients underwent a total body examination before receiving vemurafenib. Each single melanocytic lesion was registered before therapy by digital dermoscopy (DD), and then repeated monthly until therapy disruption. Forty-two patients were included, the mean duration of follow-up was 6.7 months, and a mean number of 51 lesions per patients were captured and followed. A total number of 2,155 lesions were recorded, of which 56.1% presented at least one change during the study. More common changes concerned the color of the lesions (up to 15%) and appearance or disappearance of globules (14.6%). Thirty-six of the melanocytic lesions were surgically excised, 21 were classified as a nevus, 1 was a lentigo, and 14 as a second new primary melanoma (occurring in 21% of our patients). DD allowed us to excise only 36/2,155 (1.6%) of the lesions and permitted us to detect 14 SPM in the 42 patients with a highly efficient malignant/benign ratio of 63.6%. Although vemurafenib is now tested in an adjuvant setting DD should be systematically used in order to accurately detect SPM and reduce the number of unnecessary excisions.

  18. An algorithm for the characterization of digital images of pigmented lesions of human skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mera-González, Laura Y.; Delgado-Atencio, José A.; Valdiviezo-Navarro, Juan C.; Cunill-Rodríguez, Margarita

    2014-09-01

    Melanoma is the most deadly form of skin cancer in human in all over the world with an increase number of victims yearly. One traditional form of diagnosis melanoma is by using the so called ABCDE rule which stands for Asymmetry, Border, Color, Diameter and Evolution of the lesion. For melanoma lesions, the color as a descriptor exhibits heterogeneous values, ranging from light brown to dark brown (sometimes blue reddish or even white). Therefore, investigating on color features from digital melanoma images could provide insights for developing automated algorithms for melanoma discrimination from common nevus. In this research work, an algorithm is proposed and tested to characterize the color in a pigmented lesion. The developed algorithm measures the hue of different sites in the same pigmented area from a digital image using the HSI color space. The algorithm was applied to 40 digital images of unequivocal melanomas and 40 images of common nevus, which were taken from several data bases. Preliminary results indicate that visible color changes of melanoma sites are well accounted by the proposed algorithm. Other factors, such as quality of images and the influence of the shiny areas on the results obtained with the proposed algorithm are discussed.

  19. Characterizing stroke lesions using digital templates and lesion quantification tools in a web-based imaging informatics system for a large-scale stroke rehabilitation clinical trial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ximing; Edwardson, Matthew; Dromerick, Alexander; Winstein, Carolee; Wang, Jing; Liu, Brent

    2015-03-01

    Previously, we presented an Interdisciplinary Comprehensive Arm Rehabilitation Evaluation (ICARE) imaging informatics system that supports a large-scale phase III stroke rehabilitation trial. The ePR system is capable of displaying anonymized patient imaging studies and reports, and the system is accessible to multiple clinical trial sites and users across the United States via the web. However, the prior multicenter stroke rehabilitation trials lack any significant neuroimaging analysis infrastructure. In stroke related clinical trials, identification of the stroke lesion characteristics can be meaningful as recent research shows that lesion characteristics are related to stroke scale and functional recovery after stroke. To facilitate the stroke clinical trials, we hope to gain insight into specific lesion characteristics, such as vascular territory, for patients enrolled into large stroke rehabilitation trials. To enhance the system's capability for data analysis and data reporting, we have integrated new features with the system: a digital brain template display, a lesion quantification tool and a digital case report form. The digital brain templates are compiled from published vascular territory templates at each of 5 angles of incidence. These templates were updated to include territories in the brainstem using a vascular territory atlas and the Medical Image Processing, Analysis and Visualization (MIPAV) tool. The digital templates are displayed for side-by-side comparisons and transparent template overlay onto patients' images in the image viewer. The lesion quantification tool quantifies planimetric lesion area from user-defined contour. The digital case report form stores user input into a database, then displays contents in the interface to allow for reviewing, editing, and new inputs. In sum, the newly integrated system features provide the user with readily-accessible web-based tools to identify the vascular territory involved, estimate lesion area

  20. Atopic Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic and relapsing disease affecting an increasing number of patients. Usually starting in early childhood, AD can be the initial step of the so-called atopic march, i.e. followed by allergic rhinitis and allergic asthma. AD is a paradigmatic genetically complex disease involving gene-gene and gene-environment interactions. Genetic linkage analysis as well as association studies have identified several candidate genes linked to either the epidermal barrier function or to the immune system. Stress, bacterial or viral infections, the exposure to aero- or food-allergens as well as hygienic factors are discussed to aggravate symptoms of AD. Athough generalized Th2-deviated immune response is closely linked to the condition of AD, the skin disease itself is a biphasic inflammation with an initial Th2 phase and while chronic lesions harbour Th0/Th1 cells. Regulatory T cells have been shown to be altered in AD as well as the innate immune system in the skin. The main treatment-goals include the elimination of inflammation and infection, preserving and restoring the barrier function and controlling exacerbating factors. The overall future strategy in AD will be aimed to control skin inflammation by a more proactive management in order to potentially prevent the emergence of sensitization as well as to design customized management based on genetic and pathophysiologic information. PMID:20548901

  1. Use of volumetric features for temporal comparison of mass lesions in full field digital mammograms

    SciTech Connect

    Bozek, Jelena Grgic, Mislav; Kallenberg, Michiel; Karssemeijer, Nico

    2014-02-15

    Purpose: Temporal comparison of lesions might improve classification between benign and malignant lesions in full-field digital mammograms (FFDM). The authors compare the use of volumetric features for lesion classification, which are computed from dense tissue thickness maps, to the use of mammographic lesion area. Use of dense tissue thickness maps for lesion characterization is advantageous, since it results in lesion features that are invariant to acquisition parameters. Methods: The dataset used in the analysis consisted of 60 temporal mammogram pairs comprising 120 mediolateral oblique or craniocaudal views with a total of 65 lesions, of which 41 were benign and 24 malignant. The authors analyzed the performance of four volumetric features, area, and four other commonly used features obtained from temporal mammogram pairs, current mammograms, and prior mammograms. The authors evaluated the individual performance of all features and of different feature sets. The authors used linear discriminant analysis with leave-one-out cross validation to classify different feature sets. Results: Volumetric features from temporal mammogram pairs achieved the best individual performance, as measured by the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (A{sub z} value). Volume change (A{sub z} = 0.88) achieved higher A{sub z} value than projected lesion area change (A{sub z} = 0.78) in the temporal comparison of lesions. Best performance was achieved with a set that consisted of a set of features extracted from the current exam combined with four volumetric features representing changes with respect to the prior mammogram (A{sub z} = 0.90). This was significantly better (p = 0.005) than the performance obtained using features from the current exam only (A{sub z} = 0.77). Conclusions: Volumetric features from temporal mammogram pairs combined with features from the single exam significantly improve discrimination of benign and malignant lesions in FFDM mammograms

  2. Effect of monitor display on detection of approximal caries lesions in digital radiographs.

    PubMed

    Isidor, S; Faaborg-Andersen, M; Hintze, H; Kirkevang, L-L; Frydenberg, M; Haiter-Neto, F; Wenzel, A

    2009-12-01

    The aim was to compare the accuracy of five flat panel monitors for detection of approximal caries lesions. Five flat panel monitors, Mermaid Ventura (15 inch, colour flat panel, 1024 x 768, 32 bit, analogue), Olórin VistaLine (19 inch, colour, 1280 x 1024, 32 bit, digital), Samsung SyncMaster 203B (20 inch, colour, 1024 x 768, 32 bit, analogue), Totoku ME251i (21 inch, greyscale, 1400 x 1024, 32 bit, digital) and Eizo FlexScan MX190 (19 inch, colour, 1280 x 1024, 32 bit, digital), were assessed. 160 approximal surfaces of human teeth were examined with a storage phosphor plate system (Digora FMX, Soredex) and assessed by seven observers for the presence of caries lesions. Microscopy of the teeth served as validation for the presence/absence of a lesion. The sensitivities varied between observers (range 7-25%) but the variation between the monitors was not large. The Samsung monitor obtained a significantly higher sensitivity than the Mermaid and Olórin monitors (P<0.02) and a lower specificity than the Eizo and Totoku monitors (P<0.05). There were no significant differences between any other monitors. The percentage of correct scores was highest for the Eizo monitor and significantly higher than for the Mermaid and Olórin monitors (P<0.03). There was no clear relationship between the diagnostic accuracy and the resolution or price of the monitor. The Eizo monitor was associated with the overall highest percentage of correct scores. The standard analogue flat panel monitor, Samsung, had higher sensitivity and lower specificity than some of the other monitors, but did not differ in overall accuracy for detection of carious lesions.

  3. Perioral dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Jen, I

    1976-01-01

    Perioral dermatitis is a new dermatological entity which occurs mostly in young women as a papular or papulovesicular erythematous skin eruption usually involving the nasolabial folds, upper lip and the chin, with a clear zone around the vermilion border of the lips. The cause of perioral dermatitis is not known, but several factors seem capable of triggering or inducing its onset, e.g. photosensitivity, prolonged use of topical fluorinated steroids, oral contraceptives, etc. The use of tetracyclines, 250 mg QID two hours before meals and preferably not in conjunction with iron supplements for three or four months, invariably results in good response with clearing of perioral dermatitis.

  4. Demodex Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Bikowski, Joseph B.

    2009-01-01

    Given the reported common occurrence of Demodex dermatitis in the general population, Demodex dermatitis—considered as a separate condition from rosacea and seborrheic dermatitis—was evaluated in a retrospective case analysis. PMID:20967184

  5. SU-D-BRF-04: Digital Tomosynthesis for Improved Daily Setup in Treatment of Liver Lesions

    SciTech Connect

    Armstrong, H; Jones, B; Miften, M

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Daily localization of liver lesions with cone-beam CT (CBCT) is difficult due to poor image quality caused by scatter, respiratory motion, and the lack of radiographic contrast between the liver parenchyma and the lesion(s). Digital tomosynthesis (DTS) is investigated as a modality to improve liver visualization and lesion/parenchyma contrast for daily setup. Methods: An in-house tool was developed to generate DTS images using a point-by-point filtered back-projection method from on-board CBCT projection data. DTS image planes are generated in a user defined orientation to visualize the anatomy at various depths. Reference DTS images are obtained from forward projection of the planning CT dataset at each projection angle. The CBCT DTS image set can then be registered to the reference DTS image set as a means for localization. Contour data from the planning CT's associate RT Structure file and forward projected similarly to the planning CT data. DTS images are created for each contoured structure, which can then be overlaid onto the DTS images for organ volume visualization. Results: High resolution DTS images generated from CBCT projections show fine anatomical detail, including small blood vessels, within the patient. However, the reference DTS images generated from forward projection of the planning CT lacks this level of detail due to the low resolution of the CT voxels as compared to the pixel size in the projection images; typically 1mm-by-1mm-by-3mm (lat, vrt, lng) for the planning CT vs. 0.4mm-by-0.4mm for CBCT projections. Overlaying of the contours onto the DTS image allows for visualization of structures of interest. Conclusion: The ability to generate DTS images over a limited range of projection angles allows for reduction in the amount of respiratory motion within each acquisition. DTS may provide improved visualization of structures and lesions as compared to CBCT for highly mobile tumors.

  6. Clinical diagnosis of pigmented lesions using digital epiluminescence microscopy. Grading protocol and atlas.

    PubMed

    Kenet, R O; Kang, S; Kenet, B J; Fitzpatrick, T B; Sober, A J; Barnhill, R L

    1993-02-01

    Epiluminescence microscopy (ELM) is a clinical technique that permits in vivo visual inspection of pigmented anatomic structures of the epidermis, dermoepidermal junction, and papillary dermis. A protocol is proposed for systematic visual inspection of pigmented lesions. Seventy pigmented lesions were imaged with a digital ELM camera system. Images were visually inspected for eight "global" ELM features, 23 "local" ELM features, and 18 network features. An atlas of the most clinically significant ELM features is presented with pilot estimates of their sensitivity and specificity for detecting melanoma. Preliminary data suggest that ELM features that may be most specific for melanoma include multicomponent pattern, nodular pattern, pseudopods, radial streaming, blue-gray areas, whitish veil (milky way), and sharp network margins. Epiluminescence microscopic features that may be most sensitive for melanoma include pigment dots, peripheral erythema, peripheral dark network patches, marked mean network irregularity, network line thickness variability, radial streaming, blue-gray areas, and whitish veil (milky way). Epiluminescence microscopic features that may be most sensitive for severe melanocyte atypia include pigment dots, peripheral erythema, hypopigmented network patches, peripheral dark network patches, marked mean network irregularity, and focal absence of network. In addition, features that may have a very high specificity for benign lesions include saccular pattern (suggests hemangioma), globular pattern (suggests a compound or dermal nevus), and multiple comedolike openings (suggests seborrheic keratosis). Features most sensitive for severe atypia and melanoma could form the basis for a screening test for considering biopsy. Features most specific for melanoma then could be applied to further triage management of pigmented lesions that meet initial screening criteria. In addition, features with very high specificity for benign lesions may help develop ELM

  7. Fusion of digital breast tomosynthesis images via wavelet synthesis for improved lesion conspicuity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hariharan, Harishwaran; Pomponiu, Victor; Zheng, Bin; Whiting, Bruce; Gur, David

    2014-03-01

    Full-field digital mammography (FFDM) is the most common screening procedure for detecting early breast cancer. However, due to complications such as overlapping breast tissue in projection images, the efficacy of FFDM reading is reduced. Recent studies have shown that digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT), in combination with FFDM, increases detection sensitivity considerably while decreasing false-positive, recall rates. There is a huge interest in creating diagnostically accurate 2-D interpretations from the DBT slices. Most of the 2-D syntheses rely on visualizing the maximum intensities (brightness) from each slice through different methods. We propose a wavelet based fusion method, where we focus on preserving holistic information from larger structures such as masses while adding high frequency information that is relevant and helpful for diagnosis. This method enables the spatial generation of a 2D image from a series of DBT images, each of which contains both smooth and coarse structures distributed in the wavelet domain. We believe that the wavelet-synthesized images, generated from their DBT image datasets, provide radiologists with improved lesion and micro-calcification conspicuity as compared with FFDM images. The potential impact of this fusion method is (1) Conception of a device-independent, data-driven modality that increases the conspicuity of lesions, thereby facilitating early detection and potentially reducing recall rates; (2) Reduction of the accompanying radiation dose to the patient.

  8. The impact of simulated motion blur on lesion detection performance in full-field digital mammography.

    PubMed

    Abdullah, Ahmed K; Kelly, Judith; Thompson, John D; Mercer, Claire E; Aspin, Rob; Hogg, Peter

    2017-07-01

    Motion blur is a known phenomenon in full-field digital mammography, but the impact on lesion detection is unknown. This is the first study to investigate detection performance with varying magnitudes of simulated motion blur. 7 observers (15 ± 5 years' reporting experience) evaluated 248 cases (62 containing malignant masses, 62 containing malignant microcalcifications and 124 normal cases) for 3 conditions: no blurring (0 mm) and 2 magnitudes of simulated blurring (0.7 and 1.5 mm). Abnormal cases were biopsy proven. Mathematical simulation was used to provide a pixel shift in order to simulate motion blur. A free-response observer study was conducted to compare lesion detection performance for the three conditions. The equally weighted jackknife alternative free-response receiver operating characteristic was used as the figure of merit. Test alpha was set at 0.05 to control probability of Type I error. The equally weighted jackknife alternative free-response receiver operating characteristic analysis found a statistically significant difference in lesion detection performance for both masses [F(2,22) = 6.01, p = 0.0084] and microcalcifications [F(2,49) = 23.14, p < 0.0001]. The figures of merit reduced as the magnitude of simulated blurring increased. Statistical differences were found between some of the pairs investigated for the detection of masses (0.0 vs 0.7 and 0.0 vs 1.5 mm) and all pairs for microcalcifications (0.0 vs 0.7, 0.0 vs 1.5 and 0.7 vs 1.5 mm). No difference was detected between 0.7 and 1.5 mm for masses. The mathematical simulation of motion blur caused a statistically significant reduction in lesion detection performance. These false-negative decisions could have implications for clinical practice. Advances in knowledge: This research demonstrates for the first time that motion blur has a negative and statistically significant impact on lesion detection performance in digital mammography.

  9. Contact dermatitis to biperiden and photocontact dermatitis to phenothiazines in a pharmacist.

    PubMed

    Torinuki, W

    1995-08-01

    A case of contact dermatitis to biperiden, an anti-Parkinson agent, and photocontact dermatitis to phenothiazines in a pharmacist was reported. The patient developed eczematous lesions on exposed area after she had worked at a psychiatric hospital for 6 months. She showed positive patch test reaction to biperiden. In addition, she reacted positively to photopatch testing with ultraviolet A and phenothiazines such as chlorpromazine and perphenazine. To our knowledge, contact dermatitis to biperiden has not been previously reported in the English literature.

  10. Atopic dermatitis: allergic dermatitis or neuroimmune dermatitis?*

    PubMed Central

    Gaspar, Neide Kalil; Aidé, Márcia Kalil

    2016-01-01

    Advances in knowledge of neurocellulars relations have provided new directions in the understanding and treatment of numerous conditions, including atopic dermatitis. It is known that emotional, physical, chemical or biological stimuli can generate more accentuated responses in atopic patients than in non-atopic individuals; however, the complex network of control covered by these influences, especially by neuropeptides and neurotrophins, and their genetic relations, still keep secrets to be revealed. Itching and airway hyperresponsiveness, the main aspects of atopy, are associated with disruption of the neurosensory network activity. Increased epidermal innervation and production of neurotrophins, neuropeptides, cytokines and proteases, in addition to their relations with the sensory receptors in an epidermis with poor lipid mantle, are the aspects currently covered for understanding atopic dermatitis. PMID:27579744

  11. [Etiopathogenesis of atopic dermatitis].

    PubMed

    Oehling, A; Jerez, J

    1975-01-01

    There is a wide variety of criteria in regard to the etiology of atopic dermatitis of neurodermitis. The allergic factor may play a very important role in its etiology. There is neither a general agreement on the importance of food allergy in this regard. Broadly considered, these patients may evoke intense positive reactions to intradermal tests to food and inhalative allergens, nevertheless it will be possible to establish that the lesions appear or disappear after the exposure of suppression of the antigens which evoked the positive reaction. On this basis, many dermatologists deny the allergic etiology in atopic dermatitis, even though in most instances no food skin tests are performed. In this study, 110 patients, both children and adults of both sexes, suffering from atopic dermatitis are investigated. The onset in most of the cases is before the age of six months, following the ages between 1-10 years; the groups between 6 months and one year, and 10-20 years followed a descending order per decade until 70 years. 60.9% of the cases showed food allergy to one or more food items. In 39% of the cases, no food allergy was found. The food-stuffs more commonly involved were: milk (37.7%), egg (26.3%) and fish (20.9%), followed by coca, wheat flour, seafood, fruits, vegetables and meat. A remission of the reaction followed the suppression of the allergen. Intestinal parasitosis is evaluated in relation to atopic dermatitis. 30.9% of the 110 cases were affected with intestinal parasitosis, being the most common the flagelates (lamblias), protozoa (amoeba) and nematodes (ascaris, tricocephalus and oxijrus). Finally, a concurrence is found between atopic dermatitis and other allergic diseases in 81 cases (73.6%), being bronchial asthma and asthmatic bronchitis the most frequent, and allergic rhinitis, urticaria and Quincke's edema less frequent.

  12. [Value of digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) in the diagnosis of breast lesions].

    PubMed

    Yang, L; Li, J; Zhou, C W

    2017-01-23

    Objective: To assess the value of digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) in the diagnosis of breast lesions. Methods: Two hundred and fifty-three breast lesions in 250 patients were selected in this study. All lesions were confirmed pathologically. Preoperative diagnosis was performed independently with full-field digital mammography (FFDM), DBT and DBT plus FFDM, respectively. The diagnostic value of DBT for breast lesions was evaluated based on the pathological diagnosis as the gold standard. The diagnostic performance of DBT and FFDM for breast lesions was compared between the groups with different ages, mammary gland densities and hormone levels. The sensitivity of DBT and FFDM was compared between the groups with different pathological types and different sizes of breast cancer. The correlation between the longest diameter of breast cancers and pathological measurements shown on DBT and FFDM was analyzed. Results: The areas under ROC curves were 0.890, 0.833 and 0.890 for DBT, FFDM and DBT plus FFDM, respectively. The areas under ROC curves for DBT or DBT plus FFDM were significantly greater than that for FFDM (P<0.05). In the group with breast density>50%, group with age ≤50 and non-menopause group, all the areas under ROC curves for DBT or DBT plus FFDM were all significantly larger than that for FFDM (P<0.05). No significant differences were observed in the group with breast density ≤50%, group with age>50 and menopause group (P>0.05). The sensitivity for both DBT and FFDM in the diagnosis of carcinoma in situ was 90.9% (10/11). The sensitivity for DBT and FFDM in the diagnosis of non-carcinoma in situ was 92.3% (120/130) and 83.8% (109/130), respectively. The sensitivity in the groups with the longest diameter of foci >0 mm but ≤10 mm, >10 mm but ≤20 mm, >20 mm but ≤30 mm, and >30 mm but ≤40 mm were 51.7% (4/7), 93.8% (61/65), 96.7% (30/31) and 100% (11/11), respectively, for DBT, and were 51.7% (4/7), 78.5% (51/65), 93.5% (29/31), and 100% (11

  13. A Rare Case of Aggressive Digital Adenocarcinoma of the Lower Extremity, Masquerading as an Ulcerative Lesion that Clinically Favored Benignancy

    PubMed Central

    Vazales, Ryan; Constant, Dustin; Snyder, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    A rare case report of Aggressive Digital Adenocarcinoma (ADPCa) is presented complete with a literature review encompassing lesions that pose potential diagnostic challenges. Similarities between basal cell carcinoma (BCC), marjolin’s ulceration/squamous cell carcinoma (MSCC) and ADPCa are discussed. This article discusses potential treatment options for ADPCa and the need for early biopsy when faced with any challenging lesion. An algorithmic approach to ADPCa treatment based on the most current research is recommended. PMID:27429279

  14. Perioral Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Jen, Ivan

    1976-01-01

    Perioral dermatitis is a new dermatological entity which occurs mostly in young women as a papular or papulovesicular erythematous skin eruption usually involving the nasolabial folds, upper lip and the chin, with a clear zone around the vermilion border of the lips. The cause of perioral dermatitis is not known, but several factors seem capable of triggering or inducing its onset, e.g. photosensitivity, prolonged use of topical fluorinated steroids, oral contraceptives, etc. The use of tetracyclines, 250 mg QID two hours before meals and preferably not in conjunction with iron supplements for three or four months, invariably results in good response with clearing of perioral dermatitis. ImagesFig. 1 PMID:21308020

  15. Malignant change in dermatitis artefacta.

    PubMed Central

    Alcolado, J. C.; Ray, K.; Baxter, M.; Edwards, C. W.; Dodson, P. M.

    1993-01-01

    Dermatitis artefacta is a chronic skin lesion produced by self-trauma. Avoidance of further trauma, topical steroids and psychological therapy all play a part in the treatment of such lesions. Unresolved lesions may become large and disfiguring and subject to infection. We report a case of one such lesion in an elderly woman who persistently excoriated a cholecystectomy scar over 40 years. Malignant transformation occurred in a manner analogous to the neoplastic change observed in other types of chronic ulcer (Marjolin's ulcer). The squamous cell carcinoma presented with widespread metastases from which the patient eventually died. Recent literature concerning Marjolin's ulcers is reviewed and it is noted that this is the first reported case of death caused by malignant change in dermatitis artefacta. Images Figure 1 PMID:8234114

  16. [Diaper dermatitis].

    PubMed

    Fölster-Holst, R; Buchner, M; Proksch, E

    2011-09-01

    Diaper dermatitis is one of the most common skin diseases during infancy and childhood. It is a type of irritant contact eczema resulting from a complex interaction between urine and feces under occlusive conditions in combination with the hyperhydration of the stratum corneum, pressure and friction under the diaper. These conditions pave the way for Candida albicans infection, which is often associated with diaper dermatitis. The anogenital region can be involved by a variety of dermatoses, so a precise skin examination, detailed history and sometimes histologic examination are needed for a precise diagnosis. Therapeutically, frequent diaper changes and adequate skin care are most important.

  17. Experimental quantification of lesion detectability in contrast enhanced dual energy digital breast tomosynthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Yue-Houng; Zhao, Wei

    2012-03-01

    Digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) is a three-dimensional (3D) x-ray imaging modality that has recently been employed to increase lesion conspicuity through the removal of overlying tissue. Recently, a great deal of work has been devoted to the development of contrast enhanced (CE) DBT. Radio-opaque contrast agents (e.g. iodine) are injected into patients with suspicious breast lesions, with the goal of differentiating malignant tumors from benign by imaging the contrast uptake signature associated with angiogenesis. Either temporal subtraction (TS) or dual energy (DE) subtraction may be performed to further remove structural noise from the images. The current work quantifies the change in power-law noise after either DE subtraction or TS using structured breast tissue equivalent phantoms. Additionally, iodine contrast filled phantoms were used to determine the effect of x-ray energy and image subtraction technique on the signaldifference- to-noise ratio (SDNR). Finally, we investigate the improvement in imaging performance of an amorphous selenium (a-Se) direct conversion flat panel detector with increased a-Se thickness.

  18. Quantitative assessment of the age of fibrotic lesions using polarized light microscopy and digital image analysis.

    PubMed

    Pickering, J G; Boughner, D R

    1991-05-01

    Reliable histologic methods for gauging the maturity of fibrotic lesions are limited, making interventions in the healing process difficult to assess. As collagen ages there is enhanced birefringence due to increased molecular and fibrillar organization. The purpose of this study was to develop a microscopal technique to quantify this process and to determine its ability to distinguish scars of varying ages. Fibrosis in the rat gracilis muscle was studied 5 to 63 days after superficial injury. Sections were stained with picrosirius red and illuminated with monochromatic, polarized light. The microscope fields were digitized using a computer-video system yielding an image in which noncollagenous material was dark (gray level 0) and collagen was depicted by grey levels 1 to 255. In the fibrosis model used, the collagen area fraction plateaued at 80% by day 21. The median collagen grey level increased progressively as the scar aged. It is concluded that this histologic, nondestructive technique can reliably quantify age-related optical properties of fibrotic collagen and that this could be used to determine the maturity of fibrotic lesions.

  19. Correlative analysis of breast lesions on full-field digital mammography and magnetic resonance imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Yading

    Multi-modality imaging techniques are increasingly being applied in clinical practice to improve the accuracy with which breast cancer can be diagnosed. However, interpreting images from different modalities is not trivial as different images of the same lesion may exhibit different physical lesion attributes, and currently the various image modality acquisitions are performed under different breast positioning protocols. The general objective of this research is to investigate computerized correlative feature analysis (CFA) methods for integrating information from full-field digital mammographic (FFDM) images and dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance (DCE-MR) images by taking advantage of the information from different imaging modalities, and thus improving the diagnostic ability of computer-aided diagnosis (CADx) in breast cancer workup. The main hypothesis to be tested is that by incorporating correlative feature analysis in CADx, one can achieve an accurate and efficient discrimination between corresponding and non-corresponding lesion pairs, and subsequently improve performance in the estimation of computer-estimated probabilities of malignancy. The main contributions of this research work are summarized as follows. (1) A novel active-contour model based algorithm was developed for lesion segmentation on mammograms. This new algorithm yielded a statistically improved segmentation performance as compared to previously developed methods: a region-growing method and a radial gradient index (RGI) based method. (2) A computerized feature-based, supervised-learning driven CFA method was investigated to identify corresponding lesions in different mammographic views. The performance obtained by combining multiple features was found to be statistically better than the use of a distance feature alone, and robust across different mammographic view combinations. (3) A multi-modality CADx method that automatically selects and combines discriminative information from

  20. Digital surface microscopy analysis of conjunctival pigmented lesions: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Tosi, Gian Marco; Rubegni, Pietro; Schuerfeld, Karin; Toti, Paolo; Cevenini, Gabriele; Dell'Eva, Giordana; Andreassi, Lucio; Caporossi, Aldo; Burroni, Marco

    2004-10-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate whether digital surface microscopy (DSM) could be used for the follow-up and comparison of malignant and benign conjunctival pigmented lesions (CPLs). Thirty-nine CPLs [16 de novo malignant melanomas (MMs), one MM arising from primary acquired melanosis (PAM), six PAMs and 16 naevi] were digitally analysed and biopsied. All of the PAMs and 10 naevi, which had not been surgically excised, were followed up using DSM. Thirty parameters were evaluated grouped into four categories: geometry, colour, texture and islands of colour. None of the CPLs that were followed up, which comprised 10 naevocytic naevi and seven PAMs, showed any morphological change at DSM analysis, except for one PAM which developed an MM 1 year later. Of the geometric variables examined, the area, maximum diameter and minimum diameter showed significantly higher values in MMs compared with benign CPLs. With regard to the colour of CPLs, MMs were significantly darker and bluer than naevi. In the texture group, contrast was significantly higher in MMs. In the islands-of-colour group, the imbalance of blue-grey regions and the presence of dark areas were significantly higher in MMs. DSM greatly simplified the follow-up of CPLs, such as PAMs with atypia, by providing satisfactory quality images with high reproducibility; this technique is also easy to use and well accepted by patients. Moreover, this preliminary study allowed us to determine which objective variables could be important for distinguishing between benign CPLs and conjunctival MMs.

  1. INTRAVENOUS REGIONAL ANTIBIOTIC PERFUSION THERAPY AS AN ADJUNCTIVE TREATMENT FOR DIGITAL LESIONS IN SEABIRDS.

    PubMed

    Fiorello, Christine V

    2017-03-01

    Foot infections are a common problem among seabirds in wildlife rehabilitation. Pododermatitis and digital infections are often challenging to treat because of the presence of suboptimal substrates, abnormal weight-bearing due to injuries, and suboptimal nutritional or health status. Seabirds represent the majority of animals requiring rehabilitation after oil spills, and foot problems are a common reason for euthanasia among these birds. Antibiotic intravenous regional perfusion therapy is frequently used in humans and other species to treat infections of the distal extremities, but it has not been evaluated in seabirds. During the 2015 Refugio oil spill response, four birds with foot lesions (pododermatitis, osteomyelitis, or both) were treated with ampicillin/sulbactam administered intravenously to the affected limb(s) in addition to systemic antibiotics and anti-inflammatories. Three of the birds, all brown pelicans ( Pelecanus occidentalis ) recovered rapidly and were released. Two of these birds had acute pododermatitis and were treated once with intravenous regional perfusion. They were released approximately 3 wk after the perfusion therapy. The third pelican had osteomyelitis of a digit. It was treated twice with intravenous regional perfusion and was released about 1 mo after the initial perfusion therapy. The fourth bird, a Pacific loon ( Gavia pacifica ), was treated once with perfusion therapy but did not respond to treatment and was euthanatized. No serious adverse effects were observed. This technique should be explored further in avian species.

  2. Septic gonococcal dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Barr, J; Danielsson, D

    1971-02-27

    The overall incidence in gonorrhoea of septic gonococcal dermatitis was found to be 1.9% (3% for the females and 0.7% for the males). In 23 patients the common presenting symptoms were arthritis or arthralgia and bouts of fever, but the characteristic skin lesions served as an early clue to the diagnosis, and Neisseria gonorrhoeae was isolated from the genitourinary tract or from the blood. With the use of immunofluorescent techniques gonococci were also found in smears prepared from the skin lesions. An immune response to gonococci was found with the complement fixation technique in 90% of the patients. The response to treatment with penicillin was prompt, with complete relief from joint pains and fever, usually within two to seven days. The skin lesions faded within a few days, but scars could be observed for up to four weeks.

  3. Assessment of a Diagnostic Predictive Probability Model Provided by a Multispectral Digital Skin Lesion Analysis Device for Melanoma and Other High-risk Pigmented Lesions and its Impact on Biopsy Decisions

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Jane; Tucker, Natalie; White, Richard; Rigel, Darrell S.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Risk prediction models for primary malignant melanoma thus far have relied on qualitative patient information. The authors propose a quantitative diagnostic predictive probability model using Multispectral Digital Skin Lesion Analysis for melanoma and other high-risk pigmented lesions and evaluate its effectiveness optimizing biopsy decisions by dermatologists. Design: Data from 1,632 pigmented lesions analyzed by a Multispectral Digital Skin Lesion Analysis device were used to perform a logistic regression analysis. This new quantitative melanoma or melanoma/atypical melanocytic hyperplasia/high-grade dysplastic nevus probability model was then evaluated to determine its impact on dermatologist decisions to biopsy pigmented lesions clinically suggestive of melanoma. Participants were given an electronic keypad and answered “yes” or “no” if they would biopsy each of 12 pigmented lesions when presented first with patient history, clinical images, and dermoscopic images and again when subsequently shown Multispectral Digital Skin Lesion Analysis data. Setting/participants: Study of 191 dermatologists at a medical conference. Measurements: Sensitivity, specificity, biopsy accuracy, overall biopsy rate, and percentage dermatologists biopsying all five melanomas. Results: Dermatologists were significantly more sensitive, specific, and accurate while decreasing overall biopsy rates with Multispectral Digital Skin Lesion Analysis probability information. Conclusion: Integration of Multispectral Digital Skin Lesion Analysis probability information in the biopsy evaluation and selection process of pigmented lesions has the potential to improve melanoma sensitivity of dermatologists without the concomitant costs associated with additional biopsies being performed. PMID:25584133

  4. Pellagra: dermatitis, dementia, and diarrhea.

    PubMed

    Hegyi, Juraj; Schwartz, Robert A; Hegyi, Vladimír

    2004-01-01

    Pellagra defines systemic disease as resulting from a marked cellular deficiency of niacin. It is characterized by 4 "D's": diarrhea, dermatitis, dementia, and death. Diagnosis of pellagra is difficult in the absence of the skin lesions, and is often facilitated by the presence of characteristic ones. The dermatitis begins as an erythema. Acute pellagra resembles sunburn in its first stages, but tanning occurs more slowly than typically in sunburn. Exacerbation follows re-exposure to sunlight. In this work we review the findings of this once mysterious disorder, one that still challenges clinicians world-wide.

  5. Immunology of atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Piloto Valdés, L J; Valdés Sánchez, A F; Gómez Echevarría, A H

    1988-01-01

    Thirty-two adult patients with atopic dermatitis were studied at the Allergology Service of the "Hnos. Ameijeiras" Clinical Surgical Hospital. The diagnosis was established following the criteria of Hanifin and Lobitz. A detailed medical history was written for the patients; the study of some immunological parameters, such as the serum immunoglobulin quantification, delayed skin tests with a battery of antigens, and the spontaneous rosette-test, was also carried out. Almost all the patients showed serum IgE values above 150 UI, by means of the ELISA test modified by C.E.N.I.C. The mean values of the spontaneous rosette-test were low; this was more noticeable during the exacerbation period of the lesions. Candida sp, Mantoux and Streptokinase-Streptodornase antigens showed negative results in a high proportion of patients with atopic dermatitis, in relation with the control group. In atopic dermatitis, there are humoral disorders of immunity; this was demonstrated in our group by increased values of IgE and cellular disorders due to skin anergy, and to a low percentage of rosette forming cells; this does not allow to state that these phenomena have an active participation in the etiopathogenesis of this entity.

  6. The value of digital tomosynthesis in the diagnosis of suspected pulmonary lesions on chest radiography: analysis of diagnostic accuracy and confidence.

    PubMed

    Quaia, Emilio; Baratella, Elisa; Cioffi, Vincenzo; Bregant, Paola; Cernic, Stefano; Cuttin, Roberto; Cova, Maria Assunta

    2010-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the value of digital tomosynthesis in the diagnosis of suspected pulmonary lesions on chest radiography. Two-hundred twenty-eight patients (133 men, 95 women; mean age, 70.8 ± 11.1 years) with suspected pulmonary lesions after initial analysis of chest radiography underwent digital tomosynthesis. Two independent readers (with 3 and 20 years of experience) prospectively analyzed the chest radiographic and digital tomosynthesis images on a picture archiving and communication system workstation and proposed a diagnostic confidence score for each lesion (1 or 2 = definitely or probably extrapulmonary lesion or pseudolesion, 3 = indeterminate, 4 or 5 = probably or definitely pulmonary lesion). Chest computed tomography was the reference standard examination. A total of 251 suspected pulmonary lesions were identified. In 71 patients, digital tomosynthesis and computed tomography did not confirm any lesion. In the remaining 157 patients, 180 lesions were identified, including 112 pulmonary and 68 extrapulmonary lesions. In 110 (reader 1) and 123 (reader 2) lesions, correct diagnoses were provided after analysis of the chest radiographs. All lesions were correctly classified after digital tomosynthesis except for 14 extrapulmonary lesions (both readers) that were misinterpreted as pulmonary and 10 (reader 1) and six (reader 2) pulmonary lesions that were misinterpreted as pleural. Digital radiography versus tomosynthesis differed in accuracy (reader 1, 43% vs 90%; reader 2, 49% vs 92%; P < .05) and confidence by area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve (reader 1, 0.788 vs 0.944; reader 2, 0.840 vs 0.997; P < .05). Digital tomosynthesis improved diagnostic accuracy and confidence in the diagnosis of suspected pulmonary lesions on chest radiography. Copyright © 2010 AUR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Follicular contact dermatitis revisited: A review emphasizing neomycin-associated follicular contact dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Philip R

    2014-01-01

    Follicular contact dermatitis clinically presents as individual papules that include a central hair follicle. Pathologic features involve the follicle and the surrounding dermis: spongiosis and vesicle formation of the follicular epithelium associated with perifollicular and perivascular lymphocytic inflammation. Using the PubMed database, an extensive literature search was performed on follicular contact dermatitis and neomycin. Relevant papers were reviewed and the clinical and pathologic features, the associated chemicals (including a more detailed description of neomycin), the hypothesized pathogenesis, and the management of follicular contact dermatitis were described. Several agents-either as allergens or irritants-have been reported to elicit follicular contact dermatitis. Several hypotheses have been suggested for the selective involvement of the follicles in follicular contact dermatitis: patient allergenicity, characteristics of the agent, vehicle containing the agent, application of the agent, and external factors. The differential diagnosis of follicular contact dermatitis includes not only recurrent infundibulofolliculitis, but also drug eruption, mite infestation, viral infection, and dermatoses that affect hair follicles. The primary therapeutic intervention for follicular contact dermatitis is withdrawal of the causative agent; treatment with a topical corticosteroid preparation may also promote resolution of the dermatitis. In conclusion, follicular contact dermatitis may be secondary to allergens or irritants; topical antibiotics, including neomycin, may cause this condition. Several factors may account for the selective involvement of the hair follicle in this condition. Treatment of the dermatitis requires withdrawal of the associated topical agent; in addition, topical corticosteroids may be helpful to promote resolution of lesions. PMID:25516854

  8. Pre-diagnostic digital imaging prediction model to discriminate between malignant melanoma and benign pigmented skin lesion.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Jeppe H; Soerensen, Mads B T; Linghui, Zhong; Chen, Sun; Jensen, Morten O

    2010-02-01

    Malignant cutaneous melanoma is the most deadly form of skin cancer with an increasing incidence over the past decades. The final diagnosis provided is typically based on a biopsy of the skin lesion under consideration. To assist the naked-eye examination and decision on whether or not a biopsy is necessary, digital image processing techniques provide promising results. The hypothesis of this study was that a computer-aided assessment tool could assist the evaluation of a pigmented skin lesion. Hence, the overall aim was to discriminate between malignant and benign pigmented skin lesions using digital image processing. Discriminating algorithms utilizing novel well-established morphological operations and methods were constructed. The algorithms were implemented utilizing graphical programming (LabVIEW Vision). Verification was performed with reference to an image database consisting of 97 pigmented skin lesion pictures of various resolutions and light distributions. The outcome of the algorithms was analysed statistically with MATLAB and a prediction model was constructed. The prediction model evaluates pigmented skin lesions with regards to the overall shape, border and colour distribution with a total of nine different discriminating parameters. The prediction model outputs an index score, and by using the optimal threshold value, a diagnostic accuracy of 77% in discriminating between malignant and benign skin lesions was obtained. This is an improvement compared with the naked-eye analysis performed by professionals, rendering the system a significant assistance in detecting malignant cutaneous melanoma.

  9. [Blister beetle dermatitis: Dermatitis linearis].

    PubMed

    Dieterle, R; Faulde, M; Erkens, K

    2015-05-01

    Several families of beetles cause toxic reactions on exposed human skin. Cantharidin provokes nearly asymptomatic vesicles and blisters, while pederin leads to itching and burning erythema with vesicles and small pustules, later crusts. Paederi are attracted by fluorescent light especially after rain showers and cause outbreaks in regions with moderate climate. Clinical findings and patient history lead to the diagnosis: dermatitis linearis.

  10. A prospective cohort study of digital cushion and corium thickness. Part 2: Does thinning of the digital cushion and corium lead to lameness and claw horn disruption lesions?

    PubMed

    Newsome, R F; Green, M J; Bell, N J; Bollard, N J; Mason, C S; Whay, H R; Huxley, J N

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether a decrease in thickness of the sole soft tissues (SST) beneath the flexor tuberosity of the distal phalanx (i.e., the digital cushion and corium) predisposed a claw to develop claw horn disruption lesions (CHDL) or a leg to lameness. Data were analyzed from a longitudinal study of 179 cows, which had been examined at 5 assessment points -8, +1, +9, +17, and +29 wk relative to their first, second, third, or fourth calving. At each assessment point, SST were measured using ultrasonography. Additional assessment point data included sole lesions and back fat thickness (BFT), and cows had been locomotion scored every 2 wk from calving. One hundred fifty-eight cows completed the study. Separate logistic regression survival analyses were constructed to assess the outcomes, either lameness on a leg or CHDL on a claw; combinations of lameness and lesions were tested as outcomes. Cow level variables tested included farm and lactation number. Variables were tested describing previous SST thickness, minimum previous SST thickness, BFT, and change in either variable between prior assessment points. Prior lesions/lameness strongly predicted repeat cases and the final models had the outcome first lesion or lameness on a claw or leg. In the reported lameness models, lameness was defined as a leg being recorded as lame twice within 3 consecutive scores, and in the reported lesion models, lesion was defined as the first presence of either a sole ulcer or a severe sole hemorrhage on a claw. Thin SST increased the likelihood of lesion occurrence; thin SST on the lateral claw predicted subsequent lameness on a leg. Thin BFT and thinning of BFT between previous assessment points increased the likelihood of future lesion occurrence. Thin SST and thinning of BFT had additional effects on the likelihood of lesion occurrence, suggesting that BFT and sole SST had independent effects on lesion occurrence. However, change in SST thickness between

  11. Can we see enough? A comparative study of film-screen vs digital radiographs in small lesions in rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    van der Jagt, E J; Hofman, S; Kraft, B M; van Leeuwen, M A

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of digital radiography in the detection of early very small erosions and joint space narrowing in the hands and feet in rheumatoid arthritis. Fifty-three sets of film-screen and digital radiographs of the same hands and feet with very small and sometimes questionable lesions (possible erosions and cysts) were scored independently two times by four investigators. The percentage of lesions found in exactly the same position for each investigator was calculated. Intra-observer agreement between first and second reading in film-screen radiography was 64-76 % (mean 67 %), and in digital radiographs 60-71 % (mean 64 %). Agreement between film-screen and digital radiographs ranged from 54 to 64 % (mean 58 %) in the first reading and from 56 to 66 % (mean 62 %) in the second reading. Overall agreement between both techniques between first and second reading ranged between 62 and 73 % (mean 65 %). Digital radiography of the hands and feet can be used in patients suspected of rheumatoid arthritis and in follow-up of those patients, because small and early erosions can be seen equally well with the digital technique as compared with the conventional film-screen technique.

  12. Assessment of enamel-dentin caries lesions detection using bitewing PSP digital images

    PubMed Central

    TORRES, Marianna Guanaes Gomes; SANTOS, Aline da Silva; NEVES, Frederico Sampaio; ARRIAGA, Marcel Lautenschlager; CAMPOS, Paulo Sérgio Flores; CRUSOÉ-REBELLO, Iêda

    2011-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the detection of enamel-dentin occlusal caries using photostimulable phosphor plates. Material and Methods The ability to detect enamel-dentin occlusal caries in 607 premolars and molars from 47 patients between 10 and 18 years old, referred to the School of Dentistry of the Federal University of Bahia, Brazil, was evaluated based on clinical and radiographic examinations, using the criteria proposed in a previous study. A total of 156 bitewing digital images were obtained using Digora® (Soredex Medical Systems, Helsinki, Finland) phosphor plates. The plates were scanned and the images were captured and displayed on a computer screen. Image evaluation was done using Digora® for Windows 2.1 software, Soredex®. The radiologists were allowed to use enhancement tools to obtain better visibility during scoring of the teeth based on the radiographic criteria proposed in a previous study. Descriptive analysis and chi-squared proportion tests were done at 5% significance level. Results The results of clinical examination showed a higher prevalence of teeth with a straight dark line or demineralization of the occlusal fissure (score 1) and a lower prevalence of sealed teeth (score 5). In the bitewing digital images, 47 teeth presented visible radiolucency, circumscribed, in dentin under occlusal enamel (enamel-dentin caries lesions). Conclusions Correlating the clinical and radiographic findings, it was found that in the majority of teeth diagnosed by radiographic images as having enamel-dentin caries, no caries could be detected by clinical examination. PMID:21986650

  13. Atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Leung, Donald Y M; Bieber, Thomas

    2003-01-11

    Atopic dermatitis is a highly pruritic chronic inflammatory skin disorder affecting 10-20% of children worldwide. Symptoms can persist or begin in adulthood. It is also the most common cause of occupational skin disease in adults. This disease results from an interaction between susceptibility genes, the host's environment, pharmacological abnormalities, skin barrier defects, and immunological factors. New management approaches have evolved from advances in our understanding of the pathobiology of this common skin disorder.

  14. Comparison of synthetic mammography, reconstructed from digital breast tomosynthesis, and digital mammography: evaluation of lesion conspicuity and BI-RADS assessment categories.

    PubMed

    Mariscotti, Giovanna; Durando, Manuela; Houssami, Nehmat; Fasciano, Mirella; Tagliafico, Alberto; Bosco, Davide; Casella, Cristina; Bogetti, Camilla; Bergamasco, Laura; Fonio, Paolo; Gandini, Giovanni

    2017-08-17

    To compare the interpretive performance of synthetic mammography (SM), reconstructed from digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT), and full-field digital mammography (FFDM) in a diagnostic setting, covering different conditions of breast density and mammographic signs. A retrospective analysis was conducted on 231 patients, who underwent FFDM and DBT (from which SM images were reconstructed) between September 2014-September 2015. The study included 250 suspicious breast lesions, all biopsy proven: 148 (59.2%) malignant and 13 (5.2%) high-risk lesions were confirmed by surgery, 89 (35.6%) benign lesions had radiological follow-up. Two breast radiologists, blinded to histology, independently reviewed all cases. Readings were performed with SM alone, then with FFDM, collecting data on: probability of malignancy for each finding, lesion conspicuity, mammographic features and dimensions of detected lesions. Agreement between readers was good for BI-RADS classification (Cohen's k-coefficient = 0.93 ± 0.02) and for lesion dimension (Wilcoxon's p = 0.76). Visibility scores assigned to SM and FFDM for each lesion were similar for non-dense and dense breasts, however, there were significant differences (p = 0.0009) in distribution of mammographic features subgroups. SM and FFDM had similar sensitivities in non-dense (respectively 94 vs. 91%) and dense breasts (88 vs. 80%) and for all mammographic signs (93 vs. 87% for asymmetric densities, 96 vs. 75% for distortion, 92 vs. 85% for microcalcifications, and both 94% for masses). Based on all data, there was a significant difference in sensitivity for SM (92%) vs. FFDM (87%), p = 0.02, whereas the two modalities yielded similar results for specificity (SM: 60%, FFDM: 62%, p = 0.21). SM alone showed similar interpretive performance to FFDM, confirming its potential role as an alternative to FFDM in women having tomosynthesis, with the added advantage of halving the patient's dose exposure.

  15. Evaluation of chronic periapical lesions by digital subtraction radiography by using Adobe Photoshop CS: a technical report.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Fabiola B; Gonçalves, Marcelo; Tanomaru-Filho, Mário

    2007-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe a new technique by using Adobe Photoshop CS (San Jose, CA) image-analysis software to evaluate the radiographic changes of chronic periapical lesions after root canal treatment by digital subtraction radiography. Thirteen upper anterior human teeth with pulp necrosis and radiographic image of chronic periapical lesion were endodontically treated and radiographed 0, 2, 4, and 6 months after root canal treatment by using a film holder. The radiographic films were automatically developed and digitized. The radiographic images taken 0, 2, 4, and 6 months after root canal therapy were submitted to digital subtraction in pairs (0 and 2 months, 2 and 4 months, and 4 and 6 months) choosing "image," "calculation," "subtract," and "new document" tools from Adobe Photoshop CS image-analysis software toolbar. The resulting images showed areas of periapical healing in all cases. According to this methodology, the healing or expansion of periapical lesions can be evaluated by means of digital subtraction radiography by using Adobe Photoshop CS software.

  16. Exfoliative dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Karakayli, G; Beckham, G; Orengo, I; Rosen, T

    1999-02-01

    Exfoliative dermatitis, also known as erythroderma, is an uncommon but serious skin disorder that family physicians must be able to recognize and treat appropriately. Although the etiology is often unknown, exfoliative dermatitis may be the result of a drug reaction or an underlying malignancy. The approach to treatment should include discontinuation of any potentially causative medications and a search for any underlying malignancy. One of the most common malignancies associated with exfoliative dermatitis is cutaneous T-cell lymphoma, which may not manifest for months or even years after the onset of the skin condition. Hospitalization is usually necessary for initial evaluation and treatment. In the hospital, special attention must be given to maintaining temperature control, replacing lost fluids and electrolytes, and preventing and treating infection. The long-term prognosis is good in patients with drug-induced disease, although the course tends to be remitting and relapsing in idiopathic cases. The prognosis of cases associated with malignancy typically depends on the outcome of the underlying malignancy.

  17. Seborrhoeic dermatitis and Pityrosporum yeasts.

    PubMed

    Bergbrant, I M

    1995-01-01

    The connection between P. ovale and seborrhoeic dermatitis has been clearly demonstrated in a number of treatment studies but we still do not know how P. ovale induces skin lesions. An enhanced growth of P. ovale cannot be the cause, because a number of studies with quantitative determinations of P. ovale have not been able to show any difference in the number of yeast cells between patients and healthy controls. The number of P. ovale is probably only important for the individuals who are susceptible to seborrhoeic dermatitis. An abnormal immune response to P. ovale could be another explanation. Sohnle et al. have shown that P. ovale can activate complement by both the classical and the alternative pathway. A defective cell-mediated immunity to P. ovale in patients with seborrhoeic dermatitis has been demonstrated by Wikler et al. In patients with AIDS, who are known to have a diminished T-cell function, a high incidence of seborrhoeic dermatitis has been found. Activation of the alternative complement pathway by P. ovale, which does not require T-cell function, could be an explanation for the inflammatory response. I also believe that the skin lipids are important in the pathogenesis. An improvement of seborrhoeic dermatitis has been demonstrated after treatment with drugs that reduce the sebum excretion. Pityrosporum has lipase activity and may generate free fatty acids, which could also contribute to the inflammatory response. There are a number of factors which are probably important in the pathogenesis of seborrhoeic dermatitis, that is, the number of P. ovale, P. ovale lipase activity, skin lipids, immune function, heredity, atmospheric humidity and emotional state. A reduction in the number of P. ovale in patients suffering from seborrhoeic dermatitis and being treated with antimycotic treatment is, at the present state of knowledge, the best way to treat the disease.

  18. Cultivated ginseng inhibits 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene-induced atopic dermatitis-like skin lesions in NC/Nga mice and TNF-α/IFN-γ-induced TARC activation in HaCaT cells.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jae Ho; Jin, Sun Woo; Park, Bong Hwan; Kim, Hyung Gyun; Khanal, Tilak; Han, Hwa Jeong; Hwang, Yong Pil; Choi, Jun Min; Chung, Young Chul; Hwang, Sang Kyu; Jeong, Tae Cheon; Jeong, Hye Gwang

    2013-06-01

    Ginseng contains many bioactive constituents, including various ginsenosides that are believed to have anti-allergic, anti-oxidant, and immunostimulatory activities; however, its effects on atopic dermatitis (AD) remain unclear. In the current study, we hypothesized that cultivated ginseng (CG) would inhibit 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB)-induced AD-like skin lesions in NC/Nga mice by regulating the T helper (Th)1/Th2 balance. Also, CG inhibits TNF-α/IFN-γ-induced thymus- and activation-regulated chemokine (TARC) expression through nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB)-dependent signaling in HaCaT cells. CG ameliorated DNCB-induced dermatitis severity, serum levels of IgE and TARC, and mRNA expression of TARC, TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13 in mice. Histopathological examination showed reduced thickness of the epidermis/dermis and dermal infiltration of inflammatory cells in the ears. Furthermore, CG suppressed the TNF-α/IFN-γ-induced mRNA expression of TARC in HaCaT cells. CG inhibited TNF-α/IFN-γ-induced NF-κB activation. These results suggest that CG inhibited the development of the AD-like skin symptoms by modulating Th1 and Th2 responses in the skin lesions in mice and TARC expression by suppressing TNF-α/IFN-γ-induced NF-κB activation in keratinocytes, and so may be a useful tool in the therapy of AD-like skin symptoms.

  19. A comparison of digital tomosynthesis and chest radiography in evaluating airway lesions using computed tomography as a reference.

    PubMed

    Choo, Ji Yung; Lee, Ki Yeol; Yu, Ami; Kim, Je-Hyeong; Lee, Seung Heon; Choi, Jung Won; Kang, Eun-Young; Oh, Yu Whan

    2016-09-01

    To compare the diagnostic performance of digital tomosynthesis (DTS) and chest radiography for detecting airway abnormalities, using computed tomography (CT) as a reference. We evaluated 161 data sets from 149 patients (91 with and 70 without airway abnormalities) who had undergone radiography, DTS, and CT to detect airway problems. Radiographs and DTS were evaluated to localize and score the severity of the airway abnormalities, and to score the image quality using CT as a reference. Receiver operating characteristics (ROC), McNemar's test, weighted kappa, and the paired t-test were used for statistical analysis. The sensitivity of DTS was higher (reader 1, 93.51 %; reader 2, 94.29 %) than chest radiography (68.83 %; 71.43 %) in detecting airway lesions. The diagnostic accuracy of DTS (90.91 %; 94.70 %) was also significantly better than that of radiography (78.03 %; 82.58 %, all p < 0.05). DTS image quality was significantly better than chest radiography (1.83, 2.74; p < 0.05) in the results of both readers. The inter-observer agreement with respect to DTS findings was moderate and superior when compared to radiography findings. DTS is a more accurate and sensitive modality than radiography for detecting airway lesions that are easily obscured by soft tissue structures in the mediastinum. • Digital tomosynthesis offers new diagnostic options for airway lesions. • Digital tomosynthesis is more sensitive and accurate than radiography for airway lesions. • Digital tomosynthesis shows better image quality than radiography. • Assessment of lesion severity, via tomosynthesis is comparable to computed tomography.

  20. 850nm light-emitting-diode phototherapy plus low-dose tacrolimus (FK-506) as combination therapy in the treatment of Dermatophagoides farinae-induced atopic dermatitis-like skin lesions in NC/Nga mice.

    PubMed

    Kim, Chang-Hyun; Cheong, Kyung Ah; Lee, Ai-Young

    2013-11-01

    Light emitting diode (LED) phototherapy is an effective alternative for the treatment of inflammatory skin disorders. Tacrolimus (FK-506) is a potent immunomodulating agent, which has been used to treat AD. Combination therapy is often used in the treatment of AD to improve therapeutic efficacy or to reduce the dose of each drug. To investigate the therapeutic efficacy of monotherapy with either 850nm LED phototherapy or low-dose FK-506, and combination therapy in Dermatophagoides farina (Df)-induced AD-like skin lesions in NC/Nga mice. The Df-induced NC/Nga mice with a clinical score of 7 were used for treatment with LED (10 and 25J/cm(2)) alone, low-dose FK-506 (1mg/kg) or in combination. The synergistic effects of combined therapy were evaluated by dermatitis scores, skin histology, skin barrier function, and immunological parameters, such as IgE, NO, Th2-mediated cytokines and chemokines. Combination therapy with 850nm (25J/cm(2)) LED and low-dose FK-506 showed a significant reduction in the severity of skin lesions. Combined therapy decreased in the serum level of IgE, NO, and in the splenic level of Th2-mediated cytokines and chemokines. Combination therapy significantly also reduced the inflammatory cellular infiltrate into the skin lesions. Moreover, combination therapy led to recovery of skin barrier function in the skin lesions. The use of combination of LED phototherapy and low-dose immunosuppressant improved Df-induced AD-like skin lesions in an NC/Nga mouse model by dominantly reducing IgE, NO, suppressing Th2-mediated immune responses, and inhibiting inflammatory cells, as well as improving skin barrier function. Copyright © 2013 Japanese Society for Investigative Dermatology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Hand dermatitis: a problem commonly affecting nurses.

    PubMed

    Szepietowski, J; Salomon, J

    2005-01-01

    Hand dermatitis is regarded as one of the most often observed dermatological disorders among nurses. The factors that increase the risk of developing hand dermatitis are as follows: frequent washing hands, using disinfectants, wet-work conditions, exposure to medical substances, detergents and wearing rubber gloves. Most cases of occupational hand dermatitis is due to chronic exposure to irritants that cause the inflammation on the nonallergic pathway. Recurring contact to irritants disturbes the natural skin barrier and causes inflammation. There are reports showing the presence of skin barrier alterations among nurses working in operating room units. The most common contact allergens in the hospital environment include rubber, latex, medicaments and antiseptic products. In our study the incidence of self-reported hand dermatitis in hospital staff was very high. About 70% of respondents declared the presence of symptoms of hand eczema within the last 12 months and about 46% of the studied group had skin lesions at the moment of self-examination. Almost 75% of employees with hand dermatitis had observed the worsening of skin problems in relation to work and 79% reported improvement of skin changes during the leisure time. We also noted that a personal or family history of atopy increases the risk of developing hand dermatitis in nurses. We would also like to emphasize the psychological consequencies that affect nurses with hand dermatitis. According to our data 48% of hospital employees with hand eczema declare psychological distress caused by their skin lesions.

  2. [Dermatitis from contact with Agave americana].

    PubMed

    Golan, H; Landau, M; Goldberg, I; Brenner, S

    2000-10-01

    Various plants induce dermatitis in man. There have been only a few published cases of contact dermatitis caused by Agave americana (AA). We report intentional exposure to AA in a soldier seeking sick leave, and review our previously reported cases. Treatment with oral antihistamines and topical saline compresses resulted in subsidence of the systemic symptoms within 24 h and regression of cutaneous manifestations in 7-10 days. Physicians should be alert to the possibility of self-inflicted contact dermatitis induced by exposure to plants, especially to A. americana. Systemic signs may accompany the cutaneous lesions.

  3. Eczema molluscatum in tacrolimus treated atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Wetzel, Stefanie; Wollenberg, Andreas

    2004-01-01

    Eczema molluscatum describes the occurrence of molluscum contagiosum virus infection in a patient with underlying atopic dermatitis. Novel, safe and effective treatment options in atopic dermatitis are the topical immunomodulators tacrolimus and pimecrolimus. One major advantage over corticosteroids is that they do not induce skin atrophy. Some physicians fear that topical immunomodulators may predispose patients to skin infections. We observed a patient with atopic dermatitis who developed eczema molluscatum during treatment with tacrolimus 0.1% ointment. After withdrawal of tacrolimus, the lesions resolved spontaneously over 3 weeks.

  4. The effect of slurry on skin permeability to methylene blue dye in dairy cows with and without a history of digital dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Palmer, M A; Donnelly, R F; Garland, M J; Majithiya, R; O'Connell, N E

    2013-10-01

    This study aimed to determine whether there was a difference in skin permeability to methylene blue dye or skin morphology between dairy cows that differed in their susceptibility to digital dermatitis (DD) and to assess the effect of contact with slurry on skin permeability. Twenty nine dairy cows were monitored for DD during the winter housing period and classed as DD+ (previous DD infection, n = 17), or DD- (no recorded infection, n = 12). The animals were culled and a skin sample was taken from above the heel of each hind foot and frozen. Samples were later defrosted and one sample from each cow was tested for permeability, whereas the other was treated with slurry for 24 h before permeability testing. To test permeability, methylene blue dye was applied to the skin surface in a Franz diffusion cell. After 48 h, the amount of dye that had passed through the skin was estimated. The stratum corneum thickness and the density of hair follicles were determined from additional heel skin samples. Skin permeability to methylene blue dye was significantly greater for samples that had been treated with slurry but did not differ between DD+ and DD- animals. No difference was found in the stratum corneum thickness or density of hair follicles between DD+ and DD- animals. These findings imply that individual differences in general skin permeability are not a major factor in determining DD susceptibility and suggest that contact with slurry could contribute to DD infection by increasing the permeability of the skin, which may facilitate pathogen entry. Further work is required to clarify the role played by slurry in the pathogenesis of DD.

  5. Impact of Guidance Provided by a Multispectral Digital Skin Lesion Analysis Device Following Dermoscopy on Decisions to Biopsy Atypical Melanocytic Lesions.

    PubMed

    Winkelmann, Richard R; Yoo, Jane; Tucker, Natalie; White, Richard; Rigel, Darrell S

    2015-09-01

    To determine how a multispectral digital skin lesion analysis (MSDSLA) device data affects the biopsy performance of dermatologists and non-dermatologist practitioners following clinical and dermoscopic pigmented lesion evaluation. MSDSLA employs near infrared light to image and analyze pigmented skin lesions. MSDSLA generates a "classifier score" based on morphological disorganization. Using a logistical regression model, 1) a probability of being melanoma and, 2) a probability of being melanoma, atypical melanocytic hyperplasia, or a high grade dysplastic nevus is computed. PARTICIPANTS were shown clinical images of 12 lesions (2 melanomas in situ, 3 invasive melanomas, and 7 low grade DNs). They were asked first if they would biopsy the lesion based on clinical images, again after observing dermoscopy images, and once more when presented with MSDSLA probability information. National dermoscopy conference. Sixty-four healthcare providers; 30 dermatologists and 34 non-dermatologist practitioners. Sensitivity, specificity, diagnostic accuracy, biopsy rates Results: For the 30 dermatologists, sensitivity was 65 percent after clinical evaluation (C) and 65% post-dermoscopy (D) but improved to 91% after MSDSLA. For the 34 non-dermatologist practitioners, sensitivity improved from 66 percent (C) to 70 percent (D) to 95 percent after MSDSLA. With MSDSLA information, dermatologist specificity increased from 40 percent (D) to 58 percent while non-dermatologist practitioners specificity increased from 34 percent (D) to 55 percent. Diagnostic accuracy of malignant and benign lesions decreased for both groups 55 percent (C) to 51 percent (D) for dermatologists and 54 percent (C) to 49 percent (D) for non-dermatologist practitioners. However, diagnostic accuracy increased to 72 percent for dermatologists and 72 percent for non-dermatologist practitioners with MSDSLA data. Non-melanoma biopsy percentages by dermatologists increased from 53 percent (C) to 60 percent (D), but

  6. Preservation of the inferior alveolar neurovascular bundle in the osteotomy of benign lesions of the mandible using a digital template.

    PubMed

    Huang, Dong; Chen, MinJie; He, DongMei; Yang, Chi; Yuan, JianBing; Bai, Guo; Wang, YiWen; Wei, WenBin; Chen, ZhuoZhi

    2015-09-01

    Our aim was to evaluate the effect of a digital template in the preservation of the inferior alveolar neurovascular bundle during osteotomy for benign lesions of the mandible in 6 patients who were treated with mandibular osteotomies during 2013. Computed tomographic (CT) data were imported into ProPlan CMF 1.4 software. The borders of the lesion and the inferior alveolar canal were marked, and a digital template designed to mark the borders, outline the canal, and guide the osteotomy. A mirror image of the unaffected mandible was used to make a stereolithographic model by a rapid prototyping technique to prefabricate the reconstruction plate for the bone graft. The accuracy of the designs and the templates was evaluated during operation and postoperatively by CT. The sensation of the skin was tested using a Neurometer® CPT (current perception threshold) sensory detector (Neurotron Inc, Baltimore USA) to evaluate the function of the preserved inferior alveolar neurovascular bundle during follow up. With the digital template it was possible to guide removal of the bony lesion while accurately protecting the neurovascular bundle. Follow up for a mean of 8 months (range 5 -12) showed good facial symmetry, a stable occlusion, and recovery of sensation in the lower lip on the affected side. We conclude that a digital template can successfully help the resection of benign lesions of the mandible while preserving the function of the inferior alveolar neurovascular bundle. Copyright © 2015 The British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Lesion detectability in stereoscopically viewed digital breast tomosynthesis projection images: a model observer study with anthropomorphic computational breast phantoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reinhold, Jacob; Wen, Gezheng; Lo, Joseph Y.; Markey, Mia K.

    2017-03-01

    Stereoscopic views of 3D breast imaging data may better reveal the 3D structures of breasts, and potentially improve the detection of breast lesions. The imaging geometry of digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) lends itself naturally to stereo viewing because a stereo pair can be easily formed by two projection images with a reasonable separation angle for perceiving depth. This simulation study attempts to mimic breast lesion detection on stereo viewing of a sequence of stereo pairs of DBT projection images. 3D anthropomorphic computational breast phantoms were scanned by a simulated DBT system, and spherical signals were inserted into different breast regions to imitate the presence of breast lesions. The regions of interest (ROI) had different local anatomical structures and consequently different background statistics. The projection images were combined into a sequence of stereo pairs, and then presented to a stereo matching model observer for determining lesion presence. The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) was used as the figure of merit in evaluation, and the SNR from the stack of reconstructed slices was considered as the benchmark. We have shown that: 1) incorporating local anatomical backgrounds may improve lesion detectability relative to ignoring location-dependent image characteristics. The SNR was lower for the ROIs with the higher local power-law-noise coefficient β. 2) Lesion detectability may be inferior on stereo viewing of projection images relative to conventional viewing of reconstructed slices, but further studies are needed to confirm this observation.

  8. Seborrheic Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Berk, Thomas; Scheinfeld, Noah

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Seborrheic dermatitis is a common chronic inflammatory skin condition, characterized by scaling and poorly defined erythematous patches. It may be associated with pruritus, and it primarily affects sebum-rich areas, such as the scalp, face, upper chest, and back. Although its pathogenesis is not completely understood, some postulate that the condition results from colonization of the skin of affected individuals with species of the genus Malassezia (formerly, Pityrosporum). A variety of treatment modalities are available, including eradication of the fungus, reducing or treating the inflammatory process, and decreasing sebum production. PMID:20592880

  9. [A preliminary clinical study on endoscopic measurement of lesion area with the method of digital image processing technology].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Wang, Zhihua; Fu, Zhongqian; Fang, Pengcheng; Ling, Kai; Xu, Jianming; Kong, Derun; Xu, Zhangwei

    2013-10-01

    It is of great importance to measure the lesion area in scientific research and clinical practice. The present study aims to solve barrel distortion and measure lesion area with the technology of computer visualization. With the ultimate purpose to obtain the precise lesion area, the study, based on the original endoscopy system and digital image processing technology, dealt with the correction of barrel distortion by lens adjustment, calculated the gastric ulcer area with the aid of Qt database and finally developed an image processing software--Endoscope Assistant (EAS). The results showed that the EAS was accurate in vitro. It was employed to measure the gastric ulcer area of 45 patients and the results were compared with the traditional formula method. It could be well concluded that this technology is safe, accurate and economical for measuring gastric ulcer area.

  10. Etiopathogenesis of atopic dermatitis--an overview.

    PubMed

    Pastar, Zrinjka; Lipozencić, Jasna; Ljubojević, Suzana

    2005-01-01

    Atopic eczema/dermatitis syndrome is a term that covers different subtypes of atopic dermatitis. The "intrinsic" type of atopic dermatitis is non-IgE-associated, and the "extrinsic" type is IgE-associated atopic eczema/dermatitis syndrome. In the etiopathogenesis of atopic dermatitis there are well known interactions among genetic, environmental, skin barrier, immune factors, and stress. Genetic factors determine the expression of atopic dermatitis as pure or mixed with concomitant respiratory or intestinal allergy, depending on genetic susceptibility. Immunologic abnormalities of type I and type IV reactions have been described in patients with atopic dermatitis. Immunologic triggers are aeroallergens, food allergens, microbial products, autoallergens and contact allergens. Immune reactions determine many features of atopic dermatitis. These immune reactions also include cell mediated or delayed hypersensitivity. The currently accepted model proposes a predominant Th2 cytokine milieu in the initiating stages of acute atopic dermatitis lesions, and a mixed Th1 and Th2 pattern in chronic lesions. A two-phase model includes Th2 initiation with attraction of macrophages and eosinophils, which in turn produce interleukin 12 that is the activator of Th1 type response. Atopic dermatitis skin contains an increased number of IgE-bearing Langerhans cells which bind allergens via the high-affinity IgE receptor (FcepsilonRI). Langerhans cells play an important role in cutaneous allergen presentation to Th2 cells via major histocompatibility molecules. Eosinophilia and IgE production are influenced by type 2 cytokines. Degranulation of eosinophils occurs in the dermis with the release of toxic proteins such as major basic protein and could account for much of the inflammation. Mast cells are increased in number and produce mediators other than histamine that induce pruritus and may have an effect on interferon gamma expression. Mast cells produce a number of proinflammatory

  11. SCHISTOSOME DERMATITIS IN SACRAMENTO, CALIFORNIA

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, George W.

    1964-01-01

    Pruritus developed in two persons at different times, after contact with water in a duck pond at a motel in Sacramento. At those times (in August 1961 and June 1962) large numbers of snails infected with the dermatitis-producing cercariae T. physellae were present in the pond. Experimental lesions were produced in volunteers and by exposure to infected water while collecting snails along the shore of the pond. PMID:14154289

  12. Comparison of flat-panel digital to conventional film-screen radiography in detection of experimentally created lesions of the equine third metacarpal bone.

    PubMed

    Moorman, Valerie J; Marshall, John F; Devine, Dustin V; Payton, Mark; Jann, Henry W; Bahr, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Radiographic diagnosis of equine bone disease using digital radiography is prevalent in veterinary practice. However, the diagnostic quality of digital vs. conventional radiography has not been compared systematically. We hypothesized that digital radiography would be superior to film-screen radiography for detection of subtle lesions of the equine third metacarpal bone. Twenty-four third metacarpal bones were collected from horses euthanized for reasons other than orthopedic disease. Bones were dissected free of soft tissue and computed tomography was performed to ensure that no osseous abnormalities were present. Subtle osseous lesions were produced in the dorsal cortex of the third metacarpal bones, and the bones were radiographed in a soft tissue phantom using indirect digital and conventional radiography at standard exposures. Digital radiographs were printed onto film. Three Diplomates of the American College of Veterinary Radiology evaluated the radiographs for the presence or absence of a lesion. Receiver operator characteristic curves were constructed, and the area under these curves were compared to assess the ability of the digital and film-screen radiographic systems to detect lesions. The area under the ROC curves for film-screen and digital radiography were 0.87 and 0.90, respectively (P = 0.59). We concluded that the digital radiographic system was comparable to the film-screen system for detection of subtle lesions of the equine third metacarpal bone.

  13. Development and evaluation of an automatic acne lesion detection program using digital image processing.

    PubMed

    Min, Seonguk; Kong, Hyoun-joong; Yoon, Chiyul; Kim, Hee Chan; Suh, Dae Hun

    2013-02-01

    Existing acne grading methods, which depend on overall impression, require a long training period and there is a high degree of variability among raters, including trained dermatologists. The use of lesion count provides fair reproducibility but the method is time consuming. New technologies in photographic equipment and software allow solutions to the problem of acne evaluation. This study was conducted to develop the automatic acne lesion program and evaluation of its usefulness. We made the conditions to optimize characterization of acne lesions and developed the counting program. Twenty-five volunteers with acne lesions were enrolled. Automated lesion counting for five subtypes of acne (papule, nodule, pustule, whitehead comedone, and blackhead comedone) was performed with image processing. The usefulness of the automatic lesion count program was assessed by a comparison with manual counting performed by an expert dermatologist. In a comparison with manual counting performed by an expert dermatologist, the sensitivity and positive predictive value of the lesion-counting program was greater than 70% for papules, nodules, pustules, and whitehead comedo. In a comparison with manual counting, findings with the use of the lesion-counting program were well correlated for papules, nodules, pustules, and whitehead comedo (r > 0.9). Automatic lesion-counting program can be a useful tool for acne severity evaluation. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  14. Vacuum-assisted breast biopsy on digital stereotaxic table of nonpalpable lesions non-recognisable by ultrasonography.

    PubMed

    Apesteguía, L; Mellado, M; Sáenz, J; Cordero, J L; Repáraz, B; De Miguel, C

    2002-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate accuracy of 11 G vacuum-assisted percutaneous biopsy (VAPB) carried out on digital stereotaxic table, on breast non-palpable lesions (NPLs), non-visible by US. Prospective study on 132 consecutive NPLs (126 patients) not reliably found by US; 82% showed microcalcifications. Surgical confirmation was obtained in all malignant cases and when VAPB reported atypical lesion (ductal or lobular), radial scar or atypical papillary lesion. All patients with benign results were included in a mammographic follow-up programme. Two cases could not be dealt with due to technical difficulties. One to 26 cylinders were obtained from the remaining 130 NPLs. Sixty-four lesions were surgically confirmed. Forty-six of the 47 malignancies were correctly diagnosed. In one case of a malignant tumour, an atypical lesion was classified with VAPB. All cases of histologically verified lobular carcinoma in situ, atypical ductal or lobular hyperplasia, radial scar or atypical papillary lesion were correctly diagnosed preoperatively. The remaining lesions were benign in VAPB, and after 1 year of follow-up, no false negative has been found. Based on this short-term follow-up, absolute sensitivity was 97.9%, absolute specificity 84.3% and accuracy was 99.2%. For predicting invasion, accuracy was 89.1%. Vacuum-assisted percutaneous biopsy is a very accurate technique for NPLs which are not detectable by US. It can replace approximately 90% of DSB with no important complications, avoiding scars and providing a higher level of comfort.

  15. Impact of compressed breast thickness and dose on lesion detectability in digital mammography: FROC study with simulated lesions in real mammograms.

    PubMed

    Salvagnini, Elena; Bosmans, Hilde; Van Ongeval, Chantal; Van Steen, Andreas; Michielsen, Koen; Cockmartin, Lesley; Struelens, Lara; Marshall, Nicholas W

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this work was twofold: (1) to examine whether, with standard automatic exposure control (AEC) settings that maintain pixel values in the detector constant, lesion detectability in clinical images decreases as a function of breast thickness and (2) to verify whether a new AEC setup can increase lesion detectability at larger breast thicknesses. Screening patient images, acquired on two identical digital mammography systems, were collected over a period of 2 yr. Mammograms were acquired under standard AEC conditions (part 1) and subsequently with a new AEC setup (part 2), programmed to use the standard AEC settings for compressed breast thicknesses ≤49 mm, while a relative dose increase was applied above this thickness. The images were divided into four thickness groups: T1 ≤ 29 mm, T2 = 30-49 mm, T3 = 50-69 mm, and T4 ≥ 70 mm, with each thickness group containing 130 randomly selected craniocaudal lesion-free images. Two measures of density were obtained for every image: a BI-RADS score and a map of volumetric breast density created with a software application (VolparaDensity, Matakina, NZ). This information was used to select subsets of four images, containing one image from each thickness group, matched to a (global) BI-RADS score and containing a region with the same (local) volpara volumetric density value. One selected lesion (a microcalcification cluster or a mass) was simulated into each of the four images. This process was repeated so that, for a given thickness group, half the images contained a single lesion and half were lesion-free. The lesion templates created and inserted in groups T3 and T4 for the first part of the study were then inserted into the images of thickness groups T3 and T4 acquired with higher dose settings. Finally, all images were visualized using the ViewDEX software and scored by four radiologists performing a free search study. A statistical jackknife-alternative free-response receiver operating characteristic

  16. Improvement of atopic dermatitis-like skin lesions by IL-4 inhibition of P14 protein isolated from Lactobacillus casei in NC/Nga mice.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min-Soo; Kim, Jin-Eung; Yoon, Yeo-Sang; Kim, Tai Hoon; Seo, Jae-Gu; Chung, Myung-Jun; Yum, Do-Young

    2015-09-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic inflammatory skin disease, with a complex etiology encompassing immunologic responses. AD is frequently associated with elevated serum immunoglobulin (Ig) E levels and is exacerbated by a variety of environmental factors, which contribute to its pathogenesis. However, the etiology of AD remains unknown. Recently, reports have documented the role of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in the treatment and prevention of AD in humans and mice. The LAB, Lactobacillus casei (LC), is frequently used in the treatment of AD. To identify the active component of LC, we screened fractions obtained from the ion exchange chromatography of LC extracts. Using this approach, we identified the candidate protein, P14. We examined whether the P14 protein has anti-atopic properties, using both in vitro and in vivo models. Our results showed that the P14 protein selectively downregulated serum IgE and interleukin-4 cytokine levels, as well as the AD index and scratching score in AD-like NC/Nga mice. In addition, histological examination was also effective in mice. These results suggest that the P14 protein has potential therapeutic effects and that it may also serve as an effective immunomodulatory agent for treating patients with AD.

  17. Bathing effects of east saline groundwater concentrates on allergic (atopic) dermatitis-like skin lesions induced by 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene in hairless mice

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Choong-Gon; Lee, Ji-Eun; Jeong, Da-Geum; Lee, Youn-Ho; Park, Sang-In; Lee, Dae-Geon; Han, Chang-Hyun; Kang, Su-Jin; Song, Chang-Hyun; Choi, Seong-Hun; Lee, Young-Joon; Ku, Sae-Kwang

    2017-01-01

    In the present study, it was evaluated whether east saline groundwater concentration solution (ESGWc) exerted a favorable inhibitory effect on 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB)-induced allergic/atopic-like dermatitis (AD). AD was induced and boosted by sensitization with DNCB via topical application on the dorsal back skins. Mice with DNCB-induced AD were bathed in 100-, 200- and 400-fold diluted ESGWc. After 6 weeks bathing, changes to body weight, clinical skin severity scores, scratching behavior, serum total immunoglobulin (Ig)E levels, submandibular lymph node and spleen weights, splenic cytokine levels, skin cytokine mRNA expressions, antioxidant defense systems and superoxide anion productions were recorded to determine the effects of bathing on the histopathology of dorsal back skin tissues. All DNCB-induced mice demonstrated that the induction of AD through IgE-mediated hypersensitivities, oxidative stresses, activation of MMP and apoptosis of keratinocytes resulted in no significant differences in body weight between the different groups at each time point following initial sensitization. However, markers of DNCB-induced AD were significantly inhibited (P<0.05) in a concentration-dependent manner following bathing in all concentrations of ESGWc. The results obtained in the present study suggest that bathing in ESGWc may have favorable protective effects against DNCB-induced AD due to favorable systemic and local immunomodulatory effects, active cytoprotective anti-apoptotic effects, inhibitory effects of matrix metalloproteinase activity, and anti-inflammatory and antioxidative effects. PMID:28587425

  18. Bathing Effects of Various Seawaters on Allergic (Atopic) Dermatitis-Like Skin Lesions Induced by 2,4-Dinitrochlorobenzene in Hairless Mice

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Choong Gon; Kang, Meehye; Lee, Youn-Ho; Min, Won Gi; Kim, Yong Hwan; Kang, Su Jin; Song, Chang Hyun; Park, Soo Jin; Park, Ji Ha; Han, Chang Hyun; Ku, Sae Kwang

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated the preventive effects of four types of seawater collected in Republic of Korea on hairless mice with 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene- (DNCB-) induced allergic/atopic dermatitis (AD). The anti-inflammatory effects were evaluated by measuring tumor necrosis factor- (TNF-) α and interleukins (ILs). Glutathione (GSH), malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide anion, and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) were measured to evaluate the antioxidant effects. Caspase-3 and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) were observed to measure the antiapoptotic effects; matrix metalloproteinase- (MMP-) 9 levels were also evaluated. Mice with AD had markedly higher clinical skin severity scores and scratching behaviors; higher TNF-α and ILs (1β, 10, 4, 5, and 13) levels; higher MDA, superoxide anion, caspase-3, PARP, and MMP-9 levels; and greater iNOS activity. However, the severity of AD was significantly decreased by bathing in seawaters, but it did not influence the dermal collagen depositions and skin tissue antioxidant defense systems. These results suggest that bathing in all four seawaters has protective effects against DNCB-induced AD through their favorable systemic and local immunomodulatory effects, active cytoprotective antiapoptotic effects, inhibitory effects of MMP activity and anti-inflammatory and antioxidative effects. PMID:26221169

  19. In vivo assessment of the effect of taxifolin glycoside on atopic dermatitis-like skin lesions using biomedical tools in NC/Nga mice.

    PubMed

    Kim, J Y; Lee, O S; Ha, S; Kim, J H; Park, G; Kim, J K; Oh, C H

    2015-07-01

    Noninvasive methods of assessment are widely used in clinical trials. However, such methods have not been established in atopic dermatitis (AD), which is a chronic inflammatory skin disease. To demonstrate, using biomedical tools, the benefits of a new substance, taxifolin glycoside (TAX), in an AD model, the NC/Nga mouse. We evaluated the efficacy of topical TAX for AD by measuring clinical skin severity score, cytokine expression and serum IgE level, and by using biomedical measures (vapometry and corneometry). Topical TAX was applied to AD-induced NC/Nga mice for 3 weeks. The anti-inflammatory effects of this compound were demonstrated noninvasively using biomedical tools and immunological assays. Our method of AD assessment using biomedical tools is more objective and accurate than visual inspection. The results obtained using the biomedical tools were identical to those obtained using immunological assays. In vivo biomedical tools are useful for diagnosing and monitoring treatment effects in AD. © 2014 British Association of Dermatologists.

  20. ROC curve analysis of lesion detectability on phantoms: comparison of digital spot mammography with conventional spot mammography.

    PubMed

    Yip, W M; Pang, S Y; Yim, W S; Kwok, C S

    2001-07-01

    Although conventional screen--film mammography has excellent spatial resolution and is commonly used as a screening tool, certain inherent limitations prevent its further improvement. New digital mammography techniques, despite lower spatial resolution than screen--film mammography, may overcome these limitations. This study compared lesion detectability between charge coupled device-based digital spot mammography and conventional spot mammography. A total of 100 sets of images of specially designed breast phantoms was acquired, with variable background achieved by overlapping several layers of grapefruit fibre on a 4 cm thick lucite slab, using both modalities. 75 sets were "normal" images and 25 sets were images with simulated lesions. Four radiologists assessed the images according to a five-point confidence scale. The results were used to construct receiver operating characteristic curves. No statistical difference was observed between the two sets of curves for individual radiologists as well as pooled data. The lower spatial resolution of digital mammography was compensated for by its higher contrast sensitivity relative to conventional spot mammography.

  1. [Effects of ethanol extracts of herbal medicines on dermatitis in an atopic dermatitis mouse model].

    PubMed

    Takano, Norikazu; Inokuchi, Yuki; Kurachi, Michio

    2011-04-01

    Atopic dermatitis is a chronic and relapsing inflammatory skin disease that is characterized by highly pruritic, eczematous skin lesions. Our previous study elucidated that nerve growth factor (NGF) plays an important role in the pathogenesis of skin lesions and inhibition of the physiological effects of NGF can moderate skin lesions in atopic dermatitis. In this study, we investigated the effects of ethanol extracts of herbal medicines on neuritic outgrowth induced by NGF. Four herbal extracts (Geranium thunbergii, Humulus lupulus, Rosmarinus officinalis and Salvia officinalis L.) inhibited NGF-induced neuritic outgrowth in PC12 cells. We also investigated the effects of each herbal extract on dermatitis in NC/Nga, an atopic dermatitis mouse model. The skin lesions of the NC/Nga mice were significantly inhibited by repeated applications of each herbal extract. These results suggested that the four herbal extracts can prevent and moderate the symptoms of atopic dermatitis, and these effects might be appeared by inhibiting the effect of NGF on neuritic outgrowth in lesional skin.

  2. [Quantitative image analysis in pulmonary pathology - digitalization of preneoplastic lesions in human bronchial epithelium (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Steinbach, T; Müller, K M; Kämper, H

    1979-01-01

    The report concerns the first phase of a quantitative study of normal and abnormal bronchial epithelium with the objective of establishing the digitalization of histologic patterns. Preparative methods, data collecting and handling, and further mathematical analysis are described. In cluster and discriminatory analysis the digitalized histologic features can be used to separate and classify the individual cases into the respective diagnostic groups.

  3. An in vitro comparison of quantitative light-induced fluorescence-digital and spectrophotometer on monitoring artificial white spot lesions.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hee Eun; Kim, Baek-Il

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of quantitative light-induced fluorescence-digital (QLF-D) compared to a spectrophotometer in monitoring progression of enamel lesions. To generate artificial caries with various severities of lesion depths, twenty bovine specimens were immersed in demineralizing solution for 40 days. During the production of the lesions, repeat measurements of fluorescence loss (ΔF) and color change (ΔE) were performed in six distinct stages after the demineralization of the specimens: after 3, 5, 10, 20, 30, and 40 days of exposure to the demineralizing solution. Changes in the ΔF values in the lesions were analyzed using the QLF-D, and changes in the ΔE values in lesions were analyzed using a spectrophotometer. The repeated measures ANOVA of ΔF and ΔE values were used to determine whether there are significant differences at different exposure times in the demineralizing solution. Spearman's rank correlation coefficient was analyzed between ΔF and ΔE. The ΔF values significantly decreased based on the demineralizing period (p<0.001). Relatively large changes in ΔF values were observed during the first 10 days. There were significant changes in L(*), a(*), b(*), and ΔE values in lesions with increasing demineralizing duration (p<0.001). A strong correlation was observed between ΔF and ΔE with p=-0.853 (p<0.001). The results support the efficacy of QLF-D in monitoring color changes. Our findings demonstrate that QLF-D are a more efficient and stable tool for early caries detection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Mapping 3D breast lesions from full-field digital mammograms using subject-specific finite element models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García, E.; Oliver, A.; Diaz, O.; Diez, Y.; Gubern-Mérida, A.; Martí, R.; Martí, J.

    2017-03-01

    Patient-specific finite element (FE) models of the breast have received increasing attention due to the potential capability of fusing images from different modalities. During the Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) to X-ray mammography registration procedure, the FE model is compressed mimicking the mammographic acquisition. Subsequently, suspicious lesions in the MRI volume can be projected into the 2D mammographic space. However, most registration algorithms do not provide the reverse information, avoiding to obtain the 3D geometrical information from the lesions localized in the mammograms. In this work we introduce a fast method to localize the 3D position of the lesion within the MRI, using both cranio-caudal (CC) and medio-lateral oblique (MLO) mammographic projections, indexing the tetrahedral elements of the biomechanical model by means of an uniform grid. For each marked lesion in the Full-Field Digital Mammogram (FFDM), the X-ray path from source to the marker is calculated. Barycentric coordinates are computed in the tetrahedrons traversed by the ray. The list of elements and coordinates allows to localize two curves within the MRI and the closest point between both curves is taken as the 3D position of the lesion. The registration errors obtained in the mammographic space are 9.89 +/- 3.72 mm in CC- and 8.04 +/- 4.68 mm in MLO-projection and the error in the 3D MRI space is equal to 10.29 +/- 3.99 mm. Regarding the uniform grid, it is computed spending between 0.1 and 0.7 seconds. The average time spent to compute the 3D location of a lesion is about 8 ms.

  5. Fiddler's neck: Chin rest-associated irritant contact dermatitis and allergic contact dermatitis in a violin player.

    PubMed

    Caero, Jennifer E; Cohen, Philip R

    2012-09-15

    Fiddler's neck refers to an irritant contact dermatitis on the submandibular neck of violin and viola players and an allergic contact dermatitis to nickel from the bracket attaching the violin to the chin rest on the violinist's supraclavicular neck. A 26-year-old woman developed submandibular and supraclavicular left neck lesions corresponding to the locations of the chin rest and bracket that was attached to her violin that held it against her neck when she played. Substitution of a composite chin rest, which did not contain nickel, and the short-term application of a low potency topical corticosteroid cream, resulted in complete resolution of the allergic contact dermatitis supraclavicular neck lesion. The irritant contact dermatitis submandibular neck lesion persisted. In conclusion, violin players are predisposed to developing irritant contact dermatitis or allergic contact dermatitis from the chin rest. We respectfully suggest that the submandibular neck lesions from contact with the chin rest be referred to as 'fiddler's neck - type 1,' whereas the supraclavicular neck lesions resulting from contact of the bracket holding the chin rest in place be called 'fiddler's neck - type 2.' A composite chin rest should be considered in patients with a preceding history of allergic contact dermatitis to nickel.

  6. Immunostimulatory sequence CpG elicits Th1-type immune responses in inflammatory skin lesions in an atopic dermatitis murine model.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guoying; Fyhrquist-Vanni, Nanna; Wolff, Henrik; Dieu-Nosjean, Marie-Caroline; Kemeny, Lajos; Homey, Bernard; Lauerma, Antti I; Alenius, Harri

    2008-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic inflammatory skin disease, for which no fundamental therapy exists. Immunostimulatory sequence CpG (ISS CpG) has potential in reducing susceptibility to allergic diseases and reversing established allergic reactions. To investigate the effects of ISS CpG in the prevention and treatment of AD in an AD murine model. BALB/c mice were epicutaneously exposed to ovalbumin (OVA) for 3 or 4 weeks with a 2-week resting period between each exposure week. ISS i.d. injection was given either on the 1st day of each exposure week (in the prevention experiment) or 3 days before and on the 1st, 4th and 7th day of the last exposure week (in the treatment experiment). Skin biopsy and blood were obtained at the end of the experiments. ISS CpG treatment increased drastically mRNA expression of proinflammatory and Th1-type cytokines and chemokines in OVA-treated skin both in the prevention and treatment experiments. The suppressing effect of ISS CpG on Th2-type cytokines and chemokines was weak and limited to IL-13 and CCL24 in the treatment experiment. No significant reduction in OVA-elicited infiltration of eosinophils and T cells in the skin was seen after ISS administration but infiltration of plasmacytoid dendritic cells was absent in ISS CpG-treated skin. In contrast, ISS injection elicited dramatic infiltration of F4/80+ and CCR5+ cells into the dermis and subcutaneous tissue. Due to unwanted side effects and minor beneficial effects in our model, administration of ISS CpG may not be suitable for the treatment of AD in humans. Copyright 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. A Case of Dermatitis Neglecta.

    PubMed

    Han, You Jin; Kim, So Young; Choi, Hae Young; Myung, Ki Bum; Choi, You Won

    2008-12-01

    Dermatitis neglecta (unwashed dermatosis) presents as pigmented hyperkeratotic plaques with adherent scales which clinically resembles psoriasis. This condition is the result of avoiding washing the affected areas, so the lesions are characteristically resolved with normal washing or with gentle wiping from an alcohol swab. We report a 29-year-old man who presented with an asymptomatic hyperkeratotic scaly plaque on umbilicus. A skin biopsy was done under the clinical impression of psoriasis. During skin biopsy, gentle swabbing with H2O2 and saline gauze was done. The patient revisited our clinic 10 days after the skin biopsy and the hyperkeratotic lesion had cleared. Histologic examination showed orthokeratotic hyperkeratosis and anastomosing rete ridges. There has been no previous report of dermatitis neglecta with histologic confirmation, and so this case could be the first report to provide the histologic characteristics of dermatitis neglecta. Because this condition might be overlooked and underdiagnosed, recognizing its existence and cause are important to avoid unnecessary biopsies and potentially aggressive therapeutic measures.

  8. A Case of Dermatitis Neglecta

    PubMed Central

    Han, You Jin; Kim, So Young; Choi, Hae Young; Myung, Ki Bum

    2008-01-01

    Dermatitis neglecta (unwashed dermatosis) presents as pigmented hyperkeratotic plaques with adherent scales which clinically resembles psoriasis. This condition is the result of avoiding washing the affected areas, so the lesions are characteristically resolved with normal washing or with gentle wiping from an alcohol swab. We report a 29-year-old man who presented with an asymptomatic hyperkeratotic scaly plaque on umbilicus. A skin biopsy was done under the clinical impression of psoriasis. During skin biopsy, gentle swabbing with H2O2 and saline gauze was done. The patient revisited our clinic 10 days after the skin biopsy and the hyperkeratotic lesion had cleared. Histologic examination showed orthokeratotic hyperkeratosis and anastomosing rete ridges. There has been no previous report of dermatitis neglecta with histologic confirmation, and so this case could be the first report to provide the histologic characteristics of dermatitis neglecta. Because this condition might be overlooked and underdiagnosed, recognizing its existence and cause are important to avoid unnecessary biopsies and potentially aggressive therapeutic measures. PMID:27303207

  9. Interstitial granulomatous dermatitis: rare cutaneous manifestation of rheumatoid arthritis*

    PubMed Central

    Veronez, Isis Suga; Dantas, Fernando Luiz; Valente, Neusa Yuriko; Kakizaki, Priscila; Yasuda, Thaís Helena; Cunha, Thaís do Amaral

    2015-01-01

    Besides being an uncommon clinicopathological entity, interstitial granulomatous dermatitis, also described as interstitial granulomatous dermatitis with arthritis (IGDA), has shown a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations, such as linear and erythematous lesions, papules, plaques and nodules. Histological features include dense dermal histiocytic infiltrate, usually in a palisade configuration, and scattered neutrophils and eosinophils. We describe a middle aged woman with rheumatoid arthritis of difficult management and cutaneous lesions compatible with IGDA. PMID:26131871

  10. Atopic March from Atopic Dermatitis to Asthma-Like Lesions in NC/Nga Mice Is Accelerated or Aggravated by Neutralization of Stratum Corneum but Partially Inhibited by Acidification.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hae-Jin; Lee, Noo Ri; Jung, Minyoung; Kim, Dong Hye; Choi, Eung Ho

    2015-12-01

    Prolonged and/or repeated damage to the skin barrier followed by atopic dermatitis (AD) is an initial step in atopic march that ultimately progresses to respiratory allergy. Maintaining normal stratum corneum (SC) acidity has been suggested as a therapeutic or preventive strategy for barrier impairment caused by skin inflammation. We determined whether a representative AD murine model, NC/Nga mice, develops airway inflammation after repeated epicutaneous application followed by inhalation of house dust mite (HDM), implying atopic march, and whether prolongation of non-proper SC acidity accelerates respiratory allergy. HDM was applied to the skin of NC/Nga mice, accompanied by the application of neutral cream (pH 7.4) or acidic cream (pH 2.8) for 6 weeks. Intranasal inhalation of HDM was administered daily during the last 3 days. Repeated epicutaneous applications followed by inhalation of HDM in NC/Nga mice induced an atopic march-like progression from AD lesions to respiratory allergy. Concurrent neutral cream treatment accelerated or aggravated the allergic inflammation in the skin and respiratory system, whereas an acidic cream partially alleviated these symptoms. Collectively, we developed an atopic march in NC/Nga mice by HDM application, and found that prevention of a neutral environment in the SC may be an interventional method to inhibit the march.

  11. A rapid and definitive diagnosis of kerosene dermatitis by an analysis of detached lesional epidermis using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Tsujino, Yoshio; Hieda, Yoko; Morita, Eishin

    2005-08-01

    A 73-year-old woman, who suffered from erythema with bullae and pustules on her abdomen and anterior right thigh, visited our hospital without an awareness of the causative agents. The lesions appeared like first and second degree burns. The small amount of detached roof of bulla was sampled without skin biopsy before the ointment treatment. The sample was sonicated in an ultrasonic bath for 1 min in n-pentane, and then 1 mul of the extract was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The causative agent was determined to be kerosene. An examination of blood samples collected at the first visit failed to detect kerosene, though traces of trimethylbenzene were detected. A GC-MS analysis of the small sample of lesional epidermis was very useful to identify kerosene as a causative agent.

  12. Technical Note: Insertion of digital lesions in the projection domain for dual-source, dual-energy CT.

    PubMed

    Ferrero, Andrea; Chen, Baiyu; Li, Zhoubo; Yu, Lifeng; McCollough, Cynthia

    2017-05-01

    To compare algorithms performing material decomposition and classification in dual-energy CT, it is desirable to know the ground truth of the lesion to be analyzed in real patient data. In this work, we developed and validated a framework to insert digital lesions of arbitrary chemical composition into patient projection data acquired on a dual-source, dual-energy CT system. A model that takes into account beam-hardening effects was developed to predict the CT number of objects with known chemical composition. The model utilizes information about the x-ray energy spectra, the patient/phantom attenuation, and the x-ray detector energy response. The beam-hardening model was validated on samples of iodine (I) and calcium (Ca) for a second-generation dual-source, dual-energy CT scanner for all tube potentials available and a wide range of patient sizes. The seven most prevalent mineral components of renal stones were modeled and digital stones were created with CT numbers computed for each patient/phantom size and x-ray energy spectra using the developed beam-hardening model. Each digital stone was inserted in the dual-energy projection data of a water phantom scanned on a dual-source scanner and reconstructed with the routine algorithms in use in our practice. The geometry of the forward projection for dual-energy data was validated by comparing CT number accuracy and high-contrast resolution of simulated dual-energy CT data of the ACR phantom with experimentally acquired data. The beam-hardening model and forward projection method accurately predicted the CT number of I and Ca over a wide range of tube potentials and phantom sizes. The images reconstructed after the insertion of digital kidney stones were consistent with the images reconstructed from the scanner, and the CT number ratios for different kidney stone types were consistent with data in the literature. A sample application of the proposed tool was also demonstrated. A framework was developed and validated

  13. Analysis of the impact of digital tomosynthesis on the radiological investigation of patients with suspected pulmonary lesions on chest radiography.

    PubMed

    Quaia, Emilio; Baratella, Elisa; Cernic, Stefano; Lorusso, Arianna; Casagrande, Federica; Cioffi, Vincenzo; Cova, Maria Assunta

    2012-09-01

    To assess the impact of digital tomosynthesis (DTS) on the radiological investigation of patients with suspected pulmonary lesions on chest radiography (CXR). Three hundred thirty-nine patients (200 male; age, 71.19 ± 11.9 years) with suspected pulmonary lesion(s) on CXR underwent DTS. Two readers prospectively analysed CXR and DTS images, and recorded their diagnostic confidence: 1 or 2 = definite or probable benign lesion or pseudolesion deserving no further diagnostic workup; 3 = indeterminate; 4 or 5 = probable or definite pulmonary lesion deserving further diagnostic workup by computed tomography (CT). Imaging follow-up by CT (n = 76 patients), CXR (n = 256) or histology (n = 7) was the reference standard. DTS resolved doubtful CXR findings in 256/339 (76 %) patients, while 83/339 (24 %) patients proceeded to CT. The mean interpretation time for DTS (mean ± SD, 220 ± 40 s) was higher (P < 0.05; Wilcoxon test) than for CXR (110 ± 30 s), but lower than CT (600 ± 150 s). Mean effective dose was 0.06 mSv (range 0.03-0.1 mSv) for CXR, 0.107 mSv (range 0.094-0.12 mSv) for DTS, and 3 mSv (range 2-4 mSv) for CT. DTS avoided the need for CT in about three-quarters of patients with a slight increase in the interpretation time and effective dose compared to CXR.

  14. Digital Breast Tomosynthesis versus Supplemental Diagnostic Mammographic Views for Evaluation of Noncalcified Breast Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Bandos, Andriy I.; Ganott, Marie A.; Sumkin, Jules H.; Kelly, Amy E.; Catullo, Victor J.; Rathfon, Grace Y.; Lu, Amy H.; Gur, David

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To compare the diagnostic performance of breast tomosynthesis versus supplemental mammography views in classification of masses, distortions, and asymmetries. Materials and Methods: Eight radiologists who specialized in breast imaging retrospectively reviewed 217 consecutively accrued lesions by using protocols that were HIPAA compliant and institutional review board approved in 182 patients aged 31–60 years (mean, 50 years) who underwent diagnostic mammography and tomosynthesis. The lesions in the cohort included 33% (72 of 217) cancers and 67% (145 of 217) benign lesions. Eighty-four percent (182 of 217) of the lesions were masses, 11% (25 of 217) were asymmetries, and 5% (10 of 217) were distortions that were initially detected at clinical examination in 8% (17 of 217), at mammography in 80% (173 of 217), at ultrasonography (US) in 11% (25 of 217), or at magnetic resonance imaging in 1% (2 of 217). Histopathologic examination established truth in 191 lesions, US revealed a cyst in 12 lesions, and 14 lesions had a normal follow-up. Each lesion was interpreted once with tomosynthesis and once with supplemental mammographic views; both modes included the mediolateral oblique and craniocaudal views in a fully crossed and balanced design by using a five-category Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) assessment and a probability-of-malignancy score. Differences between modes were analyzed with a generalized linear mixed model for BI-RADS–based sensitivity and specificity and with modified Obuchowski-Rockette approach for probability-of-malignancy–based area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. Results: Average probability-of-malignancy–based area under the ROC curve was 0.87 for tomosynthesis versus 0.83 for supplemental views (P < .001). With tomosynthesis, the false-positive rate decreased from 85% (989 of 1160) to 74% (864 of 1160) (P < .01) for cases that were rated BI-RADS category 3 or higher and from 57% (663 of

  15. Digital breast tomosynthesis versus supplemental diagnostic mammographic views for evaluation of noncalcified breast lesions.

    PubMed

    Zuley, Margarita L; Bandos, Andriy I; Ganott, Marie A; Sumkin, Jules H; Kelly, Amy E; Catullo, Victor J; Rathfon, Grace Y; Lu, Amy H; Gur, David

    2013-01-01

    To compare the diagnostic performance of breast tomosynthesis versus supplemental mammography views in classification of masses, distortions, and asymmetries. Eight radiologists who specialized in breast imaging retrospectively reviewed 217 consecutively accrued lesions by using protocols that were HIPAA compliant and institutional review board approved in 182 patients aged 31-60 years (mean, 50 years) who underwent diagnostic mammography and tomosynthesis. The lesions in the cohort included 33% (72 of 217) cancers and 67% (145 of 217) benign lesions. Eighty-four percent (182 of 217) of the lesions were masses, 11% (25 of 217) were asymmetries, and 5% (10 of 217) were distortions that were initially detected at clinical examination in 8% (17 of 217), at mammography in 80% (173 of 217), at ultrasonography (US) in 11% (25 of 217), or at magnetic resonance imaging in 1% (2 of 217). Histopathologic examination established truth in 191 lesions, US revealed a cyst in 12 lesions, and 14 lesions had a normal follow-up. Each lesion was interpreted once with tomosynthesis and once with supplemental mammographic views; both modes included the mediolateral oblique and craniocaudal views in a fully crossed and balanced design by using a five-category Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) assessment and a probability-of-malignancy score. Differences between modes were analyzed with a generalized linear mixed model for BI-RADS-based sensitivity and specificity and with modified Obuchowski-Rockette approach for probability-of-malignancy-based area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. Average probability-of-malignancy-based area under the ROC curve was 0.87 for tomosynthesis versus 0.83 for supplemental views (P < .001). With tomosynthesis, the false-positive rate decreased from 85% (989 of 1160) to 74% (864 of 1160) (P < .01) for cases that were rated BI-RADS category 3 or higher and from 57% (663 of 1160) to 48% (559 of 1160) for cases rated BI

  16. Diagnostic imaging costs before and after digital tomosynthesis implementation in patient management after detection of suspected thoracic lesions on chest radiography.

    PubMed

    Quaia, Emilio; Grisi, Guido; Baratella, Elisa; Cuttin, Roberto; Poillucci, Gabriele; Kus, Sara; Cova, Maria Assunta

    2014-02-01

    To evaluate diagnostic imaging costs before and after DTS implementation in patients with suspected thoracic lesions on CXR. Four hundred sixty-five patients (263 male, 202 female; age, 72.47 ± 11.33 years) with suspected thoracic lesion(s) after CXR underwent DTS. Each patient underwent CT when a pulmonary non-calcified lesion was identified by DTS while CT was not performed when a benign pulmonary or extrapulmonary lesion or pseudolesion was identified. The average per-patient imaging cost was calculated by normalising the costs before and after DTS implementation. In 229/465 patients who underwent DTS after suspicious CXR, DTS showed 193 pulmonary lesions and 36 pleural lesions, while in the remaining 236/465 patients, lesions were ruled out as pseudolesions of CXR. Chest CT examination was performed in 127/465 (27 %) patients while in the remaining 338/465 patients (73 %) CXR doubtful findings were resolved by DTS. The average per-patient costs of CXR, DTS and CT were 15.15, 41.55 and 113.66. DTS allowed an annual cost saving of 8,090.2 considering unenhanced CT and 19,298.12 considering contrast-enhanced CT. Considering a DTS reimbursement rate of 62.7 the break even point corresponds to 479 DTS examinations. Per-patient diagnostic imaging costs decreased after DTS implementation in patients with suspected thoracic lesions. • Digital tomosynthesis improves the diagnostic accuracy and confidence in chest radiography • Digital tomosynthesis reduces the need for CT for a suspected pulmonary lesionDigital tomosynthesis requires a dose level equivalent to that of around two chest radiographies • Digital tomosynthesis produces a significant per-patient saving in diagnostic imaging costs.

  17. Automated detection of spiculated lesions and architectural distortions in digitized mammograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ming; Giger, Maryellen L.

    1995-05-01

    Mammographic stellate lesions and architectural distortions are usually associated with malignancy, which makes them important signs in the screening for breast cancer. This paper proposes a novel method for the automatic detection of these lesions with the use of a Hough spectrum based geometric texture analysis. The Hough spectrum technique is developed from the traditional Hough transform, which is effective in the description of geometric structures. The Hough spectrum inherits such an ability and extends it into texture analysis for the description of those texture features geometric in nature, such as the spicula of a stellate lesion. When applied in mammographic image processing, an ROI is first transformed into its Hough spectrum, and then thresholding is conducted with its threshold level based on the statistical properties of the spectrum. Those ROIs with strong signals of spiculation are then identified as regions of potential lesions. Our preliminary studies, using only the Hough spectrum based technique without further feature analyses to reduce false positive detection, have yielded sensitivities of 81% for spiculated masses and 67% for architectural distortions at false positive rates of 0.97 and 2.2 per image, respectively. This manifests clearly the potential of the developed technique in the detection of such types of mammographic lesions.

  18. [Henna symbolic tattoo and real dermatitis].

    PubMed

    Lamchahab, F-Z; Guerrouj, B; Benomar, S; Ait Ourhroui, M; Senouci, K; Hassam, B; Benzekri, L

    2011-06-01

    Henna, or Lawsonia inermis, has been used since antiquity by women in the Orient for dyeing the hair, hands, and feet. Contact dermatitis to pure henna is very rare, most often caused by additives such as perfume oils or paraphenylenediamine (PPD). We report the case of a girl who presented contact dermatitis to henna associated with eczema to draw attention to the dangers related to its use. A 12-year-old girl developed erythematovesicular and edematous lesions with very itchy burning, suggestive of contact dermatitis, 48 hours after application of black henna. Lesions were located at the tattooing site exactly following the original design. The patient also had eczema lesions on the left cheek after contact with the tattooed hand. The lesions were improved by treatment with level II corticosteroids. Today, henna has become very popular in Western countries. PPD is added to reduce the fixation time or to obtain a darker color. It can cause severe systemic reactions. The most common allergic reaction is contact dermatitis. Treatment is based on topical steroids. Better legislation on temporary tattooing practices and control preparations as well as regular annual information aimed at the general public are essential. This observation raises awareness of the importance of information on the serious risks of a labile tattoo, most particularly for the young. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Seborrheic dermatitis: an update.

    PubMed

    Bukvić Mokos, Zrinka; Kralj, Martina; Basta-Juzbašić, Aleksandra; Lakoš Jukić, Ines

    2012-01-01

    Seborrheic dermatitis is a chronic relapsing inflammatory skin disorder clinically characterized by scaling and poorly defined erythematous patches. The prevalence of adult seborrheic dermatitis is estimated at 5%. Although the exact cause of seborrheic dermatitis has yet to be understood, Malassezia yeasts, hormones (androgens), sebum levels and immune response are known to play important roles in its development. Additional factors including drugs, winter temperatures and stress may exacerbate seborrheic dermatitis. A variety of treatment modalities are available, including antifungal agents, topical low-potency steroids and calcineurin inhibitors (immunomodulators). This review summarizes current knowledge on the etiopathogenesis and therapy of adult seborrheic dermatitis.

  20. Influences of Environmental Chemicals on Atopic Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis is a chronic inflammatory skin condition including severe pruritus, xerosis, visible eczematous skin lesions that mainly begin early in life. Atopic dermatitis exerts a profound impact on the quality of life of patients and their families. The estimated lifetime prevalence of atopic dermatitis has increased 2~3 fold during over the past 30 years, especially in urban areas in industrialized countries, emphasizing the importance of life-style and environment in the pathogenesis of atopic diseases. While the interplay of individual genetic predisposition and environmental factors contribute to the development of atopic dermatitis, the recent increase in the prevalence of atopic dermatitis might be attributed to increased exposure to various environmental factors rather than alterations in human genome. In recent decades, there has been an increasing exposure to chemicals from a variety of sources. In this study, the effects of various environmental chemicals we face in everyday life - air pollutants, contact allergens and skin irritants, ingredients in cosmetics and personal care products, and food additives - on the prevalence and severity of atopic dermatitis are reviewed. PMID:26191377

  1. Automated registration of digital ocular fundus images for comparison of lesions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldbaum, Michael H.; Kouznetsova, Valentina; Cote, Brad L.; Hart, William E.; Nelson, Mark

    1993-06-01

    In the STARE project (structured analysis of the retina) we are developing a system that will automatically diagnose images of the ocular fundus, compare sequential images for change, and make clinically significant measurements of lesions and anatomical structures in the images. Ophthalmologists need to compare color images, fluorescein angiograms, indocyanine angiograms, and scanning laser ophthalmoscopy for onset of disease and changes in lesions. The images are made from fundus cameras of different manufacture and at different magnification. Consequently we designed our system to register images of different magnification or appearance automatically.

  2. Identification of error making patterns in lesion detection on digital breast tomosynthesis using computer-extracted image features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Mengyu; Zhang, Jing; Grimm, Lars J.; Ghate, Sujata V.; Walsh, Ruth; Johnson, Karen S.; Lo, Joseph Y.; Mazurowski, Maciej A.

    2016-03-01

    Digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) can improve lesion visibility by eliminating the issue of overlapping breast tissue present in mammography. However, this new modality likely requires new approaches to training. The issue of training in DBT is not well explored. We propose a computer-aided educational approach for DBT training. Our hypothesis is that the trainees' educational outcomes will improve if they are presented with cases individually selected to address their weaknesses. In this study, we focus on the question of how to select such cases. Specifically, we propose an algorithm that based on previously acquired reading data predicts which lesions will be missed by the trainee for future cases (i.e., we focus on false negative error). A logistic regression classifier was used to predict the likelihood of trainee error and computer-extracted features were used as the predictors. Reader data from 3 expert breast imagers was used to establish the ground truth and reader data from 5 radiology trainees was used to evaluate the algorithm performance with repeated holdout cross validation. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was applied to measure the performance of the proposed individual trainee models. The preliminary experimental results for 5 trainees showed the individual trainee models were able to distinguish the lesions that would be detected from those that would be missed with the average area under the ROC curve of 0.639 (95% CI, 0.580-0.698). The proposed algorithm can be used to identify difficult cases for individual trainees.

  3. Flexural eczema versus atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Jacob, Sharon E; Goldenberg, Alina; Nedorost, Susan; Thyssen, Jacob P; Fonacier, Luz; Spiewak, Radoslaw

    2015-01-01

    Flexural eczema and atopic dermatitis are frequently synonymized. As respiratory atopy is rarely tested for and found in these patients, systematically equating a flexural distribution of dermatitis with atopic dermatitis may too frequently result in misclassified diagnoses and potentially missed opportunity for intervention toward improving patients' symptoms and quality of life. We present a critical review of the available evidence for the atopic dermatitis diagnosis and discuss the similarities between atopic dermatitis and allergic contact dermatitis. Because neither flexural predilection nor atopy is specific for atopic dermatitis, we conclude that the term atopic dermatitis is a misnomer and propose an etymologic reclassification of atopic dermatitis to "atopy-related" dermatitis. Allergic contact dermatitis can induce an atopic dermatitis-like phenotype, and thus, flexural dermatitis cannot be assumed as atopic without further testing. Patch testing should at least be considered in cases of chronic or recurrent eczema regardless of the working diagnosis.

  4. Transgenic rat model of childhood-onset dermatitis by overexpressing telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT).

    PubMed

    Kaneko, Ryosuke; Sato, Atsuko; Hamada, Shun; Yagi, Takeshi; Ohsawa, Ichiro; Ohtsuki, Mamitaro; Kobayashi, Eiji; Hirabayashi, Masumi; Murakami, Takashi

    2016-08-01

    Childhood-onset dermatitis is one of the most common skin disorders in children. Although various mouse models that mirror aspects of dermatitis have become available, there is still a need for an animal model that develops dermatitis in childhood and is more suitable for performing tissue transplantation experiments. There is emerging evidence that peripheral blood T lymphocytes from patients with dermatitis have significantly increased telomerase activity. Here, we developed telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT)-expressing transgenic (Tg) rats that spontaneously developed eczematous skin inflammation in childhood. Newborn TERT-Tg rats developed visible dermatitis in 56 % of cases, and the skin lesions microscopically showed spongiosis and acanthosis with infiltration of lymphocytes, eosinophils and mast cells. TERT-Tg rats with dermatitis exhibited increased CD4 (2.5-fold) and CD8 (fivefold) T cell numbers compared with dermatitis-free TERT-Tg rats. Stronger TERT activity was observed in the peripheral lymphocytes of dermatitis-positive TERT-Tg rats than those of dermatitis-free TERT-Tg rats. RT-PCR analysis revealed that IL-4 was markedly elevated in the spleen of dermatitis-positive TERT-Tg rats, and that interferon-gamma was increased in the dermatitis lesions. Moreover, skin grafting of TERT-Tg rats with dermatitis onto T cell-deficient nude rats demonstrated that the inflamed skin lesions could not be maintained. Taken together, the results suggest that TERT activation in T lymphocytes is one of the potential predisposing factors for dermatitis. Moreover, our results demonstrated that the TERT-Tg rats mirror aspects of human childhood-onset dermatitis and that these animals represent a potential animal model system for studying childhood-onset dermatitis.

  5. Image processing can cause some malignant soft-tissue lesions to be missed in digital mammography images.

    PubMed

    Warren, L M; Halling-Brown, M D; Looney, P T; Dance, D R; Wallis, M G; Given-Wilson, R M; Wilkinson, L; McAvinchey, R; Young, K C

    2017-09-01

    To investigate the effect of image processing on cancer detection in mammography. An observer study was performed using 349 digital mammography images of women with normal breasts, calcification clusters, or soft-tissue lesions including 191 subtle cancers. Images underwent two types of processing: FlavourA (standard) and FlavourB (added enhancement). Six observers located features in the breast they suspected to be cancerous (4,188 observations). Data were analysed using jackknife alternative free-response receiver operating characteristic (JAFROC) analysis. Characteristics of the cancers detected with each image processing type were investigated. For calcifications, the JAFROC figure of merit (FOM) was equal to 0.86 for both types of image processing. For soft-tissue lesions, the JAFROC FOM were better for FlavourA (0.81) than FlavourB (0.78); this difference was significant (p=0.001). Using FlavourA a greater number of cancers of all grades and sizes were detected than with FlavourB. FlavourA improved soft-tissue lesion detection in denser breasts (p=0.04 when volumetric density was over 7.5%) CONCLUSIONS: The detection of malignant soft-tissue lesions (which were primarily invasive) was significantly better with FlavourA than FlavourB image processing. This is despite FlavourB having a higher contrast appearance often preferred by radiologists. It is important that clinical choice of image processing is based on objective measures. Copyright © 2017 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Irritant bullous contact dermatitis caused by a rove beetle: an illustrated clinical course.

    PubMed

    McGrath, Lindsay; Piliouras, Peter; Robertson, Ivan

    2013-05-01

    A 26-year-old Australian female traveller in Sierra Leone presented with an irritant bullous contact dermatitis consistent with paederus dermatitis. The lesions were treated with a potent topical corticosteroid with good effect. The affected area resolved in 6 weeks and hyperpigmention persisted for months until complete resolution. This dermatitis occurs when beetles of the genus Paederus (rove beetles) are crushed on the skin, releasing pederin. The same dermatitis ensues with Australian Paederus species. Serial clinical photographs are presented which will aid Australian dermatologists in the diagnosis of this dermatitis, which presents in regional Australian patients and returned overseas travellers.

  7. Black-spot poison ivy dermatitis. An acute irritant contact dermatitis superimposed upon an allergic contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Hurwitz, R M; Rivera, H P; Guin, J D

    1984-08-01

    A black spot in the epidermis over a blister of poison ivy dermatitis is an uncommon finding. Four patients with the phenomenon are described. Histologic and histochemical studies were made on biopsy material and the blackish deposit on the skin surface was compared with black deposits in and on leaves of the species of poison ivy. This examination revealed a yellow, amorphous substance on the stratum corneum of the lesions and a similar substance in and on leaves of the poison ivy plant, Toxicodendron radicans ssp. negundo. Associated with the pigmentary deposits there were distinct changes of acute irritant contact dermatitis superimposed upon allergic contact dermatitis. Our findings support the view that the black material is the oleoresin of the plant, and that this substance behaves both as an irritant and an allergen.

  8. Detection of retinal lesions in diabetic retinopathy: comparative evaluation of 7-field digital color photography versus red-free photography.

    PubMed

    Venkatesh, Pradeep; Sharma, Reetika; Vashist, Nagender; Vohra, Rajpal; Garg, Satpal

    2015-10-01

    Red-free light allows better detection of vascular lesions as this wavelength is absorbed by hemoglobin; however, the current gold standard for the detection and grading of diabetic retinopathy remains 7-field color fundus photography. The goal of this study was to compare the ability of 7-field fundus photography using red-free light to detect retinopathy lesions with corresponding images captured using standard 7-field color photography. Non-stereoscopic standard 7-field 30° digital color fundus photography and 7-field 30° digital red-free fundus photography were performed in 200 eyes of 103 patients with various grades of diabetic retinopathy ranging from mild to moderate non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy to proliferative diabetic retinopathy. The color images (n = 1,400) were studied with corresponding red-free images (n = 1,400) by one retina consultant (PV) and two senior residents training in retina. The various retinal lesions [microaneurysms, hemorrhages, hard exudates, soft exudates, intra-retinal microvascular anomalies (IRMA), neovascularization of the retina elsewhere (NVE), and neovascularization of the disc (NVD)] detected by all three observers in each of the photographs were noted followed by determination of agreement scores using κ values (range 0-1). Kappa coefficient was categorized as poor (≤0), slight (0.01-0.20), fair (0.2 -0.40), moderate (0.41-0.60), substantial (0.61-0.80), and almost perfect (0.81-1). The number of lesions detected by red-free images alone was higher for all observers and all abnormalities except hard exudates. Detection of IRMA was especially higher for all observers with red-free images. Between image pairs, there was substantial agreement for detection of hard exudates (average κ = 0.62, range 0.60-0.65) and moderate agreement for detection of hemorrhages (average κ = 0.52, range 0.45-0.58), soft exudates (average κ = 0.51, range 0.42-0.61), NVE (average κ = 0.47, range 0.39-0.53), and NVD

  9. [Diagnostic difficulties in differentiation between atopic dermatitis and seborrheic dermatitis in infants].

    PubMed

    Rotsztejn, Helena; Kamer, Barbara; Raczy'nska, Jolanta; Pyziak, Konrad

    2005-11-01

    On the basis of two children with coexistence of atopic and seborrhoeic dermatitis, authors emphasize similarity of clinical symptoms and chronic, recurrent course of these diseases. Atopic dermatitis and seborrheic dermatitis are most common reasons of skin disorders in infants. Location and character of atopic lesions are atypical during infancy. Most often they occur on face and have erythematous-exfoliative and papulovesicular character. Pruritus and anxiety, especially in younger children are often seen. On the contrary seborrhoeic lesions are mostly seen in typical spots, including hairy head skin, where they form characteristic yellow seborrhoeic scales. Usually pruritus is not seen. Authors pay attention to heterogeneous etiopathogenesis of these diseases and underline the importance of early differentiation, which allows application of proper therapy.

  10. Caterpillar dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Dunlop, K; Freeman, S

    1997-11-01

    A 3-year-old girl presented with recurrent urticarial eruptions presumed due to infestation of her garden with Euproctis edwardsi, Euproctis edwardsi, the mistletoe browntail moth is a variety of hairy caterpillar widely distributed in south-eastern Australia. They are often called 'woolly bears' by children. These caterpillars possess barbed hairs that fragment readily and are difficult to extract from the skin in one piece. Itching urticarial wheals and papular eruptions can follow contact with the caterpillars or their detached hairs. The hairlets may be identified by microscopy from skin scrapings and can be removed by tape stripping or with the aid of fine forceps. The skin lesions are treated symptomatically with calamine lotion, sodium bicarbonate solution and antihistamines. Infestation with Euproctis edwardsi can be minimized by removal of mistletoe from eucalyptus trees and by spraying affected areas with white oil or carbaryl 0.1%.

  11. Diagnostic accuracy of carious lesions in digital radiographs at a public dental clinic - can it be improved by optimizing viewing conditions and further education?.

    PubMed

    Milosavljevic, Aleksandar; Westerberg, Jane; Hellén-Halme, Kristina

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the diagnostic accuracy of digital dental radiograpny for detecting carious lesions on approximal surfaces before and after optimization of the environ- ment, and after joint training on evaluation and review of x-rays. A further aim was to evaluate differences in diagnostic accuracy between general dental practitioners (GDPs) and dental hygienists (DHs). One hundred extracted teeth (premolars and molars) underwent standardized radiography. Eleven participants (seven GDPs and four DHs) evaluated digital images for approximal carious lesions in three sessions: (1) at current conditions with no optimization or further training, (2) under optimized viewing conditions, and (3) under optimized viewing conditions after a short educational session. Receiver operating characteristic curves were,used to evaluate the results. Histological evaluation was made and served as a cri- terion standard for differentiating sound teeth and teeth with carious lesions. Kappa statistics evaluated intra-observer agreement. Diagnostic accuracy in the GDP group differed sig- nificantlyfor all types of carious lesions between the first and third evaluations (p=0.002), and also between the second and third (p=0.015). Diagnostic accuracy also differed significantly for carious lesions into the dentin between the first and third evaluations (p=0.010) and between the second and third (p=0.015). Most of the staff had optimized the environment when evaluating digital radiographs. A short educational session highlighting the difficulty of caries diagnostics in digital dental radiography can increase diagnostic accuracy. Diagnostic accuracy in the detection of approximal carious lesions on digital radiographs did not differ between GDPs and DHs.

  12. Filarial dermatitis in a striped skunk.

    PubMed

    Saito, E K; Little, S E

    1997-10-01

    A striped skunk (Mephitis mephitis) from Kansas (USA) with severe diffuse dermatitis characterized by extensive alopecic areas, thickened skin, and multiple, scattered cutaneous abscesses on the dorsal aspect of the head, neck, and trunk was submitted for diagnostic evaluation. More than 50 nematodes identified as Filaria taxideae were found in the dorsal subcutaneous tissue. Histologic examination of the skin revealed multifocal pyogranulomatous inflammation with intralesional larvated nematode eggs, moderate orthokeratotic hyperkeratosis, and mild acanthosis. The lesions resemble those reported from badgers (Taxidea taxus) and a lesser panda (Ailurus fulgens) with dermatitis caused by Filaria taxideae. Although F. taxideae has been previously collected from skunks, this is the first report of filarid dermatitis caused by this nematode in a striped skunk.

  13. Atopic dermatitis exclusively localized on nipples and areolas.

    PubMed

    Amato, Laura; Berti, Samantha; Chiarini, Caterina; Fabbri, Paolo

    2005-01-01

    We present an 11-year-old girl, with celiac disease, and a 9- month history of itchy and erythemato-edematous lesions with vesicles and exudation on her nipples and areolas. No other lesions or signs of scratching were present on her face or folds. She had no specific lesions of atopic dermatitis in typical sites nor in other body surface during her life. Patch tests showed a positive reaction to nickel and thimerosal that was not significantly related to the clinical appearance. This presentation documents the clinical relevance of atopic dermatitis minor diagnostic criteria. We discuss the importance of nipple eczema in AD and its differential diagnosis.

  14. Diagnosis and treatment of seborrheic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Clark, Gary W; Pope, Sara M; Jaboori, Khalid A

    2015-02-01

    Seborrheic dermatitis is a common skin condition in infants, adolescents, and adults. The characteristic symptoms-scaling, erythema, and itching-occur most often on the scalp, face, chest, back, axilla, and groin. Seborrheic dermatitis is a clinical diagnosis based on the location and appearance of the lesions. The skin changes are thought to result from an inflammatory response to a common skin organism, Malassezia yeast. Treatment with antifungal agents such as topical ketoconazole is the mainstay of therapy for seborrheic dermatitis of the face and body. Because of possible adverse effects, anti-inflammatory agents such as topical corticosteroids and calcineurin inhibitors should be used only for short durations. Several over-the-counter shampoos are available for treatment of seborrheic dermatitis of the scalp, and patients should be directed to initiate therapy with one of these agents. Antifungal shampoos (long-term) and topical corticosteroids (short-term) can be used as second-line agents for treatment of scalp seborrheic dermatitis.

  15. Paederus fuscipes dermatitis. A histopathological study.

    PubMed

    Borroni, G; Brazzelli, V; Rosso, R; Pavan, M

    1991-10-01

    Paederus fuscipes (PF) dermatitis is a self-healing blistering disorder of the skin caused by a small insect belonging to genus Paederus, family Staphylinidae, order Coleoptera. Crushing PF on the skin causes acute dermatitis within 24 hours, corresponding in shape and dimensions to the area affected by the substance released (pederin). The acute vesicular lesions become crusted and scaly within a few days and heal completely in 10-12 days, with a transitory postinflammatory hypercromic patch. Twenty consecutive cases of PF dermatitis at different stages were studied histologically by routine light microscopy. The pederin causes a spectrum of histopathologic changes ranging from acute epidermal necrosis and blistering in acute stages, to marked acanthosis with mitotic figures in the late stages. PF dermatitis is an entomological model of irritant contact dermatitis, having histopathologic features of intraepidermal and subepidermal blistering, epidermal necrosis and acantholysis. The presence of some acantholytic foci, relatively far from the foci of clinically involved skin, in four of the cases considered suggests a possible role of pederin in inducing acantholysis indirectly. Acantholysis is probably caused by the release of epidermal proteases.

  16. Microbiome in atopic dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Wollina, Uwe

    2017-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common chronic inflammatory skin disease affecting ~10–20% of the general population. AD is characterized by disturbances in epidermal barrier function and hyperactive immune response. Recently, changes in the skin and intestinal microbiome have been analyzed in more detail. The available data suggest a link between disturbed skin microbiome and course of the disease. Flares of the disease are associated with an expansion of Staphylococcus aureus on lesional skin and a substantial loss of biodiversity in skin microbiome. Staphylococci exoproteins and superantigens evoke inflammatory reactions in the host. Skin microbiome includes superficial stratum corneum that is affected by environmental factors such as exposure to germs and cleansing. Available evidence argues for a link between epidermal barrier impairment and disturbances in skin microbiome in AD. In contrast to skin microbiome, intestinal microbiome seems to become stabilized after infancy. There is also a significant heritable component for intestinal microbiome. The microbial taxa, relative percentages and quantities vary remarkably between the different parts of the intestinal tract. Early intestinal microbial colonization may be a critical step for prevention of further development of AD. Skin barrier-aimed topical treatments help to develop a neo-microbiome from deeper compartments. Probiotics, prebiotics and synbiotics have been investigated for the treatment of AD, but further investigations are needed. Targeted treatment options to normalize skin and intestinal microbiome in AD are under investigation. PMID:28260936

  17. [Etiopathogenesis of atopic dermatitis].

    PubMed

    Kasperska-Zajac, Alicja; Koczy-Baron, Ewa

    2011-11-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic, recurrent inflammatory skin disease, pathogenesis of which has not been fully recognised yet. Th1/ Th2 cells dysregulation, skin barrier defects and influence of environmental factors, including allergens and microbes seem to play an important role in the disease. Apart from infiltration from the inflammatory cells, the histological picture of skin lesions occurring in the course of the disease shows some oedema as well as the reparative processes appearing as fibrosis and angiogenesis which points to participation of factors contributing to endothelial permeability and the growth in pathomechanism of the disease. The vascular endothelial growth factor - VEGF, is a multifunctional proinflammatory cytokine which, 50 000 times stronger than histamine, increases the vascular endothelial permeability and plays the major role in angiogenesis. The role of such cytokine in the acute and chronic inflammatory response has been poorly recognised. Overproduction of VEGF in the skin and release into the bloodstream of patients suffering from AD has been pointed to, which suggest some role of this cytokine in the pathomechanism of AD.

  18. Atopic Dermatitis and Fungi

    PubMed Central

    Faergemann, Jan

    2002-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic, itching, inflammatory skin disease which is associated with asthma and/or hay fever and a familial occurrence of these conditions. Genetic factors are important in the development of AD, but the exact hereditary pathway is still unknown. Dry skin and the weakened barrier function in patients with AD is very important for the patient's reactions to irritants and other external trigger factors including microorganisms. The standard treatments are topical corticosteroids, topical immunomodulating agents, and emollients. If AD cannot be controlled by this type of treatment, systemic immunomodulating agents may be used. UVB, UVA, or psoralen-UVA may also be used for widespread severe lesions. However, some patients do not respond to these standard treatment, and then it is important to consider the role of microorganisms, house dust mites or food. The role of the Malassezia yeasts in AD, especially AD located to the head and neck region, is now documented in several papers. There are also several papers indicating the role of Candida as an aggravating factor in AD. Patients with AD also develop chronic dermatophyte infections more easily, and patients with AD and chronic dermatophyte infections may show improvement in their AD when treated with antifungal drugs. PMID:12364369

  19. Lameness and foot lesions in Swiss dairy cows: I. Prevalence.

    PubMed

    Becker, J; Steiner, A; Kohler, S; Koller-Bähler, A; Wüthrich, M; Reist, M

    2014-02-01

    Prevalences of foot lesions and lameness were recorded in 1'449 Swiss dairy cows during routine claw-trimming on 78 farms from June 2010 until February 2011. Lameness was present in 14.8 % of cows and on 80.8 % of investigated farms. Highest prevalences were seen for widened white line (80.7 %/100 %), signalling foot lesion (65.6 %/98.7 %), heel-horn erosion (34.2 %/88.5 %), digital dermatitis complex (29.1 %/73.1 %), severe hemorrhages (27.9 %/87.2 %), and Rusterholz' sole ulcers (11.5 %/74.4 %) at cow and herd level, respectively. Lower prevalences were found for subclinical laminitis (5.4 %/47.4 %), chronic laminitis (3.3 %/25.6 %), white line disease (4.7 %/42.3 %), double soles (2.6 %/33.3 %), interdigital hyperplasia (3.1 %/33.3 %), sole ulcers (0.4 %/6.4 %), toe infections caused by faulty claw-trimming (3.9 %/39.7 %) and by injury (0.1 %/2.6 %), deep lacerations (0.4 %/6.4 %), and interdigital phlegmona (0.1 %/1.3 %). Lameness and foot lesions were shown to represent important health problems of dairy cows under the conditions of the typical grass-based production system in Switzerland. Digital dermatitis has developed to the most relevant foot disease with a high impact on welfare of Swiss dairy cows within the past 10 years.

  20. Nailfold capillaroscopy for day-to-day clinical use: construction of a simple scoring modality as a clinical prognostic index for digital trophic lesions.

    PubMed

    Smith, Vanessa; De Keyser, Filip; Pizzorni, Carmen; Van Praet, Jens T; Decuman, Saskia; Sulli, Alberto; Deschepper, Ellen; Cutolo, Maurizio

    2011-01-01

    Construction of a simple nailfold videocapillaroscopic (NVC) scoring modality as a prognostic index for digital trophic lesions for day-to-day clinical use. An association with a single simple (semi)-quantitatively scored NVC parameter, mean score of capillary loss, was explored in 71 consecutive patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc), and reliable reduction in the number of investigated fields (F32-F16-F8-F4). The cut-off value of the prognostic index (mean score of capillary loss calculated over a reduced number of fields) for present/future digital trophic lesions was selected by receiver operating curve (ROC) analysis. Reduction in the number of fields for mean score of capillary loss was reliable from F32 to F8 (intraclass correlation coefficient of F16/F32: 0.97; F8/F32: 0.90). Based on ROC analysis, a prognostic index (mean score of capillary loss as calculated over F8) with a cut-off value of 1.67 is proposed. This value has a sensitivity of 72.22/70.00, specificity of 70.59/69.77, positive likelihood ratio of 2.46/2.32 and a negative likelihood ratio of 0.39/0.43 for present/future digital trophic lesions. A simple prognostic index for digital trophic lesions for daily use in SSc clinics is proposed, limited to the mean score of capillary loss as calculated over eight fields (8 fingers, 1 field per finger).

  1. Autosensitisation (Autoeczematisation) reactions in a case of diaper dermatitis candidiasis.

    PubMed

    Chirac, Anca; Brzezinski, Piotr; Chiriac, Anca E; Foia, Liliana; Pinteala, Tudor

    2014-05-01

    Diaper dermatitis is the most common cutaneous diagnosis in infants. Most cases are associated with the yeast colonisation of Candida or diaper dermatitis candidiasis (DDC). It is an irritating and inflammatory acute dermatitis in the perineal and perianal areas resulting from the occlusion and irritation caused by diapers. Autoeczematization to a distant focus of dermatophyte infection very rarely presents as DDC. We present a 1-month-old boy with lesion on diaper area (gluteal area, perineum, groin and genitalia) and with clusters of pustules and vesicles on a large erythematous base over the dorsal area of both hands.

  2. Budesonide-induced periorificial dermatitis presenting as chalazion and blepharitis.

    PubMed

    Henningsen, Emil; Bygum, Anette

    2011-01-01

    We report a case of periorificial dermatitis caused by suboptimal inhalation of budesonide for asthma. The initial skin lesions presented in the eye surroundings, leading to diagnostic difficulties and treatment of presumed chalazion and staphylococcal folliculitis. After several months, the patient developed perioral papules and pustules and was diagnosed with periorificial dermatitis. He was efficiently treated with topical metronidazole and oral erythromycin. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Hand dermatitis: a focus on allergic contact dermatitis to biocides.

    PubMed

    Maier, Lisa E; Lampel, Heather P; Bhutani, Tina; Jacob, Sharon E

    2009-07-01

    Hand dermatitis is a common disease of the skin resulting in significantly decreased quality of life. Allergic contact dermatitis is a frequent cause of hand dermatitis. Recent studies have revealed that biocides used as preservatives are frequent allergens affecting the hands. This article reviews common biocides implicated in hand dermatitis.

  4. Muscle-in-vein nerve guide for secondary reconstruction in digital nerve lesions.

    PubMed

    Marcoccio, Ignazio; Ignazio, Marcoccio; Vigasio, Adolfo; Adolfo, Vigasio

    2010-09-01

    Although vein conduits filled with fresh skeletal muscle have been used to bridge nerve defects both experimentally and clinically with good results, this approach has never been considered a valuable tool for reconstruction of nerve defects, and the technique has been abandoned. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the application of muscle-in-vein conduits for secondary digital nerves reconstruction, with particular emphasis on the surgical technique and results. We present a retrospectively selected consecutive series of 21 digital nerve defects in 17 patients who were treated with vein conduits filled with fresh skeletal muscle for secondary nerve reconstruction. After a minimum follow-up of 18 months, all patients were studied with static and moving 2-point discrimination, Semmes-Weinstein monofilament testing, Visual Analog Scale, and Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand questionnaire. Outcome data were stratified according to the American Society for Surgery of the Hand guidelines, the modified Highet and Sander's criteria, and the Logic Tree. The average nerve gap bridged with the muscle-in-vein conduit was 2.2 cm (range, 1-3.5 cm). We classified 14 of 22 reconstructed nerves as excellent or good according to American Society for Surgery of the Hand guidelines, whereas 17 were between S4 and S3 using modified Highet and Sander's criteria. The Logic Tree yielded results between S4 and S3 in 14 of 21 reconstructed nerves. The average Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand survey scores were 22.5 for the disability/symptoms module and 21.4 and 17 for the sports/music and work subcomponents, respectively. Use of muscle-in-vein conduits should be considered and promoted for sensory nerve reconstruction for a number of reasons: the encouraging results with the technique; the abundant availability of both donor tissues; the flexibility of the conduit resulting from the combination of muscle and vein; the simplicity with which tubes can be

  5. Thymoma-associated exfoliative dermatitis in cats.

    PubMed

    Rottenberg, S; von Tscharner, C; Roosje, P J

    2004-07-01

    Five cases of exfoliative dermatitis in cats were presented from 1996 to 2002 in which a feline thymoma was found by postmortem or postsurgical examination. Besides abundant exfoliation of keratin squames and layers, the histologic picture of the skin revealed a similar pattern of interface dermatitis with predominantly CD3+ lymphocytes and fewer mast cells and plasma cells. In the epidermal basal layer a hydropic degeneration of keratinocytes was present. In all cases an infundibular lymphocytic mural folliculitis and absence of or drastic decrease in the number of sebaceous glands occurred. In addition to the so far described cell-poor type, we also found examples of a cell-rich skin lesion. Together with the clinical observation of generalized exfoliative dermatitis, the histologic pattern of this dermatitis was suggestive of an underlying thymoma. The pathogenesis of this skin disease in association with thymic neoplasia remains obscure, and our results contradict the hypothesis of production of autoantibodies that cross-react with epithelial antigens. The morphology of the thymomas and CD3 expression of the thymocytes varied and did not seem to have an impact on the dermal lesions.

  6. Effects of dose reduction on the detectability of standardized radiolucent lesions in digital panoramic radiography.

    PubMed

    Dula, K; Sanderink, G; van der Stelt, P F; Mini, R; Buser, D

    1998-08-01

    Dose reduction in digital panoramic radiography was studied. Intentional underexposure was performed with the Orthophos DS while six different human mandibles were radiographed. Exposure settings were 69 kV/15 mA (standard), 64 kV/16 mA, and 60 kV/16 mA. Standardized spherical defects, each either 1 or 1.25 mm in diameter, were simulated in 288 of 432 images, and seven observers decided whether defects were present or not. Areas under the receiver operating characteristics curves were calculated. They showed no significant differences in the detectability of the 1-mm defect at 69, 64, or 60 kV. For the 1.25-mm defect, no difference was found between the 69 and 60 kV images, but a statistically significant different detectability was found for 64 kV images in comparison with both 69 and 60 kV images. A dose reduction of up to 43% was ascertained with a Pedo-RT-Humanoid phantom when panoramic radiography was performed at 60 kV/16 mA. The conclusion is that with the Orthophos DS, it seems possible to reduce the dose rate of x-rays without loss of diagnostic quality in the case of radiolucent changes.

  7. Digital tomosynthesis as a problem-solving imaging technique to confirm or exclude potential thoracic lesions based on chest X-ray radiography.

    PubMed

    Quaia, Emilio; Baratella, Elisa; Poillucci, Gabriele; Kus, Sara; Cioffi, Vincenzo; Cova, Maria Assunta

    2013-05-01

    To assess the capability of digital tomosynthesis (DTS) as a problem-solving imaging technique to confirm or exclude potential thoracic lesions based on chest x-ray radiography (CXR). Four hundred and-sixty five patients (263 male, 202 female; age, 72.47 ± 11.33 years) with suspected thoracic lesion(s) after the initial onsite analysis of CXR underwent DTS. Two independent readers prospectively analyzed in consensus CXR and DTS images on a picture archiving and communications system-integrated workstation and proposed a diagnosis according to a confidence score for each lesion: 1 or 2 = definite or probable pulmonary or pleural benign lesion or pseudolesion deserving no further diagnostic work-up; 3 = indeterminate; 4 or 5 = probable or definite pulmonary lesion deserving further diagnostic work-up by computed tomography (CT). In patients who did not undergo chest CT, the DTS findings had to be confirmed by 6 to 12 months' imaging follow-up. Finally, 229 pulmonary lesions (193 thoracic and 36 pleural lesions) and 236 pseudolesions were identified. Based on DTS images, readers correctly classified all pseudolesions except for 10/236 (reader 1) or 11/236 (reader 2) pseudolesions and 7 (reader 1) or 6 (reader 2) pulmonary subpleural lesions located in the anterior or posterior lung region close to the thoracic wall. Chest CT was performed in 127/465 (27%) patients, whereas in 338/465 patients (73%) CXR doubtful findings were resolved by DTS. DTS allowed to exclude most pseudolesions initially considered as potential thoracic lesions on the preliminary onsite assessment of CXR and allowed to exclude pulmonary lesions deserving CT assessment in about three fourths of the patients. Copyright © 2013 AUR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The validity and reliability of diagnosing foot ulcers and pre-ulcerative lesions in diabetes using advanced digital photography.

    PubMed

    Hazenberg, C E V B; van Baal, J G; Manning, Erik; Bril, Adriaan; Bus, Sicco A

    2010-12-01

    The goal of this study was to determine the validity and reliability of assessing the presence of plantar foot ulceration and pre-ulcerative lesions in diabetes patients from digital photographs that were produced using a new photographic foot imaging device. In 32 diabetes patients who had a foot ulcer or were at high risk of ulceration (a total of 60 feet), high-quality photographic images of the plantar foot surface were collected. Each foot was assessed live, from photographs 2 weeks later, and again 4 weeks later for the presence of an ulcer, abundant callus, or the absence of signs. Each foot was assessed by four independently operating foot care specialists. Agreement scores were calculated using κ values (range, 0-1). Sensitivity and specificity scores were also calculated. Foot ulceration was cumulatively scored 59 times, callus 78 times, and absence of signs 149 times during live assessment. Agreement with photographic assessment was very good for ulcer (κ = 0.87) and absence of signs (κ = 0.83) and good for callus (κ = 0.61). Sensitivity and specificity were high for ulcer (88% and 98%, respectively), callus (69% and 89%, respectively), and absence of signs (both 90%). Intra-observer agreement between repeated photographic assessments was good to excellent for all outcomes and observers (κ between 0.70 and 1.00). Inter-observer agreement for photographic assessments was good for ulcer (κ = 0.72-0.88) and absence of signs (κ = 0.59-0.75) and moderate to good for callus (κ = 0.48-0.73). For live assessment, inter-observer agreement scores were only slightly higher. The data illustrate that diabetic foot ulcers and pre-ulcerative lesions can be diagnosed in a valid and reliable manner by trained professionals from digital photographs produced with the foot imaging device. This supports the intended use of the device as a telemedical monitoring tool in the home environment for early detection of diabetic foot disease and

  9. A novel algorithm for PET and MRI fusion based on digital curvelet transform via extracting lesions on both images.

    PubMed

    Alipour, Shirin Hajeb Mohammad; Houshyari, Mohammad; Mostaar, Ahmad

    2017-07-01

    Merging multimodal images is a useful tool for accurate and efficient diagnosis and analysis in medical applications. The acquired data are a high-quality fused image that contains more information than an individual image. In this paper, we focus on the fusion of MRI gray scale images and PET color images. For the fusion of MRI gray scale images and PET color images, we used lesion region extracting based on the digital Curvelet transform (DCT) method. As curvelet transform has a better performance in detecting the edges, regions in each image are perfectly segmented. Curvelet decomposes each image into several low- and high-frequency sub-bands. Then, the entropy of each sub-band is calculated. By comparing the entropies and coefficients of the extracted regions, the best coefficients for the fused image are chosen. The fused image is obtained via inverse Curvelet transform. In order to assess the performance, the proposed method was compared with different fusion algorithms, both visually and statistically. The analysis of the results showed that our proposed algorithm has high spectral and spatial resolution. According to the results of the quantitative fusion metrics, this method achieves an entropy value of 6.23, an MI of 1.88, and an SSIM of 0.6779. Comparison of these experiments with experiments of four other common fusion algorithms showed that our method is effective. The fusion of MRI and PET images is used to gather the useful information of both source images into one image, which is called the fused image. This study introduces a new fusion algorithm based on the digital Curvelet transform. Experiments show that our method has a high fusion effect.

  10. The 'common mole' from the point of view of digital dermoscopy analysis: subjective vs. objective evaluation of easy pigmented skin lesions.

    PubMed

    Burroni, M; Rubegni, P; Dell'eva, G; Santini, S; Perotti, R; Biagioli, M; Taddeucci, P; Andreassi, L

    2003-01-01

    The term 'common mole', often used to describe a subset of benign pigmented skin lesions, is traditionally defined on the basis of morpho-chromatic features. In recent years, certain research groups have developed equipment and methods, such as digital dermoscopy analysis, that enable objective evaluation of pigmented skin lesions. In this study we use a digital dermoscopy analyser trained for the recognition of pigmented skin lesions to compare the subjective definition of 'common' and the mathematical concept of 'close to the mean of measurements'. A subset (100) of digital images of flat pigmented lesions, obtained in daily practice, were classified by trained and non-expert clinicians as common moles (60) or clear-cut melanoma (40), and processed with a DB-Mips analyser. The resulting parameters, validated by a classifier, were used to evaluate Hotelling's T2 multivariate distances from the mean. 'Common' moles could not be clearly defined in terms of closeness to the means of objectively evaluated parameters. Their diagnosis indudes many other evaluations and clusters of variables. The clinical semantics of the term 'common' does not conform to any unambiguous mathematical definition.

  11. Adult-onset Atopic Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Kanwar, Amrinder Jit

    2016-01-01

    Adult-onset atopic dermatitis is still an under recognized condition as there are only few studies regarding this entity. As compared to childhood onset atopic dermatitis, clinical features of adult onset atopic dermatitis are still not categorized. Adult atopic dermatitis can present for the first time in adult age with atypical morphology or may progress from childhood onset. This article reviews the characteristic clinical features of adult atopic dermatitis, associated risk factors and management. PMID:27904186

  12. Ackerman syndrome: a rare cause of arthritis with dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, Kosar; Thomas, Liza; Shaikh, Niaz Ahmed; Ahmed Abdul Hamid, Badr

    2015-01-01

    We present a case of a middle-aged woman who presented with acute onset of non-erosive oligoarthritis and cutaneous lesions. Her laboratory work up revealed mild anaemia with positive antinuclear antibody. Her skin biopsy confirmed the presence of interstitial granulomatous dermatitis. She was treated with a successful trial of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents. Interstitial granulomatous dermatitis with arthritis (IGDA), or Ackerman syndrome, is an under-recognised cause of arthritis with dermatitis. This is primarily due to the varied clinical presentation of the skin lesions and the non-specific laboratory findings. Our aim is to highlight the pivotal role of skin biopsy as part of the diagnostic assessment of patients who present with arthritis and concomitant skin lesions. PMID:25666244

  13. Spa contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Yankura, Jessica A; Marks, James G; Anderson, Bryan E; Adams, David R

    2008-01-01

    Potassium monopersulfate (MPS) is widely used in spa and pool "shock" treatments, yet contact dermatitis associated with MPS has been rarely reported. A patient presented with a generalized scattered dermatitis from the neck down that worsened after spa use. Patch testing elicited a ++ reaction to ammonium persulfate. Contact with ammonium persulfate was ruled out; however, MPS, which can cross-react with ammonium persulfate, was found to be the active ingredient in the patient's spa shock treatments. The dermatitis cleared after the patient switched to a hydrogen peroxide-based shock treatment.

  14. Contact dermatitis in Alstroemeria workers.

    PubMed

    van der Mei, I A; de Boer, E M; Bruynzeel, D P

    1998-09-01

    Hand dermatitis is common in workers in the horticultural industry. This study determined the prevalence of hand dermatitis in workers of Alstroemeria cultivation, investigated how many workers had been sensitized by tulipalin A (the allergen in Alstroemeria) and took stock of a wide range of determinants of hand dermatitis. The 12-month period prevalence of major hand dermatitis amounted to 29.5% whereas 7.4% had minor dermatitis. Of these workers, 52.1% were sensitized for tulipalin A. Several personal and work-related determinants played a role in the multifactorial aetiology of hand dermatitis. Factors which showed a significant relationship with major hand dermatitis were: female sex, atopic dermatitis, chapped hands and the frequency of washing hands. It may be concluded that the Alstroemeria workers are a population at risk of developing contact dermatitis and it might be useful to carry out an educational campaign to lower the high prevalence.

  15. Adult Seborrheic Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Seborrheic dermatitis is a common chronic-recurrent inflammatory disorder that most commonly affects adults; however, a more transient infantile form also occurs. The definitive cause of seborrheic dermatitis is unknown. However, proliferation of Malassezia species has been described as a contributing factor. The adult form of seborrheic dermatitis affects up to approximately five percent of the general population. The disorder commonly affects the scalp, face, and periauricular region, with the central chest, axillae, and genital region also involved in some cases. Pruritus is not always present and is relatively common, especially with scalp disease. A variety of treatments are available including topical corticosteroids, topical antifungal agents, topical calcineurin inhibitors, and more recently, a nonsteroidal “device ”cream. This article reviews the practical topical management of seborrheic dermatitis in the United States, focusing on the adult population. PMID:21607192

  16. What Is Atopic Dermatitis?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Easy-to-Read Series of Publications for the Public Atopic dermatitis is a long-term skin disease. “ ... other chemical. Dyshidrotic eczema. The skin on the palms of hands and soles of the feet is ...

  17. Chromate Dermatitis from Paint

    PubMed Central

    Engel, H. O.; Calnan, C. D.

    1963-01-01

    Among 250 workers engaged on wet sandpapering of primer paint on car bodies 65 developed a contact dermatitis. The average latent period before dermatitis developed was 4·6 months: only 60% of the patients made a completely satisfactory recovery. The average duration of dermatitis was 5·3 months. Two thirds of the men used one of two barrier creams supplied, while one third used none. Routine patch testing showed that the majority was allergic to chromate. It was found that a primer paint contained zinc chromate, which had been introduced into the paint by the manufacturers shortly before the first cases occurred. Removal of chromate from the paint resulted in a prompt cessation of new cases of dermatitis. Images PMID:14046155

  18. Seborrheic Dermatitis Overview

    MedlinePlus

    ... World Dialogues in Dermatology JAAD Mohs AUC MyDermPath+ Psoriasis Patient education resources Practice Management Center Coding and ... joints Rashes Scaly skin Actinic keratosis Ichthyosis vulgaris Psoriasis Psoriasis video library Seborrheic dermatitis Skin cancer Why ...

  19. Shoe allergic contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Matthys, Erin; Zahir, Amir; Ehrlich, Alison

    2014-01-01

    Foot dermatitis is a widespread condition, affecting men and women of all ages. Because of the location, this condition may present as a debilitating problem to those who have it. Allergic contact dermatitis involving the feet is frequently due to shoes or socks. The allergens that cause shoe dermatitis can be found in any constituent of footwear, including rubber, adhesives, leather, dyes, metals, and medicaments. The goal of treatment is to identify and minimize contact with the offending allergen(s). The lack of product information released from shoe manufacturers and the continually changing trends in footwear present a challenge in treating this condition. The aim of this study is to review the current literature on allergic contact shoe dermatitis; clinical presentation, allergens, patch testing, and management will be discussed. PubMed and MEDLINE databases were used for the search, with a focus on literature updates from the last 15 years.

  20. Acrylate Systemic Contact Dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Sauder, Maxwell B; Pratt, Melanie D

    2015-01-01

    Acrylates, the 2012 American Contact Dermatitis Society allergen of the year, are found in a range of products including the absorbent materials within feminine hygiene pads. When fully polymerized, acrylates are nonimmunogenic; however, if not completely cured, the monomers can be potent allergens.A 28-year-old woman is presented, who had her teeth varnished with Isodan (Septodont, Saint-Maur-des-Fossés, France) containing HEMA (2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) with no initial reaction. Approximately 1 month later, the patient developed a genital dermatitis secondary to her feminine hygiene pads. The initial reaction resolved, but 5 months later, the patient developed a systemic contact dermatitis after receiving a second varnishing.The patient was dramatically patch test positive to many acrylates. This case demonstrates a reaction to likely unpolymerized acrylates within a feminine hygiene pad, as well as broad cross-reactivity or cosensitivity to acrylates, and possibly a systemic contact dermatitis with systemic re-exposure to unpolymerized acrylates.

  1. Contact dermatitis complicating pinnaplasty.

    PubMed

    Singh-Ranger, G; Britto, J A; Sommerlad, B C

    2001-04-01

    Proflavine allergy is uncommon, occurring in approximately 6% of patients attending contact dermatitis clinics. Proflavine wool is used by many surgeons in the UK as a dressing that can be moulded to conform to the contours of a corrected prominent ear. It may have bacteriostatic properties. We present a case where contact dermatitis in response to proflavine developed after pinnaplasty. This caused diagnostic confusion, a lengthened hospital stay and an unsightly hypertrophic scar.

  2. Purpuric agave dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Ricks, M R; Vogel, P S; Elston, D M; Hivnor, C

    1999-02-01

    Agave americana is a low growing, thick, long-leaved, subtropical plant used for medicinal, commercial, and ornamental purposes. The plant's sap contains calcium oxalate crystals, acrid oils, saponins, and other compounds. Despite these known irritants, Agave-induced irritant dermatitis has rarely been reported. Previous case reports have noted a papulovesicular eruption consistent with an irritant contact dermatitis. We report a case of Agave-induced purpura in an otherwise healthy patient. Histopathology was consistent with an evolving leukocytoclastic vasculitis.

  3. Clinicians Discuss Diaper Dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Brucker, Mary; McGuire, Stephanie; Merrill, Lisa; Rossing, Francine; Sayaseng, Kammi

    2015-01-01

    Diaper dermatitis in infants is commonly seen by clinicians in both primary care and acute care settings. The condition can cause significant discomfort for infants and distress for their parents and caregivers. Nursing for Women's Health convened a group of nursing clinicians who work in a variety of settings to discuss the issues and challenges related to preventing and treating diaper dermatitis in both healthy term newborns and premature newborns.

  4. Oral Steroids for Dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Andrew D; Clarke, Jesse; Williams, Timothy K

    2015-01-01

    Contact/allergic dermatitis is frequently treated inappropriately with lower-than-recommended doses or inadequate duration of treatment with oral and intramuscular glucocorticoids. This article highlights a case of dermatitis in a Ranger Assessment and Selection Program student who was improperly treated over 2 weeks with oral steroids after being bit by Cimex lectularius, commonly known as bed bugs. The article also highlights the pitfalls of improper oral steroid dosing and provides reasoning for longer-duration oral steroid treatment.

  5. Occupational allergic contact dermatitis from methyl aminolevulinate.

    PubMed

    Antonia Pastor-Nieto, María; Olivares, Mercedes; Sánchez-Herreros, Consuelo; Belmar, Paulina; De Eusebio, Esther

    2011-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is used to treat certain types of nonmelanoma skin cancer. Metvix cream applied topically in PDT is composed of the active substance methyl aminolevulinate and 14 excipients composing the vehicle. One case of occupational allergic contact dermatitis from methyl aminolevulinate is reported. A 49-year-old nurse's aide working in a PDT unit in the dermatology department developed a dermatitis involving the eyelids and fingers. The lesions began a few months after she started working in that unit. Patch tests were performed with the standard series (Spanish Group for Research into Dermatitis and Skin Allergies [GEIDAC]), cosmetics series, Metvix cream "as is," the Metvix vehicle supplied by the manufacturer, and some of the excipients separately (methyl para-hydroxybenzoate [Nipagin M], propyl para-hydroxybenzoate [Nipasol M], isopropyl myristate, cetostearyl alcohol [Lanette N], and disodium edetate). After day-2, day-4, and day-7 readings, positive results were achieved only with Metvix cream "as is." Tests performed on a control group of 15 individuals were negative. Literature on cases of allergic contact dermatitis from methyl aminolevulinate is reviewed. It should be emphasized that the present case is the first occupational case reported so far.

  6. Digital Breast Tomosynthesis (DBT) to Characterize MRI-Detected Additional Lesions Unidentified at Targeted Ultrasound in Newly Diagnosed Breast Cancer Patients.

    PubMed

    Mariscotti, Giovanna; Houssami, Nehmat; Durando, Manuela; Campanino, Pier Paolo; Regini, Elisa; Fornari, Alberto; Bussone, Riccardo; Castellano, Isabella; Sapino, Anna; Fonio, Paolo; Gandini, Giovanni

    2015-09-01

    Preoperative breast magnetic resonance (MR) often generates additional suspicious findings needing further investigations. Targeted breast ultrasound (US) is the standard tool to characterize MR additional lesions. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the potential role of digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) to characterize MR detected additional findings, unidentified at targeted breast US. This prospective study included women who a) had biopsy-proven, newly diagnosed breast cancers detected at conventional 2D mammography and/or US, referred to breast MR for tumour staging; and b) had DBT if additional MR findings were not detected at targeted ('second look') US. In 520 patients, MR identified 164 (in 114 women, 22%) additional enhancing lesions. Targeted US identified 114/164 (69.5%) of these, whereas 50/164 (30.5%) remained unidentified. DBT identified 32/50 of these cases, increasing the overall characterization of MR detected additional findings to 89.0% (146/164). Using DBT the identified lesions were significantly more likely to be malignant than benign MR-detected additional lesions (p = 0.04). DBT improves the characterization of additional MR findings not identified at targeted breast US in preoperative breast cancer staging. • Targeted US identified 114 of 164 (69.5%) additional enhancing lesions at preoperative breast MRI. • DBT identified a further 32 of the 50 lesions unidentified on targeted US. • DBT improved the characterization of additional MR findings for breast cancer staging.

  7. Paederus dermatitis: a report of 46 cases in Aydin, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Sendur, N; Savk, E; Karaman, G

    1999-01-01

    Paederus dermatitis is a specific form of acute irritant contact dermatitis caused by pederin, a secretion of insects of the genus Paederus. The disease is characterized by vesicles, bullae and sometimes small pustules on an erythematous base with sudden onset of a stinging, burning sensation. The dermatitis is most frequently seen in regions with a hot, tropical climate. We present 46 cases from Aydin, Turkey, a province well known for its long hot summers. These are the first cases reported from this region. We would like to point out the possibility of Paederus dermatitis in regions with a similar climate and suggest that 'night burn' be included among other differential diagnoses of a grouped vesicular and/or pustular lesion on an erythematous base.

  8. Patch Test Negative Generalized Dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Spiker, Alison; Mowad, Christen

    2016-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis is a common condition in dermatology. Patch testing is the criterion standard for diagnosis. However, dermatitis is not always caused by an allergen, and patch testing does not identify a culprit in every patient. Generalized dermatitis, defined as eczematous dermatitis affecting greater than 3 body sites, is often encountered in dermatology practice, especially patch test referral centers. Management for patients with generalized dermatitis who are patch test negative is challenging. The purpose of this article is to outline an approach to this challenging scenario and summarize the paucity of existing literature on patch test negative generalized dermatitis.

  9. [First experiments for the detection of simulated mammographic lesions: digital full field mammography with a new detector with a double plate of pure selenium].

    PubMed

    Schulz-Wendtland, R; Hermann, K-P; Wenkel, E; Adamietz, B; Lell, M; Anders, K; Uder, M

    2011-02-01

    The article describes an experimental phantom study of a system for digital full field mammography with a new digital detector with a double plate of pure selenium. The experiments were carried out with the new full field digital mammography system Amulet from FujiFilm. This system has a new detector (18×24 cm(2)) on the basis of highly purified amorphous selenium (a-Se) with a pixel size of 50 µm. The x-rays are converted into electric signals in the first plate which are read into the second plate with the help of an optical switch and demonstrated in the form of an image. In this way a better pixel size/volume and signal-to-noise ratio should be achieved. The object of the investigation was the Wisconsin Mammographic Random Phantom, Model 152 A (Technical Performance Mo/Mo, 28 kV, 100 mAs). Five investigators with different experiences in mammography each received three images on a monitor with different random positions of the simulated lesions in the phantom for assessment. The detection rates were compared under the same conditions with the results of two other full field digital mammography systems. The median detection rate for all images and investigators for the new doubled plated a-Se detector with optical switch was 98.7%. For both other systems with a-Si or and a-Se detectors the detection rate was 89.8% or 97.3%, respectively. There were no significant differences in the detection rate of the simulated breast lesions for all three systems considering the interobserver and intraobserver variation. The first phantom study for the detection of simulated breast lesions with the new full field digital mammography system Amulet demonstrates equivalent results with the other systems used in the clinical routine. The trend towards superiority of the new system has to be confirmed in further clinical studies.

  10. The diagnostic accuracy of a laser fluorescence device and digital radiography in detecting approximal caries lesions in posterior permanent teeth: an in vivo study.

    PubMed

    Menem, R; Barngkgei, I; Beiruti, N; Al Haffar, I; Joury, Easter

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this in vivo study was to test the diagnostic accuracy of a pen-type laser fluorescence (LFpen) device in detecting approximal caries lesions, in posterior permanent teeth, at the cavitation and non-cavitation thresholds, and compare it with that of digital bitewing radiography. Thirty patients (aged 18-37), who attended the Faculty of Dentistry at Damascus University for a dental examination, were consecutively screened. Ninety approximal surfaces of posterior permanent teeth without frank cavitations, enamel hypoplasia or restorations were selected and examined using the LFpen (DIAGNOdent pen) and digital bitewing radiography. The reference standard was the visual-tactile inspection, after performing temporary tooth separation, using orthodontic rubber rings, placed for 7 days. The status of included approximal surfaces was recorded as intact/sound, with white/brown spots or cavitated. One trained examiner performed all examinations. There were statistically significant differences in LFpen readings between the three types of approximal surface status (P < 0.001). The optimal cut-off values for detecting approximal caries lesions in posterior permanent teeth were >16 and 8 at the cavitation and non-cavitation thresholds respectively. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy (measured by the area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve) were 100, 85 and 95 and 92, 90 and 95% at the cavitation and non-cavitation thresholds respectively. The intra-class correlation coefficient for intra-examiner reliability was 0.95. The diagnostic accuracy of the LFpen was significantly higher than that of digital bitewing radiography (P < 0.001). The LFpen's diagnostic performance was accurate and significantly better than digital bitewing radiography in detecting approximal caries lesions, in posterior permanent teeth.

  11. Exacerbating factors of itch in atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Murota, Hiroyuki; Katayama, Ichiro

    2017-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) displays different clinical symptoms, progress, and response to treatment during early infancy and after childhood. After the childhood period, itch appears first, followed by formation of well-circumscribed plaque or polymorphous dermatoses at the same site. When accompanied with dermatitis and dry skin, treatment of skin lesions should be prioritized. When itch appears first, disease history, such as causes and time of appearance of itch should be obtained by history taking. In many cases, itch increases in the evening when the sympathetic nerve activity decreased. Treatment is provided considering that hypersensitivity to various external stimulations can cause itch. Heat and sweating are thought to especially exacerbate itch. Factors causing itch, such as cytokines and chemical messengers, also induce itch mainly by stimulating the nerve. Scratching further aggravates dermatitis. Skin hypersensibility, where other non-itch senses, such as pain and heat, are felt as itch, sometimes occurs in AD. Abnormal elongation of the sensory nerve into the epidermis, as well as sensitizing of the peripheral/central nerve, are possible causes of hypersensitivity, leading to itch. To control itch induced by environmental factors such as heat, treatment for dermatitis is given priority. In the background of itch exacerbated by sweating, attention should be given to the negative impact of sweat on skin homeostasis due to 1) leaving excess sweat on the skin, and 2) heat retention due to insufficient sweating. Excess sweat on the skin should be properly wiped off, and dermatitis should be controlled so that appropriate amount of sweat can be produced. Not only stimulation from the skin surface, but also visual and auditory stimulation can induce new itch. This "contagious itch" can be notably observed in patients with AD. This article reviews and introduces causes of aggravation of itch and information regarding how to cope with such causes.

  12. Polyurethane toilet seat contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Turan, Hakan; Saricaoğlu, Hayriye; Turan, Ayşegül; Tunali, Sükran

    2011-01-01

    Polyurethane chemicals are produced by the reaction of isocyanates and they may cause allergic contact dermatitis or precipitate asthma attacks. Contact dermatitis to polyurethane toilet seat has not been reported before. Herein we present a case of allergic contact dermatitis to polyurethane toilet seat.

  13. Staphylococcus-induced gangrenous dermatitis in broilers.

    PubMed

    Cervantes, H M; Munger, L L; Ley, D H; Ficken, M D

    1988-01-01

    An infectious bursal disease (IBD)-vaccinated flock of 23,900 broilers, 17 days of age, experienced sudden onset of depression, dermatitis, and mortality. Postmortem examination showed extensive subcutaneous serosanguineous fluid accumulation over the pectoral muscles, discrete hepatic whitish foci, fluid-filled intestines, and small, flaccid bursae of Fabricius. Gram-stained impression smears from the affected areas revealed numerous gram-positive cocci. Aerobic culture of liver and subcutaneous tissue consistently produced heavy growth of penicillin-sensitive Staphyloccus aureus. Histopathologically, subcutaneous tissue showed diffuse hemorrhage and large numbers of gram-positive cocci with severe congestion and hemorrhage of the underlying skeletal muscle. Liver sections showed multiple, randomly scattered areas of acute coagulation necrosis with numerous gram-positive cocci. Bursal lesions were characterized by extensive follicular necrosis and collapse. A diagnosis of staphylococcal gangrenous dermatitis secondary to IBD was made. Mortality returned to preinfection levels within 72 hours after penicillin was added to the drinking water.

  14. Effects of scalp dermatitis on chemical property of hair keratin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kyung Sook; Shin, Min Kyung; Park, Hun-Kuk

    2013-05-01

    The effects of scalp dermatitis (seborrheic dermatitis (SD), psoriasis, and atopic dermatitis (AD)) on chemical properties of hair keratin were investigated by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. Hairs were collected from lesional regions affected by SD, psoriasis, and AD and non-lesional regions separately. The hairs with SD were taken from patients with ages of 16-80 years. The ages of patients with psoriasis ranged from 8 to 67 years, and all patients exhibited moderate disease. Hairs with AD were taken from the patients with ages of 24-45 years and the average SCORing atopic dermatitis (SCORAD) was 48.75. Hairs from 20 normal adults were collected as a control. The FT-IR absorbance bands were analyzed by the Gaussian model to obtain the center frequency, half width, height, and area of each band. The height and area of all bands in the spectra were normalized to the amide I centered at 1652 cm-1 to quantitatively analyze the chemical composition of keratin. The spectra of hair with scalp dermatitis were different with that of control, the amide A components centered at 3278 cm-1 were smaller than those of the control. The psoriasis hair showed a large difference in the IR absorbance band between lesional and non-lesional hairs indicating good agreement with the morphological changes. The hairs with diseases did not show differences in the content of cystine, which was centered at 1054 cm-1, from the control. The chemical properties of keratin were not significantly different between the hairs affected by SD, psoriasis, and AD. However, the changes induced by scalp dermatitis were different with weathering. Therefore, FT-IR analysis could be used to screen differences between the physiological and pathological conditions of scalp hair.

  15. Effects of scalp dermatitis on chemical property of hair keratin.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyung Sook; Shin, Min Kyung; Park, Hun-Kuk

    2013-05-15

    The effects of scalp dermatitis (seborrheic dermatitis (SD), psoriasis, and atopic dermatitis (AD)) on chemical properties of hair keratin were investigated by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. Hairs were collected from lesional regions affected by SD, psoriasis, and AD and non-lesional regions separately. The hairs with SD were taken from patients with ages of 16-80 years. The ages of patients with psoriasis ranged from 8 to 67 years, and all patients exhibited moderate disease. Hairs with AD were taken from the patients with ages of 24-45 years and the average SCORing atopic dermatitis (SCORAD) was 48.75. Hairs from 20 normal adults were collected as a control. The FT-IR absorbance bands were analyzed by the Gaussian model to obtain the center frequency, half width, height, and area of each band. The height and area of all bands in the spectra were normalized to the amide I centered at 1652 cm(-1) to quantitatively analyze the chemical composition of keratin. The spectra of hair with scalp dermatitis were different with that of control, the amide A components centered at 3278 cm(-1) were smaller than those of the control. The psoriasis hair showed a large difference in the IR absorbance band between lesional and non-lesional hairs indicating good agreement with the morphological changes. The hairs with diseases did not show differences in the content of cystine, which was centered at 1054 cm(-1), from the control. The chemical properties of keratin were not significantly different between the hairs affected by SD, psoriasis, and AD. However, the changes induced by scalp dermatitis were different with weathering. Therefore, FT-IR analysis could be used to screen differences between the physiological and pathological conditions of scalp hair. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Allergic contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Alikhan, Ali; Maibach, Howard I

    2014-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis is one of the most important dermatologic disorders worldwide - it can cause significant morbidity and decreased quality of life, as well as having major economic implications and loss of vocational productivity. Patch testing is the most important discovery in allergic contact dermatitis and the best diagnostic modality to date; the thin-layer rapid- use epicutaneous (TRUE) test is a more recent patch test development which has improved the convenience and feasibility of the test. The future of allergic contact dermatitis is bright as we continue to learn more about the science of the disorder, as well as ways to improve diagnosis and patient care. Furthermore, it is important to remember, in this global age, that cooperation between health care providers worldwide is essential.

  17. Digital image processing for the acquisition of graphic similarity of the distributional patterns between cutaneous lesions of linear scleroderma and Blaschko's lines.

    PubMed

    Jue, Mihn Sook; Kim, Moon Hwan; Ko, Joo Yeon; Lee, Chang Woo

    2011-08-01

    The aim of this study is to objectively evaluate whether linear scleroderma (LS) follows Blaschko's lines (BL) in Korean patients using digital image processing. Thirty-two patients with LS were examined. According to the patients' clinical photographs, their skin lesions were plotted on the head and body charts. With the aid of graphics software, a digital image was produced that included an overlay of all the individual lesions and was used to compare the graphics with the published BL. To investigate the image similarity between the graphic patterns of the LS and BL, each case was analyzed by means of Hough transformations and Czekanowski's methods. The comparative investigation of the graphic similarity of distributional patterns between the LS and BL showed that Czekanowski's similarity index was 0.947 on average. In conclusion, our objective results suggest that the graphic patterns of the distribution of the LS skin lesions showed a high degree of similarity and in fact were almost identical to that of BL which may be the lines of embryonic development of the skin. This finding may suggest that some developmental factors during the embryological age could constitute the cause of LS. © 2011 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  18. Role of foods in irregular aggravation of atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Uenishi, Toshiaki; Sugiura, Hisashi; Uehara, Masami

    2003-02-01

    Although it is well known that patients with atopic dermatitis often show unpredictable, irregular aggravation of skin lesions, there are no previously published studies examining trigger factors for such unpredictable aggravation. We investigated whether foods play a role in the unpredictable, irregular worsening of atopic dermatitis. The patient group included 195 Japanese adult patients with atopic dermatitis who showed unpredictable, irregular aggravation of skin lesions. They were hospitalized and openly challenged with suspected foods. Photographs of representative skin lesion sites were taken at baseline and before and after the challenge. Challenge-positive foods were determined by evaluating the comparable before-after challenge photographs. One to three (average: 1.7) challenge-positive foods were confirmed in 86 (44%) of the 195 patient examined. Predominant offending foods were chocolate, cheese, coffee, yogurt and some Japanese foods such as glutinous rice cake, soy sauce and fermented soybeans. Specific IgE values to the offending foods were mostly negative. Patients were asked to exclude challenge-positive foods from their diets. They were then discharged and followed up for 3 months at our outpatient clinic. Exclusion of the offending foods for 3 months brought about a progressive improvement of the disease. These results suggest that foods play an important role in unpredictable, irregular aggravation of skin lesions in patients with atopic dermatitis.

  19. Allergic Contact Dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Kostner, Lisa; Anzengruber, Florian; Guillod, Caroline; Recher, Mike; Schmid-Grendelmeier, Peter; Navarini, Alexander A

    2017-02-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) is a common skin disease caused by a T cell-mediated immune reaction to usually innocuous allergens. ACD can have grave medical and socioeconomic consequences. ACD and irritant contact dermatitis often occur together. A detailed history and clinical examination are crucial and guide patch testing, which is the gold standard to diagnose ACD. T-cell clones persisting in the skin may explain the tendency of ACD to relapse even after years of allergen avoidance. Traditional treatments for ACD are topical steroids, calcineurin inhibitors, phototherapy, retinoids (including the recent alitretinoin), and immunosuppressants. Targeted therapies are lacking.

  20. Contact dermatitis in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Olumide, Y M

    1985-05-01

    Nickel is the most important sensitizer in Lagos, with an incidence of 12.3% of 453 patients tested. There was no sex difference, as the wearing of necklaces and bracelets was equally fashionable among both sexes. Housewife eczema is not common, probably because of hardening. Dermatitis from additives in the processing of leather and rubber footwear was the next most common. Chromate sensitivity comes usually from leather or cement. Cultural and climatic factors are mainly responsible for differences in the incidence of contact dermatitis found in Lagos from other countries.

  1. Colors and contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Bonamonte, Domenico; Foti, Caterina; Romita, Paolo; Vestita, Michelangelo; Angelini, Gianni

    2014-01-01

    The diagnosis of skin diseases relies on several clinical signs, among which color is of paramount importance. In this review, we consider certain clinical presentations of both eczematous and noneczematous contact dermatitis in which color plays a peculiar role orientating toward the right diagnosis. The conditions that will be discussed include specific clinical-morphologic subtypes of eczematous contact dermatitis, primary melanocytic, and nonmelanocytic contact hyperchromia, black dermographism, contact chemical leukoderma, and others. Based on the physical, chemical, and biologic factors underlying a healthy skin color, the various skin shades drawing a disease picture are thoroughly debated, stressing their etiopathogenic origins and histopathologic aspects.

  2. Contact dermatitis in printing tradesmen.

    PubMed

    Nethercott, J R; Nosal, R

    1986-05-01

    During a 2-year period in Toronto, Canada, 21 printing tradesmen with contact dermatitis were evaluated. 67% had allergic contact dermatitis; 29% due to ultraviolet-cured ink components. Irritant contact dermatitis accounted for 37% of the cases. The prognosis in printing tradesmen with contact dermatitis is guarded, except for those with allergic contact dermatitis due to UV-cured components, as the tradesmen who were sensitized to other contactants eventually left the trade. Offset lithography was associated with the problem in 18 of the 21 cases. A brief outline is given of the printing processes in common use.

  3. Parthenium Dermatitis Severity Score to Assess Clinical Severity of Disease

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Kaushal K; Bansal, Arika; Bhari, Neetu; Sethuraman, Gomathy

    2017-01-01

    Background: Parthenium dermatitis is the most common type of airborne contact dermatitis in India. It is a chronic disease of a remitting and relapsing course with significant morbidity and distress, but there is no scoring system to assess its severity. Aim: To design a scoring system for the assessment of clinical severity of disease in Parthenium dermatitis and to use this scoring system in various studies to determine its sensitivity, specificity, and reproducibility. Methods and Results: In our first few studies on Parthenium dermatitis, we designed and used a basic clinical severity scoring system based on itching, morphology of the lesions, and areas involved. However, in subsequent studies, we modified it to the present scoring system as Parthenium dermatitis severity score (PDSS). Our studies showed the high sensitivity of PDSS in characterization of the disease severity at the given point of time, as well as to determine the efficacy of a prescribed treatment modality which was reliable and reproducible. Conclusion: Thus, PDSS may be used by clinicians for appropriate scoring of the clinical severity of Parthenium dermatitis and in monitoring the disease response to therapy. PMID:28216730

  4. Correlation of histologic and immunologic findings in cats with miliary dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Gross, T L; Kwochka, K W; Kunkle, G A

    1986-11-15

    Eighteen cats with miliary dermatitis were evaluated, using skin testing and histology. Sixteen cats had allergic skin disease (14 cats had positive skin-test reactions to flea antigen [two of which were also atopic], one was atopic only, and one was allergic to beef). In the two remaining cats, the cause of miliary dermatitis was not identified. Histologically, 17 of the cats had superficial eosinophilic dermatitis and epidermal spongiosis, crusting, and ulceration, which were compatible with an allergic cause. Four of these cats had concurrent eosinophilic plaques, which histologically resembled miliary lesions. This overlap of plaques with miliary lesions indicated that when plaques and miliary dermatitis are found concurrently, both lesions may be caused by the same allergens.

  5. Quantitative investigation of red blood cell three-dimensional geometric and chemical changes in the storage lesion using digital holographic microscopy.

    PubMed

    Jaferzadeh, Keyvan; Moon, Inkyu

    2015-11-01

    Quantitative phase information obtained by digital holographic microscopy (DHM) can provide new insight into the functions and morphology of single red blood cells (RBCs). Since the functionality of a RBC is related to its three-dimensional (3-D) shape, quantitative 3-D geometric changes induced by storage time can help hematologists realize its optimal functionality period. We quantitatively investigate RBC 3-D geometric changes in the storage lesion using DHM. Our experimental results show that the substantial geometric transformation of the biconcave-shaped RBCs to the spherocyte occurs due to RBC storage lesion. This transformation leads to progressive loss of cell surface area, surface-to-volume ratio, and functionality of RBCs. Furthermore, our quantitative analysis shows that there are significant correlations between chemical and morphological properties of RBCs.

  6. Data analysis methods for a small field-of-view combined scintimammography/digital X-ray system in breast lesion management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kieper, D.; Green, T. D.; Hoefer, R.; Keppel, C.; Wymer, D. C.; Weisenberger, A. G.; Welch, B.

    2003-01-01

    Recently, a multidisciplinary research collaboration began a clinical study employing a dual modality, small field-of-view breast imaging system. The system, comprised of a mini gamma camera and digital X-ray detector, was designed to examine the possible clinical advantages of dual modality breast imaging in the management of patients with suspicious findings (BIRADS 3-5) from a screening mammogram. In addition, dynamic time-resolution studies of radiotracer uptake and washout were evaluated for their value in differentiation of lesion type. This preliminary report focuses on the development and implementation of these techniques and presents patient data as evidence of their effectiveness. The results of this study indicate that applying these techniques may significantly improve the diagnostic value of scintimammography by increasing specificity to 97.7% by differentiation of true positive and false positive lesions.

  7. Herd- and cow-level prevalence of foot lesions in Ontario dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Cramer, G; Lissemore, K D; Guard, C L; Leslie, K E; Kelton, D F

    2008-10-01

    The objectives of this cross-sectional study were to determine herd-level and cow-level prevalence estimates for 11 foot lesions in Ontario dairy cattle. Foot lesions were recorded by 5 hoof trimmers on 13,530 cows in 204 Ontario dairy herds from March 2004 to May 2005. Significant differences existed between free-stall and tie-stall housing. In free-stall housing systems, 46.4% of cows had a foot lesion, compared with 25.7% of cows in tie-stall barns. Digital dermatitis was the most common lesion in tie stalls, occurring in 9.3% of cows and 69.7% of the herds, whereas in free-stall herds, 22.7% of cows and 96.7% of the herds were affected. The most common hoof horn lesions were hemorrhages and ulcers, at 7.7 and 4.7% in tie-stall housing and 11.0 and 9.2% in free-stall housing, respectively. Foot blocks were used to treat 2.2% of cows in free stalls and 0.3% in tie stalls. Intraclass correlation coefficients ranged from 9.5 to 17.3 for hoof horn lesions and 28.0 to 38.7 for infectious lesions. In summary, foot lesions diagnosed at the time of hoof trimming are common in Ontario, and appropriate treatment for hoof horn lesions is low.

  8. Allergic contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Becker, Detlef

    2013-07-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis is a frequent inflammatory skin disease. The suspected diagnosis is based on clinical symptoms, a plausible contact to allergens and a suitable history of dermatitis. Differential diagnoses should be considered only after careful exclusion of any causal contact sensitization. Hence, careful diagnosis by patch testing is of great importance. Modifications of the standardized test procedure are the strip patch test and the repeated open application test. The interpretation of the SLS (sodium lauryl sulfate) patch test as well as testing with the patients' own products and working materials are potential sources of error. Accurate patch test reading is affected in particular by the experience and individual factors of the examiner. Therefore, a high degree of standardization and continuous quality control is necessary and may be supported by use of an online patch test reading course made available by the German Contact Dermatitis Research Group. A critical relevance assessment of allergic patch test reactions helps to avoid relapses and the consideration of differential diagnoses. Any allergic test reaction should be documented in an allergy ID card including the INCI name, if appropriate. The diagnostics of allergic contact dermatitis is endangered by a seriously reduced financing of patch testing by the German statutory health insurances. Restrictive regulations by the German Drug Law block the approval of new contact allergens for routine patch testing. Beside the consistent avoidance of allergen contact, temporary use of systemic and topical corticosteroids is the therapy of first choice.

  9. Fabrics for atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Mason, Rupert

    2008-01-01

    The type of fabric worn by sufferers from atopic dermatitis should not exacerbate the condition but, if possible, help to control it. Synthetic fabrics and wool tend to produce itching and irritate the skin. Cotton is traditionally recommended but its structure contains short fibres which expand and contract, causing a rubbing movement that can irritate delicate skin. Dyes used in cotton garments can increase the potential of a sensitivity reaction. Cotton is also prone to bacterial and fungal attack. Silk garments are often closely woven which impedes the flow of air, and some people are allergic to the sericin protein in silk. Published studies suggest that a specially treated silk material (DermaSilk), which is loosely knitted, has had the sericin removed and has a microbial agent (AEM 5772/5) permanently bonded to it, is well tolerated and has beneficial effects on the skin of children and adults with atopic dermatitis. Atopic dermatitis often becomes infected, commonly with Staphylococcus aureus. Some studies have investigated the use of clothing materials impregnated with substances such as silver, which has antimicrobial properties. However, these are still unproven and there are concerns about bacterial resistance and the local and environmental effects of silver. The use of the antimicrobial AEM 5772/5, which does not transfer to the skin of the patient, is a new development in the control of atopic dermatitis. Further studies are needed to determine whether an antimicrobial shield bonded to clothing material will reduce the colonisation of atopic skin by S. aureus.

  10. Diet and Dermatitis: Food Triggers

    PubMed Central

    Schlichte, Megan

    2014-01-01

    Given increasing awareness of the link between diet and health, many patients are concerned that dietary factors may trigger dermatitis. Research has found that dietary factors can indeed exacerbate atopic dermatitis or cause dermatitis due to systemic contact dermatitis. In atopic dermatitis, dietary factors are more likely to cause an exacerbation among infants or children with moderate-to-severe atopic dermatitis relative to other populations. Foods may trigger rapid, immunoglobulin E-mediated hypersensitivity reactions or may lead to late eczematous reactions. While immediate reactions occur within minutes to hours of food exposure, late eczematous reactions may occur anywhere from hours to two days later. Screening methods, such as food allergen-specific serum immunoglobulin E tests or skin prick tests, can identify sensitization to specific foods, but a diagnosis of food allergy requires specific signs and symptoms that occur reproducibly upon food exposure. Many patients who are sensitized will not develop clinical findings upon food exposure; therefore, these tests may result in false-positive tests for food allergy. This is why the gold standard for diagnosis remains the double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge. In another condition, systemic contact dermatitis, ingestion of a specific food can actually cause dermatitis. Systemic contact dermatitis is a distinct T-cell mediated immunological reaction in which dietary exposure to specific allergens results in dermatitis. Balsam of Peru and nickel are well-known causes of systemic contact dermatitis, and reports have implicated multiple other allergens. This review seeks to increase awareness of important food allergens, elucidate their relationship with atopic dermatitis and systemic contact dermatitis, and review available diagnostic and treatment strategies. PMID:24688624

  11. [Blister dermatitis caused by Epicauta flagellaria (Erichson) (Coleoptera: Meloidae) species].

    PubMed

    Méndez, E; Sáenz, R E; Johnson, C M

    1989-09-01

    This paper is the first published report of vesicular dermatitis due to blister beetles of the family Meloidae in Panamá. A familial outbreak of bullous dermatitis caused by Epicauta flagellaria (Erichson) is described. All previous cases known in the Gorgas Memorial Laboratory were associated with E. isthmica Werner. Bullous lesions are produced when cantharidin, a vesicating toxin contained in the beetle's body, is released at the time the insect is crushed or rubbed upon the exposed skin. Rules for the treatment and prevention of this disease are indicated.

  12. Using digital subtraction in computer simulated images as a tool to aid the visual detection of masked lesions in dense breasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiabel, Homero; Guimarães, Luciana T.; Sousa, Maria A. Z.

    2015-03-01

    This work proposes a simulation model involving subtraction of digital mammography images obtained at different X-ray beam levels of energy to aid the detection of breast malignant lesions. Absorption coefficients behavior of 3 main structures of clinical interest - adipose tissue, fiber glandular tissue and the typical carcinoma - as a function of the beam energy from a Mo X-ray tube was the basis to develop a computer simulation of the possible acquired images. The simulation has considered a typical compressed breast with 4.5cm in thickness, and variations of the carcinoma and glandular tissues thicknesses - 0.4 up to 2.0cm and 4.1 to 2.5cm, respectively - were evaluated as a function of the photons mean energy - 14 up to 25 keV, in the typical mammography energy range. Results have shown that: (a) if the carcinoma thickness is over 0.4cm, its detection may be feasible even masked by fiber tissue with exposures in the range of 19 to 25 keV; (b) for masked carcinoma with thickness in the range of 0.4-2.0cm, the proposed procedure can enhance it in the image resulting from the digital subtraction between images obtained at 14 and at 22 keV. Therefore such results indicate that this simulation procedure can be a useful tool in aiding the identification of possible missed malignant lesions which could not be detected in the typical exam, mainly considering dense breasts.

  13. A prospective cohort study of digital cushion and corium thickness. Part 1: Associations with body condition, lesion incidence, and proximity to calving.

    PubMed

    Newsome, R F; Green, M J; Bell, N J; Bollard, N J; Mason, C S; Whay, H R; Huxley, J N

    2017-06-01

    Claw horn disruption lesions (CHDL) are a major cause of lameness in dairy cattle and are likely a result of excessive forces being applied to the germinal epithelium that produces the claw horn. The digital cushion is a connective tissue structure, containing depots of adipose tissue, that sits beneath the distal phalanx and has been shown to be thicker in fatter cows. Body condition score (BCS) loss is a risk factor for CHDL, and one possible explanation is that fat is mobilized from the digital cushion during negative energy balance, causing the digital cushion to thin and lose force-dissipating capacity, leading to disruption of claw horn growth. This prospective cohort study investigated the association between measures of body fat and sole soft tissue (SST) thickness (a combined measure of the corium and digital cushion beneath the distal phalanx) in a longitudinal manner. The SST of 179 cows in 2 high-yielding dairy herds were measured at 5 assessment points between 8 wk before and 35 wk postcalving. The BCS, back fat thickness (BFT), and lesion incidence were recorded. Data were analyzed in a 4-level mixed effects regression model, with the outcome being SST thickness beneath the flexor tuberosity of the distal phalanx. Data from 827 assessment points were available for analysis. The overall mean of SST was 4.99 mm (standard deviation: 0.95). The SST was thickest 8 wk before calving (5.22 mm, standard deviation: 0.91) and thinnest 1 wk postcalving (4.68 mm, standard deviation: 0.87), suggesting an effect of calving on SST. The BFT was positively correlated with SST in the model with a small effect size (a 10 mm decrease in BFT corresponded with a 0.13 mm decrease in SST), yet the nadir of BFT was 11.0 mm at 9 to 17 wk postcalving (when SST was ∼4.95 mm), rather than occurring with the nadir of SST immediately after calving. The SST also varied with other variables [e.g., cows that developed a sole ulcer or severe sole hemorrhage during the study had

  14. Autofluorescence endoscopy with "real-time" digital image processing in differential diagnostics of selected benign and malignant lesions in the oesophagus.

    PubMed

    Sieroń-Stołtny, Karolina; Kwiatek, Sebastian; Latos, Wojciech; Kawczyk-Krupka, Aleksandra; Cieślar, Grzegorz; Stanek, Agata; Ziaja, Damian; Bugaj, Andrzej M; Sieroń, Aleksander

    2012-03-01

    Oesophageal papilloma and Barrett's oesophagus are benign lesions known as risk factors of carcinoma in the oesophagus. Therefore, it is important to diagnose these early changes before neoplastic transformation. Autofluorescence endoscopy is a fast and non-invasive method of imaging of tissues based on the natural fluorescence of endogenous fluorophores. The aim of this study was to prove the diagnostic utility of autofluorescence endoscopy with digital image processing in histological diagnosis of endoscopic findings in the upper digestive tract, primarily in the imaging of oesophageal papilloma. During the retrospective analysis of about 200 endoscopic procedures in the upper digestive tract, 67 cases of benign, precancerous or cancerous changes were found. White light endoscopy (WLE) image, single-channel (red or green) autofluorescence images, as well as green and red fluorescence intensities in two modal fluorescence image and red-to-green (R/G) ratio (Numerical Colour Value, NCV) were correlated with histopathologic results. The NCV analysis in autofluorescence imaging (AFI) showed increased R/G ratio in cancerous changes in 96% vs. 85% in WLE. Simultaneous analysis with digital image processing allowed us to diagnose suspicious tissue as cancerous in all of cases. Barrett's metaplasia was confirmed in 90% vs. 79% (AFI vs. WLE), and 98% in imaging with digital image processing. In benign lesions, WLE allowed us to exclude tissue as malignant in 85%. Using autofluorescence endoscopy R/G ratio was increased in only 10% of benign changes causing the picture to be interpreted as suspicious, but when both methods were used together, 97.5% were cases excluded as malignancies. Mean R/G ratios were estimated to be 2.5 in cancers, 1.25 in Barrett's metaplasia and 0.75 in benign changes and were statistically significant (p=0.04). Autofluorescence imaging is a sensitive method to diagnose precancerous and cancerous early stages of the diseases located in oesophagus

  15. Contact dermatitis: allergic and irritant.

    PubMed

    Tan, Cher-Han; Rasool, Sarah; Johnston, Graham A

    2014-01-01

    Facial contact dermatitis is frequently encountered in medical practice in both male and female patients. Identifying the underlying cause can be challenging, and the causative agent may be overlooked if it is not considered during the assessment of a patient. The two main types of contact dermatitis are irritant contact dermatitis (ICD) and allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). The mechanisms and common causative agents vary for both ICD and ACD, but the clinical picture is often similar, particularly for chronic disease. Facial contact dermatitis can be successfully treated by avoiding the causative agent. In this review, we focus on the clinical assessment of a patient with facial contact dermatitis and the mechanisms of both ICD and ACD. Common causative agents, including emerging allergens, are discussed in detail, and suggestions are made regarding the management of patients with proven ICD or ACD of the face.

  16. An outbreak of Paederus dermatitis in Thai military personnel.

    PubMed

    Suwannahitatorn, Picha; Jatapai, Anchalee; Rangsin, Ram

    2014-02-01

    An outbreak of Paederus dermatitis in Thai military personnel in 2007 was reported. Approximately ninety-one percent ofmilitary personnel who worked in a battalion located in Bangkok experienced Paederus dermatitis in April-May 2007. The most common clinical manifestations were blisters and erythematous rash. The most affected areas were head, neck, back and groin. "Kissing lesions" were seen in 17.3% of cases and 23.5% had multiple lesions. Compared with other reports, we found a high incidence of lesions in unexposed body parts. This disease should be recognized as a differential diagnosis especially in tropical countries. Awareness of the condition and its clinical features will aid early diagnosis and prompt treatment.

  17. An update on diaper dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Klunk, Christopher; Domingues, Erik; Wiss, Karen

    2014-01-01

    Diaper dermatitis leads to approximately 20% of all childhood dermatology visits. There have been several technologic advances in diaper design the last several years; however, due to the unique environment of the diaper area, many children continue to suffer from a variety of dermatologic conditions of this region. Common causes include allergic contact dermatitis, irritant contact dermatitis, infection, and psoriasis. Treatments include allergen avoidance, barrier protection, parent education, and topical therapies.

  18. Live bee acupuncture (Bong-Chim) dermatitis: dermatitis due to live bee acupuncture therapy in Korea.

    PubMed

    Park, Joon Soo; Lee, Min Jung; Chung, Ki Hun; Ko, Dong Kyun; Chung, Hyun

    2013-12-01

    Live bee acupuncture (Bong-Chim) dermatitis is an iatrogenic disease induced by so-called live bee acupuncture therapy, which applies the honeybee (Apis cerana) stinger directly into the lesion to treat various diseases in Korea. We present two cases of live bee acupuncture dermatitis and review previously published articles about this disease. We classify this entity into three stages: acute, subacute, and chronic. The acute stage is an inflammatory reaction, such as anaphylaxis or urticaria. In the chronic stage, a foreign body granuloma may develop from the remaining stingers, similar to that of a bee sting reaction. However, in the subacute stage, unlike bee stings, we see the characteristic histological "flame" figures resulting from eosinophilic stimulation induced by excessive bee venom exposure. We consider this stage to be different from the adverse skin reaction of accidental bee sting. © 2013 The International Society of Dermatology.

  19. Microbiology of infected poison ivy dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Brook, I; Frazier, E H; Yeager, J K

    2000-05-01

    We report the aerobic and anaerobic microbiology of secondarily infected poison ivy dermatitis. The study involved retrospective review of clinical and microbiology laboratory records of patients with secondarily infected poison ivy lesions. Bacterial growth was noted in 33 specimens. Aerobic or facultative anaerobic bacteria only were present in 18 (55%) patients, anaerobic bacteria only in seven (21%), and mixed anaerobic-aerobic bacteria in eight (24%). Forty-five isolates were recovered (1.4 per specimen): 27 aerobic or facultative anaerobic bacteria, and 18 strict anaerobes. The predominant aerobic and facultative anaerobic bacteria were Staphylococcus aureus (13 isolates) and group A beta-haemolytic streptococci (six). The predominant anaerobes were Peptostreptococcus spp. (seven isolates), pigmented Prevotella and Porphyromonas spp. (four) and Fusobacterium spp. (two). Single bacterial isolates were recovered in 18 (55%) patients, eight of which were S. aureus. Nineteen of the organisms isolated from 16 (48%) patients produced the enzyme beta-lactamase. Organisms that resided in the mucous membranes close to the lesions predominated in those infections. Enteric gram-negative rods and Bacteroides fragilis group predominated in leg and buttock lesions. Group A beta-haemolytic streptococci, pigmented Prevotella and Porphyromonas and Fusobacterium spp. were most frequently recovered from lesions of the finger, face and neck. The polymicrobial aetiology of secondarily infected poison ivy lesions, and the association of bacterial flora with the anatomical site of the lesions, are demonstrated.

  20. [Dermatitis caused by 2 species of Paederus in south Iran].

    PubMed

    Nikbakhtzadeh, M R; Sadeghiani, C

    1999-02-01

    Paederus dermatitis is a pruritic, self-healing dermatitis, showing vesicle and squamose in ordinary cases. It is caused by rove beetles' Paederus hemolymph coming into contact with human skin. Paederus hemolymph contains the powerful pederin toxin. Paederus ilsae Bernhaurt and Paederus iliensis Coiffait are found in southern Iran and cause numerous cases of cutaneous lesions every year, chiefly in spring and summer. This is the first report describing the pathogen of Paederus in Iran. Dermatitis caused by these two species is the same except for duration and severity which are higher in P. ilsae. Clinical manifestations of the above mentioned species in human beings and Guinea pigs are different. Laboratory tests of pederin dissolved in ethanol is also part of the study. Complications arising from secondary infections, pederin stability and local treatment are also discussed.

  1. Postsurgical contact dermatitis due to povidone iodine: a diagnostic dilemma.

    PubMed

    de la Cuadra-Oyanguren, J; Zaragozá-Ninet, V; Sierra-Talamantes, C; Alegre de Miquel, V

    2014-04-01

    We present 7 cases of postsurgical contact dermatitis due to povidone iodine. The diagnosis was based on the clinical manifestations, the history of exposure, the site of the lesions, and the results of patch tests. This type of dermatitis can develop in the area of surgery or at distant sites exposed to povidone iodine during the surgical intervention. Patch tests with 10% povidone iodine in petrolatum were positive in all patients. Based on the results of the same tests in a control group, we recommend the use of petrolatum rather than water as the vehicle for the diagnosis of this form of contact dermatitis. Repeated open application tests with a commercially available solution of povidone iodine were negative. We conclude that the presence of the solution under occlusion during surgery is necessary both for the symptoms to develop and for the diagnosis to be made. This condition may be underdiagnosed.

  2. Dermatotoxicologic clinical solutions: textile dye dermatitis patch testing.

    PubMed

    Coman, Garrett; Blickenstaff, Nicholas; Edwards, Ashley; Maibach, Howard

    2015-03-01

    The authors provide a framework for working up and counseling a patient with suspected textile dermatitis, focusing on identifying which textile materials are most likely to be the cause of the eczematous lesions, the current clinical guidelines, the utility and appropriateness of patch testing, the limitations of these guidelines, and our pro tempore recommendations. While there are many challenges to correctly identify and counsel patients on how to avoid the offending textile products in a patient with suspected textile dye dermatitis, there is value in following the guidelines set forth to help identify the causative textile(s). Although patch tests can be useful, dermatologists should understand the limitations of standardized patch testing for patients with suspected textile dye-induced dermatitis. These guidelines are expected to increase the likelihood of identifying the causative textile(s), so that patch testing can be supplemented with swatch testing and chemical dye extraction to help discover the allergenic dye.

  3. Dermatitis, contact on the cheek (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... skin inflammation (dermatitis) on the cheek caused by contact with a substance that produced an allergic reaction (allergen). Contact dermatitis causes redness, itching, and small blisters (vesicles).

  4. Fragrance allergic contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Judy; Zug, Kathryn A

    2014-01-01

    Fragrances are a common cause of allergic contact dermatitis in Europe and in North America. They can affect individuals at any age and elicit a spectrum of reactions from contact urticaria to systemic contact dermatitis. Growing recognition of the widespread use of fragrances in modern society has fueled attempts to prevent sensitization through improved allergen identification, labeling, and consumer education. This review provides an overview and update on fragrance allergy. Part 1 discusses the epidemiology and evaluation of suspected fragrance allergy. Part 2 reviews screening methods, emerging fragrance allergens, and management of patients with fragrance contact allergy. This review concludes by examining recent legislation on fragrances and suggesting potential additions to screening series to help prevent and detect fragrance allergy.

  5. Dermatitis artefacta: a review.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez Pichardo, A; García Bravo, B

    2013-12-01

    Dermatitis artefacta is a rarely diagnosed disorder that is often a source of perplexity and anxiety for dermatologists because they know less about the cause of this self-inflicted condition than the patients themselves. It differs from other skin disorders in that diagnosis is made by exclusion rather than on the basis of histologic and biochemical findings and therefore involves a considerable investment of time and resources. Based on the findings of a study of 201 patients diagnosed with dermatitis artefacta between 1976 and 2006, we review the different clinical presentations of this skin disorder and discuss its diagnosis and treatment. The series analyzed comprised 152 women and 49 men (female to male ratio of 3.1:1) with a mean age of 31.2 years. The patients were mostly single and had a low educational level and few or no job qualifications or skills.

  6. Allergic contact dermatitis from ketoconazole.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jing; Warshaw, Erin M

    2014-09-01

    Ketoconazole is a widely used imidazole antifungal agent. True contact allergy to topical ketoconazole is rare, and few cases of patients with contact allergy to ketoconazole have been reported. We present the case of a patient with a history of undiagnosed recurrent dermatitis who developed acute facial swelling and pruritus after using ketoconazole cream and shampoo for the treatment of seborrheic dermatitis. Patch testing revealed true contact allergy to ketoconazole without cross-reactivity to 4 other imidazole antifungals. Review of the patient's medical record suggested that prior incidences of dermatitis might have been due to ketoconazole exposure. When the patient avoided this imidazole agent, the dermatitis resolved.

  7. Poison ivy dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Baer, R L

    1986-06-01

    Eruptions caused by poison ivy (see Cover) and related plants are almost always a form of allergic contact dermatitis. Usually they can be readily recognized because of their characteristic streak- or line-like appearance. They usually clear within one to three weeks unless there is continued exposure to the allergen. Local treatment suffices in mild to moderate cases, but in more severe cases systemic corticosteroids can be added.

  8. Contact dermatitis in children

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Contact dermatitis in pediatric population is a common but (previously) under recognized disease. It is usually divided into the allergic and the irritant forms. The diagnosis is usually obtained with the patch test technique after conducting a thorough medical history and careful physical examination but patch testing in infants may be particularly difficult, and false-positive reactions may occur. This study also provides an overview of the most common allergens in pediatric population and discusses various therapeutic modalities. PMID:20205907

  9. Dermatitis and aircrew.

    PubMed

    Leggat, Peter A; Smith, Derek R

    2006-01-01

    Dermatitis is a common problem both in the workplace and in the general community. Airline personnel represent a novel occupational group as they are also exposed to a wide range of potential chemical irritants and other aggravating factors, such as low relative humidity and airborne pollutants. Common skin irritants include dielectric fluids from electrodischarge machining, 'prepreg' materials and sealants in aircraft manufacture, kerosene and various jet-fuel components. Commercial jet fuel is a complex mixture of aliphatic and aromatic compounds, and there is potential for dermal exposure among refueling and maintenance crew. Low relative humidity appears to exacerbate dermatitis amongst aircrew, especially on longer flight durations. Pilots may also be exposed to additional skin irritants outside of the cabin environment, such as ethylene glycol, hydraulic fluid or jet fuel, all of which may be encountered during routine inspections of aircraft before and after flight. Given these factors, preventive measures must carefully consider the undoubted potential for contact with irritants and allergens, which may lead to dermatitis in airline personnel.

  10. Pizza makers' contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Lembo, Serena; Lembo, Claudio; Patruno, Cataldo; Balato, Anna; Balato, Nicola; Ayala, Fabio

    2014-01-01

    Contact eczema to foods, spices, and food additives can occur in occupational and nonoccupational settings in those who grow, handle, prepare, or cook food. Pizza is one of the most eaten foods in every continent, and pizza making is a common work in many countries. We aimed to evaluate the occurrence and the causes of contact dermatitis in pizza makers in Naples. We performed an observational study in 45 pizza makers: all the enrolled subjects had to answer a questionnaire designed to detect personal history of respiratory or cutaneous allergy, atopy; work characteristics and timing were also investigated. Every subject attended the dermatology clinic for a complete skin examination, and when needed, patients were patch tested using the Italian baseline series of haptens integrated with an arbitrary pizza makers series. Our results reported that 13.3% of the enrolled pizza makers (6/45) presented hand eczema, and that 8.9% (4/45) were affected by occupational allergic contact dermatitis. Diallyl disulfide and ammonium persulfate were the responsible substances. Performing patch tests in pizza makers and food handlers affected by hand contact dermatitis is useful. We propose a specific series of haptens for this wide working category.

  11. Platelet gel in cutaneous radiation dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Iervolino, Vincenzo; Di Costanzo, Gaetano; Azzaro, Rosa; Diodato, Anna Maria; Di Macchia, Catia Addolorata; Di Meo, Tommaso; Petruzziello, Arnolfo; Loquercio, Giovanna; Muto, Paolo; Apice, Gaetano; Cacciapuoti, Carmela

    2013-01-01

    Radiotherapy, alone or in combination with chemotherapy and/or surgery, is a fundamental and irreplaceable method of treating tumours. Nonetheless, although the technological advances made during recent years and the associated improvements in this type of treatment have reduced the incidence of complications, 5-15 % of patients still experience damage to the healthy tissues exposed to radiation. Cutaneous and mucosal lesions are severe collateral effects of radiotherapy that have an enormous impact on a patient's quality of life. Unfortunately, however, the efficacy of conventional treatments, while demonstrably useful in acute lesions, remains disputed in chronic cases. Nevertheless, numerous studies and clinical findings have demonstrated that topical, non-transfusional plasma-rich platelet gel is able to accelerate the regeneration and repair of tissues through the action of the various growth factors contained within the alpha granules of platelets. We therefore set out to evaluate the efficacy of autologous platelet gel, chosen for its limited cost and ease of preparation, in chronic cutaneous radiation dermatitis. "Home-made" platelet gel was produced by treating platelets with autologous thrombin. The safety of the product was ensured by microbiological tests. The autologous platelet gel was applied topically once a week, for a mean duration of 35 days, to chronic third- and fourth-degree (European Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel classification and Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events score) cutaneous radiation dermatitis in a group of ten patients previously treated for moderate-to-high grade (histology G2-G3) limb sarcoma by tumour excision and post-surgical radiotherapy (dose 50-64 Gy). The radiation dermatitis had appeared at different intervals after treatment and had all proved resistant to conventional treatments. The autologous platelet gel was found to be successful in seven out of the ten patients treated. The various phases of the healing

  12. Dermatophytosis and papular eosinophilic/mastocytic dermatitis (urticaria pigmentosa-like dermatitis) in three Devon Rex cats.

    PubMed

    Colombo, Silvia; Scarampella, Fabia; Ordeix, Laura; Roccabianca, Paola

    2012-07-01

    PRESENTING SIGNS: Three Devon Rex cats were presented with multiple erythematous papules, occasionally associated with crusting and hyperpigmentation, with a linear distribution on the head, neck, chest and abdomen. One cat also had multifocal alopecia with hyperpigmentation on the dorsum. Clinical and histopathological features were suggestive of papular eosinophilic/mastocytic dermatitis (urticaria pigmentosa-like dermatitis). In all cases, dermatophytosis was diagnosed: in cases 1 and 2 there was histopathological evidence of dermatophytosis, while fungal culture was positive for Microsporum canis in cases 2 and 3. In all cats, lesions disappeared following antifungal treatment. Papular eosinophilic/mastocytic dermatitis in Devon Rex cats may represent either an atypical presentation of dermatophytosis or a clinical and histological reaction pattern to various diseases, including dermatophytosis and allergic diseases. Clinical differentiation is crucial as there are important implications regarding treatment and, in particular, the use of glucocorticoids, which are contraindicated in cases of dermatophytosis.

  13. Dermatitis artefacta in a vulnerable adult with a dissociative state.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, A; Bewley, A; Taylor, R

    2013-12-01

    Dermatitis artefacta (DA), a factitious skin disorder, often occurs as a response to traumatic life events or as a factitious behaviour, which may result in secondary gain. It can be difficult to get patients to engage with health services, and they seldom admit to causing the lesions themselves. The possibility of DA lesions occurring in dissociative states is less well known. We present a case of DA diagnosed in a vulnerable adult, who we believe caused the lesions during periods of dissociation. We discuss the way in which the concept of dissociation can provide an acceptable way of discussing the behaviour with patients and initiating psychological therapy. © 2013 British Association of Dermatologists.

  14. Treatment of Paederus Dermatitis with Sambucus ebulus Lotion

    PubMed Central

    Ebrahimzadeh, Mohammad Ali; Rafati, Mohammad Reza; Damchi, Maryam; Golpur, Mosoud; Fathiazad, Fatemeh

    2014-01-01

    Paederus dermatitis is an irritant contact dermatitis due to accidental contact by a beetle belonging to the genus paederus. In this study, clinical efficacies of S. ebulus fruit extract solution in patients affected by paederus dermatitis were evaluated. A randomized double-blind, prospective, placebo-controlled clinical trial was performed in 62 patients with clinical symptoms and sings of dermatitis due to paederus beetles. The patients received either a topical solution of palemolin (a 5% S. ebulus fruit extract in ethanol 70%) or ethanol 70% topical solution thrice a day. Topical hydrocortisone ointment was prescribed for all patients. Palemolin was statistically more effective in controlling of burning, pain, inflammation, drying the wound, infections and acceleration of healing than control group (p ≤ 0.05). Specially in controlling of inflammation, palemolin had more significant efficacy (p < 0.001) than control group. About 63.6% of patients in palemolin group cured during first 24 h (versus 27.4% in control groups). The problems related to lesions in 93.9% of patients were eliminated completely during 48 hours after the beginning of the treatment by palemolin (versus 65.4% in control groups). Topical 5% solution of S. ebulus fruit extract is an effective pharmaceutical preparation in treatment of paederus dermatitis. PMID:25276209

  15. Effects of dexamethasone immunosuppression on turkey clostridial dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Thachil, Anil J; Shaw, Daniel P; Nagaraja, Kakambi V

    2014-09-01

    Clostridia represents a group of anaerobic spore-forming bacteria ubiquitous in the poultry environment. They are widely distributed in soil and survive for many years as highly resistant, inactive spores. They enter the body through wounds and contaminated feed as active bacteria or spores. Multiplication of clostridial bacteria occurs only in the absence of oxygen or in environments with very low concentrations of oxygen. During active multiplication, the clostridial organisms produce several toxins that are responsible for most of the clinical signs seen in clostridial diseases. Immunosuppression is a problem for the poultry industry. In modern, intensive poultry-rearing conditions, stress due to high population densities pose a considerable challenge for the immune system, and infectious agents can exploit this situation to cause disease. Immunosuppression may predispose turkeys to clostridial infection, resulting in clostridial dermatitis and mortality. The purpose of this study was to determine whether immunosuppression predisposes turkeys to clostridial infection and causes clostridial dermatitis. We immunosuppressed 10-wk-old turkey poults with dexamethasone. The birds immunosuppressed and not immunosuppressed were then challenged with Clostridium perfringens, Clostridium septicum, or both and examined for the development of clostridial dermatitis. The dexamethasone-treated birds were found to be more susceptible to C. peifingens/C. septicum challenge and developed clostridial dermatitis than the no-dexamethasone-treated birds through the subcutaneous route. However, oral inoculation of the same agents did not cause any dermatitis lesions in either of the groups.

  16. Characterization and classification of tumor lesions using computerized fractal-based texture analysis and support vector machines in digital mammograms.

    PubMed

    Guo, Qi; Shao, Jiaqing; Ruiz, Virginie F

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a detailed study of fractal-based methods for texture characterization of mammographic mass lesions and architectural distortion. The purpose of this study is to explore the use of fractal and lacunarity analysis for the characterization and classification of both tumor lesions and normal breast parenchyma in mammography. We conducted comparative evaluations of five popular fractal dimension estimation methods for the characterization of the texture of mass lesions and architectural distortion. We applied the concept of lacunarity to the description of the spatial distribution of the pixel intensities in mammographic images. These methods were tested with a set of 57 breast masses and 60 normal breast parenchyma (dataset1), and with another set of 19 architectural distortions and 41 normal breast parenchyma (dataset2). Support vector machines (SVM) were used as a pattern classification method for tumor classification. Experimental results showed that the fractal dimension of region of interest (ROIs) depicting mass lesions and architectural distortion was statistically significantly lower than that of normal breast parenchyma for all five methods. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis showed that fractional Brownian motion (FBM) method generated the highest area under ROC curve (A ( z ) = 0.839 for dataset1, 0.828 for dataset2, respectively) among five methods for both datasets. Lacunarity analysis showed that the ROIs depicting mass lesions and architectural distortion had higher lacunarities than those of ROIs depicting normal breast parenchyma. The combination of FBM fractal dimension and lacunarity yielded the highest A ( z ) value (0.903 and 0.875, respectively) than those based on single feature alone for both given datasets. The application of the SVM improved the performance of the fractal-based features in differentiating tumor lesions from normal breast parenchyma by generating higher A ( z ) value. FBM texture model is the

  17. Sofa dermatitis presenting as a chronic treatment resistant dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Lynch, M; Collins, P

    2010-04-01

    There is now a well publicised increase in cases of sofa dermatitis since 2007. These have been linked to allergic contact sensitization to dimethlylfumarate, a novel contact allergen. We report on a case associated with a two year history of a treatment resistant dermatitis.

  18. [Stress and seborrheic dermatitis].

    PubMed

    Misery, L; Touboul, S; Vinçot, C; Dutray, S; Rolland-Jacob, G; Consoli, S-G; Farcet, Y; Feton-Danou, N; Cardinaud, F; Callot, V; De La Chapelle, C; Pomey-Rey, D; Consoli, S-M

    2007-11-01

    It is widely accepted that episodes of seborrheic dermatitis are frequently induced by stress, as stated in all general reviews of the subject. However, there have been no studies to confirm this view. This prospective study was performed in two phases. An initial questionnaire collected information on patients' identity, somatic and psychiatric history and seborrheic dermatitis characteristics. Information on triggering episodes was sought by means of an open question and patients were then asked if they had experienced stress during the week or month prior to the active episode. A second questionnaire containing the same questions (except for history) was completed four months later. The two questionnaires contained psychopathological evaluation scales designed to detect symptoms of anxiety and depression among patients (HAD: Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale; Beck; STAI: State-Trait Anxiety Inventory) and determine their perceived stress (PSS: Perceived Stress Scale by Cohen and Williamson). Eighty-two patients (36 women and 46 men) were included in the study. 82% of patients presented involvement of scalp, 33% of the face, 19% of the chest and 13% of other sites (ears, skinfolds). Patients themselves identified stress as the main triggering factor, whether for episodes in general, for the first episode or for the current episode. A stressful event was in fact found in the majority of cases. The fact that stress was recognised as a triggering factor for episodes was not associated with a higher depression score (HAD or Beck) but was associated with a higher anxiety score (STAI). The psychological effects of the disease were pronounced in 11% of patients, moderate in 20%, mild in 35%, and nil in 25%, with 9% of patients stating no opinion. Patients with facial involvement were more depressed in terms of Beck Depression Index score. Two characteristics noted at inclusion were predictive for the onset of at least one further episode or persistence of an ongoing

  19. Allergic contact dermatitis mimicking angioedema due to paraphenylendiamine hypersensitivity: a case report.

    PubMed

    Tukenmez Demirci, Gulsen; Kivanc Altunay, Ilknur; Atis, Guldehan; Kucukunal, Asli

    2012-09-01

    Active sensitization to paraphenylendiamine (PPD) and related compounds from temporary black henna tattoos has become an epidemic in the recent years. Hair dyes also include PPD like black henna tatoos which cause allergic contact dermatitis. Skin lesions of allergic contact dermatitis from PPD are mostly seen as an exudative erythema, an erythema multiforme-like eruption or a bullous contact dermatitis. We, herein, report a 27 year-old woman with an angioedema-like reaction occurring after the first exposure to hair dye who was unaware of being previously sensitized to PPD from black henna tattoo.

  20. Bullous contact dermatitis caused by self-applied crushed Paederus fuscipes for the treatment of vitiligo.

    PubMed

    You, Dong-O; Kang, Jung-Dae; Youn, Nyoung-Hoon; Park, Seok-Don

    2003-11-01

    Paederus dermatitis is a linear, blistering contact dermatitis caused by pederin, a potent vesicant agent that is contained in insects belonging to the genus Paederus. This form of dermatitis usually occurs accidentally in those who have contact with this insect during the summer season. We report a peculiar case of a patient developing severe chemical burnlike lesions after application to her skin of many crushed Paederus fuscipes that she collected from the soil of a riverbank in the early spring for the treatment of her vitiligo.

  1. Palisaded Granulomatous Dermatitis Associated with Ulcerative Colitis: A Comprehensive Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Philip R

    2017-01-01

    Palisaded granulomatous dermatitis is an uncommon pathologic condition potentially associated with several disorders. These include drugs, inflammatory bowel disease, multiple myelomas, rheumatoid arthritis, and systemic lupus erythematosus. An illustrative case of a man with palisaded granulomatous dermatitis who subsequently developed ulcerative colitis is described, and the characteristics of other individuals with ulcerative colitis-associated palisaded granulomatous dermatitis are reviewed. PubMed was used to search the following terms: palisaded, interstitial, granulomatous, dermatitis, ulcerative colitis, and neutrophilic. Papers were obtained and references were reviewed. Ulcerative colitis-associated palisaded granulomatous dermatitis is uncommon. Palisaded granulomatous dermatitis-associated ulcerative colitis has been reported in four individuals. The palisaded granulomatous dermatitis appeared from six years prior to diagnosis to 19 years following diagnosis of the patient’s gastrointestinal disease. In addition to individual and grouped papular lesions on the elbows, the morphology of palisaded granulomatous dermatitis can also present as indurated linear plaques overlying the metacarpophalangeal (MCP) joints and proximal fingers.  PMID:28168136

  2. Hand contact dermatitis in hairdressers: clinical and causative allergens, experience in Bangkok.

    PubMed

    Tresukosol, Poohglin; Swasdivanich, Chanutta

    2012-12-01

    Hand dermatitis in hairdressers is a common occupational contact dermatitis. Irritant contact dermatitis is thought to be more common. To investigate the causes of hand dermatitis, common allergens, clinical patterns, morphology and onset of lesions among hairdressers. Forty four hairdressers who were diagnosed with hand dermatitis in a dermatological outpatient department were included and investigated by patch testing with standard and hairdressing related allergens and/or prick test. Allergic contact dermatitis was diagnosed with a positive patch test reaction in 33 cases (75%), irritant contact dermatitis was found in 11 cases (25%). The clinical manifestations were mostly scaly plaques (68.18%) or vesicles (50%). The most common site of involvement was the palms (38.63%). The common causative allergens were paraphenylenediamine (45.45%), nickel (31.18%), fragrance mix (20.45%), p-toluenediamine sulphate (18.18%), ammonium persulfate (13.63%), and p-aminophenol (13.63%). Allergic contact dermatitis is more common among hairdressers, PPD was the most common causative allergen in our study.

  3. Hair dye dermatitis and p-phenylenediamine contact sensitivity: A preliminary report

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Mrinal; Mahajan, Vikram K.; Mehta, Karaninder S.; Chauhan, Pushpinder S.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The contact allergic reactions from p-phenylenediamine (PPD) in hair dyes vary from mild contact dermatitis to severe life- threatening events (angioedema, bronchospasm, asthma, renal impairment). Objectives: To study the clinical patterns and PPD contact sensitivity in patients with hair-dye dermatitis. Materials and Methods: Eighty (M:F 47:33) consecutive patients aged between 18 and 74 years suspected to have contact allergy from hair dye were studied by patch testing with Indian Standard Series including p-phenylenediamine (PPD, 1.0% pet). Results: 54 Fifty-four (M:F 21:33) patients showed positive patch tests from PPD. Eight of these patients also showed positive patch test reaction from fragrance mix, thiuram mix, paraben mix, or colophony. Fifty-seven (71%) patients affected were aged older than 40 years. The duration of dermatitis varied from < 1 month to > 1 year with exacerbation following hair coloring. Forty-nine patients had dermatitis of scalp and/or scalp margins and 23 patients had face and neck dermatitis. Periorbital dermatitis, chronic actinic dermatitis, and erythema multiforme-like lesions were seen in 4, 2, and 1 patients, respectively. Conclusions: Hair dyes and PPD constitute a significant cause of contact dermatitis. There is an urgent need for creating consumer awareness regarding hair-dyes contact sensitivity and the significance of performing sensitivity testing prior to actual use. PMID:26225326

  4. Histopathological Differential Diagnosis of Psoriasis and Seborrheic Dermatitis of the Scalp

    PubMed Central

    Park, Ji-Hye; Park, Young Joon; Kim, Sue Kyoung; Kwon, Ji Eun; Kang, Hee Young; Lee, Eun-So; Choi, Jee Ho

    2016-01-01

    Background The differential diagnosis of psoriasis and seborrheic dermatitis can be difficult when both conditions are localized to the scalp without the involvement of other skin sites. Objective We aimed to evaluate the histopathological differences between psoriasis and seborrheic dermatitis on the scalp and identify favorable criteria for their differential diagnosis. Methods We evaluated 15 cases of psoriasis and 20 cases of seborrheic dermatitis of the scalp that had been clinicopathologically diagnosed. Skin biopsy sections stained with H&E were examined. Additional immunohistochemistry was performed, including Ki-67, keratin 10, caspase-5, and GLUT-1. Results On histopathological examination, mounds of parakeratosis with neutrophils, spongiform micropustules of Kogoj, and clubbed and evenly elongated rete ridges were significantly more frequently observed in psoriasis. Follicular plugging, shoulder parakeratosis and prominent lymphocytic exocytosis were significantly more common in seborrheic dermatitis. Moreover, significantly higher mitotic figures were observed in psoriatic lesions than in seborrheic dermatitis. Immunohistochemistry did not show any difference between psoriasis and seborrheic dermatitis. Conclusion Histopathological features favoring psoriasis include mounds of parakeratosis with neutrophils, spongiform micropustules of Kogoj, clubbed and evenly elongated rete ridges, and increased mitotic figures (≥6/high-powered field). Features indicating seborrheic dermatitis are follicular plugging, shoulder parakeratosis and prominent lymphocytic exocytosis. Immunohistochemistry was not helpful in differentiating psoriasis from seborrheic dermatitis. PMID:27489423

  5. Hair dye dermatitis and p-phenylenediamine contact sensitivity: A preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Mrinal; Mahajan, Vikram K; Mehta, Karaninder S; Chauhan, Pushpinder S

    2015-01-01

    The contact allergic reactions from p-phenylenediamine (PPD) in hair dyes vary from mild contact dermatitis to severe life- threatening events (angioedema, bronchospasm, asthma, renal impairment). To study the clinical patterns and PPD contact sensitivity in patients with hair-dye dermatitis. Eighty (M:F 47:33) consecutive patients aged between 18 and 74 years suspected to have contact allergy from hair dye were studied by patch testing with Indian Standard Series including p-phenylenediamine (PPD, 1.0% pet). 54 Fifty-four (M:F 21:33) patients showed positive patch tests from PPD. Eight of these patients also showed positive patch test reaction from fragrance mix, thiuram mix, paraben mix, or colophony. Fifty-seven (71%) patients affected were aged older than 40 years. The duration of dermatitis varied from < 1 month to > 1 year with exacerbation following hair coloring. Forty-nine patients had dermatitis of scalp and/or scalp margins and 23 patients had face and neck dermatitis. Periorbital dermatitis, chronic actinic dermatitis, and erythema multiforme-like lesions were seen in 4, 2, and 1 patients, respectively. Hair dyes and PPD constitute a significant cause of contact dermatitis. There is an urgent need for creating consumer awareness regarding hair-dyes contact sensitivity and the significance of performing sensitivity testing prior to actual use.

  6. Dermatitis Artefacta Mimicking Borderline Personality Disorder: Sometimes, Skin Could Be Misleading

    PubMed Central

    Chatterjee, Seshadri Sekhar; Mitra, Sayantanava

    2016-01-01

    Dermatitis artefacta lies in a gray zone, between the specialities of psychiatry and dermatology. The condition could mimic a number of other lesions and therefore is a source of much confusion in clinical practice. Here, we describe a case of dermatitis artefacta in an 11-years old girl, which resembled self-harming behavior in Borderline personality disorder. We then discuss how the two could be differentiated and why this becomes imperative while dealing with such cases. PMID:27489388

  7. Jacquet erosive diaper dermatitis in a young girl with urinary incontinence.

    PubMed

    Hara, M; Watanabe, M; Tagami, H

    1991-06-01

    We report a case of Jacquet erosive diaper dermatitis (dermatitis syphiloides posterosiva) in a 9-year-old girl suffering from urinary incontinence due to an ectopic opening of a left double ureter into the vaginal vestibule. The toilet paper that she used as an absorbent was thought to be one of the factors causing the eruption. The lesions cleared with topical application of a nonsteroidal antiinflammatory ointment and zinc oxide ointment, in conjunction with the use of sanitary napkins.

  8. Assessment Effect of Breast Milk on Diaper Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Seifi, Bahar; Jalali, Sheida; Heidari, Mohammad

    2017-01-01

    Diaper dermatitis is the most common dermatological disease of infancy, which occurs and caused by the combined effect of irritants such as diaper, urine and faces. In this study, we intend to evaluate the effect of breast milk on the healing of diaper dermatitis. This study was a clinical trial of 30 infants between 0-12 months of age that were suffering from diaper dermatitis and referred to the Health Centers in Tehran, Iran. The subjects were selected by open study. Infants were divided into two matched groups: case and control. Data-gathering tools were the questionnaire that contained two parts: the demographic characteristics of infants and the status of care and condition of the lesion. Data analysis was performed using SPSS/18 software and Mann-Whitney and Chi-Square tests were used. The findings revealed a significant difference between the case and control groups in the number and lesion score of the rashes at the first and third day (P=0.013, P=0.005), these differences were more significant at the fifth day (P=0.004, P=0.001). Because of positive effects of breast milk on healing of diaper dermatitis, it is proposed that educational programs in health centers should be considered by health officials, and the managers would play a key role in increasing knowledge behavior changes in mothers. PMID:28626535

  9. Contact dermatitis to methyl methacrylate.

    PubMed

    Kassis, V; Vedel, P; Darre, E

    1984-07-01

    2 cases of contact dermatitis to methyl methacrylate monomer are presented. The patients are nurses who mixed bone cement at orthopedic operations. During the procedure, they used 2 pairs of gloves (latex). Butyl rubber gloves are recommended for methyl methacrylate monomer to avoid sensitization and/or cumulative irritant contact dermatitis on the hands.

  10. Livedoid Dermatitis Treated With Nifedipine

    PubMed Central

    Wheless, Lee; Zhu, Lilly; Mashayekhi, Mona; Fissell, Rachel B.

    2016-01-01

    Intravenous injection of buprenorphine as a cause of livedoid dermatitis is a recently described phenomenon. This report reviews the brief literature of this finding, and presents a case of livedoid dermatitis of both heels following injection more than one day prior, and thesuccessful treatment with nifedipine monotherapy. PMID:26885536

  11. Allergic contact dermatitis to cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Park, Michelle E; Zippin, Jonathan H

    2014-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis caused by cosmetic products is an increasing concern given the continual creation and introduction of new cosmetics to the public. This article presents an overview of how to evaluate a patient for patch testing, including common areas for cosmetic-induced dermatitis, common cosmetic allergens, and proper management.

  12. Contact dermatitis with henna tattoo.

    PubMed

    Uzuner, Nevin; Olmez, Duygu; Babayigit, Arzu; Vayvada, Ozlem

    2009-05-01

    Allergic and irritant reactions to henna are rare. Para-phenylenediamine, which is sometimes added to obtain a dark, blackish henna, causes the majority of contact dermatitis reported related with tattoos. Allergic contact dermatitis due to temporary paint-on tattoo with black henna is described in two adolescents.

  13. Contact dermatitis in military personnel.

    PubMed

    Dever, Tara T; Walters, Michelle; Jacob, Sharon

    2011-01-01

    Military personnel encounter the same allergens and irritants as their civilian counterparts and are just as likely to develop contact dermatitis from common exposures encountered in everyday life. In addition, they face some unique exposures that can be difficult to avoid owing to their occupational duties. Contact dermatitis can be detrimental to a military member's career if he or she is unable to perform core duties or avoid the inciting substances. An uncontrolled contact dermatitis can result in the member's being placed on limited-duty (ie, nondeployable) status, needing a job or rate change, or separation from military service. We present some common causes of contact dermatitis in military personnel worldwide and some novel sources of contact dermatitis in this population that may not be intuitive.

  14. Interleukin 4-producing CD4+ T cells in the skin of cats with allergic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Roosje, P J; Dean, G A; Willemse, T; Rutten, V P M G; Thepen, T

    2002-03-01

    Lesional skin of cats with allergic dermatitis has a cellular infiltrate and a CD4/CD8 ratio comparable to that in humans with atopic dermatitis. CD4+ helper T cells and in particular cells belonging to the Th2 subset play an important role in disease pathogenesis in humans. We investigated the cytokine pattern of CD4+ T cells in situ, with special emphasis on the putative presence of cells producing interleukin 4 (IL4), in cats with allergic dermatitis. Immunohistochemical procedures were used to determine that CD4+ T cells in lesional and nonlesional skin of cats with allergic dermatitis can produce IL4, as occurs in humans. Lesional and nonlesional skin of cats with allergic dermatitis had significantly more IL4+ T cells (P = 0.001) than did skin of healthy control cats. Double staining indicated that all IL4+ cells were positive for pan-T or CD4 markers. Double labeling for mast cell chymase and IL4 stained primarily different cells. Western blotting demonstrated cross-reactivity between the antibody against human IL4 and a feline recombinant IL4. These results indicate that IL4 is primarily produced by CD4+ T cells and is also present in clinically uninvolved skin, indicating a role in the pathogenesis of allergic dermatitis in cats.

  15. Contact dermatitis to methylisothiazolinone*

    PubMed Central

    Scherrer, Maria Antonieta Rios; Rocha, Vanessa Barreto; Andrade, Ana Regina Coelho

    2015-01-01

    Methylisothiazolinone (MI) is a preservative found in cosmetic and industrial products. Contact dermatitis caused by either methylchloroisothiazolinone/methylisothiazolinone (MCI/MI or Kathon CG) or MI has shown increasing frequency. The latter is preferably detected through epicutaneous testing with aqueous MI 2000 ppm, which is not included in the Brazilian standard tray. We describe a series of 23 patients tested using it and our standard tray. A case with negative reaction to MCI/MI and positive to MI is emphasized. PMID:26734880

  16. Causes of chromate dermatitis in Poland.

    PubMed

    Rudzki, E; Kozlowska, A

    1980-04-01

    A series of 250 consecutive patients with dermatitis and positive patch tests to chromate was divided into three groups: nonoccupational dermatitis (94), occupational dermatitis caused by chromate (132) and occupational dermatitis caused by allergens other than chromate (24). Only 17.2% of patients did not report harmful effects from chromium-tanned leather. Shoes were most often not tolerated. The role of matches in the development of chromate dermatitis is discussed. Observations on ash, household detergents, textiles, wood, tattooing, cement, galvanizing solutions, printer's ink, welding fumes, corrosion inhibitors and oils are described as causes of chromate dermatitis in Poland, as well as the localization of dermatitis and relevance of patch test reactions.

  17. Bone marrow edema pattern identification in patients with lytic bone lesions using digital subtraction angiography-like bone subtraction on large-area detector computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Gondim Teixeira, Pedro Augusto; Hossu, Gabriela; Lecocq, Sophie; Razeto, Marco; Louis, Matthias; Blum, Alain

    2014-03-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of digital subtraction angiography (DSA)-like bone subtraction with 2 different registration methods for the identification of bone marrow edema pattern (BMEP) in patients with lytic bone lesions, using magnetic resonance imaging as the criterion standard. Fifty-five patients with a lytic bone lesion were included in this prospective study with approval from the ethics committee. All patients underwent magnetic resonance imaging and low-dose computed tomographic (CT) perfusion after signing an informed consent. Two CT volumes were used for bone subtraction, which was performed with 2 different algorithms (rigid and nonrigid). Enhancement at the nonlytic bone marrow was considered as a sign of BMEP. Two readers evaluated the images blindly. The presence of BMEP on bone-subtracted CT images was evaluated subjectively and quantitatively. Image quality was assessed. Magnetic resonance imaging was used as the criterion standard. Using a rigid registration method, the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and accuracy of CT with DSA-like bone subtraction BMEP was 77%, 100%, 100%, 68%, and 85%, respectively. The interobserver agreement was good (κ, 0.782). Image quality was better using a nonrigid registration. With this algorithm, artifacts interfered with image interpretation in only 5% of cases. However, there was a noticeable drop in sensitivity and negative predictive value when a nonrigid algorithm was used: 56% and 52%, respectively. The interobserver agreement was average with a nonrigid subtraction algorithm. Computed tomography with DSA-like bone subtraction is sensitive and highly specific for the identification of BMEP associated with lytic bone lesions. Rigid registering should be preferred, but nonrigid algorithms can be used as a second option when artifacts interfere with image interpretation.

  18. Infective Dermatitis in an Adult Patient With HTLV-1

    PubMed Central

    Riveros, Rosalba; Medina, Raquel; Morel, Maida

    2015-01-01

    Abstract: Infective dermatitis is a chronic exudative eczematous eruption presenting in human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1)–infected people. It presents with relapsing erythematous, scaly, and crusted lesions affecting simultaneously the scalp, external ear, retroauricular area, eyelid, paranasal skin, neck axilla, and groin. Superimposed Staphylococcus and Streptococcus infection are common. It mainly affects children and exceptionally adults, and there are only a few published cases. The authors present the first reported case in Paraguay of an adult patient who had symptoms of human T-lymphotropic virus type 1–associated progressive tropical spastic paraparesis, and 6 years after the onset of the neurological symptoms, the patient developed infective dermatitis lesions on the skin, with frequent exacerbations since then. PMID:26588341

  19. Diagnostic yield of ink-jet prints from digital radiographs for the assessment of approximal carious lesions: ROC-analysis.

    PubMed

    Schulze, Ralf K W; Grimm, Stefanie; Schulze, Dirk; Voss, Kai; Keller, Hans-Peter; Wedel, Matthias

    2011-08-01

    To investigate the diagnostic quality of different quality, individually calibrated ink-jet printers for the very challenging dental radiographic task of approximal carious lesion detection. A test-pattern evaluating resolution, contrast and homogeneity of the ink-jet prints was developed. 50 standardized dental radiographs each showing two neighbouring teeth in natural contact were printed on glossy paper with calibrated, randomly selected ink-jet printers (Canon S520 and iP4500, Epson Stylus Photo R2400). Printing size equalled the viewing size on a 17″ cathode-ray-tube monitor daily quality-tested according to German regulations. The true caries status was determined from serial sectioning and microscopic evaluation. 16 experienced observers evaluated the radiographs on a five-point confidence scale on all prints plus the viewing monitor with respect to the visibility of a carious lesion. A non-parametric Receiver-Operating Characteristics (ROC-) analysis was performed explicitly designed for the evaluation of readings stemming from identical samples but different modality. Significant differences are expressed by a critical ratio z exceeding ±2. Diagnostic accuracy was determined by the area (Az) underneath the ROC-curves. Average Az-values ranged between 0.62 (S520 and R2400) and 0.64 (monitor, iP4500), with no significant difference between modalities (P=0.172). Neither significant (range mean z: -0.40 (S520) and -0.11 (iP4500)) nor clinically relevant differences were found between printers and viewing monitor. Our results for a challenging task in dental radiography indicate that calibrated, off-the-shelf ink-jet printers are able to reproduce (dental) radiographs at quality levels sufficient for radiographic diagnosis in a typical dental working environment. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Antioxidant Therapies for Ulcerative Dermatitis: A Potential Model for Skin Picking Disorder

    PubMed Central

    George, Nneka M.; Whitaker, Julia; Vieira, Giovana; Geronimo, Jerome T.; Bellinger, Dwight A.; Fletcher, Craig A.; Garner, Joseph P.

    2015-01-01

    Skin Picking Disorder affects 4% of the general population, with serious quality of life impacts, and potentially life threatening complications. Standard psychoactive medications do not help most patients. Similarly, Mouse Ulcerative Dermatitis (skin lesions caused by excessive abnormal grooming behavior) is very common in widely used inbred strains of mice, and represents a serious animal welfare issue and cause of mortality. Treatment options for Ulcerative Dermatitis are largely palliative and ineffective. We have proposed mouse Ulcerative Dermatitis as a model for human Skin Picking Disorder based on similar epidemiology, behavior, and its comorbidity and mechanistic overlap with hair pulling (trichotillomania). We predicted that mouse Ulcerative Dermatitis would be treated by N-Acetylcysteine, as this compound is highly effective in treating both Skin Picking Disorder and Trichotillomania. Furthermore, we hypothesized that N-Acetylcysteine’s mode of action is as a precursor to the production of the endogenous antioxidant glutathione in the brain, and therefore intranasal glutathione would also treat Ulcerative Dermatitis. Accordingly, we show in a heterogenous prospective trial, the significant reduction in Ulcerative Dermatitis lesion severity in mice receiving either N-acetylcysteine (oral administration) or glutathione (intranasal). The majority of mice treated with N-acetylcysteine improved slowly throughout the course of the study. Roughly half of the mice treated with glutathione showed complete resolution of lesion within 2-4 weeks, while the remainder did not respond. These findings are the first to show that the use of N-acetylcysteine and Glutathione can be curative for mouse Ulcerative Dermatitis. These findings lend additional support for mouse Ulcerative Dermatitis as a model of Skin Picking Disorder and also support oxidative stress and glutathione synthesis as the mechanism of action for these compounds. As N-Acetylcysteine is poorly

  1. Antioxidant Therapies for Ulcerative Dermatitis: A Potential Model for Skin Picking Disorder.

    PubMed

    George, Nneka M; Whitaker, Julia; Vieira, Giovana; Geronimo, Jerome T; Bellinger, Dwight A; Fletcher, Craig A; Garner, Joseph P

    2015-01-01

    Skin Picking Disorder affects 4% of the general population, with serious quality of life impacts, and potentially life threatening complications. Standard psychoactive medications do not help most patients. Similarly, Mouse Ulcerative Dermatitis (skin lesions caused by excessive abnormal grooming behavior) is very common in widely used inbred strains of mice, and represents a serious animal welfare issue and cause of mortality. Treatment options for Ulcerative Dermatitis are largely palliative and ineffective. We have proposed mouse Ulcerative Dermatitis as a model for human Skin Picking Disorder based on similar epidemiology, behavior, and its comorbidity and mechanistic overlap with hair pulling (trichotillomania). We predicted that mouse Ulcerative Dermatitis would be treated by N-Acetylcysteine, as this compound is highly effective in treating both Skin Picking Disorder and Trichotillomania. Furthermore, we hypothesized that N-Acetylcysteine's mode of action is as a precursor to the production of the endogenous antioxidant glutathione in the brain, and therefore intranasal glutathione would also treat Ulcerative Dermatitis. Accordingly, we show in a heterogenous prospective trial, the significant reduction in Ulcerative Dermatitis lesion severity in mice receiving either N-acetylcysteine (oral administration) or glutathione (intranasal). The majority of mice treated with N-acetylcysteine improved slowly throughout the course of the study. Roughly half of the mice treated with glutathione showed complete resolution of lesion within 2-4 weeks, while the remainder did not respond. These findings are the first to show that the use of N-acetylcysteine and Glutathione can be curative for mouse Ulcerative Dermatitis. These findings lend additional support for mouse Ulcerative Dermatitis as a model of Skin Picking Disorder and also support oxidative stress and glutathione synthesis as the mechanism of action for these compounds. As N-Acetylcysteine is poorly tolerated

  2. Assessment of a correlation between Canine Atopic Dermatitis Extent and Severity Index (CADESI-03) and selected biophysical skin measures (skin hydration, pH, and erythema intensity) in dogs with naturally occurring atopic dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Zając, Marcin; Szczepanik, Marcin P.; Wilkołek, Piotr M.; Adamek, Łukasz R.; Pomorski, Zbigniew J.H.; Sitkowski, Wiesław; Gołyński, Marcin

    2015-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis is a common allergic skin disease in dogs. The aim of this study was to examine the possibility of a correlation between biophysical skin variables: skin hydration (SH), skin pH, and erythema intensity measured in 10 different body regions and both total Canine Atopic Dermatitis Extent and Severity Index (CADESI-03) and CADESI measured in a given region (CADESI L). The study was conducted using 33 dogs with atopic dermatitis. The assessment of the biophysical variables was done in 10 body regions: the lumbar region, right axillary fossa, right inguinal region, ventral abdominal region, right lateral thorax region, internal surface of the auricle, interdigital region of right forelimb, cheek, bridge of nose, and lateral site of antebrachum. Positive correlations were found between SH and CADESI L for the following regions: the inguinal region (r = 0.73) and the interdigital region (r = 0.82), as well as between total CADESI and SH on digital region (r = 0.52). Also, positive correlations were reported for skin pH and CADESI L in the lumbar region (r = 0.57), the right lateral thorax region (r = 0.40), and the lateral antebrachum (r = 0.35). Positive correlations were found in the interdigital region between erythema intensity and the total CADESI-03 (r = 0.60) as well as the CADESI L (r = 0.7). The results obtained suggest that it may be possible to use skin hydration, pH, and erythema intensity to assess the severity of skin lesion but positive correlation was only found in < 13.3% of possible correlations and usage of these measures in dogs is limited. PMID:25852229

  3. Annular lichenoid dermatitis of youth--a further case in a 12-year-old girl.

    PubMed

    Kleikamp, Stefanie; Kutzner, Heinz; Frosch, Peter J

    2008-08-01

    Annular lichenoid dermatitis of youth was first described by Annessi et al. in 2003. Clinical criteria are persistent erythematous macules and annular lesions with a red-brown edge and a central hypopigmentation usually found on the flanks and groins of children and adolescents. Histologically, the disease is characterized by a lichenoid interface dermatitis with necrotic keratinocytes at the tip of the rete ridges. In our case a 12-year old girl developed annular red-brown macules with papules at the borders in an inframammary location. The histology of the lesion's border showed a lichenoid lymphocytic infiltrate with apoptotic keratinocytes at the tip of rete ridges. The lesions cleared with 0.03% tacrolimus ointment. Annular lichenoid dermatitis of youth is probably a new entity in the group of lichenoid dermatoses.

  4. Mosquito bite-caused eosinophilic dermatitis in cats.

    PubMed

    Mason, K V; Evans, A G

    1991-06-15

    Eight cats had lesions on the nasal bridge, ears, and footpads, with histologic and hematologic features of a recently described seasonal form of eosinophilic granuloma complex. Four cats were examined in detail, and it was established that 2 of the 4 reacted to mosquito extract on intradermal skin testing read at 20 minutes. Neither of the 2 cats tested had deposits of immunoglobulins in lesional or perilesional skin. Lesions on all 4 cats resolved when kept at home behind insect screening, but flared up if the screening was removed. Mosquitoes that were observed to be biting and causing lesions were collected and identified. Other species of laboratory-reared mosquitoes were allowed to bite nonlesional skin of 1 affected cat, causing pruritus, erythematous crusting, and ulcerative lesions at the bite site, which was characterized histologically as eosinophilic dermatitis.

  5. [Allergic contact dermatitis caused by plants].

    PubMed

    Fernández de Corres, L; Corrales, J L; Muñoz, D; Leanizbarrutia, I

    1984-01-01

    The proliferation of house and garden plants, some of them highly sensitizing, produced by the general improvement of the standard of living, is causing an increase in the number of cases of contact dermatitis from plants with both irritative and allergic mechanisms. During the past 12 years, we have studied 43 cases of allergic eczema caused by plant contact as primary sensitization which supposes 2.4% of the patients with allergic contact dermatitis attended in our Services. The majority of patients were women (65%) as opposed to 35% men while the ages varied from 12 to 70 years with an average of 44.5. Below the age of 25 there were only 3 cases (6.9%) 12, 18 and 20 years respectively. In the clinical study, as well as the profession, secondary activities and hobbies were also evaluated. Through localization of lesions, an attempt was made to determine how the patient came in to contact with the different plants. The diagnosis was confirmed by the use of epicutaneous tests, as recommended by the ICDRG (3). Some plants in a natural state were used but etheral extracts were preferred. In cases of photo-dermatitis, photo-patch-tests were carried out using standard photo-sensitizers and suspected plants. The plants found to be responsible were: Allium (garlic) in 11 cases, Frullania in 8, Primula (primrose) in 8. Compositae (composites) in 6, Pinus (pine) in 3, Umbelliferae (umbellifers) in 3, Philodendron (philodendron) in 1, Pelagonium (pelargonium) in 1, Citrus (citrus) in 1 and Chlorophora (iroko) in 1. The frequency of reactions to garlic and primrose is particularly interesting and their characteristics will be the object of a later study.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  6. Shiitake Mushroom Dermatitis: A Review.

    PubMed

    Stephany, Mathew Paul; Chung, Stella; Handler, Marc Zachary; Handler, Nancy Stefanie; Handler, Glenn A; Schwartz, Robert A

    2016-10-01

    Shiitake mushroom dermatitis is a cutaneous reaction caused by the consumption of raw or undercooked shiitake mushrooms. Symptoms include linear erythematous eruptions with papules, papulovesicles or plaques, and severe pruritus. It is likely caused by lentinan, a heat-inactivated beta-glucan polysaccharide. Cases were initially reported in Japan but have now been documented in other Asian countries, North America, South America, and Europe, as this mushroom is now cultivated and consumed worldwide. Shiitake mushroom dermatitis may result from mushroom ingestion or from handling, which can result in an allergic contact dermatitis.

  7. Post-varicella-zoster virus granulomatous dermatitis: a report of 2 cases.

    PubMed

    Wright, Natalie A; Torres-Cabala, Carlos A; Curry, Jonathan L; Cutlan, Jonathan E; Hymes, Sharon R

    2014-01-01

    Granulomatous dermatitis (GD) is known to occur following varicella-zoster virus (VZV) infection. Lesions may appear at varying times after the acute eruption in both immunosuppressed and immunocompetent hosts. The etiology of GD is unclear, and findings of VZV in the lesions often are inconsistent. We describe 2 immunocompromised patients who presented with GD following VZV infection; their lesions were examined for the presence of VZV. We also review the literature on postzoster GD.

  8. An immunological study in patients with seborrhoeic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Bergbrant, I M; Johansson, S; Robbins, D; Scheynius, A; Faergemann, J; Söderström, T

    1991-09-01

    The humoral and cellular immune-status was studied in 30 patients with seborrhoeic dermatitis. Increased frequencies of natural killer cells were found in 46% of patients. Furthermore, subnormal mitogen stimulation responses were demonstrated in 13 patients, whereas two individuals were found to have very high numbers of activated T lymphocytes in peripheral blood. Higher-than-normal total serum IgG and IgA was observed in 14 and 11 patients, respectively. For nine of 12 patients with skin lesions, dermal perivascular cell infiltrates were seen. The majority of the infiltrating cells reacted with anti-CD4 antibodies. HLA-DR-expressing keratinocytes were found in two biopsies. The study suggests that patients with seborrhoeic dermatitis may have depressed T-cell function. This could have a bearing on their susceptibility to the Pityrosporum ovale-associated dermatitis. The very high frequencies of activated T cells observed in the peripheral blood of two otherwise healthy seborrhoeic individuals suggests that intermittent systemic immune activation may occur. Seborrhoeic dermatitis is a common skin disease. It can be diagnosed by its characteristic red to yellow-brown lesions covered with greasy scales distributed in areas with a high number of sebaceous glands, such as the scalp, face and upper trunk. There is an association between seborrhoeic dermatitis and the lipophilic yeast Pityrosporum ovale but its exact aetiological role is not known. The yeast is a member of the normal cutaneous flora but also the aetiological agent of pityriasis versicolor and Pityrosporum folliculitis. P. ovale can activate complement via the direct and alternative pathways. This may play some part in the induction of inflammation.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  9. "Car seat dermatitis": a newly described form of contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Ghali, Fred E

    2011-01-01

    Over the last several years, our clinic has documented an increasing trend of contact dermatitis presenting in areas that are in direct contact with certain types of car seats composed of a shiny, nylon-like material. Our practice has encountered these cases in both atopic and nonatopic infants, with a seasonal predilection for the warmer months. This brief report highlights some of the key features of this condition and alerts the clinician to this newly described form of contact dermatitis.

  10. Evaluation of computer-aided detection of lesions in mammograms obtained with a digital phase-contrast mammography system.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Toyohiko; Nitta, Norihisa; Ohta, Shinichi; Kobayashi, Tsuyoshi; Kano, Akiko; Tsuchiya, Keiko; Murakami, Yoko; Kitahara, Sawako; Wakamiya, Makoto; Furukawa, Akira; Takahashi, Masashi; Murata, Kiyoshi

    2009-12-01

    A computer-aided detection (CAD) system was evaluated for its ability to detect microcalcifications and masses on images obtained with a digital phase-contrast mammography (PCM) system, a system characterised by the sharp images provided by phase contrast and by the high resolution of 25-μm-pixel mammograms. Fifty abnormal and 50 normal mammograms were collected from about 3,500 mammograms and printed on film for reading on a light box. Seven qualified radiologists participated in an observer study based on receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. The average of the areas under ROC curve (AUC) values for the ROC analysis with and without CAD were 0.927 and 0.897 respectively (P = 0.015). The AUC values improved from 0.840 to 0.888 for microcalcifications (P = 0.034) and from 0.947 to 0.962 for masses (P = 0.025) respectively. The application of CAD to the PCM system is a promising approach for the detection of breast cancer in its early stages.

  11. Documentation of impaired epidermal barrier in mild and moderate diaper dermatitis in vivo using noninvasive methods.

    PubMed

    Stamatas, Georgios N; Zerweck, Charles; Grove, Gary; Martin, Katharine M

    2011-01-01

    The presence of irritants from feces and urine with the concurrent mechanical friction and occlusion creates an environment in the diapered area that renders the skin prone to diaper dermatitis. Besides being a source of discomfort to the infant, these skin irritations pose a risk of secondary infections. In this study, we used noninvasive in vivo techniques to define measurable parameters that correlate with diaper dermatitis pathophysiology. In 35 infants (16 with mild or moderate and 19 without diaper dermatitis) we compared skin of diapered areas afflicted with diaper dermatitis to lesion-free diapered sites and to skin outside the diapered area (thigh). Our findings show significantly elevated cutaneous erythema, pH, and hydration, with significantly compromised water barrier function in involved areas compared to nonlesional sites both within and outside the diapered area. Furthermore, skin pH in nonlesional diapered skin for the diaper dermatitis cohort was significantly higher compared to the nondiapered sites. These observations are consistent with the current understanding of pathological skin changes in diaper dermatitis. In this study, we demonstrate that noninvasive methods can document relevant parameters to diaper dermatitis in vivo.

  12. Seborrheic Dermatitis: Signs and Symptoms

    MedlinePlus

    ... World Dialogues in Dermatology JAAD Mohs AUC MyDermPath+ Psoriasis Patient education resources Practice Management Center Coding and ... joints Rashes Scaly skin Actinic keratosis Ichthyosis vulgaris Psoriasis Psoriasis video library Seborrheic dermatitis Skin cancer Why ...

  13. Atopic dermatitis and Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Arslanagic, Naima; Arslanagic, Rusmir

    2004-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis is chronic, pruritic inflammatory skin disorder strongly influenced by environmental factors. Staplylococcus aurcus is the common pathogen and colonize the normal skin but it is not number of normal skin flora. Damaged protective skin function by atopic dermatitis, the disturbance of quantity and quality of lipids of stratum corneum are some of the reasons for increasing degree of skin colonisation with staphylococcus aureus. We had presented frequency of the isolation staphylococcus aureus from eczematous atopic skin, from the nose and throat of atopic patients and also from clinically unaffected atopic skin in the group of 30 children compared with 15 healthy children without positive atopic family history. Staphylococcus aureus had been significantly more isolated by all earlier mentioned places in atopic group of children. There is a direct correlation between intensity and also extensity of atopic dermatitis and frequency of the isolation of staphylococcus aureus from mentioned places. The role of staphylococcus aureus in pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis was discussed.

  14. Dermatitis in rubber manufacturing industries

    SciTech Connect

    White, I.R.

    1988-01-01

    This review describes the history of rubber technology and the manufacturing techniques used in rubber manufacturing industries. The important aspects of the acquisition of allergic and irritant contact dermatitis within the industry are presented for the reader.

  15. Dermatitis herpetiformis in siblings.

    PubMed

    Chmurova, N; Parnicka, Z; Svecova, D; Manova, A; Simaljakova, M

    2007-01-01

    Two Caucasian sisters, XZ and YZ, suffered from DH. However, the clinical course of their diseases was different; patient XZ, contrary to her sister YZ, suffered besides dermatitis herpetiformis (DH) also from coeliac disease (CD) and an autoimmune thyroid disease. The sisters were ordered to adhere to gluten-free diet and dapsone was prescribed, however, patient XZ developed a hypersensitivity to dapsone. The HLA typing disclosed that they were homozygous and that they shared HLA alleles DQB1*0201. Our results confirm the known association of DH to other autoimmune disorders and its well established association the HLA-DQB1*0201 allele. Although DH is generally not regarded as a familial disease our case report suggests its familial character (Fig. 3, Ref. 10). Full Text (Free, PDF) www.bmj.sk.

  16. Stretch Garment Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Mihan, Richard; Ayres, Samuel

    1968-01-01

    A disease of the skin, not hitherto described, is caused by pressure or tension on the skin from the wearing of tight-fitting stretch garments such as “stretch bras,” “stretch girdles” and “stretch socks.” The condition is not due to chemical sensitization of fabrics, dyes or other additives but is of mechanical origin. The eruption may assume various clinical forms and may be characterized by a nondescript erythematous and eczematous appearance or may consist of an exaggeration, in the areas covered by the stretch garment, of already existing dermatosis such as lichen planus, psoriasis, acne vulgaris, discoid lupus erythematosus or atopic dermatitis. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4.Figure 5. PMID:5639939

  17. Contact dermatitis to Alstroemeria.

    PubMed

    Santucci, B; Picardo, M; Iavarone, C; Trogolo, C

    1985-04-01

    A study was carried out on 50 workers in a floriculture centre to evaluate the incidence of contact dermatitis to Alstroemeria. 3 subjects gave positive reactions to aqueous and ethanolic extracts of cut flowers, stems and leaves. By column chromatography, the allergen was isolated and its chemical structure identified as 6-tuliposide A by proton magnetic resonance and carbon-13 magnetic resonance. Only 6-tuliposide A was isolated from cut flowers, and this gave positive reactions when patch tested at 0.01%; a-methylene-gamma-butyrolactone at 10(-5) (v/v) was positive in the same 3 subjects. Other lactones (gamma-methylene-gamma-butyrolactone, alantolactone, isoalantolactone) were negative at all concentrations used.

  18. [Atopic dermatitis and allergy].

    PubMed

    Karila, C

    2013-08-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a very common chronic inflammatory skin disease in childhood, often the first step in the atopic march. It seems justified to look for a food or a respiratory allergy, being worsening or responsible for the AD. At infant age, some clinical features are consistent with a food allergy: a severe AD, with an early onset, uncontrolled by topical corticosteroids, and a history of immediate-type reactions. As sensitization to food allergens is very common (positive skin prick-test, atopy patch-test or specific IgE), the role of food allergens in worsening AD is difficult to affirm. So, it could be necessary to ask the advice of an allergist, to avoid unnecessary elimination diets. At older age, exposure to aeroallergens cans worsen AD. Looking for an aeroallergen allergy can help to choose the specific immunotherapy, which clinical efficacy on AD seems interesting.

  19. Naltrexone for treatment of acral lick dermatitis in dogs.

    PubMed

    White, S D

    1990-04-01

    Acral lick dermatitis (lick granuloma) was diagnosed in 11 dogs on the basis of history, physical examination, and histopathologic findings. A predilection for the left forelimb was noticed. All 11 dogs were given the narcotic antagonist naltrexone. Successful treatment (cessation of licking, reepithelialization of lesions) was seen in 7 dogs. All 7 dogs' lesions recurred when naltrexone was stopped, but reepithelialized in 5 dogs when the drug was readministered. Adverse effects (drowsiness, withdrawal from owner) were seen in 1 dog, but resolved within 48 hours of stopping the drug.

  20. Dermatitis artifacta of tongue: A rare case report

    PubMed Central

    Sahoo, Surjeet; Choudhury, Snehalata

    2016-01-01

    Dermatitis artifacta is a psychiatric disorder in which the patient deliberately produces self-inflicted skin lesions to satisfy an unconscious psychological or emotional need, often a desire to receive medical treatment. We present a case of a 20-year-old female with pain in abdomen, pain during urination, and multiple skin lesions, mostly in the reach of her dominant hand and in tongue. She gave a history of several episodes of similar illnesses with admission in various hospitals. She was improved with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, supportive and insight-oriented psychotherapy. PMID:27385859

  1. Allergic contact dermatitis to Alstroemeria.

    PubMed

    Marks, J G

    1988-06-01

    Two female florists developed dermatitis of the fingertips. Patch testing revealed allergic contact dermatitis to the flower, Alstroemeria, used in floral arrangements. They had positive patch tests to portions of Alstroemeria, and to tuliposide A, the allergen in this plant. Vinyl gloves were not helpful since tuliposide A readily penetrates through these gloves. Nitrile gloves may be protective since they prevented positive patch test to tuliposide A.

  2. Comparison of autologous bone marrow and adipose tissue derived mesenchymal stem cells, and platelet rich plasma, for treating surgically induced lesions of the equine superficial digital flexor tendon.

    PubMed

    Romero, A; Barrachina, L; Ranera, B; Remacha, A R; Moreno, B; de Blas, I; Sanz, A; Vázquez, F J; Vitoria, A; Junquera, C; Zaragoza, P; Rodellar, C

    2017-06-01

    Several therapies have been investigated for equine tendinopathies, but satisfactory long term results have not been achieved consistently and a better understanding of the healing mechanism elicited by regenerative therapies is needed. The aim of this study was to assess the separate effects of autologous bone marrow (BM) and adipose tissue (AT) derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), and platelet rich plasma (PRP), for treating lesions induced in the superficial digital flexor tendon (SDFT) of horses. Lesions were created surgically in both SDFTs of the forelimbs of 12 horses and were treated with BM-MSCs (six tendons), AT-MSCs (six tendons) or PRP (six tendons). The remaining six tendons received lactated Ringer's solution as control. Serial ultrasound assessment was performed prior to treatment and at 2, 6, 10, 20 and 45 weeks post-treatment. At 45 weeks, histopathology and gene expression analyses were performed. At week 6, the ultrasound echogenicity score in tendons treated with BM-MSCs suggested earlier improvement, whilst all treatment groups reached the same level at week 10, which was superior to the control group. Collagen orientation scores on histological examination suggested a better outcome in treated tendons. Gene expression was indicative of better tissue regeneration after all treatments, especially for BM-MSCs, as suggested by upregulation of collagen type I, decorin, tenascin and matrix metalloproteinase III mRNA. Considering all findings, a clear beneficial effect was elicited by all treatments compared with the control group. Although differences between treatments were relatively small, BM-MSCs resulted in a better outcome than PRP and AT-MSCs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Contact dermatitis to cobalt chloride with an unusual mechanism.

    PubMed

    Arslan, Sevket; Aksan, Serkan; Ucar, Ramazan; Caliskaner, Ahmet Zafer

    2015-10-01

    Contact dermatitis is a frequent inflammatory skin disease. A suspected diagnosis is based on clinical symptoms, a plausible contact to allergens and a suitable history of dermatitis. Therefore, careful diagnosis by patch testing is of great importance because the patch testing is important to find out which allergen/material causes the complaints. Metallic allergens such as cobalt are among the most common causes of allergic contact dermatitis, but frequencies of contact dermatitis to these allergens may vary in different skin areas. Here, we report an unusual case of cobalt allergy on the skin contact with the prosthetic leg of a 30-year-old female patient. The patient developed maculopapular and vesicular lesions on her contact region of residual limb to prosthetic leg. She underwent standard patch testing, which resulted in a strong positive reaction to cobalt chloride. This case report may serve to remind doctors to be aware of potential allergic reactions to prostheses and to enable them to recognize a metal allergy if it appears. Prosthetists should also be reminded of potential allergic reactions. Cobalt can be used as an accelerator in making a prosthetic socket. Several cases have been reported concerning allergies to components of the prosthetic socket. This is the first report of sensitization to cobalt which is used in making a prosthetic leg. © The International Society for Prosthetics and Orthotics 2014.

  4. The Skin Microbiome in Atopic Dermatitis and Its Relationship to Emollients.

    PubMed

    Lynde, Charles W; Andriessen, Anneke; Bertucci, Vince; McCuaig, Catherine; Skotnicki, Sandy; Weinstein, Miriam; Wiseman, Marni; Zip, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Human-associated bacterial communities on the skin, skin microbiome, likely play a central role in development of immunity and protection from pathogens. In atopic patients, the skin bacterial diversity is smaller than in healthy subjects. To review treatment strategies for atopic dermatitis in Canada, taking the skin microbiome concept into account. An expert panel of 8 Canadian dermatologists explored the role of skin microbiome in clinical dermatology, specifically looking at atopic dermatitis. The panel reached consensus on the following: (1) In atopic patients, the skin microbiome of lesional atopic skin is different from nonlesional skin in adjacent areas. (2) Worsening atopic dermatitis and smaller bacterial diversity are strongly associated. (3) Application of emollients containing antioxidant and antibacterial components may increase microbiome diversity in atopic skin. The skin microbiome may be the next frontier in preventive health and may impact the approach to atopic dermatitis treatment. © The Author(s) 2015.

  5. [The diagnosis and treatment of perianal dermatitis].

    PubMed

    Lenhard, Bernhard H

    2004-01-01

    Perianal dermatitis is one of the most common proctological disorders. The anatomy of the anal region provides suitable conditions for the development of dermatitis. In the diagnostic work-up and the management of patients with perianal dermatitis, three types need to be distinguished: irritant contact dermatitis, atopic dermatitis, and allergic contact dermatitis. Each type has its aetiological and pathogenetic factors, which will provide clues to the diagnosis and subsequent management of the condition. In the differential diagnosis of the condition, consideration should be given to inflammatory diseases of the perianal region which may produce eczema-like patterns.

  6. Skin Barrier Defects in Atopic Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Rachana; Woodfolk, Judith A.

    2014-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic inflammatory skin condition with complex etiology that is dependent upon interactions between the host and the environment. Acute skin lesions exhibit the features of a Th2-driven inflammatory disorder and many patients are highly atopic. The skin barrier plays key roles in immune surveillance and homeostasis, and in preventing penetration of microbial products and allergens. Defects that compromise the structural integrity, or else the immune function of the skin barrier play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of AD. This article provides an overview of the array of molecular building blocks that are essential to maintaining healthy skin. The basis for structural defects in the skin is discussed in relation to AD, with an emphasis on filaggrin and its genetic underpinnings. Aspects of innate immunity, including the role of anti-microbial peptides and proteases are also discussed. PMID:24633617

  7. Allergic contact dermatitis from temporary henna tattoo.

    PubMed

    Jovanovic, Dragan L; Slavkovic-Jovanovic, Maja R

    2009-01-01

    Temporary henna tattooing has been very popular during recent years. Henna (Lawsonia inermis) is a plant from the Lythraceae family. For henna tattooing, henna dye is used. It is a dark green powder, made from the leaves of the plant, used for hair dyeing and body tattooing. Very often, para-phenylenediamine (PPD) is added to henna dye to make color blacker and to speed up dyeing. PPD may be a very potent contact sensitizer. We report a 9-year-old boy with allergic contact dermatitis due to temporary henna tattooing. Patch testing showed a positive reaction to PPD. After the treatment with topical corticosteroid and oral antihistamines, the lesion cleared with discrete residual hypopigmentation.

  8. Skin barrier defects in atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Rachana; Woodfolk, Judith A

    2014-05-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic inflammatory skin condition with complex etiology that is dependent upon interactions between the host and the environment. Acute skin lesions exhibit the features of a Th2-driven inflammatory disorder, and many patients are highly atopic. The skin barrier plays key roles in immune surveillance and homeostasis, and in preventing penetration of microbial products and allergens. Defects that compromise the structural integrity or else the immune function of the skin barrier play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of AD. This article provides an overview of the array of molecular building blocks that are essential to maintaining healthy skin. The basis for structural defects in the skin is discussed in relation to AD, with an emphasis on filaggrin and its genetic underpinnings. Aspects of innate immunity, including the role of antimicrobial peptides and proteases, are also discussed.

  9. Current status of atopic dermatitis in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Chiba, Takahito; Takeuchi, Satoshi

    2011-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common, chronic or chronically relapsing, severely pruritic, eczematous skin disease. AD is the second most frequently observed skin disease in dermatology clinics in Japan. Prevalence of childhood AD is 12-13% in mainland Japan; however, it is only half that (about 6%) in children from Ishigaki Island, Okinawa. Topical steroids and tacrolimus are the mainstay of treatment. However, the adverse effects and emotional fear of long-term use of topical steroids have induced a "topical steroid phobia" in patients throughout the world. Undertreatment can exacerbate facial/periocular lesions and lead to the development of atopic cataract and retinal detachment due to repeated scratching/rubbing/patting. Overcoming topical steroid phobia is a key issue for the successful treatment of AD through education, understanding and cooperation of patients and their guardians. PMID:22053299

  10. Candida--agent of the diaper dermatitis?

    PubMed

    Dorko, E; Virágová, S; Pilipcinec, E; Tkáciková, L

    2003-01-01

    Occurrence of Candida spp. was determined in a population of 60 infants, 1-15-month-old, with diaper dermatitis, admitted to a neonatal intensive care unit in Hospital Saca (Kosice, Slovakia). Specimens were obtained from the perianal, pubic, inguinal, or gluteal areas that showed signs of secondary infection as manifested by erythema, oozing, vesiculopustular lesions, and pus formation. The most frequently isolated species was C. albicans (41), followed by C. parapsilosis (8), C. tropicalis (4), C. pulcherrima (4), C. guilliermondii (2), and C. zeylanoides (1). Other organisms present in the mixed culture from the diaper area were Staphylococcus aureus (6), Escherichia coli (3), and 2 strains of each group B and D streptococci, and Proteus mirabilis. Infants diapered exclusively in disposable diapers showed less rash than those diapered exclusively or sometimes in cloth diapers.

  11. Neutrophilic and eosinophilic dermatitis caused by contact allergic reaction to paraphenylenediamine in hair dye.

    PubMed

    Lönngren, Vincent; Young, Ewa; Simanaitis, Mecius; Svedman, Cecilia

    2012-11-01

    Paraphenylenediamine (PPD) in hair dyes can cause systemic as well as cutaneous allergic reactions such as neutrophilic and eosinophilic dermatitis. The symptoms are often severe. The acute lesion is normally histologically indistinguishable from any eczematous reaction with marked spongiosis. We report a case of allergic contact dermatitis caused by the use of hair dye containing PPD that developed in a patient who had been using the same hair dye for many years. Her symptoms included scalp dermatitis and widespread skin lesions as well as lymphadenopathy and quite possibly dyspnea resembling asthma. What is most remarkable about this case is the histopathologic finding of neutrophilic cellulitis and a marked neutrophilic infiltrate with variable spongiosis. This unique finding was confirmed by histologic analysis of a patch test lesion specimen. It is always important to consider contact allergic dermatitis as a cause of dermatitis because of the variable presentation of the disease, including unique histologic findings that do not fit the conventional picture, as in the present case.

  12. Feline atopic dermatitis. A model for Langerhans cell participation in disease pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Roosje, P J; Whitaker-Menezes, D; Goldschmidt, M H; Moore, P F; Willemse, T; Murphy, G F

    1997-10-01

    Atopic dermatitis is a disorder characterized by cutaneous exanthemata as a consequence of exaggerated eczematous reactions to topical and systemic allergens. Langerhans cells, expressing CD1a and HLA-DR, and dermal dendritic cells, expressing HLA-DR, are known to be potent antigen-presenting cells and are thought to play an important role in the pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis. The immunophenotype of lesional skin in atopic dermatitis in humans involves increased numbers of CD1a+/MHC class II+ dendritic cells in addition to activated T cells, mast cells, and macrophages. To establish feline skin as a model for the study of human atopic dermatitis, and to elucidate the role of dendritic cells in feline atopic dermatitis, we investigated the presence of CD1a+ cells and MHC class II+ cells in the epidermis and dermis of lesional feline skin and in skin of healthy control animals. Immunohistochemistry revealed that MHC class II+ epidermal dendritic cells were CD1a+ in normal feline skin and significantly increased numbers of CD1a+ cells and MHC class II+ cells were present in the epidermis and dermis of lesional skin. These data provide the first correlative documentation of CD1a expression by feline dendritic cells containing Birbeck granules, and indicate the utility of feline skin in the study of human cutaneous atopy.

  13. Caterpillar dermatitis revisited: lepidopterism after contact with oak processionary caterpillar

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Cornelia S L; Tilgen, Wolfgang; Pföhler, Claudia

    2011-01-01

    Caterpillar dermatitis (lepidopterism) is a disease that is caused by butterflies, moths and their caterpillars. Clinical signs and symptoms vary from itchy skin lesions to conjunctivitis, pharyngitis, malaise and anaphylactic reactions. We present the case of two brothers with typical skin lesions of leptidopterism. The older boy showed skin lesions after playing with caterpillars in the garden, whereas his younger brother was affected without direct contact to the caterpillars but only by playing with his brother. As the mother could show two caterpillars, lepidopterism could easily be diagnosed. Under a local therapy with a medium potent corticosteroid cream and a non-sedating orally administered antihistamine, all skin lesions as well as itching disappeared within 1 week. PMID:22696629

  14. Multispectral imaging based on a Smartphone with an external C-MOS camera for detection of seborrheic dermatitis on the scalp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Manjae; Kim, Sewoong; Hwang, Minjoo; Kim, Jihun; Je, Minkyu; Jang, Jae Eun; Lee, Dong Hun; Hwang, Jae Youn

    2017-02-01

    To date, the incident rates of various skin diseases have increased due to hereditary and environmental factors including stress, irregular diet, pollution, etc. Among these skin diseases, seborrheic dermatitis and psoriasis are a chronic/relapsing dermatitis involving infection and temporary alopecia. However, they typically exhibit similar symptoms, thus resulting in difficulty in discrimination between them. To prevent their associated complications and appropriate treatments for them, it is crucial to discriminate between seborrheic dermatitis and psoriasis with high specificity and sensitivity and further continuously/quantitatively to monitor the skin lesions during their treatment at other locations besides a hospital. Thus, we here demonstrate a mobile multispectral imaging system connected to a smartphone for selfdiagnosis of seborrheic dermatitis and further discrimination between seborrheic dermatitis and psoriasis on the scalp, which is the more challenging case. Using the system developed, multispectral imaging and analysis of seborrheic dermatitis and psoriasis on the scalp was carried out. It was here found that the spectral signatures of seborrheic dermatitis and psoriasis were discernable and thus seborrheic dermatitis on the scalp could be distinguished from psoriasis by using the system. In particular, the smartphone-based multispectral imaging and analysis moreover offered better discrimination between seborrheic dermatitis and psoriasis than the RGB imaging and analysis. These results suggested that the multispectral imaging system based on a smartphone has the potential for self-diagnosis of seborrheic dermatitis with high portability and specificity.

  15. [Skin tests in chronic hand dermatitis].

    PubMed

    Bernier, C; Gélot, P

    2014-06-01

    Chronic hand dermatitis is often multifactorial but allergic causes are frequent and can complicate atopic dermatitis or irritant dermatitis. The management of patients affected by hand dermatitis includes detailed interrogation and a complete examination of the skin. Allergologic tests must be systematically realized if examination is suggestive of contact dermatitis or protein contact dermatitis, if an occupational origin is suspected but also in all patients in which treatment is ineffective. Skin tests include patch tests with the European standard series, specialized or additional series if necessary. Skin tests may also include personal items used by patients on a daily basis. If protein contact dermatitis is suspected skin tests include prick tests. Only complete and definitive eviction of allergens can allow a complete and definitive cure of chronic hand dermatitis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Effects of Cymbidium Root Ethanol Extract on Atopic Dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Wan-Joong; Cha, Hae-Sim; Lee, Myung-Hun; Kim, Sun-Young; Kim, Seo Ho; Kim, Tack-Joong

    2016-01-01

    Cymbidium has known antibacterial and antiedema activity and has been used as an ingredient in cosmetics and fragrances. The effects of Cymbidium ethanol extract (CYM) on allergic response and the underlying mechanisms of action have not been reported. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the effect of CYM on allergic responses. Topical application of CYM was effective against immunoglobulin E (IgE)/dinitrophenyl-conjugated bovine serum albumin- (DNP-BSA-) induced degranulation of RBL-2H3 cells and anaphylaxis in ICR mice. An allergic dermatitis-like mouse model was used to evaluate the therapeutic potential of CYM in vivo. Continuous application of 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) not only induced dermatitis in ICR mice but also aggravated the skin lesioning. However, the application of CYM decreased skin lesion severity, scratching behavior, and IgE levels. In addition, CYM downregulated the expression of the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin- (IL-) 4, IL-13, and tumor necrosis factor- (TNF-) α. Studies of signal transduction pathways showed that CYM suppressed the phosphorylation of spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk), an upstream molecule. It also inhibited the phosphorylation of Akt, phospholipase C- (PLC-) γ, and mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase (MEKK). These results indicate that CYM may be effective in preventing and reducing allergic response and may have therapeutic potential as an antiallergic agent in disorders such as atopic dermatitis.

  17. Effects of Cymbidium Root Ethanol Extract on Atopic Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Wan-Joong; Cha, Hae-Sim; Lee, Myung-Hun; Kim, Sun-Young; Kim, Seo Ho; Kim, Tack-Joong

    2016-01-01

    Cymbidium has known antibacterial and antiedema activity and has been used as an ingredient in cosmetics and fragrances. The effects of Cymbidium ethanol extract (CYM) on allergic response and the underlying mechanisms of action have not been reported. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the effect of CYM on allergic responses. Topical application of CYM was effective against immunoglobulin E (IgE)/dinitrophenyl-conjugated bovine serum albumin- (DNP-BSA-) induced degranulation of RBL-2H3 cells and anaphylaxis in ICR mice. An allergic dermatitis-like mouse model was used to evaluate the therapeutic potential of CYM in vivo. Continuous application of 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) not only induced dermatitis in ICR mice but also aggravated the skin lesioning. However, the application of CYM decreased skin lesion severity, scratching behavior, and IgE levels. In addition, CYM downregulated the expression of the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin- (IL-) 4, IL-13, and tumor necrosis factor- (TNF-) α. Studies of signal transduction pathways showed that CYM suppressed the phosphorylation of spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk), an upstream molecule. It also inhibited the phosphorylation of Akt, phospholipase C- (PLC-) γ, and mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase (MEKK). These results indicate that CYM may be effective in preventing and reducing allergic response and may have therapeutic potential as an antiallergic agent in disorders such as atopic dermatitis. PMID:26981139

  18. A case of bullous dermatitis artefacta possibly induced by a deodorant spray.

    PubMed

    Ikenaga, Satsuki; Nakano, Hajime; Umegaki, Noriko; Moritsugu, Ryuta; Aizu, Takayuki; Kuribayashi, Michihito; Hanada, Katsumi

    2006-01-01

    Dermatitis artefacta is one of a spectrum of factitious diseases etiologically responsible for skin lesions denied by patients. These factors often make it difficult to identify the causative agents of the condition. Herein, we report a case of bullous dermatitis artefacta in a 12-year-old girl, for which a deodorant spray was suspected as the probable cause. Pathological examination revealed subepidermal blistering with full-thickness necrosis of the epidermis, suggesting a thermo- or cryo-induced injury. Psychological testing demonstrated her immaturity and dependence. In searching for the causative agent, we suspected a deodorant spray as a blister-inducing agent. We succeeded in reproducing a similar blister lesion on the volunteer's healthy skin using the same spray. Psychiatric involvement significantly complicates the treatment of factitious diseases, including dermatitis artefacta. Cooperation among dermatologists, psychiatrists and the patient's family members is required for ensuring a favorable prognosis.

  19. Cone-beam computed tomography versus digital periapical radiography in the detection of artificially created periapical lesions: A pilot study of the diagnostic accuracy of endodontists using both techniques

    PubMed Central

    Campello, Andrea Fagundes; Gonçalves, Lucio Souza; Guedes, Fábio Ribeiro

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to compare the diagnostic accuracy of previously trained endodontists in the detection of artificially created periapical lesions using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) and digital periapical radiography (DPR). Materials and Methods An ex vivo model using dry skulls was used, in which simulated apical lesions were created and then progressively enlarged using #1/2, #2, #4, and #6 round burs. A total of 11 teeth were included in the study, and 110 images were obtained with CBCT and with an intraoral digital periapical radiographic sensor (Instrumentarium dental, Tuusula, Finland) initially and after each bur was used. Specificity and sensitivity were calculated. All images were evaluated by 10 previously trained, certified endodontists. Agreement was calculated using the kappa coefficient. The accuracy of each method in detecting apical lesions was calculated using the chi-square test. Results The kappa coefficient between examiners showed low agreement (range, 0.17-0.64). No statistical difference was found between CBCT and DPR in teeth without apical lesions (P=.15). The accuracy for CBCT was significantly higher than for DPR in all corresponding simulated lesions (P<.001). The correct diagnostic rate for CBCT ranged between 56.9% and 73.6%. The greatest difference between CBCT and DPR was seen in the maxillary teeth (CBCT, 71.4%; DPR, 28.6%; P<.01) and multi-rooted teeth (CBCT, 83.3%; DPR, 33.3%; P<.01). Conclusion CBCT allowed higher accuracy than DPR in detecting simulated lesions for all simulated lesions tested. Endodontists need to be properly trained in interpreting CBCT scans to achieve higher diagnostic accuracy. PMID:28361026

  20. Atopic dermatitis in adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Ricci, Giampaolo; Bellini, Federica; Dondi, Arianna; Patrizi, Annalisa; Pession, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic inflammatory skin disorder that typically occurs during childhood especially in the first year of life, with a variable frequency from 10% to 30%. Recent studies have shown that in Europe among 10–20% of children with AD suffer from this disorder also in adolescence. AD is a chronic inflammatory skin disease with a typical onset in the first years of life and with a 10–30% prevalence among young children. AD prevalence in adolescence has been estimated around 5–15% in European countries. AD persists from childhood through adolescence in around 40% of cases and some risk factors have been identified: female sex, sensitization to inhalant and food allergens, allergic asthma and/or rhinoconjunctivitis, the practice of certain jobs. During adolescence, AD mainly appears on the face and neck, often associated with overinfection by Malassezia, and on the palms and soles. AD persistence during adolescence is correlated with psychological diseases such as anxiety; moreover, adolescents affected by AD might have problems in the relationship with their peers. Stress and the psychological problems represent a serious burden for adolescents with AD and cause a significant worsening of the patients' quality of life (QoL). The pharmacological treatment is similar to other age groups. Educational and psychological approaches should be considered in the most severe cases. PMID:25386309

  1. Shock treatment: swimming pool contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Salvaggio, Heather L; Scheman, Andrew J; Chamlin, Sarah L

    2013-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis to potassium peroxymonosulfate, used as a chemical shock treatment for hot tubs and swimming pools, should be in the differential diagnosis for patients presenting with dermatitis triggered by swimming pool or hot tub exposure. We report the first pediatric case of allergic contact dermatitis to potassium peroxymonosulfate after swimming exposure. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Role of primary and secondary prevention in atopic dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Michalak, Iwonna; Gutfreund, Katarzyna; Bienias, Wojciech; Matych, Marta; Szewczyk, Anna; Kaszuba, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a serious epidemiological problem in industrialized countries. The incidence of AD has increased considerably over the last 30 years. Atopic dermatitis is a chronic, recurrent, inflammatory skin disease accompanied by strong itching. It is characterized by typical features depending on age. The parents of children suffering from AD must be prepared to change their lifestyle. They should avoid factors which can promote skin lesions and apply appropriate, regular skin care. The article describes primary prevention of AD as well as prophylactic measures to avoid skin eczema. It presents the role of infections, vaccinations, breastfeeding and the influence of domestic animals, house renovation and moulds on development of AD. The article also describes the significance of the epidermal barrier, skin colonization by microbial agents, pruritus, stress, food and inhalant allergy among people who suffer from AD. PMID:26755903

  3. A study of dermatitis in trona miners and millers

    SciTech Connect

    Rom, W.N.; Moshell, A.; Greaves, W.; Bang, K.M.; Holthouser, M.; Campbell, D.; Bernstein, R.

    1983-04-01

    Trona (sodium sesquicarbonate) is mined from an underground deposit in Wyoming and processed for use in the manufacture of glass, paper, and detergents, and in chemical applications. Trona dust is alkaline (pH 10.5) and may have an irritant effect on the respiratory airways, mucous membranes, and the skin. One hundred forty-two underground miners and 88 surface workers from one trona facility participated voluntarily in an epidemiologic and clinical study. Their mean age was 37.6 and their mean working period, 10.0 years. One half of the study participants complained of skin symptoms; dermatologic symptoms increased from twofold to fifteenfold after the subjects began trona mining. Trona dermatitis consists of pruritic, erythematous, raised, dry, and fissured lesions commonly affecting the hands, arms, and legs. A dose-response relationship was observed among underground workers. Patch testing with 10% aqueous trona and sodium carbonate was negative, suggesting that the dermatitis was primarily irritant in nature.

  4. Selected active naturals for atopic dermatitis: Atopic Dermatitis Part 1.

    PubMed

    Silverberg, Nanette B

    The desire for naturally derived agents is a growing trend for patients, physicians, and pharmaceutical companies. Studies indicate that complementary and alternative medicine is often used by patients and parents of children with atopic dermatitis, not necessarily with beneficial results. A half-dozen natural agents (ie, topical agents: coconut oil, colloidal oatmeal, sunflower oil, mustard oil, glycerin, and oral Chinese herbal therapy) are discussed because they have become popular for their expected activity in the therapy of atopic dermatitis. A critical review of the published literature on these agents is presented with specific focus on potential such side effects as hepatotoxicity with Chinese herbals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Topical treatments of Saussurea costus root and Thuja orientalis L. synergistically alleviate atopic dermatitis-like skin lesions by inhibiting protease-activated receptor-2 and NF-κB signaling in HaCaT cells and Nc/Nga mice.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hye Jeong; Kim, Min Jung; Kang, Suna; Moon, Na Rang; Kim, Da Sol; Lee, Na Ra; Kim, Kang Sung; Park, Sunmin

    2017-03-06

    The root of Saussurea costus (Aucklandia lappa Decne, Aucklandiae Radix, SC) and Thuja orientalis L. (TOL) have been traditionally used as anti-inflammatory agents in Korea. However, they have not been studied for the efficacy of atopic dermatitis (AD) treatment, a chronic inflammatory skin disease. We investigated the efficacy of topical applications with 1,3-butyleneglycol extracts of SC and TOL to alleviate the symptoms of AD. HaCaT cells and the dorsal skin of Nc/Nga mice had a local exposure of house mite extracts and 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB), respectively. After lesions developed, we topically applied 1,3-butylen glycol (vehicle; control), SC (30%), TOL (30%), or SC (15%)+TOL (15%) to the skin lesions for 5 weeks. The normal-control was not exposed to DNCB. The skin thickness, mast cell infiltration, serum immunoglobulin E (IgE) and IgG1 and gene expressions of interleukin (IL)-4, IL-13, and IFN-γ in the dorsal skin and HaCaT cells were measured. Chlorogenic acid (129.6±10.2μg/g) for SC and catechin and apigenin (93.4±13.2 and 16.9±1.3μg/g, respectively) for TOL were used as indicator compounds for the strength of the extracts. SC+TOL decreased the expression of protease-activated receptor-2 and ICAM-1 and the release of TNF-α and IL-6 in HaCaT cells activated by 3μg/mL house mite extracts in comparison to either of SC or TOL alone. In Nc/Nga mice challenged with DNCB, SC+TOL synergistically attenuated clinical symptoms of AD such as erythema, hemorrhage, edema, excoriation and dryness in the dorsal skin better than either SC or TOL alone. Histological analysis of the dorsal skin also showed that SC+TOL treatment significantly and additively decreased the inflammatory cellular infiltrate, including mast cells and eosinophils in comparison to either of SC or TOL. SC+TOL also decreased serum IgE and IgG1 levels and the expression of IFN-γ, IL-4, and IL-13 mRNA in dorsal skin in DNCB-treated Nc/Nga mice. SC+TOL relieved the symptoms of AD by

  6. Acupuncture for poison ivy contact dermatitis. A clinical case report.

    PubMed

    Liao, S J

    1988-01-01

    Poison ivy contact dermatitis is fairly common in the suburbia of this country among amateur gardeners and children. It commonly inflicts its poison on the exposed parts of the limbs. The vesicular or bullous skin lesions are quite disturbingly itchy. Scratching the itchy lesions often spreads the condition by transplanting the remanent resinous toxin to other parts of the body. Though they are usually self-limiting, the intense itch is the main motivation for a patient to seek medical care. The conventional treatment is basically ineffective. During the summer of 1987 we treated four such cases of dermatitis with acupuncture upon their request to mollify their unbearable itch. They originally consulted with us for other problems. There were three males and one female. Their ages were between 29 and 63. Three cases were relatively mild and the fourth one was fairly severe. In the milder cases, their itch subsided in a few hours and skin lesions were healed in about two days after one treatment. In the severe case the itch subsided in about two days and most of the skin lesions dried up in four days after the first treatment and were healed almost completely after three sessions of acupuncture treatment. The plausible anti-inflammatory mechanism of acupuncture with the involvement of ACTH and/or cortisol was discussed.

  7. Palmoplantar nonpustular psoriasiform dermatitis in a rhesus macaque.

    PubMed

    Piedras, María José G M; García-Cabezas, Miguel Ángel; Sendagorta, Elena; Miró-Murillo, Marta; Cavada, Carmen

    2011-04-01

    A case of psoriasiform dermatitis in an adult male rhesus macaque is reported. Appearing spontaneously, the condition presented the clinical and histopathological features of human palmoplantar nonpustular psoriasis. The animal developed multiple scaly plaques on his palms and soles, as well as nail hyperkeratosis and widening of the nail root. Microscopically, the skin lesions showed epidermal hyperkeratosis with multifocal parakeratosis, neutrophil microabscesses in the stratum corneum, a loss of granule cell layer under the microabscesses, acanthosis, and elongation of the rete ridges; the superficial dermis showed a dense inflammatory infiltrate containing lymphocytes, macrophages and neutrophils, as well as dilated and tortuous blood vessels. The lesions improved for 15 days after intramuscular corticosteroid depot therapy and worsened slightly afterwards. Later, a spontaneous, progressive remission coincided with the beginning of spring and lasted until the end of summer; the skin lesions practically disappeared during this period, and the nails looked nearly normal. During the next autumn and winter only nail hyperkeratosis was present. Serum analyses showed hyperproteinaemia and hyperglobulinaemia during the outbreak phase and normal values during remission. The clinical and histopathological features of this case, as well as its evolution, are compared with the three other reported cases of psoriasiform skin lesions in nonhuman primates. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of a definite palmoplantar nonpustular psoriasiform dermatitis in a rhesus macaque.

  8. Fermented rice bran prevents atopic dermatitis in DNCB-treated NC/Nga mice

    PubMed Central

    Saba, Evelyn; Lee, Chun Hee; Jeong, Da Hye; Lee, Kija; Kim, Tae-Hwan; Roh, Seong-Soo; Kim, Seung-Hyung; Rhee, Man Hee

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The fermentation of natural plants has a favorable effect on the functional and biological activities of living systems. These include anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory, and anti-platelet aggregation activities. This is attributed to the chemical conversion of the parent plants to functional constituents, which show more potent biological activity. In our study, rice bran along with oriental medicinal plants (Angelicae gigantis, Cnidium officinale, Artemisia princeps, and Camellia sinensis) was fermented by Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Pichia deserticola (FRBE). We evaluated the effects of oral administration of FRBE on atopic dermatitis in 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (DNCB)-treated NC/Nga mice. FRBE significantly ameliorated the macroscopic and microscopic appearance of skin lesions in DNCB-induced atopic dermatitis and reduced levels of serum immunoglobulin E and the differential white blood cell count. In addition, it reduced skin thickness compared to that of atopic dermatitis-affected skin. FRBE treatment also reduced mast cell incorporation in skin lesions of atopic dermatitis. The total cell number in dorsal skin tissue and the axillary lymph node increased following DNCB application, and this was normalized by FRBE treatment. Moreover, it decreased the levels of CD8+ helper T cells and Gr-1+/CD11b+ B cells in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and skin lesions in DNCB-induced atopic dermatitis. Using real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis, we demonstrated that FRBE significantly inhibited mRNA expression of cytokines (e.g., interleukin-5 and interleukin-13) and cyclooxygenase-2 in AD skin lesions. These results suggest that FRBE could be a valuable herbal remedy for the treatment of atopic dermatitis. PMID:27323667

  9. Medical management of contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Alexandroff, A B; Johnston, G A

    2009-10-01

    Allergic and irritant contact dermatitis are important dermatological problems. Although the frequencies of positive reactions to a number of allergens have decreased during last 30 years because of better avoidance (and at least in part due to improved legislation), contact allergy to other agents is rising. The medical treatment starts from a correct identification of triggers of contact dermatitis which could allow patients to reduce or avoid exposure to these agents in future. A good clinical history, examination and immunological tests including patch testing are of crucial importance at this stage. Further management includes emollients, topical and oral corticosteroids, topical calcineurin inhibitors, azathioprine and ciclosporin. Methotrexate and alitretinoin are recent additions to the armamentarium of dermatologists who manage contact dermatitis.

  10. Food Avoidance Diets for Dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Scott, Jeffrey F; Hammond, Margaret I; Nedorost, Susan T

    2015-10-01

    Food allergy is relatively common in both children and adults, and its prevalence is increasing. Early exposure of food allergens onto skin with an impaired epidermal barrier predisposes to sensitization and prevents the development of oral tolerance. While immediate-type food allergies are well described, less is known about delayed-type food allergies manifesting as dermatitis. This is due, in part, to limitations with current diagnostic testing for delayed-type food allergy, including atopy patch testing. We conducted a systematic review of food avoidance diets in delayed-type food allergies manifesting as dermatitis. While beneficial in some clinical circumstances, avoidance diets should be used with caution in infants and children, as growth impairment and developmental delay may result. Ultimately, dermatitis is highly multifactorial and avoidance diets may not improve symptoms of delayed-type food allergy until combined with other targeted therapies, including restoring balance in the skin microbiome and re-establishing proper skin barrier function.

  11. Can atopic dermatitis be prevented?

    PubMed

    Gómez-de la Fuente, E

    2015-05-01

    Atopic dermatitis has become a health problem in our setting due to its rising prevalence, impact on quality of life, associated costs, and role in the progression to other atopic diseases. Furthermore, atopic dermatitis has no definitive cure and therefore preventive measures are important. In this article, we review the latest advances in both primary prevention (reduction of the incidence of atopic dermatitis) and secondary prevention (reduction of associated morbidity and reduction of the atopic march). We analyze the different preventive strategies available, including modification of the immune system through microbial exposure, induction of immune tolerance through antigen exposure, and restoration of skin barrier function to halt the atopic march. Dermatologists need to be familiar with these strategies in order to apply them where necessary and to accurately inform patients and their relatives to prevent misguided or inappropriate actions.

  12. [Atopic dermatitis and domestic animals].

    PubMed

    Song, M

    2000-09-01

    Several arguments are raised attributing to aeroallergens an important role in atopic dermatitis. The aeroallergens that penetrate the epidermis could be fixed by IgE on the Langerhans cells and then induce a cellular mediator reaction comparable to that of allergic contact eczema. Patch tests have been developed to evaluate the role of aeroallergens (dust mites, animal dander, etc.). Preventive anti-dust mites measures in the home of atopic patients are recommended. Eviction of domestic animals (cat, dog, etc.) or avoidance measures for animal dander in the home can produce improvement in atopic dermatitis. Oral specific immunotherapy is being validated as a treatment for this disease.

  13. Atopic Dermatitis: Natural History, Diagnosis, and Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Thomsen, Simon Francis

    2014-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis is an inflammatory skin disease with early onset and with a lifetime prevalence of approximately 20%. The aetiology of atopic dermatitis is unknown, but the recent discovery of filaggrin mutations holds promise that the progression of atopic dermatitis to asthma in later childhood may be halted. Atopic dermatitis is not always easily manageable and every physician should be familiar with the fundamental aspects of treatment. This paper gives an overview of the natural history, clinical features, and treatment of atopic dermatitis. PMID:25006501

  14. Analysis of skin patch test results and metalloproteinase-2 levels in a patient with contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Wojciechowska, Milena; Czajkowski, Rafał; Kowaliszyn, Bogna; Żbikowska-Gotz, Magdalena; Bartuzi, Zbigniew

    2015-06-01

    The complex course of skin reactions that contact eczema involves is due in part to abnormalities of the extracellular matrix function. Proteins that degrade extracellular matrix components include metalloproteinases (MMP), which are divided into subcategories depending on the chemical structure and substrate specificity. To analyse patch test results in contact dermatitis patients and to assess MMP-2 levels during skin lesion exacerbation and remission. Fifty patients suffering from contact eczema were qualified to the study and 20 healthy volunteers as a control group. The study group patients had epidermal skin tests performed with the "European Standard" set. To assess the MMP-2 level in serum, venous blood was drawn, twice from study group patients - during contact dermatitis exacerbation and remission periods - and once from control group patients. Assessment of MMP-2 in serum was done with ELISA immunoassay. To verify the proposed hypotheses, parametric and nonparametric significance tests were used. Hands were the most frequent location of contact dermatitis. Nickel (II) sulphate was the most frequent sensitizing substance. Mean MMP-2 levels were statistically higher in the study group both in contact dermatitis exacerbation and remission periods than in the control group. There was no statistically significant difference between MMP-2 levels and skin patch test results. Nickel is one of the most allergenic contact allergens in patients with contact dermatitis. Metalloproteinase-2 is a good marker of contact dermatitis in various stages of the disease.

  15. Analysis of skin patch test results and metalloproteinase-2 levels in a patient with contact dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Czajkowski, Rafał; Kowaliszyn, Bogna; Żbikowska-Gotz, Magdalena; Bartuzi, Zbigniew

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The complex course of skin reactions that contact eczema involves is due in part to abnormalities of the extracellular matrix function. Proteins that degrade extracellular matrix components include metalloproteinases (MMP), which are divided into subcategories depending on the chemical structure and substrate specificity. Aim To analyse patch test results in contact dermatitis patients and to assess MMP-2 levels during skin lesion exacerbation and remission. Material and methods Fifty patients suffering from contact eczema were qualified to the study and 20 healthy volunteers as a control group. The study group patients had epidermal skin tests performed with the “European Standard” set. To assess the MMP-2 level in serum, venous blood was drawn, twice from study group patients – during contact dermatitis exacerbation and remission periods – and once from control group patients. Assessment of MMP-2 in serum was done with ELISA immunoassay. To verify the proposed hypotheses, parametric and nonparametric significance tests were used. Results Hands were the most frequent location of contact dermatitis. Nickel (II) sulphate was the most frequent sensitizing substance. Mean MMP-2 levels were statistically higher in the study group both in contact dermatitis exacerbation and remission periods than in the control group. There was no statistically significant difference between MMP-2 levels and skin patch test results. Conclusions Nickel is one of the most allergenic contact allergens in patients with contact dermatitis. Metalloproteinase-2 is a good marker of contact dermatitis in various stages of the disease. PMID:26161054

  16. Outbreak of contact dermatitis related to Acticide EP paste in a paint manufacturing factory.

    PubMed

    Jee, S H; Chao, K Y; Sun, C C; Wang, J D

    1996-08-01

    An outbreak of severe itching, erythematous and edematous dermatitis over the extremities and upper back developed in 8 of 17 workers in the raw-materials department of a paint manufacturing factory. The outbreak occurred during a 2-month period when Acticide EP paste (Thor Chemical, Cheshire, UK) was used in place of Metatin as a microbiocide (Acima Chemical, Buchs, Switzerland). To evaluate the frequency and the etiologic agent of this outbreak, a plant walk-through, examination and review of photographs of skin lesions followed by statistical analysis for association between the development of dermatitis and exposure to Acticide paste were performed. Three guinea pigs were subjected to patch tests comparing the dermatotoxicity of Acticide EP and Metatin. The results showed that 8 out of 17 workers (47%) suffered from contact dermatitis during the 2-month period. Stratification by occupational exposure further confirmed the association between the development of dermatitis and exposure to the Acticide paste. The dermatotoxicity test on guinea pigs revealed the marked corrosive effect of the paste and the absence of dermatotoxicity of Metatin. After the removal of the paste from the raw material, there were no new cases of contact dermatitis at the 6 month follow-up. We conclude that Acticide EP paste was the responsible offending agent. Because isothiazolinone derivatives are well-known antigens and 2-n-octyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one is the active ingredient in Acticide EP paste, 2-n-octyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one is the likely cause of the dermatitis.

  17. Barrier-Restoring Therapies in Atopic Dermatitis: Current Approaches and Future Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Valdman-Grinshpoun, Y.; Ben-Amitai, D.; Zvulunov, A.

    2012-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis is a multifactorial, chronic relapsing, inflammatory disease, characterized by xerosis, eczematous lesions, and pruritus. The latter usually leads to an “itch-scratch” cycle that may compromise the epidermal barrier. Skin barrier abnormalities in atopic dermatitis may result from mutations in the gene encoding for filaggrin, which plays an important role in the formation of cornified cytosol. Barrier abnormalities render the skin more permeable to irritants, allergens, and microorganisms. Treatment of atopic dermatitis must be directed to control the itching, suppress the inflammation, and restore the skin barrier. Emollients, both creams and ointments, improve the barrier function of stratum corneum by providing it with water and lipids. Studies on atopic dermatitis and barrier repair treatment show that adequate lipid replacement therapy reduces the inflammation and restores epidermal function. Efforts directed to develop immunomodulators that interfere with cytokine-induced skin barrier dysfunction, provide a promising strategy for treatment of atopic dermatitis. Moreover, an impressive proliferation of more than 80 clinical studies focusing on topical treatments in atopic dermatitis led to growing expectations for better therapies. PMID:22956938

  18. Mast cells and eosinophils in feline allergic dermatitis: a qualitative and quantitative analysis.

    PubMed

    Roosje, P J; Koeman, J P; Thepen, T; Willemse, T

    2004-07-01

    Mast cells (MCs) and eosinophils are prominent in the perivascular infiltrate of cats with allergic dermatitis. In the skin of allergic cats MCs were mainly observed diffusely in the superficial dermis, while eosinophils were found mainly in the deep dermis in a perivascular pattern. MC counts were significantly higher in cats with allergic dermatitis (P < 0.05) than in healthy control cats, but the number varied widely. Moreover, the numbers of eosinophils in the skin of allergic and control cats differed significantly (P < 0.05) none being found in the latter. There was no significant correlation between numbers of mast cells and eosinophils in the same biopsy sample. In the allergic cats, a significantly lower number of MCs was detected by staining for tryptase than by staining for chymase or by Astra blue staining. Additionally, the chymase: tryptase ratio in healthy cats was reversed in cats with allergic dermatitis. These changes were observed in lesional and nonlesional skin of cats with allergic dermatitis. The findings indicate a generalized effect on MCs in allergic dermatitis. In addition, eosinophils are an important indicator of allergic dermatitis.

  19. Atopic dermatitis in children.

    PubMed

    Arkwright, Peter D; Stafford, Judith C; Sharma, Vibha

    2014-01-01

    A 7-year-old girl presented with atopic dermatitis (AD) that did not respond to standard therapy. She was avoiding dairy, egg, and wheat in her diet because of a history of skin flares. Her weight gain was poor, and laboratory test results showed low iron and zinc levels. Over the previous 6 months, she had been prescribed numerous courses of antibiotics, but, despite this, she continued to have secondary skin infections as well as deep circumscribed erosions on her shins. She was awake much of the night because of scratching and displayed repetitive and habitual behavior. She also had troublesome allergic rhinoconjunctivitis with positive allergy testing results to house dust mite. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus was isolated from her skin, which was successfully treated with appropriate antibiotics and flares controlled with topical antiseptics and better personal and caregiver hygiene. Although milk, egg, and wheat specific IgE were raised, these foods were successfully reintroduced back into her diet with improvement of her nutritional status and no flare of her AD. In view of her habitual behavior and family history of obsessive compulsive disorder, she underwent cognitive behavioral therapy, and her general well-being, sleep, and ulcers over her shins improved. Despite high house dust mite-specific IgE, house dust mite sublingual immunotherapy led to no additional improvement in her AD although it did improve her rhinitis. Although there may be no "quick fixes" in patients with AD, the clinician should be aware of antimicrobial, allergen, and educational and/or behavioral interventions, which may greatly improve eczema severity and the patient's well-being.

  20. [Fungi and atopic dermatitis].

    PubMed

    Hiruma, M; Maeng, D J; Kobayashi, M; Suto, H; Ogawa, H

    1999-01-01

    Attention has recently been centered on fungi as aggravating factors of atopic dermatitis (AD) due to the frequent detection of IgE antibodies to fungi in patients with severe AD and to positive response of some cases of AD to antifungal therapy. Malassezia sp.: In AD patients with prominent symptoms in the head and neck, areas prone to colonization by Malassezia, the titers of specific anti-Malassezia IgE antibodies are high, which positively correlate with the total IgE value and the severity of AD. The patch test against Malassezia antigens is positive. The rate of isolation of Malassezia from the skin of AD patients is higher than that from the skin of healthy control subjects. Candida sp.: In patients with severe AD, the rate of positive skin prick tests for Candida is high, and a correlation exists between positive skin prick test results and the presence of Candida albicans in nasopharynx. However, the reactivity to Candida antigens in the patch tests is reduced, and a negative correlation is seen. There is no difference between the isolation rate of C. albicans from patients with adult-type AD and normal controls. However, AD patients give a significantly greater number of separate colonies. The range of efficacy rate of antifungal therapy of AD is reported to be 50-65 %. The efficacy rate of our own trial falls within this range. Following treatment, the rate of isolation of fungi decrease significantly, and the titers of specific antifungal IgE antibodies are not statistically significant. The clearance of fungi from the tissue following antifungal therapy probably results in the suppression of direct or indirect inflammatory reaction caused by the fungi. We therefore consider antifungal therapy as one of the second-line therapies to be administered in AD cases resistant to conventional basic therapy.

  1. Crystal deodorant dermatitis: irritant dermatitis to alum-containing deodorant.

    PubMed

    Gallego, H; Lewis, E J; Crutchfield, C E

    1999-07-01

    Two patients developed an irritant dermatitis of the axillae shortly after using an over-the-counter "natural deodorant crystal" product containing alum. We discuss this previously unreported, untoward reaction to alum, an ancient agent with newfound popularity as an alternative health product.

  2. Generalized dermatitis associated with Malassezia overgrowth in cats: A report of six cases in France

    PubMed Central

    Crosaz, Odile; Legras, Audrey; Vilaplana-Grosso, Federico; Debeaupuits, Julien; Chermette, René; Hubert, Blaise; Guillot, Jacques

    2013-01-01

    We recently observed six cases of generalized dermatitis associated with Malassezia overgrowth in cats presented to the Veterinary College of Alfort, France. Elevated numbers of yeasts were observed in lesional skin by cytology and culture. Skin lesions occurred on the face, ventral neck, abdomen and ear canals and were characterized by some degree of alopecia, erythema and crusting. In most cases, pruritus was intense. The species M. pachydermatis was systematically isolated. PMID:24432218

  3. Stoma dermatitis: prevalent but often overlooked.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Shilpa; Ehrlich, Alison

    2010-01-01

    Peristomal dermatoses commonly afflict the area around stoma openings in ostomy patients. These complications, however, are often unreported by patients and remain untreated for years, thus affecting maintenance and recovery from the surgery. These dermatoses can have chemical, mechanical, irritant, bacterial, immunologic, or disease-related etiologies. Examples of common forms of dermatitis that occur peristomally include fecal or urine irritant contact dermatitis, chronic papillomatous dermatitis, mechanical dermatitis, and allergic contact dermatitis. This article summarizes various skin irritations that can occur after an ostomy and also reviews previously published reports of peristomal allergic contact dermatitis. In addition, the clinical importance of identifying these dermatoses (most important, their effects on the patient's quality of life), risk factors for the skin irritations, the importance of patch testing, treatment of stoma dermatitis, and the importance of patient education and patient-doctor communication are also discussed.

  4. Autofluorescence analysis of dermatitis and squamous cell carcinoma in paraffin wax-embedded skin samples.

    PubMed

    Choi, J H; Jeong, K H; Sung, J Y; Kim, N I; Shin, M K

    2015-03-01

    Recent research has investigated the use of autofluorescence (AF) for distinguishing between normal and cancerous tissues according to different fluorescence characteristics. To analyze if AF can help differentiate cancerous lesions from other nonneoplastic lesions, such as dermatitis, in each layer of the skin ex vivo. Paraffin wax-embedded tissue samples were obtained from patients who were histopathologically diagnosed with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), psoriasis, chronic dermatitis (lichen simplex chronicus, prurigo nodularis) or acute dermatitis (atopic dermatitis). AF intensity was measured in four layers of the epidermis (corneal, granular, spinous and basal) and two layers of the dermis (papillary and reticular). AF was highest in all layers of psoriasis samples compared with all layers of all other groups. Higher AF values were seen in SCC compared with all skin layers of acute and chronic dermatitis; this finding was especially true in the corneal layer, papillary dermis and reticular dermis. This ex vivo AF study provides basic data for future in vivo studies of AF as a noninvasive diagnostic tool. © 2014 British Association of Dermatologists.

  5. Eczematous dermatitis after vascular laser therapy: a report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Li, Guang; Zhou, Zhanchao; Gold, Michael H

    2010-04-01

    Eczematous dermatitis was found in two port wine stain (PWS) lesions in two different individuals following variable pulsed 532-nm laser therapy. Both of the individuals described in this report had received low-dose superficial X-ray several years prior to the development of the eczematous dermatitis. The eczematous dermatitis in the PWS lesions was characterized by oozing, crusting, and pruritus, which showed a tendency to expand to other sites when exacerbated. Treatment with topical corticosteroid ointments produced some temporary improvement, but the dermatitis in both cases recurred when the topical medications were stopped. The mechanism of action for the development of an eczematous dermatitis in a PWS remains unclear, but may be related to multiple factors including abnormal hemodynamic forces resulting from the malformed vessels, an abnormal production of cytokines, local pathophysiological and immunological changes resulting from either the X-ray therapy or the laser therapy, and atopic constitution inherent in these individuals. These hypotheses and ideas need further study for additional insight into this rare, but reported adverse event.

  6. Equid herpesvirus 5-associated dermatitis in a horse--Resembling herpes-associated erythema multiforme.

    PubMed

    Herder, V; Barsnick, R; Walliser, U; Teifke, J-P; König, P; Czerwinski, G; Hansmann, F; Baumgärtner, W; Hewicker-Trautwein, M

    2012-03-23

    An equid herpesvirus 5 (EHV-5) infection was detected in lesioned skin from a nine-year-old Holsteiner stallion in the south of Germany. Macroscopically, the animal displayed a non-pruritic, multifocal, pustular dermatitis around both eyes, nostrils and the muzzle, which had been ongoing for one year. Histopathologically, skin lesions were characterized by orthokeratotic to parakeratotic hyperkeratosis, pustular dermatitis, epidermal hyperplasia, apoptotic keratinocytes, a lympho-plasmahistiocytic interface dermatitis with hydropic degeneration of keratinocytes, and perivascular to diffuse, lympho-histiocytic infiltrations. The stratum granulosum and the upper part of the stratum spinosum contained multiple amphophilic, intranuclear inclusion bodies. By in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry herpesvirus DNA and protein, respectively, were detected within keratinocytes containing inclusion bodies. Sequencing of the PCR-product revealed the presence of EHV-5 DNA. This is the first description of a dermatitis associated with EHV-5 in a horse, indicating that EHV-5 should be considered as an etiology of lymphohistiocytic interface dermatitis with intranuclear inclusion bodies in horses and is similar to herpes-associated erythema multiforme in humans.

  7. Topical pimecrolimus 1% cream for resistant seborrheic dermatitis of the face: an open-label study.

    PubMed

    Ozden, Muge Guler; Tekin, Nilgun Solak; Ilter, Nilsel; Ankarali, Handan

    2010-01-01

    Treatment options for seborrheic dermatitis are numerous, including both topical and systemic agents (e.g. topical corticosteroids, oral antifungals, and psoralen plus UVA). However, long-term use of topical corticosteroids may lead to adverse effects. Pimecrolimus 1% cream is an effective and well tolerated treatment for seborrheic dermatitis. To explore the efficacy of pimecrolimus 1% cream for the treatment of seborrheic dermatitis lesions resistant to conventional treatments. Sixteen patients with resistant seborrheic dermatitis of the face applied pimecrolimus 1% cream twice daily for 2 weeks. The lesions were assessed clinically and the severity of the signs were assessed using a 4-point score. Additionally, the scores of all affected regions (paranasal, forehead, and eyebrows) were evaluated separately to assess whether different results would be obtained in different regions of the face. Also, patients completed self-assessments on a 100 mm Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) at each visit. Statistically significant reductions in the scores of all parameters were observed at day 7 and day 14 of the study. There were no significant differences between the responses on the three regions of the face. No adverse effects were reported except for temporary pruritus immediately after the application of pimecrolimus 1% cream in one patient. Although the interpretation of efficacy was limited by the open-label, non-controlled study design and the small number of patients, this trial suggests that pimecrolimus 1% cream may be a successful treatment choice for patients with resistant seborrheic dermatitis of the face.

  8. Dermatoses of the neck affecting violin and viola players ("fiddler's neck", and contact dermatitis).

    PubMed

    Tennstedt, D; Cromphaut, P; Dooms-Goossens, A; Lachapelle, J M

    1979-01-01

    Skin lesions occurring on the neck of violin or viola players are described, in the light of two personal observations. The lesions can be divided into two types: 1. Lesions described as "fiddler's neck", i.e. an area of erythematous, sometimes pigmented or scaly lichenification on the left side of the neck, just below the angle of the jaw, where the chin rest of the instrument is in contact with the skin. Histopathologic features of the lesions are described. 2. Allergic contact dermatitis to wooden or metallic parts of the violin. The recent literature is reviewed.

  9. Allergic contact dermatitis to mango flesh.

    PubMed

    Weinstein, Sari; Bassiri-Tehrani, Shirley; Cohen, David E

    2004-03-01

    A 22-year-old white female student presented to the Emergency Department with a 2-day history of patchy pruritic erythema of the face, neck, and arms with periorbital edema. The eruption began as an isolated patch of nasal erythema, with subsequent extension to involve the entire face. Within 2 days, fine pinpoint papules were noted on the face, anterior chest, neck, and upper extremities. Periorbital edema was present without intraoral abnormalities or laryngeal changes. An erythematous, mildly lichenified plaque was noted on the ventral left wrist. The past medical history was significant for two similar, milder episodes of allergic reactions of uncertain etiology occurring within the previous 2 months. The previous eruptions resolved after treatment with oral loratodine and topical fluocinonide cream 0.05%. The patient denied any history of contact urticaria or new household or personal hygiene contactants, although she did report frequent ingestion of peeled mangoes. Her brother had a history of eczematous dermatitis. In the Emergency Department, the patient was administered intravenous diphenhydramine and a single 50 mg dose of oral prednisone. She continued treatment with a 5-day course of prednisone, 50 mg daily, with loratodine, 20 mg daily, and diphenhydramine as needed; however, no symptomatic improvement was seen over 4 days. She was then advised to restart fluocinonide cream twice daily. Patch testing was performed to the North American Contact Dermatitis Group Standard Series utilizing methods of the International Contact Dermatitis research group with Finn chambers. Mango skin and mango flesh harvested 5 mm below the skin surface were also placed in duplicate and tested under Finn chambers. Positive (1+) reactions were noted to nickel and p-tertbutylphenol formaldehyde resin, and bullous reactions were found to mango skin and surface flesh in duplicate (Fig. 1). Complete avoidance of mango led to resolution of the initial eruption. The clinical

  10. Management of refractory telaprevir-induced dermatitis using oral corticosteroids.

    PubMed

    Garcias-Ladaria, J; Pérez-Ferriols, A; Ortega-García, P; Diago, M

    2014-11-01

    We present a series of 12 patients with telaprevir-induced skin toxicity. Some patients presented eczematous lesion, while others presented nonscaling macular lesions that became more purpuric in the lower limbs. Seven of the 12 patients had skin lesions affecting more than 50% of the body surface area, but none had systemic manifestations. Oral corticosteroids, prescribed in 7 patients, produced symptomatic improvement, and the response to the antiviral treatment in these patients was good. The 3 biopsies performed showed a superficial perivascular dermatitis with foci of red cell extravasation. Monitoring is central to the management of skin reactions secondary to the protease inhibitors, as severe drug eruptions have been reported. Treatment is usually symptomatic. We describe 7 cases in which oral corticosteroids-whose use continues to be controversial -were administered as a last resort for the control of pruritus. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y AEDV. All rights reserved.

  11. Pyemotes ventricosus Dermatitis, Southeastern France

    PubMed Central

    Blanc-Amrane, Véronique; Bahadoran, Philippe; Caumes, Eric; Marty, Pierre; Lazar, Mariléna; Boissy, Christian; Desruelles, François; Izri, Arezki; Ortonne, Jean-Paul; Counillon, Evelyne; Chosidow, Olivier; Delaunay, Pascal

    2008-01-01

    We investigated 42 patients who had unusual pruritic dermatitis associated with a specific clinical sign (comet sign) in 23 houses in southeastern France from May through September 2007. Pyemotes ventricosus, a parasite of the furniture beetle Anobium punctatum, was the cause of this condition. PMID:18976564

  12. Pyemotes ventricosus dermatitis, southeastern France.

    PubMed

    Del Giudice, Pascal; Blanc-Amrane, Véronique; Bahadoran, Philippe; Caumes, Eric; Marty, Pierre; Lazar, Mariléna; Boissy, Christian; Desruelles, François; Izri, Arezki; Ortonne, Jean-Paul; Counillon, Evelyne; Chosidow, Olivier; Delaunay, Pascal

    2008-11-01

    We investigated 42 patients who had unusual pruritic dermatitis associated with a specific clinical sign (comet sign) in 23 houses in southeastern France from May through September 2007. Pyemotes ventricosus, a parasite of the furniture beetle Anobium punctatum, was the cause of this condition.

  13. Allergic contact dermatitis to preservatives.

    PubMed

    Timm-Knudson, Vickie L; Johnson, Janis S; Ortiz, Karel J; Yiannias, James A

    2006-04-01

    In summary, a wide variety of skin care products contain preservatives. Patients who are allergic to one of these preservatives may have either localized or widespread dermatitis. Affected patients may find it difficult to avoid thimerosal without the help of the health care provider because the use of these allergens is so widespread. Patch testing is an invaluable tool for patients who struggle with dermatitis. Antigen-avoidance lists that facilitate patient education about what products to avoid are available from the manufacturers of patch test allergens (for example, TRUE Test or Chemotechnique). These lists are helpful starting points for patients in that they provide general categories (for example, shampoos, soaps, or creams) of products that the patient should avoid. With these printed guidelines alone, patients must read skin care product labels carefully, looking for the names of their allergens as identified by patch tests as well as for any synonyms and cross-reactors of these allergens. Thus, patients may feel overwhelmed by hearing the names of allergens that are long and complex. After an allergen has been identified, the nurse can play a key role in helping patients understand their dermatitis and its management. Nurses are in a unique position to spend time educating patients about how to uncover the sources of specific allergens and, subsequently, how to avoid them. The Contact Allergen Replacement Database can help in this educational process by giving patients a shopping list of specific items that are free of the specific allergens causing their allergic contact dermatitis.

  14. Paired comparison of the sensitivity and specificity of multispectral digital skin lesion analysis and reflectance confocal microscopy in the detection of melanoma in vivo: A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Song, Eunice; Grant-Kels, Jane M; Swede, Helen; D'Antonio, Jody L; Lachance, Avery; Dadras, Soheil S; Kristjansson, Arni K; Ferenczi, Katalin; Makkar, Hanspaul S; Rothe, Marti J

    2016-12-01

    Several technologies have been developed to aid dermatologists in the detection of melanoma in vivo including dermoscopy, multispectral digital skin lesion analysis (MDSLA), and reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM). To our knowledge, there have been no studies directly comparing MDSLA and RCM. We conducted a repeated measures analysis comparing the sensitivity and specificity of MDSLA and RCM in the detection of melanoma (n = 55 lesions from 36 patients). Study patients (n = 36) with atypical-appearing pigmented lesions (n = 55) underwent imaging by both RCM and MDSLA. Lesions were biopsied and analyzed by histopathology. RCM exhibited superior test metrics (P = .001, McNemar test) compared with MDSLA. Respectively, sensitivity measures were 85.7% and 71.4%, and specificity rates were 66.7% and 25.0%. The sample size was relatively small and was collected from only one dermatologist's patient base; there was some degree of dermatopathologist interobserver variability; and only one confocalist performed the RCM image evaluations. RCM is a useful adjunct during clinical assessment of in vivo lesions suspicious for melanoma or those requiring re-excision because of high level of dysplasia or having features consistent with an atypical melanocytic nevus with severe cytologic atypia. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Annular Lichenoid Dermatitis of Youth: A Report of 2 Cases and a Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Vázquez-Osorio, I; González-Sabín, M; Gonzalvo-Rodríguez, P; Rodríguez-Díaz, E

    2016-01-01

    Annular lichenoid dermatitis of youth is a lichenoid dermatosis of unknown etiology. It mostly affects children and adolescents and has well-defined clinical and histological characteristics that permit a diagnosis. We present 2 new cases of annular lichenoid dermatitis of youth with classical clinical features in 2 girls, aged 2 and 4 years. The histologic findings, however, differed from those reported in the literature in that the lichenoid inflammatory infiltrate was located primarily at the top of the dermal papillae and not at the tips of the rete ridges. In both cases, the lesions regressed spontaneously without treatment.

  16. Treatment of canine acral lick dermatitis by behavior modification using electronic stimulation.

    PubMed

    Eckstein, R A; Hart, B L

    1996-01-01

    Canine acral lick dermatitis is characterized by excessive licking on areas of one or more limbs, usually near the carpus or tarsus. In this prospective study, five dogs with acral lick dermatitis were treated with remote punishment utilizing precisely controlled, momentary shock from an electronic training collar. The problem resolved in four dogs. Resolution was defined as one month in which no shocks (i.e., no electronic shock collar worn) or Elizabethan collars were utilized and no licking had occurred sufficiently to recreate a gross skin lesion. Relapse during the follow-up period of six-to-12 months occurred in two dogs, but licking stopped after brief retraining periods.

  17. A Case Report of Allergic Contact Dermatitis due to Mandragora Radix

    PubMed Central

    Baysak, Sevim; Gönül, Müzeyyen; Atacan, Damla; Ergin, Can

    2015-01-01

    An 82-year-old male presented with rash, burning, and itching on his knees that had started 4 days after the local application of Mandragora Radix sap for 3 consecutive days. A dermatological examination revealed erythematous, edematous, and scaly plaque lesions on the patient's knees. An open application test with M. Radix was performed, and the patient was diagnosed with allergic contact dermatitis due to M. Radix. Mandragora species, which belong to the Solanaceae family, have sedative, aphrodisiac, emetic, analgesic, and anesthetic properties. To the best of our knowledge, only one case of M. Radix-induced allergic contact dermatitis has been previously reported. PMID:26347280

  18. T-lymphocyte cytokine profiles in compositae airborne dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Stingeni, L; Agea, E; Lisi, P; Spinozzi, F

    1999-10-01

    Compositae airborne dermatitis is a well-recognized disorder characterized by erythematosquamous lesions and papules on light-exposed areas. The presence of positive patch test reactions and the absence of specific serum IgE suggest delayed-type hypersensitivity, the murine model of which is characterized by a Th1 cytokine production profile [high amounts of interferon (IFN)-gamma and interleukin (IL)-2; little or no IL-4 and IL-5]. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cytokine profile of T-cell lines and T-cell clones from peripheral blood in a 38-year-old non-atopic male woodcutter affected by seasonal airborne contact dermatitis. The patient showed positive patch test reactions to several Compositae extracts (Achillea millefolium, Chamomilla recutita, Tanacetum parthenium, T. vulgare) and sesquiterpene lactone mix. On prick testing with Compositae and other plants, serum-specific IgE levels and phototesting were negative or normal. Allergen-specific T-cell lines produced with Compositae extracts showed a good in vitro cell proliferation only to C. recutita extract. Serial cloning performed using the C. recutita-specific T-cell lines revealed an alphabeta+CD4+ phenotype with high amounts of IFN-gamma and IL-4 in T-cell clones. Thus, these cells expressed a preferential Th0 phenotype. These data suggest that in addition to IFN-gamma, other T-cell derived cytokines, such as IL-4, may play a part in the immunopathogenesis of contact dermatitis.

  19. Diffuse scaling dermatitis in an athymic nude mouse.

    PubMed

    Russo, M; Invernizzi, A; Gobbi, A; Radaelli, E

    2013-07-01

    This report describes the clinicopathological features of a case of diffuse scaling dermatitis that occurred in a 16-week-old female athymic nude (CrTac:NCr-Foxn1(nu)) mouse. Gross presentation was suggestive of Corynebacterium bovis infection (scaly skin disease). However, C. bovis was not isolated from the skin of the affected animal or from the skin of unaffected CrTac:NCr-Foxn1(nu) mice housed in the same cage or room. Staphylococcus xylosus was instead isolated in high numbers from the skin lesion, whereas only a few colonies were recovered from the skin of unaffected mice. Microscopically, the affected skin was characterized by chronic hyperplastic and hyperkeratotic dermatitis with focal ulcerations, extensive serocellular crusts, and intralesional clusters of Gram-positive coccoid bacteria. Although gross presentation of the reported case was suggestive of C. bovis infection, epidemiological, histopathological, and bacteriological findings definitively ruled out an outbreak of scaly skin disease. A diagnostic hypothesis of hyperplastic and hyperkeratotic dermatitis associated with opportunistic S. xylosus infection was formulated based on increased bacterial burden and presence of intralesional Gram-positive coccoid bacteria.

  20. Use of textiles in atopic dermatitis: care of atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Ricci, G; Patrizi, A; Bellini, F; Medri, M

    2006-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic relapsing inflammatory skin disease which usually starts during the first years of life. In the management of AD, the correct approach requires a combination of multiple treatments to identify and eliminate trigger factors, and to improve the alteration of the skin barrier. In this article we try to explain the importance of skin care in the management of AD in relation to the use of textiles: they may be useful to improve disrupted skin but they are also a possible cause of triggering or worsening the lesions. Garments are in direct contact with the skin all day long, and for this reason it is important to carefully choose suitable fabrics in atopic subjects who have disrupted skin. Owing to their hygienic properties fabrics produced from natural fibres are preferential. Wool fibres are frequently used in human clothes but are irritant in direct contact with the skin. Wool fibre has frequently been shown to be irritant to the skin of atopic patients, and for this reason wool intolerance was included as a minor criterion in the diagnostic criteria of AD by Hanifin and Rajka in 1980. Cotton is the most commonly used textile for patients with AD; it has wide acceptability as clothing material because of its natural abundance and inherent properties like good folding endurance, better conduction of heat, easy dyeability and excellent moisture absorption. Silk fabrics help to maintain the body temperature by reducing the excessive sweating and moisture loss that can worsen xerosis. However, the type of silk fabric generally used for clothes is not particularly useful in the care and dressing of children with AD since it reduces transpiration and may cause discomfort when in direct contact with the skin. A new type of silk fabric made of transpiring and slightly elastic woven silk is now commercially available (Microair Dermasilk) and may be used for the skin care of children with AD. The presence of increased bacterial colonization

  1. [Nummular dermatitis: report of two cases in children].

    PubMed

    Martínez-Blanco, Jacinto; García-González, Verónica; González-García, Javier; Suárez-Castañón, Cristina

    2016-08-01

    Nummular eczema or dermatitis is an uncommon paediatric pathology. It is presented as red-purplish small papules and vesicles that join to form exudative circular patches and then to eczematous or lichenified patches with discoid shape. The lesions appear predominantly on the extensor surface of extremities, although they can appear in trunk, hands or feet. This pathology has a clinical diagnosis; only few cases require complementary test. The topical corticosteroids are the mainstay of the treatment, and the causal treatment whether an infectious trigger is found. The patients have chronic or recurrent evolution. We report two cases in children with the aim of spreading knowledge among pediatricians.

  2. Acquired epidermodysplasia verruciformis in a child with atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, Kristen H; Rady, Peter; Tyring, Steven; Stone, Mary S

    2014-01-01

    A 4-year-old girl with an established diagnosis of atopic dermatitis, previously severe and treated with cyclosporine, developed widespread papules that demonstrated changes consistent with epidermodysplasia verruciformis on biopsy. Human papilloma virus (HPV) typing was performed and was consistent with epidermodysplasia verruciformis-type HPV (type 5). These lesions rapidly resolved with a 2-week course of imiquimod. Rapid resolution and no family history of epidermodysplasia verruciformis make this most consistent with acquired epidermodysplasia verruciformis. This case is the first reported case of acquired epidermodysplasia verruciformis in a child without the human immunodeficiency virus and may be linked to cyclosporine use, which also has never been previously reported.

  3. Delayed reaction after an octopus bite showing a giant cell-rich granulomatous dermatitis/panniculitis.

    PubMed

    Misago, Noriyuki; Inoue, Takuya; Narisawa, Yutaka

    2008-11-01

    Adequate clinical data and a sufficient workup, in addition to the histopathological findings, are frequently required to make a correct diagnosis of granulomatous dermatitis/panniculitis. These lesions with an unexpected etiology may include delayed hypersensitivity granulomatous reactions to various factors, such as metals or marine animal injuries. A 50-year-old male presented with multiple subcutaneous nodules on his right forearm 1 month following an octopus bite at his right wrist. After the disappearance of these lesions, which responded well to low-dose oral prednisone, another type of skin lesion characterized by small, numerous papules reappeared on his right forearm. Histopathologically, a specimen from a subcutaneous nodule showed mostly lobular granulomatous panniculitis, which showed an extensive diffuse infiltrate composed of numerous multinucleated giant cells and epithelioid cells intermingling with lymphocytes and eosinophils. A specimen from a papule that subsequently developed disclosed a diffuse granulomatous dermatitis composed of similar cells and also showed granuloma annulare-like features. This case is considered to be a delayed reaction after an octopus bite showing an unusual giant cell-rich granulomatous dermatitis/panniculitis. Octopus bites should therefore be included among the marine animal injuries, which cause a delayed-type reaction with granulomatous dermatitis/panniculitis.

  4. Feline herpesvirus 1-associated facial and nasal dermatitis and stomatitis in domestic cats.

    PubMed

    Hargis, A M; Ginn, P E

    1999-11-01

    Feline herpesvirus-associated dermatitis has rarely been reported. Recently we documented a unique ulcerative and often persistent facial dermatitis or stomatitis syndrome associated with feline herpesvirus 1. We believe this syndrome is relatively common, with the 10 cases in our series diagnosed between 1996 and 1997. The syndrome is associated with epithelial cell necrosis, eosinophilic inflammation, and intraepithelial herpesvirus inclusion bodies. The prevalence of eosinophilic inflammation and low number of inclusion bodies may lead to the misdiagnosis of allergic dermatitis or a lesion within the eosinophilic granuloma complex group of disorders. Feline herpesvirus 1 can be identified in lesional tissue by PCR methodology. Most of our cases developed under circumstances suggesting reactivation of latent herpesvirus infection, and previous glucocorticoid therapy or stress from overcrowding may have played a role in lesion development. Cats with ulcerative dermatitis, especially of the face and nose, and cats with stomatitis should be evaluated for the presence of feline herpesvirus. Treatment options include surgical excision, topical or systemic antibiotic therapy to treat secondary bacterial infection, and oral alpha interferon.

  5. Eczematous Dermatitis Occurring on a Café-au-Lait Spot Long after Laser Radiation.

    PubMed

    Mihara, Motoyuki

    2013-05-01

    A 40-year-old woman presented with an itchy erythematosquamous change of a café-au-lait spot in her face. The onset of this change occurred just after her relocation. The café-au-lait spot had been irradiated by laser approximately 20 years ago. Clinically, there was a coin-sized erythema with a slight scale on the pigmented lesion in the left lateral orbital region. Histopathologically, the lesion demonstrated both spongiotic dermatitis and interface dermatitis together with lymphohistiocytic cell infiltration, in addition to moderate acanthosis and elongation of rete ridges with slight basal hyperpigmentation. From these clinical and histopathological findings, the lesion was diagnosed as eczematous dermatitis occurring on the café-au-lait spot after laser radiation. Another interesting histopathological finding was that some parts of a lobule of the sebaceous gland were occupied exclusively by degenerative atrophic sebocytes. From the viewpoint of pathogenesis, the eczematous dermatitis of this patient could have been an accompanying feature of a neurogenic inflammation occurring on the café-au-lait spot after laser radiation, and the atrophic change of a part of the sebaceous lobule might have been induced by a morphogenetic alteration of certain germinative cells of the sebaceous lobule due to laser radiation.

  6. Impact of TRPV3 on the development of allergic dermatitis as a dendritic cell modulator.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto-Kasai, Erika; Yasui, Kiyoshi; Shichijo, Michitaka; Sakata, Tsuneaki; Yoshioka, Takeshi

    2013-12-01

    The transient receptor potential channel vanilloid subfamily V member 3 (TRPV3), which functions as a thermosensor in keratinocytes, plays an important role in the development of allergic and itchy dermatitis in rodents. Although real-time PCR analysis using lesional and non-lesional skin samples from patients with atopic dermatitis showed that TRPV3 was expressed in lesional skin, the role that TRPV3 plays in patients with dermatitis is still relatively obscure. Here, we determined whether TRPV3 was a dendritic cell (DC) modulator using DS-Nh mice with a gain-of-function mutation in TRPV3 (TRPV3Gly573Ser), because increasing skin temperature is associated with the modulation of dermal dendritic cells (DCs). Interestingly, increased responses to haptens by skin and DCs were observed in DS-Nh mice compared with those from DS mice with wild-type TRPV3. Increased thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) responses were also observed in keratinocytes from DS-Nh mice compared with those from DS mice. Taken together, we propose that the DS-Nh mouse is a good model to use in order to better understand the role of this orphan channel and that TRPV3 may represent a new therapeutic target in certain types of dermatitis through the control of DCs.

  7. Dermatitis artefacta in pediatric patients: experience at the national institute of pediatrics.

    PubMed

    Saez-de-Ocariz, Marimar; Orozco-Covarrubias, Luz; Mora-Magaña, Ignacio; Duran-McKinster, Carola; Tamayo-Sanchez, Lourdes; Gutierrez-Castrellon, Pedro; Ruiz-Maldonado, Ramon

    2004-01-01

    Dermatitis artefacta is a factitious disorder in which there is deliberate conscious production of skin lesions. There are only a few reports that evaluate instances of dermatitis artefacta in the pediatric population. The aim of this retrospective study was to assess the characteristics of patients with this disorder who were seen at the National Institute of Pediatrics in Mexico City. The records of all patients diagnosed with dermatitis artefacta from January 1980 to December 1999 were analyzed. There were 29 patients (25 females, 4 males). The upper limbs and the face were the most commonly involved areas. Superficial erosions were the most frequent initial event, and residual lesions consisted of scars and crusts. Time taken to diagnosis was on average 10 months. Half of the patients were lost to follow-up. No correlation was found between the length of time from the disease onset to diagnosis, the type of lesions, and the clinical outcome. Twelve patients had an associated systemic disorder. The possible association with chronic disease has not been sufficiently stressed and demonstrates the importance of providing psychological support for these patients. Psychiatric diagnoses were anxiety, depression, and personality disorder. No correlation was found between the psychiatric diagnosis and the outcome of dermatitis artefacta. A young age at presentation, which has been considered important as a favorable prognostic sign, could not be demonstrated in our patients.

  8. Erythema multiforme associated with contact dermatitis to poison ivy: three cases and a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Cohen, L M; Cohen, J L

    1998-09-01

    Erythema multiforme (EM) is a hypersensitivity reaction that occurs mainly after exposure to certain medications or in the setting of infection, most commonly that due to herpes simplex virus. Rare cases of EM have been reported after allergic contact dermatitis due to various substances. There has been one case in the literature of EM following Rhus contact dermatitis. We report three patients who developed EM after allergic contact dermatitis due to poison ivy. In all three patients, targetoid lesions developed primarily on the palms and soles, either after a brief course of prednisone or during its taper. Two of the patients have had more than one episode of EM after poison ivy dermatitis. Although EM has been described after allergic contact dermatitis due to a variety of antigens (nickel being the most common), there is only one report in the literature of EM following Rhus contact dermatitis. Given the prevalence of allergic contact dermatitis due to poison ivy, this may be an under-reported complication.

  9. Lameness in dairy heifers; impacts of hoof lesions present around first calving on future lameness, milk yield and culling risk.

    PubMed

    Randall, L V; Green, M J; Chagunda, M G G; Mason, C; Green, L E; Huxley, J N

    2016-10-01

    The importance of lameness in primiparous dairy heifers is increasingly recognised. Although it is accepted that clinical lameness in any lactation increases the risk of future lameness, the impact of foot lesions during the first lactation on long-term lameness risk is less clear. This retrospective cohort study aimed to investigate the impacts of foot lesions occurring around the time of first calving in heifers on future lameness risk, daily milk yield and survival within a dairy herd. Records were obtained for 158 heifers from one UK dairy herd. Heifers were examined in 2 month blocks from 2 months pre-calving through to 4 months post-calving. Sole lesions and white line lesions were scored on a zero to 10 scale and digital dermatitis on a zero to 3 scale. Outcomes investigated were; lameness risk based on weekly locomotion scores, average daily milk yield and culling risk. Mixed effect models were used to investigate associations between maximum lesion scores and outcomes. Lesion scores in the highest score categories for claw horn lesions (sole lesions and white line lesions) in the 2 to 4 month post-calving period were associated with an increased risk of future lameness; heifers with white line lesion scores ≥3 compared with scores zero to 1 and heifers with sole lesion scores ≥4 compared with score 2, at this time point, had a predicted increased risk of future lameness of 1.6 and 2.6 respectively. Sole lesions ≥4 were also associated with a reduction in average daily milk yield of 2.68kg. Managing heifers to reduce claw horn lesions during this time period post-calving may provide health, welfare and production benefits for the long-term future of those animals. A novel finding from the study was that mild lesion scores compared with scores zero to 1, were associated with a reduced risk of future lameness for white line lesions and sole lesions occurring in the pre-calving or 2 to 4 months post-calving periods respectively. Mild sole lesions in the

  10. Milia after allergic contact dermatitis from poison ivy: two cases.

    PubMed

    Berk, David R; Hurt, Mark A; Reese, Lester T; Wagner, Laura; Bayliss, Susan J

    2010-01-01

    Milia have rarely been reported as a complication of severe allergic contact dermatitis. To our knowledge, milia have not previously been associated with poison ivy dermatitis. We present two cases of milia after allergic contact dermatitis to poison ivy.

  11. Parthenium dermatitis treated with azathioprine weekly pulse doses.

    PubMed

    Verma, Kaushal K; Bansal, Arika; Sethuraman, G

    2006-01-01

    Parthenium dermatitis is a serious problem in India. Corticosteroids are the mainstay of treatment but the prolonged use of corticosteroids can cause serious side effects. Azathioprine used in daily doses has been shown to be effective. We have evaluated the effectiveness of azathioprine weekly pulse doses for the treatment of parthenium dermatitis. Twelve patients, ten males and two females, aged between 39 and 65 years (mean +/- SD = 53.5 +/- 8.7) having air-borne contact dermatitis to Parthenium hysterophorus for 3-19 years (mean = 6.33) were included in the study. The diagnosis in each patient was confirmed by patch-testing. The severity of the disease was determined by clinical severity score (CSS) on the basis of erythema, itching, type of lesions, and areas of body involved. The pretreatment CSS in these patients varied from 29.7 to 55.5 (mean +/- SD: 40.40 +/- 7.95). After clinical and laboratory evaluation, the patients were treated with 300-mg azathioprine once-weekly doses for 6 months. Clinical and laboratory evaluations were repeated at weeks 1, 2, and then every 4 weeks until the end of therapy to evaluate the therapeutic response and side effects. The response was excellent (80-100% clearance of disease) in seven (58.33%) patients and good (60% clearance) in five (41.66%) patients. The post-treatment CSS decreased from the mean +/- SD of 40.4 +/- 7.95 to 10.9 +/- 8.43 (P = 0.002). There were no significant side effects of the therapy. In this preliminary open study, azathioprine in weekly pulse doses has been found to be effective without any serious adverse effects in the treatment of parthenium dermatitis. The cost of therapy with this regimen is reduced by 60%.

  12. Allergic contact dermatitis from acrylic nails in a flamenco guitarist.

    PubMed

    Alcántara-Nicolás, F A; Pastor-Nieto, M A; Sánchez-Herreros, C; Pérez-Mesonero, R; Melgar-Molero, V; Ballano, A; De-Eusebio, E

    2016-12-01

    Acrylates are molecules that are well known for their strong sensitizing properties. Historically, many beauticians and individuals using store-bought artificial nail products have developed allergic contact dermatitis from acrylates. More recently, the use of acrylic nails among flamenco guitarists to strengthen their nails has become very popular. A 40-year-old non-atopic male patient working as a flamenco guitarist developed dystrophy, onycholysis and paronychia involving the first four nails of his right hand. The lesions were confined to the fingers where acrylic materials were used in order to strengthen his nails to play the guitar. He noticed improvement whenever he stopped using these materials and intense itching and worsening when he began reusing them. Patch tests were performed and positive results obtained with 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (2-HEMA), 2-hydroxyethyl acrylate (2-HEA), ethyleneglycol-dimethacrylate (EGDMA) and 2-hydroxypropyl methacrylate (2-HPMA). The patient was diagnosed with occupational allergic contact dermatitis likely caused by acrylic nails. Artificial nails can contain many kinds of acrylic monomers but most cases of contact dermatitis are induced by 2-HEMA, 2-HPMA and EGDMA. This is the first reported case of occupational allergic contact dermatitis from acrylates in artificial nails in a professional flamenco guitar player. Since the practice of self-applying acrylic nail products is becoming very popular within flamenco musicians, we believe that dermatology and occupational medicine specialists should be made aware of the potentially increasing risk of sensitization from acrylates in this setting. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Case report: Diaper dermatitis presenting as pustules.

    PubMed

    Tucker, Ann T; Emerson, Ashley N; Wyatt, Julie P; Brodell, Robert T

    2014-09-01

    Diaper dermatitis is the most common dermatologic disorder of infancy. Its cause can often be determined clinically based on the clinical presentation. Primary diaper dermatitis is associated with irritants and spares the deep skin folds. Secondary diaper dermatitis is most often caused by Candida yeast overgrowth and typically presents as a well-defined area of beefy red erythema covering the diaper area and including the deep folds of skin with hallmark satellite pustules. Other causes include seborrheic dermatitis, psoriasis, acrodermatitis enteropathica, allergic contact dermatitis, Langerhans cell histiocytosis, and, in the setting of a primarily pustular eruption, bacterial folliculitis. A simple potassium hydroxide preparation (KOH) can confirm the diagnosis of candida diaper dermatitis and guide proper treatment.

  14. Treatment of vasculitis and dermatitis in a 59-yr-old Nile hippopotamus (Hippopotamus amphibius).

    PubMed

    Spriggs, Maria; Reeder, Chris

    2012-09-01

    A 59-yr-old female Nile hippopotamus (Hippopotamus amphibius) was diagnosed and treated for severe dermatitis. Lesions included large areas of depigmentation, erosions, and ulcerations on glabrous skin areas, limbs, and perineal region. Histopathologic lesions included a markedly edematous, focally eroded, ulcerative to necrotic epidermis; foci of keratinocyte apoptosis; and a mixed suppurative dermatitis. Most of the dermal vessels had variable hyalinized walls with plump endothelial cells and frequent intramural neutrophils, and some vessels had vascular thrombi consistent with vasculitis. Culture of the lesions yielded beta-hemolytic Streptococcus, Morganella morgannii, and Enterococcus sp. The hippopotamus was successfully treated with sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim, amoxicillin, and pentoxifylline for more than 2 mo, and the condition did not recur over the subsequent 16 mo.

  15. Chronic eosinophilic dermatitis associated with persistent feline herpes virus infection in cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus).

    PubMed

    Munson, L; Wack, R; Duncan, M; Montali, R J; Boon, D; Stalis, I; Crawshaw, G J; Cameron, K N; Mortenson, J; Citino, S; Zuba, J; Junge, R E

    2004-03-01

    A chronic ulcerative and eosinophilic dermatitis occurred in 20 captive cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) with persistent feline herpes virus 1 (FHV1) infection. Affected animals had erythematous, ulcerated plaques primarily on the face and forelegs in sites of contact with lachrymal and salivary secretions. The dermatitis was characterized by dense infiltrates of eosinophils and plasma cells and pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia. Rare keratinocytes within the lesions had nuclei with marginated chromatin and small eosinophilic inclusions composed of herpes virus nucleocapsids. Virus isolated from lesions was confirmed to be FHV1. Lesions persisted and progressed unless removed by cryoexcision. The occurrence of this unusual reaction to FHV1 in approximately 5% of captive North American cheetahs suggests a species propensity for a Th2-dominant response to herpes virus infection. This atypical immune reaction may indicate a heritable trait or modulation of the immune response by other factors such as chronic stress.

  16. Rutin suppresses atopic dermatitis and allergic contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jin Kyeong; Kim, Sang-Hyun

    2013-04-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) and allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) is a common allergic inflammatory skin disease caused by a combination of eczematous, scratching, pruritus and cutaneous sensitization with allergens. The aim of our study was to examine whether rutin, a predominant flavonoid having anti-inflammatory and antioxidative potential, modulates AD and ACD symptoms. We established an atopic dermatitis model in BALB/c mice by repeated local exposure of house dust mite (Dermatophagoides farinae) extract (DFE) and 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) to the ears. In addition, 2,4-dinitroflourobenzene-sensitized a local lymph node assay was used for the ACD model. Repeated alternative treatment of DFE/DNCB caused AD symptoms. Topical application of rutin reduced AD based on ear thickness and histopathological analysis, in addition to serum IgE levels. Rutin inhibited mast cell infiltration into the ear and serum histamine level. Rutin suppressed DFE/DNCB-induced expression of interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5, IL-13, IL-31, IL-32 and interferon (INF)-γ in the tissue. In addition, rutin suppressed ACD based on ear thickness and lymphocyte proliferation, serum IgG2a levels, and expression of INF-γ, IL-4, IL-5, IL-10, IL-17 and tumour necrosis factor-α in ACD ears. This study demonstrates that rutin inhibits AD and ACD, suggesting that rutin might be a candidate for the treatment of allergic skin diseases.

  17. Diagnosis and management of diaper dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Shin, Helen T

    2014-04-01

    This article presents an overview of diaper dermatitis for the pediatric community. The pathogenesis, differential diagnosis, and management of this common condition in infancy are reviewed. This information will assist in making the appropriate diagnosis and managing this irritant contact dermatitis of the diaper area. With conservative management, most cases of irritant diaper dermatitis are self-limited. When the condition persists, one must consider other diagnoses.

  18. Seborrheic dermatitis in neuroleptic-induced parkinsonism.

    PubMed

    Binder, R L; Jonelis, F J

    1983-06-01

    An increased prevalence of seborrheic dermatitis has previously been noted in idiopathic Parkinson's disease and in postencephalitic parkinsonism. Our study of 42 hospitalized patients with drug-induced parkinsonism and 47 hospitalized psychiatric patients without that disorder showed a statistically significant higher prevalence of clinically diagnosed seborrheic dermatitis in the group with drug-induced parkinsonism (59.5% v 15%). To our knowledge, this is the first report of an increased prevalence of seborrheic dermatitis with drug-induced parkinsonism.

  19. Contact dermatitis caused by airborne agents. A review and case reports

    SciTech Connect

    Dooms-Goossens, A.E.; Debusschere, K.M.; Gevers, D.M.; Dupre, K.M.; Degreef, H.J.; Loncke, J.P.; Snauwaert, J.E.

    1986-07-01

    A general review is given of airborne-induced contact dermatoses, particularly of the irritant and allergenic types. Because the reports in the literature often omit the term airborne, 12 volumes of Contact Dermatitis (January 1975-July 1985) were screened, and the cases cited were classified in function of the anamnesis, lesion locations, causative irritants and allergens, and other factors. The present article also discusses differential diagnoses, in particular with regard to contact dermatitis of the face, ears, and neck. Finally, seven case reports of occupational and nonoccupational contact dermatitis problems caused by airborne agents are presented. In some of the cases the allergens have not been mentioned in published literature previously. 84 references.

  20. Seasonal allergic dermatitis in sheep associated with Ctenocephalides and Culicoides bites.

    PubMed

    Yeruham, I; Perl, S; Braverman, Y

    2004-12-01

    The clinical, epidemiological and histopathological findings of two pruritic dermatites in sheep in Israel are described. The first type of dermatitis affected mainly young animals with lesions predominantly on the legs. It occurred from March to November, with a peak in June. The second type affected animals of all ages and was mainly on the ventrum. It was sporadic but occurred throughout the year with a peak in October. The morbidity rate of this syndrome reached 4.3% in one flock. The histopathology of both conditions was consistent with an allergic dermatitis. Fleas and midges were collected and identified as Ctenocephalides felis felis and various species of Culicoides. The population density, seasonal activity, geographical distribution and feeding behaviour preferences of the insects and the incidence of the two types of dermatitis suggest that fleas and midges were the causal agents. Flea and midge bite pruritic dermatoses should be considered in the differential diagnosis of sarcoptic and psoroptic mange.

  1. Mast cells in atopic dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Kawakami, Toshiaki; Ando, Tomoaki; Kimura, Miho; Wilson, Bridget S.; Kawakami, Yuko

    2009-01-01

    Summary of Recent Advances Mast cells play as the major effector cells in immediate hypersensitivity through activation via the high-affinity IgE receptor, FcεRI, although many other functions have recently been discovered for this cell type. Given the broad array of proinflammatory mediators secreted from FcεRI-activated mast cells, as well as sensitization to allergens, IgE elevation, and increased mast cells in a majority of atopic dermatitis patients, mast cells are believed to be involved in the pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis. Numerous animal models have been used to study this epidemic disease. Here we review the recent progress to synthesize our current understanding of this disease and potential mechanisms for a mast cell's role in the disease. PMID:19828304

  2. Contact dermatitis caused by preservatives.

    PubMed

    Yim, Elizabeth; Baquerizo Nole, Katherine L; Tosti, Antonella

    2014-01-01

    Preservatives are biocidal chemicals added to food, cosmetics, and industrial products to prevent the growth of microorganisms. They are usually nontoxic and inexpensive and have a long shelf life. Unfortunately, they commonly cause contact dermatitis. This article reviews the most important classes of preservatives physicians are most likely to encounter in their daily practice, specifically isothiazolinones, formaldehyde and formaldehyde-releasers, iodopropynyl butylcarbamate, methyldibromoglutaronitrile, and parabens. For each preservative mentioned, the prevalence of sensitization, clinical presentation of contact dermatitis, patch testing concentrations, cross reactions, and related legislation will be discussed. Mandatory labeling of preservatives is required in some countries, but not required in others. Until policies are made, physicians and patients must be proactive in identifying potential sensitizers and removing their use. We hope that this article will serve as a guide for policy makers in creating legislation and future regulations on the use and concentration of certain preservatives in cosmetics and industrial products.

  3. Allergic contact dermatitis: Patient management and education.

    PubMed

    Mowad, Christen M; Anderson, Bryan; Scheinman, Pamela; Pootongkam, Suwimon; Nedorost, Susan; Brod, Bruce

    2016-06-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis is a common diagnosis resulting from exposure to a chemical or chemicals in a patient's personal care products, home, or work environment. Once patch testing has been performed, the education and management process begins. After the causative allergens have been identified, patient education is critical to the proper treatment and management of the patient. This must occur if the dermatitis is to resolve. Detailed education is imperative, and several resources are highlighted. Photoallergic contact dermatitis and occupational contact dermatitis are other considerations a clinician must keep in mind.

  4. Identification and treatment of poison ivy dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Briant, D; Brouder, G

    1983-01-01

    Poison ivy dermatitis is an acute self-limiting problem of two or three weeks' duration that can cause significant discomfort. Poison ivy, poison oak and poison sumac cause more cases of allergic contact dermatitis than all the other contact allergens combined. Treatment of poison ivy dermatitis depends on the severity of the reaction. The nurse practitioner can manage the majority of poison ivy cases. However, if there is systemic involvement, a physician consultation is necessary. The patient can best be assisted by assessing the severity of the dermatitis, prescribing an appropriate supportive therapy and teaching preventive measures.

  5. Diaper Dermatitis: What Do We Do Next?

    PubMed

    Esser, Media

    2016-10-01

    Diaper dermatitis is a major issue among hospitalized infants, leading to increased medical costs, pain, risk for infection, and distress among patients and caregivers. An evidence-based algorithm for prevention and treatment of diaper dermatitis was developed and introduced in a level IV neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Two cases are discussed as examples of severe diaper dermatitis. The first case demonstrates the final case of severe diaper dermatitis since the introduction of the algorithm. The second case demonstrates a less severe, but equally frustrating, case of diaper dermatitis that occurred after the practice of using the algorithm was established. The need for consistency in the prevention and treatment of diaper dermatitis is paramount to providing quality care. There are a number of points within the bedside care regimen where breakdown in consistency occurs. The adherence to consistent and evidence-based treatment regimens has the potential to decrease the incidence and severity of diaper dermatitis in high-risk hospitalized infants. Initiation of an evidence-based algorithm to assist in the prevention and treatment of diaper dermatitis can be supported by data of the number of cases of diaper dermatitis collected before and after implementing the algorithm. The information can further assist in continued education and pursuance of investigation of other major skin injuries in NICU patients. The importance surrounding infant skin care and building awareness surrounding all of the facets of skin care in this vulnerable population demonstrate the benefits to quality outcomes and care.

  6. Acute skin lesions after surgical procedures: a clinical approach.

    PubMed

    Borrego, L

    2013-11-01

    In the hospital setting, dermatologists are often required to evaluate inflammatory skin lesions arising during surgical procedures performed in other departments. These lesions can be of physical or chemical origin. Povidone iodine is the most common reported cause of such lesions. If this antiseptic solution remains in contact with the skin in liquid form for a long period of time, it can give rise to serious irritant contact dermatitis in dependent or occluded areas. Less common causes of skin lesions after surgery include allergic contact dermatitis and burns under the dispersive electrode of the electrosurgical device. Most skin lesions that arise during surgical procedures are due to an incorrect application of antiseptic solutions. Special care must therefore be taken during the use of these solutions and, in particular, they should be allowed to dry.

  7. [Systemic therapy of atopic dermatitis].

    PubMed

    Heratizadeh, A; Breuer, K; Kapp, A; Werfel, T

    2003-10-01

    The optimal treatment of atopic dermatitis requires regular medical supervision. The course of this chronic skin disease is influenced by multiple triggers which are relevant for the treatment. The mainstays of topical therapy include regular use of emollients coupled with antimicrobial substances, corticosteroids and immune modulators as required. Ultraviolet radiation and immunosuppressive regimens represent further options for the treatment of severe exacerbations and may lead to long term improvement. Data from experimental studies provide insight into possible future treatment methods.

  8. Immunotherapy of allergic contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Spiewak, Radoslaw

    2011-08-01

    The term 'immunotherapy' refers to treating diseases by inducing, enhancing or suppressing immune responses. As allergy is an excessive, detrimental immune reaction to otherwise harmless environmental substances, immunotherapy of allergic disease is aimed at the induction of tolerance toward sensitizing antigens. This article focuses on the historical developments, present state and future outlook for immunotherapy with haptens as a therapeutic modality for allergic contact dermatitis. Inspired by the effectiveness of immunotherapy in respiratory allergies, attempts were undertaken at curing allergic contact dermatitis by means of controlled administration of the sensitizing haptens. Animal and human experiments confirmed that tolerance to haptens can be induced most effectively when the induction of tolerance precedes attempted sensitization. In real life, however, therapy is sought by people who are already sensitized and an effective reversal of hypersensitivity seems more difficult to achieve. Decades of research on Rhus hypersensitivity led to a conclusion that immunotherapy can suppress Rhus dermatitis, however, only to a limited degree, for a short period of time, and at a high risk of side effects, which makes this method therapeutically unprofitable. Methodological problems with most available studies of immunotherapy of contact allergy to nickel make any definite conclusions impossible at this stage.

  9. Idiopathic necrotizing dermatitis: current management.

    PubMed

    Lui, P C; Petersen, D; Kimble, R M; Raven, R J; Pearn, J H

    2005-01-01

    To identify and demonstrate necrotizing dermatitis in infancy; an uncommon, puzzling syndrome, in which anecdotal reporting and personal experience indicates that one third of cases may require skin grafting. Much informed discussion about the pathogenesis of this distressing syndrome centres on the role of spider envenomation; and in particular on the speculative role of the Australian White-tailed spider, Lampona cylindrata. We present here six cases of necrotizing dermatitis treated surgically at the Royal Children's Hospital and Mater Children's Hospital in Brisbane over the period from 1991 to 1999. Clinical history, surgical details and pathological investigations were reviewed in each case. Microbiological investigation of necrotic ulcers included standard aerobic and anaerobic culture. Nocardia and Staphylococcus were cultured in two cases, but no positive bites were witnessed and no spiders were identified by either the children or their parents. All cases were treated with silver sulphadiazine creme. Two of the infants required general anaesthesia, excision debridement and split skin grafting. The White-tailed spider, Lampona cylindrata, does not occur in Queensland, but Lampona murina does; neither species has necrotizing components in its venom. Circumstantial evidence is consistent with this syndrome being due to invertebrate envenomation, possibly following arachnid bites. In our experience there is insufficient evidence to impute a specific genus as the cause, at this stage of scientific knowledge. If the offending creature is a spider, we calculate that the syndrome of necrotizing dermatitis occurs in less than 1 in 5000 spider bites.

  10. Histologically-validated footpad dermatitis scoring system for use in chicken processing plants.

    PubMed

    Michel, V; Prampart, E; Mirabito, L; Allain, V; Arnould, C; Huonnic, D; Le Bouquin, S; Albaric, O

    2012-01-01

    1. Footpad dermatitis (FPD) is a recognised welfare problem in broiler chickens. Broiler feet (n = 54) were examined macroscopically and microscopically to determine a reliable correspondence between macroscopic and histological features, and to devise a scoring system that was relevant to bird welfare and easy to use at processing plants. 2. Three types of footpad lesion were defined based on their severity. Type I were mild lesions, visually characterised by scale enlargement and erythema, and histologically by hyperplasia and hyperkeratosis of the epidermis, superficial dermal congestion and oedema. Type II were moderate, superficial lesions, visually characterised by hypertrophic and hyperkeratotic scales covered with yellowish to brownish exudate, and histologically by a prominent pustular and crust-forming dermatitis. Type III lesions were the most pronounced, visually characterised by a thick dark adherent crust, and histologically by extensive ulceration. 3. On the basis of the severity and extent of these three types of lesions, a 5-point scale was devised, i.e. no or type I lesion (score 1), type II lesion (<50% or >50% of footpad, scores 2 and 3 respectively) and type III lesion (<50% or >50% of footpad, scores 4 and 5 respectively). 4. The scoring system has the advantage of making sense in terms of welfare compared with previous schemes. Furthermore, it is histologically validated and easy to use for the routine assessment of broiler welfare in processing plants.

  11. Infliximab-Associated Psoriasiform Dermatitis: Case Report and Review of a Seemingly Paradoxical Inflammatory Response

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Philip R

    2016-01-01

    Background: Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) inhibitors, such as infliximab, adalimumab, and certolizumab pegol are effective agents in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease. Some individuals undergoing anti-TNF-α therapy for Crohn’s disease or ulcerative colitis develop psoriasiform lesions. This is a paradoxical finding, as classical psoriasis is known to respond to these agents. Purpose: The clinical features of anti-TNF-α-induced psoriatic dermatitis are described. Method: A 60-year-old man with Crohn’s disease treated with infliximab, who developed anti-TNF-α-induced psoriasiform dermatitis, is described. Results: The man developed erythematous skin lesions in the bilateral axillae two years after beginning infliximab treatment for Crohn’s disease. Biopsy revealed psoriasiform dermatitis, consistent with a diagnosis of anti-TNF-α-induced psoriasiform dermatitis. He was treated with clobetasol 0.05% ointment twice daily for two weeks and had significant improvement. Subsequently, he used the corticosteroid ointment two days per week and calcipotriene 0.005% ointment twice daily for five days per week to achieve and maintain clear skin. Conclusions: Anti-TNF-α-induced psoriasiform dermatitis is an infrequent complication of infliximab therapy. However, the condition may require discontinuation of the anti-TNF-α agent. Anti-TNF-α-induced psoriasiform dermatitis should be considered in the differential diagnosis when evaluating a new erythematous skin condition in an individual with a history of inflammatory bowel disease who is being treated with a TNF-α inhibitor. PMID:27738572

  12. Assessment of digital panoramic radiography's diagnostic value in angular bony lesions with 5 mm or deeper pocket depth in mandibular molars.

    PubMed

    Saberi, Bardia Vadiati; Nemati, Somayeh; Malekzadeh, Meisam; Javanmard, Afrooz

    2017-01-01

    Assessment of alveolar bone level in periodontitis is very important in determining prognosis and treatment plan. Panoramic radiography is a diagnostic tool used to screen patients. The aim of the present study was to assess the diagnostic value of digital panoramic radiography in angular bony defects with 5 mm or deeper pocket depth in mandibular molars. In this cross-sectional study, ninety angular bony defects in mandibular molars teeth with 5 mm or deeper pocket depth were selected in sixty patients with the diagnosis of chronic periodontitis. Before surgery, bone probing was performed. During the surgery, the vertical distance from cementoenamel junction to the most apical part of bony defect was measured using a Williams probe and this measurements were employed as gold standard. This distance was measured on the panoramic radiographs by a Digital Calliper and Digital Ruler. All data were compare dusing independent samples t-test and Pearson's correlation coefficient. No significant difference was found between the results of bone probing and intra-surgical measurements (P = 0.377). The mean defect depth determined by Digital Caliper and Digital Ruler on panoramic radiographs was significantly less than surgical measurements (P < 0.001). The correlation between bone probing and surgical measurements in determining the defect depth was strong (r = 0.98, P < 0.001). Radiographic measurements made by Digital Ruler (r = 0.86), comparing to Digital Caliper (r = 0.79), showed a higher degree of correlation with surgical measurements. Based on this study, bone probing is a reliable method in vertical alveolar bone defect measurements. While the information obtained from digital panoramic radiographs should be used with caution and the ability of digital panoramic radiography in the determination of defect depth is limited.

  13. Assessment of digital panoramic radiography's diagnostic value in angular bony lesions with 5 mm or deeper pocket depth in mandibular molars

    PubMed Central

    Saberi, Bardia Vadiati; Nemati, Somayeh; Malekzadeh, Meisam; Javanmard, Afrooz

    2017-01-01

    Background: Assessment of alveolar bone level in periodontitis is very important in determining prognosis and treatment plan. Panoramic radiography is a diagnostic tool used to screen patients. The aim of the present study was to assess the diagnostic value of digital panoramic radiography in angular bony defects with 5 mm or deeper pocket depth in mandibular molars. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, ninety angular bony defects in mandibular molars teeth with 5 mm or deeper pocket depth were selected in sixty patients with the diagnosis of chronic periodontitis. Before surgery, bone probing was performed. During the surgery, the vertical distance from cementoenamel junction to the most apical part of bony defect was measured using a Williams probe and this measurements were employed as gold standard. This distance was measured on the panoramic radiographs by a Digital Calliper and Digital Ruler. All data were compare dusing independent samples t-test and Pearson's correlation coefficient. Results: No significant difference was found between the results of bone probing and intra-surgical measurements (P = 0.377). The mean defect depth determined by Digital Caliper and Digital Ruler on panoramic radiographs was significantly less than surgical measurements (P < 0.001). The correlation between bone probing and surgical measurements in determining the defect depth was strong (r = 0.98, P < 0.001). Radiographic measurements made by Digital Ruler (r = 0.86), comparing to Digital Caliper (r = 0.79), showed a higher degree of correlation with surgical measurements. Conclusion: Based on this study, bone probing is a reliable method in vertical alveolar bone defect measurements. While the information obtained from digital panoramic radiographs should be used with caution and the ability of digital panoramic radiography in the determination of defect depth is limited. PMID:28348615

  14. Antigen-Specific Induction of Osteopontin Contributes to the Chronification of Allergic Contact Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Seier, Anne M.; Renkl, Andreas C.; Schulz, Guido; Uebele, Tanja; Sindrilaru, Anca; Iben, Sebastian; Liaw, Lucy; Kon, Shigeyuki; Uede, Toshimitsu; Weiss, Johannes M.

    2010-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis is a T cell-mediated immune response, which in its relapsing chronic form is of high socioeconomic impact. The phosphoglycoprotein osteopontin (OPN) has chemotactic and Th1 cytokine functions and in various models is essential for robust T cell-mediated immunity. Here we demonstrate that OPN is abundantly expressed by both effector T cells and keratinocytes in allergic contact dermatitis lesions. T cells from nickel-allergic donors secrete high levels of OPN following antigen-specific stimulation. OPN may substitute for missing IFN-γ secretion in T effector cells because low IFN-γ-producing T cell clones secrete high levels of OPN, and OPN down-modulates their interleukin-4 expression. Furthermore, interferon-γ from T effector cells augments OPN in allergic contact dermatitis by inducing OPN in keratinocytes, which in turn polarizes dendritic cells and attracts inflammatory cells. In the murine contact hypersensitivity (CHS) model for allergic contact dermatitis, OPN is strongly induced in antigen-specific proliferating T cells, and OPN null mice display a reduced chronic CHS inflammatory response due to a decreased influx of effector T cells. Importantly, because of its function for chronic allergic contact dermatitis, OPN may well be a therapeutic target, because anti-OPN antibody treatment in part suppresses established chronic CHS. PMID:20008129

  15. [Vesicular contact dermatitis due to Paederus in Cameroon and review of the literature].

    PubMed

    Vanhecke, C; Le Gall, P; Gaüzère, B-A

    2015-12-01

    This irritant blister dermatitis is caused by the genus Paederus whose geographical distribution is worldwide, with a higher incidence in tropical areas. It is induced by direct skin contact with pederin, a blistering and caustic substance found in the abdomen (coelome) of Paederus insects (insect order Coleoptera: family Staphylinidae). The diagnosis is based on the presence of typical clinical features combined with compatible epidemiological features. Our goal is to describe the epidemiological and clinical features of this irritant contact dermatitis in Cameroon through a retrospective study conducted at the end of the rainy season at the Oku Hospital in Northwest Cameroon and to also include cases reported at the medical center of the French Embassy in Yaounde during this same timeframe. In addition, we conducted a literature review of paederus dermatitis. Nineteen patients were included in this study. More than half of the patients presented with more than two lesions predominantly localized to the face or the neck; less than half had complications manifesting as either localized or respiratory reactions and three patients presented periorbital involvement. This study confirms the presence of paederus dermatitis in Cameroon. It is mainly localized in the unusual geoclimatic region of the western high mountains within the country, as well as the usual warm, moist areas of Yaounde. The clinical evolution of this dermatitis is usually one of spontaneous and uneventful resolution with complications being rare. Curative treatment is one of localized topical therapies while oral antibiotic therapy should be reserved for more complicated cases.

  16. [Atopic dermatitis and tacrolimus in adults].

    PubMed

    Ortiz de Frutos, F J

    2008-02-01

    Topical treatment with tacrolimus is more effective than the placebo and the low potency corticosteroids in the treatment of atopic dermatitis (AD) in both adults and children while it has a similar potency as some topical corticosteroids of medium potency. Since it was put on the market, more evidence has been accumulating to make our previous statements and it has been demonstrated to have greater effectivity than topical pimecrolimus and oral cyclosporine. It is a safe drug and its side effects are of little importance. Specifically no side effects have been demonstrated due to its systemic absorption nor has there been any increase in skin infections. The most frequent side effect is burning sensation or increased pruritus in the area where the product is applied. It is more frequent if the lesions treated are very acute and is generally transitory, not causing the treatment to be discontinued. Furthermore, with the current information, it cannot be associated to an increase of any type of neoplasms.

  17. The diagnosis and treatment of dermatitis herpetiformis

    PubMed Central

    Antiga, Emiliano; Caproni, Marzia

    2015-01-01

    Dermatitis herpetiformis (DH) is an inflammatory cutaneous disease with a chronic relapsing course, pruritic polymorphic lesions, and typical histopathological and immunopathological findings. According to several evidences, DH is considered the specific cutaneous manifestation of celiac disease, and the most recent guidelines of celiac disease have stated that, in celiac patients with a proven DH, a duodenal biopsy is unnecessary for the diagnosis. In this review, the most recent data about the diagnosis and the management of DH have been reported and discussed. In particular, in patients with clinical and/or histopathological findings suggestive for DH, the finding of granular IgA deposits along the dermal–epidermal junction or at the papillary tips by direct immunofluorescence (DIF) assay, together with positive results for anti-tissue transglutaminase antibody testing, allows the diagnosis. Thereafter, a gluten-free diet should be started in association with drugs, such as dapsone, that are able to control the skin manifestations during the first phases of the diet. In conclusion, although DH is a rare autoimmune disease with specific immunopathological alterations at the skin level, its importance goes beyond the skin itself and may have a big impact on the general health status and the quality of life of the patients. PMID:25999753

  18. Diaper dermatitis: etiology, manifestations, prevention, and management.

    PubMed

    Stamatas, Georgios N; Tierney, Neena K

    2014-01-01

    Pediatricians and parents report diaper dermatitis (DD) to be one of the most common skin diseases that affects almost every child at some point during the early months and years of life. Diapered skin is exposed to friction and excessive hydration, has a higher pH than nondiapered skin, and is repeatedly soiled with feces that contains enzymes with high irritation potential for the skin. The combination of these factors frequently results in skin damage, leading to visible erythematous lesions that can be irritating and painful to the child. Behavioral changes such as increased crying and agitation and changes in eating and sleeping patterns indicate emotional distress. Appropriate skin care can help to prevent the occurrence of DD and to speed up the healing of affected skin. This includes frequent diaper changes and aeration, gentle cleansing, and the use of a barrier cream. Mild to moderate cases usually resolve after a few days of following this routine, but the use of harsh cleaning products can exacerbate DD.

  19. Moisturizing advantages of desonide hydrogel in treating atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Trookman, Nathan S; Rizer, Ronald L; Ho, Elizabeth T; Ford, Rosanne O; Gotz, Vincent

    2011-07-01

    The stratum corneum typically is compromised in patients with atopic dermatitis (AD). Beneficial AD treatments should provide moisture to the skin as well as restore impaired barrier function. Traditional treatments involve ointments or creams. A clinical study was conducted to determine if desonide in a hydrogel vehicle (HGV) could improve the moisture content and barrier function of the stratum corneum in adults with mild to moderate AD. Participants applied desonide hydrogel 0.05% twice daily for 4 weeks to areas of both lesional and nonlesional skin. Corneometry and transepidermal water loss (TEWL) were measured at baseline and weeks 1, 2, and 4. Statistically significant improvements in corneometry and TEWL measurements on lesional skin were observed at all study visits compared with baseline (all P < or = .002 and P < or = .04, respectively).

  20. Evaluation of the efficacy of oral cromolyn sodium or an oligoantigenic diet in children with atopic dermatitis: a multicenter study of 1085 patients.

    PubMed

    Businco, L; Meglio, P; Amato, G; Balsamo, V; Cainelli, T; Cantone, P; Castro, M; Coletta, A; Corrias, A; Giorgi, P L; Grazioli, I; Longo-Papadia, L; Marcucci, F; Masi, M; Pavesio, D; Scotta, S; Seidenari, S; Vierucci, A

    1996-01-01

    One thousand eighty-five children with atopic dermatitis were enrolled in a multicenter study to evaluate the efficacy of 4 weeks of oral sodium cromoglycate or 4 weeks of a restricted diet. One thousand-eleven children (93%) concluded the study. At the end of the trial there was a significant improvement in skin lesions in the two groups: 61% of the patients in the sodium cromoglycate group and 69% in the restricted diet showed a significant improvement in atopic dermatitis. We concluded that, at least in our experimental design, both sodium cromoglycate and a restricted diet are equally effective in atopic dermatitis.

  1. Skin pH Is the Master Switch of Kallikrein 5-Mediated Skin Barrier Destruction in a Murine Atopic Dermatitis Model.

    PubMed

    Jang, Hyosun; Matsuda, Akira; Jung, Kyungsook; Karasawa, Kaoru; Matsuda, Kenshiro; Oida, Kumiko; Ishizaka, Saori; Ahn, Ginnae; Amagai, Yosuke; Moon, Changjong; Kim, Sung-Ho; Arkwright, Peter D; Takamori, Kenji; Matsuda, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Akane

    2016-01-01

    Elevated skin surface pH has been reported in patients with atopic dermatitis. In this study, we explored the role of skin pH in the pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis using the NC/Tnd murine atopic dermatitis model. Alkalinization of the skin of asymptomatic NC/Tnd mice housed in specific pathogen-free conditions induced kallikrein 5 and activated protease-activated receptor 2, resulting in thymic stromal lymphopoietin secretion and a cutaneous T-helper 2 allergic response. This was associated with increased transepidermal water loss and development of eczematous lesions in these specific pathogen-free NC/Tnd mice, which normally do not suffer from atopic dermatitis. Injection of recombinant thymic stromal lymphopoietin also induced scratching behavior in the specific pathogen-free NC/Tnd mice. Thymic stromal lymphopoietin production and dermatitis induced by alkalinization of the skin could be blocked by the protease-activated receptor 2 antagonist ENMD-1068. In contrast, weak acidification of eczematous skin in conventionally housed NC/Tnd mice reduced kallikrein 5 activity and ameliorated the dermatitis. Onset of the dermatitis was associated with increased epidermal filaggrin expression and impaired activity of the sodium/hydrogen exchanger 1, a known regulator of skin pH. We conclude that alterations in skin pH directly modulate kallikrein 5 activity leading to skin barrier dysfunction, itch, and dermatitis via the protease-activated receptor 2-thymic stromal lymphopoietin pathway.

  2. Oleanolic acid acetate inhibits atopic dermatitis and allergic contact dermatitis in a murine model.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jin Kyeong; Oh, Hyun-Mee; Lee, Soyoung; Park, Jin-Woo; Khang, Dongwoo; Lee, Seung Woong; Lee, Woo Song; Rho, Mun-Chual; Kim, Sang-Hyun

    2013-05-15

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) and allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) are common allergic and inflammatory skin diseases caused by a combination of eczema, scratching, pruritus, and cutaneous sensitization with allergens. This paper examines whether oleanolic acid acetate (OAA) modulates AD and ACD symptoms by using an existing AD model based on the repeated local exposure of mite extract (Dermatophagoides farinae extract, DFE) and 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene to the ears of BALB/c mice. In addition, the paper uses a 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene-sensitized local lymph node assay (LLNA) for the ACD model. The oral administration of OAA over a four-week period attenuated AD symptoms in terms of decreased skin lesions, epidermal thickness, the infiltration of immune cells (CD4⁺ cells, eosinophils, and mast cells), and serum IgE, IgG2a, and histamine levels. The gene expression of Th1, Th2, Th17, and Th22 cytokines was reduced by OAA in the lymph node and ear tissue, and the LLNA verified that OAA suppressed ACD. The oral administration of OAA over a three-day period attenuated ACD symptoms in terms of ear thickness, lymphocyte proliferation, and serum IgG2a levels. The gene expression of Th1, Th2, and Th17 cytokines was reduced by OAA in the thymus and ear tissue. Finally, to define the underlying mechanism, this paper uses a TNF-α/IFN-γ-activated human keratinocyte (HaCaT) model. OAA inhibited the expression of cytokines and chemokines through the downregulation of NF-κB and MAPKs in HaCaT cells. Taken together, the results indicate that OAA inhibited AD and ACD symptoms, suggesting that OAA may be effective in treating allergic skin disorders.

  3. Paederus fuscipes dermatitis: a report of nine cases observed in Italy and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Veraldi, Stefano; Cuka, Ermira; Chiaratti, Anna; Nazzaro, Gianluca; Gianotti, Raffaele; Süss, Luciano

    2013-01-01

    Paederus sp. is a beetle belonging to Staphylinidae family and Coleoptera order. Its distribution is worldwide, especially in hot climates. Over 600 species of Paederus are known, approximately 50 are able to cause an irritant contact dermatitis. When the beetle is accidentally crushed on the skin, it releases pederin, a potent toxin with vesicating action. In Europe, only anecdotical cases of Paederus sp. dermatitis have been reported. Since 1993, we have observed approximately 25 patients with suspected Paederus sp. dermatitis. In 9 the clinical diagnosis was confirmed because Paederus fuscipes were found. The case list includes 6 males and 3 females, ages ranging from 6 to 53 years (mean age: 26.3 years). Six patients presented with one lesion and 3 with 2 lesions. Eyelids (3 patients), shoulders (3), neck (2), cheek (1), breast (1), back (1) and calf (1) were involved. All patients showed erythema, 2 oedema, 2 blisters, 1 vesicles, 1 pustules and 1 crusts. In the patient with pustules, bacteriological examinations were negative. A biopsy was carried out in 4 patients. In the early stages, spongiosis with exocytosis of neutrophils was observed. Vesicles with neutrophils and necrosis of the epidermis were typical of the advanced stage. Oedema of the dermis and a mixed infiltrate, with eosinophils, neutrophils and lymphocytes, in the papillary and upper reticular dermis, were also observed. Direct immunofluorescence was negative in all patients. Paederus sp. should also be considered in temperate climates as a possible aetiological agent in cases of acute dermatitis.

  4. Forsythia suspensa Suppresses House Dust Mite Extract-Induced Atopic Dermatitis in NC/Nga Mice

    PubMed Central

    Sung, Yoon-Young; Yoon, Taesook; Jang, Seol; Kim, Ho Kyoung

    2016-01-01

    Forsythia suspensa (F. suspensa) is a traditional medicine for treatment of inflammation. In this study, we evaluated the therapeutic effects of an ethanol extract from F. suspensa fruits on atopic dermatitis both in vivo and in vitro. We investigated the inhibitory effects of F. suspensa extract on the development of atopic dermatitis-like skin lesions in an NC/Nga mouse model exposed to Dermatophagoides farinae crude extract. Topical application of F. suspensa extract to the mice attenuated the atopic dermatitis symptoms, including increased dermatitis sever